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Title: American Pomology - Apples
Author: Warder, J. A.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Literature in Agriculture (CHLA), Cornell University)



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    | Inconsistent hyphenation in the original document has      |
    | been preserved. Bolded text has been marked =like so=.     |
    | Greek text has been marked +like so+.                      |
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    | A Table of Contents has been added for the reader's        |
    | convenience. There is no Chapter 13 or figure 114.         |
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    | In the classification chapter the author uses different    |
    | sizes for the "Class" and "Order" headers, the smaller     |
    | "Order" headers are delineated +like so+. And inconsistant |
    | illustration placement has been regularized.               |
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    | Obvious typographical errors have been corrected. For      |
    | a complete list, please see the end of this document.      |
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  AMERICAN POMOLOGY.


  APPLES.


  BY

  DOCT. JOHN A. WARDER,

  PRESIDENT OHIO POMOLOGICAL SOCIETY; VICE-PRESIDENT AMERICAN
  POMOLOGICAL SOCIETY, ETC.


  290 ILLUSTRATIONS.


  NEW YORK:
  ORANGE JUDD AND COMPANY.
  245 BROADWAY.



  Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1867, by
  ORANGE JUDD & CO.,
  At the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for
  the Southern District of New York.



  LOVEJOY & SON,
  Electrotypers and Stereotypers,
  15 Vandewater St., N.Y.



PREFACE.


All patriots may realize a sense of pride, when they consider the
capabilities of the glorious country in which we are favored to live;
and while fostering no sectional feelings, nor pleading any local
interests, yet, as Americans and as men, we may be allowed to love our
own homes, our own neighborhoods, our States and regions; and we may
be permitted to think them the brightest and best portions of the
great Republic to which we all belong. Therefore the writer asks to be
excused for expressing a preference for his own favored _Northwest_,
and while claiming all praise for this noble expanse, he wishes still
to be acknowledged as most devotedly an AMERICAN CITIZEN, who feels
the deepest interest in the prosperity of the whole country.

His fellow-laborers in the extensive field of Horticulture, who are
scattered over the great Northwest, having called upon him for a work
on fruits which should be adapted to their wants, the author has for
several years devoted himself to the task of collecting materials from
which he is preparing a work upon AMERICAN POMOLOGY, of which this is
to be the first volume.

The title has been adopted as the most appropriate, because the book
is intended to be truly American in its character, and, though it may
be especially adapted to the wants of the Western States, great pains
have been taken to make it a useful companion to the orchardists of
all portions of our country.

When examining this volume, his friends are asked to look gently upon
the many faults they may find, and they are requested also to observe
the peculiarities by which this fruit book is characterized. Much to
his regret, the author found that it was considered necessary to the
completeness of the volume, that the general subject of fruit-growing
should be treated in detail, and, therefore, introductory chapters
were prepared; whereas, he had set out simply to describe the fruits
of our country. To this necessity, as it was considered by his
friends, the author yielded reluctantly, because he felt that this
labor had already been thoroughly done by his predecessors, whose
volumes were to be seen in the houses of all intelligent
fruit-growers. From them he did not wish to borrow other men's ideas
and language, and therefore undertook to write the whole anew, without
any reference to printed books. But, of course, it is impossible to be
original in treating such familiar and hackneyed topics as those which
are discussed at every meeting of horticulturists all over the
country, and which form the subject of the familiar discourse of the
green-house and nursery, the potting-shed and the grafting-room, the
garden and the orchard.

After the introductory chapters upon the general or leading topics
connected with fruit-culture and orcharding, the reader will find that
especial attention has been paid to the classification of the fruits
under consideration in this volume. Classification is the great need
of our pomology, and, indeed, it is almost a new idea to many American
readers. The author has fully realized the difficulties attendant
upon the undertaking, but its importance, and its growing necessity,
were considered sufficient to warrant the attempted innovation. It is
hoped that American students of pomology will appreciate the efforts
which have been made in their behalf. The formulæ which have been
adopted may not prove to be the best, but it is believed that they
will render great assistance to those who desire to identify fruits;
and that, at least, they may lead to a more perfect classification in
the future.

On the contrary, with these simple formulæ, under which the fruits are
arranged, the student has only to decide as to which of the
sub-divisions his specimen must be referred, and then seek among a
limited number for the description that shall correspond to his fruit,
and the identification is made out.

In the systematic descriptions of fruits, the alphabetical succession
of the names is used in each sub-division. An earnest endeavor has
been made to be minute in the details without becoming prolix. A
regular order is adopted for considering the several parts, and some
new or unusual characters are brought into requisition to aid in the
identification. Some of these characters appear to have been strangely
overlooked by previous pomologists, though they are believed to be
permanent and of considerable value in the diagnosis.

In deciding upon the selection of the names of fruits, the generally
received rules of our Pomological Societies have been departed from in
a few instances, where good reasons were thought to justify differing
from the authorities. Thus, when a given name has been generally
adopted over a large extent of country, though different from that
used by a previous writer, it has been selected as the title of the
fruit in this work.

To avoid incumbering the pages, authorities for the nomenclature have
not been cited, except in a few instances, nor have numerous synonyms
been introduced. Such only as are in common use have been given, and
those of foreign origin have been dropped.

The attention of the reader is particularly directed to the catalogue
of fruits near the close of the volume, which also answers as the
index to those which are described in detail. This portion of the work
has cost an immense amount of labor and time, and, though making
little display, will, it is hoped, prove very useful to the
orchardist. In it the names of fruits are presented in their
alphabetical order, followed by information as to the average size,
the origin of the variety, its classification, from which are deduced
its shape, flavor and modes of coloring; next is noted its season, and
then its quality. This last character is, of course, but the result of
private judgment, and the estimate may differ widely from that of
others; the quality, too, it should be remembered, is here intended to
be the result of a consideration of many properties besides that of
mere flavor.

This catalogue will furnish a great deal of information respecting the
fruits it embraces. Unfortunately, it is not so full nor so complete
as it should be, but it is offered as the result of many years'
observations, and is submitted for what it is worth.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.--It is but an act of common justice for an author to
acknowledge his indebtedness to those who have aided him in his
labors, especially where, from the nature of the investigations, so
much material has to be drawn from extrinsic sources. Upon the present
occasion, instead of an extended parade of references to the
productions of other writers, which might be looked upon as rather
pedantic, it is preferred to make a general acknowledgment of the
important assistance derived from many pomological authors of our own
country and of Europe. Quotations are credited on the pages where they
occur.

But the writer is also under great obligations to a host of
co-laborers for the assistance they have kindly rendered him in the
collecting, and in the examination and identification of fruits. Such
friends he has happily found wherever he has turned in the pursuit of
these investigations, and there are others whom it has never been his
good fortune to meet face to face. To name them all would be
impossible. The contemplation of their favors sadly recalls memories
of the departed, but it also revives pleasant associations of the
bright spirits that are still usefully engaged in the numerous
pomological and horticultural associations of our country, which have
become important agencies in the diffusion of valuable information in
this branch of study.

To all of his kind friends the author returns his sincere thanks.

With a feeling of hesitation in coming before the public, but
satisfied that he has made a contribution to the fund of human
knowledge, this volume is presented to the Horticulturists of our
country, for whom it was prepared by their friend and fellow-laborer,

                                                  JNO. A. WARDER.
  ASTON, January 1, 1867.



CONTENTS


  INTRODUCTION.                                                 9

  CHAPTER II.                                                  26
    HISTORY OF THE APPLE.

  CHAPTER III.                                                 52
    PROPAGATION.

  CHAPTER IV.                                                 144
    DWARFING.

  CHAPTER V.                                                  160
    DISEASES.

  CHAPTER VI.                                                 198
    THE SITE FOR AN ORCHARD.

  CHAPTER VII.                                                213
    PREPARATION OF THE SOIL FOR AN ORCHARD.

  CHAPTER VIII.                                               229
    SELECTION AND PLANTING.

  CHAPTER IX.                                                 242
    CULTURE, ETC.

  CHAPTER X.                                                  251
    PHILOSOPHY OF PRUNING.

  CHAPTER XI.                                                 263
    THINNING.

  CHAPTER XII.                                                275
    RIPENING AND PRESERVING FRUITS.

  CHAPTER XIV.                                                294
    INSECTS.

  CHAPTER XV.                                                 350
    CHARACTERS OF FRUITS AND THEIR VALUE.
    TERMS USED.

  CHAPTER XVI.                                                366
    CLASSIFICATION.

  CHAPTER XVII.                                               698
    FRUIT LISTS.



INTRODUCTION.

  IMPORTANCE OF ORCHARD PRODUCTS. GOVERNMENT STATISTICS. GREAT
    VALUE OF ORCHARD AND GARDEN PRODUCTS. DELIGHTS OF FRUIT
    CULTURE. TEMPERATE REGIONS THE PROPER FIELD FOR FRUIT CULTURE,
    AS FOR MENTAL DEVELOPMENT. PLANTS OF CULTURE, PLANTS OF NATURE.
    NOMADIC CONDITION UNFAVORABLE FOR TERRA-CULTURE. NECESSITIES OF
    AN INCREASING POPULATION A SPUR. HIGH CIVILIZATION DEMANDS HIGH
    CULTURE. HORTICULTURE A FINE ART, THE POETRY OF THE FARMER'S
    LIFE. MORAL INFLUENCES OF FRUIT-CULTURE. SINGULAR LEGISLATION
    RESPECTING PROPERTY IN FRUIT. INFLUENCE UPON HEALTH. APPLES IN
    BREAD-MAKING; AS FOOD FOR STOCK. SOURCES AND ROUTES OF
    INTRODUCTION. AGENCY OF NURSERYMEN. INDIAN ORCHARDS. FRENCH
    SETTLERS. JOHNNY APPLE-SEED. VARIETIES OF FRUITS, LIKE MAN,
    FOLLOW PARALLELS OF LATITUDE. LOCAL VARIETIES OF MERIT TO BE
    CHERISHED. OHIO PURCHASE. SILAS WHARTON. THE PUTNAM LIST.


Few persons have any idea of the great value and importance of the
products of our orchards and fruit-gardens. These are generally
considered the small things of agriculture, and are overlooked by all
but the statist, whose business it is to deal with these minutiæ, to
hunt them up, to collocate them, and when he combines these various
details and produces the sum total, we are all astonished at the
result.

Our government wisely provides for the gathering of statistics at
intervals of ten years, and some of the States also take an account of
stock and production at intermediate periods, some of them, like Ohio,
have a permanent statistician who reports annually to the Governor of
the State.

Our Boards of Trade publish the amounts of the leading articles that
arrive at and depart from the principal cities, and thus they furnish
us much additional information of value. Besides this, the county
assessors are sometimes directed to collect statistics upon certain
points of interest, and now that we all contribute toward the
extinction of the national debt, the United States Assessors in the
several districts are put in possession of data, which should be very
correct, in regard to certain productions that are specified by act of
Congress as liable to taxation. By these several means we may have an
opportunity of learning from time to time what are the productions of
the country, and their aggregate amounts are surprising to most of us.
When they relate to our special interests, they are often very
encouraging. This is particularly the case with those persons who have
yielded to the popular prejudice that cotton was the main agricultural
production of the United States; to such it will be satisfactory to
learn that the crop of corn, as reported in the last census, is of
nearly equal value, at the usual market prices of each article.
Fruit-growers will be encouraged to find that the value of orchard
products, according to the same returns, was nearly twenty millions,
that of Ohio being nearly one million; of New York, nearly three and
three-quarters millions; that the wine crop of the United States, an
interest that is still in its infancy, amounted to nearly three and
one-quarter millions; and that the valuation of market garden products
sums up to more than sixteen millions of dollars' worth. It is to be
regretted that for our present purpose, the data are not sufficiently
distinct to enable us to ascertain the relative value of the
productions of our orchards of apples, pears, peaches, quinces, and
the amount and value of the small fruits, as they are termed, since
these are variously grouped in the returns of the census takers, and
cannot now be separated. Of their great value, however, we may draw
our conclusions from separate records that have been kept and reported
by individuals, who assert the products of vineyards in some cases to
have been as high as three thousand dollars per acre; of strawberries,
at one thousand dollars; of pears, at one hundred dollars per tree,
which would be four thousand dollars per acre; of apples, at
twenty-five bushels per tree, or one thousand bushels per acre, which,
at fifty cents per bushel, would produce five hundred dollars.

But, leaving this matter of dollars and cents, who will portray for us
the delights incident to fruit-culture? They are of a quiet nature,
though solid and enduring. They carry us back to the early days of the
history of our race, when "the Lord God planted a garden eastward in
Eden ... and out of the ground made the Lord God to grow every tree
that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food ... and the Lord God
took the man and put him into the garden of Eden, to dress it and to
keep it." We are left to infer that this dressing and keeping of the
garden was but a light and pleasant occupation, unattended with toil
and trouble, and that in their natural condition the trees and
plants, unaided by culture, yielded food for man. Those were
paradisean times, the days of early innocence, when man, created in
the image of his Maker, was still obedient to the divine commands;
but, after the great transgression, everything was altered, the very
ground was cursed, "thorns and thistles shall it bring forth to thee,
and thou shalt eat of the herb of the field. In the sweat of thy face
shalt thou eat bread."----From that day to the present hour it has
been the lot of man to struggle with difficulties in the cultivation
of the soil, and he has been driven to the necessity of constant
watchfulness and care to preserve and to improve the various fruits of
the earth upon which he subsists. In the tropics, it is true, there
are many vegetable productions which are adapted for human food, even
in a state of nature, and there we find less necessity for the effort
of ingenuity and the application of thought and labor to produce a
subsistence. Amid these productive _plants of nature_, the natives of
such regions lead an idle life, and seldom rise above a low scale of
advancement; but in the temperate regions of the globe, where the
unceasing effort of the inhabitants is required to procure their daily
food, we find the greatest development of human energies and
ingenuity--there man thinks, and works; there, indeed, he is forced to
improve the natural productions of the earth--and there we shall find
him progressing. As with everything else, so it is with fruits, some
of which were naturally indifferent or even inedible, until subjected
to the meliorating influences of high culture, of selection, and of
improvement. Here we find our _plants of culture_, which so well repay
the labor and skill bestowed upon them.

In the early periods of the history of our race, while men were
nomadic and wandered from place to place, little attention was paid to
any department of agricultural improvement, and still less care was
bestowed upon horticulture. Indeed, it can scarcely be supposed that,
under such conditions, either branch of the art could have existed,
any more than they are now found among the wandering hordes of Tartars
on the steppes of Asia. So soon, however, as men began to take
possession of the soil by a more permanent tenure, agriculture and
horticulture also, attracted their chief attention, and were soon
developed into arts of life. With advancing civilization, this has
been successively more and more the case; the producing art being
obliged to keep pace with the increased number of consumers, greater
ingenuity was required and was applied to the production of food for
the teeming millions of human beings that covered the earth, and, as
we find, in China, at the present time, the greatest pains were taken
to make the earth yield her increase.

High civilization demands high culture of the soil, and agriculture
becomes an honored pursuit, with every department of art and science
coming to its assistance. At the same time, and impelled by the same
necessities, supported and aided by the same co-adjutors, horticulture
also advances in a similar ratio, and, from its very nature, assumes
the rank of a fine art, being less essential than pure agriculture,
and in some of its branches being rather an ornamental than simply a
useful art. It is not admitted, however, that any department of
horticulture is to be considered useless, and many of its applications
are eminently practical, and result in the production of vast
quantities of human food of the most valuable kind. This pursuit
always marks the advancement of a community.--As our western pioneers
progress in their improvements from the primitive log cabins to the
more elegant and substantial dwelling houses, we ever find the garden
and the orchard, the vine-arbor and the berry-patch taking their
places beside the other evidences of progress. These constitute to
them the poetry of common life, of the farmer's life.

The culture of fruits, and gardens also, contributes in no small
degree to the improvement of a people by the excellent moral influence
it exercises upon them. Everything that makes home attractive must
contribute to this desirable end. Beyond the sacred confines of the
happy hearthstone, with its dear familiar circle, there can be no more
pleasant associations than those of the garden, where, in our tender
years, we have aided loved parents, from them taking the first lessons
in plant-culture, gathering the luscious fruits of their planting or
of our own; nor of the rustic arbor, in whose refreshing shade we have
reclined to rest and meditate amid its sheltering canopy of verdure,
and where we have gathered the purple berries of the noble vine at a
later period of the rolling year; nor of the orchard, with its
bounteous supplies of golden and ruddy apples, blushing peaches, and
melting pears. With such attractions about our homes, with such ties
to be sundered, it is wonderful, and scarcely credible, that youth
should ever be induced to wander from them, and to stray into paths of
evil. Such happy influences must have a good moral effect upon the
young. If it be argued that such luxuries will tend to degrade our
morals by making us effeminate and sybaritic, or that such enjoyments
may become causes of envy and consequent crime on the part of those
who are less highly favored, it may be safely asserted that there is
no better cure for fruit-stealing, than to give presents of fruit, and
especially of fruit-trees, to your neighbors, particularly to the
boys--encourage each to plant and to cherish his own tree, and he will
soon learn the meaning of _meum_ and _tuum_, and will appreciate the
beauties of the moral code, which he will be all the more likely to
respect in every other particular.

Some of the legislation of our country is a very curious relic of
barbarism. According to common law, that which is attached to the
soil, may be removed without a breach of propriety, by one who is not
an owner of the fee simple; thus, such removal of a vegetable product
does not constitute theft or larceny, but simply amounts to a
trespass: whereas the taking of fruit from the ground beneath the
tree, even though it be defective or decaying, is considered a theft.
An unwelcome intruder, or an unbidden guest, may enter our orchard,
garden, or vineyard, and help himself at his pleasure to any of our
fruits, which we have been most carefully watching and nursing tor
months upon trees, for the fruitage of which we may have been laboring
and waiting for years, and, forsooth, our only recourse is to sue him
at the law, and our only satisfaction, after all the attendant
annoyance and expense, is a paltry fine for _trespass_ upon our
freehold, which, of course, is not commensurate with our estimate of
the value of the articles taken: fruits often possess, in the eyes of
the devoted orchardist, a real value much beyond their market price.

Were I asked to describe the location of the fabled fountain of
Hygeia, I should decide that it was certainly situated in an orchard;
it must have come bubbling from earth that sustained the roots of tree
and vine; it must have been shaded by the umbrageous branches of the
wide-spreading apple and pear, and it was doubtless approached by
alleys that were lined by peach trees laden with their downy fruit,
and over-arched by vines bearing rich clusters of the luscious grape,
and they were garnished at their sides by the crimson strawberry. Such
at least would have been an appropriate setting for so valued a jewel
as the fountain of health, and it is certain that the pursuit of
fruit-growing is itself conducive to the possession of that priceless
blessing. The physical as well as the moral qualities of our nature
are wonderfully promoted by these cares. The vigorous exercise they
afford us in the open air, the pleasant excitement, the expectation of
the results of the first fruits of our plants, tending, training and
cultivating them the while, are all so many elements conducive to the
highest enjoyment of full health.

The very character of the food furnished by our orchards should be
taken into the account, in making up our estimate of their
contributions to the health of a community. From them we procure
aliment of the most refined character, and it has been urged that the
elements of which they are composed are perfected or refined to the
highest degree of organization that is possible to occur in vegetable
tissues. Such pabulum is not only gratefully refreshing, but it is
satisfying--without being gross, it is nutritious. The antiscorbutic
effects of ripe fruits, especially those that are acid, are
proverbial, and every fever patient has appreciated the relief derived
from those that are acidulous. Then as a preventive of the febrile
affections peculiar to a miasmatic region, the free use of acid
fruits, or even of good sound vinegar made from grapes or apples, is
an established fact in medical practice--of which, by the by,
prevention is always the better part.

Apples were esteemed an important and valuable article of food in the
days of the Romans, for all school boys have read in the ore rotundo
of his own flowing measures, what Virgil has said, so much better than
his tame translator:

    "New cheese and chestnuts are our country fare,
    With mellow apples for your welcome cheer."

But in more modern times, beside their wonted use as dessert fruit, or
evening feast, or cooked in various modes, a French economist "has
invented and practiced with great success a method of making bread
with common apples, which is said to be very far superior to
potato-bread. After having boiled one-third part of peeled apples, he
bruised them while quite warm into two-thirds parts of flour,
including the proper quantity of yeast, and kneaded the whole without
water, the juice of the fruit being quite sufficient; he put the mass
into a vessel in which he allowed it to rise for about twelve hours.
By this process he obtained a very excellent bread, full of eyes, and
extremely light and palatable."[1]

Nor is this class of food desirable for man alone. Fruits of all
kinds, but particularly what may be called the large fruits, such as
are grown in our orchards, may be profitably cultivated for feeding
our domestic animals. Sweet apples have been especially recommended
for fattening swine, and when fed to cows they increase the flow of
milk, or produce fat according to the condition of these animals.
Think of the luxury of eating apple-fed pork! Why, even the strict
Rabbi might overcome his prejudices against such swine flesh! And then
dream of enjoying the luxury of fresh rich milk, yellow cream, and
golden butter, from your winter dairy, instead of the sky-blue fluid,
and the pallid, or an anotto-tinted, but insipid butter, resulting
from the meager supplies of nutriment contained in dry hay and
fibrous, woody cornstalks. Now this is not unreasonable nor
ridiculous. Orchards have been planted with a succession of sweet
apples that will sustain swine in a state of most perfect health,
growing and fattening simultaneously from June to November; and the
later varieties may be cheaply preserved for feeding stock of all
kinds during the winter, when they will be best prepared by steaming,
and may be fed with the greatest advantage. Our farmers do not
appreciate the benefits of having green food for their animals during
the winter season. Being blessed with that royal grain, the Indian
corn, they do not realize the importance of the provision of roots
which is so great a feature in British husbandry; but they have yet to
learn, and they will learn, that for us, and under our conditions of
labor and climate, they can do still better, and produce still greater
results with a combination of _hay_ or _straw_, _corn meal_ and
_apples_, all properly prepared by means of steam or hot water.
Besides, such orchards may be advantageously planted in many places
where the soil is not adapted to the production of grain.--The reader
is referred to the chapter on select lists in another part of this
volume, in which an attempt will be made to present the reader with
the opinions of the best pomologists of various parts of the country.

It were an interesting and not unprofitable study to trace the various
sources and routes by which fruits have been introduced into different
parts of our extended country. In some cases we should find that we
were indebted for these luxuries to the efforts of very humble
individuals, while in other regions the high character of the orchards
is owing to the forethought, knowledge, enterprise, and liberality of
some prominent citizen of the infant community, who has freely spent
his means and bestowed his cares in providing for others as well as
for his own necessities or pleasures. But it is to the intelligent
nurserymen of our country that we are especially indebted for the
universal diffusion of fruits, and for the selection of the best
varieties in each different section. While acting separately, these
men were laboring under great disadvantages, and frequently cultivated
certain varieties under a diversity of names, as they had received
them from various sources. This was a difficulty incident to their
isolation, but the organization of Pomological Societies in various
parts of the country, has enabled them in a great measure to unravel
the confusion of an extended synonymy, and also by comparison and
consultation with the most intelligent fruit-growers, they have been
prepared to advise the planter as to the best and most profitable
varieties to be set out in different soils and situations.

Most of our first orchards were planted with imported trees. The
colonists brought plants and seeds. Even now, in many parts of the
country, we hear many good fruits designated as English, to indicate
that they are considered superior to the native; and we are still
importing choice varieties from Europe and other quarters of the
globe.

The roving tribes of Indians who inhabited this country when
discovered and settled by the whites, had no orchards--they lived by
the chase, and only gathered such fruits as were native to the soil.
Among the earliest attempts to civilize them, however, those that
exerted the greatest influence, were efforts to make them an
agricultural people, and of these the planting of fruit-trees was one
of the most successful. In many parts of the country we find relics of
these old Indian orchards still remaining, and it is probable that
from the apple seeds sent by the general government for distribution
among the Cherokees in Georgia, we are now reaping some of the most
valuable fruits of this species. The early French settlers were famous
tree-planters, and we find their traces across the continent, from the
St. Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico. These consist in noble pear and
apple trees, grown from seeds planted by them, at their early and
scattered posts or settlements. These were made far in advance of the
pioneers, who have, at a later period, formed the van of civilization,
that soon spread into a solid phalanx in its march throughout the
great interior valley of the continent.

On the borders of civilization we sometimes meet with a singular
being, more savage than polished, and yet useful in his way. Such an
one in the early settlement of the northwestern territory was Johnny
Apple-seed--a simple-hearted being, who loved to roam through the
forests in advance of his fellows, consorting, now with the red man,
now with the white, a sort of connecting link--by his white brethren
he was, no doubt, considered rather a vagabond, for we do not learn
that he had the industry to open farms in the wilderness, the energy
to be a great hunter, nor the knowledge and devotion to have made him
a useful missionary among the red men. But Johnny had his use in the
world. It was his universal custom, when among the whites, to save the
seeds of all the best apples he met with. These he carefully preserved
and carried with him, and when far away from his white friends, he
would select an open spot of ground, prepare the soil, and plant these
seeds, upon the principle of the old Spanish custom, that he owed so
much to posterity, so that some day, the future traveler or inhabitant
of those fertile valleys, might enjoy the fruits of his early efforts.
Such was Johnny Apple-seed--did he not erect for himself monuments
more worthy, if not more enduring, than piles of marble or statues of
brass?

In tracing the progress of fruits through different portions of our
country, we should very naturally expect to find the law that governs
the movements of men, applying with equal force to the fruits they
carry with them. The former have been observed to migrate very nearly
on parallels of latitude, so have, in a great degree, the latter; and
whenever we find a departure from this order, we may expect to
discover a change, and sometimes a deterioration in the characters of
the fruits thus removed to a new locality. It is true, much of this
alteration, whether improvement or otherwise, may be owing to the
difference of soil. Western New York received her early fruits from
Connecticut, and Massachusetts; Michigan, Northern Illinois, and
later, Wisconsin and Iowa received theirs in a great degree from New
York. Ohio and Indiana received their fruits mainly from New Jersey,
and Pennsylvania, and we may yet trace this in the prevalence of
certain leading varieties that are scarcely known, and very little
grown on different parallels. The early settlement at the mouth of the
Muskingum river, was made by New England-men, and into the
"Ohio-purchase," they introduced the leading varieties of the apples
of Massachusetts. Among these, the Boston or Roxbury Russet was a
prominent favorite, but it was so changed in its appearance as
scarcely to be recognized by its old admirers, and it was christened
with a new name, the Putnam Russet, under the impression that it was a
different variety. Most of the original Putnam varieties have
disappeared from the orchards. Kentucky received her fruits in great
measure from Virginia; Tennessee from the same source and from North
Carolina, and these younger States sent them forward on the great
western march with their hardy sons to southern Indiana, southern
Illinois, to Missouri, and to Arkansas, in all which regions we find
evident traces in the orchards, of the origin of the people who
planted them.

Of course, we shall find many deflections from the precise parallel of
latitude, some inclining to the south, and many turning to the
northward. To the latter we of the West are looking with the greatest
interest, since we so often find that the northern fruits do not
maintain their high characters in their southern or southwestern
migrations, and all winter kinds are apt to become autumnal in their
period of ripening, which makes them less valuable; and because, among
those from a southern origin, we have discovered many of high merit as
to beauty, flavor, and productiveness--and, especially where they are
able to mature sufficiently, they prove to be long keepers, thus
supplying a want which was not filled by fruits of a northern origin.
There may be limits beyond which we cannot transport some sorts to
advantage in either direction, but this too will depend very much upon
the adaptability of our soils to particular varieties.

In every region where fruit has been cultivated we find local
varieties grown from seed, many of these are of sufficient merit to
warrant their propagation, and it behooves us to be constantly on the
look out for them; for though our lists are already sufficiently large
to puzzle the young orchardist in making his selections, we may well
reduce the number by weeding out more of the indifferent fruit, at the
same time that we are introducing those of a superior character. It
has been estimated that there may be as many as one in ten of our
seedling orchard trees that would be ranked as "good," but not one in
a hundred that could be styled "best."[2] Certain individuals have
devoted themselves to the troublesome though thankless office of
collecting these scattered varieties of decided merit, and from their
collections our pomological societies will, from time to time, select
and recommend the best for more extended cultivation. Such devoted men
as H.N. Gillett, Lewis Jones, Reuben Ragan, A.H. Ernst, who have been
industriously engaged in this good work for a quarter of a century,
are entitled to the highest commendation; but there are many others
who have contributed their full share of benefits by their labors in
the same field, to whom also we owe a debt of gratitude. Two of the
chief foci in the Ohio valley from which valuable fruits have been
distributed most largely, were the settlement at the mouth of the
Muskingum, with its Putnam list given below; and a later, but very
important introduction of choice fruits, brought into the Miami
country by Silas Wharton, a nurseryman from Pennsylvania, who settled
among a large body of the religious Society of Friends, in Warren Co.,
Ohio. The impress of this importation is very manifest in all the
country, within a radius of one hundred miles, and some of his fruits
are found doing well in the northwestern part of the State of Ohio, in
northern Indiana, and in an extended region westward.

There are, no doubt, many other local foci, whence good fruits have
radiated to bless regions more or less extensive, and in every
neighborhood we find the name of some early pomologist attached to the
good fruits that he had introduced, thus adding another synonym to the
numerous list of those belonging to so many of our good varieties.

A.W. Putnam commenced an apple nursery in 1794, a few years after the
first white settlement at Marietta, Ohio, the first grafts were set in
the spring of 1796; they were obtained from Connecticut by Israel
Putnam, and were the first set in the State, and grafted by W. Rufus
Putnam. Most of the early orchards of the region were planted from
this nursery. These grafts were taken from the orchard of Israel
Putnam (of wolf-killing memory) in Pomfret, Connecticut. In the Ohio
Cultivator for August 1st, 1846, may be found the following authentic
list of the varieties propagated:--

  "1. Putnam Russet, (Roxbury.)
   2. Seek-no-further, (Westfield.)
   3. Early Chandler.
   4. Gilliflower.
   5. Pound Royal, (Lowell).
   6. Natural, (a seedling).
   7. Rhode Island Greening.
   8. Yellow Greening.
   9. Golden Pippin.
   10. Long Island Pippin.
   11. Tallman Sweeting.
   12. Striped Sweeting.
   13. Honey Greening.
   14. Kent Pippin.
   15. Cooper.
   16. Striped Gilliflower.
   17. Black, do.
   18. Prolific Beauty.
   19. Queening, (Summer Queen?)
   20. English Pearmain.
   21. Green Pippin.
   22. Spitzenberg, (Esopus?)

Many of these have disappeared from the orchards and from the
nurserymen's catalogues."

FOOTNOTES:

[1] Companion for the Orchard.--Phillips.

[2] Elliott--Western Fruits.



CHAPTER II.

HISTORY OF THE APPLE.

  DIFFICULTIES IN THE OUTSET. APPLE A GENERIC TERM, AS CORN IS FOR
    DIFFERENT GRAINS; BIBLE AND HISTORIC USE OF THE WORD THEREFORE
    UNCERTAIN. ETYMOLOGY OF THE WORD. BOTANICAL CHARACTERS.
    IMPROVABILITY OF THE APPLE. NATIVE COUNTRY. CRUDE NOTIONS OF
    EARLY VARIETIES. PLINY'S ACCOUNT EXPLAINED. CHARLATAN GRAFTING.
    INTRODUCTION INTO BRITAIN. ORIGINAL SORTS THERE. GERARD'S LIST
    OF SEVEN. HE URGES ORCHARD PLANTING. RECIPE FOR POMATUM.
    DERIVATION OF THE WORD. VIRGIL'S ADVICE AS TO GRAFTING. PLINY'S
    EULOGY OF THE APPLE: WILL OURS SURVIVE AS LONG? PLINY'S LIST
    OF 29. ACCIDENTAL ORIGIN OF OUR FRUITS. CROSSING. LORD BACON'S
    GUESS. BRADLEY'S ACCOUNT. SUCCESS IN THE NETHERLANDS. MR.
    KNIGHT'S EXPERIMENTS. HYBRIDS INFERTILE. LIMITS, NONE NATURAL.
    LIMITS OF SPECIES. HERBERT'S VIEWS. DIFFICULTIES ATTEND
    CROSSING ALSO. NO MULES. KIRTLAND'S EXPERIMENTS AND RESULTS OF.
    VAN MONS' THEORY. ILLINOIS RESULTS. RUNNING OUT OF VARIETIES.


In attempting to trace out the history of any plant that has long been
subjected to the dominion of man, we are beset with difficulties
growing out of the uncertainty of language, and arising also from the
absence of precise terms of science in the descriptions or allusions
which we meet respecting them. As he who would investigate the
history of our great national grain crop, the noble Indian maize,
which, in our language, claims the generic term corn, will at once
meet with terms apt to mislead him in the English translation of the
Bible, and in the writings of Europeans, who use the word corn in a
generic sense, as applying to all the edible grains, and especially to
wheat--so in this investigation we may easily be misled by meeting the
word apple in the Bible and in the translations of Latin and Greek
authors, and we may be permitted to question whether the original
words translated apple may not have been applied to quite different
fruits, or perhaps we may ask whether our word may not originally have
had a more general sense, meaning as it does, according to its
derivation, any round body.

The etymology of the word apple is referred by the lexicographers to
_abhall_, Celtic; _avall_, Welsh; _afall_ or _avall_, Armoric; _aval_
or _avel_, Cornish; and these are all traceable to the Celtic word
_ball_, meaning simply a round body.

Worcester traces the origin of apple directly to the German _apfel_,
which he derives from _æpl_, _apel_, or _appel_.

Webster cites the Saxon _appl_ or _appel_; Dutch, _appel_; German,
_apfel_; Danish, _æble_; Swedish, _aple_; Welsh, _aval_; Irish,
_abhal_ or _ubhal_; Armoric, _aval_; Russian, _yabloko_.

Its meaning being fruit in general, with a round form. Thus the
Persian word _ubhul_ means Juniper berries, and in Welsh the word used
means other fruits, and needs a qualifying term to specify the variety
or kind.

Hogg, in his British Pomology, quoting Owen, says, the ancient
Glastonbury was called by the Britons _Ynys avallac_ or _avallon_,
meaning an apple orchard, and from this came the Roman word
_avallonia_, from this he infers that the apple was known to the
Britons before the advent of the Romans. We are told, that in 973,
King Edgar, when fatigued with the labors of the chase, laid himself
down under a wild apple tree, so that it becomes a question whether
this plant was not a native of England as of other parts of Europe,
where in many places it is found growing wild and apparently
indigenous. Thornton informs us in his history of Turkey, that apples
are common in Wallachia, and he cites among the varieties one, the
_domniasca_, "which is perhaps the finest in Europe, both for its
size, color, and flavor." It were hard to say what variety this is,
and whether it be known to us.

The introduction of this word apple in the Bible is attributable to
the translators, and some commentators suggest that they have used it
in its general sense, and that in the following passages where it
occurs, it refers to the citron, orange, or some other subtropical
fruit.

"Stay me with flagons, comfort me with apples."--Songs of Solomon ii,
5.

"As the apple-tree (citron) among the trees of the wood, * * * I sat
me down under his shadow with great delight, and his fruit was sweet
to my taste."--Sol. ii, 2.

* * * "I raised thee up under the apple-tree."--Solomon viii, 5.

"A word fitly spoken, is like apples of gold in pictures of
silver."--Prov. xxv, 11.

The botanical position of the cultivated apple may be stated as
follows:--Order, _Rosaceæ_; sub-order, _Pomeæ_; or the apple family
and genus, _Pyrus_. The species under our consideration is the _Pyrus
Malus_, or apple. It has been introduced into this country from
Europe, and is now found in a half-wild state, springing up in old
fields, hedge-rows, and roadsides; but, even in such situations, by
their eatable fruit and broad foliage, and by the absence of spiny or
thorny twigs, the trees generally give evidence of a civilized origin.
It is not that the plant has changed any of its true specific
characters, but that it has been affected by the meliorating
influences of culture, which it has not been able entirely to shake
off in its neglected condition. Sometimes, indeed, trees are found in
these neglected and out-of-the-way situations, which produce fruits of
superior quality--and the sorts have been gladly introduced into our
nurseries and orchards.

Very early in the history of horticulture the apple attracted
attention by its improvability, showing that it belonged to the class
of culture-plants. Indeed it is a very remarkable fact in the study of
botany, and the pivot upon which the science and art of horticulture
turns, that while there are plants which show no tendency to change
from their normal type, even when brought under the highest culture,
and subjected to every treatment which human ingenuity can suggest,
there are others which are prone to variations or sports, even in
their natural condition, but more so when they are carefully nursed by
the prudent farmer or gardener. These may be called respectively the
plants of nature and the plants of culture. Some of the former furnish
human food, and are otherwise useful to man; but the latter class
embraces by far the larger number of food-plants, and we are indebted
to this pliancy, aided by human skill, for our varieties of fruits,
our esculent vegetables, and the floral ornaments of our gardens.

The native country of the apple, though not definitively settled, is
generally conceded to be Europe, particularly its southern portions,
and perhaps Western Asia: that is, the plant known and designated by
botanists as _Pyrus Malus_, for there are other and distinct species
in America and Asia which have no claims to having been the source of
our favorite orchard fruits. Our own native crab is the _Pyrus
coronaria_, which, though showing some slight tendency to variation,
has never departed from the strongly marked normal type. The _P.
baccata_, or Siberian crab, is so distinctly marked as to be admitted
as a species. It has wonderfully improved under culture, and has
produced some quite distinct varieties; it has even been hybridized by
Mr. Knight, with the cultivated sorts of the common Wilding or Crab of
Europe, the _P. Malus_. Pallas, who found it wild near Lake Baikal and
in Daouria, says, it grows only 3 or 4 feet high, with a trunk of as
many inches diameter, and yields pear-shaped berries as large as peas.

The _P. rivularis_, according to Nuttall, is common in the maritime
portions of Oregon, in alluvial forests. The tree attains a height of
15 to 25 feet. It resembles the Siberian Crab, to which it has a close
affinity. The fruit grows in clusters, is purple, scarcely the size of
a cherry, and of an agreeable flavor; sweetish and sub-acid when ripe,
not at all acid and acerb as the _P. coronaria_.[3]

Among the early writers upon the subject of pomology, we find some
very crude notions, particularly in regard to the wonderful powers of
the grafter, for this art of improving the Wilding by inserting buds
or scions of better sorts, and thus multiplying trees of good kinds,
was a very ancient invention. Pliny, the naturalist, certainly
deserves our praise for his wonderful and comprehensive industry in
all branches of natural history. In regard to grafting, which seems to
have been well understood in his day, he says, that he had seen near
Thuliæ a tree bearing all manner of fruits, nuts and berries, figs and
grapes, pears and pomegranates; no kind of apple or other fruit that
was not to be found on this tree. It is quaintly noted, however, that
"this tree did not live long,"--is it to be wondered that such should
have been the case? Now some persons may object to the testimony of
this remarkable man, and feel disposed to discredit the statement of
what appears so incredible to those who are at all acquainted with the
well-known necessity for a congenial stock into which the graft should
be inserted. But a more extended knowledge of the subject, would
explain what Pliny has recorded as a marvel of the art. The same thing
has been done in our own times, it is a trick, and one which would
very soon be detected now-a-days by the merest tyro in horticulture,
though it may have escaped the scrutiny of Pliny, whose business it
was to note and record the results of his observations, rather than to
examine the modus of the experiment. By the French, the method is
called Charlatan grafting, and is done by taking a stock of suitable
size, hollowing it out, and introducing through its cavity several
stocks of different kinds, upon each of which may be produced a
different sort of fruit, as reported by Pliny. The needed affinity of
the scion and stock, and the possible range that may be successfully
taken in this mode of propagation, with the whole consideration of the
influence of the stock upon the graft, will be more fully discussed in
another chapter.

Though it be claimed and even admitted that the wild apple or crab was
originally a native of Britain, and though it be well known that many
varieties have originated from seed in that country, still it appears
from their own historians that the people introduced valuable
varieties from abroad. Thus we find in Fuller's account, that in the
16th year of the reign of Henry VIII, Pippins were introduced into
England by Lord Maschal, who planted them at Plumstead, in Sussex.

After this, the celebrated Golden Pippin was originated at Perham
Park, in Sussex, and this variety has attained a high meed of praise
in that country and in Europe, though it has never been considered so
fine in this country as some of our own seedlings. Evelyn says, in
1685, at Lord Clarendon's seat, at Swallowfield, Berks, there is an
orchard of one thousand golden and other cider Pippins.[4] The Ribston
Pippin, which every Englishman will tell you is the best apple in the
world, was a native of Ribston Park, Yorkshire. Hargrave says: "This
place is remarkable for the produce of a delicious apple, called the
Ribston Park Pippin." The original tree was raised from a Pippin
brought from France.[5] This apple is well-known in this country, but
not a favorite.

At a later period, 1597, John Gerard issued in an extensive folio his
History of Plants, in which he mentions seven kinds of Pippins. The
following is given as a sample of the pomology of that day:--

"The fruit of apples do differ in greatnesse, forme, colour, and
taste, some covered with red skin, others yellow or greene, varying
infinitely according to soil and climate; some very greate, some very
little, and many of middle sort; some are sweet of taste, or something
soure, most be of middle taste between sweet and soure; the which to
distinguish, I think it impossible, notwithstanding I heare of one who
intendeth to write a peculiar volume of apples and the use of them."
He further says: "The tame and grafted apple trees are planted and set
in gardens and orchards made for that purpose; they delight to growe
in good fertile grounds. Kent doth abounde with apples of most sortes;
but I have seen pastures and hedge-rows about the grounds of a
worshipful gentleman dwelling two miles from Hereford, so many trees
of all sortes, that the seruantes drinke for the moste parte no other
drinke but that which is made of apples. * * * Like as there be divers
manured apples, so is there sundry wilde apples or crabs, not
husbanded, that is, not grafted." He also speaks of the Paradise,
which is probably the same we now use as a dwarfing stock.

Dr. Gerard fully appreciated the value of fruits, and thus vehemently
urges his countrymen to plant orchards: "Gentlemen, that have land and
living, put forward, * * * * * graft, set, plant, and nourish up trees
in every corner of your grounds; the labor is small, the cost is
nothing, the commoditie is great, yourselves shall have plentie, the
poor shall have somewhat in time of want to relieve their necessitie,
and God shall reward your good minde and diligence." The same author
gives us a peculiar use of the apple which may be interesting to some
who never before associated _pomatum_ with the products of the
orchard. He recommends apples as a cosmetic. "There is made an
ointment with the pulp of apples, and swine's grease and rose water,
which is used to beautify the face and to take away the roughness of
the skin; it is called in shops _pomatum_, of the apples whereof it is
made."[6] When speaking of the importance of grafting to increase the
number of trees of any good variety, Virgil advises to

                    "Graft the tender shoot,
    Thy children's children shall enjoy the fruit."

So high an estimate did Pliny have of this fruit, that he asserted
that "there are apples that have ennobled the countries from whence
they came, and many apples have immortalized their first founders and
inventors. Our best apples will immortalize their first grafters
forever; such as took their names from Manlius, Cestius, Matius, and
Claudius."--Of the Quince apple, he says, that came of a quince being
grafted upon the apple stock, which "smell like the quince, and were
called _Appiana_, after Appius, who was the first that practiced this
mode of grafting. Some are so red that they resemble blood, which is
caused by their being grafted upon the mulberry stock. Of all the
apples, the one which took its name from Petisius, was the most
excellent for eating, both on account of its sweetness and its
agreeable flavor." Pliny mentions twenty-nine kinds of apples
cultivated in Italy, about the commencement of the Christian Era.[7]

Alas! for human vanity and apple glory! Where are now these boasted
sorts, upon whose merits the immortality of their inventors and first
grafters was to depend? They have disappeared from our lists to give
place to new favorites, to some of which, perhaps, we are disposed to
award an equally high meed of praise, that will again be ignored in a
few fleeting years, when higher skill and more scientific applications
of knowledge shall have produced superior fruit to any of those we now
prize so highly; and this is a consummation to which we may all look
forward with pleasure.

In this country the large majority of our favorite fruits, of whatever
species or kind, seem to have originated by accident, that is, they
have been discovered in seedling orchards, or even in hedge-rows.
These have no doubt, however, been produced by accidental crosses of
good kinds, and this may occur through the intervention of insects in
any orchard of good fruit, where there may chance to be some varieties
that have the tendency to progress. The discoveries of Linnæus, and
his doctrine of the sexual characters of plants, created quite a
revolution in botany, and no doubt attracted the attention of Lord
Bacon, who was a close observer of nature, for he ventured to guess
that there might be such a thing as crossing the breeds of plants,
when he says:--"The compounding or mixture of kinds in plants is not
found out, which, nevertheless, if it be possible, is more at command
than that of living creatures; wherefore it were one of the most
noteable experiments touching plants to find it out, for so you may
have great variety of new fruits and flowers yet unknown. Grafting
does it not, that mendeth the fruit or doubleth the flowers, etc., but
hath not the power to make a new kind, for the scion ever overruleth
the stock." In which last observation he shows more knowledge and a
deeper insight into the hidden mysteries of plant-life than many a man
in our day, whose special business it is to watch, nurse, and care for
these humble forms of existence.

Bradley, about a century later, in 1718, is believed to have been the
first author who speaks of the accomplishment of cross-breeding, which
he describes as having been effected by bringing together the branches
of different trees when in blossom. But the gardeners of Holland and
the Netherlands were the first to put it into practice.[8]

The following extract is given to explain the manner in which Mr.
Knight conducted his celebrated experiments on fruits, which rewarded
him with some varieties that were highly esteemed:--"Many varieties of
the apple were collected which had been proved to afford, in mixtures
with each other, the finest cider. A tree of each was then obtained by
grafting upon a Paradise stock, and these trees were trained to a
south wall, or if grafted on Siberian crab, to a west wall, till they
afforded blossoms, and the soil in which they were planted was made of
the most rich and favorable kind. Each blossom of this species of
fruit contains about twenty chives or males (stamens,) and generally
five pointals or females (pistils,) which spring from the center of
the cup or cavity of the blossom. The males stand in a circle just
within the bases of the petals, and are formed of slender threads,
each of which terminates in an anther. It is necessary in these
experiments that both the fruit and seed should attain as large a size
and as much perfection as possible, and therefore a few blossoms only
were suffered to remain on each tree. As soon as the blossoms were
nearly full-grown, every male in each was carefully extracted, proper
care being taken not to injure the pointals; and the blossoms, thus
prepared, were closed again, and suffered to remain till they opened
spontaneously. The blossoms of the tree which it was proposed to make
the male parent of the future variety, were accelerated by being
brought into contact with the wall, or retarded by being detached from
it, so that they were made to unfold at the required period; and a
portion of their pollen, when ready to fall from the mature anthers,
was during three or four successive mornings deposited upon the
pointals of the blossoms, which consequently afforded seeds. It is
necessary in this experiment that one variety of apple only should
bear unmutilated blossoms; for, where other varieties are in flower at
the same time, the pollen of these will often be conveyed by bees to
the prepared blossoms, and the result of the experiment will in
consequence be uncertain and unsatisfactory." * * *

In his Pomona Herefordiensis, he says:--"It is necessary to contrive
that the two trees from which you intend to raise the new kind, shall
blossom at the same time; therefore, if one is an earlier sort than
the other, it must be retarded by shading or brought into a cooler
situation, and the latest forwarded by a warm wall or a sunny
position, so as to procure the desired result."

We must distinguish between hybrids proper and crosses, as it were
between races or between what may have been erroneously designated
species, for there has been a great deal of looseness in the manner of
using these terms by some writers. A true _hybrid_[9] is produced only
when the pollen of one species has been used to fertilize the ovules
of another, and as a general rule these can only be produced between
plants which are very nearly allied, as between species of the same
genus. Even such as these, however, cannot always be hybridized, for
we have never found a mule or hybrid between the apple and pear, the
currant and gooseberry, nor between the raspberry and blackberry,
though each of these, respectively, appear to be very nearly related,
and they are all of the order _Rosaceæ_.

In hybrids there appears to be a mixture of the elements of each, and
the characters of the mule or cross will depend upon one or the other,
which it will more nearly resemble. True hybrids are mules or
infertile, and cannot be continued by seed, but must be propagated by
cuttings, or layers, or grafting. If not absolutely sterile at first,
they become so in the course of the second or third generation. This
is proved by several of our flowering plants that have been
wonderfully varied by ingenious crossing of different species. But it
has been found that the hybrid may be fertilized by pollen taken from
one of its parents, and that then the offspring assumes the characters
of that parent.[10]

Natural hybrids do not often occur, though in dioecious plants, this
seems to have been the case with willows that present such an
intricate puzzle to botanists in their classification, so that it has
become almost impossible to say what are the limits and bounds of some
of the species. Hybrids are, however, very frequently produced by art,
and particularly among our flowering plants, under the hands of
ingenious gardeners. Herbert thinks, from his observations, "that the
flowers and organs of reproduction partake of the characters of the
female parent, while the foliage and habit, or the organs of
vegetation, resemble the male."

Simply crossing different members of the same species, like the
crossing of races in animal life, is not always easily accomplished;
but we here find much less difficulty, and we do not produce a mule
progeny. In these experiments the same precautions must be taken to
avoid the interference of natural agents in the transportation of
pollen from flower to flower; but this process is now so familiar to
horticulturists, that it scarcely needs a mention. In our efforts with
the strawberry, some very curious results have occurred, and we have
learned that some of the recognized species appear under this severe
test to be well founded, as the results have been infertile. Where the
perfection of the fruit depends upon the development of the seed, this
is a very important matter to the fruit-grower; but fortunately this
is not always the case, for certain fruits swell and ripen perfectly,
though containing not a single well developed seed. It would be an
interesting study to trace out those plants which do furnish a well
developed fleshy substance or sarcocarp, without the true seeds. Such
may be found occasionally in the native persimmon, in certain grapes,
and in many apples; but in the strawberry, blackberry, and raspberry,
the berry which constitutes our desirable fruit, never swells unless
the germs have been impregnated and the seeds perfect. In the
stone-fruits the stone or pit is always developed, but the enclosed
seed is often imperfect from want of impregnation or other cause--and
yet the fleshy covering will sometimes swell and ripen.

One of the most successful experimenters in this country is Doctor
J.P. Kirtland, near Cleveland, Ohio, whose efforts at crossing certain
favorite cherries, were crowned with the most happy results, and all
are familiar with the fruits that have been derived from his crosses.
The details of his applying the pollen of one flower to the pistils of
another are familiar to all intelligent readers, and have been so
often set forth, that they need not be repeated in this case--great
care is necessary to secure the desired object, and to guard against
interference from causes that would endanger or impair the value of
the results.

Van Mons' theory was based upon certain assumptions and observations,
some of which are well founded, others are not so firmly established.
He claimed correctly that all our best fruits were artificial
products, because the essential elements for the preservation of the
species in their natural condition, are vigor of the plant and perfect
seeds for the perpetuation of the race. It has been the object of
culture to diminish the extreme vigor of the tree so as to produce
early fruitage, and at the same time to enlarge and to refine the
pulpy portion of the fruit. He claimed, as a principle, that our
plants of culture had always a tendency to run back toward the
original or wild type, when they were grown from seeds. This tendency
is admitted to exist in many cases, but it is also claimed, that when
a break is once made from the normal type, the tendency to improve may
be established. Van Mons asserted that the seeds from old trees would
be still more apt to run back toward the original type, and that "the
older the tree, the nearer will the seedlings raised from it approach
the wild state," though he says they will not quite reach it. But the
seeds from a young tree, having itself the tendency to melioration,
are more likely to produce improved sorts.

He thinks there is a limit to perfection, and that, when this is
reached, the next generation will more probably produce bad fruit than
those grown from an inferior sort, which is on the upward road of
progression. He claims that the seeds of the oldest varieties of good
fruit yield inferior kinds, whereas those taken from new varieties of
bad fruit, and reproduced for several generations, will certainly give
satisfactory results in good fruit.

He began with seeds from a young seedling tree, not grafted upon
another stock; he cared nothing for the quality of the fruit, but
preferred that the variety was showing a tendency to improvement or
_variation_. These were sowed, and from the plants produced, he
selected such as appeared to him to have evidence of improvement, (it
is supposed by their less wild appearance), and transplanted them to
stations where they could develop themselves. When they fruited, even
if indifferent, if they continued to give evidence of variation, the
first seeds were saved and planted and treated in the same way. These
came earlier into fruit than the first, and showed a greater promise.
Successive generations were thus produced to the fourth and fifth,
each came into bearing earlier than its predecessor, and produced a
greater number of good varieties, and he says that in the fifth
generation they were nearly all of great excellence. He found pears
required the longest time, five generations; while the apple was
perfected in four, and stone fruits in three.

Starting upon the theory that we must subdue the vigor of the wilding
to produce the best fruits, he cut off the tap roots when
transplanting and shortened the leaders, and crowded the plants in the
orchard or fruiting grounds, so as to stand but a few feet apart. He
urged the "regenerating in a direct line of descent as rapidly as
possible an improving variety, taking care that there be no interval
between the generations. To sow, re-sow, to sow again, to sow
perpetually, in short to do nothing but sow, is the practice to be
pursued, and which cannot be departed from; and, in short, this is the
whole secret of the art I have employed." (_Arbres Fruitiers._)

Who else would have the needed patience and perseverance to pursue
such a course? Very few, indeed--especially if they were not very
fully convinced of the correctness of the premises upon which this
theory is founded. Mr. Downing thinks that the great numbers of fine
varieties of apples that have been produced in this country, go to
sustain the Van Mons doctrine, because, as he assumes, the first
apples that were produced from seeds brought over by the early
emigrants, yielded inferior fruit which had run back toward the wild
state, and the people were forced to begin again with them, and that
they most naturally pursued this very plan, taking seeds from the
improving varieties for the next generations and so on. This may have
been so, but it is mere assumption--we have no proof, and, on the
contrary, our choice varieties have so generally been conceded to have
been chance seedlings, that there appears little evidence to support
it--on the contrary, some very fine varieties have been produced by
selecting the seeds of good sorts promiscuously, and without regarding
the age of the trees from which the fruit was taken. Mr. Downing
himself, after telling us that we have much encouragement to
experiment upon this plan of perfecting fruits, by taking seeds from
such as are not quite ripe, gathered from a seedling of promising
quality, from a healthy young tree (quite young,) on its own root, not
grafted, and that we "must avoid 1st, the seeds of old trees; 2d,
those of grafted trees; 3d, that we must have the best grounds for
good results"--still admits what we all know, that "in this country,
new varieties of rare excellence are sometimes obtained at once by
planting the seeds of old grafted varieties; thus the Lawrence
Favorite and the Columbia Plums were raised from seeds of the Green
Gage, one of the oldest European varieties."

Let us now look at an absolute experiment conducted avowedly upon the
Van Mons plan in our own country, upon the fertile soil of the State
of Illinois, and see to what results it led:--

The following facts have been elicited from correspondence with H.P.
Brayshaw, of Du Quoin, Illinois. The experiments were instituted by
his father many years ago, to test the truth of the Van Mons' theory
of the improvement of fruits by using only the first seeds.

Thirty-five years ago, in 1827, his father procured twenty-five
seedling trees from a nursery, which may be supposed to have been an
average lot, grown from promiscuous seed. These were planted, and when
they came into bearing, six of them furnished fruit that might be
called "_good_" and of these, "four were considered _fine_." One of
the six is still in cultivation, and known as the _Illinois Greening_.
Of the remainder of the trees, some of the fruits were fair, and the
rest were worthless, and have disappeared.

_Second Generation._--The first fruits of these trees were selected,
and the seeds were sown. Of the resulting crop, some furnished fruit
that was "good," but they do not appear to have merited much
attention.

_Third Generation._--From first seeds of the above, one hundred trees
were produced, some of which were good fruit, and some "even fine,"
while some were very poor, "four or five only merited attention." So
that we see a retrogression from the random seedlings, furnishing
twenty-five per cent, of good fruit, to only four or five per cent. in
the third generation, that were worthy of note.

_Fourth Generation._--A crop of the first seed was again sown,
producing a fourth generation; of these many were "good culinary
fruits," none, or very few being of the "poorest class of seedlings,"
none of them, however, were fine enough "for the dessert."

_Fifth Generation._--This crop of seedlings was destroyed by the
cut-worms, so that only one tree now remains, but has not yet fruited.
But Mr. Brayshaw appears to feel hopeful of the results, and promises
to continue the experiment.

Crops have also been sown from some of these trees, but a smaller
proportion of the seedlings thus produced were good fruits, than when
the first seeds were used--this Mr. Brayshaw considers confirmatory
evidence of the theory, though he appears to feel confidence in the
varieties already in use, most of which had almost an accidental
origin.

He thinks the result would have been more successful had the blossoms
been protected from impregnation by other trees, and recommends that
those to be experimented with should be planted at a distance from
orchards, so as to avoid this cross-breeding, and to allow of what is
called breeding in-and-in. If this were done, he feels confident that
"the seedlings would more nearly resemble the parent, and to a certain
extent would manifest the tendency to improvement, and that from the
earliest ripened fruits, some earlier varieties would be produced,
from those latest ripening, later varieties, from those that were
inferior and insipid, poor sorts would spring, and that from the very
best and most perfect fruits we might expect one in one thousand, or
one-tenth of one per cent., to be better than the parent." This
diminishes the chance for improvement to a beautifully fine point upon
which to hang our hopes of the result of many generations of seedlings
occupying more than a lifetime of experiments.

Mr. Brayshaw, citing some of the generally adopted axioms of breeders
of animals, assumes that _crosses_, as of distinct races, will not be
so likely to produce good results, as a system of breeding in-and-in,
persistently carried out. This plan he recommends, and alludes to the
quince and mulberry as suitable species to operate upon, because in
them there are fewer varieties, and therefore less liability to
cross-breeding, and a better opportunity for breeding in-and-in. He
also reminds us of the happy results which follow the careful
selection of the best specimens in garden flowers and vegetables,
combined with the rejection of all inferior plants, when we desire to
improve the character of our garden products, and he adopts the views
of certain physiologists, which, however, are questioned by other
authorities, to the effect that violent or decided crosses are always
followed by depreciation and deterioration of the offspring.

The whole communication referring to these experiments, which are
almost the only ones, so far as I know, which have been conducted in
this country to any extent, to verify or controvert the Van Mons'
theory, is very interesting, but it is easy to perceive that the
experimenter, though apparently very fair, and entirely honest, has
been fully imbued with the truth and correctness of the proposition of
Van Mons, that the first ripened seed of a natural plant was more
likely to produce an improved variety, and that this tendency to
improvement would ever increase, and be most prominent in the first
ripened seeds of successive generations grown from it.

The theory of Van Mons I shall not attempt in this place to
controvert, but will simply say that nothing which has yet come under
my observation has had a tendency to make me a convert to the avowed
views of that great Belgian Pomologist, while, on the contrary, the
rumors of his opponents, that he was really attempting to produce
crosses from some of the best fruits, as our gardeners have most
successfully done in numerous instances, in the beautiful flowers and
delicious vegetables of modern horticulture, have always impressed me
with a color of probability, and if he were not actually and
intentionally impregnating the blossoms with pollen of the better
varieties, natural causes, such as the moving currents of air, and the
ever active insects, whose special function in many instances appears
to be the conveyance of pollen, would necessarily cause an admixture,
which, in a promiscuous and crowded collection, like the "school of
Van Mons," would at least have an equal chance of producing an
improvement in some of the resulting seeds.

The whole subject of variation in species, the existence of varieties,
and also of those partial _sports_, which may perhaps be considered as
still more temporary variations from the originals, than those which
come through the seeds, is one of deep interest, well worthy of our
study, but concerning which we must confess ourselves as yet quite
ignorant, and our best botanists do not agree even as to the
_specific_ distinctions that have been set up as characters of some of
our familiar plants, for the most eminent differ with regard to the
species of some of our common trees and plants.


RUNNING OUT OF VARIETIES.

It has been a very generally received opinion among intelligent
fruit-growers, that any given variety of fruit can have but a limited
period of existence, be that longer or shorter. Reasoning from the
analogies of animal life this would appear very probable, for it is
well known that individuals of different species all have a definite
period of life, some quite brief, others quite extended, beyond which
they do not survive. But with our modern views of vegetation, though
we know that all perennial plants do eventually die and molder away to
the dust from whence they were created, and that many trees of our own
planting come to an untimely end, while we yet survive to observe
their decay, still, we can see no reason why a tree or parts of a tree
taken from it, and placed under circumstances favorable to its growth
from time to time, may not be sempiternal. Harvey has placed this
matter in a correct light, by showing that the true life and history
of a tree is in the buds, which are annual, while the tree itself is
the connecting link between them and the ground. Any portion of such a
compound existence, grafted upon another stock, or planted immediately
in the ground itself and established upon its own roots, will produce
a new tree like the first, being furnished with supplies of
nourishment it may grow indefinitely while retaining all the qualities
of the parent stock--if that be healthy and vigorous so will
this--indeed new life and vigor often seem to be imparted by a
congenial thrifty stock, and a fertile soil, so that there does not
appear to be any reason why the variety should ever run out and
disappear.

The distinguished Thomas Andrew Knight, President of the London
Horticultural Society, was one of the leading advocates of the theory
that varieties would necessarily run out and disappear as it were by
exhaustion.

In his Pomona Herefordiensis, he tells us that "those apples, which
have been long in cultivation, are on the decay. The Redstreak and
Golden Pippin can no longer be propagated with advantage. The fruit,
like the parent tree, is affected by the debilitated old age of the
variety." And in his treatise on the culture of the apple and pear, he
says: "The Moil and its successful rival, the Redstreak, with the Must
and Golden Pippin, are in the last stage of decay, and the Stire and
Foxwhelp are hastening rapidly after them." In noticing the decay of
apple trees, Pliny probably refers to particular trees, rather than
the whole of any variety, when he says that "apples become old sooner
than any other tree, and the fruit becomes smaller and is subject to
be cankered and worm-eaten, even while on the trees."--Lib. XVI, Chap.
27.

Speechly combated the views of Mr. Knight, and says: "It is much to be
regretted that this apparently visionary notion of the extinction of
certain kinds of apples should have been promulgated by authors of
respectability, since the mistake will, for a time at least, be
productive of several ill consequences."

Some of the old English varieties that were supposed to be worn out or
exhausted, appear to have taken a new lease of life in this country,
but we have not yet had a long enough experience to decide this
question. Many of the earlier native favorites of the orchard have,
for some reason, disappeared from cultivation--whether they have run
out, were originally deficient in vigor, or have merely been
superseded by more acceptable varieties, does not appear.

Mr. Phillips, in his Companion, states "that in 1819, he observed a
great quantity of the Golden Pippin in Covent Garden Market, which
were in perfect condition, and was induced to make inquiries
respecting the health of the variety, which resulted in satisfactory
replies from all quarters, that the trees were recovering from
disease, which he thought had been induced by a succession of
unpropitious seasons. He cites Mr. Ronald's opinion, that there was
then no fear of losing this variety; and Mr. Lee, who thought that the
apparent decay of some trees was owing to unfavorable seasons. Mr.
Harrison informed him that this variety was very successfully grown on
the mountains of the island of Madeira, at an elevation of 3000 feet,
and produced abundantly. Also that the variety was quite satisfactory
in many parts of England, and concludes that the Golden Pippin only
requires the most genial situation, to render it as prolific is
formerly."

It is quite probable, as Phillips suggests, that Mr. Knight had
watched the trees during unfavorable seasons which prevailed at that
period, and as he found the disease increase, he referred it to the
old age of the variety, and based his theory to that effect upon
partial data.

Mr. Knight's views, though they have taken a strong hold upon the
popular mind, have not been confirmed by physiologists. For though the
seed would appear to be the proper source whence to derive our new
plants, and certainly our new varieties of fruits, many plants have,
for an indefinite period, been propagated by layers, shoots or scions,
buds, tubers, etc., and that the variety has thus been extended much
beyond the period of the life of the parent or original seedling.
Strawberries are propagated and multiplied by the runners, potatoes by
tubers, the Tiger Lily by bulblets, some onions by proliferous bulbs,
sugarcane by planting pieces of the stalk, many grapes by horizontal
stems, and many plants by cuttings, for a very great length of time.
The grape vine has been continued in this way from the days of the
Romans. A slip taken from a willow in Mr. Knight's garden pronounced
by him to be dying from old age, was planted in the Edinburgh Botanic
Garden many years ago, and is now a vigorous tree, though the original
stock has long since gone to decay.[11]

FOOTNOTES:

[3] North American Sylva, Nuttall II, p. 25.

[4] Diary.

[5] History of Knaresborough, p. 216.--Companion of the Orchard, p. 34.

[6] Our lexicographers give it a similar origin, but refer it to the
shape in which it was put up. Others derive it from _poma_, Spanish, a
box of perfume.

[7] Phillips' Companion, p. 32.

[8] Phillips' Companion, p. 41.

[9] Balfour's Manual.

[10] Balfour's Manual.

[11] Balfour's Manual, p. 284.



CHAPTER III.

PROPAGATION.--SECTION I.

  ALL GROWTH IS DEPENDANT UPON THE DEVELOPMENT OF CELLS. THE SEED
    AND THE BUD; THEIR RESEMBLANCE. THE INDIVIDUALITY OF BUDS. THE
    BASIS OF ALL PROPAGATION. BUDS ARE DEVELOPED INTO TWIGS; HAVE
    POWER OF EMITTING ROOTS. IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY OF
    CELL-GROWTH. BY CUTTINGS: PREPARATION AND SELECTION.
    HEEL-CUTTINGS. SOFT WOOD. HARD WOOD. SEASONS FOR EACH. FALL
    PLANTING. THE CALLUS, OR DEVELOPMENT OF CELL-GROWTH. BOTTOM
    HEAT; WHY BENEFICIAL. WHY SPRING CUTTINGS FAIL. STIMULUS OF
    LIGHT UPON THE BUDS, CAUSES THEM TO EXPAND, AND THE LEAVES
    EVAPORATE TOO FREELY. ROOT CUTTINGS; DIFFERENT FRUITS THUS
    PROPAGATED. BY SUCKERS: OBJECTIONS TO ANSWERED. SUCKER
    ORCHARDS; BEAR EARLY. SUCKER TREES APT TO SUCKER AGAIN. BY
    LAYERS: A NATURAL METHOD. HOW PERFORMED. THE RASPBERRY AND THE
    GRAPE. ILLUSTRATIONS OF NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL METHODS. QUINCE
    STOCKS. ADJUVANTS TO LAYERING, NOTCHING, ETC. BY SEEDS: HOW IT
    DIFFERS FROM THE OTHERS. APPLE SEEDLINGS. THEIR TREATMENT,
    SEPARATING, AND PREPARING THE SEED. APPARATUS. SPROUTING.
    SOWING. CULTIVATION. SEEDLINGS. TREATMENT. SORTING. PACKING.


All propagation of plants must depend upon the development of seeds or
of buds, and all will arise from the growth and extension of cells.
The seed and the bud are much more nearly related than a casual
observer would at first sight suppose. The early phylologists thought
they discovered that in the seed was enwrapped the image of the future
tree--a dissection of the seed would appear to demonstrate this. It is
composed of separate parts which are capable of being developed into
the root, stem, and appendages, but they have yet to be so developed;
the several parts that we find in the seed are merely the
representative parts. But the seed has the future of the tree within
itself, it has certain qualities of the future tree impressed upon it
in its primary organization, within the capsule of the fruit of the
parent plant, so that in a higher sense the image of the future tree
does exist within the seed. Within the bud, still more plainly and
more distinctly visible, is the future tree manifest, and we may
produce a tree from a bud as certainly as we do from a seed. Subjected
to circumstances favorable for growth, the bud, as well as the seed,
will emit roots, will form its stem, branches and appendages, and will
become a tree; differing from the product of the seed only in this,
that in the latter the resulting organism constitutes a new individual
which may vary somewhat from its parent, in the former it is only a
new development of a part of a previously existing organization. The
similarity existing between the two is exceedingly close, and is a
matter of great importance in horticultural operations. Dr. Lindley,
in the Gardener's Chronicle, says very truly, that "every bud of a
tree is an individual vegetable, and a tree, therefore, is a family or
swarm of individual plants, like the polype with its young growing out
of its sides, or like the branching cells of the coral insect."
Similar opinions, more or less modified, have been expressed by
subsequent physiologists, and are familiar to men of science in every
country and, we may add, are also universally accepted as true by all
who claim a right to express an opinion upon the subject.--Men of
science recognize the individuality of buds.--Nobody doubts the
individuality of buds.--In a gardening aspect, the individuality of
buds is the cardinal point upon which some of our most important
operations turn; such, for example, as all modes of propagation
whatever, except by seed. If this be not fully understood, there is no
possible explanation of the reasons why certain results are sure to
follow the attachment of a bud, or the insertion of a graft, or the
planting of a cutting, or the bending of a layer, or the approach of a
scion, or the setting of an eye--our six great forms of artificial
multiplication. In his Elements of Botany, the same writer says: "An
embryo is a young plant produced by the agency of the sexes, and
developed within a seed--a leaf bud is a young plant, produced without
the agency of the sexes, enclosed within the rudimentary leaves called
scales, and developed on a stem." "An embryo propagates the _species_,
leaf-buds propagate the _individual_." He shows each to be "a young
plant developing itself upwards, downwards and horizontally, into
stem, root, and medullary system."

Dr. Schleiden thus beautifully expresses his views of their
individuality: "Now the bud essentially is nothing more than a
repetition of the plant on which it is formed. The foundation of a new
plant consists equally of a stem and leaves, and the sole distinction
is that the stem becomes intimately blended at its base with the
mother plant in its growth, and has no free radical extremity like
that exhibited by a plant developed from a seed. However, this
distinction is not so great as at the first glance it appears. Every
plant of high organization possesses the power of shooting out
adventitious roots from its stem, under the favoring influences of
moisture; and very frequently, even plants that have been raised from
seed, are forced to content themselves with such adventitious roots,
since it is the nature of many plants, for instance the grasses, never
to develop their proper root, although the radicle is actually
present. We are, it is true, accustomed to look upon the matter as
though the buds must always be developed into twigs and branches, on
and in connection with the plant itself; and thus in common life, we
regard them as parts of a plant, and not as independent individuals,
which they are in fact, although they, like children who remain in
their paternal home, retain the closest connection with the plant on
which they were produced. That they are at least capable of becoming
independent plants, is shown by an experiment frequently successful
when the necessary care is taken, namely the breaking off and sowing
of the buds of our forest trees. The well-known garden operations of
grafting and budding are also examples of this, and layering only
differs from the sowing of the buds, in that the buds on the layers
are allowed to acquire a certain degree of maturity before they are
separated from the parent plant. All here depends upon the facility
with which these bud plants root as it is called, that is develop
adventitious roots, when they are brought in contact with moist earth.
* * * Nature herself very often makes use of this method to multiply
certain plants in incalculable numbers. In a few cases, the process
resembles the artificial sowing of buds, as when the plant
spontaneously throws off the perfect buds at a certain period; an
instance of this is afforded by some of our garden Lilies, which throw
off the little bulb-like buds which appear in the axils of the lower
leaves. The more common mode of proceeding is as follows: Those buds
which have been formed near the surface of the soil, grow up into
shoots provided with leaves; but the shoots are long, slender and
delicate, the leaves too are stunted into little scales; in their
axils, however, they develop strong buds, which either in the same or
in the following year take root, and the slender shoot connecting them
with the parent plant, dying and decaying, they become free
independent plants. In this manner the strawberry soon covers a
neglected garden."[12]

Upon the development of a cell in any living tissue, and its power of
reproducing other cells, and upon its function of communicating by
endosmosis and exosmosis with other like cells, depend all our success
in propagating vegetables, whether from seeds or buds, and parts
containing these. We must study the circumstances that favor the
development of cells, if we would be successful in propagating plants.
Each bud being considered an individual, and capable, under favorable
circumstances, of taking on a separate existence, we can multiply any
individual variety indefinitely, and be sure of having the same
qualities of foliage and fruit that we admire in the original, and
that we may desire to propagate. This applies equally to a group of
buds, as in cuttings, grafts and layers, etc.; but, more wonderful
still, there are cells capable of developing buds where none existed
before, and even in tissues or parts of a plant where we do not
usually find buds--hence we have a mode of propagation of many woody
plants, by root cuttings, and by leaves, and even parts of leaves.


PROPAGATION BY CUTTINGS.--Many fruits are multiplied by this means.
Healthy shoots of the previous year's growth are usually selected and
taken when the parent is in a dormant state, or still better, when it
is approaching this condition. Sometimes a small portion of the
previous year's growth is left with the cutting, making a sort of
_heel_; when this is not to be had, or not preferred, the slip is to
be prepared for planting by cutting it smoothly just below a bud, as
this seems to be the most favorable point in many plants for the
emission of roots. Some plants will throw out radicles at any point
indifferently along the internodes or merithallus. The preference for
heel-cuttings depends upon the fact, that near the base of the annual
shoot there are always a great number of buds, many of which, however,
being imperfectly developed, are inconspicuous, but though dormant,
they seem to favor the emission of rootlets. Cuttings may be made to
grow if taken at any period of their development, but when green and
soft, they require particular conditions of heat and moisture in the
soil, and atmosphere, that are only under the control of the
professional gardener. They are usually taken in the dormant state,
because they are then susceptible of being made to grow under the
ordinary conditions of out-door gardening. If cut early in the season,
on the approach of autumn, after the wood-growth has been perfected,
they may be planted at once with good prospect of success, or they may
be put into the soil, out of doors, in the cellar, or in a cold frame
or pit, and a very important step in the progress of their growth will
commence at once. The leafless sticks are not dead, and whenever the
temperature will admit of the quiet interchange of fluids among their
cells, this curious function will go on, and will be accompanied by
the development or generation of new cells that soon cover the cut
surfaces, constituting what the gardeners call the _callus_. This is
the first step toward growth, and it most readily occurs when the
earth is warmer than the air; hence the value of fall planting,
whether of trees or of cuttings, if done before the earth has been
chilled, and hence also, the importance of bottom heat in artificial
propagation. If on the contrary the air be warm and the ground cold,
the buds are often stimulated to burst forth, before the rootlets can
have started. The expanding foliage which so delights the tyro in
propagation, offers an extended surface for evaporation, the contained
juices of the cutting itself are soon exhausted, no adequate supply is
furnished, and the hopeful plant soon withers, or damps off, and
dies.[13] The cutting, like the seed, must have "first the root, then
the blade." The length of time that is allowed for cuttings to prepare
for rooting, if they are designed for spring planting, should be as
great as possible, and the circumstances under which they are kept
should be such as to favor the development of the cells, so that roots
may form freely with the breaking of the buds, if not before.

Root-cuttings should be made in the spring, just before the usual
period of the bursting of the buds in the plant to be propagated. The
tendency to develop buds appears to be then most active. Gentle
bottom heat, though not essential, is still very desirable, and will
conduce to the success of the operation. Some plants are best
propagated by this means, and those too, which never naturally produce
suckers, may often be successfully grown by sections of the roots. All
plants do not equally admit of propagation by division as cuttings,
some woody tissues refusing to emit roots under almost any
circumstances.

Nobody thinks of propagating the stone fruits, such as the cherry,
plum, peach, or apricot, by attempting to plant cuttings, and yet some
of these will emit roots very freely, as we may often observe when the
shoots or trimmings are used as supports for plants in the
green-house. The plum tree is exceedingly apt to form new roots when
planted too deeply, and upon this fact depends the success or failure
of the finer varieties when worked upon certain varieties of the wild
stock. If the young trees are earthed up in the nursery, and set
rather deeply in the orchard, they will soon establish a good set of
roots of their own, emitted above the junction of the scion and stock,
which is very preferable to the imperfect union and consequent
enlargement that often results from using uncongenial stocks. The
raspberry and blackberry do not grow so well from cuttings of the
wood, which is always biennial in this genus, as they do from
root-cuttings.

In some parts of the country, peaches are mainly produced, or the
favorite varieties are multiplied, by planting the sprouts that come
from the base of the trunk of the trees; these have little or no roots
when taken off with the mattock, but they soon establish themselves
and make good trees, bearing fruit like their parents, in soils and
climate that are well adapted to this fruit.

Refined and scientific horticulture has been extensively applied to
the multiplication of the grape, which is now produced in immense
numbers, from single eyes, or buds. Formerly our vineyards were formed
by planting long cuttings at once in the field in the stations to be
occupied by the vines, or by setting them first in a nursery, whence
they were transplanted to the vineyard, when one or two years old.
Only the most refractory kinds, which would not grow readily in the
field, or such as were yet rare, were propagated from cuttings, by
using the single eye and artificial bottom heat. Now, however, the
appliances of our propagators are called upon for the production of
grape-vines by the million, and they find it advisable to multiply all
the varieties in this manner. The propagation of the grape by using
single eyes affords the most beautiful illustration of the subject of
the individuality of buds, and though denounced by some as an
unnatural, steam-forcing process, it is really an evidence of the
advance of horticulture, since every step is supported by a
philosophical reason, and the whole process, to be successful, is
dependent upon the application to practice of well established
scientific truths.

    [Illustration: Fig. 1.--FRENCH AND COMMON MODES OF SETTING
    CUTTINGS.]

It has already been stated that the first effect of cell-growth upon a
cutting, is the production of a callus. This callus may form upon any
cut surface, or even where the bark has been abraded. It is the first
effort of nature to repair an injury by the reproduction of new parts;
it is most generally found at the base of the cutting, but under
favorable circumstances, it will be seen also at the upper end of the
shoot if this has been placed in contact with the earth. Cuttings will
sometimes be set up-side down, when we find the callus upon the
smaller end, and roots will be emitted from that portion whence we
should have expected to see the branches issue. Upon this fact, and to
multiply the chances of living, has been based the French method, as
it is called, or that of inserting both ends of the cuttings. The
common mode, (fig. 1), is to set the cuttings in a slanting direction
in the ground, so placed that the upper eye or bud only shall reach
the surface. Formerly there was a preference for long cuttings, and
these were often made eighteen inches or more in length. The practice
with most of our cultivators has been modified in this particular, and
they have reduced the length of the slips to six and eight inches, so
as to have in grape wood about three or four eyes. Some have gone
still further, and use but two, even for out-door planting of the
grape, and some have been very successful when using but a single
joint. The Germans have advocated longer cuttings, upon the theory
that there was a retroaction in the pith of the internodes and in all
the buds of the cutting, upon the lower point, enabling it to push
roots more strongly from a long than from a short cutting. This
theory has for its support the fact, that there is in such a cutting a
larger amount of organizable matter to be developed into the new parts
to be produced, and certainly, if neglected, short cuttings will be
very apt to suffer from drought, but in practice, it is found that the
short cutting plants have better roots, which are near the surface,
and even those plants, grown from single eyes, are better burnished
than long cuttings produced upon the old plan, which placed the roots
deep in the soil.

    [Illustration: Fig. 2.--ONE-EYE CUTTINGS OF THE GRAPE.]

There are various methods of preparing the single-eye cuttings, some
of which are represented in fig. 2.

Among our cultivated fruits there is but a limited number that need to
be propagated by cuttings, though, where it becomes necessary, many of
them may be grown in this manner, to which procedure there are no
serious objections, though there are some of a theoretical nature. The
currant and the gooseberry are increased almost exclusively from
cuttings, they strike root very readily, and are multiplied to any
extent; their seeds are sown only to produce new varieties. The grape
is propagated very extensively by cuttings; the slips are often
planted in the field and in the stations where the vines are wanted
for the vineyard; but some varieties are so unsatisfactory in their
results, that other more elaborate and scientific means must be taken
for their propagation. Among the larger fruits, those constituting our
trees, we do not depend upon cuttings, except in the quince, which is
not only grown for its fruit, but is also largely produced as a stock
for the dwarfed pear, and is extensively propagated from cuttings. The
Paradise apple, a dwarf stock, is multiplied in the same way. Pears
and apples may be grown from cuttings, but this plan is not pursued
with them to any extent. Those that are root-grafted, or budded very
low, especially the pear on quince stocks, will often produce roots if
favorably situated, but there is a great difference in varieties, some
rarely produce a root, while others are very prone to do it; from
observations of this fact, a new phase of dwarf-pear culture has been
inaugurated.


SUCKERS.--One of the simplest methods of multiplying varieties
consists of increasing and encouraging the suckers thrown up by the
roots; these are separated and set out for trees. We have been told by
some physiologists that there was an absolute difference in structure
between the root and the stem, that they could not be substituted the
one for the other; and yet the oft quoted marvel of the tree which was
planted upside down, and which produced flowers and leaves from its
roots, while its branches emitted fibres, and became true roots, is
familiar to every one. Here, as in other cases, our teachers have led
us into error by attempting to trace analogy with animal anatomy and
physiology, and by directing our attention to the circulation of
plants, as though they, like the higher animals, possessed true
arterial and venous currents of circulating fluids. The cell
circulation is quite a different affair, and can be conducted in
either direction, as every gardener knows who has ever layered a
plant, or set a cutting upside down. So with the roots--they are but
downward extensions of the stem; under ordinary circumstances they
have no need for buds, but these may be, and often are developed, when
the necessity for their presence arises. Buds do exist on roots,
especially upon those that are horizontal and near the surface, and
from them freely spring suckers, which are as much parts of the parent
tree as its branches, and may be planted with entire certainty of
obtaining the same fruit, just as the twigs when used as cuttings, or
scions, when grafted, will produce similar results.

Whole orchards are planted, in some sections of the country, with the
suckers from old trees; apples, pears, plums, and even peaches, as
well as raspberries and blackberries, are multiplied in this primitive
way. There are some varieties of apples that have been so propagated
for half a century, and extended for hundreds of miles in this way by
the pioneer emigrants, without ever having been grafted, until their
merits have at length accidentally become known to the Pomological
Societies and nurserymen, when the propagation of them by grafting
soon supercedes the more primitive method. Sucker trees are objected
to upon the grounds that they are not healthy and thrifty, that they
do not have good roots. Inherent disease of the parent tree will of
course be transmitted with its other peculiarities, but I cannot
imagine that this would be any more likely to occur in a sucker than
in a layer, or cutting, or graft. As to the roots, they may be more
developed upon one side than another in the young tree, and this state
of things may continue in the adult; we often observe the same
condition in the stumps of the monarchs of our forests, which were
never suspected in the day of their glory and pride of having such a
fault. But such a condition of roots is not essential to the sucker,
which may be made to have as fine a system of lateral roots, and as
evenly and regularly distributed as those of a seedling tree. Another
objection to this mode of propagation has much truth and some force;
that is, that suckers are very apt to produce suckers again. This is
particularly the case with the Morello cherry, which is a favorite
stock, upon which to work many of the choice varieties. As an offset
to this it may be urged, that the small fibrous roots, which are
supposed to conduce to early fruitfulness, abound in trees propagated
by this means, and this may be the reason why the fruit trees that
have been thus multiplied, are very generally remarkable for their
precocious fruiting. Some of the apples that have been long increased
in this manner, bear so early, and so bountifully, as to prevent them
from ever forming very large trees; they often have a stunted
appearance, and not infrequently present a peculiar inequality upon
the bark, portions being swollen or enlarged like warts--from which,
in some cases, it is easy to force out shoots or sprouts; they are
indeed true gemmules like those of the old olive trees, and like them
might be used for the propagation of the variety; a similar condition,
no doubt, exists in the roots, whence the tendency to sucker. The
common Morello cherry; the Damson; the Chickasas, and other varieties
of plum; the blackberry, and many raspberries, are multiplied almost
exclusively in a similar manner.


LAYERS are portions of the branches of a plant that have been induced
to throw out roots, and which can thus set up an independent existence
if removed from the parent tree. This mode of propagation is a very
natural one, and was probably an accidental discovery. In its traits,
it is the reverse of the mode we have just been considering. Here the
branch emits roots, instead of the root emitting branches, as in the
case of the sucker. Layering is frequently resorted to as a mode of
propagation, it is very simple, easily performed, and, with some
species, very certain in its results. Some plants will root readily if
merely placed in contact with the ground, or very slightly covered
with soil; others require some artificial interference, such as
ringing, or twisting, or slitting. The raspberry, known as the _Rubus
occidentalis_ or Black-cap, belongs to the first class, and it even
places itself in contact with the soil by recurving its branches so as
to bring the tips to the earth, where they strike root, and make new
plants. The grape comes under the second category, needing only a
little assistance, and it is multiplied to a considerable extent in
this manner. In the spring, the vines are laid out in a little shallow
trench, and pegged down closely; as the buds burst, they throw up
shoots which are trained vertically by tying them to sticks, and as
soon as these shoots have acquired a certain degree of maturity and
firmness, the mellow earth is drawn up to them and they emit a
beautiful system of roots, and by the fall they form very fine plants,
(fig. 3). The layered branch is then taken up and the several plants
are separated, when it will be found that the best roots are chiefly
from the lower joints of the new wood, rather than from the old canes
that were laid down in the spring.

    [Illustration: Fig. 3.--PROPAGATING THE GRAPE BY LAYERING.]

    [Illustration: Fig. 4.--LAYERING THE QUINCE.]

    [Illustration: Fig. 5.--STOOL LAYERING THE QUINCE.]

Quinces are considerably increased by a sort of layering, as the twigs
emit roots very freely; they are often bent down, slightly twisted, or
not, as the case may be, and covered with mellow soil, when they
readily emit roots, become firmly established, and may be set out by
themselves, (fig. 4). There is, however, another method of layering,
much practiced in the multiplication of the quince; that called
propagation by stools. The plants are set in open rows, four feet
wide, and three or four feet apart in the rows; they should be so
planted as to stand below the general surface, that is in trenches.
When cut off at the ground in the spring, they throw up a great number
of shoots, and the earth is gradually worked up to these to encourage
their rooting, (see figure 5), which is often sufficient for removal
the first season; if, on inspection, the roots are not found to be
sufficiently large or abundant, the earthing is continued until the
autumn of the next year, when they are removed, the stools trimmed of
their lower roots, and reset in new trenches. The plants, thus raised
from stools, are cut back severely, and are then ready to set out in
nursery rows for budding. With the quince, cultivated in this manner,
nothing is required but to accumulate the mellow earth about the
shoots; but in many plants it is necessary to notch the wood by
splitting, or cutting it for an inch or two, (as in fig. 6), making a
tongue that separates from the lower portion of the shoot, and from
which the roots are emitted. This slit should be commenced just below
a bud, and the knife is drawn upward, cutting halfway through the
wood. If commenced at one side instead of at the depending portion,
the tongue is more sure to be separated from the stock, to which it
might otherwise reunite. To insure rooting, some persons insert a
little stick or chip between the separated portions, to prevent a
re-union of the parts. The shoot, after being notched, is fastened
down, and fine soil or compost is brought about it to encourage the
development of roots. Few of the hard wooded fruit trees have been
extensively propagated by means of layers; they might be so produced,
but it has not been found profitable nor necessary.

    [Illustration: Fig. 6.--MANNER OF CUTTING AND PEGGING DOWN A
    LAYER.]

A very common opinion prevails that layering exhausts the mother
plant, or vine, which is used in this mode of propagating. If properly
conducted, there is no reason why this should be; but if the whole top
of any plant is bent down and made to take root, and to form
independent roots, there can be little or no return from the branches
to the original stock to strengthen it. A certain amount of healthy
growing wood should always be left in its natural position, and no
danger to the plant need be apprehended.

The wood growth of the strawberry, when allowed to take its natural
bent, is directed into the stolons or runners, which form natural
layers. Their production detracts from the central wood-growth of the
plant, and exhausts its strength to such a degree, that it often dies,
whereas, by a constant removal of the runners, as fast as they appear,
we practice a sort of summer pruning or pinching, which results in the
production of a large branching stool, with many points or centers for
the production of foliage and flowers, and thus insure the greatest
abundance of fruit. The strawberry, like one species of the raspberry,
and many other of our native plants, offers illustrations of natural
layering.


SEEDS.--The most common as well as the most natural mode of
multiplying the individual plants of most of our fruit trees, is by
sowing the seed; from this source we procure stocks upon which are
worked, by budding or grafting, the several varieties we may desire to
propagate. As an illustration of this process, I propose to speak of
apple seedlings.

