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Title: Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 89, July 12, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Geneologists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 89, July 12, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Geneologists, etc." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



[Transcriber's note: Original spelling varieties have not been
standardized. Characters with macrons have been marked in brackets with
an equal sign, as [=e] for a letter e with a macron on top. Underscores
have been used to indicate _italic_ fonts. The index to Vol. III,
originally published with this number, is not included here. A list of
volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries" has been added at the end.]



NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION

FOR

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

VOL. IV.--No. 89.

SATURDAY, JULY 12. 1851.

Price with Index, 9_d._ Stamped Edition, 10_d._



CONTENTS.


                                                                Page

      NOTES:--

      Privately printed Books and privately engraved Portraits,
      by J. Wodderspoon,                                          17

      Sardonic Smiles,                                            18

      Private Amours of Oliver Cromwell,                          19

      Spurious Editions of Baily's Annuities, by Professor
      De Morgan,                                                  19

      Minor Notes:--Les Anguilles de Melun--Derivation
      of Mews--Curious Monumental Inscriptions--First
      Panorama,                                                   20

      QUERIES:--

      Minor Queries:--Vermuyden--Portrait of Whiston--Charities
      for the Clergy and their Families--Principle of Notation
      by Coalwhippers--Kiss the Hare's Foot--Old Dog--"Heu
      quanto minus," &c.--Lady Russell and Mr. Hampden--Burton
      Family--"One who dwelleth on the castled Rhine"--Lady
      Petre's Monument--Dr. Young's Narcissa--Briwingable--Thomas
      Kingeston--Possession nine Points of the Law--Rev. H.
      Bourne--Prior Lachteim--Robert Douglas--Jacobus de
      Voragine--Peace Illumination, 1802--Planets of the
      Months--Family of Kyme--West of England Proverb--Coke
      and Cowper--Orinoco--Petty Cury--Virgil--Sheridan
      and Vanbrugh--Quotation from an old Ballad,                 20

      REPLIES:--

      Princesses of Wales,                                        24

      The late Mr. William Hone,                                  25

      Shakspeare's "Small Latin."--His Use of "Triple",           26

      Replies to Minor Queries:--Family of Etty,
      the Artist--Parish Register of Petworth--Death--"Lord
      Mayor not a Privy Councillor"--"Suum cuique tribuere,"
      &c.--Meaning of Complexion--Gillingham--Nao,
      a Ship--John Perrot--Sneck up--Meaning of Senage--Early
      Visitations--Rifles,                                        27

      MISCELLANEOUS:--

      Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.,                     29

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted,                               30

      Notices to Correspondents,                                  30

      Advertisements,                                             31



Notes.


PRIVATELY PRINTED BOOKS AND PRIVATELY ENGRAVED PORTRAITS.

If the "NOTES AND QUERIES," in the course of its career, had only called
the attention of antiquaries to the necessities of collecting epitaphs
and inscriptions to the dead found in churches, and thus brought into
active exertion a large number of zealous and intelligent recorders of
monuments, its usefulness would have been fully established; but the
multitude of suggestive hints and recommendations constantly appearing
in its pages, added to the great amount of precise and unquestionable
knowledge given to the public through its means, have established the
publication as of the greatest importance to archæologists, and literary
men generally.

A noble and highly regarded author (Lord Braybrooke) has recently shown
the necessity for recording the existence of painted historical
portraits, scattered, as we know they are, throughout residences of the
nobility and gentry, and from thence too often descending to the humble
dwelling or broker's warehouse, through the effluxion of time, the ill
appreciation, in some instances, of those who possess them, or the
urgencies of individuals: but there are other memorials of eminent
persons extant, frequently the only ones, which, falling into the
possession of but few persons, are to the seeker after biographical or
topographical knowledge, for the most part, as though they had never
existed. I allude to Privately Printed Books and Privately Engraved
Portraits. Surely these might be made available to literary persons if
their depository were generally known.

How comparatively easy would it be for the readers of the "NOTES AND
QUERIES," in each county, to transmit to its pages a short note of any
privately engraved portrait, or privately printed volume, of which they
may be possessed, or of which they have a perfect knowledge. Collectors
could in most instances, if they felt inclined to open their stores,
give the required information in a complete list, and no doubt would do
so; but still a great assistance to those engaged in the toils of
biographical or other study could be afforded by the transmission to
these pages of the casual "Note," which happens to have been taken at a
moment when the book or portrait passed under the inspection of a
recorder who did not amass graphic or literary treasures.

As respects some counties, much less has been done by the printing press
to furnish this desideratum; at least that of privately engraved
portraits. In Warwickshire, a list of all the portraits (with a few
omissions) has within a few years been brought before the public in a
volume. In Norfolk, the _Illustrations of Norfolk Topography_, a volume
containing an enumeration of many thousand drawings and engravings,
collected by Dawson Turner, Esq., of Great Yarmouth, to illustrate
Blomefield's History of the county, is also a repertory of this kind of
instruction, as far as portraits are concerned. Privately printed books
are entirely unrecorded in this and most other localities. Without the
publication now mentioned, persons having no personal knowledge of Mr.
Turner's ample stores would be not only unacquainted with that
gentleman's wonderful Norfolk collection, but also ignorant that through
his liberality, and the elegant genius and labours of several members of
his family, the portfolios of many of his friends have been enriched by
the addition of portraits of many persons of great virtues, attainments,
and learning, with whom he had become acquainted. In Suffolk, the
veteran collectors, Mr. Elisha Davy, of Ufford, and Mr. William Fitch,
of Ipswich, have compiled lists of portraits belonging to that county.
These are, however, in manuscript, and therefore comparatively useless;
though, to the honour of both these gentlemen let it be said, that no
one ever asks in vain for assistance from their collections.

I trust it can only be necessary to call attention to this source of
knowledge, to be supported in a view of the necessity of a record open
to all. I have taken the liberty to name the "NOTES AND QUERIES" as the
storehouse for gathering these scattered memorabilia together, knowing
no means of permanence superior, or more convenient, to literary
persons, although I am not without fears indeed, perhaps convictions,
that your present space would be too much burthened thereby.

As the volume of "NOTES AND QUERIES" just completed has comprised a
large amount of intelligence respecting the preservation of epitaphs,
the present would, perhaps, be appropriately opened by a new subject of,
I am inclined to think, nearly equal value.

    JOHN WODDERSPOON.

  Norwich.


SARDONIC SMILES.

A few words on the Γέλως σαρδάνιος, or Sardonius Risus, so
celebrated in antiquity, may not be amiss, especially as the expression
"a Sardonic smile" is a common one in our language.

We find this epithet used by several Greek writers; it is even as old as
_Homer's_ time, for we read in the _Odyssey_, μείδησε δὲ θυμῷ σαρδάνιον
μάλα τοῖον, "but he laughed in his soul a very bitter laugh."
The word was written indifferently σαρδάνιος and
σαρδόνιος; and some lexicographers derive it from the verb
σαίρω, of σέσηρα, "to show the teeth, grin like a dog:"
especially in scorn or malice. The more usual derivation is from
σαρδόνιον, a plant of Sardinia (Σαρδώ), which was said to
distort the face of the eater. In the English of the present day, a
Sardonic laugh means a derisive, fiendish laugh, full of bitterness and
mocking; stinging with insult and rancour. Lord Byron has hit it off in
his portraiture of the Corsair, Conrad:

      "There was a laughing devil in his sneer,
      That rais'd emotions both of _rage_ and _fear_."

In Izaak Walton's ever delightful _Complete Angler_, Venator, on coming
to Tottenham High Cross, repeats his promised verse: "it is a copy
printed among some of Sir Henry Wotton's, and doubtless made either by
him or by a lover of angling." Here is the first stanza:--

          "Quivering fears, heart-tearing cares,
          Anxious sighs, untimely tears,
              Fly, fly to courts,
              Fly to fond worldlings' sports,
      Where strained _Sardonic_ smiles are glosing still,
      And Grief is forced to laugh against her will;
          Where mirth's but mummery,
          And sorrows only real be."

