Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 90, July 19, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Geneologists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 90, July 19, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Geneologists, etc." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



[Transcriber's note: Original spelling varieties have not been
standardized. Characters with macrons have been marked in brackets with
an equal sign, as [=e] for a letter e with a macron on top. Underscores
have been used to indicate _italic_ fonts. A list of volumes and pages
in "Notes and Queries" has been added at the end.]



NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION

FOR

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

VOL. IV.--No. 90. SATURDAY, JULY 19. 1851.

Price Threepence. Stamped Edition, 4_d._



CONTENTS.


                                                                Page

      NOTES:--

      A Caxton Memorial suggested, by Bolton Corney               33

      Supposed Witchcraft                                         35

      The late Sir John Graham Dalyell                            35

      Appropriation of a Thought, by James Cornish                36

      The "Eisell" Controversy, by Samuel Hickson                 36

      Minor Notes:--"Miserrimus"--The Dog and Duck, St. George's
      Fields--The Habit of profane Swearing by the
      English--Tennyson's Use of the Word "Cycle"--A Moiety       37

      QUERIES:--

      Etymology of Fontainebleau, by H. H. Breen                  38

      Force of Conscience                                         38

      English Literature in the North, by George Stephens         38

      Minor Queries:--Painted Portraits of Overton--Fourth
      Fare--John Wood, Architect--Derivation of "Spon"--Dell, in
      what County--Bummaree or Bumaree--Thread the Needle--Proof
      of a Sword--Shelley's Children--Ackey Trade--Baskerville
      the Printer--Statue of Charles II.--La Mère Jeanne--Man
      Of War, why a Ship Of War so called--Secret Service Money
      of Charles II.--Hampton Court                               39

      MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--De Rebus Hibernicis--Abridgment
      of the Assizes--Life Of Cromwell                            41

      REPLIES:--

      Written Sermons and Extempore Preaching                     41

      Fest Sittings                                               42

      Histoire des Sévérambes, by H. H. Breen                     43

      Salting the Dead                                            43

      Replies to Minor Queries:--Bogatsky--Baronette--Rifles
      --Miss--Lady Flora Hastings' Bequest--English Sapphics--
      Welwood--Bellarmio's Monstrous Paradox--Jonah and the
      Whale--Book Plates                                          44

      MISCELLANEOUS:--

      Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                      46

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                46

      Notices to Correspondents                                   47

      Advertisements                                              47



Notes.

A CAXTON MEMORIAL SUGGESTED.

After Caxton had slept with his fathers for three centuries, remembered
only by a few antiquaries, it was deemed fit that a public monument
should record his merits.

The Roxburghe club, much to the honour of its members, undertook to bear
the cost of it, and to superintend its execution. With regard to its
location, there was no question as to the paramount claims of
Westminster. It was proposed, in the first instance, to place it in the
collegiate church of St. Peter, within the precincts of which church
Caxton had exercised his art. The want of a convenient space was rather
an obstacle to that plan: a more serious obstacle was the amount of fees
demanded on such occasions. It was then decided, and perhaps with more
propriety, that it should be placed in the parish church of St.
Margaret; and the execution of the monument, which was to be of the
tablet form, was entrusted to the younger Westmacott.[1] An engraving of
it has been published.[2] The inscription is

                 "_To the memory_
                of William Caxton
      who first introduced into Great Britain
                the art of printing
           and who A.D. 1477 or earlier
                exercised that art
           in the abbey of Westminster.
                    This tablet
               _in remembrance_ of one
                      to whom
             the literature of his country
                is so largely indebted
                      was raised
               anno Domini MDCCCXX
               by the Roxburghe club
            earl Spencer, K.G. president."

  [Footnote 1: T. F. Dibdin, _Reminiscences of a literary life_.
  London, 1836. 8vo. i. 386.]

  [Footnote 2: J. Martin, _A catalogue of books privately printed_.
  London, 1834. 8vo. p. 486.]

The monument, as a piece of sculpture, is simplicity itself, and
therefore suitable to the place of its destination. To the inscription I
venture to make some slight objections: 1. Whether Caxton "introduced
into Great Britain the art of printing" admits of a doubt. There is no
evidence to invalidate the colophon of the _Exposicio S. Jeronimi in
simbolo Apostolorum_.[3] Dibdin fully believed in its authenticity.[4]
2. Caxton is very imperfectly designated. He was a well-informed writer,
a most assiduous translator, and a very careful editor. As early as
1548, he was classed among the _Illustres majoris Britanniæ
scriptores_[5]--but we are on the decline, it seems, in point of tact
and intelligence. 3. The date of his decease, and the place of his
burial, should have been stated. The facts are recorded in the accounts
of the churchwardens of this very parish, and _nowhere else_.[6] 4. The
inscription, as a composition, wants terseness: on this point, I content
myself with giving a hint _typographically_.

  [Footnote 3: S. W. Singer, _Some account of the book printed at
  Oxford in 1468_. London, 1812. 8vo. p. 44.]

  [Footnote 4: _Typographical antiquities_, by Joseph Ames, etc.
  London, 1810. 4to. _Life of Caxton_, p. 75.]

  [Footnote 5: _Illvstrivm maíoris Britanniae scriptorvm summari[=u]
  avtore Ioanne Balaeo._ Gippeswici, 1548. 4to. fol. 208.]

  [Footnote 6: John Nichols, _Illustrations of the manners and
  expences of ancient times_. London, 1797. 4to. p. 3.]

In 1847 a fresh attempt as made to revive the memory of Caxton. After
due notice, a public meeting was held on the 12th of June to "promote
the erection of a monument to commemorate the introduction of printing
into England, and in honour of William Caxton, the earliest English
printer"--the lord Morpeth in the chair. The meeting was extremely well
attended. The form of monument proposed was, the combination of a
fountain by day and a light by night--the poetical conception of the
rev. H. H. Milman. Some excellent speeches were made--and I cannot but
particularize that of the noble chairman; considerable sums were
subscribed--the messieurs Clowes tendering 100_l._; a committee, a
sub-committee, a treasurer, and a secretary, were appointed.[7]--With
the proceedings of that meeting, as publicly reported, my information
terminated.

  [Footnote 7: _The Times_, June 14, 1847.]

After a lapse of four years, a meeting of the subscribers to the _Caxton
Testimonial_ was advertised for the 10th of July, to "consider an offer
made by the Coalbrookdale Iron Company to erect an _iron statue of
Caxton_--and, in the event of the proposal being adopted, to determine
the best means of carrying the same into effect." I was much astonished
at this announcement. A meeting to consider an offer to perpetuate a
fiction in connexion with an art which surpasses all other arts in its
power of establishing truth! On reflection, I became calm; and felt that
Mr. Henry Cole, the honorary secretary, was perfectly right in adopting
the customary phraseology. The result of this meeting is a desideratum.
It seems to have been private; for an examination of 300 columns of _The
Times_, being, the history of four days, did not lead to the discovery
of one word on the _iron statue of Caxton_.

If the statue-mania did not now prevail to an unexampled extent, I
should feel much confidence in the sound sense of the subscribers--but I
have my misgivings.

According to _my_ feelings, which I avail myself of this opportunity of
recording, we may commemorate an eminent individual in better ways than
by the erection of a statue; the philanthropist, by an alms-house--the
scholar, by scholarships--the naval commander, by a sea-mark--etc.
Admitting that a statue may sometimes be the most desirable form of
monument, the _statue_ of an individual of whose features we are in
entire ignorance is a misnomer. It is scarcely less than an absurdity.

As I have intimated that there is no authentic portrait of Caxton, I
must now justify my conviction. Ames published a woodcut as a portrait
of our venerable Caxton[8]: Dibdin discovered it to be a "portrait of
Burchiello,"[9] an eccentric Florentine barber!--le poète le plus
bizarre qui ait jamais écrit! Horace Walpole published a print said to
represent earl Rivers "introducing Caxton to Edward IV."[10] It was
copied from an illuminated MS. in the archiepiscopal library at Lambeth,
No. 265. Now, what says Mr. Todd? "That Caxton _printed this book_ in
1477, is well known. But what has that circumstance to do with the earl
_presenting or attending the presentation of his own manuscript_? The
figure here introduced by the earl is evidently, by the tonsure and
habit, a _priest_; which Caxton was not."[11] I have heard of no other
engraved portraits of Caxton.

  [Footnote 8: _Typographical antiquities._ London, 1749. 4to. p.
  54.]

  [Footnote 9: _The bibliographical decameron._ London, 1817. 8vo.
  ii. 288.]

  [Footnote 10: _Catalogue of royal and noble authors._
  Strawberry-hill, 1758. 8vo. i. 60.]

  [Footnote 11: _Catalogue of the archiepiscopal manuscripts at
  Lambeth._ London, 1812. Fol. p. 37.]

Viewing Caxton as a man of considerable literary abilities, and as the
_first English printer_, I have now to propose for him a monument which
shall do justice to his merits in both capacities--a monument which
shall be visible at all times, and in all places: I propose a collective
impression of his original compositions. Such a volume would be the best
account of his life and works. It would also exhibit much of the
literary history of the times--some sound criticism and notions on
editorship--and curious specimens of the style of our forefathers. It
would comprise what no wealth could procure--what no single library
could produce. It would be, to use the forcible words of messieurs
Visconti and Castellan, on a somewhat similar occasion, "un monument
plus utile et plus durable que ceux même que l'on peut ériger avec le
marbre et le bronze."[12]

  [Footnote 12: _Journal des savans._ 1818. 4to. p. 389.]

  _Proposed Conditions._

  1. A volume, to be entitled THE CAXTON MEMORIAL, shall be printed
  for subscribers under approved editorship, and shall contain all
  the original compositions of WILLIAM CAXTON, as proems, notes,
  colophons, etc., with specimens of his translations, and
  fac-simile cuts of his device and types.

  2. In order to expedite the progress of the volume, and to ensure
  the _perfect accuracy_ of its contents, there shall be three
  co-editors--one of whom shall act as secretary.

  3. The volume shall be printed in Roman type, with the ancient
  orthography and punctuation; and in two sizes--in royal octavo,
  and in demy octavo.

  4. Subscribers of 1_l._ 1_s._ shall be entitled to a copy on royal
  paper, and subscribers of 10_s._ 6_d._ to a copy on demy paper.

  5. Each editor shall be entitled to the same number of copies as
  are allowed by the Camden and other similar societies.

  6. The number of copies printed shall not exceed the number for
  which subscriptions shall have been received, except as required
  by the fifth rule, and as presents to such public libraries, or
  private collectors, as may furnish a part of the materials.

  7. Printers and publishers subscribing for six copies shall be
  allowed a discount of 25 per cent.

  8. The names of the subscribers, and an account of the receipts
  and expenditure, shall be added to the volume.

The project now announced was formed by me, as to its principal
features, at the close of the year 1849; but not a line was written
before the appearance of the advertisement of the 5th instant. It had
been communicated, however, in private, to the editor of "NOTES AND
QUERIES." To this fact I have no doubt he will cheerfully bear witness.
As the previous scheme of a _Caxton Testimonial_ was then almost
forgotten, the idea could not have been conceived in spirit of rivalry.
Nevertheless, if need be, I would oppose to the utmost of my ability,
and fearless of any array of names which the rolls of literature may
furnish, the PERPETUATION OF A FICTION.