The almost universal means of increasing the number of apple trees, is
by sowing the seed. This is generally selected and separated from the
fresh pomace left on the press in cider-making. The old and slow
process of hand-washing has given way, in this age of labor-saving
machinery, to more economical methods. The most approved apparatus is
constructed upon the principle of separating the seeds from the pulp
by means of their greater specific gravity; it is, indeed, much like a
gold washer, being a series of boxes or troughs through which a
current of water is made to flow; this carries the lighter portions
away from the seeds, the contents of the boxes being agitated from
time to time. At the close of the process, the clean seed is found in
the bottoms of the boxes, whence it is removed and carefully dried, by
putting it in an airy place, and stirring it frequently to prevent
mildew and fermentation. Well prepared seed is plump and bright, and
should feel cold to the hand. When the pips are broken, they should be
white and clear within; but the best test of their quality, is to
sprout a portion, and count the plants produced by a given number of
seeds.


SOWING.--The seeds may be put into the ground, either in the fall, or
spring. The soil having been well prepared, and deeply pulverized, is
thrown up in beds a few feet wide, and the seed sown in close drills
across; or without the beds, it may be sown in broad drills, by hand,
or with a machine, the rows at such a distance as to allow of culture
by horse-power. It is desirable, in either case, to get an early start
and a good stand; the weeds must be kept under from the very first,
and not allowed to have the mastery for a single day. Thorough culture
during the season, upon a deeply tilled soil, of such a character as
to retain moisture, will be found highly advantageous in the
production of this crop, and will insure immunity from leaf-blight and
other adversities. Some recommend sprouting the seed a little before
planting. If it have been kept during the winter mixed with its bulk
of sand, which is a good plan, the whole may be subjected to a gentle
heat as in a hot-bed, for a few days, just before planting. During
this time the mass must be stirred and turned every day, to prevent
fermentation and to secure an even start. Whenever the germ makes its
appearance at the points of the seeds, which is called _pipping_, the
sowing must begin, and should be done as quickly as possible; the
covering is to be slight, and the earth should be friable and not
disposed to bake. The depth at which the apple seed is to be covered
will depend upon the present and prospective state of the weather,
lighter if moist, heavier if dry, for a continued drouth might be
fatal to sprouted seed, if it were planted too near the surface; but
when the weather is not dry, it is advised that the shallower the seed
is sown, the better. The objection has been made to sprouting, that if
the process have advanced too far, the seedlings will be apt to have a
crook at or near the collar, instead of the straight fusiform
appearance they should possess when presented to the grafter.

These seedlings furnish the stocks upon which to work the finer
varieties of the apple. They are taken up in the autumn with their
long clean roots, which are often longer than their tops, the leaves
are stripped off, and they are assorted; the larger are packed away in
earth or saw-dust in the grafting department, or heeled-in out of
doors, and covered in such a way as to be accessible at any time they
may be needed during the winter. The smaller stocks are heeled-in for
spring planting in nursery rows for budding, or they may be left in
the original rows for another year's growth as seedlings. If the
plants have been well grown and not too thick, so that the majority
are of sufficient size, it will be better to take them all up at once
and assort them as just indicated, otherwise the largest only may be
drawn separately when the ground is soft with autumnal rains, leaving
the smaller seedlings for another year's growth. In assorting and
selling the stocks, nurserymen make about three classes. The very
largest, as thick as a lead-pencil, are called extra, or two-year
old, and command a higher price. The next size, called 1st class
stocks, are large enough for co-aptation to the average scions, and
long enough to make two cuts each for grafting; and those that fall
below this requisition are considered second class, and are either
thrown aside or set out for budding, and for stock or collar-grafting
in the rows.


PROPAGATION.--SECTION II.--GRAFTING.

  A MODIFICATION OF CUTTINGS. SUCCESS DEPENDANT UPON CELL-GROWTH.
    FORMING A UNION WITH THE STOCK. LIMITS TO GRAFTING DEPENDANT
    UPON THE ANATOMY OF THE PLANT. PHYSIOLOGICAL BOUNDS. SUCCESS
    IS IN PROPORTION TO THE AFFINITY. SEVERAL SPECIES AS STOCKS.
    DISTINCT GENERA. NARROW LIMITS. REQUISITES. EFFECTS OF
    UNCONGENIAL STOCKS. NATURAL GRAFTING IS INARCHING. GRAFTING BY
    APPROACH. VARIOUS METHODS OF GRAFTING. WHIP, CLEFT, SADDLE,
    SIDE, ETC. ILLUSTRATIONS. TYING, WAXING, ETC. RE-GRAFTING OLD
    ORCHARDS. RENEW SUCCESSIVE PORTIONS OF THE TREE; TOP FIRST.
    GRAFTING MACHINES. ROOT-GRAFTING. PREPARATION OF THE SCIONS. OF
    THE ROOTS. PRESERVATION OF THE GRAFTS. DIVISION OF LABOR.
    DIFFERENT PORTIONS OR SECTIONS OF THE ROOTS. STOCK-GRAFTING.
    GRAFTING-WAX. SEASONS FOR. PROLONGED. SELECTION OF SCIONS. TIME
    FOR CUTTING. MODE OF PRESERVING. TREATMENT OF GRAFTS.

Grafting is but a modification of propagation by cuttings. The scion
is a cutting of the variety we wish to propagate, which, instead of
being committed to the ground to emit its own roots, is placed in
contact with tissues of a nature similar to its own, through which it
is to form a connection with the roots and the soil. The success of
the operation depends upon the formative cell in this instance also,
as in the cutting; new cells are formed upon the cut surface, and the
intercommunication takes place through them. Hence we have anatomical
limits to grafting; there are physiological bounds beyond which we
cannot pass, in our combinations of scion and stock. Our success is in
the direct ratio of the affinity that exists between them; thus apple
grows best on apple, and even among these we find the _closest union_
and the best results, where there is a similarity between the style of
growth, and probably in the character of the cells.

We say, as a general rule, that stone fruits must be grafted upon
stone fruits, those bearing seeds, upon seed fruit; but there are
limits even here which confine us upon one hand, and give us more
latitude upon the other. Thus the cherry may be worked upon the wild
cherry (_Prunus Virginiana_) but it forms a very poor union; the pear
will grow upon the thorn, which has a very different seed, but the
union is very imperfect and the tree is short-lived; the apple would
appear to be much nearer of kin, since it belongs to the same genus,
but though the pear will grow vigorously upon this stock, it is no
more permanent than upon the thorn: either of them will answer when
grafted low, or in the root, to start the cutting, as the scion may
then be considered, and to sustain it until it shall have supplied
itself with roots. In top-grafting the pear upon a tree of either
species, it is found essential to success, and it conduces to the
greater durability of the tree, for some branches of the original
stock to be left intact to secure the circulation of the trunk, as the
union of the dissimilar cells is so imperfect that it does not furnish
sufficient vent for the sap. In the case of the cherry we find that
the varieties appear to have a greater affinity for those of their
own race; thus the Dukes and Morellos do well when grafted upon the
Morello stocks, whereas the Hearts and Bigarreau sorts do not make a
good union upon these stocks, but prefer the Mazzard, which has a
freer growth more like their own. Most varieties will do well upon the
Mahaleb stock, which is used as a means of dwarfing this fruit, though
not a dwarf. Upon the wild cherry, which belongs to quite a different
section of the genus, the cultivated varieties will grow, but they
form a very imperfect union.

The peach may be worked upon the plum stock, and is claimed to be
somewhat dwarfed by it, and to produce superior fruit. This stock is
more congenial to the apricot, which is frequently propagated upon it.
Both plums and apricots may be worked upon the peach stock, and they
will grow very vigorously, as they will upon the wild plum, but they
soon over-grow, and are very apt to break off. When either of these
species is used as a stock for the plum or apricot, they should be
considered merely as a nursing mother, like the apple or thorn to the
pear, which may be wanted to help the cutting until it shall be
prepared to stand alone, and feed itself from its own roots. In other
words, they should be grafted, _not budded_, into these uncongenial
stocks, and the operation should be performed in the collar or below
it, in the root, so that the growing scion may be earthed up, and
encouraged to furnish itself with a good system of roots of its own.
The success will then depend upon the ability of the scion to emit
roots freely.

We must never forget that in grafting, we are confined to very narrow
limits. Our scion must be of a similar nature with the stock, each
must have cells of a similar character, capable of transmitting their
nutritious fluids from one to the other. We must recollect likewise,
that the parts must be so co-apted that the cells of wood growth shall
be brought into as close connection as possible, in both scion and
stock; these cells are found in the layer, called the cambium, which
is between the wood and the bark. The crude sap from below will often
pass from cell to cell, when the elaborated sap of the cells in the
scion is wholly unfitted for the formation of wood cells in the stock
below it; of course the union in such a case must be very imperfect,
and the product of such a grafting will be subject to accident, and
will be short-lived, though the result in fruit, while the union
continues, may be very precocious, abundant, and of superior flavor.

Natural grafting may often be observed by the student of nature when
wandering among his favorites of the sylvan shades. There can be no
doubt that the first hint was thus communicated to the early
gardeners. In nature we always find the grafting to be inarching, or
grafting by approach; two limbs or even two trees approximating
closely, have abraded one another, and have afterward united their
tissues most firmly together. This is generally a union of two trees
of the same variety or species; but such is not always the case;
sometimes trees of very dissimilar natures unite in this manner, but
when we examine them we find only a dove-tailing, only a mechanical
union, but no vital action subsists between them. The ancients give us
some fancy sketches of the unions by grafting of very dissimilar
trees, and some moderns who have no higher claim to poetry than their
romancing, tell us that we may graft the peach upon the Willow and
Buttonwood, and form other equally impossible unions.

The different methods of performing the operation of grafting vary
with the character and size, and condition of the stocks to be worked;
thus we have splice grafting, whip, cleft, saddle, and side grafting
with modifications, and also grafting by approach, which is generally
called inarching--though sometimes also practiced where we desire to
renew the roots of a tree that are unhealthy, or to restore those that
have been removed by accident or by the erosion of some rodent
animals.

    [Illustration: Fig. 7.]


SPLICE GRAFTING is the simplest process, and is applicable only where
the size of the stock and of the scion correspond pretty nearly; the
two are cut with a sloping curve, each of which being made at the same
angle, will coincide with the other when they are applied together, as
represented in the engraving, fig. 7.

    [Illustration: Fig. 8.--WHIP GRAFTING.]


WHIP GRAFTING is a modification of the above. Each portion is cut in a
sloping manner as in the splice grafting, but each is also split with
a thin-bladed knife, as represented in fig. 8. The object in this is
to give a firmer union to the two portions, and also to present a more
extended surface for the effusion of the new cell tissue that is to
form the bond of union in cementing them together. In both these
methods, but especially in the first, the parts must be held together
in co-aptation by some kind of bandage; this is generally composed of
grafting wax, spread upon cloth or paper, or even, as now extensively
practiced, upon fine thread. Cotton yarn _No_. 3 is drawn through
melted grafting wax, and as it cools, it is wound upon a reel at the
other side of the room, whence it is drawn as wanted by the grafter or
tyer. Tying or wrapping is always a good precaution, and when the
splice or cleft graft is not very close, it becomes necessary; but
thousands of grafts will unite equally well where the parts are
covered with earth, without any such appliance.

    [Illustration: Fig. 9.--DIFFERENT STEPS IN CLEFT GRAFTING. _A_,
    SCION PREPARED FOR SETTING. _B_, THE CLEFT OPENED BY A WEDGE.
    _C_, THE SCION INSERTED. _D_, SECTION OF STOCK AND SCION TO SHOW
    THE CO-APTATION OF THE PARTS OF THE TWO.]

    [Illustration: Fig. 10.--CLEFT GRAFTING WITH BOTH SCIONS
    INCLINED INWARD.]

CLEFT GRAFTING is generally done when the stock is larger than the
scion, and also where the operation is performed at a point above the
ground. The stock is split downward, after having been cut off at the
point where the grafting is to be done. The knife should be sharp, and
the bark should be cut through first, to avoid its being torn, and so
that the sides of the cleft shall be smooth. A wedge is inserted to
keep the cleft open for the insertion of the scion, which is cut on
each side like a fine wedge; but the two planes not being parallel,
the bark will be left on one side to the very point of the wedge,
while on the other it will be removed a part of the way, making a
feather edge, _A_, fig. 9. The object of this is to have the pressure
of the cleft greatest upon the outer side, where the union is to be
effected. It is well to have a bud on the strip of bark left between
the two cuts used in forming the graft, this should be near the top of
the cleft. One or two grafts may be inserted into a cleft, or more
clefts may be made, in large stocks, or in re-grafting the large limbs
of an old tree, but usually one is sufficient to leave growing; and in
the young tree, only one should ever be allowed to remain. When the
scion is nicely set into the cleft, so that the inner bark of the
stock and graft shall coincide, or rather cross a very little, (see
fig. 10,) the wedge, whether of hard wood, or of iron, should be
gently withdrawn, and then the elasticity of the stock will hold the
scion firmly to its place; this pressure should not be too severe. In
this kind of grafting, if the pressure be sufficiently firm, and if
the operation have been performed below the surface of the ground, it
may not be necessary to make any other application than to press the
moist earth about the parts, and cover all but the top of the graft
with soil, and place a stick to indicate the plant and protect it from
injury. If, on the contrary, the pressure of the cleft be not
sufficient to hold the scion firmly, as in small stocks, the graft
must be tied. For this a piece of bass matting, or cotton twine, may
be used; and if the operation has been performed above ground, the
whole must be covered with grafting wax, applied, either hot with a
brush, or cold, after having been worked with the hands, or by
wrapping with strips of muslin or paper previously spread with the
wax. In old times grafting clay was used, and applied with the hands
as a lump around the junction; but this disagreeable and clumsy
appliance has given way to more elegant and convenient arrangements.

    [Illustration: Fig. 11--SIDE GRAFTING.]

    [Illustration: Fig. 12--SIDE GRAFTING--THE STOCK NOT CUT BACK.]

    [Illustration: Fig. 13.--TWO FORMS OF SIDE GRAFTING.--_A_, _B_,
    THE SCION AND STOCK FOR THE RICHARD SIDE GRAFT. _C_, STOCK FOR
    THE GIRARDIN SIDE GRAFT. _D_, SCION, AND _E_, FRUIT BUD FOR THE
    SAME.]


SIDE GRAFTING is performed in two ways. In one it is a modification of
cleft grafting in which there is no cleft, but the bark is started
from the wood, and the scion, cut as shown in figure 11, is pressed
down between the wood and bark. This can only be done late in the
spring, after the sap has begun to flow in the stock, so that the bark
will run; it is indeed more like budding than grafting. The other
modification is done without cutting off the stock. The knife is
applied to the side of a stock of medium size, and a cut is made
downward and extending to one-third the diameter, fig. 12; the scion
is cut as for cleft grafting, and inserted so as to have the parts
well co-apted, and then secured as usual. This plan is useful where
there is danger of too free a flow of sap from the roots. Two other
kinds of side graft are shown in fig. 13. The left-hand figures show
the Richard side graft, in which an arched branch, _A_, is used. This
is inserted under the bark of the stock, _B_; above the graft an
incision is made in the stock down to the wood, to arrest the flow of
sap. After the insertion, the wound is covered with grafting wax. The
Girardin side graft is illustrated at the three right-hand figures. A
fruit bud, _E_, or a graft with a terminal fruit bud, _D_, is inserted
under the bark of the stock, _C_, in August, or whenever suitable buds
can be obtained and the bark will run. The wound is tied and covered
with wax, as before. The object of this grafting is to secure
immediate fruitage. Another kind of side grafting consists in plunging
a dirk-shaped knife directly through the tree, inclining the point
downward, into this opening the graft is inserted; the object being to
establish a limb on a naked portion of the trunk.

    [Illustration: Fig. 14.--SADDLE GRAFTING.]


SADDLE GRAFTING is used only with stocks of small size; it is
performed by making a double slope upon the stock, and by opening a
corresponding space in the graft, by cutting two slopes in the scion,
from below upwards, so that they shall meet in the centre, as seen in
_fig._ 14. Some merely split the scion.


GRAFTING BY APPROACH, or as it is generally termed, _inarching_, is
often practiced where there is difficulty in making the scion unite
with the stock; it is not often needed in the culture of our orchard
fruits, but may be here described. The stock upon which we wish to
graft the scion, must be planted near the variety or species to be
increased. A small twig of the latter, which can be brought close to
the stock, is selected for the operation; a slice of bark and wood is
then removed from the twig, and another of equal size from the stock,
so managed, that these cut surfaces can be brought together and
secured in that position until they have united, after which the twig,
that has been used as a scion, is cut from its parent tree, and the
top of the stock is carefully reduced until the scion has sufficiently
developed itself to act as the top of the ingrafted tree, which may
afterward be transplanted to its proper station.

A modification of this grafting by approach, is, however, sometimes of
great service, where we have a valuable tree that has suffered from
disease in the roots, or from injury to them. It consists in planting
some thrifty young stocks, with good roots, about the base of the
tree, after having prepared the ground by thorough digging, and by the
addition of good soil if necessary. These stocks are then inserted
upwards into the healthy portion of the trunk, by the process of side
grafting reversed or inverted, or by the usual method of inarching.


RING GRAFTING OR BARK GRAFTING is not much used, and in small stocks
it is rather a kind of budding, for then a ring of bark is removed at
the proper season of year, generally about midsummer, and it is
replaced by a similar ring of bark from a shoot of the same size,
taken from a tree of the variety to be propagated; this ring of bark
must be furnished with a healthy bud. This method has little to
recommend it, and can only be applied when both the stock and the
scion are in a growing condition, so that the bark will run freely;
care also must be exercised to avoid injuring the eye of the bud, in
peeling off the ring. A modification of bark grafting may be applied
with great advantage, however, to an old tree, that has met with an
injury to a portion of its bark. The injured part should be pared
smoothly to the sound bark and wood. This may be done with a sloping
cut, or the edge may be made abrupt and square with a chisel and
mallet; a piece of fresh wood and bark is then to be cut from a
healthy tree and fitted precisely to the fresh wound, and secured in
its place with bandages, and grafting clay or wax is then applied,
thus making what the surgeons would call a sort of taliacotian
operation. Instead of a single piece of wood and bark, a number of
young shoots may be used to make the communication complete; these are
set close together and secured in the usual manner; see fig. 15.

    [Illustration: Fig. 15.--BARK GRAFTING, TO REPAIR AN INJURED
    TREE.]


RE-GRAFTING OLD ORCHARDS.--Old orchards of inferior fruit may be
entirely re-made and re-formed by grafting the limbs with such
varieties as we may desire. A new life is by this process often
infused into the trees, which is due to the very severe pruning which
the trees then receive; they are consequently soon covered with a
vigorous growth of young healthy wood, which replaces the decrepid and
often decaying spray that accumulates in an old orchard, and the fruit
produced for several years by the new growth is not only more
valuable in kind, according to the judgment used in the selection of
grafts, but it is more fair, smooth and healthy, and of better size
than that which was previously furnished by the trees. Certain
varieties are brought at once into bearing when thus top-grafted,
which would have been long in developing their fruitful condition if
planted as nursery trees. Others are always better and finer when so
worked, than on young trees. Some of the finest specimens of the
Northern Spy apple, exhibited at the fairs, have been produced by
grafts inserted into the terminal branches of old bearing trees. There
is a theory held by some orchardists, that the further the junction of
the graft with the stock is removed from the root, the better will be
the fruit. This, however, is not well supported, and the circumstance,
when observed, is probably dependent upon other causes.

In renewing an old orchard by grafting its head, it will not be a good
plan to attempt the whole tree at once; the pruning would be too
severe, and would be followed by a profusion of succulent shoots
breaking out from the large branches, such as are called
water-sprouts. Those who have practiced most, prefer at first, to
remove about one-third of the limbs for grafting, and those should be
selected at the top of the tree. The new growth thus has an open field
for its development, and the lower limbs will be invigorated, while
they tend also to preserve the equilibrium of the tree in a double
sense, physically and physiologically. The next year another third of
the limbs may be grafted, and the remainder the year following, as
practiced by Mr. Geo. Olmstead, of Connecticut, who, on the sixth
year from the first grafting, harvested 28-½ bushels of choice apples
from a single tree that was 75 years old, and which before only
produced inferior fruit. J.J. Thomas recommends, "to give a
well-shaped head to such newly formed trees, and to prevent the
branches from shooting upward in a close body near the centre of the
tree; that the old horizontal boughs should be allowed to extend to a
distance in each direction, while the upright ones should be lopped;"
see fig. 16. The same writer also advises, "instead of cutting off
large branches and grafting them at once, it is better to prune the
top in part, which will cause an emission of vigorous shoots. These
are then budded, or grafted. * * * And as the grafts gradually extend
by growth, the remainder of the top may, by successive excisions, be
entirely removed."

    [Illustration: Fig. 16.--RENEWAL OF THE TOP OF AN OLD TREE.]


GRAFTING IN THE NURSERY is either done at or near the collar of the
stock, or it is performed in-doors upon the roots or sections of
roots of young stocks. The latter may be first described, as it
constitutes the most extensive means of multiplying fruit trees. It is
a sort of machinery, with division of labor, and appliances, that
enable the operators to turn out immense numbers. Machinery has indeed
been applied to the business; we have grafting apparatus to facilitate
the work. The Minkler machine consists of a frame or gauge which
regulates the angle of the slope, which is cut with a broad chisel
that reduces the roots and scions to a condition for putting them
together; by its use an immense number of grafts can be cut, and
another hand binds them together with the waxed thread, without any
tie. Mr. Robey's machine consists of a complicated shears to cut the
slope and tongue at one operation, preparing the pieces for whip
grafting. Mr. S.S. Jackson, of Cincinnati, has also invented an
apparatus for this purpose, which proves to be very useful.


ROOT GRAFTING.--The methods of performing the operation vary somewhat,
but all agree in the object to be attained: the co-aptation of the
scion with a piece of root. Some grafters use only the upper portion
of the root, thinking the original collar of the seedling stock the
only point at which the most perfect and successful union between the
aërial and terrestrial portions of trees should or can be
effected--theoretically this may be very well, but the practice
constantly pursued, in myriads of cases, abundantly proves that the
grafting need not be restricted to this part, and that a perfect union
may be effected at any point of the root, and that this may even be
inverted. The very common practice has been to take two or more cuts
from the root, when it is of sufficient size and length; and though
some of our best propagators restrict themselves to two cuts from
each, others, who have experimented carefully, insist that the third
section will average as well as the others. A lot of trees, worked
especially for a test in this matter, gave the following results.

In 1859 an average lot of roots and scions, about fifty in each lot,
were treated as follows, White Pippin and Willow-leaf being used as
scions:--

White Pippin--No. 1, being on the first cut of the root, had made a
fair growth.

No. 2, being on the second cut, were quite as good or better.

No. 3, being on the third cut, were not quite so good as the others,
the ground being partially shaded by a large tree.

Another, of Willow-leaf--No. 1, on the 3d cut of root, very good
growth.

No. 2, on very slender roots, nearly as good.

No. 3, only 1 inch of root to 1 inch of scion; not so good growth nor
so good a strike, but shaded by a tree.

No. 4, on 2d cut of root, not so good as the third.

No. 5, on average lot, not waxed, as good as any.

No. 6, roots worked upside-down, mostly failed.

D.O. Reeder exhibited some 2-year old apple trees, worked on the root
inverted, they were of very good growth.

For root grafting, thrifty stocks are wanted of one or two years'
growth, the smoother and straighter the roots, the better. These
should be taken up from the seed-bed in the fall, selected, tied in
bundles, and stored in the cellar or cave, or buried in the soil where
they shall be accessible at any time, and where they will be kept
fresh and plump. The roots and scions having been prepared and under
shelter, the work of grafting may proceed at any time during the
winter. The stocks, if not clean, should be washed, and one hand trims
off the side rootlets. The grafter cuts a hundred scions of the
appropriate length, which he puts into a shallow box on the table; he
takes up a stock, cuts the slope near the collar, and a dextrous hand
will at the same time make the sloping cut to receive the first graft
and also the tongue, if that style of grafting is to be done, as is
usually practised. He then picks up a scion, from a lot which himself
or another hand has already prepared with a slope and tongue, and
adapts it to the root, the tongue keeping the two together; a portion
of the root is then cut off with the graft, and the process is
repeated upon the next section. Two or three or more grafts, are thus
made from one seedling root; the length of the sections vary from two
to four inches, according to the fancy of the operator, or of his
employer. Some persons recommend a long scion with a short root, and
others prefer to reverse those terms. The whole root graft should not
be more than six or seven inches long.

When any given number of scions are fitted to the roots, a boy
completes the process of grafting, by applying melted wax with a
brush, in which case they are dropped into water to harden the wax, or
they are wrapped with waxed strips of muslin or paper, or, better
still, they are tied with waxed thread. No. 3 cotton yarn is drawn
through a pan of melted wax, and wound upon a reel placed at the other
side of the room, so that the wax may harden. This waxed thread is a
very convenient tie; the graft being held in the left hand, the thread
is wound about it two or three turns; as the wax causes the bandage
to adhere to itself where it crosses, no knot is needed, and the
thread is broken off with a quick jerk.

In splice grafting, whether performed with any of the machines, or if
the slopes of root and scion be cut with the thin grafting knife, the
tying must be done by the same hand that selects and places the scion
upon the root. This does not admit of the same division of labor, and
the fingers, becoming sticky from the wax, cannot be so nimble, and
are unfit for cutting. When the lot is tied, they are set into the
box, which should be inclined at an angle, and interspersed with earth
or saw-dust; for transportation. Saw-dust, just as it comes from the
mill, neither wet nor dry, is preferred by some as a packing material,
and it has been found very efficacious, excluding and admitting the
air just in the right proportions to prevent desiccation, and to
promote the union, which very soon takes place between the graft and
the root, if the boxes be stored in the cellar. In an ice-house root
grafts have been kept in saw-dust more than a year, and then planted
and grown successfully. The boxes should be deep enough to receive the
whole graft--say from 10 to 12 inches--and then they can be packed
upon one another without injuring the scions; these should be
distinctly marked with the name and number, so as to be ready for
planting out in the spring.

Much discussion has been had upon the merits and demerits, or
disadvantages of root grafting, and much theoretical argument has been
brought against the practice; but beautiful trees are thus made in
immense numbers in the extensive nurseries of our country, and until
better arguments can be produced against the practice, nurserymen
will continue to graft on sections of root, such varieties, as are
suitable for this procedure--especially apples, in a large proportion
of the varieties cultivated, some pears, some peaches, grapes, and
other fruits.

Root grafting is now of almost universal application with the apple.
It has many advantages, which may be summed up as follows: Two or more
plants may be produced from the root of one stock; these may be made
with great rapidity; the work may all be performed in-doors and during
the whole winter season, when nothing can be done outside; they are of
small bulk, and great numbers may be stowed away in little space, they
may be transported to any distance in this condition, and are ready
for planting with the opening of spring, when they may be set in the
nursery rows at once; or, they may be bedded out in a small space and
mulched, to protect them from drouth, and the weeds can easily be kept
under. Another advantage of bedding out the root-grafts is, that they
may be assorted according to their size the next season, when
transplanted into the nursery rows. This very transplanting too is a
great advantage, for the roots will be much improved by the process.

The theoretical objections to root grafts have yielded to sound
philosophy, based on and supported by practical observation. The very
many advantages of this more economical and convenient and agreeable
process, will necessarily sustain root-grafting in this fast age, when
so many millions of trees are needed for the rapidly extending wants
of this nation of tree planters. We may, however, consider some of the
practical objections which have been brought forward against this
plan of multiplying the apple. In our very changeable climate, and
particularly in the North-west, upon the prairies, the cold of winter
often supervenes with great suddenness, after the young trees have
made a prolonged and vigorous growth in the fertile soil, and produces
terrible devastation among those that are there exposed, without
protection of any kind, to the rude blasts of the storm-king: in a
less degree, injury is very frequent with many such late-growing
kinds, at the first access of a severe frost; this is manifested in
the bursting of the bark near the base of the stem. The same thing is
not so often seen in the same varieties, when they have been budded or
stock grafted a foot or more from the ground upon hardy seedling
stocks, hence judicious propagators have selected the "tender"
varieties for this kind of working, and confine their root-grafting to
those less liable to the injury. There are other varieties which do
not readily and promptly form a strong upright growth, so as to be
profitable trees to the nurseryman if root grafted; these are selected
for stock working, either on strong seedlings, or upon hardy upright
sorts that have been root grafted for the purpose of being thus
double-worked. This plan has been pursued to a limited extent only,
but its advantages in the production of good trees of the slender
growing varieties, begin to be appreciated, and as the demand
increases, our intelligent nurserymen will very soon furnish the
requisite supply.

_Planting._--When the weather is fine, and the soil in good condition,
the root-grafts are to be set out with a dibble, by the line; they
should be planted rather deeply, one bud projecting above the surface
of the ground. The culture must be thorough, the plants should be
kept perfectly clean, but it is questionable whether the growth should
be pushed, late in the season; indeed, it is preferable to check the
vegetation at mid-summer. For this purpose it has been recommended to
cease cultivating the soil, or even to sow the ground with a heavy
seeding of oats, so as to check the growth before winter. In good
soils, with good culture, the average hight in the rows will be two
feet, but there is a great difference in the kinds; some will
considerably exceed this hight. Intelligent nurserymen no longer
endeavor to have an excessive growth in the first year, and many
prefer the bedding plan above alluded to.

_Trimming, Pinching, or Heading._--The growth during the first year is
generally a single shoot, sometimes two. If there be a second, it
should be subordinated by pinching off its extremity, never by
trimming it off; indeed, laterals should always be encouraged, and
this will be more and more the case, since the demand for low-headed
trees is increasing, as the laws of physiology are better understood.
A young tree, well furnished with laterals, is always more stocky, and
every way better, though not so tall as that which has been drawn up
to a single stem. To encourage this condition, some advise the
pinching out the terminal bud in the midst of the growing season,
which will cause the swelling and subsequent breaking of the lower
buds, so as to furnish plenty of laterals. If done later in the
season, especially with strong-growing varieties, a branching head may
be formed higher up, during the first season, making very pretty
trees. This is, however, seldom attempted with root-grafts the first
season, though it is very common for collar-grafted trees, and for
buds on strong stocks to make a fine branching growth the first year.
The second season the trees should all be headed-in, and the laterals
spurred-in early in the spring, or in mild weather during the winter,
if the scions are wanted. This method of making stocky plants cannot
be too highly commended, nor can the opposite plan, of trimming off
all the side branches, and even of stripping the leaves from the lower
part of the shoots, during the first summer, be too severely
condemned.


STOCK GRAFTING has many advocates, and for some varieties this plan is
preferable. The union may be effected at any point from the collar
upward. Formerly, the place was selected to suit the convenience of
the grafter, and many old orchards show very plainly where they were
worked, the stock or the scion having overgrown, and it is very
curious that some varieties may be indicated as good feeders of the
stock below them, and the contrary. At present, tree planters are more
fastidious, and object to these irregularities in the stems of their
trees. They will purchase nothing that shows the point of union above
ground, hence the more common use of collar grafting, as it has been
called, or the insertion of the scion at or near the surface of the
ground. Stocks that have been cultivated one or two years in the
nursery row, are selected for this purpose; the earth is removed from
them, they are cut off and grafted as they stand, and with their fine
strong roots undisturbed, the result of one summer's growth is very
satisfactory, making beautiful trees fit for the orchard. Older trees,
especially those with straight clean stems, are often grafted standard
high, so as to produce a fine salable tree at once, or in one season.
This is a very good plan with some of the slender and straggling
varieties, such as are called poor growers, and which are unprofitable
to the nurseryman when propagated in the usual manner. Grafting or
budding upon such stocks is also resorted to very often, when it is
desirable at once to furnish large, or salable trees of new varieties.

In grafting upon a large stock, or upon the tops of an old tree, the
process called cleft grafting is generally used. Here, as in all forms
of this process, the object to be attained, is the co-aptation of the
inner bark of both stock and scion. The latter is held in its place by
the clasping of the former, and is also covered by some material that
is pliant, and which will exclude the air and moisture.

The advantages of stock-grafting are the changing of an old tree from
bad to good fruit, which is produced in a few years; it is also
applicable to large stocks, and produces an immediate result, making
salable trees in one year. It is also desirable for some poor-growing
varieties, which are slow in making a tree from the ground; but it has
its disadvantages also. The nurseryman must wait until his stocks have
been grown one or more years in the nursery, his trees will sometimes
be larger than he desires, they will be apt to have the mark of the
grafting as a blemish upon the stalk sometimes during the life of the
tree; and worse than all, he is restricted to a brief period in the
spring, when he is obliged to perform the operation out of doors, and
often in very unpleasant weather.

As a result of all the discussions upon this subject, it is found that
stock-grafting, whether at the collar or at some distance above the
ground, is still practiced, and has many warm advocates, as a better
means of making the best trees. The only objections are the greater
expense of culture of the stocks, and greater labor in grafting; the
limited period at which the work can be performed, and the exposure of
the workman during its performance, which is often at a stormy season,
and always during a busy portion of the year. The trees too, in the
orchard, are often somewhat deformed by an irregularity of growth, and
have an enlargement either above or below the union, which is
unsightly.

The kind of grafting will depend upon the size of the stocks; splice
and whip-grafting on the smaller, and cleft-grafting on the larger
ones, must be practiced. The waxing may be done by any of the methods
indicated, according to the fancy; but it must always be more
thoroughly done in aerial, than in underground grafting, whether this
be in the collar or upon sections of the root; in the former the whole
of the cut surfaces must be covered, to prevent desiccation by the
winds, or the inroads of insects, or of wet from rains.


WAX.--Various combinations of the materials used in the preparation of
grafting-wax, have been recommended by different operators. The
desideratum being to have a material that shall be sufficiently
pliant, and at the same time firm enough to withstand the elevated
temperatures to which it may be exposed. A mean is preferred, neither
too hard nor too soft, and the proportions of the ingredients are
varied according as it is proposed to use it out of doors, or in the
house, in cold weather or warm.

A favorite recipe, with a practical nurseryman of great experience,
is:

    Rosin, six parts,   }
    Bees-wax, one part, } melted together.
    Tallow, one part,   }

This is to be used warm, when grafting in the house.

For out-door work he used the following:

    Rosin, four or five parts.
    Bees-wax, one and one-half to two parts.
    Linseed oil, one to one and one-half.

This is made into a mass to be applied by hand. A very pleasant and
neat mode of using the wax is to pour it when melted, upon thin muslin
or strong paper, and spread it thin with a spatula. The tissue is then
cut into strips of convenient size. The application to cotton yarn for
root-grafting, has already been mentioned.

The French use the preparation given below, sufficiently warm to be
liquid, but not so hot as to injure the tissues of the tree, and apply
it with a brush:

    Black pitch                     28 parts.
    Burgundy pitch                  28 parts.
    Bees-wax                        16 parts.
    Grease                          14 parts.
    Yellow ochre                    14 parts.
                                   ------------
      Making                       100 parts.[14]

Mr. Du Breuil also refers to Leport's liquid mastic in terms of
commendation, but speaks of it as a secret composition.

Downing recommends melting together:

    Bees-wax                    3 parts.
    Rosin                       3 parts.
    Tallow                      2 parts.

He says, the common wax of the French is

    Pitch                one-half pound.
    Bees-wax             one-half pound.
    Cow-dung             one pound.

To be boiled together, and laid on with a brush, and for using cold or
on strips of muslin, equal parts of tallow, bees-wax, and rosin, some
preferring a little more tallow.

J.J. Thomas, whose practical knowledge is proverbial, recommends for
its cheapness

    Linseed oil              one pint.
    Rosin                    six pounds.
    Bees-wax                 one pound.

Melted together, to be applied warm with a brush, or to be put on
paper or muslin, or worked with wet hands into a mass and drawn out
into ribbons.

The season for grafting is quite a prolonged one, if we include the
period during which it may be done in the house, and the ability we
have of retarding the scions by cold, using ice. It should be done
while the grafts are dormant, which is at any time from the fall of
the leaf until the swelling of the buds. As the grafts would be likely
to suffer from prolonged exposure, out-door grafting is done just
before vegetation commences in the spring, but may be prolonged until
the stocks are in full leaf, by keeping back the scions, in which
case, however, there is more danger to the stock unless a portion of
its foliage is allowed to remain to keep up the circulation; under
these circumstances, too, side-grafting is sometimes used with the
same view.

The stone fruits are worked first; cherries, plums, and peaches, then
pears and apples. With regard to grafting grapes, there is a
diversity of opinion. Some operators prefer very early in the season,
as in February, and others wait until the leaves have appeared upon
the vine to be grafted.


SCIONS OR GRAFTS are to be selected from healthy plants of the variety
we wish to propagate. They should be the growth of the previous year,
of average size, well developed, and with good buds, those having
flower buds are rejected. If the shoots be too strong, they are often
furnished with poor buds, and are more pithy, and therefore they are
more difficult to work and are less likely to grow. Grafts, cut from
young bearing orchards, are the best, and being cut from fruiting
trees, this enables us to be certain as to correctness of the
varieties to be propagated; but they are generally and most rapidly
collected from young nursery trees, and as an orchardist or nurseryman
should be able to judge of all the varieties he cultivates by the
appearance of their growth, foliage, bark, dots, etc., there is little
danger in taking the scions from such untested trees.

_Time for cutting Scions._--The scions may be cut at any time after
the cessation of growth in the autumn, even before the leaves have
fallen, until the buds burst in the spring, always avoiding severely
cold or frosty weather, because of the injury to the tree that results
from cutting at such a time, though the frost may not have injured the
scion. The best nurserymen prefer to cut them in the autumn, before
they can have been injured by cold. They should be carefully packed in
fine earth, sand, or sawdust, and placed in the cellar or cave. The
leaves stripped from them, make a very good packing material; moss is
often used, where it can be obtained, but the best material is
saw-dust. This latter is clean, whereas the sand and soil will dull
the knife. If the scions should have become dry and shriveled, they
may still be revived by placing them in soil that is moderately moist,
not wet--they should not, by any means, be placed in water, but should
be so situated that they may slowly imbibe moisture. When they have
been plumped, they should be examined by cutting into their tissues;
if these be brown, they are useless, but if alive, the fresh cut will
look clear and white, and the knife will pass as freely through them
as when cutting a fresh twig.

The after-treatment of the grafts consists in removing the sprouts
that appear upon the stock below the scion, often in great numbers.
These are called robbers, as they take the sap which should go into
the scion. It is sometimes well to leave a portion of these as an
outlet for excess. When the graft is tardy in its vegetation, and in
late grafting, it is always safest to leave some of these shoots to
direct the circulation to the part, and thus insure a supply to the
newly introduced scion; all should eventually be removed, so as to
leave the graft supreme.

It may sometimes be necessary to tie up the young shoot which pushes
with vigor, and may fall and break with its own weight before the
supporting woody fibre has been deposited; but a much better policy is
to pinch in the tip when but a few inches long, and thus encourage the
swelling and breaking of the lateral buds, and produce a more sturdy
result. This is particularly the case in stock-grafts and in renewing
an orchard by top-grafting.


PROPAGATION.--SECTION III.--BUDDING.

  ADVANTAGES OF. LONG PERIOD FOR. CLAIMS OF GREATER HARDINESS
    EXAMINED. LATE GROWERS APT TO BURST THE BARK. BUD TENDER SORTS.
    STOCKS NOT ALWAYS HARDY. PHILOSOPHY OF BUDDING, LIKE GRAFTING,
    DEPENDS UPON CELL-GROWTH. THE CAMBIUM, OR "PULP". THE BUD, ITS
    INDIVIDUALITY. THOMSON QUOTED. UNION DEPENDS UPON THE BUD.
    SEASON FOR BUDDING. CONDITIONS REQUISITE. SPRING BUDDING.
    CONDITION OF THE BUDS. BUD STICKS. SELECTION OF. THEIR
    TREATMENT. RESTORATION WHEN DRY. THE WEATHER. RAINS TO BE
    AVOIDED. USUAL PERIOD OF GROWTH BY EXTENSION. SUCCESSION OF
    VARIETIES. CHERRY, PLUM, PEAR, APPLE, QUINCE, PEACH. HOW TO DO
    IT. DIFFERENT METHODS. AGE OF STOCKS. PREPARATION OF. THE
    KNIFE. CUTTING THE BUDS. REMOVAL OF THE WOOD. THE AMERICAN
    METHOD. DIVISION OF LABOR TYING. RING BUDDING. PREPARATION OF
    SCIONS FOR EARLY BUDDING. IMPROVEMENTS IN TYING. BAST,
    PREPARATION OF. SUBSTITUTES. NOVEL TIE. WHEN TO LOOSEN THE
    BANDAGE. HOW DONE. INSPECTION OF BUDS. SIGN OF THEIR HAVING
    UNITED. KNIGHT'S TWO BANDAGES. WHY LEAVE THE UPPER ONE LONGER.
    HEADING BACK THE STOCKS. RESUME.


BUDDING, or inoculating, is the insertion of eyes or buds. This is a
favorite method of propagation, which is practiced in the
multiplication of a great variety of fruits. The advantages of budding
consist in the rapidity and facility with which it is performed, and
the certainty of success which attends it. Budding may be done during
a long period of the growing season, upon the different kinds of trees
we have to propagate. Using but a single eye, it is also economical of
the scions, which is a matter of some importance, when we desire to
multiply a new and scarce variety.

It has been claimed on behalf of the process of budding, that trees,
which have been worked in this method, are more hardy and better able
to resist the severity of winter than others of the same varieties,
which have been grafted in the root or collar, and also that budded
trees come sooner into bearing. Their general hardiness will probably
not be at all affected by their manner of propagation; except perhaps,
where there may happen to be a marked difference in the habit of the
stock, such for instance as maturity early in the season, which would
have a tendency to check the late growth of the scion placed upon
it--the supplies of sap being diminished, instead of continuing to
flow into the graft, as it would do from the roots of the cutting or
root-graft of a variety which was inclined to make a late autumnal
growth. Practically, however, this does not have much weight, nor can
we know, in a lot of seedling stocks, which will be the late feeders,
and which will go into an early summer rest.

Certain varieties of our cultivated fruits are found to have a
remarkable tendency to make an extended and very thrifty growth,
which, continuing late into the autumn, would appear to expose the
young trees to a very severe trial upon the access of the first cold
weather, and we often find them very seriously injured under such
circumstances; the bark is frequently split and ruptured for several
inches near the ground. The twigs, still covered with abundant
foliage, are so affected by the frost, that their whole outer surface
is shriveled, and the inner bark and wood are browned; the latter
often becomes permanently blackened, and remains as dead matter in the
centre of the tree, for death does not necessarily ensue. Now
intelligent nurserymen have endeavored to avoid losses from these
causes, by budding such varieties upon strong well-established stocks,
though they are aware that these are not more hardy than some of the
cultivated varieties: a given number of seedling stocks has been found
to suffer as much from the severity of winter, as do a similar amount
of the grafted varieties taken at random.[15] That the serious
difficulty of bark-bursting occurs near the surface of the ground,
does seem to be an argument of some weight in favor of budding or
stock-grafting at a higher point. The earlier fruiting of budded trees
than those which have been root-grafted, does not appear to be a well
established fact, and therefore need not detain us; except to observe
that the stocks, upon which the buds were inserted, might have been
older by some years than the slip of root upon which the graft was
set, so that the fruiting of the former tree should count two or three
or more years further back than from the period of the budding. There
are so many causes which might have contributed toward this result of
earlier bearing, that we should not be too hasty in drawing
conclusions in this matter.

The philosophy of budding is very similar to that of grafting. The
latter process is performed when the plant-life is almost dormant, and
the co-apted parts are ready to take the initiative steps of
vegetation, and to effect their union by means of new adventitious
cells, before the free flow of sap in the growing season. Budding, on
the contrary, is done in the hight of that season and toward its
close, when the plants are full of well matured and highly organized
sap, when the cell circulation is most active, and the union between
the parts is much more immediate than in the graft; were it not so,
indeed, the little shield, with its actively evaporating surface of
young bark, must certainly perish from exposure to a hot dry
atmosphere. The _cambium_, or gelatinous matter, which is discovered
between the bark and the wood when they are separated, is a mass of
organizable cells. Mr. Paxton, using the gardener's expression, calls
it the "pulp." Budding is most successfully performed when this matter
is abundant, for then the vitality of the tree is in greatest degree
of exaltation.

The individuality of the bud was sufficiently argued in the first
section of this chapter, it need not now be again introduced, except
as appropriately to remind us of the fact where the propagation
depends upon this circumstance--the future tree must spring from the
single bud which is inserted. Mr. A.T. Thomson, in his Lectures on the
Elements of Botany, page 396, says:--"The individuality of buds must
have been suspected as early as the discovery of the art of budding,
and it is fully proved by the dissection of plants. * * Budding is
founded on the fact, that the bud, which is a branch in embryo, is a
distinct individual. It is essential that both the bud and the tree
into which it is inserted should not only be analogous in their
character, as in grafting with the scion, but both must be in a state
of growth at the time the operation is performed. The union, however,
depends much more upon the bud than upon the stock--the bud may be
considered a centre of vitality--vegetative action commences in the
bud, and extends to the stock, connecting them together."--"The vital
energy, however, which commences the process of organization in the
bud, is not necessarily confined to the germ, nor distinct from that
which maintains the growth of the entire plant; but it is so connected
with organization, that when this has proceeded a certain length, the
bud may be removed from the parent and attached to another, where it
will become a branch the same as if it had not been removed."

The season for budding has already been indicated in general terms, it
is usually done in mid-summer and the early part of autumn, reference
being had to the condition of the plants to be worked; these should be
in a thrifty growing state, the woody fibre should be pretty well
advanced, but growth by extension must still be active, or the needful
conditions will not be found. The "pulp" must be present between the
bark and the wood of the stock, so that the former can be easily
separated from the latter; in the language of the art, the bark must
"run;" this state of things will soon cease in most stocks, after the
formation of terminal buds on the shoots. The success of spring
budding, however, would appear to indicate that the cambium layer is
formed earlier in the season than is usually supposed; for whenever
the young leaves begin to be developed on the stock, "the bark will
run," and the buds may be inserted with a good prospect of success. In
this case we are obliged to use dormant buds that were formed the
previous year, and we have to exercise care in the preservation of
the scions, to keep them back by the application of cold, until the
time of their insertion.

The condition of the bud is also important to the success of the
operation. The tree from which we cut the scions should be in a
growing state, though this is not so essential as in the case of the
stock, as has been seen in spring budding--still, a degree of activity
is desirable. The young shoot should have perfected its growth to such
an extent as to have deposited its woody fibre, it should not be too
succulent; but the essential condition is, that it should have its
buds well developed. These, as every one knows, are formed in the
axils of the leaves, and, to insure success, they should be plump and
well grown. In those fruits which blossom on wood shoots of the
previous year's growth, as the peach and apricot, the blossom buds
should be avoided; they are easily recognized by their greater size
and plumpness. In cutting scions, or bud-sticks, the most vigorous
shoots should be avoided, they are too soft and pithy; the close
jointed firm shoots, of medium size, are much to be preferred, as they
have well developed buds, which appear to have more vitality. Such
scions are found at the ends of the lateral branches. These need
immediate attention, or they will be lost. The evaporation of their
juices through the leaves would soon cause them to wither and wilt,
and become useless. These appendages are therefore immediately removed
by cutting the petioles from a quarter to half an inch from the scion;
a portion of the stem is thus left as a convenient handle when
inserting the shield, and this also serves afterward as an index to
the condition of the bud. So soon as trimmed of their leaves, the
scions are tied up, and enveloped loosely in a damp cloth, or in
moss, or fresh grass, to exclude them from the air. If they should
become wilted, they must not be put into water, as this injures them;
it is better to sprinkle the cloth and tie them up tightly, or they
may be restored by burying them in moderately moist earth.

The early gardeners were very particular as to the kind of weather
upon which to do their budding. They recommended a cloudy or a showery
day, or the evening, in order to avoid the effects of the hot
sunshine. This might do in a small garden, where the operator could
select his opportunity to bud a few dozen stocks; but even there, wet
weather should be avoided, rather than courted. But in the large
commercial nurseries, where tens of thousands of buds are to be
inserted, there can be no choice of weather; indeed, many nurserymen
prefer bright sunshine and the hottest weather, as they find no
inconvenience arising to the trees from this source. Some even aver
that their success is better under such circumstances, and argue that
the "pulp is richer."

Most trees in their mature state make all their growth by extension or
elongation very early in the season, by one push, as it were; with the
first unfolding of the leaves, comes also the elongation of the twig
that bears them. In most adult trees in a state of nature, there is no
further growth in this way, but the internal changes of the sap
continue to be effected among the cells during the whole period of
their remaining in leaf, during which there is a continual flow of
crude sap absorbed by the roots, and taken up into the organism of the
tree to aid in the perfection of all the various parts, and in the
preparation of the proper juice and the several products peculiar to
the tree, as well as its wood and fruits. When all this is transpiring
within its economy, the tree is said to be in its full flow of sap; at
this stage the young tree is in the best condition for budding, but it
continues also, if well cultivated, to grow by extension for a greater
or shorter portion of the season, and this is essential to the success
of the operation as already stated. After the perfecting of the crop
of fruit, the main work of the tree seems to have been done for the
year, and we often observe, particularly with the summer fruits, that
the trees appear to go to rest after this period, and begin to cast
their foliage. Now, to a certain extent, this is true of the young
trees. The varieties that ripen their fruit early, make their growth
in the nursery in the earlier portion of the summer, they stop
growing, and their terminal bud is formed and is conspicuous at the
top of the shoots. Very soon the supply of sap appears to be
diminished, there is no longer so much activity in the circulation,
the bark cleaves to the wood, it will no longer run, and the season of
budding for those stocks has reached its terminus; hence the
nurseryman must be upon the look-out for the condition of his trees.
Fortunately, those species which have the shortest season, are also
the first to be ready, the first to mature their buds, and they must
be budded first. We may commence with the cherry, though the Mahaleb
stock, when it is used, continues in condition longer than other
varieties, and may be worked late. The plum and pear stocks also
complete their growth at an early period in the season; the apple
continues longer in good condition, and may be worked quite late.
Grapes, if worked in this way, should be attended to about
mid-season, while they are still growing; but quinces and peaches may
be kept in a growing state much later than most other stocks, and can
be budded last of all.

    [Illustration: Fig. 17.--BUDDING, WITH THE WOOD REMOVED. _b_,
    THE INSIDE OF THE SHIELD SHOWING THE BASE OF THE BUD.]


HOW TO DO IT.--The stocks being in a suitable condition as above
described, they should be trimmed of their lateral shoots for a few
inches from the ground. This may be done immediately in advance of the
budder, or it may have been done a few days before the budding. The
stock may be one year old, or two years; after this period they do not
work so well. The usual method is to make a =T= incision through the
bark of the stock, as low down as possible, but in a smooth piece of
the stem; some prefer to insert the shield just below the natural site
of a bud. The knife should be thin and sharp, and if the stock be in
good condition, it will pass through the bark with very little
resistance; but if the stock be too dry, the experienced budder will
detect it by the different feeling communicated through his knife, by
the increased resistance to be overcome in making the cut. The custom
has been to raise the bark by inserting the haft of the budding knife
gently, so as to start the corners of the incision, preparatory to
inserting the bud; but our best budders depend upon the shield
separating the bark as it is introduced. The bud is cut from the
scion by the same knife, which is entered half an inch above the bud,
and drawn downward about one-third the diameter of the scion, and
brought out an equal distance below the bud; this makes the shield, or
bud. The authorities direct that the wood should be removed from the
shield before it is inserted; this is a nice operation, requiring some
dexterity to avoid injuring the base of the bud, which constitutes its
connection with the medulla or pith within the stick. The base of the
bud is represented by _b_, figure 17. Various appliances have been
invented to aid in this separation, some use a piece of quill, others
a kind of gouge; but if the bark run freely on the scion, there will
be little difficulty in separating the wood from the shield with the
fingers alone. All this may be avoided by adopting what is called the
American method of budding, which consists in leaving the wood in the
shield, (fig. 18, _b_) that should be cut thinner, and is then
inserted beneath the bark without any difficulty, and may be made to
fit closely enough for all practical purposes. Like everything else
American, this is a time-saving and labor-saving plan, and therefore
readily adopted by the practical nurseryman, who will insert two
thousand in a day.

    [Illustration: Fig. 18.--AMERICAN BUDDING. _b_, THE BUD WITH THE
    WOOD REMAINING.]

A division of labor is had generally, so far as the tying is
concerned; for this is done by a boy who follows immediately after the
budder, and some of these require two smart boys. S.S. Jackson has
carried this principle of division of labor still further, and, as
appears, with advantage; one hand cuts the shields for another who
inserts them. He never uses the haft of his knife to raise the bark,
but, after having made the longitudinal cut through the bark, he
places the knife in position to make the transverse incision, and as
he cuts the bark, the edge of the blade being inclined downward, the
shield is placed on the stock close above the knife, which is then
still further inclined toward the stock, resting upon the shield as a
fulcrum; thus started, the bark will readily yield to the shield,
which is then pressed down home into its place.

    [Illustration: Fig. 19.--MR. JACKSON'S METHOD OF MAKING THE
    INCISION.]

J.W. Tenbrook, of Indiana, has invented a little instrument with which
he makes the longitudinal and transverse incisions, and raises the
bark, all at one operation, and inserts the bud with the other hand.
On these plans, two persons may work together, one cutting, the other
inserting the buds; these may change work occasionally for rest. In
all cases it is best to have other hands to tie-in the buds, two or
three boys will generally find full occupation behind a smart budder.
It will be apparent that the above processes can only be performed
when the stock is in the most perfect condition of growth, so that the
bark can be pressed away before the bud; a good workman will not
desire to bud under any other circumstances.

In budding, it is found that the upper end of the shield is the last
to adhere to the stock; it needs to be closely applied and pressed by
the bandage, and if too long, so as to project above the transverse
incision, it should be cut off.

    [Illustration: Fig. 20.--STICK OF BUDS.]

Another expedient for facilitating the operation of budding is made
use of by some of the nurserymen who grow peach trees extensively. It
consists in, preparing the stick of buds, as shown in the engraving,
figure 20. A cut is made, with a sharp knife, through the bark, around
each bud, as in the figure. The budder then removes the buds as they
are wanted, with a slight sidewise pull, and has the shield in the
right condition to insert, without the trouble of removing the wood.
When working in this manner, the stick of buds must not be allowed to
dry, and the work must be done at a time when the bark parts with the
greatest ease.

Among the modifications of the process of budding, that, called
ring-budding, fig. 21, may be mentioned, rather as a curiosity
however, though preferred by some, especially for the grape, which is
said to be very easily budded, though we seldom see the operation
practiced.

    [Illustration: Fig. 21.--RING BUDDING.]

Those who are anxious to commence budding early in the season, prepare
the scions they expect to use, by pinching the ends and cutting off a
portion of the leaves; the effect of this check to the wood growth is
to hasten the ripening or development of the buds, which rapidly
swell, preparatory to breaking, in their attempt to reproduce the
foliage that had been removed.


TYING should be done as soon as convenient after the buds have been
inserted; though under very favorable circumstances the bud may adhere
and do well without any bandaging, no one thinks of leaving the work
without carefully tying in the buds, and most budders lay a great deal
of stress upon the necessity for covering the whole shield and cut
with a continuous bandaging, that shall exclude the light, and air,
and moisture. The material most used is bass matting, brought from
Russia, as a covering to the packages of sheet iron for which that
country is famous. This is the inner bark of the _Tilia Europea_, but
our own Bass-wood, _T. Americana_, furnishes an excellent bass, and is
procured by our nurserymen directly from the trees, by stripping the
bark in June, and after it has lain a few days in water, the inner
portion separates easily, is dried, and put away for future use. Those
who have not provided the bass, are content to apply woolen yarn to
tie in the buds; its elasticity adapts it well to the purpose. The
ingenious budder, without bass, often finds a substitute for it, and a
very good tie, in the soft husks of corn ears, the inner husks are
torn into strips and used a little damp, when they are pliant and
easily tied, answering a very good purpose. Many nurserymen, who have
tried the corn-husk, prefer it to all other material, because it saves
them the trouble of removing the bandages, as it decays rapidly, and
yielding to the growth of the stock, it falls off before it cuts the
bark, which a firmer bandage is apt to do.

    [Illustration: Fig. 22.--MR. JACKSON'S MANNER OF TYING THE BUD.]

S.S. Jackson, whose improvements in budding have already been
mentioned, also adopts another in tying. He holds that it is not at
all necessary to hide the bud with the tie, the only requisite being
to retain the parts in contact. He uses No. 3 cotton yarn, cut in
lengths of a few inches, more or less, according to the size of the
stocks; a couple of strands are pulled out from the cut bundles; the
first turn around the stock secures the end of the string by its own
pressure, one turn more is taken below the bud and one or two above
it, when the free end is passed into a cleft made through the bark
above the point where the bud is inserted. This is found to secure the
string sufficiently, and is easily loosened when necessary to relieve
the tension caused by the continued growth, (fig. 22).

All ties should be loosened in the course of a couple of weeks, if the
stocks be growing freely; otherwise they will injure the tree by
strangulation. Sometimes it will be necessary to replace the bandage
to prevent the effects of desiccation upon the bud, this is
particularly the case with the cherry, and other fruits, that are
budded early; but the tie is often left on the stock all winter, as a
sort of protection to the bud. When loosening the ties, the buds are
inspected and their condition ascertained; if they have failed, they
may be replaced, if the stocks continue in a suitable condition. It is
very easy to tell the success of the budding; the portion of the
petiole left upon the shield is a very good index; if the bud has
withered, this will also be brown and will adhere firmly to the
shield; but, on the contrary, the bud and its shield having formed a
union with the stock, the leaf-stalk remains plump, but changes color.
Like a leaf-stem in the autumn, it assumes the tint of ripeness, and
it will separate with a touch, and soon falls off.

The common method of removing the ties is to cut them with a single
stroke of a sharp knife, when the bandage is left to fall off. Mr.
Knight recommended two distinct ligatures, and left the one above the
bud for a longer time uncut. When the buds have not been very fully
developed, and when the stocks are very thrifty, it sometimes happens
that the excessive growth about the incisions made for the insertion
of the bud, completely cover up this little germ of a future tree,
which is then said to be "drowned." Judicious pinching and shortening
of the stock will prevent this effect, but care is needed not to
pursue such treatment too far.

The stocks are generally headed back to within an inch or more of the
bud, just as vegetation starts the next spring; but early set buds may
be headed back so soon as they have taken, and will often make a nice
growth the same season. This, however, is not generally preferred, and
a late start in the growing weather of our autumns is particularly to
be avoided, as the young shoot will not become matured before winter,
and may be lost.

The advantages of propagating by budding may be summed up in the
following remarks, which are presented even at the risk of some
repetition.

This favorite method of multiplying varieties has some advantages over
grafting, and is by many preferred on account of the facility with
which it can be performed, and because it affords a means of
increasing sorts in the nursery that have not been grafted, and of
filling up gaps in the rows where grafts have missed; and it has been
reported, that budded trees of certain varieties were more hardy than
those which had been root-grafted. The objections, if such they can be
called, are, that the period of performing the operation is limited,
and that the young shoots from the buds generally have a curve that
makes a crook or blemish in the tree when it goes from the
nursery--neither of these objections constitute any real difficulty;
on the contrary, the advantages quite over-balance them: as already
suggested, it is a good plan for double-working certain varieties. The
season for budding is at the period when the longitudinal growth of
the stock is nearly completed, and when the wood-forming process is
most active, so that the bark will part most freely from the wood--in
other words, while the stock is still quite active in its circulation,
but has, in a measure, made its growth. The scions used must have so
far completed their growth for the season as to have filled their buds
handsomely, but yet be so young as to allow the wood to part freely
from the bark of the shields when they are cut. Those who desire to
bud early, may accelerate the development of the buds by nipping off
the points of the shoots to be used, this, in a few days, causes the
buds to swell. The season of budding will thus depend upon the high
culture of the nursery, and upon the condition of the trees from which
the scions of buds are to be cut. Budding should never be done unless
the stock is in perfectly good condition, if otherwise, it is labor
lost. The old writers recommended damp, cloudy, or even showery
weather; but under our bright summer skies our large establishments
would never be able to dispose of their work, were they to wait for
such suitable weather. Fortunately it is not found necessary to select
such a season, but the greatest success attends the budding that is
done in fine bright and even hot weather. The scions should be kept
wrapped in a damp cloth, excluded from the rapid evaporation to which
they would be subjected if exposed--this is better than to keep them
in water, which exhausts them by dilution of the sap they contain. The
scions should have their leaves removed, so soon as they are cut from
the tree; this is done with a knife or the thumb nail, leaving a short
piece of the leaf-stalk for convenience when inserting the buds.

Spring budding is sometimes desirable, either to fill up gaps in the
nursery-rows, or to secure varieties, the scions of which may have
been received too late for grafting, or when it is desirable to
multiply them as much as possible, by making every bud grow. When the
operation is to be performed in the spring, the scions must be kept
back, by placing them in the ice-house until the stocks are in full
leaf, when the bark will peel readily, and the buds may be inserted
with a pretty fair prospect of success; of course, the American method
must be used in this case, as the wood and bark of the dormant scion
will not separate.

The stocks should be cut down as early in the spring as the buds begin
to swell, with a sharp knife, applied just above the bud, and on the
same side; the whole upper portion of the stock must be removed by a
clean cut; this is better than to leave a stump of three or four
inches, as is often recommended, as a support to which to tie up the
buds in their tender growth. All shoots from the stock should be
rubbed out while young; this may need repeating a second time.

If the stocks were strong, the buds will make handsome sturdy trees
the first season; the branched form may be assisted by pinching the
points when a few inches high, as recommended with the grafts. Two
year old stocks should make pretty trees, at one year old from the
bud.


PROPAGATION.--SECT. IV.--THE NURSERY.

  APOLOGY. NURSERYMEN NEED NOT BE JEALOUS. SITE AND SOIL. ROOTS
    AFFECTED BY SOIL. FIBROUS ROOTS DESIRABLE. ROOT PRUNING. THE
    PLOW PRUNER. DIGGING TREES. HIGH MANURING. OBJECTIONS. CROWDING
    THE ROWS IS STILL WORSE. PREPARATION OF NURSERY SOIL. DRAINING.
    LAYING OUT. DISTANCES. BEDDING APPLE GRAFTS. MULCHING. THE
    ROLLER AS A CULTIVATOR. LAYING BY TREES FOR WINTER WITH THE
    PLOW. THE SUBSOIL LIFTER. THE PRONGED HOE. THOROUGH PREPARATION
    OF CUTTING BEDS. MANAGEMENT OF CUTTINGS. AUTUMNAL PLANTING.
    WINTER MULCHING. GRAPE CUTTINGS. FALL PLANTING. LONG CUTTINGS.
    SHORT CUTTINGS. TRIMMING. VALUE OF THE LEAVES. STOCKY TREES.
    SIDE BRANCHES. SHORTENING-IN. WHEN TO REMOVE. HEADING-IN THE
    TREES. WHEN TO DO IT. AGE OF TREES FOR PLANTING. MAIDEN TREES.
    DISADVANTAGES OF LARGE TREES. BENEFITED BY ROOT PRUNING. THE
    HOME NURSERY. FIELD'S PLAN. THE NURSERY ORCHARD OF WHITNEY.
    WINTER KILLING. PREVENTION OF BY EARLY RIPENING THE WOOD.
    INJURIOUS ANIMALS. MOLES. MICE. RABBITS. PREVENTIVES. INSECTS.


THE NURSERY.--Be not alarmed, brother nurseryman, think not that all
the arcana of your craft are to be exposed to the public; one small
chapter cannot injure you, even were it wise and proper to retain
knowledge exclusively in the hands of the guild; on the other hand, ye
need not be afraid that one who owes you so much would turn tell-tale,
and expose all your weaknesses to the gaze of the multitude. From my
friends in the craft, the many intelligent men and keen observers, who
have ever been foremost in the ranks of our country's pomologists, no
censure is apprehended for attempting to dash off a few brief
directions for the amateur, or even the nurseryman, who is just
beginning to pursue as a business the pleasant occupation of growing
trees. Any censure from others, if such there be, who would feel
afraid to trust their knowledge to the world, and who might think in
this enlightened age that such a thing as secrets of the trade could
be long retained in their own hands,--any censure, from such a source,
would fall harmless--it is not dreaded. Indeed, though not of the
trade, it would be easy to expose the ignorance that is sure to be
found among those who might claim to be the exclusive conservators of
knowledge, such however is not the object in view, it is rather to
extend useful knowledge, to popularize it and to bring it within the
reach of those who may need it, that this chapter is undertaken; and
the labor is the more willingly entered upon, in the firm conviction
that the more the knowledge of plants and the love for them is
diffused among the masses of our population, the greater will be the
success of those who are engaged as professional nurserymen and
gardeners, who need not fear the competition of amateurs, but should
rather encourage it, upon the score of such persons being and
continuing to be their best customers--if not from any higher and more
noble sentiments of affiliation with men of congenial tastes and
pursuits.


SITE AND SOIL FOR THE NURSERY.--A somewhat elevated position should be
selected for the ground that is to be appropriated for the production
of trees; the surface water should be able to escape rapidly, instead
of standing in the paths, and furrows, and trenches. The fresh air
should be able to blow freely over the young trees, swaying them
about, trying their fibres, and at the same time giving them new
strength and vigor: not that they should be too much exposed to the
rude blasts, as they might be upon the vast savannas of the West,
where a protecting belt of deciduous and evergreen trees, to a
moderate extent, will be found of service, and conducive to the
healthy development of young trees in the nursery. But even the naked
prairie, exposed for miles in every direction, would offer a better
location for the nursery, than a few acres cleared out among the heavy
timber. Here the little trees, if crowded together, must be drawn up
to meet the light, and will be poorly furnished with lateral branches,
and unprepared to meet the rude battle with the elements that awaits
them in their future orchard homes, which, indeed, too often become
rather their graves, into which they are thrust, buried, not planted,
and whence they rise no more, but after a fruitless struggle, dwindle
and die.

A somewhat elevated situation is also valuable, on account of its
greater probable immunity from frost, than a lower level; and this is
often a matter of great importance in the successful cultivation of
fruit trees.

The soil should be a good strong sandy loam, one that contains the
needful elements for the growth of trees, and at the same time has a
composition that will freely permit the passage of water through it,
and be easily worked by the cultivator. Heavy soils, abounding in
clay, are strong; but they are more retentive of water, they require
more labor to keep them in a friable condition, and they are sometimes
objectionable on account of the character of the roots produced in
them. These are less abundantly furnished with fibres, as a general
rule, when the tree has been grown in a stiff clay, than when it has
been produced in a lighter and more porous soil. Mucky soils are too
light, and should not be used for permanent nurseries, though valuable
for seedlings, cuttings, and newly transplanted forest evergreens for
a short period; unless the muck be underlaid by clay, and that it is
near enough to the surface to be reached in the preparation of the
soil, and to become mixed with its staple in cultivating it. Trees,
for the orchard, should never be grown upon a mucky or peaty soil.

The different character of the roots formed by trees growing in
particular soils, should not be overlooked by the propagator, since
much of his reputation as a nurseryman, and the success attendant upon
the labors of his customers, will depend upon the healthy development
of these important organs, which have been called the mouths of
plants. As elsewhere observed, peaty and mucky soils do not produce
roots of a character well adapted to transplanting into upland soil.
Very stiff clays furnish trees with long straggling roots that have
feeble and scattered fibres; such roots do not present themselves in a
good condition, nor are they easily separated from the soil, the
tenacity of which often injures the slender fibrous portions, which
it is desirable to preserve in transplanting. Sandy soils and sandy
loams produce the very best roots, most evenly distributed, and also
most easily preserved and removed when the trees are dug from the
earth.

Much may be done by the intelligent cultivator, in any kind of land,
to make good roots by proper treatment of his soil and trees. A
thorough preparation of the ground, and disintegration of the soil,
will conduce to this result; and thorough culture will maintain the
good condition thus produced. Frequent transplanting will encourage
the production of new roots from the cut ends of those that were
ruptured in digging, and these will be within reach at the next
removal. When taking up young trees, or when setting out seedlings in
the nursery rows, the tap roots, and indeed all long straggling roots,
should be cut back, with a view to producing the same result. When
trees have remained for three or four years in the nursery rows, the
fibres will have extended so far in search of food and moisture, that
in digging them, the best portions of the roots will be left in the
ground, and the young trees will suffer upon being transplanted in
this mutilated condition. Such should be root pruned the season
previous to their removal. This process is performed by removing the
earth on either side of the row, until the roots are exposed, when
they are cut off at from ten inches to a foot, from the tree, and the
earth replaced upon them, the object being the formation of new fibres
that shall be within the reach of the spade when they come to be dug
for the orchard. Another plan for root pruning is, to use a very sharp
spade, which is set down and pressed deeply into the ground, a few
inches from the tree, so as to cut all roots that pass that limit.
This, though a ruder method, is followed by good results.


DIGGING THE TREES, is a process that should be conducted upon very
different principles from those exercised in grubbing a thicket. The
nurseryman wishes to clear his block, but the purchaser hopes to save
his trees, and to have them live, he wants a good share of their roots
with them. No one need expect, however, to have anything like a large
proportion of the roots of a tree removed from the ground; that is out
of the question, unless they have been grown in walled stations,
confining the roots, like those of green-house plants in their
flowerpots. In open culture, they will have spread through the soil in
every direction, and cannot be preserved and removed. Repeated root
pruning will be of the greatest service in furnishing a great many
fine roots within reach; but at the best, a great deal of damage is
necessarily inflicted upon the roots by digging, and the older and
larger the tree, the greater will be the injury, and the smaller the
proportion of roots to the branches.

In digging trees, it is important to remove the soil very carefully on
each side of the row to expose the roots, always holding the spade in
such a position that its side and edge shall be in the direction of a
radius, from the stem of the tree as a centre. Never stand facing the
tree to be dug, but keep it next the elbow, at one side. On finding a
root, withdraw the spade, and try again; and, having ascertained its
direction, endeavor to loosen the outer extremities first. Proceed all
around in this manner, and by gently swaying the trunk, the points of
resistance will be indicated; these should be loosened and freed
until all appear to be free, when, by grasping the collar as low down
as possible, the tree is to be lifted gently and freed from the soil;
no force should be used beyond that which is absolutely necessary, to
lift the plant from its bed.

    [Illustration: Fig. 23.--HARKNESS' TREE DIGGER.]

In the great commercial nurseries, all this care cannot be exercised;
everything must be done in the large way, and labor-saving appliances,
the valuable results of human thought, but still not thinking nor
observing intelligences, must be used. One of this class is the
tree-digger, which, in the prairie soils, is used with very good
success. It consists of a very large deep plow, without any
mold-board, but with a wide sharp steel share, which is turned up at
the edges, so as to cut the lateral roots at some distance from the
trees. It is drawn on each side of the row, by four horses, hitched
_ad tandem_. The trees may then easily be lifted from the loose
prairie soil. The accompanying engraving shows the tree digger of Mr.
E. Harkness, which is much used in the nurseries of Illinois and other
Western States. The figure is sufficiently clear, without much
explanation. The broad steel blade runs under the rows and is drawn by
four horses, two working one before the other, or _tandem_, each side
of the row. Some of our Western nurserymen find great advantage from
the use of this digger in their free soils, and also for root pruning
trees that are to remain in the rows.

In the sandy loams of New Jersey, a similar tool is used for digging
peach trees, which is drawn by a span of heavy horses that are
attached to the two separate beams, one being on each side of the
trees. This implement is found to be entirely satisfactory in its
operations.

High manuring in the nursery has been objected to by some orchard
planters, who say that trees, which have been forced into a too
luxuriant growth in their infancy, receive so severe a shock upon
being transplanted to the open field, that they never recover. With
the neglect which is so commonly accorded to young trees in the
orchard, it is really wonderful how they ever survive at all, whether
they had been stimulated in their culture or not. The large majority
of purchasers at the nursery always select those trees which are most
vigorous, notwithstanding the prejudice against stimulating the trees,
and then with mutilated roots, they probably omit cutting back the
limbs sufficiently, and when their neglected orchard fails, they
complain of the forced trees. The change from the good cultivation of
the nursery to the careless culture and even neglect of the farm, is
certainly hard for the poor things to bear. Late growth, encouraged by
high manuring, is injurious. There is a much more serious fault of the
nursery than stimulating with manure and high cultivation, and that is
the too common error of crowding the trees; but even this has its
origin partly with the purchaser, who too often wishes to have his
trees drawn up as high as possible; instead of demanding low heads he
asks for high ones, and will sometimes offer a premium for trees that
have grown in one season, the second from the root graft, eight or ten
feet in a single shoot, so that he may at once calculate upon forming
the head where he wants it, out of the reach of his horse; a
calculation, however, which he will not realize.


THE PREPARATION OF THE SOIL for a nursery should be as deep and as
thorough as possible, for some things it is best even to trench the
ground; but generally, the thorough plowing, with a deep-tiller, or a
trench-plow, will be sufficient, and if followed by the subsoil
lifter, so much the better. One of the most intelligent
horticulturists, and most successful nurserymen in the country, finds
that he can produce a better result in depth and fineness of tilth, by
using the Double Michigan plow, than he can with the spade. A piece of
clover-sod thus plowed in the fall, and subsoiled at the same time,
will be in fine order for nursery purposes, after a thorough
cross-plowing and harrowing in the following spring. If the land has
been under-drained, so much the better. There is little good land that
would not be much improved for nursery purposes by tile draining.

If manure is to be applied, it may be spread upon the clover-sod
before plowing, or it may be thrown upon the plowed ground at once or
at any time during the winter, to be worked into the soil by the
spring plowing; if composted, it may be spread just before the spring
stirring.


LAYING OUT.--In laying out the nursery, some taste may be exercised
by the planter; the sections and blocks should be distinct, and alleys
should be located at convenient distances, so that all parts may be
easily accessible with the wagon. The rows should be laid out
straight, and they ought to be far enough apart--four feet might be a
good average for nursery trees; cuttings and seedlings may, of course,
be nearer. The trees should not be set too closely in the rows, one
foot apart is plenty close enough for most kinds, and that is little
enough room for the development of good lateral branches, or for those
which have to remain three or four years before transplanting. For
peaches, for dwarf pears, and indeed for any of the varieties that are
to be taken from the nursery as maiden trees, a less space may be
allowed--say eight inches apart. Apple stocks for budding, or for
collar grafting, may be set ten inches apart, and they will have room
to make very good plants, even should they remain until two years old.

Most nurserymen set out their apple grafts in the rows where they are
to be grown to full size, and cultivate them from two to three years;
while this saves the trouble of transplanting, the trees will not be
as well assorted for size, nor will they have the benefit of the
transplanting, (which will enhance their value much more than it
costs, in the improved character of their roots), as have those that
have been treated on the bedding plan, practiced by some nurserymen.
This consists in setting the root grafts closely together, in a bed of
very well prepared ground; they are covered at once with a good
mulching of sawdust, which keeps the ground moist, and insures the
growth of almost all the plants, while for the first season they
occupy very little space, and are readily kept clean, as the mulching
prevents the growth of weeds. In the fall, or in the following spring,
they are taken up, assorted for size, and re-planted in the
nursery-rows where they are to stand. This transplanting improves the
character of their roots, which are more fibrous and shorter than in
those trees which have stood three or four years without being
disturbed. Purchasers, now-a-days, begin to look at the roots of their
trees, as well as the tops; and it may become necessary for the
nurserymen to gratify this fancy for low-headed, stocky trees, that
have abundant fibres to insure their growth, and their early
fruitfulness.


CULTURE of the nursery should be thorough; the soil should be
frequently stirred, and kept mellow and loose, to insure cleanliness
and thriftiness, and to make handsome trees. The mellow soil upon the
surface, is, by some persons, considered equal to a good mulching, and
indeed it answers the indications of one. Cultivation, to kill the
weeds as fast as they appear, will admit both air and moisture; a
share of both of these is retained by the mellow earth, which, thus
treated, is indeed a very good mulch. The cultivation may be done with
the small turning plow, with the double shovel, or with any of the
many approved cultivators in use everywhere throughout the country.
The surface should be kept as level and even as possible. In some
soils the roller, made short enough to pass between the rows, is
highly esteemed, and is considered a most valuable implement in the
nursery. As a general rule, cultivation should not be continued too
late in the season, but should be suspended about mid-summer, so as to
prevent a late growth and to encourage the plants to finish their
summer's work in time to ripen their wood thoroughly before the advent
of winter. This is particularly necessary where the climate is severe,
especially on new lands, where the trees are very vigorous. Upon the
approach of winter, it is a good practice to plow a light furrow
against the trees on each side; this protects the collar from cold,
prevents heaving by the frost, and gives a good surface drainage to
excess of water.

For deeply loosening the ground between the rows, the one-horse
subsoil lifting plow is a very valuable instrument; this can be used
in very narrow spaces. This plow prepares the ground admirably for the
pronged hoe, and it may be used between rows of cuttings and
seedlings.


THE PRONGED HOE.--One of the most valuable implements in the nursery
to clean out the weeds from between the trees, and also to work among
cuttings, and other plants, that are set too closely for the use of
the horse, is the pronged hoe; it makes the best shallow culture,
prevents the soil from becoming hard, and it is the best destroyer of
small weeds that can be used. The flat hoe is never sharp enough to
cut all of the weeds effectually, it produces little tilth, and the
result of its use is too often a disappointment, but half killing the
weeds, in some places, and dragging them out by the roots in others,
and often leaving the ground hard and in miserable condition.

    [Illustration: Fig. 24.--THE PRONGED HOE.]


PLANTING CUTTINGS.--Some of the small fruits, as currants,
gooseberries, as well as the quince, are propagated, to a great
extent, by cuttings. The ground for growing them, should be very well
prepared by trenching or trench-plowing; the difference in the growth
between cuttings set on well or on poorly prepared ground is
astonishing, and the advantage in favor of trenched land is sufficient
to pay for the extra expense bestowed upon the preparation. The soil
should be rather sandy, decidedly loose and mellow, and rather moist
than dry.

In setting the cuttings, the rows may be quite close, as horse labor
is seldom employed among them; but they are tended by hand, or the
ground is mulched. They may also be set quite thickly in the row, as
they are to remain but a short time in the cutting bed, from which
they are transplanted at one year old, though sometimes alternate rows
may be left over another season. When the trench is opened for them,
the cuttings are set, three or four inches apart, next the line, so
that only the top bud shall reach the surface; a little mellow soil is
thrown upon them, and they are tramped firmly at the base, when the
remainder of the earth is thrown in and the next trench is opened for
another row. If they be planted in the autumn, it is well to cover
them with a mulch, and for this leaves from the forest are an
excellent material. Some propagators insist very strongly upon the
necessity for removing all the buds from the lower portion of the
cutting, particularly in the currant and gooseberry, so as to prevent
suckering and to grow the bush as a miniature tree, with a single
stem. This is not desirable when the bushes are liable to have the
stems destroyed by the currant borer. Indeed, the nature of the
currant appears to require a renewal of the wood by these shoots,
which come to replace the old exhausted branches.

The grape is grown in immense quantities from cuttings, which are
either planted in a nursery, or set at once in the vineyard. In the
former they are planted closely in rows, that are about twenty inches
apart. Sometimes the ground is trenched, and the cuttings set at the
same operation. When the first trench is opened in a rich mellow loam,
which may be sod or clover lea, the edge of the dug soil is dressed to
the line with the spade, then the cuttings are placed so as to have
one eye at or above the surface, and soil is thrown in and tramped
closely to the base of the cuttings. Then the next trench is made with
the spade, digging the ground as you proceed.

Grape cuttings are generally made eighteen or twenty inches long; and
those which have a heel of old wood are preferred, and command a
higher price. The earlier these are taken from the vines, after the
fall of the leaves, the better success will attend the plantation;
provided they are not too long exposed to the air. Fall planting is
very desirable, but if not then planted, the cuttings should be put
into the ground and covered as soon as convenient, and they will be
better prepared for spring planting. A deep trench is opened, into
which the bundles are set in a vertical position, and loose earth
filled in about them, and slightly covered over them; they will then
be ready for planting by the spring. The length of the cuttings has
latterly been much reduced, with advantage; some of the most
successful planters make them from six to eight inches long: these are
much more easily dug than the longer slips, and are better provided
with roots.


TRIMMING should be practiced in the nursery with a definite object in
view, and not at random; much less with any expectation of increasing
the hight of the trees by trimming them up. The object in pruning
nursery trees should be to develop them in every part, to produce a
stout stocky sturdy little tree, one that may be turned out upon the
bleak prairie, and be able to withstand the blasts. To produce this
result, the leaves should never be stripped from the shoots to make
them extend their growth, for the sake of making more leaves; the
nurseryman should know the value of leaves, as constituting the great
evaporating surface that plays a most important part in causing the
ascent of the crude sap, and also in its elaboration after it has been
taken up into the organization of the plant. Leaves should be
carefully preserved, and in the trimming, which is necessary, this
should be borne in mind. To make vigorous, stocky trees, the side
branches should be encouraged rather than pruned off. The tops may
sometimes need to be pinched, to force out the laterals, and to
encourage their growth; if two shoots start together as rivals, one of
them should be topped or cut back, or twisted and broken, but not cut
off at its origin, unless there be plenty of lateral branches or twigs
to furnish the tree. When these become too long, they may be
spurred-in, either in the fall and winter when cutting grafts, or in
the summer, during the growing season. Whenever it becomes necessary
to trim off any of these laterals, it is best to do it at mid-summer,
as the healing of the wounds made at this period is very rapid.
Heading off the nursery trees is done to force them to branch out
uniformly the second year, to form their heads at the right place;
this is to be done toward spring, and is applicable especially to
those varieties that are prone to make a single shoot the first year
without branching, and which have not been pinched-in or headed during
the previous summer to force out side branches. Cherries, plums, and
pears, and some apples, are very apt to make this kind of growth. It
should have been premised that all nursery trees ought to be grown to
one main stem, or leader, from which all the branches arise, and to
which they should all be made to contribute their quota of woody
fibre. It has been asserted that the wood of a tree, instead of being
a cone, as its stem appears to be and is, it should be a column of
nearly equal size from the bottom to the top; that is, the mass of all
the branches taken together, should equal the diameter of the trunk at
any point below. A well-grown stocky nursery tree, with its abundance
of lateral branches approximates this idea; but the main stem of such
an one is very perceptibly a cone, rapidly diminishing in diameter
from the collar upwards.


AGE OF TREES FOR PLANTING.--This depends so much upon the views of
planters, that the nurseryman cannot always control the period at
which he shall clear a block of trees. Peaches should always be
removed at one year from the bud. Plums and dwarf pears will be ready
to go off at two years from the bud or graft; so with apples and
cherries. But many persons, purchasers and sellers, prefer larger
trees, and they recommend that the trees should remain one, two, or
even three years longer in the nursery. Others, a new school of
planters, prefer to set out the maiden tree, in most of the species
above named, except some very feebly growing varieties, that will
scarcely have attained sufficient size to risk in the orchard. The
nurseryman should beware of keeping his trees too long on his hands;
they may become unprofitable stock, and are sure to require much more
labor in the digging and handling. The purchaser is his own master,
and his tastes and wishes must be consulted; if he wants large trees,
by all means, let him be indulged; he will have to pay in proportion,
he will have more wood for his money, more weight to carry, or more
transportation to pay for, more labor in planting, and vastly
increased risk of the life of his trees; but, let him be indulged with
his five year old trees, while his neighbor, for a smaller sum
invested, with less freight, less wood, less labor, and infinitely
less risk, will plant his maiden trees, and five years hence will
market more fruit.

The risk of transplanting large or old trees from the nursery, may be
greatly diminished, and their value will be vastly enhanced, by
judicious root pruning in the nursery-row. This may be done by
digging, on either side, on alternate years, and cutting off the
straggling roots, and particularly those that run deeply; this will be
followed by the production of a multitude of fibrous roots that put
the tree into a good condition for transplanting. In the great
nurseries of the West, there is a peculiar plow, which is used for
root pruning the nursery rows.


THE HOME NURSERY has been recommended by Mr. Field in his _Pear
Culture_ as a means of enabling the orchardist to amuse himself, and
to grow his trees in such style as he may prefer. He advises to select
trees "of two or three years' growth, and prepare a piece of ground
for the home nursery. For this a rich, deep, dry soil should be
spaded and thoroughly pulverized to the depth of two feet, (trenched).
In it plant the trees in rows four feet distant, and three feet apart
in the rows. Two hundred trees would thus occupy a space fifty feet
square. The roots having been carefully examined, and, as before
mentioned, the laterals pruned to six or eight inches, are spread out
horizontally, and gently covered with earth. It will be seen that the
labor of pinching, pruning, and cultivating, will be much less on so
small a spot, than when the cultivator is obliged to travel over three
or four acres upon which they are ultimately to be planted.

"If at the end of two years it is still desirable to allow them to
remain, a sharp spade should be thrust down around them, at a distance
of fifteen or eighteen inches, in order to cut the long straggling
roots, and thus induce the formation of fibres nearer home. This will
fit them for transplanting at an advanced stage of growth. In this
case, if at the end of two or three years, they are removed at the
proper season, and with care, they will suffer scarcely any check. By
pursuing this plan, they receive better care, grow faster, and are not
liable to damage; and as only the good trees will, in this case, be
set in the fruit grounds, none of those unseemly breaks in the rows,
caused by the injury or death of a tree, need occur. Where, however,
older trees, at least once transplanted, cannot be obtained, and it is
desirable to set out the orchard at once, stout two-year old trees are
decidedly preferable. Such trees have not stood sufficiently long to
send their roots beyond a limit whence they can be removed; and with
careful digging, removal and planting, the purchaser need not fear a
loss of more than two per cent."


THE NURSERY ORCHARD, as practiced by A.R. Whitney, of Lee Co., Ill.,
now one of the largest orchardists of the country, is well worthy of
imitation by all those nurserymen, who desire also to become
fruit-growers. In laying off the blocks of nursery stock, the
varieties that are wanted for the orchard, should be planted in such a
manner, that they shall be in every fourth row, so that the orchard
trees will stand in rows sixteen to twenty feet apart, according as
the nursery-rows are four or five feet wide. In cultivating and
trimming these rows in the nursery, a plant is selected, every twelve
or sixteen feet, which is to remain as the orchard tree when the block
shall be cleared. A good tree is selected, and special care in the
pruning is bestowed upon it to secure the desired form, and low
branches; if necessary, the tree on either side of it is removed, to
give it room. By the time the block is cleared, these orchard trees
are often in bearing, and while his customers are struggling to save
their trees, and nursing them after their transplanting, the
nurseryman will have become an orchardist, and is enjoying his fruits.
The nursery will have become an orchard--one rather closely planted to
be sure--but the trees can be dwarfed by root pruning with the plow,
they shelter one another from the prairie blasts, and when too thick,
alternate trees may be removed to the wood-pile, and thus cheer the
owner on a winter's day.


WINTER-KILLING is a serious evil in the nursery, as by it whole rows
and blocks of certain varieties are sometimes destroyed, or very
seriously injured. It has been observed to be most marked in its
effects upon those sorts of trees that make the most vigorous and
sappy growth, and those which continue to grow late in the season.
Such varieties have very naturally acquired the epithet of _tender_
especially as orchard trees of the same kinds, even in a bearing
state, have been similarly affected; in some sections of the country,
these kinds have been thrown out of cultivation. The bark looks
shriveled and withered, the twigs seem dry when cut, and resist the
knife; when thawed by the fire, or on the return of spring weather,
the bark seems loose, and the inner bark, instead of being
greenish-white, becomes brown, and the whole tree looks as though it
was dead. In old trees, large portions of the bark start from the stem
and large limbs, and hang loosely for awhile and then fall off. The
buds alone retain their vitality, and upon the return of spring they
sometimes succeed in establishing the necessary connection with the
soil, and restore the circulation of the sap; the results are the
deposit of the usual annular layer of woody matter, which encases the
dead portions within, that become like a _sequestrum_ of dead bone in
an animal. The best treatment for the trees that have been
winter-killed, is to cut them back very severely, in the hope of
producing a vigorous wood-growth the next season, to repair the
injury.

A partial winter-killing often affects small nursery trees, especially
on low and wet, undrained soils; the plants recover, but for years
they have a black point in the heart which embraces all of the
wood-growth that was affected--all their wood at the period of the
disaster. This is enclosed and surrounded by clear, healthy wood; but
such trees are not desirable, they are so fragile, as to be easily
broken.