In Sir J. Hawkins's edition is the following note on the word "Sardonic"
in these lines:

  "Feigned, or forced smiles, from the word _Sardon_, the name of an
  herb resembling smallage, and growing in Sardinia, which, being
  eaten by men, contracts the muscles, and excites laughter even to
  death. Vide _Erasmi Adagia_, tit. RISUS."

_Sardonic_, in this passage, means "forced, strained, unusual,
artificial;" and is not taken in the worst sense. These lines of Sir H.
Wotton's bring to mind some of Lorenzo de Medici's in a platonic poem of
his, when he contrasts the court and country. I quote Mr. Roscoe's
translation:--

      "What the heart thinks, the tongue may here disclose,
      Nor inward grief with outward smiles is drest;
      Not like the world--where wisest he who knows
      To hide the secret closest in his breast."

The _Edinburgh Review_, July, 1849, in an article on Tyndale's
_Sardinia_, says:

  "The _Sardonic smile_, so celebrated in antiquity, baffles
  research much more than the _intemperie_, nor have modern
  physiologists thrown any light on the nature of the deleterious
  plant which produces it. The tradition at least seems still to
  survive in the country, and Mr. Tyndale adduces some evidence to
  show that the _Ranunculus sceleratus_ was the herb to which these
  exaggerated qualities were ascribed. Some insular antiquaries have
  found a different solution of the ancient proverb. The ancient
  Sardinians, they say, like many barbarous tribes, used to get rid
  of their relations in extreme old age by throwing them alive into
  deep pits; which attention it was the fashion for the venerable
  objects of it to receive with great expressions of _delight_:
  whence the saying of a Sardinian laugh (vulgo), laughing on the
  wrong side of ones mouth. It seems not impossible, that the
  phenomenon may have been a result of the effects of 'Intemperie'
  working on weak constitutions, and in circumstances favourable to
  physical depression--like the epidemic chorea, and similar
  complaints, of which such strange accounts are read in medical
  books."

    GERONIMO.


PRIVATE AMOURS OF OLIVER CROMWELL.

I know nothing more of the enclosed, than that I found it with the MS.
which I lately sent you on the subject of Cromwell's "Dealings with the
Devil" (Vol. iii., p. 282.).

I should conclude it to be a carelessly-made transcript of a
contemporary MS., the production, probably, of some warm royalist, who
may, or may not, have had some grounds for his assertions. At all
events, it gives a few curious details, and, in its general outline,
agrees singularly with the incidents on which Mrs. Behn's play, _The
Round Heads; or The Good Old Cause_, is founded: sufficiently so to give
it at least an air of authenticity, so far as the popular belief of the
day was concerned.

    S. H. H.

  "After Cromwell had been declared General of the Commonwealth's
  Forces, he seized the possessions of the Royalists, who had
  escaped his implacable resentment; and the New Hall fell to the
  share of the Usurper, who, flushed with the victory of Worcester,
  disposed at pleasure of the forsaken seates of the noble
  Fugitives, who still supported Charles II.'s Drooping Standards;
  and adding insulte to oppression, commanded the domesticks of the
  Duke of Buckingham to follow their master's desperate fortune, and
  to carry him five shillings, which he might want in his exile, for
  the purchase of a Lordship, whose yearly value exceeded then
  1300_l._ Cromwell kept possession of New Hall till he assumed the
  title of Protector, and was instaled at White Hall, in the Pallace
  of the English Kings: Then he chose Hampton Court for his Summer
  Residence. He led at New Hall an obscure life, without pomp,
  without luxury, having but two servants in his retinue. Though his
  manners were natuaraly austere, he had some private amoures, which
  he indulged with great Caution and Secrecy. His favourites were
  General Lambert's wife and Major-General Vernon's sister: the
  first was a well-bred, genteel woman, fatheless to her husband
  from natural aversion, and attached to Cromwell from a conformity
  of inclination in a mysterious enjoyment and stolen embraces, with
  mask of religious deportment and severe virtue: the other was a
  person made to inspire lust and desire, but selfish, revengfull,
  and indiscreet. These too rivals heartily detested each other:
  Mrs. Lambert reproached Cromwell for his affection to a worthless,
  giddy, and wanton woman; and Mrs. Vernon laughed at him for being
  the dupe of the affected fondness and hipocry of an artful
  Mistress. They once met at the house of Colonel Hammond, a
  Creature of Cromwell's, and reviled each other with the most
  virulent sarcasms. Mrs. Lambert, fired with rage and resentment,
  went immediately to New Hall, where Oliver was at that juncture,
  and insisted upon her Rival's dismission for her unprovoked
  outrage. Cromwell, who was then past the meridian of voluptuous
  sensations, sacrificed the person he was no longer fit to enjoy,
  to a woman who had gained his esteem and confidence, and delegated
  to Mrs. Lambert all the domestic concerns of his house in Essex.
  Cromwell's wife, called afterwards the Protectress, was a sober
  helpmate, who, dressed in humble stuff, like a Quaker, neither
  interfered in his amours or politics. She never went to New Hall
  but once, and that was on the 25th of April, 1652, when he invited
  all his family to a grand entertainment on account of his
  Birthday. The other Guests were, his mother, who survived his
  elevation to the Protectorship: she was a virtuous woman of the
  name of Stewart, related to the Royall Family; Desborough, his
  brother-in law; and Fleetwood, who had married his daughter; his
  Eldest Son, Richard, a man of an inoffensive and unambitious
  Character, who had been married some years, and lived in the
  country on a small estate which he possessed in right of his wife,
  where he spent his time in acts of benevolence: at the trial of
  Charles I. he fell on his knees and conjured his Father in the
  most pathetic manner to spare the life of his Sovereign; his
  brother Henry, afterwards Govonor of Ireland, where he was
  universally beloved for his mild administration; Mrs. Claypole,
  the darling of her father; and his three other daughters: Mrs.
  Rich, married to the Grandson and heir of the Earl of Warwick;
  Lady Falconbridge; and the Youngest, who lived in celibacy. They
  spent a week at New Hall, in innocent mirth and jollity; Oliver
  himself joining in convivial pleasure with his children,
  disengaged the whole time from state affairs and Political
  Speculations.

  "His constant visitors at New Hall were some Regicides, and the
  meanest, lowest, and most ignorant among the Citizens on whome he
  had decreed that the Sovereign power should be vested. To excell
  in Fanaticism seemed a necessary qualification in this new
  parliment; and Oliver foresaw that they would soon throw up the
  reins of Government, which they were unqualified to guide, and
  raise himself to an unlimited power far beyond that of former
  Kings.

  "It seems Mrs. Lambert continued to reside at New Hall during
  Cromwell's Protectorship, and that Col. Wite, his trusty friend,
  was often sent with kind messages and preasants from Oliver, who
  travelled himself in the night, with hurry and precipitation, to
  enjoy with her some moments of domestic comfort and tranquility."


SPURIOUS EDITION OF BAILY'S ANNUITIES.

In the course of last year a curious and impudent bibliographical fraud
was perpetrated by some parties unknown. I am not aware that it has been
publicly exposed as yet.

The celebrated work on annuities, by the late Francis Baily, was
published in 1810 by Richardson, and printed by Richard Taylor. It was
at first in one volume: but on the publication of an appendix in 1813,
two titles were printed with this last date, and the stock then
remaining was sold in two volumes. As the book became scarce, it
gradually rose in price, until, when by a rare chance a copy came to the
hammer, it seldom fetched less than five guineas. This price was
lowered, as well by the general decline in the price of old books, as
by the sale of Mr. Baily's own library in 1844, which threw a few copies
into the market; but the work was still saleable at more than the
original price. In the course of last year, copies, as it was pretended,
of the original edition were offered at the assurance offices, and to
individuals known to be interested in the subject, at twenty-five
shillings. Some were taken in, others saw the trick at once. There has
been, in fact, a reprint without any statement of the circumstance, and
without a printer's name; but with a strong, and, on the whole,
successful attempt at imitation of the peculiar typography of the work.
If the execution had been as good as the imitation, the success would
have been greater. But this is wretchedly bad, and will amuse those who
know how very particular Mr. Baily always was in his superintendence of
the press, and how plainly his genuine works bear the marks of it.

