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Title: A Catalogue of Sculpture in the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities, British Museum, Volume I (of 2)
Author: Smith, A. H.
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A Catalogue of Sculpture in the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities, British Museum, Volume I (of 2)" ***

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DEPARTMENT OF GREEK AND ROMAN ANTIQUITIES, BRITISH MUSEUM, VOLUME I (OF
2)***


      file which includes the many original illustrations.
Transcriber's note:

      Text enclosed by underscores is in italics (_italics_).

      Text enclosed by equal signs is in bold face (=bold=).

      Text following a carat character is superscripted
      (example: XV^e).

      There are some differences in context between Chapter or
      Section Headings and corresponding entries in the Table of
      Contents. In every case the original has been retained.



A CATALOGUE OF SCULPTURE IN THE DEPARTMENT OF GREEK AND ROMAN
ANTIQUITIES, BRITISH MUSEUM.

by

A. H. SMITH, M.A.,

Assistant in the Department of Greek and Roman
Antiquities, in the British Museum.

VOL. I.



London:
Printed by Order of the Trustees.
1892.

London:
Printed by William Clowes and Sons, Limited
Stamford Street and Charing Cross.



PREFACE.


The present volume by Mr. Arthur Smith, Assistant in the Department
of Greek and Roman Antiquities, includes the sculptures of the Archaic
period: those of the Parthenon and other Athenian buildings; the
remains of the temple at Phigaleia; the Greek reliefs, and some other
sculptures which, though produced in Roman times, yet represent Greek
originals of the great age.

In the section which deals with the sculptures of Athens much has been
retained from Sir Charles Newton's _Guide to the Elgin Room_, Pts.
I.-II. While adding the results of more recent research, Mr. Smith has
contributed on his part interesting material.

The sculptures of the archaic period have of late years been the
subject of much discussion; the results of these discussions, as they
apply to the collection of the British Museum, have now been brought
together and summarized.

The Greek reliefs, which form an important section of the present
volume, belong to a class of sculptures which have produced much
difference of opinion as to the subjects represented by them. Mr.
Smith has stated briefly the principal views, by way of introduction
to the several classes of reliefs.

  A. S. MURRAY
  _3rd December, 1891._



CONTENTS OF VOL. I.

                                                             PAGE

   EDITOR'S PREFACE                                           iii

   TABLE OF CONTENTS                                            v

   TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS                                     vii

   INTRODUCTION                                                 1


   PART I.--THE ARCHAIC PERIOD.

   MYCENAE, 1-6                                                12

   BRANCHIDAE, 7-21                                            16

   LYDIA, 22, 23                                               24

   EPHESUS, 24-48                                              24

   CARIA, 49-51                                                40

   RHODES, 52-75                                               41

   XANTHOS, 80-98                                              45

   NAUCRATIS, 100-127                                          61

   DELOS, 130                                                  68

   SELINUS (casts), 135-139                                    69

   ATHENS AND ATTICA, 150-156                                  70

   AEGINA (casts), 160-183                                     73

   OLYMPIA (casts), 190-192                                    80

   STATUES OF APOLLO (?), 200-211                              82

   MISCELLANEOUS ARCHAIC SCULPTURES, 215-217                   88


   PART II.--MYRON AND PHEIDIAS.

   MYRON, 250                                                  90

   PHEIDIAS AND THE PARTHENON                                  91

       Athenè Parthenos, 300-302                               96

       East Pediment of Parthenon, 303                        101

       West Pediment of Parthenon, 304                        116

       Metopes of Parthenon, 305-323                          132

       Frieze of the Parthenon                                145

           East Side, 324                                     152

           North Side, 325                                    165

           West Side, 326                                     178

           South Side, 327                                    181

       Fragments of the Parthenon Sculptures, 328-345         193

       Architectural Fragments of the Parthenon, 350-358      213


   PART III.--THE SUCCESSORS OF PHEIDIAS.

   THE TEMPLE CALLED THE THESEION                             216

       Sculpture (casts) and Architecture, 400-406            220

   THE ERECHTHEION                                            231

       Sculpture and Architecture, 407-420                    233

   TEMPLE OF NIKÈ APTEROS                                     239

       Frieze and Reliefs of Balustrade (casts), 421-429      242

   MONUMENT OF LYSICRATES                                     248

       Frieze (casts), 430                                    251

   MONUMENT OF THRASYLLOS, 432                                257

   THE PROPYLAEA, 433-435                                     259

   MISCELLANEOUS ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENTS FROM
   ATHENS AND ATTICA, 436-448                                 261

   AGORACRITOS OF PAROS, 460                                  264

   POLYCLEITOS OF ARGOS, 500-504                              265

   TEMPLE OF APOLLO AT PHIGALEIA                              270

       Architectural Fragments, 505-509                       273

       Metopes, 510-519                                       274

       Frieze, 520-542                                        277

       Acrolithic Statue, 543, 544                            288

   MISCELLANEOUS SCULPTURES OF THE FIFTH CENTURY, 549-560     288

   GREEK RELIEFS                                              293

   SEPULCHRAL RELIEFS:

              Decorative Stelae, 599-618                      304

              Domestic Scenes, &c., 619-680                   308

              Sepulchral Vases, 681-686                       324

              Figures clasping hands, 687-710                 326

              The Sepulchral Banquet, &c., 711-746            333

              Rider and Horse, heroified, 750-757             347

              Lycian Sepulchral Reliefs (casts), 760-766      350

   VOTIVE RELIEFS, 770-817                                    354

PLATES I.-XII.



TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS.


The following is a list of the works which are most frequently
referred to, in this Catalogue, under abbreviated forms:--

  _Annali dell' Inst._ Annali dell' Instituto di Corrispondenza
  Archeologica. Rome: 1829-1885. [Superseded by the "Roemische
  Mittheilungen."]

  _Antike Denkmaeler._ Antike Denkmaeler herausgegeben vom k.
  deutschen Archaeologischen Institut. Berlin: from 1886. In
  progress.

  _Arch. Anzeiger._ Archaeologischer Anzeiger. [A supplement to the
  Archeologische Zeitung, and to the Jahrbuch des Archaeologischen
  Instituts.]

  _Arch. Zeit._ Archaeologische Zeitung. Berlin: 1843-1885.
  [Superseded by the Jahrbuch des Archaeologischen Instituts.]

  _Athenische Mittheilungen._ Mittheilungen des k. deutschen
  Archaeologischen Instituts, Athenische Abtheilung. Athens: from
  1876. In progress.

  _Brunn, Denkmaeler._ H. v. Brunn, Denkmaeler griechischer und
  römischer Sculptur. Munich: from 1888. In progress.

  _Bull, de Corr. Hellénique._ École française d'Athènes. Bulletin
  de Correspondance Hellénique. Athens: from 1877. In progress.

  _Bull. dell' Inst._ Bullettino dell' Instituto di Corrispondenza
  Archeologica. Rome: 1829-1885.

  _C. I. A._ Corpus Inscriptionum Atticarum. Berlin: from 1873. In
  progress.

  _C. I. G._ Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum. Berlin: 1828-1877.

  _Gaz. Arch._ Gazette Archéologique. Paris: 1874-1888.

  _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._ The Collection of Ancient Greek
  Inscriptions in the British Museum, by C. T. Newton, and E. L.
  Hicks. 1874-1890.

  _Guide to Elgin Room I._ Synopsis of the Contents of the British
  Museum. Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities. The Sculptures
  of the Parthenon. Elgin Room, Part I. (Third ed.). 1886.

  _Guide to Elgin Room II._ Synopsis, etc.... The Sculptures in the
  Elgin Room. Part II. 1881.

  _Guide to First Vase Room._ Synopsis, etc.... First Vase Room.
  (Last ed.) 1883.

  _Guide to Graeco-Roman Sculptures I._ Synopsis, etc....
  Graeco-Roman Sculptures. (Second ed.) 1879.

  _Guide to Graeco-Roman Sculptures II._ Synopsis, etc....
  Graeco-Roman Sculptures. Part II. 1876.

  _Jahrbuch des Arch. Inst._ Jahrbuch des k. deutschen
  Archaeologischen Instituts. Berlin: from 1886. In progress.

  _Journ. of Hellen. Studies._ The Journal of Hellenic Studies.
  London: from 1879. In progress.

  _Mansell._ Photographs of objects in the British Museum, published
  by W. A. Mansell, 271 Oxford Street, W.

  _Michaelis._ A. Michaelis, Der Parthenon. Leipsic: 1871.

  _Michaelis, Anc. Marbles._ A. Michaelis, Ancient Marbles in Great
  Britain. 1882.

  _Mitchell._ Lucy M. Mitchell, A History of Ancient Sculpture.
  1883.

  _Mitchell, Selections._ Selections from Ancient Sculpture.... A
  Supplement to A History of Ancient Sculpture. By Lucy M. Mitchell.
  1883.

  _Mon. dell' Inst._ Monumenti Inediti, pubblicati dall' Instituto
  di Corrispondenza Archaeologica. Rome, 1829-1886, and Berlin,
  1891.

  _Murray._ A. S. Murray, A History of Greek Sculpture. 1880-3.
  [Second ed., 1890. The first ed. is quoted, unless otherwise
  stated.]

  _Mus. Marbles._ A description of the Collection of Ancient Marbles
  in the British Museum. 1812-1861.

  _Perrot & Chipiez._ G. Perrot and C. Chipiez, Histoire de l'Art
  dans l'Antiquité. Paris: from 1882. In progress.

  _Prachov._ A. Prachov, Antiquissima Monumenta Xanthiaca. St.
  Petersburg, 1871.

  _Rev. Arch._ Revue Archéologique. Paris: from 1844. In progress.

  _Roehl, I. G. A._ H. Roehl, Inscriptiones Graecae Antiquissimae,
  praeter Atticas in Attica repertas. Berlin: 1882.

  _Roemische Mittheilungen._ Mittheilungen des k. deutschen
  Archaeologischen Instituts, Roemische Abtheilung. Rome: from 1886.
  In progress.

  _Specimens._ Specimens of Ancient Sculpture ... selected from
  different Collections in Great Britain, by the Society of
  Dilettanti. London: 1809.

  _Stereoscopic._ Photographs of objects in the British Museum,
  published by the London Stereoscopic Company, 106 Regent Street,
  W.

  _Stuart._ James Stuart and Nicolas Revett, The Antiquities of
  Athens. London: 1762-1830. [Second ed., 1825-1830. The first ed.
  is quoted unless otherwise stated.]

  _Synopsis._ Synopsis of the contents of the British Museum.
  (Numerous editions.) 1808-1857. [Where a double reference is
  given, as 189 (284), the number in the parenthesis was used in
  editions of the Synopsis earlier than 1832.]

  _Wolters._ Die Gipsabgüsse Antiker Bildwerke in historischer Folge
  erklärt. Bausteine ... von Carl Friederichs neu bearbeitet von
  Paul Wolters. Berlin: 1885.


BRITISH AND METRIC SYSTEMS COMPARED.

  1 inch = .025 metre.
  1 foot = .304 metre.
  3 feet = .914 metre.

  1 metre = 39.37079 inches.



INTRODUCTION.


The collection of ancient sculpture in marble, included in the
Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities in the British Museum, may
be said to represent the efforts of more than two centuries, though
the foundation of the Museum itself is of a considerably more recent
date.[1]

The British Museum was established by Parliament in 1753. In that
year, by the statute 26 Geo. II. cap. 22, a trust was created to unite
and maintain as one collection the Museum of Sir Hans Sloane, the
Cottonian Library, and the Harleian Collection of Manuscripts.

Sir Hans Sloane (1660-1753),[2] physician, botanist, and President of
the Royal Society in succession to Newton, had formed in his lifetime
a very extensive museum, consisting mainly of books, natural history
collections, and ethnographical objects. At the same time classical
antiquities were represented by bronzes, gems, vases, terracottas, and
a few sculptures in marble. The examples, however, of Greek sculpture
were few and unimportant, and in most instances they cannot now be
recognized with certainty from the brief entries in Sir Hans Sloane's
catalogue. Such as they were, they were chiefly derived from the
collection of John Kemp, an antiquary and collector early in the
eighteenth century (died 1717). The Sloane Collection included the
sepulchral vase, No. 682 in the present volume; a small relief with
two dogs and a wild boar; a figure of Asclepios, a few heads, busts,
urns of marble or alabaster, and a few Greek and Latin inscriptions.

Three of the pieces of sculpture in the Museum are said by Sloane[3]
to have been derived from the Arundel Collection, which was the first
great collection of classical antiques formed in this country. Thomas
Howard, Earl of Arundel (1585-1646), was the first Englishman who
employed agents to collect for him in Greece and the Greek Islands,
as well as in Italy. The collection thus formed was broken up in the
reign of Charles II. The inscriptions were given by Henry Howard,
afterwards sixth Duke of Norfolk, to the University of Oxford in 1667.
The sculptures were scattered. A part passed through the hands of the
Earls of Pomfret to the University of Oxford, while others were lost,
or dispersed among private collectors.[4] The few examples named
above thus found their way into the original collection of the
British Museum. A more important fragment, however, from the Arundel
Collection was added to the Museum at an early date, namely the bronze
head, formerly known as Homer,[5] which was presented by the
ninth Earl of Exeter in 1760. This head had previously been in
the collection of Dr. Richard Mead,[6] physician and antiquary
(1673-1754), and was sold with his collection in 1754.[7]

Between the foundation of the British Museum in 1753 and the accession
of the Townley Collection in 1805, the collection of sculpture made
but slow progress. The first donor of sculpture was Thomas Hollis
(1720-1774), of Corscombe, in Dorsetshire, a collector, and benefactor
to several branches of the Museum. In 1757 Hollis gave a collection
of antiquities, including several marbles, chiefly small busts and
inscriptions.[8] In 1764 he gave a Greek relief, which cannot be
identified, and in 1765 a marble head of a Faun.

In 1772 Matthew Duane (lawyer and antiquary, 1707-1785) joined in a
gift of sculptures with Thomas Tyrwhitt (1720-1786), a scholar,
who also bequeathed his library of classical authors to the British
Museum. The sculptures in question[9] were purchased by the donors at
an auction in London,[10] in order that they might be put in a place
of safety.

The year 1772 is also noteworthy as the date of the first
Parliamentary grant for the augmentation of the Museum collection. The
House of Commons in that year voted a sum of £8410 for the purchase
of the valuable museum of antiquities which had been formed by Sir
William Hamilton (1730-1803), British Ambassador at Naples, 1764-1800.
The vases formed the most important section, but the collection also
contained several sculptures in the round and in relief.[11] On the
other hand a square altar with reliefs[12] was presented by Sir W.
Hamilton in 1776, and perhaps also a head of Heracles.[13] A colossal
foot of Apollo[14] was given in 1784.

In 1780 an interesting relief, No. 750, was presented by Sir Joseph
Banks, and Col. the Hon. A. C. Fraser, of Lovat (1736-1815). Sir
Joseph Banks (1743-1820), traveller, botanist, and President of the
Royal Society, was a great benefactor to the Library and Botanical
collections, but his gifts of sculpture were limited to this relief,
and to a relief representing Jupiter and Ceres, presented in 1809.

Charles Townley gave two marble fountains[15] in 1786, but his main
collections were not added to the Museum till after his death. A
valuable gift was received from the Society of Dilettanti, about
1795, consisting of the sculptures and inscriptions collected by the
expedition to Ionia which had been sent out by that Society in 1764,
under the direction of Dr. Richard Chandler. The collection included
several Attic reliefs,[16] and some important inscriptions, among them
the well-known report on the progress of the Erechtheion.[17] In 1870
the same Society presented the fruits of its excavations at Prienè,
conducted by Mr. R. P. Pullan.

Two Roman portrait statues, of inferior merit, which had passed into
the hands of the British at the Capitulation of Alexandria, in 1800,
were placed in the Department of Antiquities, in 1802.

The collection of sculpture which had thus slowly come into existence
during the first fifty years of the Museum's history, received its
most brilliant accessions during the first quarter of the present
century.

The great collection that had been formed by Charles Townley[18] was
purchased in 1805 by Act of Parliament, 45 Geo. III. cap. 127, for
£20,000, a sum greatly below the value of the sculptures. Charles
Townley (1737-1805), of Townley, in Lancashire, acquired a large part
of his marbles, during a residence in Italy, between 1768 and 1772,
but continued collecting, after his return to England. The chief
sources from which he formed his museum were the following: (1) the
older Roman collections, from which Townley made numerous purchases;
(2) the excavations carried on by Gavin Hamilton, a Scotch painter
living in Rome (died 1797), and by Thomas Jenkins, an English banker;
(3) occasional purchases from older English collections. Thus the
relief of Exakestes[19] was derived from the collection of Dr. Richard
Mead (see above). The relief of Xanthippos[20] had been brought to
England by Dr. Anthony Askew, a physician, who visited Athens and the
East, about 1747, and compiled a manuscript volume of inscriptions,
now in the British Museum (Burney MSS., No. 402). Several pieces[21]
were also obtained from the collection formed at Wimbledon by Lyde
Browne, a virtuoso and Director of the Bank of England, who died in
1787.

The accession of the Townley Collection in 1805 made necessary the
erection of a special building in the garden of the then existing
Montague House, and also caused the creation of a separate Department
under Taylor Combe, for the custody of the antiquities, which had been
previously attached to the Library.

In 1814, the Phigaleian sculptures were purchased of the explorers[22]
in a public auction at Zante, and the Museum thereby acquired its
first series of sculptures from a Greek building. A fragment, which
had been lost during the transportation of the marbles,[23] was
presented by Mr. J. Spencer Stanhope in 1816.

Thomas Bruce, seventh Earl of Elgin (1766-1841), whose collection
was the next and greatest addition to the British Museum, had been
appointed British Ambassador to the Porte in 1799. On his appointment,
he resolved to make his time of office of service to the cause of art,
and accordingly engaged a body of five architects, draughtsmen and
formatori, under Lusieri, a Neapolitan portrait painter, to make
casts, plans and drawings from the remains in Greece, and more
particularly at Athens. While the work was in progress, Lord Elgin
became aware of the rapid destruction that was taking place of the
sculptures in Athens. The success of the British arms in Egypt
having made the disposition of the Porte favourable to the British
Ambassador, a firman was obtained which sanctioned the removal of the
sculptures. The whole collection, formed by Lord Elgin's agents, was,
after long negotiations, and an enquiry by a Select Committee of the
House of Commons, purchased of Lord Elgin for £35,000 in 1816. It
consists of sculptures and architectural fragments from the Parthenon,
the Erechtheion, and other Athenian buildings; casts, which have
now become of great value, from the Parthenon, the Theseion, and
the Monument of Lysicrates; a considerable number of Greek reliefs,
principally from Athens; fragments from Mycenae and elsewhere;
drawings and plans.

The marbles and casts of the Parthenon acquired in the Elgin
Collection, have since been supplemented, not only by casts of
sculptures newly discovered at Athens, but also by the additions of
fragments, removed from Athens by occasional travellers, and acquired
for the Museum by donation or purchase. The gifts include a head of a
Lapith,[24] from the Duke of Devonshire, and pieces of the frieze from
Mr. C. R. Cockerell,[25] and Mr. J. H. Smith-Barry;[26] also from the
Society of Dilettanti[27] and the Royal Academy.[28]

Lord Elgin was actively assisted in the East by his secretary, William
Richard Hamilton (1777-1859), who afterwards became Under-Secretary
of State for Foreign Affairs (1809-1822). From Mr. Hamilton the
Museum received a few sculptures, including a sepulchral relief from
Tarentum.[29]

In 1824 the British Museum obtained by bequest the collections of
Richard Payne Knight (1749-1824), a learned but fanciful antiquarian,
and a leading member of the Society of Dilettanti. Payne Knight's
collection was especially rich in bronzes, gems, and coins, but it
also contained a series of marble portrait busts.

The next addition of importance was the collection of sculptures and
casts brought at the public expense in 1842 from Xanthos and other
sites in Lycia, discovered by Sir Charles Fellows (1799-1860), in the
course of his journeys of 1838 and 1840.[30]

In 1846, permission was given by the Porte to the then British
Ambassador, Sir Stratford Canning, afterwards Viscount Stratford de
Redcliffe (1786-1880), to remove twelve slabs of the frieze of
the Mausoleum from Halicarnassos. These sculptures, long known to
travellers,[31] were taken from the walls of the castle of Budrum, and
presented by the Ambassador to the British Museum.

Ten years later the influence of Lord Stratford de Redcliffe was
exerted to support Sir Charles Newton in his explorations in Asia
Minor. Sir Charles Newton exchanged his position at the British
Museum, in 1856, for the post of British Vice-Consul at Mitylene,
which he held till 1859, and in that capacity he was able, on
behalf of the Trustees, to excavate the sites of the Mausoleum at
Halicarnassos, and of the temple of Demeter at Cnidos. He also removed
the archaic statues of Branchidae, and collected several minor pieces
of sculpture. The excavations on the site of the Mausoleum added four
slabs to the series presented by Lord Stratford de Redcliffe in 1840.
One additional slab was purchased in 1865 of the Marchese Serra, of
Genoa.

While the excavations of the Mausoleum were in progress, the Crimean
campaign afforded an opportunity to Col. Westmacott to form
a collection of sculptures from Kertch and the neighbourhood,
illustrating the later stages of Greek art on the Euxine.

In the years 1860-1861, Captain, now General Sir R. Murdoch Smith,
R.E., and Commander E. A. Porcher, R.N., carried out a series of
excavations on the site of Cyrenè, and discovered a considerable
number of sculptures in marble, and an admirable bronze portrait head,
among the ruins of the temples of Apollo, Dionysos and Aphroditè, and
elsewhere.

The excavations which were carried on at Ephesus by the late Mr.
John Turtle Wood,[32] for the British Museum, began in 1863, and
were continued till 1874, the site of the great temple of Artemis not
having been determined before the spring of 1870. Besides excavating
the site of the temple, Mr. Wood obtained inscriptions and sculptures
from the Odeum, the great Theatre, and the road to the temple of
Artemis.

The site of Naucratis in the Egyptian Delta was discovered by Mr. W.
M. Flinders Petrie, and was excavated, partly by the discoverer, and
partly by Mr. E. A. Gardner, at the cost of the Egypt Exploration
Fund in the years 1884-6.[33] The most important objects found were
fragments of pottery, but there were also some architectural remains,
and archaic statuettes of interest.

In 1889 and 1891, various sculptures, including a head of Eros from
Paphos, and a large capital with projecting bulls' heads from the
Cyprian Salamis, have been presented by the Cyprus Exploration Fund.

Besides the proceeds of the systematic researches enumerated above,
the collection of sculpture has been frequently increased during the
present century with the specimens collected by private travellers in
the East. Thus in 1818, H. Gally Knight (1784-1846), an antiquarian
and writer on the history of architecture, with N. Fazakerly,
presented a statue from Athens.[34] In 1820, J. P. Gandy Deering
(1787-1850), an architect who had taken part in the Dilettanti
Expedition to Ionia of 1811, presented sculptures that he had
discovered at Rhamnus in Attica.[35] In 1839, Colonel W. M. Leake, an
eminent traveller and topographer (1777-1860), presented several Greek
sculptures.[36] A small collection of reliefs, and of architectural
fragments from Athens and elsewhere, was purchased from H. W. Inwood,
the author of a treatise on the Erechtheion.

In 1861, the fifth Earl of Aberdeen presented a collection which had
been formed in Greece in 1801 by George, fourth Earl of Aberdeen, a
connoisseur, known to his contemporaries as "Athenian Aberdeen."[37]
In 1864 a collection of sculptures was purchased which had been formed
by Percy Clinton Sydney Smythe, sixth Viscount Strangford (1783-1855),
formerly Ambassador to the Porte, and which included the "Strangford
Apollo."[38]

Amongst purchases that have taken place from time to time we may also
mention that of the Apollo[39] from the collection of the Comte de
Choiseul-Gouffier in 1818. In 1864 several Græco-Roman sculptures[40]
were purchased from the Farnese Collection at Rome. The museum of the
Duc de Blacas, purchased in 1867, contained the head of Asclepios
from Melos, and the relief discovered at the same time.[41] For
the numerous cases not here mentioned in which sculptures have been
acquired by donation or bequest, the reader is referred to the pages
of the catalogue.

Finally, it may be observed that not a few sculptures in the British
Museum have been found under peculiar circumstances in this country.
Such specimens have been brought to England by travellers, whose
collections have afterwards been broken up, lost or neglected, and
have been rescued by chance from warehouses, gardens, or masons'
yards.[42]

    1: For the history of the collections in the British Museum, see
    Edwards, _Lives of the Founders of the British Museum_;
    Michaelis, _Ancient Marbles in Great Britain_, introduction.

    2: There is a portrait of Sloane in the Mediæval Room, and a bust
    by Roubiliac in the Ceramic Gallery.

    3: The entries in the Sloane Catalogue are:--"218. A vase of red
    and grey marble with green veins, with a cover from the Earl of
    Arundel's Collections. 222. A busto of Tully (?) when young.--Arundel.
    223. A small Venus (?).--Arundel."

    4: Michaelis, _Ancient Marbles_, p. 6.

    5: _Mus. Marbles_, II., pl. 39.

    6: There is a bust of Mead by Roubiliac in the Ceramic Gallery.

    7: _Mus. Meadianum_, Pars altera, p. 219.

    8: Cf. _Mus. Marbles_, V., pl. 1, fig. 3; pl. 6, fig. 4;
    pl. 7, fig. 1; pl. 12, fig. 4.

    9: Nos. 639, 703, 737.

    10: _Archæologia_, III., p. 230.

    11: Nos. 774, 780; _Græco-Roman Guide_, I., No. 140B.

    12: _Græco-Roman Guide_, II., No. 53.

    13: _Mus. Marbles_, I., pl. 11.

    14: _Græco-Roman Guide_, II., No. 117.

    15: _Græco-Roman Guide_, II., Nos. 45, 61.

    16: Nos. 605, 637, 642.

    17: _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, No. XXXV.

    18: There is a bust of Townley in the Department of Antiquities.

    19: No. 704.

    20: No. 628.

    21: _Mus. Marbles_, III., pl. 6; X., pls. 3, 5; XI., pl. 37.

    22: See p. 270.

    23: Part of No. 534.

    24: 342, _3_.

    25: 327, _4_.

    26: 325, _75_.

    27: 325, _50_.

    28: 325, _85_.

    29: Nos. 446, 712.

    30: See p. 45, for a further account of the travels of Fellows.

    31: _Antiquities of Ionia_, II. (1797), suppl., pl. 2.

    32: See p. 24.

    33: See p. 61.

    34: No. 153.

    35: Nos. 154, 460; cf. also No. 784.

    36: Including Nos. 798, 816.

    37: Including Nos. 632, 633, 644, 710, 802, 808, 811, 812.

    38: No. 206. See also Nos. 302, 627, 651, 653, 666, 678, 722.

    39: No. 209.

    40: No. 401; _Græco-Roman Guide_, I., Nos. 33, 45, 109, 132,
    134; II., No. 96.

    41: Nos. 550, 809.

    42: See Nos. 211, 643, 652, 667, 680, 693, 699, 726, 736.



PART I.


_ARCHAIC PERIOD._



SCULPTURES FROM MYCENAE.


The sculptures contained in the first section of this catalogue are
derived from the site of Mycenae, the first four being fragments of
important works of architecture. There is great uncertainty as to
the date and origin of the Mycenaean monuments. A theory frequently
advanced supposes that they are remains of an old civilization whose
centre was Argolis, and which was swept away by Dorian invaders. If
this view is accepted, Nos. 1-6 are separated by a long interval of
years, and by a time of great political change, from the remaining
sculptures in this volume. From No. 7 onwards we have works produced
during the historical period; but the remains of Mycenae acquire
interest from the consideration that they may be authentic memorials
of a dynasty only dimly remembered in the Homeric Poems.

[Sidenote: =1-4.=]

Fragments of architecture from the building, commonly known as the
'Treasury of Atreus' at Mycenae. This building is a dome-covered tomb
(_tholos_) of beehive shape, approached by a long passage (_dromos_).
It is cut out from the side of a hill, and built of heavy masonry,
covered with earth, so as to form a tumulus. It was partially
excavated by Lord Elgin, and more completely in 1879 by the Greek
Archæological Society. The fragments Nos. 1-4 are parts of an
elaborately decorated doorway to the tomb. They have been incorporated
in a somewhat fanciful restoration which was made by Donaldson, and
which has been much modified by later investigators.

  For plans and views, see Stuart, 2nd ed., IV. pls. 1-5 (with
  Donaldson's restoration). Dodwell, _Pelasgic Remains_, pls. 9, 10.
  _Athenische Mittheilungen_, IV., p. 177, pls. 11-13 (Thiersch);
  Mitchell, p. 143. Donaldson's restoration is based on an earlier
  attempt by Lord Elgin's artists, which is now among the Elgin
  drawings in the British Museum.

[Sidenote: =1.=]

Fragment from the 'Treasury of Atreus' at Mycenae. The decoration
consists of three bands of the wave pattern, separated by mouldings.
Two of these bands are in low relief; the third is in high relief,
with a hole bored in the centre of each spiral for the insertion of
glass or metal ornaments. Among the tools employed by the artist, the
chisel, saw, and the tubular drill, were plainly included. From the
fact that the end of the fragment is cut at an acute angle, it is
inferred that this fragment was placed above the doorway of the
building, in contact with a relief of triangular form. It is also
possible that it may have formed part of a triangular slab above the
door. A piece of red marble, similarly decorated, which is now at
Athens, exactly fits the apex of the triangular opening (_Athenische
Mittheilungen_, iv., pl. 13, fig. 1, A.).--_Elgin Coll._

  Red marble. Height, 1 foot 4-1/4 inches; width, 3 feet 2-3/4
  inches. Stuart, 2nd ed., IV., pl. 4, fig. 10; p. 32; cf. pl. 5;
  Dodwell, _Tour_, II., p. 232; Murray, I., p. 38; Wolters, No. 3.

[Sidenote: =2.=]

Fragment from the 'Treasury of Atreus' at Mycenae. The decoration
consists of a band of the wave pattern, and a band of lozenges in low
relief, the bands being separated by mouldings of similar character to
those of No. 1. The saw and chisel were used by the artist.

This slab, according to Donaldson, formed a part of the architrave,
over the entrance to the building. According to Dodwell, it was
'found by the excavators of the Earl of Elgin, near the Treasury of
Atreus.'--_Elgin Coll._

  Hard green limestone; height, 1 foot 6 inches; width, 3 feet 6
  inches. Stuart, 2nd ed., IV., pl. 4, fig. 9; cf. pl. 5; Dodwell,
  _Tour_, II., p. 232; Murray, I., p. 39; Wolters, No. 2.

[Illustration: Fig. 1.--Restored Capital from the 'Treasury of Atreus'
(after Puchstein).]

[Sidenote: =3.=]

Fragment from the 'Treasury of Atreus' at Mycenae. This fragment,
which is decorated with a portion of a wave pattern enclosed by two
mouldings meeting at an acute angle, is a part of one of the columns
that flanked the entrance to the building. These columns were
decorated with an elaborate system of ornament, composed of zigzag
bands of the wave pattern, best understood on reference to drawings of
the complete column (_cf._ fig. 1). The tubular drill has been used as
in No. 1.--_Presented by the Institute of British Architects_, 1843.

  Hard green limestone; height, 11 inches; width, 9 inches. For
  drawings of the restored column, with its capital (formerly taken
  for the base) compare Stuart, 2nd ed., IV., pl. 4, figs. 1-5, pl.
  5. Dodwell, _Tour_, II., pl. facing p. 232; Murray, I., p. 40;
  Puchstein, _Das Ionische Capitell_, p. 50. For fragments of the
  capital, see Gell, _Itinerary_, pl. 7; Mitchell, p. 145, fig. 70.

[Sidenote: =4.=]

Fragment from the 'Treasury of Atreus' at Mycenae. This is a part
of the lower member of the capital of a pilaster flanking the great
doorway (_cf._ fig. 1).--_Presented by the Institute of British
Architects_, 1843.

  Hard green limestone; height, 3-1/2 inches; width, 10 inches.
  Puchstein, _Das Ionische Capitell_, p. 50.

[Sidenote: =5.=]

Fragment of relief. Head and shoulder of rampant lion. From the shape
of the fragment it appears to have been a part of a triangular relief
filling the space above a doorway. (Compare No. 1 and the Gate of
Lions at Mycenae.) The lion's paw is extended as if towards another
lion confronting him. A pattern is drawn in fine lines on the
shoulder. Behind the lion is a branch of laurel.

[Illustration: Fig. 2.--Relief from Mycenae (?), No. 5.]

A part of this relief has been exposed to a corroding influence, which
has acted uniformly on the surface, so that the design is sunk, but
not obliterated.--_Mycenae (?)_ _Elgin Coll._

  Limestone; height, 1 foot 10-1/4 inches; width, 2 feet 2 inches.
  _Synopsis_, No. 204 (158). Murray (2nd ed.), I., p. 61.

[Sidenote: =6.=]

Fragment of relief. Forelegs and part of body of bull standing to
left. A joint is worked in the stone, in front of the bull.--_Mycenae
(?)_ _Elgin Coll._

  Green limestone, closely resembling that of No. 5, but not
  identical with it. Both are composed principally of flakes of
  mica, which are, however, larger and more abundant in No. 6 than
  in No. 5. Height, 1 foot 4-1/2 inches; width, 2 feet 5 inches.
  _Synopsis_, No. 224 (160).

[Illustration: Fig. 3.--Relief from Mycenae, No. 6.]



SCULPTURES FROM BRANCHIDAE.


The temple and oracle of Apollo at Didyma, near Miletus, in Asia
Minor, were from time immemorial in the hands of the priestly clan
of the Branchidae, whose name came to denote the place itself. This
temple was destroyed by the Persians--probably by Darius on the
suppression of the Ionian Revolt--about 495 B.C. (Herod. vi., 19. See,
however, Strabo, xiv., p. 634; xi., p. 518.) After its destruction,
the temple was not rebuilt till the time of Alexander. The temple was
connected with the harbour Panormos by the Sacred Way. Along this the
sculptures stood at intervals. They are dedicatory offerings made to
Apollo, probably by the persons represented.

The following are the materials for fixing the period to which the
sculptures of Branchidae must be assigned. It is certain that none of
them are later than the destruction of the temple by the Persians,
and the latest of them (No. 16) appears a generation earlier than
the works associated with that period. On the other hand, there is no
reason to place the oldest before the early part of the sixth century
B.C. Thus these sculptures cover the period of (say) 580-520 B.C.
On epigraphic grounds, the date may be more closely defined. It is
believed that the older form for [Greek: ê Ê (TN: drawn as 2 vertical
boxes)] was changed to H (TN: Ê =Eta) shortly before 550 B.C. By this
criterion, Nos. 10, 17, belong to an older group, and No. 14 to a
later group. An inscribed base now in the British Museum with the name
of an artist, Terpsicles, also belongs to the older group (Roehl,
_I.G.A._, 484). It has been suggested that Chares of Teichioussa (No.
14) was one of the local tyrants who were established after the
destruction of the kingdom of Croesus (546 B.C.), and this agrees well
with the epigraphical evidence.

The statues of Branchidae are of interest because they exhibit the
process by which the grotesque coarseness of primitive work tends
towards the stiff and formal refinement that marks the later stage of
archaic art. The series in the British Museum breaks off before
the second stage has been completely attained, but it can be well
supplemented by a seated female figure from Miletus, now in the Louvre
(Rayet et Thomas, _Milet et le Golfe Latmique_, pl. 21).

  The sculptures of the Sacred Way were discovered by Chandler in
  1765 (_Antiqs. of Ionia_, 1st ed., I. p. 46; Chandler, _Travels in
  Asia Minor_, 1775, p. 152). They were more accurately examined by
  Gell, and the second _Dilettanti_ expedition in 1812 (_Antiqs. of
  Ionia_, 2nd ed., 1821, Part I., p. 29, vignette, and ch. III.,
  pl. 1; Müller, _Denkmaeler_, I., pl. 9, fig. 33). A more accurate
  sketch was made by Ross (_Arch. Zeit._, 1850, pl. 13). Such of
  the sculptures as could be found in 1858 were removed by Sir C.
  Newton; Newton, II., p. 527. On the inscriptions see Kirchhoff,
  _Studien_, 4th ed., pp. 19, 25.

[Sidenote: =7.=]

Female figure, seated on a chair, with her hand resting on her knees.
The head is wanting, and the upper part of the body is much mutilated.
The figure wears a long chiton, with sleeves, and a diploïdion.
The feet of this figure (as of all the other figures) are bare. The
drapery falls down in front of the legs in stiff conventional folds.
The sleeve, however, of the chiton is worked in a more natural manner.
There are remains of a key-pattern on the sides of the cushion of the
chair.--_Sacred Way, Branchidae._

  Parian marble; height, 3 feet 9 inches. Mansell, No. 607.

[Sidenote: =8.=]

Male figure, seated on a chair, with his hands resting on his knees.
The head, shoulders, left forearm, and hand are wanting. The figure
wears a long chiton with sleeves and a mantle. The lower part of the
chiton is entirely conventional, but parts of the mantle, and the
outlines of the arms are worked after nature. On the ends of
the cushion there is a pattern of zigzag lines.--_Sacred Way,
Branchidae._

  Parian marble; height, 3 feet 11-1/4 inches. Newton, II., p. 534;
  Mansell, No. 604 (left).

[Sidenote: =9.=]

Female figure, seated on a chair with hands resting on her knees. The
right hand is wanting, and also the toes and front of the base, which
seem to have been attached separately. The figure wears a long chiton
and a mantle, which passes over the back of the shoulders, under the
right arm, and in both directions across the left shoulder. Neither
garment has indications of fold, and the edges are conventionally
treated. The face, as far as can be seen, was full and thick. The hair
falls in pointed tresses, the undulations of which are indicated in a
conventional manner. The right ear is finished with care. This
chair has no cushion, the drapery of the figure being seen under the
arms.--_Sacred Way, Branchidae._

  Parian marble; height, 5 feet 2 inches. Newton, I., pl. 75 (2nd
  from right); Rayet et Thomas, _Milet et le Golfe Latmique_, pl.
  26 (right); Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._, 3rd ed., I., p. 94, fig. 11c;
  Wolters, No. 7.

[Sidenote: =10.=]

Male figure, seated on a chair, with the right hand resting on the
right knee, and the left hand beside the left thigh. The head, and the
fingers of the left hand are wanting. The figure wears a chiton with
sleeves, and a mantle, which passes round the body, under the right
arm, and passes in both directions over the left shoulder, so as
to hang down in folds over the knees. The ends of the cushion, the
sleeves of the chiton, and a part of the chiton seen on the left knee,
are decorated with the key pattern.

On the left arm of the chair is the inscription: [Greek: Eudêmos me
epoie(i)n]--"Eudemos made me."--_Sacred Way, Branchidae._

  Parian marble; height, 5 feet 1 inch. Newton, I., pl. 75 (right);
  pl. 97, No. 71; II., p. 534; p. 783; Kirchhoff, _Studien_, 4th
  ed., p. 26; Roehl, _I.G.A._, 485; Roberts, _Greek Epigraphy_, p.
  162.

[Sidenote: =11.=]

Male figure, seated on a chair, with left hand on left knee, and
right hand, with palm turned upwards, on right thigh. The head, right
shoulder, and right hand are wanting. The figure wears a chiton with
sleeves, and a mantle. The folds of the lower parts are entirely
conventional, but those of the upper part of the chiton are indicated
by delicate wavy grooves. The hair falls behind in tresses which are
cut off square on the shoulders.--_Sacred Way, Branchidae._

  Parian marble; height, 4 feet 4 inches; Newton, I., pl. 74
  (right); Mansell, Nos. 603 (left), 604 (right).

[Sidenote: =12.=]

Male figure, seated on a chair, with left hand resting on left knee,
and right hand, with palm turned upwards, by right knee. The head,
shoulders, and breast, and the right hand are wanting. The figure
wears a chiton with sleeves, and a mantle, which passes under
the right arm, while the ends cross the left shoulder in contrary
directions. The artist has attempted to render the fine folds of the
upper part of the chiton.

The four legs of the chair are decorated with a design which appears
to be developed from the lotus bud, and is seen on Assyrian reliefs.
On the back of the top rail of the chair is the late inscription:
[Greek: Nikê Glaukou], which is either "Nikè, daughter of Glaukos,"
or, perhaps, a formula of the Christian period, "Victory of
Glaukos!"--_Sacred Way, Branchidae._

  Parian marble; height, 5 feet. Newton, I., pl. 97, No. 73; II.,
  p. 531, fig. 2; p. 787; Kirchhoff, _Studien_, 4th ed., p. 20.

[Sidenote: =13.=]

Male figure seated on a chair, with left hand resting on left knee,
and right hand, with palm turned upwards, by the right thigh. The
head and the right hand are wanting. The figure wears a chiton, and a
mantle which passes round the body under the right arm, and passes in
both directions over the left shoulder, so as to hang down in folds
before the knees. The artist has attempted to render the fine folds of
the upper part of the chiton, and has decorated the front legs of the
chair as in No. 12. The statue has been broken and repaired in ancient
times with lead cramps.--_Sacred Way, Branchidae._

  Marble; height, 4 feet 8 inches. Newton, pl. 75 (second from
  left); II., p. 531, fig. 1; Mansell, No. 605; Overbeck, _Gr.
  Plast._, 3rd ed., I., p. 94, fig. 11b.

[Sidenote: =14.=]

Statue of Chares, a male figure, seated on a chair, with left hand
resting on left knee, and right hand, with palm turned upwards, by the
right thigh. The head and hands are wanting. The figure wears a chiton
with sleeves and a mantle which passes under the right arm, while the
ends pass in contrary directions over the left shoulder. The sleeves
of the chiton are bordered with a key pattern, which is doubled along
the seam.

On the right leg of the chair is the inscription:

[Illustration: [Greek: Charês eimi ho Kle(i)sios Teichio(u)s(s)ês
archos . agalma to(u) Apollônos.]]

"I am Chares, son of Kleisis, ruler of Teichioussa. The statue is the
property of Apollo."--_Sacred Way, Branchidae._

  Parian marble; height, 4 feet 10 inches. Newton, pl. 74 (left);
  pl. 97, No. 72; II., pp. 532, 784; Mansell, No. 614; Rayet et
  Thomas, _Milet et le Golfe Latmique_, pl. 25; Dieulafoy,
  _L'Art Antique de la Perse_, Part III., pl. 15; Wolters, No.
  6; Kirchhoff, _Studien_, 4th ed., p. 19; Roehl, _I.G.A._, 488;
  Roberts, _Greek Epigraphy_, p. 163; _Palaeographical Society,
  Facsimiles_, I., No. 76.

[Sidenote: =15.=]

Male figure, seated on a chair, with left hand on left knee, and right
hand by right thigh. The head and right hand are wanting. The figure
wears a chiton with sleeves and a mantle which passes under the right
arm, while the ends cross the left shoulder in contrary directions.
The fine folds of the upper part of the chiton are indicated.--_Sacred
Way, Branchidae._

  Parian marble; height, 4 feet 2 inches.

[Sidenote: =16.=]

Female figure, seated on a chair, with hands on her knees. The
head and feet are wanting. The figure wears a sleeved chiton with a
diploïdion and a veil. The sleeves terminate with long folds. The veil
falls down over the shoulders, in numerous folds.

In attempting to indicate the legs with greater detail than his
predecessors, the artist has rendered them as if they were nude;
but in naturalness and freedom this statue is conspicuously the most
advanced of the series.--_Sacred Way, Branchidae._

  Parian marble; height, 4 feet. Newton, pl. 75 (left); Mansell, No.
  603 (right); Rayet et Thomas, _Milet et le Golfe Latmique_, pl.
  26 (left); Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._, 3rd ed., I., p. 94, fig. 11a;
  Wolters, No. 7.

[Sidenote: =17.=]

Lion, recumbent, with right fore-paw passing in front of the body, and
with left paw laid over it. The hind quarters are half turned over,
the animal lying on the right haunch. The head is wanting. The mane
is rendered by stiff pointed locks of hair of conventional form. The
pose, however, of the animal shows careful study of nature.

On the flank is the inscription:

[Illustration]

  1. [Greek: Ta agalmata tade anethesan hoi Ôr-
     iônos paides to(u) archêgo(u), Thalês
     kai Pasiklês kai Hêgêsandros k[a]i Eu-
     bios kai Anaxileôs, de[ka]tên tô A-
  5. pol(l)ôni.]

"The sons of Orion, the governor, Thales, Pasicles, Hegesander, Eubios
and Anaxileos dedicated these statues as a tithe to Apollo."--_Sacred
Way, Branchidae._

  Marble; height, 2 feet 6-1/4 inches; length, 7 feet. Newton, I.,
  pl. 97, No. 66; II., p. 777; Kirchhoff, _Studien_, 4th ed., p. 26;
  Roehl, _I.G.A._, 483; Roberts, _Greek Epigraphy_, p. 161; Mansell,
  No. 615.

[Sidenote: =18.=]

Sphinx or lion, recumbent. This figure has been called a Sphinx or a
lion-sphinx. The distinguishing marks of a Greek Sphinx are wanting,
as the head is lost, and the figure is wingless.--_Sacred Way,
Branchidae._

  Marble; height, 4 feet 2 inches; length, 6 feet 11-1/2 inches.
  _Antiqs. of Ionia_, 2nd ed., I., p. 29; Ross, _Arch. Zeit._, 1850,
  p. 132; Müller, _Denkmaeler_, I., pl. 9, No. 33; Newton, II., p.
  535; Milchhoefer, _Athenische Mittheilungen_, IV., p. 50.

[Sidenote: =19.=]

Beardless male head, from an archaic statue. The left shoulder
is preserved. The hair falls in tresses, as in the case of No.
9.--_Branchidae._

  Marble; height, 1 foot 3 inches; Rayet et Thomas, _Milet et le
  Golfe Latmique_, pl. 27.

[Sidenote: =20.=]

Female head (unfinished (?)) from an archaic statue. The figure wears
a veil which covers the whole of the head, except the face. The ears
are indicated beneath the veil.--_Branchidae._

  Marble; height, 9 inches.

[Sidenote: =21.=]

Relief, with figures moving to the right, in a dance. It is incomplete
at both ends, and appears to have been part of a frieze formed of
several slabs. On the left are a woman and a man joining hands. On
the right is a woman between two men; of the man on the right only the
right leg is preserved. The right hand of the woman is seen behind,
while her left hand is held by the man before her. The man on the left
of this group has some object, perhaps a cup, in his right hand
which is stretched out behind him. Between the two groups, and in the
background, a woman rushes to the right, holding branches (?) in her
raised hands.

The men are considerably larger than the women. The women wear a plain
chiton, the men a chiton and mantle. All have bracelets, and long
hair, which falls in a peculiar manner over the forehead; one wears
a taenia, the remainder have stephanae. All the limbs are indicated
under the draperies, even those of the figures in the background,
which are seen through their own draperies and those of their
companions.--_Presented by J. Scott Tucker, Esq., R.N. Karakewi
(Teichioussa), near Branchidae._

  Marble; height, 1 foot 9 inches; width, 2 feet 11 inches. Rayet et
  Thomas, _Milet et le Golfe Latmique_, pl. 27; Brunn, _Denkmaeler_,
  No. 101 B.



SCULPTURES FROM LYDIA.


The following sculptures were found in 1882 by Mr. George Dennis,
C.B., in one of the tumuli at Bin Tepè, near Sardes. Perrot (v., p.
904) suggests that they may have been part of a series of reliefs of
a hunting scene, decorating the sepulchral chamber. The date is
uncertain, but the reliefs may well be earlier than the fall of
Croesus.

[Sidenote: =22.=]

Relief. Three horsemen moving to the right. They wear large helmets
and cuirasses, with shoulder plates, and carry spears.

The figures are cut in a narrow panel, and appear to have served an
architectural purpose.--_Bin Tepè, Sardes._

  Marble; height, 7-1/4 inches; width, 1 foot 5 inches. Perrot and
  Chipiez, V., p. 903, fig. 535; Murray, _Gr. Sculpt._, 2nd ed., I.,
  p. 107.

[Sidenote: =23.=]

Relief. Three deer, moving to the right, grazing. From a panel nearly
similar to the preceding.--_Bin Tepè, Sardes._

  Marble; height, 6-3/4 inches; width, 1 foot 4 inches. Perrot and
  Chipiez, V., p. 904, fig. 536; Murray, _Gr. Sculpt._, 2nd ed., I.,
  p. 107.



SCULPTURES FROM EPHESUS.


The great temple of Artemis (or Diana), at Ephesus, which ranked among
the seven wonders of the ancient world, was built in the middle of the
4th century B.C. It was, according to tradition, the latest of a long
series of buildings. Not fewer than eight successive temples have been
enumerated by Falkener (_Ephesus_, p. 214; cf. Pliny, _H. N._, xvi.,
213). The excavations, however, have only produced the remains of two
temples. The earlier of the two, which is here described, is
probably that which was begun early in the sixth century B.C., by
the architects Theodoros, Chersiphron and Metagenes, was in course of
construction during the reign of Croesus (Brunn, _Gr. Künstler_, ii.,
p. 382), and was burnt by Herostratos on the night of Alexander's
birth (356 B.C.). The later temple, the remains of which are exhibited
in the Ephesus Room, was then built to replace that which had been
burnt; and the excavations have proved the interesting fact that the
most remarkable features of the later temple were borrowed from its
predecessor.

The extant fragments of the early temple were found by the late Mr.
J. T. Wood, in excavations which he carried on at Ephesus for the
Trustees of the British Museum. These fragments had, for the most
part, been used as building materials, and were extracted from certain
massive piers which rested against the foundations of the walls of the
temple cella. Mr. Wood assigned the piers to the Byzantine period, but
only adduced evidence to show that they were later than the walls of
the temple. It is therefore possible that they may have been added at
an early period, to strengthen the foundations.

  Wood, _Ephesus_, pp. 190, 259. For the reconstruction of the
  archaic temple, see _Journ. of Hellen. Studies_, X. (1889), p.
  1 (A. S. Murray). The material is a finely-grained marble, with
  occasional strongly marked blue veins.


ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENTS.

[Sidenote: =24.=]

Part of a wall-stone from the archaic temple.

  Length, 2 feet 7-1/2 inches; width, 1 foot 8 inches.

[Sidenote: =25.=]

Capital of Ionic column. Several fragments have been discovered,
from which it is possible to reconstruct with tolerable certainty the
capitals and necking of the columns of the archaic temple.

  _Journ. of Hellen. Studies_, X., p. 8.

[Sidenote: =26.=]

Fragment of volute from cap of column. The groove between two
mouldings is filled with two strips of lead to which gold leaf is
attached.

  Length, 7 inches. Wood, _Ephesus_, p. 245; _Journ. of Hellen.
  Studies_, X., p. 9.

[Sidenote: =27.=]

Fluted fragment of column. The drum to which this fragment belonged
was 4 feet 3 inches in diameter, and had 40 flutings.

  Height, 1 foot 10 inches; width, 3 feet 6 inches.

[Sidenote: =28.=]

Fragment of the base of an unfinished column, with torus moulding and
horizontal flutings only partially carried out.

  Height, 1 foot 4 inches; width, 3 feet. _Journ. of Hellen.
  Studies_, X., p. 5, part of fig. 3_b_.

[Sidenote: =29.=]

Base of sculptured column. The column has necessarily been
reconstructed from various fragments, which cannot be proved to have
belonged originally to the same column, but the combined fragments
serve to give a general idea of the appearance of the column. (Plate
I.)

  [Sidenote: 1.]

  The sculpture is surmounted by an egg and tongue moulding 11-1/2
  inches high, which is not shown in the plate, _Journ. of Hellen.
  Studies_, x., pl. 3. There are considerable remains of red paint.

  [Sidenote: 2.]

  Immediately below the sculptures is a moulding, which contains
  fragments inscribed as follows:

    [Greek: BA   KR   AN   EN],

  which have been restored as [Greek: Ba[sileus] Kr[oisos]
  an[ethêk]en.] 'King Croesus dedicated (the column).' It is known
  from a statement of Herodotus that Croesus gave most of the
  columns of the temple at Ephesus [Herod. i. 92, [Greek: Kroisô de
  esti kai alla anathêmata en tê Helladi polla ... en de Ephesô hai
  te boes hai chryseai kai tôn kionôn hai pollai]]. It is probable
  that the columns were inscribed with dedicatory inscriptions,
  of which we here have fragments. The later temple had a similar
  series of inscriptions. The columns offered by Croesus must be
  earlier than the date of his fall, 546 B.C. The inscriptions are
  no doubt of the same age as the columns, and they may have been
  seen by Herodotus (Hicks, _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._,
  dxviii.).

  [Sidenote: 3.]

  Below the moulding is the restoration of an early Ionic base.
  (_Journ. of Hellen. Studies_, x., pl. 3, and p. 8).

  The following fragments are inserted in the restoration of the
  sculptured base:--

  [Sidenote: 4.]

  Upper part of male figure in high relief standing to the right,
  wearing a close-fitting tunic, with sleeves to the elbows, and
  having a lion's skin about the body and with long hair. The upper
  part of the face is broken away. The right arm was bent at the
  elbow, and crossed the body.

    Height, 2 feet. _Journ. of Hellen. Studies_, X., pl. 3.

  [Sidenote: 5.]

  Lower part of male figure in high relief standing to the right,
  wearing what appears to be a himation, falling to the knees.

    Height, 3 feet 3 inches. Murray, I., p. 112; _Journ. of
    Hellen. Studies_, X., pl. 3.

  [Sidenote: 6.]

  Female head, to the right, in high relief. The hair is enclosed
  by a diadem, and falls down on the shoulders. A large circular
  earring in the right ear. There are considerable remains of dark
  red paint in the hair. The chin is broken away.

    Height, 1 foot 1/2 inch. Murray, I., p. 111.

  [Sidenote: 7.]

  Middle part of a female figure, to the right, in high relief. The
  figure wears a tunic, tied with a narrow girdle, and a diploïdion
  which fell in long folds at the sides. A key-pattern was painted
  on the central fold of the dress.

    Height, 1 foot 2 inches.


The following fragments from the bases of the columns, are not
inserted in the restoration:--

[Sidenote: =30.=]

Fragment, in high relief, of the head and shoulders of a figure, from
the drum of a column. The front surface is broken away, but the figure
appears to have looked to the front, with long hair falling on the
shoulders, which are draped.

  Height, 1 foot 3 inches.

[Sidenote: =31.=]

Fragment, in high relief, of the right thigh of a draped figure,
standing to the right.

  Height, 1 foot 1-1/2 inches. Worked above with a bed for another
  drum.

[Sidenote: =32.=]

Middle part of a draped figure to the left in high relief. The figure
wears a tunic with sleeves and himation. The left hand is pressed
close to the thigh.

This fragment is similar in style to the sculptures on the columns,
but must have come from a rectangular base, corresponding to the
rectangular bases in the later temple.

  Height, 1 foot 2 inches. Murray, I., p. 113.

[Sidenote: =33.=]

Fragment of a head containing the middle of the face. A straight edge
is worked along the left cheek.

  Height, 8-1/2 inches.

[Sidenote: =34.=]

Fragment of the left side of a female head, wearing a band across the
forehead, a veil, and a circular earring. Some red on the lips.

  Height, 9-1/2 inches.

[Sidenote: =35.=]

Fragment of the upper part of a head, wearing a close-fitting veil,
with curls between the veil and the forehead.

  Height, 4 inches.

[Sidenote: =36.=]

Fragment of the right side of a head, containing the cheek, ear, and a
part of a veil which falls behind the ear.

  Height, 8 inches.

[Sidenote: =37.=]

Fragment of a head, containing the left ear, and wearing a veil; hair
falls down at the back of the head.

  Height, 6 inches.

[Sidenote: =38.=]

Fragment of a head, similar to the last.

  Height, 9-1/2 inches.

[Sidenote: =39.=]

Fragment of the left side of a head, turned to the left, and wearing a
veil. It contains a part of the ear and eye.

  Height, 6 inches.

[Sidenote: =40.=]

Fragment from the top of a head, with hair.

  Height, 6 inches.

[Sidenote: =41.=]

Fragment from the right side of a head, with part of the neck, and
hair falling down. The hair is coloured red.

  Height, 3-1/2 inches.

[Sidenote: =42.=]

Fragment, from the right side of a head, containing the top of the ear
and hair falling over it.

  Height, 4 inches.

[Sidenote: =43.=]

Fragment of drapery, terminating in zigzag folds.

  Height, 7-1/2 inches.

[Sidenote: =44.=]

Fragment of drapery, with the bottom of several folds. It has an
incised maeander, as in No. 29, 7, and a palmette ornament painted in
red.

  Height, 6 inches.

[Sidenote: =45.=]

Fragment of the lower moulding of a sculptured base, with a left great
toe to the right, and the remains of a rectangular object rising from
the moulding.

  Height, 6-1/2 inches; width, 1 foot 6-1/2 inches.


THE CORNICE OF THE ARCHAIC TEMPLE.

The restoration of the Sculptured Cornice, which has been built up
from the small fragments excavated by Mr. Wood, is certainly accurate
in its general outlines, although the result is quite unique in form.
In place of the small cornice with floral decorations, common in later
temples (compare the cornice from Phigaleia, No. 505), the archaic
temple of Artemis was surmounted by a lofty cornice, 2 ft. 10-3/4 in.
high. Lions' heads projected at intervals, and drained off the
rain water. The intervals between the lions' heads were occupied by
metope-like compositions, carved in a delicate early style.

The original frieze probably extended along the two long sides of the
temple. The existing remains are small portions of at least thirty
figures. It is therefore impossible to reconstruct the separate groups
with much certainty, although the subjects can, to a certain extent,
be conjectured. An attempted restoration of a combat between a Lapith
and a Centaur is exhibited. The frieze also included chariots and
horses; warriors in chariots, and on foot; and perhaps scenes with
Harpies.

The central group on the cornice with the combat of a Centaur and
Lapith is composed of the following fragments. See _Journ. of Hellen.
Studies_, x., p. 2, for sketches of No. 46, 1-18.

[Sidenote: =46.=]

  [Sidenote: 1.]

  Fragment with the forelegs, which are human, and the hind hoof of
  a kneeling Centaur. In front the greaved left leg of a Lapith.

    Height, 7 inches; width, 1 foot 7 inches. _Journ. of Hellen.
    Studies_, X., pl. 4, fig. 6.

  [Sidenote: 2.]

  Hand with branch, from top of cornice, presumed to be the hand of
  a Centaur.

    Height, 4 inches; width, 5-1/2 inches.

  [Sidenote: 3.]

  Part of branch, from top of cornice.

    Height, 3 inches; width, 8 inches.

  [Sidenote: 4.]

  Back of head of Lapith, to left, with part of top moulding of
  cornice. Short curling hair.

    Height, 5 inches; width, 6 inches.

  [Sidenote: 5.]

  Lower part of cuirass of Lapith worn over a short tunic.

    Height, 3 inches; width, 8-1/2 inches.

  Two female figures are placed as spectators on each side of the
  combat. On the left the remains are:--

  [Sidenote: 6.]

  Part of a female head, turned to the right, and wearing a taenia.

    Height, 4-1/2 inches; width, 4-1/2 inches.

  [Sidenote: 7.]

  Part of drapery of standing female figure.

    Height, 4 inches; width, 6 inches.

  [Sidenote: 8.]

  Feet of standing female figure, wearing shoes, with slightly
  turned-up toes, and three bands across each shoe.

    Height, 6 inches; width, 7-1/2 inches.

  The remains of the figure on the right of the group are:--

  [Sidenote: 9.]

  Upper part of female head to the left, wearing a diadem.

    Height, 3 inches; width, 5 inches.

  [Sidenote: 10.]

  Part of middle of female figure, standing to the left, wearing
  chiton and himation. The left hand by the side.

    Height, 3-1/2 inches; width, 8-1/2 inches.

  The following fragments have also been inserted in the restored
  cornice:--

  [Sidenote: 11.]

  Head of youth, to the left, with short hair.

    Height, 3 inches; width, 6 inches. _Journ. of Hellen.
    Studies_, X., pl. 4, fig. 1.

  [Sidenote: 12.]

  Upper part of female head, to the left. The chief mass of the hair
  is confined by a peaked cap, the ends passing out through the top.
  A part of the hair terminates in short curls round the forehead,
  and part falls down in front of the ears. A laurel wreath
  surrounds the cap.

    Height, 4 inches; width, 6 inches. _Journ. of Hellen.
    Studies_, X., pl. 4, fig. 2.

  [Sidenote: 13.]

  Right foot and part of skirt of female figure walking, to the
  right.

    Height, 9 inches; width, 8 inches.

  [Sidenote: 14.]

  Right foot of a figure standing, to the left.

    Height, 3 inches; width, 4-1/2 inches.

  [Sidenote: 15.]

  Part of the back of the head and the shoulders of a figure
  standing with his back turned to the front. He wears a chiton, and
  the hair falls in curls on his shoulders.

    Height, 5 inches; width, 5 inches. _Journ. of Hellen.
    Studies_, X., pl. 4, fig. 3.

  [Sidenote: 16.]

  Fragment containing the legs of a figure standing with back turned
  to the front, perhaps a part of the figure described in the last
  number. The right leg wears a greave. This fragment also contains
  the right thigh of a figure kneeling to the front.

    Height, 10 inches; width, 1 foot 2 inches.

  The restored part of the cornice also contains:--

  [Sidenote: 17.]

  Lion's head. The front and lower parts of the face are wanting.

    Height, 10 inches; width, 1 foot 2 inches.

  [Sidenote: 18.]

  Lion's head. The front of the upper jaw is wanting. Red paint in
  the ears and the mouth.

    Height, 1 foot 6 inches; width, 1 foot 7 inches.


The following are the principal fragments, from the cornice, not
inserted in the restoration:--


_Male Figures, turned to the Right._

[Sidenote: =47.=]

  [Sidenote: 1.]

  Parts of head and breast of figure, with helmet, tunic, and
  cuirass (?). Long hair falls over the shoulder.

    Height, 7 inches; width, 7 inches. _Journ. of Hellen.
    Studies_, X., pl. 4, fig. 5.

  [Sidenote: 2.]

  Part of helmet, and top edge of cornice; also the fingers of the
  right hand of the figure, throwing a spear (?).

    Height, 2-1/2 inches; width, 6 inches.

  [Sidenote: 3.]

  Right shoulder, covered with shoulder plates.

    Height, 4-1/2 inches; width, 7 inches.

  [Sidenote: 4.]

  Left thigh, bent at knee; a corner of drapery falls on the thigh;
  wears greave.

    Height, 6 inches; width, 7 inches.

  [Sidenote: 5.]

  Right knee of figure advancing to right; behind, the leg, wearing
  a greave, of a fallen warrior (?).

    Height, 5-1/2 inches; width, 5 inches.

  [Sidenote: 6.]

  Knees of a prostrate warrior, wearing greaves, trodden down by a
  horse's hoof.

    Height, 3 inches; width, 7 inches.

  [Sidenote: 7.]

  Knee wearing greave, slightly bent.

    Height, 4 inches; width, 3-1/2 inches.

  [Sidenote: 8.]

  Left knee, partly covered with drapery.

    Height, 3 inches; width, 3-1/2 inches.


  _Male Figures to the Left._

  [Sidenote: 9.]

  Upper part of helmeted head with vizor raised.

    Height, 3-1/2 inches; width, 5-1/2 inches.

  [Sidenote: 10.]

  Upper part of helmet, with projecting horn.

    Height, 2-1/2 inches; width, 5-1/2 inches.

  [Sidenote: 11.]

  Back of neck and lower part of helmet.

    Height, 2-1/2 inches; width, 5 inches.

  [Sidenote: 12.]

  Hips of a draped male (?) figure.

    Height, 4 inches; width, 8-1/2 inches.

  [Sidenote: 13.]

  Right forearm of a figure lying prostrate, with head to the right
  and with the arm bent at the elbow.

    Height, 4 inches; width, 8 inches.

  [Sidenote: 14.]

  Right leg, wearing greave, of a figure striding to the left.

    Height, 5 inches; width, 9-1/2 inches.

  [Sidenote: 15.]

  Right arm, extended, wearing a shield.

    Height, 4 inches; width, 7 inches.


  _Figures with the Back turned to the Front._

  [Sidenote: 16.]

  Shoulders and upper part of back of a figure wearing a chiton.

    Height, 5 inches; width, 8-1/4 inches.

  [Sidenote: 17.]

  Shoulders and upper part of back of a figure wearing a chiton
  across the right shoulder only.

    Height, 3 inches; width, 8-1/2 inches.


  _Female Figures to the Right._

  [Sidenote: 18.]

  Lower moulding of cornice, with the right foot and lower edge of
  the drapery of a figure moving to the right.

    Height, 8 inches; width, 1 foot 3 inches.

  [Sidenote: 19.]

  Lower moulding of cornice with the left foot and part of the
  drapery of a figure moving to the right.

    Height, 5 inches; width, 7-1/2 inches.


  _Female Figure to the Front._

  [Sidenote: 20.]

  Part of the right arm, extended, and wearing a shield (?). A short
  sleeve reaches to the elbow, coming from beneath a shoulder plate.

    Height, 4 inches; width, 8 inches.


  _Female Figures to the Left._

  [Sidenote: 21.]

  Fragment of a figure turned to the left, with fine delicate
  drapery (?).

    Height, 3-1/2 inches; width, 6 inches.

  [Sidenote: 22.]

  Left hand, beside the thigh, holding a fold of drapery.

    Height, 3 inches; width, 9 inches.

  [Sidenote: 23.]

  Fragment of a draped figure, containing the legs between the knees
  and the ankles.

    Height, 4 inches; width, 4 inches.


  _Fragments of Chariot Groups, and Horses._

  [Sidenote: 24.]

  Left knee and part of the left thigh of a figure stepping to the
  right into a chariot. The figure wore a short chiton, probably
  under a cuirass, and greaves. Part of the inside of the chariot is
  painted red.

    Height, 4 inches; width, 9-1/2 inches.

  [Sidenote: 25.]

  Fragment containing the hips of a male figure, stepping to the
  left into a chariot. The figure wears a chiton beneath a cuirass,
  and perhaps holds a spear.

    Height, 4 inches; width, 7-1/2 inches.

  [Sidenote: 26.]

  Right hand closed and holding a rein (?).

    Height, 2 inches; width, 5-1/2 inches.

  [Sidenote: 27.]

  Right arm of a youthful nude figure holding the reins of a horse
  standing to the left, whose head is half turned to the front.

    Height, 7 inches; width, 1 foot 1 inch. _Journ. of Hellen.
    Studies_, X., pl. 4, fig. 4.

  [Sidenote: 28.]

  Part of a horse's head to the left, with ear and mane.

    Height, 4 inches; width, 7-1/2 inches.

  [Sidenote: 29.]

  Back of a horse to the left, with a narrow thong tied about it.

    Height, 4-1/2 inches; width, 7 inches.

  [Sidenote: 30.]

  Part of the hind legs of a horse to the left.

    Height, 7-1/2 inches; width, 6 inches.

  [Sidenote: 31.]

  Two hoofs, side by side, as of the horses in a biga.

    Height, 4 inches; width, 5 inches.

  [Sidenote: 32.]

  Part of lower moulding of cornice, and of chariot wheel. The
  moulding and the wheel are painted red, and the ground of the
  relief bright blue.

    Height, 10 inches; width, 1 foot 6 inches.

  [Sidenote: 33.]

  Part of a chariot wheel, and of the body of a chariot, painted
  red.

    Height, 6 inches; width, 8 inches.

  [Sidenote: 34.]

  Left hand grasping the leg of a horse, or of a Centaur (?). The
  ground is blue and red.

    Height, 4 inches; width, 6-1/4 inches.

  [Sidenote: 35.]

  Fragment of a horse's tail, and part of the body of a chariot (?).

    Height, 3 inches; width, 3-1/2 inches.


  _Figures of Harpies (?)._

  Certain fragments, which are not easily deciphered, appear
  to belong to groups of winged draped beings, perhaps Harpies,
  carrying off diminutive figures. The snakes in Nos. 36-38 suggest
  the aegis of Athenè; but if No. 38 is correctly interpreted, some
  Gorgon-like figure must be imagined.

  [Sidenote: 36.]

  Neck and chin of a figure to the left, having a large circular
  earring, and a fringe of snakes round the neck.

    Height, 3-1/2 inches; width, 8 inches.

  [Sidenote: 37.]

  Fragment with snakes.

    Height, 1-1/2 inches; width, 5 inches.

  [Sidenote: 38.]

  Left hand of the figure No. 36 holding a draped figure under
  the knees. The right arm must be supposed to have supported the
  smaller figure, near the shoulders. To the right is part of a
  pendent wing.

    Height, 3 inches; width, 9 inches.

  [Sidenote: 39.]

  Fragment with extremities of hair, and the beginning of a large
  wing, curving upwards.

    Height, 3-1/2 inches; width, 5 inches.

  [Sidenote: 40.]

  Fragment, apparently of the same wing as No. 39.

    Height, 3-1/2 inches; width, 6 inches.

  [Sidenote: 41.]

  Fragment of draped thighs of a figure half kneeling to the left
  with the right leg foremost. If the figure above described was
  half kneeling in the usual early scheme for the Gorgon, this
  fragment may well have belonged to it.

    Height, 4 inches; width, 6 inches.

  [Sidenote: 42.]

  Fragment, perhaps from the same figure as the last.

    Height, 3 inches; width, 5 inches.

  [Sidenote: 43.]

  Fragment of a winged, long-haired figure (?). The hair falls in a
  mass on the tip of the wing.

    Height, 7-1/2 inches.

  [Sidenote: 44.]

  Fragment of a Harpy, with a large bird's leg protruding from fine
  drapery; behind, a part of a wing. Compare the Harpies on the
  Harpy Tomb, No. 94.

    Height, 6-1/2 inches; width, 10 inches.

  [Sidenote: 45.]

  Fragment, with the leg of a Harpy, to the right (?).

    Height, 7 inches; width, 1 foot 3-1/2 inches.


  _Miscellaneous Fragments._

  [Sidenote: 46.]

  Fragment of the lower moulding, and two legs of a pig or ox to the
  right.

    Height, 7 inches; width, 1 foot 1 inch.

  [Sidenote: 47.]

  Part of the leg of a chair. Traces of blue paint.

    Height, 6 inches; width, 4-1/2 inches.

  [Sidenote: 48.]

  Part of the same leg of a chair as No. 47, and nearly joining it.
  Traces of blue paint.

    Height, 5-3/4 inches; width, 3-1/2 inches.

  [Sidenote: 49.]

  Part of the leg and seat of a chair.

    Height, 5 inches; width, 5 inches.

  [Sidenote: 50.]

  Part of the front leg of the chair to which No. 47 belongs.

    Height, 2-1/4 inches; width, 2 inches.

  [Sidenote: 51.]

  Unintelligible fragment, perhaps derived from the cornice.

    Length, 1 foot; height, 6 inches; width, 7 inches.


  _Fragments of Lions' Heads, from the Cornice._

  [Sidenote: 52.]

  Left side of lion's mane, with remains showing the attachment to
  the cornice.

    Height, 1 foot 3 inches.

  [Sidenote: 53.]

  Lion's head from the cornice(?). The mouth is closed. The lower
  part is wanting.

    Height, 1 foot 4 inches.

  [Sidenote: 54.]

  Upper part of lion's head from the cornice. Red paint on the mane.

    Height, 11 inches; width, 1 foot 5 inches.

  [Sidenote: 55.]

  Right side of lion's head, from the cornice, with eye, ear, and
  part of mane.

    Height, 7-1/2 inches.


OTHER FRAGMENTS FROM EPHESUS.

[Sidenote: =48.=]

  [Sidenote: 1.]

  Fragment of the head of an ox, apparently projecting from a
  background, in high relief. The head is seen in three-quarter face
  to the left.

    Height, 1 foot; width, 1 foot 5 inches.

  [Sidenote: 2.]

  Fragment of the head of an ox, including the forehead and eyes.
  Apparently the head is seen in three-quarter face to the left, as
  in the preceding.

    Height, 10-1/2 inches; width, 1 foot 6 inches.

  [Sidenote: 3.]

  Fragment with part of the flank of an ox (?), springing from a
  square base. Two horns intertwined (?) in relief on the side of the
  fragment. If the explanation offered is correct, the animal must
  have been part of an architectural member, such as occurs in the
  temple of Hera at Samos (Stuart, 2nd ed., vol. iv., Kinnard on
  Delos, pl. v.), or in the recently discovered bull's-head capital
  from Salamis, in Cyprus (_Journ. of Hellen. Studies_, xii., p.
  134).

    Height, 1 foot 2-1/2 inches.



SCULPTURES FROM CARIA.


[Sidenote: =49.=]

A series of rude figures in stone and marble which are found in
primitive graves in the islands of the Aegean, and in Caria, have been
conjectured by archæologists to be works of the early Carians. The
figures in question are for the most part utterly conventional and
gross representations of the female form. Male figures have also been
occasionally found, and more elaborate subjects, such as a seated
figure playing on the harp.

The specimens in the British Museum are exhibited in the First Vase
Room with the pottery found in the same deposits. They are described
in the _Guide to the First Vase Room_ (1883), p. 21, and in the
_Journ. of Hellen. Studies_, v., p. 50. Compare Perrot and Chipiez,
v., pp. 334, 905; _Journ. of Hellen. Studies_, ix., p. 82; _Athenische
Mittheilungen_, xvi., p. 46.

[Sidenote: =50.=]

Torso of female figure holding a dove between her breasts with the
left hand, and holding with the right hand a fold of drapery by
her right side. She wears a long dress, girt at the waist, with a
diploïdion and sleeves. The head, and the legs from above the knees
are wanting.--_Theangela, in Caria._

  Marble; height, 1 foot 3 inches.

[Sidenote: =51.=]

Beardless male head, having a considerable resemblance to No.
19.--_From the Temple of Apollo, Calymna._

  Marble; height, 9 inches. Assigned by Collignon (_Gaz. Arch._,
  1886, p. 239) to the same school as No. 205.



SCULPTURES FROM RHODES.


[Sidenote: =52.=]

Female head. The hair is parted over the middle of the head, and is
brought in waving ripples to the ears. At the back of the head it
is sketched in conventional lines. The head is bound with a
taenia.--_Rhodes._

  Marble; height, 8-1/2 inches.

[Sidenote: =53.=]

Female head broken off at the top of the neck. The hair is brought
forward over each temple in a plait; a piece of linen is wound round
the head, passing under a band or diadem which encircles the head
behind the ear. The head-dress is arranged so as to leave on the top
of the head an aperture, through which the parting of the hair and a
top-knot are shown. Over the upper part of the ear hang what appear
to be three pendants; the lobe below is covered with an earring in the
form of a circular flower of seven leaves. On the fractured edge of
the neck are remains of drapery.--_Rhodes._

  Limestone; height, 5 inches.

[Sidenote: =54.=]

Female figure seated in a chair, with footstool.--_Camiros._

  Limestone; height, 4-1/8 inches.

[Sidenote: =55.=]

Naked male figure; the legs broken off above the knees. The palms
of the hands are placed against the thighs; the left leg has been
advanced; parts of the arms are wanting. The hair is drawn back from
the forehead in a smooth mass, and falls behind the ears over the nape
of the neck, where it is cut off square. There are traces of red above
the waist.--_Camiros._

  Limestone; height, 10 inches.

[Sidenote: =56.=]

Naked male figure standing with the left foot advanced, and holding
with his right hand the right hind leg of a lion, whose tail he grasps
with his left hand. The head of this figure, the right arm and both
feet are wanting. From the waist to the hips the body has been painted
red all round. The lion has his tongue out; there are traces of red
colour about his mouth.--_Acropolis of Camiros._

  Limestone; height, 10-1/4 inches.

[Sidenote: =57.=]

Fragment of a male figure from above the hips nearly to the knees.
The arms have been placed along the sides, with a hand on each
hip.--_Camiros._

  Limestone; height, 4-1/4 inches.

[Sidenote: =58.=]

Upper part of a naked male figure broken off at the waist. The hair is
gathered into a thick mass behind the ears, and cut off square at the
nape of the neck; on the top of the head is a snake coiled. The arms
are broken away below the shoulders.--_Camiros._

  Limestone; height, 5 inches.

[Sidenote: =59.=]

Upper part of female figure broken off above the waist. She wears a
wreath of upright leaves set between two plain horizontal bands; the
hair falls in a thick mass on each side of the neck. The arms are
broken away.--_Camiros._

  Limestone; height, 4-3/4 inches.

[Sidenote: =60.=]

Draped male figure broken off below the knees. He wears chiton with
girdle and upper garment. With both hands this figure holds the young
of some quadruped, probably a kid, in front of his breast. His hair is
parted over his forehead, and falls behind the ears in a thick mass to
the nape of the neck.--_Camiros._

  Limestone; height, 5-3/8 inches.

[Sidenote: =61.=]

Upper part of male figure from the base of the neck to the waist. In
the right hand this figure holds a small ibex against his breast. His
left arm is broken.--_Acropolis of Camiros._

  Limestone; height, 4-1/5 inches.

[Sidenote: =62.=]

Lower part of a draped figure broken off at the waist. The left hand
holds by the forelegs a fawn, on the body of which the right hand
presses. Both arms are broken off below the elbow.--_Acropolis of
Camiros._

  Limestone; height, 7 inches.

[Sidenote: =63.=]

Lower part of a draped figure broken off at the waist, and wearing a
chiton, which is bound with a girdle.--_Camiros._

  Limestone; height, 1 foot.

[Sidenote: =64.=]

Lower half of draped figure wearing chiton. At the bottom of the skirt
are traces of a red border; the fingers of the left hand are placed
against the left hip.--_Camiros._

  Limestone; height, 7-1/2 inches.

[Sidenote: =65.=]

Lower half of draped figure broken off above the knees. The left
hand has held against the side some object too indistinct to be made
out.--_Camiros._

  Limestone; height, 6 inches.

[Sidenote: =66.=]

Lower half of draped figure broken off above the knees. In bad
condition.

  Limestone; height, 4-1/8 inches.

[Sidenote: =67.=]

Draped male figure playing on the double flute, which he holds with
either hand. The band for strengthening the muscles used in blowing
the flute, _phorbeia_, is indicated by a red stripe; the chiton is
ornamented with a narrow red stripe on the shoulder down each side,
and round the hem.--_Camiros._

  Limestone; height, 9 inches.

[Sidenote: =68.=]

Similar draped male figure playing on the double flute. The _phorbeia_
is indicated by a red stripe across the mouth; the headdress, probably
a wig, comes very low on the forehead, and falls in a thick mass on
the back of the neck. On the head-dress, eyebrows, and flutes, are
traces of black colour.--_Camiros._

  Limestone; height, 7-3/8 inches.

[Sidenote: =69.=]

Upper part of draped male figure. In his right hand he holds a lotos
sceptre (?); his left arm hangs down by his left side. A thick mass of
hair falls on each side of the neck.--_Camiros._

  Limestone; height, 4-1/2 inches.

[Sidenote: =70.=]

Androsphinx seated on a plinth. On the head are the combined crowns of
Upper and Lower Egypt; in front is a collar, or pectoral; on the
crown are traces of red colour. This Sphinx is a pseudo-Egyptian
work.--_Acropolis of Camiros._

  Limestone; height, 5 inches.

[Sidenote: =71.=]

Androsphinx seated on a plinth. On the head are the crowns of Upper
and Lower Egypt.--_Acropolis of Camiros._

  Limestone; height, 3-1/2 inches.

[Sidenote: =72.=]

Androsphinx seated on a plinth. From the head falls a mass of long
hair over the back and shoulders; the front of the body is covered
with a collar or pectoral; the upper part of the wings is broken
off.--_Acropolis of Camiros._

  Limestone; height, 5 inches.

[Sidenote: =73.=]

Lion seated on a plinth. The mouth is open; the teeth are shown; about
the lips and edge of the mane are traces of red colour.--_Camiros._

  Limestone; height, 5-1/4 inches.

[Sidenote: =74.=]

Bird standing on a plinth with wings closed. Head broken off; tail
long and spreading.

  Height, 3-1/4 inches.

[Sidenote: =75.=]

The Egyptian ram-headed deity, Knef, seated in a chair. He wears a
long chiton bound with a girdle, on each side of which a lappet falls
as far as the knees; a thick mass of hair falls from behind each horn
on to the breast.--_Lindos, in Rhodes._

  Limestone; height, 4 inches.



SCULPTURES FROM XANTHOS.


The following sculptures, Nos. 80-97, are the archaic portion of the
collection of sculptures from Xanthos, a town some ten miles from
the sea, in the south-west of Lycia. The people of Lycia were a
non-Hellenic race, but the sculptures of Xanthos are distinctly Greek,
though not without traces of oriental influence (cf. No. 86). In the
most important remains, especially in the Harpy Tomb (No. 94) we find
the characteristics of the Ionian School of Asia Minor.

  The sculptures of Xanthos were discovered by Mr. (afterwards
  Sir) Charles Fellows in April, 1838. (Fellows, _A Journal
  written during an excursion in Asia Minor_, 1838.) The discoverer
  revisited Xanthos in 1840, made a more minute examination of
  the remains, and published a further account. (_An Account
  of Discoveries in Lycia, being a Journal kept during a second
  excursion in Asia Minor_, 1840-1841, quoted as "_Lycia_.") In
  consequence of this work, a naval expedition, assisted by Fellows,
  was employed in Jan., Feb., 1842, to ship the Marbles of Xanthos
  for transport to England. (Fellows, _The Xanthian Marbles;
  their acquisition, and transmission to England_, 1843. This was
  reprinted by Fellows in _Travels and Researches in Asia Minor,
  more particularly in the Province of Lycia_, 1852, pp. 423-456.)
  Additional sculptures and casts from Lycia were obtained by a
  second expedition in 1843. (_Athenæum_, 1844, pp. 176, 339, 715,
  779.) Besides the published material, valuable information may
  be obtained from the plans and drawings by Mr. George Scharf,
  who accompanied Fellows as draughtsman in 1840. The originals are
  preserved in the British Museum, and referred to in this Catalogue
  as Scharf's Drawings. See also Solly, _Memoirs of W. J. Müller_,
  1875; Beecheno, _E. T. Daniell, a Memoir_, 1889, p. 40; and
  the publication of the Austrian expedition to Lycia, _Reisen in
  Lykien_, vol. I. ed. by Benndorf and Niemann, 1884; vol. II. by
  Petersen and von Luschan, 1889.