The best preventive for winter-killing in the nursery, is to
encourage early ripening of the wood, and to drain the land, is one of
the best means of producing this effect; another is the cessation of
culture at mid-summer, and the sowing of oats very thick at the last
cultivation, has been practiced, and, it is thought, with excellent
effects. The rank growth absorbs the superfluous moisture, robbing the
trees, and afterwards forms a good protective mulch during the winter.
The objections to it are, that it encourages the mice, which, by
girdling the trees, effectually winter-kills them.

Many nursery and orchard trees often present a black discoloration of
the bark, which is quite unsightly, and excites alarm for the health
of the tree. This is often caused by trimming at unfavorable periods;
in the spring pruning of bearing trees, the large stumps sometimes
bleed, but in the nursery trees it arises from cutting them, and
especially in the barbarous trimming up, during severely cold weather,
when they are frozen.


INJURIOUS ANIMALS AND INSECTS.--The nurseryman sometimes suffers from
the depredations of some of the smaller animals, which cause him great
annoyance. The mole, though highly recommended by the naturalists as a
harmless beast, who is an aid to horticulture by his insectivorous
habits, is nevertheless injurious in his _ways_; for he often makes
his run in the seed bed, or along a row of root grafts, and raising
them from their stations break their tender rootlets, when the sun and
air soon destroy them. Mice, of different kinds, are still more
destructive, particularly in the winter, when they will often girdle
young trees near the collar, and do much mischief. They also devour
many seeds after they have been committed to the ground, particularly
those sown in the autumn. For both of these animals, the best
preventive is to catch them, which may be done with traps. They may
also be poisoned. The young trees may be protected from the mice by
keeping them clear of rubbish, that would shelter these animals, and
when snow falls, it should be trodden down closely about the trees.
Owls and cats will do their share in the destruction also, but they
will also take the friendly little birds.

Rabbits are also very apt to bite off young shoots, and to bark trees
of larger growth in the nursery, as well as those that have been set
out in the orchard. Various methods have been suggested to prevent
their injuries. Wrapping the stems with strips of rags or with ropes
of hay, was formerly the method practiced by those who wished to save
their young trees; the process is tedious and troublesome. A few
pieces of corn-stalk have been placed by the stem of the tree and tied
to it; this, too, is a troublesome procedure, though, like the others,
it is efficacious. A still better plan in this class of preventives,
is a half sheet of common brown wrapping paper, made to encircle the
stem, like an inverted funnel; this need be fastened only at the top,
by a little thin grafting wax applied with a brush at the instant, or
the paper may be tied with some common white cotton string. This
envelope keeps off the rabbits, and lasts through the winter; the
string will decay before the growing season returns, so there is no
danger of strangulation. All the other wrappings must be removed, or
they will injure the trees and afford harbor for insects. It will be
observed that all applications of this class, are adapted only to
trees that have a clean hole without branches, but are not suited for
those which are made to branch at or near the ground. Besides, in
countries where snow abounds, these little marauders are elevated
above the wrappings, and have fair play at the unprotected parts of
the tree--on this account another class of preventives has been
adopted.

These consist in applications that are obnoxious to rabbits, which,
being nice feeders, are easily disgusted. White-wash, and white-wash
made with tobacco water, soap, whale-oil soap, grease, blood, and
especially the dead rabbit itself, freshly killed, have all been used
with happy results, in that they have driven these animals to seek
their food elsewhere. A very good application, and one that may be
used upon a low-branched tree as well as to the smooth clear stem of
one that is higher, is blood. This is put on with a swab; a few corn
husks tied to a stick, answers very well. Dipping this into the vessel
of blood, the swab is struck gently against the stem or the branches,
as the case may be, and the fluid is spattered over it. A very little
will answer to keep the rabbits away, and the effect will continue all
winter, notwithstanding the rains.

Certain insects also prove injurious in the nursery, among these the
most numerous are the _aphides_, which are found upon the roots of
some fruit trees, especially the apple. Others of this disagreeable
insect appear upon the foliage, among these one of the most disgusting
is the one which causes the black curl, on young cherry trees. The
pear tree slug, (_Selandria cerasi_), destroys the foliage of many
young trees in the nursery; caterpillars also do their share of
mischief. A serious trouble in old nursery grounds, especially where
manure is used, is the grub of the May beetles, of which there are
several species. These grubs are whitish, nearly as thick as the
little finger, with a brownish head. They cut off the young nursery
trees at three or four inches below the surface. We have seen two-year
old stocks cut in this manner, and the work of destruction was so
complete, that the proprietor of the nursery was a long time in
attributing it to such an apparently inadequate cause as this
sluggish, soft-bodied grub. All of these, with other insects injurious
to fruit, will be considered in their appropriate place.

FOOTNOTES:

[12] The Plant, a Biography: M.J. Schleiden, p. 68.

[13] Because it had no root, it withered away. Mat. 13, 6.

[14] Du Breuil, Culture of Fruit Trees; English Translation.

[15] A.R. Whitney, Franklin Grove Nurseries, Lee Co., Ill.



CHAPTER IV.

DWARFING.

  DEFINITION OF. OBJECTS. EARLY FRUITAGE. DEFINITION OF TERMS.
    DWARFING STOCKS. OTHER MEANS OF DWARFING. DWARFS AND STANDARDS.
    PYRAMIDS OR CONICAL. ESPALIERS. LAYING BARE THE MAIN ROOTS IN
    SUMMER, TO DIMINISH THE VIGOR OF THE TREES. REMOVING A PORTION
    OF THEM. ROOT-PRUNING. TRANSPLANTING. EUROPEAN ESPALIERS AND
    WALL FRUITS. DU BREUIL'S CORDONS. CROWDING, AS A MEANS OF
    DWARFING. PINCHING, TWISTING, AND FRACTURE. FIELD'S PEAR
    HEDGES. OUR CLIMATE DOES NOT REQUIRE THESE MEANS OF TORTURE.
    FACILITY OF PROTECTION MAY RENDER THEM DESIRABLE. GENERAL
    INTRODUCTION OF QUINCE-DWARFED PEARS IN THIS COUNTRY. MANY
    FAILURES. SUCCESS DEPENDS UPON CARE. FRENCH SUCCESS. CHINESE.
    UNCONGENIAL STOCKS. IMPERFECT UNION. PINCHING. HIGHEST
    PERFECTION OF THE ART OF HORTICULTURE. EQUALIZE THE FLOW OF
    SAP. NATURALLY FLOWS TO HIGHER PARTS AT EXPENSE OF LOWER, MAY
    BE REGULATED BY TRIMMING. BY DISBUDDING. BENDING DOWN. PINCHING
    THE STRONGER, AND ENCOURAGING THE WEAKER. ILLUSTRATION IN THE
    STRAWBERRY. DWARFING THE APPLE. PARADISE STOCK. THE DOUCIN;
    UNFIT FOR ORCHARDS. ROOT-PRUNING. HOW IT OPERATES. TIME TO
    BEGIN. HOW TO BE PURSUED. SEASON FOR. EXPENSE. ROOT-PRUNING
    PLOW.


Dwarfing consists in so controlling the growth of plants as to reduce
the natural size of any of our fruit trees, and bring them within
comparatively narrow bounds. The objects of dwarfing are to enable us
to plant a large number of specimen trees, or of varieties upon a
small piece of ground, or to have small trees beside the alleys of our
gardens. Such plants are also well adapted for growing in pots, or in
the borders of an orchard-house. It is claimed for dwarfed trees, that
they are more prolific than those which are worked on free stocks,
which are often erroneously called standards, and it is also asserted
that these dwarfed trees will bear sooner and produce finer and larger
fruit.

The terms used may as well be explained at once. When we speak of
dwarfing stocks, we mean such as are so uncongenial as to check the
wood-growth; and thus, while producing smaller trees, they have a
tendency to early fruitfulness if properly managed. But this condition
may be superinduced by other means than these. Hence in speaking of
dwarf pear trees, it does not follow that they have been worked on the
quince or other uncongenial stock. A dwarf tree, of whatever kind, is
simply one that has been caused to assume diminutive proportions.
Dwarfing stocks are contrasted with free stocks, or those which would
have attained the full size of the species, and which, when grafted,
produce large trees. These are often mis-called standards, when
contrasted with those that have been worked on the quince, or other
dwarfing stock. Whereas, the trees propagated on free stocks, may also
be dwarfed, by means that will be presently detailed; and the term
standard refers really to the mode in which the training of the
specimens has been performed. Those which are trimmed up as orchard
trees are usually treated as standards, and are said to be trimmed to
standard hight. Those branching at a lower point are called half
standards. Those which are branched so low as to conceal the stem of
the tree, and in which the limbs are so well managed that the lower
ones are always the longest, and those above them gradually contracted
to the point at the top, are called pyramids, or more properly conical
trees. Whether dwarfed or not, trees may be trained in a variety of
forms, such as the columnar, sometimes called the _quenouille_; the
vase or goblet form may be given them, or the parasol shape, and they
may be made to assume the form of a fan or other mode of extension
laterally, when trained upon a wall or espalier frame, as may be seen
in the illustrations given by Du Breuil; but it is seldom that our
gardeners are willing to bestow the care and attention necessary to
produce these results.

The vertical and oblique _cordons_ represented and recommended by Du
Breuil are very attractive, and admirable methods of training and
dwarfing fruit trees, and of crowding a great many into a small space.
His method of making an edging to the fruit-border with dwarf apples,
inarched together so as to form a connected tree for its whole length,
is a capital illustration of the control we may exercise upon
vegetation.

Standards and pyramids are often trained as weeping trees, for the
sake of gratifying the fancy of the cultivator, and with a view of
bringing on that early productiveness which results from the check of
the upward current of sap that is incident to such a mode of
treatment. This is really a kind of dwarfing so far as it goes, and if
commenced early in the life of the tree, it may become very effective,
especially when combined with other means of reducing the growth.
These are formed by arching the branches, tying their tips to a ring
of wire or hoop secured near the ground, or simply by fastening
weights to them sufficient to keep them in the desired position, and
by tying the upper limbs to the lower ones. As is well known, the sap
flows most readily toward the shoots that occupy a vertical line; it
will be seen that its ascent will be seriously retarded in those that
are bent, and their vigor will be diminished, and fruit-bearing will
be promoted. This process must not be continued too perseveringly,
lest the tree become exhausted by over-production.

Du Breuil recommends laying bare the principal roots of the tree in
the spring of the year, so as to expose them for the most of their
length, and leaving them in this condition during the summer. This
exposure of roots to the sun and air diminishes the vigor of the tree,
and hence it tends to the production of fruit. He also recommends the
removal of a part of the roots in the spring, and replacing the earth;
considering this a more energetic operation than the preceding, he
advises caution, lest we injure the tree. This is simply root-pruning,
a plan that has been pretty thoroughly tested in this country, where,
perhaps, its beneficial effects are more needed than in any other, and
where we shall even find it advantageous to have recourse to
mechanical means for its performance in large orchards by horse-power,
as will be set forth in another place.

A very successful method of obtaining the desired effect of dwarfing,
which is early and abundant fruiting, consists in transplanting the
trees in the autumn; this should be done very carefully, so as to
preserve the roots from mutilation as much as possible. The effect of
this will be to check the wood-growth the ensuing summer, and
fruit-buds will be formed, for it is well known that these two
opposite conditions of plant life are complementary the one to the
other, and while we always desire to see them both proceeding together
in a healthy tree, the wood-growth must have been moderated before we
can expect to receive any fruit.

The French and English excel us in training upon walls and espaliers,
and we may willingly yield them the palm; since, in this country, it
is rarely necessary to incur so great expense for the production of
good fruits, and as a means of dwarfing our trees, it is more
expensive and requires more skill, care, and watchfulness, than other
methods of producing this effect. Espalier training, however, affords
the most beautiful opportunity for the illustration of many of the
important principles of vegetable physiology, but it should never be
undertaken by any one who is not familiar with these, and at the same
time willing to exercise great patience and perseverance in their
application to the subjects under his control. No blind pursuance of
the abstract rules of the art can enable the mere routine gardener to
become a successful grower of espalier trees. The modes of training
are various, to suit the whims and necessities of the artist. Trees
are fastened directly to the walls, or to trellises of wood or of
iron, that are placed at a little distance from the masonry, or they
may be entirely independent of any such structures, and exposed to the
air and light freely on both sides. The trellises may be either
vertical, or inclined. The limbs may be made to issue nearly opposite
to one another, and be trained horizontally in two directions, with
successive stages to the top of the wall or trellis, or they may be
trained in a fan shape, with various modifications of what M. Du
Breuil calls the _palmette_ form. And a simple modification of this
method of dwarfing may be made with some varieties of fruit, by
training a single stem horizontally within a foot of the ground, as a
border or edging between the path-ways and the cultivated ground.

The favorite method of training in France, at the present day, appears
to be that called the _cordon_. This may be either the vertical or
inclined. In this kind of espalier, the trees are dwarfed by crowding
them closely together, and by successive pinching and other
mutilation, such as bending and even breaking the shoots, which
results in early productiveness. The trees are planted sixteen inches
apart, and are trained to single stems, and so treated as to be
furnished with the requisite number of fruit-spurs on their whole
extent. This is quite a new application of principles, and one which
is rudely imitated by Mr. Field's pear hedges, which, however, bear
but little resemblance to the elegant cordons of Du Breuil beyond that
of dwarfing by crowding and pinching. We are told that among the many
advantages of this method, are the diminished time required to cover a
wall or trellis with fruit, and the greater facility of replacing a
dead or defective tree, which, in the usual espalier methods, is a
very serious matter, requiring several years for its restoration and
the production of a crop.

We are so blessed, in most parts of this country, with soil and
climate that are well adapted to the production of fruit in the open
field, upon sturdy orchard trees, that there is less necessity for
introducing these elegant methods of pursuing the fine art of
horticulture; and yet there are reasons in the uncertain climate of
our winters, why these plans of training and dwarfing should be
pursued by those who have the talent and the means for doing it. Until
within a few years, there were not many dwarfed pear or apple trees in
this country, and they were confined chiefly to French gardens and to
the establishments of the wealthy. But since their more general
introduction, immense numbers have been propagated and planted, and
extensive orchards, particularly of dwarfed pears, have been set out
with a view to profit. Some of these have been eminently successful,
others are failures; the results will very much depend upon the amount
of care which may be bestowed upon them.

The French have long practiced the dwarfing of certain varieties of
fruits, and have been very successful in their results; but that
wonderful people, the Chinese, excel all others in this branch of
horticulture, for which they display a remarkable talent.


DWARFING BY UNCONGENIAL STOCKS.--The usual mode, which is literally a
partial starvation of the tree by limiting the supplies of crude sap,
consists in the use of uncongenial and dwarf-growing stocks, upon
which the desired varieties are budded or grafted. These are, for the
dwarfed pear, either Quinces, Thorns, the Mountain Ash, or the
Amelanchiers; for the apple, the Paradise and the Doucin varieties of
apple stocks; for the peach and plum, the Chickasas, or other dwarf
plum stock may be used. The free-growing cherries are worked on the
Mahaleb or the Morello varieties; but it must be confessed, that some
of these do not produce a perfect dwarf without other treatment.

To produce a dwarf by grafting on an uncongenial stock, this should be
so uncongenial as to form an imperfect union, which checks the
downward circulation; the sap that has been elaborated by the organs
of the scion is thus kept above the junction of the two woods, and,
being so checked, the result is the early formation of fruit-buds, and
a premature fruitage of the trees results in a direct proportion to
the incompleteness of the union of scion and stock. This is often so
very imperfect as to be very easily ruptured, the grafts are often
broken out by a very small force being applied to them, sometimes even
the weight of the fruit is sufficient to effect a separation, and an
examination of the rupture will show how very slight or imperfect the
union between the parts has been; in other cases, however, it is
difficult to trace the fibres of wood-growth that belong respectively
to the stock and to the scion, even when these have been so different
as pear and quince, or plum and peach.

It is also considered desirable that the roots of the stock should be
small and fibrous, and not long, naked, and straggling; the former
will furnish the crude sap in more limited amounts, and are less
likely to produce an excessively rampant or luxurious growth in the
scion.

Many persons have been disappointed in the Mahaleb cherry, which has
been reputed to be a dwarfing stock. It is found, that without the
application of other means, the so-called dwarfed cherries grow as
freely, at least in their early years, as those worked on the free
stock, known as the Mazzard cherry. They will never make such large
trees, however, and those who would enjoy dwarf cherry trees, should
combine the different methods of producing the result.


BY PINCHING.--There are other means of producing the desired effects
of dwarfing and early fruiting, which should be mentioned. These
consist in systematic efforts to curtail the development of the
wood-growth, by judicious pinching, of the tips or points of the
branches, and to prevent the rambling of the roots by root-pruning.
These it is designed now to examine. Pinching is practiced in the
green-house with the happiest effects, and it results in the
production of the most perfect form of the plants, and most abundant
display of flowers. The constant check which is thus given to the wood
system, causes the sap to seek new outlets, and instead of the one
limb into which it had been flowing, and causing it to be developed;
its flow is now directed to the other buds along its course, which
presently burst out into lateral growths, none of which are so strong
as the first, and these are induced to change the character of the
buds so as to result in the production of flowers and fruit.

This system applied to fruit-trees has been most thoroughly carried
out by the French, and is admirably described and illustrated by Du
Breuil, in a work called _Scientific Culture of Fruit Trees_, and
reproduced in our own language by Wm. Wardle, an English gardener and
orchardist of high reputation.

It is not to be expected that in this country, where fruits are so
easily produced, we shall soon reach such a point of horticultural
practice as to lead us to the adoption of the European system of
walls and espalier training, but we shall do well to watch the
application of the very important principles involved in their
practice, since these may be applied to our orchards with manifest
advantage. In reference to the form and management of trained trees,
it is established as an axiom that their permanency is dependent upon
an equal diffusion of the sap being kept up throughout the whole
extent of their branches. This occurs naturally in all trees, because
they develop themselves in the forms natural to them, but in our
gardens and orchards we make our trees assume unnatural forms. The sap
flows to the highest parts by a law which is well known, though not so
well understood; as a consequence, the lower branches do not receive
their needed supplies, and being smothered by those above them, they
eventually die and decay, leaving a naked stem supporting a top, or
the common form of the natural tree. To maintain the shape we
desire--be this the pyramid, the vase, or the espalier of whatever
kind--certain operations must be performed from time to time, as the
conditions of the tree may indicate.

Among these, Du Breuil advises to prune the strong branches short and
allow the weaker ones to grow long, and thus to restore the balance.
This may be done at the spring pruning, and also at any time during
the growing season, when it may be necessary to check excessive growth
at any one point: and upon this principle depends some of the most
important practice of the summer pruning of our vineyards. The sap
flows towards the leaves, and by removing them from one part, and
leaving a preponderance upon another, we change the direction of its
flow. As the strongest flow is toward those parts that are in a
vertical direction, we may also check this tendency, or encourage it,
by altering the position of the branch, as is done in the vineyard by
tying up the canes we wish to have developed, and depressing the
laterals with their fruit; so in a tree, we may depress the shoots
which are too strong, and elevate those that are weak, to produce the
desired effect. We may also greatly diminish the flow of sap to a
strong branch by removing early all its useless buds; this is a sort
of premature pinching to be sure, but when we consider the powerful
influence exerted by these organs as centers of vitality, we can
realize their attractive force in drawing the sap towards them. After
the production of the full number of shoots upon the weaker branch, if
the foliage continue to predominate upon the stronger shoot, it may be
partially removed by early pinching, or cutting through the petioles,
not by tearing them off; and as late as possible, remove the surplus
and useless shoots from the weaker branches, which were at first
needed to encourage the flow of sap in that direction.

The true pinching of the young laterals, or new shoots, should also be
done as early as possible to keep them in check on the strong
branches, while the same operation may be delayed on the weaker, from
which we should remove only those that will be supernumeraries. M. Du
Breuil also recommends the stimulation of the weaker limbs, by bathing
all the green portions with a solution of sulphate of iron, made by
dissolving twenty-four grains in a pint of water. This should be
applied in the evening, when it is absorbed by the leaves, and acts as
a powerful stimulant.

It is a well established principle, that the chief growth by extension
will be made by the terminal bud, and this should either be removed by
cutting back, or left upon the limb, according as we desire to grow
our wood; if extension of the shoot be our leading object, all the
lateral buds must be subordinated. So also, it is well known, that all
circumstances, which retard the circulation, are followed by a
diminution of the wood-growth, and by the development of flower buds.

The culture of the strawberry affords one of the best illustrations of
the benefits and effects of pinching. The runners of this plant may be
viewed in the light of wood-growth, or the increase of the plant by
extension; even though these slender threads are not permanent, and
they only serve to convey a bud to a distance from the parent plant,
and place it under favorable circumstances for the formation of a
natural layer. They are but annual productions, and hence there is no
considerable deposit of woody matter, as in the limbs of trees, but
they are thrown out from the parent plant just like woody branches,
and are so much substance withdrawn from it, which, if retained or
thrown back upon the plant, would have resulted in an enlargement of
the main stem of the strawberry plant, and in the development of buds
upon the crown, which become stored with the proper juices that result
in the production of more abundant blossom buds. The result, however,
is so admirable an illustration of this important element in the
management of permanent and woody fruit-trees, that we may well look
at an herbaceous plant, be it even so humble an individual as the
prostrate earth-berry, as our ancestors called the delicious
_Fragaria_.


DWARFING THE APPLE

Apples are generally dwarfed by working them upon the French Paradise
stock, which is a very diminutive tree or bush, seldom rising more
than a few feet high. This is the true stock for those who wish to
indulge in the luxury of dwarf apple trees. Such are very appropriate
for the small garden, or for the specimen grounds of a nursery
establishment, and they sometimes make beautiful objects in the lawn
or among the shrubbery, but they are wholly unsuited for orchard
planting, as many a poor deluded purchaser has found out to his
sorrow, a few years after having been beguiled by the smooth-spoken
tree peddlers, who have sold many thousands through the country to
farmers to plant as orchard trees.

There is a more vigorous stock which has been used for the same
purpose, but it possesses much less dwarfing power. It is called the
Doucin, or English dwarfing stock. This, however, exerts so little of
the dwarfing influence, that at the end of eight or ten years the
trees are generally about as large as those worked upon free stocks;
but it happens unfortunately that early fruitage, the great object of
dwarfing, is not attained by their use, for they will not have
produced any more fruit than the common trees similarly treated.


BY ROOT PRUNING.--Among the many valuable hints which horticulturists
have received, with the beautiful flowering and other plants, from our
antipodes in the "Flowery Land," none has been of greater value than
the practice of root-pruning. In this art of dwarfing even the large
forest trees by mutilations of the roots and by other means, this
curious people excel all others, as has frequently been stated. In
Europe, and in this country also, root-pruning has been extensively
practiced with the effect of partially dwarfing the trees, but more
especially with the object of inducing prematurely the fruitfulness we
so much desire, and which is a natural result of the diminished
supplies of crude sap furnished by the contracted roots of a tree that
has been treated in this manner. The balance between the wood-growth
by extension, and that which results in fruitful spurs is sooner
established, and the sap is directed to the formation and support of
the fruit.

We should not commence the application of this severe treatment until
our trees have been allowed to establish themselves firmly in their
stations, unless we desire at the same time to produce decided dwarfs
by means of root-pruning. In this case the treatment may be commenced
in the nursery itself; the stocks should be transplanted once or
oftener before being worked, and the young trees should be moved
annually, which will so shorten the roots as to make them a mass of
fibres, occupying the whole soil close about their main divisions, and
the subsequent removals can then be easily effected, with but a slight
check to the tree, which becomes furnished with fruit spurs at a very
early period of its existence, instead of its requiring years to reach
its natural period of fruitfulness, as is the case with some
varieties, particularly of the pear.

As generally practiced, however, root-pruning is postponed until the
trees have made a free and vigorous growth, and have become well
established in their stations. Then if the growth be too vigorous, and
there do not appear any indications of the formation of fruit spurs,
as is often the case in the fertile soils of the West, our impatient
orchardists complain of the barrenness of their trees, and seek a
remedy in root-pruning. This is generally performed with a sharp
spade, with which a trench is dug in a circle around the tree. The
excavation should be deep enough to reach all of the lateral roots;
these are generally within a foot of the surface. The ditch need not
be much wider than the spade, and the soil can be thrown back at once,
but all the roots should be severed, if we desire to produce the
effect of checking the wood-growth. The diameter of this circle will
depend upon the size and vigor of the tree to be operated upon. As a
general rule, it may be made in the proportion of one foot to each
inch of the tree's diameter. The work may be done at any time after
the spring growth has begun to harden, or during the autumn and
winter, and until the buds are about to break in the spring. The
operation is wonderfully conducive to the end we have in view, and we
often see a vigorously growing but barren subject, transformed in a
single season into a fruitful tree, covered with blossom-bearing spurs
that are full of promise of delicious fruits. In some varieties,
however, these fruit spurs require more than a single season for their
perfection.

Now it may be objected that this labor will be expensive, and so it
is, as all hard work with the spade must be; but what of that, when we
consider the happy results that ensue in golden harvests. But it has
been suggested that this labor may be performed by farm machinery,
using a strong plow, or rather a sharp cutter attached to a plow beam,
and drawn by a powerful team at the requisite distance on either side
of the rows of trees, and in directions crossing each other at right
angles. This, of course, like all mere mechanical applications, must
be uniform, whether the necessities of the trees be equal or not;
whereas, by hand-labor, we may vary the distance at which the roots
are to be cut, according to the vigor and size of the trees demanding
the treatment.

This topic will be again referred to in the chapter on Pruning, where
also it will be necessary to recur to the subject of Training, which
was incidentally alluded to in connection with Dwarfing.



CHAPTER V.

DISEASES.

  DIFFICULTIES IN THE OUTSET. WHAT CONSTITUTES DISEASED ACTION. NO
    ANALOGY TO ANIMAL SICKNESSES. CONGENITAL DEFECTS. DEBILITY.
    DEFICIENT STRENGTH OF FIBRES. DEFECTIVE FOLIAGE. IMPERFECT AND
    REDUNDANT BLOSSOMS. THE CIVILIZED AND CULTIVATED PLANT MAY BE
    ABNORMAL ALTOGETHER. UNSATISFACTORY ACCOUNTS OF DISEASES IN
    PLANTS. LANKESTER'S CLASSIFICATION CONSIDERED. EFFECTS OF THE
    EXCESS OR PAUCITY OF MOISTURE, HEAT, AND LIGHT. MODE OF ACTION
    OF FROST. INJURY RATHER REFERRIBLE TO THE CONDITION OF THE
    CIRCULATION THAN TO THE DEGREE OF COLD IN MANY HARDY PLANTS.
    INFLUENCE OF THE SOIL. LIGHT THE GREAT STIMULUS, ITS WITHDRAWAL
    SUSPENDS HEALTHY ACTION. ITS SUDDEN RESTORATION CAUSES DEATH BY
    SUN SCALD. INJURY BY SUNSHINE IN WINTER. POISONOUS GASES.
    MIASMATA. POISONS IN THE SOIL. PARASITIC PLANTS, EPIPHITES,
    FUNGI, PEAR BLIGHT. VARIOUS THEORIES. WHAT WE KNOW, AND WHAT WE
    DON'T KNOW. TREATMENT. ROOT PRUNING SUGGESTED. SATISFACTORY
    RESULTS. MILDEW BLIGHT IN PEACH AND APPLE. TWIG BLIGHT IN APPLE
    AND QUINCE. THE APPLE BLIGHT. BITTER ROT. CRACKED FRUIT. SCAB.
    MILDEWS. KIRTLAND'S VIEWS AND SUGGESTED REMEDY. WOUNDS AND
    INSECTS. NEEDING THE AID OF SURGERY RATHER THAN MEDICINE.
    DESTRUCTION OF FOLIAGE BY INSECTS IMPAIRS THE HEALTHY CONDITION
    OF THE PLANT. RESUME. SELECT HEALTHY TREES OF HEALTHY
    VARIETIES. EMPIRICAL CHARACTER OF TREATMENT USUALLY RECOMMENDED
    FOR DISEASED TREES. THE BLACK KNOT. THE ROT AND MILDEW OF THE
    GRAPE.


In opening a discussion upon the nosology of vegetation, it may be
expected that one who had spent many years of his life in the
investigation of the diseases of the human family, and at the same
time was something of a student of comparative anatomy and physiology,
tracing analogies between the animal and vegetable kingdoms, should be
familiar also with the diseases of plants. Such an anticipation, it is
feared, will not, in the present instance, be realized. Indeed, the
writer feels very much at a loss how to proceed in discussing this
branch of the subject, and hardly knows what departures from undoubted
health and vigor should be considered worthy of the title of disease.
Nor is it easy to trace the causes of the conditions that are
generally viewed in the light of maladies. We find the manifestations
both in the tree or plant, and in its several parts, and also in the
products which chiefly interest us; the fruits themselves, are often
deteriorated by what is called diseased action of different kinds. The
analogy to diseases of animals is certainly not very distinct. We do
not find anything like fevers, or gout, or rheumatism, in plants, but
we may consider some of their conditions somewhat in the light of
dropsies, and plethora or hypertrophy on the one hand, and of anæmia
or atrophy upon the other; we may consider canker and the death of
some parts of a plant analogous to gangrene, and mortification in the
animal subject. Then again we find congenital defects in individuals
among plants, just as we do among animals. Some are always less
vigorous than others, and thus certain varieties seem possessed of a
degree of inherent disease that perpetually prevents them from
displaying the requisite strength and vigor which we so much desire in
our plantations. Certain varieties that, from the size and excellence
of their fruits, have attracted the attention of pomologists, are so
deficient in health and vigor as to be considered diseased, and are
therefore very properly condemned as unworthy a place in our orchards
and gardens; others appear simply deficient in the production of some
one part, as is illustrated by the inferior strength of the woody
fibres of some trees, which break easily under the weight of their own
fruit, and thus destroy the symmetry of the tree and diminish its
productiveness. Others have defective foliage, which is attended by
the imperfect performance of the functions of growth, both in the
fruit and in the sustaining woody fibres; others again produce
defective blossoms with either a redundancy or deficiency of the parts
that are necessary for the production of the seeds needed for the
perpetuation of the species. When the parts are deficient, the flowers
are called barren or infertile. A redundancy or multiplication of
parts is seen in double flowers of our gardens, where they are much
prized for their beauty, though considered monstrosities by the
botanist, and perhaps properly referred to diseased action by the
nosologist.

It is evident, that very often the conditions of a plant and its
products, which we most highly prize, and towards which all our
efforts in its culture are directed, are really departures from the
natural and healthful status; in other words, what we covet, is really
a state of diseased and abnormal action. With the other secondary
objects of occupying and ornamenting the barren wastes of the earth
with plants, and thus supplying food to hosts of insects, and to the
higher animals, nature also has primarily in view, the production of
perfect seeds for the perpetuation of their species, by the plants
that are profusely scattered over the globe. Man, on the contrary,
often rejects the true seeds as worthless when compared to their
juicy fleshy envelopes that constitute his favorite fruits, or the
enlarged and succulent roots, tubers, stalks, and leaves, that
characterize his garden vegetables and field crops; while in the
grains proper he seeks sustenance in the true seeds, which become the
object of his greatest care and ingenuity to enlarge, to increase, and
to develop, particularly in regard to their nutritive qualities.

Most writers upon the diseases of plants have given us very indistinct
notions upon the subject, and have done very little to enlighten their
readers; while they have written voluminously upon the unhealthy and
unsatisfactory condition of certain vegetables, and have given us most
extensive accounts of the treatment by which they propose to remedy
the evils complained of, we gather little of the information needed to
enable us to understand the true state of the case, or of the causes
of the disease, if it is to be considered such. The reader need not
expect that he will be more enlightened by this chapter than he has
been by the essays to which reference is here made, but he will be led
to a consideration of some of the causes of those departures from
health and vigor which are considered diseased action, and in this way
he may possibly be put upon the track which will lead him to the
avoidance of disastrous results. More than this will not be attempted.

Perhaps the most satisfactory account of diseases of plants is that
given by Lankester, in which he divides them according to their
causes, as follows:

1st--Those produced by changes in the external conditions of life,
such as redundancy or deficiency of the ingredients of soil, of
light, of heat, air, and moisture.

2d--Those produced by poisonous agencies, as by injurious gases,
miasmata in the air, or by poisons in the soil.

3d--Those arising from the growth of parasitic plants, such as the
various Fungi, Dodder, Mistletoe, etc.

4th--Such as are caused by mechanical injuries or wounds, and by the
attacks of insects.

These may be considered separately: 1st--It may be assumed, and has
been already well established by botanists, that every plant has its
own peculiar constitution, adapting it to certain atmospheric
conditions, and that for its healthful and successful culture, these
must be understood and adhered to, within comparatively narrow limits.
Tropical plants, as is well known, cannot be cultivated beyond their
natural limits, except under circumstances where their natural
conditions are nearly imitated by the gardener; and even in our stoves
and hot-houses, these plants do not compare in vigor with their
fellows that luxuriate in the hot and steaming atmosphere of the
tropics, under the stronger light of such a clime as is natural to
them. On the contrary, the plants of northern latitudes will not grow
and produce seeds where temperature is too elevated. Those from a
humid atmosphere suffer in an arid clime, and those which thrive in
dry sandy regions suffer equally when introduced into a humid
atmosphere.

Thus we find, that where there is too much moisture for some of our
cultivated plants, they are inclined to be too succulent, and this
very excess may produce a dropsical condition that is really a state
of disease. Thus we suffer in a loss of fruit, which will fall badly
before its period of maturity, and that which remains its full time
is found to be thin and watery, deficient in the high spicy aromatic
flavor which is so highly appreciated by the connoisseur of these
choice products. When, on the other hand, the arid character of the
soil and climate prevail to an extent that is uncongenial to any
particular fruit, we shall find that its growth is arrested, and that
its highest qualities are not adequately developed: this is frequently
observed in an unusually dry season--and in California, where
irrigation is required to enable the orchardist to produce some of the
succulent fruits, the most remarkable size and beauty have been
attained, but we are told that it was often at the expense of the
desired flavor that the same varieties acquire, under circumstances
more advantageous to the development of their superior qualities.

So in many of our fruits, the successful results depend upon the
hygrometric condition of the atmosphere, and Liebig suggests that a
very prolific source of diseased action in plants, arises from the
suppressed evaporation and transpiration consequent upon such
atmospheric conditions.

Too much moisture prevailing at the time of the blossoming of our
fruits, especially moisture precipitated in the form of rain during
this period, is sometimes disastrous to our crops, both of cereals and
of orchard fruits. Continuous showers prevent the development of the
pollen-grains, and their transfer to the stigmas of the blossoms, so
that the fruit does not set well. Fortunately this does not often
occur in our glorious climate, which is so highly favored by an
abundance of light and sunshine, which are the great and essential
stimuli of the higher orders of plants. The loss of our fruit crops
in some parts of the Ohio Valley in the years 1862, 1865, and 1866,
was fairly attributed to this cause.

We must not overlook the unhealthy influences produced by an excess of
moisture in the earth. Many plants that naturally delight in a dry
porous soil, become weak, unfruitful, or even seriously diseased when
they are planted in low wet grounds, or upon such as are underlaid by
a very tenacious sub-soil, while an opposite condition is equally
unfavorably to those that are naturally more aquatic in their tastes
and habits. In the former case we learn to avoid such soils and
situations, unless we are able to change their character in this
respect by thorough under-draining, which will completely remove the
evil, and the remedy becomes merely a question of expense.

A certain amount of temperature may be assumed as requisite to every
plant, or rather it may be affirmed that some plants cannot exist and
thrive except within a certain range, and it has been asserted that
each class of plants requires a mean temperature for the year that
shall not vary many degrees: the range of this variation has perhaps
never been satisfactorily ascertained. But it is well known, that both
heat and frost act injuriously upon vegetation. Mr. Lindley tells us
that "the extreme limits of temperature which vegetables are capable
of bearing, without destruction of their vitality, have not been
determined with precision." When the temperature is maintained at a
higher point than is natural, the plant is excited to undue activity
of growth; but this is attended with an enfeebled condition, often
seen in badly managed green-houses. Mr. Knight found that certain
plants were rendered abortive by the production of male flowers only,
when exposed to too great heat, and by an opposite treatment, when
subjected to a low temperature for a long time, others produced only
female flowers. In some plants a high degree of heat, with moisture,
results in the production of leaves only, and Humboldt found that
wheat was grown about Xalapa, Mexico, as a fodder plant, because it
produced an abundance of grass, but did not form ears nor grain.

A diminished temperature, on the contrary, removes the stimulus of
growth, and leads to the suspension of all vital action in proportion
to its reduction. At the freezing point it is probable that all such
action ceases, though in this regard there is great difference among
plants; the mosses and lichens will flourish, and the Chickweed will
vegetate and blossom at a temperature very little above freezing. The
access of frost, after vegetation has somewhat advanced, often proves
very disastrous, and we not unfrequently lose our crops of fruit by
such an occurrence during the period of blossoming, or even afterward.

Some plants in a dormant condition, will endure uninjured a great
depression of temperature, while others will be destroyed by the
slightest approach of frost. According to De Candolle, this may depend
upon the greater or less amount of water they contain, upon the
greater or less viscidity of their fluids, or the rapidity with which
these fluids circulate. Those with larger cells he thinks most easily
injured by frost, and those which contain a great deal of air are able
to resist it best. The freezing point will vary according to the
quality of the sap, for we know that different vegetable juices
congeal at different temperatures. The manner in which cold acts upon
plants depends upon their physical structure. Lindley says, freezing
is attended with the following effects:--The fluids contained within
the cells of tissue are congealed and expanded--this produces a
laceration of the cell-walls, and impairs excitability by the
unnatural extension to which the cells are subjected; the air is
expelled from the air-vessels and introduced into parts naturally
intended to contain only fluid; the green coloring matter and other
secretions are decomposed, and the vital fluid or latex is destroyed,
and the action of its vessels is paralyzed. The interior of the tubes,
in which fluid is conveyed, is obstructed by a thickening of their
sides. So we have as a result, both mechanical, chemical, and vital
changes.[16]

Our hardy fruit trees are woody perennials that hybernate during the
winter. Yet we find that even these suffer upon some occasions from a
great depression of temperature; it has been asserted that a certain
degree of cold would inevitably destroy the blossom buds at least, and
we often find that the bark is burst off from the wood, and in some
instances the wood itself is so injured as to suffer from a kind of
decomposition, and to become affected with a change generally known as
the dry rot, losing its elasticity and hardness, and acquiring a
whitish color, which is supposed may arise from the introduction of
the mycelia of fungous growths. Now it is believed that these injuries
do not arise so directly from the degree of cold to which the tree has
been exposed, as to the condition of its circulation at the time of
the exposure. If the sap have been excited by mild or warm weather,
as is so apt to be the case in our changeable climate, the sudden
depression of temperature will produce disastrous effects, even when
the cold has not been very severe. This is manifested by the bursting
of the bark in young trees in the early part of winter, while they are
yet holding their leaves, and of course having a circulation somewhat
active. Hence the importance, now very well understood by our
nurserymen, of checking the growth of young trees in time to have
their terminal buds thoroughly ripened before the approach of frost.
This, to a certain extent, is subject to our control; but we cannot
foresee the character of the seasons upon which the safety of our
orchard trees will, in a great measure, depend, and they are less
easily managed. When the autumn is dry, and continued late into
winter, as sometimes happens, we see a perfect ripening of the wood,
with a great development of blossom buds, and then we may confidently
calculate upon the safety of our fruits, provided they be not exposed
to a warm period at mid-winter, that shall excite some activity in
their circulation, which would suffer terribly from any sudden and
great depression of temperature such as frequently occurs, carrying
the mercury from summer heat to a point below zero, in a few hours.
Such a change has amounted to 68 degrees in nine hours.[17]

The influence exerted by the soil upon the healthiness or
unhealthiness of our trees has already been alluded to incidentally,
but it is an important subject of inquiry whether this may arise from
a redundancy or a paucity of some particular ingredients necessary to
sustain the plants we desire to cultivate. Liebig has pointed out how
chemistry may be brought to our assistance in solving such a question.
As all the inorganic elements found in a tree and its fruits, must
have been derived from the soil in which it grew, he suggested that
the ashes of the plant would show us exactly what it needed, and then
an examination of the soils would inform us whether they contained all
the necessary elements, and in the right proportion. Hence arose the
doctrine and the practice of applying special manures, which has been
so fashionable in our day. Though there be many doubters as to the
efficacy of such investigations and practices, most sensible and
enlightened agriculturists admit the truths which Liebig has
propounded.

Light is the great stimulus of vegetation, an essential element to its
existence: its withdrawal is followed by an arrest of some of the most
important functions of vitality, and yet we find that there is a great
difference among different species, as to their requirements of this
element, and also that various parts and several products of
vegetation require very different degrees of light for their
perfection. It is also found that a sudden exposure of parts from
which it had been withheld, is often attended with disastrous
consequences. Its withdrawal does not so immediately destroy the
plant, being attended with the etiolation of the parts that are
usually colored, but a sudden re-exposure to the sun's rays will now
destroy the plant. So the removal of a portion of the foliage from a
tree, or the exposure of the bare stem of one that had been previously
sheltered, is often attended with severe effects, known as
sun-scald--for which there is no remedy, but very easy modes of
prevention. The best of these is to provide against the evil by
reserving the lower branches to shade the stem. There are other
excellent reasons for this practice, which will be brought forward in
the chapter on Pruning.

Frequently, however, the nurseryman, or perhaps the injudicious
efforts of the planter himself, may have removed all the side branches
of the young tree, and as these cannot be replaced, we may substitute
for them a shelter from the scorching sun to which the newly planted
tree is exposed. This may be done by tacking two narrow boards
together at their edges, like a gutter spout, and setting them upright
on the south side of the tree to shade it. A wisp of straw, tied
loosely to the stem, will answer a very good purpose; but both of
these appliances are objectionable, because they furnish a shelter for
insects, and thus they fall short of the natural shading of the stem
by the foliage of its own branches.

It is not only the scorching suns of summer that damage our young
trees that are thus exposed by injudicious trimming. Even the bright
rays of a mid-winter sun, falling upon the frozen stem, will often
effect the most serious damage, and should be guarded against with
equal care; but here the natural protection will answer, for the shade
of the naked spray of the laterals is found all-sufficient in the
well-trained tree.

2d--To resume the consideration of Lankester's causes of disease, it
must be admitted that some diseased conditions may be produced by
poisonous gases, but the usual result will be the death of plants
confined in such an atmosphere. The natural power of diffusion of all
gases among one another in the open air, prevents the danger that
would ensue in a confined situation. The accidental production of
sulphurous and other poisonous gas, or the escape of smoke from the
flues or from the tobacco-pan in the green-house, sometimes produces
the most disastrous effects upon the plants subjected to their action.
So, in crowded cities, it often happens that the effects of coal smoke
and other gases, generated in the furnaces and manufactories, are very
injurious to vegetation. The coal soot falls in flakes like
lamp-black, which covers the surface and obstructs the transpiration
of the stomata, and thus seriously affects the health of plants in
such situations.

       *       *       *       *       *

The action of _miasmata_, suggested by Lankester, is as obscure in the
effects produced upon plants as in those upon animals. The presence of
these atmospheric conditions cannot be detected by any of our tests,
nor can their effects be prevented by any means in our power; we know
little or nothing about their characters, yet we cannot deny their
existence: finally, they serve as a very convenient explanation,
though a very unsatisfactory one, for the incursions of maladies that
are of an obscure or unknown character. Whether of a miasmatic nature
or not, no one can deny the existence of certain atmospheric
conditions, which appear to produce disastrous effects upon some of
our vegetable productions whether these be inherent to the air itself,
or are only conveyed by it from one place to another. The inexplicable
potato disease may owe its origin and diffusion to such a cause, and
the grape malady, which appears to be dependent upon atmospheric
causes, may at least be carried from one vine to another upon this
medium, in the form of the minute spores or seeds of the fungi that
are believed to be the cause of the trouble.[18]

Poisons in the soil are frequently very deleterious to vegetation, and
we often find extensive injuries to our plants produced by this class
of agents. When these are of a chemical nature, as is usually the
case, they may be satisfactorily treated by applications that will
neutralize their effects. In cities the escape of the illuminating
gas, that is carried in subterranean pipes, has often so poisoned the
soil as to destroy the shade trees by the side of the streets.

An excess of certain saline and alkaline ingredients often produces
barrenness in the soil, by a sort of poisoning, even with those
articles that in smaller quantities are used as manures with the
happiest effects.

3d--The influence exerted upon vegetation by the growth of parasitic
plants, cannot be observed without forcing us to the conclusion that
they are prejudicial to the health of the plants they infest--since
they either cover and smother the foliage by twining upon it, as is
the case with the Dodder; or fasten themselves upon a limb,
appropriating the sap that was intended for its support, and thus
starve it, as does the Mistletoe; or attaching themselves to the bark,
they interfere with its functions, as is done by the lichens and
mosses; or, following the descending scale, in the size of these
parasites, but meeting in them foes of much greater importance, we
find the minute but innumerable fungi attacking the wood, the bark,
the foliage, and the fruits, of our gardens and orchards, and
committing incalculable damage--thus entailing serious disease. A
very important question has arisen, however, as to whether the inroads
of fungi were the cause or the consequence only of disease. A question
which it will be necessary to leave to wiser heads, only observing
that these epiphytes do appear, under certain atmospheric conditions,
to invade some plants that had previously seemed to be in perfect
health. That they are transported upon the air, in the form of very
minute sporules, is unquestioned, and that their growth is dependent
upon certain atmospheric conditions, is equally admitted, but whether
they induce disease, or are only able to take possession of a plant
that is not in a perfectly healthy condition, does not yet appear so
clear. The very eminent Mr. Solly is of the opinion, that in the
potato at least, the existence of parasitic fungi is a secondary
result of previous disease. So it may be with our fruits, and there is
considerable testimony to favor such a belief in many cases, where we
find, with the appearance of these fungi, other causes of
unhealthiness.

The leaves of the apple trees in some seasons become coated with a
black efflorescence, that gives the tree a very sombre appearance, and
seems to affect its health. I am not aware that any one has yet made
any microscopical investigations of this condition of the foliage,
which looks as though it were dusted with coal-smoke. It has been
supposed, however, to be the result of a fungous growth.


PEAR BLIGHT.--This is a subject upon which so much has been said and
written, that any one may well shrink from its discussion. The
condition in which the invasion of the malady finds the tree has been
pretty thoroughly ascertained, and the sad state in which it is left
after the attack, is too well known to need any learned description.
It is well called _the blight_, for nothing short of scorching by fire
can more effectually destroy the life of the tree and blight our hopes
of its usefulness. The varied theories and suggestions that have been
advanced in attempted explanation of this state of things are
altogether unsatisfactory so that it may be said we know nothing about
the disease, nor whether it be occasioned by frozen sap, by fungous
invasion, or by insect attacks, all of which have been set forward as
causes of the difficulty. None of these explanations have been clearly
proved, and they seem rather guesses than established facts in the
history of the disease, which breaks out in the midst of the season of
growth, and attacks those trees that are in the midst of the most
vigorous production of succulent shoots; but it is not confined to the
young wood; on the contrary, it appears first in the hard bark of
limbs, that are two or more years old. This turns brown, becomes
desiccated, and thus the circulation is arrested, and the foliage as
well as the bark is affected. The outer extremities of the leaves
wilt, die, and turn suddenly brown and then black, and often remain
adhering by their petioles for months--sad testimonials of the
destruction caused by the blight. The disease appears to extend in
some instances, but it is not proved that there is any poisonous
matter generated by a blighted limb that could have entered the
circulation, and then have been transmitted to other parts of the
tree. The apparent extension of the disease is rather believed to have
been the successive development of the trouble from different foci,
which had successively invaded so much of the bark as to have more or
less completely arrested the flow of the sap. In some limbs of small
size, a patch of dead tissue of moderate dimensions would entirely
arrest healthy action early in the season, and destroy the portion of
the branch beyond it; in other branches of greater size, quite a large
patch of the dead bark might exist for a long time without entirely
surrounding them, and arresting the circulation, which would thus be
kept up until a later period, when at length this occurred, the
symptoms of blight would appear.

The treatment of this malady is quite unsatisfactory, and gives us no
clue to the cause of the trouble. Various plans have been suggested,
the most satisfactory is the removal of the affected limbs--not that
it cures the disease, but because it takes from us the sad mementos of
our loss. We have been advised to pare away the diseased portion of
old bark with a spoke-shave, or some similar instrument; but it is
apprehended that few persons would ever find this patch of dead bark
until they have the fatal evidence of the blighted foliage, and no
possible good can result from its removal at that time.

This trouble is connected, in many instances, with an excessively
vigorous growth of shoots; indeed, some of those varieties which are
most thrifty, suffer the most, while those which make firm and
moderately short shoots, seldom blight. Hence it has been inferred by
some, that if we can check this excessive vigor, and reduce the wood
growth to a moderate amount, not exceeding ten or twelve inches,
annual extension, we shall be able to prevent the occurrence of
blight. This object is easily attained by root-pruning the trees
severely in the spring of the year. So far, we can only say that trees
so treated, have not blighted; but it does not follow that they would
have suffered if let alone.

Another form of blight may often be seen in the peach and in the
apple; it consists in a loss of vitality of small twigs and their
foliage in several parts of the tree, especially in the inner portions
that are not freely exposed to the air and light. In the peach, this
disease is accompanied with the decay of the fruit upon these twigs,
which rots and becomes moldy. This trouble is usually attributed to
mildew, and it is probably owing to some form of fungus invasion.

Quite a different affection of the twigs is that known as the "blight"
in apples and quinces. This attacks only the young shoots of the
current season's growth, which suddenly wither and become brown at
mid-summer. The same condition occurs also in the shoots of the
Italian mulberry. The cause of this malady is not very apparent; by
some persons it is attributed to the punctures of minute insects, but
they have escaped the scrutiny of other observers, who attribute this
blight to atmospheric causes.

The true apple blight is a malady of very serious character, that
invades many orchards in the Western States. In its nature, and in the
mode of its invasion, it very much resembles the dreaded fire-blight
of the pear, with which most orchardists have unfortunately become
already but too familiar. Like it too, all the guesses which Solons
have offered for the explanation of its cause, appear equally
unsatisfactory.

A whole branch or limb of the tree becomes simultaneously affected;
sometimes one quarter or even one half of the top is destroyed by the
disease, and the removal of the dead portions is not followed by the
reproduction of healthy branches. Certain varieties are more subject
to this blight than others, and they seem to poison the grafts that
are inserted into them, to produce a new top to the tree with a more
healthy variety.


BITTER ROT.--Our excellent and observing friend, H.N. Gillett, of
Lawrence Co., Ohio, furnishes the following description of this
disease to the Ohio Cultivator:

"The disease generally presents itself on the skin of the apple in
very minute brown spots, from one to a dozen or more in number,
generally after the fruit is pretty well grown. These gradually spread
and penetrate the flesh of the apple, producing a black rot, almost as
bitter as aloes, but this taste is confined to the discolored portion.
The fruit ceases growing, and falls prematurely. The rot occasionally
begins at the center, and extends outward, so that the fruit appears
perfectly sound for some time," on which account he advises against
too early gathering of the fruit.

The late Dr. Barker, of McConnellsville, Ohio, who was one of our most
observing pomologists, referring to this disease as peculiar to
certain varieties, concludes in an article in the paper above quoted,
vide Vol. VI., p. 283, that this malady is different from what is
called Bitter Rot in other places, and which affects other varieties
with a discoloration of the flesh and a bitter taste. He thinks this
malady is different from that described by Mr. Gillett, and that it,
the true Bitter Rot, is caused by a fungous growth, the spores of
which are carried on the air from tree to tree, like a similar fungus
producing mold in the cherry, plum, and peach. He also traces a
resemblance of this disease to the vaccination in the human subject,
except that the scab does not separate and fall off. Hence he
suggested the name of _pock_, instead of _Bitter Rot_. High culture,
manure, lime, trimming, and pasturing hogs in the orchard, have all
been recommended as remedies.


CRACKED FRUIT--MILDEW.--Certain fruits become partially covered with
what appears to be a fungous growth, which occupies the skin in such a
manner as to prevent the development of the succulent tissues beneath
it. This may result in a deformity consequent upon the irregular
growth, and the fruit is called scabby, or it may strike deeper into
the tissues, which become dry and corky and crack open, being thus
utterly worthless. Some varieties, which formerly produced the most
beautiful fruits, have been so severely affected by this malady as to
yield absolutely nothing in certain localities, and are only rendered
profitable by top grafting with other sorts that are not affected with
the cracking. That this is not caused by the wearing out of the
variety, as has been suggested, it may be added that the same fruit
ripens perfectly and is quite fair in other regions of the country.
The trouble, however, is extending, and it is hardly safe to plant
largely of those varieties that have proved subject to the malady. No
explanation has been satisfactory as to the cause, nor has any
treatment been successful.

Dr. Kirtland addressed the Ohio Pomological Society upon this subject,
and an abstract of his remarks is here given:--

"The disease known as the blight or the fire-blight, is at this day
proving the most serious obstacle to the successful cultivation of the
pear, in many sections of the country. Early in the present century
it prevailed extensively in New England, coincidently with the spotted
fever, and other disorders of a low grade of action, which at that
period swept epidemically over that region of the country. It was a
popular opinion that all these diseases, both of the human family and
vegetable kingdom, arose from one cause;--an opinion not, however,
tolerated by medical men and men of science in that day.

"Various theories have been advanced to account for the origin of this
blight. Insects, frozen sap, electricity, excessive evaporation, and
exhaustion of the soil, have, at different times, been assigned as the
cause. Investigation of each fails to meet and explain the phenomena
attendant on the rise, progress, and results of that disease. It is
time they all should be abandoned, and that researches for a cause be
extended in some other direction.

"As a starting point in this undertaking, I will suggest another
hypothesis, which may perhaps explain the pathology of the blight, and
call into use an effectual remedy or preventive. _Pathology_, Dr.
Webster defines to be 'the doctrine of the causes and nature of
diseases.'

"1. The Pear-tree blight is produced by the poisonous impression of
the seeds (_sporules_) of a microscopic fungus.

"2. Several combinations of iron, especially the sulphate
(_copperas_), will, to some extent, counteract that impression.

"It will be understood that these two propositions are merely
hypothetical. If sustained by analogies, subsequent observations, and
experience, they will be accepted as truths; if not thus sustained,
they will of course be rejected.

"The extensive prevalence of the cholera, over large portions of the
globe, commencing in the year 1818, led medical men to seek for its
cause. Dr. Cowdell, of London, in 1848, published 'A Disquisition on
Pestilential Cholera, being an attempt to explain its phenomena,
nature, cause, prevention and treatment, by reference to an extrinsic
fungous origin.'

"In 1849, Prof. J.K. Mitchell, of Philadelphia, issued a more
elaborate work, 'On the Cryptogamous Origin of Malarious and Epidemic
Fevers.' It abounds in numerous facts and correct reasoning, and
should be consulted by every investigator of disease, animal and
vegetable.

"These publications attracted the attention of the medical profession,
both in America and Europe, so long as that epidemic continued its
ravages, and the theories they advanced gained extensive credence
during that time. They were, however, lost sight of when that epidemic
subsided. Recently they have been substantiated as plain matters of
fact, so far as malarious diseases are concerned, by the labors and
investigations of Prof. J.H. Salisbury, of Cleveland.

"It is well established, then, that a number of diseases of the animal
system are produced by fungi. 'Under this name botanists comprehend
not only the various races of mushrooms, toadstools, and similar
productions, but a large number of microscopic plants, forming the
appearances called mouldiness, mildew, smut, rust, brand, dry rot,
etc.' They are universally diffused in nature. It is difficult to
conceive of a place where they do not exist. They are among the most
numerous of all plants, in regard to genera and species, and with very
few exceptions are deleterious in their impressions on the animal
system. Even the palatable mushroom is always poisonous to some
persons, and may become so to all under certain circumstances. It is
equally evident that fungi frequently occasion diseases in the
vegetable kingdom. The smut of wheat and maize, the rust of wheat,
ergot of rye and grass-seeds, and specks, cracks, and discoloration of
the skin of the apple and pear are of this nature.

"The microscopical examinations of Prof. Salisbury and others have
detected the presence of certain species, infesting extensively pear
trees about the period of attack by the blight. They have made similar
discoveries that lead to the conclusion that the curl of the peach
leaf, the potato disease, and the blight of pear trees, all have their
origin from the cause assigned in my second proposition.

"Under this head still another disease of our fruit should be noticed.
I have watched carefully the sudden and premature decay of our plum
crop, at the period of its ripening, for the last fifteen years. From
hints afforded by the work of Prof. Mitchell, and several microscopic
observations of my own, I was induced to publish an article in 'The
Florist,' of Philadelphia, in the year 1855, in which I imputed the
origin of the disease to the Torula or some analagous species of
parasitic fungi. The disease still prevails among us, and it is sure
to destroy all the plums which escape puncture by the curculio. It is,
however, generally overlooked by pomologists, and its effects are
charged to the depredations of that insect. Similar disease
occasionally impairs our peach and apple crops, to a less extent.
Whenever it occurs on either of these varieties of fruit, the spurs
and young wood blight or canker, and cease to be fruitful for several
years.

"If these discoveries and analogies establish, with any degree of
certainty, the hypothesis of the cryptogamous origin of the pear tree
blight, we have made important progress in laying down true
indications for its cure or prevention. Among the means suggested for
effecting that end, certain combinations of iron have already been
named. The authority for such practice is founded on the following
facts:

"1. It is a popular belief that iron exerts a favorable influence over
the health of fruit trees. Hence arises the practice of driving nails
into the body of such trees, and loading their limbs with scraps of
iron. Both the belief and the practice may be visionary, yet in such
instances of popular belief, investigation usually discovers them to
be founded on some shadow of truth.

"2. An intelligent and observing gentleman of Cleveland informs me
that he prevents the curl of the peach leaf by depositing in the
earth, about the bodies of the trees, fragments of rusty stove pipe
and worthless pieces of iron.

"3. Twenty-four years since I called the attention of the public to
the isolated fact, without reference to any theory, that a large pear
tree in Columbiana county, Ohio, with its body surrounded with many
wagon loads of boulders, scoria, scales of iron and accumulations from
a blacksmith shop, retained its health, vigor, and fruitfulness, while
all other pear trees in that region of country had either died, or
were suffering from blight. _Vide_ New England Farmer, December 3,
1840, page 153. At this late day this tree still continues healthy.

"4. I recollect reading in that reliable journal, Hovey's Magazine of
Horticulture, some years since, a statement that the finest prize
pears seen in the Parisian market, were produced by investing the
growing fruits with folds of cotton or linen cloth, and daily, or
oftener, moistening them with a solution of sulphate of iron. This
treatment was said to result in developing the size, beauty, and
quality of the fruits to a high degree, and especially to free them
from parasitic blotches.

"5. Four years since, Mrs. Weller Dean, of Rockport, Ohio, informed me
that blight might not only be prevented in healthy pear trees, but
might be successfully arrested, in many trees, after it had made
considerable progress, by means of repeatedly washing the bodies of
the trees with a saturated solution of sulphate of iron (copperas), at
a time when the sap is in active circulation.

"This was a confidential communication, with the condition annexed
that I should thoroughly test the plan, and if it should prove
successful, I was to publish it; and furthermore, if any merit or more
substantial reward should be deemed due to any one by the public, she
was to be the recipient.

"This plan has yet been only imperfectly tried. Age and infirmities
will probably prevent its completion by me. I will therefore report
that I have tested it on a number of my partially blighted pear trees,
while a greater numbers has been left to die unmedicated. Of the
former, not one has yet perished, while of the latter very few
survive. It has appeared, in every instance, to arrest the progress of
the disease, and to impart a healthy condition to the bark wherever
applied. The apparent results may have been coincidences and not the
effect of the remedy. There is much false experience in horticulture
and agriculture, as well as in medicine.

"These views suggest the expediency of extensively applying a solution
of the sulphate of iron by means of a green-house syringe or garden
engine to the tops and foliage of trees, laboring under any of the
diseases suspected of a cryptogamous origin. It also becomes a query
whether the same agent may not be successfully employed at some period
to counteract the potato disease, either by watering with it the
growing plant, or washing the tubers in it in autumn, after they are
dug. No injury has ever arisen to pear trees by a free use of a
_saturated_ solution of copperas.

"In conclusion, I would observe that the discovery of the cryptogamous
origin of the many disorders of the human system is effecting
important changes in their treatment. May we not hope that an
extension of these discoveries to the vegetable kingdom, may result as
favorably in shaping the practice in diseases of fruits and fruit
trees?"

4th--Wounds, and the attacks of insects, may be considered more in the
light of mechanical injuries by a loss of substance, hence they belong
rather to the department of surgery, and can scarcely be considered as
disease. The breaking of a branch, or the removal of a portion of the
bark, may inflict a serious injury, but it is one which, under
ordinary circumstances, will be recovered from, without any impairment
of the health of the tree--unless where the wound is so large that the
new growth will not soon cover it over, in which case exposure to the
moisture of the atmosphere may result in decay of the woody tissues,
or, if the sap exudes, at certain seasons, it may produce canker and
fungous growths. In some varieties of our cultivated fruits, wounds of
this character are often attended by an effusion of gummy matter; this
is particularly the case with those that are known as stone-fruits,
and in these the excision of a large limb is seldom followed by a
deposit of woody matter in the way of healing over the wound, which is
always desirable; hence in such cases particularly, it is well to
cover the exposed surface with something to exclude atmospheric
moisture, whether this be paint, varnish, of shellac, or common
grafting wax.

Insects, by eating the foliage extensively, very materially injure the
healthy condition of a tree--even the minute aphides that suck the sap
from the leaves and tender bark, will seriously impair the health of
our plants; but the borers that mine under the bark, extensively
consuming the vital cambium, and even burrow into the solid wood,
reducing it to a honeycomb, cannot fail to affect the healthy
condition of the tree materially, and often cause its premature death.
Some knowledge of the habits of these little creatures is considered
of so great importance, that the subject will be brought before the
reader's notice more at length in another part of this volume.

There is no doubt, however, that many unhealthy conditions of our
trees, that might be traced to other causes, but which are not
manifestly dependent upon a want of care on the part of the
orchardist, nor upon a deficiency in the constitution of the soil, are
often attributable to the inroads of these minute foes, which, in some
cases at least, are made the scape-goats upon which is laid the blame
that should be applied to our own neglect, or want of forethought and
care.

       *       *       *       *       *

After having reviewed the whole subject, it may be safe for us to
conclude that what is called disease in our cultivated vegetables of
whatever kind, is a departure from full health and productiveness of
sound fruits. And further that this may arise from a lack of the
necessary ingredients in the soil, from a want of proper conditions as
to its quality and constitution, particularly with regard to the
important elements of moisture, heat, and light; and especially, that
this condition of unhealthiness and unproductiveness, when not an
inherent failing of the variety, may in many instances be attributable
to want of proper care on our part, and to our allowing the trees to
injure themselves by overbearing, while we neglect to keep up the
proper supply of nourishment.

       *       *       *       *       *

In making selections of trees for planting, it is important that all
weak or unhealthy varieties should be avoided. Secure healthy and
vigorous stocks, that appear to be possessed of a sound constitution,
even though the fruit should not be quite so fine and beautiful as
that produced by some of the sickly and less vigorous varieties. There
is more difference apparent, in this respect, among pears than among
apples; but of the latter there are varieties that should be avoided
on account of their deficient vigor. There are others that might be
considered as coming under the ban, because the trees are not
long-lived; and yet some of these appear to be perfectly healthy in
every other respect, and seem literally to wear themselves out by
excessive bearing, producing annual crops of large and handsome
fruit, until, utterly exhausted, they reach a premature end.

Some varieties, that for many years yielded very fine crops of the
most beautiful fruit, and of the highest character for flavor, have
afterward ceased to furnish any perfect specimens--the whole crop
being covered and deformed with the black scab or fungus, that
prevents their development, or else ruined by the disagreeable
bitter-rot which entirely spoils them for any use. Various remedies
have been suggested for these maladies, all of which are more or less
unsatisfactory, because from our ignorance of the causes of the
troubles; these applications are wholly empirical.

The Black-knot, which has become very common in some parts of the
country, is well discussed by Benjamin D. Walsh, in the Practical
Entomologist, for March, 1866, page 48.

This essay is the more valuable because of the absence of the
empiricism just complained of:--

"It is a black, puffy, irregular swelling on the twigs and smaller
limbs of plum and cherry trees, and, in one instance that came under
my personal observation of peach trees, making its first appearance in
the latitude of New York early in June, and attaining its full growth
by the end of July. Usually a tree, that is attacked in this manner,
is affected worse and worse every year, until it is finally killed;
and wherever one tree of a group is affected, the malady usually
spreads to them all in process of time. In 1865 whole cherry orchards
were destroyed in Western New York by this disease, and I have myself
seen many groups of wild plum trees in Illinois that were gradually
perishing by it; but in Southern Ohio, as I am told, the Black-knot is
never met with. In the Eastern States it has been observed from time
immemorial, and various contradictory opinions have been broached as
to its real nature and origin.

"In 1865 I watched the Black-knot carefully through all its stages,
from its earliest commencement to its complete maturity, experimenting
at the same time on numerous specimens collected week after week, so
as to ascertain what insects bred in it. The practical conclusion I
have arrived at, is simply this:--_If the diseased twigs are all cut
off and destroyed early in July in the latitude of New York, or a
little earlier or later according to the latitude, taking care to cut
a few inches below the affected part, the Black-knot can be checked
and probably entirely eradicated; but if this operation is delayed
till August, it will be of no benefit whatever._ Hence we can easily
account for a circumstance which has puzzled many men wonderfully,
viz.: That cutting off and burning the diseased twigs is pronounced by
some to be a sovereign remedy, and by others to be a delusive humbug.
Those that do this early enough, find it effectual; those that delay
it till too late, find it of no use.

"This perhaps will be sufficient for some few impatient souls, who
take everything upon trust that they see in print, and care nothing
about the _rationale_ of a mode of treatment, so long as it be
practically available. But for the benefit of that large class of
intelligent agriculturists, who have been deluded by too many quack
prescriptions to place much faith in any man's _ipse dixit_, and who
in any case like to understand the principle of a remedy before they
apply it, I subjoin a full account of all that is at present known on
this subject, and of the different theories respecting it entertained
by different writers.

"Three radically different theories have been broached as to the
nature and origin of Black-knot: 1st, that it is a mere disease of the
tree, like the cancer or the gout in the human race, which is the view
maintained by Dr. Fitch, the State Entomologist of New York; 2d, that
it is what naturalists term a "gall," produced by some unknown insect
depositing its eggs in the twig--just as the well-known "oak-apples"
are produced by a Gall-fly, (_Cynips_), depositing its egg in the bud
of the oak--which is the opinion that I myself formerly held and
maintained, before I had fully examined into the subject;
(_Proceedings Ent. Soc., Phil._, III, p.p. 613-618;) and 3d, that it
is what botanists term an epiphytous fungus, growing on the tree as a
mushroom or toad-stool grows on the ground, which is the opinion of
the botanist Schweinitz, and which has recently been re-asserted by
Mr. Glover, the Entomologist of the Bureau of Agriculture at
Washington, (_Ag'l Rep._, 1863, p. 572.) This last is the opinion
which, upon full inquiry, I have now adopted.

"Before discussing these theories, the facts arrived at by myself in
the summer of 1865, must first be briefly noticed. It should be
premised that the old, dry Black-knot remains on the tree for many
years, and that the place to look for the new Black-knot is on such
trees as have been already attacked and are loaded with old
Black-knot, without being as yet completely killed by it.

"1st. By the middle of June the new Black-knot is pretty well
developed, and may then be readily distinguished from the old by its
dull, opaque, brown-black color, while the old is coal-black and more
or less glossy. When cut into, it is found to be fleshy inside, like
an apple, but not juicy, and of a pale greenish-yellow color, with
fibres radiating from the axis of the twig, while the old Black-knot
is internally hard and woody, and of a reddish-brown or rust-red
color. The brown-black color of the external surface is retained till
the last week in July, when the surface of the new Black-knot becomes
gradually covered all over with little, coal-black, hemispherical
plates, appearing when viewed through a pocket glass, about the size
of the head of a pin, each of these is a distinct fungus, named long
ago by Schweinitz '_Sphæria morbosa_.' Even on the old Black-knot this
fungus may be readily seen, at any time of the year, covering its
entire surface. So far I have added little to the information already
published on this subject, except by the specification of dates. But
in addition to these facts, I discovered that about the last of July
or the first week in August, there grows from each fungus on the
surface of the Black-knot a little cylindrical filament about
one-eighth of an inch long, which no doubt bears the seed or "spores,"
as they are technically termed, of the fungus, and that these
filaments very shortly afterwards fall off and disappear, leaving
behind them the hemispherical plates, which alone had been hitherto
noticed by the botanists. In another Epiphytous fungus, which grows
commonly and abundantly in Illinois on the Red Cedar, but which
differs from the Black-knot in being attached to the twig by a very
short stalk or peduncle, and in being roundish and externally of a
reddish-brown color instead of elongate and black, there is a
precisely similar phenomenon; except that the plates and filaments are
very much larger, and that each filament, when it falls off, leaves a
ragged scar behind it. In a single specimen of Black-knot noticed
August 6th, I discovered that the filaments not only covered the
entire surface of the Black-knot itself, except where a few of them
had already fallen off, but that they were thinly studded over the
twig for an inch or two above and below the swollen black part; thus
proving that the fungus sometimes extends rather further than on a
cursory view it would appear to do. Towards the middle of August, the
new Black-knot, having perfected its seed, gradually dries up and
becomes internally of a reddish-brown color. In other words, like so
many other annual plants, it dies shortly after it has perfected its
seed, just as a stalk of wheat or of corn dies shortly after the grain
is ripe.

"2d. During the months of June and July I collected from time to time
very numerous specimens of Black-knot, some of which I cut into to see
what larvæ they contained, and some I preserved to see what perfect
insects could be bred from them. Besides seven specimens of the common
"Curculio," which many persons had previously bred from Black-knot, I
bred for the first time therefrom no less than five distinct species
of insects, none of which can be considered as gall-makers, but not a
single true gall-maker; and I can confirm Dr. Fitch's assertion, that
some specimens are wholly free from larvæ of any kind when cut into.

"We will now take up in order the three different theories respecting
the nature and origin of Black-knot, which, as already stated, have
been maintained by different writers.

"1st. _That Black-knot is a mere disease like the cancer._--Dr. Fitch,
who maintains this opinion, allows that the black granules found on
the Black-knot are a true fungus, 'that the surface of these
excrescences, when mature, is always covered with this plant,' and
that 'this plant never grows, or at least has never been found, in any
other situation.' (_Address N.Y. State Ag'l Soc._, 1860, p. 21.) * * *

"2d. _That Black-knot is a gall._--As already stated, there is no true
gall-making insect that inhabits the Black-knot, so far as I can
discover on the fullest and most extensive investigation that I have
been able to give to the subject. The minute holes commonly found in
the old dry Black-knot, which are too large either for the 'Curculio'
or for the small moths bred by myself from Black-knot, are of a
suitable size for either of the two dipterous' insects which I have
enumerated in a note as bred by myself from Black-knot. Consequently
the argument which I based upon the existence of these minute holes
(_Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil._ III, p. 614) falls to the ground; and
although I found on one occasion the larva of a Gall-gnat embedded in
a cell in a Black-knot, yet this was most probably that of the Guest
Gall-gnat which I actually bred from Black-knot, as stated in the
note, and not of a true gall-making Gall-gnat.

"3d. _That Black knot is a fungus._--Just as Dr. Fitch, having proved
to his own satisfaction that Black-knot is neither a gall nor a
fungus, infers by the method of exhaustion that it must be a disease;
so, having proved that it is neither a disease nor a gall, we may
infer by the method of exhaustion that it must be a fungus, or rather
an assemblage of funguses. In confirmation of this theory may be
adduced the very remarkable analogies between the structure of the
Black-knot and that of the fungus, described above as occurring on Red
Cedar. That this last is really and truly a fungus and not a gall, is
shown by the fact, that it is scarcely ever inhabited by insects; for
out of hundreds of specimens that I have cut into, both green and dry,
not more than two or three contained the larvæ of the moths, but one
contained what was probably the larva of an Ichneumon-fly, and all the
rest were perfectly solid and unbored. On the other hand, Black-knot
is so infested by insects, that it is almost impossible to find a
mature specimen that is not all bored up by them. The cause of this
remarkable difference may be attributed to the well-known repugnance
of almost all kinds of insects for Red Cedar.

"If, then, Black-knot is a fungus, and if, as I think I have shown, it
is an annual plant propagating itself by seed or the so-called
'spores,' and the 'spores' make their appearance about the end of July
in latitude 41° 30', then it must be obvious that if all the
Black-knot on a particular tree is cut off and destroyed in the
fore-part of July, or a little earlier or later as you go further
south or further north, an effectual stop will be put to its further
propagation. It is true that the 'spores' are in the form of an
impalpable powder, so that they may be carried some considerable
distance from other infected trees by the wind; and it may possibly be
further true, that certain 'spores' may lie dormant in the bark for
over a year, as the seeds of weeds will often lie dormant in the
ground. Still, with all these possible drawbacks, I have little doubt
that the above remedy will, as a general rule, if applied according to
directions, be found effectual."

The foregoing is interesting as giving the conclusions of an
entomologist who had investigated the subject, and arrived at the same
result that had been reached by a botanist many years before.
Schweinitz, in 1832, published the correct history of the Black-knot
in the Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. In the
_American Agriculturist_, April, 1863, p. 113, Mr. C.F. Austin
confirmed Schweinitz's observations, and gave a popular account of the
botany of this fungus, with figures. It may be considered as fully
established that the knot is of vegetable origin; and whenever insects
or larvæ are found in it, it is only because they find a diseased
portion of the tree suited to their necessities.


ROT AND MILDEW upon the grape both destroy our crops, and render the
vines unhealthy. Would that I were able to give the reader some
encouragement as to its cause and prevention, or cure; but some of our
oldest and most experienced vine-planters have come to the conclusion,
as to treatment, that "the more they find out, the more they don't
know." It is now generally conceded that it is caused by a fungus
growth. That on the leaves is probably the _Oidium Tuckeri_, and it is
generally supposed that the mildew and rot of the berries is owing to
the same cause. The microscope clearly indicates its fungoid
character. As to the causes, it must be admitted that the weather
favors or prevents its access, and that so far it is a proximate
cause, but that the spores are the true origin of the trouble. The
Cincinnati Horticultural Society, whose members have long had
opportunities of studying this malady, have come to the following
conclusions, which, it will be seen, are not very satisfactory.

    _To the Cincinnati Horticultural Society_:--We have been
    appointed by you to discharge a certain function. Having
    examined the premises and considered the subject, we do now
    report: That, notwithstanding the discouragements attendant upon
    the experience of most vine-dressers during the past season, we
    are determined to persevere in viticulture, for the following
    among other reasons:

    We have our capital invested in a way which _has been_
    profitable, and we believe _will be_ so again.

    Our lands are occupied with a growth that has required time and
    labor to produce, and which we are unwilling to sacrifice.

    We do not believe that the diseases to which the vines and fruit
    have been subjected, are dependent upon long pruning or short
    pruning, upon deep culture or shallow, nor any of the causes to
    which it has been attributed, that are under the immediate
    control of man, but that the cause is CLIMATIC.

    We do not believe that the rot and mildew can be warded off by
    leaving the wood upon the vines, nor that the usual vineyard
    method called short pruning, will render our vineyards more
    subject to this disease.

    We do believe, however, that we have yet much to learn in regard
    to the _philosophy of pruning_ which it were well for us to
    study, and that by so doing we may gather some useful hints in
    relation to this very important part of a vine-grower's duties.

    We do believe, as a result of our observations, that some
    varieties of grapes are more healthy and vigorous than others;
    and, on the other hand, that some are peculiarly subject to the
    inroads of these maladies which have so terribly affected the
    fruit, the foliage, and the green wood of our vines. We do
    firmly believe, that our societies should avoid recommending the
    extensive planting of any trees or vines that have not proved
    themselves general healthy, and free from the maladies in
    question, for a number of years, after trial in different
    situations.

    We do believe that systematic efforts should be made with
    different remedial and preventive agents, to avert the disasters
    that have overtaken our vine-crops of late years, and, with this
    view, as we have reason to believe that the difficulty depends
    upon the existence of some epiphytic plant, and as we are
    informed that sulphur and sulphate of iron exert an obnoxious
    influence upon the whole class of fungi, we recommend our
    brother vine-dressers to take courage, and to make vigorous and
    systematic efforts to ward off the difficulty the coming season,
    by the regular and persevering applications of these substances
    to their grape vines.

    For your encouragement, we will also refer you to the history of
    the vineyards of Europe, which have suffered in like manner, and
    which have at length recuperated their energies and become
    productive. Why may not the same good fortune await us?

                             Very respectfully submitted, by
                                           R. BUCHANAN, Chairman.

FOOTNOTES:

[16] Trans. Horticultural Society, London, Vol. II, p. 308; and Am.
Journal of Science and Arts, March, 1840.

[17] Trans. Cincinnati Horticultural Society, 1865.

[18] Cincinnati Hort. Soc. Report.



CHAPTER VI.

THE SITE FOR AN ORCHARD.

  A MATTER OF IMPORTANCE, NOT OF MERE CONVENIENCE. LOW VALLEYS
    LEAST DESIRABLE. BASINS, EVEN IF ELEVATED, SUBJECT TO FROSTS.
    LOCAL DIFFERENCES OF TEMPERATURE, OFTEN FATAL TO TENDER
    VEGETATION. THE FROST LINE NOT DEPENDENT UPON MERE ELEVATION,
    BUT UPON RELATIVE ALTITUDE. MODERATE BLUFFS BESIDE VALLEYS, OR
    RIDGES IN A PRAIRIE, ARE BETTER THAN HIGH VALLEYS AMONG
    MOUNTAINS. DRIFT FORMATIONS, PRESENT INEQUALITIES OF SURFACE.
    FAVORABLE INFLUENCE OF THE WATER OF RIVERS AND LAKES UPON THE
    CLIMATE. INSULAR POSITIONS AND LACUSTRINE SITUATIONS HAVE A
    PECULIAR CLIMATE. FOGS. LATENT HEAT BECOMING SENSIBLE.
    METEOROLOGY WILL FURNISH AID TO THE ORCHARDIST. COLD STORMS.
    _Aspect_. PROTECTION FROM WINDS, ESPECIALLY A PRAIRIE QUESTION.
    EFFECTS OF AGITATION IN THE ATMOSPHERE. BELTS AND SCREENS OF
    TIMBER DESIRABLE. WINTER KILLING OFTEN DEPENDENT UPON THE
    CONDITIONS OF THE TREE. VARIETIES MOST SUBJECT TO THIS. LISTS.
    SOILS, PERMEABLE AND TENACIOUS. ADAPTATION OF SORTS TO SOILS.
    GEOLOGICAL FORMATIONS TO BE OBSERVED IN MAKING SELECTIONS.


SITE.--The selection of a suitable site for an orchard is a matter of
no small moment to him who would be a successful grower of fine
fruits. Without, at this time, pausing to inquire into the characters
of the soil, let us examine more particularly the _aspect_ of the
field to be appropriated to this important crop; for the orchard is a
permanent investment, and so much depends upon the site, that we
should make some sacrifice of our convenience, rather than commit any
error in this particular. In the first place, then, let it be
understood that the orchard should be well exposed to the sun and air.
The least desirable positions for orchard planting are narrow valleys,
particularly limestone valleys in a mountainous country, traversed by
a small brook, or where the surface is _spouty_ from springs or
subjacent water. Even if such depressions are considerably elevated,
but surrounded by higher and abrupt elevations, they will be found
obnoxious to late and early frosts in spring and fall, especially the
former, which are often disastrous in such situations, after the
fruit-buds have expanded in these sheltered nooks. Every one at all
conversant with meteorological observations made in a broken country,
is aware of the different range of temperature that will be indicated
by instruments suspended at different elevations.[19] When the cooling
influence of radiation has lowered the temperature of the surface of
the earth and of objects near it, the stratum of air in immediate
contact will be chilled, and growing heavier, will flow down into the
most depressed situations, and, accumulating there, will cause a
difference of several degrees of temperature. This, when near the
freezing point, will be of the greatest consequence to tender
vegetation, which may be preserved in perfect safety at forty degrees,
but will be destroyed at thirty degrees, or even at a higher point, in
some cases.

The _frost line_ becomes a very important subject of inquiry in the
selection of an orchard site, and in some countries we find that its
position may be definitely settled within a limited range of
elevation; not that a certain level can be indicated, above which
there will always be an immunity from frost, while all below will
suffer, but we may approximate, in certain situations, so nearly as to
indicate that certain sites are safe or unsafe.

Nor is it the absolute elevation alone that is to be taken into the
account; in any given locality, we may assume that the higher the
orchard is situated above the water levels, the safer it will be, and
that the lowest depressions are the most unsafe or frosty. It is not
always the mere elevation, but rather the relative elevation of the
site, that renders it more desirable than another in the same region.
There are many orchards that are situated upon a moderate bluff, with
a rapid descent of only a few feet or yards, into a swale or valley of
moderate extent; these we find to be uninjured, when another at a
greater elevation, but in a depressed basin surrounded by higher
lands, will be found to have suffered from the influence of frost. In
the one case, the cold air could flow off rapidly into the adjoining
depression, while in the other, the cold air from adjoining slopes
would collect, and accumulate in the situations described.

In the great plateaus of the world, we often find immense tracts of
land so nearly of the same level as scarcely to afford sufficient
drainage for the surplus water; of course, we should expect to find,
in such places, little variation of temperature arising from
difference in elevation. But even in such situations, whether we
examine the table-lands of our timbered regions, or the extended
areas of the prairie country, we shall find that the drift formation
which covers these vast tracts, has not been distributed evenly, but
that there are successive rolls or swells frequently recurring, which
give, in some instances, considerable variations of level. A bold
ridge, of fifty feet or more in hight, rises abruptly from the level
prairie, stretching along for miles, and affording admirable exposures
for orchard sites. Such places are observed to be free from late and
early frosts. In other places, there is an abrupt depression of the
surface, answering the same purpose--drawing off the cold air. These
may be very moderate in their extent, as the prairie sloughs, or they
may be small vales, the courses of the minor streams, or of larger
extent, the valleys of rivers, or the depressions of lakes. In these
latter cases, the modifying influences of considerable bodies of water
enter into the frost problem as an element of no mean value.

It may be asked: How do these masses of water affect the frost?
Science answers: By their evaporated moisture influencing the
atmosphere. This may save us from the blighting influence of frost, by
enveloping the frozen vegetation in a wet blanket of fog; enabling it
to be thawed in the dark, as it were, by which we avoid the influence
of a bright sunshine, that would have destroyed the tissues had they
been suddenly exposed to it when frozen. An equally important result
is derived from the direct influence of the humidity of the
atmosphere, which modifies the temperature remarkably, as in the
immediate vicinity of large bodies of water. Insular situations
especially, even when low, are known to have a more genial climate in
consequence of this condition of the atmosphere, which depends upon
the large amount of caloric that is present in the latent form, in the
vapor, and which becomes sensible heat as fast as the moisture is
condensed; as well as by the sensible caloric, the absolute warmth of
the water, affecting the temperature of the atmosphere.

We thus see that very opposite situations, in regard to mere elevation,
may both be recommended for orchards; but the latter are the exceptions
rather than the rule, for we can not always count upon the saving
influence of a fog, nor are the modifying effects of a moderate sheet of
water always to be depended upon at the time when most needed. Still, we
may find a few favored spots, where an insular position, in a lacustrine
situation, receives a double influence--acting at both extremities of
the season of vegetation, in quite an opposite way, but in both acting
favorably. In such places we shall discover that the spring opens late,
being retarded by the cold atmosphere flowing over the chilled waters,
that may be even icy, when inland places in the same latitude are
rejoicing in a mild and genial temperature, tempting the expansion of
the flower-buds. Vegetation on an island thus situated is retarded until
all danger of frost has passed, and the air has received the full
benefit of warmth from the water. Then, again, in the autumn, when we
are in danger from the access of an early frost, such as sometimes,
north of latitude forty degrees, destroys the whole crop of corn, almost
universally, over hundreds of miles, these favored spots have really a
warmer atmosphere, from the influence of a great extent of water, that
has enjoyed a summer's sunshine, and which warms the air by giving off
its heat very steadily, but slowly; and besides, as the surface of the
land cools by radiation and condenses the watery vapor, it receives
accessions of temperature that had been locked up, or was insensible in
the vapor. Hence we find that in these places, though the opening of
spring was retarded a month, the approach of winter and autumnal frosts
is warded off for two months, making the season really one month longer
than in the same latitude inland.

It must be confessed, however, that the subject of meteorology is not
fully understood. We have but a glimmering of the light that we hope
is to be shed upon the subject when the deductions from millions of
observations, long continued and systematically conducted, shall have
been wrought out for the benefit of the orchardist and the general
agriculturist.

We also have storms accompanied by a low temperature, passing across
the country, in which, at times, the greatest intensity of cold is at
the southern border. Such a one passed from the west to the east in
January, 1852, in which the mercury, near Marietta, O., sank to thirty
degrees below zero; at Zanesville, O., on the same river, it was
twenty-seven degrees; at Lancaster, O., thirty-two degrees; while at
Cleveland, O., it was only fifteen degrees below, and at Aurora, on
Cayuga Lake, N.Y., influenced by the unfrozen water, its greatest
depression was only four degrees below zero.[20]


ASPECT.--When considering the orchard site, the best _aspect_ of the
ground becomes a matter of interesting inquiry. To all vegetation, the
morning sun is a welcome visitant after the night's repose; for
plants, as well as animals, rest from their functions at night, and
all nature rejoices in the return of day; hence an eastern or a
southeastern exposure is generally preferred, but we find that
practically there is little difference in the different parts of an
orchard that can be fairly referred to this cause. Some planters
prefer a southern slope, thinking that the fullest exposure to the sun
is essential; others select a northern aspect, in the hope that they
may there avoid a too early excitation of vegetable life, and also
that the heats of summer may be thus moderated. In my own opinion, the
aspect is a matter of little consequence to the success of an orchard,
though my predilections are in favor of an easterly exposure. The
danger of a southern aspect in summer, and the advantages of the
northern slope, may, in a great degree, be obtained or obviated by
judicious planting and pruning, as will be set forth in another place.

A theory has been started by those who are opposed to a northerly
slope, that vegetation continues later in the season in such
situations, especially with young trees, and that hence they are not
in so good a condition to resist the access of very severe weather at
the sudden setting in of winter. The hypothesis is not sustained by
long-continued observation, although many facts noted in the autumn
and winter of 1859 induced persons to embrace the theory; these were
particularly the killing of the peach-buds, upon northern slopes, by
the December frosts. There is no evidence that there was any want of
perfect ripening of the wood in these situations; on the contrary, it
is well known that, long before December, the growth of these very
trees had been checked, the wood had been well ripened, and the
foliage had been cast to the ground.

The warmer exposure of a southern slope may, and often does, favor the
premature swelling of the buds and starting of the sap during mild,
pleasant, and bright weather in the winter, and vegetation is often
seriously injured from this cause.

In many parts of the country, it is much more important to consider
the exposure to the prevailing winds of the region, and to select the
site and aspect that shall enjoy the benefit of protection. This, I am
aware, is a proposition that has had opponents; as well as advocates,
in the broad savannas of the West, where, especially, it becomes a
question of the greatest importance. There are benefits as well as
evils attendant upon the motions of the atmosphere. The swaying of the
limbs, when agitated by the breeze, gives them tone and strength, and
may assist in the circulation of the sap within their cells; and the
constant agitation of the atmosphere, commingling the warmer with the
colder portions, will often modify the temperature to such an extent
as to give an immunity from the frost in the open prairie, at the same
moment that the more tranquil air, within a limited clearing of forest
lands, has been cooled down, by radiation, to the frost point. On
every account, therefore, the moderate and reasonable exposure to the
influences of a mobile atmosphere is rather to be courted than
shunned.