The spurious edition may be known at once by the title-page, in which
the words "an appendix" are printed in open letter, which is not the
case in the original. Also by "Leienitz," instead of "Leibnitz" in page
xi. of the preface. Also by the Greek letter [Greek delta rotated 180
degrees] throughout, which is, in the spurious edition, never anything
but an inverted δ, which looks as if it were trying to kick
backwards.

In all probability, the agents in this shabby trick are beneath reproof;
but it is desirable that the reputation of the author whom they have
chosen for its object should not suffer from the effects of their
misprint. And as the work they have appropriated is only used by a small
public, and a reading one, the mode of exposure which I here adopt will
probably be sufficient.

The spurious edition is now on the stalls at a few shillings; and, as a
curiosity, will be worth its price.

    A. DE MORGAN.


Minor Notes.

_Les Anguilles de Melun._--"Les anguilles de Melun crient avant qu'on
les écorche" is a well-known proverb in that town; and as some of your
readers may be curious to learn the circumstances in which it
originated, I send them to you for "NOTES AND QUERIES."

According to the traditions of the Church, Saint Bartholomew was flayed
alive, and his skin rolled up and tied to his back. When the religious
dramas, called _Mysteries_, came into vogue, this martyrdom was
represented on the stage at Melun, and the character of the saint was
personated by one _Languille_. In the course of the performance, the
executioner, armed with a knife, made his appearance; and as he
proceeded to counterfeit the operation of flaying, Languille became
terrified and uttered the most piteous cries, to the great amusement of
the spectators. The audience thereupon exclaimed, "Languille crie avant
qu'on l'écorche;" and hence the "jeu de mots," and the proverb.

    HENRY H. BREEN.

  St. Lucia, June, 1851.

_Derivation of Mews._--

"Muette. C'est le nom qu'on donne à un Edifice élevé au bout d'un parc
de maison royale ou seigneuriale, pour servir de logement aux officiers
de la venerie, et dans lequel il y a aussi des Chenils, des cours,
écuries, &c. Ce terme _Muette_, vient, dit-on, de _Mue_, parceque c'est
dans ces maisons que les Gardes, et autres officiers de chasse,
apportent les _Mues_ ou bois que les Cerfs quittent et laissent dans les
Forêts."--Lacombe, _Dictionnaire portatif des Beaux Arts, &c._ Nouvelle
Edition: Paris, 1759.

Is this a better explanation of the English word _mews_ than has
generally been given by writers?

    W. P.

_Curious Monumental Inscriptions._--In the south aisle of Martham
Church, Norfolk, are two slabs, of which one, nearly defaced, bears the
following inscription:

      Here Lyeth
      The Body of Christo
      Burraway, who departed
      this Life ye 18 day
      of October, Anno Domini
      1730.
      Aged 59 years.

      And there Lyes [pointing hand symbol]
      Alice who by hir Life
      Was my Sister, my mistres
      My mother and my wife.
      Dyed Feb. ye 12. 1729.
      Aged 76 years.

The following explanation is given of this enigmatical statement.
Christopher Burraway was the fruit of an incestuous connexion between a
father and daughter, and was early placed in the Foundling Hospital,
from whence, when he came of age, he was apprenticed to a farmer. Coming
in after years by chance to Martham, he was hired unwittingly by his own
mother as farm steward, her father (or rather the father of both) being
dead. His conduct proving satisfactory to his mistress she married him
who thus became, successively, mother, sister, mistress, and wife, to
this modern OEdipus. The episode remains to be told. Being discovered by
his wife to be her son, by a peculiar mark on his shoulder, she was so
horror-stricken that she soon after died, he surviving her scarcely four
months. Of the other slab enough remains to show that it covered her
remains; but the registers from 1729 to 1740 are unfortunately missing
so that I cannot trace the family further.

    E. S. T.

_First Panorama_ (Vol. iii., p. 526.).--I remember when a boy going to
see that panorama. I was struck with "the baker knocking at the door, in
Albion Place, and wondered the man did not _move!_" But this could not
have been the first (though it might have been the first publicly
exhibited), if what is told of Sir Joshua Reynolds be true, that, having
held that the painting of a panorama was a "thing impossible," on the
sight of it he exclaimed--"This is the triumph of perspective!" I have
frequently met with this anecdote.

    B. G.



Queries.


Minor Queries.

_Vermuyden._--I wish very much to obtain a portrait, painted or
engraved, of Sir Cornelius Vermuyden, Knt., a celebrated Flemish
engineer in the time of Charles I. Can any one kindly assist my object,
and inform me where one is to be met with?

    J.

_Portrait of Whiston._--Having an original and characteristic
half-length portrait in oil, bearing to the left corner (below an oval,
such as is found about portraits by Alex. Cooper) the name of William
Whiston, which picture came from a farm-house named Westbrook, in
Wiltshire, and was by my ancestors, who lived there, called a family
portrait, I should be glad to know how such connexion arose, if any did
exist.

In the possession of a member of my family, on the maternal side, is a
large silver tobacco-box, bearing the initials W. W., and given as a
legacy by Whiston to his friend Thomas White, Fellow and Librarian of
Trinity College, Cambridge. They were members of the same club.

    WILLIAM FENNELL.

  Wakefield, June 12. 1851.

_Charities for the Clergy and their Families._--I am desirous of
procuring a complete list of charities confined to, or primarily
intended for, the benefit of clergymen, their wives and families. There
are a good many such throughout the country, but I am not aware that any
list has ever been published. Will your readers furnish me with the
particulars of such as they may be acquainted with, together with the
names of the secretaries?

    J. WHITAKER.

  377. Strand.

_Principle of Notation by Coalwhippers, &c._--I shall feel much obliged
to any of your readers who can inform me whether the principle adopted
by the coalwhippers on the river Thames, and by the seafaring class in
general, is adopted by any other class in these islands, or particularly
in the North of Europe.

This principle may be thus explained, viz.:

1. A set of four perpendicular, equal, and equidistant straight lines
are cut by a diagonal line, which runs from _right_ to _left_; that is
to say, from the higher end of the fourth line to the lower extremity of
the first line. This diagonal then represents number 5, and completes
the scale or tally of 5.

2. A similar set of four lines are cut by another diagonal, which passes
from _left_ to _right_, or from the higher extremity of number one, to
the lower extremity of number four. The diagonal thus completes the
second score or tally for number 5.

The two fives are marked or scored separately, and the diagonals thus
form a series of alternations, which, when repeated, form a scale of
ten, the tally of the _coalwhippers_.

The "navvies" of the railroads carry this principle somewhat further.
They form a cross with two diagonals on the perpendiculars, and count
for ten; then, by repeating the process, they have a division into tens,
and count by two tens, or a score.

    I. J. C.

_Kiss the Hare's Foot._--This locution is commonly used in some parts of
the United Kingdom, to describe what is expressed by the Latin proverb:
"Sero venientibus ossa." Will any of your readers be so good as to
explain the origin of the English phrase?

    HENRY H. BREEN.

  St. Lucia, May, 1851.

_Old Dog._--Can any correspondent of "NOTES AND QUERIES" inform me where
"old dog" is used in the same sense as in _Hudibras_, part ii. canto 3.
v. 208.:--

      "He (Sidrophel) was old dog at physiology?"

    P. J. F. G.

"_Heu quanto minus_," &c.--From what author is this passage taken?

"Heu quanto minus est cum aliis versari quam tui meminisse."

    J. O. B.

  Loughborough.

_Lady Russell and Mr. Hampden._--Extract from a letter of Rev. Alex.
Chalmers, dated London, Feb. 10th, 1736-7:

  "Mr. Hampden[1] has had the misfortune to lose 5000_l._ by Lady
  Russell.[2] She was a Lady of good sense, and great piety in
  appearance, and made many believe she had a private way of
  tradeing which brought seven or eight per ct. to the adventurers,
  by which means she got above 30,000_l._ put in to her hands, and
  for which she only gave her Note to put it to the best advantage;
  for some years the interest was well paid, but at her death no
  books nor accts were found, and the principal money is all lost.
  She had a jointure of 2000_l._ a year, but that goes to her
  Son-in-law, Mr. Scawen, Knight of the Shire for Surry: her
  dissenting friends are the chiefe sufferers."

  [Footnote 1: M.P. for Buckinghamshire.]