    BOLTON CORNEY.

  Barnes Terrace, Surrey, July 15.


SUPPOSED WITCHCRAFT.

Cole, in his manuscript volume xlvi. p. 340, gives the copy of a paper
written at the beginning of the seventeenth century, addressed to some
Justices in Quarter Sessions, though of what county is not mentioned:--

  "Maye it please your worships to understand what troubles,
  sicknesse, and losses the Petitioner hath suffered, and in what
  manner theye happened, and by plaine tokens and lyklyhood, by the
  meanes of this woman and others; but chiefly by her, as is
  gathered by all conjectures. And first of all, a Boare which I
  have, was in such case, that he could not crye nor grunt as
  beforetyme; neither could he goe, but creepe, until we used some
  meanes to recover him; but all was to no purpose, untill such tyme
  as we sent for Nicholas Wesgate, who, when he saw him, said, 'He
  was madd or bewitched;' and my Wyfe using meanes to give him some
  Milke, he bit her by the hand, and I fearing he was madd, sent
  after my wyfe, being toward Norwich, that she might get something
  at the Apothecaries to prevent the danger we feared: and that
  Horse which my man did ryde upon after my wife, was taken lame as
  he returned back again, and suddenly after was swollen lyke a
  Bladder which is blown, and died within eight dayes. Nexte a Calfe
  was taken lame, the legg turning upward, which was a strange sight
  to them whoe did beholde the same. Suddenly after that I had fyve
  Calves more, which should have sold for xiij_s._ iiij_d._ the
  Calfe, being sound and well in the evening, and the next daye in
  the morning they were in such case as wee could not endure to come
  nigh them, by reason of a filthy noisome savour, theyre hayre
  standinge upright on theyre backes, and theye shakinge in such
  sorte as I never sawe, nor any other, I suppose, lyveynge. Againe
  within a short space I had another Calfe, which was taken so
  strangely, as if the backe were broken, and much swollen, and
  within the space of three or four dayes it dyed. And within two or
  three dayes after, another Calfe was taken in such sorte that it
  turned round about, and did goe as if the backe were broken. Then
  was I wished to burne it, and I carried the Calfe to burne it, and
  after it was burned, I was taken with paynes and gripings, and soe
  continued in such sort, untyll shee came to my House; whereupon I
  did earnestly chide her, and said I would beate her, and that
  daye, I prayse God, I was restored to my former health."

    H. E.


THE LATE SIR JOHN GRAHAM DALYELL, BARONET, OF BINNS, N.B.

This learned and accomplished gentleman was born in 1776. He was
educated for the Scottish bar, to which he was called in the year 1797.
Within a year or two after he was enrolled as a member of the Faculty,
he produced his first quarto, _Fragments of Scottish History_. This was
followed, in the year 1801, by a collection of _Scottish Poems of the
Sixteenth Century_, in two octavo volumes. In 1809 appeared a _Tract
chiefly relative to Monastic Antiquities, with some Account of a recent
Search for the Remains of the Scottish Kings interred in the Abbey of
Dunfermline_, the first of four or five thin octavos, in which Mr.
Graham Dalyell called attention to those ecclesiastical records of the
north, so many of which have since been printed by the Bannatyne,
Maitland, and Spalding Clubs, under the editorial care of Mr. Cosmo
Innes. A later and more laborious work was his _Essay on the Darker
Superstitions of Scotland_; a performance which embodies the fruit of
much patient study in rare and little read works, and affords many
curious glimpses of the popular mythology of the north. The long list of
the productions of Sir John Graham Dalyell closes with his _Musical
Memoirs of Scotland_, published little more than a twelvemonth ago. The
deceased baronet was distinguished also by his acquaintance with
mechanical science, and still more by his knowledge of Natural History.
Of the zeal with which he prosecuted this last pursuit, he has left a
signal monument in his _Rare and Remarkable Animals of Scotland_. Sir
John succeeded to the family title and estates, as sixth baronet, on the
death of his elder brother, Sir James Dalyell, on February 1, 1841. He
had previously been advanced to the honours of knighthood, by patent
under the Great Seal, in the year 1836. He had been for some time in
infirm health, and died at his residence, Great King Street, Edinburgh,
on May 17, 1851, in his seventy-fourth year. Dying unmarried, he is
succeeded by his younger brother, now Sir William Cunningham Cavendish
Dalyell, of Binns, baronet, Commander R.N., Royal Hospital, Greenwich.

    ABERDENIENSIS.


APPROPRIATION OF A THOUGHT--OLDHAM, DRYDEN, AND BYRON.--THE STATE OF
MIND IN THE PROGRESS OF COMPOSITION.

      "How when the Fancy, lab'ring for a birth,
      With unfelt Throws brings its rude issue forth:
      How after, when imperfect, shapeless thought
      Is by the judgment into Fashion wrought,
      When at first search I traverse o'er my mind,
      Nought but a dark and empty void I find:
      Some little hints at length like sparks break thence,
      _And glimmering thoughts just dawning into sense:
      Confus'd awhile the mixt ideas lie,
      With nought of mark to be discover'd by,
      Like colours undistinguish'd in the night,
      Till the dusk images, moved to the light,
      Teach the discerning Faculty to choose
      Which it had best adopt and which refuse._"

      "Some New Pieces" in Oldham's Works,
      pp. 126-27., 1684.

Dryden, alluding to his work:

  "When it was only a confused mass of thoughts _tumbling_ over one
  another in the dark; when the fancy was yet in its _first work_,
  moving the _sleeping images of things_ towards the light, there to
  be distinguished, and there either to be _chosen_ or rejected by
  the _judgment_."--Dedication to the _Rival Ladies_.

Lord Byron's appropriation of the same idea:

            ---- "As yet 'tis but a chaos
      Of darkly brooding thoughts: my fancy is
      In her _first work_, more nearly to the light
      Holding the sleeping images of things
      For the selection of the pausing judgment."

     _Doge of Venice._

Had Oldham or Dryden the prior claim to the thought? Byron derived _his_
plagiarism from D'Israeli, "On the Literary Character" (vol. i. p. 284.,
1828), where Dryden's Dedication to his _Rival Ladies_ is quoted, and
_not_ from the Dedication itself, as the _Retrospective Review_ imagined
(vol. vii. p. 158.), "by levying contributions in the most secret and
lonely recesses of our literature."

    JAMES CORNISH.


THE "EISELL" CONTROVERSY.

When Polonius proposed to use the players according to their desert,
Hamlet rebuked him with "Much better man! use every man after his
desert, and who shall 'scape whipping? Use them after your own honour
and dignity!" I do not think it necessary to notice that what is merely
coarse and vulgar in an unprovoked attack upon myself, feeling that I
have no right to expect the man who has no consideration for his own
dignity to think of mine. But when an attempt is made to sow dissension
between me and those whose opinions I value, and whose characters I
esteem, I feel that in justice to myself and in satisfaction to them, a
few words are not out of place.

Some few of your readers may have seen a pamphlet in reply to MR.
SINGER, on the meaning of _eisell_ and from certain insinuations about
"pegs and wires," and a "literary coterie," it might be supposed that
there existed some other bond for the support of "NOTES AND QUERIES"
than a common object affords. I wish then to inform such of them as may
not happen to belong to the "coterie" in question (which I suppose
exists somewhere--perhaps holds a sort of witch's-sabbath on some
inaccessible peak in the pamphleteer's imagination), that I have never,
to my knowledge, even seen either MR. SINGER or the editor of "NOTES AND
QUERIES;" and that, so far from meaning offence to the angry gentleman
who seems disposed to run-a-muck against all who come in his way, I
actually supposed all meant in good part, and characterised his remarks
as "pleasant criticism."

From an apparent inability, however, of this pamphleteer to distinguish
between pleasantry and acrimony, he has attempted to fix on me offences
against others when I have ventured to dissent from their conclusions.
All I can say is, that I have never written anything inconsistent with
the very high respect I feel for the abilities and the great services
rendered by the gentlemen I have had occasion to allude to.

Dire is the wrath of the pamphleteer that he should have been charged by
MR. SINGER with "want of truth." That gentleman doubtless saw what I did
not, the implied insinuation--since burst into full flower--about a
"coterie." Yet the candid controversialist, now, after due deliberation,
insinuates that a "canon of criticism," which I ventured to suggest, and
at which he now finds it convenient to sneer, was remembered for the
purpose of "bolstering up" MR. SINGER'S "bad argument." So far from this
being the case, he knows that I used MR. SINGER'S argument--at the close
of, and apart from the main purpose of my letter, to illustrate mine.
So, in another place, in the attempt to show up my "charming and
off-hand modesty," he quotes my opinion that the meaning of "rack"
might be "settled at once and for ever," suppressing the fact that I
made the assertion with a view of "testing the correctness of my opinion
that the question was not one of etymology, but of construction. In
short, an adept in the use of those weapons which are of value only
where victory seems a higher aim than truth, his honesty would appear to
be upon a level with his taste.

I have now done with this gentleman. Of the importance of inquiries into
nice verbal distinctions there might be a question, but that they
sometimes furnish a clue to more valuable discoveries but for this fact
I should little regard them. At all events, the remark about the
difference "'twixt tweedle-dum and tweedle-dee," comes with strange
inconsistency from one who has written fifty-two pages with no other
result than raising the question whether "bitter" was not "sour," and
proving how both qualities may be combined in a truly "nauseous
medicament."

    SAMUEL HICKSON.

  St. John's Wood.

  [Our attention having, been directed by the preceding letter to
  Mr. Causton's pamphlet, we procured and read it, with feelings of
  deep pain, not for ourselves but for the writer. We are content to
  rest the justification of our conduct in abridging, or, as Mr.
  Causton terms it, "mutilating," that gentleman's communication, on
  the very passages which we omitted, and he has reprinted. Mr.
  Causton's pamphlet, written in defence of his literary reputation,
  proves that that reputation has no enemy so dangerous as himself.
  We may add that we propose next week publishing a summary of the
  evidence on both sides of this disputed question, written not by
  Mr. Causton nor Mr. Hickson, but by a correspondent who, like
  those gentlemen, is personally unknown to us.]


Minor Notes.

"_Miserrimus._"--I have an extraordinary little volume, which, I am
told, was written by Frederic Mansell Reynolds, who died in June, 1850,
entitled, "_Miserrimus_. On a gravestone in Worcester Cathedral is this
inscription, 'Miserrimus,' with neither name, date, nor comment. NOT
PUBLISHED. Printed by Davison, Simmons, & Co., 1832," 12mo.

The work purports to be a sort of autobiography of a most miserable
wretch, and we are left to suppose that his remains lie under the stone
in question, for we are not furnished with any preface or introduction.
Whether the author was aware of the name of the person over whom so
singular an inscription was placed does not appear; but there is no
reason to believe that the repulsive and painful aberrations he details
had any relation to the individual buried under the memorial of
"Miserrimus," whose name is recorded in Chambers's _Biographical
Illustrations of Worcestershire_, p. 310., as the Rev. Thomas Morris,
who was deprived of all ecclesiastical preferment for refusing to
acknowledge the king's supremacy at the Revolution, and died, it is
stated, in 1748, silvered over with the weight and infirmities of
eighty-eight years--"Miserrimus."