The views that have been advanced by the advocates of protection for
orchards on the prairies, have been somewhat modified since they were
first promulgated. We are now told, by those who have opposed
"protection," that narrow timber-belts of evergreens and deciduous
trees, should be planted on the windward sides of orchards, to
moderate, not to cut off, the aerial currents; in this all will agree,
and those who have any sympathy for a tree will surely prefer to have
the blasts, that sweep over miles of open country, somewhat checked
and tempered before reaching either themselves or their orchards. The
testimony as to the effects of cold in sheltered and in exposed
situations, it must be confessed, appears somewhat contradictory; but
this is because we have not all the elements of a complex problem.


WINTER-KILLING.--A most serious evil, both to the nurseryman and
orchardist, is the severe injury sometimes done to the trees by frost.
This is commonly known by the term "winter-killing," which has, at
times, destroyed millions of trees, and thus blighted the hopes of
long-continued labor and large investments of capital. Some
orchardists have been disheartened, and have given up in despair. The
investigation of the causes of this disaster, and the conditions under
which it occurs, will be of great value to future planters; and
though, perhaps, we have not yet at command sufficient data for the
full explanation of the phenomenon, it may be well to look into the
attendant circumstances that have been observed; and as some of the
most important considerations depend upon the soil and exposure, they
may be well introduced in this place.

I have already alluded to the theory, that the north hillsides
maintain a later growth than other situations, and have stated that
the facts do not sustain the position. The warm exposures on southern
slopes and sheltered nooks, are apt to favor the premature starting of
the sap in the mild weather that often occurs during the winter, in
our changeable climate. On the prairies, and on flat lands elsewhere,
an excess of humidity in the soil will contribute to this disaster;
and in such situations we may often observe the most terrible
destruction following a great and sudden change of temperature.
Exposure to long-continued cold, with severe winds, seems to dry up
the juices of the plants, in some instances, and thus effect their
destruction. This, in the far North, is believed to be a frequent
cause of the evil. The condition of the tree upon the access of severe
cold is too important a subject to be lost sight of, and has already
been alluded to.

Of any given variety, the more perfectly dormant the plant, and the
more complete its condition of hybernation, the greater will be its
immunity from this evil. The atmospheric changes and conditions we can
not control, and we can modify them only in a very limited degree, by
hedges, by timber-belts, and by evergreen screens, the value of which
begins to be appreciated. The state of the soil, as to its moisture,
is under our control, and by thorough and surface-drainage, we may
obviate one very important condition that conduces largely to the
injury under consideration--the excess of moisture in and upon the
soil.

The more perfect ripening of the wood, is likewise a matter of great
moment, and this is also subject to our control, particularly in young
trees in the nursery and orchard.

Certain varieties are much more subject to injury from cold than
others. Among these are some of the most thrifty and free growing
sorts. There appears to be an inherent quality of hardiness in others,
that enables them to resist the most trying alternations of
temperature. Why some should be thus hardy, and others tender, we do
not know, but it is not their Northern or Southern origin; some having
the former are most tender. Sad experience has taught us the fact, and
since the dreadful winters of the past decade, in some parts of the
West, the first question asked, respecting a new variety of fruit, is
that regarding its hardiness. Pomological societies have endeavored to
collate the names of the hardy and tender kinds, and have thus, by
their united experience, been enabled to present lists of a few of the
known hardy apples, for the guidance of planters.


SOILS.--It will be proper, in this place, to say something about the
soils best adapted to orcharding. The apple is a gross feeder, but a
good-natured one, and, like a good citizen and a cosmopolite, it
submits to surrounding circumstances. In our own country, it
flourishes alike on the granite hills of New England, or the mountain
ranges stretching thence to the southwest, in the limestone valleys
amid these ridges, on the sandstones and shales that form the
southeastern rim of the great valley of the West, upon the vast drift
formations that overlie the rocks from the tide-waters of the St.
Lawrence to the sources of the Missouri, upon the rich diluvial and
alluvial deposits of our river bottoms, and our vast prairies. I have
said that the apple flourishes _alike_ upon these various soils and
under these so different circumstances; perhaps this expression should
be somewhat modified; there are varieties that appear peculiarly
adapted by their nature for all of these different situations; there
are, perhaps, none that will thrive equally well in all.

The orchardists of each section of the country must ascertain for
themselves what varieties are best adapted to the peculiarities of
their soil and climate; hence, no one region can furnish lists of
varieties to be taken as a guide for the planting of others
differently situated. Hence, too, the importance of local
organizations for pomological study, and the great value of the labors
of those who are engaged in the prosecution of these investigations in
the American Pomological Society, which will, it is fondly hoped,
ultimately give us corrected lists of fruits that are adapted to all
the varying circumstances of soil and climate, in each of the great
geological regions of our country. This has already been proposed by
the excellent general chairman of Fruit Committees, as an important
work for the National Society; and so soon as the subject receives a
fair consideration, its merits will be appreciated, and a union of the
best minds, and the best experience of the pomologists of each
district, will be concentrated upon this labor.

Let me not be misapprehended in the statement, just made, with regard
to the wide distribution of which the apple appears to be capable.
There are soils and situations, in all of the widely-separated regions
alluded to, that are wholly unfitted to orchard culture, upon which it
were folly to plant an apple-tree; and yet, many of those may be
rendered entirely suitable, if subjected to treatment, suggested by
science, and executed by human ingenuity and industry; the missing
element may be supplied, the compactness of the soil may be overcome
by mechanical comminution, and by that effected by aeration; the
excessive moisture may be removed by surface and thorough drainage;
other disqualifications, such as those of situation and climate, may
not be so readily overcome; they have already been alluded to; and
even in them we may hope for improvement with the advance of science.

Different soils may be designated as porous and compact. Leaving out
of view for the present, their chemical composition, let us look to
their mechanical structure. Porous soils are composed of materials
that always allow of the escape of superabundant moisture; they are
generally underlaid by beds of diluvial gravels, or by rocks of a
porous character. Such lands are peculiarly adapted to orchard
planting. The compact soil, on the contrary, is made up of the finest
materials, among which alumina largely predominates. Such are called
clayey soils or clays, and are among the most valuable upon the
surface of the earth, not because alumina is a component of
vegetation, but because the elements associated with it, are all of
them in a state of extreme comminution.

Clays are compact soils, not only by reason of the fineness of their
particles, but because the predominating alumina swells and becomes
pasty when it is wet, and thus prevents the passage of water through
them. On this account, soils that are too compact, especially if they
be underlaid by stiff clay subsoils, are not so well adapted to
orcharding as those that are more porous. This is especially true of
level lands, upon which water accumulates, to the great injury of the
fruit-trees planted upon them; but even in hilly situations, with good
natural surface drainage, the excess of clay is indicated by a
"spouty" condition of the surface. So many varieties succeed in clayey
lands, however, and some are so superior in their products when
planted upon clays, that we need not be discouraged by this apparent
difficulty; it may be overcome by the ingenuity of the skillful
farmer. Thorough or under-drainage will remedy all the evils of clay
soils, and bring out their superior advantages. This will be more
fully explained in another place. Much may be done toward removing the
redundant moisture, even in the flat clay lands of the prairies and
other extended plateaus, by the simple means of ridging up the lands
with the plow. What is familiarly called "back-furrowing" enables the
plowman to raise a ridge upon which to plant his trees, and at the
same time he opens a furrow for the escape of surface water. While a
portion of the redundant moisture is thus removed, another great
object of drainage is not attained: I allude to the aeration of the
soil.

       *       *       *       *       *

From what has been said upon a previous page, it might be inferred,
that as the apple may be cultivated upon soils of such great diversity
as those that occur over the range of territory indicated, as well as
upon the western coast of this continent, and in the temperate regions
of the Old World, the peculiar soils that are characterized by their
underlying rocks would be equally acceptable, whether these were
granites, shales, sandstones, or limestones. Such is not the fact,
however, and we have found, in this utilitarian age, that geology has
much to do with the planting of an orchard. There are varieties that
succeed better upon one rock than upon another, and there are those
that fail to be remunerative when transplanted to a rock, which to
them is obnoxious, though it may be a very paradise to other
varieties.

       *       *       *       *       *

These observations are becoming a matter of great importance to
orchardists, and we may hope that the study of this subject will be
developed into some certain data, and that the future discussions of
our pomological societies will furnish reliable information to orchard
planters.

FOOTNOTES:

[19] See Lawrence Young's Experiments, in _Western Horticultural
Review_, Vol. I. page 190, in Report of Kentucky State Fruit Committee
to American Pomological Congress, for 1850.

[20] Western Horticultural Review; also, Statistics of Storm, Jan. 1,
1864.



CHAPTER VII.

PREPARATION OF THE SOIL FOR AN ORCHARD.

  DRAINAGE. ITS ADVANTAGES. SURFACE DRAINS. MADE WITH THE PLOW. MAY
    BE FOLLOWED BY TILES, OR MOLE PLOW. THOROUGH PLOWING.
    TRENCHING. TRENCH PLOWING. SUBSOIL PLOWING. MANURING NOT OFTEN
    NEEDED IN A NEW COUNTRY. CHARACTER OF MANURES. LIME, ALKALIES.
    CLOVER. HOW CLOVER ACTS. EXHAUSTED FIELDS TO BE IMPROVED BEFORE
    PLANTING. DIGGING THE HOLES. DONE WITH THE PLOW. STAKES. THEIR
    FUNCTION AND OBJECTS. NOT TO TIE TO. HOW TO TIE A TREE WHEN
    NECESSARY. PLANTING. PREPARING THE TREES. TRIMMING, BRANCHES
    AND ROOTS. PUDDLING. SET TO THE NORTH OF THE STAKES. DEPTH TO
    PLANT. LEANING TREES TO THE SOUTHWEST. SEASON FOR PLANTING.
    FALL OR SPRING BANKING UP AFTER FALL PLANTING. MULCHING, ITS
    OBJECTS. MATERIAL TO BE USED. CLOVER MULCH.


The more thoroughly the preparation of the soil, the greater will be
the success of the orchardist. Good results, fair crops amply
remunerating all outlay, often follow the most careless or almost
accidental orchard planting; but trees that are properly set, in
well-prepared land, upon a judiciously selected orchard site, and for
a few years subjected to proper culture, are infinitely more
satisfactory in their results, and much more profitable to their
owner.

The importance of drainage can not be too often reiterated, not merely
for the sake of leading away the excess of water that at some seasons
prevails in much of our best lands, but on account of the more
thorough admission of the beneficial air to the soil and the roots;
this, of course, can only be had by thorough under-draining of the
land. Spouty or springy land is not to be selected for an orchard, and
yet we often find spots of this character in fields that we wish to
appropriate to orcharding; these should certainly be drained.

Mere surface drainage may be cheaply effected by the plow, and should
always be done in level lands, especially where the subsoil is compact
and tenacious. The expense of thorough drainage is so great, and the
success of our orchards, as commonly planted, even on ill-prepared
ground, is so generally good, that we can not expect the majority of
farmers to use drain tile at present. Still, the importance of
draining can not be doubted: the best results follow its use, and he
who would reap the best harvests, and attain the highest success, will
underdrain his land. For the most of us, surface drainage alone, is
all that we can do; this should never be neglected, for no crop can be
successful in land that is subject to an occasional drenching with a
surplus of water that stands for days, filling it to the surface,
causing the fermentation and souring of the organic matter it
contains. The fruit tree, certainly, will not thrive in such a
situation, and is as sure to fall into a decline, or consumption, if
condemned to wet feet, as would a delicate girl under similar
exposure.

The expense of under-draining is the only objection that can possibly
be urged against it; even this is no real objection, for it has been
repeatedly proved that the outlay, whatever it be, insures such
increase of crops as to pay a good interest upon the investment,
except where the natural under-drainage of the soil, by a porous
stratum of rock or gravel, already provides a ready discharge of the
superabundant water. It is thus only a question of the cash capital to
be invested in the business, for most of our orchard sites are of such
a character of soil as to be immensely benefited by the process. With
many of us, in this country, the capital is not to be had, or can not
be spared, to put underground; our means are limited, and we do not
drain our farms, as we should.

Surface drainage may be more cheaply effected, and, on land at all
flat and retentive of moisture, it should never be neglected. It may
be done while preparing the soil for planting--done with the plow. It
has already been premised that the orchard site should be elevated;
such land is generally somewhat undulating; indeed, the flattest field
that should ever be planted, will always present some inequalities of
surface. Let these be noted before laying off the lands for the plow;
calculate to have the furrows cross these inequalities of surface, and
gather the furrows in narrow lands, lapping them together just where
the row of trees is to be placed. This process may be repeated, and
thus quite a ridge will be thrown up for the trees, and a
corresponding depression will be left in the middle of the space
between the rows, which will serve as a gutter to carry off an excess
of surface water; thus, a cheap method of superficial drainage may be
effected by the mere plowing of the land judiciously; and this will be
found of great advantage in level lands with a stiff subsoil. When
such fields are selected for the orchard, this plan should always be
pursued; nor does it preclude the subsequent use of tile, which is the
best draining material, at any period afterward. These gutters being
at a distance from the tree rows, can be deepened, and the tile laid,
without disturbing the roots; or the mole drain plow may be drawn
through these furrows, if the subsoil be of a suitably tenacious
character to admit of the use of this implement.

Very satisfactory preparation of the soil is done with the plow and a
good team; indeed, except for the limited surface of a small fruit
garden, no other and no better implement need be desired. With it we
can produce a very thorough disintegration and perfect subversion of
the soil; these are the objects we have in view. But here we have a
choice of instruments, in which we must be guided by the character of
the soil to be dealt with. If this be shallow, or thin, and underlaid
by a sterile subsoil that would be unfit for the surface, we must plow
more shallow, but there are few sites, in the Western country, where
we do not find a sufficient depth of soil to satisfy the most thorough
plowman, and beneath it a subsoil that will be benefited by aeration,
and which will become good surface soil if subjected to the influences
of the atmosphere.

We have few soils that may not be trenched with the plow or spade to
any depth that is attainable. And here let me explain what is meant by
_trenching_: it is the transposition of two layers of the soil more
thoroughly, and to a greater depth, than is done by simply digging or
plowing, in which a limited amount, only a thin layer of the soil, is
inverted. In trenching with the spade, a narrow strip of land is
excavated across one end of the piece to be trenched, eighteen or
twenty inches wide, and as deep as the spade can take it out at two
diggings. The earth thus removed is thrown aside, to be used at the
end of the work. The trench being now open, a similar space is laid
off, and the surface soil, to the depth of the spade, is dug and
thrown into the bottom of the first trench, after which the subsoil is
dug to the same depth, the length of the space, and thrown on top of
the surface soil that was put into the bottom of the first trench. A
second trench is thus opened, and a third strip being then marked off,
the same processes are continued, until the whole piece is trenched,
when the pile of earth first excavated is brought into requisition to
complete the work, by filling up the last trench. This is common
trenching, which reverses the two layers of soil, and stirs the whole
to the depth of eighteen or twenty inches. It is an expensive
operation, but very desirable in a small fruit-garden--not at all
applicable for extensive orchard planting, though often applied to the
preparation of extensive vineyards.

Trench plowing is conducted upon the same principle, and is done by
using two plows in the same furrow, the first taking off the surface
soil and throwing it into the deep furrow of the second plow, which is
so constructed as to lift the lower soil and throw it high up over the
furrow slice laid by the first, and at the same time, leaving a deep
furrow open behind it to receive the next cut of surface soil. The
two layers are thus inverted and reversed at the same time, and with a
proper plow, the whole soil is finely comminuted and reduced to a
perfect seed-bed, suitable for a garden. To perform this work, the
Double Michigan plow is the favorite implement. It should be properly
constructed, for much depends upon having the plow well made; the
mold-boards should be formed upon the best models for their respective
offices of reversing the surface soil, and of upheaving and
comminuting that which lies below it; and these mold-boards should be
made of steel. Such plows are manufactured at several points, but all
the Double Michigan patterns are not equally good, and some are quite
unsatisfactory.

The Deep Tiller plows will do very good work in certain soils, and may
often be used to advantage in the preparation of the orchard grounds,
either alone, or to follow another plow when trench plowing is
desired, and the trench plow is not at hand. These plows, as made at
Moline, Illinois, are much used, and give great satisfaction in that
State.

Subsoiling is a very useful addendum to deep plowing; its object is to
stir the deep layers of the soil without bringing the earth to the
surface. This aerates and loosens the subsoil, and thus effects the
combined objects of increasing the fertility of the land, of retaining
moisture for the crops, and, to a certain extent, of allowing any
excess of moisture to percolate away. Subsoiling is most efficacious
when combined with draining, but it is of great use without, unless
where permanent water is found near the surface. There is a great
improvement in the subsoil plows. Those first made were provided with
a share on one side, and this wing, as it was called, was tilted up
several inches, thus increasing the draft unnecessarily. We now use a
sharp steel share, of diamond shape, cutting on both edges, right and
left, and very slightly elevated in the centre, only two inches, or
two and a half at the most. If the soil is stirred with this
implement, the hard earth at the bottom of the furrow, made by the
turning plow, is thoroughly broken up, and it does not fall directly
back into its place, but the crumbled portions support one another,
and the furrow appears to be filled with loose earth. The result is
astonishing, when we consider the flat, diamond-shaped plow sole that
has done the work.

The depth to which this implement may be made to disintegrate the
soil, depends upon its strength, the power of the team, and the
character of the subsoil. I have seen it tear up several inches of the
shales and other rocks, and aid in making a good soil of them. I have
seen it sink to the beam in the alluvium of our river bottoms, and I
have seen it almost refuse to do its office in some of the hard white
clay subsoils, when drawn by a heavy team, while in more yielding but
tenacious clays I have seen it trembling under the strain of three
yoke of good cattle, that were scarcely able to pull it through the
adhesive soil.


MANURING.--The importance of the application of manures to the
orchard, as a part of the preparation of the soil, will depend
entirely upon its strength and condition. Trees are great feeders;
they need a reasonably fertile soil, for though their roots run wide
and deep, in search of nourishment, if the necessary food be not in
the soil, they will certainly fail to thrive as they should. The
analysis of the ashes of our fruit trees, which contain the elements
they have derived from the soils on which they grew, enables us to
ascertain what kinds of plant-food should be present in the soil we
are about to use, or what materials we may safely and judiciously add
to it as manures. Lime, and the alkalies, are generally safe and
useful additions, in connection with clover as a green manure; these
may be applied to almost any worn soils with great advantage. Clover
is an invaluable assistant. Its long roots pierce deeply into the
soil, bringing up from below hidden treasures, which are left in the
upper layers, modified by the digestion of the plant, and by new
chemical changes and combinations, rendered fit food for succeeding
crops. The mere disintegration of the soil produced by the roots of
clover, is, in itself, a valuable mechanical preparation, quietly
performed, without plow or team. The clover lea may be limed with
great advantage; an application of twenty-five to fifty bushels of
slacked lime to the acre will improve the growth of clover, and will
exert its appropriate influence upon the soil, with very happy results
for the succeeding crop of orchard trees. Alkalies may be applied, in
the form of wood ashes, either at the preparation of the soil, or at
any subsequent period, as may be found most convenient. Stable manure,
and composts, will seldom be required in lands that have not been
nearly exhausted, and therefore unfit for an orchard. In case it
becomes necessary to use such a field, the manuring should be done all
over the surface, and a crop of clover should be grown and plowed in
before planting the trees; upon no account should fresh stable manure
be brought into immediate contact or close proximity with the roots
of the young tree. If the necessity for planting on such a piece of
land impel immediate action, very thoroughly decomposed composts may
be applied, mixed with the soil about the tree, but successive
applications of manures will be needed over the entire surface, for
the roots are destined to occupy the whole extent of soil between the
trees.

The next step in the preparation is the digging of the holes for
planting the trees. Some persons lay great stress upon the importance
of having these made large and deep, which may be very well in a grass
lawn with a few trees, but it is a very expensive matter for the
orchard of thousands or even of hundreds. The holes should be prepared
as wide as the field, and as deep as the plow can stir it, as already
directed; that is the kind of holes that should be dug; if the land
have been prepared in this manner, the opening of the holes and
planting the orchard, either deep or shallow, becomes a very simple
matter.

Having determined the distance at which the trees shall stand from one
another, and the order or plan of planting, flag poles are to be set
in the line to be occupied by the first row of trees, and a deep
furrow is then opened with a large plow, drawn by a pair of steady
horses. The poles are moved and set for the next row of trees, and so
on, until the whole is laid off, making the furrows as straight as
possible. This done, a single horse with a lighter plow is driven
across these deep furrows at the proper distance, so that the
intersections shall indicate the stations for the trees. Strong
stakes, about four or five feet long, are then driven firmly at these
intersections, and if the marking-out has been well done, they will
range in six directions--N. and S.--E. and W.--N.-E. and S.-W.--N.-W.
and S.-E., or to corresponding points of the compass; for it is not a
matter of much consequence in what direction the rows of trees stand.
The holes are the deep furrows, and tree stations are the spaces
beside the stakes, always maintaining the same relative position
throughout the orchard; the northern side is to be preferred, on
account of the partial shade of the stake. By adopting this plan,
there need be no trouble, as is often experienced, in sighting the
trees to have them straight, for if the stakes have been correctly
placed, the trees will also be right, and will range in every
direction, when planted.

Before dismissing the subject of stakes, let us understand their
object and function: it is not to tie up the trees, and to force them
to attain an erect posture; no, that is not to be effected by staking,
as will be set forth in another place. Rather than tie a tree to a
stake, it were better to cut it down to the ground, and grow it over
again. The real objects of the stakes are, first, to show the planter
where to set a tree; second, to show where the tree has been planted;
third, to indicate to the plowman and to his horse where to exercise
care in passing the infant tree during the first years' culture, for
an intelligent animal will very soon learn what objects it is intended
for him to avoid injuring during his labors in the field; a fourth
function of the stake is to ward off the single-tree which the
careless laborer may allow to strike the tree to its manifest injury,
tearing the bark, and even breaking the stem. The passage of the wagon
through the field will also be directed, by these stakes, to the
interspaces, instead of passing over the trees. Here are reasons
enough for the use of stakes, but tying the trees to them is not among
the number; indeed, it might be called the abuse of the stakes rather
than their use, except in rare cases. Even in the windy prairie
country, no stakes should be used, as supports, in a properly
regulated orchard.

    [Illustration: Fig. 25.--MANNER OF STAKING A TREE.]

When necessary to support a tree with stakes, after an injury or
accident, the plan of C. Rosenstiel, Freeport, Ill., is the best I
have seen. He adopts it as a means of keeping his trees from being
inclined by the wind. He drives a stake firmly into the ground, about
a foot to the southwest of his tree; a band of rye straw is cast about
the tree a few feet from the ground; the two ends are twisted and
entwined together, forming a stiff rope from the tree to the stake,
about which it is then cast, and the ends are secured with a piece of
twine. By this appliance, the tree is maintained in an erect position
without chafing; it can only yield to the wind by waving to the right
or left; the band, by its tension, prevents it from leaving the stake,
and, by its stiffness, holds it at a proper distance, and prevents its
approach.


PLANTING comes next in order to the marking out, or hole-digging, for
these are synonymous; it should be done as soon as possible after the
plow, on account of the fresh furrow with its mellow soil. It is
really a simple matter and upon this method may be executed with great
rapidity. The trees now receive their necessary trimming, which
consists in a liberal shortening of the branches, a careful inspection
of the roots, and a removal with a sharp knife of such as may have
been bruised or torn, and cutting away any mat of fibres; after this,
they should be puddled, and then carried out to their stations by a
boy. The planter follows; with a bright spade he removes any excess of
soil at the station, scraping away such portions of earth as he may
find in the way of the roots when the tree is placed by the stake. If
the furrow has not been recently made, it will be well always to
remove a portion of the surface, so as to have fresh soil next the
roots. The tree being placed near the stake, the roots are carefully
spread out in their natural direction, and the moist mellow earth is
filled in among them, using the fingers when necessary, and gently
shaking the tree so as to leave no empty cavities among the fibres.
Pretty firm pressure should now be made with the foot, especially upon
the fine earth placed above the ends of the roots; this excludes the
air, by bringing the particles of soil in close proximity to the
roots, ready to receive the new fibres that will soon be emitted from
them. It also secures the tree in its place better than tying to the
stake, for each root acts as a guy rope. In this manner the work may
progress very rapidly, and, at the same time, may be well done. Some
planters always pour a liberal supply of water upon the mellow earth,
instead of pressing it with the foot. This will settle the fine soil
about the roots very effectually; fresh earth should always be thrown
on after the water, to prevent the surface from being caked and
cracked.

The depth at which the tree should be planted is a question of
interest. Most authorities and most successful planters endeavor to
regulate this, so that, when settled, the original collar of the young
tree may be at the surface of the ground; deep planting has few
advocates. The position of the tree as to the points of the compass,
is now believed to be a matter of very little moment, although there
are still those who insist that the north side of the tree in the
nursery row should be made to occupy the same position in the orchard.
With low-headed trees this can make no difference; no others are
recommended; on the contrary, if, unfortunately, none but tall trees
with naked stems can be procured, it is advised to cut them back
severely at planting time, so as to form a new head where wanted.
Those who have not the heart to cut back a fine tree, may attempt and
will sometimes succeed in bringing out branches below, by nicking the
bark with a large sharp pruning-knife, at several points along the
stem, on all sides, but especially to the southwest, where the shelter
of the branches is most needed. This, however, requires us to wait at
least one season, and that the most trying one to the young tree,
during which the naked bark is exposed to the sun and insects; and the
winds may add to the difficulty, by inclining the stem from the
southwest. All this may be avoided by planting trees with low
branches, which are becoming more and more common as their merits are
more highly appreciated. Some of the most judicious planters,
especially in windy districts, have adopted the plan of inclining all
their trees to the southwest at the time of planting, expecting thus
to overcome the difficulty so commonly observed everywhere with tall
trees--their leaning to the northeast, and then becoming scorched and
injured by the frost and sun, and damaged by the borers.

The season for planting is a question of some importance, and must be
settled by the attendant circumstances. Fall planting has many
advocates and many advantages, but the fewest practice it. In the far
north, with a long, trying winter approaching, it can not be
recommended; but, as the spring advances, there is a great press of
work; everything is to be done at once, and all is hurry; hence, for
the milder latitudes, with our charming autumnal weather, comparative
leisure, and the soil in good condition, everything invites us to
plant in the autumn, and with those south of latitude forty degrees,
the planting season will often continue until mid-winter. If we
commence this work before the fall of the leaves, care should be taken
to strip these appendages from the trees in the nursery, before
digging them. Instead of leaving the soil about the tree at or a
little above the general level, it should be heaped up in a little
mound, which will shed off the rains, support the stem, and, to some
extent, protect the roots from frost. This last suggestion is a matter
of much importance, for one of the great advantages of autumnal
planting, depends upon the fact that, except in the most severe
weather, the tree is not dormant--the hybernation is not complete; in
mild weather there is some action in the buds and branches, and
considerable activity exists in the roots; new fibres are emitted,
and, with the first opening of spring, the young tree is ready for
its summer's growth. Such is not the case with trees that have been
badly planted in the fall, in a wet, tenacious soil, where their roots
have been immersed in mud and water for months, and the swaying top
has strained them in every direction. For such a soil, draining is
needed; but, even then, the mound will be of material advantage in
fall planting.


MULCHING is a process about which much has been said and written, but
of which, it is to be feared, very little is known and understood. The
very objects of mulching do not appear to be properly appreciated by
many persons. Its uses are two-fold: primarily, to keep the surface of
the earth moist by preventing evaporation, and to maintain that open,
friable condition we always find in the forest, under the natural
mulching of the leaves. Mulching keeps the earth cooler in summer and
warmer in winter; the first, by shading from the burning rays of the
sun, the second, by protecting from frost; the material itself, and
the confined air among it, being bad conductors of heat. Now, what
material shall we use for producing these results? Almost anything
that will fulfill these indications will answer--either stones, chips,
boards, twigs, saw-dust, tan-bark, weeds, straw, either long or cut,
coarse manure, hay, freshly-cut grass, or, perhaps the very best for
all the purposes of mulching, leaves themselves, except that they are
difficult to retain in their place. A combination of leaves and twigs,
small branches or weeds, may be made to answer a very good purpose,
for winter mulching especially. For summer mulching there is another
material which has been found to answer an admirable purpose, though
not mentioned in the above list; it is mellow earth--yes, mellow earth
admirably fulfills most of the conditions of a good mulching material,
but it must be kept mellow by constant stirring. The air is thus
admitted, and deposits its moisture whenever the earth is cooler than
the atmosphere; the presence of the air among the particles of the
soil makes it a worse conductor of heat than when it is compacted
together.

Mulching the newly-planted trees is a very valuable application,
whether in summer or winter, and should be practiced wherever it is
possible, always remembering that we can not well combine with it
culture, which, for the summer treatment, is most essential to the
successful growth of trees, and in winter we shall present a harbor to
the mice if the mulch be placed too near the tree. He who may have
been induced, by the recommendations of high authority, to plant an
orchard in a stiff blue-grass sod, or who may allow such sod to
surround his trees, in the belief that this constitutes a good mulch,
will be sadly disappointed; for, though the surface is shaded, the
grass will absorb the moisture from the soil at the expense of the
young trees. Clover, on the contrary, makes a denser shade, and
seeking its supplies more deeply, is less injurious, while its
abundant broad foliage attracts ample supplies of dew to irrigate the
soil. In this respect it resembles the Indian corn, which is
considered the best crop to put among young trees, as it produces
shade, attracts the dew, and, more than all, it demands and receives
the thorough culture which the trees also require.



CHAPTER VIII.

SELECTION AND PLANTING.

  IMPORTANCE OF JUDICIOUS SELECTION. LARGE TREES NOT DESIRABLE.
    THRIFTY YOUNG TREES PREFERRED. REASONS FOR THE PREFERENCE.
    ADVANTAGES OF SMALLER TREES. LOW HEADS AND THE PROTECTION BY
    LATERAL BRANCHES. PERSONAL INSPECTION AND SELECTION
    RECOMMENDED. DIGGING THE TREES. CAREFULLY AVOID MUTILATION OF
    THE ROOTS. PUDDLING. TYING AND LABELING. PACKING. AVOID
    EXPOSURE TO SUN AND WIND, AND FROST. TREATMENT OF FROZEN TREES
    IN COLD WEATHER. HEELING-IN. MULCHING. MAKING RECORD. DRIED
    TREES, HOW RESTORED. SEASON FOR PLANTING. BANKING THE TREES.
    MULCHING. DISTANCE BETWEEN TREES. DEPENDENT UPON THE HABIT OF
    THE VARIETY. ASSORTING THE VARIETIES ACCORDING TO SIZE. CLOSE
    PLANTING. COMBINATION PLANTING. DIFFERENT CROPS. APPLES AND
    PEACHES, OR CHERRIES. SMALL FRUITS BETWEEN. ORDER OF
    PLANTATION. QUINCUNX. ASSORTING VARIETIES. CONVENIENCE IN
    HARVESTING TO HAVE EACH KIND GROUPED TOGETHER.


We now come to the consideration of a matter of great importance to
the success of the future orchard--the selection of the plants we are
to set therein. No matter how favorable the site, how good the soil,
nor how thorough the preparations may have been; all may be spoiled by
a bad selection of trees, and subsequent disappointment will be the
consequence.

Formerly, and in some sections of the country even now, very erroneous
notions prevailed upon this subject. Large trees, of several years'
growth in the nursery, were preferred by those who were planting
orchards: trees, ready to bear fruit, were eagerly inquired for, and
preferred; even if they had been crowded together so as to be drawn up
to a great hight without any lateral branches, and had formed their
heads at the hight of seven or eight feet, so as to be out of the way
of browsing by cattle and horses, they were the more admired by the
purchasers. Now-a-days there is a great change in the sentiment of
tree-planters as to the age, size, and shape of the trees that are to
be set out.

Thrifty young trees are preferred to older and larger ones on many
accounts. They are more vigorous and will endure the disturbance of
digging, transportation, and change of locality from the nursery to
the orchard, much better than larger and older trees. They are more
easily dug, and will have a larger proportion of roots removed with
them than those which have stood longer in the nursery-rows, so as to
have pushed their fibres beyond the reach of the spade. Such trees are
more stocky, and are furnished with lateral branches, or they should
be so furnished, but these would be smothered and removed from older
trees in crowded rows, as they are usually found in the nurseries. If
these younger trees be not already furnished with laterals and
elements for the formation of low heads, by the judicious treatment of
the nurserymen who produced them, the orchardist can at least bend
them to his will. He may make of them just what he pleases by his own
manipulations at the time of planting or afterwards, without feeling
that he is sacrificing to his fancy and judgment the growth of two or
three years, by freely using the knife and saw, in the removal of the
surplus and overgrown top, leaving him only a bare and mutilated stock
to set out at the beginning of his orchard.

Another advantage of selecting small trees, especially to those at a
distance from the nursery, is, that they are so much more easily
transported, and freight bills are a serious item in the expense
account of a large orchard plantation--these may be reduced to a
minimum by the selection of small instead of large trees. As to
forming the heads of our trees, if we cannot get the nurserymen to do
this for us, since we are unwilling to remunerate them for the extra
labor, and greater space required to form such stocky specimens as we
prefer, the difficulty is obviated by planting out young trees upon
which we may form the heads where we please.

As already suggested, there is a great revolution going on in the
minds of tree-planters as to the proper age for planting. Instead of
the inquiry for huge and cumbrous, overgrown trees, that had stood
four or five years or more in the nursery, we now find a growing
demand for small, stocky trees, of two or three years, or even less.
Of many thriftily growing kinds, good yearlings are much better for
the orchard than large trees, especially such as have been crowded in
the nursery and are devoid of side branches, and whose tall naked
stems are exposed to the burning heats and blasting cold of their new
homes in the open field, and to the depredations of hosts of insects.
Those purchasers, who seek after the tall trees, with bare stems,
running up like fishing poles, they who desire to buy their trees by
the running yard and to get as great a length as possible for their
money, can be accommodated by the nurseryman, who will produce the
article to order; but such planters will soon find that their orchards
are much less satisfactory than those set with short and stocky trees,
and which have been encouraged to branch out so as to form low heads.
As set forth in the chapter upon _The Nursery_, such trees can be
produced, and they are greatly to be preferred on many accounts, but
their production by the nurserymen must depend upon the intelligence
of the orchardists producing a demand for trees of such a character,
and a willingness on their part to pay the grower a liberal price for
the increased labor and expense, (in space at least), requisite for
their production. This no one should object to, for there is economy
in planting good trees; the successful orchardist will purchase the
best; he will not have the refuse or trash that may be offered him at
a low figure, for he well knows that it is dear at any price.

Where it is practicable and within reach, it is best for the planter
to visit the nursery and make his own selection of the trees,
especially if the demand be for a limited number; but he may generally
depend upon the judgment and honesty of the nurseryman, if he has
given his order distinctly as to the shape of the trees he desires to
purchase. In a common nursery, he will often observe at the ends of
the rows, and where there may have been a gap or break in the
continuous line of any variety, so that the trees are less crowded,
some trees that are better furnished with lateral branches, and are
consequently more stocky than where the rows are crowded. Here he
will be likely to find the specimens that suit his fancy, and he will
mark them for removal.


DIGGING.--At the proper season, and for most kinds this is at the fall
of the leaf, the trees should be dug from the ground. This operation,
as usually and necessarily conducted in large establishments, has to
be done expeditiously and with less care than the amateur will be
disposed to bestow upon this very important operation; and it
sometimes happens that he will offer to pay the nurseryman a bonus for
the privilege of digging his own trees with his own hands.

In performing this operation he will be very careful to avoid
mutilating the roots with the spade, or by using more force than is
absolutely necessary in lifting the loosened tree from its bed after
the roots have been pretty thoroughly liberated from the soil. He will
follow the directions given under this head in the appropriate section
of the chapter on _The Nursery_. The importance of puddling the roots
as soon as the trees are dug, cannot be too forcibly impressed upon
the planter and nurseryman; its value to the trees is so great as a
protection of the tender covering of the roots from exposure to the
blighting influences of light, wind, and frost, that the trifling
labor and expense involved in the operation, should not receive a
moment's consideration.

A puddle hole should be within convenient reach of the nursery-rows
where the digging is in progress, and each sort should be taken to it
as soon as dug. The excavation should be about a foot deep, or more,
for large plants, and as wide as is necessary to receive all the roots
of the trees to be puddled. A plentiful supply of water should be at
hand to put into the hole, and fine dry loamy soil should be sifted
into this, or simply thrown in from the shovel, and thoroughly mixed,
so as to bring the fluid to the consistency of thick cream. Into this
mud the roots are dipped, until every fibre is endued with a coating
of the fine material; the trees then are ready for tying snugly
together, and a little dry dirt may be sprinkled or sifted upon the
roots while they are still wet, so as to give them a further
protection from the elements. They are then securely bound, each kind
by itself, and each carefully labeled, if not already done; and as
soon as all are grouped together, they are ready for transportation to
their new homes. If the distance be short, so that the trees may be
carried on the farm-wagon, no packing is used, unless the weather
proves very inclement, but it is always safer to guard against both
wind and sun, by covering the roots from their influence. For distant
transportation, too much care cannot be taken to have the trees well
packed to protect the roots from drying and freezing.

In our uncertain climate, it not unfrequently happens that we receive
an invoice of trees in the midst of a severe storm of cold, when the
ground is frozen hard, and we have reason to suppose that the roots in
the cases are frozen. This need not discourage nor alarm us, if the
packing be good, for we have only to be patient and allow them time to
thaw out thoroughly in the dark, and we shall find our trees all
right. The packages should be placed at once in a dark cellar, and
allowed to thaw gradually--if no such convenience be at hand, the
boxes may be buried in the soil, or covered heavily with straw or hay,
materials which are generally abundant in a prairie country, where
commodious cellar room is not always at command.


HEELING-IN, as it is called, is a very important operation to be
performed so soon as possible after the receipt of the trees. It
consists in placing the fibrous roots in immediate and close contact
with the fresh and mellow soil, at some point convenient to the future
planting. A ditch is dug with the spade, or a deep furrow is opened
with the plow, in a sheltered, but elevated and dry situation, and in
light mellow soil; into this the trees are placed as fast as they are
removed from the packages, each kind being separated from the next by
a distinct marking stick, and it is well to place the labeled tree
first, as taken from bundles when untied. The trees are inclined at an
angle, generally leaning towards the south, so as to have the stems
shaded by their own branches. They are carefully placed separately and
held in this position by one person, while the fine mellow earth is
thrown upon the roots by another, who should take great care to see
that all the interstices are filled with soil, so as to exclude the
air from the fibres. This is especially necessary where the trees are
to remain in this situation during the winter, when they will be
alternately frozen and thawed. To secure them from injury, the earth
should be banked up against them several inches; and it is well also
to cover this with a heavy coating of leaves or some other mulching
material, if it can be safely used without danger of attracting the
field mice, which might ruin the trees. It is well at once to make a
record of the trees as they stand, so soon as they are heeled-in,
beginning at one end of the ditches or rows, and pursuing a definite
order. This record will prove of great value, and very convenient in
selecting the different kinds at the time of planting, and will enable
us to restore the names in case of accidental loss of labels during
the winter. The heeling-in of trees as they are received is
recommended, even if everything is ready for immediate planting,
unless the number be very small; but if the weather and our
convenience permit us to place them at once in their permanent
stations, the trees need not be heeled-in with so much care as when
they are to remain for a longer period.

It sometimes happens that, from accident, detention by the way, bad
packing, or exposure, we receive our trees in bad condition; they are
dried, and the bark appears to be shriveled and shrunken--they seem to
be dead. Such trees may often be entirely restored by a little care,
and will grow as well as any. The best treatment for such is to bury
them at once. Opening a sufficiently large trench, a layer of trees is
placed flat upon the bottom, fine mellow earth is sifted upon, and
among their roots and branches, another layer of trees is spread down
and covered in the same way, and so on until they are all secured,
when they are left to quietly and slowly absorb the moisture from the
soil. In a few days they will be found to be well plumped, and will
look as fresh as ever, and should be exhumed, trimmed, and planted,
selecting a moist or showery day for the operation.


SEASON FOR PLANTING.--This topic has already been discussed, and the
advantages of fall planting have been presented: but it is well to
bear in mind that there are reasons for preferring the spring, and for
some fruits the latter season is generally preferred.

When planting an orchard in the fall, it has been recommended to raise
an embankment of earth about the stem, for the double purpose of
protecting the roots from the frost, and also of preventing the action
of the wind swaying the tree and straining the roots. A copious
mulching is sometimes applied to keep out the frost, or at least to
prevent the frequent thawing and freezing of the surface in our
variable winters; but whenever loose material is left near the base of
a young tree, we must expect damage from the mice, which are attracted
and sheltered, and may commit sad devastations upon the bark before
spring. The banking and mulching may be combined with advantage, and
with less danger from the mice, which only work under cover and are
often more injurious upon older trees, surrounded with grass and weeds
in neglected orchards, than upon those newly planted and mulched, if a
little care has been taken to remove the straw or tramp it down near
the stem.


DISTANCE.--The distance between the trees is a matter that should be
carefully determined. Their habit should be considered, and their
size, when fully developed, must be studied. Some varieties will be
more crowded at forty feet apart, than others at fourteen. If
possible, the larger and widely spreading sorts should be assorted
and planted by themselves, and the more compact, upright and smaller
ones should be grouped together. It is difficult to do this, however,
for want of the necessary data; we can only make an approximation to
the desired result. Thus, the Yellow Bellflower, Summer Queen, Fall
Pippin, King of Tompkins County, Talman's Sweet, Golden Sweet,
Pennock, Northern Spy, and several others, are of the largest kind of
trees, and may be allowed as much as forty feet of space between them,
while the upright character and moderate growth of the Lady, Bullock's
Pippin, Red June, Benoni, Early Joe, American Summer Pearmain, Summer
Rose, Red Astrachan, and others, of similar habit, would enable us to
crowd them into half as much space without serious injury--and there
are trees of intermediate size and vigor, such as the Winesap, Rambo,
Greening, Russet, Early Harvest, Fall Wine, Autumn Strawberry,
Hubbardston, Jonathan, and a host of others that, at the same ratio,
should have thirty feet spaces between them.

There is also a great diversity of opinion among orchardists as to the
proper allowance of space for each tree, and many western planters are
advocates of close planting of the apple, which I have seen placed as
near as sixteen feet, occupying the whole space in a very few years,
and bearing luxuriantly. The advocates of such crowding urge, that
they protect one another, and that alternate trees can easily be
removed whenever they become too much crowded. In other places, the
old rule, of allowing two rods (33 feet), or even forty feet, between
the trees, is still followed and considered the best.

A favorite method with some planters of fruits is, to make a
combination of different kinds in the same orchard, so as to have the
whole surface occupied from the first. In this way, by introducing a
temporary crop of another variety which will make speedy returns, and
will soon be ready to come away and make room for the permanent
plantation, the ground may be rendered productive of remunerative
crops from the first. It is a very common plan to combine in this way
the apple and the peach--the latter come into bearing rapidly, and
are generally ready to be removed by the time the apple trees need the
whole space. Alternate rows and alternate trees are usually planted
with peaches, and the small growing cherries, such as the Early May,
often called the Early Richmond, can be planted in the same way. I
have seen a still further combination of fruits made by the
introduction of the raspberry, or even of the blackberry, the currant,
and the gooseberry, in alternate rows, so that, by setting the apple
trees at forty feet, with alternating cherry trees, and the cherry
rows in the middle space, or twenty feet each way from the apple and
cherry rows, and in the intermediate strips of twenty feet the
berries, which were also set between the trees, the whole ground was
laid off in rows of fruit separated by strips of ten feet wide.
Nothing is then needed for the full occupation of the ground, and to
yield a return of fruit the next year, but to plant a single row of
strawberries in each of these ten feet spaces; these, if well treated,
would make four beds in the spaces between every two of the apple tree
rows, or each ten feet, which is nearly half as much as would be
planted in the open field; and these would yield a half crop the next
year after planting, and as much the next season, when they should be
plowed up to give cultivation to the berry bushes that would then also
bear a crop of fruit, and continue to do so until the larger trees
needed the ground for their support. The peaches or cherries would
commence bearing the third or fourth year, and some of the apples
would follow quickly afterward, yielding partial crops. By such a
combination, as has been represented, the land is made to yield a
succession of paying fruit crops from the second year of the
foundation of the orchard.

    [Illustration: Fig. 26.--DIAGRAM OF PLANTING QUINCUNX.]

The order of planting is a matter of some consequence, and should be
settled upon before commencing the work. The simplest form, and that
most usually adopted, is the square; furrows are drawn across the
field, at whatever distance the plants may be desired to stand, and
crossed by others equally distant and at right angles to the first.
These will, by their intersections, indicate the stations to be
occupied by the trees. Some planters introduce a tree at the centre
point between each four, and this has been called _quincunx_, but
erroneously--for the true _quincunx_ is constituted by one central
tree surrounded by six, and all are equidistant, as illustrated by the
diagram, figure 26. This gives as many trees as possible upon the
ground, all equidistant, at twenty feet apart, or at any other
distance. It will be seen, that, in laying off this ground, whether
with the plow or simply with stakes to indicate the stations which
the trees are to occupy, we may first strike our furrows or set our
sight poles, all in one direction, parallel, and at seventeen feet
four inches apart. Crossing these at right angles, we may draw
parallel furrows every ten feet, and by setting our stakes at each
alternate intersection of these furrows, the proper stations will be
found for planting trees in the true _quincunx_ order, in which every
tree will occupy the corner of an equilateral triangle, and will be
equidistant from six surrounding trees. If any one prefers to dig
holes with the spade, instead of the more economical method proposed,
by using the plow, the stakes may be set in parallel rows, in such a
manner, that in every alternate row the first stakes shall be advanced
one-half of the desired distance from the base line. It will be
desirable in this, as in every other system, to have a measuring-line
at hand to prove the work from time to time, and make corrections;
for, otherwise, the most careful planter will soon get out of range.
When the stakes are set properly, on level ground, they should range
correctly in all directions. If the plantation be upon an uneven or
hilly surface, it will be found almost impossible to lay off the
ground with absolute precision; but this is a matter of very little
consequence, as the growth of the trees will soon conceal any slight
defects, particularly if they be trained with low heads. In the small
fruit garden greater precision is desirable, and should be attempted,
but in the commercial orchard, containing hundreds or thousands of
trees, such exactitude is scarcely attainable if it were desired.
Sometimes the aid of the civil engineer, with his instruments, is
called in by the very precise planter.



CHAPTER IX.

CULTURE, ETC.

  THOROUGH CULTURE SHOULD FOLLOW THOROUGH PREPARATION. HOED CROPS
    RECOMMENDED. NO WHITE STRAW CROPS, NOR GRASSES ALLOWED. HOW
    LONG SHALL WE CULTIVATE THE ORCHARD? LIMITS. THE SPADE AND
    FORK, AND MULCHING SUBSTITUTED. HORSE CULTIVATORS NECESSARY IN
    LARGE ORCHARDS. THESE SHOULD NOT BE DEEP TILLERS, BUT SHALLOW,
    TO AVOID DISTURBING THE ROOTS. SEEDING WITH CLOVER. MULCHING
    IMPRACTICABLE ON A LARGE SCALE. CLOVER MULCH. THE MELLOW EARTH
    AS A MULCH. PASTURING AN ORCHARD. OBJECTIONS. DAMAGE DONE BY
    HORSES AND MULES. BY CATTLE, BY GOATS. SHEEP. THEIR ADVANTAGES.
    SWINE AND POULTRY MAY BE ADMITTED. HOW THEY MAY BE USEFUL.
    DESTRUCTION OF INSECTS. POULTRY AND CURCULIO.


In a previous chapter, reference has been made to the necessity of
thorough cultivation of the soil among young trees; but the importance
of the proper attention to orchard culture is so great, that it
deserves separate consideration. The thorough preparation of the soil
before committing the roots of our trees to its embraces, which was
fully impressed upon the orchardist, might have induced some to think
that this was to be sufficient for them; but it ought rather to be
inferred that any crop for which these preliminary labors were
recommended, should receive continuous attentions of a similar
character. It is with the desire that these views should obtain, and
to indicate and specify, some of the most suitable modes of procedure,
that the following remarks are presented in this place.

If the ground, which has been appropriated to the orchard, be also
occupied as farming land, as is usually done for a few years after
planting, while the trees are small, it should be exclusively devoted
to hoed crops; by which is meant those that require constant
cultivation and stirring of the soil. Indian corn is a favorite on
account of the thorough culture which is bestowed upon it, but there
are some objectors to its use; by such it is considered too rank a
grower; it is thought to absorb too much of the moisture of the soil,
and too greatly to over-shadow the young trees if they be so small as
has been recommended under the head of _Selection and Planting_. To
this objection, however, it is urged by others that the partial shade
during the latter part of summer is a benefit rather than an injury.
If the stalks be left standing upon the ground during the winter, they
modify the force of the winds, and may even be of benefit, by the
protection they furnish to the stems of the young trees; and when they
fall to the ground, with their abundant foliage, these materials
constitute a winter mulching of considerable value. Even if the fodder
has been cut up, as is usually done by prudent farmers, the shocks
scattered through the fields must exercise a considerable protecting
influence.

Melons, cucumbers, cabbages, potatoes, turnips, and other root crops,
which require frequent cultivation, are preferred by some orchardists,
because of their being lower, and thus they will shade only the
surface of the ground, without affecting the trees themselves. Let it
ever be remembered, particularly in respect to soils that are of poor
or of moderate fertility, that all these crops will remove their full
share of plant-food from the land that we have already appropriated to
another object, and that the main crop which we desire to draw its
sustenance from the earth for a long series of years may thus be
robbed of its proper nourishment. Under such circumstances we must
meet the emergency by applications of fertilizing materials. I am
aware that it may be urged by the theorists of agriculture, that these
crops call upon the soil for different elements, and that, according
to the customary views of the objects attained by a rotation, they may
even be of advantage to those which are to follow. Others will make
the practical observation that the fertilizing materials of common use
in modern agriculture, may so readily be applied to compensate for
these abstractions from the soil, that this is a matter of little
moment, and not worthy of serious consideration. But it should be
observed that, while men will often be induced to apply fertilizers to
the temporary crop, counting upon an immediate return for their
outlay, they seldom feel willing to make any return to the soil in
compensation for what they have already removed from it, and rather
wait until the necessity for such enrichment becomes painfully
apparent in the diminished productiveness of their fields.

Hoed crops, such as those above mentioned, should alone be allowed to
occupy the space between the young trees, and on no account should
any white straw crops, or grasses be introduced, at least for several
years, nor until the orchard shall have become well established. In
many species of fruits, it is undoubtedly better to keep up the
surface cultivation continuously, at least wherever the characters of
the site and soil will permit it; but there are many situations where
the abruptness of the declivities appropriated to fruit-growing, and
often admirably adapted to such purpose, absolutely forbid continued
cultivation. In such places it will be necessary soon to withdraw the
plow, and to depend upon loosening the soil about the trees with the
spade or fork, and upon the mellowing and meliorating effects of
mulching. The expense of all the operations that are performed by
human labor renders them inapplicable, except in small orchards and
gardens; and in all large plantations we must depend upon the common
earth-workers that are drawn by horses. Among these, a preference
should be given to such as stir and pulverize the soil near the
surface only; shallow culture of the upper layers of earth effects the
objects in view better than that which is deeper. The intruding weeds
are subdued and a mellow condition of the earth is the result, while
the roots are not torn and bruised, but are encouraged to turn their
feeding fibres into the stratum of mellow soil above them. When the
trees have become well established, or when the nature of the soil and
the broken character of the surface of the orchard require it, we may
seed down the ground with clover, which is preferred to any of the
grasses: the broad foliage will shade the ground, and may remain on
the surface as a mulch, or be moderately pastured by suitable stock.

Mulching the young orchard has some advantages over cultivation, but
except in the proximity of the salt-marshes of the East, or near the
great straw piles on the vast grain fields of the Western prairies, it
is almost impossible to procure mulching materials for extensive
orchards; so that, unless we consider the clover and other legumes as
a living mulch, or grow such crops upon the land itself, to be used in
this way, we shall be thrown back upon culture of the surface, which,
in the mellow soil thus produced, furnishes a most admirable mulching,
that fills all the indications, at least in the season when it is most
needed. This is a matter of the greatest importance, especially during
the first year after planting, when our trees so imperatively demand
the protection of a mulch; and it is found that when the usual
applications of straw or similar material cannot be obtained, or are
unsuitable for the situation, especial attention to the condition of
the upper layer of earth about the trees is of the greatest
importance; this should be kept thoroughly loosened and finely
disintegrated for the admission of air and moisture.

Mulching, even of an old and apparently exhausted orchard, has been
found to exercise a most happy effect upon its health and
productiveness. Such a one growing upon a tenacious clay, which had
ceased to yield any crops for years, was restored to abundant
fruitfulness by covering the ground with a couple of inches of spent
bark from an adjoining tannery, and similar effects have been produced
by the application of straw, and of the bagasse from sorghum, where
those materials could be procured; but these were necessarily limited
to a small number of trees, and they can never be adopted in the
treatment of large orchards. Fortunately, for us, however, in some
kinds the trees themselves provide us shade for the ground, when they
are properly trained and closely planted, which will prevent the
intrusion of weeds and grasses, and the falling leaves and spray will
also yield a mulching of no mean value. Indeed, the trimmings from the
orchard, as well as the decaying foliage that annually falls to the
ground, belong to the soil, and might be left upon it with great
advantage to keep up its fertility by their decay, and even to
increase it, as they do in the natural forest, were it not for the
slovenly appearance they produce.

Dr. Ward, of New Jersey, has practiced mulching rather extensively,
and with excellent results. He uses salt hay from the marshes; after
plowing the ground in the spring, he applies the mulching in a heavy
layer, which keeps down the weeds, preserves the moisture of the soil,
and exerts a very happy influence upon the trees.

From what has preceded, the reader may infer that the orchard is not
to be used for a pasture field, and yet this is a very common
appropriation of the inclosure that contains our fruit trees--at least
after they have attained sufficient size to be considered out of the
way of serious injury. Let it not be supposed that the indiscriminate
pasturing of an orchard is advocated; on the contrary, it is wholly
deprecated, except as will be indicated below. All stock will trample
and harden the soil. Low-headed trees will be sadly injured by live
stock of all kinds. Horses and mules will often ruin the trees by
destroying the bark, and trimming off the twigs, as high as they can
reach. Horned cattle will browse the spray, and where within reach
they will also break and twist branches of considerable size. Though
much smaller, goats are entirely inadmissable, since they not only
trim off all the foliage within their reach, but they will also
greedily devour the bark from the trees, and thus commit sad havoc
among them. Sheep, on the contrary, may often be introduced into an
orchard with advantage, as they will eat off a great many weeds, and
thus clear the land of such intruders; but they will also spoil
low-headed young trees by eating all the leaves within their reach,
and they should never be allowed access to the orchard in winter, at
least not while there are any trees remaining with smooth bark, as
they will often attack such and strip off all that they can get at:
sheep are often very desirable in cider orchards when used to crop off
the herbage closely, just before the ripening and fall of the fruit.

The only domestic animals which should ever be allowed free range in
the orchard, are swine, and the different sorts of poultry. All of
these will prove really useful in the destruction of vast numbers of
the insects that are particularly injurious to our cultivated fruits,
and which are often enormously multiplied in our old orchards. Swine,
it is true, will sometimes learn to climb small trees that have very
low branches, which they break off in their attempts to help
themselves to the fruit--this has been observed particularly in peach
and cherry orchards. These animals are of use too as earth-workers,
when they have not been mutilated, for with their peculiarly formed
snouts they will turn over a large extent of the surface, while in
pursuit of the larvæ and pupæ of many of the destructive insects, that
in such stages of their existence occupy the soil beneath our fruit
trees; in this manner, swine are valuable adjuvants to the practical
entomologist. The hog is a most useful scavenger, and also a great
economist in the orchard, for, being omnivorous, after feeding upon
the luxuriant herbage of the red clover, he takes his dessert from the
fallen fruit, which, being defective, would otherwise be wasted: but
we must remember that most of these wind-falls are occupied by the
larvæ of insects which are thus put out of the way of doing further
harm, while contributing variety to the porcine diet. The additions of
manure to the soil, which are distributed over the orchard by these
animals, are also found to be of service. Trees, which are frequented
by swine, are generally healthy, and the bitter-rot is reported to
have disappeared from orchards that were badly affected with that
malady before the swine were admitted.

The advantages resulting from keeping both swine and poultry, but
particularly the latter, confined among plum trees, is a matter of
general notoriety; nor need we inquire whether this depends upon the
far-reaching instinct of the insect, which warns her against
depositing her eggs where the progeny must surely be destroyed, or
upon the actual destruction of the larvæ by these animals, to such an
extent as to diminish the number of depredators the following season.
We must not, however, depend upon these and other valuable aids, to
the exclusion of personal efforts, if we desire to secure good crops
of the delicious fruits that usually fall a prey to their attacks.

In conclusion, the orchardist cannot be too strongly impressed with
the importance of cultivating his young trees in the most thorough
manner; nor can he exercise too much care in avoiding injury to the
stems and roots, in practising this constant culture of the soil. In
collections of dwarf fruit trees, he will have less difficulty on this
score, because he will be restricted to hand-labor; but the spade and
fork will be found much more expensive in their use than the plow and
cultivator.


PLOWING UP OLD ORCHARDS.--A question frequently arises as to the best
course to be pursued with an old neglected orchard, which has become
covered with a dense sod of grass, and this often of an inferior
character, and full of disagreeable weeds. Orchards that have been
widely planted, and which have gaps from the decay of trees,
especially when these have been trimmed up with high stems and long
naked branches, do not cast sufficient shade upon the ground to
prevent the growth of grass and weeds. These intruders occupy the
surface soil to the disadvantage of the roots of the fruit trees, and
we may wonderfully improve the health of such orchard by plowing the
ground, and at the same time severely pruning the branches and
cleansing the bark of these old trees. These good results may be
continued by shallow culture of the soil, with suitable applications
of manure where needed. By giving a dose of lime, or of marl, and
ashes, we shall infuse a new life and growth and productiveness that
will astonish and delight us, and reward us for our labors and outlay.

It may be urged as an objection to breaking up the sod, that the most
careful plowman will unavoidably damage some of the roots that
approach the surface, but this is an injury that must be submitted to;
and after all it is not such a serious affair, and is overbalanced by
the advantages of renewing the productiveness of the exhausted
orchard.



CHAPTER X.

PHILOSOPHY OF PRUNING.

  PRUNING, NATURE'S. WE PRUNE, FIRST, FOR SHAPE AND COMELINESS;
    SECOND, FOR FRUIT. PRUNING YOUNG TREES IN THE NURSERY. RULES
    FOR. SEASON FOR. PRUNING FOR FRUIT IS TO BE DONE CHIEFLY IN
    SUMMER. THINNING OUT. SHORTENING-IN. ROOT PRUNING. PHILOSOPHY
    OF. ADVANTAGES OF. CHARACTER OF ROOTS PRODUCED BY IT. IN THE
    VINE. SEVERE IN WINTER TO PRODUCE WOOD AND DIMINISH BLOSSOMS.
    ADAPT TO VARIETIES. IN SUMMER TO DIMINISH EXCESSIVE FRUITAGE,
    AND TO DIRECT SAP INTO NEW CANES. TRIMMING IN GARDENESQUE,
    REQUIRING A CORRECT EYE AND GOOD TASTE. PRUNING SHOULD BE
    CONDUCTED UPON TRULY PHILOSOPHICAL PRINCIPLES, OR NOT AT ALL.
    QUALIFICATIONS REQUIRED IN THOSE WHO PRUNE. THE OPERATION
    SELDOM WELL PERFORMED. PRUNING OF THE GRAPE, SHORT AND LONG.
    REASONS FOR AND OBJECTIONS TO EACH. SEASONS FOR PRUNING THE
    VINE.


Pruning is one of the most important operations that we perform upon
plants,--especially woody plants. Pruning, in some sort, has to be
performed at all periods of their existence and growth, and upon all
plants, from the noble forest tree, or the fruit trees of the orchard,
of whatever kind, to the humble bushes and brambles that yield us
their abundant and most welcome fruits: the trailing vine that adorns
our arbors and covers our trellises with its rich and tempting
clusters of grapes, also needs to be pruned. Many herbaceous plants
are also submitted to judicious pruning, and yield in consequence an
increased product of fruit. Our ornamental gardeners and plant-growers
practice pruning most admirably upon their house-plants, and by their
successful practice, they produce the most wonderful effects, which
are manifested in the vigor, thrift, symmetry, and blossoming of their
specimens.

And yet, when we come to travel about the country, and to see the
shrubberies, the parks, the orchards, fruit-gardens, and vineyards, as
they are, we shall be struck with the great amount of ignorance or
neglect manifested by what we everywhere behold! Still more shall we
be surprised, when we hear nurserymen and orchardists, men who have
had opportunities for extended observation, and those too, who are
considered successful cultivators, advocate the idea that trees should
not be pruned at all. An apology may be found for them in the many
instances of bad pruning that may frequently be met with. They may say
that no pruning is better than such mutilation, and with some
varieties of fruit, they may have a show of reason on their side, as
there are many sorts that will very naturally produce an open head,
every where provided with abundant fruit-spurs, which are the great
desiderata of the fruit-grower.

We prune our plants for the most opposite purposes; we prune to make
them assume some desired form, we prune to produce symmetry, and we
prune to torture them as much as possible from their natural habit.
Again, we prune to make them grow vigorously, and we perform other
pruning operations, in order to dwarf and stunt our specimens, and to
make them as diminutive as possible. The experienced orchardist will
tell you to prune a barren but thrifty tree, in order to make it
productive of fruit; and he will also tell you to _prune_ one that has
expended all its energies in fruit-bearing, and appears likely to
exhaust itself to its own destruction. Upon very high authority,
supported by universal and annual practice, the vine dresser will tell
you to prune your vine in order to make it fruitful; the same
authority will advise you to prune in such a manner as to prevent an
over-production--and he will insist that you shall prune again during
the season of growth, to promote the same objects.

Thus it appears that the ends to be attained by this important
operation are exceedingly diverse, and apparently contradictory: nor
is it any wonder that the novice should feel bewildered in the midst
of directions so opposite, nor even that those who have grown gray in
the orchard, should have arrived at the strange conclusions just
mentioned, _not to prune at all_. And yet, notwithstanding these
apparent contradictions, there is a reason for each of these various
modes, as well as for the different seasons that have been recommended
for performing the several operations of pruning.

It may be said that in natural trees, whether standing alone in the
midst of a prairie, thinly grouped in the "opening," or crowded
together in the dense forest, we may behold the most perfect models of
beauty and fruitfulness; yet these have never been subjected to the
action of the knife, the saw, nor the hatchet. True, and yet they
have all been pruned by _nature_. She prunes and trains magnificently,
and gives us the finest models for imitation, whether for park
scenery, as in the lone tree of the prairie, or in the scattered
groups of the island groves that are so often seen in the broad
savannas of the West, or in forests of noble shafts, gazed at with
admiration, then felled by the ruthless ax, and converted to man's
economic uses. She also shows us the pattern in the dense pineries,
and other timber tracts of our country. All these have been pruned
into their present condition by the hand of nature. In the single
specimen, free access of air and light have enabled it to assume its
full proportions, developing itself on every side, and giving us the
grand and beautiful object we behold. The winds have tossed the
branches and some have been broken, the lower ones have quietly and
gradually yielded to the smothering influence of those above them,
which, in turn, have swept downward toward the ground. In the groves,
the scattering trees have for a while enjoyed the same opportunities
for development; but at length their branches have met together, and
interlocked in friendly embrace. Those that were nearest the ground
had already begun to suffer from the denser canopy above them but the
great sturdy boughs that had shot upward so as to form a part of the
crown, were able to retain their vantage ground, and continue as
important members of the trees. In these illustrations, we have seen
more of nature's training than of her pruning; but it must be
remembered that training is one of the objects, and indeed, a leading
element of pruning, and is very properly a matter for our
consideration.

In the dense primeval forest we see nature's pruning exhibited upon a
grand and perfect scale; tall, straight, and noble trunks rise
majestically on every hand; not a twig nor limb breaks the symmetry of
the gradually tapering shafts, that are clothed in bark which does not
indicate that they had ever been furnished with branches; and yet they
have borne branches from their base to their summit, and nature has so
neatly removed them that we cannot detect the marks of her
pruning-saw. How this has been effected, may be seen in any dense
thicket of young forest growth. It is simply a smothering of the lower
branches by those next above them, which has destroyed their vitality,
and their decay has soon followed; while a new growth of branches at a
higher point, in turn, performs the same office of destruction upon
those next below them. As there is no outlet for the wood-growth but
in an upward direction, upwards they must needs go, and as there is no
light nor air for lateral branches under such a canopy of shade, death
and decay ensue, and down they perforce must come.

If it be asked why we prune at all, it may be answered in general
terms that in the orchard, our objects in performing this operation,
are two-fold.

1st--We prune for shape and comeliness, and for the removal of dead
and dying branches, in aid of nature, but working in sympathy with
her.

2d--We prune for the sake of inducing fruitfulness.

Let us consider some of the principles that are to guide us in these
operations.

The first object, that of producing the desired shape of the future
tree, is chiefly done upon the young subject, even in the
nursery-row. The judicious pruner, being well aware of the upward
tendency of young growth, and that this is increased by the crowded
condition of the trees in the nursery square, seeks to overcome the
evil by proper pruning. If the growth be altogether upward, with no
side branches the first season, the stem will be slender, often so
much so as to bend over with its own weight. The wise nurseryman
carefully avoids disturbing the leaves or lateral branches, well
knowing their importance in forming the woody trunk. At the proper
season he trims his trees down, instead of trimming them up--this he
does by heading them back to the hight at which he desires them to
form their branches--at the same time, he shortens in the laterals;
his object in both instances being to check the upward tendency of
growth by removing the strong terminal buds, which would naturally
have formed the new shoots the coming season. The result of this
treatment is to call into action several buds at the upper part of the
stock. These are to form the arms of the tree, and hence a very
important part of the pruning and training of the plant is thus
performed at once by this simple operation of heading-back the young
nursery tree. But further attention is needed, as these arms develop
themselves during the next season of growth; they should not be too
numerous, nor too much crowded together; they should not be too nearly
matched in strength, and one should be kept as a leader, stronger than
the rest. Never allow two shoots to remain contending for the mastery;
one of them should be subordinated by cutting, breaking, or twisting,
as soon as it is observed; for how beautifully developed, a tree grown
in this way, may appear when well balanced, there is always danger of
its splitting down when heavily laden with fruit. This very common
error of our orchards used to be quaintly illustrated by a dear old
friend on the prairies of Illinois, who cited the advice of a Scotch
jockey to whom he had applied for counsel in the purchase of a piece
of horse-flesh. "Ne'er buy a horse whose twa fore-legs cum oot frae ae
hole," said he, and Mr. W. Stewart applied the same principle to his
young fruit trees, by never allowing them to have two equal leaders,
branching from one point. It is also important to have the lateral
branches regularly distributed on different sides.

The precise point or elevation point at which this heading-back should
be done, will depend very much upon the object of the cultivator, and
whether he desires to produce a high or a low head, a standard, half
standard, or a dwarf, or conical tree--such as are often called
pyramids. He will study the wants and fancies of his customers in this
matter, but we of the West, have learned the importance for us, at
least, of _trimming our trees down_, and not trimming them up, as is
often done by those who anticipate plowing and planting crops under
the shade of their orchards. The proper point for forming the branches
to make the head, will very much depend, however, upon the habit of
the variety; whether it be drooping, spreading, or upright. The former
will require the branches to be started at a higher point. The proper
season for performing this kind of pruning is in the early spring, or
after the severe frosts of winter have passed; and with some kinds of
orchard trees, it may be done at the time of transplanting them, when
they need a severe pruning.

The second object of pruning being done with a view to the production
of fruitfulness in the tree, is to be practised chiefly in the summer.
At the same time, or during the growing season, much may be done to
advantage, both in thinning-out and shortening-in such parts of the
tree, as may need these plans of treatment. Various methods are
pursued to produce fruitfulness, all of them depending upon the fact
that this condition arises from the natural habit of a tree to make
its wood-growth freely for a series of years. After it has built up a
complicated structure of limbs and branches, with some consequent
obstruction to the flow of sap, depending upon the hardening of the
woody tissues, and the tortuous course of its circulation, it then
appears to have reached its maturity, or its fruit-bearing condition.
It then ceases to make such free wood-growth, and prepares a set of
buds, which develop flowers and fruit.

Now this period of growth and unfruitfulness may continue for a longer
or shorter time in different varieties of fruits; and the shortening
of this, is the great object of summer pruning, and of other methods
of producing fruitfulness that may be classed under this second head
of the objects of pruning.

To appreciate their importance and the mode in which the effect is
produced, we must ever bear in mind the two great acts of vegetable
life, that of wood-growth or growth by extension, and the wonderful
morphological change of this growth into flowers and fruit. These are,
in some sense, antagonistic. The first is essential to the production
of timber, to the building up of the tree, and should be encouraged to
do its work undisturbed, up to a certain point, that we may have a
substantial frame-work by which our fruits can be supported. The
latter, however, is the ultimate desideratum with fruit-growers, and
in our impatience to reap a quick reward, we often resort to measures
that tend to curtail the usefulness, size, and beauty, as well as the
permanence of our trees. This is an illustration of the axiom, that
whatever threatens the vitality of a plant, tends to make it fruitful;
it calls into activity the instinctive effort to perpetuate the
species by the production of seed, that may be separated from the
parent, and establish a separate and independent existence, to take
the place of that, the life of which is threatened.

Summer pruning and pinching interferes with the growth by extension,
and threatens the very life of the tree; the entire removal of all new
shoots and their foliage, and the removal of the successive attempts
by the tree at their reproduction, will cause its death in a little
while. Their partial abstraction, as practiced in summer pruning and
pinching, being an attack of the same kind, results in the formation
of fruit-buds. The operations of budding and grafting upon an
uncongenial stock, interrupting the circulation by ringing, by
ligatures, by hacking, twisting, and bending downward, all tend to
check the growth by extension, and are attended by similar results,
since they are antagonistic to the mere production of wood.
Shortening-in the branches of some species, which form their
fruit-buds upon the shoots of the current year, has the effect to give
them a fuller development, if performed during the summer, but if
deferred until the following spring, it will have the directly
opposite result, and will cause the production of woody shoots at the
expense of the fruit.

The season for pruning has been made the subject of much discussion,
and different periods have been very confidently advised by different
authorities, from which it may safely be inferred that all are
somewhat right, or may be supported by good reasons. This refers of
course to pruning in its general sense, of trimming, and applies to
the removal of limbs of greater or less size. We always desire to
avoid the removal of large limbs, and should endeavor to provide
against the necessity of such removal, by trimming our orchards
sufficiently when they are young, and while the branches are small;
but when such removal becomes absolutely necessary, it should be
performed late in the autumn, when vegetation is at rest, because it
is found that such large wounds, which cannot be soon healed over by
the new growth, will at this season dry in, and resist the action of
the elements better than if the section had been made when the wood
was full of sap in active circulation.

Early spring is a favorite period for pruning, chiefly because it is
comparatively a period of leisure; the weather is less inclement than
in winter, and the absence of foliage affords us an opportunity to see
our work and to anticipate its effects upon the tree. So soon as the
buds begin to swell and the foliage to expand, pruning should be
arrested, unless in small trees, because the sap is in active motion,
and the material called _cambium_ is not yet developed, hence the
wounds will bleed, and are not so readily healed over; besides, the
bark at this season is very readily separated from the wood, and bad
wounds are thus frequently produced by the pruner, which may seriously
damage the tree. Then follows a period when pruning had better be
suspended until the time that the trees have completed their growth by
extension, and formed the terminal bud at the ends of their shoots.
The date cannot be given, but it is sufficiently indicated by this
mark in nature's calendar; the formation and full development of the
terminal bud, and by the copious deposits of woody matter throughout
the tree. The annual layer of fibres is then being produced, and the
tissues are in the formative stage; the tree now possesses within its
own organism the best of all plasters to cure and cover the wounds
made by the saw and knife, now the tree possesses the true _vis
medicatrix naturæ_ in the highest degree.

A few intelligent nurserymen have learned this very important lesson,
and have applied it in the preparation of their trees, for the
exposure incident to their removal from the nursery to the orchard. A
very few practice it systematically; I knew one, (alas, for the
lamented Beeler, of Indiana), who acted upon the suggestion made to
him by observations and experiments in vegetable physiology. He left
the side branches, though subordinated by shortening when necessary,
in order to give stocky stems to his trees, and then removed them with
the knife during the summer before they were to be sold and planted,
instead of waiting until they were dug and sent to the packing house
in the fall or spring. The result was, that while his stems were stout
and stocky, they were also smooth, the wounds neatly healed over with
new bark, instead of being open from the fresh cuts and liable to
crack or bleed, as they would have done had this pruning been deferred
until after digging, either in the fall or spring. This may be
considered a small matter, but it is an illustration of the principle
involved in selecting the period for pruning.

For the removal of small limbs from young trees, hardly any time can
come amiss--better to do it out of season than to neglect it, and it
is a good rule to have a sharp pruning knife always at hand when
passing through our young orchards. There is but one time when pruning
is absolutely interdicted, and that is when the wood is frozen. When
so circumstanced, it should never be cut nor disturbed in any
manner--not even to gratify your best friend, by helping him to a few
grafts from your proved tree of some coveted variety. Let him wait for
a thaw, or go away without the grafts, rather than commit such an
outrage upon your tree: as to approach it with a knife when frozen.

While considering the question of the proper season for pruning, there
is one axiom of great importance which should be firmly impressed upon
the mind of the orchardist. Much will depend upon which of the two
leading objects, above indicated, he may have in view--vigor of growth
and symmetry of form, or simply fruitfulness, as the result of his
labors in pruning his trees. Pruning at one season will induce the
former result, at a different period of the year the same work will
conduce to the latter; hence the postulate _Prune in winter for wood;
in summer for fruit_.



CHAPTER XI.

THINNING.

  PROFUSION OF FRUIT-BUDS. WISE PROVISION AGAINST ACCIDENTS. PERIOD
    OF MATURITY OF PLANTS. MORPHOLOGY. THE YOUNG PLANT GROWS BY
    DEVELOPMENT OF STEM AND BRANCHES. LEAF BUDS ALL POINTED. THE
    PERIOD OF ADOLESCENCE VARIES. THE CENTURY PLANT. A DEFINITE
    PERIOD FOR EACH VARIETY. HOW DIMINISHED OR EXTENDED. STARVING.
    CROWDING. CUTTING THE ROOTS. OLD OR UNCONGENIAL STOCKS. AT
    MATURITY AN ACCUMULATION OF NUTRITIVE MATTER. PRESERVING THE
    BALANCE BETWEEN GROWTH AND FRUITAGE. WE DO NOT THIN FRUIT
    ENOUGH. TREES EXHAUST THEMSELVES. BIENNIAL BEARERS. ANNUAL
    BEARERS DESIRABLE. DISBUDDING. FIELD'S HEDGES OF PEARS. REMOVE
    PORTIONS OF FRUIT. CUTTING-IN THE SHOOTS TO REDUCE FRUIT. DR.
    HULL AND OTHERS. THINNING THE STRAWBERRY. GOOSEBERRY. GRAPE.
    THINNING APPLES BY THRESHING THE TREES. BY SEVERE WINTER
    PRUNING.


Every person who has looked at a bearing fruit tree in the winter
season, must have been struck with wonder at the great profusion of
fruit-buds with which it was clothed; they are crowded along the
slender spray of some varieties as thickly as a necklace of beads, or
still more abundantly, like clusters of pearls, they are crowded
together upon the little fruit-spurs. We are inclined to cavil at this
profusion of nature, and to ask why this waste of vegetative effort.
But we may rest assured that it is only another evidence of the
unerring wisdom of Him who doeth all things well.

All blossoming and fruiting is but a changed condition of those buds
that would otherwise have produced leaves and wood-growth. Every tree,
sooner or later, reaches a point which we call its period of maturity,
when some of its buds are thus modified. The same elemental parts are
still present; but those that were arranged for the production of an
elongated shoot, with leaves set around it in some definite manner,
and destined for the formation of woody growth, are now so constituted
as to have a growth of very short extension, and furnished with
modified leaves, so changed, that we scarcely recognize them thus
crowded together upon this shortened and modified axis. We here take
our first lesson in the very interesting study of morphology, or the
science of the changes of form to which the parts of a plant are
subjected, in the production of flowers and fruit, from what were
otherwise the source of shoots and leaves. This will be found one of
the most interesting branches of the study of botany, as it leads us
to the investigation of one of the most beautiful displays of Divine
power, and, like all such studies, gives us more and more elevated
views of the exalted wisdom and benevolence of an All-wise Creator,
who has produced nothing in vain, and who, while creating worlds and
systems of the greatest magnificence, has condescended to prepare the
most tiny flower, and its previous bud, in the most perfect manner.

The study of morphology which gives us such an insight into the
mechanism of the plant, and which leads us into such mazes of wonder
and admiration, cannot now detain us further than to be named and
referred to as the explanation of the formation of what we call fruit
or blossom buds. The reader is referred to the full explanations of
this subject by the famous philosopher and poet, Goethe; or, if more
conveniently accessible, to his English translators, or to the
appropriate chapters in any of the modern text books of botany.

When the plant is young, its chief object is to grow; it must acquire
size and development, to enable it to produce and bear up the enormous
crop it is destined one day to yield. Hence in the early years of a
tree there is none, or very little of this transformation of the buds,
which are all of the pointed character, and when excited into growth,
they all produce shoots and leaves only, which result in the formation
of an increase of the woody fabric, that we call the tree. This period
of adolescence is longer or shorter in different species and
varieties--in some it may extend through many years. Thus, the
American Aloe is called the Century Plant, from the common belief that
it must survive a hundred summers before this stage of maturity and
blossoming is reached; whereas this plant only needs a period of
thirty years or less to produce its blossoms, when it is favorably
situated as to soil and climate.

There is, it is probable, a definite period at which each kind of
plant will have these changes occur in the buds, when they will begin
to flower and to produce fruit. This period may be accelerated or
retarded, to some extent, by human means; for we have observed, that
whatever produces excessive vigor, is attended with the formation of
leaf buds; whereas, all those conditions and circumstances that check
the vigorous growth by extension, provided they do not too greatly
impair the vitality of the plant, will conduce to the formation of
flower-buds.

Some of these conditions consist in starving the tree, or by planting
it in a sterile soil, that has deficient moisture; by severely
crowding the roots, or by cutting them, as in root pruning; in
grafting a portion of the young plant upon an old or an uncongenial
stock, or one that is naturally dwarfish; in ringing the bark; in
frequent transplanting, or in continued summer pinching; in short,
almost any circumstances which appear to threaten the life of the
tree, seem to excite within it an effort for the preservation and
perpetuation of the species, by changing the bud plants, attached to
the parent, into seed plants, that may and will be separated from it
to reach the soil eventually, and there to establish an independent
existence.

As the tree advances in growth, and approaches toward its natural
period of maturity, it is supposed that there is an accumulation of
nutritive matter within it, and at the same time the roots will have
exhausted the soil, to some extent, of the elements that contributed
to the production of wood-growth, and the result is the formation of
flower-buds. Now it becomes a nice matter to preserve the proper
balance between these two systems of growth, the wood producing and
the fruit forming. Two opposite systems of production have become
established in the tree, the one infertile, the other producing the
desired fruits; the one preserving the health and vigor of the tree,
the other tending to preserve the species at the same time that it
satisfies our demands for fruit, but also meanwhile tending to the
destruction of the tree, for all old trees are apt to overbear. Young
trees, on the contrary, in which the vigor of wood-growth remains in
full activity, very often produce fruit-buds and blossoms, but do not
perfect their fruit, which either fails to set, from some imperfection
of the organs of reproduction, or falls prematurely, in consequence of
the wood system absorbing the nutriment, or failing to prepare the
proper juices for their support. Trees, in these different conditions,
require an entirely opposite treatment. The younger need summer
pruning and pinching, to check their too great vigor, and to develop
the laterals or spurs with their blossom buds; the older need winter
pruning, for the double purpose of reducing the amount of fruit, and
also to excite renewed vigor in the production of wood growth that
shall take the place of that which has been removed. This subject will
be more appropriately discussed in another chapter, to which the
reader is referred; while we proceed to the legitimate topic of
thinning fruit.

Thinning fruit is not practiced as it should be, particularly on the
apple; old trees are often too fruitful, so much so as not only to
deteriorate the fruit, but to injure the tree itself. This is so much
the case with certain varieties, as to constitute a serious objection
to planting them; other sorts so exhaust themselves by over-production
in one season, as to be barren, or nearly so, the next year, during
which period of rest they are able to recuperate their energies and to
provide a new set of flower-buds. These are called biennial bearers,
and such are quite numerous in our orchards. Those kinds that are
prone to overbear every year, are often objectionable on account of
the diminished size and inferior character of their fruits, which
result from this cause, particularly when the trees have become old.
The great desideratum, especially with those who object to the trouble
of thinning the fruit, is to find a variety that will produce an even
or well distributed, continuous, and moderate yield--an annual bearer,
that does not exhaust itself by the production of one enormous crop so
as to require it to rest and recuperate. Such varieties are to be
found in our collections, and should be highly prized.

But to return to our topic, the bold method of reducing the crop by
winter pruning, has already been alluded to, and is highly recommended
for such old trees as have ceased producing thrifty shoots of
wood-growth at their tips, and have taken on an excessive tendency to
fruitage. There are other methods of producing this desired effect,
diminishing the amount of fruit when excessive, and thereby greatly
enlarging the size, and improving the flavor of that which is left
behind: some of these will now be mentioned.


DISBUDDING.--One of these consists in the removal of alternate buds,
or even a greater proportion than one half; this may be performed
either in the end of winter or in early spring, or even after the buds
have pushed, still later in the season. This work may be done with the
fingers, a knife, or by using the shears, when the buds are terminal,
as in old bearing apples and pears, or on some cherries. This plan has
been practiced with very good success upon the Duchesse pear, by T.W.
Field, who accidentally had his attention directed to the feasibility
of making this variety very productive. He had observed that certain
trees, which were rubbed so by the cart-wheels as to be stripped of a
portion of their buds in the winter season, instead of being injured
thereby, were more productive than those which retained all of their
abundant spurs and blossoms, and which, nevertheless, often bore
sparsely. Improving upon this hint, he has since planted some such
varieties in close rows or hedges, which he trims annually with the
shears to keep them within bounds, and at the same time to diminish
the amount of blossoms. Disbudding is systematically pursued in the
European fruit-gardens, and we have elaborate directions for the
season and mode of performing the operation, which is extensively
practiced, particularly on the trees that are grown as espaliers, and
those kept in orchard houses. If neglected, the trees become exhausted
by over-production; and the failure of production by the fruit-spurs
which results, causes vacant spaces upon the tree, which are
afterward, with difficulty, restored to a profitable condition.

Another method, and the one usually pursued by those who practice
thinning, is, to go over their trees after blossoming, while the fruit
is still small, and systematically remove such a proportion as they
may deem sufficient to relieve them of the surplus; and while so
doing, they select for removal all the inferior specimens. This is
found to pay very well in the increased size, appearance, and flavor
of those that remain, and is practiced by all good horticulturists.

It is found in some varieties that the thinning may be done when the
fruit has attained to one-half its usual size, so that it may be
marketed, and yet those which are left, will swell out to their full
proportions after this removal, and will realize, when harvested, more
money, and will even be of greater weight than if the whole crop had
been left upon the tree until its natural period of maturity. The
reason is obvious, and depends upon the greater size and fuller
development of the fruit, which remains after thinning.


SUMMER PRUNING has already been alluded to as one of the methods of
producing fruitfulness. When it is here introduced as a means of
thinning the fruit, the recommendation may appear somewhat
paradoxical--yet it is not so. Neither is this cutting a parallel
operation to that in which we seek to check the excessive vigor of
young shoots by pinching and heading-in, with a view to directing the
sap to the lateral buds so as to cause their development for the
formation of fruit-spurs, which will insure a greater production of
fruit: whereas this summer pruning removes a portion of the crop to be
supported by the tree. This plan is most successfully practiced by
judicious orchardists, among whom may be named Dr. Hull, of Alton,
Ill., who has thus treated his peaches, nectarines, and plums. This
process consists in cutting off the ends of the shoots that are laden
with fruit, while these are yet quite small; the superabundance is
thus removed in a great degree by the knife, and the excess of foliage
is also diminished so as to expose the fruit freely to the sun and
air, which insures an increased size and heightened color,
particularly to the peaches and nectarines. The remaining fruit is
also suitably thinned so that no specimens shall crowd one another.
The exact distances between them must be determined by the judgment of
the operator; some have decided that peaches should not be nearer
than nine inches; plums and nectarines may be separated by a smaller
distance; but it is not easy to lay down a precise rule.

Thinning is not often practiced upon the strawberry crop, which
appears able upon suitable soils to produce a great abundance of fine
fruit, but it may be done by the curious, and enormous show specimens,
such as are often exhibited at fairs, are produced by special care and
high manuring, aided greatly by judicious thinning; not only by
cutting back a portion of the crowns, so as to throw the whole force
of the plant into one or two trusses, but still further, by removing
with the scissors a portion of the blossoms or fruit, so that the few
which are left may become enormously distended with the nutriment that
had been stored up in the plant for a much greater number. Some may
consider this one of the tricks of the trade, and so it is when merely
done for the sake of deceiving the public, who are asked to purchase
the variety by the sample of fruit, without detailing the arts by
which the results were accomplished: but there can be no objection
raised against such practices when pursued by the amateur for the sake
of producing unusually large fruits of any variety.

The English pursue a similar method with their show gooseberries; by
means of thinning and high feeding, with great attention to watering,
these fruits are made to assume gigantic proportions that are little
dreamed of by cultivators of the smaller varieties, which are chiefly
grown in this country.

The grape is very prone to over-production, and the crop, as well as
the vine itself, is often much injured by a want of attention to this
particular. So avaricious is man, that few persons will exert the
needed firmness and perseverance to remove the excess which the
beautiful vine annually affords. The result of this neglect is
apparent at the vintage, especially when from any fault of the season,
or from the invasion of insects or of mildew, the foliage may have
been damaged, as it frequently is, to a considerable extent. Then we
find large quantities of the grapes so deficient in color and flavor
as to be worthless; in some varieties whole bunches will hang flaccid,
withered, and insipid--while perhaps a few, more favorably situated,
will have their proper flavor. The grape vine is well called
beautiful, and it is capable of sustaining most wonderful amounts of
fruit; but on young vines, especially, it is very bad policy to allow
of this over-production.

The tendency to fruitage may be met in different ways, a few of which
will now be pointed out, and all planters are urged to observe and to
practice some of these plans for reducing the exuberance of this kind
of fruit. In the first place we practice winter pruning, regardless of
its established and well-known effect of producing an increase of
wood-growth, for this is what we desire to obtain in the vine, on
account of its habit of yielding its fruit on wood of the previous
year's growth; by this means we are able to pursue the renewal system,
which is so generally preferred, and thus we may keep our vines
perpetually clothed with new wood, or canes as they are technically
called. By this winter pruning we can reduce the amount of wood that
is of a bearing character, to any point which may be deemed desirable,
according to the strength and age of the vine, and thus the crop is
thinned by a wholesale process of lopping off the superabundance of
buds, that would have produced an excess of fruit. Another method of
thinning is, to rub out a portion of the shoots, this may be every
alternate branch in close jointed varieties of the vine: this is to be
done soon after the buds have burst, and while the branches are yet
quite small, so that the vital forces may be directed to those that
remain. Wherever double shoots appear, the weaker should always be
removed.

Still another method of reducing the superabundance, remains to be
noticed; this consists in thinning the grapes themselves, the separate
berries, which, in some varieties, are often so crowded upon the
bunch, as to prove a serious injury to one another. In hardy out-door
culture this is seldom practiced, being less necessary than in the
large varieties of foreign grapes that are grown under glass. These
are systematically thinned with the scissors, so that none shall crowd
together; and this process, repeated from time to time, is found to
produce much finer and larger berries and heavier bunches than when
all are left.