  [Footnote 2: "Sept. 2. Lady Russell, mother of the wife of Thomas
  Scawen, Esq., Kt. of the Shire for Surrey, and wife to Sir Harry
  Houghton, Bt. She had an excellent character."--_Gent. Mag._, vol.
  vi., 1736, p. 552. She had been previously married to Lord James
  Russell, 5th son of William, 1st Duke of Bedford, to whom she bore
  the daughter mentioned above. What was her maiden name?]

Is anything more known of this story; and, if so, where is the account
to be found?

    DE CAMERA.

_Burton Family._--Roger Burton, in the reign of Charles I., purchased of
the Earl of Chesterfield lands at Kilburn, in the parish of Horsley, co.
Derby, which remained in the possession of his descendants for more than
a century. Perhaps some of your correspondents may be able to inform me
how he was connected with the Burtons of Lindley and Dronfield.

    E.H.A.

_"One who dwelleth on the castled Rhine."_--Longfellow, in his exquisite
little poem on "Flowers," says:

      "Spake full well, in language quaint and olden,
      One who dwelleth on the castled Rhine,
      When he called the flowers so blue and golden,
      Stars that in earth's firmament do shine."

To whom does he allude as dwelling "on the castled Rhine?" Cowley says:

      "Upon the _flowers_ of Heaven we gaze;
      The _stars_ of earth no wonder in us raise."

And Washington Irving gives an Arabian inscription from one of the
gardens of the Alhambra, which commences with a somewhat similar
thought:

  "How beauteous is this garden, where the flowers of the earth vie
  with the stars of Heaven!"

    SELEUCUS.

_Lady Petre's Monument._--In the church at Ingatestone, in Essex, there
is a beautiful monument to Mary Lady Petre, of the date 1684, upon which
there is the following curious inscription:--

      "D. O. M.
      Certa spe Immortalitatis
      Parte sui mortali hoc tegitur marmore
      Maria
      Vidua Domini Roberti Petre Baronis
      de Writtle Guilielmi Joannis et Thomæ
      Una trium Baronum Mater
      Quæ 13o Jannuarii Añ D[=m]i 1684-5 annum
      Ætatis agens 82 in terris devixit, ut
      Æternum in coelo viveret
      Quo illam singularis in Deum pietas
      Suavis in omnes benevolentia
      Profusa in egenos liberalitas
      Inconcussa in adversis patientia
      Ceu igneus Eliæ currus totidem rotis haud dubie evixerunt--
      Sicut Sol oriens Mundo in Altissimis Dei
      Sic Mulieris bonæ Species in ornamentum domus suæ.
      Ecclus. 26.
      AEIOU."

I should be glad if any of your learned readers could elucidate the
meaning of the five vowels at the foot of the inscription.

    J. A. DOUGLAS.

  16. Russell Square, June 7. 1851.

_Dr. Young's Narcissa_ (Vol. iii., p. 422.).--J. M. says that the
Narcissa of Dr. Young was Elizabeth Lee, the poet's _daughter-in-law_.
The letter quoted in the same article from the _Evan. Mag._ of Nov.
1797, calls her Dr. Young's _daughter_. Has not your correspondent been
led into a mistake by calling Narcissa Dr. Young's daughter-in-law? as,
if she were so, how could she have been named "Lee?" She might have been
his step-daughter, though it has been generally understood that Narcissa
was the poet's own and favourite daughter. Will you, or your
correspondent J. M., be so good as to clear up this point?

    W. F. S.

  Surbiton.

_Briwingable._--What is _briwingable_, from which certain burgesses were
exempted in a charter of John's? It cannot be a corruption from
_borough-gable_, because all burgesses had to pay gable.

    J. W.

_Thomas Kingeston, Knt., called also Lord Thomas Kingeston._--Can any of
your correspondents give any clue or information touching this Lord
Kingeston? He lived in the early part of the reign of Edward III.

In the extracts from Aske's Collections relating to the descendants of
M. Furneaux, published in the first volume of _Coll. Top. and Gen._, at
p. 248., it is stated:

  "Mathew of Bitton was married unto Constantyne Kingston, daughter
  to the Lord Thomas of Kingston; and of the said Mathew and
  Constantyne came John of Bitton, which died in Portingale."

In a pedigree (_Harl. MSS._ 1982. p. 102.) which shows the descendants
of Furneaux, the match between "Sir Math. Bitton" and C. Kingston is
laid down, and her arms are marked sab. a lion ramp. or.

With regard to Mathew de Bitton, he was son and heir of John de Bitton
and Havisia Furneaux. The residence of the family was at Hanham, in the
parish of Bitton, Gloucestershire, at a place afterwards called "Barre's
Court," from Sir John Barre, who married Joan, the great-granddaughter
of the said Mathew. The house abutted on the Chace of Kingswood.

In the 48th of Edward III. a writ was issued, to inquire who were the
destroyers of the deer and game in his Majesty's Chace, when it was
found that Mathew de Bitton was "Communis malefactor de venasione Dom.
Regis in Chacia predicta." It was proved that he had killed thirty-seven
deer! After much difficulty, he was brought before the justiciaries,
when he acknowledged all his transgressions, and placed himself at the
mercy of the king. He was committed "prisonæ Dom. Regis, quousque
Justiciarii habeant locutionem cum consilio Dom. Regis."

Any further information respecting him also would be very acceptable. A
very detailed account of the inquiry is at the Chapter House, among the
Forest Proceedings.

    H.T. ELLACOMBE.

  Clyst St. George, June 24. 1851.

_Possession nine Points of the Law._--What is the origin of the
expression "Possession is _nine points_ of the law?" The explanation I
wish for is, not as to possession conferring a strong title to property,
which is self-evident, but as to the _number_ of _points_ involved in
the proposition, which I take to mean nine points out of ten. Has the
phrase any reference to the ten commandments or _points of law_
promulgated by Moses? I should add that _three_ things are said to be
necessary to confer a perfect title to land, namely, possession, right
of possession, and right of property.

    C.N.S.

_Rev. Henry Bourne, A.M._--Could any of your numerous readers furnish me
with any information respecting Bourne, whose history of
Newcastle-on-Tyne was published in 1736, after the author's decease? I
know, I believe, all that is to be gathered from local sources, but
should be greatly obliged by any references to printed or MS. works
which contain allusions to him or his writings. One of his college
friends was the _Reverend_ Granville Wheler, Esq., of Otterden, Kent,
who, though in holy orders, chose to be so described, being the eldest
son of a knight, the amiable Sir George Wheler, Prebendary of Durham,
and Rector of Houghton-le-Spring.

    E.H.A.

_Prior Lachteim--Robert Douglas._--In Bishop Keith's _Affairs of Church
and State of Scotland_, Vol. ii. p. 809., Prior Lachteim is mentioned:
will any of your readers inform me who this person was? It is not
explained in the note; but it is suggested that by _Lachteim_ Loch Tay
is meant. Is this correct?

Query 2. Is there any truth in the report that Mary, queen of Scotland,
had a son by George Douglas, who was the father of Robert Douglas, a
celebrated Presbyterian preacher during the Covenanting reign of terror
in Scotland, after the Glasgow General Assembly in 1638? If, as I
suppose, there is no truth in this, what was the parentage and early
history of Mr. Robert Douglas? Wodrow notices this report, and says that
he was born in England. See Wodrow's _Analecta_, 4to., 1842, vol. ii. p.
166.: printed for the Bannatyne Club.

    A.C.W.

  Brompton.

_Jacobus de Voragine._--Can any friend give any information respecting
an edition of the above author printed at Venice, A.D. 1482? The
following is the colophon:--

  "Reverendi Fratris Jacobi de Voragine de Sancto cum legendis opus
  perutile hic finem habet; Venetiis per Andream Jacobi de Catthara
  impressum: Impensis Octaviani scoti Modoetrensis sub inclyto duce
  Johanne Moçenico. Anno ab incarnatione domini 1482, die 17 Mensis
  Maii."

I can find no mention of it either in Panzer or Brunet or Ebert.

    BNE.

  Brasenose.