    F. R. A.

_The Dog and Duck, St. George's Fields._--It is not generally known,
that the _old stone sign_ of that celebrated place of public resort is
still in existence, and is preserved by being imbedded in the brick wall
of the garden of Bedlam Hospital (visible from the road), representing a
dog squatting on his haunches with a duck in his mouth; and the date
1617. It was placed here on removal of the old house which stood on, or
very close to, the spot; and in the superintendent's (Mr. Nicholl's)
room is a very pretty drawing of that ancient place of amusement. I have
had a sketch made of it in large.

Any information respecting the Dog and Duck, its guests, visitors, or
landlords, would be most acceptable to

    G. CREED.

_The Habit of Profane Swearing by the English._--The revolting habit of
swearing--which, of late years, has happily diminished--has been a
marked characteristic of the English for _many centuries_; and the
national adjuration which has given us a _nick-name_ on the continent,
appears to have prevailed at an earlier period than is generally
supposed.

"The English," observes Henry, "were remarkable in this period (between
1399 and 1485) among the nations of Europe, for the absurd and impious
practice of profane swearing in conversation."

The Count of Luxemburg, accompanied by the Earls of Warwick and
Stafford, visited the Maid of Orleans in her prison at Rouen, where she
was chained to the floor and loaded with irons. The Count, who had sold
her to the English, pretended that he had come to treat with her about
her ransom. After addressing him with contempt and disdain, she turned
her eyes towards the two Earls, and said,--"I know that you English are
determined to put me to death, and imagine that, after I am dead, you
will conquer France: but, though there were a hundred thousand
_G----dammees_ more in France than there are, they will never conquer
that kingdom." So early had the English got this odious nick-name by
their frequent and common use of that horrid and disgusting imprecation.

    T. WE.

_Tennyson's Use of the Word "Cycle."--A Moiety._--There is a line in
_Locksley Hall_ which has always appeared to me a sad blemish in a fine
poem, and which may, perhaps, puzzle posterity as much as any of those
which have been illustrated by G. P. (Vol. iii., p. 319.) I allude to
that in stanza 92.:

      "Better fifty years of Europe than a cycle of Cathay."

Posterity will easily learn that the Chinese cycle was just "sixty
years," and will have some difficulty in believing that Tennyson should
have rated the disparity between life in Europe and in China no higher
than as six to five. It is evident that the poet used a "cycle" in the
signification of a long period of years; but will posterity be able to
find any authority for this use of the word? Can any one refer to a
dictionary which explains it in that sense, or to any other good author
who has so used it?

This use of the word "cycle" is associated in my mind with a use (or
rather _abuse_) of the word "moiety," which prevails in the north of
Ireland, and perhaps elsewhere. It properly signifies "one half," but
many employ it in the sense of a very small portion. I hope no one will
introduce it into poetry with this signification.

    MATTER OF FACT.



QUERIES.


ETYMOLOGY OF FONTAINEBLEAU.

The _Description Routière et Géographique de l'Empire Français_, already
cited by me on the subject of Bicêtre, furnishes the following
particulars respecting the derivation of Fontainebleau:

  "Ce bassin sert de décharge à la fontaine, qui a donné, dit-on,
  son nom à Fontainebleau. Elle est nommée, dans les anciennes
  chartes, _Fons Blaudi_. Quelques modernes substituent à cette
  étymologie celle de _belle eau_, d'où ils font également dériver
  Fontainebleau. L'une et l'autre sont rejetées par Expilly, et
  remplacées par une troisième de sa façon, qui est évidente, selon
  lui, et qui, selon ses lecteurs, est la plus absurde de toutes. Je
  vais citer ce passage pour faire sentir jusqu'à quel travers
  d'esprit peut conduire la manie des étymologies. 'Pourquoi,'
  dit-il, 'se donner la torture à ce sujet? Il suffit de la moindre
  notion de la chasse pour savoir que, quand le chasseur appellè les
  chiens, il crie: _Thia hillaut!_ N'est-il pas vraisemblable que le
  château ayant été bâti en pays de chasse, les habitans des
  environs, entendant continuellement le mot _hillaut_,
  l'appellèrent de ce nom, auquel ils joignirent celui de la
  fontaine près de laquelle il avait été bâti. De _Fontaine hillaut_
  on fit insensiblement Fontainebleau.'"

TWO Queries suggest themselves here. Who or what was _Blaudus_ or
_Blaudum_? Is our _Tally-ho_ derived from _Thia hillaut_, or _vice
versâ_? As to the "travers d'esprit," so gravely imputed to Expilly, it
is clear to me that his solution of the matter must be taken as a
burlesque on etymologists, rather than as any evidence of his own
extravagance in that respect.

    HENRY H. BREEN.
  St. Lucia, June, 1851.


FORCE OF CONSCIENCE.

The following relation has often been reprinted in religious magazines
and the like. It is given by Dr. Fordyce, Professor of Philosophy at
Aberdeen, in his _Dialogues concerning Education_ (London, 1748, vol.
ii. p. 401.), as "a true story, _which happened in a neighbouring state
not many years ago_." Can any of your readers furnish me with Dr. F.'s
authority for the assertion?--the Doctor himself gives none. One would
think that, if true, its truth might be easily verified. If its truth
cannot be satisfactorily established, to reprint such tales cannot but
be most mischievous:--

  "A jeweller of considerable wealth having occasion to travel to
  some distance from the place of his abode, took with him a servant
  in order to take care of his portmanteau. Having occasion to
  dismount on the road, the servant, watching his opportunity, took
  a pistol from his master's saddle and shot him dead on the spot;
  then rifled him of his money and jewels, and threw the body into
  the nearest river. With this booty he made off to a distant part
  of the country.... He was at length admitted to a share of the
  government of the town, and rose from one post to another, till at
  length he was chosen to be chief magistrate.... One day as he sat
  on the bench with some of his brethren in the magistracy, a
  criminal was brought before him who was accused of murdering his
  master. The evidence was full; the jury brought in their verdict
  that the prisoner was guilty; and the whole assembly awaited the
  sentence of the President of the court, which he happened to be on
  that day.... At length coming down from the bench he placed
  himself by the guilty man at the bar and made a full confession of
  his own guilt, and of all its aggravations.... We may easily
  suppose the great amazement of all the assembly, and especially of
  his fellow-judges. They proceeded, however, upon this confession,
  to pass sentence upon him, and he died with all the symptoms of
  penitent mind."

    J. K.


ENGLISH LITERATURE IN THE NORTH.

English letters are exciting a daily increasing interest in the north of
Europe--that hardy and romantic country whence we ourselves are
descended. But their means for purchase are very scanty, and I have been
requested by the chief librarians of the Royal Library, Stockholm, and
the University Library, Copenhagen, to endeavour to procure them English
books _by gift_ from private individuals and public societies and
libraries.

Can you assist me in this work by making this their prayer known in your
widely-spread columns?

Any English works, large or small, old or new, in any department of
literature, but especially in archæology, folk-lore, history, theology,
belles-lettres, &c., particularly books _privately printed_, or
otherwise scarce or dear, will be most acceptable. Every donor will
have the goodness to state for which library his gift is intended. So
many have duplicates, or copies of books, which they no longer use or
need, that many will doubtless be able to assist in this pleasant
book-gathering for our Scandinavian cousins.

      GEORGE STEPHENS,
      Professor of English Literature in the
      University of Copenhagen.

      Mill Farm, Barnes, Surrey, July, 1851.

  [We have good reason to know the great interest which our
  Scandinavian brethren take in the literature of this country, and
  hope this appeal of MR. STEPHENS will be liberally responded to.
  Any donations for the libraries in question, which, we believe,
  are both public libraries, may be left for him at the office of
  "NOTES AND QUERIES."]


Minor Queries.

1. _Painted Prints of Overton._--In Vol. iii., pp. 324, 325., under the
title "The Bellman and his History," are quoted some lines from Gay's
_Trivia_, book ii. p. 482. The last line is--

      "The colour'd prints of Overton appear."

Who was Overton, and what were his prints that Gay in these lines makes
the companions of the bellman's song?

    F. L. H.

2. _Fourth Fare._--In the accounts of the churchwardens of St. Edmund's,
Sarum, temp. Edw. IV., this item often occurs, for which a payment was
made. Does it not mean the dying knell, from the German "to depart."

    H. T. E.

  Clyst St. George, June 3. 1851.

3. _John Wood, Architect._--Can any of your readers inform me if any
likeness is in existence of the author of _An Essay towards a
Description of Bath_? or if any of his descendants are still living? He
built the Bristol Exchange; and Bath is indebted to him for many of its
most noble edifices. He was a magistrate for the county of Somerset, and
died in 1754.

    GAMMA.

4. _Derivation of "Spon."_--Can you or your readers give me a derivation
of the word "spon," in its application to street names? There is "Spon
End," and also "Spon Street," in Coventry, "Spon Lane" at West Bromwich,
and "Spon Terrace" at Birmingham. Can you supply any other instances?

Mr. Halliwell merely says, "_Spon_, a shaving of wood;" and it is used
in this sense in Scott's _Sir Tristrem_, p. 119.:

      "Bi water he sent adoun
        Light linden spon."

    C. H. B.

  Clarence Street, Islington.

5. _Dell, in what County?_--I shall feel obliged if any of your
correspondents can tell me whereabouts this place is, and in what
county?

    J. N. C.

6. _Bummaree or Bumaree._--There is a large class of salesmen in
Billingsgate Market not recognised as such by the trade, but styled
Bumarees, who get a living by purchasing large parcels of fish of the
factor or common salesman, and selling it out in smaller quantities to
the fishmongers and other retailing buyers. This whole-sale retailing of
fish is also called bummareeing it, hence the name of these
(self-styled) salesmen.

I have not been able to find any clue to the meaning of this word thus
used in any authority that I possess, though the word has been
recognised in statutes and bye-laws of the markets for upwards of one
hundred years.

As I feel very interested in this matter, may I be allowed to call the
attention of some of your very learned correspondents to this matter,
and ask for the probable etymology and exact orthography of the word.

I have been informed that the only other use of the word known is with
the confectioners, who use _Bummaree_ pans.

The prefix "bum" is used to express the lowest of the kind in
bum-bailiff, and also further additionally in connexion with selling in
"bum-boat." I cannot think that "bona venalia," goods set to sale, among
the Romans, give any clue to Bummaree. This, and other derivations
equally unsatisfactory, have been submitted by those who have hitherto
directed their attention to this subject.

    BLOWEN.

7. _Thread the Needle._--What is the game so called? and what its
origin?

In it these words occur:

      "How far hence to Hebron?
      Threescore miles and ten!
      Can I be there to-night?
      Yes! and back again!"

I have somewhere seen the name of Thread-the-Needle-Gate. Where is, or
was, it? and whence was the London street so named?