A very rude method has sometimes been pursued in thinning the
superabundance of fruit upon apple trees. It appears so very Gothic
that its description may only excite a smile, when it is stated that
it consists in threshing the tree with a long slender pole, by which a
portion of the fruit is cast to the ground. Rude and primitive as this
method may appear, it is surely better than no thinning at all, and is
attended with this good result, for which it deserves some
commendation; the threshing removes portions of the excessive twiggy
spray that always abounds upon such trees as those under
consideration, and thus, in a degree, it prevents the recurrence of so
heavy a crop the following year. Whenever an old orchard has reached
this condition of over-fruitfulness, however, the best method of
thinning is to give a severe winter pruning; removing portions of the
spray and encouraging the free growth of young wood in various parts
of the top, to replace the older portions that were removed.



CHAPTER XII.

RIPENING AND PRESERVING FRUITS.

  CHANGES DURING THE PROCESS OF RIPENING. ANNUALS RIPEN THEIR FRUIT
    AND DIE. PERENNIALS HAVE AN ACCUMULATION OF STRENGTH. YOUNG
    PLANTS OFTEN FAIL TO PERFECT THEIR FRUIT. THE NECESSITY FOR
    THINNING. ALTERNATE CROPS OF FRUIT FAVOR THE ACCUMULATION.
    CHANGES IN CONDITION OF PERICARP. GREEN FRUITS APPROPRIATE
    CARBON. GIVE OFF CARBONIC ACID AS THEY RIPEN. COMPOSITION OF
    RIPE SUCCULENT FRUITS. FORMATION OF SUGAR. INFLUENCE OF LIGHT,
    OF EXCESSIVE MOISTURE. TESTS OF RIPENESS. CHANGES AFTER
    SEPARATION DEPEND UPON OXIDATION. TIME REQUIRED FOR RIPENING.
    FROM BLOSSOMING BLOSSOMS RENDERED ABORTIVE BY TOO HIGH
    TEMPERATURE. TREES ARE ABORTIVE FROM EXCESSIVE WOOD-GROWTH.
    EXPERIENCE REQUIRED TO JUDGE OF RIPENESS. PRACTICAL TEST.
    GATHERING. SOME MATURE ON THE TREE; OTHERS, PLUCKED
    PREMATURELY, WILL RIPEN. EFFECTS ON KEEPING QUALITIES. SELECT
    FINE WEATHER. HANDLING. PACKING. THE GATHERING BAG. WHY RED
    APPLES ARE PREFERRED.

  PRESERVATION. LOW TEMPERATURE AND DRYNESS, BUT AVOIDING FROST AND
    DESICCATION. COVERING IN PILES. THE RAIL PEN WITH STRAW. THE
    CIDER HOUSE. THE CELLAR. PACKING IN BARRELS. SWEATING. WAXY
    COATING TO BE PRESERVED. FRUIT-ROOMS. PLANS. NYCE'S PATENT.


RIPENING FRUITS.--Having succeeded in bringing our trees into a
productive condition, we now come to a period of their history which
is possessed of great interest to the orchardist. While he is
contemplating the rich returns for his capital and labor expended upon
the orchard, however, he will find many circumstances in the functions
of his plants that will amply repay him for their careful study. Nor
should he consider these only as matters of philosophical interest,
for they will often lead him into courses of treatment that will
enable him to secure richer returns than he would otherwise attain. A
few of these will be presented in the commencement of this chapter,
nor need any apology be offered for quoting one of the highest
authorities in the language upon this branch of botanical study.
Balfour gives the following account of the changes which occur in the
vegetable economy during the formation and ripening of fruits, under
which term he includes, in botanical language, all seeds, whether the
dry pericarps, or the pulpy drupes, and other appendages, which are
recognized as fruits proper in pomological language.

"While the fruit enlarges, the sap is drawn towards it, and a great
exhaustion of the juices of the plant takes place. In annuals, this
exhaustion is such as to destroy the plants; but if they are prevented
from bearing fruit, they may be made to live for two or more years.
Perennials, by acquiring increased vigor, are able better to bear the
demand made upon them during fruiting. If large and highly flavored
fruit is desired, it is of importance to allow an accumulation of sap
to take place before the plant flowers. When a very young plant is
permitted to blossom, it seldom brings fruit to perfection. When a
plant produces fruit in very large quantities, gardeners are in the
habit of thinning it early, in order that there may be an increased
supply of sap for that which remains. In this way, peaches,
nectarines, apricots, etc., are rendered larger and better flavored.
When the fruiting is checked for one season, there is an accumulation
of nutritive matter which has a beneficial effect upon the subsequent
crop.

"The pericarp is at first of a green color, and performs the same
functions as the other green parts of plants, decomposing carbonic
acid under the agency of light and liberating oxygen. Saussure asserts
that all fruits, in a green state, are adequate to perform this
process of deoxidation. As the pericarp advances to maturity, it
either becomes dry or succulent. In the former case it changes into a
brown or white color, and has a quantity of ligneous matter deposited
in its substance, so as to acquire great hardness, where it is
incapable of performing any process of vegetable life; in the latter
it becomes fleshy in its texture, and assumes various bright tints. In
fleshy fruits, however, there is frequently a deposition of ligneous
cells in the endocarp, forming the stone of the fruit; and even in the
pulpy matter of the sarcocarp, there are found isolated cells of a
similar nature, as in some varieties of pear, where they cause a
peculiar grittiness. The contents of the cells near the outside of
succulent fruits are thickened by exhalation, and a process of
endosmose goes on, by which the thinner contents of the inner cells
pass outward, and thus cause swelling of the fruit. As the fruit
advances to maturity, however, this exhalation diminishes, the water
becoming free and entering into new combinations. In all pulpy fruits,
which are not green, there are changes going on by which carbon is
separated in combination with oxygen.

* * * "Succulent fruits contain a large quantity of water along with
cellulose or lignine, sugar, gummy matter or dextrine, albumen,
coloring matter, various organic acids, as citric, malic and tartaric,
combined with lime and alkaline substances, beside a pulpy gelatinous
matter, which is converted by acids into pectine, whence pectic acid
is formed by the action of albumen. Pectine is soluble in water, and
exists in the pulp of fruits, as apples, gooseberries, currants,
strawberries, etc. Pectic acid is said to consist of C.14, H.3, O.12 +
H.O. It absorbs water, and is changed into a jelly-like matter, hence
its use in making preserves. Each kind of fruit is flavored with a
peculiar aromatic substance. Starch is rarely present in the pericarp
of the fruit, although it occurs commonly in the seed. * * *

"During the ripening much of the water disappears, while the cellulose
or lignine and the dextrine are converted into sugar. Berard is of
opinion that the changes in fruits are caused by the action of the
oxygen of the air. Freney found that fruits, covered with varnish, did
not ripen. As the process of ripening becomes perfected, the acids
combine with alkalies, and thus the acidity of the fruit diminishes,
while its sweetness increases. The formation of sugar is by some
attributed to the action of organic acids on the vegetable
constituents, gum, dextrine, and starch; others think that the
cellulose and lignine are similarly changed, by the action of acids.
The formation of sugar is said to be prevented by watering the tree
with alkaline solutions. * * * In seasons, when there is little sun,
but a great abundance of moisture, succulent fruits become watery and
lose their flavor. The same thing frequently takes place in young
trees with abundance of sap, and in cases where a large supply of
water has been given artificially." Travelers, who have eaten the
magnificent specimens of fruits produced by irrigation, in California,
tell us that they are deficient in flavor, and the same thing is
sometimes observed as a result of an unusually wet season.

"It is not easy in all cases to determine the exact time when the
fruit is ripe. In dry fruits, the period immediately before
dehiscence,[21] is considered as that of maturation; but in pulpy
fruits, there is much uncertainty. It is usual to say that edible
fruits are ripe when their ingredients are in such a state of
combination as to give the most agreeable flavor. After such are ripe,
in the ordinary sense, so as to be capable of being used for food,
they undergo further changes by the oxidation of their tissues, even
after being separated from the plant. In some cases these changes
improve the quality of the fruit, as in the case of the medlar, the
austerity of which is thus still further diminished. In the pear, this
process renders it soft, but still fit for food, while in the apple it
causes a decay which acts injuriously on its qualities. By this
process of oxidation, the whole fruit is ultimately reduced to a
putrescent mass, which probably acts beneficially in promoting the
germination of the seeds when the fruit drops on the ground.

"The periods of time required for ripening the fruit, varies in
different plants. Most fruits ripen within a year from the expansion
of the flower, some come to maturity within a few days, others require
months. Certain plants, as some Coniferæ, require more than a year,
and in the Metrosideros the fruit remains attached to the branch for
several years. The following is a general statement of the usual time
required for the maturation of fruits:--

  Grasses and Grains                                    13 to 15 days.
  Raspberry, Strawberry, Cherry                              2 months.
  Bird-cherry, Lime-tree                                     3 months.
  Roses, White Thorn, Horsechestnut                          4 months.
  Vine, Pear, Apple, Walnut, Beech, Plum, Nut, Almond   5 to 6 months.
  Olive, Savin                                               7 months.
  Colchicum, Mistletoe                                  8 to 9 months.
  Coniferæ                                            10 to 12 months.
  Some Coniferæ, certain Oaks, and Metrosideros       above 12 months.

"The ripening of fruits may be accelerated by the application of heat,
the placing of dark-colored bricks below it, and by removing a ring of
bark, so as to lead to an accumulation of sap. It has been observed
that plants, subjected to a high temperature, not unfrequently prove
abortive; this seems to result from the over stimulation, causing the
production of uni-sexual flowers alone. Trees are sometimes made to
produce fruit by checking their roots when too luxuriant, and by
preventing the excessive development of branches."[22] Here we have
the explanation of the processes of root pruning and of summer
pinching, and shortening-in, which have been more extensively
introduced upon another page; as well as the plan for inducing
fruitfulness in such trees as are tardy from excessive wood-growth, by
hacking the bark to interrupt the flow of sap from the buds to the
roots; by this, some of the former are changed to flower-buds.

We may learn to judge of the condition of ripeness of our larger
succulent fruits, such as apples and pears, by a little experience.
When ready to be picked, they will have attained their maximum size,
their color will have changed somewhat from its greenness, and they
will assume a sort of translucency that indicates the approach of
maturity; but the best practical test for the fruit-gatherer, is the
ready separation of the stem from its attachment. In those fruits,
which are suspended by a stem of considerable length, and in which
this organ belongs to the fruit itself, and is intimately connected
with its tissues, we shall find that it will part easily from the
branch at that period of ripeness when it is best to separate it. Such
fruits are often much improved by a continuation of the process of
ripening after they are gathered, but this more properly belongs to
another division of the subject. There is another class of fruits
which are found to attain their greatest excellence and most perfect
ripening upon the tree itself, and these can never be enjoyed
elsewhere in so great perfection as in close proximity to the place of
their production; because, so soon as they are separated from their
connection with the plant, a process of decomposition commences, they
begin to decay, and many of them soon become really unwholesome. Most
of those that are called stone-fruits are of this character, such as
peaches, nectarines, apricots, plums, and cherries--all of which have
a very transitory period of excellence. The same is still more
remarkably the case with most of the berries, hence all of these
classes of fruits are better adapted to a near than to a distant
market.

With apples and pears, however, the case is quite different. Some of
these, it is true, especially some of the summer varieties, will
attain a perfect state of ripeness while yet attached to the tree, and
some of them will even remain hanging to the twig, until they reach
that condition of over-ripeness in which they lose a portion of their
fine juices and become mealy, or incipient decay may set in, so as to
make them rotten at the core. Hence, in nearly all varieties, it is
found best to pluck the fruit a little prematurely, and we are guided
by the natural indication of the falling of a portion of the crop. By
this means we can, in a degree, control the final ripening of our
fruits; and we have the great advantage of being able to ship them in
a firm condition to distant markets, so as to arrive at the end of a
long journey in prime order; whereas, if thoroughly ripe, they could
only be transported a few miles, and then needing the greatest care in
their handling. Our summer varieties always require to be near their
ultimate ripeness when gathered; for, if plucked too soon, they will
wither, and be worthless. Among these, there are some varieties,
particularly of the apple, which continue ripening for a long period.
In the limited family orchard this quality is a great desideratum in
the summer fruits, but it is quite otherwise in the orchards, which
are planted for profit in the market, because of the increased expense
of gathering only a few at a time repeatedly, instead of clearing the
tree at once. It is also found to be an advantage in shipping, to have
a considerable quantity of a kind to send off at one time.


GATHERING.--We now come to the important matter of harvesting our
crops of fruits that have been the cause of so much care and anxiety,
as well as of pleasure. This will require new considerations as to its
disposition and preservation to the best advantage, and will call for
a discussion of the best modes of packing, storing, ripening, and
transportation to market.

From what has already been said with regard to the process of ripening
of fruits in the natural way upon the tree, it will be understood that
we must gather some kinds before they have reached their perfect
condition of maturity. There is a point at which they have obtained,
from their connection with the parent tree, all the elements that are
necessary to the development of their highest qualities. They may now
be separated, not only with safety, but with decided advantage in many
instances, as they are improved by the further process of maturation
under different circumstances from those supplied by nature, and when
properly treated, they will acquire a much finer condition as to
delicacy and flavor than is ever reached by ripening upon the tree
exposed to the light and air. This, it will be remembered, is not the
case with all fruits; for, as has already been stated, there are those
which must remain upon the tree until they acquire their most perfect
ripeness, and which begin to depreciate in quality so soon as they are
separated from their connection with the fruit-bearing twig. These
need to be at once disposed of, and the consideration of the best
means of transportation, is a question of more importance than any
plans for their temporary preservation. They must be sold or used at
once, and should be handled with the greatest care, packed in suitable
boxes or baskets in the most judicious manner for a good display of
their beauties, for their preservation from bruising and decay, and
for sending them forward to their destination with the least possible
delay: the details of these several parts of the business will be left
for the exercise of the ingenuity of the parties most deeply
interested. In the class of fruits which are so constituted as to bear
and indeed to require picking, before they have reached the period of
perfect ripeness we shall find several particulars that need
consideration. First, it will be found that the proper time for
gathering them varies considerably. Thus, with early apples and pears,
a few days only embrace the best period, during which they may be
gathered without becoming wilted if plucked too soon, or decaying if
left too late. Even with winter fruits, we find that, to have them in
perfection, some varieties require to be gathered much earlier than
the time usually assigned for harvesting the general crop. It is
somewhat singular also, that this course very considerably extends
their time of keeping, and that some of those varieties which would
become dry, mealy, and insipid, early in the winter, if gathered too
late, will remain sound, firm, plump, and juicy, and retain all their
fine flavor through the winter, if they have been taken from the tree
at an earlier period of the season. They must be left upon the tree
until properly developed, however, and then be carefully kept in a
cool apartment.

The usual season for gathering winter fruits is October, before the
access of severe frosts, and at a time when the wood-growth for the
season has been completed, and the foliage is nearly ready to separate
from its attachment to the tree. The fruits will then generally part
readily from the twigs, without either breaking them or rupturing the
fruit-stem, which should always be preserved, and from the apple
especially, it should never be pulled out, as is apt to happen in
certain varieties, when proper care is not exercised in picking them.
Some of the apples that require to be gathered early, are, the Rambo,
Pryor's Red, Hubbardston, Westfield, Rhode Island Greening, several
Russets, and all those which evince a tendency to fall prematurely.
There are others which may be left to a later period with impunity,
some of these will even bear a little freezing without serious damage,
but we should always endeavor to anticipate the exposure of our fruits
to any great depression of temperature while they remain attached to
the trees. An early and severe frost has often proved disastrous to a
fine crop of apples, thus left too long upon the trees.

For all fruits it is essential that the weather should be fine at the
time they are gathered. They should be perfectly dry when plucked, and
they must be handled with the greatest care to avoid bruising in the
slightest degree. Each specimen must be taken separately in the hand
and turned to one side, when, if it do not part readily from the twig,
the thumb and finger must be applied to the stem, to aid the
separation at the proper point; each is then to be placed in a
gathering basket, which should be shallow, and for delicate sorts
should be lined loosely with fresh leaves or with soft moss, or a
little wilted grass. From the baskets, the fruit should be transferred
to its permanent winter quarters, by a careful and judicious hand, who
should select them and reject all that are bruised, specked, or
otherwise defective, and place them on the shelves, or pack them in
the boxes or barrels into which they are placed for preservation, or
transportation to market. In packing, it is best to use no material
but the fruit itself, which should be so closely placed that they
shall not jostle and bruise one another when moved. Some persons use a
bag, slung around the neck, when gathering the fruits from the tree;
into this they are placed as fast as they are plucked, and
successively transferred to the barrels, or poured in piles upon the
ground. With very firm varieties, this may be done without serious
damage, but the bruising that necessarily ensues will be very
prejudicial to all the more delicate fruits, and will materially
depreciate the value of such as are also of a pale color. A want of
care in this matter of handling fruit is, no doubt, the chief reason
for the popular preference of red apples in our markets, since those,
that are well covered with a deep color, do not show the bruises that
are so unseemly upon the fair cheek of the lighter colored varieties.

The modes of keeping winter fruits are exceedingly various, and some
of them are quite primitive. The desiderata are coolness and dryness,
which should not be carried to the extent of freezing, nor of
desiccation. The simplest method is to place the fruit in a pile upon
a dry piece of ground, to cover it thickly with clean dry straw, and,
as the winter approaches, to apply a heavy layer of earth, sufficient
to keep out the frost. Sometimes this is kept from the straw by a
simple roof of boards, which support the earth from pressing upon the
fruit, and leave it in a sort of cave, which can be entered
occasionally during the winter. This plan is only recommended for
those who have no cellars or other suitable apartments, for many
fruits acquire an earthy flavor from this near contact with the soil.
Another primitive plan, and one which is well adapted to the
preservation of cider apples, and might be used for the keeping of
those needed for stock feeding, is to build a rail-pen, four square,
like a field corn-crib, into which the fruit is put upon straw, and a
lining of the same material is placed at the sides and upon the top,
which may also be sheltered with boards to shed off the rain. In our
mild winters, many varieties of fruits can be sufficiently well
preserved in this manner for the purposes mentioned. In a proper
establishment for cider-making, large bins and rooms are provided
within the building, which afford sufficient protection from the
frost, so that cider-making may be carried on during the winter; and
in well arranged farm-steads, the feeding barns should be provided
with suitable compartments for the safe storage of fruits or roots,
that are to be fed to the stock during the inclement season, when they
are so much needed.

All farm-houses should be provided with good deep and dry cellars,
which will prove the best place for the storage of fruits. These may
be placed in bins, or, still better, upon shelves, as it is not
desirable to have too great a bulk together. When but one, or at most,
but two layers of fruit are deposited upon each shelf, and when each
of these is placed at a sufficient distance from those above or below
it, the whole may be easily inspected from time to time, and defective
specimens can be removed without disturbing the rest. These shelves
should be made of narrow strips, separated from one another by a space
that will admit of thorough ventilation. The whole apartment devoted
to fruit, should be kept cool and dark, and free from moisture or
dampness.

Many large orchardists prefer to select their fruit from the picking
baskets, and pack at once in new barrels, which are made for this
special purpose, and are not so tight as those used for flour. In
packing these, it is desirable to place the fruit carefully in layers,
filling the space completely as the work proceeds, putting each
specimen down by hand, and when the vessel is filled to about an inch
above the chine, the heads are put on, a follower placed upon them,
and the whole brought under the pressure of a lever, which forces the
mass together so that there shall be no possibility of motion among
the fruit. It is better that the outer layers should be somewhat
indented by the barrel heads, than that the whole should be spoiled by
the bruising that would follow from loose packing. These barrels are
often left under the trees for some time, or they may be placed under
an open shed for protection, prior to transportation. It is a common
practice, before barreling, to deposit the fruit in piles as it is
gathered, giving it only a covering of straw to allow it to throw off
a part of its moisture, a process generally termed sweating. Now it
cannot be gainsaid that there may be an escape of the fluids by
transpiration through the pores of the skin, and we know that there is
a loss of weight and even of plumpness, in many varieties, by exposure
in a dry atmosphere; but the excessive moisture observed upon the
surface of fruits that have been exposed to a low temperature, when
they are brought into a warmer apartment, is unquestionably the simple
precipitation of atmospheric moisture, and entirely independent of the
juices of the fruit itself. The advantages of this method of treatment
are, that more time is given for the careful selection of the fruits
before placing them in the barrels, and a better opportunity for
selection, and the rejection from the packages of all those which are
in any way defective. The disadvantages are the increased labor and
the greater amount of handling to which the fruits are subjected. The
surface of our seed-fruits, (_pepins_), is endued with a peculiar
coating of a waxy nature, which is of great value for their
preservation, and should not be removed, hence the less fruit is
handled, the better it will keep, and it should never be rubbed nor
wiped; if too wet, or "sweating," it should be exposed to a dry
atmosphere, until the surplus moisture shall have quietly evaporated
before it is transferred or handled.

It is often observed of particular varieties that they are more prone
to wilt than other kinds: this is particularly the case with Russet
apples, and is believed to result from a deficiency of this protecting
outer covering or waxy exudation, which appears most plentiful in
those that retain their plumpness.

In packing for market, besides the directions already given as to
prevent motion, it is very desirable to have the packages, of whatever
form, whether boxes or barrels, of a neat appearance and uniform full
size. The fruits should be well selected, and of a like average
quality throughout, and not fixed up for market with the best only at
the ends or sides that are to be first opened, while the inferior
fruit is concealed within. Honesty is the best policy everywhere, and
dealers soon learn to discriminate in favor of the brands of honest
packers. It is believed that any orchardists, who will take pains in
the selection of their fruits, and in the excellence and honest
measure of their packages, will soon establish a reputation that will
be of great value to them in their future offerings.


FRUIT-ROOMS.--For those who wish to reap the highest rewards and the
greatest profits from a near and convenient market, as well as those
who desire to preserve their fruits, prolong their enjoyment of them,
and to bring them to the highest perfection, the fruit-room or
fruit-house becomes indispensable. These should be so constructed as
to meet the required conditions of an equable and cool temperature,
with darkness, and a sufficient amount of dryness to insure freedom
from mold and damp. To avoid the precipitation of atmospheric
moisture, the apartment should be tight, and seldom opened,
particularly in damp weather. To absorb the exhalations from the fruit
itself, and that emitted from the burning candle or the breathing of
the visitor, the introduction of certain chemical absorbents has been
suggested; among these, freshly burned lime has been recommended and
used, but Mr. Du Breuil advises the introduction of dry chloride of
calcium, which has so great an affinity for moisture as to absorb it
completely from the atmosphere. This is the material used by B.M.
Nyce, of Cleveland, Ohio, in his patent fruit preserving
establishments; and this mode of preserving a dry atmosphere is a
leading, and indeed, the chief feature and element of his success.

In the construction of fruit-houses, the fluctuations of the outer
atmospheric temperature must be guarded against by making double
walls, and by filling the spaces with non-conducting materials. The
floors and the ceiling should be similarly arranged--unless where the
cooling is effected by a layer of ice above the fruit-room, when the
ceiling should be metallic, so as to enable the caloric to be rapidly
abstracted from the space below. The house, patented by Prof. Nyce, is
essentially a large refrigerator, with the ice at the top, and
provided with absorbents for removing from the air the moisture it has
received from the fruit. Its construction will be understood from the
accompanying diagrams and description. The lettering of similar parts
is the same in all three diagrams; the description is that of the
inventor.

    [Illustration: Fig. 27.--NYCE'S FRUIT PRESERVING HOUSE. (CROSS
    SECTION.)]

    [Illustration: Fig. 28.--NYCE'S FRUIT PRESERVING HOUSE.
    (LONGITUDINAL SECTION.)]

(_A_) Foundation walls. The ground floor is leveled off, and made
solid, and even with the foundation walls. (_B_) A covering of _tar_
and _pitch_, one-half inch thick, put over the ground and foundation
walls, to prevent the entrance of moisture. The tar and pitch should
be mixed so as to be only moderately hardened by the temperature of
the ground. (_D_) The filling between the walls is composed of short
dry shavings, chaff, or other poor conductors, 3-½ feet thick, on the
bottom and sides. (_C_) Joist for plank floor, 3-½ feet above the
ground. The floor is made level throughout. (_F_) Chloride of calcium,
or _dried waste-bittern_, from salt works, spread on every part of the
floor of the preserving room, to absorb moisture. (_I I_) Air-tight
casings, made of common sheet-iron, No. 26; the edges thickly
painted, and nailed to upright studding. The outer casing in some
houses is made of brick. The inside of the brick wall is covered with
roofing cement, or pitch, or some other air-tight coating. (_K K_)
doors 6 or 8 inches thick, filled with chaff or shavings, and fitted
tightly to the door-frames, by listing or cloth nailed over thin
layers of cotton. (_X_) The ice-chamber. (_L_) Joists to support the
ice floor, resting 2 inches on the posts at _Q_. (_N_) Iron bars, 1-¼
inches wide, and ¼ inch thick, gained ½ inch into the joists, and
placed crosswise to them. A bar must always be put directly under the
seams and rivets. Three bars are enough to be under a sheet 30 inches
wide. (_M_) The galvanized-iron ice floor, No. 18 or 20; the edges
joined with rivets not more than 1 inch apart, and very carefully
soldered. The ice floor is put on the edges of the iron bars so as to
expose every part of its surface, on which ice directly rests, to the
air of the room below. (_S_) Sides of ice room made of upright
planks. Better have it lined with zinc or galvanized-iron, inside of
the plank. Scantling, 2 by 6 inches, are placed on the ice, 4 feet
apart, made even with the ice. Wide plank (_P_) are placed loose
across the scanting, the edges as close as may be put together, to
prevent the filling falling on the ice. Saw-dust, 6 inches thick, is
placed on the plank (_P_). Shavings are not compact enough on the top
to keep the air from the ice. (_O_) A discharge pipe to conduct the
water from the ice. (_W_) An ante-room with an ice-water trough,
(_Y_), in which canned fruit is kept, in large stone crocks, for
retailing by small measure.

    [Illustration: Fig. 29.--NYCE'S FRUIT PRESERVING HOUSE. (GROUND
    PLAN.)]

The following estimates are given by the inventor, for a house, with
room 15 ft. square, 8 ft. high, 22 ft. square on outside, with
capacity for holding 500 bushels. The cost would be about as follows:

  Common iron, at 7-½ cts. per lb., cost in the house         $210  00
  Galvanized iron, No. 26, at 20 cts. per lb.                  105  00
  Galvanized iron, No. 20, at 18 cts. per lb.                   80  00
  Whole cost, probably                                         800  00

The frame and roof being simple, their cost need not exceed that of
similar structures.

FOOTNOTES:

[21] Bursting open of the pods, or of the hulls of nuts.

[22] Balfour's Manual.



CHAPTER XIV.

INSECTS.


When the preparation of this work was undertaken, the author desired
to make it as perfect as possible in all its parts. He very soon
discovered, from his own observations in the orchard, that one of the
greatest difficulties we all have to contend against in fruit-growing,
was the ravages committed upon our fruits and fruit-trees by hosts of
noxious insects.

Here then was a new branch of investigation, a new field of study to
be entered. He was not an entomologist, nor could he gain any
assistance from his friends who were such, because, though they were
scientific, and able to assist him in names and descriptions of the
insects presented, still they were not _practical entomologists_;
their knowledge of these creatures was purely scientific, and while
they could descant learnedly upon the systems set up by the great
masters of the science, for the most perfect classification of
insects, they could render us practical men but little aid in
combatting our insect foes. Great assistance they have rendered,
however, in providing names for all these wonderful creatures, in
describing their habits and their economy, and in assigning them
places in the beautiful classification that has been provided for
them.

On turning from men to books, but little more assistance or
encouragement was met with; these too would only give the names, the
places, and the descriptions, in the most approved language of the
science, but they are not attractive nor intelligible to the
unlearned. Any person can soon acquire the language of the science,
with a little study, but these scientific books do not give us
directions how to rid ourselves of the pests.

Among the books that are accessible and that are adapted to the
general reader, and to the student of practical entomology, two were
found of eminent utility as far as they went. These are the excellent
reports to the Massachusetts and the New York Agricultural Societies,
by Messrs. Harris and Fitch, which are clothed in popular language,
and which treat particularly of the insects injurious to vegetation,
and they put us in the way of combating our foes. The former, which
has been reprinted and illustrated in beautiful style, is worthy of a
place in every farmer's library, and will prove a valuable aid in the
study: the latter is printed in connection with the Society's reports.
To both of these, the author acknowledges his indebtedness, and from
both has he drawn liberally.

Other popular treatises, though attractive, have proved of very little
practical value, and the student will find even the reports above
referred to imperfect, as they were prepared for a limited region,
and do not mention several insects that are common in other parts of
the country than the States for which these reports were prepared. It
were much to be desired, that every State Society would have similar
reports, respecting the insects, peculiar to its state.

Thus the author found himself compelled to investigate this broad
field of study for himself--it became necessary to grasp the elements
of the classification, and to go into the field and the orchard, to
use his eyes, and to observe for himself. This was a labor of time,
and required considerable effort; but it brought its own reward in the
pleasure attendant upon this delightful study. At the same time there
was great satisfaction in the thought that all these facts, gathered
from the works of men of science, confirmed by personal observation,
and rendered useful and applicable in practice by his fellow laborers
in the garden and orchard, would be a valuable contribution to them,
and would constitute a useful portion of the _American Pomology_ he
was then preparing.

Unfortunately for himself, he has discovered that his collections, in
this department, covered several hundred pages of manuscript, and
that, if printed, they would render his volume too cumbrous. Upon
consulting with his publishers, it was concluded best to lay the
matter aside, for the present at least, and to prepare anew a brief
account of some of the insects most injurious to the orchard, with
short suggestions as to the best methods of combating their ravages.
This conclusion has been the more readily yielded to, because the
public now have a medium of communication with the scientific
entomologists, which well supplies the great want we had begun to
experience. I refer to a monthly publication, issued by the
Entomological Society of Philadelphia, in which the questions, that
are constantly occurring to farmers, are answered in the most simple,
clear, and satisfactory manner.[23] Besides this, we find in our best
agricultural journals, a page or a column, devoted to the
consideration of insects injurious to vegetation.[24]

For the sake of convenience and system, these notes will be presented
in the order of the approved classification of insects. Omitting
further introduction or discourse upon the wonderful instincts and
habits of insects, and explanation of their metamorphoses and the
principles of classification, and confessing my poor qualification for
the task, let us proceed at once to the catalogue.


=COLEOPTERA.=--BEETLES.

In this class of insects we find both, friends and foes. The former
assist us by their voracious appetites, that can only be satisfied
with gourmandizing upon other insects, particularly the juicy bodies
of their larvæ. The latter embrace some of our most troublesome pests,
especially as they consume vegetable matters, in the perfect as well
as in the larval condition, and in both stages are exceedingly
voracious. Moreover, they generally commit their depredations under
cover, or at night. Some live in the soil and consume the roots of our
plants, and others mine their way into the solid wood of the stems of
our finest trees; while some only affect the twigs and smaller
branches, and others devour the foliage, flowers, and fruits. A few of
the most familiar and troublesome of these will now be introduced; and
allusion will also be made to some of those which befriend us by their
destruction of other insects.

=Saperda bivittata.= (_Say._)--The Apple Tree Borer.--This is a
nocturnal insect, which has been found very destructive to our
orchards. The female deposits one egg in a place, generally low down
on the stem of the tree; this hatches, and enters the tissues of the
bark, where it feeds for a time, a footless grub. As it grows, it
burrows deeper, and upward, until it reaches the sap wood, upon which
it feeds. When half grown, it burrows still deeper, and upwards into
the heart of the tree, and then outward through the sap wood to the
bark, but retires again toward the centre, as to a place of safety, to
undergo its transformation, after packing the hole with shreds of wood
and with its castings to make its retreat secure. In the spring, the
perfect insect opens its way outward, and emerges to the light of day.

REMEDY.--Observe the bark of young trees very closely during the
summer, to discover the castings that are ejected; notice the
discolored or depressed portions of bark, and cut into them to find
and destroy the worm--if it has penetrated the solid wood, pursue it
with a piece of stout but flexible wire.

PREVENTIVES.--Alkaline washes have been highly recommended, as a means
of driving away the mother beetle; soft soap may be used, and a
portion of soft or hard soap, placed in the forks of the branches,
will dissolve with the rains, and wash down on the bark. These
applications, to be efficacious, should be made in May or June. In
August, the bark should be examined, and when the worms are cut out,
the soap suds may be injected with advantage, especially if the larvæ
have not been reached. Birds should be encouraged, particularly the
Picæ tribe, which destroy many grubs of the wood-boring insects.

=Chrysobothris femorata=, or the Thick-legged Buprestris, is another
kind of apple-tree borer, very common in some parts of the West. The
perfect insect may be seen running up and down the stems of our trees,
in June and July. It is a blackish beetle, about half an inch long.
The hole, bored by the grub, is flat, and not cylindrical like that of
the _Saperda_. This beetle attacks the stem higher up than the
_Saperda_, but burrows under the bark, and then sinks into the wood
much in the same way.

REMEDIES and PREVENTIVES are similar to those above mentioned. Seek
for the young worms in their shallow burrows in August, before they
have gone deeply into the tree.

=Dicerca divaricata=, (_Say._), or the Cherry-tree Borer, is similar
in its habit of boring in the sap wood under the bark, and may be
combated in the same way. The perfect insect appears in June and July.

=Prenocerus supernotatus=, or the American Currant Borer, feeds upon
the pith of the stalk. The larva is a small, white grub, which changes
into a slender, long-horned beetle; black, edged with chestnut-brown.
The wing covers are marked with two small grey dots, anteriorly, and a
crescent-shaped one behind the middle.

It is very injurious to the currant bushes in many parts of the
country, and constitutes a serious obstacle to growing the plants to
a single stem, tree fashion. In the bush form of this plant, the
constant reproduction of new shoots compensates for the destruction
caused by the borer.

There is another currant borer, an European, which is confined to
young shoots; as it is not the larva of a beetle, but of a butterfly,
it will be treated in its proper place.

=Bostrichus bicaudatus=, or the Apple-twig Borer, affects the small
twigs, and when numerous, will produce an effect like that called
twig-blight, by causing the death of the part and the withering of the
leaves, at mid-summer. A small hole will be found near the axil of a
leaf; this turns with the twig, and often extends several inches along
the pith. The insect is a small, chestnut-brown beetle, 0.25 to 0.35
of an inch long, and is characterized by two projections or horns at
the hinder end. Has been found rather common from Michigan to Kansas.

REMEDY.--Kill, when found.

=Scolytus pyri=, or the Pear-blight Beetle, affects twigs of pear,
apple, and other fruits, which wither and die at mid-summer. Small
perforations, like pin holes, will be found, and issuing from them
small cylindrical beetles of a deep brown or black color.

REMEDY.--not known.

=Lucanus dama=, or Horn-beetle, is a large insect, the larvæ of which
are said to feed upon the trunk and roots of old apple and other
trees. The perfect insects are of a dark mahogany color, smooth, and
polished. Like other Stag-beetles, they fly at night, are not very
harmful, and are believed to be several years in reaching the perfect
state.

=Leptostylus aculiferus=, bores under the bark of apple trees. It is a
short, thick, brownish-gray beetle, with thorns upon its wing-covers;
hence, the scientific name of needle-bearer. Length, 0.35 inch;
season, August. The larvæ are small worms, occurring in multitudes
under the bark, and making long-winding burrows.

=Tomicus mali=, or the Apple-bark Beetle, is described by Dr. Fitch as
new. He says, it is a small, smooth, black or chestnut-red,
cylindrical beetle; the larvæ feed under the bark, and then enter the
wood, killing the young tree.

=Conotrachelus Nenuphar=, (_Herbst_), is the noted and notorious and
yet little known Plum Weevil, that is such an abomination to plum
planters, and which has proved very injurious to our peaches and is
even accused of producing deformities in our pears and apples.

The egg is deposited in the fruit, where it soon hatches and feeds,
approaching the stone. This causes the fruit to fall, and when the
grub has attained its full size it descends into the ground to perform
its transformation. The perfect insect, a small, dark-gray beetle,
either crawls up the stem, or flies to the trees. Mr. Walsh reminds us
that Dr. Trimble has found these insects hybernating in sheltered
places.

REMEDIES.--It is lamentable that we have been able to do so little to
prevent the ravages of this insect. The plan of shaking off, and
destroying the affected fruits, promises the best results, by
diminishing the next crop. It was suggested by David Thomas, of New
York, but is most successfully practised by Dr. E.S. Hull, of
Illinois, who has invented an inverted umbrella on wheels, which
receives the insects, as well as the defective fruits, when it is
bumped against the trees. By the use of this, he is enabled to harvest
splendid crops of stone-fruits.

=Pomphopoea Sayi=, (or _Cantharis pyrivora_, of _Fitch_), is called by
him the Pear Blister-fly. He describes it as a long blistering beetle,
of a green-blue color; found on a pear tree about the first of June,
eating the young fruit voraciously.

=Euryomia Inda=, or the Indian Cetonia, is a beetle about six-tenths
of an inch long. The head and thorax dark, copper-brown, thickly
covered with short, greenish-yellow hairs; wing-cases light
yellowish-brown, changeable, with metallic tints. These are called
flower-beetles, because they consume the pollen, and bury themselves
in our flowers; but in the autumn, they consume our choicest fruits,
especially peaches.

=Lachnosterna fusca=, (_Froelich_), is the White Grub, or May Beetle.
A heavy brown insect, an inch or more in length, which makes its
appearance with the first warm evenings, when the Black Locust begins
to open its fragrant blossoms, to which these beetles are attracted.
They also attack the foliage of other trees, particularly the cherry,
which they entirely strip of leaves and fruit. Though very destructive
in the perfect form, these insects are most to be dreaded while in the
larval condition, which is supposed to continue for some years. They
then work under cover, and can only be traced by the ravages they
commit. Every strawberry grower is familiar with the large White Grub
that so often destroys his hopes of a crop, by killing the plants
when in full growth and fruitage, by cutting off all the fibres.

REMEDY.--The full-grown insects are very busy in the evening, but
become stupid and lethargic before morning, clinging to the leaves and
twigs, when they may be shaken down, caught on sheets, gathered, and
destroyed. If let alone, they will fall to the ground toward day
break, and secrete themselves in the grass and soil until night. All
that can be killed in this stage of their existence, the better, as
this will prevent the deposition of innumerable eggs. The White Grubs
must be destroyed one at a time in cultivated grounds; kill them
whenever found. Encourage chickens and birds to follow the plow and
spade, as they will consume great numbers. Hogs will find and eat them
greedily, and may be allowed to root them out even from a meadow, if
badly affected; for, though a harsh remedy, it is not so bad as the
disease.

=Pelidnota punctata=, or the Spotted Pelidnota, is a large yellowish
insect, with a black dot on each side of the thorax, and three others
on the outer side of each wing-cover. It is found in the day time,
upon the leaves of the grape vine. Like the rest of the tribe, these
insects are voracious, and the grubs may also feed upon the roots of
the grape; therefore they had better be destroyed, though as their
numbers are seldom large they are not found to be very injurious.

=Haltica chalybea=, or the Grape Vine Flea-beetle, appears early in
the season, and eats holes in the buds and leaves. It is small, 0.16
inch long, oval; shining, deep greenish-blue, or deep green, or
purple. This insect spends the winter in the earth about the roots of
the vine, and feeds upon them.

=Anomala lucicola=, or the light-loving Anomala, is found on the grape
vine in July. It resembles the May Beetle, but is smaller, being 0.35
inch long.

These are not all the beetles that feed upon the grape vine.

=Macrodactylus subspinosa=, or the Rose-chafer, is another
melolonthian beetle, which is exceedingly destructive to grapes and
various other plants in many parts of the country, in May and June.
This insect is smaller than the others of its group, but is equally
destructive as a leaf-eater, on account of its numbers. On the grape,
it cuts off the young bunch of buds and blossoms, and thus seriously
diminishes the crop, as well as by destroying the foliage. It is of a
buff-yellow, with black feet, about 0.33 inch long. They continue to
ravage vegetation about a month, and then retire into the ground, an
inch deep, and deposit their eggs, which hatch in about twenty days,
and the young grubs feed upon tender roots, attaining their full size,
three-quarters of an inch, before winter, when they descend deeper to
hybernate.

The Rose-beetle has many natural enemies, among which are the
Dragon-flies; but we must depend upon human efforts for their
destruction, an almost hopeless task, for their name is legion, but so
much the greater necessity for the effort, and as they are sluggish,
they may easily be caught and thrown into hot water, or otherwise
destroyed.

=Tree Pruners= are the larvæ of beetles that excavate a burrow in
small limbs of trees, so as to make a section almost across their
substance; most of them then bore upward into the limb, and await the
action of the winds to break off the part and waft them to the ground,
where they pass through their change to the perfect insect. They
exercise a wonderful instinct in leaving just fibres enough to support
the branch until they are ready for their descent, but it often
happens that the twig breaks off partially and hangs by a thread,
dying, of course; we see the brown leaves on the trees, and this is
the first indication of the presence of the insects. If we examine the
fallen spray, we shall be surprised to observe the cause of its
falling. In the case of the oak tree, the damage is done by the
_Elaphidion villosum_, (Fabricius), a long-horned beetle. The larva
remains in these twigs until the next season, hence the importance of
gathering and burning all that fall to the ground.

An insect of somewhat similar habits often cuts off stout shoots of
the Hickory, making a very neat section of a small limb, leaving only
the bark, so that it readily breaks off with the wind; and a similar
effect has been observed in strong annual shoots of the pear, toward
the end of summer. The fallen piece and the stump are cut as neatly as
by the shears, but no perforation is discovered along the axis, in
which the larva could be concealed; hence we have but to suffer the
trimming thus performed without our will, and look upon it as a sort
of natural shortening-in of our trees.

=Blister-flies, or Beetles.=--There are several species of these
insects, each of which appears to have its favorite pasturage. They
are exceedingly voracious, but confine themselves chiefly to the
destruction of herbaceous vegetation, and are therefore obnoxious to
the farmer and gardener, who know them as the potato insects, than to
the fruit-grower. Their appetites are not very discriminating,
however, and when they are abundant they may consume the foliage of
our trees. These Blister-flies belong to the genus _Lytta_, and are
used as a substitute for the Spanish-fly of Europe, as they are
possessed of blistering qualities in no mean degree. They are wholly
different from the new potato destroyer of the West, the _Doryphora
10-lineata_, which is hemispherical, and is a leaf-eater, in the
larval as well as in the perfect state.

REMEDY.--Catch and kill all that can be found in the garden, or potato
field; scald, dry, and sell to the apothecary.

Before closing this section, it is but due to our many insect friends
in this order, to introduce a few of them to the reader. There are
several large families that are really serviceable to man; some of
these are called Scavengers, because they consume large quantities of
decaying matter that might prove noxious to us, were it allowed to
decay upon the surface of the ground. Among these are the
Dung-beetles, and the Carrion-beetles: others are carnivorous, and
some of these are called _Cicindelidæ_, or Tiger-beetles, from their
voracious consumption of other insects, which they devour in great
numbers, both in their larval and in their perfect form. These day
beetles are large, brightly colored, and very active in their
movements, as they run about in the sunny paths and roads, and cannot
fail to attract attention. Few persons are aware, however, of the
valuable aid they are rendering to man, nor of the credit that is due
to them for the preservation of our crops from the invasion of other
insect foes. Too often they are either unobserved and overlooked, or
even treated with the aversion and cruelty of men who ignorantly
attempt to stamp out all insect life, as though these creatures were
intruders upon their preemption. The intelligent observer of nature
will soon learn to respect each aid, which has been so wisely
furnished to assist him in his labors as a cultivator of the soil, and
all may admire the Wisdom that has provided at the same time such
beautiful and such useful creatures for the work.

=Calosoma scrutator=, is well named the handsome, for it is one of our
most beautiful insects of this class. This, and the red-spotted _C.
calidum_, may be seen upon trees, seeking caterpillars, upon which
they feed. One of our most intelligent horticulturists has so high an
appreciation of these insects, that he will not allow them to be
disturbed, and whenever he sees any caterpillars in his orchard, he
takes these beetles to the tree, and gives himself no further concern,
knowing that the Calosoma will soon destroy every worm.

=Coccinelidæ=, or Lady-birds, are most valuable aids to the
cultivator, who is constantly liable to have his crops destroyed by
the various species of Aphides. These little hemispherical beetles are
familiar to every one, and known to the children as Lady-birds; but
all may not know their value, nor be so well acquainted with the larvæ
of these insects, which are the chief agents in the destruction of our
troublesome plant-lice. Most persons would be very apt to crush these
curious, diminutive, lizard-looking creatures, even at the time they
were attacking the Aphides, instead of leaving them to carry on the
warfare more effectually without our aid.

These little friends have had a superstitious regard shown to them in
many countries, which indicates that a glimmering idea prevailed
respecting their usefulness. The Germans call them the _Marienkaefer_,
or Lady-beetles, of the Virgin Mary. The French call them _Vaches de
Dieu_, the Lord's cows, and our own children are all familiar with the
nursery rhyme about the Lady-birds. These insects find their way to
trees or plants that are infested with their proper food, the Aphides.

These beetles hide under the leaves that cluster in sheltered nooks
about or between the large roots of forest trees, where they can be
found on any mild winter day, and may be carried to the green-house or
to the window plants that are infested with plant-lice. They will not
only devour these pests, but will soon lay eggs that hatch and produce
the larvæ which are so voracious as to clear the plants in a
short-time. A little attention to the habits of these insects may
spare us great losses from the plant-lice.


=ORTHOPTERA.=--GRASSHOPPERS.

The insects of this order have an imperfect transformation. The eggs
hatch at once into young insects, that resemble their parents in form
and habits, excepting that they do not get their wings till they
approach the adult state. The young consume food voraciously, and the
perfect insects are not only still more hungry, but, having increased
powers of locomotion, they are more widely destructive. These are the
true _Locusts_, and though chiefly injurious to the farm and garden,
infesting the meadows and corn-fields, the grasshoppers, when winged,
often attack the foliage of our young orchard trees toward the end of
summer. But when we contemplate the invasion of the great western
plague, belonging to this order, which rivals that terrible scourge,
the Locust of the eastern continent, in numbers and voracity, we may
well dread their increase and appearance in other parts of the
country. The grasshoppers that have invaded Kansas and other Western
States are, like all the rest of this group of _Orthoptera_, true
Locusts.

This order is called _Orthoptera_, from their straight wings; it
embraces several groups, cockroaches, crickets, grasshoppers, or
locusts, etc., which are all injurious, except the _Mantis_, which is
predacious, and therefore useful.


=HEMIPTERA.=--BUGS AND HARVEST-FLIES.

This order contains many insects that are injurious to the nurseryman,
to the orchardist, and to the gardener. They are characterized by
having a proboscis instead of a mouth with jaws; they can suck, but
they cannot bite. The proboscis is often horny, and armed with two
pair of bristles, when it becomes a more formidable weapon for attack.
Bugs have four wings; they do not pass through the usual metamorphoses
of insect life; but are born with legs and feeding apparatus like the
perfect insects, except that some have no wings. Bugs are all
injurious to man, excepting such as are predacious, which are
serviceable by destroying other insects. Many are very small; and yet
their countless numbers and wonderful fecundity enable them to do
immense damage, as is true of the _Aphides_ and _Coccidæ_, the
_Tingis_, the _Tettigonia vitis_, called the Thrips by our
vine-dressers; and still more so of the Chinch-bug of the Western
prairies, which destroys whole crops of our most important cereals.

The colored juice of some bugs is used in the arts. The coccus of the
prickly pear, in Central America, is gathered and dried to form the
cochineal of the shops.

Hemipterous insects are divided into two groups. True bugs, called
_Hemiptera heteroptera_, having the wing-covers opaque at the base,
and laid horizontally, and crossing each other obliquely at the end,
overlapping; and the Harvest-flies, such as Plant-lice and Bark-lice.
These, the _Hemiptera homoptera_, have the wing-covers of one texture
throughout, not horizontal, but more or less sloping, and not crossing
one another behind. Among these, which all feed upon plants, some very
troublesome pests will here be noticed.


=COCCIDIANS.=--BARK-LICE.

=Aspidiotus conchiformis=, or the Apple Bark-louse, is very numerous
in many parts of our country, particularly north of latitude 40
degrees. It commits sad devastations in some sections. Individually,
it is but a little scale; but these animals are wonderfully prolific
and soon cover every twig of the tree, obstructing its transpirations,
and abstracting its vital juices; the leaves, and even the fruit are
overrun with these miserable scales, but the twigs are their favorite
resort. These scales are oblong, shaped like an oyster shell; flat
and brown, often crowding upon one another. In the winter and spring,
they contain or cover a number of small, round, white eggs, which
hatch out in the spring, in May, attach themselves to the bark, and
absorb the juices: various remedies have been suggested, and more or
less thoroughly tested. The restoration of the thrifty growth of the
tree is considered essential to success; and without this, all
remedies are looked upon as unavailing. Some orchardists think that
thorough drainage and cultivation of the land would alone banish the
lice, but this can hardly be hoped. Strong lye, or solutions of
potash, or soda, white-wash, and sulphur, have been used, and tobacco
boiled in lye, soft-soap and tar mixed with linseed oil, which makes a
kind of varnish. Mr. Walsh tells us that applications, to destroy this
insect, are better made in May or June, as the eggs are protected by
the scale in winter, and it is impermeable to watery solutions. This
pest has been imported from Europe. Walsh recommends the use of
Lady-birds to check the Bark-lice.[25]

=Lecanium pyri=, (_Fitch_), or the Pear Bark-louse, is a hemispherical
brown scale, as large as a split pea. They may be found in summer on
the under side of the limbs, and are the remains of dead females,
which cover the eggs and young brood. This insect would be very
injurious, were it to increase in numbers considerably. Let young
trees be examined in June, when the scales may easily be found,
removed, and destroyed.

=Lecanium persici=, or the Peach Bark-louse, is described, by Fitch,
as similar in size to the above, found on smooth bark near a bud; it
is blackish, uneven, shining, with a pale margin.

Another pear tree bark-louse was described by the lamented A.O. Moore,
of New York, as a white, papery scale, giving a claret-colored juice
when scraped. This, in the winter, consists of a defunct mother and
her brood of eggs, the breaking of which gives the color. Alkaline
washes are recommended to be applied in the spring. Mr. Walsh thinks
this insect cannot be the same as that mentioned by Dr. Harris, on p.
222 of his report, under the name of _Coccus cryptogamus_, (_Dalman_),
who found it upon the Aspen, and therefore he has named it _Coccus?
Harrisii_.[26]

=Lecanium vitis=, (_Linn._), or the Vine Bark-louse, is mentioned by
Fitch as having been found on grape vines in June. It is hemispherical
and brown. A cottony substance was extruded from one end of the scale,
and this increased until July, when minute insects crept out and
scattered over the bark, upon which they fixed themselves. This insect
is not very common, but its first appearance should be closely
watched, and its destruction promptly effected.


=APHIDES.=--PLANT-LICE.

These are the most extraordinary insects, being found upon almost all
parts of plants, and there is scarcely a species which does not
support one or more kinds peculiar to itself. Then they are so
exceedingly prolific! Reaumur proved that one individual, in five
generations, may become the progenitor of nearly six thousand millions
of descendants. Most of these insects, which we find so abundant upon
our trees, are wingless females. Winged insects, both male and female,
appear later in the season, and after laying their eggs, they soon
perish. Some lay in the fall, others wait till spring. When these eggs
hatch, the brood consists wholly of females, which are wingless, and
do not lay eggs, but are viviparous and produce from fifteen to twenty
young lice in the course of a day. This second generation are also
wingless, and at maturity produce their young, and so on to the
seventh generation, without the approach of a single male, until the
autumn, when a brood of males and females appears, which are both
winged at maturity, and then the eggs are laid for the next year's
brood, and the parents die.[27]

The injuries occasioned by plant-lice, are much greater than would at
first be expected, from an observation of the small size and extreme
weakness of the insects; but these make up by their numbers what they
lack in strength individually, and thus become formidable enemies to
vegetation. By their punctures and the quantity of sap they draw from
the leaves, the functions of these important organs are deranged, or
interrupted, the sap is withdrawn or contaminated, and unfitted to
supply the wants of vegetation. Plants are differently affected; some
wither and cease to grow, their leaves and stems become sickly, and
die from exhaustion. Others, not killed, are greatly impeded in their
growth; the tender parts, which are attacked, become stunted and
curled. The punctures of the lice appear to poison some plants,
producing warts or swellings, which are sometimes solid, sometimes
hollow, containing within them a swarm of lice, descendants of a
single individual.[28] These last are often seen upon the leaves of
the Elm, and upon some Poplars, and other trees; but I have not found
any upon the foliage of our cultivated fruits, unless it be those on
the grape.

=Aphis mali=, or the Apple Leaf-louse, is a small, green insect
without wings, accompanied by a few black and green ones having wings.
These are all crowded together upon the green tips of twigs, and under
the leaves, sucking the sap. The eggs remain in deep cracks of the
bark during the winter, and hatch as soon as the buds expand in the
spring. The most successful treatment is to scrape off the loose bark,
and to apply to the stems of the trees alkaline or lime washes. Many
of our familiar little winter birds consume these eggs. In the spring
and summer, alkaline solutions may be used with advantage, syringed or
sprinkled upon the affected shoots and foliage.

The smell of these insects is peculiar, which, indeed, is generally
characteristic with bugs. Each sort seems to derive a special flavor
from the tree or plant upon which it feeds. Most insects of this
family secrete copiously a sweetish fluid, called the honey dew, which
is ejected from two little horns or nectaries, that project, one on
each side of their bodies. This sweet material attracts a great many
flies, and other insects, particularly ants, which are the constant
attendants of these creatures, and are said to protect them from their
enemies in order to obtain their sweet secretion. Some entomologists
have called _Aphides_ the Ants' cows.

No one, who is acquainted with the _Aphides_, and the various insects
which prey upon them, will ever permit a valuable plant to suffer
injury from these pests. He will collect some of the _Aphis'_ enemies
alive, carry them to the affected plant, and set them free to do their
work; there they will remain while the food lasts. The _Aphides_ have
more numerous, more active, and more inveterate enemies than insects
of any other group--these are the means by which their wonderful
fecundity is kept in check. Among them are the Aphis-lions, which are
the larvæ of the Golden-eyed and Lace-wing flies, belonging to the
order _Neuroptera_. They are reddish-brown, with a dark stripe down
the middle, and a cream-colored one on each side; bodies long, narrow,
and wrinkled transversely. Their jaws are long, curved like sickles,
projecting forward from their heads horizontally.[29]

The _Coccinellidæ_, mentioned as useful members of the order
_Coleoptera_, on a previous page, are among the most active enemies of
the _Aphides_. The eggs are laid in clusters of twenty to forty on the
under side of a leaf, to which they are closely glued; they are oval,
and light yellow. They hatch into small blackish larvæ, which are
active, and which boldly attack an _Aphis_ much larger than
themselves, leaving only the empty skin. They consume hundreds while
in the larval state, about two weeks, when they attach themselves by
the tail, and go into the pupa state. One of the largest of these
Lady-birds is the _Mysia 15-punctata_; the larva is a clear white,
the middle of the back tinged with red, and two or three black spots
on each segment--nearly a hundred species of Lady-birds are found in
this country. The perfect insect, as well as the larvæ, feed upon
_Aphides_, and instead of being destroyed, they should be cherished
and encouraged.

Besides these, there are other inveterate enemies of the plant-lice in
the _Syrphidæ_, which are two-winged flies, resembling the common
house-fly, but handsomer. They deposit their eggs where _Aphides_
exist; the maggot, which hatches from these, seizes upon the first
_Aphis_ that comes within his reach, and sucks its fluids. A
medium-sized worm will consume a hundred lice in an hour. They are
always found in a colony of _Aphides_.[30]

=Aphis prunifoliæ=, or the Plum Leaf-louse, is black, with pale green
abdomen. It is found on the under side of the leaves, which become
wrinkled and distorted. It is not so abundant as some other species,
but its habits are similar.[31]

=Aphis cerasi=, (_Fabric._), or the Cherry Plant-louse, is very
common, very numerous, and very black. They appear with the first
expansion of the leaves, and continue or are renewed when destroyed,
and remain until mid-summer, when they generally disappear. Their
numbers are almost incredible, and they give a young cherry tree a
wretched appearance. On the under surface of a small leaf,
three-fourths of an inch long, Mr. Fitch counted one hundred and
ninety lice, on one side only of the midrib. Their natural enemies
come to the rescue to check their wonderful increase, and sometimes
will utterly rout the _Aphides_ in a single week.[32]

The remedies advised for the apple tree _Aphides_, are equally
applicable to those of the cherry, and their natural enemies are the
same and equally efficacious; but _Aphides_ have internal foes
likewise, that may be named here. The Ichneumon-flies are parasitic,
their larvæ feed upon the substance of the _Aphides_. The genus
_Aphidius_ is particularly provided to furnish parasites to these
insects, in which they deposit a single egg selecting a louse of the
proper size to sustain their progeny: the egg hatches to a larva,
which exhausts the _Aphis_ by the time it has attained its growth,
when the poor creature fastens itself securely to the leaf, and dies,
leaving its carcase a secure resting place for the pupa of the
Ichneumon. These parasitic-insects, which feed internally upon the
_Aphides_, are as effective in their destruction as the Aphis-lions,
or any other class of their enemies.[33]

=Aphis persicæ=, or the Peach Tree-louse, punctures the leaves of this
plant, and Dr. Fitch[34] thinks, is the common though not the only
cause of the curl in the peach tree leaves. Our intelligent
orchardists have found these insects occasionally in the curled leaves
of the peach, but do not agree with this distinguished entomologist,
in considering them a cause of that malady.

=Aphis vitis?=, or the Vine _Aphis_, is often quite troublesome on
vigorous young shoots of the grape vine, both wild and cultivated,
particularly the former. These insects soon cripple the growth of the
shoot. The species is not known to be different from that of Europe.
This insect is briefly mentioned by T. Glover, in Patent Office Rept.
for 1854, p. 79. Dr. Fitch describes as a grape leaf-louse, the
_Pemphigus vitifolia_, which inhabits the gall-like excrescences upon
the foliage of some varieties, particularly those with thin leaves.

=Aphis ribis=, (_Linn._), is the _Aphis_ of the currant. It causes the
leaves to present a blistered appearance above; the lice are found on
the under side; the wingless are pale yellow, the others have glossy
wings, mostly black, with abdomen light green.[35]

=Aphis lanigera=, now called _Eriosoma_, or the Woolly _Aphis_, was
first described in 1801 as infesting the apple trees in Germany. It
has been noticed in England in 1787, and has since acquired the name
of American Blight, from the erroneous supposition that it had been
imported from this country; but it was known to French gardeners for a
long time previous.

The eggs of this insect are microscopic, and are enveloped in a
cottony substance. They are deposited in chinks of bark, and crotches
of limbs, at or near the surface of the ground. When first hatched,
the insects are covered with short down; as they grow, the down
increases in length. When fully grown, they are one-tenth of an inch
long; the head, antennæ, sucker, and skins, are blackish, the abdomen
of a honey-yellow color. Their punctures produce warty excrescences,
the limbs become sickly, the leaves turn yellow and drop off, and the
whole tree perishes as the insects spread over it. The remedies
appear futile on badly affected trees. Young trees were treated by
painting over the affected parts with a mixture of melted resin and
fish oil, in equal parts, applied warm. Sir Joseph Banks removed them
with a stiff brush. Spirits of tar, turpentine, oil, and soft soap,
have been recommended. After scraping off the rough bark, wash the
tree with alkaline solution, apply the same to the main roots after
laying them bare of earth.[36]

=Phemphigus pyri=, _Eriosoma pyri_, (_Fitch_), or _Pemphigus
Americanus?_, (_Walker_), is the Apple-root Blight. It produces a
similar condition in the roots, and was also called the American
Blight in England. It is composed of warty excrescences upon the
roots, containing in their crevices minute lice, having their bodies
covered with a white cottony substance. Removal of the earth, and the
application of soapsuds, has been recommended as a probable remedy for
the injuries done by this insect.[37]

=Psylla Pyri.=--Some _Aphides_ have the power of leaping, like the
leaf-hoppers, but they differ from those insects in having very large
transparent upper wings, which cover the sides of the body like a
steep roof. The genus embracing these insects, is called _Psylla_. One
of the species was observed by Dr. Harris, upon a pear tree. They live
by suction, and having gorged themselves, the juice runs down on the
bark, producing a blackish color; young trees suffered excessively. As
Dr. Phumb, of Salisbury, Conn., had observed them in 1833 on some
imported pear trees, of which he lost several hundred in a few years,
Dr. Harris suspected the insect to be the _Psylla pyri_, of Europe.
Kollar recommends brushing off the insects, and crushing them under
foot; and also advises to destroy the winged females in the spring.
This being tedious and uncertain, it is recommended to wash the twigs
with a brush, dipped in a mixture of strong soapsuds and flowers of
sulphur, before the buds expand, to deter the insects from laying
their eggs. A weaker solution, or the whale oil soap, might kill the
young insects after they have fastened upon the bark, if applied with
a syringe.[38]

=Cicada septendecim=, or the Seventeen-year Locust, as it is
erroneously called, is no Locust at all, but should be called
_Cicada_, because, as already stated, when considering the order
_Orthoptera_, the true Locusts, are, what we call Grasshoppers.

This insect is remarkable for the long period of its pupal existence,
which is subterranean, and during which it feeds upon the juices of
roots. In its perfect state, it does not eat, and is neither able to
bite nor to sting. The injury it does to our orchards is effected by
its piercer in depositing its eggs, causing twigs to break and fall
off. There are several Harvest-flies that belong to this order.

=Tree Hoppers=, being members of the same order, feed upon the juices
of plants, through their suckers, and are thus injurious; but their
numbers are not sufficient to render them of much consequence.

=Palæothrips mali=, (_Fitch_), is the name of an insect described by
Dr. Fitch[39] as infesting apple trees in the month of August, where
they were attacking the fruit. They excavated a little hollow near the
blossom end of the apple about the size of a pea, which was occupied
by small insects. Until the habits of the insect are more thoroughly
understood, it will be difficult to advise any remedies.

There is quite a number of insects in this class that affect the grape
vine, some of which may become troublesome, and we should watch their
habits. The following accounts are condensed from Dr. Fitch's Report:

=Raphigaster sarpinus=, or the large Green Tree-bug, is grassy-green,
edged with yellow, and a black point at every joint of the abdomen;
found in September.

=Pentatoma ligata=, or the Bound Tree-bug, is also grassy-green, but
more widely bordered all round, except the head, with pale red, and
has a pale red spot on the middle of its back and on the apex of its
scutel; antennæ green.

=Arma modesta=, or the Modest Tree-bug, is tawny, yellowish-gray,
thickly dotted with brown punctures; the wing-covers are red at the
apex of their leathery portion, and have a brown spot at the tip of
the hyaline portion; the under side is whitish, with a row of black
dots along the middle, and another on each side.

=Thelia univittata=, (_Harris_), or the Single-striped Treehopper, is
chestnut-brown, shaped like a beech-nut, with a perpendicular
protuberance on the fore part of its back, higher than wide. It is
tawny white in front, a white stripe along the back to the tip; length
0.37 inch; July and August.

=Ceresa bubalus=, or Buffalo Treehopper, is of a light grass-green,
freckled with whitish dots; with a sharp short point on each side,
projecting like horns.

=Ceresa taurina=, is like the preceding, but the space between the
horns is concave.

=Acutalis dorsalis=, is a small, triangular, shining Treehopper, with
a smooth round back; it is greenish-white, with a large black spot,
from the anterior corners of which a line runs off to each eye.
Plentiful about the last of July, a few remaining until October.

=Erythroneura vitis=, (_Harris_), or the Vine-leaf hopper, is pale
yellow, with two broad blood-red bands, and a third dusky one on the
apex. Swarms of these small insects occur in August, and often bleed
the foliage so as to injure it seriously.

=Erythroneura tricincta=, or the Three-banded Leaf-hopper, is like the
preceding species, but the bands are narrower.

=Erythroneura vitifex=, or the Vine-destroying Leaf-hopper, is
yellowish-white; the wing-covers have oblique confluent, blood-red
bands, and a short, oblique, black line on the middle of their outer
margin. The thorax commonly has three red stripes, the middle one
forked anteriorly and confluent, with two red stripes on the crown of
the head. When the wing-covers are closed, they look red, with a
cream-colored spot, shaped like a heart placed anteriorly, and on the
middle, a large diamond-shaped spot, with a small red spot in its
centre.

These insects are sometimes seen in such numbers upon the grape vines
in September, that, when the leaves are disturbed, they fly out and
resemble a shower of snowflakes. The young resemble their parents,
but are destitute of wings.

A REMEDY is much needed.

=Erythroneura vulnerata=, (_Fitch_), or the Wounded Treehopper, is
tawny yellowish, sometimes tinged with red; the wing-covers have white
spots and veins, and on the middle of the outer margin an oblique
black streak, between two creamy white spots; the hind one smaller,
and an oblique blood-red line at its end; tips smoky-blackish; length
0.12 inch; September.

=Otiocerus Coquebertii=, is a slim fly of yellowish-white color, with
a bright carmine-red stripe along each side of the body and wings,
which are widely forked behind. Length 0.42 inch; July until autumn,
on the wild grape vine.

There are a great many insects of this order, which are familiar to
most country residents on account of their unpleasant smell. These are
the true bugs, and belong to the sub-division called _Heteropterous
Hemiptera_. The Squash-bug is a familiar illustration of these
insects; it is called the _Coreus tristis_, from its sad dull color;
they are quite destructive to all plants of the Squash family.

=Reduvius trinotatus=, is one of this order, which is a valuable aid
to the horticulturists, because its sucker is armed with sharp
instruments, that enable it to pierce and consume other insects, many
of which are destroyed by it. This insect has been introduced into the
West for the sake of its valuable services.


ORDER LEPIDOPTERA.

The insects of this order are very numerous, and in their larval or
caterpillar state they are often very destructive. In the perfect form
of butterflies and moths, they commit little or no depredations,
because their jaws have been transformed into a sucking apparatus.
They consume, in their perfect state, little else than honey.

The order has been divided into three great sections: Butterflies,
_Papiliones_; Hawk-moths, _Sphinges_; and Moths, or _Nocturnes_. Of
these, the _Ægeridæ_ constitute a very distinct family, resembling
bees and wasps rather than butterflies; their caterpillars also
differ, being borers, and nearly naked. Butterflies are produced from
caterpillars that are not generally very injurious to our crops.
Hawk-moths are large insects, and have great power of flight; their
caterpillars are large and voracious. It is the moths proper, a very
numerous family, which do us the most harm, and which will demand the
largest share of our attention. They vary much in size and appearance.
Some of the females are destitute of wings.

The _Arctians_ or Woolly Bears, are a very numerous division of the
tribe of _Bombyces_ or Spinners, so called from the name of the
Silk-worm; some of these will be mentioned.

=Orgyia leucostigma=, or the Vaporer Moth, is a very beautiful
caterpillar, frequently seen upon our fruit trees, though not confined
to them. They feed separately, and therefore we can best destroy them
in the egg. Fortunately, these may easily be found during the winter,
for the female, being wingless, never quits her cocoon, but deposits
the eggs in a mass upon the outside of it. The whole contrivance is
one of the many illustrations of the wonderful instinct of insects.
When about to spin, the worm secures two or more leaves, by entwining
her silk about their stems, and also around the woody twig upon which
they grow; she then attaches them together by bands of silk, and spins
her cocoon between them. She thus secures a winter resting place for
her eggs, and her progeny, when they hatch the next summer, are upon
the tree that furnishes them their appropriate food. These dead leaves
will attract our attention during the winter, and should be gathered
and burned. Many of the caterpillars are destroyed by a little
Ichneumon-fly.

=Orgyia antiqua=, or the Rusty Vaporer Moth, of Europe, has been
introduced into this country, and has been quite destructive to
thorn-hedges in Rhode Island. They may become troublesome to our
orchards.

Several of these _Arctians_, or Tiger-moths, may be seen about our
houses on a summer evening, as they are chiefly nocturnal. One of the
most common is

=Arctia phalerata=, or the Harnessed Moth, so called from the markings
on its wings. Another distinctly marked one is _Callimorpha
militaris_, now called _C. Lecontei_. Beautiful illustrations of these
are given in Dr. Harris' Report.

=Spilosoma Virginica=, is the beautiful White Moth, or "Miller," that
we see in May; it is the imago or perfect insect of a large hairy
caterpillar, of a yellowish color, frequently seen in our gardens, and
quite destructive to vegetation.

=Hyphantria textor=, or the Fall Web-worm, is very troublesome upon
shrubs and trees during the summer and fall. They are called the
Web-worms from their habit of feeding gregariously in large numbers,
and spinning a web that envelopes the leaves and the whole branch, as
they devour the foliage.

This insect commits sad ravages upon our cultivated trees of various
kinds, for it is not a choice feeder, consuming but one species, like
many other insects. Their most common pasture is the mulberry, and the
related Osage Orange is frequently attacked. The Elder bushes appear
very attractive to them, and are often covered with their unsightly
webs. Elms suffer very much; our favorite fruit trees are attacked;
apples, pears, cherries, quinces, and, occasionally, even the peach
trees are eaten by them. Even the repulsive Ailantus, which has often
been recommended as a wormless tree, is greedily devoured by these
caterpillars, notwithstanding its disagreeable odor.

The eggs, from two to three hundred in number, are deposited on the
under side of a leaf, near the end of a twig. These soon hatch, and
the larvæ commence feeding on the upper surface, spinning their
threads from side to side, and then, attaching two or three leaves
together, they soon make a web. They continue feeding and spinning
along the twig, as they consume the tender portion of the leaf,
leaving the mere skeleton.

The caterpillars are small, of a pale yellow color, with a broad
blackish stripe on the back, and another beneath. They are thickly
clothed with whitish hair; the head and feet are black. Worms of the
same nest vary in size and colors. When about an inch long, they
disperse, and spin their cocoons. The moth is milk white, without any
markings on its wings, and is 1.25 to 1.35 inch in width. (Vide
Harris, p. 358).

Though called the Fall Web-worm, these caterpillars appear about
Cincinnati in the end of May quite abundantly, and from that time
until October, they are more or less frequent; most so in August. In
the North, they may be later; I have seen large tracts of forest
defoliated on the lake shore, in August, 1865.


REMEDIES.--For the destruction of these pests we must resort to
hand-picking, when they are in the caterpillar state. The twig or
branch should be taken off, and the worms crushed or burned. It is
fortunate for us that they are gregarious and that they spin a web,
for we can detect them while they are yet young, and when confined to
one or two leaves, so that the whole brood may be destroyed with very
little effort. Birds, and some insects, aid us in keeping them in
check.

=Clisiocampa decipiens=, (_Walker_), or _C. Americana_, (_Harris_), is
commonly known as the Tent-caterpillar, or Nest-caterpillar. The larvæ
are not indiscriminate feeders, but prefer the foliage of certain
members of the _Rosaceous_ family of plants. Their natural food
appears to be the common wild cherry, but they attack the apple so
vigorously, that they are often called the apple tree worm. Mr. Fitch
thinks they do not feed upon the peach; but I have frequently found
them upon this tree since 1855. The moth appears to be endowed with
wonderful instinct in depositing her eggs; selecting a terminal shoot
that has completed its growth, they are placed to the number of 200 or
300 around it in a broad ring or sheath, and covered with a sort of
varnish that protects them.

Very early in the spring, when the buds of the apple have just begun
to swell, the eggs hatch, and the little worms traverse the twig,
spinning a slender thread; when they reach another branch, they halt
in the bifurcation, and, moving about, soon create a slight web with
the silken threads, and from this they emerge in search of food,
spinning a thread along their route, and when they return, they travel
about, and thus enlarge their web.


REMEDIES.--These insects may be attacked in the egg or in the larval
state. The former are so arranged as to be conspicuous on the naked
spray at any time during the winter--whenever seen, they should be
broken or cut off, and carried to the fire. In the early spring, we
must watch for the little tents in the bifurcations of the limbs, and
remove the nests with all the worms; this may be done when they are
small, by using the thumb and finger; if larger, it is a disagreeable
task, but no orchardist should hesitate when he recollects that six
hundred leaves is a day's ration for one colony. They can easily be
gathered in their web, thrown upon the ground, and crushed with the
foot. Mr. Needham, of Massachusetts, has invented, what he calls, a
caterpillar scourge; it is a little cone of wood, clothed with a piece
of wool-card. This is attached to a pole: when thrust into the web,
the whole nest is gathered by the card-teeth and brought down. An old
dry mullein stalk has often been used for the same purpose, and some
recommend burning the nest, or shooting it; but I have more faith in
thumb and finger work, believing it to be more thorough.

Among the natural enemies of these caterpillars are the Tiger-beetles,
which a successful orchardist of Illinois uses systematically for
their destruction. He catches a beetle, and puts it upon a tree
containing a nest of the Tent-caterpillar, after which he finds the
worms soon disappear.

=Gastrophaca Americana=, (_Harris_).--The Lappet-caterpillars are
found on apple trees. The worms are flat, and when at rest on a limb,
they often escape observation from their gray color resembling the
bark. A fringe of hairs, along their sides, gives them this flat
appearance. They feed only at night. Dr. Harris found some in
September that measured two and one-half inches in length, and above
half an inch in breadth.


SATURNIANS, CERATOCAMPIANS, ZEUZERIANS.

=Platysamia (Attacus) cecropia=, (_Linn._), the Cecropia Emperor Moth,
is found as a large cylindrical, pale green worm, three or four inches
long, and as thick as one's thumb, and having two rows of pale blue,
projecting points along each side, and two rows of pale yellow ones
upon the back, with four larger, bright orange, or red ones
anteriorly, all ending in little black prickles. The moth is large;
its wings dark gray; each has a large white, crescent like spot in the
centre, margined with red, and a red band crossing both wings. Appears
in June; width five to seven inches.

There are others of this family of noble moths whose names have been
indicated above, but they are not very destructive to the orchard.

Then come, in Dr. Harris' classification, the _Zeuzerians_, a group of
moths which, like _Ægerians_ among the Sphinges, pierce the roots and
stems of trees. Among these is _Xyleutes (Cossus) robiniæ_, or the
Locust-tree Boring-moth.

The Saturnians are a group of large, naked caterpillars, which are
generally short, thick, clumsy, and cylindrical; they are leaf eaters,
and some of them, when young, keep together in families, but separate
as they become older, when they spin large silky cocoons sometimes
among leaves, which they secure by silk to the twigs, sometimes
attaching them to the stems and limbs, and at others at, or beneath,
the surface of the ground. This group contains some of the largest and
most beautiful moths, with large woolly bodies, and widely extended,
highly colored and ornamented wings. They lay a great many eggs; some
females deposit several hundreds. Still they are seldom so numerous as
to commit serious devastations.

"Among these are the _Telea Polyphemus_, _Tropæ aluna_, _Callosamia
Promethea_, _Platysamia cecropia_, (formerly known under the genus
_Attacus_, which is now restricted to the immense _A. Atlas_, and
another species of China), and the _Euchronia Maia_, and _Hyperchiria
varia_, (formerly known under the genus _Saturnia_, which is now
retained for several European species). The latter species, (_H.
varia_), has been generally known among us under the name of _Saturnia
Io_, but according to Dr. Packard, (who published 'a Synopsis of the
Bombycidæ of the United States,' in the Third Volume of the
Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia), our species
has been confounded by authors with Cramer's species '_Io_,' from
South America, and which belongs to a different genus."--[E.T.
Cresson, Mss.]

These moths may yet become valuable for the production of a kind of
silk, as they are enclosed in large cocoons, the fibres of which
surpass those of the Silk-worm in strength, and might be employed in
the formation of fabrics, similar to those manufactured in India from
the Tusseh and Arrindy Silk-worms, the strength and durability of
which are proverbial. Mr. Pullein, who experimented with the cocoons
of the _Cecropia_ found that twenty threads of this silk, twisted
together, would sustain nearly an ounce more in weight than the same
number of common silk.--(Vide Harris, pp. 295-303.)

_Psychidæ_ are curious caterpillars, which, being naked, cover
themselves during the larva state with a case that protects their
bodies, though open at both ends, and which they carry about with
them; these cases are made up of fragments of leaves, generally the
stems and veins, which they connect together by threads of silk. The
Germans call them Sack-bearers. Huebner called them _Canæphoræ_, or
Basket-carriers, because the cases, often made of little sticks,
resemble a basket. One genus is called _Oeceticus_, or House-insect;
and the common species, which, in some parts of the country, commits
great devastation upon the leaves of trees, is called the Drop-worm,
or the Basket-worm, in many places.

We have several genera and species belonging to this sub-family, the
most common of which are the _Thyridopteryx ephemeraformis_, and
_Oeceticus coniferarum_. The best means for the destruction of this
pest consist in persevering efforts for their individual destruction;
each case should be cut or torn off in the winter, when they show
very plainly upon deciduous trees; they may be crushed, but had better
be committed to the flames.

The Notodontians are so called from a hump or horn, which rises from
the top of the fourth ring of the caterpillar; the tail is always
raised when the insect is at rest. One of these is called, from its
horn, _Coelodasys (Notodonta) unicornis_. Some species consume the
foliage of our fruit trees, particularly the apple and quince; one of
these, the _Datana ministra_, (the _Eumetopona ministra_ of Fitch, or
the _Pygæra ministra_ of Harris), will be noticed below.

=Eudryas grata=, and =E. unio.=--The Beautiful Wood-nymph, and the
Pearl Wood-nymph.--The worms are very much alike, and resemble the
Spotted Forrester. The moths come forth in July; the fore-wings are
milk white, bordered behind and on the outer side, from the base to
the middle, with rusty brown, edged on the inner side with greenish
olive; hind-wings nankeen yellow, with a blackish-brown border. These
worms are best removed by hand-picking.

=Datana ministra=, or the Hand-maid Moth.--The moths are troublesome
visitors to the evening student in June; they are brown, hairy,
thick-bodied, and measure rather more than an inch across the wings.
This creature is destined to give us a great deal of trouble by her
progeny, for she deposits her numerous eggs on the under side of the
leaf on a twig of quince, apple, and cherry trees, where they hatch
into worms, that, during their existence of about four weeks, consume
immense quantities of foliage, often stripping the trees bare.

The worms feed gregariously, lying side by side in solid phalanx. They
are of a dark brown in their younger state, but become lighter and
more clearly marked at each successive moulting, so that they are
distinctly striped with black and yellow. The peculiar character of
this worm is, that when at rest, the head and tail are carried up in
the air, or recurved over the body, which is supported by the six prop
legs placed near the middle. When disturbed, these caterpillars often
throw their heads from side to side, as though in anger. They are
sparingly furnished with hairs, and they spin but little; though when
young, the worms will sometimes drop from the leaves when disturbed,
and hang suspended by a fine strand of silk. At full size, these
creatures are an inch and three-quarters to two inches long, and as
thick as a goose quill, so that we can readily imagine the amount of
destruction which may be committed by one of these armies or family
groups of one to two hundred worms.


TREATMENT.--Constant vigilance is required on the part of the
orchardist, and unremitting efforts while the insect is in the larval
condition. Fortunately for us, their habits are such as to aid us in a
remarkable way. They may be looked for in July, but they become
numerous only about the end of August, and in September. Some late
broods may be seen on the access of early frosts, but by the end of
September, the worms generally perfect their growth, and descend into
the earth to undergo their changes for the next season, when the moths
will again appear.

When we may be inspecting our orchards, in the summer and autumn, we
should observe any defective foliage, as this is often an indication
of the inroads of insects. If our trees have been neglected, we may
be alarmed by observing some of the thriftiest shoots and branches
quite stripped of their leaves; and, lying along the stems, or crowded
together, we shall see these unpleasant worms, unless they be foraging
upon an adjoining, or sometimes upon quite a distant branch; for, in
changing their pasture, they descend one twig and pass out upon
another, which may diverge considerably from the first.

In the early stages of their existence, however, the little worms
consume only the upper surface of the leaves, and it is at this period
that we may most advantageously attack them. The leaves that have thus
had their substance eroded become dry and whitish, and attract our
attention. They are generally found upon a single twig or spray,
usually a lateral, and it should at once be examined, as we may now
easily destroy the whole brood by rolling a single leaf between the
thumb and finger.


NOCTUÆ, OR OWLET-MOTHS, CUT-WORMS.

The perfect insects are thick-bodied, and of dull colors; they fly at
night. The caterpillars are naked, live in the soil, and feed above
ground at night, when they do considerable damage. The common
Cut-worm, _Agrotis_, is an illustration. There are several sorts,
which have received different names, but the worms all have very
similar habits.

The moths are supposed to lay their eggs in July, when they soon hatch
and feed during the season; they attain considerable size and
hybernate in the soil.

REMEDIES.--Fall and winter plowing has been recommended, as it
exposes the worms to the birds, and to the weather, but especially
because it destroys the vegetation upon which they might subsist in
the early spring. The only safe way, is to watch their traces among
our plants, and dig down beside them, find the worm, and destroy it.
Though this does not restore the plant already killed, we prevent
further damage, and may hope to thus diminish the pest in future
years, which is no small matter. A knowledge of their nocturnal habits
has induced some gardeners to go among their young plants with a lamp
or candle at night, when they may find the caterpillars feeding. A few
choice plants may be protected by wrapping their stems with a strip of
paper, or a stout leaf, (hickory), at the time of transplanting into
infested grounds; this will save them. Tobacco water has been found
very effective, applied to the plants, which it does not injure.

=Mamestra arctica=, (_Hadena amica_, of Harris, and _H. amputatrix_,
of Fitch), is a Cut-worm of a brownish color, about one and a half
inch long. It is sometimes quite destructive in the nursery and
garden, ascending woody plants, and cutting them off where succulent,
in the month of May. It can only be checked by seeking for it, in the
soil, near the base of the plants affected.

All these Cut-worms are eaten by birds, among which the crow is a
valuable aid to the farmer, and should be cherished for his services
instead of being condemned as a bird of ill-omen. Predacious insects
also consume numbers of them; one of these is the larva of a beetle,
_Harpalus calaginosus_. A large Ichneumon-fly has been found hunting
after the worms, and is considered their natural enemy.


GEOMETERS, SPAN-WORMS, CANKER-WORMS.

The measuring worms take their name from their peculiar method of
locomotion; having their legs at each end of their long bodies, they
walk by progressive leaps, arching up their backs by bringing their
hind-legs forward, and then thrusting their heads out to their full
length. Many of them drop from the trees, and hang suspended by a
thread of silk, when disturbed, or when seeking the earth to undergo
their transformations. Some of them are naked, or have few hairs; most
are smooth, often striped, or of an uniform color, like the bark of
the trees on which they feed.

The moths are slender-bodied; the wings large; of some the females
have no wings. These are the _Hybernians_, including the Canker-worm,
_Anisopterix vernata_. These caterpillars are very numerous and
destructive; they do not feed gregariously, and are difficult to
combat in that form. The pupæ are under ground, and, as the female
moths are wingless, and must ascend the trees to deposit their eggs,
we can destroy them in the perfect form by meeting them on the highway
they have to pass. Ingenious devices have been invented for this
purpose; among the most effective of these are vessels of oil,
fastened closely around the bole of the tree. The moths emerge from
the ground in early spring, but many come out during pleasant mild
days in the winter, and some even in the autumn; so the remedies must
be applied early to be of any use.

Harris describes a smaller species as the _Anisopterix pometaria_.

=Hybernia tiliaria=, or the Span-worm of the Linden, is abundant in
June, growing to the length of an inch and a half. A belt of tar,
applied to the trees, has been found effective in preventing the
ascent of the wingless females; this needs renewing daily, until the
season of their rising has passed.

=Ellopia ribearia=, or the Currant-moth, was figured and described by
Fitch as the _Abraxas? ribearia_, in New York Reports for 1856. The
worm is light yellow, with black dots. It eats the leaves of currants
and gooseberries, in June. The moth ascends from the ground in July;
it is nankeen-yellow; quite a common insect in some parts of the
country. It must have some natural enemies, for, where very abundant
one year, it sometimes disappears altogether the next. Hand-picking is
the only remedy known, and this is quite a tedious process.


TORTRICES, DELTA MOTHS, OR LEAF-ROLLERS.

The Leaf-rollers are a numerous tribe, and some of them are
troublesome upon our cultivated trees and vines. They curl up the edge
of the leaf upon which they feed, and fasten it with little bands of
silk, and thus shelter themselves from the weather and from their
enemies. They are naked worms, and generally light colored, and
exceedingly active. Some live in the unfolding leaves and flower-buds,
fastening them together so they cannot expand, while they devour the
tender tissues. Some enter the young fruit, which they cause to ripen
and fall prematurely. The moths are generally small, often prettily
marked, and fly only in the evening.

=Loxotænia rosaceana=, (_Harris_), is found soon after the buds of the
apple begin to expand. They curl up and fasten them together, and do
considerable damage.

=Penthina oculana=, (_Harris_), has similar habits, and preys upon the
apple; both must be killed by hand.

=Brachytoenia melania=, or the Many-dotted Apple Leaf-worm, is
mentioned by Fitch[40] as eating holes in the leaves, in June and
September. It is rather thick, light green, an inch and a quarter
long, with five white lines and numerous white dots; the worms spin
their cocoons in a leaf. There are two crops.

=Loxotænia cerasivorana=, (_Fitch_), or the Cherry Tortrix, is a deep
yellow worm, with black head and feet. Found in July, fastening the
leaves together and living in families, forming a large nest.[41]

=Desmia maculalis=, or the Spotted-winged Sable, or Grape Leaf-folder,
is a slender, active green worm, that feeds upon and disfigures the
leaves of our grape vines, rolling them with great regularity, and
fastening them with strong bands of beautiful white silk. The pupa is
formed within the rolled leaf. These worms begin in June, but continue
to fold the leaves during the season of growth.

They can be destroyed by hand-picking, but it requires quickness and
dexterity, as the worm escapes from either end of the open pipe when
disturbed. The warblers are very fond of them, and destroy a great
many.

=Carpocapsa pomonella=, or the Codling-moth, is one of these
Tortrices, which gives great trouble. It has been introduced from
Europe, but is steadily increasing as our orchards grow older, until
we now have few perfect fruit. The moth appears early in the summer to
lay the eggs of the first crop of worms. This insect is figured and
described by different authors, among whom Dr. Trimble, of New Jersey,
has paid it especial attention in his recent work.

The eggs are dropped singly upon the blossom end of the apple, that
affords an entrance to the young worm, which passes to the core, about
which it consumes the pulp and the seeds. The worm is whitish,
becoming flesh-colored. In warm weather it attains its growth in three
or four weeks, and makes its exit by gnawing through the side of the
fruit. It instinctively seeks the stem of the tree to secrete itself
under the scales of bark, and this affords us an opportunity to
destroy it in the pupa state, for it will creep under any shelter that
may be put in its way.

The REMEDIES will depend upon the habits of the insect. The moth,
being nocturnal, may be destroyed by burning lamps or fires in the
orchard during June, when they are first at work; cheap coal-oil may
be used for the purpose. The pupæ can be entrapped in large numbers,
by putting a piece of old rag in the crotch of the tree, beneath which
the worms will crawl to spin their cocoons, when they may easily be
destroyed. Dr. Trimble has used a trap, made by twisting a hay rope
and fastening it about the trunk of the tree; under the rope immense
numbers will be found. This trap should be examined fortnightly, as
the moths hatch out during hot weather in a shorter time than later in
the season, when some remain over winter in the pupal state.

All wormy fruit should be gathered as soon as it falls from the
trees, and either be boiled, or at once fed to swine. Hogs and sheep,
kept in the orchard, will generally consume the fruit as fast as they
fall to the ground; and this is the simplest and cheapest method of
destroying the worms.

=Chætochilus pometellus=, (_Harris_), is commonly called the
Palmer-worm. It feeds upon the leaves of our orchard and forest trees
in June. Sometimes it appears in immense numbers, and, coming after
the period for the production of new leaves, great damage is done to
the trees; old trees, and limbs of younger ones, are sometimes killed.
There have been two celebrated invasions of this insect in the Eastern
States, those of 1791 and of 1853.[42]


GRAPE VINE FEEDERS.

Grape vines are subject to the attacks of many lepidopterous insects.
Dr. Harris gives the history of seven American larvæ, mostly of large
moths, which feed upon grape leaves.

=Pterophorus periscelidactylus=, or the Gartered Grape vine Plume, is
a pale green worm, half an inch long, which hides itself in a hollow
ball of leaves, fastened together with silken threads. It is described
at length by Dr. Fitch, in the New York Agricultural Transactions.