_Peace Illumination, 1802._--Miss Martineau, in her _Introduction to the
History of the Peace_, p. 56., repeats the story told in a foot-note on
p. 181. of the _Annual Register_ for 1802, of M. Otto, the French
ambassador, being compelled to substitute the word "amity" for the word
"concord" suspended in coloured lamps, in consequence of the irritated
mob's determination to assault his house, unless the offensive word
"concord" were removed, the said mob reading it as though it were
spelled "conquered," and inferring thence that M. Otto intended to
insinuate that John Bull was _conquered_ by France. The story, moreover,
goes on to relate that the mob also insisted that the blazing initials
G.R. should be surmounted by an illuminated crown. This anecdote,
notwithstanding its embalmment in the _Annual Register_, has always
borne in my eyes an apocryphal air. It assumes that the mob was ignorant
and intellectual at the same moment; that whilst it was in a riotous
mood it was yet in a temper to be reasoned with, and able to comprehend
the reasons addressed to it. But one cannot help fancying that the
mental calibre which understood "concord" to mean "conquered," would
just as readily believe that "amity" meant "enmity," to say nought of
its remarkable patience in waiting to see the changes dictated by itself
carried out. This circumstance occurred, if at all, within the memory of
many subscribers to "NOTES AND QUERIES." Is there one amongst them whose
personal recollection will enable him to endorse the word _Truth_ upon
this curious story?

    HENRY CAMPKIN.

_Planets of the Months._--Can any of your numerous correspondents give
me the names of the planets for the months, and the names of the
precious stones which symbolize those planets?

    T.B.

  Wimpole Street.

_Family of Kyme._--Sir John Kyme is said to have married a daughter of
Edward IV. Can any of your correspondents inform me where I can find an
account of this Sir John Kyme, his descendants, &c.? I should be glad of
information respecting the family of Kyme generally, their pedigree,
&c. &c. I may say that I am aware that the original stock of his family
had possessions in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire, and that there were
members of it of considerable importance during the reigns of the
earlier monarchs succeeding William I. I am also acquainted with some
old pedigrees found in certain visitation books. But none of the
pedigrees I have seen appear to come down later than the fourteenth, or
quite the beginning of the fifteenth, century. I should be glad to know
of any pedigree coming down through the fifteenth, sixteenth, and
seventeenth centuries, and to have any account of the later history of
the family.

    BOLD.

_West of England Proverb._--Can any of your correspondents explain the
saying, used when a person undertakes what is beyond his ability,--"He
must go to Tiverton, and ask Mr. Able?"

    D.X.

_Coke and Cowper, how pronounced._--Upon what authority is Lord _Coke's_
name pronounced as though it were spelt _Cook_, and why is _Cowper_, the
poet, generally called _Cooper_? Is this a modern affectation, or were
these names so rendered by their respective owners and their
contemporaries? Such illustrious names should certainly be preserved in
their integrity, and even pedanticism might blush at corrupting such
"household words." There certainly should be no uncertainty on the
subject.

    C.A.

_Orinoco or Orinooko._--In the _Illustrated News_ of May 26th is an
account of the launch of the "Orinoco" steamer. Can any of your readers
tell me if this is the correct mode of spelling the name of this river?
I believe the natives spell it "Orinooko," the two _oo's_ being
pronounced _u_.

    E.D.C.F.

_Petty Cury._--There is a street bearing this name in Cambridge, which
was always a mystery to me in my undergraduate days; perhaps some
correspondent can unravel it?

    E.S.T.

_Virgil._--Æneid, viii. 96.:

      "Viridesque secant placido æquore silvas."

Will any of your classical correspondents favour me with their opinion
as to whether _secant_ in the above passage is intended to convey, or is
capable of conveying, the idea expressed in the following line of
Tennyson (_Recollections of the Arabian Nights_):

              ---- "my shallop ... clove
      The citron _shadows_ in the blue?"

This interpretation has been suggested to me as more poetical than the
one usually given; but it is only supported by one commentator, Servius.

    ERYX.

_Sheridan and Vanbrugh._--Could any of your readers inform me as to the
following? I find printed in Sheridan's _Dramatic Works_ by Bohn, a copy
of Sir John Vanbrugh's play of _The Relapse, or Virtue in Danger_. It
is, with a very few omissions, an exact reprint, but bears the title of
_A Trip to Scarborough, or Miss in her Teens_. No comment is made, or
any mention of Vanbrugh.

      O. O.

_Quotation from an old Ballad._--

      "Perhaps it was right to dissemble your love,
      But, why did you kick me down stairs?"

In what old ballad or poetic effusion may the above forcibly expressive,
though not remarkably elegant, lines be found? A short time ago they
were quoted in _The Times'_ leading article, from which fact I suppose
them to be of well-known origin.

    NREDRA NAMB.



Replies.


PRINCESSES OF WALES.

(Vol. iii., p. 477.)

The statement of Hume, that Elizabeth and Mary were created Princesses
of Wales, rests, I am disposed to think, on most insufficient authority;
and I am surprised that so illustrious an author should have made an
assertion on such slender grounds, which carries on the face of it a
manifest absurdity, and which was afterwards retracted by the very
author from whom he borrowed it.

Hume's authority is evidently Burnet's _History of the Reformation_;
(indeed, in some editions your correspondent G. would have seen Burnet
referred to) in which are the following passages (vol. i. p. 71., Oxford
edition, 1829):

  "The King, being out of hopes of more children, declared his
  daughter (Mary) Princess of Wales, and sent her to Ludlow to hold
  her court there, and projected divers matches for her."

Again, p. 271.:

  "Elizabeth was soon after declared Princess of Wales; though
  lawyers thought that against law, for she was only heir
  presumptive, but not apparent, to the crown, since a son coming
  after he must be preferred. Yet the king would justify what he had
  done in his marriage with all possible respect; and having before
  declared the Lady Mary Princess of Wales, he did now the same in
  favour of the Lady Elizabeth."

Hume's statement is taken almost verbatim from this last passage of
Burnet, who, however, it will be observed, does not say "created," but
"declared" Princess of Wales; the distinction between which is obvious.
He was evidently not aware that Burnet afterwards corrected this
statement in an Appendix, entitled, "Some Mistakes in the first Portion
of this History communicated to me by Mr. William Fulman, Rector of
Hampton Meysey, in Gloucestershire." In this is the following note, in
correction of the passages I have quoted (Burn. _Hist. Ref._, vol. iv.
p. 578.):

  "Here and in several other places it is supposed that the next
  heir apparent of the crown was Prince of Wales. The heir apparent
  of the crown is indeed prince, but not, strictly speaking, of
  Wales, unless he has it given him by creation; and it is said that
  there is nothing on record to prove that any of Henry's children
  were ever created Prince of Wales. There are indeed some hints of
  the Lady Mary's being styled Princess of Wales; for when a family
  was appointed for her, 1525, Veysey, bishop of Exeter, her tutor,
  was made president of Wales. She also is said to have kept her
  house at Ludlow; and Leland says, that Tekenhill, a house in those
  parts, built for Prince Arthur, was prepared for her. And Thomas
  Linacre dedicates his _Rudiments of Grammar_ to her, by the title
  of Princess of Cornwall and Wales."

This is one of the many instances of the inaccuracy, carelessness, and
(where his religious or political prejudices were not concerned)
credulity of Burnet. Whatever he found written in any previous
historian, unless it militated against his preconceived opinions, he
received as true, without considering whether the writer was entitled to
credit, and had good means of gaining information. Now, neither Hall,
Holinshed, Polydore Virgil, nor (I think) Cardinal Pole, contemporary
writers, say anything about Mary or Elizabeth being Princesses of Wales.
The only writer I am acquainted with who does say any such thing,
previous to Burnet, and whose authority I am therefore compelled to
suppose the latter relied on, when he made the statement which he
afterwards contradicted, is Pollini, an obscure Italian Dominican, who
wrote a work entitled _L'Historia Ecclesiastica della Rivoluzion
d'Inghilterra; Racolta da Gravissimi Scrittori non meno di quella
Nazione, che dell' altri, da F. Girolamo Pollini dell' ordine de
Predicatori, della Provincio de Toscana_: Roma, Facciotti, 1594. In book
i. chapter ii. page 7. of this author is the following statement, which
I translate, speaking of the Princess Mary:

  "As the rightful heir of the throne she was declared by Henry, her
  father, Princess of Wales, which is the ordinary title borne by
  the first-born of the king; since the administration and
  government of this province is allowed to no other, except to that
  son or daughter of the king, to whom, by hereditary right, on the
  death of the king the government of the realm falls.... In the
  same way that the first-born of the French king is called the
  Dauphin, so the first-born of the English king is called Prince of
  Britain, or of Wales, which is a province of that large island,
  lying to the west, and containing four bishoprics. Which Mary,
  with the dignity and title of Princess, assisted by a most
  illustrious senate, and accompanied by a splendid establishment,
  administered with much prudence," &c.