[Sidenote: =80.=]

Sepulchral chest (soros), adorned with reliefs on the four sides. This
tomb was made of a single block of hard coarse limestone. It was found
by Fellows in its original position, on a stelè, which appears to have
been about 9 feet high. On the top of the chest there is a rebate to
receive the lid, which formed a separate block and has not been found.
The lower part of the block was sawn off by Fellows, to facilitate
transport. (_Xanthian Marbles_, p. 34.)

Perrot (vol. v., p. 396) is perhaps right in thinking that this is
the oldest of the Xanthian monuments, and represents Lycian sculpture
before the Ionian influence had begun to make itself felt.

  The appearance of the monument as found is shown in Scharf's
  drawing, here reproduced (pl. ii.), and also in a water-colour
  drawing by W. J. Müller, now in the Print Room of the British
  Museum. Solly, _Memoir of W. J. Müller_, pl. facing p. 216;
  Fellows, _Asia Minor_, p. 168.

  [Sidenote: 1.]

  _South Side._--Lion to the left, recumbent, in high relief.
  Between the paws of the lion is seen the head of a bull, which has
  been thrown over by the lion, and is seized by the throat. Below
  the forepaws of the lion is a tablet, which seems to have traces
  of an inscription.

    Height, 3 feet 1-1/2 inches; length, 4 feet; height of relief,
    10 inches. Fellows, _Lycia_, pl. facing p. 176 (very poor);
    Prachov, pl. 1, fig. 1; Perrot and Chipiez, V., p. 392, fig. 277;
    p. 395, fig. 280; Dieulafoy, _L'Art. Ant. de la Perse_,
    III., pl. 16.

  [Sidenote: 2.]

  _East Side._--Frieze in low relief, with its right end broken
  away. A horseman wearing helmet and cloak rides to the right. He
  is followed by an attendant, wearing a short chiton, and carrying
  a spear on his right shoulder. Behind, a warrior moves to the
  left, wearing a helmet with a large crest, a shield, and spear.
  On the left, a shield, supposed to be fastened on a wall. This
  relief, with its flat surface, devoid of detail, was probably
  painted.

    Height, 1 foot 6-1/2 inches; length, 3 feet 3 inches; height of
    relief, 1/2 inch. Fellows, _Lycia_, pl. facing p. 176 (very
    inaccurate); Perrot and Chipiez, V., p. 394, fig. 279.

  [Sidenote: 3.]

  _North Side._--Lioness, in high relief, recumbent to right,
  playing with cubs. A cub is seen, with its forepaws across the
  paws of the lioness, and with its hind quarters to the right; a
  second cub lies on its back, over the first. The lower part of the
  relief is broken away.

    Height, 2 feet 4 inches; length, 3 feet 6 inches; height of
    relief, 6 inches. Perrot and Chipiez, V., p. 391, fig. 276.

  [Sidenote: 4.]

  _West Side._--This side seems to have contained two separate
  entrances to the tomb. On right and left were two groups in low
  relief. (A.) On the right, a man, nude, with long hair, and armed
  with sword, contending with a lion.

    Height, 1 foot 10 inches; length, 1 foot 6 inches; height of
    relief, 3/4 inch.

  (B.) On the left a draped figure seated in a chair; left side
  alone remains.

    Height, 1 foot 7 inches; height of relief, 3/4 inch. Fellows,
    _Lycia_, pl. facing p. 176; Prachov, pl. 1, fig. 1; Perrot and
    Chipiez, V., p. 392, fig. 277; p. 393, fig. 278; Dieulafoy,
    _L'Art Ant. de la Perse_, III., pl. 16.

[Sidenote: =81.=]

Frieze of Satyrs and animals, found by Fellows, built into the walls
of the Acropolis at Xanthos.

Beginning from the left, the slabs of the frieze contain:

  [Sidenote: 1, 2.]

  Bearded Satyr in combat with a wild boar. The Satyr, who has
  pointed ears and tail, makes a thrust at the boar with a branch
  torn off a tree. The strange attitude of the Satyr is due to the
  artist's difficulty in dealing with the shape of the slab. Slab 1
  has been much injured by dripping water. The two slabs are proved
  to be connected by the bough which is seen on both.

    Prachov, pl. vi. A, a; vi. B, c; Wolters, Nos. 146, 145; Fellows,
    _Lycia_, pl. facing p. 174; Brunn, _Denkmaeler_, No. 104.

  [Sidenote: 3.]

  Lioness, couching for a spring, but with right paw raised.

    Prachov, pl. vi. A, e.

  [Sidenote: 4.]

  Lion devouring deer. This group is of an established conventional
  form.

    Fellows, _Lycia_, pl. facing p. 174; Wolters, No. 148; Prachov,
    pl. vi. B, d.; Dieulafoy, _L'Art Ant. de la Perse_, III., pl. 16;
    Brunn, _Denkmaeler_, No. 104.

  [Sidenote: 5.]

  Lynx to left, with right paw raised.

    Prachov, pl. vi. A, b.; Wolters, No. 147.

  [Sidenote: 6, 7.]

  Bull contending with Satyr, who appears to be in a position
  similar to Satyr on slab 1; but a joint cuts off the right leg,
  and the left arm is wanting.

    Prachov, pl. vi. A, f; vi. B, g. Coarse limestone. The height of
    the frieze is 2 feet 6-3/4 inches; the lengths of the slabs are:
    (1) 4 feet 9 inches; (2) 6 feet; (3) 5 feet 9 inches; (4) 5 feet
    1-1/2 inches; (5) 4 feet 11 inches; (6) 4 feet 9-1/2 inches;
    (7) 3 feet 1 inch.

[Sidenote: =82.= 1-8.]

Frieze of cocks and hens. Six cocks and five hens represented as
standing still, picking up food, or fighting. The work is carefully
studied from nature.--_Built into the walls of the Acropolis at
Xanthos._

  Coarse limestone; height, 1 foot 4-1/2 inches; combined length of
  eight slabs, 28 feet 8 inches; Fellows, _Lycia_, pl. facing p. 174
  (two slabs); Wolters, Nos. 136-144; Brunn, _Denkmaeler_, No. 103.

[Sidenote: =83.=]

Part of a tomb (?). From each of two opposite sides, the head and
forepaws of a lioness project. The heads are slightly turned towards
the front.--_Found at the foot of the Inscribed Monument, Xanthos._

  Limestone; height, 1 foot 5 inches; length, 4 feet 1-3/4 inches.
  Fellows, _Lycia_, pl. facing p. 174.

[Sidenote: =84.=]

Head and neck of a lion, from a tomb (?). Several pieces of the mane
were separately worked and attached.--_Xanthos._

  Limestone; height, 1 foot 10 inches.

[Sidenote: =85.=]

Fragment of unfinished relief, with two legs of a seat or couch
(?).--_Xanthos._

  Limestone; height, 2 feet 4 inches. Compare Perrot and Chipiez,
  V., p. 304, fig. 211.

[Sidenote: =86.=]

A frieze representing a procession moving from left to right. The
figures beginning from the right are:--

  [Sidenote: 1.]

  An old man, seated in a car, driving two horses. Behind him stood
  an attendant, of whose figure a piece of drapery on the next slab
  alone remains.

  [Sidenote: 2.]

  A youth, leading a horse, saddled and bridled. He wears a short
  chiton, and carries a whip. Details of the hair were probably
  indicated with paint.

  [Sidenote: 3, 4.]

  A venerable old man, seated in a chair, placed in a war chariot
  drawn by two horses. He has long hair, bound with a taenia, and a
  long pointed beard. He wears a chiton with sleeves, and a mantle.
  He holds a pomegranate flower in his left hand, and a cup (?) in
  his right hand. Beside him is a charioteer treated like the youth
  of the preceding group. The reins, now lost, were made of bronze.

  Youth riding a spirited horse, equipped like the horse of the
  second group. The rider wears a chiton with short sleeves, and a
  himation. He has long hair falling on the shoulders.

  [Sidenote: 5.]

  A group of draped persons moving to right, and composed of the
  following figures:--

  Man (much mutilated) standing to right and turning to front. He
  holds a whisk in the right hand, and a spear in the left hand.

  Man, carrying a spear over the left shoulder, supporting it with
  both hands clasped.

  Man moving to right but looking back. He carries a spear on the
  left shoulder; right hand holds a fold of the drapery.

  Man with spear on left shoulder and whisk in right hand.

  Man with spear on right shoulder; left hand holds an edge of the
  himation.

  Man with spear on left shoulder. The front part only of this
  figure is preserved.

  The standing figures all wear a long chiton, with long sleeves,
  and a himation which is wrapped closely about the body, passing
  under the right arm and over the left shoulder.

  The size and treatment of the horses on the frieze, and the use of
  whisks by the standing figures, show Oriental influences, although
  the artistic style is distinctly Greek. The upright crest on the
  head of the horse in the fourth group is seen on the horses of
  Persepolitan sculpture. Compare the Persepolitan casts in the
  British Museum, assigned to 500 B.C., and Fellows, _Lycia_, p.
  173. The ends of the horses' tails are also tied with ribbon in
  the same way as here. Saddle-cloths occur on early vases from
  Daphnae (Petrie, _Nebesheh and Defenneh_, pl. 29, fig. 4), and on
  painted sarcophagi from Clazomenae (_Journ. of Hellen. Studies_,
  iv., p. 19, fig. 14).

  The traces of Persian fashion make it probable that this relief is
  later than the Persian conquest of Xanthos by Harpagos (about 545
  B.C.).

  The architectural disposition of the frieze has not been
  ascertained. The slabs were found by Fellows, inserted in a wall
  of late date on the Acropolis of Xanthos (Benndorf, _Reisen in
  Lykien_, i., p. 86), but it is clear from the square holes that
  occur at intervals of 4 ft. 8 in., that stone beams, imitating
  wood construction, must once have projected, and from the raised
  border round the holes it is seen that this was the intention of
  the artist. It is probable that the frieze belonged to a tomb, and
  perhaps represented a funeral procession. It is not possible
  to say whether it was on the outside or on the inside of the
  building. (Compare Nos. 87, 88, and the tomb of Giöl-Baschi.
  Compare also the casts of reliefs from Pinara, Nos. 761-4, for the
  projecting beam ends.)--_Acropolis of Xanthos._

  A similar procession occurs on a sarcophagus from Amathus.
  (Cesnola, _Cyprus_, pl. 14.)

    Height, 2 feet 9-1/2 inches; combined length of five slabs,
    17 feet 4 inches; height of relief, 2 feet 5 inches; but in
    parts, upper margin is cut into. Fellows, _Lycia_, pls. facing pp.
    173, 177; Prachov, pl. 3; Cesnola, _Cyprus_, pls. 16, 17; Murray,
    I., pls. 4-6; Wolters, Nos. 131-134; Wolters in _Jahrbuch des
    Arch. Inst._, I., p. 84; Brunn, _Denkmaeler_, No. 102.

[Sidenote: =87.=]

Slab from the left end of a frieze. A woman stands near the foot of a
couch upon which a dead man is laid out. Only the end of the couch
and the left foot of the corpse remain. The woman wears a long chiton,
himation, cap with tassel, and earrings. Behind her stands a male
attendant, wearing a short chiton, drawn up, beneath a girdle. He
holds a small piece of drapery in his left hand.

A groove to the left of the group seems to show that this slab was
at an interior angle of a building. The different dimensions make it
unlikely that it was a part of the same frieze as No. 86.--_Xanthos._

  Limestone; height, 2 feet 9-1/2 inches; length, 2 feet 7 inches.
  Prachov, pl. 1, fig. 2; Murray, I., pl. 6; Wolters, 135; Wolters
  in _Jahrbuch des Arch. Inst._, I. p. 83.

[Sidenote: =88.=]

Slab from the left end of a frieze. A woman wearing a long chiton with
sleeves and a himation stands to right with right hand raised, and
holding a flower(?). She holds a piece of drapery in left hand. Before
her, the remains of another figure.

At the left of this figure is a groove, suggesting that this was an
interior angle stone.--_Xanthos._

  Limestone; height, 2 feet 9 inches; length, 3 feet 6 inches.
  Prachov, pl. 6 B. _h_; Wolters, _Jahrbuch des Arch. Inst._, I., p.
  83.

[Sidenote: =89, 90.=]

Gable end of a tomb. On each side of a doorway is a seated Sphinx, and
above the lintel are two lions.--_Xanthos._

[Sidenote: =89.=]

The Sphinx on the left wears a cap enclosing most of the hair, a
pendant earring, and a narrow taenia. There are traces of red paint
on the cap, and of the markings of feathers on the wings. The head and
fore-quarters of the lion are wanting.

  Limestone; height, 3 feet 9 inches; width, 3 feet 1 inch. About 3
  inches appear to be wanting on the right of the slab. Prachov, pl.
  5, fig. 1 (the head only of the Sphinx); Dieulafoy, _L'Art Ant. de
  la Perse_, II., pl. 18, fig. 2; Brunn, _Denkmaeler_, No. 101A.

[Sidenote: =90.=]

The Sphinx on the right of the doorway has her hair confined by a
broad band, and has a pendant earring. The markings of the feathers
may be seen on the wings. When first discovered in 1840, this relief
was brilliantly coloured, as is recorded in a drawing by Scharf. The
ground of the relief was bright blue; the feathers were red, black,
blue, and white. The hair was yellow, and the taenia was painted with
a white pattern on a red ground. The head and fore-quarters of the
lion are wanting.

  Limestone; height, 3 feet 4-1/2 inches; width, 3 feet 4 inches.
  About 3 inches appear to be wanting on the left of the slab.
  Prachov, pl. 5, fig. 2; _Museum of Class. Antiq._, I., p. 251;
  Dieulafoy, _L'Art Ant. de la Perse_, II., pl. 18, fig. 2; Brunn,
  _Denkmaeler_, No. 101A.

[Sidenote: =91, 92.=]

Gable end of a tomb. On each side of a doorway is a seated Sphinx.
Above the lintel of the door is a space which may have held a relief,
now wanting.--_Xanthos._

[Sidenote: =91.=]

The Sphinx on the left wears a stephanè; a tress of hair falls on
the shoulder. There are faint traces of paint on the wing. The
hind-quarters are missing.

  Limestone; height, 2 feet 10 inches; width, 2 feet 2 inches. The
  joint of the stone is at the left side of the door. Prachov, pl.
  4, fig. 2.

[Sidenote: =92.=]

The Sphinx on the right has her hair bound with a narrow taenia. There
are traces of paint on the wing. The hind-quarters are wanting.

  Limestone; height, 2 feet 8 inches; width, 3 feet 1 inch. About 3
  inches are lost from the left of this slab. Prachov, pl. 4, fig. 1
  (the head only).

[Sidenote: =93.=]

Gable end of a tomb. In the centre of the relief is a low column, with
an Ionic capital, of peculiar form. A Siren stands to the front, on
the column. She wears a short chiton, girt at the waist and with loose
sleeves. She has spreading wings and tail, and bird's legs, but human
arms which are extended in front of the wings. The head is wanting.

On each side of the column is a seated male figure. On the left is a
beardless elderly man, wearing himation and chiton, with staff in
left hand and right hand extended. On the right is a bearded old man,
wearing chiton and himation, with staff in right hand and left hand
extended. The back of the head is in part broken away; part was never
represented. The lower part of the relief is wanting. A drawing
by Scharf shows the colouring of the relief when discovered. The
background was blue; the hair, the under side of the Siren's wings,
the drapery of the man on the left, the shaft and part of the capital
of the column were yellow; the drapery of the Siren and of the man
on the right, the seats and part of the capital of the column were
red.--_Xanthos._

  Limestone; height, 2 feet 9 inches; width, 3 feet 5 inches.
  _Annali dell' Inst._, 1844, p. 150.


THE HARPY TOMB.

[Sidenote: =94.=]

The monument known as the Harpy Tomb was discovered by Fellows among
the ruins of Xanthos on April 19, 1838. It was more carefully examined
and published by him in 1840 (_Lycia_, p. 170, and plate), and was
brought to England in the spring of 1842. The tomb was described by
Fellows in the following terms:--"The Harpy Tomb consisted of a square
shaft in one block, weighing about eighty tons, its height seventeen
feet, placed upon a base rising on one side six feet from the ground,
on the other but little above the present level of the earth. Around
the sides of the top of the shaft were ranged the bas-reliefs in
white marble about three feet three inches high; upon these rested
a capstone, apparently a series of stones, one projecting over the
other; but these are cut in one block, probably fifteen to twenty tons
in weight. Within the top of the shaft was hollowed out a chamber,
which, with the bas-relief sides was seven feet six inches high, and
seven feet square." (Fellows, _Xanthian Marbles_, p. 21; _Asia
Minor_, p. 438.) For views of this tomb see the drawing by Scharf here
reproduced (pl. iii.); also _Mon. dell' Inst._, iv., pl. 2; Benndorf,
_Reisen in Lykien_, i., pl. 26. In Christian times, the tomb was
made the cell of some _Stylites_, or dweller on a column. Traces of
painting and monograms were found on the interior of the chamber.
(Fellows, _Xanthian Marbles_, p. 21; Birch, _Archæologia_, xxx., p.
186.)

  [Sidenote: 1.]

  _West Side._--This relief is divided into two unequal parts by a
  small doorway which formed the entrance to the tomb. This doorway
  may have been filled up with a slab of stone, resembling a funeral
  stelè, and the idea thus suggested was further carried out by the
  sculpture above of a cow giving suck to a calf. (Compare the tomb
  on the second frieze of the Xanthian Nereid Monument, _Mon. dell'
  Inst._, x., pl. 16, fig. 161.)

  On the left of the entrance is an enthroned female figure. She
  is large and dignified, and is heavily draped. The left hand
  is raised, the right hand is extended and holds a bowl; she
  is adorned with stephanè and bracelets. The arm of the chair
  terminates in a ram's head, and is supported by a seated Sphinx.
  On the right is a second enthroned female figure of equal dignity.
  She is adorned with a stephanè and bracelets. With a graceful,
  if affected gesture of the right hand she holds up a pomegranate
  flower, and in the left hand she holds a pomegranate fruit.
  The back of the throne terminates in a swan's head, and the arm
  terminates in the head of a ram.

  Three maidens, who are nearly alike, except in the attitudes of
  the hands, approach this figure. The first raises her mantle and
  chiton with the left and right hands respectively. The second has
  a pomegranate flower in her left hand, and a pomegranate fruit in
  her right hand. The third holds up an egg with her right hand, and
  holds the drapery in her left hand.

  [Sidenote: 2.]

  _North Side._--An old man, draped and bearded, is seated on a
  chair to left; with the left hand he holds a spear, with the right
  hand he receives a crested helmet which is offered to him by a
  young warrior, who stands before him. The warrior has a short
  chiton, and leather cuirass, sheathed sword, greaves, and a large
  shield, which he supports with the left hand. Beneath the chair is
  a small bear.

  At each side of this group, but disconnected from it, are figures
  commonly known as Harpies. They are represented as beings with
  the head, breasts and arms of maidens, while the lower part of the
  body is that of a bird conventionally rendered. It terminates in
  oval form with a spreading tail and bird's talons attached. Long
  wings spring from behind the shoulders and under the arms. Each
  creature wears a stephanè and chiton (see below). In their arms
  and talons each gently carries a diminutive draped female figure,
  that makes a gesture, as of affection.

  At the right corner of the relief a draped figure crouches on the
  ground in an attitude of deep grief, and looks up to the flying
  figure above.

  [Sidenote: 3.]

  _East Side._--A venerable bearded man is seated on a throne,
  to the right. He has a sceptre in the left hand, and holds up a
  flower in the right hand. The arm of the throne is supported by
  a Triton. Before him is a diminutive figure of a boy offering a
  cock.

  Behind the enthroned figure are two draped male figures, standing
  to right. The first holds a pomegranate fruit in the left hand,
  and a doubtful object in the right hand. The second, who is
  bearded, holds a portion of his drapery with the left hand; with
  his right hand he holds his beard.

  On the right of the relief is a youth, accompanied by a dog. He
  holds a stick with curved handle in his left hand, and has an
  uncertain object in his right hand. Part of it was made of metal,
  attached by a rivet. It may perhaps have been a kylix with a tall
  stem.

  [Sidenote: 4.]

  _South Side._--A male figure, not bearded, is seated on a throne
  to right. He has a sceptre resting on his right shoulder. In the
  left hand he holds a pomegranate fruit, and in the right hand an
  apple. Before him stands a male (?) figure, holding a dove in
  the left hand by the wings, and having the right hand raised in
  a gesture of adoration. On each side of the main group, but
  disconnected from it, are the winged figures with their burdens as
  already described. With certain differences of detail, chiefly in
  the positions of the arms of the figures carried, these groups are
  nearly similar to those of the north side.

  _Drapery, &c._--All the figures on this tomb, except the
  "Harpies," the diminutive figures connected with them, and the
  warrior, are draped in chiton, and himation or peplos. The figures
  borne by the "Harpies" and the figure crouching in grief wear long
  chitons only. The "Harpies" wear chitons, of which the sleeves
  alone are indicated. All the principal figures wear shoes or
  sandals, so far as the feet are preserved, with the exception of
  the second figure behind the throne on the east side. The women on
  the west side, and the seated figure on the south side wear shoes
  with pointed toes. The remaining figures wear sandals only. All
  the figures on the east side had metal taeniae or stephanae, the
  holes for the attachment of the metal being still visible. The
  youth on the east side, as already stated, held a metal object in
  his hand.

  _Colouring._--The following indications of colour can be traced.
  The ground of the reliefs was bright blue. Part of the colour
  remains round the profile of the youth on the east side, and under
  the right wrist of the first figure behind the throne on this
  side. Birch (_Archæologia_, xxx., p. 192) states that he has seen
  scarlet on the crest of the helmet, and Scharf (_Mus. of Class.
  Antiq._, i., p. 252) that there were "traces of red in the hollow
  of the shields and upon sandals." Elsewhere the colour must be
  inferred from the inequalities of the surface of the marble, due
  to the unequal protecting powers of the different colours.
  There was an egg and tongue pattern on the lower moulding, and a
  maeander pattern on parts of the upper moulding. On the west side
  the chair of the figure on the right was painted with palmette
  ornament. On the east side there was also a palmette pattern on
  the side of the throne.

    _Interpretations._--The interpretations of this monument,
    that have been proposed, may be divided into three groups--

  (1.) According to the first commentators, the subject represented
  was the rape of the daughters of Pandareos, king of Lycia, by the
  Harpies (Homer, _Od._ xx., l. 66. Gibson, in Fellows, _Lycia_, p.
  171; Birch, _Archæologia_, xxx., p. 185.) The objections to this
  view are that the subject is an improbable one for representation
  on a tomb, that the "Harpies" evidently stand in a kindly relation
  towards the persons whom they carry, and that the reliefs do not
  agree well with the literary form of the myth. It is also doubtful
  whether the "Harpies" were imagined with bird-bodies at the period
  of these sculptures. (Furtwaengler, _Arch. Zeit._, 1882, p. 204.)

  (2.) In the second group of theories, the enthroned figures are
  deities of the lower world to whom the souls of the dead pay
  reverence. On the west side are Demeter (left), and Persephonè
  (right), and three worshippers who carry symbols of life and
  birth, as the egg and the pomegranate. The door of the tomb
  signifies death, while the cow and calf, immediately above,
  suggest the renewal of life. The three seated figures remaining,
  are, according to this system, either Zeus (south), Poseidon
  (east), and Hades (north), (Braun, _Annali dell' Inst._, 1844,
  p. 151), or Zeus viewed under a triple aspect (Curtius,
  _Arch. Zeit._, 1855, p. 10). The symbolic system has been most
  elaborately worked out by Curtius (_loc. cit._, and _Arch. Zeit._,
  1869, p. 10). Thus he regards the "Harpies'" bodies as intended
  for eggs, and so symbolical of life. This view is untenable, as
  the bodies are of the form usually given to birds in early art
  (Conze, _Arch. Zeit._, 1869, p. 78).

  (3.) In the third and most recent group of theories, the seated
  figures are not deities, but heroified personages, buried in
  the tomb, to whom offerings are made by members of their family.
  (Milchhoefer, _Arch. Zeit._, 1881, p. 53; Wolters, p. 75.) This
  view is supported by analogies found elsewhere (cf. p. 299), while
  it avoids the difficulty of supposing deities to be represented
  on a tomb. But no parallel has been adduced for such a scene as
  a young warrior giving his arms to the figure of an heroified
  ancestor; moreover the dignity and adornments of the enthroned
  figures seem most appropriate to deities.

  On the whole it seems best to suppose that we have on this tomb
  scenes connected with death, though we cannot attempt, for want of
  knowledge of Lycian mythology, to assign names to the personages
  represented. Maidens make offerings to female deities, and men
  to male deities. On the east side a boy makes an offering, on the
  north side a young warrior gives up his armour, and on the south
  side a man offers a bird. Kindly winged beings bear away the souls
  of the dead, and the crouching figure on the north side suggests
  the grief of the survivors. (Cf. Brunn, _Sitzungsber. d. k.
  bayer. Akad. Phil. hist. Cl._, 1872, p. 523, who points out the
  succession of ages among the figures, but does not consider the
  idea of death to be implied in the central groups of the north,
  east, and south sides.)

  _Style and Period._--In the Harpy Tomb we have a fine example
  of the work by the Ionian School of Asia Minor, whose chief
  characteristic is a certain voluptuous fulness of form, and
  languor of expression, contrasted with the muscular vigour of the
  Doric sculpture, and the delicate refinement characteristic of a
  part of the early Attic work (cf. Brunn, _loc. cit._, p. 205, and
  Rayet, _Monuments_, No. 13). It is uncertain whether the tomb is
  later than the Persian conquest of Xanthos (545 B.C.). It has
  a remarkable resemblance to the tomb of Cyrus at Pasargadae as
  described by Arrian (vi., 29) and Strabo (xv., 3, 7), although the
  force of the parallel is rather diminished if Fergusson (_Nineveh
  and Persepolis_, p. 215) has correctly identified the tomb. The
  Harpy reliefs are usually assigned to the close of the sixth
  century; but a comparison with the sculptures of Ephesus points to
  a date nearer 550 B.C.

  The Harpy tomb is of marble. The reliefs measure 3 feet 4-1/2
  inches in height; 8 feet 2 inches in length on the east and west
  sides; 7 feet 6 inches on the north and south sides. Fellows,
  _Lycia_, p. 170, and pl.; Birch, _Archæologia_, XXX., p. 185;
  Braun, _Annali dell' Inst._, 1844, p. 133; _Mon. dell' Inst._,
  IV., pl. 3; _Rhein. Mus._, N.F., III., 1845, p. 481; Curtius,
  _Arch. Zeit._, 1855, p. 2, pl. 73; Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._, 3rd
  edit., I., p. 171; Murray, I., p. 116, pl. 3, and figs. 22-25;
  Rayet, _Monuments_, Nos. 13-16; Mitchell, p. 187, fig. 88 (west
  and south sides); Wolters, Nos. 127-130.

[Sidenote: =95.=]

Fragment of relief, with parts of two female figures, draped and
having sandals, moving to the right in a dance. The relief appears
to have been on the face of a lintel, panelled on its lower
side.--_Xanthos._

  Limestone; height, 1 foot 3-1/2 inches. Prachov, pl. 6B, fig.
  _i._; Murray (2nd ed.), I., p. 125.

[Sidenote: =96-98.=]

The following sculptures illustrate the way in which the simplicity of
an archaic statue is sometimes preserved in later sculptures serving
an architectonic purpose:--

[Sidenote: =96.=]

Torso of female figure, wearing a long dress with diploïdion, falling
in flat surfaces with few folds. The left leg is advanced, the
right hand gathered up a part of the drapery. The head and arms are
wanting.--_Xanthos._

  Marble; height, 4 feet 1/4 inch. Prachov, pl. 2, fig. 5.

[Sidenote: =97.=]

Torso of female figure, nearly similar to preceding, but with surface
much mutilated.--_Xanthos._

  Marble; height, 2 feet 4-1/2 inches. Prachov, pl. 2, fig. 6.

[Sidenote: =98.=]

Torso of female figure treated like No. 96, but holding the fold of
drapery with the left hand.--_Xanthos._

  Marble; height, 3 feet 10-1/2 inches. Prachov, pl. 2, fig. 4.



SCULPTURES FROM NAUCRATIS.


The remains here described were obtained for the most part from the
site of the temple of Apollo at Naucratis, in the Nile Delta. The
site of Naucratis was discovered by Mr. W. M. Flinders Petrie, and the
remains of the temple were found in the course of excavations which he
carried on, in 1884-5. A few sculptures also were found by Mr. E. A.
Gardner in the excavations of 1885-6. The whole of the collections
from Naucratis in the British Museum were presented by the Egypt
Exploration Fund, which conducted the excavations.

Naucratis was a colony of Greeks, settled in Egypt for purposes of
trade. It is situated to the west of the most westerly or Canopic
mouth of the Nile, and is nearly midway between Cairo and Alexandria.
The date of the foundation of Naucratis has been a subject of
controversy. It is known that the colony owed much to Amasis, King
of Egypt (564-526 B.C.). According to the statement of Herodotus (ii.
178), Amasis showed his friendship to the Greeks by giving, to those
who came to Egypt, the city of Naucratis to live in ([Greek: Philellên
de genomenos ho Amasis alla te es Hellênôn metexeterous apedeixato,
kai dê kai toisi apikneumenoisi es Aigypton edôke Naukratin polin
enoikêsai, k. t. l.]). The question has been discussed whether the
words of Herodotus prove that Amasis was the first to allow the Greeks
to live at Naucratis, or whether the account of Strabo (xvii., 1, 18)
can be accepted, according to which Naucratis was already occupied
by Greeks, especially by Greeks of Miletus. If Amasis introduced the
Greeks to Naucratis, no Hellenic remains on the site can be older than
504 B.C. If an earlier settlement is assumed, it may have dated from
the middle of the seventh century.

In either case the temple of the Milesian Apollo would have been among
the earliest buildings erected. Herodotus states that by permission
of Amasis, the Milesians independently founded a temenos of Apollo
([Greek: chôris de ... ep' heôutôn hidrysanto temenos ... Milêsioi
Apollônos]). Messrs. Petrie and Gardner, arguing for the older date,
put the foundation shortly after the middle of the seventh century.

The architectural remains are very scanty. Probably much of the first
temple was built of mud bricks. The stone portions may have been used
again in the building of the second temple, whose ornaments were
of marble. Moreover, all marble and stone is eagerly sought for and
removed by the modern Arab diggers.

  _Naukratis_, Part I., 1884-5, by W. M. Flinders Petrie and others;
  _Naukratis_, Part II., 1885-6, by E. A. Gardner; G. Hirschfeld in
  _Rhein. Mus._, N.F., XLII. (1887), p. 209, and XLIV. (1889),
  p. 461; Kirchhoff, _Studien_, 4th edit. p. 43; Roberts, _Greek
  Epigraphy_, p. 323.


THE FIRST TEMPLE OF APOLLO.

[Sidenote: =100.=]

_Columns._--The architectural members of the first temple were of
limestone. They are insufficient to fix the dimensions of the temple,
which was, however, small. Mr. Petrie supposes it to have been not
more than twenty-five feet broad. A volute and a complete base of an
Ionic column were discovered, but were immediately destroyed by Arabs.
The following fragments are preserved:--

  [Sidenote: 1, 2.]

  Two members of an Ionic capital, consisting of two courses of
  an egg and dart moulding. The upper course is considerably the
  larger. The lower course is worked with a rebate to fit the upper
  course. Below the mouldings are the tops of the flutings.

    Upper course--height, 5 inches; diameter, 1 foot 7-1/2 inches;
    lower course--height, 4-1/4 inches; diameter, 1 foot 4-1/2
    inches. _Naukratis_, I., pl. 3.

  [Sidenote: 3.]

  Fragment of necking of a column, of a different design from the
  preceding, and surrounded by a pattern of lotus buds and lotus
  flowers.

    Height, 11 inches; diameter, 1 foot 8 inches. _Naukratis_, I., pl. 3.

  [Sidenote: 4.]

  Fragment of necking of a column, somewhat similar to the
  preceding.

    Height, 4 inches; width, 5 inches.

  [Sidenote: 5.]

  Drum of a limestone column with flutings.

    Height, 4-5/8 inches; diameter, 1 foot 6 inches.

  [Sidenote: 6.]

  Lower part of the base of an Ionic column.

    Height, 4 inches; diameter, 1 foot 9 inches. _Naukratis_, I., pl. 3.


MISCELLANEOUS FRAGMENTS FROM FIRST TEMPLE.

[Sidenote: =101.= 1.]

  Upper part of an acroterion, worked below with a rebate.

    Height, 3-1/2 inches. _Naukratis_, I., pl. 14A.

  [Sidenote: 2.]

  Angle piece, with half of a palmette.

    Height, 5 inches. _Naukratis_, I., pl. 14A.

  [Sidenote: 3.]

  Fragment of a plane surface of limestone, with a series of circles
  painted in blue, white, and red.

    Height, 2 inches; width, 7-1/2 inches.

  [Sidenote: 4, 5.]

  Fragments of two sculptured rosettes, perhaps intended for the
  decoration of mud surfaces, and probably derived from the earlier
  temple.

    Diameters, 4-1/2 inches and 3 inches. _Naukratis_, I., pl. 18,
    figs. 7, 8.


THE SECOND TEMPLE OF APOLLO.

[Sidenote: =102.=]

The remains assigned to the second temple are of marble, instead of
limestone. They are too fragmentary for restoration, but include bead
and reel mouldings, egg and dart patterns, portions of palmette and
lotus patterns of elaborate design. Several of the fragments are
brilliantly painted with red and blue. The second temple probably
belongs to the second half of the fifth century.

  Compare _Naukratis_, I., pls. 14, 14A.


MISCELLANEOUS SCULPTURES FROM NAUCRATIS.

[Sidenote: =103.=]

Fragment of the lower part of a draped standing figure. In the middle
of the legs the drapery falls in conventional vertical folds. The
figure is painted white with a red stripe down each side.--_From the
temenos of Apollo._

  Limestone; height, 1 foot 5 inches. _Naukratis_, I., p. 13.

[Sidenote: =104.=]

Upper part of an incense burner or small altar with rosettes and
Uraei.

  Limestone; height, 4-3/4 inches. _Naukratis_, I., pl. 18, fig. 11.

[Sidenote: =105.=]

Part of a model of an Egyptian building.

  Limestone; height, 5-1/2 inches. _Naukratis_, I., pl. 18, fig. 1.

[Sidenote: =106.=]

Model of a shrine.

  Limestone; height, 8-1/2 inches.

[Sidenote: =107.=]

Portions of a group of two figures leading a bull to sacrifice. Of the
first figure no part remains except the hands which held a rope round
the bull's neck. The second figure stands beside the bull, and places
his right hand on its back. The head is wanting. An amphora stands on
the ground on each side of the figure. Red colour on the drapery and
on the tops of the vases.--_Temple of Apollo._

  Limestone; height, 3 inches. _Naukratis_, I., pl. 2, fig. 21.

[Sidenote: =108.=]

Part of a figure kneading dough in a trough. Of the figure only the
hands and feet remain. Traces of red colour.--_Temple of Apollo._

  Limestone; height, 2-1/8 inches. _Naukratis_, I., pl. 2, fig. 19.

[Sidenote: =109.=]

Figure seated on a chair with a box on its lap. Before it a table on
which lie four fish. The head of the figure is wanting.--_Temple of
Apollo._

  Limestone; height, 1-3/4 inches. _Naukratis_, I., pl. 2, fig. 20.

[Sidenote: =110.=]

Torso of a male statuette, from the neck to the knees, holding a lion
by the tail and hind legs.

  Alabaster; height, 5-3/4 inches. _Naukratis_, I., pl. 1, fig. 1.

[Sidenote: =111.=]

Upper part of a statuette of a warrior(?). The figure wears a peaked
helmet, a close-fitting tunic with sleeves, and armlets.

  Alabaster; height, 4-1/4 inches. _Naukratis_, I., pl. 1, fig. 2.

[Sidenote: =112.=]

Vessel for holding ointment (_alabastron_). The upper part is in the
form of a female bust. The right hand holds a necklace on the breast.
The left hand is by the side.

  Alabaster; height, 7-1/4 inches. _Naukratis_, II., pl. 14, fig.
  11.

[Sidenote: =113.=]

Upper part of an _alabastron_ similar to the preceding.

  Alabaster; height, 3-1/2 inches.

[Sidenote: =114.=]

Head, wearing a band across the forehead, and having a headdress with
a veil which is gathered back in folds from the front. Red on the lips
and headdress.

  Limestone; height, 4 inches. _Naukratis_, I., pl. 1, fig. 5.

[Sidenote: =115.=]

Head, wearing a band across the forehead, from which lappets hang down
before the ears. Delicately executed archaic work.

  Alabaster; height, 2-1/2 inches. _Naukratis_, II., pl. 17, fig.
  13.

[Sidenote: =116.=]

Fragment of the rim of a basin, supported by a Harpy-like being,
carrying a diminutive figure at her breast. The figure is female, with
spreading wings. On its left side, the body ends in the egg-like form
of the figures on the Harpy tomb. On the opposite side, the form of
the body is uncertain. The head is wanting.

  Alabaster; height, 3 inches.

[Sidenote: =117.=]

Nude female statuette, from the neck to the knees. She has necklaces,
armlets, bracelets, and rings, which are partly in relief, and partly
painted red. She wears also a red girdle, from which symbolic eyes are
suspended, one on the abdomen, and one on the small of the back. The
ends of this girdle fall one in front of each thigh, and finish in
lotus flowers.

  Limestone; height, 5-3/8 inches. _Naukratis_, I., p. 33.

[Sidenote: =118.=]

Statuette of a Hunter, standing, with two hares and two young boars
slung over his shoulders. He holds his bow in the left hand, his hunting
knife in the right hand. He wears a close-fitting cap, and tunic girt at
the waist. Inscribed [Greek: Kalli[as aneth]ê[ke]].--_Temenos of
Aphroditè._

  Limestone; height, 1 foot 7-1/2 inches. _Naukratis_, II., pl. 13,
  fig. 5.

[Sidenote: =119.=]

Female statuette, wearing long, close-fitting drapery and head-dress;
she wears a necklace and plays on a tympanum.--_Temenos of Aphroditè._

  Limestone; height, 5-5/8 inches. _Naukratis_, II., pl. 14, fig. 9.

[Sidenote: =120.=]

Upper half of female statuette wearing close-fitting drapery, and
headdress. She wears a necklace, and holds a flower in the right hand
between her breasts.--_Temenos of Aphroditè._

  Limestone; height, 6 inches. _Naukratis_, II., pl. 15, fig. 5.

[Sidenote: =121.=]

Female figure, standing, wearing a close-fitting dress, necklace and
shoes. She holds a part of the drapery in her right hand, before
her body, and a bird in her left hand between her breasts. Necklace,
armlets, bracelets, shoes, and stripes down her dress are painted red.
The head is wanting.--_Temenos of Aphroditè._

  Limestone; height, 7-1/8 inches. _Naukratis_, II., pl. 14, fig.
  12.

[Sidenote: =122.=]

Male figure, standing, playing on a lyre. He wears a chiton falling
to the feet, a closely-fitting upper tunic, and boots. Parts of the
tunic, lyre and boots are painted red. The head is wanting.--_Temenos
of Aphroditè._

  Limestone; height, 7-1/4 inches. _Naukratis_, II., pl. 14, fig.
  14.

[Sidenote: =123.=]

Upper part of a female figure, standing. She wears a closely-fitting
dress with long sleeves, and two necklaces. The right hand holds an
ankh (?) near the thigh; on the left hand sits a goat, before her body.
Red paint at the borders of the drapery, and on ankh.--_Temenos of
Aphroditè._

  Limestone; height, 4-3/4 inches. _Naukratis_, II., pl. 14, fig. 8.

[Sidenote: =124.=]

Undraped male figure, standing, holding a lion by the hind legs
and tail. The left arm of the figure and the lion's tail are
wanting.--_Temenos of Aphroditè._

  Limestone; height, 8-3/4 inches. _Naukratis_, II., pl. 14, fig.
  10.

[Sidenote: =125.=]

Part of a bearded figure, closely draped, holding a goat before his
body by the legs. The head and body from the waist of the figure are
wanting.--_Temenos of Aphroditè._

  Limestone; height, 3-1/2 inches. _Naukratis_, II., pl. 15, fig. 1.

[Sidenote: =126.=]

Female figure, enthroned. The left arm is wrapped in the
mantle.--_Temenos of Aphroditè._

  Limestone; height, 3-1/2 inches. _Naukratis_, II., pl. 14, fig. 3.

[Sidenote: =127.=]

Isis and Osiris (?). Female figure, enthroned, wearing close-fitting
dress, necklace, and large mantle passing over the back of her head.
She holds a nude figure of a boy at her breast. Red paint on the
veil.--_Temenos of Aphroditè._

  Limestone; height, 4-3/4 inches. _Naukratis_, II., pl. 14, fig. 7.



FRAGMENT FROM DELOS.


[Sidenote: =130.=]

Fragment of a foot of a colossal statue of Apollo, together with a
part of the plinth in the same block. The fragment consists of parts
of the four greater toes of the left foot. The plinth has dowel holes
at each side.

  Naxian marble (?). Length of great toe, 1 foot 2 inches; height of
  plinth, 2 feet 1 inch. This fragment was found by W. Kennard at
  Delos, in 1818. Stuart, 2nd edit., III., p. 127; IV., section on
  Delos, pl. 4, fig. 2. It is no doubt a part of a colossal statue
  which was dedicated by the Naxians to Apollo at Delos, and of
  which the base and other parts still remain _in situ_. The base
  is inscribed on one side, [Greek: Naxioi Apollôni], and on another
  side in archaic letters, [Greek: Tawytou lithou eim' andrias kai
  to sphelas]: "I am of the same stone both statue and base." It is
  supposed that this is "the great statue of the Naxians" at
  Delos, which, it is said, was overturned by the fall of a brazen
  palm-tree dedicated by Nicias (Plutarch, _Nicias_, 3).

  The first modern traveller who saw the statue was Bondelmonte
  (A.D. 1416), who found it prostrate, and says that he made an
  unsuccessful attempt to set it up (_Liber Insularum Archipelagi_,
  Sinner's edit., p. 92). In 1447 Cyriac of Ancona sketched the base
  with one foot still in position (_Bull. dell' Inst._, 1861, p.
  182). When visited by Spon and Wheler in 1675, the head, hands and
  feet were lost, but the torso appears to have been nearly complete
  (Wheler, _Journey_, p. 56). In 1700 Tournefort only found the
  lower part of the body, and the thighs (Eng. ed. of 1741, vol. I.,
  pl. facing p. 303). The parts seen by Tournefort remain at Delos,
  and have been described by several travellers. Welcker, _Alte
  Denkmaeler_, I., p. 400; Michaelis, _Annali dell' Inst._, 1864, p.
  253; Furtwaengler, _Arch. Zeit._, 1882, p. 329. For the base and
  inscription, see Blouet, _Exp. de Morée_, III., pl. 3, figs. 3, 4
  _Bull. de Corr. Hellénique_, III., p. 2.



CASTS FROM SELINUS.


The following sculptures, Nos. 135-139, were excavated at Selinus
in 1823 by the architects William Harris and Samuel Angell. They are
divided into two series, derived from different temples.

Selinus, a colony of Megara, in the south-west of Sicily, was founded
about 628 B.C. The temple (commonly known as C), from which the
sculptures, Nos. 135-137, were obtained, is the oldest temple on the
Acropolis, and it is therefore probable that its construction
was begun not long after the foundation of the city. The earlier
sculptures are therefore assigned to the beginning of the sixth
century B.C.

The second series, Nos. 138-139, were obtained from the temple
commonly known as F. This is the third or youngest temple in the group
shown by architectural evidence to be the oldest. An exact date cannot
be assigned, but the sculptures probably belong to the close of the
sixth century. The originals, which are made of a coarse limestone,
are preserved in the Museum at Palermo.

The metopes were drawn on their discovery by William Harris. Harris
died of malarial fever contracted at Selinus, and the work was
published by Angell and Evans, _Sculptured Metopes ... of Selinus_,
1826. For further literature, see Benndorf, _Die Metopen von
Selinunt_.

[Sidenote: =135.=]

Cast of a metope, from the oldest temple at Selinus. Perseus slaying
Medusa in the presence of Athenè. Perseus holds the hair of the Gorgon
in his left hand, and cuts off her head with his sword. Athenè stands
on the left. The Gorgon is represented as embracing the winged horse,
Pegasos, who sprang from her spilt blood.--_Presented by S. Angell,
Esq._

  Angell and Evans, pl. 7; Benndorf, p. 44, pl. 1; Overbeck, _Gr.
  Plast._, 3rd ed. I., p. 80, fig. 5; Wolters, No. 149.

[Sidenote: =136.=]

Cast of a metope from the oldest temple at Selinus. Heracles carrying
the robbers named Kerkopes, with their legs tied to the ends of his
bow, or of a yoke.--_Presented by S. Angell, Esq._

  Angell and Evans, pl. 8; Benndorf, p. 45, pl. 2; Overbeck, _Gr.
  Plast._, 3rd edit., I., p. 80, fig. 5; Wolters, No. 150.

[Sidenote: =137.=]

Cast of a metope from the oldest temple at Selinus. A figure drives a
quadriga to the front; two figures are standing to the front, one at
each side of the chariot.--_Presented by S. Angell, Esq._

  Angell and Evans, pl. 6; Benndorf, p. 47, pl. 3; Wolters, No. 151.

[Sidenote: =138.=]

Cast of a fragment of a metope from the third temple at Selinus, in
which a goddess, probably Athenè, moves to the right, treading down
a prostrate giant. This metope was formed of two slabs, of which the
upper is wanting.--_Presented by S. Angell, Esq._

  Angell and Evans, pl. 4 (incomplete); Benndorf, p. 50, pl. 5;
  Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._, 3rd ed., I., p. 158, fig. 30_b_.

[Sidenote: =139.=]

Cast of a metope from the third temple at Selinus. A draped male
figure, apparently Dionysos, is engaged in combat with an armed giant,
who has sunk on his right knee.--_Presented by S. Angell, Esq._

  Angell and Evans, pl. 3; Benndorf, p. 52, pl. 6; Overbeck, _Gr.
  Plast._, 3rd ed., I., p. 158, fig. 30_a_; Wolters, No. 152.



SCULPTURES AND CASTS FROM ATHENS AND ATTICA.


[Sidenote: =150.=]

Female (?) head. The hair, which is bound by a narrow band, falls in
large waves on each side of the forehead to the ears, and thence
to the shoulders. At the back, the hair is rendered by conventional
undulations, parallel to the band.--_Athens (?)._ _Elgin Coll._

  Marble; height, 8-1/2 inches, _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 40, fig.
  4; _Synopsis_, No. 251 (115); Ellis, _Elgin Marbles_, II., p. 119;
  _cf._ Welcker, _Alte Denkmaeler_, I., p. 399.

[Sidenote: =151.=]

Cast of a torso of a standing female figure, wearing a chiton of fine
texture, and a mantle. The chiton is drawn over the girdle, and has
a short diploïdion. The mantle is worn over the shoulders. The hair
falls in three tresses in front of each shoulder, and in overlapping
layers, down the back. The head, forearms and legs from the knees are
wanting. The original, of marble, is at _Athens_.

  Height, 1 foot 6 inches. Le Bas, _Monuments Figurés_, pl. 2, fig.
  2; Sybel, No. 5007; Wolters, No. 112. Further literature is cited
  by Wolters.

[Sidenote: =152.=]

Torso of a standing female figure wearing an under-chiton of fine
texture, and an over-chiton with diploïdion which is worn so as to
leave the left shoulder bare. The figure appears to have held a vessel
in her lap, with both hands. The hair falls down the back, the
locks terminating below the shoulders. The head and arms are
wanting.--_Athens (?)._ _Elgin Coll_.

  Marble; height, 2 feet 10 inches. Clarac, V., pl. 821A, fig. 2069
  B, C.

[Sidenote: =153.=]

Torso of a standing female figure, wearing an under-chiton of fine
texture, and an over-chiton with diploïdion which is worn so as to
leave the left shoulder bare. The figure held a bowl in the right
hand, and a fold of the skirt in the left hand. Broken off below
the knees. The head, left arm and left hand are wanting. This figure
appears to be of _archaistic_ rather than of archaic workmanship, that
is, the artist has consciously imitated the archaic style.--_Athens._
_Presented by H. Gally Knight and N. Fazakerly, Esqs., 1818._

  Marble; height, 1 foot 9 inches. Clarac, V., pl. 821A, fig. 2069A.

[Sidenote: =154.=]

Torso of a standing female figure, wearing under-chiton of fine
texture and over-chiton with a diploïdion which is worn so as to leave
the left shoulder bare; the figure also has sandals. The hair falls in
locks on the shoulders, and in a mass at the back. The head, arms
and left shoulder are wanting.--_From the smaller temple at Rhamnus._
_Presented by J. P. Gandy Deering, Esq._

  Marble; height, 5 feet. Leake, _Athens and Demi of Attica_, II. p.
  110; _Synopsis_, No. 325* (307*); _Athenische Mittheilungen_, XV.,
  p. 65.

[Sidenote: =155.=]

Cast of a relief, representing a female figure stepping into a
chariot, holding the reins in her extended hands. The figure is
probably that of a goddess. It has been conjectured, but without
evidence, that the relief belonged to the Pre-Persian Parthenon. The
original, which is of Parian marble, is at _Athens_.

  Le Bas, _Mon. Fig._, pl. 1; Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._, I., 3rd ed.,
  p. 153, fig. 28; Murray, I., p. 196; Brunn, _Denkmaeler_, No. 21.
  For further literature, see Wolters, No. 97.

[Sidenote: =156.=]

Cast of a sepulchral relief, representing a woman enthroned. She holds
a child in her arms. Before her are three figures, probably members of
her family, with offerings.

The original, which is of marble, is in the _Villa Albani at Rome_.
It was erroneously named by Winckelmann "Leucothea nursing the infant
Bacchus."--_From Athens (?)._

  Winckelmann, _Monumenti Inediti_, No. 56; Zoega, _Bassirelievi
  Ant._, I., pl. 41; Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._, 3rd ed., I., p. 175,
  fig. 38. For further literature, see Wolters, No. 243.



CASTS OF SCULPTURES FROM AEGINA.


The temple of Athenè at Aegina stands on a commanding plateau in the
north-east of the island. It is of the kind known as Doric peripteral
hexastyle; that is to say, it is of the Doric order, surrounded by a
colonnade, which has six columns at the ends and thirteen columns at
the sides. The site was excavated in 1811 by a party of English and
German explorers, and the sculptures discovered were purchased in 1812
by the Crown Prince of Bavaria. The principal figures were restored
at Rome by Thorwaldsen and J. M. Wagner. In 1817 the collection was
placed in the Glyptothek at Munich.

With the exception of an ivory eye (Cockerell, pl. 12) attributed by
the discoverers to the image inside the temple, the only sculptures
found were those which originally were contained in or surmounted the
pediments of the temple.

The Aeginetan sculptures belong to the latest stage of archaic Greek
art, and are the most important extant works of that period. For
determining the date of the sculptures, political history is only so
far of use that we may assume that they are not later than 456 B.C.,
in which year Aegina was subdued by Athens. From their style they
appear to be considerably older than that date.

A minute analysis of the sculptures (Brunn, _Das Alter der Aegin.
Bildw._ p. 9) shows that the east pediment is distinctly more advanced
than the west in the expression of emotion, in the rendering of
drapery, of the features, the beards, the veins; and in the general
proportions. Brunn assigns the groups to the period immediately
following the battle of Salamis (480 B.C.) and suggests that the
sculptor of the east pediment belonged to a younger generation than
his colleague.

The statues are made of Parian marble. They are attached to plinths
which were let into the upper surface of the cornice, and are cut
out of single blocks, a few small pieces of marble being separately
attached. They showed clear traces of colour throughout, when first
discovered. One shield from the east pediment was painted with a
female figure. There were numerous adjuncts of bronze, such as
arms and ornaments, which have been minutely enumerated by Brunn
(_Beschreibung_, &c., p. 67). The restored pediments in the British
Museum have been partially decorated in accordance with the scheme of
Cockerell, who says: "The members of the entablature and pediment
were discovered often in all their original vividness, which quickly
disappeared on exposure to the atmosphere." (Cockerell, p. 27, pl. 6).

  C. R. Cockerell, _The Temple of Jupiter Panhellenius at Aegina_,
  &c., 1860; Blouet, _Expédition de Morée_, III., p. 23; Brunn,
  _Ueber das Alter der Aeginetischen Bildwerke_ in the _Sitzungsber.
  der k. bayer. Akad._, 1867, I., p. 405, and _Ueber die Composition
  der Aeginetischen Giebelgruppen_, _ibidem_, 1868, II., p. 448;
  Brunn, _Beschreibung der Glyptothek König Ludwig's I._, 4th ed.,
  1879; Wolters, Nos. 69-85.


THE WEST PEDIMENT OF THE TEMPLE AT AEGINA.

The subject of the West pediment is a battle, in the presence of
Athenè, over the body of a wounded warrior. From the Oriental dress
of the archer on the right, it is inferred that the battle is being
fought between Greeks and Trojans, and that the archer in question
is Paris. The scene represented does not correspond exactly with
any combat described by Homer. Archaeologists have accordingly been
divided in opinion as to the subject. Some hold that the battle is
that waged for the body of Patroclos, which was rescued principally by
Menelaos, and Ajax, son of Telamon of Aegina. (Homer, _Iliad_, xvii.;
Wolters, p. 48). Others have argued that the presence of Paris points
to the fight over the body of Achilles as described in the Aethiopis
of Arctinos. See especially Brunn, _Beschreibung_, p. 79. On account
of the discrepancies between the sculptures and the literary tradition
it is impossible to decide the question.

The arrangement adopted in the British Museum is that of Cockerell
(pl. 16). To complete the group Cockerell supposed that nude figures
similar to No. 178 of the East pediment advanced to the fallen hero
from each side; and that a spearman knelt between the Paris (No. 168)
and the wounded Trojan. Fragments remain of the two youths; but recent
writers have put the spearman (No. 166) next the Paris. The positions
of the spearmen and the archers on each side have also been reversed.
The archers are on this view placed furthest from the combat, and may
perhaps be supposed to be protected by the spearmen. Further changes
have been proposed which are based on fragments not represented by
casts, and which therefore need not here be discussed.

  Restorations of the West Pediment. (1) With 11 figures, the bowmen
  in front of the spearmen. Cockerell, supplementary plate; Blouet,
  _Exp. de Morée_, III., pl. 58, fig. 2; Müller, _Denkmaeler_,
  I., pls. 6, 7; Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._, 3rd ed., I., fig. 19_a_;
  Murray, I., pl. 7. (2) With 11 figures, the bowmen behind the
  spearmen. Cockerell, plate; Brunn, _Sitzungsber. der k. bayer.
  Akad._, 1868, II., plate; Lange, _Ber. der k. sächs. Ges. d.
  Wissenschaften_, 1878, pl. 3, fig. 1. (3) With 13 figures.
  Cockerell, pl. 16. (4) With 14 figures. Lange, _loc. cit._, pl. 3,
  fig. 2; Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._, 3rd ed., I., fig. 19_b_.

The figures beginning from the left of the West pediment are:--

[Sidenote: =160.=]

Wounded Greek, recumbent, disarmed, drawing an arrow from his right
breast.

  Restored:--Nose, right forearm, left leg from knee to ankle and
  toes. Cockerell, pl. 15, No. 11; pl. 16; Blouet, III., pl. 69,
  fig. 2; Brunn, _Denkmaeler_, No. 25.

[Sidenote: =161.=]

Greek advancing with spear. Brunn proposes the name of Ajax, son of
Oileus.

  Restored:--Crest, right hand, left forearm and part of feet.
  Cockerell, pl. 15, No. 9; pl. 16; Blouet, III., pl. 69, fig. 1.

[Sidenote: =162.=]

Greek archer, armed, kneeling and drawing his bow. This may well be
the Aeginetan hero, Teucer, brother of Telamonian Ajax.

  Restored:--Head, arms, several flaps of the cuirass, and left leg
  from the knee. Cockerell, pl. 15, No. 10; pl. 16; Blouet, III.,
  pl. 66, fig. 1.

[Sidenote: =163.=]

Bearded Greek warrior advancing, with shield extended and right hand
raised to hurl spear. Perhaps Telamonian Ajax.

  Restored:--Nose, crest, half right forearm, part of shield, both
  legs. Cockerell, pl. 15, No. 3; pl. 16; Blouet, III., pl. 68, fig.
  1.

[Sidenote: =164.=]

Wounded hero, leaning on his right hand, which held a sword; the
shield is held out to cover the body. This is either Achilles or
Patroclos according to the chief schemes of interpretation.

  Restored:--Neck, right shoulder, fingers and toes. Cockerell, pl.
  15, No. 2; pl. 16; Blouet, III., pl. 67, fig. 2.

[Sidenote: =165.=]

Figure of Athenè presiding over the battle. She stands erect in the
centre of the pediment, fully armed and wearing her aegis. There is an
archaic formality in her pose and in the composition of the drapery,
which shows that the artist has adopted a traditional type of
temple-image. The earrings, locks of hair, a Gorgoneion, and snakes
bordering the aegis were made of metal, and attached.

  Restored:--Nose, right hand, part of left hand. Cockerell, pl. 15,
  No. 1; pl. 16; Blouet, III., pl. 67, fig. 1; Brunn, _Denkmaeler_
  No. 23.

[Sidenote: =166.=]

Kneeling Trojan, with right hand raised to hurl spear.

  Restored:--Head, right armpit and shoulder-blade, three fingers
  of right hand; left arm from middle of biceps; right leg from
  the knee; left knee with part of thigh, and part of left foot.
  Cockerell, pl. 15, No. 6; pl. 16; Blouet, III., pl. 65, fig. 2.

[Sidenote: =167.=]

Warrior advancing with shield extended, and right hand raised to hurl
spear, closely corresponding to No. 163. Perhaps Aeneas.

  Restored:--Head (which should probably be bearded), right armpit
  and breast, fingers, parts of shield and legs. Cockerell, pl. 15,
  No. 4; pl. 16; Blouet, III., pl. 66, fig. 2.

[Sidenote: =168.=]

Archer kneeling and drawing his bow. He wears a Phrygian cap, which
has holes in the front for a metal wreath. (Compare the wreath on the
Ephesian fragment No. 46, _12_); also closely-fitting breeches and
coat of leather. This figure, which is always known as Paris, closely
corresponds with the 'Teucer,' No. 162.

  Restored:--Tips of cap, nose and chin; some fingers, and the
  forepart of the left foot. Cockerell, pl. 15, No. 7; pl. 16;
  Blouet, III., pl. 68, fig. 2; Brunn, _Denkmaeler_, No. 24.

[Sidenote: =169.=]

Wounded Trojan, leaning on the right arm. An arrow may have been fixed
in the left knee between the thumb and forefinger.

  Restored:--Head, left arm, part of right forearm and hand; both
  legs from the knees. Cockerell, pl. 15, No. 8; pl. 16; Blouet,
  III., pl. 65, fig. 1.

[Sidenote: =170.=]

The pediment is surmounted by an acroterion, consisting of a palmette
between two large volutes, which are for the most part restorations.
(Cockerell, pls. 1, 4.)

On each side of the acroterion is an architectonic female figure,
treated in the same designedly archaic style as the figure of Athenè.

[Sidenote: =171.=]

Female figure (on the left).

  Restored:--Head, right hand and part of sleeve; left forearm with
  part of sleeve and drapery. Cockerell, pl. 1.

[Sidenote: =172.=]

Female figure (on the right).

  Restored:--Head; lower edge of right sleeve; right hand and
  forearm; parts of drapery. Cockerell, pl. 1.

[Sidenote: =173.=]

At each angle are casts of lions' heads, which in the absence of casts
from the originals have been taken from the cornice of the archaic
temple at Ephesus. The lion's head engraved by Cockerell (pl. 13, fig.
4), appears to be his restoration.

[Sidenote: =174.=]

The angles are surmounted by Gryphons, which have been cast from
a single original. The original has been considerably restored,
especially the head.

  Cockerell, pl. 13, fig, 4. The hind parts of one Gryphon were
  discovered by Chandler in 1765, but they were immediately broken
  and stolen. Chandler, _Travels in Greece_, p. 12.


THE EAST PEDIMENT OF THE TEMPLE AT AEGINA.

Of the east pediment only five figures were found, sufficiently
complete to be restored. The fragments leave no doubt that the
composition was as a whole analogous to that of the west pediment, and
that the subject was a battle for the body of a fallen warrior, fought
in the presence of Athenè.

The clue to the subject represented is given by the figure of
Heracles, and archaeologists are almost unanimous in thinking that
the scene is a battle in the war which Telamon of Aegina, aided by
Heracles, waged against Laomedon, King of Troy (cf. Apollodorus, ii.,
6, 3, 4).

The arrangement is nearly that of Cockerell. The Heracles, however,
has been placed on the right side of the pediment, because the left
side of the statue is the most carefully finished, and was therefore
intended to be seen.

  Restorations of the East Pediment. (1) With 10 figures; wounded
  warrior as restored. Prachov, _Mon. dell' Inst._, IX., pl. 57.
  (2) With parts of 12 figures; wounded warrior not as restored.
  Cockerell, supplementary plate; Müller, _Denkmaeler_, I., pl. 8;
  Blouet, III., pl. 58, fig. 1; Murray, I., pl. 7. For two heads
  from this pediment, see Brunn, _Denkmaeler_, No. 121.

The figures beginning with the left end of the pediment are the
following:--

[Sidenote: =175.=]

Warrior lying down, supported by his arm, within the handles of his
shield. He is wounded below the right breast.

  Restored:--Crest, part of visor, four fingers of left hand,
  four toes of left foot; right leg from the middle of the thigh.
  Cockerell, p. 32, pl. 14, No. 4; Blouet, III., pl. 59, fig. 2.

[Sidenote: =176.=]

Warrior advancing, with a shield on the left arm, and a lance (?) in
the right hand.

  Restored:--Head, hands, right hip; most of shield, Cockerell,
  p. 32, pl. 14, No. 2; Blouet, III., pl. 59, fig. 1; Brunn,
  _Denkmaeler_, No. 28.

[Sidenote: =177.=]

Wounded warrior fallen backwards on his shield.

  Restored:--Head, arms, shield, right leg, left leg from the knee.
  The correctness of the restoration has been doubted. The left side
  is most corroded by the atmosphere, and would therefore seem to
  have been uppermost. In that case the figure must have resembled
  that of the fallen warrior in the centre of the west pediment. It
  is thus drawn by Cockerell, in a supplementary plate. Engraved as
  restored, Cockerell, pl. 14, No. 1; Blouet, III., pl. 61, fig. 1.

[Sidenote: =178.=]

Figure of a youth leaning forward, to draw away the fallen warrior.

  Restored:--Nose, arms, pubis, most of right foot, and left foot;
  Cockerell, pl. 14, No. 3; Blouet, III., pl. 61, fig. 2; Brunn,
  _Denkmaeler_, No. 26.

[Sidenote: =179.=]

Heracles kneeling, and drawing his bow. He wears the lion's skin on
his head, and had a quiver on the left side.

  Restored:--Nose, some flaps of the cuirass, left hand, right
  forearm, right foot, part of left thigh and knee. Cockerell,
  pl. 14, No. 5; Blouet, III., pl. 60; Rayet, _Monuments_, No. 25;
  Brunn, _Denkmaeler_, No. 27; Mitchell, _Selections_, pl. 1.

[Sidenote: =180.=]

The acroterion; (181) the figures beside it; (182) the lions, and
(183) the Gryphons here exhibited, are repetitions of those of the
west pediment. The acroterion, which originally surmounted the
east pediment, was larger and more important than that of the west.
(Cockerell, pl. 13.) The figures which stood on each side of the east
acroterion, are shown by the surviving fragments to have been similar
to those of the western end, but were on a rather larger scale.



CASTS OF SCULPTURES FROM OLYMPIA.


The temple of Zeus at Olympia was being built from about 470-455 B.C.
(cf. Boetticher, _Olympia_, p. 247). It is certain that the metopes
must have been placed in position during the process of construction.
They should therefore probably be dated about 460 B.C. (Boetticher, p.
289).

[Sidenote: =190.=]

Cast of a metope, from the Temple of Zeus at Olympia. Heracles binding
the Cretan Bull.

  The original is of marble. The greater part of this metope was
  discovered by the French expedition to the Morea, in 1829, and
  is now in the Louvre. The face and hind legs of the bull were
  discovered in the German excavations, and are now at Olympia. The
  parts first discovered are published in Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._,
  3rd ed., I., p. 443. For the completed metope, see _Ausgrabungen
  zu Olympia_, V., pl. 17; Boetticher, _Olympia_, p. 279; Wolters,
  No. 274.

[Sidenote: =191.=]

Cast of a metope from the Temple of Zeus at Olympia. Heracles supports
on his shoulders the vault of heaven, while the Titan Atlas brings him
the golden apples of the Hesperides. Heracles has a folded cushion on
his shoulders to make the burden easier; Atlas stands before him
with six apples in his outstretched hands. A Hesperid or nymph stands
behind and raises one hand as if to share the weight.

  The original is of marble, and is at Olympia, where it was
  discovered by the German excavators. _Ausgrabungen zu Olympia_,
  I., 26; _Athenische Mittheilungen_, I., pl. 11; Murray, II., pl.
  13; Wolters, No. 280; Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._, 3rd ed., I., p. 445;
  Boetticher, _Olympia_, p. 285. (Boetticher's illustration is most
  nearly complete. That of Overbeck gives both hands of Atlas.) For
  the female head, see _Journ. of Hellen. Studies_, V., pl. 45.

[Sidenote: =192.=]

Cast of a statue of Victory, by Paionios of Mendè, Victory is supposed
to be moving forward through mid-air. One foot rests lightly on the
back of an eagle, beneath which is a rock. The wings and draperies
that were originally spread out behind the figure are now wanting.
The statue stood on a triangular pedestal, about 19 feet high. On the
pedestal was an inscription recording that the Victory was offered as
a tithe of spoil to Olympian Zeus by the Messenians and Naupactians;
and that the author was Paionios of Mendè, who made the acroteria of
the temple:--[Greek: Messanioi kai Naupaktioi anethen Dii | Olympiô
dekatan apo tôm polemiôn. Paiônios epoiêse Mendaios | kai takrôtêria
poiôn epi ton naon enika.] Mr. Murray (_Gr. Sculpt._, ii. p. 162)
suggests as an explanation of the last clause of the inscription
that the Victory was a replica of the acroteria (or figures above the
pediments) of the Temple of Zeus. These are known to have been gilded
figures of Victory (Paus., v. 10, 2). Pausanias was inclined to think
that the inscription referred to a war of the Messenians against the
Acarnanians (452 B.C.); but the Messenians of his time supposed
that the statue was erected soon after the defeat of the Spartans at
Sphacteria in 424 B.C.

Discovered by the German excavators at Olympia, and now in the Museum
at Olympia.

  Marble. _Ausgrabungen zu Olympia_, I., pls. 9-12; inscr. _ibidem_,
  pl. 32; pedestal, _ibidem_, II., pl. 34; Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._,
  3rd ed., I., figs. 88, 89; Murray, II., pl. 19; Wolters, Nos. 496,
  497.



STATUES OF APOLLO (?).


Of the following sculptures, Nos. 200-207 are examples of a somewhat
numerous class of nude male figures, standing constrainedly with the
heads directed straight to the front, having the hands either close by
the sides, or slightly raised, by a bending of the arms at the elbows.

The name of Apollo has been commonly given to sculptures of the type
here described, but doubts have often been raised as to the accuracy
of the title. It seems clear that at the stage of art represented by
these figures one type of nude male figure was made to serve various
purposes. It cannot be doubted that the type was often used to
represent Apollo, for such figures have been found in or near shrines
of Apollo at Naucratis (Petrie, _Naukratis_, i., pl. 1, fig. 4), Delos
(_Arch. Zeit._, 1882, p. 323), Actium (_Gaz. Arch._, 1886, p.
235), and at the temple of Apollo Ptoös in Boeotia (_Bull. de Corr.
Hellénique_, x., p. 66, Brunn, _Denkmaeler_, No. 12). The same type of
Apollo occurs, _e.g._ on a vase in the Brit. Mus. (No. E, 313; _Gaz.
Arch._, 1882, p. 58), on a vase published in _Annali dell' Inst._,
1849, pl. D (cf. _Hamilton Vases_, ii., pl. 6), and on a Pompeian
fresco (_Arch. Zeit._, 1882, p. 58). Compare a relief in the _Palazzo
Corsini_ (Dütschke, ii., p. 114). At the same time, similar figures
served to represent athletes (Paus., viii., 40) and, perhaps, were
placed on tombs, to represent a deceased person.

The series of figures which have the hands by the thighs is older than
that in which the hands are raised, and the invention of the type has
been assigned to the Cretan Daedalid School of Dipoinos and Skyllis
(Furtwaengler, _Arch. Zeit._, 1882, p. 55). For an enumeration and
discussion of the known examples of this series see Overbeck, _Gr.
Plast._, 3rd ed., i., p. 229, note 33; _Bull. de Corr. Hellénique_,
x., p. 67; xi., p. 1; _Gaz. Arch._, 1886, p. 239; Roscher, _Lexicon_,
i, p. 449; Wolters, No. 14. The second series, here represented by
Nos. 206, 207, in which the hands are raised, is developed from the
first, but shows a great advance in all respects. Perhaps it gives the
Cretan type as developed by artists of the school of Aegina.

[Sidenote: =200.=]

Figure of Apollo (?) standing with the right leg drawn back, and
with the hands pressed against the hips. He has a diadem across
the forehead, and the hair falls on the shoulders and down the
back.--_Naucratis._

  Alabaster; height, 10-1/4 inches.

[Sidenote: =201.=]

Apollo (?) standing. Torso from the neck to the knees. The right leg
is drawn back, and the hands are pressed against the thighs. The hair
falls down on the shoulders and on the back.--_Naucratis._

  Alabaster; height, 4-3/8 inches.

[Sidenote: =202.=]

Apollo. Torso from the neck to the middle of the thighs. The hands are
pressed against the thighs. The hair falls on the shoulders and on the
back. A belt crosses the body under the right arm, and over the left
shoulder.--_Temenos of Apollo, Naucratis._

  Marble (?); height, 3-1/8 inches. _Naukratis_, I., pl. 1, fig. 9.

The following figures, Nos. 203, 204, belong to the same series,
though the type is slightly varied, and No. 203, having been found in
the temenos of Aphroditè, probably does not represent Apollo:--

[Sidenote: =203.=]

Male torso from the neck to the knees. The right hand lies across the
breast; the left leg is to the front. The hair is cut square at the
back, and in the front falls down on the shoulders.--_Temenos of
Aphroditè, Naucratis._

  Alabaster; height, 6-1/4 inches. _Naukratis_, II., pl. 14, fig.
  13.

[Sidenote: =204.=]

Apollo. Male torso, similar to the preceding, but having no hair on
the shoulders.--_Temenos of Apollo, Naucratis._

  Alabaster; height, 4-3/4 inches. _Naukratis_, I., pl. 1, fig. 3.

[Sidenote: =205.=]

Figure of Apollo (?) standing, with the right leg drawn back, and with
the hands pressed against the hips. The hair falls on the shoulders,
terminating in a straight line, and intersected with conventional
grooves running at right angles to each other.--_From Greece, probably
from Boeotia._

  Marble; height, 2 feet 6-1/4 inches. Murray, I., pl. 2, p. 107;
  _Arch. Zeit._, 1882, pl. 4, p. 51; Mitchell, p. 213; Brunn,
  _Denkmaeler_, No. 77.

[Sidenote: =206.=]

Figure of Apollo (?) standing, with the right leg drawn back. The hair
is dressed, with the headdress known as the _krobylos_.

Round the taenia are five drilled holes, indicating that a wreath
of bronze was attached. The arms, and the legs from the knees are
wanting.

This figure, commonly known as the Strangford Apollo, is referred by
Brunn to the school of Callon of Aegina.

From the collection of _Viscount Strangford_. Stated in 1864 to be
from _Lemnos_, but said also to have been found in _Anaphè_ (Newton,
_Essays_, p. 81).

  Marble; height, 3 feet 4 inches. _Mon. dell' Inst._, IX., pl.
  41; _Annali dell' Inst._, 1872, p. 181; Brunn, _Ber. d. k. bayer.
  Akad. Phil.-hist. Classe_, 1872, p. 529; Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._,
  3rd ed., I., p. 181, fig. 40; Murray, I., pl. 2; Rayet et Thomas,
  _Milet et le Golfe Latmique_, pl. 28; Brunn, _Denkmaeler_, No. 51;
  Wolters, No. 89; _Arch. Zeit._, 1864, p. 164*.

[Sidenote: =207.=]

Torso of Apollo (?) standing, with the right leg drawn back.

The head, arms, and legs from the knees are wanting; two points
of attachment near the front of the hips, show that the arms were
considerably bent at the elbows.

This figure was found in the _Dromos of a tomb at Marion (Cyprus)_.

  Marble; height, 2 feet 5 inches. Herrmann, _Gräberfeld von
  Marion_, p. 22. The tomb contained a coin of Idalium, of about
  510 B.C., a gold cup with acorns _repoussé_, several black figured
  vases, one at least of an early character, and no red figured
  vases.

[Sidenote: =208.=]

Head of Apollo. The hair is bound with a taenia and falls in short
corkscrew curls over the forehead, and in a flowing mass down the
shoulders. The sharply cut outlines of the features, and the wiry
character of the hair suggest that this head is a copy of an archaic
work in bronze. It has been conjectured that the head is copied from
the Apollo of Canachos at Branchidae, but there is no evidence in
favour of the theory, which has been given up as untenable. (Cf.
Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._, 3rd ed., i., p. 110). A bronze statuette from
the Payne Knight collection, which has a better claim to be considered
a copy of Apollo of Canachos, may be seen in the Bronze Room.

_Brought from Rome by Lord Cawdor, and purchased by Townley.--Townley
Coll._

  Parian marble; height, 1 foot 5-1/2 inches. _Specimens_, I., pls.
  5, 6; _Mus. Marbles_, III., pl. 4; Ellis, _Townley Gallery_, I.,
  p. 321; Müller, _Denkmaeler_, I., pl. 4, fig. 22; Overbeck, _Gr.
  Plast._, 3rd ed., I., p. 109, fig. 14; Wolters, No. 228; _cf._
  Rayet et Thomas, _Milet et le Golfe Latmique_, pl. 37; Michaelis,
  _Anc. Marbles_, p. 94.

[Sidenote: =209.=]

Statue of Apollo, standing. The chief weight of the body is thrown on
the right leg, while the left knee is bent, and the left foot rests
lightly on the ground. The head is slightly turned to the right. The
hair is dressed with the headdress known as the _krobylos_.

The left hand and right forearm, which appear to have been separate
pieces, are wanting. The left hand held some attribute, perhaps a
branch, for which there is a mark of attachment by the left knee. The
right hand, which rested on the stump beside the right leg, seems to
have held a strap.--_From the Choiseul-Gouffier Collection, 1818._

  Marble; height, 5 feet 10-1/2 inches. Restored: tip of nose.
  _Specimens_, II., pl. 5; Ellis, _Townley Gallery_, I. p. 194;
  Clarac, III., pl. 482B, No. 931A; _Mus. Marbles_, XI., pl. 32;
  _Journ. of Hellen. Studies_, I., pl. 4; _Stereoscopic_, No. 143;
  Murray, I., pl. 8; Wolters, No. 221.

  This statue, commonly known as the Choiseul-Gouffier Apollo,
  together with other examples of the same type, has given rise to
  much discussion. The chief replica is a statue at Athens, commonly
  called the 'Apollo on the Omphalos,' having been associated with a
  marble _omphalos_, or sacred cone of Apollo, which was discovered
  at the same time. Grave doubts, however, exist as to the
  connection of the figure and of the omphalos. (_Journ. of Hellen.
  Studies_, I., p. 180; _Athenische Mittheilungen_, IX., p. 248.)
  The Athenian statue is published, Conze, _Beiträge_, pls. 3, 5;
  _Journ. of Hellen. Studies_, I., pl. 5; Murray, I., pl. 8; Brunn,
  _Denkmaeler_, No. 42. For a list of other replicas of the type,
  see _Athenische Mittheilungen_, IX., p. 239. The statue is
  generally taken to be an Apollo. It has, indeed, been argued that
  it is a pugilist, and not Apollo (Waldstein, _Journ. of Hellen.
  Studies_, I., p. 182; Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._, 3rd ed., II., p.
  414); and if the figure is Apollo, it must be admitted that 'the
  proportions are rather suited to the patron of pugilism (_Il._
  [Greek: psi.] 660) than to the leader of a celestial orchestra'
  (_Specimens_, II., pl. 5; _Athenische Mittheilungen_, IX., p.
  244). But the title is established by a quiver attached to the
  stump of a replica in Rome (Matz-Duhn, _Bildw. in Rom_, I., No.
  179), and of a somewhat similar figure at Cassel (_Athenische
  Mittheilungen_, I., pl. 10), and by the fact that a copy (No. 210)
  has been found in the temple of Apollo at Cyrenè. Moreover, the
  head of a similar figure, undoubtedly an Apollo, occurs on
  a relief in the Capitoline Museum (Braun, _Vorschule der
  Kunstmythologie_, pl. 5). Compare also the figure of Apollo on a
  vase at Bologna, _Mon. dell' Inst._, X., pl. 54. There has also
  been much discussion as to the school of art to which the type
  must be assigned, and as to the character of the original statue.
  The statue has been assigned by different writers to Calamis
  ("Apollo Alexikakos"; Conze, _Beiträge_, p. 19; Murray, I.,
  p. 189; Furtwaengler, in Roscher's _Lexicon_, I., p. 456); to
  Pasiteles (Kekulé, _Menelaos_, p. 30); to Alcamenes (Furtwaengler,
  _Athenische Mittheilungen_, V., p. 39; _cf. Journ. of Hellen.
  Studies_, VIII., p. 41); to Pythagoras of Rhegium ("Euthymos";
  Waldstein, _loc. cit._); and to Callimachos ("Apollo
  Daphnephoros"; Schreiber, _Athenische Mittheilungen_, IX., p.
  248). It has been variously held that the original statue was of
  bronze, and is therefore lost (_Mus. Marbles_, XI., pl. 32; _cf._
  Murray, I., p. 191), or that the Athenian statue is the original,
  whence other copies are derived (_Athenische Mittheilungen_, IX.,
  p. 240).

  The _krobylos_ seems to indicate some Attic sculptor of the first
  half of the 5th cent. B.C. (Schreiber, _Athenische Mittheilungen_,
  VIII., p. 255). The existence of numerous copies proves that the
  original was famous, and it is generally supposed that the figure
  is an Apollo. It is impossible to make a more definite statement
  with confidence, in the present state of our knowledge as to the
  Attic sculptors who preceded Pheidias.

[Sidenote: =210.=]

Head of Apollo, a replica of No. 209. The head is broken off in the
middle of the neck. The chin, the tip of the nose, and parts of
the hair are wanting. The author of this copy has misunderstood the
arrangement of the headdress.--Found by Smith and Porcher in the
_Temple of Apollo at Cyrenè_.

  Marble; height, 11 inches; Smith and Porcher, p. 100 No. 19
  Murray, I., p. 190.

[Sidenote: =211.=]

Head of Apollo, a replica of No. 209. The head is broken off below the
chin. The nose and the tip of the chin are wanting.

This copy shows better than either 209 or 210, the arrangement of
the hair in the _krobylos_, the origin of the plaits being clearly
indicated. It chiefly differs from them in the amount of hair falling
down at the back of the ears; in this head there are the remains of
thick tresses, while in the other instances there are only a few
short curls. There is a rectangular hole at the back of the
head.--_Presented by the Hon. E. A. Pelham._

  Marble; height, 9-1/2 inches. This head was found in 1882 at
  a cottage at Ventnor, built by Sir Richard Worsley. It was,
  doubtless, brought by him from Greece.



MISCELLANEOUS SCULPTURES.


[Sidenote: =215.=]

Fragment of lacunar, from a ceiling, with two panels in low relief.
(1) Horse galloping to the right. (2) Gryphon seizing a stag.

Below is a band of rosettes in squares. The whole is surrounded by
remains of a large bead ornament.--_Presented by Algernon, fourth Duke
of Northumberland._

  Green limestone (?); height, 1 foot 1-1/2 inches; width, 1 foot 1
  inch.

[Sidenote: =216.=]

Fragment of lacunar nearly similar to preceding. The upper
panel is wanting. Below is a Gryphon seizing a stag. Below is a
band of rosettes; between the two panels is a band of maeander
pattern.--_Presented by Algernon, fourth Duke of Northumberland._

  Green limestone (?); height, 9-1/4 inches; width, 10-1/4 inches.

[Sidenote: =217.=]

Fragment of relief. On a pedestal is a lion, walking to the left.
Before the lion are three balls. Above were two figures standing to
the front, of which only the feet remain. The figure on the left stood
with feet side by side; that on the right stood with the legs crossed
(Fig. 4). This relief, though undoubtedly archaic, appears not
to belong to the prehistoric period of Mycenae (_cf._ Nos.
1-6).--_Mycenae._ _Inwood Coll._

  Green limestone; height, 1 foot 1-1/4 inches; width, 9-1/2 inches.
  _Synopsis_, No. 429; Loeschcke, _Athenische Mittheilungen_, IV.,
  p. 296; Wolters, No. 53.

[Illustration: Fig. 4.--Relief from Mycenae, No. 217.]



PART II.


_MYRON AND PHEIDIAS._


Three great names represent the early prime of Greek sculpture,
namely, Myron, Pheidias, and Polycleitos of Argos. These three are
thought to have been fellow pupils of the Argive sculptor Ageladas.

The present part of the catalogue deals with Myron and Pheidias. The
third part deals first with their immediate successors in Attica,
and then turns to Polycleitos of Argos and the sculptures of the
Peloponnese; and next to the special class of Greek reliefs.



MYRON.


MYRON of Eleutherae in Attica worked at Athens in the first half of
the fifth century B.C. Although he had not entirely abandoned the
archaic style (notably, in his rendering of hair, Pliny, _H. N._
xxxiv., 58), he was distinguished for his skill in representing
life. His power lay partly in the rendering of vigorous movement
in sculpture, as in his athletic statues, and partly in a realistic
imitation of nature, as in his famous cow.