    R. S. H.

  Morwenstow.

8. _Proof of a Sword._--Is the following statement correct and true (I
mean, as to the trial of the sword blade, not the anecdote)?

  "A troop of horse are riding along under the command of 'Duke
  William' of Cumberland, in the '45. A little old Highlander joins
  the march; a strong lusty soldier laughs at, and insults him. He
  is allowed to demand satisfaction, and fight it out at once: he
  craves the loan of a sword; one is handed to him. But Donald had
  seen too many snows to trust his life to the blade of untried
  metal: he minutely examined the handle, the edge, the point, and
  the _spring_, and finally turning aside to _a pool_ of water, and
  applying the _flat_ side of the blade to its surface, with one
  smart stroke broke it in two."

Is this a good test of a sword blade? Would _any_ sword stand it?

Would the Toledo blade, at the Crystal Palace, that _rolls_ up into the
form of a serpent, bear it?

What is the usual test of a good blade?

    ENSIS.

9. _Shelley's Children._--Are any of Shelley's children, by his first
wife, still living and where?--a friend of mine, who was her companion,
having a relic of her, which she would gladly give into their
possession.

    PHILO.

10. _Ackey Trade._--I have in my cabinet a silver coin (shilling size)
which has on the obverse, besides the bust of the kind, the date 1818,
and the legend, the following under the head (between it and the
legend), "_½ Ackey Trade_;" and I shall be glad to have an explanation
of what is meant by the "_Ackey Trade_?" The reverse has the arms and
crest of the African Company. The legend is "Free Trade to Africa by Act
of Parliament, 1750."

    J. N. C.

11. _Baskerville the Printer._--I was informed in 1835, by a friend
living at Birmingham, that the coffin containing the body of that
celebrated printer was then lying in a timber yard in that town under a
pile of deals--a fact which was well known there.

Is it still in the same place? And why? And is there any portrait,
engraved or otherwise, of him? Mr. Merridew of Coventry, and others,
have assured me there was not.

    G. C.

12. _Statue of Charles II._--What became of the fine statue of Charles
II. on horseback which formerly stood in Stock's Market, the site of the
present Mansion House?

It was placed on a conduit at the "sole cost and charges of that worthy
citizen and alderman Sir Robert Viner, Bart." I have seen a print of it,
folio. (London, pub. 1708.)

    G. CREED.

13. _La Mère Jeanne._--In Hallam's _Literature of Europe_, 2nd edition,
vol. i. p. 461., I read this passage:--

  Two crude Attempts at introducing the Eastern tongues were made
  soon afterwards (1530). One of these was by William Postel, a man
  of some parts, and more reading; but chiefly known, while he was
  remembered at all, for mad reveries of fanaticism, and an
  idolatrous veneration for a saint of his own manufacture, La Mère
  Jeanne, the Joanna Southcote of the sixteenth century."

Has any account of the character and proceedings of "La Mère Jeanne"
been handed down to us; and, if so, where is it to be found?

    HENRY H. BREEN.

  St. Lucia, June, 1851.

14. _Man of War, why a Ship of War so called._--Will any of your readers
inform me the origin of a ship of a certain number of guns being called
"a man of war?" In Shakspeare the term is applied to Falstaff: Davy
inquires of Shallow:

      "Doth the man of war stay all night, Sir?"

And it is singular to remark, in the same scene, the first of Act V.,
the Second Part of _Henry IV._, that the dinner ordered by Shallow for
Falstaff is just such as any country gentleman would now provide for an
unexpected guest:--

  Some pigeons, Davy; a couple of short-legged hens; a joint of
  mutton; and any pretty little tiny kickshaws, tell William cook."

The only difference is the sex of the cook, as country gentlemen in
these days have females in that capacity.

    AN M. D.

15. _Secret Service Money of Charles II._--In Mr. Akerman's preface to
this work, just published by the Camden Society, I find this passage:

  "Amongst these (sums lavished on female favourites) the payments
  to the Duchess of Portsmouth are most conspicuous. No less a sum
  than 136,688_l._ 10_s._ appears to have been bestowed by the
  profligate monarch on this woman _within the space of one
  year_."--See _Payments under the year 1681_, p. 42.

Now, on turning to the year and page designated, I find that the _whole
of the class_ in which the Duchess's name appears amounts for _that
year_ only to about 22,000_l._, of which the Duchess of Portsmouth
appears to have received about 12,000 in several quarterly payments on
account of an annual pension or pensions of that amount: so in other
years. This is a very different sum from 136,000_l._ I would beg leave
to inquire of the editor, or of any of your _Camdenite_ correspondents,
whether there is an error in Mr. Akerman's statement, or only in my way
of reading it?

    C.

16. _Hampton Court._--Miss Strickland, in the _Queens of England_, after
saying that the Queen (Elizabeth of York, Henry VII.'s wife) had stayed
at Hampton Court eight days, continues:

  "It is worth noticing that Hampton Court was a favourite residence
  of Elizabeth of York long before Cardinal Wolsey had it."

Now, in the _Gentleman's Magazine_ for January, 1834, is a copy of the
lease from the prior of St. John of Jerusalem to Cardinal Wolsey of
their manor of Hampton Court, it having been in the possession of the
Knights Hospitallers of St. John since 1211, when Joan Lady Grey left it
by will to that order. Where, then, was Elizabeth of York's residence?
Did she hold a lease of the manor and manor-house of Hampton of the
Knights Hospitallers? Or was there another royal residence in that
locality?

    TEE BEE.


Minor Queries Answered.

_De Rebus Hibernicis._--1. Silvester Giraldus Cambrensis, born in Wales,
A.D. 1145, was the author of numerous works. Can any one furnish a list
of them?

2. What is the date of the _Annals of the Four Masters_?

3. Who was Tigernach, and when did he live?

4. What are the _Annals of Ulster_, and when were they written?


    WILLIAM E. C. NOURSE.


  [1. The printed works, as well as the manuscript collections, of
  Giraldus, are so numerous, and deposited in so many different
  libraries, that we must refer our correspondent to Sir R. C.
  Hoare's description of them in his Introduction to the translation
  of Giraldus' _Itinerary of Archbishop Baldwin through Wales_, vol.
  i. pp. liv.-lxxii. 4to. 1806.

  2. _The Annals of Dunagall_, otherwise called _The Annals of the
  Four Masters_, were compiled between A.D. 1632 and 1636. From a
  MS. in the Duke of Buckingham's library at Stowe, Dr. O'Conor
  published the first part of these _Annals_, extending from the
  earliest period to A.D. 1172, in his _Rerum Hibernicarum
  Scriptores_. The latter portion has since been edited, with a
  translation and notes, by John O'Donovan, Esq., M.R.I.A., in 3
  vols. 4to.

  3. Tigernach was Abbot of Cluain-mac-nois, and died A.D. 1088. He
  wrote the _Annals of Ireland_, from A.M. 3596 to his own time.

  4. _The Annals of Ulster_ were compiled by Cathald Mac Magnus
  (Charles Maguire), who died A.D. 1498. They commence with the
  reign of Feradach Fionnfachtnach, monarch of Ireland, A.D. 60, and
  are carried down to the author's own time. They were afterwards
  continued to the year 1504, by Roderick O'Cassidy, Archdeacon of
  Clogher. See O' Reilly's _Chronological Account of Irish
  Writers_.]

_Abridgment of the Assizes._--Where can one see, or what is the correct
title of the book containing _Abridgment of the Assizes, and Iters of
Pickring and Lancaster_? It is referred to in Manwood _on Forest Laws_.

    S. S.

  [Richard Tottle, dwelling at the Hand and Star in Fleet Street,
  and who was "licensed to print all manner of books touching the
  common laws of England," published in the middle of the sixteenth
  century the following work:--"_The Abridgment of the Book of
  Assises_, lately perused over and corrected, and now newely
  imprinted by Richard Tottle, the last day of September, 1555." It
  is probable that the _Iters of Pickring and Lancaster_ are still
  in manuscript.]

_Life of Cromwell._--I have in my possession a _Life of Cromwell_,
written by R. B. "without passion or partiality," printed by N. Crouch
in the Poultry, 1715. Query, who was this R. B.?

    PHILO.

  [The author was Richard or Robert Burton, _alias_ Nathaniel
  Crouch, who, says Dunton in his _Life and Errors_, "melted down
  the best of our English histories into twelve penny books, which
  are filled with wonders, rarities, and curiosities." The first
  edition of _The History of Cromwell_ was published in 1693,
  "relating only matters of fact without reflection or
  observation."]



Replies.


WRITTEN SERMONS AND EXTEMPORE PREACHING.

(Vol. iii., pp. 478. 526.; Vol. iv., p. 8.)

Your versatile correspondent MR. GATTY has been led astray by an
incorrect assertion of Bingham's (magni nominis vir), that Origen was
the first who preached extempore. The passage to which Bingham refers
us, in Eusebius, asserts nothing of this sort; but simply that Origen
would not suffer his sermons to be taken down by the short-hand writers
till he was sixty years old,--a sufficient proof, if any were needed,
that the custom of taking down sermons by notaries in the third century
was not unusual.

Some rogue has stolen my Number of the "NOTES AND QUERIES" in which the
inquiry on the subject of written sermons was made; but, if I remember
rightly, the _question_ was put correctly, it having been asked when
written sermons were first preached. As I at one time took some pains to
look into this point, and as no one else seems inclined to take it up,
perhaps you will allow me space for a few remarks.

1. I suppose no one will be disposed to question the extreme
improbability of the "sermons" in the Apostolic are having been
_written_ discourses: if, however, this be considered doubtful, I am
willing to argue the point, and be set right if I am wrong in thinking
it unquestionable.

2. I believe it is almost as improbable, that in what Professor Brunt
calls the "post-Apostolic" times sermons were written, not only from the
complete silence of the Apostolic Fathers on the point--for that would
really prove next to nothing,--but because it seems quite incredible
that no vestige of any such sermon should have come down to us; no
forgery of one, no legend or tradition of the existence of one if the
practice of writing sermons had prevailed at all.

3. In the Apologies of Justin and Tertullian [Justin, ed. Otto, i. 270.;
Tertullian, _Ap._ ch. xxxix.] there is a description of the addresses
delivered in the congregations of their times, which appears to me to
prove that they knew of no such practice as reading a sermon and the
passage from Origen contra Cels., which De la Cerda gives in his note on
Tertullian, though it is only quoted in the Latin, surely shows the same
(vol. i. p. 190.). I came across something of the sort in Cyprian about
two years ago and, if I may dare trust my memory, it appeared to me at
the time to be more satisfactory than the passages above referred to;
but I made no note of it,--and I was hunting for other game when I met
with it. Still, if your querist is going into the subject as a student
into a matter of history, I dare stay I could find the paragraph.