Pollini's history is, as may be supposed, of very little historical
value; and one feels surprised that, on a point like the present, Burnet
should have allowed himself to be misled by him. But still more
remarkable, in my opinion, is the use Miss Strickland makes of this
author. After several times giving him as her authority at the foot of
the page, by the name of _Pollino_, but without giving the least
information as to the name of his work, or who he was, she has the
following note relating to the passage I have quoted (_Lives of the
Queens of England_, vol. v. p. 156.):

  "The Italian then carefully explains that the Princes of Wales
  were in the same position, in regard to the English crown, as the
  Dauphins were to that of France. Pollino must have had good
  documentary evidence, since he describes Mary's council and court,
  which he calls a senate, exactly as if the Privy Council books had
  been open to him. _He says four bishops were attached to this
  court._"

It seems to one a singular mode of proving that Pollini must have had
good documentary evidence, by saying that he speaks exactly and
positively; and I would ask what _good_ documentary evidence would a
Florentine friar be likely to have, who certainly never was in England,
and in all probability never far from his convent? But it is the
statement about the bishops that I wish more particularly to allude to,
as I can find _no statement to that effect in Pollini_, and can only
suppose that Miss Strickland misunderstood the passage (quoted above)
where he says the province of Wales contains four bishoprics.

I think I have now shown that Hume's statement rests on no sufficient
grounds as to the authority from whence he derived it. But there is yet
another reason against it, which is this: it would be necessary, before
Elizabeth was created Princess of Wales, that Mary should be deprived of
it; and this could only be done by a special act of parliament. But we
find no act of such a nature passed in the reign of Henry VIII. There
are other reasons also against it; but having, I think, said enough to
show the want of any foundation for the assertion, I shall not trouble
you any further.

    C.C.R.

  Linc. Coll., Oxon., June 26.


THE LATE MR. WILLIAM HONE.

(Vol. iii., p. 477.)

In reply to the inquiry of E.V. relative to the conversion of the late
Mr. William Hone, I send a slight reminiscence of him, which may perhaps
be generally interesting to the readers of the _Every Day Book_. It was
soon after the period when Mr. Hone (at the time afflicted both in "body
and estate") began to acknowledge the truths of Christianity, that I
accidentally had an interview with him, though a perfect stranger. Our
conversation was brief, but it turned upon the adaptation of the
Christian religion to the wants of man, in all the varied stations in
which he may be placed on earth, independent of its assurance of a
better state hereafter. With child-like meekness, and earnest sincerity,
the once contemner and reviler of Christianity testified to me that all
his hope for the future was in the great atonement made to reconcile
fallen man to his Creator.

Before we parted, I was anxious to possess his autograph, and asked him
for it; as I had made some collection towards illustrating, his _Every
Day Book_, to which it would have been no inconsiderable addition. After
a moment of deep thought, he presented me with a slip of paper inscribed
as follows, in his small and usual very neat hand:--

      "'He that increaseth knowledge
              increaseth sorrow.'[3]

      "_Think on this._

      "W. HONE.

      "15 January, 1839."

  [Footnote 3: Ecclesiastes, i. 18.]

Shortly after his death, the following appeared in the _Evangelical
Magazine_, which I transcribed at the time:--

   "The following was written by Mr. Hone on a blank leaf in his
   pocket Bible. On a particular occasion he displaced the leaf, and
   presented it to a gentleman whom we know, and who has correctly
   copied its contents for publication.

      LINES

      _Written before Breakfast, 3rd June 1834,
      the Anniversary of my Birthday in 1780._

      'The proudest heart that ever beat,
        Hath been subdued in me;
      The wildest will that ever rose,
      To scorn Thy cause, and aid Thy foes,
        Is quell'd, my God, by Thee.

      'Thy will, and not my will, be done;
        My heart be ever Thine;
      Confessing Thee, the mighty Word,
      I hail Thee Christ, my God, my Lord,
        And make Thy Name my sign.

      'W. HONE.'"

At the sale of Mr. Hone's books, I purchased a bundle of religious
pamphlets; among them was _Cecil's Friendly Visit to the House of
Mourning_. From the pencillings in it, it appears to have afforded him
much comfort in the various trials, mental and bodily, which it is well
known clouded his latter days.

    WILLIAM BARTON.

  19. Winchester Place,
  Southwark Bridge Road.


SHAKSPEARE'S "SMALL LATIN."--HIS USE OF "TRIPLE."

(Vol. iii., p. 497.)

In reference to the observations of A. E. B., I beg leave to say that,
in speaking of Shakspeare as a man who had _small Latin_, I intended no
irreverence to his genius. I am no worshipper of Shakspeare, or of any
man; but I am willing to do full justice, and to pay all due veneration,
to those powers which, with little aid from education, exalted their
possessor to the heights of dramatic excellence.

As to the extent of Shakspeare's knowledge of Latin, I think that it was
well estimated by Johnson, when he said that "Shakspeare had Latin
enough to grammaticize his English." Had he possessed much more than was
sufficient for this purpose, Ben Jonson would hardly have called his
knowledge of the language _small_; for about the signification of
_small_ there can be no doubt, or about Ben's ability to determine
whether it was small or not. But this consideration has nothing to do
with the appreciation of Shakspeare's intellect: Shakspeare might know
little of Latin and less of Greek, and yet be comparable to Æschylus,
Sophocles, and Euripides; as Burns, who may be said to have known no
Latin, is comparable, in many passages, even to Horace. "The great
instrument of the man of genius," says Thomas Moore, "is his own
language," which some knowledge of another language may assist him to
wield, but to the wielding of which the knowledge of another language is
by no means necessary. The great dramatists of Greece were, in all
probability, entirely ignorant of any language but their own; but such
ignorance did not incapacitate them from using their own with effect,
nor is to be regarded as being, in any way, any detraction from their
merits. Shakspeare had but a limited acquaintance with Latin, but such
limited acquaintance caused no debilitation of his mental powers, nor is
to be mentioned at all to his disparagement. I desire, therefore, to be
acquitted, both by A. E. B. and by all your other readers, of
entertaining any disrespect for Shakspeare's high intellectual powers.

As to his usage of the word _triple_, that it is "fairly traced to
Shakspeare's own reading" might not unreasonably be disputed. We may,
however, concede, if A. E. B. wishes, that it was derived from his own
reading, _as no trace of its being borrowed is to be found_. But I am
not sure that if other writers had taken pains to establish this use of
the word in our tongue, its establishment would have been much of a
"convenient acquisition." Had any man who has three sisters, closely
conjoined in bonds of amity, the privilege of calling any one of them a
_triple sister_, I do not consider that he or his language would be
much benefited. Ovid, I fear, employed _triplex_ "improperly," as
Warburton says that Shakspeare employed _triple_, when he spoke of the
Fates spinning _triplici pollice_. I cannot find that any writer has
imitated him. To call the Fates _triplices deæ_ (_Met._ viii. 481.), or
_triplices sorores_ (_Met._ viii. 453.), was justifiable; but to term
any one of them _triplex dea_, or to speak of her as spinning _triplici
fuso_ or _triplici pollice_, was apparently to go beyond what the Latin
language warranted. A. E. B. rightly observes that _triple_ must be
explained as signifying "belonging to three conjoined;" but the use of
it in such a sense is not to be supported either by custom or reason,
whether in reference to the Latin language or to our own.

MR. SINGER, in his observations on "captious," has a very unlucky
remark, which A. E. B. unluckily repeats--"We, no doubt, all know," says
MR. SINGER, "by intuition as it were, what Shakspeare meant." If we all
know Shakspeare's meaning by intuition, how is it that the "true
worshippers of Shakspeare" dispute about his meaning?