No original works of Myron are extant. His best known work, the
Discobolos, is preserved in copies, one of which is described below.
The bronze statuette of Marsyas in the Bronze Room may be studied
after a group of Athenè and Marsyas by Myron.

[Sidenote: =250.=]

Graeco-Roman copy of the bronze Discobolos of Myron. A young athlete
is represented in the act of hurling the disk. He has swung it back,
and is about to throw it to the furthest possible distance before him.
The head, as here attached, looks straight to the ground, but in the
original it looked more backwards as in a copy formerly in the Massimi
palace at Rome. (Cf. Lucian, _Philopseud._ 18.) Compare a gem in the
British Museum (Fig. 5; _Cat. of Gems_, No. 742, pl. G), which is
inscribed [Greek: HYAKINTHOS]. According to a judgment of Quintilian,
the laboured complexity of the statue is extreme, but any one who
should blame it on this ground would do so under a misapprehension of
its purpose, inasmuch as the merit of the work lies in its novelty
and difficulty. "Quid tam distortum et elaboratum, quam est ille
discobolos Myronis? si quis tamen, ut parum rectum, improbet opus,
nonne ab intellectu artis abfuerit, in qua vel praecipue laudabilis
est ipsa illa novitas ac difficultas?"--Quint. _Inst. Orat._, ii., 13.
10.--_Found in 1791 in Hadrian's Villa at Tivoli._ _Townley Coll._

[Illustration: Fig. 5. [Greek: HYAKINTHOS](=Hyacinth)]

  Marble; height, 5 feet 5 inches. Restorations:--Nose, lips, chin,
  piece in neck, part of disk and r. hand; l. hand; piece under r.
  arm; pubis; r. knee; a small piece in r. leg, and parts of the
  toes. _Specimens_, I., pl. 29; _Mus. Marbles_, XI., pl. 44;
  Clarac, V., pl. 860, No. 2194 B; Ellis, _Townley Gallery_, I.,
  p. 241; _Guide to Graeco-Roman Sculptures_, I., No. 135;
  _Stereoscopic_, No. 149; Wolters, No. 452.



PHEIDIAS AND THE SCULPTURES OF THE PARTHENON.


The sculptures of the Parthenon illustrate the style of Pheidias, the
greatest of Greek sculptors.

PHEIDIAS, son of Charmides, the Athenian, was born about 500 B.C.
He was a pupil of the sculptor Ageladas, of Argos, or, according to
others, of Hegias or Hegesias, of Athens. His youth was passed during
the period of the Persian wars, and his maturity was principally
devoted to the adornment of Athens, from the funds contributed by the
allied Greek states during the administration of Pericles.

Among the chief of the works of this period was the Parthenon, or
temple of the virgin Goddess Athenè. The architect was Ictinos, but
the sculptural decorations, and probably the design of the temple,
were planned and executed under the superintendence of Pheidias. The
building was probably begun about B.C. 447 (according to Michaelis,
B.C. 454). It was sufficiently advanced to receive the statue of the
Parthenos in B.C. 438, and was probably completed either in that year
or a little later. It stood on the Acropolis of Athens, on a site
which had been already occupied by a more ancient temple, commonly
supposed to have been an ancient Parthenon, which was burnt on the
sacking of Athens by the Persians, B.C. 480. Recently, however,
the foundations of an early temple have been discovered between the
Parthenon and the Erechtheion. It has been thought that this is the
Pre-Persian Parthenon, and that the traces of an older foundation
below the existing Parthenon only date from the time immediately
following the Persian wars. A building is supposed to have then been
begun, on a plan somewhat different from that which was carried out by
Ictinos and Pericles.

The Parthenon was of the Doric order of architecture, and was of the
form termed _peripteral octastyle_; that is to say, it was surrounded
by a colonnade, which had eight columns at each end. The architectural
arrangements can be best learnt from the model, which is exhibited in
the Elgin Room. See also the plan (fig. 6.) and elevation (pl. iv.).

The principal chamber (cella) within the colonnade contained the
colossal statue of Athenè Parthenos (see below, Nos. 300-302).
Externally the cella was decorated with a frieze in low relief (see
below, p. 145). The two pediments, or gables at each end of the
building (see below, Nos. 303, 304) were filled with figures
sculptured in the round. Above the architrave, or beam resting on the
columns, were metopes, or square panels, adorned with groups in very
high relief, which served to fill up the spaces between the triglyphs,
or groups of three vertical parallel bands, representing beam ends.
All these sculptured decorations were executed, like the architecture,
in Pentelic marble.

[Illustration: Fig. 8.--Plan of the Parthenon. (From Michaelis.)]

The statue of the Parthenos is known to have been in existence about
430 A.D.; but not long after this date the figure was removed, and the
Parthenon was converted into a Christian church, dedicated at first to
Santa Sophia (or the Divine Wisdom), and afterwards to the Panagia (or
Virgin Mary). For the purposes of the church, an apse was built at the
east end of the cella, and the entrance was moved to the west end. The
building was also given a vaulted roof, which covered the cella alone.
In consequence the frieze was exposed to the weather, and the east
pediment was much destroyed. From 1206 to 1458, during the period of
the Frankish Dukes of Athens, the Parthenon was a Latin church.
Athens was taken by the Turks in 1458, and the Parthenon was again
an Orthodox Greek church for two years. In 1460, however, it was
converted into a Turkish mosque. From this date it probably suffered
little until 1687, when Athens was taken by the Venetian General,
Morosini. In the course of a bombardment of the Acropolis, the
besiegers succeeded in throwing a shell into a powder magazine in the
Parthenon, and caused an explosion that destroyed the roof and much of
the long sides of the building. Further injury was done by Morosini,
who made an attempt to take down the central group of the west
pediment, which was still nearly complete.

Fortunately, many of the sculptures had been drawn by a skilful artist
before the explosion. In 1674 Jacques Carrey, a painter in the suite
of the Marquis de Nointel, French ambassador at the Porte, made
sketches of large portions of the frieze and metopes, and of the then
extant portions of the pedimental compositions. These drawings are
preserved in the French Bibliothèque Nationale, and are constantly
referred to in discussions of the Parthenon sculptures.

In 1688 Athens was restored to the Turks, and from this date to the
end of the last century the sculptures of the Parthenon were exposed
to constant injury. Some of them were made into lime, or built into
walls by the Turkish garrison; others were mutilated by the travellers
who from time to time obtained admission to the Acropolis, and broke
off portable fragments of the sculptures.

In 1749, when the west pediment was drawn by Dalton, many figures
still remained in position which had disappeared before the time of
Lord Elgin. Several portions also of the frieze, which were seen by
Stuart, had disappeared at the beginning of the present century. On
the other hand, the east pediment, being inaccessible, suffered no
important change between 1674 and 1800.

In the years 1801-3 many of the sculptures of the Parthenon were
removed to England by the Earl of Elgin, then British ambassador at
Constantinople, by means of a firman obtained from the Porte (see p.
6). The Elgin Collection, which includes other marbles obtained from
Athens and elsewhere, together with casts and drawings, was purchased
from Lord Elgin by the British Government in 1816 for £35,000. Several
portions of the sculptures of the Parthenon have been discovered since
the time of Lord Elgin on the Acropolis and its slopes, or in various
parts of Europe, to which they had been taken by travellers. These are
represented as far as possible in the British Museum by plaster casts.

The following aids to the study of the Parthenon will be found in the
Elgin Room:--

Model of the Athenian Acropolis, showing its condition in the year
1870. Presented by Prof. Adolf Michaelis.

Model of the Parthenon. The model was made by R. C. Lucas, on a scale
of a foot to 20 feet, and represents the state of the temple in
1687, after the explosion, but before Morosini had attacked the west
pediment.

Carrey's drawings of the pediments. Photographic reproductions of the
originals are exhibited.

A restored view of the Athenian Acropolis. By Richard Bohn.


_Bibliography of the Parthenon._

  The work of Michaelis, _Der Parthenon_ (Leipzig, 1871), collects
  the material for the study of the Parthenon, and contains an
  excellent digest of all that had been written on the subject up to
  the year 1871. For later writers, see below _passim_, and Wolters.
  For the chronology of Pheidias, see Loeschcke, in _Untersuchungen
  A. Schaefer gewidmet_, p. 25; for the question as to his master,
  see Klein, _Arch.-Epigr. Mittheilungen aus Oesterreich_, VII.,
  p. 64; Murray, _Greek Sculpture_, 2nd ed., p. 186. For the older
  temple on the site of the Parthenon, see Doerpfeld, in _Athenische
  Mittheilungen_, XII., p. 45; Harrison, _Mythology of Anc. Athens_,
  p. 467. The plan given above is taken from Michaelis. Important
  modifications have been proposed by Doerpfeld, _Athenische
  Mittheilungen_, VI., pl. 12, p. 283; Harrison, _loc. cit._, p.
  464. For the mediæval history of the Parthenon, see Laborde;
  _Athènes aux XV^e, XVI^e, et XVII^e Siècles_ (Paris, 1854);
  Gregorovius, _Athen im Mittelalter_ (1889). Facsimiles of Carrey's
  drawings are in the British Museum, and have been partially
  published in the works of Laborde, _Le Parthénon_ (Paris, 1848).
  For photographic copies of the drawings of the pediments,
  see _Antike Denkmäler_, I., pls. 6, 6a. Dalton's views of the
  Acropolis were published in 1751, but the remains of Athens were
  little known till the appearance of _The Antiquities of Athens_,
  by James Stuart and Nicolas Revett. (London: vol. I., 1762; vol.
  II., 1787; vol. III., 1794; vol. IV., 1816; vol. V., 1830).
  A second edition, with additional matter, but having inferior
  illustrations, was issued in 1825-1830. The original drawings,
  made for this work by Pars, were presented to the British Museum
  by the Society of Dilettanti. The official inquiry into the
  proceedings of Lord Elgin is contained in the _Report from the
  Select Committee of the House of Commons on the Earl of Elgin's
  Collection of Sculptured Marbles; &c._ (London, 1816).



STATUE OF ATHENÈ PARTHENOS.


The colossal statue of Athenè Parthenos by Pheidias was placed within
the central chamber of the Parthenon. The figure was made of gold
and ivory, and was, with its base, about 40 feet high. Athenè stood,
draped in chiton and aegis. In her left hand she held her spear and
shield. Between her and her shield was the serpent Erichthonios.
On her outstretched right hand was a winged Victory, six feet high,
holding a wreath. The helmet of the Goddess was adorned, according
to Pausanias, with a Sphinx and Gryphons. From detailed copies of
the head (_Athenische Mittheilungen_, viii., pl. 15; _Cat. of Gems in
B. M._ 637, 638) we learn that the Gryphons were on the cheek-pieces,
and that there was a figure of Pegasos on each side of the Sphinx.
There was also a row of small horses at the front of the helmet. All
available space was covered with reliefs. A battle between Greeks and
Amazons (see below, Nos. 301, 302) was seen on the exterior of the
shield, and one between Gods and Giants on its interior. On the base
was a representation of the birth of Pandora (see No. 301) and on the
edges of the sandals was a battle between Centaurs and Lapiths.

The statue disappeared from view with the fall of paganism. Nos.
300-302 afford some of the materials for its reconstruction. Rough
reproductions of the figure also occur on Attic reliefs, such as Nos.
771-773.

The statuette, No. 300, is of service for the details of the
composition, although it is artistically a poor copy. The Lenormant
statuette, No. 301, though rough and incomplete, is of more value for
its rendering of the features.

The column beneath the hand of Athenè (in No. 300) presents some
difficulty, as it is not mentioned in descriptions of the statue and
seldom occurs in reproductions of it. It is seen in an Attic relief
(_Michaelis_, pl. 15, fig. 7) on a lead ticket (_Zeitschr. für
Numismatik_, x., p. 152) and, in the form of an olive tree, on a
Lycian coin of the time of Alexander (_Zeitschr. für Num._, _loc.
cit._; Murray, ii., pl. 11). It is more probable that an existing
support should be omitted in reliefs, than that it should be inserted
if non-existent. It is possible, however, that the support was not
a part of the design of Pheidias, but was an addition, found to be
necessary before the time of Alexander.

[Sidenote: =300.=]

Cast of a statuette, copied from the Athenè Parthenos. The Goddess
wears a helmet, ægis, chiton with diploïdion girt round the waist,
bracelets and sandals; her left hand rests on her shield, which stands
on its edge at her side. In the centre of the outside of the shield
is a mask of Medusa, and inside a serpent; the right hand of Athenè
is extended in front and rests on a column with the palm open upwards,
holding a figure of Victory, in whose hands are remains of what is
thought to be a garland. The head of the Victory is wanting. On the
centre of the helmet of Athenè is a Sphinx, and at each side has been
a Pegasos.

The statuette was found in a shrine in a private house. Compare the
vision of Proclos, who was bidden to prepare his house for Athenè,
when her statue was being removed by the Christians from the
Parthenon, about 430 A.D. (Marinus, _Proclos_, 30; Michaelis, p. 270.)

  The original, which is of Pentelic marble, is in the National
  Museum at Athens. Height, with plinth, 3 feet 5 inches. Found in
  1880, _near the Varvakion in Athens. Athenische Mittheilungen_,
  VI., pls. 1, 2, p. 56; _Journ. of Hellen. Studies_, II., p.
  3; Schreiber, _Athena Parthenos des Phidias_, pl. 1; Brunn,
  _Denkmaeler_, Nos. 39, 40; Waldstein, pl. 14; Harrison, _Mythology
  and Monuments of Anc. Athens_, p. 447. For literature see
  Waldstein, _Essays_, p. 270; Wolters, No. 467.

[Sidenote: =301.=]

Cast of a statuette, copied from the statue of Athenè Parthenos.
Athenè wears a helmet, ægis, and chiton with diploïdion girt round the
waist; her right hand is extended in front with the palm open upwards
as if to hold out the figure of Victory. In this part the statuette is
unfinished, the marble underneath the right arm not having been hewn
away. The left hand of the Goddess rests on her shield, which stands
on its edge at her side; inside the shield is a serpent; outside are
reliefs representing the battle between Greeks and Amazons, which
is seen in more detail in No. 302. Among the figures, we recognise
several which occur on No. 302. The figure of Pheidias (_a_, see No.
302) is near the top of the relief, and holds a stone, as described by
Plutarch. Next him perhaps is Pericles (_b_) separated from the fallen
Amazon (_c_), which is at the bottom of the shield, as in No. 302. The
group of the Greek seizing an Amazon (_d_) is seen on the right as in
No. 302. The fallen Amazon (_e_) with hands above her head is high
up, on the left of the relief. In place of the group of an Amazon
supporting her companion (_f_) which is in No. 302, we have here the
same subject, but differently treated. The Gorgon's head is roughly
indicated near the middle of the shield. From the manner in which the
rest of the figure corresponds to the chryselephantine statue, it has
been assumed that the rude outlines of figures in relief on the base
of the statuette represent the composition of Pheidias, of which the
subject was the birth of Pandora (Paus., i., xxiv., 7.)

  The original of this statue, which is of marble, is in the
  National Museum at Athens. Height 1 foot 4-3/4 inches. Found in
  1859 _near the Pnyx, at Athens_. Lenormant, _Gazette des Beaux
  Arts_, 1860, VIII., p. 133; Jahn, _Pop. Aufsätze_, p. 215, pl.
  1; Michaelis, pl. 15, fig. 1, p. 273; Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._, 3rd
  ed., I., p. 253, fig. 54; Brunn, _Denkmaeler_, No. 38; Wolters,
  No. 466; Harrison, _Mythology and Monuments of Anc. Athens_, p.
  449. For the Pandora relief, see Puchstein, in _Jahrbuch des Arch.
  Inst._, V., p. 113.

[Sidenote: =302.=]

Fragment of shield supposed to be a rough copy from the shield of the
statue of Athenè Parthenos. Pliny (_H. N._, xxxvi., 18) and Pausanias
(i., 17, 2) state that the outside of the shield was ornamented with
the representation of a battle between Greeks and Amazons. Plutarch
adds (_Pericles_, 31) that one of the figures represented Pheidias
himself as an old bald-headed man raising a stone with both hands,
while in another figure, who was represented fighting against an
Amazon, with one hand holding out a spear in such a way as to conceal
the face, the sculptor introduced the likeness of Pericles. This
story is probably of late origin, and invented to account for two
characteristic figures on the shield. A head of Medusa, or Gorgoneion,
encircled by two serpents, forms the centre of the composition on the
fragment. Below the Gorgoneion is a Greek warrior (_a_, cf. No. 301),
bald-headed, who raises both hands above his head to strike with a
battle-axe. This figure has been thought to correspond with that of
Pheidias in the original design. Next to him on the right is a Greek
(_b_) who plants his left foot on the body of a fallen Amazon (_c_)
and is in the act of dealing a blow with his right hand; his right
arm is raised across his face and conceals the greater part of it.
The action of this figure again presents a partial correspondence
with that of Pericles as described by Plutarch. To the right of the
supposed Pericles are two Greeks: the one advances to the right; the
other (_d_) seizes by the hair an Amazon falling on the right. Above
this group is an Amazon running to the right and a Greek striding to
the left. His shield has the device of a hare. Above him are three
armed Greeks, and the remains of another figure. On the left of the
figure described as Pheidias is a Greek who has fallen on his knees.
Further to the left is a fallen Amazon (_e_) who lies with her head
towards the lower edge of the shield. Near her is a wounded Amazon
(_f_) supported by a companion of whom but little remains. The lower
part of a third figure, probably that of a Greek, is also seen. All
the Amazons wear high boots and a short chiton, leaving the right
breast exposed; their weapon is a double-headed axe. Red colour
remains on the two serpents which encircle the Gorgon's head, on
the shield of one of the Greeks and in several places on the
draperies.--_Obtained by Viscount Strangford from Athens._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 4-3/4 inches; width, 1 foot 6
  inches. Conze, _Arch. Zeit._, 1865, pls. 196, 197; Jahn, _Pop.
  Aufsätze_, p. 216, pl. 2, 1; Michaelis, pl. 15, fig. 34. Overbeck,
  _Gr. Plast._, 3rd ed., I., p. 255, fig. 55; Mitchell, p. 313;
  Mansell, No. 729; Wolters, No. 471; Harrison, _Mythology and
  Monuments of Anc. Athens_, p. 453. There is a fragment of a
  similar shield in the Vatican, Michaelis, pl. 15, fig. 35.



EASTERN PEDIMENT OF THE PARTHENON.


[Sidenote: =303.=]

We know from Pausanias (i., 24, 5) that the subject of the composition
in the eastern pediment had relation to the birth of Athenè, who,
according to the legend, sprang forth, fully armed, from the brain
of Zeus. As all the central part of this composition was already
destroyed when Carrey made his drawing of the pediment, we have no
means of ascertaining how the subject was treated; and whether the
moment immediately after the birth was represented, as has been
generally supposed, or, as has been also suggested, the moment
immediately before the birth.

A relief surrounding a _puteal_ or well-head, now at Madrid, has been
thought to throw light on this question. There Zeus is enthroned,
looking to the right; Athenè is before him, armed, and advances to the
right. A Victory flies towards her with a wreath. Behind the throne of
Zeus is Hephaestos, who has cleft the skull of Zeus with his axe, and
starts back in astonishment. On the extreme right of the composition
are the three Fates (Schneider, _Geburt der Athena_, pl. 1; Mitchell,
p. 350, fig. 157). Unfortunately the subordinate figures have not
a sufficient resemblance to those which are still extant of the
Parthenon pediment, to allow us to assume a direct connection between
the pediment and the relief. Some such composition, however, seems
more consonant with the dignity of Athenè than the scheme which occurs
on vases and Etruscan mirrors (_e.g._ on a vase in the British Museum,
No. B. 53; _Mon. dell' Inst._, iii., pl. 44) where the Goddess is
represented as a diminutive figure, above the head of Zeus. This
conclusion is confirmed by Sauer's recent examination of the ground
of the pediment. It is now proved that the middle of the east pediment
was occupied by two figures of equal importance, and not by a single
central figure of Zeus, such as is required, if we suppose that the
subject was treated according to the tradition of the vase painters.
It is further shown to be probable that Zeus was seated on the left of
the centre, seen in profile and turned to the right, and that Athenè
stood on the right of the centre, holding a spear in her outstretched
right hand. The whole group between the figures G and K is thought,
from the indications on the pediment, to have consisted of the
following figures, in order from the left:--Standing figure, stepping
inwards (cf. Hermes of the west pediment); standing figure; seated
figure in profile to the right; figure standing immediately behind
Zeus; Zeus and Athenè; Hephaestos (H); seated figure in profile to
the left; standing figure; standing figure turned to the left (J);
standing figure turned outward (compare G).

If we confine our attention to the extant pedimental figures, we find
wide differences of opinion as to their interpretation. The figures in
the angles are the only ones as to which there can be no doubt. On the
left the sun-god, Helios, rises from the ocean, driving his car, and
on the right the moon-goddess Selenè sets beneath the horizon.

These two figures may be interpreted as marking the boundaries either
of Olympos or of the universe. It has also been suggested that they
indicate the hour at which the birth took place. This, according to
Attic tradition, was at sunrise.

Thus far the interpretation rests upon sure grounds. Of the remaining
figures in the pediment, J has been generally recognised as Victory
greeting the newly born Goddess, and G has been generally taken for
Iris, announcing the news to the world (but see below, G). None of
the remaining figures have been conclusively identified. Most of
the numerous schemes of interpretation that have been proposed are
exhibited in a table by Michaelis, _Der Parthenon_, p. 165, cf. _Guide
to the Elgin Room, I._, Table A. As regards the general principles of
interpretation it is to be observed that the schemes may be divided
into two classes. We may either suppose with the earlier critics that
the space bounded by Helios and Selenè represents Olympos, and that
all the figures contained within this space are definite mythological
personages, probably deities, who may be supposed to have been present
at the birth; or we may assume that all the deities present were
comprised in the central part of the pediment, and that the figures
towards the angles belong to the world outside Olympos, to whom the
news is brought. These may be definite mythological persons, or they
may be figures personifying parts of the natural world. Compare the
Homeric Hymn to Athenè, and Pindar, _Olymp._, vii., 35.

  The best views of this pediment are (1) the drawing of Carrey in
  the Bibliothèque Nationale (pl. v., fig. 1). A facsimile in
  the British Museum; in Laborde, _Le Parthénon_, and _Antike
  Denkmaeler_, I., pl. 6 (exhibited in Elgin Room); (2) sketch by
  Pars, engraved in Stuart, vol. II., chap. I., pl. 1. The original
  drawing is in the Print Room of the British Museum. For a list of
  proposed restorations, see Schneider, _Geburt der Athena_, p. 23,
  pls. 2-7; Waldstein, _Essays_, p. 139. For Sauer's examination of
  the pediment, see _Athenische Mittheilungen_, XVI., pl. 3, p.
  59; _Antike Denkmaeler_, I., pl. 58. The ends of the pediment are
  reproduced in figs. 7, 8.

[Illustration: Fig. 7.--The South End of the East Pediment of the
Parthenon (according to Sauer).]

[Illustration: Fig. 8--The North End of the East Pediment of the
Parthenon (according to Sauer).]

[Sidenote: =303 A.=]

Helios, in his chariot emerging from the waves. The head is wanting,
the neck has a forward inclination corresponding with the action of
the arms, which are stretched out in front of the body, holding the
reins by which the upspringing horses of the Sun-god were guided
and controlled. The head of Helios had been already broken away in
Carrey's time; the wrist and hand of the right arm, now wanting, are
shown in his drawing. The surface of the marble on the neck having
been protected from weather by the cornice retains its original
polish. At the back and between the arms are sculptured small rippling
waves to represent a calm sea at sunrise. These waves are treated in
the conventional manner usual in representations of water in Greek
art; their profile shown on the edge of the plinth approximates very
nearly to the well-known wave pattern. The metal reins have been
attached to the upper surface of the plinth under the right forearm,
and also under the right hand, now lost; three dowel holes in this
part of the plinth served for their attachment. The waves were
probably distinguished by colour. It has been noted by Michaelis that
the angle in which this figure was placed is the darkest spot in the
eastern pediment, and that it is only fully illumined by the early
morning sun.

  _Mus. Marbles_, VI., pl. 1; Michaelis, pl. 6, fig. 8; Overbeck,
  I., p. 303, fig. 61 (with B, C).

[Sidenote: =303 B, C.=]

Two horses of Helios. The team of Helios was represented by four
horses' heads, two of which still remain in position on the temple, at
the back of the pediment. The two which are here are sculptured in the
round out of one block of marble. They are represented emerging from
the waves, the profile of which is sculptured in relief on the neck
of the nearest horse. The head of the horse nearest the eye (B)
looks outwards, and has projected beyond the plane of the pedimental
cornice, so that it must have caught the light. The action of this
horse's head is most spirited, though its effect is greatly impaired
by the loss of the lower jaw, and the injury which the surface of the
marble has received from exposure to the weather. The reins were of
metal, and the points of attachment of reins and bridle are marked by
three dowel holes in the plinth, a fourth behind the right ear, and a
fifth inside the mouth. The head of the other horse on this block (C),
which was advanced beyond the outside head, so as to be visible, is
nearly destroyed; only the neck and back of the head remain.

  _Mus. Marbles_, VI., pl. 2; Michaelis, pl. 6, fig. 9;
  _Stereoscopic_, No. 105. For the two heads still on the pediment,
  see _Athenische Mittheilungen_, XVI., p. 81.

[Sidenote: =303 D.=]

This figure, which is commonly known as Theseus, reclines on a rock
and faces the horses of Helios. He leans on his left arm in an easy
attitude. The right arm is bent, but, as the hand is wanting, we can
only form conjectures as to what its action may have been. It probably
held a spear, or some other long object, the end of which may have
been attached to the left ankle at the place where a dowel hole is
still visible. According to some writers, the hole served for the
attachment of the laced work of a sandal in bronze. (_Ber. d. k.
sächs. Ges. d. Wissenschaften_, 1880, p. 44.) The legs are bent, the
left leg drawn back under the right. The headdress is in the form of
the krobylos (cf. No. 209). The body is entirely nude: over the rock
on which the figure rests is thrown a mantle under which is strewn a
skin, the claws of which are certainly those of some feline animal.
The type and position of this figure present so much resemblance
to the Heracles on the silver coins of Croton in Lower Italy (_Mus.
Marbles_, vi., title-page), that it has been identified with that hero
by Visconti, who supposed the skin on which he reclines to be that
of a lion. This skin, however, seems more like that of a panther, on
which ground the figure has been thought to be Dionysos, who appears
in a very similar reclining attitude on another Athenian work, the
Choragic monument of Lysicrates (No. 430, _1_); compare the statue
in the Louvre, Müller-Wieseler, _Denkmaeler_, ii., pl. 32, No. 360.
Compare also the figure of Dionysos reclining, on a relief on an
_askos_ in the British Museum, No. G. 281 (see fig. 9). The figure,
however, differs greatly in character, not only from the figure on the
monument of Lysicrates, but also from the figure sometimes supposed to
be Dionysos on the frieze of the Parthenon. (East side, No. 38.) More
recently Brunn has interpreted this figure as the mountain of
Olympos illumined by the first rays of the rising sun, and it must be
acknowledged that the attitude and type of the so-called Theseus
is very suitable for the personification of a mountain. Compare the
figures of mountains from reliefs, collected by Waldstein (_Essays_,
pp. 173, 174).

[Illustration: Fig. 9.]

  _Mus. Marbles_, VI., pls. 3, 4; Baumeister, _Denkmaeler_, p. 1180,
  fig. 1370; Michaelis, pl. 6, fig. 10; Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._, 3rd
  ed., I., p. 304, fig. 62; Murray, II., pl. 5; _Stereoscopic_,
  No. 105; Waldstein, _Essays_, pl. 6; Brunn, _Ber. der k. bayer.
  Akad., Phil. hist. Cl._, 1874, II., p. 14. The correct position
  of the figure in the pediment has been ascertained by Sauer (_cf._
  fig. 7).

[Sidenote: =303 E, F.=]

Two female figures, seated on square seats. They both wear a
sleeveless chiton, girt at the waist, and a diploïdion. Over it is a
mantle thrown over their lower limbs in a rich composition of folds.
On the right wrist of the figure nearest the angle (E) is a dowel
hole, probably for the attachment of a bracelet. Her companion (F),
who wore metal fibulæ on each shoulder, extends her left arm towards
the figure, which is advancing towards her. Her head has been broken
off at the base of the neck, but it has probably been turned towards
her companion, who rests her left arm affectionately on her shoulder,
and who probably looked towards her, perhaps as if listening to the
news brought by Iris. The seats, on which are laid folded carpets, are
carved out of the marble with great care and delicacy of finish, the
regular geometrical lines being valuable in opposition to the varied
undulations of the drapery. In the sides and backs of both seats are
oblong sunk panels, in one of which several archaeologists have tried
unsuccessfully to read the name of an artist (see Michaelis, p. 174;
Brunn, _Griech. Künstler_, i., p. 104). Most of the writers on the
Parthenon, from Visconti downwards, have named this group Demeter and
Persephonè, two deities, whose cult in Attica ranked second only to
that of Athenè herself. This attribution would be strengthened if the
reclining male figure could be identified with Dionysos, a deity whose
worship in Attica was closely connected with that of the Eleusinian
goddesses. The composition of the group has suggested to other
archaeologists a sisterly rather than a filial relation between the
figures. Bröndsted (_Voyages et Recherches_, ii., p. xi.) suggested
that these two figures, with G, were the three Horae or Seasons,
worshipped in Attica under the names Thallo, Auxo and Karpo. Brunn
(followed by Waldstein) supposes that the two figures are Horae, but
that they must be viewed as the warders of the gates of Olympos (Hom.
_Il._, v., 749) rather than as Attic deities. On this theory the
position of figure G, if it represents Iris, would indicate that she
is on the point of reaching the boundary of Olympos and passing to the
outer world.

  _Mus. Marbles_, VI., pl. 5; Michaelis, pl. 6, fig. 11; Murray,
  II., pl. 4; _Stereoscopic_, No. 106; Rayet, _Monuments_, No. 32;
  Waldstein, _Essays_, pl. 7; Mitchell, _Selections_, pl. 6; Brunn,
  _Ber. der k. bayer. Akad., Phil. hist. Cl._, 1874, II., p. 15.

[Sidenote: =303 G.=]

Iris (?).--This figure is moving rapidly to our left, the right knee
bent. The left arm was probably extended; the right was bent nearly at
a right angle. Both hands probably held parts of the mantle, of which
a remnant floats behind, bellied out by the resistance of the air
to the rapid movement of the figure. The feet are wanting from the
instep. The figure was let into a socket about two inches deep, on the
floor of the pediment. It seems to be exactly in the same condition as
when Carrey saw it, except that in his drawing rather more of the neck
appears than now remains. The dress is a Doric chiton, _schistos_,
open down the left side, except for the girdle. Over this falls a
diploïdion. The arms of this figure are small in proportion to the
strength of the lower limbs, and the breasts undeveloped like those
of a young girl. This would be consistent with the type of Iris as the
messenger of Zeus and Hera, trained to swift movement. The head may
have been half turned back towards the central group, but too little
remains of the neck to make this certain. From the rapid movement
of the figure in a direction turned away from the centre of the
composition, archæologists have been nearly unanimous in thinking that
the figure is Iris on her way to announce the event of the birth to
the world outside Olympos. But the action is not that of a steady
flight through the air, for which the Nikè of Paionios (No. 192)
should be compared. It is rather that of a person starting aside in
alarm. Moreover, the figure has not the wings of Iris, and on these
grounds she has been called Eileithyia (Murray, ii., p. 71), Hebè
(Brunn, _Ber. d. k. bayer. Akad. Phil. hist. Cl._, 1874, ii., p. 19),
or simply a terrified maiden (Wolters, p. 254).

  _Mus. Marbles_, VI., pls. 6, 7; Baumeister, _Denkmaeler_, p. 1183,
  fig. 1373; _Stereoscopic_, No. 106; Michaelis, pl. 6, figs. 12,
  12_a_; Murray, II., pl. 4; Mitchell, _Selections_, pl. 6.

[Sidenote: =303 H.=]

Cast of a torso of Hephaestos or Prometheus. Powerful male torso, from
the neck to the groin. The action of the shoulders, and of the muscles
of the ribs and back shows that the arms were raised. Perhaps both
hands held an axe above the head, as if about to strike. This is the
only fragment besides No. 303 J. which has any claim to be assigned
to the central group of the eastern pediment. Though we have little
knowledge of how the central group of this pediment was composed, we
may suppose that the personage would not have been omitted through
whose act of cleaving the head of Zeus with an axe the birth of Athenè
was accomplished. In the most generally diffused version of the
myth this was done by Hephaestos, but Attic tradition preferred to
attribute the deed to Prometheus. The original, which was discovered
on the east side of the Parthenon in 1836, is at _Athens_.

  Michaelis, pl. 6, figs. 13, 13_a_.

[Sidenote: =303 J.=]

Nikè, or Victory. Torso of a female figure, moving rapidly to the
front, and to our left, with the right arm extended in the same
direction. The figure wears a short sleeveless chiton with a
diploïdion which is confined under the girdle, to facilitate rapid
motion. A piece of bronze, which is fixed in the marble about the
middle of the left thigh, may have served for the attachment of a
metallic object, perhaps a taenia held in the left hand. At the back
the drapery is tied together, so as to leave the shoulder-blades bare.
On each shoulder-blade is a deep oblong sinking, which can only have
served for the insertion of the wings, which must have been attached
by dowels in the holes pierced round the sinkings. It may be inferred
from the size of these sinkings that the wings were of marble, not
metal.

It has generally been taken for granted, that this figure belongs to
the eastern pediment, and it has been inferred from its height that it
was not placed much nearer the centre than its present position.

This depends, however, on the original position of the wings. If they
were raised above the head, the figure must have occupied a place
nearer to the centre than it does at present. But it should be
observed, that in Carrey's drawing of the eastern pediment this figure
is not given, and, though Visconti states that it was found lying on
the ground below the front of the temple, it has been contended that
he may have been misinformed on this point, and that the figure so
closely resembles one in the western pediment as drawn by Carrey
and Dalton that it is probably the same. (See plate v., fig. 2, N,
Michaelis, p. 175, pl. 7, fig. N, and _Hilfstafel_, fig. N.) This
resemblance may be admitted; but if, on this ground, we identify
the torso of Nikè with the figure in the western pediment (N), which
stands by the car of Amphitritè, we have a Victory associated with the
side of Poseidon, which seems inconsistent with the entire conception
of the western pediment. Moreover, the figure in Carrey's drawing has
a scarf hanging from the left arm, which seems not in character with
the type of Victory; and, further, Carrey gives no indication of
wings. On the other hand, the composition in the eastern pediment
would be incomplete if Nikè were not present to welcome the new-born
Athenè. On the whole, therefore, there is strong reason for leaving
this torso in the pediment to which it was originally assigned by
Visconti. In recent years two valuable additions have been made to
this figure. The right thigh was identified and added in 1860, and
the left knee in 1875. The figure is placed by Sauer in profile to the
left.

  _Mus. Marbles_, VI., pl. 9; Michaelis, pl. 6, figs. 14, 14_a_;
  Baumeister, _Denkmaeler_, p. 1182, fig. 1372.

[Sidenote: =303 K, L, M.=]

Group of three female figures (or, perhaps, a group of two, with a
third figure less closely associated, the figure K being made of
a different block from L and M). The figures are seated on rocks,
levelled on the top, and in the case of L, M, cut in step form to suit
the composition. The rocks are covered with draperies. These three
figures are considerably more complete in Carrey's drawings than now,
and the motives can best be understood with the aid of the drawings.
The figure K half turned her head towards the central scene. The right
arm was bent at the elbow towards the front of the body. The figure
L was headless in Carrey's time. The right arm, according to Carrey's
drawing, was bent towards the right shoulder, as if the action had
been that of drawing up the edge of the mantle with the right hand.
The body of this figure is bent forward and the feet drawn far back,
as would be the case with a person wishing to spring up. This motive
forms a contrast to that of the reclining figure (M), whose right arm
rests in her companion's lap, and whose tranquil attitude and averted
gaze, shown by Carrey's drawing to have been directed towards the
angle of the pediment, seem to indicate that the news of the birth has
not yet reached her. K wears sandals, a chiton with diploïdion, and a
mantle of thick substance which passes across the knees, and over the
left shoulder, above which it may have been held with the left hand.
L wears a fine chiton, confined with a cord beneath the arms, and a
mantle covering the back and passing across the knees. M wears a fine
chiton, confined at the waist by a girdle, and has a mantle wrapped
about her legs. She appears to have worn a bracelet on the right arm.

On comparing the composition of this triad with that of the triad
placed next to Helios in the opposite half of the pediment a curious
analogy of treatment may be observed. The so-called Theseus (D), like
the reclining figure (M), seems to be quite unconscious of the great
event which is being announced, and they are turned as by law of
attraction to the groups of Day and Night which bound the scene
on either side. The central figure on either triad seems only half
aroused, while on either side the figure nearest the central action
appears to have heard the news of the birth. If the triad near Selenè
are the Three Fates, as Visconti and many of his successors have
supposed, their place would more naturally be in the central part of
the composition, or at least they might be supposed to be more on the
alert with respect to what was passing. By others it has been argued
that the place of this triad in immediate succession to Selenè, and
the direction in which the figure nearest to the angle (M) is turned,
would point to some mythic connection between these three figures and
the Goddess of the Moon. Such a connection is suggested by the names
given to the group by Welcker, who saw in them the three daughters of
Cecrops, Aglauros, Hersè, and Pandrosos, mythic impersonations of the
Dew, who have a conspicuous place in Attic legend, though Pandrosos
alone of the three seems to have been honoured with worship at Athens.
The same desire to connect this triad with Selenè has led Brunn (_Ber.
d. k. bayer. Akad. Phil. hist. Cl._, 1874, ii., p. 16) to see in them
personifications of clouds.

Among the writers who have regarded K as separate from L and M, the
most common opinion has been that K is Hestia; L and M have been
called Aphroditè in the lap of Thalassa (Ronchaud), or of Peitho
(Petersen), or Thalassa, the Sea, in the lap of Gaia, the Earth
(Waldstein).

  K. _Mus. Marbles_, VI., pl. 10; Michaelis, pl. 6, fig. 15; Murray,
  II., pl. 7; Mitchell, _Selections_, pl. 6; _Stereoscopic_, No.
  108.

  L. M. _Mus. Marbles_, VI., pl. 11; Baumeister, _Denkmaeler_,
  p. 1184, fig. 1374; Michaelis, pl. 6, fig. 16; Overbeck, _Gr.
  Plast._, 3rd ed., I., p. 308, fig. 63; Murray, II., pl. 7;
  _Stereoscopic_, No. 108; Waldstein, _Essays_, pl. 8; Mitchell,
  _Selections_, pl. 6.

[Sidenote: =303 N.=]

Selenè.--It has been already stated that the horse's head in the
right-hand angle of the pediment belongs to the Goddess of the Moon,
who is represented by the torso cast in plaster (N) which stands next
to it. The original of this torso, now at Athens, was discovered in
1840 on the east side of the Parthenon. The arms and head are wanting,
the body is cut off below the waist, as only the upper part of the
figure was shown on the pediment. The dress is a sleeveless chiton
girt at the waist and fastened on each shoulder. The bosom is crossed
diagonally by two bands which pass round to the back. Two large
dowel holes in the girdle and two others on the shoulders mark where
metallic ornaments have been attached. On the back is a remnant of
drapery extending from shoulder to shoulder; this is probably part of
a peplos, the ends of which may have fallen over the arms.

It has usually been assumed that Selenè was driving a chariot, and
this has been conclusively proved by Sauer, who found the heads of two
horses still in position on the pediment, and indications of a fourth
head now lost. A theory recently suggested that Selenè rides a single
horse is thereby rendered untenable.

  Michaelis, pl. 6, figs. 17, 17a; _cf._ Wolters, pp. 256, 259; C.
  Smith, _Journ. of Hellen. Studies_, IX., p. 8; _Stereoscopic_, No.
  109; Sauer, _Athenische Mittheilungen_, XVI., pl. 3, p. 84.

[Sidenote: =303 O.=]

Horse's Head.--The head was so placed in the pediment that the muzzle
projected over the cornice; in order to adjust it securely in this
position, a portion of the lower jaw was cut away. The inner side of
the top of the head has also been cut away, in order to give room for
the upper member of the pediment. This head presents, as might have
been expected, a marked contrast in motive to the pair in the opposite
angle. The heads of the horses of Helios are thrown up with fiery
impatience as they spring from the waves; the downward inclination of
the head here described indicates that the car of Selenè is about to
vanish below the horizon. In the whole range of ancient art there
is, perhaps, no work in marble in which the sculptor has shown such
complete mastery over his material. The nostrils "drink the air"; the
fiery expression of the eye, the bold, sharply defined outlines of the
bony structure so skilfully opposed to the sensitive flexibility of
the nose, and the brawny tenseness of the arched neck, are so combined
in this noble work that the praise bestowed on it by Goethe is not
extravagant. "This work," he says, "whether created by the imagination
of the artist or seen by him in nature, seems the revelation of
a prototype; it combines real truth with the highest poetical
conception." Behind the ears is a dowel hole; another is on the nose
between the eyes and the mouth, and a third on the inner corner of the
mouth. These show where a metal bridle was attached. On the crest
of the hogged mane are eleven smaller holes, in which some metallic
ornament must have been inserted. Two horses' heads still remain in
the angle of the pediment. See above, 303 N.

  _Mus. Marbles_, VI., pl. 12; Michaelis, pl. 6, figs. 18, 18_a_;
  Murray, II., pl. 6; _Stereoscopic_, No. 109.



WESTERN PEDIMENT OF THE PARTHENON.


[Sidenote: =304.=]

The subject of the western pediment of the Parthenon according to
Pausanias (i., 24, 5) was the strife of Poseidon with Athenè for the
soil of Attica. This contest, according to tradition, took place on
the Acropolis itself. Athenè, on this occasion, showed her power by
making the soil produce the olive-tree; Poseidon, striking the ground
with his trident, produced a salt spring, or, according to another
and later version, a horse. The victory in the contest was adjudged
to Athenè. The spot where this double miracle took place was marked in
subsequent times by the joint temple of Erechtheus and Athenè Polias;
within the precincts of which were the sacred olive-tree produced by
Athenè, and the salt spring of Poseidon.

In the time of Carrey, the composition in this pediment was nearly
perfect, and to understand the torsos which remain, reference should
be made to Carrey's drawing (Plate v., fig. 2), or to the large model
of the Parthenon. A few of the early writers on the Parthenon (Spon,
Woods, Leake, Weber) mistook the western pediment for that which
contained the representation of the birth of Athenè. If we omit the
archaeologists who were under this misapprehension, we find that,
while there is much difference of opinion as to the identification of
the single figures in the western pediment as drawn by Carrey, it is
generally admitted that the space bounded by the reclining figures in
the angles represents the Acropolis between the two rivers of Athens,
and that the figures to the left of Athenè are Attic deities or
heroes, who would sympathise actively with her in the contest which is
the subject of the pediment, while those to the right of Poseidon are
the subordinate marine deities who would naturally be present as the
supporters of the Ruler of the sea. The most interesting dissentient
theory is that of Brunn (_Ber. d. k. bayer. Akad. Phil. hist.
Cl._, 1874, ii., p. 23). By an ingenious but inconclusive series of
arguments he has endeavoured to show that the west pediment contains
a personified representation of the whole coast of Attica, from the
borders of Megaris to Cape Sunium.

The great destruction of the western pediment since it was seen by
Carrey may have been partly due to the explosion during the siege, but
was chiefly the work of the Venetian General Morosini. After taking
the Acropolis he tried to lower the horses of the car of Athenè, but
the tackle he used broke, and this matchless group fell to the ground.
If the fragments had been then collected and put together, much of
this beautiful design might have been saved, but they remained on the
spot where they fell till after the establishment of the Greek kingdom
at Athens (1833), when such of them as were extant were gathered up
and placed in a magazine on the Acropolis. They were subsequently
moulded, and casts of them are now exhibited in the Elgin Room.
Between the time of Morosini and the middle of the last century, when
Dalton drew the western pediment, the work of destruction had been
carried much further. In the right wing of the composition the figures
N, O, Q, S, T, and in the left wing only four figures, A, B, C, and
F(?) are shown in position on the pediment in Dalton's Plate. In the
intervening middle space, two torsos are lying on the floor of the
pediment. One of these is probably the Poseidon; the other may be the
figure marked H. On the ground below the pediment lies the body of a
draped figure, perhaps Athenè, and a fragment which may belong to the
Poseidon.

All that remained in position in the western pediment when Lord
Elgin's agents came to Athens were the figures B and C in the north
angle, and in the south angle the lower part of the reclining female
figure W. The figures are still in position, and the west end of the
Parthenon was therefore not touched by Lord Elgin. The River-god A
and the torsos H, L, M, O were found under the north-west angle of the
pediment, after taking down a Turkish house built against the columns.
The lower part of a female figure Q may also have been found on this
spot.

After the Acropolis passed into the possession of the Greek
government, the ground round the Parthenon was partly cleared of its
ruins, and this led to the discovery, in 1835, of the crouching male
figure V and of many fragments, among which are remains of the
horses lowered by Morosini. The sculptures removed by Lord Elgin are
exhibited in combination with casts of the remains now at Athens. The
description that follows begins from the left or northern angle of the
pediment.

[Sidenote: =304 A.=]

Ilissos or Kephissos.--This figure, reclining in the angle of
the pediment, is universally admitted to be a River-god, (cf. the
description by Pausanias (v., 10, 7) of the pediment of the temple of
Zeus at Olympia). The figure is popularly known as the Ilissos, but
it may represent the Athenian Kephissos. According to Brunn's
topographical scheme, it is a less familiar Kephissos, near Eleusis.
This figure appears not to have suffered much since Carrey drew it. It
was still in the pediment in Stuart's time, but had been thrown down
at the date of Lord Elgin's mission. The body, half reclined, rests on
the left arm, over which is the end of an himation, which falls behind
the back in undulating lines, and is drawn up to the right knee. As
the head and most of the right arm are wanting, their action must be
a matter of conjecture; the general motion of the figure seems to
indicate the moment of sudden transition from repose to action, and
would be consistent with the supposition that the head was turned
towards the central group, watching the momentous issue of the
contest, and that the River-god was in the act of rising. In that case
his right hand may have been drawing forward the end of his himation
over his right knee. This figure has been long and deservedly
celebrated for the perfection of its anatomy. In the front of the
body, the flexibility of the abdominal muscles is finely contrasted
with the strong framework of the ribs. The supple elastic character of
the skin is here rendered with the same mastery as in the horse's head
of the eastern pediment. At the back some of the surface has retained
its original polish. In the undulating lines of the drapery, the
sculptor has succeeded in suggesting the idea of flowing water without
having recourse to direct or conventional imitation. The ground on
which the figure reclines is a rock. The left hand rested on the bed
of the pediment. A drawing by Pars taken during his visit to Athens
in 1765-66 (engraved Stuart, ii., chap. I., pl. 9), shows part of the
right forearm not shown in Carrey's drawing, and the outline of the
four fingers of the left hand overlapping the edge of the pediment. A
small attribute, probably of marble, was attached to the floor of the
pediment in front of the figure.

  _Mus. Marbles_, VI., pls. 13, 14; Mansell, 700; Baumeister,
  _Denkmaeler_, p. 1181, fig. 1371; Michaelis, pl. 8, fig. 1;
  Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._, 3rd ed., I., p. 310, fig. 64; Murray, II.,
  pl. 8; Mitchell, _Selections_, pl. 4; Waldstein, _Essays_, pl. 3;
  _Stereoscopic_, No. 110; Sauer, _Athenische Mittheilungen_, XVI.,
  p. 79.

[Sidenote: =304 A*.=]

Between A and the two next figures (B, C) a space is shown in Dalton's
drawing sufficient for a crouching figure, though no vestige of such a
figure is indicated by Carrey. Traces also remain on the floor of the
pediment (Sauer, _Athenische Mittheilungen_, xvi., p. 78). This gap
may have been filled by a crouching Water Nymph, associated with the
River-god. Brunn suggests a tributary of the Eleusinian Kephissos.

[Sidenote: =304 B, C.=]

Cecrops and Pandrosos (cast).--This group still remains in the
pediment at Athens, though much injured by exposure to the weather. It
consists of a male figure, whose left thigh receives the main weight
of his body, which leans a little to the right, resting on his left
hand. With him is grouped a female figure, who has thrown herself in
haste on both knees, with one arm round the neck of her companion. Her
action expresses surprise at the event occurring in the centre of the
pediment, towards which she has looked back. She wears a long chiton,
and over it a diploïdion which falls below the girdle, and which
has slipped from the left shoulder, leaving the left breast and side
exposed. Her left arm, now entirely wanting, was broken off a little
below the shoulder at the date of Carrey's drawing. The male figure
has a mantle cast over his lower limbs. His right arm, which was
broken off below the elbow in the time of Stuart, is now reduced to
a stump. The right leg and knee and part of the right thigh have also
been lost since the time of Stuart. It appears from the statements of
travellers (cf. Michaelis, p. 194) that these figures lost their heads
in the years 1802 and 1803. The careful drawing of the group made by
Pars, and preserved in the British Museum (Stuart, ii., chap. I., pl.
9; Michaelis, pl. 8, fig. 2), shows that the heads of both figures
were turned towards the central group, the head of the female figure
being, moreover, slightly inclined over the left shoulder. In this
drawing the right arm of the male figure is bent at a right angle, the
upper part being nearly horizontal. On the ground between the pair is
a convex mass, which has been recognised to be part of the coil of a
large serpent. The remainder of this serpent may be seen at the back
of the group, passing under the left hand of the male figure. In front
of this hand the body of the serpent terminates in a joint with a
rectangular sinking, into which a fragment from the Elgin Collection
has been fitted. (_Mus. Marbles_, vi., pl. 8, fig. 2.)

This group has received various names. Spon and Wheler took it to
represent Hadrian and Sabina, and their opinion was repeated by Payne
Knight. The group has also been called Heracles and Hebè; Hephaestos
and Aphroditè. The association of the serpent with the male figure has
led Michaelis (p. 193) to recognise in him Asclepios, in which case
the female figure would naturally be Hygieia, who is constantly
associated with the father of the healing art, and who was worshipped,
conjointly with Asclepios, in a shrine at the southern foot of the
Athenian Acropolis. The bearded head, too, of the male figure, as
drawn by Pars, would well accord with the type of Asclepios. On the
other hand, the serpent in connection with that deity is usually
coiled round his staff, not winding along the ground, as on the
pediment. The whole composition of this serpent in relation to the
kneeling male figure rather suggests the type of the earth-born
Cecrops, as has been maintained by a considerable number of
archæologists. If we adopt this attribution, then the female figure so
intimately associated with the bearded figure in this group would
be one of the daughters of Cecrops, perhaps Pandrosos. For the
topographical interpretations of Boetticher (Marathon and Salamis) and
of Brunn (Kithaeron and Parnes) there is no evidence.

  Michaelis, pl. 8, fig. 2; Murray, II., pl. 9; _Stereoscopic_,
  No. 111. A remarkably accurate copy of this group was recently
  discovered at Eleusis, and is now in the National Museum at
  Athens. In the copy the coils of the serpent are omitted ([Greek:
  Ephêmeris], 1890, pl. 12).

[Sidenote: =304 D, E, F.=]

If B and C are Cecrops and one of his daughters, the two female
figures (D, F), who in Carrey's drawing follow next, might be his
other two daughters. The boy (E) between them would be, in that case,
not the infant Iakchos between Demeter (D) and Korè (F), as several
writers have supposed, but the young Erysichthon, son of Cecrops.
According to Brunn's scheme these three figures personify Lycabettos,
between Pentelicon and Hymettos.

Of the three figures D, E, F, only one fragment, now at Athens, has
been identified, representing the left knee of a seated figure, with
the right hand of a boy resting on it, and thus corresponding
with Carrey's drawing of the seated figure on whose knee the boy
Erysichthon rests his right hand. A cast of this fragment is exhibited
in a Wall-Case (No. 339, _8_). A fragment, now at Athens with the
drapery on the right side of a figure seated on a rock, has been
conjecturally assigned by Michaelis (pl. 8, fig. 5) to figure D or U.
A cast is exhibited, No. 339, _7_.

In Dalton's drawing a draped female torso, broken off at the knees,
is placed next to C, which Michaelis (p. 191), conjectures to be
the remains of F. Dalton has represented this figure with the chiton
slipped down from the right shoulder so as to show the right breast
and side. But the drawing by Pars shows next to C a part of a figure
which accords more with D as drawn by Carrey. This fragment consists
of a right arm bent at a right angle and advanced, and a line of
drapery falling down the right side below the armpit. There is no
reason to doubt that the figure to which the arm belonged was in
position on the pediment when Pars drew it, and, if so, Dalton's
drawing must be wholly inaccurate in respect to this figure. (See
Michaelis, pl. 8, fig. 2.)

[Sidenote: =304 G.=]

Next in order in Carrey's drawing is the seated female figure (G), who
acts as charioteer to Athenè, and who has been generally recognised as
Nikè. The only fragment which can be attributed with any probability
to this figure is the head, obtained from Venice by Count de Laborde
(No. 339, _1_). A cast is exhibited in the Elgin Room.

[Sidenote: =304 H.=]

Hermes (?).--In the background, between the figure G and the horses,
Carrey gives a male figure (H), who looks back at the charioteer,
while he moves forward in the same direction as the horses. The figure
drawn by Carrey has been generally recognised in the torso in the
Museum which has lost the head and lower limbs since Carrey's time,
and is probably the same torso which Dalton represents lying on
the bed of the pediment. This figure has been called Erechtheus,
Erichthonios, Ares, Cecrops, Theseus, Pan, or Hermes. He is evidently
aiding the charioteer in the management of the horses; an office very
appropriate to Hermes, whose general character as a guide is expressed
by such epithets as [Greek: pompaios], and who on other monuments is
represented conducting a chariot.

The drapery which hangs at the back of the torso evidently represents
a chlamys, which must have been fastened in front just above the left
clavicle, where a hole is pierced to receive a metallic fastening.
There is another hole between the collar-bones. The right arm was
probably advanced nearly in a horizontal direction; the left arm may
have had the elbow a little drawn back; and a portion of the chlamys
evidently passed round this arm, and was probably twisted round it,
a fashion of drapery characteristic of Hermes. Among the fragments of
the Parthenon at Athens is a small piece of the left shoulder of this
figure, a cast of which has been adjusted to the marble in the Museum.
The remains of the left thigh show that the left leg was advanced as
in Carrey's drawing. The fragments described below, Nos. 339, _9_, and
339, _10_, may belong to this figure. A fragment of plinth, with two
feet, sometimes assigned to it, is described below, No. 329.

  _Mus. Marbles_, VI., pl. 15; Michaelis, pl. 8, fig. 3.

[Sidenote: =304 L, M.=]

Athenè and Poseidon.--The Athenè of which L is the remnant is drawn by
Carrey moving rapidly to the left; her right arm, broken off above the
elbow, is advanced horizontally in the same direction. Her left arm is
broken off below the shoulder; she wears a long chiton, over which
is a diploïdion, reaching to the hips, and falling in a fold over the
girdle. The ægis, folded like a narrow band, passes obliquely across
the bosom between the breasts, and has extended from the right
shoulder round the left side, and probably across the back. It is
scalloped on its lower edge, and at the points holes are pierced for
the attachment of serpents of metal. In the centre of the ægis is
another hole, in which a circular object six inches in diameter,
doubtless a Gorgoneion, has been fixed. Carrey's drawing shows the
base of the neck, which was broken off before the time of Lord Elgin.
It has been recognised among the fragments on the Acropolis, and a
cast of it is now adjusted to the marble. It is evident from this that
the head of the goddess was turned towards her antagonist.

  _Mus. Marbles_, VI., pl. 16; Michaelis, pl. 8, fig. 13.

[Sidenote: =304 M.=]

The torso of Poseidon is made up of three parts. The fragment with the
shoulders and upper part of the chest was removed by Lord Elgin; the
fragment containing the remainder of the breast and the abdomen nearly
to the navel has been since discovered, and the original is at Athens.
Since this torso was engraved in the work of Michaelis (pl. 8, fig.
16), a small piece has been added to the lower part of the abdomen.
It appears from Carrey's drawing that Poseidon was starting back in
a direction contrary to that of Athenè, with the weight of his body
thrown on the left knee, which is bent. Carrey's drawing shows the
same portion of the right upper arm, which is preserved. It is raised
with the shoulder and may have been extended in a nearly horizontal
direction. The head in Carrey's drawing is slightly inclined over the
right shoulder. At the back the upper part of the shoulders is roughly
cut away; the chiselling does not appear to be ancient, but may have
been done after the figure had fallen from the pediment. The upper
part of this torso is remarkable for the grandeur of the lines.

  _Mus. Marbles_, VI., pl. 17; Lower part, Michaelis, pl. 8, fig.
  16; Laborde, _Le Parthénon_. The two parts are combined, Overbeck,
  _Gr. Plast._, 3rd ed., I., p. 312, fig. 65; _Stereoscopic_, No.
  101.

Though we know from Pausanias that the strife between Athenè and
Poseidon for the soil of Attica was the subject of the western
pediment, the exact action represented by the central group cannot
be determined. Most writers suppose that the combatants have produced
their respective tokens, and that the strife is just decided. Among
the fragments found on the Acropolis were three which are certainly
parts of an olive-tree (Michaelis, pl. 8, fig. 15). The scale of
these fragments, casts of which are exhibited (see below, Nos. 339,
_15-17_), would be suitable for a tree placed in the centre of the
pediment between the two contending deities. If these fragments belong
to the Parthenon (of which there is no positive proof), it seems
natural to suppose that Athenè is represented as having produced her
olive, which stood in the centre of the pediment, and was fixed in
a rectangular socket, well adapted to support it (Sauer, _Athenische
Mittheilungen_, xvi., pl. 3, p. 72). In this case the two gods are
seen starting asunder, but looking inwards, after the decisive moment.
The salt spring produced by the trident of Poseidon may also have
had a place in the composition, though no trace of it is to be found
either among the fragments or in Carrey's drawing.

The chief divergent theory is that of Stephani, who published a
vase-painting representing the contest (_Compte Rendu_, 1872, pl.
1, p. 5; _Journ. of Hellenic Studies_, iii., p. 245). In that design
Poseidon and Athenè form an antagonistic group, which in composition
presents some resemblance with the central group in the pediment. The
olive-tree is placed between them, and Poseidon controls, with
his left hand, the upspringing horse. Stephani argues from the
vase-painting that Pheidias made Poseidon produce the horse--a variant
tradition, of which there are traces in late literature--that Poseidon
was represented striking the ground with his trident and Athenè
striking it with her lance to produce the tokens, which are shown, by
anticipation, in the pediment itself. It is more likely that on the
vase the tokens have been produced and Poseidon attacks, while Athenè
defends the olive. But neither in the protagonists nor in the rest of
the design on the vase is there that close correspondence in type and
action which would justify the conclusion that the vase-painter copied
directly any portion of the pedimental composition. On the other hand,
considerable portions of the bodies of three horses in addition to
those represented by casts in the British Museum (No. 341) have been
discovered in the excavations on the Acropolis (Sauer, _Athenische
Mittheilungen_, xvi., pl. 3, p. 73), and there can be little doubt
that the figure known as Amphitritè (O) acted as the charioteer of
Poseidon, and drove a pair of horses which corresponded closely to
the team of Athenè, and completed the symmetry of the composition.
Inasmuch therefore as each deity has a similar pair of horses, it is
impossible to regard those of Poseidon as his distinctive token in the
combat.

If we assume that this second pair of horses was attached to the
chariot of Poseidon, room may be found for a representation of
the salt spring either between the left leg of the Sea-god and the
forelegs of his chariot horses, or beneath the horses.

  For the vase picture already referred to, see also de Witte, in
  the _Monuments Grecs de l'Association pour l'encouragement des
  études Grecques_, No. 4, 1875; Brunn, _Sitzungsber. d. k. bayer.
  Akad. Phil.-hist. Cl._, 1876, p. 477; and Petersen, _Arch. Zeit._,
  1875, p. 115. For more recent discussions on the subject of the
  dispute between Athenè and Poseidon, see Robert in _Hermes_, XVI.,
  p. 60, and in _Athenische Mittheilungen_, VII., p. 48; Petersen
  in _Hermes_, XVII., p. 124; E. A. Gardner, in _Journ. of Hellen.
  Studies_, III., p. 244; Wolters, p. 259.

[Sidenote: =304 N.=]

This figure, which may have been a Nereid, has been entirely lost
since the time of Dalton, unless we identify it with the supposed
Victory of the east pediment. (See No. 303 J.)

[Sidenote: =304 O.=]

Amphitritè.--In Carrey's drawing this torso appears as a seated
figure, the right foot on a higher level than the left, the left arm
drawn back as if holding the reins; between the feet appears the head
either of a dolphin or a marine monster. The head, left hand, and
apparently the right arm of Amphitritè are wanting. According to
Dalton's imperfect drawing, the figure had in his time lost the left
forearm and left leg. The torso at present wants the head, right arm
from the shoulder, left arm from below the shoulder, and all the lower
limbs except the upper part of the left thigh. The body is clad in a
long chiton without sleeves; an upper fold falls over the bosom as low
as the waist, passing under a broad girdle such as would be suitable
for charioteers. A small mantle passes obliquely across the back, one
end passing over the left shoulder and under the left arm; the
other had passed over the right shoulder. The places where metallic
ornaments were attached on this figure are marked by five holes
pierced in the marble, one of which is on the base of the neck, one
on the right shoulder at the fastening of the chiton, and three on
the left shoulder. On the inside of the left thigh are folds of fine
drapery; the surface of the outside still shows that the chiton had
been open at the side, _schistos_, as in Carrey's drawing. It should
be noted that this figure was not seated, as Carrey has drawn it,
but must have been standing with the body thrown back and the arms
extended in front, like the charioteer (No. 33) in the north frieze.

  _Mus. Marbles_, VI., pl. 18; Michaelis. pl. 8, figs. 18, 18_a_.

[Sidenote: =304 P, Q.=]

Leucothea, with boy (?).--Lower limbs of a seated female figure, which
in Carrey's drawing appears on the right of the Amphitritè, and which
then had its head. The head of the female figure looks out of the
pediment; the feet are placed very close together. In Dalton's drawing
this figure is still in position, but headless. In its present state,
nothing remains of this figure but the lap and legs to the ankles. On
the right of the figure, the body of a youth (P) appears in Carrey's
drawing. The beginning of the right thigh, with the lower part of the
buttock, is still preserved; of the left thigh, the outline as far as
the knee is preserved on the marble. Three fingers of his right hand
may still be traced on the right knee of the female figure (Q),
where they rest on an end of drapery, probably his himation, which
reappears, wound round his left thigh. These remains show that the
body of this boy faced the right side of the female figure, pressing
against her. If we assume that she is a marine goddess, the name
Leucothea seems the best attribution, and the youth at her side would
then be Palaemon. A mantle is thrown over the thighs, falling down
between the knees over the chiton. The folds are deeply undercut, as
if to express the gentle agitation of the drapery by the movement of
a light breeze. In Brunn's topographical scheme, P Q are the coast of
Attica from Munychia to the Piraeus.

  _Mus. Marbles_, VI., pl. 19; Michaelis, pl. 8, fig. 19.

[Sidenote: =304 R.=]

A figure of a child appears in Carrey's drawing on the right of the
figure Q. It is doubtful whether it should be associated most nearly
with Q or with the figure next on the right (S). On the former
supposition, the figure called above Leucothea has been interpreted
as Leto with Apollo and Artemis; as Leda with the Dioscuri; or as
Fostering Earth, [Greek: Gê Kourotrophos], with children. On the
latter supposition R has generally been called Eros associated with
Aphroditè (S).

[Sidenote: =304 S, T.=]

Next in Carrey's drawing comes a draped female figure (T), seated, in
whose lap is a naked figure (S), supposed by Carrey to be female.
This is generally supposed to be Thalassa, the Sea; the almost entire
nudity of the figure in her lap (S) makes it probable that Aphroditè
is here represented; her position in the lap of Thalassa would be
a way of expressing her sea-born origin. According to Brunn, T is a
personification of Cape Colias, and the figure of Aphroditè indicates
a shrine of that Goddess which stood on the cape. If, as seems
probable, the naked female figure is Aphroditè, the boy (R) is
probably Eros. Both the female figures were still in the pediment when
Dalton drew it. The marble fragment (T), representing the right thigh
of a draped female figure seated on a rock, is probably the only
extant remnant of Thalassa. A mantle has been brought round the lower
limbs of this figure, so that one edge of it falls on the rock on
which she is seated. This disposition of the drapery is indicated in
Carrey's drawing. (Michaelis, pl. 8, fig. 20.)

[Sidenote: =304 U.=]

Next in Carrey's drawing comes a female figure (U), seated and draped.
This had fallen out of the pediment when Dalton drew it, and no
fragment of it can now be identified. It had lost the head and arms
in Carrey's time. The figure presents no distinctive characteristic
by which she may be identified. She is probably a marine deity. Brunn
interprets her as a personification of Cape Zoster.

[Sidenote: =304 V, W.=]

Ilissos or Kephissos and Callirrhoè (?).--(Casts) The draped female
figure (W) reclining in the extreme angle of the pediment appears in
Carrey's drawing leaning on her right elbow, and with her head turned
towards the male figure (V) who kneels on both knees, inclining his
body towards his companion, and leaning on his left arm. The manner in
which these figures are here associated suggests an intimate relation
between the two; the female figure has all the characteristics of a
local Nymph, and the flow of her drapery would well accord with
an aquatic type. It seems probable, therefore, that the celebrated
Athenian fountain Callirrhoè may be personified by this figure, and in
that case the male figure next to her (V), though not in the reclining
attitude usually characteristic of River-gods, may be the Ilissos, out
of whose bed the fountain Callirrhoè rises. Brunn holds that V is a
personification of the Attic coast, Paralia. This, however, appears,
from a recently-discovered inscription, to be represented as female
(_Athenische Mittheilungen_, xiii., p. 221); W according to the same
archæologist is a personification of the Myrtoan Sea. Dalton's drawing
shows no indication of either of these figures, though the lower half
of the Callirrhoè is to this day in position on the pediment. The
torso of the male figure had been broken, and was found in two places
in the excavations on the Acropolis in 1833. The head, arms, and left
leg have disappeared since Carrey's time. The right leg is doubled up
under the figure; the left knee must have been somewhat higher. This
figure is nude with the exception of a chlamys which falls down the
back and passes in front over the right ankle. For a fragment which
may belong to the left hand, see No. 339, _20_. This agrees with the
statement of Sauer (_Athenische Mittheilungen_, 1891, p. 81), that the
figure leant with open hand on the ground.

The female figure (W) is reclining on her right side; the right knee
has been more bent than the left. The upper part of the body seems,
from the direction of the folds of the drapery, to have been slightly
raised, and to have rested on the right elbow, as represented in
Carrey's drawing. The dress is a long chiton, over which falls a
diploïdion nearly to the waist. All that remains of the figure are
the right side from below the arm to a little below the right hip, and
parts of both legs wanting the knees. According to Carrey the left
arm of this figure was raised so that the hand projected beyond the
cornice. Between the figures V and W a hole is pierced in the bed of
the pediment, in which some bronze object was inserted.

  Figure V., Laborde, _Le Parthénon_; Michaelis, pl. 8, fig. 21;
  Figure W., Michaelis, pl. 8, fig. 22.



METOPES OF THE PARTHENON.


The metopes of the Parthenon are sculptured blocks which were inserted
in the spaces, _met[)o]pæ_, left between the ends of the beams of the
roof. These ends were represented by slabs, called _triglyphs_, from
the three parallel vertical bands cut in them. Reference to the model
of the Parthenon will show the relative position of the metopes and
triglyphs.

The Parthenon had originally ninety-two metopes, thirty-two of which
were on each of the long sides, and fourteen at each end. Many of
these are now only preserved in the drawings by Carrey, having been
destroyed in the great explosion. Unfortunately, however, Carrey was
only able to sketch the metopes of the south side. Forty-one metopes
still remain on the temple, but are for the most part so decayed
through time and weather that there is great difficulty in making out
their subject. The British Museum possesses fifteen original
metopes brought from Athens by Lord Elgin. His contemporary,
Choiseul-Gouffier, while ambassador at Constantinople, obtained one
more (No. 313), which is now in the Louvre. These sixteen metopes
are all from the south side of the Parthenon, and their subjects
were taken from the contest between the Centaurs and Lapiths at the
marriage-feast of Peirithoös. The first metope on the south side
of the Parthenon, reckoning from the south-west angle, is still in
position on the temple (Michaelis, pl. 3, 1); the second on the temple
is the first of the series of fifteen in the Museum.

The sculpture of the metopes is in the highest relief attainable in
marble, large portions of some of the figures being carved in the
round so as to stand out quite free of the background. There is a
remarkable inequality of style in the sculpture. Thus, for example,
Nos. 319, 320 show traces of archaic feeling, and while No. 309
appears to be the work of an indifferent artist, Nos. 310, 316, 317
are admirable.

[Sidenote: =305.=]

The Lapith kneels on the back of the Centaur, clasping his head with
his left arm, and pressing the fingers of his left hand against his
windpipe. The Centaur has been thrown on his right knee; his head is
forced back, his mouth wide open as if uttering a cry of agony. His
left hand vainly endeavours to dislodge the grasp on his throat, the
right hand appears behind the right shoulder of the Lapith. When drawn
by Carrey, the head and right foot of the Lapith and the right foreleg
of the Centaur still remained. The head of Lapith may be No. 343, _6_.

  _Mus. Marbles_, VII., pl. 1; Baumeister, _Denkmaeler_, p. 1175,
  fig. 1364; Michaelis, pl. 3, ii.; _Stereoscopic_, No. 80, A.

[Sidenote: =306.=]

The Lapith attacks the Centaur from behind, resting his right knee on
his crupper, and extending forward his right arm to seize the neck of
his foe. The Centaur, standing to the left, turns his human body half
round to meet his adversary. A skin is wound about his left arm by way
of shield. An ample chlamys hangs from the shoulders of the Lapith,
and he wears boots. His left arm was drawn back to strike. A hole near
the pit between the collar-bones and another on the lowest left rib
show where a sword-belt has been attached. Two similar holes are to
be seen on the body of the Centaur. These may have served for the
attachment of a bronze weapon held in the right hand. The head of
the Centaur still existed when Carrey drew this metope, but had
disappeared before the time of Stuart.

  _Mus. Marbles_, VII., pl. 2; Michaelis, pl. 3, iii.; _Stereoscopic_,
  No. 81.

[Sidenote: =307.=]

The Centaur is victorious; with both hands raised above his head, he
is about to hurl on his prostrate foe a large hydria. His equine body
is rearing against the Lapith, who vainly endeavours to defend himself
with his uplifted buckler, while the Centaur strikes at him with his
fore feet. The right forearm of the Lapith, now wanting, has rested on
the ground. A fragment of his right foot still remaining on the base
of the metope below the left hind leg of the Centaur shows that this
leg was extended nearly at full length, as it is drawn by Carrey. The
heads of both these figures and the right arm of the Centaur are cast
from the originals in the museum at Copenhagen, which were sent from
Athens in 1688 by a Captain Hartmand, who probably served under Count
Königsmark in Morosini's army. Round the head of the Lapith is a
sinking into which a metallic band or wreath has been fitted. On the
ground under the body of the Lapith are some folds of his chlamys, a
fragment of which may be traced on his left arm. Michaelis adds to the
Centaur's left hind-leg a hoof and lower part of leg, the original of
which is in the museum at Copenhagen; but he expresses a doubt whether
this fragment does not belong to the right hind-leg. When Carrey drew
the metope, it was nearly perfect. On the upper margin of the marble
still remains the bead and reel moulding which once ornamented all the
metopes, but of which there are few traces elsewhere.

  _Mus. Marbles_, VII., pl. 7; _Stereoscopic_, No. 82. For the
  two heads, see Bröndsted, _Voyages et Recherches_, p. 171; _Mus.
  Marbles_, VII., pl. 17; Michaelis, pl. 3, iv.

[Sidenote: =308.=]

[Illustration: Fig. 9.--Metopes 308, 309, from Carrey.]

When Carrey saw this metope, the figure of the Lapith, now wanting,
was still extant, and we must therefore supply the motive of the group
by reference to his drawing (fig. 9). In the original composition, the
Centaur, rearing up against his antagonist, grasps the Lapith's
right thigh between his forelegs, extending his left arm towards him,
probably to seize the hair of his head. The Lapith with extended right
arm is trying to keep the Centaur at arm's length, while he struggles
to escape; his left arm must have been raised. The right arm of the
Centaur must have been drawn back to strike. All that now remains of
the Lapith is a portion of the right wrist attached to the Centaur
near his throat. A skin, fastened round the Centaur's neck, flies
behind his back, falling over his left upper arm.

  _Mus. Marbles_, VII., pl. 5; Michaelis, pl. 3, v.; _Stereoscopic_,
  No. 83.

[Sidenote: =309.=]

In this metope, as drawn by Carrey (fig. 9), the right arm of the
Lapith is raised with the forearm bent; the right hand, which probably
held a sword, was already broken off in Carrey's time. His drawing
gives the head and part of the right upper arm of the Centaur, and the
left leg and half the right leg of the Lapith, but not his head. The
Centaur, while pressing his left hand on the left shoulder of the
Lapith, draws back a little from the blow with which he is menaced.
The action of both figures is rather tame, and the victory undecided.
An ample chlamys is shown falling at the back of the Lapith. Part of
the right hind leg of the Centaur has been added in plaster from the
marble fragment now at Athens.

  _Mus. Marbles_, VII., pl. 15; Michaelis, pl. 3, vi.;
  _Stereoscopic_, No. 84.

[Sidenote: =310.=]

The Lapith presses forward, advancing his left hand to seize the
rearing Centaur by the throat, and forcing him on his haunches; the
right arm of the Lapith is drawn back, as if about to strike; his
right hand, now wanting, probably held a sword: a mantle fastened on
the right shoulder falls over the left arm like a shield, and flies
back behind. The Centaur, rearing up against his antagonist, tries
in vain to pull away the left hand of the Lapith, which, in Carrey's
drawing, he grasps. The head of the Centaur is a cast from the
original at Athens. From the shoulders of the Centaur hangs a small
chlamys; the folds fly behind, and show the violence and swiftness of
the action. The head of the Lapith is a cast from the original, which
is now in the Louvre. Carrey's drawing gives the missing parts of the
legs of this group. This is, perhaps, the finest of all the metopes
in the Museum. The action is most spirited, and the modelling very
thorough and masterly.

  _Mus. Marbles_, VII., pl. 3; Michaelis, pl. 3, vii.;
  _Stereoscopic_, No. 85; Waldstein, in _Journ. of Hellen. Studies_,
  III., pl. 23, p. 228; _Essays_, pls. 1, 2, p. 97.

[Sidenote: =311.=]

The Lapith is kneeling on his right knee. The Centaur, the human
portion of whose body is broken away, presses down his antagonist.
From Carrey's drawing, taken when this metope was nearly complete, we
learn what the action was. He represents the Centaur bending over the
kneeling Lapith, and raising his right hand to strike a deadly blow at
his antagonist, who looks up with his head thrown back, and stretches
out his left arm towards the breast of the Centaur. A chlamys hangs
down from the left arm of the Lapith. His right arm, which was lost in
the time of Carrey, must have been raised. The right hind foot of the
Centaur rests on a rock.

  _Mus. Marbles_, VII., pl. 6; Michaelis, pl. 3, viii.;
  _Stereoscopic_, No. 86.

[Sidenote: =312.=]

The Centaur has again the advantage. The Lapith is thrown down over a
large wine vessel, _pithos_; the Centaur has grasped his left leg
with his left hand, rolling him back on the jar. The Lapith seizes his
antagonist by the beard with his left hand, while his right arm, now
broken off, has been vainly extended behind him, seeking some support.
The right thigh of this figure, the head and part of the right arm of
the Centaur are casts from three fragments at Athens. Carrey's drawing
gives the left arm and side of the Centaur, as well as his head.
The head and right arm and hand of the Lapith are also shown in his
drawing, but not the portion of right thigh which has recently been
added. The wine vessel in this metope, and the hydria in No. 307,
indicate the wedding feast of Peirithoös as the scene of the contest.

  _Mus. Marbles_, VII., pl. 4; Michaelis, pl. 3, ix.;
  _Stereoscopic_, No. 87.

[Sidenote: =313.=]

This metope is a cast from the one removed by Choiseul-Gouffier when
French ambassador at the Porte, about the year 1787, and now in the
Louvre. The group represents a Centaur carrying off a Lapith wife or
maiden. The Centaur is rearing up; he grasps the woman between his
forelegs. His left hand presses against her left side, and it appears
from Carrey's drawing of this metope that his right hand grasped her
right wrist. With her left hand she is vainly endeavouring to loosen
his grasp round her waist, and to readjust her disordered drapery. She
wears a chiton with diploïdion fastened on the right shoulder with a
brooch. In the struggle the chiton has fallen from the left shoulder.
On her right foot is a sandal with a thick sole; her left foot is
broken off above the ankle. Carrey's drawing gives this foot resting
on a rock, also other parts of the group which are now wanting.

  _Mus. Marbles_, VII., pl. 16; Michaelis, pl. 3, x.;
  _Stereoscopic_, No. 88.

The next metope in order on the Parthenon is now only preserved in
Carrey's drawing, which represents a Lapith armed with a shield, who
seems to be stabbing the Centaur in the belly. The Centaur grasps the
edge of the shield with his left hand. A fragment of this shield with
the left arm of the Lapith inside and the fingers of the Centaur on
the rim exists at Athens; cf. No. 343, _1_.

  Michaelis, pl. 3, xi.

[Sidenote: =314.=]

This metope is cast from the original in the Acropolis Museum at
Athens. It represents a Centaur seizing a Lapith wife or maiden.
Carrey's drawing gives the head, left foreleg from the knee, and left
hindleg of the Centaur, and the right arm of the female figure, all
which parts are now wanting. The group presents a somewhat involved
and complicated composition. The Centaur grasps the female figure's
left arm with his left hand; his right arm, not shown, we must suppose
to be passing round the back of her waist. While the left foreleg of
the Centaur is firmly planted on the ground, his right foreleg clasps
the left leg of the female figure, pressing at the back of her
knee, so as to throw her off her balance. Her dress, a chiton with
a diploïdion, is disordered in the struggle. The action of her right
hand, as drawn by Carrey, indicates that she is attempting to readjust
the upper part of her chiton. Her right leg from the knee to the ankle
is supplied by a cast from a fragment at Athens; the foot is cast from
another fragment, of which the original, No. 342, _1_, exhibited in
a Wall Case, probably belonged to the Elgin Collection. The action of
this leg is awkward and ungainly.

  Michaelis, pl. 3, xii.; _Stereoscopic_, No. 96A.

Next follow in Carrey's drawings thirteen metopes (Michaelis,
xiii.-xxv.) of which we have only a few fragments. Of these the first
eight (xiii.-xx.) represent subjects of which the import is unknown,
and in which draped female figures predominate. Nos. xxii.-xxv.
represent combats between Centaurs and Lapiths or Lapith women. If
we suppose that No. xxi., which represents two women standing by an
archaic statue as if for sanctuary, belongs to the Centaur series,
then twelve metopes at each end of the south side, namely, i.-xii.,
xxi.-xxxiii. are devoted to this subject, while the eight central
metopes are an independent series.

Fragments have been recognised as belonging to the thirteen metopes
which have been destroyed since the time of Carrey. They are more
fully described below.

  Metope  XIII (?). Breast. See No. 342, _5_.
     "    XIV.     Male torso. See No. 342, _2_.
     "    XV (?).   Arm. See No. 342, _6_.
     "    XVI.     Male head and torso. See No. 342, _3_.
     "    XVII.    Male torso. See No. 343, _2_. Fragment
                     of lyre(?) See No. 343, _3_.
     "    XIX.     Arm and drapery. See No. 342, _7_.
     "    XX.      Hand with roll. See No. 343, _4_. Draped
                     thigh. See No. 342, _4_.
     "    XXIV.    Torso of Lapith. See No. 343, _5_.

[Sidenote: =315.=]

This metope, the 26th in the original series, is from the eastern half
of the south side of the temple. It represents a contest between a
Centaur and Lapith. The Centaur, rearing, has raised his arms above
his head, in order to strike his antagonist with some weapon, perhaps
a branch of a tree. His antagonist thrusts the toes of his left foot
against the equine chest of the Centaur between his forelegs, and,
pressing his left hand against his adversary's right elbow, is trying
to force him back on his haunches. His right arm, now wanting, has
been drawn back to deal a blow; its position is marked by a projection
on the ground of the relief. A chlamys hangs down at his back. From
the want of apparent support for the right foot of the Lapith, the
action of this figure appears weak and undecided. On the left upper
arm are two holes for the attachment of some object, perhaps an end of
drapery hanging free in front of the arm. Another hole on the flank of
the equine portion of the Centaur, between the ribs and haunch, shows
where the end of a skin, hanging down from the back, may have been
attached. Parts of the right hind leg appear to have been attached
by metal rivets. Carrey's drawing shows that this metope has suffered
little since his time.

  _Mus. Marbles_, VII., pl. 8; Michaelis, pl. 3, xxvi.;
  _Stereoscopic_, No. 89.

[Sidenote: =316.=]

In this metope, the 27th in the original series, the Centaur, wounded
in the back, attempts to fly, but is checked by the Lapith, whose left
hand grasps him round the left side of the head, while his left leg
presses against his hind-quarters. The right arm of the Lapith is
drawn back to deal a blow, perhaps with a lance. The Centaur, rearing
up in agony, presses his right hand against the wound in his back; his
left arm, now wanting, must have been raised, as appears from Carrey's
drawing, in which a small piece of the upper arm is given. The left
foot of the Lapith presses firmly against a rock. A mantle falls over
both arms, hanging in festoons behind his back. Carrey's drawing gives
both the head, and right leg, and part of the right forearm of the
Lapith. In composition and execution this is one of the finest of the
extant metopes.

  _Mus. Marbles_, VII., pl. 9; Baumeister, _Denkmaeler_, p. 1176,
  fig. 1365; Michaelis, pl. 3, xxvii.; _Stereoscopic_, No. 90.