4. I have really no acquaintance with the post-Nicene fathers, the mere
desultory reading out of some few of the works of the Arian period
counting for something less than nothing; but, as far as secondary
sources are to be trusted, I certainly never met with anything that
would lead me to conclude that sermons were ever read in the fourth or
fifth centuries. [I shall come to the only shadow of an argument in
favour of such a practice having prevailed so early, presently.]
Certainly, St. Ambrose, St. Augustine, St. Chrysostom, St. Cyril of
Jerusalem, were extempore preachers by Bingham's showing. Gregory the
Great, much later, for all that appears to the contrary, never wrote his
sermons at all, and even preached his homilies on Ezekiel almost without
any preparation. Indeed the prevalence of that most abominable system of
applauding the preacher, which St. Chrysostom protests against in the
magnificent sermon on 1Cor.xiv.38., could scarcely have been universal
where sermons were read.

5. I come now to the argument which Bingham deduces from a passage in
Sidonius Apollinaris; where, in speaking of Faustus, Bishop of Riez, he
says that he was "raucus plausor," while hearing "tuas prædicationes,
nunc repentinas, nunc, cum ratio poposcisset, elucubratas." Until I had
turned up the passage itself, I thought there was no doubt that Bingham
was right in explaining it as referring partly to extempore, partly to
written-and-read sermons; but taking the passage as it stands, I would
submit that the "prædicationes elucubratas" were not at all _read_
sermons, though prepared and studied beforehand, and that the
"prædicationes repentinas" were such as St. Augustine sometimes
delivered, viz., on a text which suggested itself to him during the time
of service, or in consequence of some unforeseen event having happened
just before his ascending the pulpit.

6. I have as yet dealt only with the negative evidence; but the positive
testimony against the reading, and in favour of the reciting or
preaching sermons, is far from small. I should look upon man as crazy
who ventured to speak slightingly of Bingham, and should as soon think
of setting up myself against that great man as of challenging Goliah of
Gath to fisty-cuffs; but I can never get rid of the thought that Bingham
had a strong prejudice against extempore preaching, and treated the
history of sermons somewhat unfairly: _e.g._, in his 22nd section of
that 4th chap. of the xivth book (with which chap. I take it for granted
my readers are acquainted), he somewhat roguishly misrepresents Mabillon
and the Council of Vaison; and as to every other passage he quotes or
refers to, every one asserts that the sermons were to be preached or
_recited_, not one says a word about reading.

The Council of Vaison is, of course, that which was held in A.D. 529,
and at which Cæsarius of Arles presided: but the 2nd canon does not say
a word about reading; so far from it, it commands that the homilies
which the deacons preached should be recited [_recitentur_, Labbe, iv. p
1679.], as though the practice of reading a sermon were not known. So,
with regard to the other passages from St. Augustine, there is not a
hint about reading: if a man could not make his own sermons, he was to
take another's; but to take care to commit it to memory, and then
deliver it.

I should be glad to furnish you with a few "more last words" on this
subject, but I fear that these remarks have already proceeded to too
great a length: still, if you give me any encouragement, I should like
to take up the matter again.

I should be glad to be informed whether it be true, as I have heard,
that the practice of learning their sermons by heart is universal and
avowed by the preachers in Germany; and whether it be really a common
thing for a preacher there to deny himself on a Saturday, on the plea
that he is getting his sermon by heart?

    AJAX.

  Papworth St. Agnes, July 8. 1851.

_Written Sermons_ (Vol. iii., p. 478.).--Your querist M. C. L. may be
referred to Dr. Short's _History of the Church of England_, § 223.; or
to Burnet's _Reformation_, vol. i. p. 317., folio; where he will find
that the practice commenced about the year 1542.

    N. E. R. (a Subscriber.)


FEST SITTINGS.

(Vol. iii., pp. 328. 396.)

Not questioning the meaning given to the word _Fest_ by R. VINCENT, I
take leave to refer you to Dr. Willan's list of words in use in the
mountainous districts of the West Riding of Yorkshire, in the
seventeenth volume of the _Archæologia_. You will there find: "FEST, to
board from home." The word is used in that sense at the present time. A
gentleman resident in the West Riding writes to me:

  "I have heard the term 'fest' used generally as applying to
  sending out cattle to pasture, and so says Carr in his _Dialect of
  Craven_. I have also frequently heard it used in this manner: 'I
  have fest my lad out apprentice to so and so.' In my own
  neighbourhood, in the West Riding, it is a frequent practice for
  poor man who possesses a cow, but no pasture, to 'fest' her with
  some occupier of land at a certain sum by the week, or for some
  other term. So a gamekeeper is said 'to fest' his master's
  pointer, when he agrees with a farmer to keep it for a time. In
  these cases the boy, the cow, the pointer, 'are boarded from
  home.'"

As to "statutes" or "sittings," the word "statutes" is explained in
Blount's _Dictionary_ as follows:

  "It is also used in our vulgar discourse for the Petty Sessions
  which are yearly kept for the disposing of servants in service by
  the statute 5 Eliz. chap. iv." (§ 48.)

See in the _Archaic and Provincial Dictionary_, "SITTINGS" and
"STATUTE." In Holderness (I collect it from the Query of F. R. H.) the
term "sittings" is used in the same sense as "statute" in the West
Riding, and in many other parts of the kingdom. "Fest sittings" appear
then to mean "the annual assemblage of servants who hire themselves to
board from home." In many places the "statute" or "stattie" is connected
with the fair.

  "Statute Fairs," my friend writes, "are held at Settle, Long
  Preston, and other places, which don't occur to me, in our
  district (Craven). At Settle servants wishing to hire stand with a
  small white wand in their hands, to show their object. In like
  manner horses, when taken to a fair, wear on their heads a white
  leather kind of bridle; and (to come nearer home) when a young
  lady has attained a certain age, and begins to look with anxious
  eye to future prospects, we say that she also has put on the white
  bridle."

He adds: "I have myself had servants hired at Long Preston Statute
Fair." Another friend writes to me:

  "Richmond Statties are very famous, every servant desirous of
  hiring having a peeled twig or stick. At Penrith they put a straw
  in their mouths. I remember a poor girl being killed by an
  infuriated cow at Penrith; and the poor thing had the straw in her
  mouth when dead."

In the East Riding, Pocklington Statute is well known; and York has its
Statute Fair. At these "statutes" or "statties" ("Stattie Fairs" and
"Sittings," or Fest Sittings), servants "fest themselves," that is, hire
themselves to board from home.

Standing in the market-place to be hired will occur to any one who may
take the trouble of reading these desultory observations.

Excuse my adding irrelevantly the following use of the word "sitting."
It is said that a young man is "sitting a young woman," when he is
wooing or courting her.

    F. W. T.


HISTOIRE DES SÉVÉRAMBES.

(Vol. iii., pp. 4. 72. 147. 374.)

In Quérard's _France Littéraire_ (Didot, Paris, 1839), tome x. p. 10., I
read the following notice of the author of _Histoire des Sévérambes_:--

  "Vairasse (Denis) d'Alais, écrivain français du XVII. Siècle.

  "---- Grammaire raisonnée et méthodique, contenant en abrégé les
  principes de cet art et les règles les plus nécessaires de la
  langue français. Nouv. édit. Paris, D. Mariette, 1702, in-12.

  "La première édition a paru en 1681.

  "---- Histoire des Sévérambes (Roman politique) nouv. édit.
  Amsterdam, Etienne Roger, 1716, 2 vol. in-12.

  "La première édition parut de 1677 à 1679, en trois vol. in-12.

  "Cet ouvrage a été réimprimé dans la collection des Voyages
  imaginaires."

_La France Littéraire_ is a compilation of extraordinary labour and
research; and, in the absence of more authentic information, I believe
we may safely rely on the above statement. The facts, therefore, in so
far as they have been brought to light, may be summed up as follows:--

1. The original work was written in English, was entitled _History of
the Sevarites_, and published in 1675.

2. That work suggested the idea of the _Histoire des Sévérambes_, which
was published in 1677-9, and in all essential respects may be said to be
an original composition.

3. The Captain _Liden_ of one edition, and the Captain _Siden_ of
another (from whose memoirs the work is said to have been translated),
are one and the same imaginary personage.

4. The author of the _History of the Sevarites_ has not been
ascertained; the claims of Vairasse, Algernon Sidney, and Isaac Vossius,
being founded on mere conjecture.

5. There seems no reason to doubt that Denis Vairasse d'Alais was the
author of _Histoire des Sévérambes_; supported as that opinion is by the
testimony of Christian Thomasius, Barbier, and Quérard.

    HENRY H. BREEN.

  St. Lucia, June, 1851.


SALTING THE DEAD.

(Vol. iv., p. 6.)

An amusing instance of this custom--perhaps even now, under certain
circumstances, prevalent in some parts of England--occurs in Mrs. Bray's
_Letters on the Superstitions, &c. of Devonshire_. A traveller while
passing over one of the large uninclosed tracts of land near Tavistock,
was overtaken by a violent snowstorm, which compelled him to seek a
night's shelter from the inhabitants of a lonely cottage on the moor. In
the chamber assigned for his repose, he observed a curiously carved oak
chest of antique appearance.

  "He noticed or made some remarks upon it to the old woman who had
  lighted him up stairs, in order to see that all things in his room
  might be as comfortable as circumstances would permit for his
  rest. There was something he thought shy and odd about the manner
  of the woman when he observed the chest; and after she was gone,
  he had half a mind to take a peep into it."

After a while he does, and _horribile dictu!_ a human corpse, stiff and
cold, lay before his sight! After a night spent in the most agonizing
apprehensions he descends to breakfast, and his fears become somewhat
lightened by the savoury fumes of the morning meal.

  "Indeed so much did he feel reassured and elevated by the
  extinction of his personal fears, that, just as the good woman was
  broiling him another rasher, he out with the secret of the chest,
  and let them know that he had been somewhat surprised by its
  contents; venturing to ask, in a friendly tone, for an explanation
  of so remarkable a circumstance. 'Bless your heart, your honour,
  'tis nothing at all,' said her son; 'tis only fayther!'--'Father!
  your father!' cried the traveller; 'what do you mean?'--'Why, you
  know, your honour,' replied the peasant, 'the snaw being so thick,
  and making the roads so cledgy like, when old fayther died, two
  weeks agon, we couldn't carry un to Tavistock to bury un, and so
  mother put un in the old box, and salted un in: mother's a fine
  hand at salting un in.'"--Vol. i. pp. 29. 32.

In connexion with this subject you will perhaps permit me to observe,
that the custom of placing a plate of salt on the body is still retained
in many parts of the country. An instance of its use in the metropolis
came under my notice only last week. The reason assigned for this is,
that it prevents the spread of any noxious vapours. But query, is it not
an ancient superstitious observance? According to Moresin:

  "Salem abhorrere constat diabolum et ratione optima nititur, quia
  Sal æternitatis est et immortalitatis signum, neque putredine
  neque corruptione infestatur unquam, sed ipse ab his omnia
  vendicat.--"_Moresini Papatus_, p. 154.

    SPERIEND.


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Bogatsky_ (Vol. iii., p. 478.).--A very satisfactory biographical
sketch of Bogatsky, author of the _Golden Treasury_, will be found in
_Evangelical Christendom_, vol. iii. for 1849, pp. 69. and 101.

    C. W. B.

_Baronette_ (Vol. iii., p. 450.).--Selden was of opinion that Baronet
was used for Banneret, as may be seen in the following extracts from the
second part of _Titles of Honor_.