    J. S. W.

  Stockwell, June 27. 1851.


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Family of Etty, the Artist_ (Vol. iii., p. 496.).--"Mr. Etty, Sen., the
architect," mentioned in the passage quoted by your correspondent from
Thoresby's _Diary_, was John Etty, who died Jan. 28th, 1709, at the age
of seventy-five. Drake calls him "an ingenious architect," and quotes
these lines from his epitaph in the church of All Saints, North Street,
in York (_Eboracum_, p. 277.):--

      "His art was great, his industry no less,
      What one projected, t'other brought to pass."

Although Thoresby and Drake dignify him with the title of architect, he
was in fact a carpenter, or what would now be styled "a builder." Mr.
Etty had several sons: Marmaduke, the painter mentioned by Thoresby, was
one of them. He was called in those days a painter-stainer. Two others,
James and William, were brought up to the business of a carpenter--as
their father and grandfather were before then. William had two sons: the
eldest of whom, John, was also a carpenter. The other was the Reverend
Lewis Etty, clerk; who, about a century ago, was incumbent of one of the
York churches. I suspect that no work is now extant which is known to be
the production of either the architect or the painter; and, but for the
incidental allusion to them in the _Diary_ of the Leeds antiquary, the
memory of their very names had long since perished. The fact stated in
the _Diary_, of Grinlin Gibbons having wrought at York with Mr. Etty,
the architect, is not mentioned in any of the biographical notices of
that skilful artist, although its accuracy may be safely accepted upon
Thoresby's authority.

The late William Etty, R.A., never claimed descent from the old York
family. Most probably he did not know that such persons ever existed.
His father, John Etty, and his grandfather, Matthew Etty, were
established as millers at York during the latter part of the last
century. To the occupation of a miller, John Etty added that of a
ginger-bread baker; and in the house in Feasegate, York, where his
distinguished son was born, he carried on an extensive business in
supplying the smaller shops and itinerant dealers with gingerbread of
all descriptions, when it was a more popular luxury or "folk-cate" than
it is now. A characteristic anecdote is told of William Etty, which may
not inappropriately be introduced here. In his latter days, when in the
zenith of his fame, the large sum he was about to receive for one of his
pictures was the subject of conversation at a friend's table. "Ah!" said
the artist, with the quiet simplicity of manner for which he was
remarkable, "it will serve to gild the gingerbread!"

It is possible that a keen genealogist might succeed in connecting the
illustrious artist of our day with the Ettys of Thoresby's time, and
thus establish a case of hereditary genius. "Mr. Etty, the painter," had
a son called John, who attained man's estate about the year 1710. He
does not appear to have settled at York, and it is by no means out of
the range of probability, that he was the progenitor of Matthew Etty,
the miller; who was, I believe, a native of Hull, and who, by the way,
named one of his sons, John.

    EBORACOMB.

_Parish Register of Petworth_ (Vol. iii., pp. 449. 485. 510.).--By the
parish register abstract accompanying the population returns of 1831, it
appears that in that year the earliest existing register of Petworth
commenced in 1559. We are indebted to the late Mr. Rickman for this
abstract of the dates of all the parish registers in the kingdom; and it
would be well if, at the next census, a similar return was called for,
that it may be seen what registers are then missing.

As to lost registers, I may state that I possess the bishop's
transcripts of sixty registers, signed by the minister and churchwardens
of parishes in the county of Kent; they comprise the baptisms,
marriages, and burials for the years 1640 and 1641. The registers of
sixteen of these parishes do not begin until after 1641, consequently
these transcripts are the only records now existing of the baptisms,
marriages, and burials in those sixteen parishes for 1640 and 1641.

    J. S. B.

_Death_ (Vol. iii., p. 450.).--The ancients found in the successive
transformations of the butterfly a striking and beautiful parallel to
the more important career of human existence. Thus to their fancy the
caterpillar, or _larva_, represented man's earthly course; the _pupa_,
or chrysalis state, his death and utter inanition; while the perfect
state of the insect typified man's rise to life and glory, a bright
glorious being, without spot or trace of earthly stain. The Greeks from
this notion named the butterfly "Psyche." A careful examination of the
anatomy and physiology of the insect world will show the strict and
amazing beauty of this simile.

    TEE BEE.

_Lord Mayor not a Privy Councillor_ (Vol. iv., p. 9.).--Your printer has
misprinted _clamour_ instead of your own expression _demur_. Let me add
that there was neither _clamour_ nor even _demur_ on that occasion--all
went off quietly in the usual course. There is also an omission of two
words in a subsequent line, which, though easily supplied, I may as well
notice.

"The proclamation is that of the _peers alone_, but assisted by the
_others_," should rather be "the proclamation is that of the _peers
alone_, but assisted by the _ex-Privy Councillors and others_," as this
marks the distinction between the two classes of _assistants_ more
strongly.

    C.

_"Suum cuique tribuere," &c._ (Vol. iii., p. 518.).--Your correspondent
M.D. will find the passage in _Cic. Offic._, i. 5.

    Y. V. S.

  Sydenham.

_Meaning of Complexion_ (Vol. i., p. 352.).--Addison says in Cato:

      "'Tis not a set of features or complexion,
      The tincture of a skin that I admire."

Here he uses the word _complexion_ as something distinct from "tincture
of the skin." The colour of the hair and irides commonly indicates the
colour of the skin. If they are dark, the skin is ordinarily dark; and
if blue or light, the skin is ordinarily fair. I have seen flaxen hair
and surpassing whiteness of skin with eyes as black as death.

    S. H.

_Gillingham_ (Vol. iii., pp. 448. 505.).--As a means of furnishing your
correspondent QUIDAM with some historical and local data that may tend
to identify the place where that memorable council was convened, by
which the succession to the English crown was transferred from the
Danish to the Saxon line, I would refer him to Lambard's _Perambulation
of Kent_, published in 1596, pp. 351, 352, 353., as adducing strong
evidence in favour of the council alluded to having been held at
Gillingham next Chatham.

    FRANCISCUS.

_Nao, a Ship_ (Vol. iii., pp. 477. 509.).--I perfectly agree with GOMER
that the early Britons must have possessed vessels more capacious than
osier baskets or _cyry-glau_ before they were able to transport warlike
assistance to their brethren the Armoricans of Gaul; but I can inform
GOMER and A. N. in addition, that a much older term for a ship was made
use of by the first inhabitants of Britain, namely _Naf_, from whence no
doubt the Latin _Navis_ sprang; and from the same root the Welsh word
_Nawf_, a swim (now used), was derived. This term _Naf_ is handed down
to us in one of the oldest British triads, but which has been always, in
my opinion, improperly interpreted. In speaking of the three master
works of the island of Britain, is the ship of Nefydd Naf Neifion (or
_Noah_); the translation is simply this--

      Nefydd      _i. e._      The ship constructor
      naf                      of the ship
      neifion.                 of ships.

Here you have the hero personified by his avocation, and the _noun_ from
which the proper name is derived, both in the singular and plural
number; in the latter sense it is made use of by D. ab Gwilym in the
following couplet:

      "Y nofiad a wnaeth _Neifion_
      O Droia fawr draw i Fôn."

      "The swimming, that the ships performed
      From great Troy, afar, to Monâ."

    JOHN FENTON.

  Glyn y mêl, Fishguard, June 27, 1851.

_John Perrot_ (Vol. iii., p. 336.).--I possess a neatly written MS., of
88 pp. small 8vo., entitled _A Primmer for Children, written by a
suffering Servant of God, John Perrot; corrected, ammended, and made
more easie: London, in the Yeare 1664_. The only notice of him after
this date is in p. 290. of Sewel's _History of the Quakers_:

  "Perrot now walked in an erroneous path, grew worse from time to
  time; even to that degree that, being come into America, he fell
  into manifold sensualities and works of the flesh; for he not only
  wore gawdy apparel, but also a sword; and being got into some
  place in the government, he became a severe exacter of oaths."