[Sidenote: =317.=]

In this metope, the 28th in the original series, the Centaur is
victorious; the Lapith lies dead under his feet. Brandishing the
lion's skin on his extended left arm with a triumphant gesture, and
lashing his tail, the Centaur rushes forward to meet a new foe, with
the ends of the lion's skin flying behind him. His right arm, now
wanting, must have wielded the weapon with which he has slain the
Lapith. The Lapith lies on his chlamys, his head thrown back, his
right leg bent up, his right hand lying over his right flank, his
whole form relaxed by death. Carrey's drawing gives the head, left
foreleg, and greater part of the right arm of the Centaur, but wholly
misinterprets the figure of the Lapith. For dramatic power in the
conception and truth in the modelling of the forms, this metope is
unrivalled.

  _Mus. Marbles_, VII., pl. 10; Baumeister, _Denkmaeler_, p. 1177,
  fig. 1366; Michaelis, pl. 3, xxviii.; _Stereoscopic_, No. 91.

[Sidenote: =318.=]

In this metope, the 29th of the original series, the Centaur is
carrying off a Lapith woman. Clasping her firmly round the waist with
his left hand, he has raised her from the ground. We see from Carrey's
drawing that his right hand, now wanting, grasped her right arm above
the elbow, so as to make her efforts to escape of no avail; with her
left hand she vainly endeavours to loosen his hold round her waist.
The disorder of her drapery shows the violence of the struggle. Her
chiton has slipped from its attachment on the left shoulder, leaving
her left breast exposed. Over her left arm is the end of a mantle,
which, passing round her back, and twisted over her right arm, floats
unconfined behind the Centaur. His head has the pointed ears which are
characteristic of the semi-bestial type, but which do not occur on the
other heads of Centaurs in these metopes. Carrey's drawing gives the
head of the female figure, and the right arm and tail of the Centaur.
There are traces of the bead and reel moulding on the margin of this
metope. The drapery is beautifully wrought, but the design in its
present condition seems rather tame.

  _Mus. Marbles_, VII., pl. 11; Michaelis, pl. 4, xxix.;
  _Stereoscopic_, No. 92.

[Sidenote: =319.=]

This metope, the 30th in the series, much resembles No. 311, both in
composition and in style. The Lapith has fallen with his left leg bent
under him; his left arm rests on a stone, which he grasps in his left
hand. His right hand, which is disarmed, presses feebly against the
left side of the Centaur, who with his left hand seizes the hair of
his antagonist, and presses his left forefoot on his right thigh,
drawing back his right arm to deal a blow. The countenance of the
Lapith expresses bodily pain, as if he had just been half stunned by a
blow on the head. His bent knee does not yet touch the ground, but
the action of the Centaur deprives him of all chance of recovering
his erect position. A lion's skin floats in the air at the back of the
Centaur. A chlamys hangs from the right arm of the Lapith, and passes
behind his back. The treatment of both the heads is a little austere,
but the bodies are well modelled, and the composition is finely
conceived. There are on this metope some remains of the bead and reel
moulding on the upper margin.

  _Mus. Marbles_, VII., pl. 12; Michaelis, pl. 4, xxx.;
  _Stereoscopic_, No. 93.

[Sidenote: =320.=]

In this metope, the 31st of the original series, the Centaur seems to
have the advantage. The Lapith has, with his right hand, seized him
by the hair, pressing his right knee on the Centaur's breast; his
left arm is drawn back, and has been slightly bent at the elbow. The
Centaur, rearing up, grasps his antagonist by the throat, twisting his
forelegs round the Lapith's right leg, so as to paralyse its action.
The position of the Centaur is obviously much the stronger, and the
bent left knee of the Lapith indicates that he is tottering. We do not
know what weapon he held in his hand. The composition in this metope
is very good. In the faces there is the same austere character as in
No. 319. This metope seems in the same state as when drawn by Carrey.

  _Mus. Marbles_, VII., pl. 13; Baumeister, _Denkmaeler_, p. 1178,
  fig. 1367; Michaelis, pl. 4, xxxi.; _Stereoscopic_, No. 94.

[Sidenote: =321.=]

In this metope, the 32nd of the original series, the Centaur has
seized the Lapith by the back of his head with his left hand, of which
a fragment is still visible. His right arm has been drawn back to deal
a blow, probably with a spear. The left foreleg passes round the loins
of the Lapith, while the other foreleg has been locked round his right
thigh. His adversary, firmly planted on the ground with his right leg
advanced, has drawn back his left arm to prepare a blow, probably with
a sword. The action of his right shoulder shows that he has seized the
Centaur by the hair with his right hand. A drawing by Feodor, one of
the artists employed by Lord Elgin at Athens, shows that the left arm
and left leg of the Lapith, now wanting, were then perfect, and that
he may have worn a bronze helmet up to the date when the drawing was
made. The direction of the missing portions of the left arm and leg
is indicated by projections on the ground of the relief. The right arm
was wanting from the elbow. In Carrey's drawing, all the right arm of
the Centaur is given; but his legs were mutilated.

  _Mus. Marbles_, VII., pl. 14; Michaelis, pl. 4, xxxii.;
  _Stereoscopic_, No. 95.


Of the thirty-two metopes which originally adorned the north side of
the Parthenon, only twelve (i.-iii. and xxiv.-xxxii. of Michaelis, pl.
4) remain in their original position, and three of these (ii., xxvi.,
xxx.) are so defaced that their subjects cannot be made out. In the
explosion of 1687, twenty metopes (iv.-xxiii.) were destroyed, all but
a few fragments. The subjects of the metopes which have perished may
have been the combats of Centaurs and Lapiths. Michaelis supposes
xxiv., xxv. to represent a scene from the taking of Troy.

[Sidenote: =322.=]

The only metope from the north side, of which a cast is exhibited in
the British Museum, is the last of the series, at the north-west angle
of the temple. It represents a draped female figure seated on a rock,
towards whom advances from the left another draped female figure,
extending forward her left hand muffled in drapery. Both figures wear
talaric chitons, over which fall diploïdia and mantles. The figure
advancing wears sandals. The folds of the drapery are very rich and
abundant. There is a careful drawing of this metope by Feodor in the
British Museum, taken when it was in a considerably better state.

  Michaelis, pl. 4, xxxii.; _Stereoscopic_, No. 96.

On the western front of the Parthenon all the fourteen metopes, except
vi. and vii., remain in position on the temple, but their surface has
been so much injured, that their subjects cannot be made out. The
best preserved of these metopes appear to represent a battle of Greeks
against Amazons.

[Sidenote: =323.=]

This is a cast from the first of the metopes of the west side, and
represents a figure mounted on a horse, moving to the right, with
the right hand drawn back as if aiming a spear, and having a
chlamys flying behind. If the metopes on this front represented an
Amazonomachia, this figure may be an Amazon. The surface is much
damaged. A drawing by Pars in the British Museum makes this a male
figure.

  Michaelis, pl. 5, West side, i.; _Stereoscopic_, No. 80.

The corresponding metopes on the east side of the Parthenon remain on
the building, but have all suffered great injury. They appear to have
represented scenes from the war of the gods and giants.

  Michaelis, pl. 5, East side, i.-xiv.



THE FRIEZE OF THE PARTHENON.


The Frieze of the Parthenon is a continuous band of sculpture in low
relief, which encircled and crowned the central chamber or cella
of the temple, together with the smaller porticoes that immediately
adjoined each end of it.

The frieze is nearly 3 ft. 4 in. high. The height of the relief is
somewhat greater at the top than at the bottom. At the top the height
of the relief may be as much as 2-1/4 inches, with an average height
of about 1-1/2 inch. At the bottom it varies between low relief and
about 1-1/4 inch. The whole surface of the relief is thus slightly
tilted over towards the spectator, in order to compensate as far as
possible for the disadvantageous conditions under which the frieze had
to be viewed. The length of each end of the Parthenon frieze was 69
ft. 6 in.; the length of each long side was 191 ft. 11 in. The length
of the entire frieze was therefore 522 ft. 10 in.

The frieze, which was nearly complete in the time of Carrey, suffered
greatly in the explosion, particularly about the middle of the two
long sides. Unfortunately, however, Carrey only made drawings of the
west end; the east end, except its central slab which had been taken
down; about 74 feet in the middle of the south side; and about 78
ft. 6 in. at the east end of the north side. Stuart and Pars drew a
considerable amount of the frieze, but not much of what has since been
entirely lost. The following table shows approximately the state of
the whole frieze.

  -------------------------+--------+----------+-------+-------+----------
                           |  East. |  South.  |  West.| North.|  Total.
                           | ft. in.| ft.  in. |ft. in.|ft. in.|ft.  in.
  -------------------------+--------+----------+-------+-------+----------
  Originals in the British}|        |          |       |       |
  Museum                  }| 43  0  |108  6-1/2|  7  2 | 82  6 |241  2-1/2
                           |        |          |       |       |
  Casts in the British    }|        |          |       |       |
  Museum                  }| 21  2  | 33  9-1/2| 62  4 | 54  8 |171 11-1/2
                           |        |          |       |       |
  Preserved only in the   }|        |          |       |       |
  drawings of Carrey      }|  3  4  | 27  6    |       | 20  7 | 51  5
                           |        |          |       |       |
  Preserved only in the   }|        |          |       |       |
  drawings of Stuart      }|        |  0  6    |       |  2  9 |  3  3
                           |        |          |       |       |
  Drawn by Carrey and     }|        |          |       |       |
  Stuart but not otherwise}|  2  0  |          |       |  5  7 |  7  7
  preserved               }|        |          |       |       |
                           +--------+----------+-------+-------+----------
  Total existing or       }|        |          |       |       |
  recorded                }| 69  6  |170  4    | 69  6 |166  1 |475  5
                           |        |          |       |       |
  Lost without a record    |        | 21  7    |       | 25 10 | 47  5
                           +--------+----------+-------+-------+----------
  Grand Total              | 69  6  |191 11    | 69  6 |191 11 |522 10
  -------------------------+--------+----------+-------+-------+----------

The subject of the frieze of the Parthenon has been considered, by
most of the writers who have discussed it, to be connected with the
Panathenaic procession at Athens. Those who have held a different
view have been the early travellers, such as Cyriac of Ancona, who
described the subject of the frieze as 'Athenian victories in the
time of Pericles,' and a few recent authors. Davidson (_The Parthenon
Frieze_) sees in the frieze a representation of a Panhellenic
assembly, which Pericles tried to collect at Athens without
success. Weber and Boetticher held that the scene represented is
the preparation and rehearsal, rather than the procession itself. C.
Petersen thought that different festivals are represented on different
sides[*] (cf. Michaelis, p. 205).

  *: The frieze of the Parthenon records in sculpture
  the passionate delight with which Greeks, and more particularly
  Athenians (cf. Hel. _Aeth._, III. 1), regarded festal processions.

  A vivid commentary on the Parthenon frieze is to be found in the
  third book (chaps, i.-iii.) of the _Aethiopica_ of the novelist
  Heliodorus. The passage adds the sound, colour, and movement
  needed for a complete conception of the scene. The writer,
  however, is describing the procession of a Thessalian embassy at
  Delphi, and some of the details only partially agree with those
  of the frieze. "The Hecatomb led the procession, escorted by men
  initiated in the mysteries. These were somewhat rustic in dress
  and manner, and had their white tunics closely girded. The right
  shoulder and breast were bare, and they carried an axe in the
  right hand. The bulls were followed by a crowd of other victims,
  each kind being led separately and in order. Meanwhile flute and
  pipe were playing a melody which was, as it were, an introduction
  to the sacrifice. The cattle and their escort were followed by
  maidens with flowing hair. They were in two troops; the first
  carried baskets of fruits and flowers, the second troop carried
  flat baskets ([Greek: kana kanêphorousai]) with sweetmeats and
  incense, and filled the place with sweet smells. They bore their
  burdens on their heads leaving their hands free, and kept their
  ranks true both from front to rear and from side to side, that
  they might march and dance while the first troop gave the time,
  singing a hymn in honour of Thetis. The troops were so harmonious
  and the sound of marching was so accurately timed to the song,
  that hearing seemed better than seeing, and the spectators
  followed the maidens as they passed as if they were drawn by the
  melody. But at length the appearance of the youthful cavalry and
  of its leader proved that a noble sight was better than any music.
  There were fifty ephebi, in two troops of five-and-twenty, acting
  as body-guard of the leader of the embassy. Their boots were laced
  with purple thongs, and tied above the ankle. Their cloaks were
  white with dark blue borders, and were fastened on their breasts
  with golden brooches. The horses were all Thessalian, and breathed
  the freedom of their native plains. They tried to spue out their
  bits and covered them with foam, as if rebellious, yet submitted
  to the will of the riders. It seemed as if there had been a
  rivalry among the masters in adorning their horses with frontlets
  and phalerae, silver or gilded. But, as a flash of lightning makes
  all else seem dark, so, when the captain, Theagenes (the hero of
  the novel), appeared, all eyes were turned to him. He also was
  mounted, and wore armour, and brandished an ashen spear, tipped
  with bronze. He had not put on his helmet, but rode bareheaded. He
  wore a purple cloak, embroidered in gold with a fight of Centaurs
  and Lapiths; on his brooch was an amber figure of Athenè, wearing
  the Gorgon's head on her breastplate. A gentle breeze gave him
  further grace, spreading his hair about his neck, and parting the
  locks on his forehead, and blowing the ends of his cloak about
  the back and flanks of his horse. And the horse itself seemed
  conscious of the exceeding beauty of its master, as it arched its
  neck, and pricked up its ears, and frowned its brows, and
  advanced proudly, giving ready obedience to the rein, balancing on
  alternate shoulders, lightly striking the tips of its hoofs on
  the ground, and attuning its pace to a gentle motion." Interesting
  passages of Xenophon describe horses that prance as they ought
  in processions, and also lay down the duty of the leaders of a
  procession of horsemen (Xen. _Hipp._ 11 and _Hipparch._ 3).

Before examining how far the frieze represents the Panathenaic
procession in detail, it may be well to state what facts respecting
the festival have been handed down to us by ancient authors. Its
origin was ascribed in antiquity to pre-historic times. Its mythic
founder was Erichthonios, the son of Hephaestos and foster-son of
Athenè herself; and the festival is said to have been renewed by
Theseus when he united all the Attic demes into one city. The goddess
in whose honour it was celebrated was Athenè Polias, the tutelary
deity of the Athenian Acropolis, where she was supposed to dwell in
the "Old Temple," and where her worship was associated with that of
Erechtheus, who dwelt under the same roof.

A solemn sacrifice, equestrian and gymnastic contests, and the Pyrrhic
dance, were all included in the ceremonial; but its principal feature
was the offering of a new robe, _peplos_, to the Goddess on her
birthday. The peplos of Athenè was a woven mantle renewed every four
years. On the ground, which is described as dark violet and also
as saffron-coloured, was interwoven the battle of the Gods and the
Giants, in which Zeus and Athenè were represented. It was used to
drape the rude wooden image of Athenè.

The festival was originally an annual one, but after a time it was
celebrated once every four years with more splendour and solemnity.
The institution of this greater Panathenaia is attributed to
Peisistratos. From his time (B.C. 560-527) dates the distinction
between the Greater and the Lesser Panathenaia. The sons of
Peisistratos added a contest of rhapsodes reciting the Homeric poems.
The festival was further amplified by Pericles, who introduced a
musical contest and himself acted as _athlothetes_ or judge.

On the birthday of the Goddess the procession which conveyed the
peplos to her temple assembled in the outer Cerameicos, and passed
through the lower city round the Acropolis, which it ascended through
the Propylæa. During its passage through the city the peplos was
displayed on the mast and yard of a ship, which was drawn on rollers.
In the procession of Rosalia at Palermo, a ship is employed for
a similar purpose (Brydone, _Tour_, Letter xxx.). In this solemn
ceremony, the whole body of Athenian citizens were represented. Among
those who are particularly mentioned as taking part in the procession
were the noble Athenian maidens, Canephori, who bore baskets, _kanea_,
with implements and offerings for the sacrifice; the Diphrophori, who
attended the Canephori with stools (_diphroi_); the metoik or alien
Scaphephori, whose function it was to carry certain trays, _skaphæ_,
containing cakes and other offerings; the aged Athenian citizens who
bore olive branches, and were hence called Thallophori. It has also
recently been ascertained that the selected maidens who prepared the
peplos (the Ergastinae, and perhaps the Arrhephori) also took part in
the Panathenaic procession. An Attic decree of 98 B.C. records that
these maidens had performed all their duties, and had walked in the
procession in the manner ordained with the utmost beauty and grace
([Greek: pepompeu[kenai ka]ta ta prostetagmena hôs hoti k[allis]ta kai
euschêmone[stata]]), and had subscribed for a silver cup which they
wished to dedicate to Athenè. After this preamble the decree
doubtless awarded certain public honours such as are enumerated in
an inscription found by Mr. Murray at Petworth. (_Bull. de Corr.
Hellénique_, xiii., p. 169; _Athenische Mittheilungen_, viii., p. 57.)
At the Greater Panathenaia each town in which land had been assigned
to Athenian settlers contributed animals to the sacrifice, perhaps a
cow and two sheep. The colonies also appear to have sent envoys who
had charge of the victims. Chariots and horsemen took an important
part in the procession. On this occasion appeared certain quadrigæ,
which were only used in procession, and were hence called pompic
chariots; and an escort of Athenian cavalry and heavy infantry
completed the show. The arrangements for the sacrifice were under
the direction of the hieropoioi, and the multitudinous procession was
marshalled and kept in order by the demarchs, the hipparchs, and by
the heralds of a particular gens, the Euneidæ.

When, with a knowledge of these facts, we examine the composition of
the frieze, we may recognise in its design the main features of the
actual procession. In our description we begin with No. 1, on the left
of the east side. We first observe Canephori and others leading the
procession of which the main part is seen on the south side. Next are
persons, perhaps Hieropoioi or magistrates receiving this procession.
In the centre of this side a solemn act (commonly supposed to be
the delivery of the peplos) is being performed in the presence of an
assembly of deities, separated into two groups interjected among the
heads of the procession who have arrived and stand waiting. These
deities are supposed to be invisible, and doubtless in a picture they
would have been placed in the background, seated in a semicircle
and looking inwards. In the narrow space of a frieze a combined
arrangement was necessary, such as we see here. Next we see the
persons receiving the procession on the north side, and then at the
head of that procession are Canephori, victims with their attendants,
Scaphephori, Spondophori, musicians, pompic chariots and cavalry.
After going down the north side, meeting the procession, we pass
along the west side, where it is still in a state of preparation for
departure. We then pursue the other main stream along the south side
of the Temple passing the cavalry, chariots and victims. All through
the frieze are magistrates and heralds marshalling the order of the
procession. It has been objected that many features which we know to
have formed a part of the original ceremony, as, for instance, the
ship on which the peplos was borne, are not found on the frieze; but
Pheidias would only select for his composition such details from the
actual procession as he considered suitable for representation in
sculpture, working, as he here did, under certain architectonic
conditions.


NOTE. The numbers of the slabs, painted in Roman figures on the lower
moulding, and placed in the right-hand margin of this catalogue, agree
throughout with the numbers of Michaelis. The numbers of the separate
figures assigned to them here and painted in Arabic numerals above the
frieze, do not agree with those of Michaelis, except in the case of
the west side.


EAST FRIEZE OF THE PARTHENON.

[Sidenote: =324.=]

  [Rightnote: I.]

  [Sidenote: 1.]

  A man standing on the return face of slab xliv. (South Frieze),
  looks back as if to make a signal to the procession approaching
  along the south side, and thus makes a connection between the
  south and east sides of the frieze.

  [Rightnote: II.]

  [Sidenote: 2-5.]

  With slab ii. the band of maidens leading the southern half of the
  procession begins. When complete the slab contained five maidens,
  each probably carrying a circular bowl, with a boss in the centre
  ([Greek: phialê omphalôtê]); portions now remain of four alone;
  compare however No. 345, _1_. They are draped in long chiton and
  mantle. [Two casts of the slab are exhibited, side by side, in
  order to represent the missing portion.]

  [Rightnote: III.]

  [Sidenote: 6-10.]

  Five maidens carry each a wine jug, supposed to be of gold or
  silver. Several such vessels occur in the Treasure lists of the
  Parthenon. No. 6 wears a chiton with diploïdion; Nos. 7-10 have a
  chiton and mantle.

  [Sidenote: 11-14.]

  In front of these are four maidens, walking in pairs. Nos. 12 and
  14 each carry in the right hand an object not unlike the stand of
  an ancient candelabrum, which tapers upwards from its base. This
  object is more distinctly shown on the marble between Nos. 11 and
  12, than between Nos. 13 and 14. It is encircled by a double torus
  moulding at the top, and above this moulding a hole is pierced in
  the marble, as if there was here a ring for suspension or to serve
  as a handle. It is probable that these are metallic objects
  of some kind, which, like the censer carried by No. 55 on the
  opposite side of the eastern frieze, were part of the sacred
  furniture used in the festival and usually kept in the Treasury
  of Athenè. Michaelis suggests that they may be the stands,
  _krateutae_, in which turned the ends of the spits used in
  roasting the sacrifice. This would explain the ring at the top.

  [Sidenote: 15, 16.]

  A pair of maidens with empty hands leads the procession. Nos.
  11-16 are all dressed alike, in long chiton, with diploïdion,
  together with a small mantle. They also appear to have the hair
  similarly dressed. It falls in a mass on the shoulders, as in the
  Caryatid of the Erechtheion (No. 407).

  [Sidenote: 17.]

  [Sidenote: 18.]

  In front of the procession is a man, probably one of the marshals,
  who seems to approach a group of five persons, and to hold out his
  hand as if with a gesture of greeting to the nearest of the group.
  This figure is turned towards the marshal, and leans heavily on
  his staff which is seen below his knees. The marble fragment
  with parts of the feet of Nos. 16 and 17 was acquired from the
  collection of M. Steinhäuser. The lower part of No. 18 is cast
  from a fragment at Athens.

  [Rightnote: IV.]

  [Sidenote: 19-22.]

  On the left of the next slab are four men of the same character as
  No. 18. They all wear himation and boots. They converse in pairs
  and stand in easy attitudes, leaning on their staffs. There is a
  corresponding group of four male figures (Nos. 42-45) on slab vi.,
  and Michaelis supposes that the group of five figures (Nos. 18-22)
  and the opposite group (Nos. 42-45) of four figures represent the
  nine Archons. That they are functionaries of high rank can hardly
  be doubted, when we consider their privileged place between the
  head of the procession on each side and the seated divinities,
  but they might well be Athlothetae, who controlled all the
  arrangements (Aristotle, [Greek: Ath. pol.] ed. Kenyon, 60).

  [Sidenote: 23-40.]

  The central portion of the eastern frieze now to be described has
  been the subject of much controversy. Nearly all the authorities
  who have written on this question agree in recognising the two
  groups of seated figures as deities. This is indicated not only by
  the dignity of their appearance but also by their scale. While the
  figures of the mortals are about 3 ft. 2 in. high, those of the
  deities are about 4 ft. 4 in. high. Though by the principle known
  as Isokephalism the heads in a relief are usually nearly on a
  level, this marked difference of scale can hardly fail to indicate
  divine rank; compare the frieze of the Theseion (No. 404). There
  is, however, a wide divergence of opinion as to the particular
  divinities here represented. From the destruction of most of the
  faces and the absence of attributes or other indications by which
  the figures can be severally identified, it is very difficult to
  judge between the rival schemes of interpretation which have been
  proposed. In Michaelis' _Parthenon_, pp. 262, 263, a tabular view
  is given of these schemes (cf. _Guide to the Elgin Room_, I.,
  Table C). The attributions proposed by Michaelis himself are for
  the most part adopted here, with certain changes suggested by
  Flasch in his memoir: _Zum Parthenonfries_ (Würzburg, 1877).

  The interpretations proposed by those who hold that the seated
  figures are deities, are of two kinds. Most writers have tried
  to identify some at least of the figures with personages who were
  worshipped near the Acropolis, or connected with the mythological
  history of Athens. By this system, deities of lower rank such
  as the Dioscuri, or heroes like Triptolemos are admitted, on the
  frieze, to the company of the Olympian Gods. Petersen and Flasch,
  on the other hand, argue that the twelve Olympian deities
  are represented in the two groups, without regard to local
  considerations. Hestia alone is omitted, who always stays in
  Olympos to keep the hearth. (Plato, _Phaedr._, 247_a_). Petersen
  substitutes Peitho for Hestia; he also introduces Dionysos (24),
  making No. 38 Apollo. Artemis is thus excluded from his scheme.
  The arrangement of Flasch is happier, as Hestia alone is
  excluded of the Olympian divinities. The attributions proposed by
  Michaelis, Petersen, and Flasch are as follow, where they differ
  between themselves:--

    No.   Michaelis.        Petersen.         Flasch.

    24.   Dionysos.         Dionysos.         Apollo.
    25.   Demeter.          Demeter.          Artemis.
    26.   Triptolemos.      Ares.             Ares.
    27.   Nikè.             Nikè?             Iris.
    38.   Apollo Patroös.   Apollo.           Dionysos.
    39.   Peitho.           Peitho.           Demeter.

  [Sidenote: 23.]

  [Sidenote: 24.]

  [Sidenote: 25.]

  [Sidenote: 26.]

  The earlier writers saw the Dioscuri, Castor and Pollux in the two
  figures, Nos. 23, 24. It is now generally agreed that the youthful
  elastic figure to the left is Hermes, of whom the high boots, and
  the petasos spread on his knees are specially characteristic. His
  right hand is pierced and has held a metallic object, probably the
  herald's staff, caduceus. The drapery is a small chlamys fastened
  by a brooch, but at present worn about the loins. The more robust
  figure leaning on his shoulder (No. 24), has his body turned in a
  direction contrary to that of Hermes, and the singular manner in
  which his lower limbs are so arranged as to clasp between them
  the knees of the seated goddess (No. 25) seems to indicate some
  intimate and special relation between them. The goddess holds a
  torch, the usual attribute of Demeter, and Michaelis sees in
  the group (Nos. 24-26) the triad of Dionysos, Demeter, and
  Triptolemos. Flasch recognises Apollo and Artemis in Nos. 24, 25,
  on the ground of their intimate relationship. If we adopt this
  interpretation of this group, it follows that the youthful
  figure (No. 26) cannot be Triptolemos. We must rather look for
  an Olympian deity in this figure, and the suggestion that it
  represents Ares, which has found favour with several interpreters
  of this frieze, seems liable only to one objection, that the form
  appears too slight and youthful. The somewhat negligent attitude
  is that of a person tired of sitting on a seat without a back,
  and clasping his knee with his hands, to relieve the spine of the
  weight of the head and shoulders. Flasch absurdly describes the
  attitude as that of a passionate character, forcibly restraining
  himself.

  [Rightnote: V.]

  [Sidenote: 27-29.]

  The bearded figure (No. 29) on the left of the central group is
  distinguished from the rest by the form, and ornaments of his
  chair, which has a back and a side rail which is supported by a
  Sphinx, while all the other figures are seated on stools. It has
  been generally admitted that this deity is Zeus. It is therefore
  reasonable to suppose that the goddess seated next to him (No.
  28) is his consort, Hera. The type and action of this figure who
  raises her veil, and looks towards Zeus, are very suitable to her.

  The winged maidenly figure (No. 27) standing behind Hera must be
  either Nikè or Iris, and is probably Iris, whose station is close
  to Hera, while Nikè is usually more closely associated with Zeus
  (Murray, _Class. Rev._ iii., p. 285). The head of Iris which
  was discovered in 1889 in the excavations on the Acropolis is
  admirably perfect. The left hand raises a mass of the hair as if
  to coil it on the head (Plate vi., fig. 1).

  The slab to which the head belongs was removed from its original
  position at some early time, probably at the conversion of the
  Parthenon into a church, when an apse was built at the eastern
  end. In 1672 it stood on the ground (cf. Michaelis, pp. 47, 258),
  and the faces seem to have suffered deliberate mutilation.

  The exquisite preservation of the head of Iris is explained if,
  as is suggested, it was broken off in the sixth century, and
  immediately built into a Byzantine wall (Waldstein, _American
  Journ. of Archæology_, v. pl. 2, p. 1).

  [Sidenote: 30-34.]

  Between the group of Gods just described and the corresponding
  group on the right side of the centre, we have a group of five
  figures.

  We must suppose that these figures are in front of the two groups
  of Gods who sit in a continuous semicircle. (Murray, ii. pl. 1.)

[Illustration: Fig. 10.--Slave with seat.]

  No. 30 is a maiden holding an uncertain object, perhaps a casket
  in her left hand, and supporting on her head a seat ([Greek:
  diphros]) covered with a cushion, not unlike the seats on which
  the Gods are, but smaller. She has a small pad ([Greek: tylê]) on
  her head to make the weight easier to bear. The legs of the seat
  are now wanting, but a rivet hole near the maiden's right elbow
  shows where one leg was attached. The other may have been painted
  on the ground of the frieze. The cut (fig. 10), showing one of the
  slaves of Cepheus carrying a stool with a cushion, is taken from a
  vase in the British Museum, No. E. 188.

  No. 31 is another maiden, advancing slowly to the right, bearing
  on her head a seat similar to that carried by No. 30. The foremost
  leg of the seat still exists, being of marble. The position of the
  hinder leg is marked by a rivet hole. On each of these stools is a
  circular object, probably a thick cushion. These two figures have
  been called Arrhephori, or Ersephori, on the assumption that they
  are carrying those mystic objects, the nature of which it was
  forbidden to divulge; but it is doubtful whether the Arrhephori
  took part in the Panathenaic festival. There is evidence that the
  priestess of Athenè had two attendants, of whom one was called
  [Greek: kosmô] (Adorner), and the other [Greek: trapezophoros]
  (Table-bearer, Harpocration), or [Greek: trapezô] (Hesychius
  emended), and it has been suggested that Nos. 30, 31 may have
  these titles, and a corresponding ritual significance. Neither
  figure, however, carries a table. (Miss Harrison, _Class. Rev._
  iii., p. 378; cf. _ibid._, p. 423; and Waldstein, _Journ. of
  Hellen. Studies_, xi., p. 143). The same names were proposed by C.
  O. Müller in 1820, but merely on the supposition that two of the
  Ersephori were thus styled. (Müller, _Minervae Poliadis Sacra_,
  p. 15.) On the other hand, Diphrophori are mentioned by several
  ancient authors as being in attendance on the noble Athenian
  maidens. They were the daughters of aliens, and perhaps inferior
  rank as well as youth is indicated by the scale on which they are
  represented. No. 31 is confronted by a large and matronly woman
  (No. 32), who raises her right hand to the under side of the
  chair. Archæologists have been uncertain whether the woman (No.
  32) has just placed the chairs on the heads of the maidens, or
  is just about to remove them. There can be little doubt, however,
  that No. 31, if we consider the position of her feet, has hardly
  ceased approaching to No. 32, who is just raising her hands to
  lift down the chair (cf. Flasch, _Zum Parthenonfries_, p. 83). The
  left hand instinctively prevents the himation being displaced by
  the raising of the right arm.

  An elderly bearded man (No. 33), wearing a long chiton with short
  sleeves and shoes, stands next to No. 32. On his head are traces
  of metallic rust. He therefore may have worn a metallic wreath,
  for which the marble at the back of his head appears to have been
  hollowed. He turns his back to No. 32, and is engaged with a
  boy. The two figures between them support a large piece of cloth,
  folded once lengthwise, and twice breadthwise. In this case also
  archæologists have been doubtful which is the giver and which is
  the receiver of the cloth; but the action represented is not one
  either of giving or receiving. From the peculiar way in which the
  boy grips an angle of the folded cloth between his elbow and his
  side, while his hands are otherwise occupied, the act of folding
  the cloth square seems to be represented. The portion nearest to
  the spectator is being dropped down till its edges are parallel
  with those of the lower part, so that the two parts should be
  exactly doubled.

  The group of figures just described (30-34) contains the centre of
  the composition, and the interpretation of the frieze as a whole
  depends on the meaning we attach to this group. Leaving on one
  side the writers referred to on p. 147, who hold that the frieze
  does not represent the Panathenaic festival, we find that a
  majority of writers describes No. 32 as a Priestess of Athenè,
  giving the sacred vessels to the Arrhephori or Ersephori, and No.
  33 as a priest or Archon Basileus receiving or giving the
  sacred peplos of Athenè. This view of Nos. 30-32 was necessarily
  abandoned, when it had been perceived that the objects held by the
  maidens are chairs, not baskets. As regards Nos. 33, 34, the main
  arguments for interpreting the cloth as the peplos are, that the
  accounts of the procession preserved in ancient authors show that
  the conveyance of the peplos of Athenè was the principal feature
  in it. If we look to the place assigned to this group in the
  eastern frieze, we find that these two figures (Nos. 33, 34)
  stand in the centre of the eastern front, under the apex of the
  pediment, and over the eastern door of the cella. They therefore
  occupy the most conspicuous place in the frieze, from the points
  of view alike of the sculptured Gods and of the human spectator,
  and accordingly may well be supposed to be busy with the chief
  ceremony of the festival. This view is opposed by Flasch. He
  argues that if the delivery of the peplos is represented, there
  is a violation of the unity of time, as the act which was the main
  motive of the procession is being completed, while the procession
  is still in progress, and in part has not yet started. Flasch
  therefore holds that we have here the priest and priestess
  preparing for the sacrifice that is to take place on the arrival
  of the procession. The priestess is receiving chairs for herself
  and for the priest from the Diphrophori. Meanwhile the priest, who
  now only wears a long chiton, with short sleeves, has taken off
  his himation, and, after folding it several times, is seen giving
  it to an attendant to hold.

  If, however, the action represented is merely that of folding, and
  is not yet completed, it is impossible to determine which is the
  giver and which the receiver. Nor would the difficulty be solved
  if this could be ascertained, as we do not know what ceremonies
  were performed when the peplos arrived. The surface of the cloth
  on the frieze is left quite plain; but, if it is the peplos,
  some indication of the embroidered design may have been given in
  colour.

  [Sidenote: 35.]

  We now reach the second group of deities, seated to the right of
  the central scene. The first figure is clearly that of Athenè. She
  sits in a position corresponding to that of Zeus, and the Goddess
  of Athens is thus put in the same rank as the supreme God. Athenè
  is dressed in a chiton with diploïdion and has short hair. An
  indistinct object about her left wrist has been supposed to be a
  snake from the fringe of the aegis of Athenè, or by some writers
  to be the snake of Hygieia. But the object seems merely to be a
  bracelet in the form of a snake, which is not uncommon, and there
  is therefore no indication of an aegis. Four rivet holes in a
  straight line show that Athenè held some attribute, probably a
  spear in her right hand.

  [Sidenote: 36.]

  Next to Athenè is an elderly bearded figure, who turns his head
  towards her. He has a knotted staff under his right arm, and leans
  upon it heavily. This figure is usually known as Hephaestos. It is
  supposed that his lameness may be indicated by the awkward pose of
  his right foot, and by the staff on which he leans.

  [Rightnote: VI.]

  [Sidenote: 37.]

  [Sidenote: 38.]

  This slab, containing figures Nos. 37-47, now in a very
  fragmentary condition, was complete when drawn by Carrey, in
  1674. A bearded male figure (No. 37) with his left hand raised is
  probably Poseidon. The left hand, according to Flasch, once held
  a trident. The next figure (No. 38), beardless and youthful, and
  seated in an easy attitude, has of late years gone by the names of
  Apollo Patroös or Dionysos. The latter title seems best suited to
  the somewhat effeminate figure, more fully draped than any other
  of the Gods. A series of holes round the head shows the position
  of a bronze wreath, and one at the elbow shows that the left hand
  may have been supported by a thyrsos or sceptre.

  [Sidenote: 39.]

  A matronly figure (No. 39) is seated next to Dionysos, wearing a
  chiton, which is slipping off from the left shoulder, himation,
  cap and sandals. This figure is called Peitho by Michaelis and
  Peterson, on the ground that the worship of Peitho was associated
  with that of Aphroditè Pandemos (No. 40) on the south side of
  the Acropolis. Flasch with more probability makes this goddess
  Demeter, arguing that Peitho was not entitled to a place among
  the great Gods of Olympos, while Demeter is appropriately placed
  between Dionysos and Aphroditè. Flasch suggests that the right
  hand may have held an ear of corn. A hole shows that the object in
  question was made of bronze.

  [Sidenote: 40.]

  [Sidenote: 41.]

  The next figure (No. 40) most of which is only preserved in
  Carrey's drawing (Fig. 11), is unmistakably shown to be Aphroditè,
  by the winged boy Eros who stands at her knee. Aphroditè wears
  a chiton, himation, a cap, and to judge from Carrey's drawing a
  veil. She rests her left hand on the shoulder of Eros, extending
  her forefinger, as if pointing out some object in the procession
  to the boy. Eros (No. 41) carries a parasol which conveniently
  fills the space above his head and his wings.

[Illustration: Fig. 11.--East frieze of the Parthenon, Nos. 39-41.]

  [Sidenote: 42-45.]

  On the right of the gods is a group of four figures corresponding
  to the five (Nos. 18-22) on the left. One of these (No. 43) is
  young and beardless; the rest are elderly, and all have staffs and
  himatia. No. 42 wears sandals. These four figures are leaning on
  their staffs, and three of them are looking towards the advancing
  procession, while the fourth (No. 45) turns his back to it and
  appears to be conversing with his companions.

  [Sidenote: 46.]

  [Sidenote: 47.]

  The next figure (No. 46) is an officer, more immediately concerned
  with the procession. It is evident from the way in which his head
  is thrown back and his arm raised that he is not addressing the
  group beside him, but is making a signal to some person at a
  considerable distance. He may be supposed to be making a signal to
  the southern half of the procession, and thus helps the spectator
  to keep the two parts connected together in his mind. The next
  figure (No. 47), a similar officer, stands facing the advancing
  maidens.

  Slab vi., which was complete in Carrey's time, has since suffered
  greatly, and the parts now exhibited have been combined from
  several sources. At some unknown period the slab was broken
  through No. 40, much of No. 40 being destroyed. The original
  fragment, with the figures Nos. 37-39, is now at Athens, where it
  was dug up in 1836. Since the cast in the Museum was made, parts
  of the right hand and right foot of Poseidon have been injured
  (_Trans. of R. Soc. of Lit._, v. (1856) p. 67; Baumeister,
  _Denkmaeler_, p. 1187. fig. 1389). About 1787 Fauvel took a mould
  from the slab as he found it, which is now in the Louvre. The slab
  then existed from the middle of No. 41 to the joint after No.
  47. Between 1787 and 1800 Nos. 41, 42 were lost, and the slab was
  divided through No. 45, probably for convenience of transport.
  To facilitate the division, No. 45, and the arm of No. 46, were
  chiselled away. The main part of the figures Nos. 42-47 is the
  original marble. The additions to the marble are the right foot of
  No. 39, the main part of Nos. 40, 41, the lower part and the head
  of No. 42, the heads and breasts of Nos. 43, 44, the whole of No.
  45, and part of the head of No. 47, together with his legs. These
  parts are principally derived from the mould of Fauvel in the
  Louvre. Certain fragments, however, are cast from originals at
  Athens, namely, the chair-leg and some drapery of No. 40, the
  knees of No. 41, and the head and left foot of No. 47.

  [Rightnote: VII.]

  [Sidenote: 48.]

  The next magistrate, or officer (No. 48), seems to hold in his
  hand a _kanoun_, or dish, such as those in which the corn, sashes,
  or sacrificial implements were usually brought to the altar. The
  position of the left hand seems to show that the thumb is inserted
  in a boss, as in a phialè omphalotè. Holes in the marble may
  indicate sashes of bronze, hanging from the dish.

  [Sidenote: 49, 50.]

  Two maidens (Nos. 49, 50) are seen standing with empty hands.
  Perhaps one has given up the dish which is held by the officer
  (No. 48.) In that case these would be Canephori, maidens of noble
  birth, whose privilege it was to carry in the procession the
  dishes just described. They are draped in long chitons, with
  diploïdia, and wear small mantles over the shoulders.

  [Sidenote: 51.]

  [Sidenote: 52, 53.]

  Another officer (No. 51) stands looking towards the procession.
  He has held in the right hand some object in metal, perhaps a
  herald's staff. Two holes for the attachment of it are visible in
  the marble. The gesture of the left hand shows that the officer is
  giving some order to the two maidens before him (Nos. 52, 53), who
  stand with empty hands, like Nos. 49 and 50.

  [Sidenote: 54.]

  [Sidenote: 55.]

  The next maiden (No. 54) walks alone, carrying a bowl (phialè),
  used for sacrificial libations. No. 55 looks back at the figure on
  the next slab (No. 56), and helps her to carry her burden.

  Slab vii. is a cast from the original, which was removed from the
  Acropolis by Choiseul-Gouffier in 1787, and is now in the Louvre.
  The right foot of the magistrate (No. 48) is cast from a fragment
  which is still at Athens.

  [Rightnote: VIII.]

  [Sidenote: 56.]

  [Sidenote: 57, 58]

  [Sidenote: 59, 60]

  The next maiden (No. 56), assisted by No. 55, holds a thymiaterion
  with a conical cover, used for burning incense. Censers of this
  form are not uncommon on Greek vases. (Cf. Vases in the B. M., C.
  32, E. 98, E. 241, E. 285, E. 352.) Next follow two figures (Nos.
  57, 58), each carrying in the right hand a jug, oinochoè, then two
  more (Nos. 59, 60), carrying phialae.

  In this slab the heads of Nos. 57, 59, 60, which have been
  adjusted to their places since the publication of the work of
  Michaelis, are cast from the originals at Athens. The slab in its
  present condition is shown in Mitchell, _Selections_, pl. 4.

  [Rightnote: IX.]

  The east side of the frieze was completed by the short return of
  a slab which was still in existence in the time of Stuart. On this
  slab were two maidens, belonging to the procession. The second of
  these carried a phialè.


NORTH FRIEZE OF THE PARTHENON.

[Sidenote: =325.=]

At the head of the procession on the north side we meet a troop of cows
and sheep, led by an escort. Each cow is led by cords held by two
youths, one on each side; each sheep is led by one boy. There are some
grounds for the conjecture that the Athenian colonists contributed each
a cow and two sheep to the festival, while the Athenians are not known
to have sacrificed anything except cows. It is therefore presumed that
the victims on this side of the frieze, on which alone sheep are
represented, are some of the colonial offerings; and in that case the
men by whom the victims are conducted would be the Theori sent by the
Colonies.

  [Rightnote: I.]

  Slab i. (see Plate vii.) was complete in the time of Carrey, and
  partly extant in the time of Stuart. It contains the first cow,
  led by two youths, who are standing still, and the head and
  shoulders of the second cow.

  [Rightnote: II.]

  [Sidenote: 1, 2.]

  [Sidenote: 3, 4.]

  Nos. 1 and 2 walk on each side of the second cow, which is going
  quietly, as is shown by the way in which the youths are closely
  wrapped up in their himatia. The rope by which the beast is led
  was probably painted on the marble. The third cow is restive, and
  only restrained with difficulty by Nos. 3 and 4. Here also the
  rope was probably painted.

  This slab was discovered in 1833, beneath its original position on
  the Parthenon.

  [Rightnote: III.]

  [Sidenote: 5, 6.]

  Of slab iii. only fragments remain. As drawn by Carrey, it
  contains the figure of No. 4 (cf. Plate vii., and No. 345, _3_),
  vigorously holding back his cow, and a fourth cow, quietly led
  by two youths (Nos. 5, 6). For economy of space this slab is
  compressed in the British Museum to about two-thirds of its proper
  length. A cast from a head, which, perhaps, is that of No. 4, is
  placed at the corner of the slab (Michaelis, plate 13, xxvii. C.).
  The drapery seen on a fragment with the fore-legs of a cow belongs
  to No. 5, who leads the third cow. No. 6 is made up of six pieces,
  of which Michaelis had identified the feet of the figure, and part
  of the fore-legs of the cow. For its hind-legs, see his plate 13,
  xxvii. D. The originals of all these fragments are at Athens.

  [Rightnote: IV.]

  [Sidenote: 7-9.]

  [Sidenote: 10.]

  Slab iv. contains parts of three figures, Nos. 7-9, who conduct
  three horned sheep. Of the first figure (No. 7) a part of the
  mantle is now left, and perhaps also the head (cf. Plate vii., and
  No. 345, _4_). In Carrey's time the head and shoulders were still
  extant. At the joint between this slab and the next there is a
  marshal (No. 10), who turns to the division of the procession
  approaching. Slab iv. was discovered in 1840.

  [Rightnote: V.]

  [Sidenote: 11.]

  When drawn by Carrey and Stuart, the next group in the procession
  consisted of three figures, of which one only (No. 11) is now
  extant. These figures carry on their shoulders oblong rectangular
  trays, not unlike a butcher's tray in form. These trays have been
  identified with the skaphae, or boat-shaped dishes which were
  carried in the Panathenaic procession, and which contained
  offerings of cakes. If we may trust Stuart's engraving, the tray
  of one of the two figures which have now disappeared contained
  fruits or cakes. These trays were made of silver or bronze.
  Skaphae of bronze are mentioned in one of the inventories of the
  treasures, deposited in the Parthenon. The Metoiks, whose duty
  it was to carry these trays, were hence called Scaphephori. Their
  place in the procession would naturally be immediately after the
  victims led for sacrifice.

  [Rightnote: VI.]

  [Sidenote: 12-14.]

  [Sidenote: 15.]

  [Sidenote: 16.]

  Slab vi. contains five male figures. Three (Nos. 12-14) carry
  vases on their shoulders; a fourth (No. 15) stoops to raise from
  the ground a similar vase, which is singularly misinterpreted
  in Carrey's drawing as a lamb. The vase resembles in form the
  three-handled water-pitcher, hydria or calpis, which was in use
  in the period of Pheidias, but two handles only are shown in the
  sculpture; the third handle, which was attached to the neck midway
  between the other two, is not seen, except, perhaps, on the vase
  of No. 15. Michaelis supposes that the vases here represented on
  the frieze contained the wine used in the Panathenaic sacrifice,
  and that these figures may be the Spondophori, who are mentioned
  by Pollux (i. 35). On the right of this slab are the arms, flute,
  and drapery of the first of the four flute-players drawn by
  Carrey. This slab was found in 1833, inside the peristyle of the
  Parthenon.

  [Rightnote: VII.]

  The persons bringing objects connected with the sacrifice are
  immediately followed by a band of musicians, consisting of four
  flute-players and four lyre-players, or citharists, all playing on
  their instruments. The musicians, as is usual, wear long chitons
  and ample mantles. Of slab vii. only two small fragments remain.
  See Plates vii., viii., and Nos. 345, _5_ and _6_.

  [Rightnote: VIII.]

  [Sidenote: 17, 18.]

  [Sidenote: 19.]

  The next slab contains parts of the second pair of citharists and
  the foremost of a group of male figures, principally on the two
  slabs immediately following.

  [Rightnote: IX., X.]

  [Sidenote: 19-30.]

  The figures on these two slabs are bearded men (Nos. 19-30), all
  clad in the himation, and moving forward at a leisurely pace; Nos.
  25 and 26 wear a band on their heads; No. 25 draws it over his
  hair; Nos. 28 and 30 wear long hair, plaited in the manner of the
  _krobylos_. The attire, elderly type, and general deportment of
  these figures corresponds with that of the Thallophori, by which
  name ancient authors designate elderly citizens who carried olive
  branches in the Panathenaic procession. The right hands of three
  of these figures are closed, as if they were holding a wand or
  branch.

  Slab ix. was discovered in 1840, and is a fragment of the slab
  drawn by Carrey, which, when he saw it, contained nine figures
  similar to those on x. A recently-discovered fragment, from the
  left of slab ix., has not been inserted for want of space (cf.
  Plate viii., and No. 345, _8_).

  Slab x. was found at the north-west angle of the Parthenon in
  1835. A fragment which belongs to the left-hand lower corner of
  the slab, and completes Nos. 24, 25, has been adjusted since the
  publication of the work of Michaelis. This slab was not drawn
  by Carrey, who indicates a lacuna at this point. It is therefore
  probable that the slab had already fallen from its place. The last
  two complete figures on this slab are looking back, as if their
  attention is directed to the advancing chariots. Michaelis has not
  observed that between these figures and the marshal (No. 31) there
  has been another draped figure (No. 30*), of whom nothing remains
  but the shoulders and a little drapery, shown immediately in front
  of the marshal (No. 31), and his right foot on slab x., seen next
  to the right foot of No. 30, the left foot of No. 30 being lost.
  This figure must have been the hindermost in the procession of
  Thallophori, and the entire number of these persons is therefore
  seventeen, not sixteen, as Michaelis makes it.

  [Rightnote: XI.]

  [Sidenote: 31.]

  With slab xi. the chariot groups begin. This part of the frieze
  has greatly suffered from mutilation. The remains of the chariot
  groups still extant show that there were at least nine of these.
  According to the calculation of Michaelis, that was the original
  number of chariots on this frieze. All these chariots are drawn
  by four horses, _harmata tethrippa_, or quadrigæ; the charioteer
  stands in the chariot, and is accompanied by the apobates, who is
  armed with a helmet and Argolic buckler, and is represented in the
  act of stepping down from the chariot or standing behind it. Each
  quadriga is accompanied by a marshal, _pompeus_. The vigour and
  animation of the chariot groups form a marked contrast with the
  groups that immediately precede them. The transition from the
  rapid motion of the chariots to the quietude of the Thallophori
  is skilfully effected by a chariot seen in rapid motion but in
  the act of being suddenly checked by the marshal (No. 31), who
  is represented eagerly pressing back the plunging horses of
  the chariot which follows on the next slab. In the haste of his
  movement he has nearly thrown off his mantle, holding it from
  slipping further with his right hand on his right thigh. The
  original of this slab was found at Athens probably about 1834.

  [Rightnote: XII.]

  [Sidenote: 32.]

  [Sidenote: 33.]

  On the slab next on the right (xii.) is the hind quarter of one of
  the horses, cut off at the joint. At the side of the chariot is
  a marshal (No. 32), his face turned, and his right arm extended
  towards the procession following on the right. The charioteer (No.
  33), who was mistaken for a Victory by Visconti and others, but
  whose figure is certainly not female, differs in costume from the
  others in this frieze. He wears a long chiton, over which is a
  diploïdion reaching to the hips. The breast is crossed diagonally
  by two bands. As a part of the hair is on a fragment known to have
  been missing before the time of Stuart, his drawing of the figure
  is proved to be untrustworthy.

  [Sidenote: 34.]

  The warrior (No. 34) attached to the chariot was complete in the
  time of Carrey. The upper half was lost before the time of Stuart,
  and was only re-discovered in the latest excavations on the
  Acropolis in 1889. He is represented standing on the ground, and
  looking back to the next chariot. His shield is raised as if
  to stop its course. The wheel of this chariot, as of some that
  succeed it, must have been, in part, wholly detached from the
  ground. The foot of the marshal is complete, but it is easy to
  trace where the wheel prevented the convenient working of the
  ground beneath it. (See Plate viii., and _Stereoscopic_, No. 19.)

  [Rightnote: XIII.]

  Of slab xiii., which Carrey places next, nothing has been
  identified with certainty, but Michaelis is probably right in
  assigning to this group the fragment of four horses, of which
  a cast from the original at Athens is here inserted (cf. Plate
  viii., and No. 345, _9_). Above the back of the second horse is
  the _hestor_ (see below), and also what appears to be a small
  piece of the drapery of a marshal. This, however, cannot be the
  case if the fragment described (No. 345, _9_) contains the marshal
  belonging to this slab.

  [Rightnote: XIV.]

  [Sidenote: 35.]

  [Sidenote: 36.]

  [Sidenote: 37.]

  Slab xiv. contains the third chariot with part of the team of
  horses. The marshal (No. 35) stands beyond the horses, and looks
  towards the charioteer. The charioteer (No. 36) had reins of
  bronze, as indicated by two rivet holes. Like the driver on slab
  xviii. he wears a chiton with long close-fitting sleeves. The
  apobates (No. 37) appears about to step down from the chariot. The
  wheel of this chariot as of that on slab xii. must have stood out
  entirely free from the ground. When Carrey drew this slab, the
  head of the charioteer (No. 36) and the head and body of the
  apobates (No. 37), of which only the lower part now remains, were
  extant. Close behind the wheel are traces of a horse's forefoot,
  which, as we see from Carrey's drawing, belonged to the chariot
  on the slab which follows next on the right (xv. according to the
  order of Michaelis).

  [Rightnote: XV.]

  [Sidenote: 38, 39.]

  Of the fourth chariot group, which was also drawn by Carrey, we
  have only the mutilated group to which the charioteer (No. 38) and
  an apobates (No. 39) belong; this is made up of four fragments,
  of which the originals were found at Athens in 1837. In this group
  the apobates (No. 39) stands in the chariot, looking back to
  the chariot following so closely that the forelegs of the horses
  actually overlap this group. Here also the wheel was in part
  completely free from the ground of the relief.

  [Rightnote: XVII.]

  [Sidenote: 41.]

  [Sidenote: 42.]

  From Carrey's sketch we know that the chariot on slab xvii. was
  drawn by the horses, which occupied slab xvi., and whose hoofs are
  seen on slab xv., and that this was the fifth chariot group. The
  apobates (No. 41) of this chariot leans back, supporting himself
  by the right hand, which grasped the chariot rail (_antyx_), and
  is about to step off the chariot. The marshal (No. 42) steps back
  to the left, looking in the contrary direction; his left arm,
  muffled in his mantle, is raised as a signal to the advancing
  throng; his right arm is also raised; the hand, now wanting, was
  just above the level of the head. His animated action forms a
  strong contrast to the still, calm attitude of the marshal (No.
  43) of the following group.

  Slab xvii. is cast from the original, which was drawn at Athens
  by Stuart, and, having been buried on the Acropolis, was
  re-discovered there in 1833. The right side of this slab is broken
  away, but there can be no doubt that it comes next to slab xviii.
  A photograph from the original is reproduced in Baumeister,
  _Denkmaeler_, p. 1186, fig. 1388.

  [Rightnote: XVIII.]

  [Sidenote: 43.]

  [Sidenote: 44-45.]

  In slab xviii. have been three figures. The marshal (No. 43)
  stands beside the horses, in a calmer attitude than is usual in
  this part of the frieze; of the apobates (No. 45) nothing remains
  but his right arm and leg; and the lower part of his drapery,
  which indicates rapid movement. Of the charioteer (No. 44), we
  have only the lower part of the body and hands.

  Parts of the harness can be seen on this slab, and also on slabs
  xiii., xix., xxi., xxiii. The general arrangement seems uniform,
  though there are differences of detail. The chariot pole ([Greek:
  rhymos]) passes from below the chariot between the horses. An
  upright pin ([Greek: hestôr]) passes through the pole (slabs
  xiii., xviii., xix., xxiii). At this point the yoke ([Greek:
  zygon]) was secured by a ring ([Greek: krikos]) and by the
  yoke-band ([Greek: zygodesmon]) (Hom. _Il._ xxiv.). The near end
  of the yoke, foreshortened and turned back, is visible on slabs
  xviii., xix., xxi., xxiii. On slabs xix., xxi. the yoke appears
  to be kept in position by a piece of metal passing from the top
  of the pin to the pole, which may, perhaps, serve instead of the
  ring. On slab xix. there appears to be a loop of a leather thong
  on each side of the piece described. This may be a part of the
  yoke-band. The reins were usually guided by two rings attached to
  the yoke or to the pole, but these do not appear to be shown on
  the frieze. It is easy to see on slabs xviii., xix., xxi., that
  the yoke was only fixed to the two middle horses, the outer pair
  being attached by traces.

[Illustration: Fig. 12.--North Frieze, slab xix. (46. 47.)]

  [Rightnote: XIX.]

  The next slab (xix.) is a cast from the original at Athens, which
  is broken away on the right, so that all that remains of the
  charioteer (No. 47) is his right hand. At the side of the horses
  is a marshal (No. 46), who turns towards the chariot following
  on the right. Carrey's drawing supplies the upper part of this
  figure, and shows that he was holding up with his left hand
  the end of his mantle, apparently as a signal to the advancing
  procession. In fig. 12, slab xix. has been drawn in juxtaposition
  with the hitherto unplaced fragment No. 345, _12_. This slab was
  discovered in 1834.

  [Rightnote: XX.]

  Slab xx. is now lost, but a horse's head now at Athens (No. 345,
  _13_; Michaelis, pl. 12, xx.) may perhaps belong to it.

  [Rightnote: XXI.]

  Slab xxi. contains the bodies and hind quarters of the horses
  drawing the chariot seen on slab xxii. Between the charioteer (No.
  48) and his horse is a fragment, showing the front of the chariot,
  and the tails of the horses, of which the original is at Athens,
  and which is not figured in Michaelis.

  [Rightnote: XXII.]

  [Sidenote: 48, 49.]

  On the left of slab xxii. is a chariot with the charioteer (No.
  48) and apobates (No. 49) who is stepping into the chariot. On the
  right of this slab is an attendant (No. 50) standing at the heads
  of the horses of the last chariot group. The lower fragments of
  this slab are at Athens. The left-hand upper corner, which was
  wanting in the time of Stuart, was brought home by Lord Elgin.
  The upper fragment next to it, was once in the possession of the
  Society of Dilettanti, and was presented by that body. It had
  probably been brought from Athens by Chandler.

    Stuart, 2nd ed., II., p. 50, note C.

  [Rightnote: XXIII.]

  [Sidenote: 52.]

  The chariot group represented on slabs xxii., xxiii. is
  represented as standing still, and was probably the last chariot
  in the procession. This slab is shorter than any of the others
  representing chariot groups. Part of the head of the apobates (No.
  52) is supplied in plaster from the original fragment at Athens.
  A fragment of an apobates, which may well belong to the figure
  No. 52, has recently been fitted to the left of slab xxiv., thus
  proving that No. xxiv. is the first slab of the cavalry, and
  making it very probable that No. xxiii. is the last slab of
  the chariots. This fragment, incorrectly drawn, is assigned by
  Michaelis to slab xxviii. of the south side.

  [Rightnote: XXIV.-XLII.]

  [Sidenote: 54-109.]

  From this point to the north-west angle of the frieze we have a
  continuous procession of Athenian cavalry. The horsemen advance
  in a loose throng, in which no division into ranks or troops, nor
  indeed any settled order, can be made out. The groups, being very
  crowded, are carried on from slab to slab continuously, so that
  the vertical lines of the joints intersect the figures, while
  on the western frieze, on the contrary, the groups, being more
  scattered, are always completed on single slabs. The general
  effect of a body of horse in rapid movement is admirably rendered
  in the composition of the northern frieze, and is particularly
  fine in slabs xxx.-xlii., in which the effect has not been marred
  by mutilation. Though the entire composition is pervaded by the
  same general motion, a wonderful fertility of invention is shown
  in the arrangement of the successive groups. In the one hundred
  and twenty-five mounted figures in this cavalcade we do not find
  one single monotonous repetition.

  Though the horses bound along with a fiery impatience, which
  seems at every moment ready to break loose from all control, these
  irregular movements never disturb the even hand and well-assured
  seat of the riders. Thus, as the cavalcade dashes along like a
  torrent, a rhythmical effect is produced by the contrast of the
  impetuous horses and their calm, steadfast riders.

  In this part of the frieze there is great variety in the costumes
  and accoutrements of the horsemen. Crested helmets are worn by
  Nos. 59, 62; flexible leather caps by Nos. 84, 93, 96; a taenia
  by No. 97, and a petasos by No. 105. Some figures wear high boots
  with flaps at the knee as Nos. 98, 103, &c., while others wear
  boots without flaps as Nos. 90, 91, 92; a few have bare feet,
  as Nos. 72, 87, 89. The usual dress is a sleeveless chiton and a
  cloak. Some riders, however, wear a chiton only, as Nos. 59, 60
  63, 72, &c., and others wear a cloak only, as Nos. 64, 76, 79, 87,
  94. It may be mentioned that, according to Theophrastus, it was a
  mark of the man of small ambitions, when he took part in a cavalry
  procession, to give all his garments to a slave to carry home
  except only his cloak, in which he would display himself, walking
  about the agora. The chiton may have either one girdle, as No. 72,
  or two girdles, as Nos. 57, 59, &c. In a few instances it has long
  sleeves, as in Nos. 73, 75, 80, 84, 97, 98, 109. Two riders wear
  a cuirass, viz. Nos. 62, 92. The reins and bridles were in nearly
  every instance of bronze, marked by rivet holes behind the horse's
  ear, at his mouth and in the rider's hands. Marble reins are seen
  in the right hands of Nos. 98, 103.

  [Rightnote: XXIV.]

  [Sidenote: 52.]

  Slab xxiv. is shown, as has been already stated, to have contained
  the first of the cavalry, by the figure of the apobates which has
  been fitted to its left side. Neither this fragment nor that at
  the upper right hand corner have been engraved by Michaelis.

  [Rightnote: XXV.]

  [Sidenote: 57.]

  Slab xxv. was complete when drawn by Stuart. Only a fragment,
  containing part of No. 57, now survives. This is not inserted, in
  its place in the frieze, but is fixed beside the south door to the
  Elgin Room.

  [Rightnote: XXVI.]

  [Rightnote: XXVII.-XXXI.]

  Slab xxvi. is proved by Stuart's drawing to be continuous with the
  fragmentary slab xxv. Between slabs xxvi. and xxxi. the order
  is uncertain. The arrangement of plate 13 of Michaelis has been
  followed. It may be assumed that a slab (xxvii.) is lost between
  xxvi. and xxviii., which may have included the fragment No. 345,
  _15_. Slab xxx. when complete may have fitted to xxix.; but, as it
  has the joint preserved on the right, there can be no doubt that
  it did not fit to No. xxxi. Between these two, therefore, another
  slab may be supposed to be missing. The three slabs enumerated as
  lost, viz. xx., xxvii., and the slab between xxx., xxxi., may be
  supposed to have been about 12 feet long. The missing part of xxx.
  may be 2 feet. Of the 25 ft. 10 in. of the frieze lost without
  record 14 feet are thus accounted for; the remaining 11 ft. 10
  in. may be due to the loss of two more slabs, containing a chariot
  group, or to miscalculated proportions in Carrey's drawing.

[Illustration: Fig. 13.--Slab xxv. restored from Stuart (from
Michaelis).]

  Slab xxviii. is original; slabs xxix.-xxxi. are casts from the
  originals at Athens; No. 65 (on slab xxix.) is a marshal beckoning
  to the riders.

  [Rightnote: XXXII.]

  [Sidenote: 75.]

  The fragment (in slab xxxii.) containing the head of No. 75 and
  the horse's head, having been discovered in 1850 in the collection
  of Sculptures at Marbury Hall in Cheshire, was presented to the
  Museum in 1850 by J. H. Smith Barry, Esq., the owner of that
  collection. A small fragment, cast from the original at Athens,
  and added to slab xxxiv., is not engraved by Michaelis.

  [Rightnote: XXXV.]

  [Sidenote: 85.]

  The fragment (in slab xxxv.) which contains the head of No. 85 and
  of a horse, after having been in the possession of the Society of
  Dilettanti, passed from that body to the Royal Academy, by whom it
  was presented to the British Museum in 1817.

  [Rightnote: XXXVII.]

  [Sidenote: 89.]

  The fragment (in slab xxxvii.) containing the head of No. 89 and
  a horse's head, of which a plaster cast is adjusted to the marble,
  is now at Athens.

  [Rightnote: XXXIX.]

  [Sidenote: 97.]

  The head of No. 97, on slab xxxix. was formerly in the Pourtalès
  Collection, at the sale of which in 1865 it was purchased for the
  British Museum, and inserted in its place on the frieze.

  [Rightnote: XLII.]

  [Sidenote: 107.]

  [Sidenote: 106.]

  On the last slab of the north side, the procession is still in a
  state of preparation, so that this slab prepares a transition to
  the west side. In the foreground is a rider (No. 107), standing by
  his rearing horse, whom he holds by the rein with his right hand.
  In the background beyond this group is a mounted figure (No. 106),
  so entirely concealed by the rearing horse in the foreground that
  the only evidence of his presence is his right hand advanced just
  beyond his horse's shoulder point.

  [Sidenote: 109.]

  [Sidenote: 110.]

  To the right is a rider (No. 109) standing by his horse, and in
  the act of drawing down his chiton under his girdle in front,
  while a youthful attendant (No. 110) assists him by pulling it
  down behind, or perhaps by tying the lower girdle over which the
  folds were drawn. The attendant carries on his shoulder a folded
  chlamys, probably that of his master.


WEST FRIEZE OF THE PARTHENON.

[Sidenote: =326.=]

The west side of the frieze contains a continuation of the procession
of the north side, but here the procession is mainly in course
of preparation, and the scene may be supposed to be laid in the
Cerameicos. In part, doubtless, on account of the character of the
subject, in this part of the frieze there is less continuity of
composition than elsewhere. The subjects are disconnected, and are
usually on single slabs, and seldom carried over a joint. There is the
same variety of dress and accoutrements here as among the riders of
the north side; but there are more figures in armour (Nos. 3, 7, 11,
12, 18, 20). It may be noted, as showing that the west and north sides
were produced by different hands or at different times, that on the
west side the bridles were fixed to the heads of the horses by four
rivet holes, not by two, as on the north.

Slabs i., ii. are originals brought by Lord Elgin. The remainder of
this side (with the exception of No. 27) is cast from the original
slabs, which are still in position on the temple.

Two sets of casts of this frieze are exhibited in parallel lines. The
upper series is taken from moulds made from the original marble in
1872; the lower series from moulds made at Athens, at the time of Lord
Elgin's mission. A comparison of these two sets of casts shows how
much the frieze has suffered from exposure to weather during seventy
years. As the frieze is still in position and unsheltered, it must be
presumed that the decay of the originals continues.

  [Rightnote: I.]

  [Sidenote: 1.]

  [Rightnote: II.]

  [Sidenote: 2, 3.]

  [Rightnote: III.]

  [Sidenote: 4.]

  [Sidenote: 6.]

  [Sidenote: 5.]

  [Rightnote: IV., V.]

  [Sidenote: 7, 8, 9.]

  [Rightnote: VI.]

  [Sidenote: 10.]

  [Sidenote: 11.]

  The single figure (No. 1) at the north-west angle is evidently
  a herald or marshal directing the march of the cavalry. In like
  manner Hippias, or, according to Aristotle, Hipparchos, was in
  the outer Cerameicos, "arranging how each part of the Panathenaic
  procession ought to go forward," when he was attacked by Harmodios
  and Aristogeiton. (Thuc. vi., 57; Aristotle, [Greek: Ath. pol.]
  ed. Kenyon, 18.) His right hand probably held a staff of office,
  as the bent fingers are not closed. This figure is repeated, in a
  plaster cast. Then follow two mounted figures (Nos. 2, 3); in
  the hair of No. 2 are holes in which probably a metal wreath was
  inserted. No. 4 raises both hands as if to open his horse's mouth
  for the insertion of the bit. Behind the horse stands a youth
  (No. 6), either the groom or attendant; his hands may have held a
  bridle. A bearded man (No. 5), probably a marshal, turns towards
  the youth as if addressing him. Then follow two more mounted
  figures (Nos. 7, 8), and a youth (No. 9), standing by his horse,
  and turning round to his mounted companion (No. 10), behind him.
  Next comes a horseman (No. 11), distinguished from all the figures
  in the frieze by his richly decorated armour. On his head is a
  crested helmet, on the crown of which is in relief an eagle with
  outstretched neck. A hole a little behind the temple shows where
  a wreath has been inserted. His body is protected by a cuirass,
  on the front of which is a Gorgon's head in relief, intended as
  a charm, to avert wounds from the most vital part; on the
  shoulder-straps are lions' heads, also in relief. Between the
  breast-plate and back-piece of the cuirass is an interval at the
  sides, which is protected by flexible scale armour ([Greek: thôrax
  lepidôtos]). Below the girdle are flaps (_pteryges_) made of
  leather covered with metal, which at the upper ends are united to
  the girdle. Under the cuirass appears a chiton without sleeves.
  The horse of No. 11 is one of the few on the frieze that have all
  four legs off the ground. (Cf. north, 91, 97; west, 19; south, 14,
  30.)

  [Sidenote: 12.]

  No. 12 is on foot, and stoops forward, looking towards the
  procession advancing from the right. His left foot is raised on a
  rock, and he appears from the action of his arms to be tying his
  boot.

  [Rightnote: VII.]

  [Sidenote: 13, 14.]

  [Rightnote: VIII.]

  [Sidenote: 15.]

  [Rightnote: IX.-XI.]

  [Sidenote: 16-21.]

  [Rightnote: XII.]

  [Sidenote: 22, 23.]

  [Sidenote: 24.]

  [Rightnote: XIII.]

  [Sidenote: 25.]

  [Rightnote: XIV.]

  [Sidenote: 26.]

  [Sidenote: 27.]

  [Rightnote: XV.]

  [Sidenote: 28.]

  [Sidenote: 29.]

  [Rightnote: XVI.]

  [Sidenote: 30.]

  The next slab contains two mounted figures (Nos. 13, 14). No. 14
  wears a mantle of skin. He is the only figure, on this side of
  the frieze, thus decorated. No. 15 stands at the side of a rearing
  horse, trying to control him. The violence of the action is shown
  by the muscular strain and the disordered dress of this figure,
  who wears a chiton, _exomis_, over which is a chlamys flying
  behind his back. On his head is a leathern cap. The attire of
  this figure is precisely similar to that of No. 8 and No. 19. Then
  follow six mounted figures (Nos. 16-21), all moving rapidly to
  the left. One of these (No. 17) wears the petasos, a flapping,
  broad-brimmed hat used by travellers. From No. 22 onward to the
  south-west angle, none of the figures are mounted. The first group
  (Nos. 22-24) is not unlike that already described (Nos. 4-6). A
  youth (No. 22) stands at the horse's head, and seems to be holding
  the reins. At the side of the horse stands a taller figure (No. 23),
  holding up his right hand as if giving an order to a person at some
  little distance. In his left hand he holds a short wand. This
  figure seems to be a marshal, though his dress, a chiton girt at
  the waist and a chlamys, differs from that of all the other
  marshals on the frieze, while it frequently occurs among the riders.
  Behind the horse is a youth (No. 24) who, from his stature and
  attitude, is a groom or attendant; a thick garment is cast over his
  shoulders. Next is a much mutilated figure (No. 25), who seems to
  be pressing his right foot against the heel of his horse's right
  fore leg to make him extend himself so as to lower his back for
  mounting. Behind this figure a horse springs forward, free from the
  control of his rider (No. 26), who has let him go in order to
  assist a comrade (No. 27). This latter figure tries to master a
  rearing horse, who threatens to escape from his control. In the
  upper portion of this figure a fragment from the original marble
  is adjusted to the cast. This fragment was brought from Athens many
  years ago, and presented to the Museum by M. J. J. Dubois in 1840.
  The next figure (No. 28) stands at his horse's head, and behind him
  is a rider (No. 29) not yet mounted, who is drawing on his left
  boot in an attitude very similar to that of No. 12; his right boot
  lies at the side of the rock on which his left foot is raised. The
  horses of both these figures, in contrast to the preceding group,
  stand tranquilly waiting to be mounted. The last figure on the
  western frieze (No. 30) on the return of the first slab of the south
  side stands holding up an ample mantle on his left arm, and seems
  to be putting it on. From the size of the mantle this figure might
  be that of a marshal, though his youthful appearance suggests that
  he is a rider.


SOUTH FRIEZE OF THE PARTHENON.

[Sidenote: =327.=]

In following the procession along the south side from west to east, we
pursue one branch of the procession which corresponds in the main with
that on the north side. The main difference is that on the south the
victims consist of cows only, while on the north there are sheep as
well as cows. It may therefore be the case that this side represents
the Hecatomb offered by the Athenians themselves. All the victims are
cows, in accordance with Greek ritual, which ordained the sacrifice of
male animals to a God, and female animals to a Goddess.

  [Rightnote: I.]

  [Sidenote: 1-4.]

  The left-hand side of slab i. is still on the Parthenon; the
  right-hand portion, containing the figure, No. 4, was presented
  to the Museum by the late Mr. C. R. Cockerell. A marshal (No. 1)
  stands at the angle; the first horseman (No. 2) advances at a
  walk, thus conforming to the rule that the movement is always
  gentle at an angle of the frieze. The horsemen of this slab
  all wear chiton, chlamys, boots, and a leather cap with a flap
  (_katablema_) hanging over the nape of the neck.

  [Rightnote: II.]

  [Sidenote: 5-7.]

  [Rightnote: III.]

  [Sidenote: 8-9.]

  Slab ii. is cast from the original on the Parthenon, which is in a
  very mutilated condition (cf. No. 345, _16_). Of No. 7 nothing now
  remains on this slab, but a bit of his drapery, and on slab iii.
  his right foot and his horse's nose and forelegs. Slab iii. was
  complete on the left edge in the time of Stuart, who gives the
  head and forehand of the horse of No. 7. The horseman (No. 8)
  wears a chlamys only, which is cast back so as to show the entire
  right side of the body. This is the only figure on the south
  frieze who is so little clad.

  [Rightnote: IV.]

  [Sidenote: 10-12.]

  On slab iv., the greater part of which still remains on the
  Parthenon, are the remains of three figures (Nos. 10, 11, 12).
  On the right side are two fragments of this slab, brought away by
  Lord Elgin, one of which only is given by Michaelis. The other has
  been since discovered in the magazines of the Museum.

  [At this point it has been necessary to interrupt the sequence by
  placing slabs xiv., xv., xx. on the sides of the pilaster. These
  slabs are described below in their respective places.]

  [Rightnote: V.]

  [Sidenote: 12-14.]

  [Rightnote: VI.-IX.]

  [Sidenote: 15-25.]

  On slab v., No. 13 wears a close-fitting cuirass, but is
  bare-headed. Compare the figures 26-35, and the description of
  Theagenes in the passage of Heliodorus, quoted on p. 148. Slabs
  vi.-ix. contain unarmed Athenian horsemen, riding bare-headed
  and for the most part wearing chiton with double girdle and boots
  only. The head of the rider, No. 15, is unfinished. The horses at
  this part of the frieze have manes with a large forelock turned
  upwards.

  [Rightnote: X.-XIII.]

  [Sidenote: 26-37.]

  [Rightnote: XIV.-XVI.]

  [Sidenote: 38-43.]

  There is a break in the composition at the beginning of slab x.,
  and a change of subject is marked by the group not being carried
  across the joint. The figures (Nos. 26-37) on slabs x.-xiii. are
  evidently arranged in two ranks of six horsemen each, and are
  distinguished from most of the riders in the southern cavalcade
  by wearing a cuirass under which is a short chiton. Three of
  these figures (Nos. 33, 36, 37) have a cuirass consisting of a
  breastplate and backpiece, which are united at the sides by a
  strip of flexible scale armour. From the cuirass hang down the
  flaps, which protected the loins. These cuirasses also have
  shoulder straps. The riders, Nos. 26-36, wear the plain cuirass,
  rigid and close-fitting ([Greek: thôrax stadios]). All the riders
  in this part of the procession wear high boots with a flap turning
  over below the knee. They are all bareheaded except No. 36, who
  wears a cap or helmet with a flap behind; No. 33, who also wears
  a cap; and No. 35, who has a diadem over which must have been a
  metallic wreath, as there are four holes for its attachment on the
  crown of the head. A chlamys hangs from the left arm of Nos. 26,
  27, 28. Slab xiv., which is a cast from the original at Athens,
  and slab xv. are now exhibited on the pilaster. Slab xvi., which
  is also a cast from the original at Athens, is in its place. Slab
  xiv. contains the head of the horse of No. 37. In front of it is
  a space marking a division, and another body of six horsemen (Nos.
  38-43). These appear to be uniformly dressed in helmet, chiton
  without cuirass, and boots, and, although the positions of xv.,
  xvi. are conjectural, the sequence proposed seems highly probable.
  In front of No. 43 there is a space similar to that between Nos.
  37, 38. On the right side of xvi. is the outline of a horse's
  crupper, and floating above it in the air appears to be the long
  end of a mantle of skin such as is worn by No. 14 in the west
  frieze; behind No. 44 appears to be part of a garment of the
  same texture, the outline of which is seen above the horse's hind
  quarter. It is, however, doubtful whether xvi. and xvii. joined
  each other. Perhaps between them was a slab in which the horsemen
  wore similar mantles of skin.

  From this point the military order of the procession becomes less
  marked, or is obscured by the defective state of the marble. There
  is also more variety in the costumes of the riders.

  [Rightnote: XVII.]

  [Sidenote: 45*.]

  Slab xvii. is a cast from the original at Athens. Since the
  publication of the work of Michaelis, two fragments have been
  adjusted on the right, which prove the connection of the slab with
  No. xviii. by supplying the hind quarters of a horse of which the
  rest has been in xviii. These two fragments, which were unknown to
  Michaelis, also supply the forehand of another horse and the body
  of the rider (No. 45*) from the waist to below the knee (see fig.
  14).

[Illustration: Fig. 14.--South frieze, slab xvii. (44. 45. 45*.)]

  [Rightnote: XVIII.]

  The original of slab xviii. is at Athens, and was in its present
  mutilated condition when drawn by Carrey.

  [Rightnote: XIX.]

  [Sidenote: 47.]

  [Sidenote: 48.]

  The cast of the small fragment at the upper left-hand corner of
  slab xix., giving the mane of the horse of No. 47, has been added
  since the publication of the work of Michaelis. For a fragment
  engraved by Michaelis, as the head of No. 48, cf. No. 345, _18_.

  [Rightnote: XX.]

  Slab xx. (on the pilaster) is a cast from the original at Athens.
  This slab, which now only contains parts of the legs of two horses
  and a rider (No. 48) was nearly complete in the time of Carrey and
  contained two riders wearing petasoi or broad-brimmed travellers'
  hats.

  [Rightnote: XXI.]

  [Sidenote: 51.]

  [Sidenote: 52.]

  [Sidenote: 53.]

  In slab xxi. the head of the horse of No. 51 and the head and
  shoulders of No. 52 are supplied by casts from originals at
  Athens. The fragment containing the head of No. 53, a figure
  wearing a petasos, does not appear in the plate of Michaelis.

  [Rightnote: XXII., XXIII]

  Slab xxii. and slab xxiii., which, with the exception of a small
  fragment, is only preserved in Carrey's drawings, contained
  the leading horsemen of the procession. Those on slab xxii. are
  evidently pulling up their horses, while the two horsemen on slab
  xxiii. are going at a foot-pace. All the paces of the horse
  are thus displayed within a short distance, at this part of the
  frieze. In slab xxii. a fragment containing a horse's head and the
  mane of another horse, which Michaelis assigns to the team on slab
  xxiv., has been since adjusted to its place in front of No. 56;
  to this has been fitted the small fragment of the corner of slab
  xxiii.

  [Rightnote: XXIV.]

  [Rightnote: XXXIV.]

  The horsemen are immediately preceded in the procession by
  the chariot-groups. Carrey draws eight chariots, of which four
  partially survive and four are totally lost. On the other hand,
  a part remains of two groups (slab xxix.), of which there is no
  trace in Carrey's drawings. These, therefore, must probably be
  placed in a break in the sequence of slabs indicated by Carrey.
  Originally there must have been not fewer than ten chariot groups.
  In each the charioteer is accompanied by an armed warrior; but
  here the armed figure is not like the apobates of the northern
  frieze in the act of stepping out of the chariot in motion, but
  stands either in the quadriga or (if it is not in motion) by its
  side. Therefore Michaelis supposes that, while the chariots on
  the north frieze have reference to that contest in which armed
  apobatae took a part, leaping off and on to the quadriga during
  the race, the chariots in the south frieze suggest the chariots
  of war, _harmata polemisteria_, in which an armed hoplite stood
  in the chariot by the side of the charioteer. Each chariot group,
  when complete, is seen to be accompanied by a marshal.

  [Rightnote: XXIV.]

  [Sidenote: 58.]

  Of the two figures in the chariot of slab xxiv., nothing now
  remains but part of the shield and left arm of the hoplite (No.
  58), with a fold of drapery hanging from the arm. The upper part
  of the slab was wanting in the time of Carrey, but he gives the
  legs of the hoplite, who, like the corresponding figure in slab
  xxv., was standing by the wheel of the chariot, of which a small
  portion remains. This position shows that both these chariots were
  represented at the moment before they started. In the shield of
  No. 58 are two rivet holes for the attachment of a bronze handle.
  In the upper hole the metal still remains. Similar rivet holes
  occur in the shields of Nos. 61 and 66. Michaelis supplies the
  heads of the horses on this slab by a fragment which belongs to
  the cavalcade of horsemen. (See slab xxii., above.)

  The connection between slabs xxiv. and xxv. is proved by a
  fragment which has been added to the lower corner on the right
  of slab xxiv. since the work of Michaelis was published. This
  fragment, of which the original is at Athens, gives part of the
  wheel of the chariot of xxv. and the forefeet of the horses of
  xxiv.

  [Rightnote: XXV.]

  [Sidenote: 60.]

  [Sidenote: 61.]

  [Sidenote: 62.]

  In slab xxv. the horses' heads now wanting are given in Carrey's
  drawing. Of the charioteer (No. 60) very little is now visible
  but part of his drapery. The armed figure (No. 61) in this chariot
  group, whose appearance is more youthful than that of the other
  hoplites in this part of the frieze, wears a chiton with a double
  girdle and a chlamys. Near the edge of his shield are two rivet
  holes for a bronze handle; in the upper one the metal still
  remains. The marshal (No. 62) standing at the side of the horses
  stretches out his right hand towards the charioteer with the
  forefinger extended, a gesture which indicates that he is giving
  an order. The rivet holes on the horses' crests show that the
  reins were of bronze.

  [Rightnote: XXVI., XXVII.]

  Slabs xxvi., xxvii., of Michaelis, contained two chariot groups
  which we only know through Carrey's drawings. In both the horses
  are springing forward; cf. No. 345, _20_.

  [Rightnote: XXVIII.]

  Michaelis inserts to represent slab xxviii. a fragment which
  belongs to the north side, slab xxiv.

  [Rightnote: XXIX.]

  The lower corner on the left side of xxix. has been cast from
  a fragment at Athens, which has been identified since the
  publication of the work of Michaelis. This fragment supplies the
  missing part of the wheel and a small piece of flying drapery
  belonging to one of the figures in the chariot. In this group the
  marshal at the side of the chariot is wanting. On the right-hand
  edge of this slab, just above the horses' forelegs and close to
  the joint, is part of the outline of a shield. This shield must
  have belonged to one of the figures in the chariot following on
  the next slab; it is evident, therefore, that between xxix. and
  xxx. was another slab, now lost, which we cannot recognise in any
  of Carrey's drawings.