Chap. iii. sect. 23.:

  "Bannerets ... some have stiled them Baronets, as if they had a
  diminitive title of Barons."

Chap. v. sect. 25.:

  "And whereas in the statutes of the same King" (Richard II.), "as
  we read them in English, every Archbishop, Bishop, Abbot, Prior,
  Duke, Earl, Baron, Baronet, Knight of the Shire, &c., are
  commanded under paine of amerciament or other punishment,
  according to ancient use, to appear in Parlament; the French, both
  of the Roll and of those Books that are truly printed, hath
  Banneret and by some little mistake Barneret for the same word.
  And as when mention is in the old stories of Knight Banneret, the
  word Baronet (which runnes easier from the tongue) is often for
  Banneret; so fell it not only in the English print of our
  statutes, but also in a report of a case that is of a later time
  than that to which our present division confines us, that Baronet
  (for Banneret) is likewise used for a Baron. For in an attaint
  under Henry the Sixt, one of the Jury challenged himselfe because
  his ancestors had been Baronets and Seigneurs des Parlements. I
  cannot doubt but that the title of Banneret in this sense was
  meant there."

Chap. v. sect. 39.:

  "Of the name of Banneret as it sometimes expressed a Baron of
  Parlament enough is before said. And as in that notion of it,
  Baronet was often miswritten for it, so also in this." (Milites
  vexilliferi): "Neither only have the old stories Baronetti very
  frequent for Banneretti, but even in a patent passed to Sir Ralph
  Fane, a Knight-Banneret under Edward the Sixt, he is called
  Baronettus for Bannerettus."

    LLEWELLYN.

_Rifles_ (Vol. iii., p. 517.).--In reply to A. C., I can safely assert
that the _best_ American rifles are nearly equal, in point of
workmanship, to the _common_ ones made in Birmingham, and that there is
no "_use for which an American rifle is to be preferred to an English_,"
French, or Belgian one; and further, that the American rifles will not
bear comparison with those of any London maker.

Colt's revolvers were submitted to our Government twelve or fourteen
years ago, and not approved. The present revolvers, made in England,
have always been considered improvements upon them.

I do not pretend to be the "highest authority," though I profess to know
something of the subject.

    THE AUTHOR OF "ENGINES OF WAR."

_Miss_ (Vol. iv., p. 6.).--Evelyn's notice of this word is prior to the
instance cited by your correspondent. Under the 9th of January, 1662, he
has,--

  "I saw acted _The Third Part of the Siege of Rhodes_. In this
  acted ye faire and famous comedian call'd Roxalana, from ye part
  she perform'd; and I think it was ye last, she being taken to be
  ye Earle of Oxford's _Misse_ (as at this time they began to call
  lewd women)."

    SPERIEND.

_Lady Flora Hastings' Bequest_ (Vol. iii., p. 522.).--I can state
positively, that the lines with the above title were "in reality written
by that lamented lady." I was not aware they had ever appeared in print,
nor do I think her family are aware either. I am truly sorry that a
"Christian Lady" should have been guilty of such a shameless, heartless
act of literary piracy.

I here take the opportunity of remarking that, in the last stanza but
one, and sixth line, "upon" is a misprint for "uprose."

    ERZA.

_English Sapphics_ (Vol. iii., p. 494.).--In the translation of the
Psalms of David by Sir P. Sidney and his sister, the Countess of
Pembroke, the 125th Psalm is rendered in Sapphics. The first stanza is
as follows:

      "As Sion standeth very firmly steadfast,
      Never once shaking: so on high Jehova
      Who his hope buildeth, very firmly steadfast
                                    Ever abideth."
The 120th Psalm is in Alcaics, and, I think, very successful,
considering the difficulty of the metre. It commences thus:

      "As to th' Eternall often in anguishes
      Erst have I called, never unanswered,
        Againe I call, againe I calling
        Doubt not againe to receave an answer."

There are also specimens of other Latin metres in the same collection.

I remember about eighteen or twenty years ago an "Ode to December," in
_Blackwood's Magazine_, the first stanza of which was as follows (I
quote from memory):

      "O'er the bare hill tops moan the gusty breezes,
      From the dark branches sweeping the sere leaves,
      South comes the polar duck; and the gliding grey gull
                            Shrieks to her shelter."

    M. W.

_Welwood_ (Vol. iv., p. 1.).--The imprint of the first edition of his
_Memoirs_ is "London, for Tim. Goodwin, 1700." The Museum copy which
bears the press-mark 808. f. is a distinct impression.

    BOLTON CORNEY.

_Bellarmin's Monstrous Paradox_ (Vol. iii., p. 497.).--In your paper of
June 21st, there is a question inserted as to the precise text in which
Cardinal Bellarmin is said to maintain that "should the Pope command the
commission of vice, and forbid the practice of virtue, it would become
the duty of Catholics to perform the one and to avoid the other." To
that question you have replied by quoting a passage from the fourth book
of the cardinal's great work. It is quite true that the words quoted by
you occur at that place; it is quite as untrue that the "monstrous
paradox" is there attempted to be maintained. A reference to the book
will show at once that this paradox is simply used as an argument to
enable the cardinal to prove his point by the common method of a
_reductio ad absurdum_. If what I maintain, says the cardinal, is false,
then it follows that "should the Pope," &c. Of course, the rest of the
argument fully stated would be: But this consequence is not true,
therefore neither is the antecedent true; that is to say, "what I
maintain" is true. So that instead of maintaining in this passage the
monstrous paradox alleged, the cardinal, in reality, is only quoting it
as a monstrous absurdity, which he himself _condemns_, and which would
result from the contradiction of his proposition. In justice to the
memory of a great man, who has been much and most unjustly slandered
upon this very point, may I ask for the insertion of this letter.

    J. W. CT.

_Jonah and the Whale_ (Vol. iii., p. 517.).--E. J. K. probably founds
his unqualified rejection of the word "whale" on the English version, as
a presumed more correct interpretation of the corresponding term in the
original Hebrew. But it should not be forgotten, that the equal, or
perhaps superior authority of the Seventy translators, to that of our
best modern interpreters, is becoming daily more apparent. At all
events, without a reference to such collateral aid, it is scarcely safe
to pronounce on the meaning of any word or passage in the Old Testament.
On this subject, among many other works, may be consulted the valuable
Lexicon of the Rev. Dr. Wilson, Canon of Winchester; and the learned
_Apology for the Septuagint_, by the Rev. E. W. Grinfield.

In the present case, it is certainly of little consequence, whether the
Greek word κῆτος, and the Latin _cetus_, be translated "whale,"
or "great fish," both of which may be comprehended under them. Though
the former is the usual interpretation, and though the English
translators employ the term "great fish" in the passages "Καὶ
προσέταξε Κύριος κήτει μεγάλῳ," and "ἐν τῇ κοιλίᾳ τοῦ κήτους,"
the commonly accepted word seems more in accordance with an authority of
unquestionable importance.

    C. H. P.

  Brighton, June 28. 1851.

It must have escaped the memory of your correspondent E. J. K., in
speaking of the supposed error of calling the "great fish" which
swallowed Jonah a "whale," that our Lord, in giving this sign to the
Jews, calls it in our English version a "whale" (τοῦ κήτους,
St. Matt. xii. 40., this being the word used in the Septuagint version,
from which the Evangelists quoted the SS. of the Old Testament).

Surely then there is not any _popular_ error in the term "whale" as
expressing the "great fish" of the prophet Jonah, for your correspondent
does not go beyond the English version, nor can I say what the word used
in the original Hebrew would strictly signify. Κῆτος, it is
true, may not, and probably does not, mean anything more definite than
the "great fish" of the Hebrew; but certainly our translators, by
adopting the term "whale" in the Gospels, have so sanctioned the
interpretation, that the error, if such, must be referred to them, and
not to any later period, and therefore can hardly be reckoned amongst
those of the _popular_ class.

    OXONIENSIS.

  Walthamstow, June 30. 1851

Great disputes have been raised what the fish was. As it is called a
whale in the Septuagint, and in St. Matthew, xii. 40., one can hardly
call it a vulgar error to speak of it commonly as a whale.

    C. B.

_Book Plates_ (Vol. iii., p. 495.).--Your correspondent inquiring about
book plates mentions, that 1698 is the earliest date he has heard of. In
a sale at Sotheby's, commencing on the 21st inst., there is a copy of
Evelyn's _Silva_, presented by him to Sir Robert Clayton, Lord Mayor of
London, with his book plate in it, date 1679.

    E. N. W.

  Southwark, July, 1851.



Miscellaneous.


NOTES ON BOOKS, SALES, CATALOGUES, ETC.

_The Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent, with a Supplement,
containing the Condemnations of the Early Reformers, and other matters
relating to the Council. Literally translated into English by_ Theodore
Alois Buckley, B.A., of _Christ Church, Oxford_, is the title of a
volume which has just been issued; and which many of our readers will
probably consider a very well-timed volume. It is not, however, because
we admit with Mr. Buckley that "to try Rome fairly we must hear her
plead her own cause" (for with polemics we have nothing to do), that we
direct their attention to it; but because we agree with him that the
Decrees and Canons of the Council of Trent are documents as valuable in
a legal and historical, as in a religious point of view, and because
there must be many who would gladly learn what these Canons and Decrees
were, yet are not acquainted with the language in which they were
originally recorded. By such persons Mr. Buckley's name on the
title-page may be received as a sufficient guarantee of the accuracy of
the present translation.

The first volume of a history of the book-trade in Germany, containing
notices of some booksellers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries,
has just been published at Leipsic, under the title of _Beitrage zur
Geschichte des Deutschen Buchhandels_. The author is Albrecht Kirchhoff,
and the work, short as it is, will be found very useful to parties
engaged in bibliographical investigations.

Our valued correspondent, the Rev. Dr. Todd of Dublin, has just
published _Three Treatises by John Wycklyffe, D.D._ I. _Of the Church
and her Members._ II. _Of the Apostacy of the Church._ III. _Of
Antichrist and his Meynee. Now first printed from a Manuscript in the
Library of Trinity College, Dublin._ The Treatises, which, in Dr. Todd's
opinion, contain internal evidence of having been written within the
last year of the Reformer's life, are accompanied by Notes and a copious
Glossary; and the work has been undertaken not without a hope that the
publication of these Treatises may direct the attention of influential
scholars to the importance of collecting and printing all the existing
writings which remain in our libraries under the name of Wycklyffe and
his followers. We sincerely trust that this hope will soon be realised.

Messrs. Puttick and Simpson announce for approaching sale the highly
important collection of Autograph Letters and Historical MSS. of Mons.
A. Donnadieu. The series of English Royal Autographs alone extends to
nearly three hundred articles; nearly all the letters after Henry VII.
being entirely autograph. This fact alone will give some idea of the
extent and value of this extraordinary collection.


BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES WANTED TO PURCHASE.

  WILLIS'S ARCHITECTURE OF THE MIDDLE AGES.

  CLARKSON'S HISTORY OF RICHMOND, 2nd Edition 4to.