    E. D.

_Sneck up_ (Vol. i., p. 467.; Vol. ii., p. 14.).--_Sneck up_ is a stage
direction for _hiccup_, which Sir Toby was likely to observe after his
"pickle herring." Davis is quite right in following Theobald. A word for
Theobald. Every commentator is indebted to him, and almost every one has
abused him, from Warburton and Pope to Coleridge, and without Theobald's
notes and most sagacious amendments, ordinary readers would be puzzled
to _read_ Shakspeare. The booksellers, I am glad to see, had sense
enough to see Theobald's merit, and gave him a far larger sum for his
edition than has been paid to most of his successors.

    S. H. (2)

_Meaning of Senage_ (Vol. iv., p. 6.).--Have the kindness to inform W.
H., that in my extracts from the Parish Account Book of St. Peter's
Mancroft in this city, under the years 1582 and 1588, are entered as
follows:--

      "1582. Pd to the Bisshopp for Senage Money ... xxjd.
      1588. Pd for Senage and Proxage to the Bisshopp, ixd."

In Cowel's _Law Dictionary_, by Thomas Manley, folio, 1701, under the
term "Senege," he says:

  "There goes out yearly in Proxage and Senage 33_s._ 6_d._ Perhaps
  senege may be money paid for Synodals, as Proxyes or
  Procurations." "Proxyes are yearly payments made by parish priests
  to their bishop, or archdeacon, in _lieu of victuals for the
  visitor and his attendants_" (which it was formerly the custom to
  provide).

  "Senage. The Senes be only courts to gather Senage and Proxye. The
  bishop should hold a Synod or Sene twice a year."--Becon's
  _Reliques of Rome_, p. 213.

  "The priests should come to the Sene as they were wont to do."

The senes, courts, or ecclesiastical councils, were held for the purpose
of correcting any neglect or omissions of the Church Reeves (as they
were called), and fining them for such omissions, as well as receiving
the usual and accustomed payments; and sometimes they were fined for
having _secreted some Catholic reliques_, which were discovered by the
visitors (of course after the Reformation), as I have found entries of
fines having been paid; and more frequently are entries of "Payd for the
withdraft" of the charge for some neglect in not providing articles
necessary for the performance of divine worship.

In Sir Thomas More's _Works_, folio, 1557, pp. 909., 991., "Senes or
Indightments" (perhaps Citements or Citations) are mentioned.

No doubt (I think) the term _senege_ is derived from these courts being
termed "Senes" and "Seens."

    G. H. I.

  Norwich, July 5. 1851.

_Early Visitations_ (Vol. iv., p. 8.).--Your remark that Mr. Noble's
statements "are extremely loose" is, generally speaking, very just;
although in the particular instance referred to there is some foundation
for his statement, as in the 12th Henry VI. commissions were issued into
the several counties, not merely to collect the names of the gentry, but
to administer an oath to the gentry and others for conservation of the
peace and observance of the laws. The returns containing the names of
the parties sworn in all the counties (except twelve) are printed by
Fuller in his _Worthies_ from records in the Tower, which are probably
yet extant. See _Rotuli Parliamentorum_, iv. 455.; v. 434.; Fuller's
_Worthies of England_, chap. xiv.; Grimaldi's _Origines Genealogicæ_,
68, 69. I do not understand that all the parties who were sworn were
accounted gentlemen, although Dr. Fuller's and Mr. Grimaldi's
impressions on this point appear to have been similar to Mr. Noble's.

    C. H. COOPER.

Cambridge, July 5. 1851.

_Rifles_ (Vol. iii., p. 517.).--I am neither Mr. Gordon Cumming, nor an
officer of the Rifle Brigade; nevertheless, I have seen much of rifles
and rifle-firing; and I think I can assure your correspondent A. C. that
"_We_ make the best rifles" is rather an assumption. That the Americans
make most excellent ones, there can be no doubt; but I question whether
they ever turned out a rifle which, either for finish or performance,
would bear comparison with those made by Purdey, Lancaster, and others.
As an example of what an English rifle will do, I subjoin the
performance[4] of one made by Beattie of Regent Street on Minie's
principle for an officer in the artillery now going out to the Cape. At
_one thousand_ measured yards, sixteen balls out of thirty were put into
the target; and at four hundred yards, balls were driven through four
regulation targets, each of two inch oak, placed six inches apart from
one another; and into the earthen mound behind them ten or twelve
inches. If the Americans can beat that, either for precision or force,
they may claim to make the best rifles.

  [Footnote 4: In Woolwich Marshes.]

    E. N. W.

  Southwark, June 30. 1851.



Miscellaneous.


NOTES ON BOOKS, SALES, CATALOGUES, ETC.

_A Glossary of Terms used for Articles of British Dress and Armour, by
the Rev. John Williams (ab Ithel)_, classifies alphabetically the
several names which our British forefathers applied to the different
portions of their garments and military weapons, and supplies the reader
with their English synonymes; and, in the majority of cases, cites
corroborative passages from documents in which the original terms occur.
Its value to the antiquaries of the Principality is sufficiently
obvious; and as Celtic elements may still be traced in our language, it
will clearly be found of equal utility to their English brethren.

_The Golden and Silver Ages. Two Plays by Thomas Heywood, with an
Introduction and Notes by J. Payne Collier, Esq._ (which form the last
work issued by the Shakspeare Society), will be read with great interest
by the members; and, as completing the second volume of the collected
edition of the works of _Thomas Heywood_, will give great satisfaction
to those who urged upon the Shakspeare Society the propriety of printing
an edition of the works of this able and prolific dramatist.

In his _Manual of the Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Mind, by James
Carlile, D.D._, the author has undertaken to write a popular treatise on
an abstruse subject; and though he exhibits pains and method, yet we can
hardly think that he has succeeded in his difficult task. One mistake he
has evidently made. He seeks his illustrations too much from recent
events, the Gorham controversy, the presidency of Louis Napoleon, and
the like; references which are more calculated to degrade a great
subject than to popularise it.

In _The Gentleman's Magazine_ for the present month our readers will
find a very able article, to which we beg to direct their attention, on
the present state of English Historical Literature, the accessibility
of our Historical Materials and the Record Offices. The article has
apparently been called forth by a Memorial, addressed to the Master of
the Rolls, requesting "that persons who are merely engaged in historical
inquiry, antiquarian research, and other literary pursuits connected
therewith, should have permission granted to them to have access to the
Public Records, with the Indexes and Calendars, without payment of any
Fee." This important document is signed by all the principal historical
and antiquarian writers of the day: we should think, therefore, that
there can be little fear of their prayer being refused. The writer of
the article in the _Gentleman's Magazine_ has omitted two curious facts,
which deserve mention,--one that Pinkerton was stopped in the progress
of his History of Scotland by the fees for searches in the Scotch Record
Offices; the other, that those fees in those very offices have recently
been remitted.

Mr. Douglas Allport has issued Proposals for the publication by
subscription of a volume entitled _Kits Coty House, a Monograph_, which,
as it is to treat not only of Kits Coty House, but of its Flora and
Fauna, the Druidical Circles of Addington and Colebrook, the Antiquarian
Relics and Traditions of the neighbourhood, Boxley and its Rood of
Grace, Chaucer and the Pilgrim's Road, and other vestiges of bygone
times, clearly has within its subject the materials for an amusing and
interesting volume.


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This Day is Published,

  THE QUARTERLY REVIEW, NO. CLXXVII.

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Street aforesaid.--Saturday, July 12. 1851.



      [List of volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries", Vol. I-IV]

      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. I.                                   |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. II.                                  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1- 15 | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17- 32 | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33- 48 | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49- 64 | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65- 79 | PG # 22126  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81- 96 | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. III.                                 |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |   1- 15 | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  |  17- 31 | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  |  33- 47 | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  |  49- 78 | PG # 15641  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 |  81- 95 | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 |  97-111 | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-440 | PG # 36835  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 84 | June 7, 1851      | 441-472 | PG # 37379  |
      | Vol. III No. 85 | June 14, 1851     | 473-488 | PG # 37403  |
      | Vol. III No. 86 | June 21, 1851     | 489-511 | PG # 37496  |
      | Vol. III No. 87 | June 28, 1851     | 513-528 | PG # 37516  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. IV.                                  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 88  | July 5, 1851      |   1- 15 | PG # 37548  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]            | PG # 13536  |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850    | PG # 13571  |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851    | PG # 26770  |
      +-----------------------------------------------+-------------+





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