  [Rightnote: XXX.]

  [Sidenote: 66.]

  The armed figure (No. 66) wears the Corinthian helmet, which does
  not occur elsewhere on the frieze. The handle of his shield was of
  bronze, of which a small portion still remains in the rivet hole.
  Other rivet holes on the crests of the horses show that the reins
  and the _hestor_ for attaching the yoke to the pole were also of
  bronze. Here, as in xxix., the marshal is wanting. The horses'
  heads, which are treated with more freedom on this slab than
  elsewhere on the frieze, are of extraordinary beauty.

  [Rightnote: XXXI.]

  On slab xxxi., as in the preceding, the reins and the hestor were
  of bronze.

  [Rightnote: XXXII.-XXXIV.]

  Slabs xxxii.-xxxiv. are now wholly lost, except in Carrey's
  drawings. They contained two chariots, both at a standstill, or
  moving slowly, and the four last persons of the crowd on foot.

  [Rightnote: XXXV.-XXXVII.]

  [Sidenote: 72.]

  [Sidenote: 73.]

  [Sidenote: 79*.]

  Slabs xxxv., xxxvi., and part of slab xxxvii. contained the
  remainder of the persons on foot. Fragments of xxxv. and of
  xxxvi. (original at Athens) alone remain, although the slabs
  were complete in the time of Carrey. The figures as he draws them
  appear to be elderly men, eighteen in number, and resembling in
  attire and general character the Thallophori who have been already
  noticed on the northern frieze. All are clad in the himation.
  Michaelis thinks that No. 72 holds in his left hand a small object
  shaped like a clarionet, but he appears to have mistaken the right
  arm of No. 73 hanging down for this object. Between these supposed
  Thallophori and the victims Carrey inserts four figures, two of
  whom hold in their left hands some object like a square tablet,
  which may be the bottom of a lyre, as this is the place in
  the procession where the musicians might be expected, if the
  arrangement on this side corresponded with that on the north
  side. The fragment (No. 79*) representing the upper part of a
  Scaphephoros carrying a tray must also belong to this part of
  the frieze, and is therefore here inserted. It is cast from the
  original at Athens, which was not known to Michaelis. It probably
  implies that one slab was wanting here, as well as the second
  half of slab xxxvii., of which Carrey seems to have only drawn the
  first half.

  [Rightnote: XXXVIII.-XLV.]

  The remainder of the south frieze is occupied with the procession
  of victims for the sacrifice. Cows only are here represented,
  and, as has been observed, this may indicate that we have here the
  native Athenian part of the procession. The order in which these
  slabs are exhibited differs from that given by Michaelis in _Der
  Parthenon_, pl. 11., because slab xliii., No. 84 (= Michaelis, No.
  126; cf. 345, _22_), which is the top left corner of a slab, has
  been proved to join to the right side of xli. Other changes
  have also been made, but the slab numbers of Michaelis have
  been preserved for convenience of reference, and the order now
  stands:--xli., joined by xliii., No. 84 (= Michaelis, No. 126);
  xxxix., which may join xliii.; xl., which joins xxxix.; xxxviii.,
  which may perhaps join xl.; after an interval of one slab, xlii.;
  xliii., Nos. 100, 101 (= Michaelis, 127, 128); xliv., the corner
  slab. Michaelis has proposed a revised arrangement in _Arch.
  Zeit._, 1885, p. 57, which agrees with the foregoing, except that
  slabs xxxviii. and xlii. are transposed. Michaelis holds that
  xlii. joins xl., and xxxviii. joins xlii. This arrangement suits
  the conditions as to space, but the suggested joinings are very
  doubtful.

  [Sidenote: 85.]

  Each cow is escorted by two youths, one on each side, and a third
  figure, perhaps a marshal, at the head. Those of the escort who
  are on the side of the spectator are represented in vigorous
  action, guiding and restraining the animals by ropes, which may
  have been painted on the marble. All are clad in the himation,
  which in the figures actively engaged in controlling the cattle
  is worn so as to leave one or both shoulders free. Compare the
  description of Heliodorus, p. 147. In slab xxxix. the action is
  very animated. The youth, No. 85, leans back with his foot pressed
  against a rock, to restrain the cow. This motive is a favourite
  one in fifth century art. Compare the west frieze, No. 15; a
  metope of the Theseion representing Theseus and the bull of
  Marathon; the balustrade of the temple of Nikè Apteros (No. 429);
  and vase paintings as in _Journ. of Hellen. Studies_, ii., pl. 10.

  [Sidenote: 96.]

  In slab xl. the left lower corner is added in plaster, from the
  original fragment at Athens. In slab xxxviii. the cow's right horn
  must have been carved in the round, only the tip being attached to
  the background of the relief. In slab xlii., No. 96 has both hands
  raised to his head, as if adjusting a wreath. Compare the north
  frieze, No. 25. What was the number of cattle in this part of the
  frieze cannot now be ascertained, but there is evidence that there
  were at least nine, and more probably ten.

  [Sidenote: 91.]

  Michaelis (_Arch. Zeit._, 1885, p. 57), in placing xlii. after
  xl., makes the right hand seen on the left of xlii. to be the hand
  of No. 91 (= Michaelis, No. 115), and the portion of a cow's belly
  seen between 90 and 91 to be part of the cow on the left of xlii.
  It is to be noticed that the hind legs of this cow have been
  altogether omitted.

  There is a curious inequality in the depths of the relief in this
  part of the frieze. Slabs xxxix., xl. are worked more in the round
  than the remaining groups with cattle.

  [Sidenote: 100, 101.]

  [Sidenote: 102.]

  The fragment with the two heads, Nos. 100 and 101, may be, as
  Michaelis suggests, a part of the corner slab xliv., the two parts
  at present numbered as 101, 102 being different parts of the same
  figure. The positions of the head and the foot appear to agree. On
  the other hand, the surfaces of the two fragments have weathered
  very differently.

  On the return face of slab xliv. is the marshal, who forms the
  first figure of the east frieze, and makes a connection between
  the two sides, by looking back, as if to the advancing procession.

    In the following conspectus of publications of the frieze, only the
    _Museum Marbles_ and the work of Michaelis, and the photographic
    reproductions are referred to in detail. For a fuller list of early
    publications the reader is referred to the work of Michaelis.
    Deficiencies in the published illustrations, as compared with the
    present state of the frieze, are noted in the description. In the
    fourth column C. indicates that the slab was drawn by Carrey; S.
    that it was drawn by Stuart, and published in the _Antiquities of
    Athens_, II., chap. i., or IV., chap. iv., pls. 11-14.
    A diagram showing all the slabs drawn by Stuart is given in
    _Antiquities of Athens_, II., chap. i., pl. 30. P. indicates
    that a slab was drawn by Pars, during the Dilettanti Expedition,
    and was published in the _Antiquities of Athens_, IV., chap.
    iv., pls. 6-10, 15-28. W. denotes slabs published, from drawings of
    Pars, in the _Museum Worsleyanum_.


                   PARTHENON FRIEZE, EAST SIDE.
  ------------------+-----------------+-------------+--------------------
    MICHAELIS,      | _Museum_        | Mansell's   | Early Drawings, &c.
    _Der_           | _Marbles_,      | Photographs.|
  _Parthenon_,      |   Pt. VIII.     |             |
     Pl. 14.        |                 |             |
  ------------------+-----------------+-------------+--------------------
      Slab.         |      Pl.        |             |
        I.          |     XXXIX.      |    684      | C.
                    |                 |             |
       II.          |                 |    684      | C.
                    |                 |             |
       III.         |XXXVIII., XXXVII.| 685, 686    | C.S.
                    |                 |             |
       IV.          |   XXXVI., I.    | 687, 688    |{ C.S. Brunn,
                    |                 |             |{ _Denkmaeler_,
                    |                 |             |{ Nos. 106, 107.
                    |                 |             |
        V.          | II., III., IV.  | 689, 690    |{ S.W. Brunn,
                    |                 |             |{ _Denkmaeler_,
                    |                 |             |{ Nos. 108, 109, 110.
                    |                 |             |
       VI.          |    V., VI.      | 691, 692    |{ C. Baumeister,
                    |                 |             |{ p. 1187.
                    |                 |             |
       VII.         |      VII.       |             | C.
                    |                 |             |
       VIII.        |     VIII.       | 692_a_      | C.S.
                    |                 |             |
       IX.          |                 |             | C.S.
                    |                 |             |
  ------------------+-----------------+-------------+----------------------
  The East Frieze is also published by the Stereoscopic Company, Nos. 1-13.


                   PARTHENON FRIEZE, NORTH SIDE.
  --------------+----------------+-------------+---------------
    MICHAELIS,  | _Museum_       | Mansell's   | Early
    Pl. 12, 13. | _Marbles_,     | Photographs.| Drawings.
                |    Pt. VIII.   |             |
  --------------+----------------+-------------+---------------
      Slab.     |      Pl.       |             |
      I.-V.     |     VIII.      |             | C.S.
       VI.      |                |    656      | C.
     VII.-XI.   |                |             | C. (except X.)
       XII.     |     IX. A.     |    655      | C.S.
      XIII.     |                |             | C.
       XIV.     |     IX. B.     |    654      | C.S.
     XV.-XVI.   |                |             | C.
      XVII.     |      XI.       |             | S.W.
      XVIII.    |     X. C.      |    653      |
       XIX.     |                |             | C.
       XX.      |                |             |
      XXI.      |      X. D.     |    652      |
      XXII.     |       XII.     |    651      | S.
     XXIII.     |       XII.     |    650      | S.
      XXIV.     |     XIII. A.   |    649      |
      XXV.      |                |             | S.
      XXVI.     |       XIV.     |    648      | S.
     XXVII.     |                |             |
     XXVIII.    |     XIII. B.   |    647      |
      XXIX.     |                |             |
      XXX.      |                |             |
      XXXI.     |                |             |
     XXXII.     |       XV.      |    646      | P. W.
     XXXIII.    |       XVI.     |    645      | P. W.
     XXXIV.     |       XVI.     |    644      | P. W.
      XXXV.     |      XVII.     |    643      | P. W.
     XXXVI.     |      XVII.     |    642      | P. W.
    XXXVII. [*] |      XVIII.    |    641      | P. W.
   XXXVIII. [*] |      XVIII.    |    640      | P. W.
     XXXIX.     |       XIX.     |    639      | P.S.W.
       XL.      |       XIX.     |    638      | S. W.
      XLI.      |       XX.      |    637      | S. W.
      XLII.     |       XXI.     |    636      | S. W.
  --------------+----------------+-------------+----------

    *: Slab XXXVII. is given by Brunn, _Denkmaeler_, No. 113;
    Slab XXXVIII. = _Denkmaeler_, No. 114; Slab XLII. = _Denkmaeler_,
    No. 115. The North Frieze is also published by the Stereoscopic
    Company, Nos. 14-38.


                   PARTHENON FRIEZE, WEST SIDE.
  --------------+----------------+-----------+------------
                |                |  Stereo-  |
    MICHAELIS,  | _Museum_       |  scopic   | Early
       Pl. 9    | _Marbles_,     | Company's | Drawings.
                |    Pt. VIII.   |  Photo-   |
                |                |  graphs.  |
  --------------+----------------+-----------+------------
      Slab.     |      Pl.       |    No.    |
       I.       |     XXII.      |           | C.P.W.
       II.      |     XXII.      |    39     | C.P.W.
      III.      |     XXIII.     |  40, 40A  | C.P.W.
       IV.      |     XXIV.      |    41     | C.P.W.
       V.       |      XXV.      |    42     | C.P.W.
       VI.      |     XXVI.      |    43     | C.P.W.
      VII.      |     XVII.      |    44     | C.P.W.
      VIII.     |    XXVIII.     |    45     | C.P.W.
       IX.      |     XXIX.      |    46     | C.P.W.
       X.       |      XXX.      |    47     | C.P.W.
       XI.      |     XXXI.      |    48     | C.P.W.
      XII.      |     XXXII.     |    49     | C.P.W.
      XIII.     |    XXXIII.     |    50     | C.P.W.
      XIV.      |     XXXIV.     |    51     | C.P.W.
       XV.      |     XXXV.      |    52     | C.P.W.
      XVI.      |     XXXV.      |    53     | C.P.W.
  --------------+----------------+-----------+------------


                   PARTHENON FRIEZE, SOUTH SIDE.
  --------------+----------------+-------------+------------
    MICHAELIS,  | _Museum_       | Mansell's   | Early
    Pl. 10, 11. | _Marbles_,     | Photographs.| Drawings.
                |    Pt. VIII.   |             |
  --------------+----------------+-------------+------------
      Slab      |      Pl.       |             |
        I.      |      LVI.      |    661      | S.
       II.      |                |             | S.
      III.      |      LV.       |    658      | S.
       IV.      |                |             | S.
       V.       |      LV.       |    659      | S.
       VI.      |      LIV.      |    660      | S.W.
      VII.      |      LIV.      |    657      | S.W.
      VIII.     |     LIII.      |    662      | S.W.
       IX.      |     LIII.      |    663      | S.W.
      X. [*]    |      LII.      |    664      | S.W.
      XI.[*]    |      LII.      |    665      | S.W.
      XII.      |      LI.       |    666      | S.
      XIII.     |      LI.       |    667      | S.
      XIV.      |                |             |
       XV.      |       L.       |    668      |
      XVI.      |                |             |
      XVII.     |                |             |
     XVIII.     |                |             | C.
      XIX.      |     XLIX.      |    669      | C.
       XX.      |                |             | C.
      XXI.      |     XLIX.      |    670      | C.
      XXII.     |    XLVIII.     |    671      | C.
     XXIII.     |                |             | C.
      XXIV.     |     XLVII.     |    672      | C.
      XXV.      |     XLVII.     |    673      | C.
      XXVI.     |                |             | C.
     XXVII.     |                |             | C.
     XXVIII.    |                |             |
      XXIX.     |     XLVI.      |    674      |
      XXX.      |      XLV.      |    675      | C.
      XXXI.     |      XLV.      |    676      | C.
     XXXII.     |                |             | C.
     XXXIII.    |                |             | C.
     XXXIV.     |                |             | C.
      XXXV.     |     XLIV.      |    677      | C.
     XXXVI.     |                |             | C.
     XXXVII.    |                |             | C.
    XXXVIII.    |     XLIII.     |    678      |
     XXXIX.     |     XLII.      |    679      |
       XL.      |      XLI.      |    680      | S.
      XLI.      |      XLI.      |    681      | S.
      XLII.     |      XL.       |    682      |
     XLIII.     |                |             |
      XLIV.     |     XXXIX.     |    683      |
  --------------+----------------+-------------+-----------

    *: Slab X. is given by Brunn, _Denkmaeler_, No. 111;
    Slab XI. = _Denkmaeler_, No. 112. The South Frieze is also
    published by the Stereoscopic Company, Nos. 53-97.



FRAGMENTS OF THE PARTHENON SCULPTURES.


Numerous small fragments of the Parthenon sculptures were taken from
Athens either by Lord Elgin, or by travellers who visited Athens.
Others have been more recently discovered in excavations on the
Acropolis, or on its south slope, and are still at Athens. Casts of
all such fragments, so far as they could be obtained, are now in the
British Museum. As far as possible the fragments have been adjusted in
their correct positions on the sculptures, and have been described in
their respective places in this Catalogue. Of the remainder all the
original marble fragments, and the most interesting of the casts, are
exhibited in the Elgin Room, and are described below.


MARBLE FRAGMENTS ATTRIBUTED TO THE PEDIMENTAL SCULPTURES.

[Sidenote: =328.=]

Fragment of colossal head. According to Hamilton's Memorandum, this
fragment was discovered built into a Turkish house at the west front
of the temple. It contains the upper part of a face and head. The
sockets of the eyes are hollow, and must have once contained eyes
composed of ivory, precious stones, or enamel. (An ivory eye, which
must have belonged to a colossal statue, was found in the temple of
Athenè, at Ægina, and is engraved in Cockerell, _Temples at Ægina, and
Bassæ_, pl. 12, fig. 4. Cf. also _Arch. Anzeiger_, 1889, p. 102). The
surface of the marble is highly polished, and traces of red colour
have been remarked in the hair. The back of the head is worked in a
peculiar way, to a plane surface, such as might be required if this
was a head from a pediment, on account of the cornice above. The hard,
conventional style, however, is not in accordance with that of the
pedimental sculptures. This fragment was formerly thought to belong
to the Athenè of the western pediment, to which its scale would
correspond, but there are no other grounds for the attribution.

  Height, 10 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 101 (118); _Mus. Marbles_, VI.,
  pl. 16; Michaelis, pl. 8, fig. 14.

[Sidenote: =329.=]

Two feet, shod with leather, attached to a plinth. The feet belonged
to a figure striding to the (spectator's) right. The left foot was
advanced, and bore the weight of the body. Between the feet a stump
of a tree is attached to the plinth. The feet appear to be those of a
female figure, which in that case must have worn a short chiton. The
fragment has been assigned by different writers to the Athenè of the
west pediment, which is impossible, on account of the attitude; to
the Poseidon, which is impossible, on account of the scale; and to the
Athenè of the east pediment, about whom we have no information. It has
also, with more plausibility, been assigned to the figure of Hermes
(H; see Carrey's drawing), who accompanies the chariot of Athenè on
the west pediment. It is, however, unlikely that that figure was shod
with leather shoes; and the stump also has to be accounted for. It
is very probable that the plinth does not belong to the pedimental
sculptures at all, and Sauer's plan of the floor of the pediment seems
to leave no room for it. It has been suggested that it is part of an
independent group of Athenè and Poseidon, which Pausanias saw on the
Acropolis. But as to this there is no evidence either way.

  Length, 4 feet 6 inches. _Mus. Marbles_, VI., pl. 8; _Synopsis_,
  No. 256 (201); Michaelis, pl. 8, fig. 4, p. 194; _Journ. of
  Hellen. Studies_, III., p. 251.

[Sidenote: =330.=]

Part of colossal right arm of female figure, bent at a right angle
at the elbow. It comprises the upper arm, from the shoulder, and the
upper part of the forearm. This fragment may, perhaps, have belonged
to figure G of the west pediment. (See Carrey's drawing.)

  Height (to elbow), 1 foot 11 inches. Plate VI., fig. 2. In part
  given by Michaelis, pl. 8, fig. 40; _Synopsis_, No. 342 (268).

[Sidenote: =331.=]

Left arm of female figure, bent, from near the shoulder, to a little
above the elbow. Drapery, thrown over the arm at the elbow joint,
falls partly on the upper and partly on the fore arm. In the drapery
of the upper arm is a hole for the attachment of an object in metal.
This fragment seems best suited to the figure N. (See Carrey's
drawing.)

  Length, armpit to elbow, 1 foot 4-1/4 inches. Michaelis, pl. 8,
  fig. 26; _Synopsis_, No. 315 (271*).

[Sidenote: =332.=]

Right arm of female figure, slightly bent, formed of two fragments
united at the elbow. This may, perhaps, belong to figure F.

  Length, 2 feet 7-1/2 inches. Michaelis (pl. 8, fig. 30) gives the
  upper arm; _Synopsis_ No. 339 (269).

[Sidenote: =333.=]

Left forearm of female figure, broken off above the elbow (Michaelis,
pl. 8, fig. 28). To this is united a cast of a fragment at Athens with
the wrist, which is bent a little inwards. The arm must have been bent
at the elbow.

  Length, elbow to wrist, 1 foot 7 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 314
  (272).

[Sidenote: =334.=]

Forearm of female figure. Michaelis (pl. 8, fig. 29) thinks that it
may have belonged either to figure O or W of the west pediment.

  Length, 11-1/2 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 311 (264).

[Sidenote: =335.=]

Fragment of left thigh, above life size. Michaelis (pl. 8, fig. 39)
calls this a female fragment, and suggests the nude seated female
figure S of the west pediment. But he seems to be in error as to the
sex, and the fragment seems more appropriate to the figure of the boy,
E, in the same pediment.

  Length, 1 foot. _Synopsis_, No. 312 (267).

[Sidenote: =336.=]

Fore part of right foot of female figure, resting on a thick sole. The
foot belonged to a colossal figure, which, can hardly have been other
than the Athenè of the west pediment.

  Length, 1 foot 1-3/4 inches (length of second toe, 3-3/4 inches).
  Michaelis. pl. 8, fig. 32; _Synopsis_, No. 340 (244).

[Sidenote: =337.=]

Piece of drapery, which must have hung free, apparently from the
shoulder and outstretched right arm of a colossal figure. At the upper
extremity is part of a dowel hole, showing that the marble had been
attached here by a joint.

  Height, 2 feet 1-1/2 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 343 (144).

[Sidenote: =338.=]

Fragment of right shoulder and arm as low as the deltoid. The upper
arm presses against the side. This fragment may belong to the boy P on
the left of Q in the west pediment.

  Height, 11 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 303 (133).


CASTS FROM FRAGMENTS OF THE PEDIMENTAL SCULPTURES.

[Sidenote: =339.= 1.]

  Colossal female head, slightly turned to its right. The hair was
  confined in a plait round the head, and also by a wreath or band,
  which was of metal, as is shown by the holes for its attachment.
  The nose and mouth have been restored; but the grand style of
  the antique parts of the head agrees with that of the Parthenon
  pediments.

  It is impossible, however, to determine to which figure the head
  belongs. It has been assigned by Laborde and others to the Victory
  (G) who is driving the chariot of Athenè in the west pediment. But
  it may have belonged to one of the figures N, Q, S, of the same
  pediment.

  The probability that the head is derived from the Parthenon is
  increased by what is known of its history. It was found in a house
  of the San Gallo family at Venice. A member of this family, Felice
  San Gallo, was secretary of Morosini, and may well have taken the
  head as a trophy from Athens, in 1687. The head passed in 1823
  into the possession of David Weber, and afterwards into that of
  Laborde.

    Height, 1 foot 3-1/2 inches. Laborde, _Athènes_, II., pls.
    facing pp. 228, 230; Michaelis, p. 195; pl. 8, fig. 6; Wolters,
    No. 561, p. 257.

  [Sidenote: 2.]

  Colossal female head, much defaced. The hair is gathered in a
  cloth, which passes over the back of the head. Compare the figure
  in the east frieze, slab vi., No. 39 (Michaelis, pl. 14, No. 40).

    Height, 11-1/2 inches. Michaelis, pl. 8, fig. 9; Laborde, pl. 24,
    fig. 6.

  [Sidenote: 3.]

  Right side of colossal female head. The hair is gathered into a
  plait from the brow and bound round the head. This fine fragment
  agrees well in style with the unrestored parts of the head, No. 1,
  above.

    Height, 10-1/2 inches.

  [Sidenote: 4.]

  Fragment of a wing, with a joint for attachment, and a heavy
  support below. The figure of Victory (J) in the east pediment
  probably had large wings; but it is difficult to attach this cast
  to the statue.

    Greatest length, 2 feet 6 inches. Michaelis, pl. 8, fig. 11;
    Laborde, pl. 25, fig. 12; Overbeck, _Ber. d. k. sächs. Ges.
    d. Wissenschaften_, 1880, pl. 3.

  [Sidenote: 5.]

  Three smaller fragments of similar wings.

    One is engraved, Michaelis, pl. 8, fig. 10; Laborde, pl. 25,
    fig. 17.

  [Sidenote: 6.]

  Portion of chiton, the flowing lines of which greatly resemble the
  treatment of the Iris? (G) of the east pediment.

    Length, 1 foot 6-1/2 inches.

  [Sidenote: 7.]

  Portion of the right side of a draped figure wearing chiton and
  mantle, and sitting on a rock. Attributed by Michaelis to the west
  pediment (fig. D or fig. U).

    Height, 3 feet 3 inches. Michaelis, pl. 8, fig. 5. See above,
    No. 304 D.

  [Sidenote: 8.]

  Left knee of seated draped figure, with the fingers of a small
  hand on it. (West pediment, figs. D, E.) See No. 304, D, E.

    Height, 1 foot.

  [Sidenote: 9.]

  Left leg of colossal male figure, bent nearly at a right angle at
  the knee. It is made up from two pieces, a fragment reaching from
  half-way up the thigh to below the knee, and the fragment of a leg
  (Michaelis, pl. 8, fig. 36), reaching to the bottom of the calf.

  The scale and the attitude seem to agree well with the figure of
  Hermes (H) of the west pediment.

    Greatest circumference of the thigh, 2 feet 7-1/2 inches.

  [Sidenote: 10.]

  Fragment of the right leg and thigh of a colossal male figure,
  made up of two pieces, the leg from below the knee nearly to the
  ankle (Michaelis, pl. 8, fig. 38), and the knee with the beginning
  of the thigh. This leg is slightly bent at the knee. It is on
  the same scale as the preceding No. 9, and appears to be in the
  required position for the right knee of the figure of Hermes (H)
  in the west pediment.

    Height, 1 foot 11 inches.

  [Sidenote: 11.]

  A colossal right foot, broken off at the ankle, and also half-way
  between the instep and the toes. Less than half of the sole is
  roughly cut with a drill as if this part of the foot had been
  slightly raised from the ground. The heel and part of the sole
  under the instep have been broken away. The scale is rather larger
  than that of the preceding Nos. 9, 10, and it may therefore be one
  of the feet of the Athenè in the west pediment.

    Length of fragment, 11-1/2 inches. Michaelis, pl. 8, fig. 31;
    Laborde, pl. 58, fig. 8.

  [Sidenote: 12.]

  Fragment of tail of some serpentine creature having on the back a
  ridge of projections. This fragment has been thought to be part of
  the tail of a Hippocamp attached to the chariot of Amphitritè.

    Length, 1 foot 6 inches. Michaelis, pl. 8, fig. 17; Laborde, pl.
    24, fig. 9.

  [Sidenote: 13.]

  Fragment of left thigh, near the knee, of colossal figure; on
  it falls a corner of drapery to which is attached a gland. Sauer
  proposes to assign this fragment to the figure S of the west
  pediment.

    Length, 9-1/2 inches. _Athenische Mittheilungen_, 1891, p. 79.

  [Sidenote: 14.]

  Right thigh and knee of a male figure, rather larger than life. It
  is very doubtful whether this belongs to the Parthenon.

    Length, 10 inches.

  [Sidenote: 15.]

  Fragment of right leg of small figure, broken off above ankle and
  below knee. It has been attached at the back.

    Length, 11 inches.

  [Sidenote: 16.]

  Left hand of colossal female figure clasped round an uncertain
  object. The hand is broken off at the wrist; the forefinger and
  middle finger are wanting. There is no evidence that this hand
  belongs to the Parthenon. The scale, however, is suitable to
  one of the central figures of the west pediment. If the hand is
  derived thence, it is possible that the hand is a hand of Athenè,
  and that the object it holds is not the base of a torch, as has
  been suggested, but part of the olive-tree. In that case Athenè
  would be placing her left hand on a projecting bough of her tree.

    Length of third finger, 6-1/4 inches. Overbeck, _Ber. d. k. sächs.
    Ges. d. Wissenschaften_, 1880, pl. 3.

  [Sidenote: 17.]

  Fragment of an olive-tree with foliage.

    Height, 6-1/2 inches.

  [Sidenote: 18.]

  Similar fragment of olive-tree, larger than last.

    Height, 1 foot 4 inches. Michaelis, pl. 8, fig. 15.

  [Sidenote: 19.]

  Fragment of ankle and part of calf of right leg wearing high
  boot and attached on the right side to the trunk of a tree. It is
  highly improbable that this fragment belonged to the Parthenon.

    Height, 1 foot 3 inches.

  [Sidenote: 20.]

  Left hand and wrist of male figure; the palm is grooved for the
  reception of some object like a staff; the thumb, forefinger, and
  upper joints of the other fingers are wanting. The scale is
  rather larger than that of the so-called Theseus (D) of the east
  pediment, to which the fragment has been attributed by Overbeck.
  The wrist is slightly bent inwards. This hand is finely modelled.

    Length, 9-1/2 inches. Overbeck, _Ber. d. k. sächs. Ges. d.
    Wissenschaften_, 1880, p. 43.

  [Sidenote: 21.]

  Fragment of left hand and wrist of male figure, the hand much bent
  back as if the figure had rested on the open palm; broken across
  the middle of the metacarpal bones; possibly the left hand of the
  River-God V in the west pediment. See No. 304 V.

    Breadth, 6-1/4 inches.

  [Sidenote: 22.]

  Right hand of female figure, small; the thumb and fingers broken
  off.

    Breadth of palm, 4-1/4 inches.

  [Sidenote: 23.]

  Right hand; the thumb and fingers broken off.

    Breadth of palm, 4-3/4 inches.

  [Sidenote: 24.]

  Right arm of female figure, slightly bent; the upper arm broken
  about the bottom of the biceps; the under side is worked rough.

    Length, 1 foot 2 inches.

  [Sidenote: 25.]

  Fragment of left upper arm of female figure with sleeve of chiton
  fastened with studs (Michaelis, pl. 8, fig. 25).

    Length, 8-1/2 inches.

  [Sidenote: 26.]

  Fragment of right shoulder and upper part of back of arm of female
  figure; over the shoulder is drapery.

    Height, 1 foot 1/2 inch.

  [Sidenote: 27.]

  Fragment of right hip and right side of body nearly to the navel,
  of a boy, possibly from the west pediment.

    Greatest height, 8 inches.

  [Sidenote: 28.]

  Left breast of female figure, draped; the drapery has been
  fastened on the left shoulder. This may be part of the figure of
  Callirrhoè (W) in the west pediment.

    Height, 1 foot.

  [Sidenote: 29.]

  Left breast of female figure, the drapery strained over it; the
  scale is similar to that of the figure C in the west pediment.

    Height, 9 inches.

[Sidenote: =340.=]

Cast of a marble head in the Bibliothèque Nationale at Paris, wrongly
assigned by C. Lenormant to the pediments of the Parthenon.

  Height, 1 foot 9 inches. _Gaz. Arch._, 1875, pl. 1; Wolters,
  No. 1280; Laborde, _Athènes_, I., p. 157; Michaelis, p. 202, B*;
  Babelon, _Cabinet des Antiques à la Bibl. Nat._, pl. 20.


CASTS FROM FRAGMENTS OF CHARIOT-HORSES OF WEST PEDIMENT.

[Sidenote: =341.=]

A large number of small fragments of horses from the west pediment has
been discovered. Several of these fragments have been proved to have
belonged to the horses of Poseidon, which were lost before the visit
of Cyriac of Ancona, in 1447. Others belonged to the group of horses,
which was let fall by Morosini's workmen. Casts of these are preserved
in the British Museum, but only the most remarkable are exhibited in
the Elgin Room.

  [Sidenote: 1.]

  Horse's head broken off at the setting off of the neck. The nose
  wanting. The mane, which has been hogged, and the surface of this
  head in several places are broken away. This fragment and the two
  following are assigned by Sauer to the chariot of Poseidon.

    Michaelis, pl. 8, J. K. _a_; Laborde, pl. 26, fig. 25.

  [Sidenote: 2.]

  Horse's head, lower half broken away. The mane hogged, with a
  loose lock in front. Behind the ears a groove and two perforations
  are worked in the mane, and above the ears two other perforations
  for the attachment of trappings of metal.

    Overbeck, _Ber. d. k. sächs. Ges. d. Wissenschaften_, 1879,
    pl. 1, fig. 3.

  [Sidenote: 3.]

  A right hindleg from the stifle joint to the pastern, bent, so as
  to indicate a rearing action. From below the hough to the hoof the
  leg is carved out of a block resting on the bed of the pediment.
  The greater part was sculptured on another block also set in the
  bed, which is now wanting, and was fitted to the first block at
  a joint roughly tooled. The outside of the haunch and hough have
  been cut away, evidently to gain room for the left hindleg of
  another horse, or, according to Sauer, for the chariot-pole. This
  limb is composed of three separate fragments.

    Michaelis, pl. 8, J. K. _f_; Laborde, pl. 26, fig. 40; Overbeck,
    _Ber. d. k. sächs. Gesell. d. Wissenschaften_, 1879, p. 72, pl. 1;
    and 1880, p. 161.

  [Sidenote: 4.]

  Left hindleg from stifle to below hough, bent, made up of two
  fragments; the upper one may be Michaelis, pl. 8, J. K. _g_;
  Laborde, pl. 26, fig. 36.

  [Sidenote: 5.]

  Left thigh from below stifle; the outer side split off, broken off
  in the hough joint.

  [Sidenote: 6.]

  Right forefoot; made up of two fragments of which one is
  Michaelis, pl. 8, J. K. _p_; broken off below the knee; the hoof
  free from the ground.

  [Sidenote: 7.]

  Hoof of forefoot, free from the ground; cut away on one side with
  rough surface; under the foot are holes round the edge as if for
  nails.

  [Sidenote: 8.]

  Hindhoof attached to fragment of base.

    Michaelis, pl. 8, J. K. _m_; Laborde, pl. 26, fig. 41.

  [Sidenote: 9.]

  Left foreleg, bent, from above knee to below knee.

    Michaelis, pl. 8, J. K. _s_; Laborde, pl. 26, fig. 30 bis.


MARBLE FRAGMENTS OF METOPES.

[Sidenote: =342.=]

The following fragments can be assigned with confidence to their
respective places on the south side.

  [Sidenote: 1.]

  Metope XII. (No. 314). Foot of female figure. See _ante_, No. 314.

  [Sidenote: 2.]

  Metope XIV. The body of a male figure from the neck to the navel.
  This fragment is engraved in the vignette to _Museum Marbles_,
  Part vii., and was drawn by Carrey, who gives the whole metope
  as a youth raising his hands in astonishment, and a woman with a
  casket.

    Michaelis, pl. 3, xiv.; _Synopsis_, No. 319 (143).

  [Sidenote: 3.]

  Metope XVI. The head and trunk of a figure who has fallen in a
  combat between two men. The trunk was one of the Elgin fragments,
  and is also engraved in the vignette to _Museum Marbles_, Part
  vii. The head was formerly at Chatsworth, and was presented to
  the Museum by _the Duke of Devonshire_ in 1859. Carrey gives the
  position of the head of the fallen figure very accurately.

    _Synopsis_, No. 323 (294); Michaelis, pl. 3, xvi.

  [Sidenote: 4.]

  Metope XX. Left thigh of female figure with clinging drapery,
  standing turned to the left.


  The following fragments are either of doubtful or unknown origins.
  Probably they are all derived from metopes on the south side.

  [Sidenote: 5.]

  Left breast of draped female figure. South side, Metope No. XIII.?

    _Synopsis_, No. 302 (132); Michaelis, pl. 4, fig. K.

  [Sidenote: 6.]

  Fragment of right arm from the wrist to above the elbow, which is
  bent; above the wrist is attached a corner of drapery. _Presented
  by M. Dubois, 1840._ South side, Metope No. XV.?

  [Sidenote: 7.]

  Fragment of right arm from the wrist to the elbow, placed across
  the breast and left shoulder, with folds of drapery hanging as if
  from the hand. South side, Metope No. XIX.?

    _Synopsis_, No. 305 (136).

  [Sidenote: 8.]

  Fragment of left arm from the wrist to near the elbow.

    _Synopsis_, No. 306 (137).

  [Sidenote: 9.]

  Fragment of calf of leg.

    _Synopsis_, No. 307 (138).

  [Sidenote: 10.]

  Fragment of calf of leg covered with drapery.

    _Synopsis_, No. 308 (139).

  [Sidenote: 11.]

  Fragment of left arm from the wrist to near the elbow.

    _Synopsis_, No. 309 (140).

  [Sidenote: 12.]

  Part of the arm (?) of a draped figure, made up of two pieces.

    _Synopsis_, Nos. 320 (141) and 322 (142).

  [Sidenote: 13.]

  Fragment of the right upper arm of a draped female figure with
  sleeve fastened with two studs.

    _Synopsis_, No. 304 (134).

  [Sidenote: 14.]

  Right shoulder and part of breast of draped female figure; the
  chiton fastened down the shoulder with four studs.

    Michaelis, pl. 4, fig. O; _Synopsis_, No. 301 (131).

  [Sidenote: 15.]

  Left hind leg of Centaur up to above the hough. _Presented by M.
  Dubois, 1840._


CASTS FROM FRAGMENTS OF METOPES.

[Sidenote: =343.=]

A large number of fragments have been discovered in the course of
excavations at Athens. Casts of these have been attached, as far
as possible to the Metopes. Of the fragments which could not be so
attached, the following are the most important.

  [Sidenote: 1.]

  South side, Metope XI. Fragment of shield, held by left hands of
  both Centaur and Lapith; cf. Michaelis, pl. 3, No. xi. See p. 138.

  [Sidenote: 2.]

  Metope XVII. Torso of male figure, extending from the left
  shoulder to half-way down the right thigh; drapery hangs from the
  left shoulder and falls down the back to the waist. This figure
  has stood on the right foot; the left leg appears to have been
  bent. This metope, as drawn by Carrey, appears to have contained a
  nearly nude male figure, standing, and a draped figure of a woman,
  or citharist, holding a lyre.

    Michaelis, pl. 3, xvii.

  [Sidenote: 3.]

  Metope XVII. Fragment, possibly part of a lyre; apparently this is
  the object held in the hands of the draped figure of this metope.
  There are traces of fingers at the back.

  [Sidenote: 4.]

  Metope XX. Fragment of right hand holding the end of a scroll.
  This metope, as drawn by Carrey, contained two draped figures,
  holding scrolls.

    Michaelis, pl. 3, xx.

  [Sidenote: 5.]

  Metope XXIV. Torso of Lapith. In the complete metope, as drawn
  by Carrey, the Lapith holds the fallen Centaur by the hair, and
  places his left foot on his body.

    Michaelis, pl. 3, xxiv.

  [Sidenote: 6.]

  Head of Lapith, perhaps from Metope No. 305. _Found in the
  excavations on the Acropolis, of 1889._

    Height, 7-1/2 inches.


MARBLE FRAGMENT OF FRIEZE.

[Sidenote: =344.=]

Head of a youth, looking to the left, in low relief. This fragment
probably belongs to one of the horsemen in the north frieze. It is
placed by Michaelis (pl. 13) in the space between slabs xxvi. and
xxviii. This head was formerly in the possession of Mr. Steinhaüser,
at Karlsruhe.

  Height, 5-3/4 inches.


CASTS FROM FRAGMENTS OF THE FRIEZE.

[Sidenote: =345.=]

The fragments are here arranged, as far as possible, in the order
followed in the description of the frieze.


EAST FRIEZE.

  [Sidenote: 1.]

  Fragment from left-hand lower corner of slab, with drapery falling
  in vertical folds from below the knee of a figure; and with a
  right foot turned to the right, and wearing a shoe with a thick
  sole. The figure to which this fragment belongs must have been a
  maiden in the procession; probably the figure on the left of slab
  ii. now entirely lost, but preserved in Carrey's drawing.

    Height, 1 foot. Compare Michaelis, pl. 14, slab ii., No. 2.

  [Sidenote: 2.]

  Female head, looking to the left. The hair is gathered up under
  a net. This must have belonged to one of the figures in the
  procession on the east side, slabs vii.-ix., and probably to No.
  56.

    Height, 4-1/2 inches.


  NORTH FRIEZE.

  [Sidenote: 3.]

  Fragment of arm and drapery of male figure moving to the left.
  From the left edge of a slab. This seems to be a part of the
  figure, No. 4, partly seen on slab ii., and has been thus drawn on
  plate vii.

    Height, 1 foot 1 inch.

  [Sidenote: 4.]

  Left-hand upper corner of slab, on which is a youthful male head,
  bound with a diadem, looking to the left; the face shown in three
  quarters. This seems to agree best with Carrey's drawing of the
  figure with the sheep, slab iv., No. 7 (= Michaelis, No. 9). See
  plate vii.

    Height, 7-1/2 inches.

  [Sidenote: 5.]

  Fragment containing the back of the head of one of the
  lyre-players (Michaelis, No. 24) and part of the lyre of the other
  (Michaelis, No. 25).

    Height, 11-1/4 inches. (See Plate viii.) Michaelis, pl. 12, vii.

  [Sidenote: 6.]

  Fragment from lower part of draped figure from knee to right (?)
  foot, the direction being to the left. On the right side of the
  fragment is a joint. The drapery reaches to the ankle, with an
  upper fold falling half-way down the calf. This fragment seems
  to have belonged to the musician on slab vii., whose lyre is
  preserved on the preceding fragment, and is thus drawn on Plate
  viii. Michaelis is in error in marking a joint on the left of his
  No. 26 (= Museum, No. 17).

    Height, 1 foot 7-1/2 inches.

  [Sidenote: 7.]

  Fragment with left foot wearing a shoe, from a draped figure
  moving to the left. The skirt falls just above the ankle. This
  may be a part of the figure on slab i., only preserved in Carrey's
  drawing (cf. Plate vii.); or it may have belonged to one of the
  figures on slabs vii.--ix., notwithstanding that Carrey represents
  them with bare feet.

    Height, 7 inches.

  [Sidenote: 8.]

  Fragment from the left of slab ix., giving parts of the three
  figures shown in Carrey's drawing (see Plate viii.). This fragment
  agrees fairly well with Carrey, except that he does not
  indicate the hand of the middle figure. It was discovered in the
  excavations on the Acropolis in 1889.

    Height, 2 feet.

  [Sidenote: 9.]

  Fragment from the right joint of a slab, containing part of a male
  figure from the hip to the right shoulder. The right arm was held
  horizontally, and bent at the elbow, so that the hand is seen
  before the breast. A mantle passes round the body from under the
  right arm to the left shoulder. This, as Robert points out (_Arch.
  Zeit._, 1875, p. 100, _l_), seems to be the marshal beside the
  chariot group in Michaelis, pl. 12, xiii., fig. 48. (See Plate
  viii., slab xiii.) In that case the raised mass on the left of the
  hip of this figure would be part of the rump of the third horse.

    Height, 1 foot 5 inches.

  [Sidenote: 10.]

  Fragment with edge of hind quarter of horse, rearing to the left,
  with part of the tail. Above the tail are folds of drapery. This
  fragment is perhaps a part of slab xiii., with the hinder chariot
  horse; but this is very doubtful.

    Height, 1 foot 8 inches; Michaelis, pl. 12, slab xiii., fig. 48.

  [Sidenote: 11.]

  Part of a charioteer, between the waist and the knees; he stands
  in a chariot, of which the antyx is visible. The left forearm
  crosses the body as if holding the reins. This fragment, which is
  not noticed by Michaelis, must belong to the north frieze. Robert
  (_Arch. Zeit._, 1875, p. 100, _n_) proposed to assign it to
  slab No. xiii. of the north frieze. This seems the most probable
  position, though the fragment does not agree very well with
  Carrey's drawing.

    Height, 1 foot.

  [Sidenote: 12.]

  Fragment of chariot group; an apobates standing in a quadriga,
  leaning forward. The head and neck, right arm from below elbow and
  legs from below the knee are wanting. On his left arm is his oval
  buckler. He wears a chiton which leaves the right arm and side
  bare. His right hand must have grasped the antyx. On the left a
  portion of the drapery of the charioteer is visible. There is a
  joint on the left of this fragment. It must belong to the northern
  frieze, and on p. 172, fig. 12, it has been drawn in combination
  with slab xix. It is not given by Michaelis, or in Robert's list
  (_Arch. Zeit._, 1875, pp. 95-103).

    Height, 1 foot 5 inches.

  [Sidenote: 13.]

  Horse's head, reined back; a joint on the left side. The scale and
  direction show that this head belonged to a chariot group on the
  north side.

    Height, 11-1/2 inches; Michaelis, pl. 12, slab xx. (cf. p. 173).

  [Sidenote: 14.]

  Fragment containing a part of the neck and lower part of the mane
  of one of the horses of a chariot group, together with a part of
  the neck of a second horse. This fragment, which was discovered in
  the excavations on the Acropolis of 1889, must belong to a chariot
  group of the north frieze, perhaps to slab xi., xv., or xvi.

    Height, 1 foot 3 inches.

  [Sidenote: 15.]

  The upper part of two horsemen, and part of the head or neck of a
  succeeding horse. The second rider, whose hand is preserved,
  held metal reins. The horse had a metal bridle. This fragment
  was formerly in the Cataio Villa, and afterwards the property of
  Archduke Karl of Austria. It must have belonged to the fragmentary
  portion of the north frieze, between slabs xxvi. and xxviii.

    Height, 1 foot 3 inches; Laborde, _Athènes_, II., p. 236;
    Michaelis, pl. 13, xxvii.


SOUTH FRIEZE.

  [Sidenote: 16.]

  Helmeted head looking to the right. The lower part of the face is
  broken away. The helmet has a cheekpiece turned up at the side.
  This head probably belongs to the horseman, No. 5, in the south
  frieze.

    Height, 5-1/4 inches.

  [Sidenote: 17.]

  Foreleg of a horse from below the knee to the hoof. The direction
  is to the right.

    Length, 7-1/2 inches.

  [Sidenote: 18.]

  Youthful beardless head wearing a petasos and looking to the
  right. The right side of the head is broken away. Michaelis
  engraved this head, pl. 11, slab xix., No. 48. It no doubt
  belongs either to that horseman, or to one of the two on the slab
  following (xx.), for which see Carrey's drawing.

    Height, 7 inches.

  [Sidenote: 19.]

  Upper part of youthful male figure looking to the right;
  behind, horse's head. The figure wore a chiton with girdle, and,
  apparently, a close-fitting helmet or leather cap. Part of the
  shoulder of a second figure seems to be visible on the right edge
  of the fragment. It is not easy to find a place for this fragment
  among the horsemen of the south side. It seems more probable that
  the head is that of the charioteer of slab xxvi.; it agrees well
  with Carrey's drawing.

    Height, 1 foot 4 inches; Michaelis, pl. 11, slab, xxvi.; No. 64.

  [Sidenote: 20.]

  Fragment of male figure, turned to the right, extending from the
  neck to the hip. The drapery consists only of a mantle which
  is seen passing over the right shoulder and round the body. The
  figure appears to be that of a youth and to correspond best with
  one of the charioteers of the south frieze, only preserved in
  Carrey's drawing, Michaelis, pl. 11, slab xxvii.

    Height, 1 foot 1/4 inch; Michaelis, pl. 11, slab xxiv., A.

  [Sidenote: 21.]

  Fragment of elderly male figure, moving to the right; from the
  hips to the beginning of the shoulder blades. He wears a mantle
  closely wrapped about him, and leaving the right arm bare. On the
  right of this fragment is a joint. It probably belongs to a
  figure in the group of old men and musicians, slabs xxxiv.-xxxvii.
  Michaelis inserts it in slab xxxv. (No. 97 in his pl. 11), but his
  drawing is incorrect and the fragment cannot be adjusted there.
  The only possible place seems to be on the right of slab xxxiv.

    Height, 10 inches.

  [Sidenote: 22.]

  Fragment with left foot and part of drapery of figure moving to
  the right, and having the left foot hindmost. From the left-hand
  lower corner of a slab. The lowness of the relief shows that this
  foot belongs to one of the figures on the far side of the victims.
  Michaelis combines it with his pl. 11., slab xliii., 126. This
  figure, which is 84 according to the Museum numbering, has now
  been joined to slab xli. Although the fragment does not seem to
  join satisfactorily to the angle of slab xli., yet this seems its
  probable position.

    Height, 8 inches.


SOUTH OR NORTH FRIEZE.

  [Sidenote: 23.]

  Fragment of helmeted head looking to the right. The head is
  entirely destroyed except the back of the helmet and its crest.
  This head perhaps belongs to one of the warriors that accompany
  the chariots in the north frieze.

    Height, 11-1/2 inches.



ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENTS FROM THE PARTHENON.


[Sidenote: =350.=]

The capital and uppermost drum of one of the Doric columns of the
north side.

  Width of abacus, 6 feet 7-1/4 inches; Penrose, _Athenian
  Architecture_, pl. 19, fig. 1.

[Sidenote: =351.=]

Part of a marble tile-front. The roof of the Parthenon, like that
of many other Greek temples, was formed of marble tiles, _solenes_,
carefully adjusted. In the case of the Parthenon the tiles were placed
side by side. Ridge tiles covered the joints, and the lower end of
each ridge terminated in an anthemion. Hence the tile-front was called
by the Greeks _kalypter anthemotos_. See the model of the Parthenon,
and Michaelis, pl. 2, fig. 8.--_Inwood Coll._

  Height, 1 foot 1/2 inch.

[Sidenote: =352.=]

Cast of a similar but more perfect tile-front, from the original at
Athens.

  Height, 1 foot 8-1/2 inches; Michaelis, pl. 2, fig. 8; Inwood,
  _Erechtheion_, pl. 22.

[Sidenote: =353.=]

Cast of lion's head from one of the angles of the pediment. This head,
is worked from a block which forms the springing stone of both the
cymatium and the corona of the pediment. In the modelling of the
lion's head, and especially in the treatment of the mane, there is a
noticeable austerity and conventionalism, such as is appropriate to a
purely decorative piece of sculpture.

  Height, 1 foot 4-1/2 inches. See the model of the Parthenon;
  Penrose, _Athenian Architecture_, pl. 17; Michaelis, pl. 2, fig.
  9; Brunn, _Denkmaeler_, No. 82 B.

[Sidenote: =354, 5.=]

Casts from two fragments of acroteria, probably from the western
pediment.

The acroteria were ornaments placed above the centre of the pediments.
For an example of a complete acroterion, see that from Eleusis, No. 438.

  Lengths, 3 feet 3 inches and 1 foot 9 inches; Michaelis, pl. 2,
  fig. 10, i, l.

[Sidenote: =356.=]

Marble fragment of a similar acroterion.--_Inwood Coll._

  Height, 10 inches; Inwood, _Erechtheion_, pl. 22, p. 130.

[Sidenote: =357.=]

Marble fragment of moulding with painted mæander pattern.--_Inwood
Coll._

  Length, 10 inches; Inwood, _Erechtheion_, pl. 22, p. 129.

[Sidenote: =358.=]

Marble fragment of moulding with painted mæander pattern. Both these
fragments (357, 358) appear to belong to the moulding which surmounted
the frieze and passed round the interior of the peristyle.--_Elgin
Coll._

  Length, 1 foot 9 inches; Penrose, _Athenian Architecture_, pl. 20,
  fig. 27_a_; pl. 23; Michaelis, pl. 2, fig. 17.



PART III.


_THE SUCCESSORS OF PHEIDIAS._



SCULPTURES OF THE TEMPLE CALLED THE THESEION.


The building which is commonly known as the Temple of Theseus, or
Theseion, stands about a quarter of a mile to the north-west of the
Acropolis of Athens.

[Illustration: Fig. 15.--Plan of the Theseion. (From Baumeister.)]

The temple is of the kind called _peripteral hexastyle_. Round the
_cella_, or central chamber, is a single row of columns, thirty-four
in number, of which there are six at each end. The order is Doric,
with a frieze peculiarly arranged. On the eastern front are ten
sculptured metopes, and there are four on each of the adjacent sides,
making a total of eighteen sculptured metopes. The remaining metopes
of the temple, fifty in number, are plain slabs, which may possibly
have had painted on them figures or ornaments. Of the pedimental
groups, which appear to have once existed at each end of the temple,
nothing now remains except the marks of the attachment of sculptures.
Within the colonnade the two ends of the _cella_ are adorned with a
frieze of Parian marble, which is still in position. At the west, the
length of the frieze is only equal to the width of the _cella_; at
the east, the frieze is continued as far as the epistyle, or beams
surmounting the colonnade.

The west frieze is about 25 feet long; casts of 16 feet 4 inches are
in the British Museum. The east frieze is about 37 feet long, and
casts of 32 feet are in the Museum.

From the Middle Ages till recent times this building has been called
the Temple of Theseus, and was supposed to have been dedicated to
Theseus by the Athenians in the time of Kimon. That statesman had
transferred the bones of Theseus to Athens from the island of Skyros
in 469 B.C. The chief arguments for this attribution are:--(1) That
labours of Theseus are represented on the metopes, and perhaps on
the friezes; (2) that the building is not far from the place
where, according to Leake and others, it might be expected from the
description of Pausanias (i. 17, 2); (3) that the temple was dedicated
as a Christian church to St. George, who corresponds in many ways to
Theseus.

Ross, however (_Das Theseion_), tried to prove that this was not the
Theseion. He argued that no connection could be traced between the
external sculptures and the function of the building. He also argued
that the real Theseion cannot have been a complete temple, and that
it cannot have stood in the position of the temple now in question.
He proposed to call the building a temple of Ares. It has since been
suggested that Ares and Theseus may have been joint occupants of
the temple, as Athenè and Erechtheus held the Erechtheion in common
(Murray, i. p. 236). Curtius (_Sieben Carten_, text, p. 53) suggested
that the temple may have been that of Heracles in Melitè. In this view
he has been followed by Wachsmuth (_Stadt Athen_, i. p. 364). Other
patron deities have also been proposed, as Apollo Patroös, or Heracles
and Theseus together, or Hephaestos. Doerpfeld, followed by Miss
Harrison (_Mythology and Monuments of Anc. Athens_, p. 112), is
strongly in favour of the last-mentioned attribution, identifying the
building with the temple of Hephaestos mentioned by Pausanias (i., 14,
6).

It is clear, from a comparison of other temples, that no conclusive
argument can be drawn from the subjects of the sculptures, especially
of the metopes, which may have little connection with the special
purpose of the temple. At the same time we know that the Theseion was
decorated with paintings relating to the story of Theseus, and, so far
as any weight can be attached to the subjects of the sculptures,
they favour the attribution of the building to Theseus. It has been
suggested that the temple may have belonged to Heracles and Theseus in
common--not on the ground that we hear of such a temple, but because
the ten metopes on the east front relate to Heracles. But this fact
is inconclusive. The Athenians would be content to point out the
parallelism of Heracles and Theseus, even if Theseus was made to
occupy a subordinate position. The newly-discovered [Greek: Athênaiôn
Politeia] of Aristotle furnishes some new evidence. The disarming of
the Athenians by Peisistratos is said to have been effected in the
following manner. He caused the citizens to put down their arms in the
Theseion, presumably in the temenos of Theseus, that he might address
them, and then drew them off to the Propylaea on the pretext that they
would be better able to hear him. Meanwhile his agents shut up the
arms in "the adjacent buildings of the Theseion" ([Greek: exoplisian
en tô Thêseiô] [_sic_ MS.] [Greek: poiêsamenos ... ekeleusen autous
prosanabênai pros to Propylon tês ackropoleôs ... anelontes hoi epi
toutôn tetagmenoi ta hopla autôn kai synklêisantes eis ta plêsion
oikêmata tou Thêseiou k.t.l.] Aristot. [Greek: Ath. pol.] ed. Kenyon,
15). From this it may be inferred that the Theseion was at no great
distance from the Propylaea, though sufficiently removed for the
success of the stratagem. Polyaenus (_Strat._ i., 21) tells the story,
but states that the disarming took place in the Anakeion, and that the
arms were shut up in the sanctuary of Aglauros. These are known sites
below the north and north-west sides of the Acropolis. The account of
Aristotle thus shows that there was a temenos and shrine of Theseus in
existence long before the time of Kimon.

The date of the temple is necessarily uncertain. It cannot be older
than the Persian invasion (480 B.C.), but most writers are of opinion
that each part is rather older than the corresponding part of the
Parthenon, both in the architecture (Julius, _Annali dell' Inst._
1878, p. 205) and in the sculpture. There are many parallels between
the metopes of the Parthenon and the sculptures, both metopes and
friezes, of the Theseion. There is also a close analogy between
the east friezes of the Parthenon and the Theseion in point of
composition; moreover certain figures occur in both works (Murray, i.
p. 244). But there is no trace in the Theseion of the low relief
of the Parthenon frieze. The whole of the Theseion sculptures are
metope-like in the treatment of the high relief. Overbeck states the
order in point of time as follows:--Metopes of Theseion; metopes of
Parthenon; west frieze of Theseion; east frieze of Theseion; frieze
of Parthenon (_Gr. Plast._ 3rd ed. I., p. 349). Doerpfeld, however,
followed by Miss Harrison, holds the temple to be later than the
Parthenon.

It has been held by Brunn, Julius (_Annali dell' Inst._ 1878, p. 202),
and Murray (i. p. 251), that the differences between the sculptures
of the two temples are due to the fact that the sculptures of the
Theseion were produced by the school of Myron.

  Stuart, _Antiqs. of Athens_, vol. III., chap. i.; _Mus. Marbles_,
  IX., pls. 12-21; Müller, _Denkmaeler_, pl. 21; _Kunstarch. Werke_,
  IV., p. 1; Ross, _Das Theseion_ (1st ed. 1838; 2nd ed., 1852);
  Ulrichs, _Annali dell' Inst._, 1841, p. 74; Leake, _Topography of
  Athens_ (2nd ed.), p. 498; Gurlitt, _Das Alter der Bildwerke
  des sog. Theseion_; Brunn, _Sitzungsber. der k. bayer. Akad.
  Phil.-hist. Cl._ 1874, II., p. 51; Wachsmuth, _Die Stadt Athen_,
  I., p. 357; Julius, in _Annali dell' Inst._, 1877, p. 92; 1878,
  p. 193; and _Mon. dell' Inst._, X., pls. 43, 44, 58, 59; Overbeck,
  _Gr. Plast._, 3rd ed., I., p. 343; Murray, I., p. 235; Wolters,
  No. 526; Baumeister, s. v. _Theseion; Elgin Room Guide_, II., B.,
  1-16. The British Museum possesses an excellent series of drawings
  of the Theseion by Lord Elgin's artists.


CASTS OF THE METOPES OF THE THESEION.

The ten metopes on the eastern front contain nine labours of Heracles,
one labour being represented in two groups. The eight metopes at
the east ends of the South and North sides represent the following
exploits of Theseus:--On the South side--(1) The victory over the
Minotaur. (2) The capture of the bull of Marathon. (3) The punishment
of Sinis Pityocamptes. (4) The punishment of Procrustes (?). On the
North side are--(1) The victory of Theseus over the robber Periphetes,
also called Corynetes. (2) His contest with the Arcadian wrestler,
Kerkyon. (3) The punishment of Skiron. (4) The capture of the sow of
Crommyon.

Of these eighteen metopes the Museum possesses casts of only three,
Nos. 1, 2, and 4 on the North side.

[Sidenote: =400.=]

Theseus and the robber, Periphetes. Theseus stands over his adversary,
who has been thrown down on the ground, and aims a blow at him. Both
arms of Periphetes are stretched out as if to avert a spear-thrust,
and it seems probable that the weapon of Theseus was a spear, which
he directed with both hands. The left hand of Theseus still remains in
front of his breast.

  Height, 3 feet 9-1/2 inches. _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 20.

[Sidenote: =401.=]

Theseus and Kerkyon, an Arcadian wrestler, who challenged all
travellers to wrestle, and slew the vanquished. Theseus has lifted his
adversary from the ground, and, clasping his hands together, grips
him tightly round the body. Kerkyon is nearly helpless. His right
arm passes behind the shoulder of Theseus, but with his left hand he
seizes Theseus' right heel. Kerkyon is bearded, but the hair is hardly
indicated in detail.

  Height, 2 feet 9-1/2 inches. _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 21.

[Sidenote: =402.=]

Theseus and the Sow of Crommyon. The sow stands on her hindlegs,
resting her forefeet on the thigh and the drapery of Theseus. Theseus
advances to the attack. The action of the right hand cannot be
ascertained, but the right arm must have been raised above the head,
and perhaps brandished a club. The left arm is concealed in the
chlamys, which Theseus wears in this metope.

  Height, 2 feet 9-1/2 inches. _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 21.


CASTS OF THE WEST FRIEZE OF THE THESEION.

The subject of the West frieze of the Theseion admits of no doubt.
Here we have represented the Battle of the Centaurs and Lapiths at the
marriage feast of Peirithoös. It has been pointed out that this frieze
appears to consist of metope-like groups, with a few figures added to
give continuity between the different groups, such as is appropriate
to a frieze. Thus, compare No. 403, _1_ with the Parthenon Metope, No.
307. In the parts of the frieze, not represented by casts, compare the
group engraved Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._ 3rd ed. i., p. 348, No. 2, with
Michaelis, pl. 3, xxiv.; Overbeck, No. 6, with Parthenon metope, No.
311; Overbeck No. 8 with Michaelis, pl. 3, xi.

[Illustration: Fig. 16.--The disposition of the West Frieze of the
Theseion. (From Baumeister).]

[Sidenote: =403.= 1.]

  Combat of Centaur and Lapith. The Lapith is defeated and has
  fallen to the ground. He supports his body with the right arm, of
  which the hand alone remains. The left hand, which is wrapped in
  the chlamys, is raised imploringly to the Centaur, to whom also
  the head is turned. The victorious Centaur rears up above the
  Lapith, and is about to hurl a great stone, or perhaps a hydria,
  with both hands.

    Height of this and the following slabs, 2 feet 9-1/2 inches;
    length, 2 feet 10 inches. _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 18.

  Between Nos. 1 and 2 is a group, of which the Museum does not
  possess a cast, representing two Lapiths and a fallen Centaur.

  [Sidenote: 2.]

  On the left is a group of a Lapith and a Centaur. The combatants
  have for the moment drawn a little apart. The Lapith has recoiled
  for a blow; the attention of the Centaur seems more directed to
  the group on his left. The symmetry of the grouping, which is
  apparent in the frieze as a whole, requires us to regard these two
  figures as connected, though they may appear somewhat separated.
  The Centaur brandishes a branch of a tree, to which his hands are
  still attached, though the arms are lost. The Lapith had both arms
  raised, and perhaps held a battle-axe. His dress is a chlamys.

  We next have a group of two Centaurs, rearing up, and heaving
  together a rock wherewith to crush the invulnerable Lapith,
  Kaineus, who is half buried in the ground between them, and who
  endeavours to defend himself with his shield uplifted on his left
  arm. His head is turned towards the Centaur on the right. His
  right arm, now wanting, may have rested on the ground. But it is
  possible, to judge from indications on the ground of the relief,
  that it was bent at the elbow, and pierced with a sword the
  abdomen of the Centaur. The Lapith wears a helmet.

  On the right of this group is a Lapith hastening to give succour
  to Kaineus. His right arm, which was bent back at the elbow, had
  been raised to strike. His left arm has been muffled in a
  chlamys. He also wore a petasos, part of which is seen behind
  the shoulders. On the right of this figure is a group of a Lapith
  attacking a Centaur. The Lapith wears a crested helmet; on his
  left arm is a shield, within which his chlamys hangs from his
  arm. He also wears sandals. He places his left foot on a rock.
  The Centaur opposed to him is rearing, with his back turned to
  the spectator; his right arm, drawn back, has held some weapon,
  probably the branch of a tree; on his left arm and shoulder is the
  skin of a lion or panther which hangs down his back.

    Length, 10 feet 9 inches. _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pls. 18, 19.

  The next group on the frieze, which is not represented by a cast,
  contains a Centaur struggling with a Lapith who has fallen on his
  knees.

  [Sidenote: 3.]

  On the left is a Lapith, armed with shield and helmet, and wearing
  a chiton and sandals. He seems about to attack a Centaur, who
  rears to the right over the body of a Lapith, who has sunk down in
  a sitting position.

    Length, 2 feet 9 inches. _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 20.

  Most of the figure of the seated Lapith, and the whole of the
  succeeding group of a Lapith and Centaur are not represented by
  casts in the Museum.


CASTS OF THE EAST FRIEZE OF THE THESEION.

  On the east frieze is represented a battle in the presence of six
  seated deities arranged in two groups. In one part of the frieze
  the combatants are hurling vast rocks. Colonel Leake (_Topography
  of Athens_, 2nd ed. p. 504), supposed that Heracles and some of
  the gods are engaged in a battle with giants, while other deities,
  among them some who usually take a leading part in the fray,
  merely sit and watch. This, however, is a scheme of Gigantomachia
  to which no parallel can be adduced.

[Illustration: Fig. 17.--The disposition of the East Frieze. (From
Baumeister).]

  Brunn (_Sitzungsber. der k. bayer. Akad. Phil.-hist. Cl._, 1874,
  ii., p. 51), supposes the battle here represented to be that
  fought by the Athenians under Theseus against Eurystheus in
  defence of the Heracleidae. The scene on the left would thus
  represent the first rout of the troops of Eurystheus; then would
  come the storming of the Skironian pass by Theseus, where we
  might expect masses of rocks to be hurled on the assailants. The
  kneeling figure on the left of the central group (404, _4_), who
  is being bound would, according to Brunn, be Eurystheus, who was
  taken prisoner and put to death. The figure on the extreme right
  (404, _8_), who is stooping forward, Brunn supposes to be one of
  the victors erecting the boundary stone, which, according to the
  Attic legend, was set up by Theseus to mark the limits of the
  Peloponnese on the side of Attica.

  The theory is highly ingenious; but it demands a forced
  interpretation of the rocks to suppose them to be lining the two
  sides of a pass; and it overlooks the close parallelism with the
  east frieze of the Parthenon, where the two groups of gods must
  be supposed to form a single background to the scene. Also, the
  Skironian pass was a road between rocks and the sea. Moreover, the
  vast size of the rocks indicates a giant race, rather than a group
  of warriors who are reduced to using stones in an extremity.

  If the subject has any connection with Theseus, the theory of
  K. O. Müller seems the best that has been proposed. According to
  Müller (_Kunstarch. Werke_, iv. p. 1) it represents the Athenians
  under Theseus attacking the Pallantidae, or sons of Pallas, who
  was a son of Pandion, king of Attica. These in Attic legend (Plut.
  _Theseus_, 13) formed a league against Theseus. Müller supposes
  them to have been a race akin to the giants. Compare Soph. _Ægeus,
  fr._ 19, ed. Dindorf, [Greek: ho sklêros houtos kai gigantas
  ektrephôn Pallas]. See also Müller (p. 8) on the close connection
  between Pallas, son of Pandion, and the Attic Pallenè, with Pallas
  the giant and the Thracian Pallenè, the field of the great war of
  the gods and giants.

[Sidenote: =404.= 1.]

  On the left of the slab, two armed warriors carrying large shields
  on the left arm, and wearing, one a chlamys and one a chiton over
  the left shoulder only (_heteromaschalos_), advance to the right.
  Before them is a conquered adversary, who has been forced down on
  his knees by the victor, who appears to tread down his buttock,
  while his hands are engaged binding the hands of the prisoner. The
  victor wears a chlamys, but the prisoner is nude. The head of the
  prisoner was probably turned towards the victor. On the extreme
  right of the slab there remains the right foot of a figure. The
  original is extant (cf. Stuart, vol. iii. ch. i. pl. 15), and is a
  nude armed figure, moving to the right. The head is lost.

    Height of this and the following slabs, 2 feet 9-1/2 inches;
    length, 4 feet 6 inches. _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 12.

  [Sidenote: 2.]

  On the next slab is a group of three deities seated on rocks, of
  whom the figure on the right is male and the other two female.
  The two female deities wear long chitons, in the one case with a
  diploïdion, and in the other case with sleeves. The figure on the
  left has the right hand, which is still preserved, by her side. It
  evidently held a spear. In Stuart's engraving this figure wears a
  helmet, but the drawing published by Le Roy (_Les Ruines des
  plus beaux Monuments de la Grèce_, 1758), though in most
  respects worthless, seems to show conclusively that the heads are
  conjecturally restored in Stuart, vol. iii. ch. i. pls. 15, 16,
  while in pls. 17 to 20 no restoration is attempted. The remains of
  the figure make it probable that the goddess here represented is
  Athenè.

  The central figure turns towards Athenè, to whom her right arm was
  probably extended. Passing over the back of her head is a large
  mantle, which is also wrapped about the legs, and falls over the
  left arm. The male figure in the group probably looked to the
  right at the pair of combatants which follows next in order. He
  has a mantle twisted round his lower limbs and passing behind his
  back. His left hand rested on a sceptre held vertically, which has
  now been broken away. All these three figures wear sandals.

  The second Goddess may well be Hera, and in that case her male
  companion would probably be Zeus.

    Length, 4 feet 6 inches. _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 13.

  [Sidenote: 3.]

  Combat of two warriors. The nude warrior on the left, armed with
  shield and helmet, presses forward to the attack; he probably held
  a sword in the right hand. His adversary, whose back is turned
  towards us, appears to be in retreat, but to be stopping to
  deliver a thrust, probably with a spear held in the right hand.
  His left arm must have held out a shield, of the rim of which
  a fragment remains, attached to the left thigh. His dress is a
  chiton _heteromaschalos_. On the right of the slab is seen the
  right foot of a warrior, belonging to the succeeding group, of
  which the British Museum possesses no cast. The warrior stretches
  out his shield to protect a wounded figure lying on the ground.

    Length, 2 feet 10 inches. _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 14. For the
    missing group, see Stuart, III., ch. I., pl. 17; Overbeck, _Gr.
    Plast._, 3rd. ed., I., p. 348.

  [Sidenote: 4.]

  Part of the legs of the wounded warrior just referred to remains
  on the ground, on the left. Next on the right are two warriors
  moving to the right. Both these figures are nude, but very
  seriously mutilated. It is doubtful whether the figure on the left
  was armed with a shield, like his companion. His right foot is
  advanced and he is hurrying forward.

    Length, 2 feet 8 inches. _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 14.

  [Sidenote: 5.]

  A battle scene, in which the combatants, four in number, are
  hurling rocks; a fifth, overcome in the fray, lies prostrate on
  the ground. In this combat one warrior appears to be fighting
  against three. On the left an heroic figure, which may well be
  Theseus, is seen advancing. In the confusion his mantle has fallen
  off, and only hangs over the left arm. With outstretched left hand
  he repels a huge stone hurled against him by his adversary; the
  right hand appears to have been stretched out behind the body, and
  may have held a sword. There appear to be no means of warding
  off the stone which the adversary throws with his left hand.
  Confronting the hero, supposed to be Theseus, is first the warrior
  just mentioned, who hurls a stone with each hand. Behind him is
  a second figure, who appears to be looking in the same direction.
  His right hand was probably holding a stone behind his head, while
  the left hand is stretched back to pick up another stone from the
  ground. The third warrior hurls a great stone with his right hand,
  while with his left hand he propels the large stone seen behind
  the shoulders of the central figure. The fallen figure lies on
  rocky ground in the middle of the group of combatants, his head is
  much below the level of his body; his right arm, now wanting, has
  been resting on a lower level, his left arm is folded helplessly
  across his body.

    Length, 5 feet 10 inches. _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 16.

  [Sidenote: 6.]

  Group of two warriors advancing rapidly to the right, each with
  a shield on the left arm. One is nude, the other wears a chiton
  _heteromaschalos_. Next on the right is a group of one female and
  two male deities seated on rocks, and observing the combat.
  The Goddess occupies the centre of the group, her head slightly
  inclined forward, and looking to the left. She wears a long
  chiton, sandals, and a mantle wrapped about her lower limbs. Both
  male figures have similar mantles. It may be conjectured that the
  three figures in order from the left are Poseidon, Demeter, and
  Dionysos; but it is impossible to attribute names to them with any
  confidence.

    Length, 6 feet 6 inches. _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 15.

  [Sidenote: 7.]

  Torso of a warrior armed with a large shield, who moves to the
  left front. The head, now wanting, was probably turned to the
  group next on the right, which consists of two male figures. The
  one on the left is evidently a victor holding a prisoner, who
  has his hands tied behind his back. The victor wears a chiton
  _heteromaschalos_, while the prisoner wears a chlamys.

  Between this group and the next figure is a space, in which should
  be a male figure standing, turned a little to the right, and
  wearing a chlamys. He appears to be giving an order to the figure
  on the right.

    Length, 3 feet 8 inches. _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 17. For missing
    figure, see Stuart, III., ch. I., pl. 20; Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._,
    3rd ed. I., p. 348.

  [Sidenote: 8.]

  Male figure turned to the left, and bending forward. Both arms
  have been extended in front of the body. The figure wears a helmet
  and a chiton girt at the waist. The left foot, which is advanced,
  rested on a higher level than the right foot. There is some
  uncertainty as to the motive of this figure. Stuart restores it
  as engaged in the erection of a trophy, and this is accepted by
  Schultz, _De Theseo_, p. 26; cf. Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._, 3rd ed.,
  I., p. 353. For this however there is very little room. Leake
  suggested that the figure was engaged adjusting his greave
  (_Topogr. of Athens_, 2nd ed., p. 511).

    Length, 1 foot 6 inches. _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 17.


ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENTS.

[Sidenote: =405.=]

Part of the ceiling, _lacunaria_, of the Theseion with six squares for
soffits cut through the marble. See fig. 17.--_Elgin Coll._

  Length, 3 feet 11-1/2 inches; breadth, 3 feet 4-1/2 inches.
  Stuart, III., ch. I., pl. 8, fig. 2.

[Sidenote: =406.= 1.]

  Cover from panel of _lacunar_ of the Theseion.--_Elgin Coll._

    Height, 10-1/8 inches; breadth, 10-1/8 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 365
    (243); Stuart, III., ch. I., pl. 8, fig. 2.

  [Sidenote: 2.]

  Similar to last.

    Height, 10-1/8 inches; breadth, 9-7/8 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 367
    (254); Stuart, III., ch. I., pl. 8, fig. 2.



THE ERECHTHEION.


The Erechtheion is an Ionic temple of a peculiar form, which stands
near the north side of the Acropolis of Athens. It embodies in a
structure of the end of the fifth century the shrines about which the
Athenian religion had centred from time immemorial, and to this fact
the anomalous character of the plan must be ascribed.

The building consisted of a central cella divided into three portions,
and having a portico of six columns at the east end; a porch of six
columns at the north-west corner; and a porch of Caryatids at the
south-west. It was built of Pentelic marble, with the exception of the
frieze, which had a ground of dark Eleusinian marble.

The temple is known to have been incomplete in 409 B.C. At this time a
minute survey of the building was made, by order of the Assembly, and
the result was recorded in an inscription which is now in the British
Museum. (_C. I. G._ 160; Newton & Hicks, _Greek Inscriptions in Brit.
Mus._, xxxv.).

[Illustration: Fig. 18.--Ground Plan of the Erechtheion.]

The east half of the building was devoted to Athenè Polias, whose
archaic statue was placed in it.

The remainder of the building was associated with the cults of
Poseidon, Erechtheus, Pandrosos, and others. The arrangement has been
a subject of much controversy. The passage at the west of the cella
probably contained altars of Poseidon (with Erechtheus), of Boutes,
and of Hephaestos; the tokens of Poseidon, namely the salt spring, and
the marks of the trident, were either in the west central chamber
or below the north portico. The south porch served as an additional
entrance, but it also contained the tomb of Cecrops. The Pandroseion,
which contained the sacred olive-tree of Athenè, and a small shrine of
Pandrosos, was annexed to the outside of the west end of the building.

The Elgin Collection contains several specimens of the architectural
decorations of the Erechtheion. In the above plan (fig. 18), those
parts of the building are indicated by letters from which fragments
have been obtained. In some instances the exact position is uncertain.

  For a discussion of the Erechtheion, see Harrison, _Mythology and
  Monuments of Anc. Athens_, p. 481.

[Sidenote: =407.=]

So-called Caryatid, or Canephoros, [Greek: kanêphoros] (fig. 19).
One of the six female figures which served as columns in the southern
portico of the Erechtheion. In the survey of the building these
figures are called _Korae_, "maidens." They have been called Canephori
(see p. 149) by Visconti (_Memoirs on the Sculptures of the Earl
of Elgin_, p. 122), and others. It is true that the maidens here
represented are such as those represented on the Parthenon frieze. But
there is nothing that specially connects them with the Canephori, or
persons who bore the sacred vessels on their heads. By some writers
they have been called Caryatids, on account of a statement of
Vitruvius (i., chap. 1) that women of Carya, a town of Arcadia,
were represented as architectural supports--a punishment which they
incurred for betraying the Greeks to the Persians.

[Illustration: Fig. 19.--Caryatid of the Erechtheion.]

The figure here described wears a long chiton, which is drawn up under
the girdle, falling in rich folds, and is fastened on each shoulder
by a circular brooch. Attached to this is the diploïdion, which falls
down before and behind. In front it falls to the waist; behind
it would trail on the ground, if a part were not looped up to the
shoulders, so as to make a deep fold, falling as low as the hips.
The hair from the back of the head falls in a thick mass between
the shoulders, tied together with a band. The hair gathered from the
forehead is woven into tresses. Two fall on each shoulder; the others
are twisted round the head in the form of the _krobylos_ (cf. p. 87).
The arms are wanting from above the elbows. The right hand probably
hung by the side, where the surface of the drapery is seen to have
been protected from corrosion. The left hand has drawn from behind one
corner of the diploïdion.

The head supports a capital, consisting first of a pad or cushion
[Greek: tylê], such as was, and still is, used to support weights.
(Compare the east frieze of the Parthenon, Nos. 30, 31.) From this the
transition to the square abacus is effected by an egg and tongue and a
bead and reel moulding.

This statue is admirably designed, both in composition and drapery,
to fulfil its office as a part of an architectural design. While the
massiveness of the draped figure suggests the idea that the support
for the superimposed architecture is not structurally inadequate,
the lightness and grace of the pose suggest that the maiden bears her
burden with ease.

The original position of the figure is marked A on the plan. Four
figures and part of a fifth still remain on the Acropolis. They are
uniform in their general design, but differ slightly in pose and
arrangement of drapery.

  Pentelic marble; height, 7 feet 7 inches. Stuart, II., ch. II.,
  pl. 19. _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 6. Rayet, _Monuments_, No. 40;
  Mitchell, _Selections_, pl. 7; Murray, II., pl. 17; Wolters, No.
  810; _Stereoscopic_, No. 115.


ARCHITECTURE OF THE ERECHTHEION.

[Sidenote: =408.=]

Ionic column from the north end of the eastern portico of the
Erechtheion (B on plan). This being a column from an angle of the
building, the volutes occur on two adjacent sides, so as to present
themselves both to the east and north view.

  Height, 21 feet 7-1/2 inches. _Synopsis_, Nos. 125-7, 110; Stuart,
  II, ch. II., pls. 4, 5, 6.

[Sidenote: =409.=]

Capital of one of the pilasters (_antae_) and part of necking or
wall-band from the east wall of the Erechtheion (C, C, C on plan). It
is to be observed that the frieze on the pilaster, though analogous
to that on the walls, differs from it in details which heighten the
richness of the effect, and which assimilate the pilaster to the
columns of the east portico, while the walls resemble the capitals of
the north portico. Moreover, on the pilaster the carving of the frieze
is raised above the surface of the courses, while on the wall it is
set back from the wall face.

The slab on the right must be from the north-east angle of the
Erechtheion. The three slabs next to it might belong to the east,
north, or south sides, as regards the form and design. But the
excellent preservation of the surface, as compared with that of the
unprotected north-east angle, seems to show that these slabs are
derived from the east wall, where they were protected by the portico.

It is interesting to note the numerous repairs in the series of slabs.
They probably date from the time of the construction of the building,
and were meant to make good what was broken by accident in the course
of construction. On the north side of the pilaster, seven inches of
the bead and reel moulding immediately surmounting the anthemia have
been skilfully inserted in a groove and fastened with lead. On the
east side of the pilaster one of the beads of the lower bead and reel
moulding was attached by a plug, of which the hole remains. On the
next slab on the left one bead of the upper bead and reel moulding was
similarly added. On the second slab from the left, one tongue of the
egg and tongue moulding, one piece of spiral connecting the anthemia
and one bead were let into the marble. Traces of red colour remain in
the upper part of the frieze on this slab.--_Elgin Coll._

  Height, 1 foot 7-1/2 inches. The slab containing the capital of
  the pilaster is 6 feet in length. Of the other slabs, two are each
  4 feet 3 inches in length. The fourth is broken on the right-hand
  joint, and measures 4 feet 1-1/2 inches. _Synopsis_ Nos. 252-255
  (127-130). _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, I., p. 89, _e_, pl.
  3, fig. 8. Stuart, II., ch. II., pl. 5. Inwood, _Erechtheion_, p.
  110.

[Sidenote: =410.=]

Fragment of frieze similar to last. Joint on left. Found on the north
side of the Erechtheion.--_Inwood Coll._

  Height, 6 inches; breadth, 6 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 116. Inwood,
  _Erechtheion_, p. 138.

[Sidenote: =411.=]

Fragment of leaf, bead and reel, and egg mouldings from the capital of
a pilaster at the west side of the south portico of the Erechtheion (D
on plan).--_Inwood Coll._

  Length, 1 foot 2-1/4 inches; height, 5-1/2 inches. _Synopsis_, No.
  118.

[Sidenote: =412.=]

Cymatium moulding from inner architrave of the south portico of the
Erechtheion (E on plan).

  Height, 2-1/2 inches; length, 7-1/4 inches. _Synopsis_ No. 403.
  Inwood, _Erechtheion_, pl. 20. See also Stuart, II., ch. II., pl.
  13.

[Sidenote: =413.=]

Piece of architrave, probably part of the beam from the north angle of
the east portico of the Erechtheion (F, F on plan). There is a joint
on the left of this slab.--_Elgin Coll._

  Height, 2 feet 1 inch; length, 8 feet 2-1/2 inches. _Synopsis_,
  No. 220 (85). Wilkins, _Prolusiones_, p. 29.

[Sidenote: =414.=]

Piece of the architrave from the south wall of the Erechtheion, broken
at each end (G on plan). It is connected with the preceding by a piece
of moulding cast in plaster.--_Elgin Coll._

  Height, 2 feet 1 inch; length, 8 feet 5-1/2 inches. _Synopsis_,
  No. 219 (291). Wilkins, _Prolusiones_, p. 29; _Greek Inscriptions
  in Brit. Mus._ I., pl. 3, fig. 9.

[Sidenote: =415.=]

Piece of corona of cornice, from the north portico of the Erechtheion
(H on plan). Although not derived from the same part of the temple,
this fragment has been placed in connection with the slabs of the
architrave, Nos. 413, 414, in order to show the original effect. The
space of two feet between the corona and the architrave was occupied
by the sculptured frieze. This consisted of marble figures in relief
attached by metal clamps on a ground of black Eleusinian marble. A few
fragments are extant at Athens.

  Length, 4 feet 7 inches; height, 10-1/2 inches; breadth, 1 foot
  1-1/2 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 289 (165). Stuart, II., ch. II.,
  pls. 4, 5. For the frieze, see Brunn, _Denkmaeler_, Nos. 31-33;
  Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._, 3rd ed., I., p. 361.

[Sidenote: =416.=]

Coffer from the _lacunaria_ of the north portico of the Erechtheion (J
on plan).--_Elgin Coll._

  Height, 3 feet 2 inches; breadth, 3 feet 5-1/2 inches. _Synopsis_,
  No. 108 (299). See Stuart, 2nd ed., II., p. 73, note.