=Ohis myron=, (_Chærocampa pampinatrix_, of _Harris_), called also the
Vine Dresser, is somewhat troublesome in the vineyards, as it eats the
leaves, and cuts off the bunches of grapes when half grown. This worm
is thick, cylindrical, tapering anteriorly, pale green, freckled with
pale yellow dots, and, when mature, a pale dusky olive; 2.25 inches
long. The pupa is found under leaves on the ground; the moth emerges
in June.

=Philampelus satellita=, and =P. Achemon=, the Satellite and Achemon
Sphinges, are large green worms that feed upon the vine. They bury
themselves in the ground when going into the pupa state, and remain
until the next July. The worms are seen in August and September.

=Procris Americana=, or the American Forrester, is found feeding upon
the grape leaves at mid-summer, (June 22). The worms feed gregariously
on the surface of a leaf, some twenty side by side, leaving only a
skeleton behind them when small, and consuming the leaf when older.
They are small, 0.60 inch long; yellowish. The moth is blue-black,
with a bright orange neck.

=Alypia 8-maculata=, or the Eight-spotted Forrester, is a light blue
worm, 1.25 inches in length. They leave the vines in July, and spin a
web on the ground; the moth appears in May; it is black, with orange
shanks; each of the fore-wings has two large, light yellow spots; the
hind-wings have two white ones. Width 1, to 1.50 inch.


ÆGERIANS.

=Ægeria exitiosa=, (_Say_), or _Trochilium exitiosum_, is well known
in its larval state as the Peach tree Borer, and is often so
destructive as to kill the trees. The habits of the worm as a borer,
and its situation at the base of the tree, are somewhat similar to
those of the apple tree borer; but while that is the footless grub of
a beetle, this is a true caterpillar, the larva of a butterfly or
moth, with feet. The females deposit their eggs from June to October,
placing them upon the bark at the surface of the ground, sometimes in
the forks of the large limbs. The larva enters, and works downward;
first consuming the bark, but afterwards eroding the wood also. Gum
exudes from the wound, mixed with their castings, and indicates their
presence. When ready to enter the pupa form, the worms come to the
surface, excavate a hollow in the wood, and prepare a tough leathery
follicle or pod, three-fourths of an inch long, in which they repose
as pupæ.

This, or an analagous insect, attacks the plum tree, and behaves in a
similar manner. The double-flowering Almond of our shrubberies is also
attacked by the borer.

The perfect insect looks more like a wasp than a butterfly, for the
wings of all this group are partially clear of feathers, and
transparent. It varies in size from a half to three-quarters of an
inch in length, and from eight-tenths to one and three-tenths of an
inch across. The female varies more than the male, and her wings are
larger in proportion to the body, which is heavier. The male is of a
deep steel-blue color, with sulphur-yellow marks, and glossy luster.
The wings are transparent and glossy; the veins margined and fringed
steel-blue.

REMEDIES will depend upon the habits of the insect, and must be
directed to the pupa and larva, though valuable preventives are
applicable to the perfect insect. The worms may be sought out by
scraping away the gum and cutting the dead bark until we find them,
often along the main roots; the follicles with the pupæ should also be
sought. This work can be done in the autumn and spring; if at the
former season, the removed earth should be left away from the stem,
when coal tar may be applied to destroy any worms left in the tree and
to act as a preventive against future attacks, but this substance
should be used with great caution. If applied, the earth should be
thrown back to the tree. Boiling soap-suds has been used with good
effects.

PREVENTIVES are sometimes better than cures, and in this case they
have been very successfully used. They all consist in means to keep
the moth from depositing her eggs in the part of the tree where,
alone, the borers can be harmful. Some raise a little mound of earth
about the tree in the spring, and allow it to remain there all summer.
The first application of this principle consisted in placing a chimney
crock about the base of the young tree when planted; into this coal
ashes, cinders, or even gravel was placed, which protected the base of
the tree. In the autumn the crock was lifted, and the materials
scattered. An open box, made of four bits of board, tacked together,
answered the same purpose. A cone of coarse brown paper, tied about
the tree with grocers' string, or pasted upon the tree itself, when
applied, will answer a very good purpose in keeping off the fly.

A small portion of sulphur thrown about the tree is said to have the
desired effect, but the statement has not been confirmed by trial. It
has been recommended to plant Tansy with every peach tree, but doubt
attaches itself to this suggestion also.

In the _American Agriculturist_, for February, 1865, is a notice of a
peach tree protector made of sheet-iron, like a stove-pipe; and in the
April number, Mr. Bouthorpe, of Massachusetts, says, he had used a
similar apparatus made of zinc, eight inches long, and twice the size
of the tree, which was of easy application; the contained space next
the tree was to be filled with loose dirt. They were found to be a
perfect protection.

=Ægeria tipuliformis=, (Linn.), or the Currant Borer, has been
imported from Europe. The eggs are laid near a bud; when hatched, the
worms penetrate the pith of young shoots, killing them.

=Ægeria pyri= is mentioned by Dr. Harris[43] as having done a good
deal of damage to pear trees, by boring under the bark. The perfect
insect resembles that of the Currant Borer, and makes its appearance
near the end of summer, leaving its chrysalis skin projecting from the
hole in the bark, whence it had escaped.

=Ægeria polistæformis=, or Grape Vine Borer, is mentioned by Mr.
Glover in the Patent Office Report for 1854, p. 80. He had received it
from North Carolina, where it was very destructive to all vines,
except the Scuppernong. This insect has become rather common in the
vineyards about Cincinnati, and its depredations, in consequence of
the large size of the caterpillar, are very serious. The eggs are laid
near the roots of the vine, and the larvæ bore into the bark and wood
during the summer, consuming them so completely, that the vine sickens
and dies, and often breaks off at the ground, or just below the
surface. When fully grown, they measure from an inch to an inch and
three-quarters in length, are thick and whitish, and they form a
pod-like chrysalis, similar to that of the Peach Tree Borer, but
within or beside the injured roots.

The moths are of a dark brown color, tinged with tawny-orange, and
banded with bright yellow on the edge of the second ring of the body;
the fore-wings are dusky, and the hind ones transparent.

REMEDIES.--No effectual methods of prevention are known; but it is
well to inspect the vines, and when the presence of the insects is
suspected, examine the roots, to find and destroy the worms.


NEUROPTERA, HYMENOPTERA, AND DIPTERA.

These several orders will be introduced together for convenience, as
they may be disposed of in a briefer mention than some of their
predecessors; because they do not contain so many species that are
noxious by preying upon our cultivated plants. Some are even of
advantage to us by their carnivorous propensities.

Among the =Neuroptera= are several which are aquatic in their larval
condition, but when winged, they devour many insects; among these are
the Dragon-flies, commonly called Devil's-needles by the children, who
dread them, but they are harmless creatures. The Ant-lions were
referred to under the head of Aphids, in the consideration of the
order _Hemiptera_, as most voracious destroyers of Plant-lice.
Reference was also made to the Lace-winged Flies, _Hemerobius_, which,
in the larval state, consume immense numbers of the same pests. A few
of these insects are injurious; among them are the White-ants,
Wood-lice, and the Wood-ticks, which are annoying, though they do not
affect our crops.

Of the =Hymenoptera= there are many which, in a perfect state, consume
the juices of our choice fruits, as well as the pollen and honey of
flowers. Their services among these last, as aids in fertilizing the
germs, is often of great importance to the fruit-grower. But, while
acknowledging our gratitude to many for this service, and to the
industrious bee for gathering abundant stores of the nectared sweets,
we have a serious charge to bring against the family for their
depredations. The wasps especially are often troublesome, particularly
in the vineyard, and their stings are annoying. Some ants are quite
injurious.

The larvæ of some species are destructive as wood borers and as
leaf-eaters, and others cause an excrescence or warty growth upon the
twigs and leaves where the eggs have been deposited; these are called
_Gall-flies_. The great benefits rendered by a very large class of
insects in this order, however, may compensate for all the evil done
by the others. I refer to the tribe of _Ichneumon-flies_ of several
genera. Some of these are very small, and deposit their eggs within
other insects, where they hatch and destroy them by feeding upon their
juices.

Many of the wasps are predaceous, and destroy numerous insects to feed
their larvæ. Some of these exercise a wonderful instinct in preparing
and securing this food for their young, which is stored up in safe
caskets with the egg, and are ready to serve as food to the young
larvæ.

The _Diptera_, or two-winged insects, form an extensive order,
containing many species, and these are composed of very numerous
individuals. Flies and mosquitos are exceedingly annoying to man and
animals, and many species, in the larval state, consume vegetable
matters; but even here they are often of use in consuming decayed
vegetation, and like many others of the order may be considered
scavengers, consuming, as they do, immense quantities of filth and
carrion, that would otherwise continue to taint the air and produce
disease.

Some of the most destructive insects of this order are the
_Gall-gnats_, among which are the Wheat-fly and the Hessian-fly, which
often sadly interfere with the farmer's prospects.

A few insects will now be noticed more in detail.

=Selandria cerasi=, or _Blennocampa cerasi_, is the common Slug of the
cherry and pear trees, and quite a troublesome hymenopterous insect.
In some parts of the United States these little creatures are so
numerous as to strip the substance from the foliage of pears and
cherries.

Our Slug resembles the _Selandria oethiops_ of Europe, but is declared
to be different. The larvæ are at first white, but the slimy substance
that oozes from their bodies covers them with an olive coating. They
have twenty very short legs; when fully grown, the largest are about
nineteen-twentieths of an inch long. The head is concealed under the
fore part of the body, which is largest before, and tapers behind.
They attain their growth in twenty days, casting their skins five
times, eating them until the last time, after which they remain free
from viscidity, and are of a clear yellow color. They leave the tree
and enter the ground to the depth of one or three inches, to form
their chrysalids. In three days they come up as flies, in July and
August, to lay eggs for a second brood, the pupæ of which remain in
the ground during the winter.

Another insect of this genus is very destructive to our rose bushes;
it is called _Selandria rosæ_.

=Selandria vitis=, is a species that appears upon our grape vines, and
is quite troublesome in some vineyards in July. They feed in companies
of a dozen or more.

REMEDIES.--Shaking them off the leaves has been recommended, but does
not promise to be effectual. When few, they should be sought for and
crushed, to prevent their increase. Though troublesome, this may be
effectually done, and their ravages leave traces that will direct us
to the leaves which contain them.

When more numerous, the foliage may be syringed with common soapsuds,
or with the whale oil soap, two pounds to fifteen gallons of water.

Air-slaked lime has been dusted upon them with good effect; ashes, and
even dry dust from the road, will destroy them, by adhering to the
slimy surface. These applications are best made when the foliage is
wet after a shower, or with the dew. The great difficulty consists in
their habit of going under the leaves, and thus being protected.

Mr. Parkman, the noted rose fancier, has found a mixture of soap and
petroleum of great service, as it kills the slugs without injuring the
buds and foliage. To a gallon of soft soap he adds two-thirds of a
pint of petroleum, mixes them thoroughly, and dissolves in half a
barrel of water; to be applied with a syringe.

=Diptera.=--Dr. Fitch describes as a new species _Malobrus mali_. He
found them in a fruit that had been perforated by the Codling-moth.
The larvæ are transparent; the flies resemble the Hessian-fly, that
destroys the wheat plant.[44]

=Cecidomyia grossulariæ=, or Gooseberry Midge, attacks the fruit,
giving it the appearance of ripening prematurely. Considerable fruit
is lost in this way.[45]

In closing this chapter, the author feels obliged to express his
regrets that no more space could have been appropriated to this
important subject. He could only indicate some of the most troublesome
insects of our orchards and vineyards, and he hopes that the reader
will be induced to pursue the investigation for himself. He knows, by
experience, that the study will bring its own reward in the
information that is received, and which is absolutely necessary to
enable us to combat these troublesome pests successfully.

FOOTNOTES:

[23] _Practical Entomologist_, 518 South 13th street, Philadelphia,
fifty cents a year, in advance.

[24] Vide _Prairie Farmer_, _American Agriculturist_, _Country
Gentleman_, etc.

[25] See Practical Entomologist, Vol. II, p. 32.

[26] See Practical Entomologist, Vol. II, p. 31.

[27] Harris, p. 205.

[28] Harris' Report, p. 310.

[29] For further details of these insects, the reader is referred to
Fitch's Report, pp. 82 to 98.

[30] Rept. cit., p. 100.

[31] Rept. cit., p. 122.

[32] Rept. cit., p. 125.

[33] Rept. cit., p. 134.

[34] Trans. N.Y. Ag'l Soc., 1856, p. 359.

[35] Lib. cit. p. 435.

[36] Harris' Rept. p. 211.

[37] For further particulars respecting these insects, consult Dr.
Fitch's Rept., p. 5, and Harris's Rept., p. 241.

[38] Vide Harris' Rept., p. 232.

[39] Rept., p. 403.

[40] Rept., p. 241.

[41] Vide Fitch, in N.Y. Trans. 1856, p. 382.

[42] For interesting details vide Fitch's Rept., p. 221.

[43] Rept., p. 256.

[44] See Fitch's Report, p. 176.

[45] See Fitch's Report, p. 252.



CHAPTER XV.

CHARACTERS OF FRUITS AND THEIR VALUE. TERMS USED.

  IMPORTANCE OF SEIZING THE STRONG MARKS. EXTERNAL; WEIGHT, SHAPE,
    SIZE, SURFACE. BASIN AND EYE. CAVITY AND STEM. INTERNAL; FLESH,
    CORE, AXIS, SEEDS, FLAVOR. THESE CONSIDERED SEPARATELY AND
    ILLUSTRATED. EXPLANATION OF TERMS USED. SHAPE REFERRED TO
    RELATIONS OF THE DIAMETERS; AXIAL AND TRANSVERSE. LEADING FORMS
    DESCRIBED AND ILLUSTRATED. SIZE, A COMPARATIVE TERM. SKIN
    CHARACTERS, COLOR; ITS USE IN CLASSIFYING. PERMANENCE OF
    STRIPES. LINES. DOTS AND SPECKS. FUNGOUS SPOTS. FORMS OF BASIN
    AND EYE, OF CAVITY AND STEM, ARE VALUABLE; TERMS USED. THE
    INTERIOR, AXIS, CORE, SEEDS, FLESH. FLAVOR UNCERTAIN. SWEET AND
    SOUR GOOD CHARACTERS. QUALITY, TERMS EXPRESSIVE OF.


In the description of a fruit, it is very desirable for the writer to
catch the strong characters, so that he, who reads, may the more
readily identify the specimen he holds in his hand. Among these
several characters there is considerable difference as to their
permanence and value; some are evanescent, some variable, while others
are found to be more reliable and constant. Let us consider some of
these in the systematic order by which they will be taken in the
descriptions that are to follow.

In describing a fruit, the firmness, weight, and external characters,
first claim our attention, then the internal; these are taken up in
the following order: externally, its shape, size, surface, color, and
dots are examined. In the apple and pear the basin is next observed
and its characters noted, with any peculiarities connected with the
eye, by which term the triangular space is designated that is embraced
by the calyx, as shown in an axial section of the fruit; at the same
time the length and breadth and shape of the calyx segments are noted.
The other end of the fruit is then explored as to the form and
markings of the cavity, and the length, size, and peculiarities of the
stem. Having thus disposed of the externals, we are now to investigate
the nature of the internal structure; to do this, a section is made
vertically through the middle of the fruit from the eye to the stem,
which exposes the flesh, the axis with its core and the seeds, and
which enables us to investigate some very important characters, such
as the length of the axis, its form and that of its carpels, and the
manner of their union, whether they form an open core or otherwise.

The number, color, and shape of the seeds are noted. The color of the
flesh, its texture and juiciness are examined; the latter qualities
are always tested by the teeth, and then the palate gives us an
account of the degree of richness, acidity, or sweetness and flavor.
The investigator is now prepared to render judgment; having the
testimony of his organs of touch, sight, taste and smell, he can
pronounce his decision as to quality, and is prepared to specify the
particular uses to which the fruit is especially adapted; whether for
the table as a dessert, for the kitchen, as in baking and stewing, or
for drying, or whether it be valuable for cider-making. A good judge
will now be able to decide whether the fruit be especially adapted for
the market or for the amateur. The season of ripening should be noted
in this place, with any remark as to qualities not already provided
for.


FORM is one of our most permanent characters; though subject to
modifications, the general shape of the specimens is always
characteristic of the variety. Even a novice will soon learn the
peculiar outline of a variety of fruit.

Before commencing the study of these varieties of form, it will be
well to explain some of the leading terms introduced. By referring to
the illustrations, it will be observed that the outlines are inscribed
in circles to which they are compared; these are drawn with dotted
lines, and they are bisected with cross lines representing the two
diameters referred to in the classification by form: the vertical or
axial diameter, _AA_, passing through the axis of the fruit, and the
transverse diameter, _BB_, at right angles to the vertical.

The FORM may be _round_ or _globular_ when it is nearly spherical; the
two diameters, the axial and transverse, being nearly equal; fig. 30.

_Globose_ is another term of about the same meaning.

_Conic_, or _conical_, indicates a decided contraction toward the
blossom end, fig. 31; _Ob-conic_ implies that the cone is very short
or flattened.

    [Illustration: Fig. 30.--ROUND.]

    [Illustration: Fig. 31.--CONICAL.]

    [Illustration: Fig. 32.--OBLONG OR TRUNCATE.]

    [Illustration: Fig. 33.--OBLONG CONIC.]

    [Illustration: Fig. 34.--OVATE.]

    [Illustration: Fig. 35.--OBLATE.]

_Oblong_ means that the axial diameter is the longer, or that it
appears so, for an oblong apple may have equal diameters; fig. 32.

_Oblong-conic_, that the outline also tapers rapidly toward the eye;
fig. 33.

_Oblong-ovate_, that it is fullest in the middle; and like

_Ovate_, which means egg-shaped, that it tapers to both ends; fig. 34.

_Oblate_, or flattened, when the axial diameter is decidedly the
shorter; fig. 35.

_Obtuse_ is applied to any of these figures that is not very decided.

_Cylindrical_ and _truncate_ are dependent upon one another, thus a
globular, or still more remarkably, an oblong fruit, which is abruptly
truncated or flattened at the ends, appears cylindrical in its form.

_Depressed_ is an unusually flattened oblate form.

_Turbinate_ or top-shaped, and _pyriform_ or pear-shaped, are
especially applicable to pears, and seldom to apples.

When these forms are described evenly about a vertical axis, as shown
by a section of the fruit made transversely, or across the axis, the
specimen may be called _regular_ or _uniform_, fig. 36; if otherwise,
it is _irregular_, fig. 37, _unequal_, fig. 38, _oblique_ or
_lop-sided_, fig. 39, in which last cases the axis is inclined to one
side. If the development at the surface is irregular, as in the
Duchesse d'Angouleme and Bartlett pears, the fruit is termed _uneven_.

    [Illustration: Fig. 36.--REGULAR.]

    [Illustration: Fig. 37.--IRREGULAR.]

    [Illustration: Fig. 38.--UNEQUAL.]

    [Illustration: Fig. 39.--LOP-SIDED.]

    [Illustration: Fig. 40.--COMPRESSED.]

    [Illustration: Fig. 41.--QUADRANGULAR.]

When a transverse section of the fruit, made at right angles to the
axis, gives the figure of a circle, the fruit is _regular_; if
otherwise, it may be _compressed_ or flattened at the sides, fig. 40;
_angular_, _quadrangular_, fig. 41; sulcate or _furrowed_, fig. 42,
when marked by sulcations; or _ribbed_, fig. 43, when the intervening
ridges are abrupt. _Heart-shaped_ is a form that applies more
especially to the cherry, than any other kind of fruit.

    [Illustration: Fig. 42.--SULCATE.]

    [Illustration: Fig. 43.--RIBBED.]


SIZE is a character of but second rate importance, since it is
dependent upon the varying conditions of soil, climate, overbearing,
etc. It has its value, however, when it is considered as comparative
or relative. The expressions employed in this work to indicate size,
are: _very large_, _large_, _medium_, _small_, _very small_, making
five grades.

The characters of the SKIN and surface are generally very reliable,
though the smoothness of the skin as well as the coloring depend upon
both soil and climate. We find, however, that a striped apple which
has been shaded, though pale, will always betray itself by a splash or
stripe, be it ever so small or rare, nor will any exposure so deepen
and exaggerate its stripes as to make it a self-colored fruit; and no
circumstances will introduce a true stripe upon a self-colored
variety. Hence we may consider this kind of marking a reliable
character, and apply it as an element of our classification. We
sometimes find _lines_ on self-colored fruits that are as distinctive
as the stripes, but entirely distinct from them.

The skin itself may be either _thick_ or _thin_, _smooth_, _rough_, or
_polished_, and it is sometimes _uneven_; it may be covered with a
_bloom_, it may be _russeted_ in whole or in part, and this may be
thickly or thinly spread over the surface, or only net-veined. A sort
of russeting occurs about the stem only in some varieties, and is
never seen in others, making a pretty good character, but in the same
variety it is often much increased or diminished.

This character, russet on the skin, has been very puzzling to young
pomologists in the study of pears, owing to its liability to
exaggeration in some varieties, under the influence of certain
climatic conditions that have even produced it in varieties in which
it had not been previously suspected. Some pears are characterized by
this russeting of the skin, either generally spread over the surface
or confined to a limited area at either end of the fruit, particularly
about the insertion of the stem; others have never shown any
disposition to put on this character, but, under certain circumstances
some varieties, which should have been smooth and fair, become thickly
spread with this russeting, that seems even to thicken the skin and
which deteriorates the qualities of the fruit. In some cases this
appearance is local, occupying one end of the fruit, or making a band
around the middle and contracting it like a cincture, as though its
presence prevented the proper growth and development of the sarcocarp
or fleshy mass of the fruit.

The colors themselves being as various almost as the hues of the
rainbow, will be designated by their appropriate or customary names;
the manner of their laying on will require the use of certain definite
terms, which should be understood to comprehend the classification,
which, in part, depends upon this circumstance. Thus a fruit is called
_self-colored_ when it is not striped, though it may be _blushed_ or
_bronzed_, and the coloring may be so broken, without stripes, as to
be _mixed_ or curdled, _blotched_, marbled, _mottled_, _clouded_,
_spotted_, _stained_, _shaded_ or _dappled_; but some of these
characters are often found associated with striping also, or they are
observed in those kinds of fruit that are always devoid of stripes.
Striped fruits are often so deeply colored that the separate stripes
do not appear so distinctly, as when there are fewer of them on a
lighter ground and they can scarcely be perceived. When the stripes
are long and distinct, they are called _streaks_; when short and
broken abruptly at their ends, the surface is said to be _splashed_.
Certain pears are striped by a paleness or faintness of color, these
are called _panache_, and are considered sports of their namesake
varieties which they resemble in other respects. A few peaches are
distinctly striped; some plums and cherries obscurely so.

       *       *       *       *       *

Another class of surface or skin characters consists in the DOTS and
SPECKS, which appear to be very valuable distinctive markings, on
account of their uniformity in different varieties. These may be
_large_ or _small_, _numerous_ or _scattered_, _darker_ or _lighter_
colored, _prominent_ or _indented_. In shape they are _round_ or
_elongated_, and this last is a valuable character because quite rare.
Sometimes the dots are characterized by having a green base or areola
around them, which is very noticeable, and in some varieties these
marks, which are perhaps the stomata of the skin, are surrounded by
distinct rings of a gray color, that resemble _ocellations_ or eyes.
No reliance can be placed upon the delicate coloring that is often to
be seen upon the surface of certain light colored fruits, making rose,
red, or purplish tints about these dots, as they are accidental only
and not distinctive markings.

No one should confound these pores, that are designated as the _dots_,
with the superficial and extraneous marks that appear to be the
accidental growth of some fungus or lichen, and which are very
commonly found upon the surface of many fruits, often giving them a
quite pretty appearance that would be seized upon by the fruit painter
as a special beauty, unless when so abundant as to produce an
unpleasant smutchiness or cloudiness, such as is often found in the
product of apple orchards that are situated in low bottom lands, and
which peculiarity is attributed to the influence of fogs.

The BASIN or APEX of a fruit consists of that portion most distant
from the stem. In the apple and pear it is commonly called the blossom
end, and is often more or less depressed; hence the term _basin_. In
other fruits it is called the point or _apex_. Both are characterized
by peculiarities of form that serve as distinctive marks in the
description of fruits, and these are characters of considerable value
on account of their permanence. In respect to its form, the basin,
according to its depth, is called _deep_, fig. 44; _shallow_, fig. 45;
_very shallow_, or _medium_. It is _abrupt_, fig. 44, when the edges
are steep; it is _narrow_ and _pointed_, fig. 46, or _wide_; it is
_regular_, or _wavy_, _wrinkled_, _plaited_, _folded_, _ribbed_ or
angular, fig. 46--when these peculiarities exist.

    [Illustration: Fig. 44.--DEEP AND ABRUPT.]

    [Illustration: Fig. 45.--SHALLOW.]

    [Illustration: Fig. 46.--NARROW AND FOLDED.]

Some fruits are _russeted_ at this part of their surface only, but
this marking is a variable character and is found in greater or less
degree in different localities; thus the Rhode Island Greening, to
which it belongs, is sometimes almost entirely divested of the
russeting, and in other localities the surface is thickly spread with
it half way to the stem; the Westfield Seek-no-further, which is
slightly marked with this character in the North, often becomes a
russet apple in more southern latitudes.

The basin of some fruits is very apt to crack into irregular fissures,
and this appears to be peculiar to certain varieties, though it is not
esteemed a very reliable mark; the term _cracked_ is used to express
this. In some fruits, however, we find a very peculiar cracking that
forms a permanent character, upon which great dependence may be
placed: all the rim of the basin in these is marked with a slightly
cracked appearance that does not rupture the skin, and which resembles
the incipient breaking of the surface of a piece of dry leather; it
has, therefore, received the name of _leather-crack_. This is
characteristic of a few sorts, and hence a valuable mark.

Within the basin is the EYE, which furnishes characters of great
value. This I consider to mean the meeting of the segments of the
calyx, and more particularly in the apple, the triangular space
enclosed by these parts, in which the remains of the stamens and
pistils are found. Hence the Eye can only be displayed by making a
vertical section of the fruit. There are but a limited number of
expressions used in its description; thus the eye is said to be
_large_, _small_, _long_ or _short_, and it may be _open_ or _closed_.
The segments of the calyx may be _converging_ or _reflexed_,
_persistent_ or _obsolete_, according to their condition in the ripe
fruit, and these several characters are quite reliable; but the simple
fact that the eye is _open_ or _closed_, may depend upon the
accidental breaking away of the segments of the calyx, and is of
little value as a sign.

    [Illustration: Fig. 47.--DEEP, STEM LONG.]

    [Illustration: Fig. 48.--WIDE, STEM STOUT.]

    [Illustration: Fig. 49.--WAVY, STEM CLUBBED.]

The next character to be considered is the attachment of the stem,
which, in some fruits, is so depressed as to constitute what is called
the CAVITY. In the apple this portion has many variations that are
quite characteristic of certain varieties of fruit. In form the cavity
may be either _deep_, fig. 47, or _shallow_; _regular_ or _irregular_;
_wide_, fig. 48; or _narrow_, and _acute_, _wavy_, fig. 49; and
_uneven_, _folded_, and even _lipped_, fig. 50; as when a portion of
the flesh protrudes against the stem, as in Pryor's Red, Roman Stem,
and other apples, and in some pears. This portion is sometimes defaced
by _cracks_ that separate the skin; it is occasionally green, and this
is a good and distinguishing character of a limited number of fruits,
both apples and pears. The cavity is also _brown_ or "_russeted_" in
some fruits, and, though this character is quite variable in its
depth, amount and extent, we may consider the _brown_ or _russeting
about the stem_ quite reliable in both pears and apples.

    [Illustration: Fig. 50.--CAVITY LIPPED.]

The stem has its place of insertion in the region we have just been
considering. It is the peduncle of botanists, and in some species it
separates from the fruit by a joint--in others it remains attached and
separates from the twig, when it is considered a part of the fruit
itself, as in the apple and pear. The shape, average length,
thickness, and other characters, and especially its mode of attachment
to the carpos[46] in the pear, give us some important characters, but
these are always somewhat uncertain and variable; hence they are
rather relative than positive traits. In apples, stems may be _long_,
fig. 47, _short_, fig. 48, or _medium_, according to their projection
beyond or concealment within the cavity, being called _medium_ when
they simply reach the contour of the outline. They are _slender_, fig.
47; _medium_ or _thick_, _fleshy_, _knobby_ or _clubbed_, fig. 49,
according to the amount of their substance and its arrangement. They
are _curved_ or _straight_, and _direct_ and _axial_, or _inclined_,
according to their direction and relation to the axis of the fruit;
and in pears, they often have a peculiarity of the insertion dependent
upon their being more or less fleshy; in both plums and pears, this
fullness is often arranged in rings surrounding the base of the stem.

Some pomologists have taken great pains to measure the length of the
stems, which they report in inches and lines. As above stated, this is
an uncertain quantity, and therefore of little value, except when
taken in relation to other measurements by way of comparison; hence I
have preferred to use the above-mentioned terms only in their relation
to the axial diameter in describing the apples, unless where their
extension is unusual. The variable length of this organ in some
varieties is remarkable, and we often find the smallest fruits having
the longest stems.

When we come to examine the interior portions of a fruit, if it be an
apple or pear, we make a vertical section through the axis from basin
to cavity. This exposes the internal structure and enables us to judge
of the color and other characters of the fleshy pericarp, the length
of the axis, the size of the core and carpels, and the number and
appearance of the seeds. These characters are possessed of value, and
are quite reliable; in many fruits the seeds furnish distinctive
indications, and this is particularly the case with the stone fruits,
many of which are readily identified by the form and markings of the
stones or pits, the _endocarps_ of botany.

In the apple particularly, we first have our attention drawn to the
AXIS, which is sometimes very _short_, so that in some decidedly
oblate specimens, with deep basin and cavity, there is scarcely room
between them for the core, which is shortened to correspond with the
oblate character of the fruit. This is illustrated by many of the
outlines given in Class I. It is well also to observe and note whether
the axis be inclined. The form of the _core_ is not very reliable, but
it has characters that are permanent and peculiar to certain
varieties. Thus it is always _open_ in some, and always _closed_ in
other sorts of the apple. In the pear it is _gritty_ in some
varieties, and surrounded with fine grained flesh in others. The core
is _large_, _medium_, or _small_, and these distinctions are
permanent. Its outline, embracing the group of carpels, may be
_regular_ or _irregular_, _long_ or _short_, _cordate_, _wide_ or
_compressed_; it may reach the eye or otherwise, and it frequently
clasps that portion.

The SEEDS are _numerous_ or otherwise; they are _long_ or _short_,
_acuminate_ or _rounded_, _flat_, _angular_, _imperfect_, or _plump_,
_large_ or _small_; they may be _pale_, even _yellow_, or _brown_,
_dark_, and nearly _black_; and these shades are distinctive, often
enabling the pomologist to decide upon the variety when other
characters are less marked. The peculiarities of the stones of
peaches, plums and cherries, and of the seeds of the grape, had better
be described in immediate connection with those species of fruit.

In the FLESH of fruits we find characters that most pomologists, even
the amateurs, are generally pleased to have under practical
consideration. They are also very reliable, for if the fruits be in
good condition, they are always the same in any given variety. In its
consistency, this tissue is either _firm_ and _compact_, or _spongy_;
it is _fine grained_, _granular_, _gritty_, _fibrous_, or _breaking_,
on the one hand, or _tender_, _buttery_ and _melting_, on the other;
the flesh is either _dry_ or _juicy_, and tinted with various shades
of color. In some we find a satisfying _richness_, while others are
_thin_ and poor. Some have a fine aroma, while others have an
unpleasant flavor or are scentless.

So intimately associated are our organs of taste and smell, that it is
difficult to separate and distinguish the impressions we receive
through these senses. For our present purpose it will be best to
consider all under this head, whether really belonging to one or the
other sensation; and the lexicographers themselves admit the
commonalty of taste and smell in the word _flavor_. These qualities of
a fruit depend upon so many accidents of season, culture, and
especially of the condition of ripeness, that they are of
comparatively little value in descriptions, except in their broadest
expressions of acidity and its opposite, which indeed are sufficiently
pronounced to be used in the classification of fruits.

With regard to their FLAVOR, fruits may be said to be _vinous_,
_sub-acid_, _acid_, and _very acid_, or _sugary_, _sweet_, _very
sweet_, and _honey sweet_; they may be _flat_ and _insipid_, or
_highly flavored_, _mild_, or _astringent_; and as to fragrance, in
which they may remind us of many other agreeable odors, they may be
said to be _perfumed_ and _aromatic_, or otherwise.

In deciding upon the quality of the fruit that has thus been subjected
to this series of tests, and to this thorough examination, we shall
find that the decision will depend upon the individual tastes, the
likes and dislikes of those who are called upon to render judgment,
and that, at best, the result must be arbitrary. The terms expressive
of this division are _inferior_, _good_, _very good_, and _best_.

FOOTNOTES:

[46] From καρπος, Greek, for fruit.



CHAPTER XVI.

CLASSIFICATION.

  NECESSITY FOR. BASIS OF. CHARACTERS. SHAPE. ITS REGULARITY.
    FLAVOR. COLOR. THEIR SEVERAL VALUES. THOMAS' CLASSIFICATION.
    GERMAN WRITERS. DIEL'S SEVEN CLASSES. MODIFICATIONS BY
    DOCHNAHL. ROBERT HOGG'S MODIFICATION BASED UPON SEASON. DIEL'S
    CONSPECTUS OF CLASSIFICATION. DOCHNAHL'S. THE AUTHOR'S
    CLASSIFICATION EXPLAINED. EXPLANATION OF TERMS. TOPICS
    COMBINED. CONSPECTUS OF CLASSIFICATION USED IN THIS WORK.


The need of some classification grows more and more pressing, as our
fruit lists have become more extended, and they now reach many
hundreds. A good and reliable systematic classification has become
absolutely necessary, and has received a great deal of consideration.

Upon what principle shall this classification be founded? The common
alphabetical arrangement of most text books may be very convenient for
a mere dictionary of fruits, but is utterly useless to the novice who
does not know the name of his specimen. The arrangement by season and
size has its difficulties in the uncertainty and variation of these
characters in the different soils and climates of our extended
country, and a sub-division and grouping of fruits by their quality of
excellence is not only unreliable, but is altogether arbitrary, and
subject to the greatest diversity of opinion arising from the various
tastes of different individuals. We must look to some marked and
reliable characters that are always present, easily recognized, and
permanent or fixed. Among these shape or figure stands pre-eminent,
notwithstanding the acknowledged fact that some varieties are almost
protean. The shape of the general outline appears to be the best
character for the broad divisions of a classification. A sub-division
may again be made, which is to be based upon the regularity or
irregularity of the shape.

The next character, and one of considerable value, is that dependent
upon _flavor_ in its broadest characters of sweet and sour, which,
though sometimes giving rise to a puzzling question, is, in most
varieties, sufficiently marked to constitute the basis of a minor
sub-division. _Color_, which is notoriously the poorest character and
least esteemed by botanists in their descriptions, on account of its
liability to variation, is, however, of sufficient importance in
pomology to take a high rank and to appear very prominently in fruit
nomenclature. Still it should be reserved for the lowest sub-divisions
of a classification.

Among our American writers, who deservedly stand prominent as
pomologists, the most satisfactory attempt at classification is found
in the little work prepared by J.J. Thomas. No one who has realized
the advantages to be derived from the simple and clear sub-divisions
made by this author, will ever be satisfied with a fruit-book that is
not arranged upon the basis of some classification. Thomas, in his
excellent work, makes three great divisions of apples according to
their period of ripening, as the _Summer_, _Autumn_, and _Winter_
fruits, to which some of us would desire to add _Spring_, or
long-keepers. Each of these he has divided into two classes--those
characterized by their flavor as _sweet_ apples, and those possessed
of more or less acidity; and each of these classes is subdivided into
two sections, according to their color, as striped with red and not
striped; so that in this arrangement we have eighteen groups, and,
with specimen in hand, this synopsis enables us at once to decide in
which of these groups of moderate dimensions we may look for the
description we desire; and, if it be contained in the book, it may
readily be found. The labor of searching through the whole list is
thus obviated.

The Germans have made many attempts at the classification of fruits.
Christ, Diel, Dochnahl, Manger and Sickler, have been engaged in this
work; and Diel's Synopsis, though far from perfect, has been generally
adopted. He makes seven classes, with orders under each. Dochnahl, a
later writer, has modified this by making two sections according to
the shape, whether _angular_ or _spherical_, and four classes also
based upon their form.

Robert Hogg, in his _British Pomology_, which is an excellent account
of the apples cultivated in England, has given a modification which
answers a good purpose for classification. He makes three great
sections, according to season, _Summer_, _Autumn_, and _Winter_. Each
of these is divided into two classes, according to shape: 1st,
_Round_, _roundish_, or _oblate_; and 2nd, _Oblong_, _conical_,
_oval_, or _ovate_. These again are grouped according to their colors:
A, _pale_; B, _striped_; C, _red_; and D, _russet_.

As a matter of interest I will give Diel's classification.

CLASS I.--RIBBED APPLES.

1. They are furnished with very prominent, but regular ribs around the
eye, extending also over the fruit, but which do not render it
irregular.

2. Having wide, open, and very irregular cells.

+ORDER I.--TRUE CALVILLES.+

1. They taper from about the middle of the fruit toward the eye.

2. They are covered with bloom when on the tree.

3. They have, or acquire, by keeping, an unctuous skin.

4. They are not distinctly and purely striped.

5. They have light, spongy, delicate flesh.

6. They have a strawberry or raspberry flavor.

+ORDER II.--SCHLOTTER ÆPFEL.+

1. The skin does not feel unctuous.

2. They are not covered with bloom.

3. They are either of a flat, conical, cylindrical, or tapering form.

4. They have not a balsamic, but mostly a sweetish or sourish flavor.

5. They have a granulous, loose, and coarse-grained flesh.

+ORDER III.--GUELDERLINGE.+

1. They are not balsamic, like Order I., but of an aromatic flavor.

2. They have a fine flesh, almost like that of the Reinettes.

3. They are either of a conical or flat shape.

4. They are most prominently ribbed around the eye.


CLASS II--ROSENÆPFEL--ROSE APPLES.

1. They are covered with blue bloom when on the tree.

2. They have not unproportionally large, but often only regular
cells.

3. They emit a pleasant odor when briskly rubbed.

4. The skin does not feel unctuous.

5. They are handsomely and regularly ribbed around the eye, and often
also over the fruit.

6. They have a tender, loose, spongy, and mostly fine grained flesh.

7. They have a fine rose, fennel, or anise flavor.

8. They are mostly of short duration, and are often only summer or
autumn apples.

9. They are mostly striped like a turnip.

+ORDER I.--FRUIT TAPERING OR OBLONG.+

+ORDER II.--FRUIT ROUND OR FLAT.+


CLASS III.--RAMBOURS.

1. They are all large apples, and comprise the largest sorts.

2. They have mostly, or almost always, two unequal halves--namely, one
side lower than the other.

3. They are constantly furnished with ribs around the eye which are
broad, rising irregularly, one above the other, and extending over the
fruit so as to render it irregular in its shape; they are also
compressed, and have one side higher than the other.

4. They are constantly broader than high, and only sometimes
elongated.

5. They have all a loose, coarse grained and often very pleasant
flesh.

+ORDER I.--WITH WIDE CELLS.+

+ORDER II.--WITH NARROW CELLS.+


CLASS IV.--REINETTES.

1. They have a fine grained, delicate, crisp, firm flesh.

2. They are mostly the ideal of a handsomely shaped apple; in them the
convexity or bulge of the middle of the apple towards the eye is the
same as that towards the stalk, or not much different.

3. They are all gray dotted, or have russety patches, or completely
covered with russet.

4. They have rarely an unctuous skin.

5. They have all the rich, aromatic, sugary, and brisk flavor, which
is called the Reinette flavor.

6. They decay very readily, and must, of all apples, hang longest on
the tree.

7. The really sweet and at the same time aromatic apples belong to the
Reinettes, only as regards their shape, their character, and their
fine and firm flesh.

8. Apples with fine, firm, crisp flesh, which cannot of themselves
form a distinct class; for instance, the Pippins belong to this class.

+ORDER I.--SELF-COLORED REINETTES.+

1. Having a uniform green ground color, which changes to the most
beautiful golden yellow.

2. Having no lively colors or marks of russet on the side next the
sun, except those that are very much exposed, and which assume a
slight tinge of red.

3. Having no covering of russet, but only slight traces of russety
stripes.

+ORDER II.--RED REINETTES.+

Having all the properties of the self-colored Reinettes, but of a pure
red on the side next the sun, without any mixture of russet.

+ORDER III.--GRAY REINETTES.+

1. The ground color is green, changing to dingy dull yellow.

2. The coating of russet, or the russety patches, spread over the
greater part of the fruit, are very conspicuous.

3. The side next the sun is often dull brownish or ochreous red.

+ORDER IV.--GOLDEN REINETTES.+

1. On the side next the sun they are washed or striped with beautiful
crimson.

2. The ground color changes by keeping to a beautiful deep yellow.

3. Over the ground color, and the crimson of the exposed side, are
spread light thin patches, or a complete coat of russet.


CLASS V.--STREIFLINGE--STRIPED APPLES.

1. They are all, and almost always, marked with broken stripes of red.

2. These stripes are found either over the whole fruit, or only very
indistinctly on the side exposed to the sun.

3. The stripes may be distinct--that is to say, truly striped; or
between these stripes on the side next the sun the fruit is dotted,
shaded, or washed with red; but on the shaded side the stripes are
well defined.

4. The cells are regular.

5. They are of a purely sweet, vinous, or acid flavor.

6. They have not the same flavor as the Rose apples.

7. They do not decay, except when gathered before maturity.

+ORDER I.--FLAT STREIFLINGE.+

1. They have the bulge at the same distance from the eye as from the
stalk, and are broadly flattened.

2. They are constantly half an inch broader than high.

+ORDER II.--TAPERING STREIFLINGE.+

1. They are broader than high.

2. They diminish from the middle of the apple towards the eye, so that
the superior half is conical or pyramidal, and not at all similar to
the inferior half.

+ORDER III.--OBLONG OR CYLINDRICAL STREIFLINGE.+

1. The hight and breadth are almost equal.

2. They diminish gradually from the base to the apex.

3. Or from the middle of the fruit they gradually diminish toward the
base and apex equally.

+ORDER IV.--ROUND STREIFLINGE.+

1. The convexity of the fruit next the base and the apex is the same.

2. The breadth does not differ from the hight, except only about a
quarter of an inch.

3. Laid in the hand, with the eye and stalk sidewise, they have the
appearance of a roundish grape.


CLASS VI.--TAPERING APPLES.

1. They have the cells regular.

2. They are not covered with bloom.

3. They are not striped, and are either of a uniform color, or washed
with red on the side next the sun.

4. Constantly diminishing to a point towards the eye.

5. They are sweet or vinous, approaching a pure acid.

6. They do not readily decay.

+ORDER I.--OBLONG, CYLINDRICAL OR CONICAL.+

Characters the same as Order III. of the Streiflinge.

+ORDER II.--TAPERING TO A POINT.+

Characters the same as Order II. of the Streiflinge.


CLASS VII.--FLAT APPLES.

1. They are constantly broader than high.

2. They are never striped.

3. They are either of a uniform color, or, on the side exposed to the
sun, more or less washed or shaded with red.

4. They have regular cells.

5. They are not unctuous when handled.

6. They do not readily decay.

7. Flavor purely sweet, or purely sour.

+ORDER I.--PURELY FLAT APPLES.+

1. The difference is obvious to the eye.

2. The breadth is constantly half an inch more than the hight.

+ORDER II.--ROUND-SHAPED FLAT APPLES.+

1. The eye cannot easily detect a distinction between the breadth and
hight.

2. The breadth rarely exceeds the hight by a quarter of an inch.

3. The fruit, cut transversely, exhibits almost or quite two equal
halves.



DOCHNAHL'S CLASSIFICATION.


=SECTION I.--PLEUROIDEA.=--ANGULAR OR RIBBED.

Having sharp or flat ribs, which extend over the length of the fruit
and are most prominent around the eye, where they are most generally
situated.


CLASS I.--MALA CYDONARIA--QUINCE-SHAPED.

+ORDER I.--CALVILLES.+

1. They have large heart-shaped cells, open towards the axis, or often
entirely torn; the cells extend very often from the stalk even to the
tube of the calyx.

2. They diminish from about the middle of the fruit, or a little above
it, towards the eye.

3. They are regular, and provided generally with fine ribs, which do
not disfigure the fruit.

4. On the tree, the fruit is covered with bloom.

5. They are never distinctly striped.

6. Their flesh is soft, loose, fine and light, of a balsamic flavor,
similar to that of strawberries or raspberries.

7. The eye is frequently closed.

8. Many of them acquire by keeping an oily or unctuous skin.

GROUP I.--Fruit red, almost entirely covered with red.

GROUP II.--Fruit parti-colored; yellow; very much striped or washed
with red.

GROUP III.--Fruit yellow; of a whitish, greenish, or golden yellow.

+ORDER II.--PSEUDO-CALVILLES.+

1. The cells are almost the same as the true Calvilles--very large and
open.

2. The calycinal tube is wide and generally very short.

3. They are slightly narrowed toward the eye, and flattened toward the
stalk.

4. Their ribs are very prominent, especially around the eye.

5. They are aromatic, and have not the balsamic flavor of the true
Calvilles.

6. Their flesh is fine, opaque, a little succulent, and almost equal
to the Reinettes.

GROUPS I., II., III., as above.


CLASS II.--MALA PYRARIA--PEAR-SHAPED.

Their flavor is neither balsamic nor aromatic; they are purely sweet
or acid; their flesh is granulous and loose.

+ORDER I.--TREMARIA--SEEDS LOOSE.+

1. They are almost always large apples, the skin of which is neither
unctuous nor covered with bloom.

2. They are also furnished with ribs; but they are not so regular as
in the Calvilles.

3. The cells are very large, irregular, widened, and generally open.

4. The calycinal tube is most generally widely conical, and does not
extend to the cells.

5. They are of a flattened, conical, cylindrical or pointed shape.

6. Their flesh is loose, more often a little coarse, and of a slightly
balsamic flavor.

7. The leaves of these trees are very large, rather deeply dentated,
and less downy than those of the Calvilles.

GROUP I.--_Unicolores_--Green, greenish, yellow, or golden yellow, and
slightly tinged with red.

GROUP II.--_Bicolores_--Yellow or green, and distinctly striped or
washed with red.

+ORDER II.--RAMBURES.+

1. They are all very large.

2. They have almost always the two halves unequal.

3. They are constantly broader than high, and appear sometimes higher
than they are.

4. They are not furnished with ribs, except around the eye; these are
often irregular in numbers, and frequently form broad projections on
the fruit.

5. They do not decay, but shrivel when they have passed maturity.

6. The flesh is coarsely granulous, rarely aromatic, nevertheless
often very agreeable.

GROUP I.--_Capsulis amplis_--Wide cells.

GROUP II.--_Capsulis angustis_--Narrow cells.


SECTION II.--SPHÆROIDÆ--SPHERICAL.

They have sometimes prominences on the fruit and around the eye, but
never true ribs.


CLASS III.--MALA MESPILARIA--MEDLAR SHAPED.

Their flavor is sweet, aromatic, similar to that of the Rose, fennel
or anise.

+ORDER I.--APIANA, OR ROSE APPLES.+

Their flesh is soft, loose, marrowy, very fine grain, and of a snow
white color.

2. The cells are almost always regular and closed.

3. They are regularly ribbed around the eye, and often also over the
fruit, but sometimes not at all ribbed.

4. They have a balsamic flavor, accompanied with a very agreeable
odor.

5. They emit a pleasant odor when briskly rubbed.

6. When on the tree they are frequently covered with a blue bloom, and
striped like a Tulip.

7. The fruit is mostly small, or middle sized.

8. They are mostly of short duration, and lose their good flavor the
same year.

GROUP I.--_Oblongi_--Oblong fruit.

GROUP II.--_Sphærici_--Round or flattened.

+ORDER II.--REINETTA--REINETTES.+

1. These are apples which generally have the most regular and handsome
shape, having the bulge in the middle, at the same distance from the
eye as from the stalk.

2. All are dotted, clouded, or entirely covered with russet.

3. They are very rarely inclined to be unctuous, but generally rough
when handled.

4. They all decay very readily; (they must therefore be left as long
as possible on the tree.)

5. Their flesh is fine grained, crisp, firm, or fine and delicate.

6. They are all charged with only a balsamic, sugary acid, which is
called Reinette-flavored.

GROUP I.--_Unicolores._--1. Having uniform green ground color, which
changes to the most beautiful golden yellow.

2. Having no lively colors or marks of russet on the side next the
sun, except those that are very much exposed, and are slightly tinged
with red.

3. Having no covering of russet, but only slight traces of russety
stripes.

GROUP II.--_Rubri_--Fruit red; having all the properties of the
self-colored Reinettes; but on the side next the sun they are of a red
color, with a mixture of russet.

GROUP III.--_Ravi_--Russeted.

1. Their ground color is green, changing to dingy, dull yellow.

2. The coatings of russet are very conspicuous.

3. The side next the sun is often dingy, brownish, or ochreous red.

4. They all decay very readily.

GROUP IV.--_Aurei_--Yellow or golden fruit, Golden Reinettes.

1. On the side next the sun they are washed or striped with beautiful
crimson.

2. The ground color changes, by keeping, to beautiful deep yellow.

3. Over the crimson there is a light thin trace, or a complete
covering of russet.


CLASS IV.--MALA MALARIA--PERFECT OR PURE APPLE-SHAPED.

They are of a perfectly sweet or vinous flavor, approaching to pure
acid.

+ORDER I.--STRIOLA, OR STRIPED.+

1. They are almost always marked with broken stripes of red.

2. These are either over the whole fruit, or only indistinctly on the
side exposed to the sun.

3. The stripes may all be distinct--that is, clearly and finely
striped; or between these stripes, on the side next the sun, the fruit
is dotted, shaded or washed with red; but on the shaded side the
stripes are well defined.

4. The cells are regular.

5. The fruit does not decay, except when gathered before maturity, or
after the period when it has been properly ripened.

GROUP I.--_Depressa_--Flat.

1. They have the bulge at the same distance from the eye as from the
stalk, and are broadly flattened.

2. They are always half an inch broader than high.

GROUP II.--_Acuminati_--Pointed.

1. They are broader than high.

2. They diminish from the middle of the apple toward the eye, so that
the superior half is conical, and is not at all similar to the
inferior half.

GROUP III.--_Oblongi_--Oblong or cylindrical.

1. The hight and breadth are almost equal.

2. They diminish gradually from the base to the apex.

3. Or, from the middle of the fruit they gradually diminish toward the
base and apex equally.

GROUP IV.--_Sphærici_--Round.

1. The convexity of the fruit next the base and the apex is the same.

2. The breadth does not differ from the hight, except only about a
quarter of an inch.

3. When laid on their side they present a spherical shape.

+ORDER II.--CONTUBERNALIA--STORING APPLES.+

1. Having the cells regular.

2. They are not striped, and are either of a uniform color or washed
with red on the side next the sun.

3. They do not readily decay.

4. They are not unctuous when handled.

5. They are never covered with bloom.

GROUP I.--_Acuminati_--Tapering, diminishing toward the eye.

GROUP II.--_Depressi_--Flat. These are constantly broader than
high.[47]

After a long and careful consideration and study of this subject, I
have prepared the following formula for the CLASSIFICATION OF APPLES.
It consists of four classes that are based upon the general figure of
the fruit; with two orders, that are distinguished by a modification
of the form, causing the fruit to be regular, or irregular, and
angular. The characters upon which the classes are founded are
exemplified by a vertical section through the length of the axis of
the fruit. Those by which the Orders are distinguished are shown by a
transverse section, made at right angles to the axis, or by holding
the fruit with the blossom end toward the eye.[48]

Each of these Orders may contain two _Sections_, characterized by
their flavor as sweet and sour; and each of these may again be
sub-divided into three _Sub-sections_, that are based upon color.

CLASS I.--OBLATE OR FLAT, having the axis shorter than the transverse
diameter.

ORDER I.--REGULAR.

ORDER II.--IRREGULAR.

SECTION 1.--Sweet.

SECTION 2.--Sour.

SUB-SECTION 1.--Pale or blushed, more or less, but self-colored and
not striped.

SUB-SECTION 2.--Striped or Splashed.

SUB-SECTION 3.--Russeted.

CLASS II.--CONICAL, tapering decidedly toward the eye, and becoming
OVATE when larger in the middle and tapering to each end, the axial
diameter being the shorter.

ORDERS I and II.

SECTIONS 1 and 2.

SUB-SECTIONS 1, 2, and 3.

CLASS III.--ROUND, GLOBULAR or nearly so, having the axial and
transverse diameters about equal, the former often shorter by less
than one-quarter of the latter. The ends are often so flattened as to
look truncated, when the fruit appears to be cylindrical or
globular-oblate.

ORDERS, SECTIONS, and SUB-SECTIONS, as above.

CLASS IV.--OBLONG, in which the axis is longer than the transverse
diameter, or appears so. These may also be truncate or cylindrical.

ORDERS, SECTIONS, and SUB-SECTIONS, as above.

FOOTNOTES:

[47] As translated for R. Hogg's British Pomology.

[48] Figures 36 to 46, pp. 355 to 356.



DESCRIPTIONS OF APPLES.

ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THEIR CLASSIFICATION ALPHABETICALLY, UNDER EACH
DIVISION.


CLASS I.--FLAT APPLES.

+ORDER I.--REGULAR IN FORM.+

SECTION 1.--SWEET.

SUB-SECTION 1.--SELF-COLORED, NOT STRIPED.


=Camack Sweet.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 51.--CAMACK SWEET.]

This newly introduced sort is said to have originated in North
Carolina or Georgia. The trees cultivated in the Northern States are
yet too young for us to judge of their characteristics, but they
appear to be healthy and vigorous.

Fruit medium to large, flat, regular.

Surface smooth, greenish-white, rarely blushed with red.

Basin broad, shallow, and regular or wavy; Eye medium, open.

Cavity deep, acute; Stem rather long; Flesh yellowish, firm, rather
tough, but juicy, rich and sweet.

This variety keeps well, lasting until May. Not yet sufficiently
tested in the North.


=Campfield.=

NEWARK SWEETING.

    [Illustration: Fig. 52.--CAMPFIELD.]

Tree vigorous, spreading, productive. This fruit is especially
valuable for cider, but it may be used also in the kitchen; being a
long keeper and often beautifully colored at maturity in the spring,
it is often exposed on the fruit-stands, where it attracts purchasers
by the great beauty of its brilliant colors.

Fruit always fair, but its figure is variable, being sometimes
globular or conical. The characteristic form is round-oblate, regular;
Size medium.

Surface very smooth, of a dull green, often suffused with a faint
blush on the exposed side; but at maturity, bright lemon yellow,
shaded with carmine; Dots minute, gray and indented.

Basin shallow, regular; Eye rather large, closed; Segments of medium
length.

Cavity regular, with medium width and depth; Stem medium, rather
stout.

Core wide, regular, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, plump;
Flesh white, firm, tough; Juice very sweet and rich at maturity,
making excellent cider.

Season, December until March.


=Dillingham.=

This variety was found in an old orchard of D.C. Richmond, near
Sandusky, Ohio. Tree productive, and sufficiently vigorous.

    [Illustration: Fig. 53.--DILLINGHAM.]

Fruit round-oblate rather than flat, generally regular and of medium
size; Surface rough, yellowish-green, and bronzed, or shaded with a
purplish tint; Dots numerous russet.

Basin wide, folded; Eye small, closed.

Cavity rather deep, wide, regular, wavy, brown; Stem sometimes long,
of medium size, red.

Core small and closed, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, large, brown.

Flesh yellow; Flavor sweet, juicy; Use, good for baking; Season,
November to February. Not highly esteemed nor largely cultivated,
though its productiveness and sweetness would render it desirable for
stock-feeding.


=Ene's Winter Sweet.=

From J.S. Downer, Elkton, Kentucky; a southern fruit of some merit.

Fruit medium, flat, regular; Surface roughish, uneven,
greenish-yellow, blushed and russeted; Dots numerous, minute, russet
veined.

Basin abrupt, regular, leather-cracked; Eye large, open.

Cavity wide, wavy, brown; Stem medium.

Core round, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous, angular, imperfect;
Flesh yellow, fine grained; Flavor very sweet, rich; Quality quite
good; Use, table; Season, December.


=Green Sweet.=

HONEY GREENING.

    [Illustration: Fig. 54.--GREEN SWEET.]

Tree vigorous and productive in most situations where cultivated, but
is not much planted in the West.

Fruit rather small, regular, and usually flat, though sometimes
conical; Surface smooth, green; Dots whitish, with green bases.

Basin rather shallow and wavy; Eye large, closed.

Cavity wide, regular and brown; Stem long and stout.

Core closed, regular, meeting the eye, containing numerous angular,
acuminate brown seeds; Flesh greenish-white, breaking, tender, juicy
and fine grained; very sweet, and valued for baking and market; those
who do not admire sweet apples would hardly consider it second rate.

Season from December to February, or March.


=Haskell's Sweet.=

Found in the orchard of Dr. Geo. Haskell, at Rockford, Illinois.

Fruit large, flat, regular; Surface green, bronzy; Dots numerous,
large, white.

Basin deep; Eye small, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, wavy; Stem short.

Core closed; Seeds numerous, plump; Flesh yellow, juicy; Flavor sweet,
rich; Quality very good; Use, baking; Season August, September.

A practical test at the table of mine host must convince any one that
either the apple or the cook, or both, are eminently deserving. This
is supposed to be the Massachusetts variety of the same name.


=Hay Boys.=

I do not know where this summer apple was produced, or christened with
its peculiar cognomen; Specimens received from H.N. Gillett, Lawrence
Co., Ohio.

Fruit large, oblate, regular or slightly angular; Surface pale yellow;
Dots numerous, dark, prominent.

Basin wide, abrupt, wavy; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity wide, folded, green; Stem long.

Core very wide, flat, open, clasping the eye; Flesh yellow, fine
grained, breaking; Flavor sweet; Quality good, to very good; Use,
table and baking; Season, August.


=Lancaster Sweet.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 55.--LANCASTER SWEET.]

Origin unknown, grown in Central Ohio, where it is much admired for
baking and apple butter.

Fruit medium, regular, oblate, slightly conical; Surface green; Dots
scattered, dark, minute.

Basin medium, regular; Eye small, closed; Segments of calyx long and
reflexed.

Cavity wide, wavy; Stem very short and small.

Core medium, regular, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, dark,
plump; Flesh greenish-white, tender, fine grained, juicy, rich; very
sweet.

Quality not first rate, except for cooking; Season September and
October.


=London Sweet.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 56.--LONDON SWEET.]

This vigorous, upright, and productive tree is supposed to have had
its origin near Dayton, Ohio, whence it has been largely disseminated,
giving entire satisfaction to all of its planters. Foliage abundant,
and quite dark colored.

Fruit always fair, regular, flat, and of large size; Surface smooth,
pale yellow, with scattered dots that are often colored.

Basin abrupt, regular, often having concentric cracks; Eye small and
closed.

Cavity wide, regular; Stem short, rather thick.

Core medium width and closed, clasping the eye; Axis very short; Seeds
variable, some being plump and some imperfect; Flesh yellowish-white,
breaking, rather dry, but very sweet; Quality good; and considered by
some persons the very best baking apple of its season, which is from
November to January or later.


=Mountain Sweet.=

MOUNTAINEER.

From Pennsylvania; exhibited by Joel Wood, before the Ohio Pomological
Society.

Fruit large, beautiful, but too delicate for transportation, oblate;
Surface smooth, light, yellow; Dots minute.

Basin wide, wavy; Eye small, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, wavy; Stem short, slender.

Core wide, open, dark, clasping the eye; Seeds numerous, pointed;
Flesh white, breaking, very tender, fine grained, juicy; Flavor sweet;
Quality good to very good; Use, table, baking; Season, December.

A rival of _Broadwell_ or _Ladies' Sweeting_.


=Munson Sweet.=

ORANGE SWEET.

    [Illustration: Fig. 57.--MUNSON SWEET.]

This New England variety is considered quite promising in its new
western homes, where, however, it is not yet widely known or tested.
Tree vigorous, spreading, and productive when established; said to be
a regular bearer.

Fruit medium, flat; Surface smooth, green, becoming yellow; Dots
minute.

Basin small, abrupt, often folded or plaited; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity wide, wavy, green; Stem medium or short.

Core small, closed; Seeds plump; Flesh yellowish-white, fine grained,
tender, juicy; Flavor very sweet; Quality nearly first rate; Valuable
for baking; Season early winter.


=Snepps'.=

JNO. SNEPPS'.

    [Illustration: Fig. 58.--SNEPPS'.]

This fine apple is believed to have originated at Edinburgh, Indiana,
and was brought to the notice of the State Society by the orchardist
whose name it bears, and by whom it has been distributed. As it
appears to be distinct from any known fruit, it is here described.
Tree vigorous and sufficiently productive.

Fruit above medium, almost large, flat, generally regular.

Surface nearly smooth, of a dull green, becoming pale yellow, with
numerous dark dots, that often give it a gray appearance.

Basin rather shallow, sometimes folded or wavy; Eye large and closed;
Segments of the calyx coarse.

Cavity acute, regular, rather deep; Stem medium to short, stout.

Core large but closed; Seeds numerous, pointed, brown; Flesh
yellowish, breaking, fine grained, juicy; Flavor very rich, and
agreeably sweet when ripe; Use, fine dessert fruit, and good for
cooking; Season, December to March.


=Superb Sweet.=

This variety is worthy of more attention than it has received; native
of Massachusetts, where it is a vigorous and productive tree. Its
period of maturity makes it less valuable than it would otherwise be.

Fruit above medium, roundish; Surface smooth, of a pale yellow color,
often shaded with red.

Basin rather shallow, broad; Calyx large, open.

Cavity regular, deep; Stalk long.

Flesh white, fine grained, tender, juicy; Flavor rich, sweet.

Cole gives its season as September and October, in Massachusetts.


=Trumbull Sweet.=

FENTON SWEET.

This is another fine white sweet apple, originating in Ohio, which,
notwithstanding its beauty, is less esteemed on account of its season,
but its productiveness makes it valuable for stock-feeding. Tree
vigorous, spreading, productive, and an early bearer.

Fruit above medium, regular, flat; Surface very smooth, pale yellow,
or white, resembling ivory; Dots scattering, minute.

Basin deep, regular; Eye large, rather open.

Cavity deep; Stem short.

Core closed; Seeds numerous, plump; Flesh white, fine grained,
breaking, juicy; Flavor very sweet; Quality very good; Use, baking and
stock; Season September and October.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS I.--FLAT APPLES.

+ORDER I.--REGULAR.+

SECTION 1.--SWEET.

SUB-SECTION 2.--STRIPED.


=Baltimore.=--[_Of Elliott._]

FLUSHING SPITZENBERG, OF NORTHWEST.--CABLE'S GILLIFLOWER.--ROYAL
PIPPIN IN ILLINOIS.

    [Illustration: Fig. 59.--BALTIMORE.]

The origin of this very satisfactory second rate fruit is unknown,
though it is extensively cultivated in western orchards, especially in
the lake country, for it is scarcely known within the Ohio river fruit
region.

Tree thrifty, sufficiently vigorous but with slender growth, very
productive, spreading.

Fruit medium, regular, oblate, almost round in some specimens, Surface
smooth, red, striped with deep red and often covered with whitish or
gray markings that give it a blue appearance like a bloom; Dots
scattered, large, yellow or fawn color.

Basin shallow, regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, regular, brown; Stem short to medium.

Core large, closed; Seeds numerous, plump; Flesh yellow, fine grained,
juicy, almost sweet, aromatic, lacking character; Of second quality,
but valuable for market; December and January; Not disposed to rot,
does not show bruises.


=Butter.=

FULKERSON'S.

    [Illustration: Fig. 60.--BUTTER.]

The origin of this fruit has not been definitely traced, and though
not very widely diffused, it is a prime favorite with its
acquaintances, and the lovers of rich apple-butter.

Fruit small, very regular, oblate; Surface very smooth, and so covered
with mixed red as rarely to show the yellow ground color; upon this
are laid darker stripes of deep red; Dots minute and inconspicuous.

Basin medium, regular, or folded; Eye rather large, closed.

Cavity acute, regular, brown; Stem of medium thickness, rather long.

Core wide, large, closed; with large, plump, pointed seeds; Flesh
yellow, tender, fine grained, juicy; with a sweet, rich and aromatic
flavor. Valuable for stock and for apple-butter; Season, October to
January.


=Conant's Red.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 61.--CONANT'S RED.]

This variety is cultivated in southern Ohio and adjacent regions, to
which it has been distributed by the venerable Pomologist, H.N.
Gillett, of Quaker Bottom, to whom the author is under many
obligations for valuable information connected with the fruits of that
productive region.

Fruit full medium, regular, oblate, and sometimes nearly round.

In appearance this apple is not very prepossessing, as the surface is
rough, the yellow ground is obscured by mixed red, upon which are red
stripes and streaks of russet; dots are numerous, minute, indented,
yellow or fawn colored.

Basin rather deep, abrupt, regular or wavy; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, wavy or regular, green; Stem medium to long, slender.

Core large, regular, closed; Seeds numerous, some are imperfectly
developed; Flesh yellow, fine grained, juicy; flavor sub-acid to
sweet, very aromatic, agreeable, fitting it admirably for a dessert
fruit, as which it is nearly first rate. Season from September to
December.


=Connett Sweet.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 62.--CONNETT SWEET.]

The tree grows vigorously, is upright and productive, bearing early.
Its origin I have not learned, but procured the specimens from my
valued friend, Jno. C. Teas, of Raysville, Indiana.

Fruit of good size, regular, flat; Surface rather rough, dull red,
with indistinct stripes; Dots few, dark, sunken.

Basin not deep, wide, regular; Eye rather large, closed.

Cavity wide, regular, brown; Stem medium to long.

Core wide, closed; Seeds of medium size; Flesh compact, yellow, fine
grained; Flavor very sweet; Quality very good; Season, December to
March.


=Granniwinkle.=

This is supposed to be the famous cider apple of New Jersey, described
by Coxe, except that the form is different; it has as good qualities
for making a rich cider; specimens obtained from W.C. Hampton.

Fruit small, oblate, regular; Surface dull red, striped purple; Dots
numerous, yellow.

Basin wide, regular; Eye large, open.

Cavity wide, regular, brown; Stem long, inclined.

Core medium, round, regular, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous,
angular, plump; Flesh yellowish-white, firm, tough; Flavor sweet; Use,
cider; Season, winter.


=Jersey Sweet.=

AMERICAN.

    [Illustration: Fig. 63.--JERSEY SWEET.]

In some parts of the country this is a favorite baking apple, but its
great productiveness renders it small, and makes it rather a stock
apple. Tree vigorous, round-headed; Shoots short-jointed and red;
Foliage abundant.

Fruit medium, regular, globular-oblate, sometimes rather conical,
(according to Elliott & Downing, roundish-ovate, but the drawing given
by the latter is globular); Surface smooth, yellow, nearly covered
with red, mixed, striped and splashed carmine, more or less
distinctly; Dots generally minute.

Basin medium to wide, regular; Eye small, generally closed.

Cavity wide, regular or wavy, rather deep, brown, and in Michigan
often green; Stem medium to long, green.

Core wide, regular, partially open in some specimens, but generally
closed; Seeds numerous, wide, pointed, plump; flesh pale yellow,
tender, fine grained, juicy; Flavor very sweet, aromatic and rich;
Use, the dessert, for those who like sweet apples, but especially
valued for baking and for feeding stock. Season August to October.


=Moore's Sweeting.=

RED SWEET PIPPIN.--BLACK SWEET.

    [Illustration: Fig. 64.--MOORE'S SWEETING.]

This valuable winter sweet apple is much cultivated throughout the
West on account of its productiveness, and the amount of nutriment it
furnishes to both man and animals. Tree vigorous, healthy, spreading,
round, with branches sufficiently open; Shoots dark olive; Foliage
large, dark green.

Fruit medium to large, globular-oblate, regular; Surface smooth,
greenish-yellow, covered with dull red in confused stripes and shaded
with gray that gives the fruit a purple hue; Dots minute and few; Skin
thick.

Basin wide, wavy or folded; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity wide or acute, deep, green or brown; Stem short, rather stout.

Core small, closed; Seeds numerous, plump, pale; Flesh yellow, dry,
firm; Flavor very sweet; Quality inferior, for the dessert; Use,
baking, market, stock, cider; Season from December to March and later,
keeping very sound.


=Putnam Sweet.=

Originated near Marietta, Ohio.

Fruit large, flat, regular; Surface smooth, mixed, splashed and
striped deep red; Dots numerous, large.

Basin wide, shallow, regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, regular; Stem short.

Core roundish, flattened, open, clasping the eye; Seeds numerous,
pointed, pale; Flesh tender; Flavor sweet; quality very good; Use,
kitchen, stock; Season August, September.


=Richmond.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 65.--RICHMOND.]

Described by F.R. Elliott, author of _American Fruit Growers' Guide_,
and named for our mutual friend, D.C. Richmond, near Sandusky, Ohio,
who found it in an old seedling orchard with several other good
varieties. The seeds were supposed to have been brought from the old
French orchards of Canada. Tree large, vigorous, productive, and would
appear to have been hardy.

Mr. Elliott says:

"Fruit large; Form roundish, occasional specimens have one side a
little enlarged; Color light yellow ground, mostly or quite overspread
with light and dark red stripes, many dots or specks of light russet;
Stem varying, mostly short, slender; Cavity deep, open, regular, a
little brownish at bottom; Calyx large, segments long; Basin deep,
open, uniformly furrowed; Flesh white, tender, juicy, delicate, sweet;
Core medium; Seeds large, full; Season October to December."


=Sweet Vandervere.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 66.--SWEET VANDERVERE.]

This is another western favorite with the admirers of sweet apples.
Tree sufficiently vigorous, healthy, and productive; twigs slender,
like those of the true Vanderveres.

Fruit of good size, from full medium to large, regular, oblate, and
resembling the Pennsylvania Vandervere; surface very smooth, yellow,
shaded with mixed red, and striped with dull or dark red; Dots yellow,
scattered, indented.

Basin abrupt, wide, deep, regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity sometimes wide and regular, or acute; Stem long, slender.

Core regular, heart-shaped, closed; Seeds medium to long, angular;
Flesh firm, breaking, yellow; Flavor sweet, pleasant; Quality not
first rate, valued for baking and for stock; Season December and
January.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS I.--FLAT APPLES.

+ORDER I.--REGULAR.+

SECTION 1.--SWEET.

SUB-SECTION 3.--RUSSET.

NONE.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS I.--FLAT APPLES.

+ORDER I.--REGULAR.+

SECTION 2.--SOUR.

SUB-SECTION 1.--SELF-COLORED.


=Better Than Good.=

JUICY BITE.

Like our standard authority, I am obliged to quote from the American
Pomological Society's Transactions. Origin uncertain, (Elliott says
from Pennsylvania); Tree thrifty, rather slender, very productive.

Fruit medium, oblate; Skin pale yellow, with a few brown dots.

Basin large and open; Calyx closed.

Cavity broad; Stem short.

Flesh yellowish, very tender, juicy; Flavor mild, pleasant, sub-acid;
November to January.


=Bohanon.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 67.--BOHANON.]

This apple was brought into notice by Lewis Sanders, that veteran
agriculturist of Kentucky, who was equally remarkable as a planter of
choice fruits, and breeder of fine cattle. Mr. Elliott thinks this
variety may have had its origin in Virginia. Tree moderately vigorous
and productive.

Fruit full medium, regular, oblate, rarely inclined to be angular,
sometimes slightly conical; Surface very smooth, whitish, or waxen,
occasionally blushed with pale carmine, making it very beautiful; Dots
minute.

Basin abrupt, narrow, folded, wavy and irregular; Eye closed; Segments
reflexed.

Cavity acute, brown; Stem rather long.

Core regular, small, pyriform, closed, clasping the eye; Seeds small,
compressed; Flesh white, breaking, fine grained, juicy, sub-acid;
Quality very good and preferred as a dessert fruit to the _Maiden's
Blush_ which it much resembles without having the peculiar flavor of
that variety.


=Cornfield.=

A southern variety received from J.S. Downer & Son.

Fruit medium, roundish-oblate or cylindrical, truncate, regular;
Surface smooth, yellow, covered with mixed deep red, striped; Dots
numerous, minute.

Basin deep, abrupt, regular, leather-cracked; Eye small, open.

Cavity wide, acute; Stem short.

Core round, regular, closed, hardly clasping; Axis short; Seeds
numerous, plump; Flesh yellow, fine grained, tender, rather dry;
Flavor sub-acid; Quality good; Use, table; Season, December.


=Cracking.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 68.--CRACKING.]

This variety had its origin in the eastern part of Ohio. The tree is a
strong grower and productive.

Fruit large, oblate, somewhat uneven and irregular, but handsome;
Surface smooth, greenish-yellow until ripe, when it is often tinged
with red; Dots numerous, minute, indented and green.

Basin wide, folded; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity acute, wavy, brown; Stem short, rather stout.

Core wide, open, clasping the eye; Seeds large, pointed, dark; Flesh
yellow, breaking, juicy; Flavor sub-acid; quality nearly first rate;
Use, kitchen and table; Season September and October.


=Cranberry Pippin.=

This is a beautiful apple which originated near Hudson, New York. Tree
vigorous, very productive.

Fruit large, flat, regular; Surface very smooth, bright, clear yellow,
with a shining scarlet cheek; Dots minute.

Basin wide, regular or wavy; Eye small, short, closed.

Cavity wide, wavy; Stem medium.

Core small, oval, just meeting the eye; Axis short; Seeds numerous,
long; Flesh white, breaking, juicy; Flavor mild, sub-acid; Quality
very good for cooking, not for dessert; Season November to February in
New York.


=Dalton.=

Specimens from Mr. Warren, of Massachusetts. Origin and history
unknown.

Fruit medium, flat, uneven; Surface smooth, yellowish-green, becoming
greasy; Dots scattered, green.

Basin medium, folded; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity deep, pointed; Stem medium.

Core medium, wide, closed, clasping the eye; Seeds large; Flesh,
greenish-white, tender, juicy; Flavor sub-acid; Quality good; Use
kitchen, table; Season September.

Not particularly desirable.


=Early Harvest.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 69.--EARLY HARVEST.]

This American apple has long been a prime favorite in the orchard,
especially when planted for family use, since it is of excellent
quality for table as well as in the kitchen. For the commercial
orchard, however, it is falling into disfavor with the market men,
because of its uncertainty, and its proneness to be defective on some
soils.

Tree spreading, healthy and vigorous; the limbs are very strongly
attached to the trunk by a woody enlargement at their base, and the
pale olive twigs are remarkable for their peculiar mode of production
in twos and threes from a common origin.

Fruit medium, regular, oblate, sometimes almost round, as described by
Downing, but this is rare in the West, where the oblate form prevails.
Surface smooth, clear, waxy yellow, very rarely blushed; Dots
numerous, minute, green.

Basin regular, narrow, abrupt; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, regular; Stem short.

Core round, closed, not meeting the eye; Seeds large, pointed; Flesh
tender, breaking, juicy, acid to sub-acid, agreeable; Of first quality
for table or kitchen during the month of July.


=Faust.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 70.--FAUST.]

This very nice apple, received from S.W. Westbrooke, of Greensboro,
N.C., deserves the commendation of its southern admirers.

Fruit regular, globular-oblate, of medium size; Surface smooth,
yellow, with a white bloom and sunken white dots.

Basin shallow, folded; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, green; Stem medium, to long.

Core wide, closed, scarcely meeting the eye; Seeds angular; Flesh
yellow, fine grained; Flavor sub-acid, aromatic, and first quality for
table or dessert use, in November or later.


=Finley.=

ABBOTT?

    [Illustration: Fig. 71.--FINLEY.]

This fine fruit originated in Kentucky and is cultivated to some
extent in Southern Indiana, where it is considered entitled to the
meed of excellence, and preferred to the Early Harvest on the one
hand, and to the Maiden's Blush on the other; and in its season, it
competes with both, being useful in July for the kitchen, and ripening
gradually until September.

Tree large, spreading, vigorous and productive.

Fruit large to very large, regular, globular-oblate, slightly conical;
Surface smooth, greenish-yellow, becoming a clear lemon yellow at
maturity; Dots minute, gray, scattering.

Basin rather wide, wavy; Eye small, closed; Segments reflexed.

Cavity acute, medium to deep, regular, brown; Stem long, yellow.

Core heart-shaped, regular, closed, clasping the eye; Seeds few,
large, plump, and some imperfect; Flesh yellow, breaking, fine
grained, juicy, acid, almost first quality; Valuable for kitchen and
market; Season August and September.


=Fink.=

FINK'S SEEDLING.

This long keeper was brought before the notice of the Ohio Pomological
Society many years ago by Mr. Clarke, of Somerset, Ohio. Mr. Elliott
considered it the same as Tewksbury Winter Blush, and introduces
Fink's Seedling as a synonym of that variety. Others think it a
different fruit, among whom is that practical Pomologist, the
Secretary of that association, M.B. Bateham, Esq., who has propagated
and planted the trees extensively. It was described as Fink's Seedling
in the Ohio Cultivator, May, 1847. At the meeting of 1854, the merits
and claims of this variety were freely discussed, and the Society
named it the _Fink_, after admitting that it was an original seedling,
as stated by Mr. Fink, in whose seedling orchard it had originated.

Tree of strong upright growth, a profuse and annual bearer.

Fruit small, regular, roundish-oblate; Surface very smooth, polished,
greenish-yellow, blushed with brownish-red; Flesh whitish, breaking,
juicy, mild sub-acid; remarkable for its keeping qualities, remaining
sound until the second season, and has been shown in May after having
been kept over two winters.


=Fulton.=

    [Illustration: Fig 72.--FULTON.]

Origin, Canton County, Illinois. Tree large, vigorous, productive,
annual bearer.

Fruit large, globular-oblate, often oblique or unsymmetrical; Surface
smooth, greenish-yellow, with a carmine blush; Dots minute, indented.

Basin abrupt, deep, folded; Eye medium to large, open.

Cavity deep, narrow or acute, green and brown; Stem rather long and
slender.

Core small, round, clasping; Seeds numerous, small, short and plump;
Flesh yellow, tender, line grained, juicy; flavor sub-acid and
aromatic; First quality for table; In November and December. Our
Illinois orchardists do not commend it so highly as when first
introduced; not fully satisfactory where planted in Ohio on limestone
clays.


=Golden Seedling.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 73.--GOLDEN SEEDLING.]

Said to have originated with Mr. Riehl, of St. Louis, cultivated and
distributed by Geo. Husmann, of Hermann, Mo., in whose orchard I
gathered it.

Fruit large, handsome, regular, and oblate; Surface smooth,
greenish-yellow, and blushed; Dots scattered, minute.

Basin wide, regular; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity wide, wavy; Stem short.

Core medium, regular, meeting the eye, closed; Seeds numerous,
angular, pale; Flesh yellow, juicy, rich; "Very good."


=Green Crank.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 74.--GREEN CRANK.]

I have received this southern apple from Kentucky, Tenn., and also
from Georgia, but have not yet fruited it. Tree moderately thrifty;
Shoots brown; Foliage small.

Fruit medium to large, flattened somewhat, conical, regular; Surface
green to yellow, sometimes bronzed; dots small, gray.

Basin medium, regular; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity wide, deep, acute, brown; Stem medium, green, thick.

Core wide, medium, closed, not clasping the eye; seeds numerous,
plump, short, dark; Flesh yellow, firm, fine grained, juicy; Flavor
sub-acid, aromatic, rich; Quality good to very good; Use table,
kitchen; Season December to March.


=Hawley.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 75.--HAWLEY.]

Originated in Columbia County, New York. Tree vigorous, with a round
spreading head; Shoots stout, olive.

Fruit large, regular, oblate or slightly conic; Surface waxy yellow,
rarely shaded or blushed, becomes oily or greasy when kept.

Basin rather wide, wavy; Cavity wide, sometimes folded; Stem short,
medium and long.

Core regular, closed, scarcely clasping the eye; Seeds generally
imperfect; Flesh yellowish-white, very tender, fine grained, juicy;
Flavor very pleasant, mild sub-acid, rich; Season August to September;
an amateur's fruit.


=Hawthornden.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 76.--HAWTHORNDEN.]

This famous Scotch fruit appears to do very well in this country, but
it must yield the palm to its American cousin and representative, the
Maiden's Blush, which possesses all its good qualities as a market and
kitchen fruit, with attractive appearance.

Tree spreading, vigorous and productive; an early bearer.

Fruit large, regular, and very flat; Surface perfectly smooth, always
fair, and of a beautiful white, very rarely and faintly blushed; Dots
minute.

Basin shallow, narrow, regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, wavy, green; Stem medium.

Core wide, regular, somewhat open, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous,
angular, imperfect, brown; Flesh greenish-white, breaking, fine
grained, juicy; Flavor acid, aromatic; of second quality for table,
but first rate for cooking; Uses, kitchen and market; Season October.


=Junaliska.=

This apple originated in the Cherokee country, where it is highly
esteemed, and fruited in Ohio and Kentucky this year.

Fruit large, roundish, or flattened, slightly conic, regular; Surface
smooth, yellow, with some russet, chiefly about the apex; sometimes
blushed; Dots minute, gray.

Basin rather small, regular; Eye small, long, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, brown; Stem quite short, knobby.

Core wide, heart-shaped, regular, closed; Axis short; seeds few,
short, plump; Flesh yellow, breaking, granular; flavor sub-acid,
spicy, rich; Quality good; Use, table and kitchen; Season November,
and through the winter.

It may be destined to supply the place of the _Rhode Island Greening_,
where that variety does not succeed.


=Kane.=

CAIN.

Origin, Delaware. Tree upright, sufficiently vigorous. Has been
confounded with the Bohanon, but is distinct.

Fruit small, regular, oblate, somewhat conic; Beautiful for the
dessert; Surface very smooth, waxen yellow, blushed with bright
crimson; Flesh whitish, crisp, juicy, acid and pleasant; October and
November.


=Lady.=

API PETIT, ETC.

This beautiful little French apple has been fully naturalized in our
country, and has received the enthusiastic admiration of the American
people. The fruit needs to be entirely perfect to meet with favor as
an ornament to the table, for which use it is especially adapted;
unfortunately it is often overgrown and irregularly developed.
Wherever produced in proper size and color, it is one of the most
profitable varieties, commanding fancy prices at the period of
Christmas decorations. In the rich soils of the West it is apt to be
too large, and has generally failed to meet the requisitions; but it
succeeds well in Michigan, and the neighboring region of Indiana.

Tree of medium size, very close and upright, healthy and productive;
Shoots very dark; the foliage small, crowded, curled, and very dark.

Fruit very small, quite flat, very regular; Surface very smooth,
shining or polished, of a pale waxen yellow, nearly covered with
bright carmine, which contrasts finely with the ground color, wherever
the fruit has been shaded by a leaf; Dots minute.

Basin medium, rather abrupt; Eye small, closed.

Cavity acute, deep, regular; Stem short.

Core regular, wide, closed; Seeds numerous; Axis very short; Flesh
white, breaking, tender and juicy when ripe; with a mild sub-acid
flavor; Use ornament and dessert; Season December until March.


=Maiden's Blush.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 77.--MAIDEN'S BLUSH.]

This beautiful and profitable fruit has received the unqualified
approbation of thirteen out of the eighteen States that have reported
to the American Pomological Society. It is a native of New Jersey, and
is still held in high repute there as a market apple. The tree is
hardy, vigorous, spreading and productive, beginning to bear quite
early.

Fruit medium, to large, regular, flat and very handsome; Surface very
smooth, polished, of a pale waxen yellow and blushed with bright
carmine; Dots minute.

Basin shallow, regular or wavy; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, wavy; Stem medium to short.

Core regular, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, brown; Flesh
white, breaking, fine grained, juicy; Flavor acid, aromatic, and to
most palates not agreeable at the dessert, but very good when cooked,
and requiring but a short time to be reduced to a delicious pulp of
light color. This apple is also used for drying and makes a very
light colored product, that is much admired by dealers. Season
September and October, but may be used in the kitchen during August.

=Bachelor's Blush= appears to be a variety of the above; found in
Burlington County, New Jersey, and exhibited before the American
Pomological Society at the Rochester meeting in 1864, by Wm. Parry, as
a valuable, and distinct variety. Having examined the trees as they
grew together in the orchard, the resemblance to Maiden's Blush was
very apparent. The fruit is larger, and for market purposes is
considered more profitable. The two may be different, but are very
much alike.


=Pickard's Reserve.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 78.--PICKARD'S RESERVE.]

Grown in Parke County, Indiana, from seed brought from North Carolina.
This apple was first brought to my notice by Jno. C. Teas, of
Raysville, Indiana. Considerably grown in that State. Tree hardy; the
original is still standing in Rockville.

Fruit large, flat, somewhat unequal; Surface smooth, pale yellow; Dots
scattered, minute.

Basin abrupt, regular, rather deep; Eye quite small, closed.

Cavity deep, wavy, brown; Stem short to medium.

Core irregular, closed, scarcely clasping the eye; Seeds numerous,
angular, dark brown; Flesh whitish-yellow, fine grained, tender,
juicy, with a sub-acid, aromatic flavor, making this a fruit of first
quality for table or kitchen use; Season December and January.


=Rhode Island Greening.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 79.--RHODE ISLAND GREENING.]

From its name this apple would appear, like the Peck's Pleasant, to
have come from the sea-girt State. It is a universal favorite, and is
found to succeed well in a great many situations; but there are some
portions of the West where it has failed to give satisfaction, being
slow to come into bearing, becoming an autumn instead of a winter
fruit, and falling badly from the trees before picking time. In
sandstone soils, however, even in Southern Indiana and Illinois, it
does better than on the limestone clays; the fruit attains an
enormous size, but matures too early for a winter apple.

Tree very vigorous, crooked, spreading, productive; Shoots stout,
dark, with dark foliage.

Fruit large to very large, varying in shape from globular or round to
flat, which is the prevailing and characteristic form. Surface smooth
in the North, somewhat rough and often quite russeted in the South, a
dull green, becoming yellow at maturity; Dots grey, irregular,
numerous.

Basin regular, small and russeted to a greater or less extent,
sometimes extending half way down the sides of the fruit; Eye small to
medium, closed.

Cavity wide, regular; Stem medium to long, curved, often reddish.

Core roundish-oval, regular, closed, clasping the eye; seeds numerous,
angular, dark; Flesh very yellow, breaking, tender, juicy, with a
rich, acid flavor, making it a superior cooking apple, and very fine
for the dessert when fully ripe; Quality almost first rate; Season
October to December--in the North, keeping until March.


=Tewksbury Winter Blush.=

This long-keeping variety was described by Coxe as having its origin
in New Jersey. It has already been named in connection with the Fink,
which resembles it very closely, and, like it, the chief excellence of
this variety consists in its superior keeping qualities.

The tree is vigorous, upright, productive, and holds the apples well.

Fruit small, regular, flat; Surface smooth, yellow, blushed; Flesh
yellow, breaking, juicy, well flavored, and retains its characters for
a long time.


=Virginia Greening.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 80.--VIRGINIA GREENING.]

This apple is supposed from its name to have originated in Virginia.
It is cultivated chiefly in the Southern States, and in those parts of
the Northwest to which Southerners have migrated. Its chief merit is
its long keeping. Tree large, spreading, productive.

Fruit large, regular, flat to roundish, generally the former; Surface
smooth, dull green and often bronzy, never blushed; Dots scattered,
large, white or gray, with whitish rings around them.

Basin regular, wide, shallow; Eye small, open.

Cavity wide, regular, green; Stem long to medium.

Core regular, turbinate, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous,
long; Flesh white, firm, breaking, sub-acid; Fit only for the kitchen;
A long keeper; March and April; often subject to Bitter-rot.


=White Fall Pippin.=

FALL PIPPIN OF LOUISVILLE.