  BRITISH POETS. Whittingham's Edition, boards or quires, without
  the Plates.

  BEBELII ECCLESIA ANTE-DILUVIANA, &c. Argent. 4to. 1665.

  TYNDALE'S "PARABLE OF THE WICKED MAMMON." Any Edition prior to
  1550.

  THE DAPHNIS AND CHLOE OF LONGUS. Courier's French Translation.

  BELL'S SYSTEM OF SURGERY. Vol. I.

  THE CHIRURGICAL WORKS OF PERCIVAL POTTS. Vol. I.

  BRYANT, DISSERT. ON THE WAR OF TROY. 4to.

  ---- OBSERV. ON LE CHEVALIER'S PLAIN OF TROY. 4to.

  ---- MORETT'S VINDIC. OF HOMER. 4to.

  BRYDGES, RES LITERARIÆ, BIBL. AND CRITICAL. 3 Vols. 8vo.

  BYRES, ETRURIAN ANTIQUITIES, by Howard. Folio.

  CRITICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BOOKS; ANCIENT AND MODERN. 5 Vols. 8vo.

  DOMESDAY BOOK. 4 Vols. Folio.

  DRUMMOND, HISTORY OF NOBLE BRITISH FAMILIES.

  CORONA MISTICA BEATE VIRGINIS MARIE GLORIOSE. Impressa Antewerpie
  per G. Leeu, 1492.

  PASSIONAEL EFTE DAT LEVENT DER HEILIGEN. Folio. Basil. 1522.

  BROEMEL, M. C. H., FEST-TANZEN DER ERSTEN CHRISTEN. Jena 8vo.
  1705.

  ALLAN CUNNINGHAM'S TRADITIONARY TALES OF THE PEASANTRY. 2 Vols.
  12mo. Two copies wanted.

  STEWART'S PHILOSOPHY OF THE HUMAN MIND. 4to. Vol. I.

  ARTHUR YOUNG'S TRAVELS IN ITALY.

  THE DEMON, &c., by James Hinton, London: J. Mason.

  WANDELINI, IV EXERCITATIONES IN PERIODUM ANTE-DILUVIANUM HISTORÆ
  SACRÆ VET. TEST. Hafniæ. 4to. 1652.

  STEPHANI THESAURUS. Valpy. Parts I. II. X. XI. and XXIX.

  The _Second Vol._ of CHAMBERS' CYCLOPÆDIA OF ENGLISH LITERATURE.

  AIKIN'S SELECT WORKS OF THE BRITISH POETS. 10 Vols. 24mo.
  Published by Longmans and Co. 1821. Vols. I. V. and VIII. wanted.

  MARKHAM'S HISTORY OF FRANCE. Vol. II. 1830.

  MARKHAM'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Vol. II. 1836. Sixth Edition.

  JAMES'S NAVAL HISTORY. (6 Vols. 8vo.) 1822-4. Vol. VI.

  HUME'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND (8 Vols. 1818.) Vol. IV.

  RUSSELL'S EUROPE, FROM THE PEACE OF UTRECHT. 4to. 1824. Vol. II.

  WATT'S BIBLIOTHECA BRITANNICA, Part V. 4to.

  STRUTT'S MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. Vol. II. 4to.

  OLD BAYLEY SESSIONS PAPERS, 1744 to 1774. or any portion thereof.
  4to.

  COLDEN'S HISTORY OF THE FIVE INDIAN NATIONS OF CANADA. Vol. I.
  12mo. Lond. 1755.

  HEARNE (T.) LELAND'S ITINERARY. Vols. I. II. III. and VII.

  D'ARBLAY'S DIARY. Vol. III.

  CHEVALIER RAMSAY, ESSAI DE POLITIQUE, où l'on traite de la
  Nécessité, de l'Origine, des Droits, des Bornes et des différentes
  Formes de la Souveraineté, selon les Principes de l'Auteur de
  Télémaque. 2 Vols. 12mo. La Haye, without date, but printed in
  1719.

  The same. Second Edition, under the title "Essai Philosophique sur
  le Gouvernement Civil, selon les Principes de Fénélon," 12mo.
  Londres, 1721.

  SIR THOS. ELYOT, THE GOVERNOUR. 1st Edit. 1531.

  BASTWICK (DR. JOS.) SUPPLEMENTUM, &c., 1635.

  ENGRAVED PORTRAITS OF BISHOP BUTLER.

  MARLBOROUGH DISPATCHES. Volumes IV. and V.

  ART JOURNAL, 1839 to 1844 inclusive. Also 1849.

  BULWER'S NOVELS. 12mo. Published at 6s. per Vol. Pilgrims of the
  Rhine, Alice, and Zanoni.

  DR. ADAMS' SERMON ON THE OBLIGATION OF VIRTUE. Any edition.

[Star symbol] Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage
free_, to be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186.
Fleet Street.



Notices To Correspondents.


REMIGIUS. _"Murder considered as one of the Fine Arts" appeared in_
Blackwood's Magazine _some twenty years since._

MR. PARSONS, _whose Query on the subject of Book plates appears in our
86th No., is requested to say where a letter may be addressed to him._

C. H. B. _We are much obliged for his paper, which has been to our
knowledge transcribed twice before; and is about to be published in a
way in which we are sure_ C. H. B. _will be very pleased to see it. At
present we think we had better not interfere with, we trust, a shortly
forthcoming book._

A CONSTANT READER (Temple) _will find a very full account of the_
Lambeth Articles _in Mr. Hardwick's recently published_ History of the
Articles.

J. C. (Falmouth). _The_ Folk Lore Articles _alluded to will be received
with thanks._

_The subscribers who wanted_ BORLAND'S DARIAN _and_ Dens' Theologia, 8
vols. 12mo., _are requested to send their names to the Publisher._

REPLIES RECEIVED.--_Lady Petre's Monument--Redwing's Nest--Dies
Iræ--Epitaph on Voltaire--Sheridan and Vanbrugh--Quotation from an old
Ballad--Curious Monumental Inscription--Passage from Virgil--Petty
Cury--Dr. Young's Narcissa--Tennyson's In Memoriam--Anonymous
Ravennas--Topical Memory--Plaids and Tartans--System of
Notation--Salting Bodies of the Dead--Passelew Family--Mark for a
Dollar--Lay of the Last Minstrel--Spenser's Age at his Death--Charles
Lamb's Epitaph._

CIRCULATION OF OUR PROSPECTUSES BY CORRESPONDENTS. _The suggestion of_
T. E. H., _that by way of hastening the period when we shall be
justified in permanently enlarging our Paper to 24 pages, we should
forward copies of our_ Prospectus _to correspondents who would kindly
enclose them to such friends as they think likely, from their love of
literature, to become subscribers to_ "NOTES AND QUERIES," _has already
been acted upon by several friendly correspondents, to whom we are
greatly indebted. We shall be most happy to forward Prospectuses for
this purpose to any other of our friends able and willing thus to assist
towards increasing our circulation._

_The commencement of a New Volume with our 88th Number affords a
favourable opportunity to gentlemen resident in the country to commence
the work. The Subscription for the Stamped Edition of_ "NOTES AND
QUERIES" _is ten shillings and twopence for six months, which may be
paid by Post-Office Order, drawn in favour of our Publisher_, MR. GEORGE
BELL, No. 186. Fleet Street.

VOL. III., _neatly bound in cloth, and with very copious Index, is now
ready, price_ 9_s._ 6_d._ VOLS. I. _and_ II. _may still be had, price_
9_s._ 6_d. each._

NOTES AND QUERIES _may be procured, by order, of all Booksellers and
Newsvenders. It is published at noon on Friday, so that our country
Subscribers ought not to experience any difficulty in procuring it
regularly. Many of the country Booksellers, &c., are, probably, not yet
aware of this arrangement, which will enable them to receive_ NOTES AND
QUERIES _in their Saturday parcels._

_All communications for the Editor of_ NOTES AND QUERIES _should be
addressed to the care of_ MR. BELL, No. 186. Fleet Street.

_Erratum._--Vol. iii., p. 495., for "D_um_ore Castle" read "Du_nm_ore
Castle."



CHEVALLIER'S TRANSLATION OF THE EARLY CHRISTIAN WRITERS

  In 8vo, price 12_s._, the Second Edition of

  A TRANSLATION of the EPISTLES of CLEMENT of ROME, POLYCARP, and
  IGNATIUS; and of the APOLOGIES of JUSTIN MARTYR and TERTULLIAN;
  with an Introduction, and brief Notes illustrative of the
  Ecclesiastical History of the First Two Centuries. By the REV.
  TEMPLE CHEVALLIER, B.D., late Fellow and Tutor of Catharine Hall,
  Cambridge; Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy in the
  University of Durham.

  [Star symbol] The Introduction treats of the Integrity of the
  Greek Text of the Epistles of Ignatius, with reference to the
  Syriac Version lately edited by Mr. Cureton.

  London: RIVINGTONS, St. Paul's Church Yard, and Waterloo Place;
  and Deighton, Cambridge.


FOREIGN BOOKS

      AT REDUCED PRICES,
      FOR A LIMITED NUMBER OF COPIES.

      I.

  RADICES LINGUÆ SANSCRITÆ. by W. L. WESTERGAARD. Imp. 8vo. double
  volume. (Published at 34_s._) for 15_s._

      II.

  GESENIUS.--SCRIPTURÆ LINGUÆQUE PHOENICIÆ MONUMENTA. Add. de
  Scriptura et Lingua Phoenicum. 3 vols. 4to. boards, 48 engraved
  Plates. (Published at 2_l._ 14_s._) For 16_s._

      III.

  SAMACHSCHARII LEXICON ARABICUM-PERSICUM; with an Arabic Index.
  Edited by J. G. WETZSTEIN. 4to. boards. For 1_l._ 7_s._

      IV.

  DIEFFENBACH.--LEXICON COMPARATIVUM LINGUARUM
  INDO-GERMANICARUM.--VERGLEICHENDES WOERTERBUCH DER GERMANISCHEN
  SPRACHEN. 2 Vols. 8vo. (Published at 36_s._) For 25_s._

      V.

  FLUEGEL'S OWN GERMAN and ENGLISH DICTIONARY. The Third genuine
  German Edition, containing 40,000 words more than the London
  Edition. 2 very thick vols. royal 8vo. cloth boards, lettered.
  (Published in Germany at 2_l._ 5_s._) For 1_l._ 11_s._ 6_d._

      VI.

  NIBELUNGEN-NOT. Translated into Modern German by PFIZER.
  Illustrated with many Hundred Woodcuts by SCHNORR and NEUREUTHER.
  (Published at 21_s._) For 15_s._

      VII.

  SCHAFFARICK.--SLAWISCHE ALTERTHÜMER. Herausg. v. WUTTKE. 2 vols.
  8vo. (Published at 26_s._) For 15_s._ 6_d._

      VIII.

  GRIMM (JAC.)--DEUTSCHE GRAMMATIK. 4 vols. 8vo. half-bound, very
  rare. 1822-37. 2_l._ 15_s._

  [Star symbol] All Grimm's other Works are on hand.

      IX.