[Sidenote: =417.=]

Part of coffer of east portico of the Erechtheion. Found near the
eastern portico (K on plan).--_Inwood Coll._

  Height, 1 foot 4 inches; breadth, 1 foot 1-1/4 inches. _Synopsis_,
  No. 117. Inwood, _Erechtheion_, pl. 20.

[Sidenote: =418.=]

Part of door jamb, perhaps from the eastern doorway of the Erechtheion
(L on plan).--_Inwood Coll._

  Height, 1 foot 2-3/4 inches; breadth, 6-1/2 inches. _Synopsis_,
  No. 115. Inwood, _Erechtheion_, pl. 20.

[Sidenote: =419.=]

Cast of console, _parotis_, from the doorway in the north portico of
the Erechtheion (M on plan).

  Height, 2 feet 3 inches. _Greek inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, I.,
  p. 98, § 14, _b_. Wilkins, _Prolusiones_, pls. 13, 14. _Journ. of
  Hellen. Studies_, XII., pl. 1.

[Sidenote: =420.=]

Necking of Ionic column, copied from the columns of the east portico
of the Erechtheion.--_Elgin Coll._

  Height, 11-1/4 inches; diameter, 2 feet 2-1/2 inches. _Synopsis_,
  No. 120 (306*); _Elgin Room Guide_, II., No. A. 2.



TEMPLE OF NIKÈ APTEROS.


The temple of Nikè Apteros (Victory without wings), or more correctly
of Athenè Nikè, stood on the projecting eminence to the south of the
approach to the Propylaea at Athens (Paus., i. 22, 4).

The building had remained uninjured till the close of the seventeenth
century, and was seen in 1676 by the travellers Spon and Wheler.
But not long after, probably about the year 1685, the temple was
demolished by the Turks, and the materials were used to build a
bastion on the spot where the temple had stood.

In 1835 Ludwig Ross, and the architects Schaubert and Hansen took
down the bastion and reconstructed the temple as it now stands. A
sufficient amount of the lower part had remained undisturbed to enable
them to proceed with certainty.

The temple consists only of a single cella, opening to the east, but
has four columns at each end (_tetrastyle amphiprostyle_). It stood
on a podium of three steps. The exterior was surrounded by a small
frieze, 1 ft. 5-1/2 in. high, and measuring 26 ft. on its long sides,
and 17 ft. 2 in. at the ends. The annexed cut (fig. 20) shows the plan
of the temple. The arrangement of the slabs of the frieze has been
most fully discussed by Ross, but is still uncertain in parts. The
west frieze, according to Ross, consisted of the two slabs, Nos. 421,
422, in the Elgin Collection, and the return faces of two slabs of
the north and south sides. Each return measures 1 ft. 7 in. The slabs,
Nos. 421, 422, measure respectively 6 ft. 8-1/2 in., and 6 ft. 7-3/4
in. The total length, 16 ft. 6-1/4 in., is thus nearly equal to the
estimated length of the side. The distribution of the slabs belonging
to the long sides is doubtful. No. 425, cast from a corner stone,
certainly belongs to the south side. Ross assigns No. 423 to the south
side, No. 424 to the north side, on the hypothesis that the mounted
horsemen on the same side proceed in the same direction. Kekulé (_Die
Balustrade_, ed. 1869, p. 17) places them both on the south side, in
an order more probable than that suggested by Hawkins (_Mus. Marbles_,
ix., p. 29). The east side consisted of two slabs and two returns
arranged similarly to those of the west.

[Illustration: Fig. 20.--Plan of the Propylaea and Temple of Wingless
Victory.]

The subject of the east side appears to be a council of Gods. The long
sides each contained a battle between Greeks and a series of warriors,
mounted and on foot, wearing Asiatic costumes and probably intended
to represent Persians. The west side is generally taken to represent a
battle of Greeks with Greeks. Several attempts have been made to
show that historical battles are represented on the frieze. Overbeck
suggests that the three sides on which there are combatants belong to
one battle, and he conjectures the battle of Platæa (479 B.C.), when
Greeks defeated the Persians and their Greek adherents. Other writers,
perhaps with more probability, deny that any definite battle is
intended, and hold that we see merely a generalised representation of
Athenians, victorious alike over Greeks and Barbarians.

It has been shown by Bohn (_Die Propyläen_, p. 31) and Doerpfeld on
technical architectural grounds that the Temple of Victory was not
contemplated in the first plans for the Propylaea, but that the form
of the Propylaea was modified during the course of construction on
account of it. The earliest date thus obtained for the beginning of
the present building is about 432 B.C. There is nothing to show what
time the temple took to build. In point of style there is a great
resemblance between the sculptures of the frieze, and those of the
frieze of the Erechtheion, of which a part was being worked, as we
know from the inscription, in 409 B.C. The frieze of Nikè Apteros may
perhaps be placed between 430 and 420 B.C.

  Spon, _Voyage_ (ed. 1679), II., p. 105; Wheler, _Journey into
  Greece_, p. 358; Stuart, II., ch. V., pls. 12, 13 (from drawings
  by Pars, now in the British Museum); Ross, Schaubert and Hansen,
  _Die Akropolis von Athen; Abth. I. Der Tempel der Nike Apteros_,
  1839; _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pls. 7-10; Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._, 3rd
  ed., I., p. 363; Bohn, _Die Propyläen der Akropolis zu Athen_,
  1882; Murray, II., p. 179; Kekulé (and Bohn) _Die Reliefs an
  der Balustrade der Athena Nike_; Wolters, Nos. 747-760. For
  Doerpfeld's views, see Harrison, _Mythology and Monuments of Anc.
  Athens_, p. 356. For further references see Wolters, p. 284. A
  photographic view of the temple is given by Baumeister, fig. 1234;
  and of Nos. 421 to 424 in _Stereoscopic_, No. 121.


THE WEST FRIEZE.

[Sidenote: =421.=]

The return of a slab of the north side, now at Athens, formed the left
end of the frieze, and contains two figures advancing to the right to
join the fray (Ross, pl. 11. h.). This is followed by slab No. 421,
containing a battle of Greeks. In the first group on the left two
warriors are engaged in vehement combat. The warrior on the left
supports with his right knee the shoulder of a wounded comrade who has
fallen at his feet and leans on his right arm. In the next group are
two antagonists fighting over the body of a dead combatant, then a
warrior who has overthrown his adversary and treads him down with his
left foot. He raises his right hand to inflict the mortal wound, and
may perhaps have grasped the victim's right wrist with his left hand.
In the background is a trophy which appears to consist of a trunk of
a tree, to which a helmet, shield, and cuirass have been attached.
On the right of the slab is a warrior pursuing a foe flying to the
right.--_Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 feet 5-1/2 inches; length, 6 feet
  8-1/2 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 160 (259); Ross, pl. 11, i.; _Mus.
  Marbles_, IX., pl. 9; Baumeister, fig. 1240; Brunn, _Denkmaeler_,
  No. 118.

[Sidenote: =422.=]

The first figure on the left of the slab appears to be hastening to
the assistance of the flying warrior on the right of the slab just
described. Next is a complicated group of five warriors fighting
for the body of a wounded man. The latter has sunk helplessly on the
ground. He is half raised and clasped under the arms by a friend who
attempts to draw him away; a foe tries to seize an ankle, and covers
himself meanwhile with his outstretched shield. More in the background
two adversaries are engaged in hot combat. The warrior on the left
probably had a sword, and that on the right a spear. A friend of the
fallen man hastens up from the left. The right thigh of this figure,
which is now wanting, is preserved in a drawing by Pars.

On the right are two pairs of combatants. In one of these groups a
warrior, who has fallen on his right knee, tries to defend himself
with his shield, while with the right hand he seizes a stone.
The antagonist has his right arm raised to strike, perhaps with a
battleaxe, and seizes with his left hand the shield of the kneeling
figure. On the right of the slab one of the warriors flies before
the assault of his antagonist, whose arms are both raised to strike
him.--_Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 5-1/2 inches; length, 6 feet
  7-3/4 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 161 (260); Ross, pl. 11, k.; _Mus.
  Marbles_, IX., pl. 10; Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._, 3rd. ed., I., fig.
  81, p. q.; Baumeister, fig. 1239; Brunn, _Denkmaeler_, No. 118.

On the right of the slab described was the return of the corner slab
of the south side, with a combat of two warriors.

  Ross, pl. 11, 1.; Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._, 3rd ed., I., fig. 81, r.

There is a considerable variety of costumes on the west side of the
frieze. Some of the figures are nude; others wear the chlamys only,
the chiton only, or the two garments together. The chiton is sometimes
worn on both shoulders, and some times only on one shoulder. The
warriors are for the most part armed with helmets and large bucklers.
In two instances a cap of a flexible material is worn instead of a
helmet. None, however, of the costumes are non-Hellenic; and further
the attempt made by Overbeck (i. p. 365), to show that the helmet
of the figure on the extreme right of the frieze is distinctively
B[oe]otian, is untenable (Wolters, p. 284).


THE NORTH AND SOUTH FRIEZES.

[Sidenote: =423.=]

Slab containing a part of the battle between Greeks and Persians. In
the first group on the left, a Persian has fallen on his right knee,
raising his right arm to defend his head. The antagonist presses his
left foot on the right thigh of the Persian, raising his right arm for
a spear thrust, and probably seizing the hair of the Persian with his
left hand. Next is a group of two Persians and a Greek. One of the
Persians lies dead on the ground; his mounted comrade urges his horse
against the Greek, who draws back, and raises his arm to strike with a
battle-axe.

The next group is composed of two Persians on foot and a Greek. In the
centre is a wounded Persian, who has been forced down on his left knee
and extends his arms forward in entreaty to the Greek, who drags him
along, grasping the head of the Persian with his left hand. The right
hand of the Greek must have held either a spear or a sword. On the
right the other Persian turns back to defend his fallen comrade
against the Greek. Both arms are raised to strike, and probably
wielded a battle-axe. At his left side hangs a quiver. On the extreme
right is a Greek moving to the right in pursuit of a flying Persian of
whom only the leg and part of the drapery round the loins remain. The
ground on which this scene takes place is rocky.--_Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 5-1/2 inches; length, 5 feet
  10 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 158 (258); Ross, pl. 12, o; _Mus.
  Marbles_, IX., pl. 7; Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._, 3rd ed., I., fig.
  81, i-l; Baumeister, fig. 1237; Brunn, _Denkmaeler_, No. 117.

[Sidenote: =424.=]

The first pair of combatants on the left are a Persian, who has
fallen on his right knee, and who holds up a shield in the form of a
crescent, on his left arm to defend himself, and his antagonist, who
advances from the right.

Next is a combat between a Greek on foot and a mounted Persian. The
latter draws back his right hand, which must have been armed with a
spear aimed at the Greek advancing from the left. The horse of the
Persian rears as if to strike down with his forefeet the left arm of
the Greek, which is thrust forward, protected by his shield. A dead
Persian lies on the ground.

Behind the mounted Persian is a comrade, hastening to the left, and
pursued by a Greek of whom nothing remains except part of his shield
and of the drapery round his loins. This closes the scene on the
right.--_Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 5-1/2 inches; length, 6 feet 1-1/4
  inches. _Synopsis_, No. 159 (257); Ross, pl. 12, fig. g; _Mus.
  Marbles_, IX., pl. 8; Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._, 3rd ed., I., fig.
  81, m, n; Baumeister, fig. 1238; Brunn, _Denkmaeler_, No. 117. On
  the position of these slabs, cf. p. 240.

[Sidenote: =425.=]

A plaster cast from one of the slabs now in position on the temple. On
the left is a mutilated group representing a Greek warrior turning
to assist a comrade who has fallen on his right knee. Next is a Greek
moving forward to pursue a mounted Persian who is flying to the right.
On the extreme right a Persian on foot flies in the same direction. A
slain Persian lies in the foreground. The position of this slab on the
temple at the south-east angle is fixed by the relief on its return
face which is part of the composition of the eastern front. This
return is not given in the cast here described.

  Height, 1 foot 5-1/2 inches; length, 3 feet 11-1/4 inches. Ross,
  pl. 12, fig. a; Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._, 3rd ed., I., fig. 81, g,
  h; Murray, II., pl. 16, fig. 1.

The dress of the Persians in this frieze is the usual chiton with long
sleeves, girt at the waist, and close-fitting trousers, _anaxyrides_.
One of them, the kneeling figure in No. 424, wears a quiver and bow
case, _gorytos_, from which appears the end of his bow, and two others
wear quivers. The only Persian whose face is preserved is bearded, and
wears the Persian headdress, the _kidaris_. The heads and weapons of
both sets of combatants have been nearly all destroyed. Some of the
Greeks are armed with the Argolic buckler. Others have a chlamys wound
round the left arm or hanging loose from the body.


CASTS FROM THE BALUSTRADE OF THE TEMPLE OF NIKÈ APTEROS.

The temple of Nikè Apteros stood on a lofty projecting bastion, as may
be seen from the model of the Acropolis. This bastion was surrounded
for safety with a breast-high parapet, consisting of a frieze of
sculpture in relief, facing outwards, surmounted by a bronze screen.
Several fragments of the frieze or balustrade were discovered on the
site, in 1835. (Ross, pl. 13.) Additional fragments were found by
Beulé in 1852, and in more recent excavations to the east of the
temple of Nikè, and on the south slope of the Acropolis. They are
preserved in the Acropolis Museum at Athens.

The sculptures are too mutilated to be arranged in one composition.
It is evident, however, that the frieze consisted of figures of
Victories, variously engaged. Some lead bulls to sacrifice, while
others are erecting or decking trophies in the presence of Athenè.

There is some uncertainty as to the date of the frieze. It cannot be
older than the temple, and therefore not earlier than 432 B.C. Kekulé
(_Balustrade_, p. 22), and Wolters (p. 289) hold that the frieze was
produced immediately after that date. But a more admissible view is
that which puts the balustrade at the very close of the fifth century.
If the different fragments of the balustrade are examined, they seem
to reveal a combination of various schools and methods. No. 426,
severely draped in chiton and diploïdion, seems to have the somewhat
stiff dignity best seen in sculptures of the Temple of Zeus at
Olympia, but occasionally suggested by the Parthenon sculptures. The
figures of Athenè (Kekulé, _Balustrade_, pl. ii.), have the spirit of
the Parthenon frieze. In No. 427 and No. 428, the artist dwells on and
emphasises the nude form, displaying it through transparent drapery in
a manner that may well be supposed to have been that of the transition
from Pheidias to Praxiteles. Finally, in the figure leading the bull
(No. 429), there is a florid wealth of drapery, which, among early
works, only finds a partial analogy in the frieze of Phigaleia, and
which appears more akin to the Nikè of Samothrace than to Attic work
of the fifth century. This want of uniformity in style suggests a time
of transition in which the traditions of the school of Pheidias were
still to some extent operative, while newer tendencies were beginning
to make themselves felt. Perhaps also they indicate that the work was
spread over a space of several years, such as might be expected in the
troubled close of the fifth century B.C.

  Height of Balustrade, 3 feet 2 inches. Ross, p. 17, pl. 13 (cf.
  ante, p. 241); Michaelis, _Arch. Zeit._, 1862, p. 249. All the
  materials are collected by Kekulé, _Die Reliefs an der Balustrade
  der Athena Nike_ (1881), which superseded Kekulé, _Die Balustr. d.
  Tempels d. Athena Nike_ (1869). See also Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._,
  3rd ed., I., p. 369; Murray, II., p. 186; Wolters, Nos. 761-804.
  _Stereoscopic_, Nos. 158-160.

[Sidenote: =426.=]

Victory standing, half turned to the left. She holds a greave in her
left hand, with which she was probably decking a trophy. She wears a
leather helmet.

  Kekulé, _Balustrade_, pl. 5, fig. R; Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._, 3rd
  ed., I., fig. 82.

[Sidenote: =427.=]

Winged Victory turned to the left stoops forward, raising her right
foot in order to adjust or unfasten her sandal. A somewhat similar
incident is seen on the Parthenon frieze, (west side, No. 29). There,
however, the figure has his foot resting on a rock, while here the
Victory balances herself on the left foot with the right leg high in
the air, in a position of effort such as does not occur on the frieze
of the Parthenon.

  Ross, pl. 13, figs. B, Bb; Kekulé, _Balustrade_, pl. 4, fig. O;
  Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._, 3rd ed., I., fig. 82; Murray, II., pl. 16,
  fig. 4; Brunn, _Denkmaeler_, No. 35. The meaning of the subject is
  not known. In the ritual inscription of Andania the initiated are
  ordered to have bare feet, and possibly the Victory is supposed
  to be removing her sandals before entering a shrine. Dittenberger,
  _Syll._, 388, 15, cf. _ibidem_, 357, 25.

[Sidenote: =428=]

Winged Victory standing turned to the left, the right arm advanced.
The right hand and all the left arm being broken away, the motive of
this figure has not been ascertained, but probably the Victory was
decking a trophy.

  Kekulé, _Balustrade_, pl. 4, fig. M; _Arch. Zeit._, 1862, pl. 162;
  Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._, 3rd ed., I., fig. 82; Brunn, _Denkmaeler_,
  No. 35.

[Sidenote: =429.=]

Two winged Victories about to sacrifice a bull, which one of them is
holding back as it springs forward. The other Victory leads the way,
moving to the right.

  Ross, pl. 13, fig. A; Kekulé, _Balustrade_, pl. 1, fig. A;
  Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._, 3rd ed., I., fig. 82; Murray, II., pl. 16,
  fig. 3; Brunn, _Denkmaeler_, No. 34.



THE CHORAGIC MONUMENT OF LYSICRATES.


The Choragic Monument of Lysicrates is a small edifice which presents
one of the earliest examples of the use of the Corinthian order in
Greek architecture. It may be thus described. On a square basement
is a cylindrical structure resting on six Corinthian columns. Between
them are six equal panels of white marble closely joined; at each
vertical joint a Corinthian column has been fitted, so as to project
more than half its diameter. Between the capitals were figures of
tripods in relief, of which only one now survives. Above the colonnade
is the entablature and a cupola or _tholos_; this is in the form of a
tiling of laurel-leaves richly decorated round the circumference with
a double row of projecting ornaments. From the apex of the roof
rises a mass of foliage arranged in a triple form, on the three most
projecting leaves of which was placed a bronze tripod, dedicated by a
choragos, who had provided a victorious chorus. An inscription on the
architrave immediately below the figure of Dionysos furnishes the name
and date of the dedicator. It runs,[*] "Lysicrates of Kikynna, son
of Lysitheides, was Choragos. The youths of the tribe Acamantis were
victors, Theon was the flute player, Lysiades an Athenian was the
instructor of the Chorus, Euainetos was Archon." The mention of this
magistrate fixes the date of the monument to B.C. 335-4.

  *: _C. I. G._ 221; _C. I. A._, II., 1242. [Greek:
  Lysikratês Lysitheidou Kikynneus echorêgei. Akamantis paidôn
  enika. Theôn êulei. Lysiadês Athênaios edidaske. Euainetos
  êrche.]

[Illustration: Fig. 21.--The Choragic Monument of Lysicrates. (After
Stuart.)]

The building still stands in its original position at Athens, below
the eastern side of the Acropolis and a little to the north-east of
the theatre of Dionysos. In antiquity it stood in a street called "the
street of tripods" (Paus. i. 20, 1), because of the number of tripods
which were there dedicated to Dionysos. At least as early as the
15th century the building was popularly known as the Lantern of
Demosthenes. In the 17th and 18th centuries it was built into the
wall of the French Capuchin monastery, and the interior served as the
library of the Superior. The monastery was burnt in 1821, and the only
trace of it is in a few tombstones of French citizens lying near. The
monument now stands in an open square. Lord Elgin's casts are the best
record of the frieze, as the sculptures, which are of Pentelic marble,
have suffered considerably in the last ninety years.

The subject of the frieze here described is the victory of Dionysos
over the Tyrrhenian pirates who had kidnapped him from Chios with
the intention of selling him as a slave. The God revenged himself by
transforming the pirates into dolphins, a myth which is to be found
in the Homeric Hymn to Dionysos (No. vi.) and elsewhere (Ovid, _Met._
iii. 650; Nonnus, _Dionys._ xlv. 102; Philostr. _Im._ i. 19, &c. Cf.
_Gaz. Arch._ 1875, p. 7). In the frieze the moment is represented
when this transformation took place. According to Homer and most other
writers, the event happened on board the ship, and the pirates were
first terrified by a miraculous appearance of vines and wild beasts.
The sculptor has preferred to represent the scene as passing on the
rocky shore on which the pirates found Dionysos (_Hom. Hymn_, vi. l.
2) and has made Satyrs help in the vengeance. The subject is thus made
to adapt itself to the requirements of sculpture. For a vase with
a representation of the literary form of the legend, see Gerhard,
_Auserlesene Vasenbilder_, i., pl. 49; Harrison, _Mythology and
Monuments of Anc. Athens_, p. 251. An intaglio, with a pirate half
transformed, as on the frieze, is engraved in the _Gaz. Arch._ 1875,
p. 13.

It is convenient to take the architectural remains of Athens
consecutively, and the monument of Lysicrates has therefore been
inserted in this place. But the accurately ascertained date (335 B.C.)
is a century later than the Parthenon, and it is easy to discern the
change that has taken place. The form of Dionysos is becoming softer
and more effeminate. The Satyrs on tip-toe belong to a scheme not
introduced in the 5th century sculpture; more free play of humour
is admitted. At the same time Attic schemes of composition present
themselves, which had already come into use in the time of Pheidias.

This frieze is a remarkable example of the Greek power of combining
variety and symmetry. On the right and left of Dionysos the groups
correspond with great accuracy, but the correspondent groups always
differ one from another. On each side of the God we have an attendant
Satyr; a Satyr with a crater; a Satyr watching the conflict; a Satyr
hastening to join it; a Satyr kneeling on a pirate; a Satyr about to
strike a pirate thrown to the ground; a Satyr breaking off a branch
from a tree; a pirate, half transformed, leaping into the sea. The
remainder of the frieze is less exactly symmetrical.

  Wheler, _Journey_, p. 397; Spon, _Voyage_ (ed. 1679), II., p.
  132. A view of the monument from the monastery garden is shown in
  Stuart, I., chap. IV., pl. 1. The view from the street is in Le
  Roy, _Ruines_, pl. 13. A view of the interior used as a library,
  Dodwell, _Tour_, I., pl. facing p. 289. A view subsequent to the
  destruction of the monastery is given, _Exp. de Morée_, III., pl.
  96. For the present state of the monument see Harrison, _Mythology
  and Monuments of Anc. Athens_, p. 245. The original frieze is of
  Pentelic marble; height, 10-1/2 inches. Stuart, I., ch. IV., pls.
  1-26. Stuart's drawings which are freely restored are the basis of
  the inaccurate plate in Stuart, 2nd ed., Vol. I., ch. IV., pl. 30.
  The illustrations in most of the text-books are derived from the
  latter plate; e.g., Müller, _Denkmäler_, pl. 37; Overbeck, _Gr.
  Plast._, 3rd ed., II., p. 91. These works all repeat an erroneous
  order of the two groups of No. 8, which spoils the symmetry of the
  frieze; cf. Murray, II., p. 333. An independent and more accurate
  publication is that in _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pls. 22-26, taken from
  the Elgin casts. See also Ellis, _Elgin Marbles_, II., pp. 79-87.
  The British Museum also possesses a careful series of drawings
  from the sculptures, by Lord Elgin's artist, Lusieri. _Report of
  the Elgin Committee, appendix_, p. xli.; Wolters, No. 1328.

[Sidenote: =430.= 1.]

  In the centre of the composition is Dionysos turned to the left,
  reclining on a rock over which drapery is thrown. He leans on his
  left elbow; with his right hand he caresses a panther which fawns
  on his knees. In the left hand Dionysos appears to have held a cup
  and a thyrsos, of which traces appear behind his left shoulder.
  This figure is now entirely destroyed on the original. There is
  a considerable resemblance in the pose of Dionysos to that of the
  so-called Theseus of the east pediment of the Parthenon. On either
  side of Dionysos is a Satyr, seated on lower rocks. The Satyr
  on the right clasps his left knee with both hands. (Compare the
  figure on the east frieze of the Parthenon No. 26). His head was
  probably turned towards Dionysos. The Satyr on the left of the God
  rests his left hand on the rock behind him; his right knee is bent
  and the right leg drawn up under it; in his right hand he holds a
  thyrsos; his body and head are turned to the right.

    _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 24.

  [Sidenote: 2.]

  Next on the left is a Satyr advancing over rocky ground towards a
  large crater; in his right hand he holds an oinochoè, with which
  he is about to take wine from the crater; in his left hand
  has been a phialè; a fawn skin, _nebris_, hangs from his left
  shoulder. His head appears to have been turned towards Dionysos.
  On the opposite side of the vase stands a Satyr turned to the
  left, resting his elbows on the stump of a tree, over which is
  thrown a panther's skin; the top of a thyrsos appears above his
  right shoulder. He appears to have been bearded.

  This figure looks on at the destruction of the pirates which is
  represented in a series of groups on the left, and which we must
  suppose to have taken place on a rocky shore overlooked by the
  higher ground on which Dionysos reclines.

    _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 24.

  [Sidenote: 3.]

  A Satyr advances to the left with a burning torch, with which he
  is about to assail the fallen pirate of the next group. This Satyr
  is nude and bearded. His head is bound with a diadem. The head and
  left leg are now lost on the original. The next group on the left
  represents a pirate thrown on his hands and knees upon the rocks.
  On his back kneels a Satyr whose right arm is upraised to strike
  his prostrate foe with some weapon which is not clearly shown in
  the relief, but which was probably a pedum, or perhaps a branch.
  The Satyr has a panther's skin floating in the air, at his back.
  Between the legs is a lump of plaster, which is due to a fault in
  the moulding.

    _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 23.

  [Sidenote: 4.]

  Next on the left is a bearded Satyr, who draws back to the right,
  to collect his force for a blow, with his thyrsos. Meanwhile he
  looks back at a pirate on his left, who kneels with his hands tied
  behind him, and looks round towards the Satyr in helpless terror.
  A panther's skin, hanging from the left shoulder of the Satyr,
  floats in the air at his back.

    _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 23.

  [Sidenote: 5.]

  The next figure on the left is a bearded Satyr who turns to the
  right kneeling on his left knee, set in the fork of a tree close
  to the edge of the sea; with both hands he is breaking off a
  branch. His panther's skin floats in the air behind his back. His
  right foot stands in shoal water, which is indicated by curling
  waves. Behind him on the left is a pirate, whose body to the waist
  is transformed into a dolphin, and who leaps head foremost into
  the sea.

    _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 23.

  Between No. 5 and No. 6 is about a yard of frieze, wanting in
  the cast. This is given, freely restored, by Stuart. An accurate
  drawing by Lusieri is preserved in the Museum (Plate ix.). A
  bearded Satyr holds out a torch and pursues a pirate who runs away
  at full speed. A hole has been cut between them for the insertion
  of a beam. A rock and tree separate this group from the following,
  No. 6.

  [Sidenote: 6.]

  This group is rather better preserved in the drawing of Lusieri
  than in the cast. A young pirate is seated on the ground leaning
  on his left arm. The right hand is extended in supplication to the
  bearded Satyr, who is dragging him seawards by the foot. A hole
  has been cut through the figure for a beam. The Satyr stands in
  the waves. Behind him a pirate, half transformed, is in the act of
  leaping into the sea. This figure is now almost destroyed in the
  original. As it is leaping to the right, it belongs strictly to
  that part of the circular frieze which represents the scene on the
  right of Dionysos.

    _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 22.

  [Sidenote: 7.]

  On the right of the central group (No. 1) is a bearded Satyr
  moving to the right towards a large crater. In his right hand he
  holds up an oinochoè or wine jug. His left is extended over the
  crater and holds a phialè. This figure appears to be bearded,
  though it is drawn as beardless by Lusieri; the head is now
  wanting. Next on the right are two Satyrs, each wearing a panther
  skin. The Satyr on the left turns to the right and extends his
  right hand towards the second Satyr, as if giving him an order.
  The latter looks round to the left, as if to receive the order,
  while he is hastening to the right with both hands raised, as if
  pointing.

    _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 25.

  [Sidenote: 8.]

  Next on the right is a prostrate pirate, on whose buttock a
  bearded Satyr is kneeling with his left knee, while he holds the
  pirate's hands, as if to tie them behind his back. The pirate
  kneels on the rock, with his head pressed upon the ground and
  turned towards the spectator.

  The next group on the right is composed of a Satyr, who has thrown
  a pirate backward on the rock, and is about to strike him with a
  pedum or club. The pirate has his left knee bent under him, and
  leans back on his right elbow: he advances his right foot and left
  arm to defend himself. He is drawn by Lusieri with a negro face
  and pointed ear. The ear seems pointed, but it is manifest that
  the features are wrongly drawn. The head is now wanting on the
  original. The Satyr has his body facing to the front and inclined
  to the left with the right leg advanced: his right hand is raised
  to the level of his head. The action shows that he is about to
  swing his body round to give effect to the blow which he is aiming
  at the pirate. On his left arm is the panther's skin, worn as a
  shield.

    _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 25.

  [Sidenote: 9.]

  In the next group are a Satyr and a transformed pirate, separated
  by a tree which marks the edge of the rocky shore, as at the
  opposite side of the frieze. The Satyr stoops forward, breaking
  off with both hands a branch of the tree, which he is about to use
  as a weapon. He is bearded. The right leg is now wanting on the
  original. The pirate darts head foremost into the water, pressing
  his feet against the trunk of the tree.

    _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 26.

  [Sidenote: 10.]

  On the right of the transformed pirate is a group representing a
  Satyr about to strike with a branch of a tree a pirate seated
  on the ground, whose head he draws back with his left hand,
  brandishing in his right hand the branch held behind his neck;
  from the left arm of the Satyr hangs his panther's skin. He
  is bearded. In the drawing of Lusieri he has an ivy wreath and
  pointed ears. On the original this group is mutilated almost
  beyond recognition. The last group on the right is composed of a
  Satyr darting forward with a lighted torch, which he is about to
  apply to a pirate seated on a rock with his hands tied behind his
  back. A large serpent behind the pirate has fastened its fangs on
  his right shoulder, and has one coil between his right arm and his
  back. The pirate looks round in agony towards his assailants. The
  serpent suggests the form of the legend usually current, in which
  Dionysos is assisted by strange monsters. According to Nonnus,
  _Dionys._, xlv., 1. 134, the ropes of the rigging of the ship
  turned to serpents.

[Sidenote: =431.=]

Cast from the capital of a column of the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates.

  Height, 2 feet 3/4 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 360*. See Stuart, I.,
  ch. IV. pl. 6, fig. 1.



THE CHORAGIC MONUMENT OF THRASYLLOS.


[Sidenote: =432.=]

The statue of Dionysos, here described, originally decorated a
choragic monument, of which some scanty remains may still be seen
below the southern wall of the Acropolis of Athens, and immediately
above the Dionysiac theatre. The monument was in the form of a
portico, the architrave of which rested on three pilasters which
masked the entrance to a cavern in the rock. Until removed by Lord
Elgin the statue stood above the façade. Since the removal of the
statue the portico itself has been destroyed, and at present only
the base and lower portions of the pilasters stand in position, while
fragments of the inscription lie close at hand. We learn from the
inscription on the centre of the face of the monument that it was
dedicated by Thrasyllos to commemorate the victory gained by his
tribe in the dramatic contest in which he was himself choragos, in the
archonship of Neaichmos (320 B.C.); _C. I. G._, 224; _C. I. A._, ii.,
1247. On the right and left were inscriptions recording the dedication
of tripods by Thrasycles, son of Thrasyllos, who was agonothetes in
the archonship of Pytharatos (271 B.C.); _C. I. G._, 225, 226; _C.
I. A._, ii., 1292, 1293. At some date intermediate between these two,
probably about 310 B.C., the state had assumed the burden of providing
the chorus, and the agonothetes or director of the contest took the
place of the choragos, or provider of the chorus. (Hermann, _Lehrb. d.
Griech. Antiq._, Müller's ed., iii., pt. ii., p. 339.)

It has commonly been supposed that the statue belongs to the
dedication of Thrasyllos. Stuart made the infelicitous conjecture that
it held the votive tripod on its lap. The most recent writer on the
subject, Reisch (in the _Athenische Mittheilungen_, xiii., p. 383),
conjectures that the monument of Thrasyllos was originally surmounted
by a pediment on which was a tripod; and that the pediment was removed
by Thrasycles, who placed the statue in the centre, and bases for his
tripods at the sides. It is left unexplained what became of the tripod
of Thrasyllos. From the style of the statue we cannot decide between
the two dates. Reisch well points out that in composition and spirit
there is an attempt, only partially successful, to preserve the
manner of Pheidias as seen in the Parthenon pediments. The figure
is majestic, but the drapery is rather heavy. The influence of the
younger Attic school hardly makes itself felt.

The statue is that of a colossal seated figure, the head, arms,
and right foot to the instep wanting. The body is clad in a talaric
chiton, over which is a panther's skin, passing like a scarf from the
left shoulder to the right side, and bound round the waist by a broad
girdle, under which is seen the panther's face and teeth; an ample
mantle passes from the back of the figure over the lower limbs,
falling in rich folds across the lap. The head and left arm of this
statue were of separate pieces of marble, and were originally morticed
to the body. The head was wanting as early as the visit of Spon and
Wheler to Athens in 1676. On the left thigh is a sinking about 6
inches deep, 5 long, and 1-1/2 wide, in which some object may have
been inserted, but which may have been used when the statue was being
placed in position. On the drapery of the left shoulder there is a
hole for a rivet. It seems probable that the God was represented with
a lyre, the base of which rested on his left thigh. This instrument
was the attribute of Dionysos Melpomenos (see Gerhard, _Ant.
Bildwerke_, text, p. 240), and the costume of the figure seems
assimilated to that of a citharist.--_Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 6 feet 3 inches. The stone is roughly
  hewn out at the back to lighten the figure. Wheler, _Journey_, p.
  368; Le Roy, _Ruines_, pl. 8; Stuart, II., ch. IV., pls. 3, 6;
  _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 1; Ellis, _Elgin Marbles_, II., p. 90;
  Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._, 3rd ed., II., p. 94; Reisch, _Athenische
  Mittheilungen_, XIII. (1888) pl. 8, p. 383; _Stereoscopic_, No.
  114; Brunn, _Denkmaeler_, No. 119.



THE PROPYLAEA.


The Propylaea, or gateways to the Acropolis, were constructed by
Mnesicles under the administration of Pericles, in the five years
436-431 B.C.

The main portion of the building consisted of two Doric portions,
facing respectively inwards to the Acropolis and outwards. These were
connected by a series of Ionic columns. The entrance was flanked
on each side by wings (see the plan, fig. 20). The Elgin Collection
contains a few architectural remains from the building. A portion
of the cedar dowels which connected the drums of the columns of the
Propylaea may be seen in the Bronze Room.--_Presented by A. W. Franks,
Esq._ Cf. Dodwell, _Tour_, I., p. 313.

[Sidenote: =433.=]

Capital of Doric column from the Propylaea. It is impossible to tell
from the dimensions whether this capital is derived from the internal
or external portico.--_Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; width of abacus, 5 feet 5-1/2 inches. _Synopsis_,
  No. 130 (206). Stuart, II., ch. V., pl. 7, fig. 1. Penrose,
  _Athen. Architecture_, ch. X., pl. 31; Bohn, _Die Propyläen_, pls.
  11, 13, fig. 2.

[Sidenote: =434.=]

Piece of drum of Ionic column from the inner order of the
Propylaea.--_Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 4-1/2 inches; diameter, 3 feet 1/8
  inch. _Synopsis_, No. 129. Penrose, _Athen. Architecture_, ch. X.,
  pl. 32.

[Sidenote: =435.=]

Part of band for supporting the beams of the ceiling in the central
hall of the Propylaea. There are considerable remains of the painted
mouldings.--_Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 7-1/4 inches; length, 3 feet
  10-1/2 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 131 (308). Stuart, II., ch. V., pl.
  8, fig. 1; Bohn, _Die Propyläen_, pl. 12, fig. 6.



MISCELLANEOUS ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENTS.


[Sidenote: =436.=]

Capital of one of the antae from the small Ionic temple near the
Ilissos seen by Stuart, but destroyed since his time in 1780.--_Elgin
Coll._

  Height, 1 foot 1/8 inch; breadth, 2 feet 1/2 inch. _Synopsis_,
  No. 170 (174). Stuart, I., ch. II., pl. 8, fig. 1. See also Leake,
  _Topography of Athens_, 2nd ed., p. 250.

[Sidenote: =437.=]

Moulding with anthemion, plait, maeander, and leaf, bead and reel
patterns. Found near the south-east _anta_ of the Erechtheion.
--_Inwood Coll._

  Height, 8-1/4 inches; breadth, 6-3/4 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 407.
  Inwood, _Erechtheion_, pl. 26, p. 138.

[Sidenote: =438.=]

Antefixal ornament or acroterion from the temple of Demeter at
Eleusis. For a similar ornament see Kinnard in Stuart's _Antiquities
of Athens_, 2nd ed., iii., pl. 1, p. 53.--_Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 3 feet 7-1/2 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 169
  (173); Laborde, _Le Parthénon_, pl. 27.

[Sidenote: =439.=]

Ornament of roof-tile, _kalypter anthemotos_. Purchased by Inwood at
Athens.--_Inwood Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 8-3/4 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 417.
  Inwood, _Erechtheion_, pl. 28, fig. 3, p. 144.

[Sidenote: =440.=]

Ornament of roof-tile. Probably purchased by Inwood at
Athens.--_Inwood Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 10-3/4 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 412.
  Inwood, _Erechtheion_, pl. 28, fig. 2, p. 144.

[Sidenote: =441.=]

Ornament of roof-tile, found "on the gable of a small Greek church,
that appears to have been on the site of a temple" "in the gardens at
Athens, beyond Mount Anchesmus."--_Inwood Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 8-1/2 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 411.
  Inwood, _Erechtheion_, pl. 23, p. 131.

[Sidenote: =442.=]

Ornament of roof-tile found built into a modern house near the
Choragic Monument of Lysicrates.--_Inwood Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 11 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 413. Inwood,
  _Erechtheion_, pl. 28, fig. 5, p. 144.

[Sidenote: =443.=]

Capital of Ionic column discovered by Inwood built into the wall of a
small Greek chapel called Agia Marina on the left bank of the Ilissos
at Athens. This is probably the site of the temple of Artemis Eucleia
mentioned by Pausanias (i., 14, 5, and compare ix., 17, 1). Roses are
sculptured in the eyes of the volutes. Inwood remarks (p. 136) that
the central enrichment over the cymatium between the volutes is
unusual. From the absence of mortices by which the capital could be
secured to the architrave or to the shaft, he infers (p. 133) that
this capital may have belonged to some sepulchral stelè or other work,
where great strength of construction was not required. Bötticher,
who engraves this or a similar capital, is of the same opinion. The
opposite face of the capital is nearly all broken away.--_Inwood
Coll._

  Pentelic marble; width from centre of volute to centre of volute,
  12-3/4 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 398. Inwood, _Erechtheion_, p. 132,
  pls. 24-25. Bötticher, _Tektonik_, pl. 30, fig. 7, text, p. 299.

[Sidenote: =444.=]

Volute of Ionic capital. Inwood (p. 128) states that it was found near
the site of the temple of Nikè Apteros, and that from its scale it
probably belongs to that temple. This, however, is not the case, as
may be seen by comparing this fragment with the capital of the temple
of Nikè Apteros in Ross, _Akropolis von Athen_, pls. vii., viii. The
pulvinus of this capital is ornamented with leaves, as in the example
from Athens in Bötticher's _Tektonik_, pl. 31, fig. 5, text, p.
299.--_Inwood Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot; breadth, 9-1/2 inches.
  _Synopsis_, No. 404, where it is incorrectly described as a
  capital from the temple of Nikè Apteros. Inwood, _Erechtheion_,
  pl. 21.

[Sidenote: =445.=]

Volute of Ionic capital, which, according to Inwood (p. 127) was found
in a wall below the north side of the Acropolis at Athens. In the eye
of this volute a rose is sculptured in relief. In the capitals of
the Erechtheion there was a similar rose of bronze gilt, for which a
recess is carved in the marble.--_Inwood Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 7-3/4 inches; breadth, 9 inches.
  _Synopsis_, No. 410. Inwood, _Erechtheion_, pl. 20; Bötticher,
  _Tektonik_, text, p. 299.

[Sidenote: =446.=]

Fragment of the shaft of a column which was fluted with twenty-four
flutes, the diameter being about two feet two inches. The dimensions
differ from those of the columns of the Erechtheion.--_Greece._
_Presented by W. R. Hamilton, Esq._

  Marble; height, 1 foot 7 inches; width, 1 foot 6 inches.

[Sidenote: =447.=]

Capital of Corinthian column, from one of the porches of the building
at Athens, commonly known as the Tower of the Winds, or more correctly
as the Horologium of Andronicus Cyrrhestes (built probably in the 2nd
century B.C.).--_Formerly in the Elgin Collection._

  Marble; height, 1 foot 4-1/2 inches. Stuart, I., chap. III., pl.
  7.

[Sidenote: =448.=]

Unfinished Ionic base.--_Formerly in the Elgin Collection._

  Marble; height, 9 inches; diameter, 1 foot 10-3/4 inches.



AGORACRITOS OF PAROS.


[Sidenote: =460.=]

Fragment of colossal head, showing the right cheek, right eyelid and
right side of the head as far as the ear. The hair is waved. On the
crown of the head eleven holes are pierced in the marble, evidently
for the attachment of a wreath or other ornament. The left side
and back of the head have been cut or broken away. So far as can be
inferred from the little original surface remaining, this head was in
a fine style of the fifth century B.C.

The style and material of this work, and the place of its discovery,
give good grounds for thinking that it is a fragment of the famous
statue of Nemesis by Agoracritos of Paros. The exact date of
Agoracritos is not recorded, but he is said to have been a favourite
pupil of Pheidias. The statue of Nemesis is described as a colossal
figure of the type of Aphroditè, holding in her hands an apple branch
and a phialè, on which were figures of Aethiopians. She had no wings,
and stood on a base, sculptured with subjects relating to the birth of
Helen and the Trojan war. The figure wore a diadem, adorned with
deer and figures of Victory of no great size. Compare the diadem of
Pandora, described by Hesiod, _Theogony_, 581; the diadem of Hera
of Polycleitos (Paus., ii., 17, 4); the Cypriote terracottas, in the
Terracotta Room, wall cases 1 and 27; and the Cypriote sculptures in
the Cyprus Room. The numerous holes mentioned above must have served
for the attachment of an ornament of some weight, and so confirm the
proposed identification.

According to tradition the statue was made of a block of Parian
marble, which was brought by the Persians, before the battle of
Marathon, to be erected as a trophy for the capture of Athens. (Paus.,
i., 33. 2; _Anthol. Pal. App. Plan._, iv., 221, 222, 263). Found on
the site of the _Temple of Nemesis at Rhamnus_.--_Presented by J. P.
Gandy Deering, Esq., 1820._

  Parian marble; height, 1 foot 4-1/2 inches. _Uned. Antiquities of
  Attica_, p. 43; Leake, _Athens and Demi of Attica_, II., p. 108;
  _Synopsis_, No. 325 (273); _Elgin Room Guide_, II., No. E. 4;
  Six, _Num. Chron. 3rd. Ser._, II., p. 94; _cf._ coin of Cyprus,
  _ibidem_, pl. 5; Gardner, _Journ. of Hellen. Studies_, VIII., p.
  47; Rossbach, _Athenische Mittheilungen_, XV., p. 64; Overbeck,
  _Schriftquellen_, 834-843.



POLYCLEITOS OF ARGOS AND THE PELOPONNESIAN SCHOOL.


Polycleitos of Argos was, as has already been observed (p. 90), one
of the great pupils of Ageladas of Argos, who was also the master of
Myron and perhaps of Pheidias.

Nothing is recorded as to the life of Polycleitos; his age, as
compared with that of Pheidias, is not accurately known. It is
probable that he was rather younger than Pheidias, as he was working
at a later date. Pliny gives the 90th Olympiad, or 420 B.C., as the
date of Polycleitos. This may be the date of his great statue of Hera
at Argos, the older temple of Hera having been burnt in 422 B.C., and
it was probably near the end of the sculptor's life.

No original works by the hand of Polycleitos survive, but several
sculptures are known which can be shown with probability to have been
copied more or less directly from originals, of which the character is
thus ascertained.

Polycleitos was famous in antiquity as the author of a methodical
system of proportions for the human form. One in particular of his
figures, the Doryphoros, was known as the _Canon_, and was adopted
as the ideal type of a youthful male figure by later sculptors. This
figure, and its companion the Diadumenos (see below, Nos. 500, 501),
are known to us from copies. They are of vigorous make and square
build, but somewhat heavy when compared with the graceful youths of
the Parthenon frieze. But the words of Quintilian, who says (_Inst.
Orat._, xii., 10, 7) that some critics objected to the works of
Polycleitos as being wanting in weight and unduly elegant, suggest
that the extant copies do not convey an accurate impression of the
bronze originals, and in fact some of the numerous Doryphoros heads
which have been found in Italy present a profile which strikingly
recalls the profiles of the youths on the Parthenon frieze.
Polycleitos was also noted for his technical skill and perfect
workmanship.

The works that have been associated with Polycleitos, in the British
Museum, are here described (Nos. 500-503). A fragment, however, of a
group of two boys playing with knuckle-bones (_Mus. Marbles_, ii.,
pl. 31), which was ascribed by Winckelmann to Polycleitos (_Hist. de
l'Art_, Bk. vi., chap. 2; Pliny, _H. N._, xxxiv., 10), is no doubt of
a later period, and is therefore omitted.

[Sidenote: =500.=]

Graeco-Roman copy of the Diadumenos of Polycleitos. Statue of a nude
youth, tying a band (taenia) about his head. He stands principally
on the right leg, resting lightly on the left leg, and has both hands
raised. The left hand is lost. The band was made of bronze, and holes
remain for its attachment. The left side of the face has been very
much rubbed down. By the side of the figure is a tree-stump.

That this figure is the Diadumenos of Polycleitos is indicated by its
close resemblance in style to the figure at Naples, believed to be
a copy of the Doryphoros (see No. 502). It would be a remarkable
coincidence if we had two companion statues representing respectively
a Diadumenos and a Doryphoros, known from the number of replicas to
be copies of important works, and agreeing in style with what would be
expected of the art of Polycleitos, but yet derived from independent
sources.

The head was found at a distance of two-thirds of a mile from the
torso. The torso was found in 1862 in the _Roman Theatre, at Vaison
(Vaucluse)_.

  Marble; height, 6 feet 1 inch. Restorations:--Nose, fingers of
  right hand, parts of left thigh and of left shin and heel; also
  the upper part of the stump. The figure should perhaps be set
  with the ancient surface of the base horizontal, and so lean less
  forwards. _Mon. dell' Inst._, X., pl. 49, figs. 1-3; _Annali dell'
  Inst._, 1878, p. 11 (Michaelis); Rayet, _Monuments_, I., No. 30
  and text; Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._, 3rd ed., I., p. 388; Murray, I.,
  pl. 10, p. 274; Wolters, No. 508.

  Other examples more or less nearly reproducing this type
  are:--(_a_) A bronze from the De Janzé Collection in the French
  Bibliothèque Nationale. _Annali dell' Inst._, 1878, pl. B, p. 11
  (Michaelis); Rayet, _Monuments_, I., No. 31; Babelon, _Le Cabinet
  des Ant. à la Bibl. Nationale_, pl. 13. (_b_) A terracotta
  statuette in an English private collection. _Journ. of Hellen.
  Studies_, VI., p. 243, pl. 61. (_c_) A sepulchral relief from
  Praeneste, in the Vatican, commemorating one Tiberius Octavius
  Diadumenus, and having a relief of a Diadumenos, in allusion to
  the name. Pistolesi, _Vaticano_, IV. 84. (_d_) A gem. _Journ. of
  Hellen. Studies_, II. p. 352. See also No. 501.

[Sidenote: =501.=]

Graeco-Roman statue of a Diadumenos. Statue of a nude youth standing,
tying a band (taenia) about his head. Both arms were raised, but the
left is lost. This figure, like the Diadumenos of Vaison (No. 500),
stands principally on the right leg, but the left leg is differently
placed, and the whole pose is thereby altered. By the side of the
figure is a stump of a palm.

The hair falls in curls, and the figure is more youthful than the
Diadumenos of Vaison. Except in the similarity of subject these
statues have little in common, and if the Vaison figure represents
the statue of Polycleitos, this figure would appear to be either an
independent rendering of the same subject, or only remotely derived
from Polycleitos. It was, however, for a long time regarded as a copy
of the work of Polycleitos, and this view has been held by several
writers, after the discovery of the Vaison Diadumenos.--_Farnese
Coll. 1864._

  Pentelic marble; height, 4 feet 10-1/4 inches.
  Restorations:--Nose, parts of band. The right leg appears to be
  ancient, but worked over. In the earliest publications (Cavalieri,
  &c.) the left arm is drawn as if restored. The statue is first
  known in the Villa Madama, near Rome (Cavalieri, _Ant. Stat. Urb.
  Romae Liber_, 1569, pl. 97). It was afterwards in the Farnese
  Gardens, in the Farnese Palace, and at Naples. Guattani, _Mem.
  Encicl._, V., pl. facing p. 83; Gerhard, _Ant. Bildwerke_, pl.
  69, p. 311; Müller-Wieseler, _Denkmaeler_, I., pl. 31, fig. 136;
  Clarac, V., pl. 858 C, 2189 A; _Annali dell' Inst._, 1878, pl. A,
  p. 20 (Michaelis); Murray, I., pl. 9, p. 273; Rayet, _Monuments_,
  text to No. 30; Mitchell, p. 388; Wolters, No. 509; Mansell, No.
  726.

  The Polycleitan origin of the Farnese statue is supported by
  Winckelmann (_Hist. de l'Art_, Bk. VI., chap. 2), Guattani (_loc.
  cit._), Newton (Rayet, _loc. cit._), Brunn (_Annali dell' Inst._,
  1879, p. 218), Murray (_loc. cit._).

[Sidenote: =502.=]

Statuette copied from the Doryphoros of Polycleitos (?). Figure of
youth having the arms broken off from the shoulders, and the legs from
above the knees. The head is slightly bent forwards, and turned to the
left of the figure. The left leg was advanced in front of the right
leg.

The figure, like a bronze statuette at Athens (_Mon. dell' Inst._,
viii., pl. 53), which it nearly resembles, may perhaps be a
modified rendering of the Doryphoros of Polycleitos. The Doryphoros
(spear-bearer) was a figure of a nameless athlete, which carried a
spear, and which was the Canon or typical model of later sculptors
(see above). The type was first recognized by Friederichs in a statue
from Pompeii, now in the Museum at Naples, and other copies have since
been identified.--_Athens._

  Marble; height, 9 inches. Unpublished. The principal examples of
  the type are:--(_a_) Figure at Naples (Friederichs, _Doryphoros
  des Polyclet_; Rayet, _Monuments_, I., No. 29; Overbeck,
  _Gr. Plast._, 3rd ed., I., fig. 84). (_b_) Relief from Argos
  (_Athenische Mittheilungen_, III., pl. 13; Mitchell, p. 386).
  (_c_) Bronze bust from Herculaneum, at Naples, found with a
  companion bust of an Amazon (Comparetti, _La Villa Ercolanese_,
  pl. 8, fig. 3). (_d_) Gem at Berlin (Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._, _loc.
  cit._). For other copies, see Michaelis, _Annali dell' Inst._,
  1878, p. 6; Wolters, Nos. 506, 507.

[Sidenote: =503.=]

Head of Amazon, slightly inclined to the left and looking down, with
an expression of pain on the face. The hair is parted in the middle,
and drawn back over the ears to the back of the head, where it is
gathered in a bunch. The sharp parallel lines in which it is worked
suggest that the head is copied from a bronze original.

Pliny relates (_H. N._, xxxiv., 53) that four artists, Polycleitos,
Pheidias, Cresilas and Phradmon, made statues of Amazons which were
placed in the temple of Artemis at Ephesus. Polycleitos was accounted
to have won the competition, as he obtained the second vote of each of
his rivals. This account of the contest has the appearance of a late
invention. There are, however, many statues and busts of wounded
Amazons which appear to be copies, more or less exact, of three types,
different one from another, but yet so far alike that they may have
been produced by artists working on one plan.

The present head belongs to the type which various archaeologists
(Klügmann, _Rhein. Mus._ 1866, p. 327; Michaelis, _Jahrb. des Arch.
Inst._, i., p. 40) have assigned to Polycleitos. The complete figure
is that of a wounded Amazon, leaning with the left arm on a pillar,
and having the right hand resting on the top of the head.

_Brought to England by Lyde Brown. Purchased by Townley,
1774._--_Townley Coll._

  Greek marble; height of ancient portion, 10-1/4 inches.
  Restorations:--Tip of nose, throat and bust. _Mus. Marbles_, X.,
  pl. 5; _Guide to Græco-Roman Sculptures_, I., No. 150; Murray, I.,
  p. 280; _Jahrbuch des Arch. Inst._, I., 1886, pl. 3, No. 2; p. 16,
  _K_, (Michaelis). There is a drawing by Cipriani in the British
  Museum (_Add. MSS._ 21,118, No. 12).

  The best examples of the type are:--(_a_) A statue at Lansdowne
  House, London. _Specimens of Ant. Sculpture_, II., pl. 10.
  _Cat. of Lansdowne Marbles_, No. 83. (_b_) A bronze head from
  Herculaneum, now in the Museum at Naples. Comparetti, _La Villa
  Ercolanese_, pl. 8, fig. 1. (_c_) Compare the Amazon on the
  Phigaleian frieze (No. 522). For further literature and examples,
  see Michaelis, _loc. cit._

[Sidenote: =504.=]

Head of Hera (?). Ideal female head wearing a lofty diadem. The hair
was brought to the back of the head, where it was tied in a knot, now
lost.

It is thought possible that this head may be derived from the Argive
statue of Hera by Polycleitos, for which the coins of Argos may
be compared (_Journ. of Hellen. Studies_, vi., pl. 54, Nos.
12-15).--_Girgenti._

  Marble; height, 1 foot 4 inches. The lower part of the back of the
  head on the right side, which had been broken, has been in modern
  times roughly carved on the fractured surface to represent hair,
  and the end of the diadem. The surface of the face has also
  suffered from being worked over. The genuineness of the sculpture
  has been questioned, without reason. _Mon. dell' Inst._, IX.,
  pl. 1; Helbig, _Annali dell' Inst._, 1869, p. 144; Overbeck, _Gr.
  Kunstmyth._, pl. 9, figs. 4, 5; II., p. 81, 3; Murray, I., p. 268;
  Wolters, No. 501; Furtwaengler, _Arch. Zeit._, 1885, p. 275, fig.
  A; Murray, _Römische Mittheilungen_, I., p. 123.



THE TEMPLE OF APOLLO AT PHIGALEIA.


The Temple of Apollo Epicurios, at Phigaleia, in Arcadia, stands in a
slight depression on the bare and wind-swept side of Mount Cotylion,
above the valley of the river Neda. It was discovered towards the end
of the eighteenth century, but on account of its remote position it
was seldom visited before 1811. In that year the party of explorers,
who had previously discovered the pedimental sculptures of Aegina,
began excavations which were completed in 1812. The party included
Cockerell and Haller in the first season, and Haller, Stackelberg and
Bröndstedt in the second season. The sculptures found were removed to
Zante, and were purchased by the British Government in 1814.

The temple was visited by Pausanias, who describes it as being
situated at the village of Bassae on Mount Cotylion, about five miles
from Phigaleia. Pausanias states that the temple and its roof were
alike built of stone, and that it might be counted among the temples
of the Peloponnesus, second only to that of Tegea, for beauty of
material and fineness of proportion. He adds that the temple was
dedicated to Apollo Epicurios (the Helper), because the god had
stayed a plague at Phigaleia in the time of the Peloponnesian war. The
architect was Ictinos, the builder of the Parthenon (Paus. viii., 41,
5). The date of the temple is therefore about 430 B.C., although it
is doubtful whether the plague in Arcadia was connected with the more
celebrated pestilence at Athens.

The temple is built of the light grey limestone of the surrounding
mountains. The sculptures, tiles, lacunaria, and capitals of the
interior architecture were all of marble, which was probably obtained
in the neighbourhood. The form of the building is that known as
amphiprostyle peripteral hexastyle. The temple consisted of a central
cella with a pronaos and opisthodomos, and was surrounded by a Doric
colonnade, having six columns at the ends and fifteen columns at the
sides. The pronaos and opisthodomos were each bounded by two Doric
columns between antae, surmounted by metopes. The cella contained ten
Ionic columns engaged in buttresses which connected them with the
side walls. Towards the south end of the cella was a single Corinthian
column, of remarkable form, which is now lost. Beyond it was the
temple image, which by a peculiar arrangement is thought to have
looked to the east, towards a side door, the orientation of the
temple being nearly north and south. It has been thought that this
arrangement may show that an ancient shrine was embodied in the later
temple. (Curtius, _Pelop._, i., p. 329; Michaelis, _Arch. Zeit._,
1876, p. 161). The frieze was internal, and passed round the cella,
with the exception of that portion which is south of the Corinthian
column. (Compare the ground plan, fig. 22, and the view, plate xi.)

[Illustration: Fig. 22.--Plan of the Temple of Apollo at Phigaleia.]

  The temple was discovered by a French architect, Bocher, in
  November, 1765 (Chandler, _Travels in Greece_, 1776, p. 295). For
  descriptions of the architecture and sculpture, see Stackelberg,
  _Der Apollotempel zu Bassae, in Arcadien_, 1826; Donaldson, in
  Stuart, 2nd ed., vol. IV.; Blouet, _Expédition scientifique de
  Morée_, II; _Museum Marbles_, IV.; Leake, _Travels in the Morea_,
  II., chap. xii., p. 1; Ellis, _Elgin and Phigaleian Marbles_, II.,
  p. 175; Cockerell, _The Temple of Jupiter Panhellenius at Aegina,
  and of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae, near Phigaleia, in Arcadia_,
  1860; Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._, 3rd ed., I., p. 449; Murray, II., p.
  169; Wolters, Nos. 880-912. For literature specially relating to
  the frieze, see below, p. 279. Views and plans of the temple are
  exhibited in a table case.


ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENTS.

[Sidenote: =505.=]

Two fragments of the cymatium cornice, with a pattern of palmettes
alternating with palmettes of a plainer form, springing from acanthus
leaves as on the cornice of the Erechtheion. The member to which these
fragments belong surmounted the pediments.

  Marble; height, 1 foot 1/8 inch; width, 4 feet 2-3/4 inches. The
  left-hand fragment is engraved in _Mus. Marbles_, IV., vignette.
  _Synopsis_, Nos. 26, 27; Cockerell, _Phigaleia_, pl. 6; Ellis,
  _Elgin and Phigaleian Marbles_, II., p. 212.

[Sidenote: =506.=]

Fragment of a Doric capital, from a column of the external colonnade.

  Limestone; height of fragment, 1 foot 5 inches; width. 1 foot 9
  inches. _Mus. Marbles_, IV., pl. 25, fig. 4; _Synopsis_, No. 24;
  _cf._ Cockerell, _Phigaleia_, pl. 6.

[Sidenote: =507.=]

Fragment of the capital of one of the Doric columns of the pronaos or
opisthodomos, including the lower part of the echinus, and the upper
part of the flutings.

  Limestone; height, 5-1/2 inches; width, 1 foot 6-1/2 inches.

[Sidenote: =508.=]

Fragment of the capital of one of the Ionic columns of the interior of
the cella, with a part of the fluting. These capitals are of peculiar
form, each column being connected at the back by a cross wall with the
wall of the cella (see plan). The three exposed faces of the capital
had each a pair of Ionic volutes. In the centre of the volute is a
stud of marble separately made. The hole for it was prepared by a
series of drill holes placed so as to form a ring-like depression,
the centre of which was afterwards worked out. The profile of the side
pairs of volutes was somewhat different to that of the front pair,
whence it can be ascertained that the fragment in the British Museum
contains a part of the front and right side of the cap.

  Marble; height, 1 foot 6 inches. _Mus. Marbles_, IV., pl. 25, fig.
  3; _Synopsis_, No. 25; Cockerell, _Phigaleia_, pl. 14.

[Sidenote: =509.= 1.]

  Roof tile, with antefixal end, with a palmette in relief above two
  volutes springing from an acanthus.

Marble; height, 1 foot 3-1/4 inches; length, 1 foot 8-1/2 inches. _Mus.
Marbles_, IV., pl. 25, fig. 1; _Synopsis_, No. 39; _Exp. de Morée_,
II., pl. 19, fig. 1; Cockerell, _Phigaleia_, pl. 7.

  [Sidenote: 2.]

  Part of roof tile from the ridge of the roof of the temple.
  The central portion is not worked with palmettes, as shown by
  Cockerell.

Marble; height of fragment, 1 foot 4 inches; length, 1 foot 6 inches.
The complete length was about 2 feet 3 inches. _Mus. Marbles_,
IV., pl. 25, fig. 2; _Synopsis_, No. 40; Cockerell, _Phigaleia_, pl. 7,
figs. 5, 6.


PHIGALEIAN METOPES.

The following fragments belong to a series of metopes in high relief,
which were placed over the entrance to the cella of the temple, in a
position similar to that occupied by the metopes of the Temple of
Zeus at Olympia. In the Parthenon the frieze takes the place of the
internal metopes, of which however a trace remains in the _guttae_
which occur at regular intervals below the frieze, and which imply
triglyphs.--Cockerell, _Phigaleia_, pl. 5.

The fragmentary state of the metopes makes the subjects uncertain, in
most instances.

  For a general view of the metopes, see _Stereoscopic_, No. 122.

[Sidenote: =510.=]

Figure wearing a helmet with a projecting tail-piece (compare
Parthenon frieze, south side, No. 4), a sleeveless chiton girt at the
waist, and a small cloak. The figure wears a Gorgoneion on the breast;
and with the left hand seems to be playing on a lyre, which is partly
expressed in relief, and must have been further indicated in colour.
The Gorgoneion suggests Athenè, but it is more likely that it is
merely worn as an amulet, and the figure may be that of a Thracian
citharist (cf. Wolters, p. 301). The dress is nearly the same as
that of Orpheus on the well-known relief in the Villa Albani--(Zoega,
_Bassirel. Ant._ i., pl. 42).

  Marble; height, 1 foot 6 inches; width. 1 foot 4-1/2 inches. _Mus.
  Marbles_, IV., pl. 24, fig. 1; Stackelberg, pl. 30, fig. 2; _Exp.
  de Morée_, II., pl. 23, fig. 2; _Synopsis_, No. 28; Cockerell,
  _Phigaleia_, pl. 8; Ellis; _Elgin and Phigaleian Marbles_, II, p.
  213.

[Sidenote: =511.=]

A mutilated male head, inserted in the same metope as last. It appears
to have been bearded, but this is doubtful.

  Marble; height, 5-1/2 inches; width, 9 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 33.

[Sidenote: =512.=]

Torso from the breasts to the knees of a female figure, wearing a
fine clinging chiton and a mantle. The right hand holds two objects,
perhaps _crotala_ or possibly flutes, and the left hand was extended.

  Marble; height, 1 foot 3 inches; width, 1 foot 5-1/2 inches. _Mus.
  Marbles_, IV., pl. 24, fig. 2; Stackelberg, pl. 30, fig. 1; _Exp.
  de Morée_, II., pl. 23, fig. 1; Ellis, _Elgin and Phigaleian
  Marbles_, II., p. 213.

[Sidenote: =513.=]

Lower part of a nude male figure from the waist to the ankle of the
left leg, standing. The right leg is wanting. The figure stands to the
left with drapery wrapped about the left arm.

  Marble; height, 1 foot 10 inches; width, 9-1/4 inches.

[Sidenote: =514.=]

Right knee of a draped female figure standing to the right.

  Marble; height, 10 inches, width, 11 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 37.

[Sidenote: =515.=]

Fragment with the upper moulding of a metope, and with a circular
object in relief, which has a round depression in the centre. This
object has been interpreted as a cymbal held up by a dancing figure.
Perhaps, however, it may be a ring from the top of a tripod of Apollo,
such as is frequently seen. Cf. Furtwaengler, _Bronzen von Olympia_,
pl. 34.

  Marble; height, 4 inches; width, 6 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 31.

[Sidenote: =516.=]

Figure of Apollo Kitharoedos? A male figure, wearing the dress of a
citharist, with a long tunic falling to the feet, confined by a belt
and by bands crossing the breast. The figure also wears a flowing
mantle, and has long hair falling on the shoulders. The figure is
half turned to the right, and looks back to the left. If the preceding
fragment is, as suggested, a part of a tripod, Apollo may be supposed
to have been standing beside the Delphic tripod.

  Marble; height, 2 feet 7-1/2 inches; width, 1 foot 3 inches.
  The two main portions of the figure of Apollo, which have only
  recently been joined, give the height of the metopes. _Synopsis_,
  Nos. 36, 38.

[Sidenote: =517.=]

  [Sidenote: 1.]

  This metope, though in a fragmentary state, appears to represent
  the rape of a woman by a nude male figure. A woman wearing a
  sleeveless chiton and a mantle, raises her right hand wrapped in
  the mantle to her head. Of the ravisher we only see the fingers of
  the right hand grasping the neck of the woman, and a part of his
  arm below the woman's right elbow, and behind her drapery.

  [Sidenote: 2.]

  On the second fragment, which may be assumed to belong to the same
  metope, we see a part of the feet of the woman, the toes of the
  man's right foot, and doubtful traces of his left foot. He was
  probably represented as seizing the woman by the neck and the
  knees.

  Cockerell suggests that the subject is Apollo pursuing Daphnè, who
  was a daughter of the neighbouring river Ladon, but he is mistaken
  in thinking that the man's fingers are stretched out straight, and
  have no grasp of the woman's neck.

    Marble. Fragment 1: height, 1 foot 4-1/2 inches; width, 1 foot
    3 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 30; _Exp. de Morée_, II. pl. 23, fig. 3;
    Stackelberg, pl. 30, fig. 3; _Mus. Marbles_, IV., pl. 24, fig. 3;
    Ellis, _Elgin and Phigaleian Marbles_, II., p. 213. Fragment 2:
    height, 8-3/4 inches; width, 1 foot 4 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 35.

[Sidenote: =518.=]

Upper part of body of draped female figure standing to the front.

  Marble; height, 8 inches; width, 10 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 32.

[Sidenote: =519.=]

Torso of an obese bearded figure, from the neck to the waist. The
figure appears to have been seated, leaning back, and having a staff
and drapery under the left arm. Cockerell restores it as a figure
standing and leaning on a staff.

  Marble; height, 1 foot 3/4 inch; width, 8-1/2 inches. _Synopsis_,
  No. 34; Cockerell, _Phigaleia_, pl. 5, Stackelberg, pl. 30, fig.
  4; _Exp. de Morée_, II., pl. 23, fig. 4.


THE PHIGALEIAN FRIEZE.

The frieze of the Temple of Apollo Epicurios consists of 23 slabs of
marble, somewhat resembling Pentelic. The slabs are each 2 feet 1-1/4
inches high, and they have a combined length of 101 feet 3/4 inch. The
frieze formed an internal decoration, above the colonnade within the
cella, and had two long sides measuring 35 feet 9 inches, and two
short sides measuring 14 feet 2-1/8 inches. The excess in the measured
length of the slabs is explained by the fact that they overlapped at
the angles. The slabs are about 3-1/2 inches thick, and rested on
the edge of the architrave, being fastened with bolts to the ground
behind.

The subjects represented are: (1) Battle of Lapiths and Centaurs; (2)
Battle of Greeks and Amazons. The former subject has 11 slabs of a
combined length of 45 feet 6-3/4 inches, while the latter has 12 slabs
measuring 55 feet 6 inches. The Centauromachia, therefore, occupied
two sides, less the length of one slab, which contained a part of the
Amazonomachia.

Several attempts have been made to fix the probable order of the
slabs, but except in certain cases we have no evidence. It is probable
that the slabs, No. 541 with Heracles or Theseus, and No. 530 with
Centaurs and Kaineus, were in the centres of two short sides. They are
longer than any other slabs, and are well fitted to form the central
groups in the compositions. Slab No. 540 was certainly a corner slab,
as is proved by the rebate. Slab No. 532 was probably a corner slab.
Slabs Nos. 527 and 528 evidently were next to each other, and No. 528
was probably at a corner. Beyond these fixed points, the order
can only be determined by considerations of composition. In the
description that follows, the slabs are taken in the present order
of arrangement in the British Museum, which is that proposed by Mr.
Murray (_Greek Sculpt._ ii. pl. 14) except as regards the position of
the slabs of the north side.

The style of the reliefs is somewhat peculiar. Many of the types of
combat are familiar in Attic sculpture. Compare the group of Kaineus
with the same subject on the frieze of the Theseion, and the Centaur
groups with the metopes of the Parthenon. At the same time the style
of the work, with its high relief, somewhat florid and coarsely
executed, is un-Attic, and it seems probable that the actual
production of the reliefs was in the hands of local workmen. There
is less certainty as to the designer. Among the artists suggested are
Alcamenes (Stackelberg, p. 84), Cresilas (Sauer, _Berliner Philol.
Wochenschr._, 1889, p. 583); an artist influenced by the paintings
of Polygnotos (Murray, ii., p. 176); an Attic artist (Jahn, _Pop.
Aufsätze_, p. 157), or an Arcadian artist under Attic influences
(Overbeck, _Gr. Plast._, 3rd ed., i., p. 457.)

  _Literature relating to the Frieze._ Wagner, _Bassorelievi Antichi
  della Grecia_. See also works quoted above, and on p. 272. For the
  proposed arrangements of the slabs of the frieze, see Cockerell,
  p. 56; Ivanoff, _Annali dell' Inst._, 1865, p. 29; Lange, _Ber.
  der. K. sächs Ges. d. Wissenschaften_, 1880, p. 56, pl. 3;
  Wolters, Nos. 883-905; _Stereoscopic_, Nos. 119, 120, 122.


PHIGALEIAN FRIEZE, WEST SIDE.

[Sidenote: =520.=]

A Centaur carries away a Lapith woman, who stretches out her arm
in appeal for help. The woman's headdress is somewhat peculiar,
consisting of a cap (_sphendonè_) and a narrow taenia, from under
which the hair falls in small curls on the forehead. On the right of
the slab an unarmed Lapith struggles with a Centaur, whose equine body
is wholly unexpressed except for one leg which hardly seems to belong
to him.

  Length, 2 feet 5-3/4 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 7; _Mus. Marbles_,
  IV., pl. 7; Stackelberg, pl. 25.

[Sidenote: =521.=]

On the left of this slab, a Centaur, whose head and lower parts are
lost, flings a stone with each hand. The figure is shown to be a
Centaur by the lion's skin over the left arm. On the right, a Centaur,
who also wears a lion's skin knotted about his neck, treads down an
armed Lapith, and grasps his right hand to prevent him striking with
his sword. Between the two Centaurs is a Lapith woman, who hastens
to her right and holds her mantle about her. The Centaur here and on
certain other slabs has a horse's mane, which does not occur on the
Centaurs of the Parthenon or of the Theseion.

  Length, 4 feet 2-1/2 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 6; _Mus. Marbles_,
  IV., pl. 6; Stackelberg, pl. 28.

[Sidenote: =522.=]

On the left a Centaur draws towards himself a Lapith woman who tries
to escape. She has a child on her left arm. The face of this
figure has a strong resemblance to that of the supposed Amazon of
Polycleitos, and the drapery of the breast is treated in the same way
as that of some of the statues of Amazons. (Compare the fragment at
Wörlitz, engraved _Jahrbuch des Inst._ i., pl. 4.)

On the right, a Centaur, who has a shield and lion's skin, tramples
down a Lapith, whose hands are stretched out as if to keep the Centaur
away. The Lapith is fully armed, having a cuirass above a chiton, a
chlamys, and boots. He has no shield, but perhaps that of the Centaur
may be supposed to have been captured from him, as no other Centaur is
thus armed on the Phigaleian frieze, the Theseion, or the Parthenon.

  Length, 4 feet 1-1/2 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 3; _Mus. Marbles_,
  IV., pl. 3; Stackelberg, pl. 23.

[Sidenote: =523.=]

Apollo and Artemis coming to the aid of the Lapiths. Artemis drives a
chariot drawn by two stags; she wears the chiton, and large diploïdion
crossed by bands, which is the dress of charioteers on the Parthenon
sculptures. Her right foot is on the ground and she appears to be
checking the chariot, while Apollo stands at its side and draws his
bow. The bow, arrow, and reins were added in bronze. The chariot is
represented three-quarters to the front.

  Length, 3 feet 9-1/2 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 11; _Mus. Marbles_,
  IV., pl. 11; Stackelberg, pl. 19.

[Sidenote: =524.=]

Two Lapith women have taken refuge at the statue of a goddess,
probably Artemis, as she is coming to their aid. One of the women
stretches out her arms with a gesture of despairing entreaty. The
other embraces the statue, which is a stiff archaic image wearing
a polos; with her left hand she clings to her mantle which has been
seized by the Centaur. The Centaur is attacked from behind by a Lapith
who kneels on his back, has his left arm round the Centaur's neck, and
is about to strike with the sword originally held in the right hand.
On the right is a tree, with a lion's skin hanging from a bough.
The appearance of a deity near his own image is not infrequent. (Cf.
_Journ. of Hellen. Studies_, ix., pl. 1; Müller, _Denkmaeler_, pl. 44,
fig. 206; _Arch. Zeit._, 1869, pl. 14.)

The group of the Lapith and Centaur is composed like the Parthenon
metope, No. 305.

  Length, 4 feet 6 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 10; _Mus. Marbles_, IV.,
  pl. 10; Stackelberg, pl. 29.

[Sidenote: =525.=]

A Lapith and a Centaur in combat. The Lapith draws away to the left,
and is about to throw a stone, while he stretches out his shield on
his left arm. The Centaur rears up, and seems to be throwing a stone
held in both hands. The Lapith has only a helmet and small chlamys.
He also wore a metal sword belt. On the right of the slab, a woman
holding a boy on her right arm, moves quickly to the left. With her
left hand she holds a floating piece of her veil.

  Length, 4 feet 5 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 8; _Mus. Marbles_, IV.,
  pl. 8; Stackelberg, pl. 20.

[Sidenote: =526.=]

A Centaur is about to thrust with his sword at a Lapith, who seizes
the Centaur's left foreleg and left hand. The Centaur has a lion's
skin; the Lapith is unarmed. On the right of this slab another unarmed
Lapith has forced the Centaur down on his knees. He kneels on the
Centaur's back, and holds his hair with the right hand, and his wrists
with the left hand.

  Length, 4 feet 2-1/2 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 5; _Mus. Marbles_,
  IV., pl. 5; Stackelberg, pl. 27.

[Sidenote: =527.=]

The Centaur of this slab bites a Lapith in the neck. The Lapith
is about to fall with relaxed limbs, but plunges his sword in the
Centaur's body. At the same time the Centaur kicks out with his hind
legs at a Lapith on the left, who holds out his shield as a defence. A
dead Centaur lies on the ground. Both Centaurs have lions' skins. The
Lapiths wore metal sword belts.

  Length, 4 feet 1 inch. _Synopsis_, No. 2; _Mus. Marbles_, IV., pl.
  2 Stackelberg, pl. 21; Brunn, _Denkmaeler_, No. 91.

[Sidenote: =528.=]

A Centaur has been thrown down by two Lapiths. The one drags forward
the Centaur by his hair, while the other kneels on his back, and has
his hand and sword raised to strike. A Centaur, however, has come
from behind and arrests the Lapith's blow, and tries to draw away his
shield. The fallen Centaur feebly puts out his right hand behind his
back to meet the stroke.

  Length, 4 feet 1 inch. _Synopsis_, No. 1; _Mus. Marbles_, IV., pl.
  1; Stackelberg, pl. 22.


PHIGALEIAN FEIEZE, NORTH SIDE.

[Sidenote: =529.=]

On the left a Lapith and Centaur are wrestling. The Lapith holds the
Centaur's head under his left arm, and the Centaur seizes the thigh
of the Lapith, and tries to overthrow him, putting his right foreleg
round the leg of the Lapith. The Centaur wears a lion's skin. On the
right the Lapith has seized the Centaur by the hair, and is about to
strike. The Centaur is helpless and can only stretch out his hands
behind his back as a defence.

  Length, 4 feet 4-1/2 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 9; _Mus. Marbles_,
  IV., pl. 9; Stackelberg, pl. 24.

[Sidenote: =530.=]

Two Centaurs heave a mighty stone to crush the invulnerable Kaineus.
Kaineus is half-buried and holds his shield above his head. He
probably held a sword in the right hand. Both Centaurs wear lions'
skins. The same subject occurs on the frieze of the Theseion. Next on
the right is a Lapith armed with shield and helmet, who seems to be
dragging the Centaur by the hair. A woman moves to the right, holding
her floating mantle with her right hand.

  Length, 5 feet 3-1/2 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 4; _Mus. Marbles_,
  IV., pl. 4; Stackelberg, pl. 26; Brunn, _Denkmaeler_, No. 90.

[Sidenote: =531.=]

The remaining slab on this side contains a part of the battle of
Greeks and Amazons. As the Amazon slabs are longer than the slabs of
Centaurs by about 10 feet, it is clear that they must have filled two
sides and a part of a third. (See above, p. 278.)

On the left a Greek and an Amazon are engaged in combat. The Greek has
a helmet, boots, and a chiton which leaves the right shoulder bare. He
advances his left arm with the mantle hanging from it, in the manner
of Harmodios in the group of the Athenian Tyrannicides (compare the
Panathenaic vase in the Fourth Vase Room, which has this group on
the shield of Athenè). The Amazon wears a similar chiton, and rushes
forward against the Greek, in the attitude of the Aristogeiton in the
group mentioned above. On the right a wounded Amazon has sunk to the
ground, and is supported by a companion who wears the chiton split at
the side (_schistos_), like that of the Iris of the east pediment of
the Parthenon.

  Length, 4 feet 6-1/2 inches; _Synopsis_, No. 20; _Mus. Marbles_,
  IV., pl. 20; Stackelberg, pl. 17.


PHIGALEIAN FRIEZE, EAST SIDE.

[Sidenote: =532.=]

On the left of the slab a Greek tries to drag an Amazon along by the
hair. She is now unarmed, and tries to resist with both hands and with
the weight of her body. Her shield is seen in the background. On the
right an Amazon who has sunk to the ground, but appears not to be
badly wounded, is defended by a companion who stands beside her, and
stretches out a large shield.

  Length, 4 feet 6-3/4 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 12; _Mus. Marbles_,
  IV., pl. 12; Stackelberg, pl. 7.

[Sidenote: =533.=]

On the left a Greek makes a fierce attack on an enemy represented in
the adjoining slab, which was probably the one just described. He has
his sword arm raised above his head for a strong blow.

In the centre is a vigorous combat between a Greek and Amazon. The
Greek covers himself with his shield and draws back for a spear
thrust. The action of the Amazon appears to be that of thrusting a
spear. The shield on her left arm is not expressed. In the tightly
stretched skirt of the chiton the sculptor has sacrificed grace for
truth to nature and vivid movement. On the right, an Amazon who has
just received a mortal wound, is seen falling to the ground, with all
her limbs relaxed.

  Length, 4 feet 5-3/4 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 13; _Mus. Marbles_,
  IV., pl. 13; Stackelberg, pl. 8; Brunn, _Denkmaeler_, No. 88.

[Sidenote: =534.=]

On the left a Greek drags down an Amazon from her horse, grasping her
hair with the left hand. He probably held a sword in the right hand.
The Amazon tries feebly to loosen his grasp. She wears the split
chiton, like the Amazon of slab No. 531. On the right is an Amazon,
who draws back a little, extending her shield, and at the same time
raising her right hand to strike. Here, as in No. 533, the drapery is
tightly stretched. The upper part of the figure of the Greek had been
lost when the marbles were being transported from the temple. It was
afterwards found in a house near Bassae, and was _presented by J.
Spencer Stanhope, Esq., 1816._ (Cf. Stackelberg, p. 23.)

  Length, 4 feet 4-3/4 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 17; _Mus. Marbles_,
  IV., pl. 17; Stackelberg, pl. 13; Brunn, _Denkmaeler_, No. 87.

[Sidenote: =535.=]

An unarmed Amazon has taken refuge at an altar; a Greek has seized her
by the hair, and tries to drag her away. The Amazon resists using her
weight, and both arms. The Greek had a sword in his right hand.

On the right a Greek and Amazon are engaged in hand to hand combat,
extending their shields and engaged in fence with their swords. The
drapery of the Amazon is treated as on the two last slabs.

  Length, 4 feet 6-3/4 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 22; _Mus. Marbles_,
  IV., pl. 22; Stackelberg, pl. 16; Brunn, _Denkmaeler_, No. 86.

[Sidenote: =536.=]

A large part of the group on the left is wanting. The Greek appears to
be dragging the fallen Amazon by the hair, and at the same time to be
treading her down with his right foot. With both hands she tries to
free herself from the grasp of the Greek. On the right, a Greek has
fallen on his knees and holds up his shield as a defence against the
victorious Amazon, whose right hand and sword are raised to strike.

  Length, 4 feet 6-3/4 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 15; _Mus. Marbles_,
  IV., pl. 15; Stackelberg, pl. 12.

[Sidenote: =537.=]

An Amazon is disarmed, and has fallen to the ground. She stretches out
her right hand, as if in entreaty to a Greek who treads with his left
foot on her knee, and is about to thrust with his sword. A second
Greek approaches from the left. On the right an Amazon strides quickly
forward to help her companion, and is about to strike the Greek.

  Length, 4 feet 4-3/4 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 21; _Mus. Marbles_,
  IV., pl. 21; Stackelberg, pl. 11.

[Sidenote: =538.=]

On the left, a Greek who is bearded and heavily armed, has thrown down
an Amazon, whom he drags by the hair, while she tries to keep him
at arm's length. On the right the Greek has fallen on his knees, and
holds up his shield against the attack of the Amazon.

  Length, 4 feet 5-3/4 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 19; _Mus. Marbles_,
  IV., pl. 19; Stackelberg, pl. 15.