This handsome fruit is seen in quantities in the Louisville market
every fall. Its cultivation does not appear to have been widely
extended, nor has its origin been traced. It has been thought to
resemble the Spanish Reinette, with which I have not had an
opportunity to compare it.

Fruit very large, slightly uneven, roundish-flattened or
globular-oblate; Surface smooth, pale yellow, not bronzed or blushed,
but having a whitish striping toward the stem end; Dots scattered,
minute, dark.

Basin abrupt, narrow, deep and folded; Eye small, long, closed.

Cavity wide, wavy; Stem very short.

Core wide, regular, somewhat open, clasping the eye; Seeds numerous,
angular; Flesh yellowish-white, breaking, juicy; Flavor sub-acid,
aromatic and rich; Useful for cooking, drying, and table; Season
October.


=White Juneating.=

JUNEATING, _Coxe_.--YELLOW JUNE.--EARLY MAY?

Downing thinks this a very old variety, mentioned by Evelyn in 1660,
and by Ray in 1688. It has long been known in the West and South as a
very early apple, and valued on this account, though quite small. The
tree resembles that of the Early Harvest in the color and arrangement
of its twigs.

Fruit flat, regular; Surface smooth, pale yellow.

Basin not deep, slightly folded; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, shallow; Stem long, slender.

Flesh breaking, whitish, juicy till over-ripe, when it is dry; Flavor
sub-acid; Use table and market; Season June.


=Winter Pippin.=

WINTER PIPPIN OF GENEVA.

This very handsome fruit was received from T.T. Lyon, of Plymouth,
Michigan, marked as having been received from Western New York. The
same fruit was a very strong competitor for the Greeley prize before
the Committee of the American Institute, and is believed to be the
same as that described by Downing as the _Winter Pippin of Geneva_.

Tree thrifty, branches spreading; Said to be productive.

Fruit large, oblate, regular, or slightly unequal; Surface smooth,
pale yellow, with a bright crimson cheek; Dots numerous, minute.

Basin wide, wavy, or plaited; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity regular, green, rather deep; Stem long.

Core medium, regular, closed, clasping the eye; Seeds numerous, plump;
Flesh yellowish-white, fine grained, juicy, sub-acid; Season January
until May. A limited acquaintance does not justify me in giving such
high praises as those bestowed upon this fruit by Mr. Downing.


=Yellow Foster.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 81.--YELLOW FOSTER.]

This apple is a favorite with that worthy pioneer Pomologist of
Southern Ohio, H.N. Gillett, of Lawrence County, to whom I am under
obligations for this and many other varieties.

Fruit medium to large, regular, oblate; Surface smooth,
greenish-yellow; Dots scattered, minute green.

Basin of medium depth and size, regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity acute, regular; Stem of medium size and length.

Core medium, wide, closed, not meeting the eye; Seeds not numerous,
medium; Flesh yellow, fine grained, tender, juicy; Flavor sub-acid and
aromatic; Of first quality for table; During October.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS I.--FLAT APPLES.

+ORDER I.--REGULAR.+

SECTION 2.--SOUR.

SUB-SECTION 2.--STRIPED.


=Abram.=

FATHER ABRAHAM, of Illinois, not that of Coxe.

This little southern favorite is not extensively cultivated in the
North, except where southern settlers have introduced it. It is found
in Illinois, Indiana and Missouri. Origin believed to have been in
Virginia, whence I have received specimens and trees. In Kentucky it
is found to be a hardy drooping tree, holding the fruit well; annually
productive, valued for cider, and keeping till July of next year.

Fruit medium, globular-oblate, uneven; Surface not smooth, yellowish
green, mixed, red, with stripes and splashes; the whole presenting a
gray appearance; Dots minute, scattered.

Basin shallow, wide, wavy; Eye small, closed.

Cavity acute, regular; Stem long, inclined.

Core medium, regular, closed; Seeds numerous, short, plump, pale;
Flesh greenish-yellow, fine grained, juicy; flavor mild sub-acid,
rich; almost first quality; keeping until May or later.


=American Pippin.=

GRINDSTONE.

This fruit is chiefly valued for keeping very late into the summer.
Coxe commends it for its cider, rating it as nearly equal to the
Grey-House; he says that fourteen bushels are required to make a
barrel of cider. The apples hang well to the tree, and will bear a
considerable amount of freezing. They are so firm as to suffer little
from bruising, and are not disposed to rot when thus injured. A
fruitman once said of their ability to withstand rough usage, that the
apples might be whipped off the tree with a hoop-pole, shoveled into a
cart, dumped upon the ground, and have some dirt thrown upon them, and
that they would keep until next July; but, he added, they are then as
good as dried apples; so lightly are they esteemed for table use.

The tree is thrifty, with a low, spreading head and depending
branches; very productive; notwithstanding the fruit is dry and
deficient in flavor, it is considered profitable, because so easily
kept until May and June, when it commands the highest price, because
of the rarity of green fruit at that season.

Fruit medium, regular, very flat; Surface rough, sometimes
vein-russeted, dull green, covered with mixed red, and shaded with
stripes of brick-dust color; Dots numerous, large, gray.

Basin very shallow, wide, regular or plaited; Eye quite small, open.

Cavity regular, brown, this color extending over the base of the
fruit; Stem medium, often thick and knobby.

Core wide, irregular, closed; Seeds numerous, plump, brown; Flesh
yellow, breaking, dry, very firm; Flavor mild sub-acid; Quality poor;
Uses kitchen and market, which last means that it may be sold to those
who do not appreciate the summer fruits of May and June.


=Baldwin.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 82.--BALDWIN.]

This celebrated apple of New England has been widely distributed over
the country, but has not met with universal favor in the West and
South; first, because it is apt to become a fall or early winter
fruit, instead of a keeping apple; and secondly, because it is not
well adapted to our palates; moreover, the tree has been considered
tender, having suffered extensively during the cold winters; this is
especially true in the nursery. Its productiveness and fair quality
will, however, always make the Baldwin a favorite over a large portion
of our country, and the New England settlers must have this variety.

Tree robust, spreading, very productive; Foliage large, dark, on
shoots that are stout and have a rich brown bark.

Fruit large, frequently round, and sometimes almost conical, but
generally inclined to be flattened, so as to be classed by measurement
as oblate; large specimens in southern latitudes are very apt to be
unequal, and to have their axis inclined, or to be what is called
lop-sided; surface smooth, rich yellow where shaded, but the exposed
parts quite covered with deep red, which is mixed so as to conceal the
ground color, and also to obscure the stripes of deeper red that
prevail; this fruit is also frequently marked with veined russet,
overlying the red color, or excluding it; Dots minute, and yellow, or
gray where the red prevails.

Basin deep, often abrupt and narrow, generally waved, folded or
plaited, and these marks are quite characteristic; Eye large and open,
from the shortness of the calyx. On this account the variety is
considered very subject to the attacks of the Codling-moth.

Cavity wide, regular or wavy, generally brown; Stem medium to long,
often curved or inclined, sufficiently stout.

Core medium, regular, closed, meeting, sometimes clasping the eye;
Seeds numerous, long, angular, imperfect; flesh yellow, breaking,
frequently coarse-grained, juicy, sub-acid, rich; some northern
specimens are fine-grained and almost first quality; those from the
South are coarse, poor and scarcely second-rate for table use, but are
good for cooking; Season October to January, occasionally keeping
later.


=Bethlemite.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 83.--BETHLEMITE.]

This apple has frequently been exhibited before the Ohio Pomological
Society, by friends Lipsey, Morris and Benedict, of Morrow County, to
which region its cultivation appears to have been confined. The origin
of the fruit is obscure.

Tree thrifty, hardy, productive, upright.

Fruit medium, flat, or oblate-globular, regular; surface smooth, dull
red or bright red, mixed, on yellow, with broken splashes of crimson;
Dots distinct, large, gray and yellow.

Basin wide, deep, regular or folded, leather-cracked; Eye medium,
closed.

Cavity rather wide, regular, brown; Stem medium to short.

Core regular, neat, closed, just meeting the eye; Axis short; Seeds
numerous, short, very plump, pale; Flesh yellowish-white, breaking,
juicy, sub-acid, aromatic; Quality good, for table and cooking; Season
December.


=Blondin.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 84.--BLONDIN.]

This fine fruit originated with the veteran Pomologist of Indiana,
Reuben Ragan.

Fruit very large, oblate, unequal; Surface rough, greenish-yellow,
splashed and striped with red; Dots numerous, large, gray.

Basin abrupt, folded; Eye small, closed.

Cavity acute, deep, brown; Stem short, rather slender inclined.

Core medium or small, regular, closed, clasping the eye; Seeds plump,
pointed, brown; Flesh greenish-yellow, fine-grained, tender, juicy;
Flavor sub-acid; almost first rate for table and market; Season
October and November.


=Blooming Orange.=

Mr. Waring considers this the handsomest apple. In 1839 he brought a
large number of sorts from the famous Herefordshire apple orchards of
England, of which this is the only one he retains as fully adapted to
the mountain region of Pennsylvania.

Tree a very strong, free, handsome grower, and an immense bearer,
after six or eight years' growth.

Fruit very large, fair, beautiful, roundish-oblate, regular; surface
dark, richly clouded with claret and mahogany, on yellow ground; Eye
open; Flesh crisp, juicy, acid at first, but this merges into a rich,
penetrating, very agreeable flavor.

It is of the Ribston Pippin, or Dutch Mignonne type of fruit.--[Mr. G.
Waring's MS.]


=Bonum.=

MAGNUM BONUM.

    [Illustration: Fig. 85.--BONUM.]

This delicious southern fruit originated in Davidson County, North
Carolina. The tree is vigorous, very productive and bears early. I
received specimens from S.W. Westbrooke, Greensboro', North Carolina.
Introduced to the American Pomological Society at the Philadelphia
meeting, 1860, by Walter Steele, of Rockingham County, North Carolina,
and highly recommended.

Fruit large, oblate, regular; Surface smooth, yellow, covered with
mixed red, and striped; Dots distinct, large, yellow.

Basin medium, regular; Eye large, closed.

Cavity deep, regular, brown; Stem long, not thick, green.

Core oval, small, closed, scarcely meeting the eye; Axis short; Seeds
large, plump; Flesh yellow, firm, breaking, fine-grained, juicy;
Flavor rich, sub-acid; first quality for the dessert; in September.


=Brandywine.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 86.--BRANDYWINE.]

This apple was found on the edge of the prairie, east of Quincy,
Illinois, in the orchard of K.K. Jones, Esq., where it was supposed to
have been brought from the State of Delaware.

Tree large, vigorous, spreading and productive.

Fruit medium, oblate, roundish, slightly conic, regular; surface
smooth, greenish, covered with confused stripes of dull red; Dots
scattered, white.

Basin shallow, abrupt, regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity acute, regular, green; Stem very short.

Core small, round, closed, clasping; Seeds imperfect; Flesh
greenish-white, fine-grained, tender, juicy; Flavor sub-acid,
aromatic; Quality only good; Use table, kitchen; Season January,
February.


=Buchanan's.=

Origin near Cincinnati, Ohio, in the orchard of Robert Buchanan, Esq.,
a gentleman long devoted to pomology. It also closely resembles the
Brandywine, as grown in Illinois, already described.

This variety is much like the Minkler, which originated in Illinois,
and both may have come from seeds of the Gilpin, which they resemble.

Tree vigorous and productive.

Fruit medium, oblate, regular; Surface smooth, yellow, covered with
mixed red and striped bright red; Dots scattered, minute.

Basin medium, folded or plaited; Eye large, closed.

Cavity wide, regular, green; Stem short or medium.

Core flattened, closed, clasping the eye; Seeds numerous, plump, dark;
Flesh greenish-yellow, firm, breaking; Flavor sub-acid; Quality
scarcely second rate, but useful for cooking, and keeps sound until
May.


=Carolina Baldwin.=

This nice southern apple was received from S.W. Westbrooke, of
Greensboro'. Of the tree I know nothing.

Fruit medium, oblate, regular; Surface yellow-green, with mixed red
and stripes; Dots numerous, large, white.

Basin abrupt, regular; Eye large, closed.

Cavity wide, regular; Stem, medium to long.

Core small, regular, heart-shaped, closed; Seeds pointed; Flesh
yellow, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor, sub-acid; good for table in
November.


=Cheese.=

This fruit was received from Lewis Sanders, of Grass Hills, Gallatin
County, Kentucky, by whom it was grown and esteemed.

Fruit medium to small, oblate, regular; Surface smooth,
yellowish-green, striped purple red, splashed deep red; dots
scattered, gray and purple.

Basin shallow, regular, or abrupt and deep, in different specimens;
Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, regular, brown; Stem long, slender.

Core regular, closed; Axis long; Seeds plump, pointed, dark; Flesh
yellow, tender, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor sub-acid, agreeable;
Quality good for the table in December and January.


=Colvert.=

Fruit large, roundish-oblate, slightly conic, regular, often unequal;
Surface smooth, yellowish-green, mixed, striped, light red; Dots
scattered, distinct, white.

Basin deep, abrupt, regular, folded; Eye medium.

Cavity rather deep, acute, brown; Stem medium.

Core round, flattened, slightly open, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous,
long, pointed, imperfect; Flesh white, breaking, fine-grained, juicy;
Flavor sub-acid; Quality scarcely good; Use, market chiefly; Season
October, November.


=Cooper.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 87.--COOPER.]

This delicious apple was introduced into the West with the scions that
were brought to the early Putnam nursery at the mouth of the Muskingum
river in 1796. Though a general favorite from its beauty, its fine
texture, and exquisite flavor, this variety does not appear to have
been so widely spread as others very inferior to it. Though occurring
on the original Putnam list, and therefore an eastern variety, it does
not appear to have been recognized by cultivators in the older States,
and there are those in the West who claim that it is of French origin.

The tree has a stout, upright growth, which becomes spreading with
age, when the limbs stand at a right angle with the trunk; they are
frequently defaced with marks of diseased action that are called
_canker_. The twigs are reddish and rather slender; the leaves are
pale green, large, broad.

Fruit large, globular-oblate, regular, sometimes unequal, light;
Surface smooth, pale waxen-yellow, with a little mixed scarlet and
very distinctly marked carmine; Dots scattered, minute.

Basin regular, abrupt, deep; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, regular, green; Stem medium, green.

Core small, closed, just meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, plump,
short, dark; Flesh pale yellow, fine-grained, tender, almost melting,
juicy; very mild sub-acid, aromatic; of first quality for table,
kitchen or market (too good for drying, but makes a superior article
of _snits_); Season September and October.


=Dr. Watson.=

AUTUMN SEEK-NO-FURTHER OF INDIANA.

    [Illustration: Fig. 88.--DR. WATSON.]

This delicious and beautiful dessert apple is much grown in Central
and Eastern Indiana, particularly among the Friends. It was for a long
time a puzzle to the pomologists. In the meanwhile it must have a
name, and without waiting for the decision of the learned, the people
in different sections, without consultation, called it the _Autumn
Seek-no-further_. Finally the Horticultural Societies decided that it
was an old sort named _Doctor Watson_, though upon what authority does
not appear. The fruit has not been recognized by our Eastern friends,
nor by the American Pomological Society, to which it was referred in
1860.

Tree large, spreading, very productive; Twigs slender, foliage small,
pale green; in the nursery it is a poor grower.

Fruit medium to large, unless when too crowded, regular, oblate,
sometimes unequal; Surface smooth, mixed pale and red on waxen-yellow,
beautifully splashed with scarlet; Dots minute.

Basin abrupt, rather deep, wide, regular, sometimes cracked; Eye
medium, open.

Cavity wide, regular or wavy, brown; Stem medium to short.

Core medium, regular, closed, just meeting the eye; Axis short; Seeds
plump; Flesh yellow, fine-grained, very tender and juicy, almost
melting, with a rich, aromatic, sub-acid flavor; Quality best, for
table and kitchen, from September to November; also valuable for stock
feeding.


=Domine.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 89.--DOMINE.]

Supposed to be a native of this country; origin unknown. Tree very
thrifty, making long, stout, brown shoots, which branch from the ends,
and form spurs along their sides, so that the tree has a straggling,
open head, and bears its fruit crowded along the smaller branches. It
is hardy, upright, vigorous and productive. Foliage large and long,
with a peculiar curl or folding upwards, so as to show the underside
of the leaves.

Fruit large, flat, regular, sometimes unequal; Surface
yellowish-green, nearly covered with mixed red, and striped
indistinctly with carmine, often vein-russeted; Dots scattered, yellow
and gray, large.

Basin rather shallow, folded or plaited; Eye medium to small, closed.

Cavity wide, wavy, brown; Stem medium to long, slender at its
insertion into the fruit, and easily separated from it, but holding
firmly to the tree; hence care is needed in picking the fruit.

Core regular, somewhat open, scarcely meeting the eye; Axis often
short; Seeds numerous, pointed, plump; Flesh light yellow, breaking,
tender, juicy; flavor slightly sub-acid, rich; good, for table,
kitchen, or market; Season December and January, keeping until spring
in the North.


=Duchess of Oldenburgh.=

This very beautiful striped apple is from Russia, and has proved one
of the hardiest apples in our trying climate. Reports from the
Northwest are entirely satisfactory as to its hardiness.

Tree medium size, round-headed, sufficiently vigorous and perfectly
hardy.

Fruit medium, regular, roundish-oblate; Surface smooth, waxen-yellow,
partially covered with distinct and regular stripes and splashes of
brilliant red and carmine; often having a light bloom, such as is
found on most Russian apples.

Basin regular, pretty wide; Eye large and closed.

Cavity regular, acute; Stem medium to long, rather slender.

Flesh white, tender, juicy; Sour and suitable for cooking. Though
attractive to the eye, it is unsuited for the dessert.

By Dr. Jno. A. Kennicott, the pioneer cultivator of Northern Illinois,
this apple was considered the _ne plus ultra_ for that and higher
latitudes.


=Equinetelee.=

BACHELOR--BYERS--IOLA (Berckmans' M.S.) SOL. CARTEE (Downing.)

    [Illustration: Fig. 90.--EQUINETELEE.]

This fine southern apple has its origin traced to Yancey County, in
North Carolina. It has not yet been sufficiently tested in the
Northern States, but is considered one of the best in the South, and
is looked upon as having great promise in our northern orchards, where
it is somewhat introduced. Berckmans says: "The finest of the late
fall and winter apples."

The trees bear a strong resemblance to those of the _Buckingham_.

Fruit large, oblate, sometimes oblique; Surface light yellow, mostly
covered with bright crimson, obscurely striped; Dots small, white.

Basin deep, narrow, irregular; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity wide, deep; Stem short.

Flesh pale yellow, very tender, juicy, melting; Flavor very mild
sub-acid, making it a very superior table fruit, from November to
January in Georgia, according to Berkmans.


=Evening Party.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 91.--EVENING PARTY.]

This excellent dessert fruit originated in Berks County, Pennsylvania,
and was brought into notice by the late lamented Dr. Brinkle, of
Philadelphia, in his ad-interim reports, and also in Hoffy's Fruits.
It has been tested with entire satisfaction by J.D.G. Nelson,
President of the Indiana Horticultural Society, who always has
admirers of the fruit exhibited by him at the winter meetings. This
apple takes the place at mid-winter which is occupied in summer by the
Early Joe, and in autumn by the Jefferies, Dr. Watson and Cooper.

Fruit medium to small, regular, quite flat; Surface smooth, mixed red,
and carmine stripes on waxen-yellow ground; Dots numerous, distinct,
gray.

Basin abrupt, regular deep; Eye small, closed; Segments long.

Cavity wide, deep, regular, brown; Stem medium, green, slender.

Core small, regular, closed, touching the eye; Axis short; Seeds
short, wide, dark; Flesh light yellow, very fine-grained, tender,
juicy; Flavor sub-acid, aromatic; first quality, or very best, for the
dessert, or the _evening party_, during December and January.


=Fall Wine.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 92.--FALL WINE.]

Origin unknown. A great favorite in the West as a table fruit; little
grown in the Eastern States, whence it was brought. Downing supposes
this is because the fruit is there defective. In virgin soil it is
remarkably fair and handsome.

Tree of medium size, rather slender, but healthy, spreading, and
annually productive.

Fruit medium, oblate, handsome; inclined to crack open if left on the
tree till ripe; Surface very smooth, waxen-yellow, almost completely
covered with bright, and often deep red, upon which it is indistinctly
striped; Dots minute.

Basin abrupt, wide, regular or wavy; eye small, closed; Calyx
reflexed.

Cavity wide, regular, uniformly green; Stem long, slender.

Core medium, regular, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, angular
or plump; flesh yellow, breaking, tender, fine-grained, juicy; flavor
mild sub-acid, and very aromatic; Quality best, for table and market,
during September and October or later.


=Garden.=

GARDEN ROYAL.

    [Illustration: Fig. 93.--GARDEN.]

This fine apple has been received from quite distant points,
Chillicothe, Ohio, and Salem, Indiana. It is quite distinct in season
from the _Beefsteak_ or _Garden_ of Downing, but in description
corresponds very closely with the _Garden-Royal_ of Elliott, which
fruit I have not seen. Origin unknown.

Fruit pretty large, roundish, flat, regular; Surface smooth,
yellowish-green, slightly shaded red, scattered stripes, carmine; Dots
minute, black.

Basin wide, regular, small, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, regular, green; stem short to medium, sometimes
knobby.

Core wide, closed or open, regular, clasping the eye; seeds small,
pointed, brown; flesh pale yellow or whitish, tender, fine-grained,
juicy; Flavor sub-acid, aromatic, saccharine, agreeable; Quality very
good to best; Use dessert, kitchen, market; Season August to October;
worthy of cultivation.


=Golay.=

This fruit originated near Vevay, Indiana, and is supposed to be a
seedling of the _Janet_, which it somewhat resembles.

Fruit medium, oblate, somewhat conic, truncated, regular; Surface
smooth, yellow, mixed, striped, purplish-red; Dots minute, gray,
scattered, indented.

Basin wide, regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, regular; Stem short.

Core very small, pyriform, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous, large,
plump, brown; Flesh yellowish-white, breaking, tender, juicy; Flavor
sub-acid, rich; Quality good to best; Use, table; Season, January to
May.


=Harvest Redstreak.=

This old variety is valued only as an early cooking apple, for which
it has been found very profitable, by those who attend market. Origin
unknown. Introduced into the West by Silas Wharton, from the
neighborhood of Philadelphia, where it was cultivated largely. Not
recognized among the varieties described by Coxe.

Tree spreading, open, round-headed; Twigs stout; Leaves small, mealy.

Fruit medium, roundish-oblate, regular; Surface smooth,
greenish-yellow, striped and splashed with red, more or less mingled;
Dots minute, dark, and a light bloom.

Basin medium, folded; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity acute, regular, often brown; Stem medium, thick.

Core regular, closed; Seeds angular; Flesh whitish, breaking, coarse,
juicy, becoming dry; Quality inferior, except for cooking; Season
July.


=High-Top.=--[LEWIS JONES.]

    [Illustration: Fig. 94.--HIGH-TOP.]

This handsome apple is supposed to have originated in Wayne County,
Indiana, and was brought into notice by Lewis Jones.

Fruit large, flat, roundish, regular; Surface smooth, mixed dull red,
striped carmine; Dots scattered, minute.

Basin wide, medium, folded; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity wavy, brown, acute; Stem short, green.

Core regular, closed, or wide and open, clasping; Seeds numerous,
short, plump, pale; Flesh pale yellow, fine-grained, tender, juicy;
Flavor sub-acid, aromatic; Quality good to very good; Use table,
kitchen, market; Season, December, January; reminds one somewhat of
Domine.


=Hocking.=

This variety has only been found in western orchards, and has not been
mentioned by name in any fruit book with which I have met. At the
second meeting of the Northwestern Fruit Growers' Convention, it was
reported as having been brought from Fairfield County, Ohio; its
resemblance to Townsend was also observed, but it was declared to be
different in wood and buds. These apples may yet prove to be
identical, but as the question is not settled, both will be described.

Tree thrifty, vigorous, productive--an early bearer.

Fruit medium to large, globular-oblate, regular; Surface smooth,
yellow, covered with mixed red, and splashed carmine; Dots minute,
yellow.

Basin medium, regular; Eye medium to large, closed.

Cavity medium, regular, green; Stem medium to long.

Core small, closed; Seeds large, brown; Flesh light yellow, breaking,
juicy; Sub-acid; Quality good; Market and kitchen; September.


=Hunt.=

Another of Lewis Jones' apples, supposed to be a seedling of Eastern
Indiana; productive.

Fruit medium, roundish-oblate, regular; Surface smooth, yellow, mixed,
striped bright red; Dots numerous, yellow.

Basin rather wide, abrupt, folded; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, regular; Stem medium, slender.

Core small, roundish, flattened, closed, not meeting the eye; Seeds
numerous, angular; Flesh yellow, breaking, fine-grained, juicy; flavor
sub-acid, aromatic; Quality good to very good; Use table, market;
Season December and January.


=Indiana Favorite.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 95.--INDIANA FAVORITE.]

This fruit resembles the Pennsylvania Vandervere, from which it may
have sprung. Origin believed to be Fayette County, Indiana. It is
considerably cultivated in the eastern part of the State, where I
procured specimens exhibited at the Richmond Horticultural Society.

Tree vigorous, spreading, productive.

Fruit medium, globular-oblate, regular; Surface very smooth, bright
red, striped with darker red; Dots numerous, star-shaped, yellow.

Basin wide, regular, abrupt; Eye small, closed.

Cavity acute, regular, green or brown; Stem medium to long, red.

Core regular, closed, clasping the eye; Seeds numerous, angular,
imperfect; Flesh pale yellow, breaking, fine-grained, juicy; Mild
sub-acid; Good to very good, for table and market, from January to
March.


=Jarminite.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 96.--JARMINITE.]

This new fruit originated on the farm of Jarmin Ballard, in Highland
County, Ohio, where it was grown from the seed of Gilpin.

The tree is very vigorous, and only too productive.

Fruit medium, regular, oblate, or roundish; Surface smooth, green,
partially covered with mixed and striped dull red.

Basin regular, wide; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity regular, acute; Stem slender, medium to short.

Core regular, closed, clasping; Seeds few, large, dark; flesh
breaking, firm; Mild sub-acid, almost sweet; December until March.


=Jefferies.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 97.--JEFFERIES.]

This delicious autumn apple originated in Chester County,
Pennsylvania, and was first described by the ad-interim committee of
the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society; also in the Farm Journal, for
1853, by David Townsend, of Westchester, Pa.

Tree healthy, sufficiently vigorous, shoots slender, foliage bright
green; productive, early bearer.

Fruit full medium, oblate, regular; Surface smooth, yellow, mixed and
splashed crimson; Dots large, scattered, yellow.

Basin wide, regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity medium, regular, brown; Stem medium to long.

Core small, closed, regular, clasping; Seeds numerous, large, brown;
Flesh yellow, breaking, fine-grained, juicy; flavor sub-acid,
aromatic, delicious; Quality very good, for table and market, during
August, September and October.


=Kentucky King.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 98.--KENTUCKY KING.]

Received from J.S. Downer & Son, Elkton, Kentucky. Further history not
known.

Fruit above medium, flat, regular; Surface smooth, yellow, with mixed
and striped carmine; Dots scattered, minute.

Basin medium, regular; Eye medium, open.

Cavity medium, regular, brown and green; Stem medium to long.

Core medium, round, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous, angular,
pointed, dark; Flesh yellow, breaking, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor
sub-acid, aromatic; Quality good to very good; Use table, kitchen;
Season December, February.


=Klaproth.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 99.--KLAPROTH.]

Another Pennsylvania apple, introduced by my friend Dr. J.K. Eshleman.
Tree vigorous, large, productive.

Fruit medium, regular, oblate; Surface dull yellow, more or less
covered with red stripes; Dots numerous, light.

Basin wide, regular; Eye closed, small; Calyx reflexed.

Cavity deep, regular, brown; Stem short to medium.

Flesh white, breaking, tender, very juicy; Flavor acid, to sub-acid
when ripe; Good; August till October.


=Lewis.=--_Of Ragan._

Originated in Putnam County, Indiana, as one of the many seedlings
produced by my old friend Reuben Ragan.

Tree thrifty and productive.

Fruit medium, regular, oblate; Surface smooth, deep red on yellow;
Dots, numerous, large, yellow.

Basin medium, regular, not deep; Eye small, closed

Cavity wide, regular, brown; Stem short.

Core wide, regular, closed, meeting the eye; seeds numerous, plump;
Flesh yellow, tender, fine-grained, juicy; flavor sub-acid, aromatic;
Quality nearly first-rate for table; Season, October.


=Lacker.=

This old Pennsylvania apple is cultivated to some extent in the
Western States for its beauty. Specimens from Henry Myers, South Bend,
Indiana, from his beautiful collections shown at the State Fairs.

Fruit full medium to large, very handsome, oblate, regular; Surface
smooth, highly polished, bright red on pale yellow, striped dark red;
Dots numerous, pale.

Basin wide, wavy; Eye small, closed; Segments short.

Cavity deep, narrow, wavy; Stem short to medium.

Core small, roundish or oval, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous, plump;
Flesh whitish, breaking, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor mild sub-acid,
aromatic, fine; Quality good; use table, market; Season January to
March.


=McDaniel.=

This is a seedling of Green County, Ohio, to which was awarded a
premium at the State Fair in 1855.

Fruit full medium, regular, oblate; surface very smooth, yellow, well
covered with rich, crimson, indistinct stripes; dots scattered, light
gray.

Basin medium, regular; eye medium, closed.

Cavity narrow, regular; stem short.

Core medium, regular, closed; seeds plump, dark; flesh rich yellow,
solid, juicy; flavor sub-acid, rich, piquant, like a Spitzenberg;
October, November.


=Minkler.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 100.--MINKLER.]

Produced by S.G. Minkler, of Kendall, Illinois.

This variety very closely resembles that described as _Buchanan_,
though their origin is entirely distinct. The Minkler also bears a
very close resemblance to an apple found at Quincy, Illinois, and
known as the _Brandywine_.

Tree very thrifty, spreading, branches strong, forming a large angle
with the stem.

Fruit medium to large, regular, globular-ovate; Surface smooth,
greenish-yellow, covered with mixed red, and stripes of dark dull red;
Dots scattered, minute, yellow.

Basin wide, shallow, regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity acute, rather deep, brown; Stem medium.

Core large, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, long, pointed;
Flesh yellow, or greenish-yellow, fine-grained, breaking, juicy;
Sub-acid; Second quality; Use market and cooking; from March until
May.


=Newtown Spitzenberg.=--[COXE.]

VANDERVERE, OF NEW YORK (Downing)--OX-EYE--JOE BERRY, ETC.

Origin, Newtown, Long Island.

Tree sufficiently vigorous, not of the largest size, spreading,
compact, round head, foliage rather small, curled, showing the whitish
underside. Productive.

Fruit medium to large, regular, globular-oblate, often inclined or
lop-sided when overgrown in young orchards, apt to be scabby and
defective on old trees, and falls badly; Surface smooth, deep red,
mixed and striped, on rich yellow ground, often over-spread with
whitish, giving the fruit a gray appearance; Dots numerous, minute,
fawn color on dark specimens.

Basin medium, regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity regular, medium, brown; Stem short.

Core regular, wide, somewhat open, meeting and sometimes clasping the
eye; Seeds numerous, angular; Flesh rich, yellow, very fine-grained,
very tender, juicy; Flavor rich sub-acid and saccharine, aromatic,
eminently satisfying; Quality best, for table and kitchen, in
December.


=Nickajack.=

SUMMEROUR--JACKSON RED--BIG HILL--CAROLINA, AND MANY OTHERS.[49]

    [Illustration: Fig. 101.--NICKAJACK.]

This southern apple, which has extended more widely northward than
most of its congeners, is believed to be a native of Macon County,
Georgia.

Tree robust, spreading, large, very productive, young shoots stout and
red.

The following description is that of a specimen sent by my friend, R.
Peters, of Atlanta, Georgia, but it corresponds in all important
particulars with those of fruits obtained from a dozen different
sources in our own latitude:

Fruit large, globular-oblate, regular, not handsome; surface even but
not smooth, mostly covered with mixed brick-dust red, striped
indistinctly with dark red, some stripes very distinct; dots
scattered, yellow.

Basin shallow, regular, even; eye small, closed.

Cavity acute, regular, yellow and brown; Stem medium slender.

Core closed; Seeds numerous, large, plump; Flesh greenish-yellow,
breaking, firm, coarse; Flavor sub-acid, not rich; Quality only good,
a market fruit, keeping well; Season March until May.


=Nyack.=

NYACK PIPPIN.

Origin New York; specimen obtained from Mr. E.H. Warren, of
Chelmsford, Massachusetts.

Fruit medium, flat, uneven; Surface smooth, greenish-yellow, mixed,
striped, splashed bright red; Dots numerous, distinct, yellow,
indented.

Basin shallow, folded; Eye small, closed; Axis short.

Cavity wide, deep, wavy, brown; Stem short, thick, knobby.

Core rather wide, closed, rather clasping; Seeds large; Flesh white,
firm, juicy; Flavor acid, rich; Quality pretty good; Use table,
market; Season December.


=Ohio Nonpareil.=

MYER'S NONPAREIL--WESTERN BEAUTY.

    [Illustration: Fig. 102.--OHIO NONPAREIL.]

This fine fruit originated with Mr. Myers, near Massillon, Ohio.

It was described in the Western Horticultural Review for February,
1853.

Tree vigorous, healthy, spreading, limbs straight, stout and compact,
not liable to break with the weight of fruit. The original tree had
borne annual crops of even sized fruit for twenty years.

Fruit large to very large, regular, oblate, very handsome; Surface
smooth, yellow, covered with bright red; Dots scattered, gray.

Basin medium, wide, regular; Eye large, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, regular; Stem short, small.

Core regular, somewhat open; Seeds numerous, medium; Flesh yellowish,
tender, fine-grained, juicy; sub-acid, rich; First quality, for
table, market, cooking or drying; Season September to December.
Compared with some of the best dessert apples of the season, such as
Hawley, Fall Pippin, Fall Wine, Rambo, and others, this variety was
declared to be "better than the best."


=Osceola.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 103.--OSCEOLA.]

Originated in Indiana, brought into notice by that earnest
horticulturist, Henry Ward Beecher, who did much to stimulate the
culture of fine fruits when a resident of that State.

Fruit medium, flattened, sometimes unequal, regular; Surface smooth,
slightly colored red, and striped with the same; Dots scattered,
irregular, more frequent and minute about the apex, few and larger at
base of the fruit.

Basin wide, regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity medium, acute; Stem short.

Core small, round, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous, plump, dark;
Flesh yellowish, firm, rich, juicy; Flavor sub-acid, mild; Quality
good; Use table and market; Season January to March.

This variety does not seem to have won its way into public favor to
the extent that was expected for it some years ago.


=Pennock.=

PENNOCK'S RED WINTER--ROMANITE--BIG ROMANITE.

This fruit, of Pennsylvania origin, is not introduced into this
collection on account of its excellence, but because it is so
universally cultivated in nearly all parts of the country.

Tree vigorous, large, spreading, very productive, bearing some fruit
every year.

Fruit large to very large, form variable, but characteristically it is
conic-oblate, often unequal, and lop-sided; Surface greenish-yellow,
covered with mixed and striped red; Dots large, irregular and round,
gray.

Basin wide, rather deep, uneven or wavy; Eye large, open.

Cavity wide, deep, regular; Stem short.

Core irregular, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, angular,
plump; Flesh yellow, breaking, coarse-grained; Flavor sub-acid, poor;
third quality; for cooking and market only; Season December; very much
disposed to bitter rot.


=Pennsylvania Vandervere.=

VANDERVERE (Coxe and Downing)--LITTLE VANDERVERE--GRAY
VANDERVERE--STAALCUBS, ETC.

This old kitchen favorite, of Pennsylvania, has migrated westward
until it has reached every State and county on its appropriate
parallels of latitude, 39° to 42°.

Mr. Downing gives Delaware as its origin, on the authority of Coxe. In
accordance with common acceptance in the regions where it is best
known, I have adopted the above name, which was given to distinguish
it from several other Vanderveres, and especially from the Newtown
Spitzenberg, to which the name Vandervere had been applied in New
York and westward on that parallel. Coxe describes the fruit in
question under the name _Vandervere_.

Tree vigorous, healthy, large, spreading, very twiggy and drooping,
with abundant fruit on the ends of the spray; Foliage bright
yellowish-green, shining, pointed, the whole aspect of the tree
peculiar and characteristic in summer or winter.

Fruit medium or less, oblate, or globular-oblate, regular; Surface
smooth, but having raised hemispherical warts of a yellow russet
color, yellow, mottled, and striped light red, often a gray appearance
over the whole exterior; Dots large, yellow, indented.

Basin wide, regular, not deep; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, regular; Stem long, slender.

Core regular, closed, meeting and clasping the eye; seeds numerous,
pointed, plump; Flesh yellow, breaking, granular, juicy; Flavor highly
aromatic, acid; Quality for table third, for kitchen first, for cider
Coxe says very good, yielding a heavy must; Season December and
January.

The fruit is subject to bitter rot, and does not keep well, but may be
used for cooking as soon as any other apple, making good sauce in
July, when not half grown.


=Pottinger.=

BIG RED.

    [Illustration: Fig. 104.--POTTINGER.]

This large market fruit is found chiefly in regions settled by
immigrants from the South, and it may prove to be the same as some
other southern apple. Specimens first received from my friend J.B.
Orange, in Southern Illinois, afterwards from several other points.

Tree vigorous, large, branches upright, shoots purple, warty, buds
long, pointed.

Fruit large, regular, oblate; Surface not smooth, dull red, shaded and
striped, covering the yellow ground; Dots small, prominent, with some
roughness.

Basin regular, wide, not deep; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, regular, green and brown; Stem medium to short.

Core closed, or nearly so, meeting and partially clasping the eye;
Axis short; Seeds numerous, plump, angular; Flesh yellow, breaking,
granular, juicy; Flavor sub-acid, aromatic; Quality only good; Useful
for kitchen and drying; Season December and January; keeps well.


=Press Ewing.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 105.--PRESS EWING.]

This Kentucky apple was sent me by J.S. Downer, from whom trees were
also procured which have already borne fruit.

Tree vigorous, healthy, and early productive.

Fruit resembles Smokehouse, medium, roundish-oblate, regular; Surface
smooth, bright red, mixed, striped, and splashed, on greenish yellow;
Dots numerous, brown and yellow.

Basin wide, wavy, regular, rather deep; Eye medium, open; calyx
reflexed.

Cavity wide, wavy, brown; Stem long, slender.

Core medium, closed, meeting the eye; Axis short; Seeds numerous,
angular, pointed; Flesh yellow, fine-grained, tender, melting, juicy;
Flavor rich sub-acid; Quality nearly first rate; Use for table in
December and January.


=Powers.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 106.--POWERS.]

This beautiful table apple was first brought to public notice by Geo.
Powers, of Perrysburgh, Ohio. He exhibited specimens at the Toledo
meeting of the Ohio Pomological Society in January, 1864, but the
fruit was over ripe; at the State Fair at Dayton, Ohio, October 16th,
it was shown in perfection of beauty and excellence, and was then
examined by the Society, who commended it highly, and being satisfied
that it was an original seedling, its local name, _Miller's Apple_,
was then changed to _Powers_, in honor of the pomologist who had
brought it into notice.

The tree appears to have been an accidental seedling, which sprang up
in the town of Perrysburgh, where it grew almost without care until it
fruited a few years ago, and attracted the attention of Mr. Powers.

The fruit is large and fair, round, somewhat flattened, and sometimes
rather conic, generally regular, but large specimens are slightly
angular; the surface is very smooth, a greenish waxen yellow, more or
less shaded with mixed light red, upon which are laid numerous stripes
and broken splashes of rich, dark carmine; Dots minute, scattered,
gray.

Basin abrupt, regular, or folded; Eye small, closed.

Cavity deep, regular, sometimes brown; Stem medium or short.

Core medium or wide, regular, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous,
plump, sometimes imperfect; Flesh white, very tender, juicy; Flavor
mild sub-acid, quite aromatic, very agreeable; Use especially for the
table, as a highly ornamental dessert fruit, for which its extreme
delicacy adapts it, while the same quality unfits it for general
market purposes; Quality very good; in its season of ripening, in its
beautifully white and tender flesh, and in its perfumed flavor, this
fruit resembles the _Fameuse_, from which it may have been produced.


=Prolific Beauty.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 107.--PROLIFIC BEAUTY.]

This showy fruit is one of the original Putnam list of Washington
County, Ohio; it is somewhat singular that so few choice sorts are
traceable to the seeds of these first good orchards of the West. Rome
Beauty is almost the only one of great notoriety that is referable to
this source.

Fruit large, sometimes quite large, oblate, somewhat conic, regular;
Surface smooth, yellowish-green, partially covered with stripes of
red; Dots minute, gray.

Basin medium, wide, regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, wavy, green; Stem medium.

Core large, regular, open, clasping; Seeds numerous, plump; Flesh
whitish-yellow, tender, juicy; Flavor acid; quality scarcely good; Use
kitchen, market; Season September to December.


=Rambo.=

ROMANITE OF NEW JERSEY--BREAD-AND-CHEESE, ETC.

    [Illustration: Fig. 108.--RAMBO.]

This standard Eastern Pennsylvania variety is universally popular, and
through the Western States it marks the progress of emigration from
the Keystone State, though its admirers are not confined to that class
of our population. It is a fall and early winter fruit, and some
pomologists on the southern borders of its culture object to it that
it will not keep long, and that it soon becomes dry and mealy when put
away. When grown further north it is smaller, but more solid, and
remains juicy until spring. It should be gathered early, even before
it is well colored, and kept cool to make it retain its flavor and
juiciness.

Tree upright, very thrifty, very productive; shoots dark, foliage
large, light green, and thus the variety may easily be distinguished
in the orchard. Not very hardy; whole nurseries and orchards were
destroyed, in 1856, throughout the Northwest.

Fruit medium to small, when crowded upon the limbs as they generally
are upon old trees, regular, oblate, or roundish-oblate, but sometimes
unequal when overgrown; large specimens are flattened at the ends so
as to appear truncate; Surface striped and splashed scarlet on
greenish-yellow, in some the stripes coalesce so as to make the skin
red, the ground color being covered; Dots numerous, small, prominent,
rich bloom.

Basin wide, abrupt, regular or plaited, sometimes quite shallow; Eye
small, closed.

Cavity wide, regular, always green; Stem medium.

Core regular, closed, meeting and clasping the eye; seeds numerous,
large, angular; Flesh greenish-white, tender, breaking, granular,
juicy; Flavor sub-acid, aromatic, vinous; Quality almost first rate
for table, excellent for the kitchen; Season October to December, and
if gathered early in the North, until spring.


=Red Astrachan.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 109.--RED ASTRACHAN.]

This Russian fruit has been perfectly adopted by our countrymen, and
has proved itself a great favorite, particularly in the North, by its
hardiness and productiveness, beauty and good qualities.

Tree vigorous, upright, productive, hardy; Shoots reddish brown,
foliage large, rich green.

Fruit medium to large, regular, oblate; Surface smooth, mottled,
marbled and striped crimson on greenish-yellow; Dots minute, heavy
bloom.

Basin medium, regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity shallow, regular; Stem long, yellow.

Core regular, closed; Seeds angular, small, dark; Flesh yellow,
breaking, juicy; Flavor quite acid, not rich; Quality first rate for
market and cooking, poor for table; Season July.


=Richard's Graft.=

RED SPITZENBERG--STRAWBERRY--WINE.

    [Illustration: Fig. 110.--RICHARD'S GRAFT.]

Supposed to have originated in Ulster County, New York. Tree vigorous,
upright, very productive.

Fruit medium to large, regular, oblate; Surface smooth,
greenish-yellow, mixed and splashed red; Dots numerous, white.

Basin medium, abrupt, folded; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, regular; Stem long, red.

Core small, closed, clasping the eye; Seeds numerous, plump; Flesh
yellowish-white, fine-grained, tender, juicy;

Flavor rich, sub acid; Quality best; Use for the dessert; Season
September and October.

Downing says: "One of the best dessert apples of its season."


=Rome Beauty.=

GILLETT'S SEEDLING.

    [Illustration: Fig. 111.--ROME BEAUTY.]

This handsome market fruit was originated in Southern Ohio, by that
sterling pioneer pomologist, H.N. Gillett, to whose contributions I
acknowledge myself under many obligations.

Tree thrifty, hardy, round headed, very productive; shoots slender,
red; Foliage healthy; Blossoms open late, and thus it often escapes a
late frost; early productive.

Fruit large to very large, regular, handsome, fair, said to be scabby
on old trees, regular oblate, roundish-oblate, and sometimes rather
conical; Surface smooth, pale yellow, striped and mixed bright red;
Dots minute, indented.

Basin wide, deep, regular; Eye quite small, closed.

Cavity wide, wavy, green; Stem long, slender.

Core wide, regular, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, long,
pointed; Flesh yellow, breaking, coarse-grained; Flavor sub-acid, not
rich; Quality scarcely good; valuable for market, on account of its
productiveness, size and beauty, as well as for its certain bearing;
Season December to February.


=Shiawassee Beauty.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 112.--SHIAWASSEE BEAUTY.]

This Michigan apple may well be called _Beauty_. It was introduced at
the meeting of the American Pomological Society in 1862, by T.T. Lyon,
of Plymouth, Mich., who stated that it was a seedling of the Fameuse,
the faults of which it does not inherit, though possessing all the
good qualities of its parent, with a healthy and productive tree. (See
Michigan Farmer, Dec. 11, 1859.)

Fruit medium, very handsome, very regular, quite flat; Surface very
smooth, pale yellow, mixed and distinctly striped carmine; Dots
scattered, minute.

Basin wide, folded; Eye medium, closed; Calyx reflexed.

Cavity wide, wavy; Stem short.

Core wide, regular, somewhat open, meeting the eye; seeds plump,
short, dark; Flesh very white, fine-grained, tender, breaking; Flavor
sub-acid, aromatic; Quality good to very good; Use dessert and market;
Season October to January.


=Summer Limbertwig.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 113.--SUMMER LIMBERTWIG.]

Southern; obtained from S. Westbrooke, Greensboro', North Carolina.

Fruit medium, flat, regular; Surface pale yellow, mixed pink, striped
dark red; Dots minute, gray, indented.

Basin shallow, wide, regular; Eye wide, open.

Cavity acute, regular, brown; Stem long, inclined.

Core wide, regular, closed, clasping; Axis short; Seeds numerous,
plump, dark; Flesh white, tender, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor
sub-acid, aromatic, agreeable; Quality very good, if not best; Use
table; Season August, September.


=Townsend.=

Having been disappointed in my trees obtained for this variety, which
proved to be Rawle's Janet, I prefer to quote from Mr. Downing. What I
have fruited and described as the Hocking may prove to be the same.

"Origin Pennsylvania. Tree healthy, vigorous, very productive.

"Fruit medium, oblate, slightly conic. Skin pale yellow, striped and
splashed with red, and covered with a thin bloom. Stalk rather long,
slender, inserted into a medium cavity. Calyx closed, set in a basin
of moderate depth. Flesh white, tender, very mild, agreeable, sub-acid
flavor. Ripe middle of August to middle of September. Hocking of the
West may prove to be the same."


=Trader's Fancy.=

This peculiar looking apple originated in Washington County,
Pennsylvania. Tree vigorous, healthy, spreading, round-headed, very
productive, bears regularly. As a long keeper, with dark skin, that
does not show bruises, it became a favorite with shippers on the Ohio
river, hence its name, the flat-boats that stop from port to port to
dispose of their cargoes being called trading boats, and their masters
traders.

Fruit medium, regular, oblate; Surface very smooth, greenish yellow,
almost completely obscured with deep purple red, mixed and striped,
and covered with a white bloom.

Basin wide, sometimes folded or plaited; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, regular; Stem medium, slender.

Core medium, closed; Seeds plump; Flesh whitish, tender, fine-grained;
Flavor mild sub-acid; Quality only good; Use market and kitchen;
Season January to May.


=Twenty-Ounce Pippin.=

Origin unknown, and the variety never should have been distributed; it
is here named to put people on their guard against it when they desire
to purchase the _Cayuga Red Streak_, also called the _Twenty-ounce
apple_.

Fruit large, flat, regular; Surface greenish, more or less mottled and
striped dull red.

Basin, wide, regular, or wavy; Eye small, open.

Cavity wide, regular, green; Stem short, thick.

Core large, closed; Seeds numerous, angular; Flesh yellow-white,
breaking; Flavor acid, with a peculiar aroma, not agreeable; Quality
poor; Use kitchen only; Season November to January. There are many
better apples of its season.


=Vance's Harvest.=

A pretty little early apple grown in some parts of the West. Origin
unknown.

Fruit small, flat, regular; Surface smooth, rich yellow, shaded and
splashed bright red; Dots small, scattered, yellow.

Basin small, regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, regular, brown; Stem long.

Core wide, regular, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, short, plump,
dark; Flesh yellow, firm, breaking, not very juicy; Flavor acid to
sub-acid; Quality pretty good; Use kitchen and market; Season August.


=Vandervere Pippin.=

LARGE VANDERVERE--WATSON'S VANDERVERE--VANDERVERE (Elliott)--YELLOW
VANDERVERE--and several others in the books.

There appears to have been much confusion in the minds of authors who
have written of this fruit, which, in some parts of the country is
very well known and much cultivated. I have taken the name by which it
is almost universally recognized by cultivators, though it is adopted
only as a synonym by Mr. Elliott, who seems to have confounded this
apple with the _Pennsylvania Vandervere_ or _Staalcubs_ described by
Coxe.

Origin believed to have been Pennsylvania, but this is not well
established.

Tree very vigorous, large, spreading, productive, bearing annually;
Twigs and leaves much like the Pennsylvania Vandervere.

Fruit large to very large, regular, oblate; surface smooth, yellow,
more or less covered with marbled red, and scarlet stripes; Dots
large, yellow, indented, sometimes irregularly net-veined, making it
less smooth.

Basin wide, regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, regular; Stem long, medium size.

Core regular, closed, meeting and clasping the eye; Seeds numerous,
dark; Flesh yellow, firm, breaking, granular, juicy, heavy; Flavor
rich, acid; Quality poor for table, excellent for cooking; Season
December. Does not keep well, rather subject to bitter rot, but a
great favorite with house-keepers, and a useful shade tree near the
kitchen door.


=Vaughan's Winter.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 114.--VAUGHAN'S WINTER.]

This Kentucky variety was sent to me by my friend J.S. Downer, of
Fairview, Kentucky, with several other new southern apples of merit.
Tree vigorous, hardy and productive, bearing fruit early.

Fruit medium, regular, round-oblate; Surface smooth, greenish-yellow,
mixed and splashed with bright red and splashes of carmine; Dots
small, gray and yellow.

Basin regular, abrupt, medium, and leather-cracked; Eye large, open;
Segments reflexed.

Cavity medium, yellow and brown; Stem short.

Core small, regular, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds few, large, brown;
Flesh yellow, breaking, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor sub-acid, good;
December.


=Western Beauty.=

MUSGROVE'S COOPER--BIG RAMBO--OHIO BEAUTY.

    [Illustration: Fig. 115.--WESTERN BEAUTY.]

A valuable fall and early winter fruit, the origin of which is not
known; it is considerably grown in Central Ohio, and has attracted
attention under its synonyms as given. It was at one time thought to
be the Cooper.

Mr. W.F. English, of Auglaize County, Ohio, carried grafts into that
region from Pickaway County, and in a most disinterested manner
exerted himself to distribute the variety. In a communication to the
_Western Horticultural Review_, for February, 1853, he says: "The tree
is vigorous, leaves upon young shoots are often three to three and a
half inches broad, and four or five, and even six inches long; shoots
stout, being often as large as your little finger at the end of the
summer's growth. The form of the tree is peculiar, and its appearance
beautiful; once seen, it may be recognized anywhere by its habit."

Having fruited this variety in my own orchard, I can confirm the
above, and add:

Tree vigorous, large, spreading, open head, productive, an early
bearer.

Fruit large, sometimes very large, beautiful, regular, oblate, not
disposed to rot, except when attacked by the birds, which are very
fond of it; Surface smooth, pale yellow, partially covered with mixed
red, striped and often distinctly splashed with bright red; Dots
numerous, gray, prominent; Skin quite thin.

Basin wide, regular, sometimes cracked open; Eye large, closed.

Cavity wide, regular, green, and partly brown; Stem either short or
long.

Core large, nearly closed, clasping the eye; Seeds numerous, medium,
pointed; Flesh light yellow, almost white, brittle, tender, juicy,
almost melting, never water-cored; Flavor sub-acid, vinous, delicious,
satisfying; Quality best; either for table or cooking, for the latter
purpose they may be taken when half grown in the beginning of July. In
August they may be house-ripened and found good, but the proper season
is September to Christmas; if properly cared for they may be preserved
plump until March, but lose some of their refreshing flavor.


=Wilson.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 116.--WILSON.]

This very nice little apple was sent to me with this name from Western
Virginia, by Julius Brace, who found it abundant on Paint Creek. I
have not yet been able to identify it, but it may prove to be the same
as some of our new southern varieties. An outline and description are
here given with its local name, in the hope that if it should prove to
be the same as the _Black Annette_, of the Clinch river region of
Virginia, or some other variety, the identity may be the more readily
traced.

Fruit small, regular, oblate, or globular-oblate; Surface smooth,
nearly covered with very deep red, in which the stripes are almost
obscured; Dots numerous, minute, white.

Basin, deep, regular, plaited or folded; Eye small, closed.

Cavity regular, acute; Stem long, red.

Core regular, closed, meeting, not clasping the eye; Seeds small,
plump; Flesh white, fine-grained, crisp, tender, juicy; Flavor mild
sub-acid, agreeable; Quality best; Use table; Season January.

This is different from Wilson's of Michigan, which is yellow.


=Wine.=--[_Coxe._]

HAYS' WINTER--PENNSYLVANIA RED STREAK.

This handsome large apple is another index of the source of population
in a western county. It is a favorite fruit with those who know it,
either for market or the kitchen, for which its size and form render
it peculiarly attractive.

Tree very large and handsome, spreading and very open head; leaves
small, curled, and mealy, making the foliage appear rather meagre, and
displaying the splendid fruit, which is evenly distributed.

Fruit large, globular-oblate, flattened or truncate, regular,
occasionally unequal and lop-sided; Surface smooth, yellow, more or
less covered with mixed and broken stripes of red, splashed with
crimson; Dots scattered, large, gray.

Basin rather shallow, wide, abrupt; Eye small, closed, or open from
breaking of the calyx.

Cavity acute, regular, brown; Stem short, thick.

Core medium, regular, closed; Seeds numerous, large, angular; Flesh
yellow, firm, breaking, juicy; Flavor acid to sub-acid, rich; Quality
good, for market and kitchen; Season, November and December.


=Winter Queen.=--[_Coxe._]

FALL QUEEN--KENTUCKY QUEEN--ROBERTSON'S SUPERB (of Ga.)

    [Illustration: Fig. 117.--WINTER QUEEN.]

This is a favorite, of southern origin, and has many synonyms. An
excellent apple for drying, for family use and for market. Tree
thrifty, upright, productive, early bearer; limbs long and parallel
while young; shoots dark, stout; foliage large, broad, rather pale.

Fruit large, often very large, globular-oblate, somewhat conic,
regular; Surface smooth, often polished, yellow, almost wholly
obscured with marbled dull red, and darker stripes that are often lost
in the depth of tint; Dots generally small, indented; often a slight
bloom covers the fruit, but it is easily removed, when the skin
appears to be polished.

Basin deep, abrupt, narrow, often wavy or even ribbed; Eye medium,
closed.

Cavity deep, wide, green, wavy or regular; Stem medium.

Core regular, closed, meeting, not clasping the eye axis is sometimes
very short; Seeds large, plump; Flesh greenish-white, tender, almost
melting, juicy; Flavor mild sub-acid, agreeable; Quality good to very
good; Use dessert, kitchen and drying; Season October to January.


=Yost.=

Having been disappointed in receiving this apple, I give Dr. W.D.
Brinckle's ad interim report:

Fruit rather large, roundish-oblate, beautifully striped, and
delicately mottled with crimson on yellow ground; Stem short; Cavity
wide, deep; Flesh yellow, tender, juicy; Flavor pleasant; Quality very
good.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS I.--FLAT APPLES.

+ORDER I.--REGULAR.+

SECTION 2.--SOUR.

SUB-SECTION 3.--RUSSET.


=Perry Russet.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 118.--PERRY RUSSET.]

This variety is grown to some extent in the North-west. The specimen
from which the description is made, was exhibited by Mr. Utters, at a
meeting of the North-western Fruit Growers, in 1850.

Fruit medium to large, oblate, regular; Surface smooth, yellow,
covered with fine russet; Dots minute, scattered.

Basin medium, regular, wavy; Eye large, closed.

Cavity medium, regular or wavy, brown; Stem medium size and length.

Core small, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds few, plump, brown; Flesh
yellow, fine grained, juicy; Flavor acid, rich; Quality almost best,
for table or kitchen; Season, December and January.


=Pomme Grise.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 119.--POMME GRISE.]

Supposed to be of French or Canadian origin. Tree sufficiently
vigorous, productive; shoots slender.

Fruit small, roundish-oblate, regular; Surface even but hardly smooth,
yellow, overspread with fine russet, rarely blushed.

Basin wide, regular, sometimes abrupt; Eye very small, closed.

Cavity wide, regular; Stem short or medium.

Core full heart-shaped, regular, closed, scarcely meeting the eye;
Seeds plump, angular; Flesh firm, yellow, breaking, fine grained,
juicy; Flavor sub-acid, rich, aromatic, delicious; Quality _best_, for
dessert; Season, January to March; One of the very best of the
Russets.


=Willis Russet.=

This apple was brought from Massachusetts, by my friend and neighbor
B.F. Sanford, without any history of its origin. The quality of the
fruit has induced me to give its description.

Fruit medium to small, roundish-oblate; Surface rough, yellow, shaded
with light red, covered with russet.

Basin shallow, folded; Eye long, closed.

Cavity wide, wavy; Stem long.

Core large, wide, open, clasping; Seeds numerous, plump; Flesh yellow,
breaking, fine grained, juicy; Flavor acid or sub-acid, aromatic;
Quality almost first rate, for the table; Season, December and
January.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS I.--FLAT APPLES.

+ORDER II.--REGULAR IN FORM.+

SECTION 1.--SWEET.

SUB-SECTION 1.--SELF-COLORED.


=Autumnal Sweet Swaar.=

SWEET SWAAR.

    [Illustration: Fig. 120.--AUTUMNAL SWEET SWAAR.]

The fruit is highly commended by J.J. Thomas, who thinks it "one of
the finest autumnal sweet apples."

Tree vigorous, spreading, productive.

Fruit large, roundish-oblate, somewhat angular; Surface smooth, waxen
yellow, sometimes blushed; Dots rare, minute.

Basin wide, shallow, plaited or folded; Eye medium, long, closed.

Cavity acute, deep, wavy, green; Stem long, inclined, yellow and red.

Core regular, globular, somewhat open, clasping; Seeds numerous,
plump, pale; Flesh white, fine grained, juicy; Flavor very sweet;
Quality best, for baking and market; Season, September and October.


=Challenge.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 121.--CHALLENGE.]

This is another of the apples introduced by Mr. Elliott, from the
orchard of D.C. Richmond, near Sandusky, O.

Tree productive, hardy.

Fruit medium, globular-oblate; Surface smooth, pale yellow; Dots
black, minute, scattered, and russet spots, becoming a rich vermillion
where exposed.

Basin shallow, wide, plaited; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, regular, brown; Stem long, slender.

Core small, oval, regular, sometimes open, not meeting the eye; Seeds
large, dark; Flesh yellow, tender, fine grained, juicy; Flavor sweet;
Quality almost first rate, for table; Season, October.


=Delight.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 122.--DELIGHT.]

This variety is grown in the southwestern part of Ohio; origin
unknown.

Fruit medium to large, round-oblate, irregular; Surface smooth,
yellow, bronzed; Dots minute.

Basin narrow, folded uneven; Eye medium, closed; Segments short.

Cavity wide, regular, brown; Stem short, thick.

Core small, oval, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, plump,
dark; Flesh yellow, tender, juicy; Flavor sweet; Quality pretty good;
Use, market and baking; Season, January to June.


=Maverack Sweet.=

Origin South Carolina.

"Fruit large, roundish-oblate, angular; Skin yellow, mostly shaded
with crimson, sprinkled with gray or greenish dots; Stalk short,
inserted into a large cavity surrounded by russet; Calyx open, set in
a deep, irregular basin; Flesh rich, pleasant, vinous, almost
saccharine."--[Downing.]


=Spice Sweeting.=

The specimens described were from Mr. Warren, of Massachusetts.
Others, found in Ohio and Illinois under this name, have a deep,
abrupt basin, large or long eye, and yellow flesh; they must be
different fruits.

An old variety; Tree vigorous, productive.

Fruit full medium to large, handsome, flat, irregular; Surface smooth,
yellow, bronzy, crimson; Dots numerous, green.

Basin shallow, folded; Eye small, closed.

Cavity acute, wavy; Stem thick, knobby.

Core very wide, open, meeting the eye; Seeds pointed, long, dark;
Flesh very white, tender, fine grained, juicy; Flavor sweet; Quality
good; Use, kitchen, baking, stock; Season, September, October.


=Sweet and Sour.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 123.--SWEET AND SOUR.]

This variety is interesting as a curiosity, rather than valuable for
its good qualities. It has been suggested that it might be a sport; no
educated nurseryman will now believe the old story of its having been
produced by the combination of the buds of two varieties, a sweet and
a sour.

Fruit large, oblate, often unequal and lop-sided, ribbed, and deeply
furrowed.

Surface yellow and green, the ribs being developed and ripening have
flavor, but the furrows not being developed are flavorless and called
sweet.


=Sweet Sponge.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 124.--SWEET SPONGE.]

From H.N. Gillett; Origin unknown.

Fruit medium, oblate, irregular; Surface smooth, yellowish white; Dots
minute.

Basin none or extremely shallow, folded; Eye long, closed.

Cavity wide, irregular; Stem short, thick.

Core wide, closed, scarce meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, plump,
brown; Flesh white, tender; Flavor sweet; Season, July.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS I.--FLAT APPLES.

+ORDER II.--IRREGULAR.+

SECTION 1.--SWEET.

SUB-SECTION 2.--STRIPED.


=Angle Sweet.=

Fruit medium, round-oblate, irregular; Surface smooth, yellow, covered
with stripes and splashes of red, some darker; Dots white.

"Flesh yellow, tender, sweet, and good, fair and handsome; Season,
first of September."--[Downing.


=Peach Pond Sweet.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 125.--PEACH POND SWEET.]

Origin Dutchess County, New York.

Fruit small to medium, round-oblate, pentangular, slightly conical;
Surface smooth, pale yellow, lightly covered with mixed and striped
red, and beautifully splashed crimson.

Basin narrow, regular or folded; Eye small, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, regular, brown; Stem medium to long, green,
sometimes knobby.

Core regular, heart-shaped, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds small,
short; Flesh yellow, tender, fine grained, juicy; Flavor very sweet;
Quality almost first rate, very good; for table or baking; Season
September.


=Phillips' Sweet.=

Origin believed to be Ohio; Downing says, Chotocton County, Ohio.

Tree vigorous, healthy, growth upright, very productive. Elliott
thinks it may prove to be the same with Richmond.

Fruit roundish, flattened, slightly conical, obscurely angular or
flattened on the sides; Surface smooth, yellow, more or less covered
with red, striped crimson; Dots numerous.

Basin abrupt, regular, closed; Eye closed, segments of calyx long.

Cavity large; Stem medium length, rather slender.

Flesh yellow, tender, crisp, juicy; Flavor sweet, spicy, rich; Season,
November to March.


=Wing Sweet.=

Tree very productive.

Fruit medium, oblate, angular; Surface very smooth, yellow, mostly
covered with red, indistinctly striped darker red.

Basin wide, deep, regular or folded; Eye small, closed.

Cavity acute; Stem long.

Core small, regular, closed, scarcely touching the eye; Seeds ovate;
Flesh yellow, tender, dry; Flavor sweet and rich; Quality good;
baking; early winter.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS I--FLAT APPLES.

+ORDER II.--IRREGULAR.+

SECTION 2.--ACID.

SUB-SECTION 1.--SELF-COLORED.


=Blockley.=

BLOCKLEY PIPPIN, O. POM. SOC.

Originated near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Tree moderately vigorous,
upright, productive.

Fruit large, round-oblate, flattened at the ends, five-sided, angular;
Surface smooth, greenish-yellow, blushed; Dots numerous, small,
distinct, dark.

Basin wide, rather deep, wavy or folded; Eye small, closed, or partly
open.

Cavity acute, narrow, uneven, brown; Stem quite short, rather thick.

Core medium, heart-shaped; Seeds numerous, angular and imperfect,
dark; Flesh yellow, compact, almost melting, fine grained, juicy;
Flavor rich sub-acid, sprightly; Quality almost best, for table;
Season, November to January.


=Bracken.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 126.--BRACKEN.]

This variety has caused much discussion among the Western Pomologists,
on account of its resemblance to the Early Harvest. The late Dr.
Barker, one of the most intelligent fruit-growers of the country, said
it was introduced as a seedling from Kentucky in 1812. Elliott does
not mention it in his work, but in the discussions of the Society he
is reported as having declared it the same as Early Harvest, with
which it agrees in peculiar growth of twigs. H.N. Gillett, and others,
familiar with the fruits of southern Ohio, consider it a distinct
seedling of Kentucky. The specimen described was from that gentleman.

Fruit medium, oblate, somewhat conical, irregular and angular; Surface
smooth, pale yellow; Dots scattered, dark.

Basin abrupt, medium, folded; Eye small, closed. Cavity wide, deep,
irregular, brown; Stem large, knobby.

Core irregular, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds angular, imperfect;
Flesh white, very tender, fine grained; Flavor mild sub-acid; Quality
good; Use, table and kitchen; Season, June, July; earlier than Early
Harvest.


=Canada Reinette.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 127.--CANADA REINETTE.]

This fine fruit does not appear to be well known to our orchardists,
and some of our writers have given the White Pippin among its numerous
synonyms, and have suggested that they might be the same, which is not
so; they are very distinct. I have omitted the synonyms, as they can
be of little interest to our planters; they are not used in this
country. The origin of this variety is uncertain, probably European.
Downing says that Merlet, a French writer, described the fruit in the
17th century.

Tree vigorous, robust, tall spreading, productive.

The following outline and description of a specimen presented by Irvin
Jessup, of Laporte, Indiana, was kindly made for me by my lamented
friend, Geo. M. Beeler, a short time before his death.

Fruit large, oblate, angular; Surface not smooth, yellow, blushed and
spotted red; Dots numerous, small, gray.

Basin abrupt, deep, angular; Eye small, nearly closed.

Cavity medium, acute; Stem medium, inclined.

Core wide, regular, closed, clasping; Seeds plump, angular, dark;
Flesh breaking, fine grained, very juicy; Flavor acid to sub-acid,
aromatic, rich; Quality very good; Use, table and cooking; Season,
December to February, in northern Indiana.


=Culp.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 128.--CULP.]

Origin Jefferson County, Ohio; exhibited at the meetings of the Ohio
Pomological Society as early as 1855, by S.B. Marshall, of Massillon,
whose friend, S. Wood, had cultivated it several years; my specimens
and trees are from the Massillon nursery.

Tree vigorous, thrifty, symmetrical, spreading, very productive, not
an early bearer.

Fruit fair, sound, large, somewhat angular, oblate, inclined to conic,
hangs well on the tree; Surface smooth, green with bronze blush; Dots
minute, with green bases.

Basin narrow, rather abrupt, regular; Eye rather large, closed.

Cavity rather deep, regular, brown; Stem long or short.

Core long heart-shaped, regular, nearly closed, clasping; seeds
numerous, very large, dark brown; Flesh yellowish, compact, crisp,
juicy; Flavor mild sub-acid, slightly perfumed; Quality good;
excellent for cooking, "compared to Rhode Island Greening;" Season,
December until April.


=Fall Harvey.=

Origin Essex County, Massachusetts. Specimen from Zanesville, Ohio.

Fruit large, oblate, irregular; Surface smooth, yellow or pale yellow;
Dots minute, gray, distinct.

Basin wide, regular, leather-cracked; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity wide, wavy, green; Stem long to medium.

Core wide or globular, regular, closed, not meeting the eye; Seeds
medium, pointed and defective; Flesh yellow, breaking; Flavor rich,
acid; Quality only good, but valuable for the kitchen; Season,
October.


=Garretson's Early.=

Origin supposed to be New Jersey. Tree vigorous; an early and abundant
bearer.

Fruit medium, globular-oblate, somewhat angular; Surface smooth, pale
yellow; Dots whitish.

Basin small, abrupt, furrowed; Eye small, closed.

Cavity shallow; Stem short, inclined.

Flesh white, breaking, tender, juicy; Flavor pleasant sub-acid;
Quality good; Use, table; Season, July and August.


=Harris.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 129.--HARRIS.]

This variety was received from North Carolina, and fruited for the
first time in the North during 1866. It was first described and
figured, among other new apples, in the Horticultural Annual for 1867.
In the South it is considered a summer and fall variety, being in
season from August, and continuing for a long time. For specimens, I
am indebted to Doctor E. Taylor, of Cleveland, Ohio.

Fruit medium to large, oblate, angular; Surface smooth, yellow,
faintly blushed; Dots scattered, minute, with rosy spots.

Basin deep, abrupt, folded; Eye medium, rather open.

Cavity deep, wavy, clear yellow; Stem medium to long.

Core small, open, meeting the eye; Axis very short; Seeds numerous,
angular; Flesh light yellow, breaking, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor
acid to sub-acid, spicy, agreeable; Use table and kitchen; Season
October; Quality good to very good.


=Loudon Pippin.=

LADY WASHINGTON?

    [Illustration: Fig. 130.--LOUDON PIPPIN.]

Origin Loudon County, Virginia. Exhibited before the Ohio Pomological
Society, by Joseph Sigler, of McConnellsville, Ohio.

Fruit large, oblate, conic, angular; Surface beautiful, very smooth,
waxy yellow, handsomely blushed, and bright red spots; Dots
scattering, gray.

Basin wide, regular or folded; Eye large, closed.

Cavity wide, not deep, regular, brown; Stem medium, red.

Core heart-shaped, regular, closed, clasping the eye; Seeds numerous,
medium; Flesh yellowish, compact, tender, breaking; Flavor rich
sub-acid, aromatic; Quality very good; Dessert; Season, December to
February. A fine fruit from Washington County, shown at the same time
as the _Lady Washington_; was thought to be the same.


=Ohio Pippin.=

ERNST'S APPLE.--BUCHANAN, ETC.--SHANNON.

    [Illustration: Fig. 131.--OHIO PIPPIN.]

We owe our acquaintance with this fine large fruit to the late Mr.
A.H. Ernst, long President of the Ohio Pomological Society, who
furnished trees to Mr. Robert Buchanan, an enthusiastic Pomologist of
Cincinnati. Both these gentlemen were too modest to permit their names
to be attached to a fruit which they did not originate, but which they
have aided to distribute. Another focus of distribution was the
orchard and nursery of R.W. Todd, at Madison, Indiana, and the fruit
has been received under the name of Shannon, from Doctor J.A. Dibrell,
of Van Buren, Arkansas. Origin Dayton, Ohio, from whence it was
procured personally by Mr. Todd, many years ago, and the grafts set by
him are the oldest trees known.

Tree healthy, vigorous, large, spreading; Shoots stout, dark; Leaves
large.

Fruit large, often very large, oblate, somewhat conic, irregular;
Surface smooth, greenish-yellow, sometimes blushed faintly near the
base; Dots small gray.

Basin wide, deep, folded; Eye large or very large, open; Segments
short.

Cavity wide, wavy or regular, brown; Stem short, stout.

Core medium to large, regular, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds
numerous, medium, plump, sometimes imperfect; Flesh yellowish,
breaking, tender, juicy; Flavor acid to sub-acid; Quality good; Market
and kitchen, too large for dessert; Season, December, January.


=Western Spy.=

Origin Jefferson County, Ohio. Tree healthy but medium growth, very
productive; exhibited by Joel Wood.

Fruit large, roundish-oblate, uneven; Surface smooth, yellow, blushed;
Dots numerous, minute, with white bases.

Basin abrupt, uneven; Eye large, closed.

Cavity medium, wavy; Stem short.

Core wide, closed, not meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, large, plump;
Flesh yellow, breaking; Flavor acid; quality pretty good; Use,
kitchen, table; Season, December, January.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS I.--FLAT APPLES.

+ORDER II.--IRREGULAR.+

SECTION 2.--ACID.

SUB-SECTION 2.--STRIPED.


=Berry.=

Not having enjoyed an opportunity of examining this fruit, I quote
from my friend Chas. Downing.

"Origin Virginia or North Carolina. Tree vigorous, upright, very
productive, and a valuable market fruit.

"Fruit rather above medium, obliquely depressed; Skin striped and
splashed with red, on greenish-yellow ground, with large dots, having
a dark center; Stem short, in a generally broad, deep cavity; Calyx
open; Basin shallow, and uneven; Flesh rather coarse, juicy, with a
pleasant sub-acid flavor; November to March."


=Buff.=

For description of this fruit I take Downing's quotation from _White's
Gardener_:

"Origin uncertain; Tree vigorous, erect; Fruit very large, irregular,
roundish flattened and slightly irregular; Skin thick, yellow,
striped, and shaded with red, very dark next the sun, marked with a
few greenish russet spots; Stem three-fourths of an inch long, in a
medium cavity; Calyx in a large, irregular basin; Flesh white, and
when fully ripened, tender and excellent, sometimes indifferent;
November to March."


=Dana.=

From Gabriel Sleath, near Cincinnati, Ohio. The origin of this
pleasant dessert apple is not known. Tree large, productive.

Fruit small, flat, somewhat angular; Surface smooth, rich yellow
partially covered mixed red, distinctly striped carmine; Dots pale
fawn or yellow; heavy white bloom.

Basin shallow, leather-cracked; Eye small, long, closed.

Cavity medium, regular; Stem quite long, slender.

Core wide, regular, open, clasping; Seeds numerous, short, plump,
brown; Flesh yellow, very fine grained, very juicy; Flavor sub-acid,
sprightly, agreeable; Quality good to very good; Use, dessert; Season,
August.


=Gravenstein.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 132.--GRAVENSTEIN.]

This fine European apple is said to have originated at Gravenstein,
Holstein. It has long been in this country, where it succeeds very
well.

Tree vigorous, spreading, productive; Shoots vigorous; Leaves long,
rolled, showing the white underside.

Fruit large, globular-oblate, angular; Surface smooth, yellow,
partially covered with mixed and splashed scarlet; Dots rare.

Basin medium, regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity deep, regular; Stem short.

Core regular, globular, or pointed toward the eye, closed, clasping;
Seeds small, pointed; Flesh yellow, fine grained, breaking, juicy;
Flavor sub-acid, aromatic; Quality best; table and kitchen; Season,
August, September.


=Keiser.=

Origin Jefferson County, Ohio; not widely distributed. Tree thrifty,
upright. The following description was made from fruit obtained of my
friend T.S. Humrickhouse, of Coshocton.

Fruit full medium to large, oblate, uneven; Surface smooth,
greenish-yellow, mixed and striped red; Dots scattered, minute.

Basin wide, deep, folded; Eye small, closed.

Cavity acute, deep; Stem quite short.

Core very small, regular, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous, short,
plump; Flesh yellow, tender, fine grained, juicy; Quality good to
best; for table and kitchen; Season, December to January.


=Mangum.=

A first rate southern fruit. Tree thrifty, and very productive.

Fruit medium, oblate, slightly conic, angular; skin yellowish, striped
and mostly shaded with red, thickly sprinkled with whitish and bronze
dots; Stem short and small, inserted in a broad cavity surrounded by
russet; Calyx partially closed; Basin slightly corrugated; Flesh
yellow, very tender, juicy, mild sub acid, excellent, highly prized in
Georgia and the South; October and November. Carter of Alabama may
prove the same.--[C. Downing.]


=Melon.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 133.--MELON.]

Origin East Bloomfield, New York. Tree sufficiently vigorous,
spreading, round-headed.

Fruit large, oblate, somewhat conical, angular; Surface smooth, waxen
yellow, nearly covered with marbled and mixed scarlet, striped
distinctly with darker shade; Dots minute.

Basin, wide, medium depth; Eye medium, open.

Cavity deep, acute, wavy, green and brown; Stem medium.

Core regular, heart-shaped, wide, partially open, clasping; Seeds
numerous, medium, angular; Flesh yellow, tender, fine grained, juicy;
Flavor acid, sub-acid, aromatic, rich; Quality almost best; Use,
table, market and kitchen; Season, November to January.


=Muster.=

This very nice apple was introduced to my attention by my very good
friend Calvin Fletcher, Jr., of Indianapolis, in which neighborhood it
grows. Its origin and history are unknown, nor do any satisfactory
responses come to the oft-repeated question--What is this delicious
apple?

Fruit large, oblate, angular; Surface yellow, mostly covered with
mixed red and splashes of crimson; Dots scattering, large, yellow and
gray.

Basin moderately deep, folded; Eye medium, open.

Cavity medium, regular, brown; Stem medium to short.

Core small, closed; Seeds plump, dark; Flesh yellow, fine-grained,
tender, juicy; Flavor sub-acid, aromatic; Quality best for dessert;
Season, August and September.


=Pennsylvania Winesap.=--[Local Name.]

Origin unknown; Grown in Wayne County, Indiana.

Fruit large, conical-oblate, truncated, angular.

Surface smooth, yellow, blushed, very little splashed; Dots scattered,
minute.

Basin medium, folded, wavy; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity medium, wavy; Stem medium or short, stout, fleshy.

Core regular, closed; Seeds few, plump; Flesh yellowish-white, tender,
fine-grained, juicy; Flavor sub-acid; Quality good; Use, table;
Season, December, January.


=Wagener.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 134.--WAGENER.]

This beautiful and useful apple originated at Penn Yan, Yates County,
New York; was described and figured in the Transactions of the State
Agricultural Society.

Tree thrifty, upright, productive, and very early bearer.

Fruit large, oblate or globular-oblate, pentangular; Surface very
smooth, yellow, well covered with mixed bright red, stripes not
distinct; Dots scattered, yellow.

Basin wide, abrupt, regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity regular, brown; Stem medium, green.

Core regular, wide, heart-shaped, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds
numerous, large, angular; Flesh yellowish-white, tender, fine-grained,
juicy; Flavor mild sub-acid; Quality good; Uses, market, table and
kitchen; Season, November and December.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS I.--FLAT APPLES.

+ORDER II.--IRREGULAR.+

SECTION 2.--ACID.

SUB-SECTION 3.--RUSSET.


=Cranberry Russet.=

This apple was introduced to the notice of the Ohio Pomological
Society by its Vice-President, J. Austin Scott, of Toledo, Ohio.

Fruit medium to large, oblate, flattened at the sides, irregular;
Surface rough, russeted, blushed carmine, uneven; Dots numerous,
large, gray, prominent.

Basin shallow, uneven; Eye small, partially open.

Cavity deep, acute, green; Stem long, slender, knobby.

Core wide, regular, closed; Seeds long, angular, brown; Flesh
breaking, tender, not very juicy; Flavor quite acid; Quality second
rate, but said to be superior for cooking; Season, November and
December.


=Roxbury Russet.=

BOSTON RUSSET.--PUTNAM RUSSET.

    [Illustration: Fig. 135.--ROXBURY RUSSET.]

This standard apple is perhaps as widely known and as much admired as
any other in the catalogue. It was brought to the West by different
routes--by the Ohio River and by the lakes--and has been universally
distributed. Those brought to the mouth of the Muskingum River, and
propagated by Mr. Putnam, had the name changed to that of the Marietta
and the Putnam Russet; and at the same time the appearance of the
fruit was so altered by increase in the russeting, that it was long
thought to be a different variety, until the question was at length
settled by interchange of grafts; and when these fruited the identity
was proved.

It is claimed that more money has been realized from this than from
any other variety, though, on the Ohio River, the Rome Beauty is
considered to be equally profitable. The popularity of this Russet is
on the wane, however, as it is very subject to attacks of the
Codling-moth, which makes it fall, and because it is apt to ripen too
early in the season in southern locations and on limestone soils.
Hence its value as a keeping apple is diminished.

Tree robust, vigorous, spreading; Shoots stout, straggling, dark;
Foliage gray-green.

Fruit large, oblate, often lop-sided at the West, frequently angular,
sometimes conic and truncated; Surface overspread with heavy brown
russet in the South, but green, often bronzed, and with partial light
russet at the north of latitude 41°; Dots minute, scattered.

Basin regular or wavy, green, often folded; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity regular, pointed; Stem medium, curved.

Core regular, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous, angular, imperfect;
Flesh greenish-yellow, breaking, granular, often coarse, juicy; Flavor
decidedly acid; Quality second rate; Use, market and cooking; Season,
November to January; a better keeper in the North.


=Whitney Russet.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 136.--WHITNEY RUSSET.]

Of uncertain or accidental origin in the extensive nurseries and
orchards of my friend A.R. Whitney, of Franklin Grove, Lee County,
Illinois, where my specimens and trees were procured.

Fruit medium or small, roundish-oblate, truncated, angular; Surface
smooth, yellow, rather thinly russeted; Dots minute, prominent.

Basin abrupt, regular, green; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity acute, deep, wavy; Stem medium to long, slender.

Core medium, regular, heart-shaped, rarely open, meeting the eye;
Seeds very numerous, medium, plump; Flesh greenish-yellow, breaking,
very fine-grained, juicy; Flavor sub-acid, aromatic, rich, spicy;
Quality best; especially a dessert apple; Season, December to
February.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS II.--CONICAL APPLES.

+ORDER I.--REGULAR.+

SECTION 1.--SWEET.

SUB-SECTION 1.--SELF-COLORED.


=Large Bough.=

LARGE YELLOW BOUGH, ETC.

    [Illustration: Fig. 137.--LARGE BOUGH.]

A native fruit, much admired as an early sweet apple. Tree vigorous,
compact head, rather productive.

Fruit round-conic, regular, very light; Surface smooth, white or pale
yellow; Dots minute, dark, indented, few.

Basin rather shallow, regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity acute, regular, deep, sometimes brown; Stem medium.

Core regular, nearly closed, clasping; Seeds medium, dark; Flesh
white, very soft, light, juicy; Flavor very sweet when ripe, somewhat
bitter when green; Quality only good--by some called best; Use,
market, stock and dessert--tasteless when cooked; Season, July and
August.


=Fallawater.=

TULPEHOCKEN, ETC.

    [Illustration: Fig. 138.--FALLAWATER.]

A native of Pennsylvania, where it is a great favorite; extensively
cultivated through the West.

This is essentially a market apple, having little to recommend it but
its size, appearance and productiveness.

Tree very vigorous, spreading, productive, not long-lived; Shoots very
stout, dark; Leaves large.

Fruit large, round or oblate-conic, regular; Surface sometimes smooth,
greenish-yellow, often blushed crimson--large specimens covered with
whitish veined marks; Dots numerous, gray, large, and having whitish
bases.

Basin rather deep, regular; Eye large, open.

Cavity deep, regular, brown; Stem short, stout.

Core medium, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, angular; Flesh
whitish, often greenish-white, light, tender, juicy; Flavor very mild
sub-acid, or sweet, with little character; Quality scarcely good; Use,
market and stock; Season, November, December, and may be kept longer
if desired.


=Michael Henry.=

MICHAEL HENRY PIPPIN.--[_Coxe._]

    [Illustration: Fig. 139.--MICHAEL HENRY.]

Origin Monmouth County, New Jersey. Extensively cultivated in the
Western States, where it has many admirers.

Tree vigorous, not large, spreading, very productive, early bearer;
Shoots dark, foliage medium and healthy.

Fruit fair, medium to large, conic, regular; Surface smooth, dull
green, whitish stripes, pale yellow when ripe, rarely a faint blush;
Dots scattered, prominent.

Basin abrupt, or shallow, regular; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, brown; Stem short to medium.

Core regular, heart-shaped, clasping, closed; Seeds numerous, plump,
black; Flesh pale yellow, breaking, tender, light, juicy; Flavor
sweet, slightly aromatic, little character; Quality good; Use, market,
kitchen; Season, December and January; keeps well.


=Premium of 1858.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 140.--PREMIUM OF 1858.]

Found in a seedling orchard near Springfield, Ohio, and awarded the
premium in 1858.

Fruit medium, roundish-conic, regular; Surface smooth, pale yellow;
Dots numerous, minute, white.

Basin shallow, regular, folded; Eye large, closed or open.

Cavity wide, shallow, regular; Stem long, slender.

Core rather large, regular, open, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous,
angular; Flesh yellow, line grained, tender; Flavor very sweet, rich;
Quality very good; Use, baking and stock; Season, October to December.


=Shockley.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 141.--SHOCKLEY.]

Origin Jackson County, Georgia. This long-keeper from the South
promises to be an acquisition of value for market orchards, unless its
small size may make an objection.

Tree vigorous, very productive.

Fruit medium to small, conic, truncated, regular; Surface very smooth,
waxen yellow, marbled or blushed scarlet and crimson; Dots scattered,
minute, gray.

Basin shallow, plaited; Eye small, closed.

Cavity acute, deep, regular; Stem slender, long. Core long
heart-shaped, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, plump, dark;
Flesh yellow, fine grained; Flavor mildly sub-acid, rich, saccharine,
agreeable; Quality very good; Use, dessert; Season, March to June; a
good keeper.


=Sweet Pear.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 142.--SWEET PEAR.]

The origin of this fruit is uncertain; the specimens were obtained in
the orchard of H.P. Kimball, and his father-in-law, Dr. George
Haskell--zealous pomologists at Rockford, Illinois.

Fruit medium to large, round, somewhat conic, regular; Surface smooth,
yellowish-green, blushed; Dots numerous, minute, gray, indented; red
spots.

Basin quite shallow, plaited; Eye small, but long, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, wavy, green; Stem long, rather slender, green.

Core small, round, somewhat open, clasping the eye; Seeds numerous,
medium, pointed; Flesh greenish-white, breaking, fine grained, juicy;
Flavor sweet, aromatic; Quality good to best; Use, table; Season,
October.


=Victuals and Drink.=

GREEN SWEET OF INDIANA.--POMPEY.--FALL GREEN SWEET.

    [Illustration: Fig. 143.--VICTUALS AND DRINK.]

This old variety has met with great favor in its western home, though
not esteemed or much cultivated in the Eastern States, unless about
Newark, New Jersey, where it originated about 1750, according to
Downing.

Tree spreading, large; Branches twiggy, slender, moderately
productive.

Fruit large, conical, regular, but uneven; Surface somewhat rough,
dull green to dull yellow, often veined russet; Dots numerous, minute.

Basin medium, sometimes abrupt, regular or folded; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity wide, wavy, green; Stem short.

Core small, regular, oval, clasping, closed; Seeds numerous, angular,
imperfect, dark; Flesh greenish-white or yellowish, very tender,
fine-grained, light; Flavor very sweet, very rich; Quality best; Use,
baking, table and stock; Season, September and October--in the North
later, but is not a housing apple.


=Virginia June.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 144.--VIRGINIA JUNE.]

Presented by W.P. Putnam, of Ohio, as brought from Adams County,
Mississippi.

Fruit medium to large, oblate-conical, regular; Surface
greenish-yellow; Dots scattered, prominent.

Basin medium, regular, abrupt; Eye medium, open.

Cavity very wide, regular, brown; Stem very short.

Core heart-shaped, regular, meeting the eye, closed; Seeds numerous,
pointed; Flesh yellow; Flavor rich, sweet; Quality good; September to
October, in Ohio.

This may prove to be some known variety, but it has not yet been
recognized.

The _Virginia June_, grown in Kentucky and Indiana, is quite
different, being round, striped and sub-acid. It is esteemed, where
known, as a household apple, but becomes rather dry.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS II.--CONICAL APPLES.

+ORDER I--REGULAR.+

SECTION 1.--SWEET.

SUB-SECTION 2.--STRIPED.


=Kentucky Sweet.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 145.--KENTUCKY SWEET.]