  WACKERNAGEL'S HYMNOLOGICAL COLLECTION.--DAS DEUTSCHE KIRCHENLIED.
  850 of the most characteristic GERMAN and LATIN HYMNS, both
  Catholic and Protestant. 2 vols. 4to. (Published at 21_s._) For
  10_s._

      X.

  FICHTE'S COMPLETE WORKS.--SÄMMTLICHE WERKE. 8 Vols. 8vo. Last
  Edition. (Published at 3_l._) For 1_l._ 15_s._

      XI.

  SCHLEGEL'S (FREDERIK) COMPLETE WORKS. 15 Vols. 8vo. Last Edition.
  (Published at 3_l._) For 2_l._ 2_s._

      XII.

  SECOND-HAND CATALOGUES GRATIS.

      1. THEOLOGY and METAPHYSICS.
      2. GREEK and LATIN CLASSICS.
      3. SCIENTIFIC BOOKS.

  WILLIAMS and NORGATE, 14. Henrietta Street, Covent Garden.


FOREIGN COPYRIGHT QUESTION.

  In a few days will be published, in 8vo., Divisions I. and II.
  price 2_s._ each, and Volume I. price 5_s._, of the

      HISTORY OF THE RESTORATION
      OF
      MONARCHY IN FRANCE;

  BEING A SEQUEL TO THE 'HISTORY OF THE GIRONDISTS.'

  BY ALPHONSE DE LAMARTINE;

  AND FORMING THE FIRST OF SERIES OF WORKS TO BE SELECTED FROM THE
  BEST CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE OF FRANCE, AND TO BE PUBLISHED
  SIMULTANEOUSLY IN LONDON AND PARIS.

  LONDON: VIZETELLY & COMPANY, 135. FLEET STREET, (Printers and
  Publishers for the Proprietors.)

  PARIS: CH. GOSSELIN, PAGNERRE, FURNE, LECOU, LIPPERT. 18. Rue de
  Seine; 55. Rue St. André des Arts; 10. Rue du Bouloy.

  The French Edition may be obtained at the London, and the English
  Edition at the Paris Establishments


THE EDINBURGH REVIEW, No. CXCI., was published on WEDNESDAY last.

      CONTENTS:
      1. THE GREEK TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT.
      2. JOHNSTON'S NOTES ON NORTH AMERICA.
      3. HARTLEY COLERIDGE.
      4. FATAL ACCIDENTS: HOW FAR PREVENTABLE
      5. PULSZKY'S TALES AND TRADITIONS OF HUNGARY.
      6. SIR EDW. L. BULWER LYTTON'S LETTERS TO JOHN BULL.
      7. THE ROMANS IN BRITAIN.
      8. GROTE'S HISTORY OF GREECE: VOLS. VII. AND VIII.
      9. DIXON'S LIFE OF PENN.
      10. MODERN CHEMISTRY: ITS PROGRESS AND EXTENT.

  London: LONGMAN and Co. Edinburgh: A. and C. BLACK.


SOCIETY OF ARTS, ADELPHI, LONDON.--PHILOSOPHICAL TREATISES on the
various Departments of the GREAT EXHIBITION, which shall set forth the
peculiar Advantages to be derived from each by the Arts, Manufactures,
and Commerce of the country.

  The Council offer, in the name of the Society, the large MEDAL and
  25_l._ for the best, and the Society's small Medal and 10_l._ for
  the second best, Treatise on the Objects exhibited in the Section
  of Raw Materials and Produce.

  A large Medal and 25_l._ for the best, and a small Medal and
  10_l._ for the second best, Treatise on the Objects exhibited in
  the Section of Machinery.

  A large Medal and 25_l._ for the best, and a small Medal and
  10_l._ for the second best, Treatise on the Objects exhibited in
  the Section of Manufactures.

  A large Medal and 25_l._ for the best, and a small Medal and
  10_l._ for the second best, Treatise on the Objects exhibited in
  the Section of Fine Arts.

  Each Treatise must occupy, as nearly as possible, eighty pages of
  the size of the Bridgewater Treatises.

  The Society will also award its large Medal and 25 guineas for the
  best General Treatise upon the Exhibition, treated Commercially,
  Politically, and Statistically; and small Medals for the best
  Treatises on any Special Object or Class of Objects exhibited.

  The successful Treatises are to be the Property of the Society;
  and should the Council see fit, they will cause the same to be
  printed and published, awarding to the Author the net amount of
  any profit which may arise from the publication after the payment
  of the expenses.

  The Competing Treatises are to be written on foolscap paper,
  signed with a motto in the usual manner, and delivered at the
  Society's House on or before the THIRTIETH OF NOVEMBER, 1851,
  addressed to George Grove, Esq., Secretary, from whom additional
  particulars may be learned.

      By order of the Council,
      GEORGE GROVE, SEC.
      Adelphi, June 1. 1851.


This day is published,

  A LITHOGRAPHIC PRINT OF SHAKESPEARE, from the Portrait by Burbage,
  of the same dimensions as the original Picture in the possession
  of the Proprietor, William Nicol, of the Shakespeare Press. Proof
  impressions, of which only a very limited number have been taken,
  2 guineas each. Prints 1 guinea each.

  W. N. WRIGHT, Bookseller to the Queen, 60. Pall Mall.


The highly Important Collection of Autograph Letters and Historical MSS.
of M. ALCIDE DONNADIEU.

  PUTTICK AND SIMPSON, Auctioneers of Literary Property will SELL by
  AUCTION, at their Great Room, 191. Piccadilly, on TUESDAY, July
  29, and Four following Days, the VERY IMPORTANT COLLECTION OF
  AUTOGRAPH LETTERS and HISTORICAL MSS. of M. ALCIDE DONNADIEU. The
  importance of this Collection cannot be estimated by a mere list
  of names, as in every instance, with a few exceptions where
  extreme rarity has precluded choice, each specimen has been
  selected for its intrinsic literary or historic worth. Among the
  English Royal Personages are the Autographs of Henry V., Henry
  VI., Edward IV., Richard III., and Henry VII.; (from this period,
  nearly all are Letters entirely Autograph of) Henry VIII.,
  Catherine of Aragon, Catherine Parr, Edward VI., Queen Mary and
  Philip of Spain, Elizabeth, Mary Queen of Scots, Henry Stuart,
  Lord Darnley, James I. and Anne of Denmark, Henry Prince of Wales,
  Charles I. as Duke of York and as King; also, a Document of the
  greatest Interest, the Contract of Marriage between Charles I. and
  the Infanta of Spain, signed by the parties--Henrietta Maria, Mary
  Princess of Orange, daughter of Charles I.; Elizabeth Queen of
  Bohemia, Frederic King of Bohemia and his Sons, Prince Rupert,
  Louisa Princess of Bohemia, her well-known Letter in
  Hieroglyphics, Oliver Cromwell, Letters and Documents, and
  particularly the original Order to the Lord Mayor of London,
  directing him to proclaim Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector of
  England--Richard Cromwell, Charles II., Catherine of Braganza,
  James II., the Depositions concerning his Marriage with Anne Hyde,
  signed by the parties; Mary d'Este, James III., the Pretender;
  William III., Queen Mary, George I., and the rest of the House of
  Hanover to the present Sovereign. All these Letters, and indeed
  the whole of the Collection, are in the highest preservation, and
  notwithstanding the great rarity of many, several specimens of
  most are included. There are Autographs of the Regicides, temp.
  Charles I., and unique Letters of the Conspirators Robert Aske and
  Robert Catesby. The French Royal Series commences with an
  extremely rare and important Autograph of Charles VII., and
  continues to the close of the Monarchy. Of Henry IV. alone there
  are twenty important Letters. Other Foreign Sovereigns, including
  the Bonaparte family, several of Napoleon, particularly a _plein
  pouvoir_ to Caulincourt, enabling him to conclude a Treaty of
  Peace with the Allied Powers at the critical period of January,
  1814--Christina of Sweden, Catherine of Aragon, Catherine and
  other of the House of Medici, Diane de France, John sans Peur,
  1410, Jeanne d'Albret, Louise de Savoie, Marguerite d'Autriche,
  Margaret Daughter of Francis I., Sovereign Princes of the House of
  Nassau, &c. Amongst the Ecclesiastics may be named a Holograph
  letter of Pope Clement VIII., the Père Joseph, Janssenius, Martin
  Luther (about Purgatory), Père la Chaise, Cardinal Mazarin, St.
  Francis de Sales, St. Vincent de Paul, &c. The Autographs of
  Literary Men include P. Aretino, Lord Bacon (two), Boileau,
  Conrart, Fontenelle, Thomas Lord Fairfax, his Autograph
  Translation of "Mercurius Trismagistus Pimander"--Kepler,
  Lafontaine, Molière (unique), Mirabeau, Marmontel, Malherbe,
  Newton, Peiresc, J. J. Rousseau, Scaliger, Salmasius, Sannazarus,
  Thuanus, B. Tasso, Visconti, Voltaire, Vespucius, Winckelmann, &c.
  Amongst the Artists are Ph. de Champagne, Perrault, Poussin,
  Rubens, Rembrandt, Raphael d'Urbino, P. Veronese, Sir C. Wren
  (about building the Monument). To this very imperfect sketch of
  the contents of this important Collection may be added Autographs
  of Calas, Clairon, Sir F. Drake (papers relative to his descent
  upon the Spaniards), Richard Hakluyt, Robert Devereux Earl of
  Essex (Letter supplicating his Life), La Noue, "Bras de Fer," Duke
  of Monmouth (Letter supplicating his Life), Caesar, Nostradamus,
  Sir W. Raleigh, the Chancellor Seguier, Duke of Sully, the
  Sforzas, Edmund de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk and his brother
  Richard (both unique), Turenne, Sir H. Vane, &c.

  Catalogues are preparing, and will be sent on application.

  The Catalogue Raisonné is now ready, and will be sent on
  application, if in the country, on receipt of six stamps.



Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride in the City of London, and
published by GEORGE BELL of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, July 19, 1851.



      [List of volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries", Vol. I-IV]

      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. I.                                   |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. II.                                  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1- 15 | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17- 32 | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33- 48 | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49- 64 | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65- 79 | PG # 22126  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81- 96 | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. III.                                 |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |   1- 15 | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  |  17- 31 | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  |  33- 47 | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  |  49- 78 | PG # 15641  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 |  81- 95 | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 |  97-111 | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-440 | PG # 36835  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 84 | June  7, 1851     | 441-472 | PG # 37379  |
      | Vol. III No. 85 | June 14, 1851     | 473-488 | PG # 37403  |
      | Vol. III No. 86 | June 21, 1851     | 489-511 | PG # 37496  |
      | Vol. III No. 87 | June 28, 1851     | 513-528 | PG # 37516  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. IV.                                  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 88  | July  5, 1851     |   1- 15 | PG # 37548  |
      | Vol. IV No. 89  | July 12, 1851     |  17- 31 | PG # 37568  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]            | PG # 13536  |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850    | PG # 13571  |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851    | PG # 26770  |
      +-----------------------------------------------+-------------+





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 90, July 19, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Geneologists, etc." ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home