[Sidenote: =539.=]

A Greek who has been killed in the battle, and perhaps stripped, is
being borne off the field on a companion's back. Another Greek who has
been badly wounded in the right leg, leaves the field, leaning with
his right hand on a spear, now wanting. He puts his left arm round the
neck of a companion, who supports him round the body. In the centre
of the slab an Amazon draws away a shield which belonged to one of the
Greeks.

  Length, 4 feet 9-1/4 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 14; _Mus. Marbles_,
  IV., pl. 14; Stackelberg, pl. 18.


PHIGALEIAN FRIEZE, SOUTH SIDE.

[Sidenote: =540.=]

This slab has a rebate on the left side, proving that it belongs to
the left end of a frieze. On the left, a wounded Greek lying on the
ground, is partly raised by a companion, who eagerly watches the
fight, but for the moment only holds his sword in the left hand, while
he uses his right hand to support the wounded man. A similar group
occurs on the frieze of the Temple of Nikè (No. 421).

On the right a Greek and Amazon are fighting hotly. The Greek presses
forward, and the Amazon at the same time draws back, collecting her
strength for a blow. The Amazon wears the split chiton.

  Length, 4 feet 8-3/4 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 16; _Mus. Marbles_,
  IV., pl. 16; Stackelberg, pl. 10.

[Sidenote: =541.=]

The middle of the central slab is occupied by a single combat between
Heracles and an Amazon. They are represented drawing back for a blow.
The Amazon seems to be making a spear thrust while Heracles raises his
club. The Amazon extends her shield; Heracles carries the lion skin
on his left arm. The pose of these two combatants who have the most
important position in the whole frieze, is very similar to that of
the Poseidon and Athenè of the west pediment of the Parthenon. In
both cases also the central group is bounded by figures of horses. The
figure here called Heracles has also been interpreted as Theseus. On
the left, a mounted Amazon is victorious, and thrusts with a spear at
a wounded and fallen Greek. On the right, the Greek is the victor; he
seizes the Amazon by arm and foot and throws her off her horse, which
has fallen on its knees.

  Length, 5 feet 10 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 18; _Mus. Marbles_, IV.,
  pl. 18; Stackelberg, pl. 14; Brunn, _Denkmaeler_, No. 89.

[Sidenote: =542.=]

A young Greek, wounded and fallen to the ground, raises his right
hand, as if in defence against the blow about to be struck by the
Amazon standing over him. Another Amazon hastily approaches from the
left, and stretches out her hands, as if in defence of the Greek. On
the right of the slab, an Amazon supports a wounded comrade, who
is sinking to the ground with her head drooping and all her muscles
relaxed.

  Length, 4 feet 2-1/4 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 23; _Mus. Marbles_,
  IV., pl. 23; Stackelberg, pl. 9.


FRAGMENTS OF THE TEMPLE STATUE OF APOLLO.

A few small fragments of a colossal male statue were discovered during
the excavations. As the fragments found belong to the extremities of
the figure, and since they are proved to have been separate pieces
attached, by the dowel holes, it is inferred that the statue was
_acrolithic_, _i.e._, that the extremities only were of marble, while
the rest of the figure was made of wood or other inferior material.

The original statue of Apollo Epicurios had been moved to Megalopolis
from Bassae, before the time of Pausanias (Paus. viii., 30, 3).
The foundation of Megalopolis took place in 368 B.C., and if the
acrolithic statue was made to take the place of that which was removed
it must be later than this date.

The two fragments here described are all that are in the British
Museum, but four other small pieces were also discovered, and are
engraved Stackelberg, pl. 31; reproduced _Exp. de Morée_, ii., pl. 23,
fig. 5; Cockerell, pl. 16.

[Sidenote: =543.=]

Fragment of the forepart of a right male foot, wearing a sandal.

  White marble; length, 6-1/2 inches. Stackelberg, pl. 31;
  Cockerell, pl. 16.

[Sidenote: =544.=]

Fragment with the palm and base of the thumb of a right hand.

  White marble; length, 6-1/4 inches. Stackelberg, pl. 31;
  Cockerell, pl. 16.



MISCELLANEOUS SCULPTURES, OF THE FIFTH CENTURY.


[Sidenote: =549.=]

Bust of Pericles, wearing a helmet. Inscribed [Greek: Periklês] (fig.
23). Wolters assigns the original from which this fine bust is copied
to the end of the fifth century, and suggests that it may have been
the work of Cresilas, with reference to which Pliny (_H. N._ xxxiv.,
74) states that he made an Olympian Pericles, worthy of the title, and
ennobled a noble subject. Plutarch explains the presence of the
helmet as caused by the ugly shape of the head of Pericles (Plutarch,
_Pericles_, 3). It is, however, more probable that the helmet merely
denotes military rank. _Found in the Villa of Cassius, at Tivoli,
1781._--_Townley Coll._

[Illustration: Fig. 23.--Bust of Pericles, No. 549.]

  Marble; height, 1 foot 11 inches. Restorations:--Nose, and small
  parts of helmet. Stuart, II., p. 42; _Mus. Marbles_, II., pl. 32;
  Ellis, _Townley Gallery_, II., p. 3; _Arch. Zeit._, 1868, pl.
  2, fig. 1; Wolters, No. 481; Furtwaengler, _Berl. Philol.
  Wochenschr._, 1891, p. 286. Another copy, found at the same
  time as the present bust, is in the Vatican (Visconti, _Iconogr.
  Grecque_, pl. 15).

[Sidenote: =550.=]

Head of Asclepios? Colossal ideal bearded head. The hair falls in
heavy masses over the forehead, and on each side of the head. A heavy
metal wreath was fastened by numerous rivets, which still remain.
The head was formed of three principal pieces of marble, the heaviest
piece being so shaped that it kept its position by its own weight.
The piece at the back of the head is lost. A small piece, which is now
missing, was also attached behind the right ear.

This head would serve as well for Zeus as for Asclepios, and it is
possible that this may have been the original intention of the artist.
It was, however, discovered in 1828, in a _Shrine of Asclepios, in
Melos_. _Blacas Coll._

  Parian marble; height, 1 foot 11 inches. _Exp. de Morée_, III. pl.
  29, fig. 1; Müller-Wieseler, _Denkmaeler_, II., pl. 60, fig. 763;
  _Overbeck_, _Gr. Kunstmyth._ pl. 2, figs. 11, 12; II., p.
  88; Murray, _Greek Sculpture_, II., pl. 11, p. 130; Mitchell,
  _Selections_, pl. 13; Rayet, _Monuments_, II., No. 42;
  _Stereoscopic_, No. 113; Wolters, No. 1283; Paris, _La Sculpt.
  Ant._, p. 221. Two votive inscriptions to Asclepios and Hygieia
  were discovered with the head. One of these, with a votive relief
  of a leg, is now in the British Museum (No. 809).

[Sidenote: =551.=]

Asclepios? A male draped torso broken off at the knees; the right arm
is wanting from below the shoulder, where it has been fitted with a
joint. The left arm, which is entirely concealed in the mantle, is
placed akimbo. The back is unfinished. The composition is suitable to
a figure of Asclepios, an attribution which was probably originally
suggested by the fact that this torso was obtained by Lord Elgin from
_the neighbourhood of Epidauros_. Two small fragments of the right leg
were brought away with the torso.

  Parian marble; height, 3 feet 1-1/4 inches. _Mus. Marbles_, IX.,
  pl. 5; Ellis, _Elgin Marbles_, II., p. 121; _Synopsis_, No. 327;
  _Elgin Room Guide_, II., No. E. 1.

[Sidenote: =552.=]

Female torso from the neck down to the waist. The dress is a chiton
with diploïdion; part of the tresses of hair which fall down on the
back still remains.--_Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 3 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 281
  (146); _Elgin Room Guide_, II., No. F. 15.

[Sidenote: =553.=]

Left breast and part of left side of female figure wearing a chiton
girt at the waist.--_Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 3-1/4 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 277
  (147). _Elgin Room Guide_, II., No. F. 16.

[Sidenote: =554.=]

Upper part of the torso of a female figure moving quickly to the left,
with the arms raised. She wears a sleeveless chiton which appears to
have been unsewn (_schistos_) down the right side. The shoulders
are broken, but there are remains of large dowel holes as if for the
insertion of wings, and the figure is not unlike the Victories on the
balustrade of the temple of Nikè.--_Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot. _Synopsis_, No. 321 (79).

[Sidenote: =555.=]

Heads of Pelops and Hippodamia? Heroic heads of colossal male and
female figures, turned to the right. The female head is in low relief,
and wears a diadem, and a veil falling over the back of the head.
Compare the heads in a terracotta relief in the British Museum
(_Ancient Terracottas in B. M._, pl. 19, No. 34). The male head is
almost worked in the round and wears a close-fitting helmet. Some
drapery passes over the left shoulder. These two heads have long been
called Pelops and Hippodamia, and it is very likely that the figures
belonged to a chariot group. But they may well be the somewhat
idealized portraits of a Sicilian despot, and his consort. _Found in
the sea near Girgenti (Agrigentum)._--_Townley Coll._

  Greek marble, perhaps Parian; height, 1 foot 5-1/4 inches; width,
  1 foot 4 inches. _Mus. Marbles_, X., pl. 32; Ellis, _Townley
  Gallery_, II., p. 153.

[Sidenote: =556.=]

Head of Odysseus? Male head, with curling hair and short beard,
wearing a peaked cap (_pileus_). The surface is much decayed, and
most of the chin and mouth is broken away. This head may be from a
sepulchral monument.--_Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 1/2 inch. _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl.
  40, fig. 3; Ellis, _Elgin Marbles_, II., p. 119.

[Sidenote: =557.=]

Fragment from the back of a head. The hair is drawn to a knot at the
back of the head, and is confined by two bands, crossing one another.

  Pentelic marble; height, 10-1/2 inches.

[Sidenote: =558.=]

Head of a maiden, wearing a closely-fitting cap. The style is
characteristic of the fifth century.--_Athens?_ _Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 9 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 239 (122).

[Sidenote: =559.=]

Heroic head of a youth, inclined slightly to his left. The hair is
very slightly indicated, and the back of the head is worked away, as
if for a bronze helmet.--_Obtained in Greece by the fourth Earl of
Aberdeen in 1803, and presented by the fifth Earl of Aberdeen in
1861._

  Coarse-grained marble; height, 11 inches. The head was found
  wearing a bronze helmet, which, however, did not fit, and has been
  removed.

[Sidenote: =560.=]

Cast of marble owl. L. Ross (_Annali dell' Inst._, 1841, pl. C.,
p. 25), supposes that this owl was a votive offering which once
surmounted a column found near it, on which is inscribed the name of
Timotheos of the deme Anaphlystos. The lower part of the body, which
is broken away, has lately been found. The feathers of the wings are
set in formal rows, and the treatment throughout is characterised by
an archaic severity, as has been remarked by Ross. The feathers have
probably been painted.--_Found on the Athenian Acropolis between the
Propylaea and the Parthenon._

  The original, of Pentelic marble, is in the Acropolis Museum, at
  Athens; height, 2 feet 2 inches. Ross, _Arch. Aufsätze_, I., pl.
  14, fig. 3, p. 205; _Elgin Room Guide_, II., No. G. 7; Wolters,
  No. 111; Le Bas, _Mon. Fig._, pl. 62, fig. 3.



GREEK RELIEFS.


Most of the single Greek reliefs in the British Museum are described
in the present section of the catalogue (Nos. 599-817.) Those reliefs
which are known to have belonged to particular buildings, and to have
served an architectural function, are catalogued separately. A few
reliefs also, principally of the later Attic School, are reserved for
a subsequent part.

We deal, in this place, with a number of works of minor importance,
and of various degrees of artistic merit. At the same time they are of
interest both for their subjects and also as showing the instinctive
grace and skill of subordinate Greek craftsmen, even in hastily
executed and unimportant work.

The following classification has been adopted, but the classes are not
perfectly distinct, as the sepulchral reliefs sometimes partake of a
votive character.

  _Sepulchral Reliefs._--599-618, Decorative Stelae. 619-680, Scenes
  from Daily Life and Animals. 681-686, Plain Vases. 687-710, Vases
  and reliefs with figures clasping hands. 711-746, Sepulchral
  Banquets, &c. 750-757, Rider and Horse, heroified. 760-766,
  Reliefs from Lycia.

  _Votive Reliefs._--770-794, Figures of the God or his attributes.
  795-812, Figures of the Dedicator, or of the object dedicated.
  813-817, Agonistic reliefs.



SEPULCHRAL RELIEFS.


The Greek sepulchral reliefs are of several distinct types, each type
having an independent origin and history, though occasionally the
different types are blended one with another.

The early Attic examples which are assigned to a period before the
Persian wars, have recently been collected by Conze (_Die Attischen
Grabreliefs_, Part 1), and we are thus enabled to trace the rise of
the different types in Attica, so far as the materials discovered
allow. The earliest and simplest form of monument is the plain stone
([Greek: stêlê]), set up on a mound ([Greek: tymbos]) to mark the
place of the grave, and such a tomb is well known to Homer (_Il._ xi.,
371, etc.)

Such a stone would naturally bear the name of the deceased, together
with the name of his father, or of the persons who erected the
monument. The earliest Attic examples are also surmounted by a simple
ornament, especially the palmette between volutes, partly in relief,
and partly in colour. The treatment of the palmette closely resembles
that of the antefixal ornament of the Parthenon (No. 352). At an
uncertain period in the fifth century the use of the acanthus-leaf
ornament was introduced, and the decoration of the stelae became
elaborate and beautiful. It has been thought that the acanthus was
developed by the Greeks of Ionia, before the middle of the fifth
century, and only made its way slowly in Athens (Furtwaengler, _Coll.
Sabouroff_, i., p. 8), but it cannot be proved to have become
common before it had been made familiar by the architecture of
the Erechtheion, towards the close of the fifth century. The early
Corinthian capital of the single column of the Temple at Phigaleia
appears to be copied from a stelè with volutes and an acanthus.

The smooth surface of the stone below the crowning ornament was
used, from an early time, to receive a representation of the deceased
person, which was either painted or in relief, the relief being itself
painted. Such portraits, in the case of men--and only men's portraits
are certainly known to be preserved of the archaic period--take the
form either of a simple standing figure, or of a figure engaged in
some occupation taken from life. See the figures of the Discobolos
and of the spear-thrower (Conze, pls. 5, 7), and as an example of
the painted portrait see the stelè of Lyseas (Conze, pl. 1). The male
portrait is often accompanied by a small figure of a youth riding
or leading a horse. On a class of monuments described below (Nos.
750-757) it is not impossible that the figure of the horse may have
some special reference to death, but in the early Attic reliefs it
seems more likely that the horse indicates the favourite pursuits or
the knightly rank of the dead person. Compare Roscher, _Lexicon_, p.
2584, and Aristotle, _Constitution of Athens_, chap. 7, ed. Kenyon,
where the horse standing beside an archaic figure of Anthemion, son of
Diphilos (_Class. Rev._ 1891, p. 108), is said to prove his knighthood
([Greek: hippas]). (Cf. _Journ. of Hellen. Studies_, v. p. 114; Conze,
p. 4; Nos. 1, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19.)

The female figures, of which only uncertain specimens survive, were
simple portraits, usually seated, and sometimes accompanied by other
members of the family, usually represented on a diminutive scale. (Cf.
Conze, No. 20.)

In one early Attic example there is an actual representation of
mourners as on Etruscan or Lycian tombs. But in general, allusions to
death and mourning are but slightly indicated. (Cf. Conze, No. 19, pl.
11.)

Finally, there is a type of monument, which contains the
representation of some animal more or less associated with the grave,
such as the cock (Conze, No. 22, pl. 13) or the Sphinx (Conze, No. 16,
pl. 10, fig. 1_b_).

The foregoing are the main types of the early Attic reliefs. The
British Museum does not contain any specimens of the early period, but
the study of the early reliefs enables us to classify the later works,
and to distinguish the indigenous Attic types from those that are
imported, or of later development.

_Decorative Stelae._--The stelae crowned with the palmette and
acanthus acroteria are described below, Nos. 599-618. They are
principally derived from Athens, but several specimens (Nos. 611-618)
roughly worked in coarse limestone are a part of the collection of
sculptures from Kertch. One of the best examples of Attic work of
this class in the British Museum, will be found in the Department of
Egyptian and Assyrian antiquities, namely the stelè of Artemidoros
with a bilingual Greek and Phoenician inscription. (Dodwell, _Tour_
i., p. 411; _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, cix.)

_Scenes from Daily Life and figures of Animals._--The monuments
with portraits and scenes from daily life are catalogued below, Nos.
619-679. The incidents chosen are taken from all parts of life, and
in late times are apt to be of a _genre_ character with scenes from
children's games, &c.

Reliefs with figures of horsemen, where the scene appears only to be
an incident from daily life, and not connected with the heroification
of the deceased, have also been placed here (Nos. 638, 661-666).

Examples of the figure of an animal placed on the tomb, of a symbolic
or decorative character, are best seen among the archaic sculptures
(compare those from Xanthos), but the bull, No. 680, is a specimen of
a figure from an Attic stelè.

The types which have been described so far, are simple records of
the deceased person. We turn now to various classes, which are not
represented among the Attic remains of the archaic period, and which
are more or less of religious or ritualist significance.

_Vases._--The Sepulchral Vases, which are represented either in relief
or in the round, are a common form of monument at Athens, and are
connected with the observances paid to the dead. These vases which are
sometimes lekythi, and sometimes amphorae or hydriae, may be decorated
with patterns, or with subjects in relief, such as appear on other
sepulchral stelae. They probably are to be traced from the vessels of
pottery in which offerings were brought, to be poured out as libations
on the tomb. Compare below the account of the "Sepulchral Banquet."

There is ancient authority for the view that the vase indicates an
unmarried person. Eustath. on _Il._ XXIII., 141, p. 1293: [Greek:
kai tois pro gamou de teleutôsin hê loutrophoros, phasin, epetitheto
kalpis eis endeixin tou hoti aloutos ta nymphika kai agonos apeisi].
Demosthenes (_in Leochar._ pp. 1086 and 1089, ed. Reiske) speaks also
of [Greek: hê loutrophoros] (sc. [Greek: hydria] or [Greek: kalpis]),
being placed on the tomb of an unmarried person. (Kumanudis, p. 18;
_Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, No. lxxx.)

On the other hand, the tombs of a father, Philoxenos, and of his sons
Parthenios and Dion, in the Cerameicos at Athens were all surmounted
by stone vases (_C. I. A._, ii., 3191-3193; Conze, p. 16). Perhaps a
distinction must be made between the lekythi which represent libations
at the tomb, and the hydriae, which have the special meaning mentioned
above. An early instance of the Attic sepulchral vase, with painting
and relief, is placed by Köhler on epigraphic grounds between 450 and
430 B.C. (_Athenische Mittheilungen_, x., pl. 13, p. 362.)

_Figures clasping Hands._--In Attic reliefs, chiefly of the fourth and
subsequent centuries, the two principal persons are often represented
clasping right hands together, and such scenes are commonly known as
Scenes of Parting. A more correct interpretation may be gathered from
a fragment of an archaic sepulchral relief from Aegina (_Athenische
Mittheilungen_, viii., pl. 17), in which a female figure, enthroned
and holding a pomegranate (compare the Spartan reliefs mentioned
below), clasps the hand of a standing figure, which is shown by the
scale to be that of another deceased person. In this case the scene
is laid in Hades, and the clasping of the hands is significant of
affection, not of separation. Hence it has been thought that all
subjects with the clasped hands represent the meeting and union in
Hades after death (Furtwaengler, _Coll. Sabouroff_, i., p. 46). There
is, however, no proof that the artist was always consciously placing
the scene in Hades, and in No. 710 Hermes seems about to conduct
the deceased person to the nether world. The presence of figures in
attitudes of grief, of children and servants, seems to show that these
reliefs are symbolic of family affection, though the artist had no
very clear and logical conception of the moment depicted.

An early example of the clasping of hands on an Attic monument is
supplied by the sepulchral vase above mentioned, of 450-430 B.C.
(_Athenische Mittheilungen_, x., pl. 13.)

Such subjects as the foregoing are often placed within an
architectural structure, usually consisting of two pilasters and an
entablature, sometimes surmounted by a pediment. Various theories
have been proposed on the subject. It has been suggested that the
architectural ornament indicates the votive character of the relief
(_Journ. of Hellen. Studies_, v., p. 111), or the home of the dead
person (Pervanoglu, _Grabsteine der alten Griechen_, p. 14), but there
is no evidence of any such special significance attaching to the form.
(Compare Furtwaengler, _Coll. Sabouroff_, i., p. 52.)

_The Sepulchral Banquet._--From the fourth century onwards, a type of
relief commonly known as the Sepulchral Banquet becomes very common in
Attica and elsewhere. In a normal example of the fully developed type,
the chief figure is that of a man recumbent on a couch, holding a cup.
Before him is a table with food. A woman, according to Greek custom,
is seated upright at the foot of the couch. Boys or attendants are
seen drawing wine. The head of a horse is often seen at the back of
the relief. A snake is frequently introduced, and often drinks wine
from a cup held by one of the figures. Further, a group of adorant
figures, usually on a small scale, may be represented about to
sacrifice at an altar, near the foot of the couch.

The meaning of this type has been a subject of long controversy, but
it is best understood if the later reliefs are studied in connection
with the oldest known specimens of the same subject. A series
of archaic reliefs from the neighbourhood of Sparta (_Athenische
Mittheilungen_, ii., pls. 20-25; Furtwaengler, _Coll. Sabouroff_,
pl. 1; _Journ. of Hellen. Studies_, v., p. 123), contains subjects
somewhat of the following character: A male and female figure,
represented on a heroic or divine scale, are seated enthroned, holding
as attributes a large two-handled cup, or a pomegranate. Figures of
worshippers approach, carrying a pomegranate or a cock, and a snake
is sometimes present. The sculptures of the Harpy Tomb (No. 94), have
been sometimes classed with the works here described, but this has not
yet been established.

The transition from the Spartan type to the Sepulchral Banquet type
is still obscure, but a connecting link is furnished by a relief from
Tegea (_Athenische Mittheilungen_, iv., pl. 7), in which the woman is
enthroned, while the man reclines on a couch with a table before him.
(Compare also the relief from Mytilene No. 727.) It seems probable
that we have in these reliefs symbolic representations of offerings
made by living relations or descendants for the pleasure and
sustenance of the dead. Such offerings of food and drink made by the
living at the tomb are common to all primitive peoples. The Egyptians,
in particular, made regular offerings of actual food, and at the
same time surrounded the mummy with sculptural representations of
offerings, which, it was thought, served to satisfy the incorporeal
_double_ of the dead person. The early notion that the deceased was
within the tomb, and enjoyed the food and drink offered to him in a
material manner, became less distinct in later times. The periodical
offerings assumed a more ritualistic and symbolic character, and were
celebrated by the Greeks under the name of [Greek: nekysia].

The older archaeologists thought for the most part that the Banquet
reliefs were representations commemorative of life on earth, or
descriptive of the pleasures enjoyed by the dead in Hades. Dumont
(_Rev. Arch._, N.S. xx. p. 247) and Hollaender (_De Operibus
Anaglyphis_), interpret them as referring to the periodical offerings
made at the tomb. It will be seen that this view is not very different
from that which has been adopted above, and which is the view of
Gardner (_Journ. of Hellenic Studies_, v., p. 130), and Furtwaengler
(_Coll. Sabouroff_, i., p. 28). The reliefs, however, have more force
than mere pictorial groups, if we accept the Egyptian analogy, and
allow that the sculpture represents, by substitution, the offerings of
material food. The snake is naturally associated with the grave, from
its rapid mysterious movements, and from living in caves and holes.
Compare the story of the snakes that were seen by Polyeidos in the
tomb of Glaukos. (Apollodor. 3, 3, 1; Roscher, _Lexicon_, p. 1687).
The votive character of the Banquet reliefs is proved in some
instances by inscriptions, (_Journ. of Hellen. Studies_, v., p. 116;
Roscher, _Lexicon_, p. 2553). It is doubtful, however, whether the
artist was always conscious of the meaning of his work, and in some
instances, as in the tomb at Cadyanda in Lycia (No. 766), the banquet
appears to be merely a scene from daily life, and as such it closely
resembles some of the vase paintings. In No. 737 and other late
examples, the relief, though of the type of the banquet, is
commemorative rather than votive.

In Athens the type of the Sepulchral Banquet was also applied to
another purpose, namely, for votive reliefs to Asclepios. The two
classes of monuments are completely assimilated in those examples in
which worshippers come to sacrifice at the end of the couch. Numerous
specimens of reliefs have been found in the temenos of Asclepios
at Athens, and it is possible that the sculptures from the
Elgin Collection, Nos. 714, 715, belong to this series. In the
newly-discovered papyrus fragments of Herodas, the sons of Praxiteles
are mentioned as authors of a relief dedicated to Asclepios. A figure
of Asclepios, composed like the principal figure of the sepulchral
reliefs, has also been found on a vase from the Temple of the Cabeiri
at Thebes ([Greek: Ephêmeris], 1890, pl. 7). For other examples of
the same type on vases of different meanings, see _Athenische
Mittheilungen_, xiii., pl. 9; _Arch. Anzeiger_, 1890, p. 89. For the
most recent discussion of the whole question, see Roscher, _Lexicon_,
p. 2565.

_Hero and Horse._--There is another type of sepulchral relief,
somewhat akin to that above described, in which, however, the horse
of the hero takes a more prominent position. The hero is seen either
riding on his horse or standing near it, and receiving a libation
poured out by a female figure, sometimes a Victory. Here also the
snake is frequently introduced to mark the sepulchral character of the
relief. In the earliest examples the connection between this type and
the foregoing is made clearer by the presence of diminutive figures
of supplicants bringing offerings, or making gestures of adoration.
Compare a Theban relief (_Athenische Mittheilungen_, iv., pl. 16),
and a relief in the Sabouroff Collection, inscribed [Greek: Kallitelês
Aleximachô anethêken] (_Coll. Sabouroff_, i., pl. 29), and a relief
from Cumae (Roscher, _Lexicon_, p. 2555). For a list of reliefs with
figures of horsemen, see Furtwaengler, _Coll. Sabouroff_, i., p. 40;
Roscher, _Lexicon_, p. 2556. It has been thought that the horse is
shown in these subjects on account of its association with Hades,
but in some instances, if not in all, it relates to the pursuits and
status of the deceased, and is introduced for the use of its master,
and not for any Chthonian significance.

_Reliefs from Lycia._--See below, p. 350.


VOTIVE RELIEFS.

A votive offering is, in its essence, a present made to a god or to
a superior being, in order to secure some favour in the future, or to
avert anger for a past offence, or to express gratitude for a favour
received. The last purpose includes offerings made in fulfilment of a
vow, the vow being a kind of contract between the individual and the
god. Sometimes also objects were offered, nominally as gifts to the
god, but in reality in order that they might be secure.

Votive offerings cover the whole field of life including persons,
lands, buildings, and, in particular, objects appropriate (A) to
the god or his worship, or (B) to the dedicator and the cause of his
dedication.

A. Objects appropriate to the god include temples (compare the
inscription of Alexander from Prienè, in the Hall of Inscriptions);
parts of a temple (compare the columns dedicated by Croesus, No. 29);
images of the god represented in an appropriate attitude (compare the
reliefs, Nos. 770-794); objects connected with the worship of the god
and temple furniture (compare the stool in the Hall of Inscriptions,
dedicated by Philis to Demeter, and the vases from Naucratis in the
First Vase Room); or lastly, attributes of the god, such as the owl
of Athenè (No. 560), and the pigs found in the shrine of Demeter at
Knidos, now in the Mausoleum Room.

B. Objects appropriate to the dedicator or the cause of his dedication
include portraits of the dedicator, such as the statue of Chares (No.
14), or of the priestess Nicoclea, found in the temenos of Demeter of
Knidos, or the statuette of the hunter of Naucratis (No. 118); spoils
won in battle, as the helmet dedicated by Hiero, in the Etruscan Room;
figures of victorious horses (No. 814); symbolic offerings such as the
dedication of the hair or the down of the beard to Poseidon (cf. No.
798), or to a river god (Paus. viii., 41, 3); offerings connected with
remarkable cures (compare Nos. 799-810, and, perhaps, the relief of
Xanthippos, No. 628).

Where the object itself is perishable or otherwise unsuitable as an
offering, the sculptured representation takes its place, by a natural
process. Thus we have a representation of the hair, in place of the
actual hair (No. 798), and the reliefs with limbs, mentioned above
(Nos. 799-810). It has been already suggested that in the Sepulchral
Banquet reliefs, which might be classed as votive reliefs, the banquet
is represented in sculpture as a substitute for the actual offerings
of food.

A special class of votive reliefs consists of those which are found
at the head of decrees, treaties, and similar political documents. An
Athenian treaty, for example, is headed by a representation of Athenè,
and of the patron deity of the other state, which may appear in the
attitude of a suppliant or adorant. (Compare Schöne, _Griech. Reliefs_,
Nos. 48-53.) Similarly at the head of a decree of citizenship or
proxenia, the newly admitted citizen appears as worshipping the
goddess (cf. Schöne, No. 93, and p. 20, and below, Nos. 771-773).


+++++++++++++++++

STELAE SURMOUNTED BY DECORATIVE DESIGNS.


For an account of these stelae, see above, p. 296.

[Sidenote: =599.=]

Stelè with two rosettes. Above, an acroterion, formed of acanthus
leaves and palmette combined (fig. 24).

[Illustration: Fig. 24.--Sepulchral stelè of Smikylion, No. 599.]

Inscribed [Greek: Smikyliôn Eualkidôu ek Kerameôn]--Smikylion, son of
Eualkides, of the deme of the Cerameicos.--_Athens._ _Presented by A.
Robinson, Esq., R.N._

  Pentelic marble; height, 2 feet 9-1/2 inches; width, 1 foot 5-1/2
  inches. _Synopsis_ No. 441. _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._,
  LXXXVI.; _C.I.A._, II., 2139.

[Sidenote: =600.=]

Plain stelè of Hippocrates and Baukis; surmounted by an acroterion in
low relief, of palmette form.

Inscribed [Greek: Hippokratês, Baukis]. Below the surface of the stelè
is flat, and probably was painted.--_Athens._ _Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 4 feet 1 inch; width, 1 foot 3 inches.
  _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 29, fig. 4. _Synopsis_, No. 351 (175);
  Ellis, _Elgin Marbles_, II., p. 152; _C.I.G._, 958; _C.I.A._, II.,
  3810. _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, CXX.

[Sidenote: =601.=]

Fragment of a plain stelè, surmounted by an acroterion, in the form of
a palmette in low relief, springing from acanthus leaves.

Inscribed [Greek: Assklêpiodôros Thrasônos Olynthios, Epikydês
Asklêpiodôrou Olynthios]--Asclepiodoros, son of Thrason, of Olynthos;
Epikydes, son of Asclepiodoros, of Olynthos.--_Probably from Athens._
_Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 5 inches; width, 1 foot 3/4 inch.
  _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 29, fig. 2; _Synopsis_, No. 258 (169);
  Ellis, _Elgin Marbles_, II., p. 152; _C.I.G._, 879; _C.I.A._, II.,
  3243; _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, CVI.

[Sidenote: =602.=]

Acroterion in form of palmette from a stelè.--_Athens._ _Inwood Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 9 inches; width, 1 foot 10 inches.
  _Synopsis_, No. 418.

[Sidenote: =603.=]

Acroterion, from a stelè, of palmette form, springing from acanthus
leaves.--_Inwood Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 10 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 414; Inwood,
  _Erechtheion_, pl. 31, p. 147.

[Sidenote: =604.=]

Fragment of an acroterion of a stelè in form of a palmette springing
from acanthus leaves.--_Athens?_ _Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 8-1/2 inches; width, 11 inches.
  _Synopsis_, No. 191 (95). _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 29, fig. 3.

[Sidenote: =605.=]

Stelè, surmounted by acroterion. One central palmette, and two half
palmettes at the sides spring from acanthus leaves.

Inscribed [Greek: Eumachos Euthymachou [A]lôpe[k]êthe[n]]--Eumachos,
son of Euthymachos, of the deme of Alopekè.

_Athens._--_Obtained by Chandler in his Expedition for the Society of
Dilettanti in 1765, and presented by the Society._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 8 inches; width, 1 foot 5-1/4
  inches. _Synopsis_, No. 283 (292*); _C.I.G._, 579; _C.I.A._, II.,
  1812. _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, LXXIX.; _Stereoscopic_,
  No. 121; Wolters, No. 1104.

[Sidenote: 606.]

Top of stelè, with central palmette and two half palmettes, springing
from acanthus leaves. _Found in the side of a mound, near Maritza,
Rhodes._

  Marble; height, 2 feet 3 inches; width, 2 feet 3-1/4 inches.

[Sidenote: =607.=]

Upper part of stelè, surmounted by a central palmette and two half
palmettes, springing from acanthus leaves. Similar to last, but in
lower relief.

_Probably from Athens._ _Formerly in the collection of Lord Elgin._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 7 inches; width, 1 foot 1-3/4
  inches. _Journ. of Hellen. Studies_, VI., p. 42, No. 2.

[Sidenote: =608.=]

Upper part of stelè, surmounted by a central palmette, and two
palmettes at the sides, broken.

Inscribed [Greek: Chabrias Salyprianos]. Chabrias of
Selymbria.--_Athens?_ _Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 7 inches; width, 1 foot 5-1/2
  inches. _Synopsis_, No. 290 (226); _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl.
  30, fig. 1; _C.I.G._, 888; _C.I.A._, II., 3296; Ellis, _Elgin
  Marbles_, II., p. 152; _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, CVII.

[Sidenote: =609.=]

Top of stelè, in form of a capital of a pilaster with a palmette
between two volutes springing from acanthus leaves, and an egg and
dart moulding. Late work.

_Probably from Athens._ _Formerly in the collection of Lord Elgin._

  Pentelic marble; height, 9-3/4 inches; width, 11 inches. _Journ.
  of Hellen. Studies_, VI., p. 43, No. 6.

[Sidenote: =610.=]

Top of stelè, in the form of the capital of a pilaster; treated in a
similar way to the capitals of the Tower of the Winds. (Compare No.
447.) Late work.

_Probably from Athens._ _Formerly in the collection of Lord Elgin._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 2 inches; width, 1 foot 6 inches.

[Sidenote: =611.=]

Upper part of stelè, with three rosettes; surmounted by a large
acroterion.--_Kertch._

  Limestone; height, 3 feet 8 inches; width, 1 foot 11-1/2 inches.
  The collection of sculptures from Kertch was obtained by Colonel
  Westmacott during the occupation of the town by the British and
  French troops in 1856.

[Sidenote: =612.=]

Stelè, surmounted by acroterion.--_Kertch._

  Limestone; height, 3 feet; width, 1 foot 11 inches.

[Sidenote: =613.=]

Stelè, with two rosettes in front and one at each side; surmounted by
acroterion.--_Kertch._

  Limestone; height, 2 feet 10 inches; width, 1 foot 10 inches.

[Sidenote: =614.=]

Top of stelè with rosettes. Originally surmounted by a large
acroterion of which only the acanthus leaves at the base
remain.--_Kertch._

  Limestone; height, 2 feet 6 inches; width, 2 feet 4 inches.

[Sidenote: =615.=]

Upper part of stelè. Two rosettes in front and one on each side; above
an acroterion, of which the top is wanting.--_Kertch._

  Limestone; height, 2 feet 11 inches; width, 1 foot 11 inches.

[Sidenote: =616.=]

Fragment of palmette from the acroterion of a stelè.--_Kertch._

  Marble; height, 1 foot 7 inches; width, 1 foot 11 inches.

[Sidenote: =617.=]

Palmette from top of stelè.--_Kertch._

  Limestone; height, 2 feet 6 inches; width, 1 foot 7-1/2 inches.

[Sidenote: =618.=]

Top of stelè, with acanthus leaves forming the base of the acroterion.
The leaves are only sketched in outline on the front, but have been
finished on the right and left.--_Kertch._

  Limestone; height, 2 feet 3 inches; width, 2 feet 3 inches.



SEPULCHRAL MONUMENTS WITH SCENES FROM DAILY LIFE.


[Sidenote: =619.=]

Cast of the sepulchral relief of Hegeso. A lady, Hegeso, is seated on
a chair, with a foot-stool. She appears to be taking a necklace from
a box which is held by a servant standing before her. Hegeso is richly
dressed in a chiton with short sleeves, himation and sandals. Her hair
is confined by a _sphendonè_, or band, broadest in front. The servant
has a close-fitting cap, and a plain chiton with long sleeves. The
relief is bounded by two pilasters surmounted by a pediment, with
acroteria.

Inscribed [Greek: Hêgêsô Proxeno(u)]--Hegeso daughter of Proxenos.

This relief, which is unequalled for its grace and delicacy, appears
to belong to the close of the fifth century B.C. The original,
of Pentelic marble, is _near the Dipylon at Athens_, where it was
discovered in 1870.

  Height, 4 feet 9-3/4 inches; width, 3 feet 1 inch. _Arch. Zeit._,
  1871, pl. 43, p. 19; _C.I.A._, II., 3753; Mitchell, p. 502;
  Waldstein, _Essays_, p. 309; Wolters, No. 1030; Conze, _Attische
  Grabreliefs_, No. 68, pl. 30; _Stereoscopic_, No. 123.

[Sidenote: =620.=]

Cast of the sepulchral monument of Ameinocleia. A lady is engaged
with a girl who is adjusting a sandal on her left foot. She chiefly
supports herself on the right foot, and helps her balance by touching
with her hand the head of the maid kneeling before her. As in the
monument of Hegeso (No. 619), there is a marked contrast between the
mistress, richly draped in a chiton and himation, and the girl before
her, who has a plain long-sleeved chiton and a cap. On the left is
a female figure, perhaps a sister of Ameinocleia. She seems to
be reading a tablet. The composition is framed by two pilasters,
surmounted by a pediment.

Inscribed [Greek: Ameinokleia Andromeno(u)s thugatêr L...]
Ameinocleia, daughter of Andromenes.... This relief appears to belong
to the close of the 5th century B.C. The original, of Pentelic marble,
which is now at _Athens_, was discovered in 1836 _at the Piraeus_.

  Height, 4 feet 4-3/4 inches; width, 2 feet 3-1/2 inches. Le
  Bas, _Mon. Fig._, pl. 65. _C.I.A._, II., 2687; Mitchell, p. 500;
  Wolters, No. 1032; _Stereoscopic_, No. 123.

[Sidenote: =621.=]

Fragment of relief. A female figure, richly draped, is seated on
a stool, to the left. The head, right arm, and knees are
wanting.--_Athens._ _Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 2 feet 5 inches; width, 1 foot 5 inches.
  _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 39, fig. 3. _Synopsis_, No. 280 (279).

[Sidenote: =622.=]

Fragment of relief. The upper part of a female figure, richly draped,
and seated, with her left hand raised, the left elbow supported by the
right hand. Very high relief.--_Athens._ _Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 7 inches; width, 1 foot 11-1/2
  inches. _Synopsis_, No. 419.

[Sidenote: =623.=]

Fragment of relief. Draped male figure seated, three-quarters turned
to the right, on a chair with a footstool. The head is wanting. Behind
is part of a draped female figure standing. Her right arm is bent at
the elbow, and crosses her breast.

  Marble; height, 4 feet 11 inches; width, 2 feet 10-1/2 inches.

[Sidenote: =624.=]

Fragment of a relief. Torso of a male figure, wearing a mantle about
his legs and over the left shoulder. Head, right leg, and left foot
are wanting.--_Athens._ _Strangford Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 2 feet 6-1/2 inches; width, 1 foot 3
  inches.

[Sidenote: =625.=]

A nude youth stands, half turned to the left, and takes some object,
perhaps a lekythos, from a boy standing before him. The boy is nude
except for a chlamys thrown over his left shoulder, which is probably
that of the older youth. Compare the Parthenon frieze, north side,
figure No. 110. The relief is bounded by two pilasters surmounted by
a pediment. On the side of one of the pilasters is the inscription
[Greek: ÊDD].--_Delos._ _Presented by A. E. Impey, Esq., 1825._

  Marble; height, 6 feet 5 inches; width, 3 feet 8-1/2 inches. _Mus.
  Marbles_, XI., pl. 50; Ellis, _Townley Gallery_, II., p. 205.

[Sidenote: =626.=]

A nude male figure, Tryphon, stands, half turned to the left, having
a chlamys above the left arm, and a strigil in the right hand. The
attitude is similar to that of the Hermes of Andros. Compare the copy
from the Farnese Collection in the British Museum.

Inscribed [Greek: Tryphôn Eutychou]--Tryphon, son of
Eutychos.--_Athens._ _Collection of Rev. F. V. J. Arundell._

  Pentelic marble; height, 5 feet 11 inches; width, 3 feet.
  Restored: right hand upper corner. _Mus. Marbles_, XI., pl. 49;
  _C.I.A._, III., 3391; _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, CXXIX.

[Sidenote: =627.=]

Figure of a youth, standing, holding a bird, within a distyle portico,
of which the left side is wanting. (Pl. xi., fig. 3.)--_Athens._
_Strangford Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 3 feet 1 inch; width, 11-1/2 inches.
  _Arch. Anzeiger_, 1864, p. 164,* No. 2.

[Sidenote: =628.=]

Sepulchral monument of Xanthippos. An elderly bearded figure is seated
on a chair. He holds a foot in his extended right hand. Diminutive
figures of a woman and a girl stand beside him. The girl is gazing
at the foot, and raises her hands towards it, while the woman looks
towards Xanthippos. She holds a bird in her right hand. It has
been supposed that the foot is a votive offering, to commemorate
a remarkable cure. Wolters, however, explains the object as a
shoemaker's last ([Greek: kalapous], cf. _Monumenti dell' Inst._, xi.
pl. 29), and interprets it as an allusion to the trade of Xanthippos.
This theory hardly accounts for the gestures of the attendant figures.

Above the relief is a pediment, inscribed [Greek: Xanthippos]. (Pl.
xi., fig. 2.)

_Brought from the monastery of Asomato or Petraki at Athens by Dr.
Anthony Askew about 1747._ _Townley Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 2 feet 9 inches; width, 1 foot 8 inches.
  _Burney MSS._, No. 402; _Mus. Marbles_, X., pl. 33; Ellis,
  _Townley Gallery_, II., p. 106; _C.I.G._, 980; _C.I.A._, II.,
  4040; _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, CXXIII.; Wolters, No.
  1019; Brueckner, _Von den griech. Grabreliefs_, p. 26.

[Sidenote: =629.=]

Sepulchral monument of Jason. A physician, Jason, an elderly bearded
man, is seated on a stool. Before him stands a boy, undergoing
examination, and clearly shown to be suffering, by his swollen
belly and wasted limbs. On the right is a vessel of peculiar form,
resembling a cupping glass, but on a scale out of all proportion to
that of the group, and not to be considered as a part of it.

The inscription runs: [Greek: Iasôn ho kai Dekmos Acharneus iatros,
k.t.l.], and contains the names of 'Jason, called also Decimus, of the
Acharnian deme, a physician,' and of other members of his family. The
relief is surmounted by a row of roughly indicated antefixal tiles.

_Obtained by Fauvel in Athens; afterwards in the Choiseul-Gouffier and
Pourtalès Collections._

  Pentelic marble; height, 2 feet 7 inches; width, 1 foot 10-1/2
  inches. _C.I.G._, 606; _C.I.A._, III., 1445; Panofka, _Antiques du
  Cabinet Pourtalès_, p. 78, pl. 26; _Greek Inscriptions in Brit.
  Mus._, LXXXI.; Wolters, No. 1804. On the cupping vessel see the
  two references last cited.

[Sidenote: =630.=]

Sepulchral monument of Agathemeris and Sempronios Niketes. Draped male
and female figures stand to the front. The woman wears the dress of a
priestess of Isis, with a sistrum in her right hand and a vase in her
left hand.

Inscribed [Greek: Agathêmeris S Ê Aphrodeisiou ek Kol(l)yteôn.
Senprônios Nikêtês Kollyteus.] The letters [Greek: S Ê] have not been
explained.

Discovered, in 1826, _between Athens and the Piraeus_.--_Presented by
Gen. Malcolm._

  Pentelic marble; height, 5 feet 6-1/2 inches; width, 3 feet.
  _C.I.G._, 662_b_; _C.I.A._, III., 1760.

[Sidenote: =631.=]

Figure of a youth, a son of one Diodoros, standing, with a chlamys
wrapped about his left arm. He holds a cup (?) in the right hand and
a strigil in the left hand. Beside him, a diminutive figure of a nude
boy holding a strigil. A tree on the left.

Inscribed [Greek: ... Diodôrou, chrêste, [chaire].--_Rhenea._ _From
the Earl of Belmore's Coll._

  Parian marble; height, 4 feet; width, 1 foot 8 inches. _C.I.G._,
  2313.

[Sidenote: =632.=]

Upper part of a sepulchral relief. A draped male figure is seated on
a chair. Before him stands a figure also draped. In the background, a
bearded man and a woman stand one on each side of the seated person.

The inscription runs [Greek: Ari]stonikê Diokleio[us Xy]p[e(taiôn) |
K]êphisogenês Kêphisophôntos Xy(petaiôn) | Arist[o]nikê Kêphisophôntos
Xyp(etaiôn) | Kêphisophôn Kêphisodôrou Xype(taiôn)]. It contains the
names of Aristonikè, daughter of Diocles, of Xypetè; of Kephisogenes
and Aristonikè, probably the children of Kephisophon; and of
Kephisophon, son of Kephisodoros of Xypetè.--_Obtained in Greece
by the fourth Earl of Aberdeen, and presented by the fifth Earl of
Aberdeen._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot; width, 1 foot 2-1/4 inches.
  _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, XC.; _C.I.A._, II., 2365.

[Sidenote: =633.=]

Male figure stands to the left, with right arm extended. Before him
is a table, on which is a large hydria.--_Obtained in Greece by the
fourth Earl of Aberdeen, and presented by the fifth Earl of Aberdeen._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 7-1/2 inches; width, 1 foot 3/4
  inch.

[Sidenote: =634.=]

Beardless male figure stands, wearing a himation. He has a short staff
or scroll in the left hand. The relief was originally surmounted by a
pediment.

Inscribed [Greek: Hermodôros Aristomenou(s)]--Hermodoros, son of
Aristomenes.

  Bluish Greek marble; height, 3 feet 10 inches; width, 1 foot 6-1/2
  inches.

[Sidenote: =635.=]

Bearded figure stands, draped in a himation. The stelè is surmounted
by a bulbous ornament not worked in relief. Inscribed [Greek:
E]rasippos, [Ka]llenikou [Kr]iôeus].--Erasippos, son of Callenicos of
Crioa.--_Athens?_ _Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 2 feet 1 inch; width, 9 inches. _Mus.
  Marbles_, IX., pl. 30, fig. 3; _C.I.G._, 665; _C.I.A._, II., 2223;
  _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, LXXXVIII.

[Sidenote: =636.=]

Stelè fitting into a base. Figures of an athlete anointing himself,
and of an attendant holding spear and drapery.

  Marble; height, 1 foot 11 inches; width, 1 foot 3-1/2 inches.

[Sidenote: =637.=]

Fragment of sepulchral relief, containing the upper parts of a bearded
man and a woman conversing. On the left a younger female figure.

Inscribed: [Greek: Aristodikê, Aristarchos, Athênaïs,
Sêstioi]--Aristodikè, Aristarchos, and Athenais, of Sestos.--_Athens._
_Found by Chandler, fixed in the wall of a church, on the road to
Cephisia. Presented by the Society of Dilettanti._

  Pentelic marble; height, 7-3/4 inches; width, 1 foot 2-1/2 inches.
  Chandler, _Inscriptions Ant._, Part II., No. 95; _Synopsis_,
  No. 336 (236*); _C.I.G._, 892; _C.I.A._, II., 3313; _Greek
  Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, CVIII.

[Sidenote: =638.=]

A bearded figure, Aristocles, rides a prancing horse and places his
right hand on its head. A youth in a short chiton runs behind the
horse. Inscribed:

  [Greek:
  Polla meth' hêlikias homoêlikos hêdea paisas
    ek gaias blastôn gaia palin gegona.
  Eimi de Aristoklês Peiraieus, pais de Menônos].

'After many pleasant sports with my comrades, I who sprang from
dust, am dust once more. I am Aristocles, of the Piraeus, son of
Menon.'--_Athens._ _Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 2 feet 8 inches; width, 1 foot 6 inches.
  Stuart, III., p. 56; Chandler, _Inscriptions Ant._, Part II.,
  No. 78 ("fixed in a wall at the door of the Greek School");
  _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 34, fig. 3; _Synopsis_, No. 384 (213);
  _C.I.G._, 749; _C.I.A._, II., 2442; _Greek Inscriptions in Brit.
  Mus._, XCII.; Kaibel, 75.

[Sidenote: =639.=]

A priestess stands, with chiton, and a knotted himation bordered with
a fringe; she holds a key in her right hand, and a basket in her left
hand. On the right is a tree. Above, a pediment with acroteria and a
rosette; also an honorary wreath.

Inscribed: [Greek: Ho dêmos Isiada Mêtrodôrou Laodikida].--Decreed
by the people, in honour of Isias of Laodicea, daughter of
Metrodoros.--_Smyrna._ _Presented by M. Duane and T. Tyrwhitt, Esqs.,
1772._

  Bluish Greek marble; height, 4 feet 2-1/4 inches; width, 1 foot
  11 inches. Montfaucon, _Ant. Expl. Suppl._, V., p. 25;
  _Archaeologia_, III., pl. 11, fig. 1; Ellis, _Townley Gallery_,
  II., p. 161; _C.I.G._, 3234.

[Sidenote: =640.=]

A draped female figure, seated on a chair, holds out a corner of her
veil with her right hand. Another female figure stands before her,
closely wrapped in her mantle. A diminutive female figure is in the
right-hand corner of the relief. The relief is bounded by pilasters, a
circular arch, and a pediment.

  Parian marble? height, 3 feet; width, 2 feet 4 inches.

[Sidenote: =641.=]

Fragment of sepulchral stelè, with the lower part of a female figure
moving to the right.--_From Mycenae._ _Inwood Coll._

  Red marble; height, 10 inches; width, 10-3/4 inches. _Synopsis_,
  No. 427.

[Sidenote: =642.=]

Late sepulchral relief. A female figure, seated on a stool, holds her
mantle, which passes over her head, with the left hand, and a scroll
(?) in her right hand. The relief is surmounted by an arch and
rosettes, above which is a pediment with acroteria, unfinished, and a
rosette.

Inscribed: [Greek: Mousis Argaiou Milêsia]. Mousis, daughter of
Argaios of Miletus.--_Athens._ _Found by Chandler. Presented by the
Society of Dilettanti._

  Pentelic marble; height, 2 feet 2-3/4 inches; width, 1 foot
  2-1/4 inches. Chandler, _Inscriptiones Ant._, Part II., No. 91;
  _Synopsis_, 1st ed., Room VI., No. 27 (where Thomas Hollis is
  incorrectly said to be the donor); Ellis, _Townley Gallery_, II.,
  p. 171; _C.I.G._, 726; _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, CIII.

[Sidenote: =643.=]

A female figure, draped, and seated on a stool, raises her right hand
to draw her peplos over her head. A draped male figure stands before
her, and a boy at the left corner; above is a pediment.

Inscribed with a name now illegible, and [Greek: chaire].--_Found in a
store at Portsmouth. Probably from Smyrna._

  Marble; height, 2 feet; width, 1 foot 2-1/2 inches.

[Sidenote: =644.=]

Sepulchral relief, mutilated on the left. A female figure draped and
seated on a chair, draws her peplos over her shoulder with her left
hand. Above, a pediment.

Inscribed with a name now illegible, terminating in [Greek: ô], and
[Greek: chairete hapantes].--_Obtained by the fourth Earl of Aberdeen
in Greece, and presented by the fifth Earl of Aberdeen._

  Marble; height, 1 foot 9-1/2 inches; width, 1 foot 1/2 inch.
  _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, CXXXIII.; Conze, _Attische
  Grabreliefs_, No. 46; pl. 23, fig. 1.

[Sidenote: =645.=]

Lower part of sepulchral relief, much mutilated. A female figure is
seated to the front on a lofty throne. She holds a fruit in her left
hand. On the left is a youth with a box; and on the right a female
figure, whose right hand was raised to her chin. The arms of the
throne are supported by Sphinxes.--_Kertch._

  Limestone; height, 1 foot 8 inches; width, 2 feet 2 inches.

[Sidenote: =646.=]

A female figure, Demetria, seated on a chair, extends her right
hand to a box, held by a girl standing before her; behind is another
standing female figure.

Inscribed: [Greek: [D]êmêtria].--_Probably from Athens._ _Obtained
by the fourth Earl of Aberdeen, and presented by the fifth Earl of
Aberdeen._

  Pentelic marble; height, 2 feet 1/2 inch; width, 1 foot 1 inch.
  _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, CXIII.; _C.I.A._, III., 3072.

[Sidenote: =647.=]

Lower part of a sepulchral relief. A fully draped female figure,
wanting above the breast, is seated on a stool. The left hand was
probably raised to the chin or to the veil. Before her, a female
figure of which nothing remains except a portion of drapery, from the
knees downwards. A small boy stands at the knee of the seated woman,
and raises his right hand.--_Athens?_ _Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 6 inches; width, 1 foot 3 inches.
  _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 39, fig. 2; _Synopsis_, No. 196 (162).

[Sidenote: =648.=]

Boy seated on a rock fishing with a rod and line for a large fish, a
basket in his left hand. Above a pediment.

Inscribed in rude late characters, [Greek: Agathêmeros Asiachô
syntrophô mnêmês charin].--Placed by Agathemeros in memory of his
foster brother Asiachos.--_Athens._ _Purchased from the Besborough
Coll. 1801._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 2 inches; width, 10-1/2 inches.
  _C.I.G._, 6892.

[Sidenote: =649.=]

A girl, seated on a stool, holds an open scroll on her lap. Before
her is a column, on which is another scroll (?); on the left is a
dog raising a paw. The relief is bounded by pilasters and a pediment,
slightly sketched out.

Inscribed: [Greek: Abeita zêsasa etê [=i] mênas dyo· chairete]--Avita,
who lived ten years and two months. Hail.--_Townley Coll._

  Parian marble; height, 1 foot 1 inch; width, 11 inches. Ellis,
  _Townley Gallery_, II., p. 165. _C.I.G._, 6866; Wolters, No. 1811.

[Sidenote: =650.=]

Youthful female figure, standing, holding an ivy-leaf fan in the right
hand, and a part of the mantle with the left hand.

Inscribed: [Greek: Synphoro[n] Hêrakleid[ou] Karystia]. Synphoron, of
Carystos, daughter of Heracleides.--_Athens?_

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 7 inches; width, 11-1/2 inches.
  _C.I.G._, 857; _C.I.A._, III., 2510; _Greek Inscriptions in Brit.
  Mus._, CI.

[Sidenote: =651.=]

Nude figure of boy, standing, with chlamys thrown over his left
shoulder. He holds a partridge in his left hand, and holds its beak
with his right hand.

Inscribed: [Greek: Menekratês Menônos]--Menecrates, son of
Menon.--_Athens._ _Strangford Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 9 inches; width, 11 inches. _Greek
  Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, CXXI.; _C.I.A._, III., 3276; _Arch.
  Anzeiger_, 1864, p. 164*.

[Sidenote: =652.=]

Fragment of sepulchral relief. A draped female figure is seated on a
couch, with right hand raised to her veil; before her, two girls,
of whom one holds a ball and the other a fan.--_Found in a store at
Portsmouth._ _Probably from Smyrna._

  Marble; height, 10 inches; width, 1 foot 1-1/2 inch.

[Sidenote: =653.=]

A boy throws a ball for a dog which springs up towards
him.--_Strangford Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 8 inches; width, 10-1/2 inches.
  _Arch. Anzeiger_, 1864, p. 165*.

[Sidenote: =654.=]

Draped male figure standing, with a boy at his side; above an arch,
springing from pilasters, and surmounted by a pediment with rosette
and acroteria.--_Kertch._

  Limestone; height, 2 feet 3-3/4 inches; width, 1 foot 9-1/2
  inches.

[Sidenote: =655.=]

Sepulchral relief, rude and late. Standing, draped female figure
raises her right hand to her cheek. The first inscription has been
obliterated, and in place of it is the inscription, [Greek: SÔT ...
NIKE chaire].

  Greek marble; height, 2 feet 2-1/2 inches; width, 1 foot.

[Sidenote: =656.=]

Sepulchral monument of Artipous. An old woman is seated wrapped in her
mantle, with a pomegranate in her left hand. A girl stands at her
left side holding a box and a purse (?). The relief is bounded by
pilasters, surmounted by a pediment with acroteria.

Inscribed: [Greek: Artipous Alkima] and [symbol: L][Greek: p].
[symbol: L] is a symbol, chiefly used in Ptolemaic inscriptions to
precede a numeral denoting a year. The inscription therefore
appears to mean '80 years old,' if [Greek: p] is given its usual
value.--_Kertch._

  Limestone; height, 4 feet 1/2 inch; width, 2 feet 5-3/4 inches.
  _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, CCII.; Latyschev, II., 133.

[Sidenote: =657.=]

A draped figure, Theodotè, seated on a throne, raises her left hand
to her veil. Before her a figure of a girl, standing. The arms of
the throne are supported by Sphinxes. Above the relief are an arch,
springing from pilasters, a pediment with acroteria, and rosettes.

Inscribed: [Greek: [Theod]otê gynê [Myrinou, chaire]].--_Kertch._

  Limestone; height, 2 feet 5 inches; width, 1 foot 8-1/2 inches.
  _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, CCI.; Latyschev, II., 231. The
  restoration is taken from a copy, given by Latyschev, which was
  made before the inscription was broken.

[Sidenote: =658.=]

A draped female figure, seated on a throne, raises her left hand to
her veil, and holds a mirror in her right hand. A female figure stands
before her. On each side of the standing figure is a diminutive figure
of a girl; one holds a bird, and the other a vase. Above is a pediment
with acroteria and rosettes.

Inscribed: [Greek: Theophilê thyga[têr]...] Theophilè, daughter of
....--_Kertch_.

  Limestone; height, 2 feet 5 inches; width, 2 feet. _Greek
  Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, CC.; Latyschev, II., 235_b_.

[Sidenote: =659.=]

A female figure, seated on a throne, raises her left hand to her veil.
On right and left are diminutive figures of girls. The arms of the
throne are supported by Sphinxes. Above is an arch, springing from
pilasters, a pediment with rosettes and acroteria.

Inscribed: [Greek: Hellas gynê Mênodôrou, chaire]--Hellas, wife of
Menodoros, farewell.--_Kertch._

  Limestone; height, 5 feet 1-1/2 inches; width, 1 foot 11-1/2
  inches. _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, CXCVII.; Latyschev,
  II., 228.

[Sidenote: =660.=]

A draped female figure, seated on a chair to the front. The head is
wanting. On the left is an attendant figure of a girl holding a box
(_pyxis_). On the right is a horseman wearing chlamys, bow-case
and bow, and sword. There is also a small part of a second
horseman.--_Kertch._

  Limestone; height, 1 foot 6 inches; width, 2 feet 4 inches.

[Sidenote: =661.=]

Two horsemen standing to right. The foremost has a sword, bow,
bow-case; the hinder one wears a conical cap. Above, rosettes and a
pediment, surmounted by acroteria.--_Kertch._

  Limestone; height, 3 feet 3 inches; width, 1 foot 11-1/2 inches.

[Sidenote: =662.=]

Sepulchral relief, with two panels. The upper panel contains a mounted
horseman in a chlamys, galloping to the right. Of the lower panel
only the upper part with one head remains. Above the relief is a
pediment.--_Kertch._

  Limestone; height, 2 feet 3 inches; width, 1 foot 5 inches.

[Sidenote: =663.=]

Horseman to the right, with tunic, chlamys, and bow-case with bow.
Behind him, an attendant male figure. Below the horse is a dog
running.

Inscribed: [Greek: Daïske Ariaramnou, chaire]--Daïscos, son of
Ariaramnos, farewell.--_Kertch._

  Limestone; height, 2 feet 6 inches; width, 1 foot 10 inches.
  _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, CLXXXVII.; Latyschev, II.,
  141.

[Sidenote: =664.=]

Sepulchral relief in two panels. The upper part is broken away. The
feet and tail of a horse, and a figure of a dog standing to right
remain. Before the horse are the legs of a small attendant figure. In
the lower panel is a horseman riding to the right, with bow, bow-case,
sword and long spear. A colt stands beside the horse.

Inscribed: [Greek: Artemidôre Dioga epi tês pinakeidos, chaire].
Wolters translates, "Hail, Artemidoros, son of Diogas, officer in
charge of the list."--_Kertch._

  Limestone; height, 2 feet 3 inches; width, 2 feet 1-3/4 inches.
  _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, CLXXXIII.; Wolters, No. 1809
  Latyschev, II., 131.

[Sidenote: =665.=]

Fragment of relief, with figures of two horsemen standing confronted.
The head of one and the head and body of the other are lost. They
have short tunic, cloak, bow and arrows in bow-case, and a saddle
cloth.--_Kertch._

  Limestone; height, 1 foot 5 inches; width, 1 foot 8 inches.

[Sidenote: =666.=]

Fragment from the right-hand lower corner of a relief, which is
perhaps sepulchral, with the lower parts of two mounted horsemen,
wearing short tunics, cloaks and swords, moving rapidly to the
left.--_Athens._ _Strangford Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 7 inches; width, 1 foot 10 inches.

[Sidenote: =667.=]

Sepulchral relief. A woman stands to the front wearing a chiton, and
having a mantle wrapped closely about her. The relief is bounded by
pilasters and a high-pitched pediment, in the tympanum of which is
a vase in low relief. Inscribed [Greek: Epigona Moschiônos Milêsia],
Epigona, wife of Moschio, of Miletus.--_Athens._ _Presented by J.
Johnstone, Esq., 1890._

  Pentelic marble? Height, 3 feet 9 inches; width, 1 foot 7 inches.
  This relief, which was seen at Athens, "in the court of Giorgaki
  Livaditi," by Spon in 1676 and by Fourmont in 1720, was dug up
  many years ago below a house in New Bond Street. Spon, _Voyage_
  (ed. 1679), II., p. 445; _C.I.G._, 706; _C.I.A._, III., 2660.

[Sidenote: =668.=]

Fragment of relief, with the body and legs of a boy walking to the
right. The arms appear to have been raised. A small piece of drapery
is seen behind the back of the boy.--_Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 6 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 198
  (109).

[Sidenote: =669.=]

Female head to the front in a somewhat severe style. Apparently broken
from a relief. The features are those of a young girl. The hair
is waved on each side, from a central parting.--_Athens, 1848._
_Lenormant Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 6-3/4 inches.

[Sidenote: =670.=]

Helmeted head in profile to the right; broken from a relief. Above the
helmet is what appears to be part of a horse's tail.--_Inwood Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 7 inches.

[Sidenote: =671.=]

Head of a maiden, probably from a sepulchral relief. She wears a
closely-fitting cap, with a small flap hanging down before the ear.
There are remains of the tips of two fingers and a thumb resting on
the top of the head, which make it probable that the complete figure
was that of an attendant kneeling before her mistress, like the
attendant who fastens the sandal of Ameinocleia (No. 620).--_Athens?_
_Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 8 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 250 (114);
  Ellis, _Elgin Marbles_, II., p. 119.

[Sidenote: =672.=]

Head of a youth, three-quarters turned to the right, from the side
of a sepulchral relief. He wears a taenia, and there are traces of
drapery which passed over the shoulder. There is a part of a pilaster
on the left (Pl. xii., fig. 2.)--_Athens._

  Pentelic marble; height, 8 inches.

[Sidenote: =673.=]

Head of a youth, half turned to the right, together with the neck and
part of the breast. From a sepulchral relief. The waving locks of hair
are freely treated. (Pl. xii., fig. 1.)--_Athens._

  Pentelic marble; height, 10 inches. The tip of the nose is
  restored.

[Sidenote: =674.=]

Fragment of a sepulchral relief. A male head in high relief, wearing
a taenia, is slightly bent forwards to the right. There are remains
of drapery which passed over the shoulder. On the left is part of a
pilaster which bounds the relief.

  Marble; height, 6-1/2 inches.

[Sidenote: =675.=]

Female head, probably from a sepulchral relief. The neck is much bent.
A portion of the right hand remains clasping the top of the head.

  Marble; height, 6 inches.

[Sidenote: =676.=]

Fragment of the head of a youth, perhaps from a sepulchral relief.
A band passes across the forehead immediately below the
hair.--_Excavated by J. T. Wood, at Ephesus._

  Marble; height, 5 inches.

[Sidenote: =677.=]

Portrait head of a bearded man. This head appears to be derived from
a sepulchral monument in very high relief, and to have been turned to
the left, as the left side is carefully finished, while the right side
is rough and inaccurate.--_Athens?_ _Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 10-1/2 inches. _Synopsis_, No. 242 (120).

[Sidenote: =678.=]

Fragment of the right side of a relief which was probably sepulchral.
A female figure, wearing a sleeved chiton and mantle, is seated on a
chair. She extends her hands, probably towards a figure now wanting.
On the right is the head of a figure looking to the right, and part of
a pilaster which bounds the scene. On the left is part of the drapery
of a third figure.--_Ephesus._ _Strangford Coll._

  Pentelic marble? Height, 1 foot 4 inches; width, 11 inches.

[Sidenote: =679.=]

Fragment of a relief, perhaps sepulchral, containing the lower part
of the body and the right leg of a warrior, who stands on rocky ground
drawing himself rather to the left. He wears a short chiton, a cuirass
with a triple row of flaps (_pteryges_), and a mantle. Behind are the
legs from the knees of a recumbent figure. The warrior appears to have
had a shield on the left arm, and the right arm raised for a spear
thrust at a fallen enemy.--_Found at the foot of the Inscribed
Monument, Xanthos._

  Hard limestone; height, 3 feet 4 inches; width, 1 foot 11 inches.
  _Synopsis_, _Lycian Room_, No. 141_b_. Joints at both sides show
  that the complete work was of considerable size. Compare the
  scenes of combat in the entrance of the rock tomb at Kiöbaschi.
  Benndorf, _Reisen in Lykien_, I., p. 135; and at Tyssa, _loc.
  cit._, II., p. 64.

[Sidenote: =680.=]

Figure of bull lying down to the right, on rough ground. The head is
worked in a very natural manner. The forms of the body are treated in
the flat manner of a bas-relief. The back has been left unfinished.
Probably the bull originally surmounted a tomb, at Athens. (Compare
Curtius and Kaupert, _Atlas von Athen_, pl. 4.)--_Brought from Greece
by C. R. Cockerell._ _Presented by Lord Hillingdon._

  Pentelic marble; height, 3 feet 2-3/4 inches; length, 5 feet.
  _Journ. of Hellen. Studies_, VI., pl. C., p. 32.



SEPULCHRAL VASES.


For the supposed significance of Vases as Sepulchral Monuments, see
above, p. 297.

[Sidenote: =681.=]

Plain sepulchral lekythos, in low relief.--_Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 2 feet 11 inches. _Synopsis_, No.
  164 (276); _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 34, fig. 1; Ellis, _Elgin
  Marbles_, II., p. 161.

[Sidenote: =682.=]

Sepulchral lekythos, with relief. An old man, Pytharatos, stands,
clasping the hand of a seated man, Herophilos, who is also old.

Inscribed: [Greek: Pytharatos, Hêrophilos].--_Sloane Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 2 feet 9 inches; diameter, 10-1/4 inches,
  Ellis, _Townley Gallery_, II., p. 221; _Greek Inscriptions in
  Brit. Mus._, CXXVI.

[Sidenote: =683.=]

Plain sepulchral amphora of Phaidimos of Naucratis. Inscribed: [Greek:
Phaidimos Naukratitês].--_Athens?_ _Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 3 feet 4-1/2 inches; diameter, 11 inches.
  _Synopsis_, No. 124 (A. 51); _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 33, fig. 4;
  Ellis, _Elgin Marbles_, II., p. 164; _Greek Inscriptions in Brit.
  Mus._, CV.; _C.I.A._, II., 3239.

[Sidenote: =684.=]

Body of sepulchral amphora of Timophon, of Anagyrus, with ornate
flutings, and a horizontal band of interwoven fillets. Rosettes at the
base of the handles.

Inscribed: [Greek: Timophôn Timostratou Anagyrasios].--_Athens?_
_Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 11 inches; diameter, 1 foot 2
  inches. For the form, cf. vase held by the wind Skiron on the
  Tower of the Winds (Stuart, I., chap. III., pl. 19), and the
  relief from Icaria (_American Journ. of Archaeology_, V., p. 178,
  fig. 30). Published Dodwell, _Tour_, 1., p. 451; _Synopsis_
  No. 263 (163); _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 32, fig. 4; _Greek
  Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, LXXX.; _C.I.G._, 585. Kumanudis
  ([Greek: Att. Epig.] No. 236, and p. 18) and Köhler (_C.I.A._ II.,
  1850) consider the inscription more recent than the vase.

[Sidenote: =685.=]

Fragment from the top of a sepulchral amphora in relief, with patterns
of foliage.--_Formerly in Lord Elgin's Collection._

  Pentelic marble; height, 11 inches. _Journ. of Hellen. Studies_,
  VI., p. 43, No. 4.

[Sidenote: =686.=]

Sepulchral cippus of Anaxicrates with an amphora carved in low relief.

Inscribed: [Greek: Anaxikratês Dexiochou Athênaios].--_Athens?_ _Elgin
Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 2 feet 1/2 inch. _Synopsis_, No. 123
  (240); _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 34, fig. 2; _Greek Inscriptions in
  Brit. Mus._, XCVI.; _C.I.G._, 801.



SEPULCHRAL VASES AND RELIEFS, WITH FIGURES CLASPING HANDS.


For the various interpretations that have been proposed for these
scenes, commonly known as "Scenes of Parting," see above, p. 297.

[Sidenote: =687.=]

Sepulchral lekythos with relief. A bearded figure stands before a
woman seated on a stool, and clasps her hand.

Inscribed: [Greek: Pamphilos Meixiadou Aigilieus· Archippê
Meixiadou]--Pamphilos, son of Meixiades, of Aigilia; Archippè,
daughter of Meixiades. The figures represented are therefore brother
and sister.--_Found beside the portico of Hadrian, Athens._ _Elgin
Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 2 feet 4-3/4 inches; diameter, 1 foot 5
  inches. Stuart I., pp. 44, 52; Dodwell, _Tour_, I., p. 454; _Mus.
  Marbles_, IX. pl. 33, fig. 2; _Synopsis_ No. 192 (237); Ellis,
  _Elgin Marbles_, II., p. 164; _C.I.G._, 560; _C.I.A._, II., 1737;
  _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, LXXV.

[Sidenote: =688.=]

Sepulchral lekythos with relief. Two female figures, Philia and
Metrodora, stand clasping hands. Two bearded figures, Mys and Meles,
stand, one on the left and one on the right, each turning towards the
central group.

Inscribed: [Greek: Mys, Philia, Mêtrodôra, Melês].--_Athens?_ _Elgin
Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 9-1/2 inches; diameter, 1 foot
  1-1/4 inches, _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 32, fig. 3; _Synopsis_ No.
  199 (148); _C.I.G._, 974; _C.I.A._, II., 3998; _Greek Inscriptions
  in Brit. Mus._, CXXII. Brueckner, _Von den griech. Grabreliefs_,
  p. 12, fig. K. A companion lekythos has been discovered at
  Chasani, in Attica, and is now at Athens. In this relief, Mys and
  Meles clasp hands, while Metrodora and Philia stand on the right
  and left. Brueckner, _l.c._

[Sidenote: =689.=]

Part of a sepulchral lekythos with relief. Two women, Callistratè (?)
and Demostratè, stand with right hands joined. Behind the latter a
girl stands in an attitude of grief with her head resting on her right
hand. Behind the former is a youth supporting his chin on his right
hand.

Inscribed: [Greek: Dêmostratê, Kallistr[atê]].--_Athens?_ _Elgin
Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 7 inches; diameter, 1 foot 5
  inches. _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 31, figs. 1, 2; _Synopsis_ No.
  275 (104); Ellis, _Elgin Marbles_, II., p. 165; _C.I.G._, 936;
  _C.I.A._, II., 3611; _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, CXIV.

[Sidenote: =690.=]

Sepulchral vase, with relief. A young warrior, wearing chiton, shield
and helmet, clasps the hand of an old man. Behind the man stands a
woman, who makes a gesture with her right hand.

Inscribed with an elegiac inscription of four lines of which only the
terminations remain.--_Athens?_ _Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 2 feet 4-1/4 inches; diameter, 1 foot
  3-1/2 inches. _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 32, fig. 1; _Synopsis_ No.
  122 (167); Ellis, _Elgin Marbles_, II., p. 161; _C.I.G._, 1041;
  _C.I.A._, II., 4312; _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, CXXXII.

[Sidenote: =691.=]

Sepulchral lekythos with relief. A young warrior, wearing a cuirass
over a short tunic, a chlamys and a helmet, clasps the hand of a
seated woman. He appears to hold a scroll in his left hand. Behind him
is an attendant, holding a large shield.--_Athens?_ _Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 2 feet 6 inches; diameter, 1 foot 6
  inches. _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 33, fig. 3; _Synopsis_ No. 195
  (228); Ellis, _Elgin Marbles_, II., p. 161.

[Sidenote: =692.=]

Sepulchral lekythos with relief. An armed warrior, Sosippos, who wears
a tunic, cuirass, and chlamys, clasps the hand of a seated woman, who,
with her left hand clasps the right hand of a small girl standing at
her knee. Behind the warrior is a boy carrying a large shield; behind
the seated figure is a woman standing with her right hand raised to
her chin.

Inscribed: [Greek: Sôsippos].--_Athens?_ _Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 2 feet; diameter, 11 inches. Dodwell,
  _Tour_, I., p. 455; _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 31, fig. 3;
  _Synopsis_ No. 230 (239); Ellis, _Elgin Marbles_, II., p. 165;
  _C.I.G._, 1008; _C.I.A._, II., 4156; _Greek Inscriptions in Brit.
  Mus._, CXXVII.

[Sidenote: =693.=]

Stelè, with a sepulchral lekythos in relief, supported by a winged
Sphinx. On the vase is a relief representing two warriors, fully
armed, standing with hands clasped. (Pl. xi., fig. 1.)

Inscribed: [Greek: Archiadês Hagn(o)usios, Polemonikos
Athmoneus]--Archiades of Hagnus; Polemonicos of Athmonon.--_Formerly
in the Guilford Collection. Presented by G. Plucknett, Esq., 1886._

  Pentelic marble; height, 2 feet 11-1/2 inches width, 1 foot 1
  inch. _C.I.G._, 552; _C.I.A._, II., 1700.

[Sidenote: =694.=]

Stelè, with sepulchral relief. A seated woman, Xeno, clasps the hand
of a girl, Cleo, who stands before her. Behind her, a bearded man,
Hermodoros, leans on his staff and looks downwards. The stelè is
surmounted by a rounded top as if for a palmette, which may have been
painted.

Inscribed: [Greek: Xenô, Hermodôros, Kleô].--_Athens?_--_Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 2 feet 1 inch; width, 1 foot 2-1/2
  inches. _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 30, fig. 4; _Synopsis_ No. 373
  (229); _C.I.G._, 981; _C.I.A._, II., 4042; _Greek Inscriptions in
  Brit. Mus._, CXXIV.

[Sidenote: =695.=]

Sepulchral lekythos with relief. A youth, Polystratos, clasps the hand
of a woman, Archagora, who is seated on a chair. A woman, Pithyllis,
is seen in the background between these two figures. She stands in an
attitude of grief, with her head bowed and her right hand raised to
her veil.

Inscribed: [Greek: Archagora, Pithyllis, Polystratos].--_Athens?_
_Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 8 inches; diameter, 11 inches.
  Dodwell, _Tour_, I., p. 455; _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 31, fig. 4;
  _Synopsis_, No. 182 (274); Ellis, _Elgin Marbles_, II., p. 165;
  _C.I.G._, 996; _C.I.A._, II., 3524; _Greek Inscriptions in Brit.
  Mus._, CXII.

[Sidenote: =696.=]

Sepulchral lekythos with relief. A bearded man stands before a
woman seated on a chair and clasps her hand. There is no trace of an
inscription.--_Athens?_ _Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 2 feet 11-1/2 inches; diameter, 11
  inches. _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 33, fig. 1; _Synopsis_ No. 132
  (A. 50); Ellis, _Elgin Marbles_, II., p. 164.

[Sidenote: =697.=]

Sepulchral lekythos with relief. A bearded man stands before a woman
seated on a chair.

Inscribed above the head of the woman: [Greek: Ada]. The name of
the man may have been inscribed originally, but it is now
obliterated.--_Athens?_ _Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 10-1/2 inches; diameter, 1 foot.
  _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 32, fig. 2; _Synopsis_ No. 188 (110);
  _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._ CXI.; _C.I.A._, II., 3438.

[Sidenote: =698.=]

Sepulchral lekythos with relief. A man, Alkimachos, stands before
a seated woman, Hedylè, and clasps her hand. A girl stands behind
Hedylè, and another girl of a smaller size stands behind Alkimachos.

Inscribed: [Greek: Hêdylê, Alkimachos].--_Probably from Athens._ _From
the Earl of Belmore's Collection_, 1842.

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 5 inches; diameter, 1 foot 1 inch.
  _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, CXVIII.; _C.I.A._, II., 3761.

[Sidenote: =699.=]

Sepulchral lekythos with relief, much defaced. A woman seated on a
chair clasps the hand of a woman standing before her. Behind the
chair is a girl holding a box in her left hand.--_From a store at
Portsmouth._ _Perhaps from Smyrna._

  Marble; height, 1 foot 7 inches; diameter, 1 foot.

[Sidenote: =700.=]

Fragment of sepulchral relief. A youth standing clasps the hand of a
bearded man, seated on a chair. Only the upper parts are preserved of
both figures, together with the right side of the relief.--_Athens?_
_Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 6 inches; width, 10-1/2 inches.
  _Synopsis_, No. 423.

[Sidenote: =701.=]

Fragment of sepulchral relief. A woman, seated on a chair, clasps the
hand of a woman standing before her. Her left hand appears to have
been raised to her veil. The upper parts of both figures are wanting,
and also the left side of the relief. A nude boy with an uncertain
object in his hands stands in the right corner.

  Pentelic marble? Height, 1 foot; width, 11 inches.

[Sidenote: =702.=]

A woman seated to the right, on a stool, holds her veil with the left
hand, and clasps the arm of a boy standing before her. Behind the boy,
and partly embracing him, stands a woman, who holds her veil with her
right hand. On the left, behind the seated figure is a woman standing
with the left hand raised to her cheek, and with the right hand
supporting the left elbow. At the foot of the seat are two small
female figures, one standing and one sitting. These six figures are in
high relief. In the background are two men confronted in low relief;
one is bearded. Two other heads also appear to have been inserted,
and to have been afterwards obliterated. The relief is bounded by two
pilasters and an architrave, with roof tiles above.

Inscribed: [Greek: Sôpatra Pausaniou. Antimachos Pausaniou. Philopatra
Mi[r]ylou. Pausanias Andriskou.] Sopatra and Antimachos are the
children of Pausanias and Philopatra.--_Pella._

  Fine-grained white marble; height, 4 feet; width, 2 feet 6 inches.
  _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, CLXXII.

[Sidenote: =703.=]

An elderly bearded man, seated, to the left, clasps the hand of an old
man standing before him. Both figures appear to be portraits. Small
figures of boys stand at the right and left. The boy on the left holds
an uncertain object. Above are a pediment with acroteria, and
two olive wreaths, and the inscriptions [Greek: Ho dêmos Dêmoklên
Amphilochou], [Greek: Ho dêmos Dêmoklên Dêmoklêous], recording honorary decrees
to Democles, son of Amphilochos, and Democles, son of Democles. Below
is a metrical epitaph, in eight lines:

[Greek:
  Ton pinyton kata panta kai exochon en poliêtais
    anera gêral(e)ou termat' echonta biou
  Aideô nychioio melas hypedexato kolpos
    eusebeôn th' hosiên eunasen es klisiên.
  mnêma d' apophthimenoio para trêchêan atarpon
    touto païs kednê teuxe syn eunetidi.
  xeine, sy d' aeisas Dêmokleos hyiea chairein
    Dêmoklea steichois ablabes ichnos echôn.]

--_Smyrna._ _Presented by M. Duane and T. Tyrwhitt, Esqs., 1772._

  Bluish Greek marble; height, 4 feet 5 inches; width, 1 foot
  8-1/2 inches. Montfaucon, _Ant. Expl. Suppl._, V., p. 25;
  _Archaeologia_, III., pl. 11, fig. 2; _C.I.G._, 3256; Kaibel, 237.

[Sidenote: =704.=]

A man, Exakestes, seated, clasps the hand of his wife, Metreis,
standing before him. She holds a spindle in her left hand. In the
right and left corners of the relief are small figures of a boy and
girl. The girl holds a casket. In the background of the relief are
a stelè surmounted by two cornucopiae, and a candelabrum. Above,
two wreaths and the honorary inscription, [Greek: Ho dêmos Exakestên
Androboulou. Ho dêmos Mêtrein Hermippou, Exakestou de gynaika].
The relief is surmounted by a pediment with acroteria and a
rosette.--_Perhaps from Smyrna._ _Townley Coll._

  Greek marble; height, 2 feet 5-1/2 inches; width, 1 foot 4-1/2
  inches. _Mus. Marbles_, X., pl. 43; _C.I.G._, 3232; Ellis,
  _Townley Gallery_, II., p. 165; Wolters, No. 1806. This relief was
  once in the possession of Dr. Richard Mead (_Mus. Meadianum_, Pars
  alt., 1759, p. 239).

[Sidenote: =705.=]

A woman seated clasps the hand of a young man who stands before her,
placing his left hand on her shoulder. An older man stands on the
left. The stelè is surmounted by a pediment.

  Greek marble; height, 2 feet 2-1/4 inches; width, 1 foot 2 inches.

[Sidenote: =706.=]

A woman, Laodikè (?), seated, clasps the hand of a youth standing
before her. The relief is crowned by a pediment. A nearly illegible
inscription appears to read: [Greek: Laodikê Hêr[ophilou?] ...
chaire].

  Pentelic marble; height, 2 feet 3-1/4 inches; width, 1 foot 2
  inches.

[Sidenote: =707.=]

A woman clasps the hand of a warrior, with short tunic, cloak and
shield. On the left a second warrior, somewhat smaller, but similarly
attired. Above is a pediment with acroteria and rosettes.--_Kertch._

  Limestone; height, 2 feet 4 inches; width, 1 foot 7 inches.

[Sidenote: =708.=]

Two men, one bearded and the other a youth, stand clasping hands. They
are father and son, each being named Bakchios. Above is a pediment
with acroteria and rosettes.

Inscribed: [Greek: Bakchie Bageos kai hyie Bakchie chairete].

  Limestone; height, 2 feet 11-3/4 inches; width, 1 foot 8-3/4
  inches. _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, CLXXXIV.; Latyschev,
  II., 78.

[Sidenote: =709.=]

A man and woman stand, clasping hands. A boy on the right. Above is a
pediment with acroteria and rosettes.

Inscribed: [Greek: Gaïos Gaïou kai mêtêr Basili[nd]ina
chairete].--_Kertch._

  Limestone; height, 2 feet 6-1/2 inches; width, 1 foot 7-1/4
  inches. _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, CLXXXVI.; Latyschev,
  II., 93.

[Sidenote: =710.=]

Circular pedestal or altar on a square plinth, on one side of which
is a sepulchral relief. A man stands on the right, clasping the right
hand of a seated woman, probably his wife. She holds her veil with
her left hand. Behind the woman stands Hermes Psychopompos, about
to conduct her shade to Hades. He has petasos, talaria, chlamys and
caduceus. On the right is another male figure standing, with folded
hands, and beyond is what appears to be an altar. The altar is
rectangular, and is surmounted by a conical object, round which a
serpent is twined. By the side of the altar is the mutilated figure
of a boy. On the extreme left behind Hermes is a sundial, to which
his hand is pointing. At the side of the chair stands a draped female
attendant of diminutive stature. This figure is much defaced, and the
lower part is broken away. The head of this figure has been broken
off, and the faces and general surface of all the figures are much
eaten away by exposure to weather. This relief occupies about a third
of the circle of the pedestal, the remainder being ornamented by
festoons of ivy suspended between three bulls' heads. In the centre of
the top of the pedestal is a round hole, as if to receive a dowel, and
the surface of the marble seems prepared for a joint. The whole may
have served as a pedestal for a statue.--_Obtained from Greece by the
fourth Earl of Aberdeen, and presented by the fifth Earl of Aberdeen,
1861._

  Greek marble; height, 3 feet 7 inches; diameter, 2 feet 9 inches.
  _Guide to Graeco-Roman Sculptures_, Part II., No. 75.



RELIEFS REPRESENTING THE SEPULCHRAL BANQUET.


For a discussion of the interpretation of this class of reliefs, see
above, p. 298.

[Sidenote: =711.=]

Cast of a sepulchral relief, sometimes known as the "Death of
Socrates." A man, bearded, reclines on a couch, with a bowl in his
right hand, held out as if to pour a libation. A woman seated on a
stool by the foot of the couch, extends her hands. On the right is a
man, draped and bearded, and on the left a nude youth who stands with
a jug by a large crater. Below the couch is a dog gnawing a bone. The
original, of white marble, was found at _the Piraeus_ in 1838, and is
now in the _National Museum at Athens_.

  Height, 1 foot 7-1/2 inches; width, 2 feet 1 inch. [Greek:
  Ephêmeris], 1839, No. 269; Le Bas, _Mon. Fig._, pl. 52;
  Pervanoglu, _Familienmahl_, p. 24, No. 60; Mitchell, p. 504;
  Wolters, No. 1052; Roscher, _Lexicon_, p. 2574.

[Sidenote: =712.=]

Relief with banquet. Two male figures recline together on a couch. One
is a bearded man, the other is a youth. The man holds a bowl in his
left hand and places his right hand on the shoulder of the youth
who turns his head towards him. Before the couch is a table with
provisions. On the right is a nude youth with a jug and bowl. On the
left is a youth, wearing tunic and chlamys, who leads a horse. The
relief is bounded by pilasters and an architrave.

On the lower margin is the modern inscription _Aesculapio Tarentino
Salenius Arcas_, added by some person who supposed that the relief
was a votive tablet to Aesculapius. The inscription, however, makes
it probable that the relief was obtained at Tarentum. The type of the
horse also agrees well with that on the coins of Tarentum, of about
the close of the fourth century, B.C. The relief is perhaps erected to
a father and two sons. It is also possible that the two figures of the
youth represent the same person, and that only two persons in all are
here commemorated.--_Presented by W. R. Hamilton, Esq., 1845._

  Marble, probably Pentelic; height, 1 foot 10-1/2 inches; width,
  2 feet 9 inches. The upper right-hand corner is restored. P.
  Gardner, _Journ. of Hellen. Studies_, V., p. 105, and plate;
  Wolters, No. 1054; Roscher, _Lexicon_, p. 2575.

[Sidenote: =713.=]

Relief with banquet, serpent, and sacrifice. Two men recline on a
couch. Both have cups in their left hands. One holds up a rhyton
terminating in a ram's head; the other stretches out his right hand to
a long table which stands before the couch. A woman, seated on the end
of the couch, holds a cup in her left hand and stretches out her right
hand to the table. Below the table is a coiled serpent. On the left
of the woman is a nude youth holding up a rhyton. Beyond is a square
altar, to which a boy, who is now almost obliterated, leads a pig. He
holds a bowl in his left hand. On the left are four adult persons and
two infants, and above, the head of a horse in a frame. The relief
is bounded by two pilasters surmounted by an entablature, above which
roof-tiles are slightly indicated.--_Townley Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 2 inches; width, 2 feet 2 inches.

[Sidenote: =714.=]

Fragment of relief with banquet and sacrifice. On the right is part of
the figure of a woman, who is seated at the foot of a couch, most of
which is now lost. Before her is part of a table. At the foot of the
couch is an altar which is approached by a procession of three adult
persons and four children, one of whom leads a ram. Above, a horse's
head is seen at a window. The relief is bounded by pilasters and
an entablature, above which roof-tiles are shown.--_Athens?_ _Elgin
Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 3 inches; width, 1 foot 1/2 inch.
  _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 35, fig. 1; _Synopsis_, No. 279 (94);
  Welcker, _Alte Denkmaeler_, II., p. 273; cf. Welcker, _loc. cit._,
  II., pl. 13, No. 24; Pervanoglu, _Familienmahl_, p. 44, No. 174.

[Sidenote: =715.=]

Fragment of relief, which may be supposed to have been similar to the
preceding. Sacrificial procession, including a man, of whom but little
remains, a woman, two children, and one draped figure, whose
sex cannot be distinguished, carrying a large vessel on the
head.--_Athens?_ _Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 4-3/4 inches; width, 9-1/2 inches.
  _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 36, fig. 3; _Synopsis_, No. 189 (284);
  _Guide to Elgin Room_, Part II., No. F. 6.

[Sidenote: =716.=]

Relief with banquet and sacrifice. A male figure, who is half draped,
reclines on a couch with a bowl in his right hand. He wears a _polos_
and in type resembles a divinity. Before him is a table with food.
A woman is seated on the foot of the couch and has a cup in her left
hand. On the right a youth draws wine from a crater. On the left a
man, woman, and boy approach as worshippers. The relief is bounded
by two pilasters, surmounted by an entablature, above which are
roof-tiles.--_Townley Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 9-1/2 inches; width, 1 foot 1-3/4 inches.
  Ellis, _Townley Gallery_, II., p. 167; Welcker, _Alte Denkmaeler_,
  II. p. 278.

[Sidenote: =717.=]

Relief with banquet and sacrifice. A male figure, half draped and
wearing a _polos_ as in the last relief, reclines on a couch. He has
a cup in the left hand and a rhyton in the right hand. Before him is
a table with food. A woman is seated at the foot of the couch, with a
cup in her left hand. On the left a boy stands beside a jar of wine,
which is raised on a pedestal. At the left a woman, and two smaller
figures approach as worshippers. Above, the head of a horse is seen
looking through an opening. The relief is bounded by two pilasters,
surmounted by an entablature, above which are roof-tiles.--
_Halicarnassos._ _Presented by H.M. Sultan Abdul Medjid to Viscount
Stratford de Redcliffe, and by him presented to the British Museum._

  Marble; height, 10 inches; width, 1 foot 1 inch.

[Sidenote: =718.=]

Fragment of relief. A nude male figure who seems to be wearing a
Phrygian cap, and holds some object in his right hand, stands with
his left hand over an altar. On the right side of the altar was a male
figure making a libation. Only the right hand with the saucer, and the
right foot remain. On the left a bearded man stands, with his right
hand raised.--_Athens?_ _Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 6 inches; width, 1 foot 3 inches.
  _Synopsis_, No. 380 (101); _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 37, fig. 1.

[Sidenote: =719.=]

Group of persons about to sacrifice; from the left side of a
sepulchral relief. On the right of the fragment is a man with a large
amphora, turned to the right. Behind him are two men and two women,
all standing as worshippers.--_Mytilene._

  Marble; height, 10 inches; width, 11 inches. Conze, _Lesbos_, p.
  10, Note 3, No. 1.

[Sidenote: =720.=]

Fragment of relief with banquet and serpent. A man reclines on a couch
and pours a libation from a bowl. Before the couch is a table with
food. A serpent is coiled beneath the table and stretches its head
towards the bowl. On the left is the hand holding a casket (_pyxis_)
of a woman, who had been seated at the foot of the couch. The relief
is bounded by pilasters, an entablature and a roof.

  Marble; height, 1 foot 1 inch; width, 9 inches.

[Sidenote: =721.=]

Relief with a female figure of the type of the banquet reliefs. A
woman seated, wearing a lofty head-dress (_polos_), holds an ivy-leaf
fan in her left hand, and with the right hand appears to be offering a
cup to a serpent.--_Athens?_ _Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 2 feet 3-1/2 inches; width, 1 foot 5-3/4
  inches. _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 38, fig. 3; _Synopsis_, No. 278
  (238); Ellis, _Elgin Marbles_, II., p. 127, No. 278.

[Sidenote: =722.=]

Relief with banquet. A man reclines on a couch with a cup in his left
hand. Before him is a table with food. A woman is seated near the foot
of the couch with her left hand raised to her veil. On the right is a
boy in a short tunic, perhaps holding a kyathos. On the left is a
girl who is standing, and seems to be holding a vase. The relief is
surmounted by a pediment.

Inscribed: [Greek: Hermias Athaniônos]. Hermias, son of
Athenion.--_Athens._ _Strangford Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 5 inches; width, 10 inches. _Greek
  Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, CXVI.; _Arch. Anzeiger_, 1864, p.
  164*; Pervanoglu, _Familienmahl_, p. 15, No. 5.

[Sidenote: =723.=]

Relief with banquet. A man reclines on a couch, with a bowl in his
left hand; with the right hand he holds a wreath on his head. Before
him is a table with food. The legs of the table terminate above in the
form of swans' heads. Above is an olive wreath, containing the words
[Greek: Ho dêmos]; also a pediment, having acroteria, and containing a
rosette.

Inscribed:

[Greek:
          Ho dêmos Lênaion Artemidôrou·
  kai to prin en polemois têrôn pyrgon, parodita,
    kai nyn têrêsô, hôs dynamai, nekys ôn.]

The 'tower' which Lenaios undertakes to defend in death has been
conjectured to be the Dipylon gate at Athens, whence the relief was
probably obtained.

  Bluish Greek marble; height, 3 feet 11-1/2 inches; width, 1 foot 7
  inches. _Rhein. Mus. N.F._ 1848, p. 82; Kaibel, 111.

[Sidenote: =724.=]

Sculptured pedestal. On the front is a relief of a banquet. A man
reclines on a couch, with a table of food before him. He holds a bowl
in his left hand, and clasps with his right hand the hand of a woman
who is seated at the foot of the couch. A boy stands on the left. A
wreath is carved on the pilaster to the right of the relief, which
probably contained the inscription: [Greek: Ho dêmos].

Inscribed: [Greek: Hellaniôn Tarseus], Hellanion of Tarsus. On the
right and left ends the pedestal is adorned with pediments. Above,
it is roughly worked to fit the plinth of a statue.--_Xanthos?_
_Presented by J. Scott Tucker, Esq., R.N._

  Bluish-grey marble; height, 2 feet 1/4 inch; width, 2 feet
  7 inches. _Arch. Anzeiger_, 1851, p. 128; Pervanoglu,
  _Familienmahl_, p. 34, No. 113.

[Sidenote: =725.=]

Fragment of relief, with banquet. The upper half is wanting. A man
reclines on a couch, and holds a bowl and a rhyton (?), which were
perhaps of bronze attached, in the left and right hands respectively.
A woman sits on the end of the couch. On the right is a diminutive
male figure with the hands clasped. On the left is a girl, who stands
leaning against the foot of the couch, and holds an ivy-leaf fan in
her left hand.--_Halicarnassos._

  Marble; height, 1 foot 2 inches; width, 2 feet.

[Sidenote: =726.=]

Relief with banquet and serpent. A man fully draped, reclines on a
couch, with a bowl in his left hand. Before the couch is a table with
provisions. A woman is seated on a stool by the foot of the couch. In
her left hand she extends a bowl from which a serpent is drinking.
The serpent is coiled about the trunk of a tree. On the right is a
diminutive male figure standing by a crater; on the left is a female
figure holding a box.--_Found in a store at Portsmouth._ _Probably
from Smyrna._

  Bluish marble; height, 1 foot 10-1/2 inches; width, 1 foot 6
  inches.

[Sidenote: =727.=]

Fragment of a relief with banquet and serpent. A man reclines on a
couch holding a bowl in his left hand. A woman is seated on a chair
by the head of the couch. A snake issues from under the chair and
approaches the woman. One arm of the chair is supported by a figure of
a Sphinx. The heads of both figures are wanting of _Mytilene_.

  Marble; height, 11 inches; width, 10-1/2 inches. Conze, _Lesbos_,
  p. 10, Note 3, No. 3.

[Sidenote: =728.=]

Relief with banquet and serpent. A figure, apparently that of a man,
reclines on a couch. He has long hair, and a closely-fitting chiton,
and holds a cup in his left hand. Before him is a table with food,
towards which he extends his right hand. A woman is seated on the foot
of the couch, and gives drink from a bowl to a serpent. On the right a
boy has drawn wine from a crater with a jug, and is offering a bowl
to the reclining figure. Behind is a stair-like series of shelves, on
which stand several vessels. On the left a woman raises her right hand
with a gesture as of adoration. Above, a horse's head is seen looking
through an opening. The relief is bounded by two Ionic columns
surmounted by a flat arch.--_Naucratis._ _Presented by the Egypt
Exploration Fund, 1886._

  Limestone, with traces of red paint; height, 1 foot 3 inches;
  width 1 foot 8-1/2 inches. Gardner, _Naukratis_, II., p. 22.

[Sidenote: =729.=]

Fragment of relief, with banquet and serpent. The fragment contains
the upper part of a male figure, wearing a polos, reclining on a
couch, holding a cup in the left hand, and having a table before him.
A snake is coiled about one leg of the table.--_Mytilene._

  Marble; height, 1 foot 3/4 inch; width, 7 inches. Conze, _Lesbos_,
  p. 10, Note 3, No. 2.

[Sidenote: =730.=]

Fragment of relief, with banquet. A male figure reclines on a couch.
Before him is a table with food. He has a rhyton in his right hand and
a cup in his left hand.

  Marble; height, 11 inches; width, 10 inches.

[Sidenote: =731.=]

Fragment of relief with banquet. A male figure reclines on a couch
between two columns, with a bowl in his right hand. A table with cups
stands before the couch.--_Thasos._ _Strangford Coll._

  Marble; height, 9 inches; width, 1 foot 2 inches.

[Sidenote: =732.=]

Fragment of relief with banquet. A male figure, whose legs alone are
preserved, reclines on a couch. Before him is a table with food. A
woman, whose lower limbs are alone preserved, is seated on a chair
at the foot of the couch. A small draped figure of a youth is on the
right, and there are remains of the figure of a girl on the left.

  Marble; height, 1 foot 7 inches; width, 2 feet 6 inches.

[Sidenote: =733.=]

Relief with banquet. A man, bearded, reclines on a couch, and holds up
a rhyton in his right hand. Before him is a table with food. A woman
is seated on the couch, and raises with the left hand a fold of her
peplos. On the left a boy draws wine from a large crater. The head of
a horse is seen at an opening. A round shield hangs on the wall. The
relief is bounded by two pilasters and an entablature.--_Excavated by
Mr. Wood at Ephesus._

  Ephesian marble; height, 1 foot 7-1/2 inches; width, 2 feet 2-1/2
  inches.

[Sidenote: =734.=]

Relief with banquet. A portrait figure of an old man, whose head is
bound with a taenia, reclines on a couch with a two-handled cup in
his left hand. Before him is a table with pomegranate fruits and other
food. A portrait figure of a woman is seated near the foot of the
couch, with her left hand raised to her veil. A boy in a short tunic
stands on the right, and holds a kyathos for drawing wine; a rhyton
and a vase are seen above his head. A girl kneels on the left
below the seat of the woman; a dog lies between the legs of the
table.--_Townley Coll._

  Greek marble; high relief. The upper part is wanting. Height 1
  foot 8-1/2 inches; width, 1 foot 6 inches. _Mus. Marbles_, X., pl.
  49, fig. 2.

[Sidenote: =735.=]

Relief with banquet. A male figure reclines on a couch, before which
is a table with provisions. A woman is seated on a stool at the foot
of the couch with her hand raised to her chin.

Inscribed: [Greek: ....nou chaire].--_Cyzicus._ _Presented by A. van
Branteghem, Esq., 1890._

  Marble; height, 10-1/2 inches; width, 9-1/2 inches. _Rev. Arch._,
  1891, p. 12, No. 4.

[Sidenote: =736.=]

Relief with banquet. Three elderly male figures recline on a long
couch, wearing diadems and holding large bowls in their left hands.
Before them is a table with two large pomegranates and a basket of
fruit. At each end of the couch is a seated woman. The head is lost of
the woman on the left. At the left angle in low relief is a diminutive
figure of a girl, with a basket (_calathos_); at the right angle is
a diminutive figure of a boy, with a crater. The relief is bounded
by pilasters and an entablature. Below is the hull of a vessel in low
relief, and the metrical epitaph of Dionysodoros, son of Pytheas.

[Greek:
          Dionysodôrou tou Pytheou.
  a. Dionysodôre, chaire; b. kai sy ge, ô phile,
     to nyn ech[on g]einôske me hôde keimenon,
     kalon kai agathon kai kalôs ezôkota,
     L]imnagenê gegonota, pasi prosphil[ê.]

--_Brought from Cyzicus, in 1830, by H.M.S. Blonde._ _Found in 1880 in
a store at Portsmouth._

  Bluish Greek marble; height, 2 feet 5-1/2 inches; width, 2 feet 8
  inches. _C.I.G._, 3684; Kaibel, 245; Wolters, _Rhein. Mus. N.F._,
  1886, p. 346.

[Sidenote: =737.=]

Late relief with banquet. A man and woman recline on a couch. Before
them is a table with food. The man puts his right arm round the neck
of the woman, who appears to be holding a cup, or a wreath. On the
left a woman is seated on a stool; beneath the couch are a child and
a girl (the upper part alone seen), who holds a dish. The relief is
bounded by two Doric columns and a pediment. The monument was erected
by one Alexander for his mother, his wife Philippa, and himself.
Penalties are prescribed for persons violating the tomb.

Inscribed: [Greek: Alexandros Alexandrou Beithynieu[s] kai Neikomêdeus
zôn heautô kateskeuas[a] to mnêmeion kai tê mêtri mou kai tê symbiô
Philippa Pontianou. kai boulome meta to tethênai hêmas eis tên kamaran
mêdena heteron anoixe; ei de para tauta poiêsei dôsei is ton
phiskon dên. b,ph (2,500) kai is tên polin dên. b,ph (2,500).
chairete.]--_Smyrna._ _Presented by M. Duane and T. Tyrwhitt, Esqs.,
1772._

  Marble; height, 2 feet 9 inches; width, 1 foot 8 inches.
  _Archaeologia_, III., pl. 11, fig. 3; _C.I.G._, 3265; Pervanoglu,
  _Familienmahl_, p. 45, No. 180.

[Sidenote: =738.=]

Sepulchral relief. Two men recline on a couch; a woman is seated on
a stool at the head of the couch. The inscribed metrical epitaph, in
which one Cassiodoros relates his death at the age of twenty-four, has
no appropriateness to the relief.

[Greek:
  Nymphidiou thalamoio lipôn dyspenthea kosmon
    kai goneôn oik[t]rôn dakryoenta domon
  keimai es [au]chmêrous kai alampeas Aïdos eunas
    eikos[i t]essar' echôn Kassiodôros etê;
  ap[roi]dês nous[o]s me synêrpase; mounoeti[n de
    n]êp[i]achon kourên lipô hyp' êelion.]--_Antioch?_

  Marble; height, 1 foot 8 inches; width, 1 foot 3 inches.
  Drummond's _Travels_ (1754), pl. facing p. 229, fig. 15 (very
  rudely drawn), and p. 237; _C.I.G._, 4466; Kaibel, 431. In
  Drummond's time the stone was "in the Library of the right
  worshipful the Levant Company" at Aleppo.

[Sidenote: =739.=]

Stelè with reliefs in two panels. In the upper panel is a figure on
a couch holding a bunch of grapes. The upper part of the figure is
wanting. Before the couch are a table with food and three attendant
male figures.

In the lower panel is a woman seated with a boy standing beside
her. Most of these two figures is wanting. In front are two warriors
standing, with shields and spears.--_Kertch._

  Limestone; height, 3 feet; width, 1 foot 9 inches. For the
  collection of sculptures from Kertch, see above, p. 8.

[Sidenote: =740.=]

Relief with banquet. A draped figure, now for the most part lost,
reclines on a very lofty couch, holding a two-handled cup in the left
hand. On the left are the knees and legs of a woman seated on a lofty
throne, with an arm supported by a series of arches. Before the couch
is a table with vessels of wine. A boy stands on a stool, and holds
a jug in his hands. On the right is an attendant. On the left is a
female figure holding a vase, and a smaller figure.

Inscribed: [Greek: ... de hyie Androne[ik]ou chaire]. Hail! ... son of
Andronicos.--_Kertch._

  Limestone; height, 2 feet 7 inches; width, 2 feet 7 inches. _Greek
  Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, CLXXXII.; Latyschev, II., 212.

[Sidenote: =741.=]

Lower part of relief with banquet, of very rude style. A male figure
reclines to the right on a couch, holding a two-handled cup in the
right hand. Before him is a table, with vessels of wine. At the end of
the couch a woman is seated, enthroned, holding a veil with her left
hand. A boy with an oinochoè stands on the right by the table. A girl
with a pyxis stands on the left behind the throne. There are remains
of pilasters. Inscribed: [Greek: Isigonê gynê Hêraklidou chaire.
Hêrakleidê g(ynê) b chaire.]--_Kertch._

  Limestone; height, 2 feet 8 inches; width, 2 feet 4-1/2 inches.
  _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, CXCI.; Latyschev, II., 96.

[Sidenote: =742.=]

Sepulchral monument with a banquet relief of very rude style,
contained in a lunette above the inscribed panel. A male figure
reclines on a couch, with a cup in his right hand, with an uncertain
object near the cup, which may perhaps be intended to represent the
snake. A table stands before the couch with food. A woman sits on a
stool at the foot of the couch, and holds her veil with her left hand.
A small figure of a boy is at the head of the couch. On each side of
the inscribed panel is a vine branch with grapes; above are a pine
cone and two lions' heads to the front in high relief. Below are the
remains of a relief with a mounted horseman. On the right and left
edges of the relief are snakes. The inscription states that the
monument is erected by Timocrates for his wife, his son, and
himself.--_Tomis._

  Limestone; height, 6 feet 11 inches; width, 2 feet 8-1/2 inches.
  _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, CLXXVII.

[Sidenote: =743.=]

Sepulchral monument with a banquet relief of the rudest style. Two
male figures, one being bearded, recline on a couch, holding cups in
their left hands. Before them is a table with food; beside it a boy
with a cup and oinochoè (?), and a girl with a phialè. A woman is
seated on a chair by the head of the couch, with the right hand raised
to her chin. A vine branch with grapes runs round the relief and the
inscribed panel. A Latin inscription states that the monument was
erected in memory of a girl, Ulpia Aurelia Valeria.--_Kertch._

  Limestone; height, 7 feet 1 inch; width, 3 feet.

[Sidenote: =744.=]

Late sepulchral relief. A man reclines on a couch. A woman stands at
the foot of the couch. The relief is contained in an arch-shaped
field below a pediment. Inscribed, [Greek: LYTE ...]--_Obtained by
the Euphrates Expedition_ _(1835-1837) and presented by Sir J. C.
Hobhouse, President of the Board of Control._

  Marble; height, 2 feet; width, 1 foot 3 inches.


[Sidenote: =745.=]

Sepulchral relief, with a man seated, and a man standing holding a
scroll in his left hand. The two figures probably joined their right
hands. In the right and left angles are diminutive figures. On the
right is a horse's head. A tree with a snake is seen above a wall in
the background. The relief is surmounted by an entablature.

Inscribed with the metrical epitaph:

[Greek:
  Oupô] nymphidiôn kradiê peplêthota lektrôn
    Diphi]lon aiaktô tôd' hypenasse taphô
  gnôton] te gnôtê te panaidoiê Stratonikê
    hô k]ai Alexandron kouron homêgenea,
  ast]ois kai xeinoisi prosêneas, esthla men eipein
    esth]la de kai rhexai pantas epistamenous:
  Maio]genes, sy de paidas en hêrôessi phylassois
    eusebe]ôn aiei chôron eperchomenos.]

This sculpture, and the following, No. 746, have been placed here,
though they do not include the banquet, because they have some
details, such as the serpent and the horse's head, similar to those on
the banquet reliefs.--_Ephesus._ _Excavated by Mr. Wood, between the
Magnesian Gate and the Temple of Artemis._

  Ephesian marble; height, 3 feet; width, 1 foot 7-1/2 inches.
  Wood, _Ephesus_, p. 123; _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._,
  DCXXV_a._

[Sidenote: =746.=]

A boy, Serapion, stands between two figures, probably those of his
father and mother. All three are closely wrapped in himatia. Behind is
a tree, about which is a serpent; a bird sits on a branch. The
relief is bounded by pilasters, a circular arch with rosettes in the
spandrels, and a pediment.

Inscribed: [Greek: Serapiôn, chrêste kai alype chaire].

  Greek marble; height, 3 feet 2 inches; width, 1 foot 8-1/4 inches.
  This stone was formerly at Venice, and afterwards in London, "apud
  Dodd chemicum." Boeckh, _C.I.G._, 6990.



RELIEFS WITH RIDER AND HORSE, HEROIFIED.


In the following reliefs the deceased person is heroified, and
represented as receiving libations or worship. The sepulchral serpent
is frequently introduced. For a discussion of the type, see above, p.
301.

[Sidenote: =750.=]

Sepulchral relief of a warrior. In the centre of the relief is a
bearded male figure, heavily armed. He wears a helmet, cuirass, and
greaves, and has a spear in his left hand. He stands near a trophy
which consists of a helmet, cuirass, and greaves attached to the trunk
of a tree. On the left side of the trophy stands a female figure,
pouring a libation from a jug into a cup. A serpent, coiled about
the trophy, drinks from the cup. On the right of the relief is the
forepart of the warrior's horse and the head of a groom. The relief is
bounded by two pilasters and an architrave.

The inscription on the upper and lower edges contains a list of
names of men in the dative case, with their cities added. The persons
commemorated belonged to various parts of the Peloponnesus, Northern
Greece, Thrace and Macedonia. From the position of the inscription,
it is plain that it is independent of the relief, and probably it is
earlier.--_Brought from Greece by Mr. Topham, 1725; Presented by Sir
Joseph Banks and the Hon. A. C. Fraser, 1780._

  Greek marble; height, 2 feet 1-7/8 inch; width, 3 feet 8-1/2
  inches. _Mus. Marbles_, II., pl. 41; Ellis, _Townley Gallery_,
  II., p. 157; Jahn, _De Ant. Minervae Simulacris_, p. 23, pl. 3,
  fig. 1; _C.I.G._, 1936; Wolters, 437.

[Sidenote: =751.=]

Mutilated relief. A horseman is mounted, to the right. He has an
elaborate skin saddle-cloth, terminating with an animal's head before
the horse. Behind on the left is an attendant with a tunic worn over
one shoulder (_heteromaschalos_), and with a shield. On the right are
an altar and a tree, about which a serpent is entwined. An uncertain
object is seen in the upper left corner of the relief. The relief is
very high. The horse originally had reins of bronze.

  Marble; height, 3 feet; width, 3 feet.

[Sidenote: =752.=]

Fragment of sepulchral relief? A figure was represented leading a
horse to the right. Only one hand and foot, and parts of the horse
remain. Before it stand three male figures on a smaller scale, each
figure raising the right hand, making a gesture as of adoration. The
relief was bounded by pilasters and an entablature.--_Blayds Coll._

  White marble; height, 1 foot 1 inch; width, 1 foot 1 inch.

[Sidenote: =753.=]

Sepulchral relief. A youth rides on a horse, to the right, wearing
a short tunic and cloak. He approaches a female figure, of a larger
scale, who wears a long chiton and himation. She has an oinochoè in
the right hand and a phialè in the left hand. Behind her is a
bearded figure on a smaller scale with the right hand raised as in
adoration.--_Aphanda, Rhodes._

  Marble; height, 1 foot 5 inches; width, 2 feet. _Arch. Anzeiger_,
  1854, p. 485, No. 8; _Athenische Mittheilungen_, VIII., p. 370.

[Sidenote: =754.=]

Fragment of a sepulchral relief, of a late period. A mounted horseman
advances to a flaming altar. On the right of the altar is a pine
tree, about which a snake is coiled. Only the head and forelegs of the
horse, and the left hand of the horseman is preserved. The hand holds
a double-headed axe. A dog stands below the horse.--_Ephesus._ _J. T.
Wood._

  Ephesian marble; height, 1 foot 4-1/2 inches; width, 8 inches. The
  figure with the double-headed axe resembles that of the so-called
  [Greek: theos sôzôn] on late reliefs from Asia Minor (_Journ. of
  Hellen. Studies_, VIII., p. 235; Roscher, _Lexicon_, p. 2564).

[Sidenote: =755.=]

Fragment of a sepulchral relief of a late period. A mounted horseman
with a chiton and a cloak flying behind him stands on the left of an
altar, at which a draped youth makes a libation. On the right is a
tree about which a snake is coiled. The left side of the relief is
wanting.--_Ephesus._ _J. T. Wood._

  Ephesian marble; height, 1 foot 2 inches; width, 1 foot 5 inches.

[Sidenote: =756.=]

Fragment of a sepulchral relief, with a figure of a mounted horseman
wearing a chiton and cloak. The head of the rider, and the head and
hind-part of the horse are wanting.--_Ephesus._ _J. T. Wood._

  Ephesian marble; height, 10 inches; width, 6-1/2 inches.

[Sidenote: =757.=]

Mounted horseman to the right. Before him stands a figure making a
gesture of adoration. Above is a pediment, with rosettes. The relief
is in very late rude style.

Inscribed: [Greek: Êzous Apoll[ôni]dou tois parag[ou]sin
chairein].--_From Phanagoria._

  Limestone; height, 2 feet 4-1/2 inches; width, 1 foot 2 inches.
  _C.I.G._, 2129; _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, CCVI.;
  Latyschev, II., 378.



CASTS OF LYCIAN SEPULCHRAL RELIEFS.


The following casts are derived from Lycian rock-cut tombs, discovered
by Sir C. Fellows. Tombs of the normal type have a facade with
architecture imitating wooden construction. Behind the facade is a
vestibule, or portico, often adorned with reliefs on each side. At the
back is the door of the actual sepulchral chamber. Nos. 760-764 are
derived from tombs of this type.

[Sidenote: =760.=]

Cast of relief from the east or left side of the portico of a rock-cut
tomb. Bellerophon mounted on Pegasos appears to be thrusting as with
a spear at the Chimaera which is roughly indicated in the right-hand
lower corner of the relief. Pegasos has the mane tied in a topknot
between the ears, as in the relief from Xanthos, No. 86. The cast is
painted in imitation of the original.--_Tlos._

  Height, 3 feet 6-1/2 inches; width, 3 feet 7-3/4 inches. Fellows,
  _Lycia_, p. 136 and plate. For general view of the tomb, see
  Benndorf, _Reisen in Lykien_, I., p. 139, and pl. 42 (on the
  right).

[Sidenote: =761-4.=]

Casts of reliefs from the sides of the portico of a rock-cut tomb
at _Pinara_. The outside of the tomb has an elaborate facade with
sculptured pediment, frieze, and other ornaments. (For general view,
see Fellows, _Lycia_, pl. facing p. 141, and Benndorf, _Reisen in
Lykien_, I., pl. 19.) Within the portico, on each side, projecting
beam ends divide the sculpture into two panels. Each of the four
reliefs represents a view of a Lycian city, but there is no proof
that they are four different views of the city of Pinara, as Fellows
thought (_Lycia_, p. 141).

[Sidenote: =761.=]

Cast of the upper relief on the left or west side of the portico.
View of part of a city on a hill, with castellated walls. Within are
towers, with windows and connected by a wall, on which is a relief of
three male figures.

  Height, 3 feet 1/2 inch; width, 4 feet 2-1/4 inches.

[Sidenote: =762.=]

Cast of the lower relief on the left or west side of the portico.
View of part of a city on a hill with castellated walls and turrets, a
large pylon (?) and several tombs of forms well known in Lycia. In
the lower wall is a relief, with a draped and bearded man leaning on
a staff and addressing a smaller figure. For the triangular arch
openings in the wall, compare Dodwell, _Pelasgic Remains_, pl. 27,
view of walls of a city near Mesolonghi.

  Height, 2 feet 10 inches; width, 4 feet 2-1/2 inches.

[Sidenote: =763.=]

Cast of the upper relief on the right or east side of the portico.
View of part of a city on a hill with castellated walls and turrets.
A figure, apparently intended to represent a living man, and not a
sculpture, as on the other reliefs, lifts his hand near one of the
towers.

  Height, 3 feet 2 inches; width, 4 feet 1/2 inch.

[Sidenote: =764.=]

Cast of the lower relief on the right or east side of the portico.
View of part of a city with castellated walls and turrets, built on
natural rocks. On the right is a large structure resembling a tomb. On
the left is a staircase, leading up to a door in a turret.

  Height, 2 feet 10 inches; width, 4 feet 1/2 inch. The four reliefs
  are engraved, Fellows, _Lycia_, pl. facing p. 142; Benndorf,
  _Reisen in Lykien_, I., p. 54; _Synopsis_, _Lycian Room_, Nos.
  148, 149.

[Sidenote: =765, 766.=]

The following casts are from a portion of the sculptures decorating a
tomb, discovered by Sir C. Fellows, at _Cadyanda_. The tomb is cut out
of a large piece of detached rock, and in type somewhat resembles
the large Lycian tombs in the British Museum, or the tomb of Xanthos,
shown in the background of pl. iii., the principal difference being in
the treatment of the roof. At the end of the tomb are two doors. One
door is filled with an immovable panel, with a figure of a draped
bearded man holding an oinochoè, and inscribed [Greek: Salas], and in
Lycian _zzala_. The second door is believed to have been fitted with a
panel, having the wife of Salas in relief. (Fellows, _Lycia_, p.
117.) The reliefs, of which casts are preserved in the British Museum,
formed a frieze immediately below the cornice on each side of the
tomb. Below this frieze on each side was a combat of warriors on a
larger scale.

  Fellows, _Lycia_, p. 116; Petersen, _Reisen in Lykien_, II.,
  p. 193. Views and plans of the tomb are included in the Scharf
  portfolio of drawings in the British Museum.

[Sidenote: =765.=]

Cast of a portion of the relief on the south side of the tomb at
_Cadyanda_.

At the left end of the relief a girl draped in plain long chiton
with sleeves, and a cap with tassel, stands to the right holding an
aryballos and alabastron. On the left of the principal relief is a
group of four figures playing with knuckle-bones. In front are a girl
seated and a girl kneeling, both closely draped and having long hair.
Behind are a youth standing, wrapped in a mantle, and a woman who
holds an aryballos in her left hand and wears her mantle over her
head. All the figures make animated gestures. Near the head of the
youth is the inscription [Greek: Mesos]. Next on the right is a woman
seated, holding a boy in her hands, and wearing her mantle over her
head. Behind her is a female figure, much mutilated, standing to the
left with her right hand under her chin. The remainder of the relief,
which is not represented by a cast, appears to have contained either a
sacrificial group (Scharf), or warriors (Petersen, _Reisen in Lykien_,
ii., p. 193).

  Height, 2 feet 3/4 inch; length, 4 feet 2 inches. Fellows,
  _Lycia_, frontispiece, and pl. facing p. 116; _Synopsis_, _Lycian
  Room_, No. 151; Petersen, _Reisen in Lykien_, II., p. 194, fig.
  84.

[Sidenote: =766.=]

Cast of the relief on the north side of the tomb at _Cadyanda_. This
relief which is much mutilated, appears to contain a banquet scene,
with four couches, each having two persons reclining and several
attendant figures. Two attendants stand near the first couch on the
left. One has a wreath in the right hand. Near him is the inscription
[Greek: ...A....A]. A smaller figure plays on the flute. On the first
couch are remains of a figure seated, nearly erect, and of a figure
lying with his head resting on his left hand and having a bowl in his
right hand. A portion of the original sculpture is here inserted in
the cast. Above is the inscription [Greek: ...easob] (?), and below
is the bilingual inscription _edazzala_ [Greek: Eidassalas]. The next
group is obscure, but appears to consist of a figure seated, with
the right hand stretched out, so as to be seen above the head of the
figure last described, and a figure holding a child which stretches
out its arms to a figure on the right. Below the first of these two
figures is the bilingual inscription _mezo_ [Greek: Mesos]. On the
left of the second of the two figures is the bilingual inscription
_zzala_ [Greek: Salas], the Lycian being also repeated below,
_zzal(a)_. We must, therefore, suppose this figure to be Salas, the
owner of the tomb. The child is named _horlar_ (?) On the next couch is
a draped figure reclining on the left elbow, and holding out his right
hand to the child. Near this figure is the inscription [Greek: SIRO]
(?), and below it, remains of an illegible inscription. Next on the
right is a small draped female figure, seated on a chair, with the
hands stretched out. Behind her is a larger figure standing, with the
bilingual inscription _...katamna_ [Greek: Hekatomnas]. On the third
couch are two men reclining. Above the first is the inscription
[Greek: Kparam[os]], and below _[k]pparama_. Below the second is the
bilingual inscription _mola_ [Greek: Molos] (?). Below the couch is a
dog. On the fourth couch are also two men reclining. Above the
first is the inscription [Greek: Seskôs], and below remains of the
corresponding Lycian inscription _ze...wwa_. Below the second is
a bilingual inscription, in which only the Greek name, [Greek:
Kendyomis], is legible. A dog stands below the couch.

At the right end of the relief, corresponding to the figure at the
left end of the north side, is a nude male figure dancing, with the
bilingual inscription _äkatam[n]a_ [Greek: Hekatomnas].

  Height, 2 feet 1 inch; length, 8 feet 8 inches. Fellows, _Lycia_,
  pl. facing p. 116 (very inaccurate); _C.I.G._, 4225; _Synopsis_,
  _Lycian Room_, No. 152; Petersen, _Reisen in Lykien_, II., p. 193.



VOTIVE RELIEFS.


For an account of Greek votive reliefs, of the occasions on which they
were dedicated and of the objects represented, see above, p. 302.

[Sidenote: =770.=]

Fragment of relief. Zeus, wearing a mantle, is seated on a stool
(_diphros_). His left arm is raised, as if resting on a sceptre. The
right hand is extended. Near him is Hera, standing, with her right
arm across her breast and her left hand raised to her veil. The relief
which is only complete at the right side, was bounded by pilasters
and an architrave. The missing part may have contained the figures of
suppliants.--_Athens (?)._ _Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 7 inches; width, 1 foot 2 inches.
  _Synopsis_, No. 376 (227); _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 37, fig. 2;
  cf. Schöne, _Griechische Reliefs_, pl. 25, figs. 104, 105.

[Sidenote: =771.=]

Relief from the upper part of an inscribed stelè. Athenè, standing
on the right of the scene, places with her right hand a wreath on the
head of a male figure less in stature. On the left is a draped female
figure holding out in her right hand a wreath or a cup. The left hand
of this figure is raised to the level of the top of her head, as
if resting on a staff. She wears a long chiton, over which is a
diploïdion reaching nearly to the knees. A short mantle hangs on her
left arm. Athenè is clad in a long chiton with diploïdion; her left
hand rests on the edge of her shield at her side.

From a comparison of this relief, with other similar compositions
from Athens, it is probable that it is the heading broken off from an
honorary decree of the Athenian people by which a crown was conferred
on some city or individual for services. (Compare above, p. 303;
Schöne, _Griech. Reliefs_, pl. 16, fig. 75, p. 41; and the fragment,
No. 772.)

The figure of Athenè here as on many other reliefs is in its general
outlines copied from the Athenè Parthenos of Pheidias. (Compare
Michaelis, pl. 15, figs. 6-17.)--_Athens (?)._ _Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 11 inches; width, 1 foot 4-1/2 inches.
  _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 35, fig. 4; _Synopsis_, No. 375 (82);
  _Elgin Room Guide_, Part II., No. F. 4.

[Sidenote: =772.=]

Fragment of relief from the upper part of an inscribed stelè. Athenè
stands on the right; with her right hand she places a crown on the
head of a youth, who stands facing her on the left. He is clad in a
mantle. Athenè wears a crested helmet and a long chiton, over which
is a diploïdion; on her breast is the aegis; her left hand holds her
shield which rests on the ground on its edge. The relief was bounded
by pilasters and a pediment. It is probable that originally a third
figure balanced the figure of Athenè, as in the preceding relief, No.
771.

This figure of Athenè, like the preceding, is in its general outlines
copied from the Athenè Parthenos of Pheidias.--_Athens (?)._ _Elgin
Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 4 inches; width, 9-1/2 inches.
  _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 36, fig. 1; _Synopsis_, No. 371 (89);
  _Elgin Room Guide_, Part II., No. F. 5. For similar subjects,
  see Schöne, _Griech. Reliefs_, pl. 22, No. 96; Wolters, Nos.
  1157-1181.

[Sidenote: =773.=]

Part of a relief, from the upper part of an inscribed stelè. Athenè
stands on the left, and with her right hand she crowns a draped male
figure, apparently a bearded man, who raises his right arm as if
in adoration. Athenè wears a helmet and chiton with diploïdion, and
places her left hand on her shield, of which the inner side is shown.
The spear of Athenè rests against her left shoulder, with its end on
the ground inside the shield. The relief is bounded by pilasters, with
entablature and roof-tiles. The figure of Athenè (like Nos. 771, 772)
is roughly copied from the Athenè Parthenos of Pheidias.

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 6 inches; width, 9-3/4 inches.

[Sidenote: =774.=]

Relief: Apollo receiving a libation from Victory. Apollo wears the
dress of a Kitharoedos, namely, a long chiton with sleeves, over
which is a diploïdion girt at the waist; a mantle hangs from his left
shoulder; his long hair is looped up in a broad plait behind, under a
diadem; a single long plait falls over each ear; he holds out a
bowl with his right hand, while his left strikes his lyre, which is
supported by a broad band passing over the left wrist; from the lyre
hang two ends of ribbons; he wears armlets and sandals. The Victory is
clad in a long chiton, over which is a diploïdion girt at the waist;
she wears bracelets and armlets. Both figures stand with the heels
raised from the ground: at the side of the Victory is a circular
altar, on which is sculptured in relief a winged female figure between
two festoons. This subject occurs on several other reliefs in marble,
for one of which see below, No. 775, and also on a terracotta relief
in the British Museum. (For a list, see Welcker, _Alte Denkmaeler_,
ii., p. 37.) All these sculptures exhibit the same peculiar style of
affected archaism, known as archaistic. On a comparison of the reliefs
in which this subject occurs, it will be seen that the one here
described is part of a larger composition in which Leto and Artemis
follow behind Apollo, and a temple is introduced in the background; a
tripod, a statue on a pedestal, the _omphalos_, a plane tree, and the
Horae on the altar also occur as accessories. It seems probable that
these reliefs are votive, and that in selecting as their subject
the victory of Apollo in a musical contest, the dedicator
indirectly commemorated his own triumph in a similar exercise of
skill.--_Hamilton Coll., 1772._

  Marble; height, 2 feet 1 inch; width, 2 feet 1 inch. Restored: the
  greater part of the body of Apollo, lower part of body of Victory,
  column on left, and lower part of column on right. The parts
  restored have been copied from more perfect marbles in the Villa
  Albani. _Mus. Marbles_, II., pl. 13; Ellis, _Townley Gallery_,
  II., p. 113; _Guide to Graeco-Roman Sculptures_, I., No. 169;
  Wolters, No. 427; Welcker, _Alte Denkmaeler_, II., p. 41.

[Sidenote: =775.=]

Fragment of a relief which probably commemorates a musical or dramatic
victory. Two draped female figures move to the right: the foremost of
these (Artemis) holds out in both hands a lighted torch; she also
has a quiver with a bow projecting from it, behind her shoulder. The
second figure, who is probably Leto, holds in her left hand a sceptre,
the head of which is formed by a pomegranate flower. The drapery of
both figures is arranged in the archaistic style. Both figures wear a
long chiton with sleeves, over which is a long full garment reaching
nearly to the feet; over this again is a diploïdion girt at the waist.
A mantle falls from the left shoulder of Artemis, floating to below
her knees; her companion with her right hand draws forward over her
right shoulder the edge of a mantle, the other end of which falls over
her left arm. The heads of both figures are encircled by a diadem,
from beneath which two long plaits of hair fall on each shoulder.

These figures are moving beside a plain wall, beyond which is shown a
Corinthian temple; the tiles of the roof with the ornamental fronts of
the covering tiles are represented, but in incorrect perspective:
on the extreme left of the scene is a tripod standing on a polygonal
pedestal which forms the termination of the wall.

In order to understand the subject of this fragment, it must be
compared with similar reliefs in which the remainder of the original
composition has been preserved. (See above, No. 775.) We may assume
that the fragment here described, when complete, had on the right a
figure of Apollo Kitharoedos leading the procession, and holding out
a bowl to receive a libation from a Victory. The temple represented in
these reliefs may be that of Apollo at Delphi.--_Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 2 feet 4 inches; width, 1 foot 9 inches.
  _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 36, fig. 2; _Guide to Elgin Room_, Part
  II., No. F. 2; Welcker, _Alte Denkmaeler_, II., p. 40.

[Sidenote: =776.=]

Votive relief representing an offering to Apollo. On the right, the
god is seated on the _omphalos_, holding up his right hand. The object
held up in this hand has been broken away. A mantle is wrapped round
his body, and he wears sandals. On the left are three mortals, clad in
Roman military armour, who appear to be approaching as if to consult
the Oracle of Apollo, and who, from the difference of stature, are
probably a father and two sons. Between them and the god are two
female figures, of colossal proportions, who stand to the front, their
heads turned towards Apollo. Each wears a diadem, and the figure on
the left holds a box containing incense in her left hand. These
two figures are thought to be Leto and Artemis, whose worship was
associated with that of Apollo. The relief is bounded by two pilasters
surmounted by an entablature. On the base are the remains of a
dedication to Apollo, in elegiac verse, which has been restored as
follows, by Koehler:

[Greek:
  S[oi] Char[mos, ba]sileu Paian, hekatêbol' Apol[lon],
    Hippo[kratous dôron] p[ai]s anethêke tode.]--_Townley Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 7-3/4 inches; width, 2 feet 8
  inches. Presented by the Duke of Bedford to Mr. Townley, in 1805.
  _Mus. Marbles_, II., pl. 5; Ellis, _Townley Gallery_, II., p.
  135; _Guide to Graeco-Roman Sculptures_, I., No. 200; Wolters, No.
  1849; _C.I.G._, 1946; _C.I.A._, II., 1527_b_; Kaibel, 799; _Rhein.
  Mus. N.F._, 1886, p. 346; Cavaceppi, _Raccolta d'Antiche Statue_,
  III., pl. 1.

[Sidenote: =777.=]

Fragment of votive relief dedicated by Asclepiodotos to Apollo
Tadokomeites. The upper part is missing. On the right is the figure on
a colossal scale of Apollo Kitharoedos, preserved only from the
knees downwards. On the left a draped male figure kneels by an altar,
holding a ram, and having a knife in the right hand. Behind the altar
is a tree. On the left of the relief, a male figure, whose head is
wanting, stands holding a conical object in his right hand.

Inscribed: [Greek: Asklêpiodotos Diphilou Apollôni Tadokômeitê
euchên].--_Cyzicus._ _Presented by A. van Branteghem, Esq., 1890._

  Marble; height, 1 foot 1 inch; width, 11-1/2 inches. _Rev. Arch._,
  1891, p. 12, No. 3.

[Sidenote: =778.=]

Fragment of votive relief. Artemis stands with the right arm on her
right thigh, and leaning on what appears to be a torch. She wears a
huntress dress, with short chiton, and has a hound standing beside
her. On the right is an altar at which a male worshipper appears to be
making an offering. On the extreme right is the hand and drapery of a
female figure making a gesture of adoration.--_Ephesus._ _J. T. Wood._

  Ephesian marble; height, 1 foot 1 inch; width, 9 inches.

[Sidenote: =779.=]

Fragment of relief, including the upper part of a standing figure of
Artemis, from the middle of the thighs. At her left side was a stag,
of which the head alone remains. In the centre is a female figure with
the right arm extended. On the right is a female worshipper of smaller
stature, who has the right hand raised, making a gesture of adoration.
Around the relief is a rudely cut rocky background.

  Greek marble; height, 1 foot 1-1/2 inches; width, 1 foot.

[Sidenote: =780.=]

Votive relief (?). Two youths on horseback, probably the Dioscuri,
though the conical cap, _pileus_, by which they are distinguished is
wanting. Each wears a chiton and chlamys. They are beardless; their
hair is short and bound with a diadem; the bridles have been painted
in red, which is still faintly visible on the marble. The horses are
small and compact, like those on the frieze of Parthenon, and have
hogged manes.--_Purchased from Sir W. Hamilton, 1772._

  Marble; height, 1 foot 5-1/2 inches; length, 1 foot 9-1/4 inches.
  _Mus. Marbles_, II., pl. 11; Ellis, _Townley Gallery_, II., p.
  111; _Guide to Graeco-Roman Sculptures_, Part I., No. 153.

[Sidenote: =781.=]

Votive relief. Two youthful male figures, perhaps the Dioscuri, stand
to the front, having an altar between them. One is nude, and the
other only has drapery on the left arm. They have spears in their left
hands. One appears to be holding an oinochoè in his right hand, and
the other a phialè. They stand between two Ionic columns, surmounted
by an entablature, with antefixal tiles, and festoons of rosettes
above.

  Marble; height, 1 foot 6-1/2 inches; width, 1 foot 2-3/4 inches.

[Sidenote: =782.=]

Votive tablet with relief representing Kybelè seated. She wears a
polos, and has a tympanum in the left hand, and has a lion by her left
side. With the right hand she holds a phialè over an altar; on
the left of the altar is a male worshipper standing.--_Cyzicus._
_Presented by A. van Branteghem, Esq._

  Marble; height, 7 inches; width, 4 inches. _Rev. Arch._, 1891, p.
  12 No. 6.

[Sidenote: =783.=]

Votive relief. Kybelè seated within a distyle temple. On her head is
a calathos; a long tress of hair falls on each shoulder; she wears a
long chiton with sleeves and girt at the waist, and a mantle. In her
right hand she holds a bowl; at her right side is a lion; her left
hand is advanced as if it had held a sceptre, probably of metal, which
is now wanting. On each side of the base of the calathos is a hole,
probably for the attachment of a metal wreath.--_Elgin Coll._

  Greek marble; height, 1 foot 3 inches; width, 9 inches. _Mus.
  Marbles_, IX., pl. 35, fig. 2; _Synopsis_, No. 293 (97); _Guide to
  Elgin Room_, Part II., No. F. 7.

[Sidenote: =784.=]

Votive relief. Kybelè seated, with a recumbent lion in her lap, its
head to the left. In her right hand she has a bowl; in her left she
holds some object, the form of which cannot be made out. She wears a
long chiton, girt at the waist, and a mantle. Her head is broken off;
on each side of her neck a long tress falls on her shoulder. Sculpture
late and rough.--_Presented by J. P. Gandy Deering, Esq., 1820._

  Greek marble; height, 11 inches; width, 10-1/2 inches. _Synopsis_,
  No. 300 (103*).

[Sidenote: =785.=]

Fragment of a relief, probably votive, containing Hermes, who wears
a short chiton, chlamys, and petasos, and holds out a phialè in the
right hand. On his left is a female figure, also holding a phialè.
On the right, the right arm alone remains of a third figure with a
phialè.--_Knidos._

  Marble; height, 1 foot 3 inches; width, 1 foot 1/2 inch.

[Sidenote: =786.=]

Relief with three figures. On the left is Athenè, having long chiton,
peplos, helmet, aegis, spear. Beside her is a seated animal, perhaps a
lion. In the centre is Aphroditè (?), wearing long chiton, peplos, and
polos. She has a spear in her left hand, and a much mutilated Eros (?)
standing by her side. On the right is a figure of the deified Heracles
(?), half-draped in mantle and lion's skin, with the club in his left
hand and a sceptre or thyrsus in his right hand. He appears to wear
the Egyptian crown.--_Presented by H. Gally Knight, Esq., 1839._

  Parian marble (?); height, 1 foot 1-1/2 inches; width, 1 foot 1-1/4
  inches. Wolters, No. 1845.

[Sidenote: =787.=]

Fragment of a relief, with a male figure, heavily draped, wearing long
chiton and himation, and having long hair falling on the shoulders.
The left hand is raised, and there are marks of the attachment of a
metal object, perhaps a sceptre or thyrsos. The figure also wore a
metal wreath. The relief, which is only complete on the right side,
was bounded by pilasters and an entablature.--_Athens (?)._ _Elgin
Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 2 feet 5 inches; width, 1 foot 7 inches.
  _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 38, fig. 1; _Synopsis_, No. 176 (107).

[Sidenote: =788.=]

Fragment of a relief, with a group of gods, viz.: Hermes, with
caduceus and petasos; Zeus, with a sceptre; and Kybelè, having a polos
and sceptre. Each of the three holds out a bowl in the right hand. On
the left, in low relief, is a diminutive figure seated on rocks by
a ship; on the right are two warriors, seated, having shields and
swords.

  Marble; height, 1 foot 4 inches; width, 1 foot 10 inches.

[Sidenote: =789.=]

Relief, representing offerings to Eileithyia (?). A draped female
figure is seated on a chair with foot-stool, turned to the right. With
the left hand she holds a part of her mantle which passes over
her head. On the right is a draped woman who approaches, holding a
closely-swathed baby on her left arm, and making a gesture with the
right hand. A similar figure stands on the right, with a baby on her
left arm, and having the right hand raised to her head in a manner
expressive of sorrow. Behind the chair is a woman advancing, holding
a baby in both arms, and on the left is a woman who carries a dish (?)
on her left hand and has a casket hanging from her right hand.

The separate figures would be well suited to a sepulchral relief,
on which the seated figure and a figure with a baby might well be
represented. The whole composition, however, seems more suitable for
a representation of mothers making offerings to some goddess, perhaps
Eileithyia.--_From Sigeum in the Troad._ _Elgin Coll._

  Bluish marble; height, 1 foot 4 inches; length, 5 feet 9 inches;
  width, 2 feet. The marble was probably the sculptured base of
  a statue or group. Afterwards it was roughly converted into a
  water-basin, and in modern times it served as a seat at the right
  side of the door of a church at Sigeum. The Sigean inscription
  formed a corresponding seat at the left side of the door. Lady
  M. Wortley Montagu, _Letter_ XLIV. (of July 31, 1718); Chandler,
  _Travels in Asia Minor_ (1775), p. 36; _Antiquities of Ionia_,
  I., p. i. (The original drawing by Pars is in the Brit. Mus.)
  Choiseul-Gouffier, _Voyage Pittoresque_, II., pl. 19; _Synopsis_,
  No. 324 (99); _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 11.

[Sidenote: =790.=]

Relief: Cyrenè crowned by Libya. This relief represents the nymph
Cyrenè in the act of strangling a lion, while, to commemorate this
triumph, a crown is held over her head by Libya.

  Inscribed: [Greek:

  Kyrênên poliôn mêtroptolin hên stephei autê
    êpeirôn Libyê trisson echousa kleos,
  enthad' hyper melathroio leontophonon theto Karpos,
    euxamenos, megalês sêma philoxeniês.]

The inscription may be thus translated: "Here over the architrave,
Karpos, making this dedication, placed Cyrenè, mother of cities,
slayer of lions, in token of great hospitality. Libya, who has the
glory of being a third continent, herself crowns her."

Cyrenè stands on the left, in attire very like that of Artemis as a
huntress. She wears a chiton reaching to the knees, over which is a
chlamys, and buskins; her hair is drawn back from her face. Both her
arms are locked round the lion's neck. Libya wears a long chiton girt
at the waist, and a mantle fastened between the breasts and falling
down behind; her hair, bound with a diadem, is arranged over her
forehead in long, regular curls, and falls down her neck; at her side
is an animal couchant, of which the head is broken off, and which is
perhaps a gazelle. The scene takes place on rocky ground. Two vines
arch their branches over the group.

According to the legend told by Pindar (_Pyth._ ix. 26) Cyrenè was the
daughter of Hypseus, king of the Lapiths in Thessaly, whose flocks she
guarded against wild beasts. Apollo, seeing her slaying a lion in the
valleys of Pelion, became enamoured of her, and carried her off to
the part of Libya which afterwards bore her name. According to another
legend (Scholiast on Apoll. Rhod. _Argon._, ii., 498, &c.), Eurypylos,
king of Libya, had promised a portion of his kingdom to the person who
would slay a lion then dreaded for his ravages. Cyrenè performed this
exploit, and received in reward the promised district. It is probably
in connection with this later legend that Libya is introduced crowning
Cyrenè in the relief. Aristaeus, a mythic founder of Cyrenè, was the
son of Apollo and Cyrenè. The form of the relief suggests that it may
have been a metope, and the words [Greek: hyper melathroio] in
the inscription have therefore been translated "above the
architrave."--_Found outside the Temple of Aphroditè, Cyrenè._

  Marble; height, 3 feet 4 inches; width, 2 feet 3 inches. Smith
  and Porcher, pl. 76, p. 98; pl. 83, No. 19. R. C. Puckett, _De
  marmoribus tribus Cyrenaicis_; Bonn, 1868, p. 16, and Plate;
  _Guide to Graeco-Roman Sculptures_, Part II., No. 129; Overbeck,
  _Griech. Kunstmythologie_, III., p. 496; _Atlas_, pl. 26, fig. 16;
  Wolters, No. 1916; Studniczka, _Kyrene_, p. 31. The inscription is
  given by Kaibel, _add._ 842_a_ (in some points incorrectly). For
  the legends of Cyrenè, see Studniczka, p. 39.

[Sidenote: =791.=]

Fragment from the right side of a votive relief. Heracles stands,
nude, with the lion-skin and club on his left arm. The head and
extended right hand are wanting. On the left is a fragment of a
draped figure. The relief was contained in pilasters, surmounted by an
entablature.

  Pentelic marble; height, 2 feet 1/2 inch; width, 10 inches.

[Sidenote: =792.=]

Fragment of a votive relief. A beardless male figure stands to the
front, with a chlamys on the raised left arm, and with a cup held out
in his right hand. On the right is the right arm, and a portion of the
skirt of another figure, perhaps female, of equal scale. On the left
is the figure, much defaced, of a bearded worshipper.--_Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 1/4 inch; width, 10 inches.
  _Synopsis_, No. 361 (84); _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 35, fig. 3.

[Sidenote: =793.=]

Votive relief to Demeter and Persephonè (?). Two female figures, each
wearing a chiton and himation, stand to the front. Between them is
the stump of a tree, on which the figure on the right (Persephonè (?))
leans her right elbow.--_Castellani Coll._

  Limestone; height, 1 foot; width, 10-3/4 inches.
  Restorations:--Upper part of ground and frame of relief with top
  of tree and right forearm of Persephonè.

[Sidenote: =794.=]

Fragment of relief, with the lower part of a draped female figure,
standing on a nude prostrate figure of a boy. On the right is
a Gryphon and on the left a large serpent.--_From Amphitheatre,
Gortyna._

  White marble; height, 1 foot; width, 11-1/4 inches. The Gryphon
  and serpent are attributes of Sarapis on a relief at Andriakè in
  Lycia. Petersen, _Reisen in Lykien_, II., p. 42, fig. 31.

[Sidenote: =795.=]

Left side of votive tablet, on which is sculptured a female figure
standing to the front, holding a bowl in her right hand: her head and
left arm from above the elbow are broken away. Some vertical object,
perhaps a censer, similar to that held by figure No. 56 in the
eastern frieze of the Parthenon, or perhaps a fold of her mantle, is
sculptured on the right.--_Athens._ _Inwood Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 7-3/4 inches; width, 6 inches. _Elgin
  Room Guide_, Part II., No. F. 12.

[Sidenote: =796.=]

Fragment of relief, containing a part of a half-draped bearded man,
standing as if leaning on a staff, to the right, holding what appears
to be a flower in his right hand; and also part of the figure of a
woman holding what appears to be a pomegranate. The figures may be
those of suppliants with offerings on a votive relief.--_Cyrenè._

  White marble; height, 6-1/2 inches; width, 11 inches. Smith and
  Porcher, p. 107, No. 138.

[Sidenote: =797.=]

Fragment of relief containing a half-draped elderly male figure, and
a female figure wearing a long chiton. Perhaps a fragment of a votive
relief.--_Temple of Aphroditè, Cyrenè._

  White marble; height, 1 foot; width, 10 inches. Smith and Porcher,
  p. 104, No. 88.

[Sidenote: =798.=]

Votive relief, with two plaits of formally twisted hair, dedicated to
Poseidon by Philombrotos and Aphthonetos. The relief is bounded by two
pilasters and an entablature.

Inscribed: [Greek: Philombrotos, Aphthonêtos Deinomachou,
Poseidôni].--_From Phthiotic Thebes, in Thessaly._ _Presented by Col.
Leake, 1839._

  Marble; height, 1 foot 1-1/2 inches; width, 1 foot 2-1/2 inches;
  Millingen, _Ancient Unedited Monuments_, Part II., pl. 16, fig.
  2; Leake, _Travels in Northern Greece_, IV., p. 361; _Greek
  Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, CLXIII.; Daremberg and Saglio,
  _Dict. des Antiqs._, _s.vv._ Coma and Donarium. On the custom
  of dedicating hair by youths reaching manhood, see Daremberg and
  Saglio, _loc. cit._, and _Bull. de Corr. Hellénique_, 1888, p.
  479. See also _Mus. Worsleyanum_, pl. 9.

The following votive tablets (Nos. 799-808), with representations of
portions of the human body and with votive inscriptions to Highest
Zeus ([Greek: Zeus hypsistos]), were discovered by the fourth Earl of
Aberdeen, in 1803. Excavations were made at the foot of the rock-wall
near the rock-cut structure commonly known as the Bema of the Pnyx,
and the tablets which were then found, are presumed to have fallen
from niches cut to receive them in the rock above (Dodwell, _Tour_,
i., p. 402). It has been argued that the spot where the reliefs were
found was not the Pnyx, but the altar of Highest Zeus (Welcker, _Der
Fels-Altar des Höchsten Zeus_, &c., 1852). The inscriptions, however,
which are here described, are of Roman times, and are of little value
for the decision of the question. (Cf. Hicks, _Greek Inscriptions in
Brit. Mus._ lx.)

[Sidenote: =799.=]

Tablet with votive relief representing a female breast dedicated by
Eutychis.

Inscribed: [Greek: Eutychis hypsistô euchê(n)].--_Pnyx, Athens._
_Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 5-3/4 inches; width, 5-1/2 inches.
  Dodwell, _Tour_, I., p. 403; _Synopsis_, No. 210 (245); _Mus.
  Marbles_, IX., pl. 41, fig. 3; _C.I.G._, 504; Ellis, _Elgin
  Marbles_, II., p. 105, No. 210; _Greek inscriptions in Brit.
  Mus._, LXVI.

[Sidenote: =800.=]

Tablet with votive relief representing a female breast, dedicated by
Isias.

Inscribed: [Greek: Eisias hyps[istô] eu[chên]].--_Pnyx, Athens._
_Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 8 inches; width, 6-1/2 inches. Dodwell,
  _Tour_, I., p. 403; _Synopsis_, No. 209 (247); _Mus. Marbles_,
  IX., pl. 41, fig. 2; _C.I.G._, 505; Ellis, _Elgin Marbles_, II.,
  p. 105, No. 209; _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, LXVII.

[Sidenote: =801.=]

Tablet with votive relief, representing a pair of eyes, dedicated by
Philemation.

Inscribed: [Greek: Philêmatin [e]uchên ane[th]êken].--_Pnyx, Athens._
_Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 3-1/2 inches; width, 5-1/2 inches.
  Dodwell, _Tour_, I., p. 403, with woodcut; _Synopsis_, No. 214
  (251); _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 41, fig. 5; _C.I.G._, 506; Ellis,
  _Elgin Marbles_, II., p. 105, No. 212; _Greek Inscriptions in
  Brit. Mus._, LXVIII.

[Sidenote: =802.=]

Fragment of a votive relief, which originally represented a pair of
eyes in relief, but now has little remaining except the left eye and
part of the inscription: [Greek: hyps]ist[ô].--_Pnyx, Athens._ _Found
by the fourth Earl of Aberdeen in 1803, and presented by the fifth
Earl of Aberdeen in 1861._

  Pentelic marble; height, 3-3/4 inches; width, 5 inches. _Greek
  Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, LXIX. This relief is perhaps
  identical with _C.I.G._, 499.

[Sidenote: =803.=]

Fragment of votive relief, with toes and the forepart of the right
foot.--_Pnyx, Athens._ _Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 6-1/2 inches; width, 5-1/2 inches.
  _Synopsis_, No. 217 (253); _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 41, fig. 4;
  Ellis, _Elgin Marbles_, II., p. 105, No. 217.

[Sidenote: =804.=]

Tablet with votive relief of vulva, dedicated by Olympias.

Inscribed: [Greek: Olympias hypsistô euchên].--_Pnyx, Athens._ _Elgin
Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 5-1/2 inches; width, 7-1/2 inches.
  Dodwell, _Tour_, I., p. 403; _Synopsis_, No. 216 (246); _C.I.G._,
  500; _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, LXII.

[Sidenote: =805.=]

Tablet with votive relief, representing a human face from the bridge
of the nose downwards, dedicated by Tertia.

Inscribed: [Greek: Tertia hypsistô euchên].--_Pnyx, Athens._ _Elgin
Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 8-1/2 inches; width, 7-3/4 inches.
  Dodwell, _Tour_, I., p. 404, with woodcut; _Synopsis_, No. 218
  (250); _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 41, fig. 7; _C.I.G._, 501; Ellis,
  _Elgin Marbles_, II., p. 105, No. 218; _Greek Inscriptions in
  Brit. Mus._, LXIII.

[Sidenote: =806.=]

Tablet with votive relief, representing a pair of arms, within a
panel, dedicated by Claudia Prepusa. The hands are wanting.

Inscribed: [Greek: Klaudia Prepousa eucharistô hypsistô].--_Pnyx,
Athens._ _Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 6 inches; width, 7-1/4 inches. Dodwell,
  _Tour_, I., p. 402, with woodcut; _Synopsis_, No. 215 (248);
  _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 41, fig. 6; _C.I.G._, 502; Ellis, _Elgin
  Marbles_, II., p. 105, No. 215; _Greek Inscriptions in Brit.
  Mus._, LXIV.

[Sidenote: =807.=]

Tablet with votive relief, representing a female breast somewhat
broken, dedicated by Onesimè.

Inscribed: [Greek: Onêsimê euchên Diï hypsistô].--_Pnyx, Athens._
_Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 4-7/8 inches; width, 6 inches. Dodwell,
  _Tour_, I., p. 403; _Synopsis_, No. 211 (249); _Mus. Marbles_,
  IX., pl. 41, fig. 1; _C.I.G._, 503; Ellis, _Elgin Marbles_, II.,
  p. 105, No. 211; _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, LXV.

[Sidenote: =808.=]

Fragment of a votive relief, with part of a thigh, or perhaps part of
the shoulder.

Inscribed: [Greek: ....a theô hypsi[stô e]uchên].--_Pnyx, Athens.
Found by the fourth Earl of Aberdeen in 1803, and presented by the
fifth Earl of Aberdeen in 1861._

  Pentelic marble; height, 4-1/4 inches; width, 4-1/2 inches. _Greek
  Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, LXX.

[Sidenote: =809.=]

Tablet with votive relief representing a left leg from above the knee
in relief, dedicated to Asclepios and Hygieia.

Inscribed: [Greek: Asklêpiô kai Hyg(i)eia eucharistêrion].--_Found in
1828, in a Shrine of Asclepios in Melos._ _Blacas Coll._

  Parian marble; height, 1 foot 1-1/2 inches; width, 7-1/2 inches.
  _Annali dell' Inst._, 1829, p. 341; _Exp. de Morée_, III., pl.
  29, fig. 2; _C.I.G._, 2429; _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._,
  CCCLXV. This relief was found together with the fine head of
  Asclepios (No. 550) and with a votive inscription (_C.I.G._,
  2428).

[Sidenote: =810.=]

Tablet with votive relief, representing a right ear. The right side of
the tablet is lost.--_Cyrenè._

  Marble; height, 6-3/4 inches; width, 10 inches. Smith and Porcher,
  p. 108, No. 148.

[Sidenote: =811.=]

Square votive tablet, dedicated by Anthusa, the daughter of
Damainetos. On the tablet, within a raised wreath, the following
objects are sculptured in relief:--In the centre is a bowl (phialè)
inscribed with the dedication. Round this bowl are ranged a mirror,
a torch, a spindle, a comb, a small phial, a small box with a lid
containing three little circular boxes, which probably held paints; a
pair of shoes; a small mortar, containing a pestle, shaped like a bent
thumb; a knife, a strigil, a bottle, two bodkins, a small oval box
with a lid, which probably held a sponge; a pair of shoes, and a
conical object like a cap. The raised wreath which encircles these
objects is composed of pomegranates, ears of corn, and ivy-berries,
round which a sash is wound. Outside the wreath, on the upper
right-hand corner of the tablet, a situla is sculptured in low relief,
and a small footstool (?) on the lower corner on the same side. The
corresponding angles on the left side of the tablet have been broken
away, but the upper angle appears to have contained a situla. The
relief is inscribed [Greek: Anthousê Damainetou hypostatria]. [Greek:
Hypostatria] probably denotes some minister of inferior rank in
the temple of the goddess to whom the tablet was dedicated. The
explanation of the word [Greek: statria] given by Hesychius ([Greek:
emplektria]), makes it probable that the function of the [Greek:
hypostatria] here mentioned was to dress the image of the goddess.
This and the tablet No. 812 were found by the Earl of Aberdeen built
into a ruined Byzantine church at _Slavochori in Laconia_, a
place which is believed to be the site of the ancient Amyclae.
The combination of pomegranates and ears of corn, the symbols of
Persephonè and Demeter, with ivy-berries and fir-cones, the symbols of
Dionysos, makes it probable that in the temple in which these tablets
were dedicated, these deities had a joint worship.

Pausanias (iii., 20, 4) mentions a town near Amyclae called Bryseae,
where was a temple of Dionysos which none but women were permitted
to enter, and where women only performed the sacrifices. It is not
improbable, as Lord Aberdeen conjectured, that these votive tablets
were originally dedicated in this temple, and thence brought to
Slavochori. It was a common custom among the Greeks to dedicate
articles of female attire and toilet in the temples of goddesses. (See
_Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, No. xxxiv.)--_Brought from Greece
by George, fourth Earl of Aberdeen; presented by George, fifth Earl of
Aberdeen, 1861._

  Marble; height, 3 feet; width, 2 feet 9-1/2 inches. This
  sculpture, with the following, was first published, in a strangely
  perverted form, by Caylus (_Recueil d'Antiq._, II., pl. 51),
  from drawings by Fourmont. Lord Aberdeen published them, with an
  engraving in Walpole's _Memoirs relating to Turkey_, London,
  1817, I., p. 446. See also _C.I.G._, 1467; Leake, _Travels in
  the Morea_, I., p. 188, and _Peloponnesiaca_, pp. 163-165; _Greek
  Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, CXLI.; Wolters, No. 1852; _Guide to
  Graeco-Roman Sculptures_, Part II., No. 11; Mansell, No. 728.

[Sidenote: =812.=]

Votive tablet, dedicated by a priestess called Claudia Ageta, on which
are sculptured in relief various articles of the toilet. In the centre
is a bowl inscribed with the name of the priestess, [Greek: Klau(dia)
Agêta Antipatrou, hiereia]; round it are the following objects:--On
the left of the bowl, a shell to hold unguents, two mirrors (one much
smaller than the other), a small comb, a hair-pin, a small bottle for
unguents, a small oval tray with a lid, containing a sponge, a larger
bottle, a cylindrical object, and a circular object like a stud; above
the bowl is a small elliptical box, a bottle, and an object which
appears to be a net for the hair; below are a comb, two bodkins, and
a strigil. On the right of the bowl are two pairs of shoes, two studs
linked together, a small mortar (in which is a pestle like a bent
thumb), a spoon, and a small oblong box with a lid, into which are
fitted six little circular boxes or bottles. Round these sculptured
objects runs a raised frame richly ornamented with fir-cones, ivy,
ears of corn, and pomegranates, and with a coiled snake in its lower
side.--_From Slavochori in Laconia (cf. No. 811). Presented by the
fifth Earl of Aberdeen, 1861._

  Marble; height, 2 feet 3-1/2 inches; width, 3 feet 6 inches.
  Walpole's _Memoirs relating to Turkey_, 1817, I., p. 446;
  _C.I.G._, 1466; _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, CXLII.; _Guide
  to Graeco-Roman Sculptures_, Part II., No. 12; Wolters, No. 1851.

[Sidenote: =813.=]

Fragment of a votive relief dedicated by a victor in a torch race. On
the right a youth, with a whisk for sprinkling, and a man stand at an
altar. The head of the man is lost. Three nude athletes, of whom two
are bearded, stand on the left conversing. Above is an entablature
with the dedicatory inscription: [Greek: Ho deina l]ampadi nikêsas,
gymnasiarchôn [anethêken]].--_Athens._ _Strangford Coll._

  Pentelic marble; height, 1 foot 5-1/2 inches; width, 1 foot 1/2
  inch. _C.I.G._, 257; _Greek Inscriptions in Brit. Mus._, XLI.;
  _C.I.A._, II., 1221.

[Sidenote: =814.=]

Votive tablet in commemoration of a victory in the chariot race. A
draped charioteer drives a chariot, drawn by four horses, which move
to the left in spirited action. Over them floats in the air a winged
Victory extending a wreath, now wanting, towards the charioteer. The
left side of the relief and the lower edge have been broken away. The
missing portion on the left probably contained a figure running in
front of the chariot, as the end of a staff and traces of the hand
which grasped it, appear at the edge of the slab. The charioteer wears
a tunic girt at the waist; a scarf passing round the back of the head
bellies out with the wind, while the ends, drawn back under the arms,
float behind.

This figure appears to be female, and in that case would doubtless
be a personification, possibly of the city to which the victorious
charioteer belonged. A similar votive tablet mounted on a pilaster is
shown outside a house or temple in the composition representing
the visit of Dionysos to Icarios, in the third Graeco-Roman Gallery
(_Guide to Graeco-Roman Sculptures_, Pt. I., No. 176), and such
commemorative tablets were often dedicated by Agonistic Victors.
Compare a fragmentary relief at Athens, on which a horse is crowned
by Victory. (Schöne, _Griechische Reliefs_, pl. 18, fig. 80.)--_From
Consul Logothetis' house at Athens._ _Elgin Coll._

  Pentelic marble; present height, 2 feet 3-1/2 inches; width, 2
  feet 8 inches. _Mus. Marbles_, IX., pl. 38, fig. 2; Ellis, _Elgin
  Marbles_, II., p. 126; _Synopsis_, No. 197 (236).

[Sidenote: =815.=]

Fragment of a relief, perhaps a votive tablet in commemoration of a
chariot race. Four heads of horses in rapid movement to the right;
the head of the foremost horse has been held by a figure, of which the
right hand only remains.

  Marble; height, 11-1/2 inches; width, 1 foot 1 inch. _Guide to
  Graeco-Roman Sculptures_, Part II., No. 47.

[Sidenote: =816.=]

Votive relief. Hecatè stands, turned to the left, with a large torch
in her left hand. With the right hand she places a wreath on the head
of a mare standing before her. She wears a chiton, confined by bands
crossing on the breast, such as are common on figures of charioteers,
Furies, and others. Behind her is a large dog. The relief is
surmounted by a large pediment. This relief appears to have been
dedicated by the owner of a successful horse.--_Crannon in Thessaly._
_Presented by Col. Leake, 1839._

  White marble, with remains of blue paint on the ground; height, 1
  foot 3-1/2 inches; width, 1 foot 11 inches. Millingen, _Anc.
  Uned. Monuments_, II., pl. 16, fig. 1. Compare a relief at Athens,
  Schöne, _Griechische Reliefs_, pl. 26, fig. 108.

[Sidenote: =817.=]

Votive relief with three figures standing to the front. On the right
is Apollo wearing the dress of a minstrel, having a long chiton girt
at the waist, and a himation. He holds out a phialè in his right
hand. On the right is an omphalos, about which a snake is coiled. The
central figure, who is bearded, wears the dress of Dionysos with short
tunic, high boots, and a himation closely confined. He has a torch in
the left hand and holds out a phialè in the right hand. On the left
is a figure of Zeus, with a phialè held out in the right hand, and
a sceptre in the left hand. The relief is bounded by two pilasters
surmounted by an entablature and pediment.

Below is a group of six male figures reclining, who are sketched out
in low relief. Before them are four figures: (_a_) on the left a
comic figure seated, playing on double flutes, and beating time with a
_kroupezion_ or scabellum; (_b_) a nude female figure dancing; (_c_)
a comic figure running, wearing a Phrygian cap, and having a pair
of double flutes in each hand; (_d_) on the right, a figure with an
oinochoè in each hand drawing wine from a large vessel.

Inscribed: [Greek: Diï hypsistô k(ai) tô ch(o)rô Thallos epônymos ton
telamôna apedôka]. The relief ([Greek: telamôn]) appears to have been
dedicated by a successful dramatic poet, Thallos, who gave his name to
the fête.--_Cyzicus._ _Presented by A. van Branteghem, Esq._

  Marble; height, 3 feet 1-1/2 inches; width, 1 foot 10 inches.
  _Rev. Arch._, 1891, p. 10, No. 1. Compare a relief now at Athens,
  from Nicaea, in Conze, _Reise auf der Insel Lesbos_, pl. 19;
  Lüders, _Dionys. Künstler_, pl. 2.



LONDON: PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, STAMFORD
STREET AND CHARING CROSS.



PLATE I.

[Illustration: SCULPTURED COLUMN FROM THE ARCHAIC TEMPLE AT EPHESUS.
No. 29.]


PLATE II.

[Illustration: VIEW OF THE LION TOMB AT XANTHOS. No. 80.

(_From a drawing by George Scharf._)]


PLATE III.

[Illustration: VIEW OF THE HARPY TOMB AT XANTHOS. No. 94.

(_From a drawing by George Scharf._)]


PLATE IV.

[Illustration: SECTIONAL VIEW OF THE EAST END OF THE PARTHENON. (_G.
Niemann._)]


PLATE V.

[Illustration: Fig. 1. CARREY'S DRAWING OF THE EAST PEDIMENT OF THE
PARTHENON.]

[Illustration: Fig. 2. CARREY'S DRAWING OF THE WEST PEDIMENT OF THE
PARTHENON.]


PLATE VI.

[Illustration: Fig. 1. IRIS AND HERA. EAST FRIEZE OF PARTHENON.
Nos. 27, 28.]

[Illustration: Fig. 2. ARM. No. 330.]


PLATE VII.

[Illustration: THE NORTH FRIEZE OF THE PARTHENON (Slabs I.-VII.)
RESTORED.]


PLATE VIII.

[Illustration: THE NORTH FRIEZE OF THE PARTHENON (Slabs VII.-XIII.)
RESTORED.]


PLATE IX.

[Illustration: LUSIERI'S DRAWING OF THE MISSING GROUP FROM THE
MONUMENT OF LYSICRATES. No. 430, _5_.]


PLATE X.

[Illustration: VIEW OF THE TEMPLE OF APOLLO AT PHIGALEIA. (_From a
Photograph._)]


PLATE XI.

[Illustration: Fig. 1. SEPULCHRAL RELIEF. No. 693.]

[Illustration: Fig. 2. MONUMENT OF XANTHIPPOS. No. 628.]

[Illustration: Fig. 3. SEPULCHRAL RELIEF. No. 627.]


PLATE XII.

[Illustration: Fig. 1. FRAGMENT OF A SEPULCHRAL RELIEF. No. 673.]

[Illustration: Fig. 2. FRAGMENT OF A SEPULCHRAL RELIEF. No. 672.]



      *      *      *      *      *      *



Transcriber's note:

Some illustrations have been moved to the ends of their descriptive
paragraphs to allow for freer flow of the text.

There are some inconsistencies in the spelling of (foreign) proper
names throughout the book. In each case, both forms have been retained.

Journal numbers (X...; x...; etc.) appear in both upper and lower case
throughout the book. Both forms have been retained.

There are a few instances of the high dot ·, or Greek colon, in the
Greek text, which have been retained.

Pages 108 and 136: Fig. 9 was used twice in the original book, and both
instances have been retained.

Page 10: 'donotion' corrected to 'donation' -
" ... have been acquired by donation or bequest,"

Page 11, Footnote 42: '214' corrected to '211'.

Numbers '212', '213' and '214' do not exist. Thus, '211' is the number
before '215'; and '211' fits the category of the other numbers in this
footnote. "See Nos. 211, 643, 652, 667, 680, 693, 699, 726, 736."

Page 46: 'Beechino' corrected to 'Beecheno' -
"See also Solly, _Memoirs of W. J. Müller_, 1875; Beecheno,"

Page 64: 'real' corrected to 'reel' -
"... but include bead and reel mouldings,"





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