This is an apple of Kentucky or southern origin, found in many parts
of the western country among the emigrants from Dixie Land, with whom
it is a great favorite on account of abundant fruitage and rich
sweetness.

Specimens, under name, were received from the intelligent southern
pomologist, J.S. Downer, of Fairview, Kentucky, also from J.W. Dodge,
of Pomona, Tennessee, from which the description and drawing are
taken. It has also been seen frequently in Southern Illinois.

Fruit medium, conic, regular; Surface smooth, deep red, stripes
obscured and scarcely visible, the yellow ground color rarely seen;
Dots scattered, large, yellow.

Basin regular, narrow, not deep, leather-cracked; Eye medium, long,
open; Segments short.

Cavity acute, not deep, brown; Stem short to medium.

Core oval, regular, not meeting the eye, somewhat open; Seeds
numerous, large and imperfect, brown; Flesh yellow, tender,
fine-grained, juicy; Flavor very sweet, rich, slightly perfumed;
Quality very good to best; Use, baking, market and stock; Season
November to January. Keeps well.


=Milam.=

BLAIR.--(Rarely.)

    [Illustration: Fig. 146.--MILAM.]

This is another little southern favorite, to be found by almost every
cabin in parts of the West. Whole orchards have been planted with
sprouts from the mother trees, among the people to whom the art of
grafting was an unheard of mystery. Now distributed by nurserymen all
over the country.

Tree moderately vigorous, round-headed, twiggy; shoots reddish;
foliage rather dark. Annually productive and an early bearer.

Fruit small to medium, conical, regular; Surface smooth, yellow,
covered with marbled red, indistinct stripes; Dots small, gray,
scattered, prominent.

Basin narrow, wavy, leather-cracked; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity regular, acute, brown; Stem long.

Core ovate, covering the eye, closed; Seeds numerous, some imperfect;
Flesh white, tender, crisp, juicy; Flavor mild sub-acid or sweet,
agreeable and refreshing, but without any decided character; Quality
good; Use, dessert, in cooking it lacks flavor; Season, December,
January.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS II.--CONICAL APPLES.

+ORDER I.--REGULAR.+

SECTION 1.--SWEET.

SUB-SECTION 3.--RUSSET.


=Pumpkin Sweet.=

SWEET RUSSET, of Ohio.

Fruit was exhibited at the Ohio State Fair at Zanesville.

Fruit large, regular, roundish, conical; Surface dull green, covered
with a rough coat of russet.

Basin medium, regular; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity deep, narrow, regular; Stem long, slender.

Core medium, regular; Seeds numerous, small, plump; Flesh spongy,
light; Flavor sweet; Quality scarcely good; Use, baking, stock;
Season, autumn.

This apple has never commended itself very highly to my notice in the
limited opportunities I have had for its examination, but it is
esteemed in some parts of the country for baking and for
stock-feeding.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS II.--CONICAL APPLES.

+ORDER I.--REGULAR.+

SECTION 2.--SOUR.

SUB-SECTION 1.--SELF-COLORED.


=August Tart.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 147.--AUGUST TART.]

Origin unknown. Specimens procured from Marietta, Ohio.

Fruit medium to large, regular, conical, truncated; Surface smooth,
yellow-green; Dots numerous, large, yellow.

Basin medium, wavy or folded; Eye medium or small, closed.

Cavity wide, regular, brown; Stem long, slender.

Core medium, regular, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous, pointed; Flesh
greenish-yellow, breaking; Flavor acid; Quality poor, except for
cooking; Season August.


=Democrat.=

Origin unknown. Specimens obtained from George Powers, of Perrysburgh,
Ohio.

Fruit medium, handsome, roundish-conic, regular; Surface yellow,
blushed scarlet; Dots minute, indented.

Basin shallow, regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity rather deep, very acute; Stem medium to short, slender.

Core heart-shaped, rather open, meeting the eye; Seeds large; Flesh
yellow, breaking, juicy; Flavor sub-acid, aromatic, rich; Quality good
to very good; Use dessert; Season October to December.


=Holland Pippin.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 148.--HOLLAND PIPPIN.]

There is a strange confusion existing in some of the books, by which
this fruit has been associated with the Fall Pippin. The Holland, as
grown in Western New York, and through the West, as derived from the
former State, is entirely different; and as that is extensively known,
its description is here given, that it may be compared with the other,
which belongs to a different class.

Fruit large, regular, conic, rather oblate; Surface dull
yellowish-green, rarely bronzed; Dots minute.

Basin narrow, medium depth, regular; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity medium, acute, regular, brown; Stem medium to long.

Core medium, regular, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous,
sometimes imperfect; Flesh yellowish-white or greenish-white,
breaking, coarse-grained, juicy; Flavor quite acid, not rich, not
agreeable; Quality only fair; Use cooking only; Season, October to
December at the North. Not seen in the southern counties of the States
north of the Ohio River.


=Middle.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 149.--MIDDLE.]

A comparatively new fruit, from Herkimer County, New York, found in a
division fence between two neighbors; hence its name. Considerably
cultivated in the neighborhood, where it is highly esteemed.
Introduced into Ohio by Mr. John Ludlow, of Springfield, in 1854, and
propagated at the Oakland Nurseries near by.

Tree thrifty and productive.

Fruit medium to large, conical or oblate-conic, regular; Surface
rather smooth, green to pale greenish-yellow; Dots small, irregular,
rather abundant, gray, somewhat prominent.

Basin shallow, nearly regular, russeted, like Rhode Island Greening;
Eye small, closed.

Cavity acute, sometimes lipped, wavy; Stem long, slender.

Core small, oval, regular, closed, just meeting the eye; Seeds small,
very light colored; Flesh greenish-yellow, breaking, fine grained,
tender, juicy; Flavor sub-acid, rich, aromatic; Quality nearly first
rate; Use dessert; Season December and January, but is said to keep
until May in New York.


=White Winter Pearmain.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 150.--WHITE WINTER PEARMAIN.]

This favorite fruit was brought to Indiana by some of the early
pomologists, in the days of saddle-bag transportation. In a lot of
grafts, two varieties, having lost their labels, were propagated and
fruited without name. Being considered Pearmain-shaped, they were
called respectively Red and White Winter Pearmains. The former proved
to be the Esopus Spitzenberg; the latter has never yet been
identified, though believed to be an old eastern variety. Mr. Downing
suggests that it may be _Winter Harvey_, a description of which I
have not seen. At one time this apple was confounded with the _Michael
Henry_ by many of us, and Mr. Elliott gives it as a synonym of that
variety, but they are very distinct.

Tree spreading, vigorous, productive, the bark often marked by a kind
of canker or crack. Foliage large, rather light green.

Fruit medium to large, handsome when fair, but often scabby on rich
limestone soils and on old trees, conical, regular, sometimes
obscurely angular; Surface smooth, yellow, often bronzy; Dots
scattered, small, dark.

Basin abrupt, regular or shallow and folded; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity acute, wavy, brown; Stem medium to long, often knobby and
clubbed.

Core regular, closed, slightly clasping the eye; Seeds few, pointed,
pale or yellow; Flesh yellow, fine grained, tender, crisp, juicy;
Flavor mild sub-acid, very rich; Quality best; Uses table, kitchen,
market; Season December to March.


=Woolfolks.=

This is supposed to be a Kentucky seedling. It was received from my
friend Ormsby Hite, of Louisville.

Fruit full, medium, truncated, regular; Surface very smooth,
yellow-green; Dots scattered, gray, white bases.

Basin medium, wavy, plaited; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, acute, wavy, brown; Stem short, green.

Core small, heart-shaped, regular, closed, clasping; Seeds pointed,
angular, dark; Flesh white, tender, breaking, juicy; Flavor sub-acid;
Quality good; Use, table, kitchen; Season, December to March.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS II.--CONICAL APPLES.

+ORDER I.--REGULAR.+

SECTION 2.--SOUR.

SUB-SECTION 2.--STRIPED.


=Alexander.=

This Russian apple, so much admired for its size and beauty, is not a
favorite in the orchard, though some persons have found it profitable
in the markets.

Tree medium size, spreading, moderately productive, early bearer.

Fruit large to very large, fair and handsome, conical, truncated,
sometimes obscurely angular; Surface smooth, pale yellow, striped and
splashed distinctly bright red, sometimes shaded mixed red; Dots
minute.

Basin medium, regular; Eye small, long, closed.

Cavity rather deep, narrow, regular, brown; Stem medium to short,
stout.

Core wide, regular, nearly closed, clasping; Axis short; Seeds large;
Flesh whitish, breaking, not fine grained, juicy; Flavor acid, not
rich; Quality scarcely good, except for cooking; Season, August and
September. Fruit falls badly from the tree.


=Cayuga Red Streak.=

TWENTY OUNCE, ETC.

    [Illustration: Fig. 151.--CAYUGA RED STREAK.]

I have preferred to adopt the above name for this old Connecticut
apple, to avoid the confusion arising from another and very
indifferent fruit that is still considerably cultivated upon the same
parallels with this, and known as the _Twenty Ounce Pippin_.

The Cayuga is a very great favorite as a market and family fruit in
many parts of the country north of latitude 40°--being large, handsome
and productive.

Tree thrifty, healthy, early productive, round-headed, twiggy; Shoots
medium or slender, reddish brown, leaves large.

Fruit large to very large, regular, globular-conic; Surface generally
smooth, yellow-green, nearly covered with mixed red, striped and
splashed scarlet; Dots minute, scattered.

Basin regular, abrupt; Eye small, closed; Calyx long.

Cavity wide, folded, brown; Stem short.

Core wide, large, irregular, open, meeting or slightly clasping the
eye; Seeds numerous, short, plump, pale; Flesh whitish, breaking,
granular, juicy; Flavor sour, not rich; Quality good, only for its
special uses, market, cooking and drying; Season, October to December.


=Clarke's Pearmain.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 152.--CLARKE'S PEARMAIN.]

Origin North Carolina. Specimens from W.S. Westbrook. Tree grows
slowly, but very productive.

Fruit medium, roundish-conic, truncated; Surface yellow, covered
bright red and bronzed; Dots numerous, large, yellow.

Basin abrupt, folded; Eye small, closed; Segments short, reflexed.

Cavity deep, acute, sometimes lipped; Stem long, red.

Core small, pyriform, regular, closed, scarcely clasping; Seeds, some
imperfect; Flesh greenish-yellow, fine grained; Flavor sub-acid, rich;
Quality good to very good; Use dessert and kitchen; Season December.


=Clayton.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 153.--CLAYTON.]

Believed to have originated in Central Indiana. Brought to my notice
by Z.S. Ragan, of Clayton, Indiana; also exhibited by the Plainfield
Horticultural Society at the meetings of the State Horticultural
Society.

Fruit large, conical, flattened, regular; Surface smooth,
greenish-yellow, covered with dull red, striped and splashed darker;
Dots minute, scattered.

Basin narrow, abrupt, regular; Eye small, long, closed.

Cavity wide, acute, deep, wavy, green; Stem medium, stout.

Core wide, regular, open, clasping; Seeds numerous, plump, angular,
short, dark; Flesh yellow, breaking, not fine grained; Flavor
sub-acid; Quality good; Use, kitchen and market; Season, all winter
until March.


=Cooper's Market.=

COOPER'S REDLING.

"Fruit medium, oblong-conic; Skin yellowish, shaded with red, and
striped with crimson; Stem short, cavity deep, narrow; Calyx closed,
basin small; Flesh white, tender, with a brisk sub-acid flavor;
December to May."--(Downing.)


=Early Joe.=

This delicious summer apple originated in Ontario County, New York;
Tree moderately vigorous, bushy when young, early bearer, very
productive.

Fruit small to medium, flat-conic, regular; Surface yellow or waxen,
mixed red, splashed carmine; Dots minute, with yellow bases.

Basin abrupt, regular; Eye medium, long, closed; Segments reflexed.

Cavity wide, acute, wavy, green; Stem medium, thick.

Core wide, closed, clasping; Seeds plump, brown; Flesh light yellow,
breaking, very fine grained, juicy; Flavor sub-acid, aromatic, spicy,
rich, very satisfying; Quality best; Use, dessert only; Season, July.


=Early Strawberry.=

AMERICAN RED JUNEATING.

    [Illustration: Fig. 154.--EARLY STRAWBERRY.]

Origin New York; Tree thrifty, very upright, while young, spreading
and large when older; Shoots dark colored; Foliage abundant on long
stems, bright green, almost shining, rather narrow, long, erect.

Fruit small to medium, round-conic, regular or rarely angular; Surface
smooth, often shining, yellow, mostly covered with mixed red, striped
crimson; Dots rare, very minute; Surface sticky or "greasy" when
house-ripened.

Basin shallow, folded or plaited; Eye medium, long; Segments reflexed.

Cavity medium, regular; Stem long, rather slender, sometimes short,
knobby.

Core regular, closed, not meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, broad,
plump; Flesh whitish-yellow, breaking, fine grained, juicy; Flavor
sub-acid, aromatic; Quality good to very good; Use, dessert, market;
Season, July and August.


=Family.=

This new southern variety is not yet sufficiently known to enable me
to give a full description. My trees have not borne.

Fruit medium, conic, striped red; Season, July and August.


=Flushing Spitzenberg.=

As some doubt has existed in the minds of many pomologists in respect
to this variety, and as many have had this name applied to the
_Baltimore_ of Elliott, I quote that author's description:

"American. Tree vigorous, strong brown shoots; Fruit medium, roundish,
slightly conical, greenish-yellow, mostly covered with warm
yellowish-red; russet dots, with suffused fawn shade surrounding; Stem
slender; Cavity narrow; Calyx small; Basin shallow; Core rather large;
Flesh white, tinged yellow, juicy, crisp, mild, nearly sweet; 'very
good.'" November to February.


=Gabriel.=

LADIES' BLUSH.--GARDEN OF INDIANA.

This is thought to be a southern apple, but the origin is unknown. It
may yet prove to be a known variety in cultivation.

Tree moderately vigorous, productive.

Fruit medium, conic, regular; Surface smooth, greenish-yellow, mixed
and striped pale red; Dots minute.

Basin medium, regular; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity regular, green; Stem medium, slender.

Core regular, closed; Seeds medium; Flesh tender, fine grained, juicy;
Flavor sub-acid to sweet, aromatic; Quality almost best, for dessert;
August and September, or later.


=Limbertwig.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 155.--LIMBERTWIG.]

This well known southern apple is much cultivated in many parts of the
West as a long keeping winter variety. It is a favorite with the
southern immigrants, and found most abundant in regions occupied by
them, but it has been carried pretty far to the north. The synonym
_James River_, as given by Downing, is not met with among the people
as applied to this apple, but the _Willow Twig_ is often so named.

Tree thrifty, exceedingly productive; Shoots slender and drooping with
the heavy crops.

Fruit medium to small, roundish conic, regular; Surface rather
smooth, mixed dull purplish red, on green, stripes scarcely to be
traced; Dots numerous, large, irregular, brown.

Basin medium, regular; Eye small, open.

Cavity deep, acute, brown; Stem medium, curved.

Core rather large, regular, turbinate, closed, clasping; Seeds
numerous, small, plump, long; Flesh greenish-yellow, firm; Flavor
sub-acid, rich, aromatic; Quality very good; Use, table and kitchen;
Season, March and April. Keeps very well, but wilts if exposed to the
air--preserved very well in the ground.


=Long Island Seek-no-Further.=

WESTCHESTER SEEK-NO-FURTHER.

This old variety still has its admirers in the Eastern States, but is
not often seen in the West. I describe specimens from Wm. S.
Carpenter, of Westchester County, New York.

The tree is vigorous and productive.

Fruit rather large, oblate, conic, regular; Surface greenish-yellow,
splashed bright red; Dots numerous, scattered, russet.

Basin shallow, wavy; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity wide, regular, brown; Stem long.

Core regular, closed; Seeds pointed, angular, imperfect; Flesh
greenish-white, breaking, juicy; Flavor sub-acid, aromatic; Quality
good to very good; Use, table, cooking; Season, October, November.


=Polly Bright.=

Origin Virginia. Considerably cultivated in Eastern Ohio.

"Fruit elongated, conic; Skin light yellow, shaded carmine, obscurely
striped; Stalk of medium length, in an acute cavity, russeted; Calyx
in a small furrowed basin. Flesh tender, juicy, with a pleasant
sub-acid flavor; September, October."--(Downing.)


=Rawle's Janet.=

JANETTING OR GENETON--NEVER FAIL--ROCK RIMMON, ETC., ETC.

    [Illustration: Fig. 156.--RAWLE'S JANET.]

This famous southern apple has been spread throughout the West, and
even the Northwest where, however, it has not proved hardy. It also
has the fault of over-bearing, when the fruit is often small and
insipid. In suitable soils it is very fine and deservedly a favorite
with planters, some of whom recommend fifty trees of this variety in
an orchard of one hundred. Origin Virginia.

Tree thrifty, not large, spreading; Twigs brownish, foliage medium,
rather whitish. Blossoms appear later than other sorts, and thus they
sometimes escape a spring frost.

Fruit medium, sometimes large when thinned, flattened, conic, regular;
Surface smooth, mixed and striped crimson on yellow and green; Dots
numerous, small.

Basin wide, regular; Eye small, closed; Segments reflexed.

Cavity acute, deep, regular, brown; Stem long, curved.

Core regular, heart-shaped, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous, plump;
Flesh yellowish, crisp, breaking, fine grained, juicy; Flavor
sub-acid, vinous, refreshing; Quality good to very good; Use, dessert,
kitchen, market and cider; Season, February, March, and later.


=Red Winter Pearmain.=

RED GILLIFLOWER--RED LADY FINGER--BUNCOMBE? ETC.

This favorite southern apple is widely diffused through the South and
West, and its good qualities have made it many admirers. Origin
uncertain.

Tree sufficiently vigorous, upright, productive, annual bearer.

Fruit medium to large, conic, regular; Surface smooth, deep red,
almost purplish on yellow, stripes nearly lost in the depth of
coloring, whitish shading exteriorly, not a bloom; Dots numerous,
minute.

Basin regular, plaited or folded; Eye long or large, open.

Cavity acute, regular, green; Stem medium length, thick, knobby.

Core medium, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous, large, plump; Flesh
yellow, breaking, juicy; Flavor mild sub-acid, almost sweet, rich,
satisfying; Quality good; Use, table and kitchen; Season, December and
January.


=Rosy Red.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 157.--ROSY RED.]

This is one of the valuable fruits which we owe to the indefatigable
efforts, of that earnest pomologist and thus philanthropist, Lewis
Jones, of Cambridge, Indiana. Found in a seedling orchard.

Fruit medium, conical, truncated, regular; Surface smooth, bright red,
generally diffused, indistinctly striped; Dots scattered, medium,
yellow.

Basin medium, shallow, regular or folded; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity acute, narrow, deep, brown; Stem medium, slender, yellow.

Core wide, indistinct, partly open, scarcely meeting the eye; Seeds
few, plump and imperfect; Flesh pale yellow, breaking, juicy; Flavor
sub-acid; Quality good; Use, market and table; Season, December and
January.


=Westfield Seek-no-Further.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 158.--WESTFIELD SEEK-NO-FURTHER.]

This favorite Connecticut apple has been widely disseminated
throughout the country, and is universally admired by those who come
from the Northern States; on lower parallels it is less known, and
not so highly appreciated, nor is it so fine a fruit, being larger,
but less compact, more spongy, less beautifully colored and sometimes
almost a russet.

Tree vigorous, thrifty, spreading, productive.

Fruit medium, roundish-conic; Surface smooth dull red, mixed and
striped on yellow, in the North clear bright red; Dots scattered,
large, yellow; leather-cracked and russeted about the apex.

Basin shallow, regular, leather-cracked; Eye small, closed or open.

Cavity pointed, regular, brown; Stem long.

Core medium, regular, closed, meeting and clasping the eye; Seeds
numerous, small, pointed; Flesh yellowish-white, tender, breaking;
Flavor very mild sub-acid, aromatic, satisfying, not high flavored nor
spicy; Quality only good in my estimation; Use, table and market;
Season, December.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS II.--CONICAL APPLES.

+ORDER I.--REGULAR.+

SECTION 2.--SOUR.

SUB-SECTION 3.--RUSSET.


=American Golden Russet.=

BULLOCK'S PIPPIN, ETC.

    [Illustration: Fig. 159.--AMERICAN GOLDEN RUSSET.]

This delicious table apple is a universal favorite with all who can
appreciate delicacy of flavor and fineness of flesh in an apple, and
yet it is not a profitable variety for orchard planting, because the
fruit is very apt to be imperfect. The best I have seen were from the
South, and sandstone soils.

Tree vigorous, upright, round-headed, small; Foliage large, healthy.

Fruit small to medium, round-conic, regular when perfect; Surface
smooth, yellow, covered with thin russet, sometimes faintly blushed;
Dots minute.

Basin shallow, regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity acute, regular; Stem long, slender.

Core medium, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, pointed; Flesh
yellowish, very fine grained, tender, when fully ripe almost melting,
like a pear, juicy, becoming dry when over ripe; Flavor sub-acid,
rich, aromatic; Quality very best; Use, dessert; Season, November and
December.


=Cheesborough.=

This is one of the largest and one of the poorest of the Russet
apples, and unworthy of cultivation; on that account put upon record
to be avoided.

Fruit large and fair, conical, regular; Surface dull green, overspread
with thin russet, or more southward.

Basin irregular, green; Eye large, closed.

Cavity pointed, regular; Stem short.

Core large, closed, clasping; Seeds long, pointed, angular; Flesh
green, breaking, coarse, often dry; Flavor acid or sub-acid, not rich;
Quality poor; Use, kitchen only; Season, November and December.


=Egyptian Russet.=

BAGBY RUSSET.

    [Illustration: Fig. 160.--EGYPTIAN RUSSET.]

This capital dessert fruit was found in Southern Illinois and
introduced to his fellow pomologists of the State Society by Jno. M.
Hunter, nurseryman, of Ashley. Its origin is unknown, but supposed,
like the pioneers of the region, to have come from Tennessee, or some
other Southern State.

Tree symmetrical, moderately vigorous, productive; Twigs slender.

Fruit medium, regular, conical, truncated; Surface smooth, light
yellow, covered with fine russet, obscurely striped gray.

Basin wide, wavy, plaited, green; Eye medium to large, open.

Cavity acute, wavy; Stem medium.

Core irregular, closed, scarcely meeting the eye; Seeds large, plump;
Flesh very tender, fine grained, juicy; Flavor sub-acid, aromatic,
rich, pear-like; Quality _very best_; Use, dessert; Season, December
and January, until March. Like other russets disposed to wilt if too
much exposed to the air.


=Poughkeepsie Russet.=

ENGLISH RUSSET.

    [Illustration: Fig. 161.--POUGHKEEPSIE RUSSET.]

Origin New York; Tree tender, vigorous, upright, productive; Shoots
brown, slender; Foliage healthy.

Fruit medium, conical or globular-conical, regular; Surface smooth,
almost polished, dull yellowish-green, often bronzed near the base,
more or less covered with fine russet.

Basin shallow, regular; Eye large, closed.

Cavity pointed, wavy; Stem long.

Core closed, not meeting the eye; Seeds imperfect; Flesh greenish,
firm, inclined to be tough; Flavor acid, poor; Quality third rate;
Use, market and cooking only, and valued because it keeps soundly for
a long time; Season, December until June.


=Ross' Nonpareil.=

SPICE RUSSET? OF OHIO.

    [Illustration: Fig. 162.--ROSS' NONPAREIL.]

The delicious fruit about to be described is believed to be the
celebrated Irish apple mentioned by Thompson, Lindley, and others; if
not, we have found another choice fruit, which deserves to be better
known. It is frequently found at the exhibitions in Ohio and Indiana.
Often shown as _Spice Russet_, flatter and irregular: _Vide
conspectus._

Fruit medium, regular, oblate-conical; Surface smooth, yellowish, thin
russet, rarely blushed dull carmine; Dots minute, gray.

Basin wide, folded; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, wavy; Stem long, inclined.

Core regular, open, scarcely meeting the eye; Axis short; Seeds
numerous, medium, plump; Flesh white, breaking, fine grained, tender;
Flavor sub-acid, aromatic, rich; Quality almost best; for table;
Season December.


=Spafford Russet.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 163.--SPAFFORD RUSSET.]

This apple is supposed to have originated near old Fort Miami, in
Northern Ohio, and was introduced to the notice of the Ohio
Pomological Society by its Vice-President, J. Austin Scott, of Toledo,
who cultivates the variety on the banks of the Maumee, near the place
of its supposed origin.

Fruit medium, flattened-conical, regular; Surface smooth,
greenish-yellow, lightly russeted, rarely bronzed; Dots minute,
green.

Basin medium, abrupt, narrow, regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, wavy, green; Stem medium.

Core small, open, regular, meeting the eye; Axis short. Seeds
numerous, plump, angular; Flesh white, fine grained, juicy; Flavor
sub-acid, rich, aromatic, agreeable; Quality good to very good; Use,
table; Season, December until March.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS II.--CONICAL APPLES.

+ORDER II.--IRREGULAR OR ANGULAR.+

SECTION 1.--SWEET.

SUB-SECTION 1.--SELF-COLORED.


=Belden Sweet.=

"Grown in Connecticut, very prolific; Fruit medium or below, conic,
angular; Skin light yellow, with a warm cheek. Stem medium, in an
acute deep cavity; Calyx closed, in a small basin; Flesh white,
tender, juicy, saccharine, with a pleasant aromatic flavor; December
to March."--(Downing.)


=Lyman's Pumpkin Sweet.=

POUND SWEET.

Origin, the orchard of S. Lyman, Manchester, Connecticut. A very
handsome, large, sweet apple, valued for baking and for stock-feeding.

Tree vigorous, spreading, drooping, rather productive.

Fruit large to very large, roundish-conical, angular; Surface very
smooth, pale yellow; Dots minute.

Basin deep, abrupt, regular; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, regular, brown; Stem medium or short.

Core large, closed; Seeds angular, dark; Flesh yellowish, breaking,
juicy, often water-cored and heavy; Flavor very sweet; Quality good;
Use, baking and stock-feeding; Season, October to December.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS II.--CONICAL APPLES.

+ORDER II.--IRREGULAR.+

SECTION 1.--SWEET.

SUB-SECTION 2.--STRIPED.

NONE.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS II.--CONICAL APPLES.

+ORDER II.--IRREGULAR.+

SECTION 1.--SWEET.

SUB-SECTION 3.--RUSSET.


=Sweet Russet= of Kentucky.

    [Illustration: Fig. 164.--SWEET RUSSET OF KENTUCKY.]

This fruit was received from J.S. Downer & Son, Elkton, Kentucky.

Fruit small, conical, truncated, angular; Surface rough, dark russet;
Dots scattered, minute, white, prominent.

Basin shallow, regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity very shallow, acute; Stem short, slender.

Core large, regular, nearly closed, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous,
angular, pale; Flesh yellowish-white, fine-grained, not tender; Flavor
sweet; Quality scarcely good; Season, December to February.


=Sweet Russet.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 165.--SWEET RUSSET.]

Fruit medium, conical, uneven; Surface yellow, thin russet; Dots
numerous, small, prominent.

Basin shallow, folded; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, wavy; Stem short.

Core oval, open, clasping the eye; Seeds plump; Flesh yellow, tender,
fine grained, juicy; Flavor sweet; Quality good to very good; Use,
baking; Season, August.

S.B. Parsons of Flushing, Long Island, considers it the best baking
apple.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS II.--CONICAL APPLES.

+ORDER II.--IRREGULAR.+

SECTION 2.--SOUR.

SUB-SECTION 1.--SELF-COLORED OR BLUSHED.


=Belmont.=

GATE--MAMMA BEAN, ETC.

    [Illustration: Fig. 166.--BELMONT.]

This beautiful apple is believed to be of Virginia origin, but was
brought into public notice and notoriety in Belmont County, Ohio,
whence its name. It is supposed to be the same as the _Waxen_ of Coxe,
which that author refers to Virginia.

Tree vigorous, spreading, productive, not hardy; Twigs light olive.

Fruit large, fair, oblate-conic, often angular; Surface very smooth,
waxen-yellow, often faintly blushed orange, and spotted red; Dots
minute, scattered.

Basin regular or wavy, not deep; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, wavy, brown; Stem long.

Core wide, regular, somewhat open, clasping; Axis short; Seeds
numerous, large, flat; Flesh yellow, tender, fine-grained, juicy;
Flavor mild sub-acid, refreshing, very agreeable; Quality nearly best;
Use, table, kitchen, market; Season, October to December.


=Celestia.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 167.--CELESTIA.]

This fine amateur fruit, which appears destined to take the place of
the Dyer, being more handsome, is a seedling from the _Stillwater
Sweet_, and was produced by L.S. Mote, of Miami County, Ohio.

Fruit large, conical, truncated, angular; Surface somewhat uneven,
smooth, waxen-yellow; Dots scattered, distinct, gray, with green
bases.

Basin narrow, folded; Eye small, long, closed.

Cavity wide, shallow, angular; Stem long or medium, sometimes knobby.

Core small, oval, open, clasping; Seeds numerous, long, angular; Flesh
yellow, very fine grained, very tender, juicy; Flavor sub-acid, very
sprightly, and spicy, aromatic; Quality very best; Use, table and
kitchen; Season, September.

This is essentially an amateur's fruit, as its texture and color
disqualify it for market, while its delicious flavor renders it very
attractive.


=Detroit Black.=

DETROIT RED?--GRAND SACHEM.

    [Illustration: Fig. 168.--DETROIT BLACK.]

Supposed to be of Canadian origin, in the neighborhood of Detroit,
Michigan. I have put these two names together, because the fruits
presented as _Black_ and as _Red Detroit_ are so very much alike in
all respects that it is not worth while to consider them distinct.

Fruit large to very large, conic, angular; Surface very smooth,
shining, deep red shaded, almost black in some specimens, no striping;
Dots, numerous, minute, indented, gray.

Basin deep, abrupt, folded; Eye small, open.

Cavity wide, wavy; stem very short.

Core wide, closed or open, clasping the eye; Seeds numerous, angular,
brown; Flesh whitish, tender, breaking, juicy; Flavor acid, poor;
Quality second to third rate; Use, kitchen and drying; Season,
September and October.

The Red variety may be distinct, as it keeps later.


=Fall Geneting.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 169.--FALL GENETING.]

Elliott says this is an old Connecticut variety. Tree vigorous and
productive.

Fruit large, flattened-conic, angular; Surface smooth,
greenish-yellow, blushed; Dots rare, minute.

Basin shallow, plaited; Eye small, closed; Calyx reflexed.

Cavity deep, wide, regular, brown; Stem short.

Core small, regular, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous, plump or
imperfect, brown; Flesh yellow, fine grained, juicy, crisp; Flavor
sub-acid, not very rich; Quality good; Use, table, kitchen; Season,
October.


=Ferdinand.=

I procured my trees from Virginia, where it originated. Tree vigorous,
upright.

Fruit large, flattened-conic, irregular; Surface smooth, pale green or
yellow.

Basin shallow; Eye medium, open.

Cavity medium; Stem stout.

Flesh yellow, tender; Flavor sub-acid; Quality good; Season, "November
to March," according to Mr. Summer, South Carolina.


=Harrison.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 170.--HARRISON.]

This famous Jersey cider apple, from Essex County in that State, has
been carried westward over a great extent of territory, where it
succeeds admirably well, and where the necessities of the people have
brought to light its good properties for the kitchen as well as for
the cider mill.

Tree vigorous, large, spreading, productive.

Fruit small, round-conical, somewhat angular and irregular; Surface
not smooth, yellow, rarely blushed; frequent rose-colored spots, and
marks radiating from the cavity over the base of the fruit; Dots
small, distinct, gray.

Basin none, or very shallow, plaited; Eye small, closed; Segments
long.

Cavity medium, regular, brown; Stem long, red, knobby.

Core regular, heart-shaped, closed, scarcely meeting the eye; Seeds
numerous, small; Flesh yellow, compact, dry till ripe, then juicy;
flavor acid to sub-acid, very rich, saccharine; Quality good; Use,
especially for cider, also for cooking and for dessert in April. Keeps
well.


=Pound Royale.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 171.--POUND ROYALE.]

This fine summer apple, received from H.N. Gillett, of Lawrence
County, Ohio, has long been considered one of the very best summer
apples along the Ohio River.

Tree a pretty good grower, an early and constant bearer, very
productive; Shoots dark, foliage dark.

Fruit large, conical, slightly angular; Surface smooth, glossy,
greenish; Dots small, green, indented.

Basin medium, folded; Eye medium, closed; Segments long, reflexed.

Cavity acute, wavy, brown; Stem medium, sometimes knobby.

Core small, closed or slightly open, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous,
pointed, dark; Flesh white, very tender, juicy; Flavor very mild
sub-acid, delicious; Quality very good to best; Use, table, kitchen;
Season, August.

Different from _Pound Royal_ of Downing, which is a winter-keeping
fruit.


=Ridge Pippin.=

This fruit appears to be quite a favorite market apple in the
neighborhood of Philadelphia, where it originated.

Fruit rather large, round-conic, very irregular, ribbed; Surface
yellow, lightly shaded and blushed with red, and sprinkled with russet
and crimson spots.

Basin abrupt, furrowed and folded; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, regular; Stem short.

Flesh yellow, crisp, juicy; Flavor mild sub-acid, rich.

Season, until March and April.


=The Cook's Favorite.=

This nice autumn apple comes to me from Oliver Albertson, a prominent
and intelligent cultivator in Washington County, Indiana, marked
"_Best_." Origin unknown.

Fruit medium, flattish-conical, angular; Surface smooth,
whitish-yellow; Dots minute.

Basin deep, folded, ribbed; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity wide, wavy, brown; Stem long, slender.

Core medium, roundish, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, dark;
Flesh yellow, breaking, tender; Flavor sub-acid; Quality quite good;
Use, kitchen especially--"cooks very well;" Season, September.


=Trenton Early.=

This fine autumn apple has been thought to be the _English Codling_.
Of its origin and history we know little, except that it was one of
Silas Wharton's varieties, and that it has been a great favorite
wherever known. It was introduced to the notice of the Ohio
Pomological Society, 1852, by R.W. Steele, Esq., of Dayton, Ohio, with
the following notes: "A large, white apple, of excellent flavor, and
is highly esteemed both for eating and cooking. It ripens in August.
The tree is a vigorous grower and an abundant bearer. It was
introduced here many years ago by Silas Wharton, of Warren County, to
whom this portion of the Miami Valley is largely indebted for the
introduction of many excellent varieties of apples and pears."

Fruit large, conical, angular; Surface smooth, very pale yellow or
white; Dots rare, minute.

Basin narrow, folded; Eye medium or small, closed.

Cavity wide, regular, brown; Stem medium.

Core large, rather open; Seeds numerous, angular; Flesh white, very
tender, juicy; Flavor sub-acid, pleasant; Quality very good; Use,
dessert and kitchen; Season, August, September.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS II.--CONICAL APPLES.

+ORDER II.--ANGULAR.+

SECTION 2.--SOUR.

SUB-SECTION 2.--STRIPED.


=Buckingham.=

BYER'S RED--FALL QUEEN (of some)--BLACKBURN (erroneously.)

    [Illustration: Fig. 172.--BUCKINGHAM.]

This favorite southern apple, from Louisa County, Virginia, has worked
its way northward into public favor at rapid rate, under the influence
of railways and Pomological Societies. It was first presented to the
American Society at the Philadelphia meeting, in 1860, when it was
figured and reported on by the Committee on Native Fruits, to some of
whom, as to thousands of others in the West, it was familiar as
household words. This fruit was brought by settlers to Southern
Illinois, and thence distributed, by taking up the sprouts that formed
about the base of the stocks, and setting them out for an orchard. I
have some of these growing, and they make nice plants.

Tree vigorous, upright, compact while young, spreading with the weight
of fruit, never large; the shoots rather slender, red, dark; Leaves
medium, rather narrow, wider towards the end, dark, footstalks red.
The stems of these trees are characterized by curious enlargements of
an irregular, mammellar form, and reddish color, and appear to be like
the knaurs of the olive tree.

When this apple was first brought to the notice of the Cincinnati
Horticultural Society, twenty years ago, it was thought to resemble
the Winter Queen of Kentucky so closely that it was considered only a
variety or sport, and called the _Striped Fall Queen_, but it has
since been deemed a distinct sort.

Fruit large to very large, variable in form, but generally conical, or
oblate-conic, truncated, angular; Surface smooth, greenish-yellow,
mixed and striped pale purplish-red; Dots scattered, prominent,
yellow.

Basin deep, abrupt, wavy; Eye large, long, open.

Cavity wide, wavy, brown; Stem short.

Core large, regular, closed; Axis very short; Seeds numerous, long,
pointed; Flesh yellow, tender, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor mild
sub-acid, rich, agreeable; Quality best, or nearly so; Use, table,
kitchen, drying; Season, October to December.


=Esopus Spitzenberg.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 173.--ESOPUS SPITZENBERG.]

Origin New York, on the Hudson. This fruit has changed its character
in progressing westward and southward, becoming larger and more
irregular, less brilliantly colored, less highly flavored, and less
productive.

Tree vigorous, upright, thrifty, but in some regions subject to blight
and unprofitable; Shoots slender.

Fruit medium to large, conical, ribbed, irregular; Surface smooth,
yellow, covered with bright red, marbled and mixed, striped more or
less distinctly; Dots numerous, large, irregular, gray, always
elongated near the base.

Basin deep, ribbed or folded, often leather-cracked; Eye small,
closed.

Cavity deep, acute, regular, or wavy; Stem long.

Core large, closed; Seeds long, pointed; Flesh rich, yellow, breaking,
juicy at the North, more fibrous than crisp at the South; Flavor quite
acid till ripe, when it is rich, saccharine, highly aromatic, giving
the idea of the Spitzenberg flavor; Quality best; Use, dessert and
kitchen; Season, December to February.


=Lansingburgh.=

The origin of this long-keeper has not been traced. It has been common
about Cincinnati, and along the Ohio River, for many years.

Tree upright, vigorous, brushy and thorny, looking like a wilding.

Fruit medium, conical, angular, oblique, often unequal; Surface
smooth, green and yellow, bronzed and blushed, becoming very rich
yellow and carmine--an indistinct gray-striping makes the ripe fruit
appear to be striped yellow; Dots minute, indented, gray, with green
bases.

Basin deep, plaited or folded; Eye small, closed.

Cavity acute, irregular, rough with brown; Stem short.

Core small, oval, closed; Seeds numerous, large; Flesh firm, compact;
Flavor mild sub-acid, negative; Quality scarcely good; Use, market,
ornamental, cooking; Season in the kitchen all winter--ornamental and
eatable March to May, or later.


=Late Strawberry.=

AUTUMN STRAWBERRY.

The origin of this choice fruit appears to be unknown.

Tree upright, productive, thrifty, leaves serrate.

Fruit medium, roundish, conical, angular, furrowed; Surface smooth,
waxen-yellow, mixed and striped scarlet; Dots minute, indented.

Basin folded, irregular; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity acute, wavy, irregular; Stem slender, long.

Core medium, regular, closed, Seeds large; Flesh yellow, very tender,
fine-grained, very juicy; Flavor sub-acid, aromatic, refreshing,
vinous; Quality best; Use, dessert especially; Season, August and
September.

There is another similar fruit--the _Frank_ or _Chenango Strawberry_,
which is by some preferred to this.


=Northern Spy.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 174.--NORTHERN SPY.]

Origin near Rochester, New York. Tree very vigorous, large, upright,
spreading, when older; shoots reddish, leaves healthy, large, dark.
Tree productive when old, but not an early bearer; needs trimming to
admit light and air to the fruit.

Fruit large, flattened-conical, angular; Surface smooth, yellow,
mixed, and splashed, scarlet, or crimson; Dots scattered, small.

Basin abrupt, regular, or folded; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, regular or wavy, brown; Stem medium to short.

Core large, irregular, open; Seeds numerous, small, pointed, pale;
Flesh yellowish-white, breaking, granular, juicy; Flavor acid,
becoming sub-acid, aromatic, rich, with the spiciness of a
Spitzenberg; Quality considered best, but rather coarse in texture;
Use, table, kitchen and market; Season, December until May, and in the
North longer.


=Red Canada.=

STEEL'S RED.

Origin New England. Tree thrifty, healthy, but slender, twiggy,
productive.

Fruit medium, globular-conic, indistinctly angular; Surface smooth,
yellow, covered with mixed and striped bright red; Dots numerous,
gray, indented, elongated near the stem, as in Esopus.

Basin shallow, folded; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, acute, wavy; Stem long, inclined.

Core regular, closed, large; Seeds imperfect; Flesh yellowish-white,
breaking, crisp, fine-grained, tender, juicy; Flavor sub-acid,
aromatic, delicious; Quality best, for table; Season, December to
February.


=Red Stripe.=

EARLY RED MARGARET (incorrectly)--ROCKHILL'S SUMMER QUEEN (Indiana).

This handsome and productive early apple has been extensively
propagated in parts of Indiana, under the names above presented. It
was introduced at Fort Wayne by Mr. Rockhill, who is reported to have
"made more money from the trees of this variety than from twice as
many of any other early apple." Recommended for general cultivation in
that State.

Tree hardy in nursery and orchard, productive; Shoots very downy.

Fruit medium to small, long, conical, furrowed or ribbed; Surface
polished, pale yellow, mixed and splashed crimson.

Basin very shallow, plaited; Eye very small, closed.

Cavity acute, regular, browned; Stem medium.

Core long, oval, embracing the eye; Flesh whitish, tender,
fine-grained, juicy; Flavor acid; Quality good; Table or kitchen;
Season, July and August.


=Scalloped Gilliflower.=

This is supposed to be an old European variety. Its peculiarly
irregular form makes it quite a remarkable fruit. It is sometimes
called _Red Gilliflower_; but that name is also very commonly applied
to quite another fruit--the _Red Winter Pearmain_, described on a
previous page, in Class II., Order I., Section 2., Sub-section 2.

Fruit large, round-conic, very irregular, furrowed and ribbed; Surface
yellow, marbled and splashed scarlet.

Basin abrupt, deep, folded or ribbed; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, irregular, wavy; Stem medium.

Core regular, round, very open, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous,
plump; Flesh yellow, breaking, tender; Flavor sub-acid, aromatic;
Quality scarcely good; Use, table, kitchen; Season, November,
December. Chiefly grown northward.


=Seager.=

This large, handsome fruit was exhibited at the American Pomological
Society's meeting at Philadelphia, in 1860, by Chas. P. Davis, of
Phillipsburgh, New Jersey. The Committee reported it "Good."

Fruit large, roundish-conic, irregular; Surface smooth, yellow,
striped, splashed and mixed carmine; Dots scattered, yellow.

Basin abrupt, narrow, folded, plaited; Eye medium, large, closed.

Cavity wide, wavy, brown and yellow; Stem medium, knobby.

Core roundish, open, clasping; Seeds angular, imperfect; Flesh
yellowish-white, breaking, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor sub-acid,
aromatic; Quality good to very good; Use, table, kitchen; Season,
September.


=Stanard.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 175.--STANARD.]

From Erie County, New York, this fruit has made its way westward, by
the Lakes, having been distributed by Col. Hodge, of Buffalo, and
brought to the notice of his western friends by Hon. M.L. Dunlap, of
Champaign, Illinois, who esteems it very highly. I quote from his
account of it:

"This proves one of our most profitable winter apples; the tree bears
young and constantly, but fuller on alternate years; fruit large and
showy, shoots large and downy; buds prominent, fruit buds large, and
the earliest in the orchard to swell; but they do not open as soon as
others. Tree spreading, trunk generally crooked." Very hardy.

Fruit large, roundish, conical, ribbed, angular; Surface smooth,
yellowish-green, somewhat red, mixed and striped indistinctly; Dots
numerous, minute, white.

Basin medium, folded and plaited; Eye large, closed; Segments long.

Cavity wide, acute, wavy, green; Stem medium to long.

Core small, globular, regular, closed or open; Seeds numerous, brown,
angular; Flesh yellow, breaking, rather coarse, tender; Flavor acid to
sub-acid, rich; Quality good; Use, market and table; Season, November
to February.


=Summer Queen.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 176.--SUMMER QUEEN.]

American. Tree vigorous, large, spreading, productive.

Fruit medium, round-conic, angular; Surface yellow, covered mixed red,
striped, splashed scarlet; Dots minute, yellow.

Basin none or very shallow, folded or plaited; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity wide, regular, brown; Stem long, slender.

Core medium, regular, open; Seeds numerous, pointed, brown; Flesh
firm, yellow, breaking; Flavor acid, very aromatic, spicy; Quality
first rate; Use, kitchen; Season, July, August.


=Winesap.=--[_Coxe._]

    [Illustration: Fig. 177.--WINESAP.]

Tree vigorous, healthy, hardy, productive, early bearer; Branches
open, straggling; Shoots strong, dark reddish-brown; Foliage curled,
glaucous, sparse.

Fruit medium, conical, often obscurely angular, or slightly ribbed;
Surface rather smooth, bright or dark red, mixed and obscurely striped
on yellow, which is mostly covered, often veined russet; Dots few,
minute, indented.

Basin narrow, shallow, plaited; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, reddish brown; Stem medium.

Core regular, somewhat open; Seeds large, rather light; Flesh firm,
yellow; Flavor rich, acid to sub-acid; Use, market, kitchen, cider;
Season, January to March.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS II.--CONICAL APPLES.

+ORDER II.--ANGULAR.+

SECTION 2.--SOUR.

SUB-SECTION 3.--RUSSET.


=Fort Miami.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 178.--FORT MIAMI.]

This is another of the seedling russets of the Maumee, brought to the
notice of the State Society by its Vice-President, J. Austin Scott, of
Toledo. Mr. Elliott describes it from notes taken in 1846, when he
received specimens from A. Spafford, Esq., Perrysburgh, Ohio.

Tree upright and spreading, healthy, thrifty; Shoots dark; not an
early bearer, but productive when older.

Fruit medium, roundish or oblong-conic, truncated, angular, often
unequal; Surface rich yellow russet, often bronzed; Dots scattered,
netted russeting.

Basin medium or shallow, folded; Eye small, closed.

Cavity acute, wavy, green; Stem medium.

Core oval, clasping the eye, regular, closed; Seeds often imperfect;
Flesh greenish-yellow, firm; Flavor acid, rich; quality nearly best;
Use, dessert; Season, February to April.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS III.--ROUND APPLES.

+ORDER I.--REGULAR.+

SECTION 1.--SWEET.

SUB-SECTION 1.--SELF-COLORED.


=Bluff Sweet.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 179.--BLUFF SWEET.]

This apple was found by G.M. Beeler on the banks of the White river,
upon a farm devoted to pomology.

Fruit medium to small, regular, round; Surface smooth, green; Dots
minute.

Basin shallow; Eye small, closed.

Cavity shallow, regular; Stem long.

Core small, oval, pointed; Seeds plump, brown; Flesh greenish-white;
Flavor sweet; Quality good; Use, market; Season, July. Rather too
small.


=Broadwell.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 180.--BROADWELL.]

This delicious winter sweet apple originated near Cincinnati, Ohio.
Tree thrifty, vigorous, spreading, productive.

Fruit large, varies from globular toward oblate, regular; Surface
smooth, pale yellow or whitish, thinly blushed with carmine, often
bronzed; Dots scattered, minute, dark.

Basin abrupt, rarely folded or plaited; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, regular brown; Stem short.

Core round, regular, closed, clasping the eye; Seeds short, plump;
Flesh yellowish, fine-grained, very tender, juicy; Flavor very sweet,
agreeable; Quality best winter sweet; Use, table, kitchen; Season,
December.


=Caleb.=

"A Pennsylvania fruit. Tree vigorous and productive; Fruit medium,
roundish, flattened, skin yellow; Flesh rather fine, very sweet,
excellent for cooking. Last of August and first of September".--[Downing.]


=Danvers' Winter Sweet.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 181.--DANVERS' WINTER SWEET.]

Origin Danvers, Massachusetts. Tree very thrifty, very productive.

Fruit large, globular, truncate, sometimes globular-oblate, regular;
Surface smooth, uneven, greenish-yellow; Dots numerous, medium,
prominent, with white and green bases.

Basin abrupt, deep, regular; Eye small, closed; Segments long.

Cavity wide, deep, brown; Stem long, slender, knobby.

Core round, regular, closed; Seeds numerous, long, brown, pointed;
Flesh yellow, breaking, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor very sweet;
Quality good to very good; Use, baking; Season, December and January.


=Fancher.=

This new fruit was obtained from Mr. Thomson, at the State Fair at
Zanesville, Ohio. Origin unknown. Not identified nor recognized.

Fruit large to very large, globular, regular; Surface smooth, yellow,
blushed; Dots minute, scattered.

Basin shallow, regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity acute, regular, green; Stem long, inclined.

Core wide, round, open, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, plump, brown;
Flesh white, fine-grained, breaking, juicy; Flavor very sweet; Quality
good to very good; Use, baking; Season, September and October.


=Golden Sweet.=

ORANGE SWEETING.

    [Illustration: Fig. 182.--GOLDEN SWEET.]

From Connecticut. Tree very robust, vigorous, spreading, round-head,
early--productive; Shoots stout, dark, foliage large, dark.

Fruit large, globular, regular; Surface very smooth, waxen to rich
yellow; Dots scattered, indented, green.

Basin shallow, wide regular; Eye medium, closed; Calyx reflexed.

Cavity wide, regular; Stem long, slender, yellow.

Core medium, regular, closed; Seeds numerous, small, pointed, light
brown; Flesh yellow, breaking, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor very sweet,
aromatic, like sassafrass; Quality good to very good; Use, baking and
market; Season, August.


=Higby Sweet.=

LADY BLUSH.

    [Illustration: Fig. 183.--HIGBY SWEET.]

Origin Trumbull County, Ohio; introduced by Dr. Kirtland.

Fruit large, round, truncated, regular; Surface smooth,
greenish-yellow, blushed; Dots scattered, distinct, white and dark.

Basin abrupt, wavy, deep; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, regular, brown; Stem medium.

Core small, regular, heart-shaped, closed, clasping the eye; Seeds
plump; Flesh yellowish-white, tender, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor very
sweet; Quality good; Use, baking; Season, October.


=Hightop Sweet.=

SWEET JUNE.

From Plymouth, Massachusetts.

Tree vigorous, very upright, exceedingly productive and profitable.

Fruit small to medium, round, regular; Surface smooth,
greenish-yellow; Dots minute, black.

Basin medium, regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity deep, narrow; Stem medium.

Core very small, oval, separate from the eye; Seeds numerous, angular,
yellow; Flesh white, or greenish-white, fine-grained, tender, juicy;
Flavor sweet; Quality good; Use, table and kitchen; Season, June and
July.


=Holston Sweet.=

Origin unknown. Not identified as any other variety; received from my
brother, J.T. Warder, Springfield, Ohio.

Fruit medium to large, round, regular; Surface smooth greenish-yellow,
bronzy; Dots scattered.

Basin regular, small; Eye small, closed.

Cavity shallow, wide; Stem long to medium.

Core small, oval, regular, closed, clasping; Seeds short, plump,
brown; Flesh whitish-yellow, very fine-grained, tender, juicy; Flavor
very sweet, aromatic, rich; Quality best; Use, table, baking; Season,
December to February.

One of the best sweet table apples--better than _Higby Sweet_.


=May.=

MAY (of Myers)--RHENISH MAY (of Illinois.)

    [Illustration: Fig. 184.--MAY.]

This long-keeping apple has been widely disseminated throughout the
West, and yet I do not find its history nor origin. It has been
exhibited at all our winter meetings, and finds favor on account of
its productiveness and its long-keeping properties. Tree healthy,
vigorous and productive--believed to be hardy. Its reputed foreign
origin is discredited.

Fruit medium, round, inclined to conical, regular; Surface smooth,
often shining, pale greenish-yellow, often faintly blushed, or
bronzed.

Basin shallow, generally regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity deep, narrow, regular, brown; Stem long, rather slender.

Core large, regular, heart-shaped, reaching the eye; Seeds numerous,
pointed, plump, brown; Flesh yellow, compact, fine, sufficiently
juicy; Quality fair; Use market and kitchen; Season spring and into
summer.


=Morton.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 185.--MORTON.]

This undescribed fruit appears to have originated in Clermont County,
Ohio. My specimens and trees came from my worthy friend, Wm. E. Mears,
of Milford, Ohio.

Tree vigorous, healthy, round top, spreading, productive; Shoots
rather slender; Leaves rich green, abundant.

Fruit large, round, regular; Surface smooth, green, becoming yellow,
with a dull bronzy blush; Dots gray and brown.

Basin shallow, or deep and abrupt, regular or plaited; Eye medium,
closed.

Cavity acute, regular, brown; Stem rather slender, often long.

Core very small, regular, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds not numerous,
flat, angular; Flesh white, tender, juicy; Flavor rather sweet, rich,
agreeable; Season December to January. Worthy of cultivation.


=Paradise Summer Sweet.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 186.--PARADISE SUMMER SWEET.]

Origin Eastern Pennsylvania. Tree upright, vigorous, productive.

Fruit large, oblate-globular, regular; Surface greenish-yellow; Dots
numerous, large, white.

Basin shallow, wide, folded; Eye small, closed.

Cavity deep, regular, acute, green; Stem long, inclined, yellow.

Core medium, regular, round, clasping; Seeds plump; Flesh yellow,
melting, juicy; Flavor rich, sweet; Quality best; Use table and
kitchen; Season August, September.


=Paradise Winter Sweet.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 187.--PARADISE WINTER SWEET.]

Origin believed to be similar to its predecessor--Lancaster County,
Pennsylvania.

Fruit large, globular, often unequal; Surface smooth, yellowish-white;
Dots scattered, minute.

Basin abrupt, regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, brown; Stem long, slender.

Core large, wide, open, clasping; Seeds plump and dark; Flesh white,
tender, breaking, juicy; Flavor very sweet; Quality good; Use, baking
and stock; Season, December to March.


=Tallman's Sweet.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 188.--TALLMAN'S SWEET.]

This favorite baking apple of New England has traveled from Rhode
Island wherever her hardy sons have gone westward.

Tree hardy, very productive.

Fruit medium to large, nearly round, somewhat flattened, regular;
Surface smooth, yellow; Dots minute, dark; frequently a distinct line
on one side from stem to eye.

Basin wide, regular, leather-cracked; Eye small, closed.

Cavity rather wide, regular; Stem medium size, long.

Core heart-shaped, regular, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous, plump,
pointed, dark; Flesh yellow, breaking, firm; Flavor very sweet, rich;
Quality good; Use, baking and stock; Season, December and January.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS III.--ROUND APPLES.

+ORDER I.--REGULAR.+

SECTION 1.--SWEET.

SUB-SECTION 2.--STRIPED.


=Bentley Sweet.=

This long-keeping sweet apple was received in Eastern Ohio from some
part of Virginia, where it is supposed to have originated.

Tree quite vigorous, upright while young, spreading, productive--an
early bearer.

Fruit medium to large, globular, truncated, slightly flattened,
regular; Surface smooth, yellow, or greenish, covered, mixed,
blotched, striped and splashed dull red, becoming brighter when ripe;
Dots minute.

Basin medium, abrupt, regular; Eye medium, open; Calyx reflexed.

Cavity deep, acute, regular; Stem slender, long.

Core round, flattened, regular, closed; Seeds numerous, plump, long;
Flesh yellowish-white, firm, breaking, fine-grained; Flavor sweet;
Quality good to very good; Season spring and all summer until
September. Keeps sound.


=Bowling Sweet.=

From Spottsylvania County, Virginia. Tree vigorous, very productive.

Fruit medium roundish, dull red on yellow; Flesh rich, juicy, sweet;
Entirely free from acid; October to January.--[H.R. Robey, in
Downing.]


=Cullasaga.=

Origin Macon County, North Carolina. Good grower; a standard winter
fruit for the South.

Fruit medium or large, roundish, inclining to oval, flattened at base
and crown, skin yellowish, mostly shaded and striped with dark
crimson, and sprinkled with whitish dots; Stem small and short,
inserted in a deep cavity, surrounded by russet; Calyx open, set in a
shallow, corrugated basin; Flesh yellow, tender, juicy, with a very
mild, rich, almost saccharine flavor. January to April.--[Downing.]


=Gilpin.=

CARTHOUSE--LITTLE RED ROMANITE.

    [Illustration: Fig. 189.--GILPIN.]

This valuable Virginia apple was cultivated and distributed by Coxe,
and has found its way into the orchards and into favor all over the
country, on account of its productiveness and early bearing.

Tree remarkably vigorous, strongly branched, spreading, open, round
head, very productive; shoots stout, dark; foliage rather sparse,
somewhat curled and glaucous.

Fruit medium, small on old trees, round, truncated at the ends, making
it look cylindrical, mostly symmetrical, but large specimens often
somewhat irregular; Surface very smooth, often polished, deep red all
over, stripes indistinct; Dots minute, indented.

Basin wide, regular, or folded; Eye small, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, regular, brown; Stem very short.

Core medium, round, regular, closed; Seeds few, large, plump; Flesh
greenish-yellow, firm, juicy; Flavor sweet, rich; Quality poor for
dessert, though it is eatable in the spring--valuable for its cider
from the richness of the must. Keeps sound until May--bruises do not
rot as in other apples. Valuable also for stock.

Its early bearing makes it very desirable in a new country, and in the
prairies it has received the soubriquet of "_Dollars and Cents_."


=Hall.=

HALL'S SEEDLING--HALL'S RED.

    [Illustration: Fig. 190.--HALL.]

From Franklin County, North Carolina, and now being spread throughout
the Western States as a fruit of great promise.

Tree medium size, sufficiently thrifty, upright, hardy, very
productive; Shoots long, rather slender, reddish, wood firm.
Introduced into the West by the venerable R. Ragan, of Fillmore,
Indiana. The specimens from which the following description was made
were sent by J.S. Downer, of Elkton, Kentucky, from whom also my trees
were obtained. Mr. J.P. Wilson, of Olney, Ill., says, it originated in
Saline County, of that State, with Jonathan Hall, about forty years
ago. [?]

Fruit small, round, slightly conical, regular; Surface smooth, yellow,
covered with bright red, mixed and striped; Dots numerous, large,
yellow.

Basin shallow, wavy or plaited, leather-cracked; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, regular, brown; Stem long, slender.

Core pyriform, regular, slightly open, clasping; Seeds large, plump;
Flesh yellow, tender, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor sub-acid, rich,
agreeable; Quality almost best; Use, table; Season, December to April.


=Ladies' Sweeting.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 191.--LADIES' SWEETING.]

This prime favorite of Chas. Downing originated near Newburgh, New
York. Though having many admirers, it finds strong competitors in the
_Broadwell_, _Paradise Winter_, and some others of the same season.

Tree thrifty, productive.

Fruit large, round, somewhat conic, occasionally angular; Surface
smooth, light yellow, striped and splashed with bright red; Dots
distinct, large, gray.

Basin medium, often abrupt, folded; Eye very small, closed.

Cavity medium or wide, regular, brown; Stem short, or long and
slender.

Core medium, round, closed or open, clasping; Seeds numerous (16),
angular; Flesh white, crisp, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor sweet,
agreeable; Quality only good (to my taste); Use, table, baking and
stock feeding; Season, December.


=Scarlet Sweet.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 192.--SCARLET SWEET.]

This delicate fruit was received from _my good friend_ Jas. Edgerton,
of Barnesville, Ohio, who had exhibited it at the State Pomological
Society at different times.

Fruit medium, round, somewhat flattened, regular; Surface smooth,
yellow, striped and blushed scarlet; Dots minute.

Basin wide, abrupt, regular; Eye medium, open; segments short.

Cavity deep, acute, regular, brown; Stem medium, slender.

Core rather wide, regular, closed, clasping the eye; Seeds numerous,
plump, angular; Flesh yellow, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor sweet;
Quality good to very good; Uses, table, baking and market; Season,
October to December.

This is different from the _Scarlet Sweeting_ of Sigler, of Morgan
County, Ohio--more like Hampton's Scarlet Sweet, of M.S. notes.


=Sweet Janet.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 193.--SWEET JANET.]

This is another of the fine fruits originated by Reuben Ragan, of
Indiana, from seed of _Rawle's Janet_. Tree large, healthy, vigorous,
spreading; Shoots rather stout, brown; foliage rich green. Annually
productive of fine, fair fruits, which are well distributed and hold
well.

Fruit large, round, somewhat conical, regular; Surface smooth, covered
with rich red or crimson, mixed and striped; Dots numerous, rather
large, yellow, indented.

Basin regular or plaited; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity rather deep, very narrow, wavy; Stem quite short.

Core medium, turbinate, regular, slightly open, clasping; Seeds
numerous, angular, pointed; Flesh yellow, breaking, juicy; Flavor very
sweet; Quality good to very good; Use, baking, market; Season,
December and January. Very profitable.


=Sweet Romanite.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 194.--SWEET ROMANITE.]

Origin unknown. Grown in Illinois; introduced at the State Society by
the lamented Cyrus R. Overman, President--much esteemed by him.

Fruit medium, round, sometimes flattened or truncate, regular; Surface
smooth, greenish-yellow, blushed, mixed bright red and dull red,
stripes indistinct; Dots scattered, irregular, brown or fawn on the
deeper colors.

Basin medium, or deep and abrupt, folded, plaited; Eye small, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, wavy, brown; Stem medium to long, green.

Core roundish, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous, plump, angular; Flesh
yellow, fine-grained, breaking, juicy; Flavor very sweet; Quality good
to very good; Use, baking, cider, table and stock; Season, December to
April.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS III.--ROUND APPLES.

+ORDER I.--REGULAR.+

SECTION 1.--SWEET.

SUB-SECTION 3.--RUSSET.


=Orange Sweeting or Russet.=

An eastern variety--not much cultivated.

Fruit large, very round, regular; Surface greenish-yellow,
bronzy-orange, russeted; Dots numerous, white, green bases.

Basin shallow, regular, or plaited; Eye small, closed.

Cavity acute, lipped, wavy; Stem short, green.

Core very large, turbinate, open, clasping; Seeds numerous, pointed,
pale; Flesh green, rather tough, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor sweet;
Quality good--for baking especially; Season, December.


=Pumpkin Russet.=

Fruit large, globular, regular; Surface covered with coarse russeting;
Flesh spongy, light, very sweet; Used for baking and apple butter;
Season, autumn. Not valuable, except for stock.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS III.--ROUND APPLES.

+ORDER I.--REGULAR.+

SECTION 2.--SOUR.

SUB-SECTION 1.--SELF-COLORED OR BLUSHED.


=Ashmore.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 195.--ASHMORE.]

The origin of this fine dessert fruit is not known. Though not
commonly cultivated, it is considerably scattered, and has come to me
from several points in the West with different local names.

Tree vigorous, upright, with long parallel branches that become
spreading. Shoots rather slender, foliage rich green.

Fruit rather large, handsome, round, frequently flattened, regular,
rarely angular; Surface smooth, polished, very light waxen yellow,
almost wholly covered with brilliant lively carmine, very rarely an
indistinct stripe; Dots minute, gray, indented.

Basin medium, often wavy or even folded; Eye small, closed; Segments
reflexed.

Cavity narrow, acute, regular or wavy; Stem medium to short.

Core indistinct, closed; Seeds plump; Flesh yellowish-white, crisp,
tender, very fine-grained, juicy; Flavor sub-acid, very agreeable;
Quality best, though not rich; Uses, table, kitchen and market;
Season, September and October; May be kept into winter.

There is also a _Striped Ashmore_, resembling this in every respect,
except in the distinct stripe. It is supposed to be a sport from the
above. Both varieties have been propagated to some extent by suckers
or sprouts.


=Bledsoe.=

From Carroll County, Kentucky; Sent to Ohio by Lewis Sanders. Tree
moderately vigorous, spreading, productive.

Fruit large, round, somewhat conical, flattened at the base, regular;
Surface greenish-yellow.

Basin sometimes folded; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity deep, brown; Stem short.

Flesh white, fine-grained, crisp, juicy; Flavor mild sub-acid,
agreeable; Quality good--Kentucky Horticultural Society say "very
good;" Season, September to April.


=Bush.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 196.--BUSH.]

Received from W.G. Waring, Tyrone, Pennsylvania. Supposed to be a
seedling of Centre County. "Tree vigorous, hardy, thrifty, regularly
productive."--[W.G.W.]

Fruit large, fair, round, regular; Surface smooth, waxy yellow,
occasionally a faint blush; Dots minute, rare.

Basin wavy; Eye medium to small, closed.

Cavity deep, wavy, brownish; Stem long, slender, yellow.

Core medium, round, rather open, meeting the eye; Seeds few, plump,
dark; Flesh whitish, tender, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor mild
sub-acid, agreeable; Quality very good; Season August and September.

Mr. Waring considers it one of the best of the season, in which
opinion I unite.


=Cornish Aromatic.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 197.--CORNISH AROMATIC.]

This foreign variety was imported and tested at Louisville, Kentucky,
by Mr. George Heinsohn, to whom I am indebted for specimens of other
European varieties.

Fruit medium to large, roundish, a little flattened, regular; Surface
smooth, yellow, washed rich red; Dots and spots yellow russet.

Basin medium, abrupt, regular or furrowed; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity medium depth, narrow; Stem medium to long, slender.

Core medium, somewhat open, clasping; Seeds large, plump, angular;
Flesh yellow, breaking, juicy; Flavor sub-acid, aromatic, spicy;
Season November to February.


=Duffield Pippin.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 198.--DUFFIELD PIPPIN.]

Specimens from my friend T.T. Lyon, of Michigan, who says it is a
seedling that originated in Pennsylvania, at the beginning of the
present century, with the ancestors of Geo. Duffield, D.D., for whom
it was named, when it received a first premium at the Michigan State
Fair, as a valuable winter variety.

Fruit large, handsome, round, sometimes conic, regular; Surface
smooth, yellowish-green, blushed; Dots scattered; minute, indented.

Basin abrupt, narrow, folded; Eye small, closed.

Cavity deep, narrow, acute; Stem medium to long.

Core closed, clasping; Seeds plump, brown; Flesh yellow, breaking,
juicy; Flavor sub-acid; Quality good; Uses table, kitchen and market;
Season January to April.


=Fall Pippin.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 199.--FALL PIPPIN.]

It is unfortunate that since the days of Coxe there should have been a
confounding of this noble and delicious American apple with the
inferior foreign kitchen variety: the Holland Pippin.

Tree exceedingly vigorous, large, wide-branching, open head, not early
bearer, moderately productive when old; Shoots stout, dark; Leaves
large, broad.

Fruit large to very large, handsome, globular, truncated, making it
cylindrical, regular; Surface smooth, rich yellow, rarely blushed
South, frequently so North, with skin finer; Dots minute, gray.

Basin deep, abrupt, regular, marked with concentric rings which often
crack open in large southern specimens; Eye large, open; Segments
short.

Cavity wide, regular, or narrow, deep; Stem long.

Core large, regular, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds pointed, often
imperfect; Flesh yellow, breaking, compact, very fine-grained; Flavor
acid, becoming sub-acid, aromatic, delicious; Quality best for
dessert, kitchen, market and drying; Season September to December.


=Fall Swaar.=--[OF THE WEST.]

    [Illustration: Fig. 200.--FALL SWAAR.]

The origin of this apple is unknown. Like many others of our Western
fruits, which have been received from various sources, and often from
unreliable persons, and with wrong names, we have been obliged to
re-christen this.

Fruit full medium to large, round, somewhat flattened, regular,
handsome; Surface smooth, yellowish-green, with a bronzy blush; Dots
numerous, large, gray.

Basin medium, regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity medium, acute, regular, green; Stem medium to long, knobbed.

Core rather small, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous, large, plump;
Flesh yellow, breaking, juicy; Flavor mild sub-acid, agreeable;
Quality good; Uses table and kitchen; Season September.


=Gloucester White.=

This Virginia apple was highly prized by Coxe for its qualities as a
cider fruit. Not having seen it, his description is quoted:

"This apple is of middling size, of a shape not very uniform, varying
from oblong to flat; the color when ripe is a bright yellow, with
clouds of black spots; the flesh is yellow, rich, breaking, and juicy;
of a fine flavor as a table apple, and producing cider of an exquisite
taste. The stalk is of the ordinary length, inserted in a cavity of
medium depth; the crown is moderately deep. The time of ripening is
about the first of October, after which the fruit soon falls and is
fit for cider. It does not keep long, but while in season is a
delicious table apple. The tree is very thrifty, hardy and vigorous,
of a regular and beautiful form, and very productive. It is much
cultivated in the lower counties of Virginia, from whence I procured
it, as an apple of high reputation."


=Horse.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 201.--HORSE.]

Another southern favorite, much liked by its western cultivators,
especially as a useful family apple.

Fruit large, round, somewhat conical, truncated, uneven; Surface
yellow; Dots scattered, indented, large, gray and greenish.

Basin abrupt, folded; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, wavy, brown; Stem medium to long.

Core large, somewhat open, clasping; Seeds numerous, medium, plump,
brown; Flesh yellow, breaking, fine, juicy; Flavor sub-acid; Quality
good; Use, kitchen, market and drying; Season, August, September.


=Hunge.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 202.--HUNGE.]

This southern apple was received from Mr. S.W. Westbrooke,
Greensboro', North Carolina.

Fruit large, round, somewhat flattened, regular; Surface smooth,
greenish-yellow, blushed; Dots scattered, white.

Basin regular, abrupt; Eye small, closed, very long; Calyx reflexed.

Cavity wide, wavy; Stem short, slender.

Core large, wide, irregular, open, clasping; Seeds numerous, angular,
plump; Flesh white, fine-grained, tender, juicy; Flavor sub-acid,
mild; Quality pretty good; Use, table, kitchen, drying; Season,
September.


=Knickerbocker.=

Specimens from W.S. Carpenter, New York.

Fruit above medium, roundish, conic, unequal; Surface smooth,
greenish-yellow; Dots numerous, minute, distinct, whitish, indented.

Basin abrupt, wavy, folded; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity wide, wavy, brown; Stem long, slender, green.

Core very wide, closed, clasping the eye; Axis short; Seeds angular,
pale; Flesh greenish-yellow, tender, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor
sub-acid, rich, very agreeable; Quality best; Use, table, kitchen;
Season, October.


=Long Island Pippin.=

Origin unknown. Specimens received from T.T. Lyon, Plymouth, Michigan.

Fruit large, roundish, flattened, regular; Surface smooth
yellowish-green; Dots minute, scattered.

Basin abrupt, deep, regular; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity medium, regular, green; Stem medium to long.

Core large, oval, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous, pointed, angular,
pale; Flesh greenish-yellow, breaking, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor
sub-acid; Quality almost best; Use, table; Season, January.


=Lowell.=

TALLOW PIPPIN, QUEEN ANNE, &C.

Origin unknown.

Tree vigorous, healthy, round-headed; Foliage yellowish green.

Fruit large, round, slightly conic, truncated, regular; Surface
smooth, waxy yellow, not blushed or bronzed, becoming greasy when kept
indoors; Dots numerous, green.

Basin deep, abrupt, regular; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity medium, regular, green; Stem long, slender.

Core medium, oval, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous, angular, pointed,
pale; Flesh yellow, tender, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor sub-acid,
aromatic; Quality very good; Use, table, cooking, drying, market;
Season, August, September.


=McAdow's June.=--[Local Name.]

Specimens received from Chillicothe, Ohio. Thought at one time to be
Tetofski, but the descriptions do not correspond.

Fruit medium to small, globular, slightly conical, regular; Surface
smooth, greenish, yellow, blushed; Dots numerous, large, white.

Basin medium, wavy; Eye small, closed.

Cavity rather wide, regular; Stern long, stout.

Core small, round, closed, not meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, brown;
Flesh yellow, tender, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor sub-acid; Use,
kitchen, table; Quality good; Season, June, July; one of the earliest.

Pomologists have been in doubt whether this may not be the Tetofski.
Comparison should be made of the tree characters.


=Michigan Golden.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 203.--MICHIGAN GOLDEN.]

This beautiful apple was received from the accurate pomologist, T.T.
Lyon, of Plymouth.

Fruit large, globular, slightly conic, truncated and somewhat angular;
Surface smooth, becoming greasy, greenish yellow; Dots minute,
prominent.

Basin abrupt, folded; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, wavy; Stem long, inclined.

Core medium, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous, long, pointed; Flesh
yellow, breaking, juicy; Flavor sub-acid; Quality nearly best; Use,
table, kitchen; Season, September to November.


=Monmouth Pippin.=

RED CHEEK.

    [Illustration: Fig. 204.--MONMOUTH PIPPIN.]

Fruit rather large, handsome, roundish or flattened, regular; Surface
smooth, greenish yellow, blushed and marbled; Dots minute, green.

Basin shallow, regular; Eye large, closed.

Cavity wide, regular or wavy, brown; Stem short, thick.

Core medium, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous, pointed, brown; Flesh
white, breaking, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor acid; Quality good for
cooking only; Season, December to February.


=Newtown Pippin.=

GREEN NEWTOWN.

This is probably the original Newtown Pippin, but by no means the more
common, which is the _Yellow Newtown Pippin_, to be described in
another place.

Fruit medium to large, globular, flattened, sometimes obscurely
ribbed; Surface smooth, green, becoming yellowish green when fully
ripe, sometimes bronzy, and always showing white irregular striæ near
the base when first gathered; Dots scattered, minute, dark.

Basin shallow, folded; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, wavy, brown; Stem long, slender.

Core round, regular, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds pointed, plump,
dark; Flesh greenish white, crisp, tender, juicy; Flavor acid,
aromatic, rich, very agreeable; Quality best; Use, dessert, cooking;
Season, December to March.


=Roman Stem.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 205.--ROMAN STEM.]

Origin Burlington, New Jersey. Tree moderately vigorous, very
productive.

Fruit medium, globular, regular; Surface smooth, yellow, often
blushed; Dots minute, dark.

Basin shallow, regular, or wavy, russet; Eye small, closed.

Cavity acute, lipped; Stem long.

Core rather large, heart-shaped, regular, clasping; Seeds numerous,
plump; Flesh yellowish white, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor mild
sub-acid, rich; Quality good to very good; Use, table; Season,
December, January.


=Royal Pearmain.=

We have two different apples bearing this name, both very promising
and desirable sorts. I shall, in this place, attempt to describe the
one mentioned by Coxe, as my specimens are traced back to his nursery,
though coming to the West by way of Georgia.

Fruit full medium to large, globular, rather flattened, regular;
Surface not smooth, of a rich yellow, finely blushed, with carmine
more or less diffused over the fruit, and overspread with a very thin
russet; Dots medium, prominent, brown.

Basin medium, folded; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity acute, brown; Stem medium to long.

Flesh rich yellow, firm, juicy; Flavor acid, sprightly; Quality very
good; Use, table; Season, October to February.


=Virginia Quaker.=

This very fine little apple was obtained from H.N. Gillett, Lawrence
County, Ohio. Origin not known.

Fruit quite small, globular, flattened, slightly conic, regular;
Surface smooth, greenish yellow; Dots scattered, minute, black.

Basin shallow, plaited; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide; Stem medium.

Core ovate, closed; Seeds medium; Flesh yellowish white, firm,
breaking; Flavor sub-acid; Quality good, Mr. Gillett says, best;
Season, mid-summer.


=Voss' Winter.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 206.--VOSS' WINTER.]

Southern. The specimens were obtained from Mr. Westbrooke, of North
Carolina.

Fruit medium to large, globular, unequal; Surface smooth, white, with
leather-cracking, and a heavy bloom; Dots minute, irregular, brown.

Basin abrupt, deep, wavy; Eye small, closed.

Cavity deep, wavy, brown; Stem long, curved.

Core small, regular, closed, clasping; Seeds irregular; Flesh whitish
yellow, firm, juicy; Flavor sub-acid; Quality good; Use, table and
kitchen; Season, December.


=White Pippin.=--[Of Kentucky.]

Fruit large, globular, somewhat oblate, regular; Surface smooth,
green, becoming pale yellow, sometimes faintly blushed; Dots numerous,
white, rather large.

Basin small, abrupt, regular; Eye very small, long, slender, closed.

Cavity acute, regular, green; Stem medium, regular, knobby.

Core round, regular, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous, long, pointed,
angular, brown; Flesh white, breaking, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor
acid; Quality good; Use, market and kitchen; Season, December,
January.


=Wilson.=--[Of Michigan.]

Fruit large, round, slightly conic, regular; Surface smooth, golden
yellow; Dots scattered, dark.

Basin small, folded; Eye long, closed.

Cavity wide, very deep, wavy, green; Stem medium or short, crooked.

Core small, globular, open, clasping; Axis short; Seeds numerous,
plump, short; Flesh very yellow, breaking, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor
sub-acid, rich; Quality best; Use, the dessert; Season, January and
February.


=Yellow Ingestrie.=

This old English variety has been propagated pretty extensively in the
Northwest, and though too small for a profitable market fruit, it has
been found desirable on account of its early and abundant
productiveness.

Fruit small, globular, truncated, regular; Surface smooth, lemon
yellow; Dots minute.

Basin wide, shallow, folded; Eye medium, open; Segments reflexed.

Cavity acute, brown; Stem long, slender.

Core medium, oval, regular, closed, clasping; Seeds few, large, pale;
Flesh whitish yellow, breaking, juicy; Flavor sub-acid; Quality barely
good; Use, cooking; Season, September, October.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS III.--ROUND APPLES.

+ORDER I.--REGULAR.+

SECTION II.--SOUR.

SUB-SECTION II.--STRIPED.


=American Summer Pearmain.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 207.--AMERICAN SUMMER PEARMAIN.]

This delicious apple is supposed to be of American origin. It is
essentially a fruit for the amateur; being of slender and slow growth
in the nursery, it is not a favorite with the propagators, and though
making a large and productive tree in the orchard, it is not
profitable as a market variety.

Fruit medium, variable in form, being oblong, round, conic and even
oblate, regular or unequal; Surface smooth, greenish yellow, more or
less covered with dull purplish red, marbled, and made up of very
short splashes, with distinct stripes and splashes of brighter red;
Dots minute.

Basin medium, regular; Eye rather large, nearly closed; Segments
recurved.

Cavity rather deep, acute, regular; Stem medium to long.

Core small, roundish, closed; Seeds small, pointed; Flesh yellow,
exceedingly tender, almost melting, crisp, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor
very mild sub-acid, aromatic, deliciously refreshing; Quality best;
Use, the dessert; Season, August and September.


=Baccalinus.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 208.--BACCALINUS.]

Fruited by J.H. Crain, Pulaski County, Illinois, on trees nine years
old, which produced ten bushels apiece, showing its productiveness.

This valuable Southern keeper bids fair to become a great favorite.

Tree thrifty, very productive; Fruit small, globular, truncated,
regular, handsome; Surface smooth, mixed bright red, and splashed
crimson on pale yellow; Dots few, minute.

Basin shallow, wide, regular; Eye small but long, closed; Calyx
reflexed.

Cavity deep, regular, brown; Stem medium to long, slender.

Core medium, regular, closed, or slightly open, clasping; Seeds
numerous, angular, dark; Flesh yellow, firm, fine-grained, juicy;
Flavor sub-acid, agreeable; Use, dessert; Season, December till March
or longer; Quality very good.


=Beauty of Kent.=

A large English apple, well adapted to the kitchen. Tree upright,
vigorous, rather productive.

Fruit large to very large, roundish, flattened, somewhat conic,
regular; Surface greenish yellow, more or less covered with bright red
mixed, and splashed with a darker hue; Dots small.

Basin quite shallow, regular; Eye very small closed.

Cavity medium, acute, wavy, green; Stem medium to short.

Core regular, medium, ovate, slightly open, clasping the eye; Seeds
angular, imperfect; Flesh whitish yellow, breaking, juicy; Flavor
acid; Quality only good; Use, cooking and market, for which it is well
adapted by its size and appearance; Season, September and October.


=Ben Davis.=

NEW YORK PIPPIN, &C.

    [Illustration: Fig. 209.--BEN DAVIS.]

This handsome Southern apple has attained a wonderful notoriety within
a few years, and its culture has been greatly extended, not on account
of its superlative excellence, but because of its many good qualities
as an orchard tree or market fruit. It was long cultivated by Verry
Aldrich, in Bureau County, Illinois, and exhibited as _New York
Pippin_, which name gave an idea of its eastern origin, but in other
localities its relations point clearly to its source in the South. To
Mr. J.S. Downer we are indebted for a knowledge of its present name,
and for confirmation of its identity under its several synonyms. This
apple may be said to have succeeded as well in the northern parts of
Indiana and Illinois as in their southern borders, where it has long
been planted; though the northern orchards are still young, they are
very promising. The fruit is modified somewhat by a cooler climate,
and will keep later than that grown in the South.

Tree remarkably healthy and vigorous, an upright, rapid grower in the
nursery, and has numerous short spur-branches along the stem. In the
orchard the limbs are set very strongly, and the stems are marked by
little mammillar projections or knobs, that are very characteristic.
Tree large, spreading, productive, bears early; Shoots long, reddish
brown, smooth; Foliage large, dark green.

Fruit large, variable in form, round, often apparently oblong,
tapering to the eye, truncated, regular, sometimes inclined, generally
very true, as though turned in a lathe; Surface smooth, often
polished, yellow covered with mixed red, splashed bright red; Dots
minute, scattered.

Basin generally shallow, in large developed specimens deep, abrupt,
always regular; Eye large, open; Segments reflexed.

Cavity deep, acute, wavy, brown; Stem medium to long.

Core medium, regular, clasping the eye; Seeds large, plump; Flesh
whitish, breaking, tender, juicy; Flavor sub-acid, not rich; Quality
only good; Use, market, kitchen; Season, December, January and longer.


=Blackburn.=

Found in the markets at Louisville, Kentucky; not much seen elsewhere.
Origin unknown, probably Southern.

Fruit large, round, somewhat flattened; Surface dull looking, dull
green and gray, with broken stripes of dark dull red; Dots large, gray
about the apex.

Basin narrow, regular; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity rather deep, acute, brown; Stem medium, curved, rather stout.

Core flattened, open, clasping; Flesh white, crisp, juicy; Flavor
sub-acid, with a peculiar spicy, wild, rather astringent taste, that
diminishes with the maturity of the fruit; Quality considered good;
Use, family and market; Season September, November. _Blackburn_ is
sometimes used as a synonym of _Fall Queen_, a different fruit.


=Capital.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 210.--CAPITAL.]

A seedling of Z.S. Ragan, Clayton, Indiana.

Fruit small, globular, truncate at the ends, regular; Surface smooth,
deep red on greenish yellow; Stripes and Dots indistinct.

Basin wide, deep; Eye medium, open, elongated.

Cavity wide, acute, regular; Stem medium.

Core round, open, clasping; Seeds numerous, pointed; Flesh yellow,
breaking, juicy; Flavor sub-acid, rich; Quality good; Use, the
dessert; Season, December and January.


=Carter.=--[Of Massachusetts.]

    [Illustration: Fig. 211.--CARTER.]

Specimens from Luke Lincoln, of Leominster, Mass.

Fruit medium, round, flattened, slightly angular; Surface smooth,
yellow, mixed and splashed scarlet; Dots rare, minute.

Basin shallow, folded; Eye small, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, wavy; Stem long.

Core rather large, regular, closed, clasping; Seeds plump and
imperfect, pointed; Flesh yellowish white, breaking, juicy; Flavor
sub-acid, aromatic; Quality good; Use, table; Season, December,
January.


=Cary's Summer.=

This is probably an old variety, but it has not been identified.
Specimens from C.C. Cary, near Louisville, Kentucky.

Fruit large, round, flattened, regular; Surface smooth, rich yellow,
mixed, splashed, carmine; Dots scattered, minute.

Basin wide, wavy; Eye small, closed.

Cavity deep, narrow, wavy brown; Stem short.

Core medium, roundish, regular, open; Seeds numerous, plump; Flesh
yellow, tender, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor sub-acid; Quality very
good; Use, table, kitchen, market; Season, June to September.


=Cluster Pearmain.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 212.--CLUSTER PEARMAIN.]

Introduced by R. Ragan, of Indiana.

Fruit full medium, round, flattened, regular, inclined; Surface
yellowish green, mixed and striped light red; Dots large, numerous,
gray and yellow; white bloom.

Basin deep, abrupt, regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, regular, brown; Stem short.

Core medium, pyriform, nearly closed, clasping; Seeds numerous,
angular, dark; Flesh yellowish white, breaking, tender, granular;
Flavor sub-acid, aromatic; Quality good to very good; Use, table;
Season, September, October. A most acceptable substitute for Rambo, as
an amateur's fruit.


=Coggeswell.=

Origin near Norwich, Connecticut. Tree vigorous, upright, productive
on alternate years.

Fruit large, uniform, fair, beautiful, round, flattened, regular;
Surface smooth, striped red on yellow.

Basin shallow, small; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, brown; Stem short.

Flesh yellow, tender, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor mild sub-acid,
aromatic, rich; Quality best; Use, table; Season, December to March.

This fruit has been thought to resemble the Ohio _Nonpareil_, but I
think it is different.


=Cropsey's Favorite.=

Originated with D.W. Cropsey, Plainfield, Will County, Illinois.

Fruit full medium, globular, looking oblong, regular; Surface smooth,
yellow, mixed, splashed carmine; Dots few.

Basin medium, regular, russet; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, wavy, green; Stem short to medium.

Core roundish, heart-shaped, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds medium,
angular; Flesh yellow, breaking, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor sub-acid,
rich; Quality good to very good; Use, table, kitchen; Season,
December.


=Daniel.=

This delightful autumn dessert apple is grown in Henry County,
Indiana.

Fruit medium to small, round, flattened, regular; Surface smooth,
mixed scarlet on yellow, splashed carmine; Dots minute.

Basin shallow, regular; Eye medium, closed.

Core wide, regular, open; Seeds numerous, plump; Flesh yellow, very
fine-grained, tender, juicy; Flavor sub-acid, aromatic, delicious;
Quality best; Use, the dessert; Season, September.


=Dan Pearmain.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 213.--DAN PEARMAIN.]

This very beautiful seedling was procured by Reuben Ragan from near
the battle-field of Tippecanoe, Indiana, where it was found in a
seedling orchard.

Fruit medium to small, round, flattened, regular, fair and handsome;
Surface yellow, covered with bright red, mixed, striped and splashed;
Dots numerous, large, yellow, prominent.

Basin deep, regular or plaited; Eye small, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, regular, sometimes brown; Stem long, slender, red.

Core small, turbinate, closed; Seeds numerous, small, plump; Flesh
yellow, breaking, tender; Flavor very mild sub-acid, rich; Quality
almost best; Use, table, kitchen, market; on older trees too small for
profit; Season, December to March.


=Day.=

ROYAL PIPPIN.

From Reuben Ragan. Fruit large, round, somewhat conic, regular;
Surface smooth, yellow, striped, splashed, mottled, carmine; Dots
numerous, gray, large.

Basin shallow, folded; Eye small, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, green; Stem medium, clubbed.

Core wide, pyriform, slightly open, clasping; Seeds numerous, pointed,
angular, dark; Flesh yellowish white, firm, breaking, granular; Flavor
sub-acid; Quality good; Use, kitchen; Season, January. Not destined to
take a very high rank.


=Doctor Fulcher.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 214.--DOCTOR FULCHER.]

A Southern apple of some merit. Originated in Todd County, Kentucky.
Tree thrifty, an early and abundant bearer; Shoots slender; Foliage
bright green. Received from J.S. Downer, of Elkton, Kentucky.

Fruit medium, globular, truncated, regular; Surface smooth, yellow,
marbled, splashed carmine; Dots minute.

Basin shallow, wavy, russeted, cracked; Eye small, closed.

Cavity sometimes wide, wavy, brown; Stem medium to long.

Core large, turbinate, regular open, meeting the eye; Seeds large,
plump; Flesh yellow, fine-grained, tender, melting, juicy; Flavor
sub-acid, rich; Quality good, Downer says "best;" Use, table; Season,
December, January.


=Dutch Mignonne.=

REINETTE DOREE--And Several Others in Europe.

    [Illustration: Fig. 215.--DUTCH MIGNONNE.]

A fine large apple from Holland. Tree vigorous, upright, productive.

Fruit large or very large, roundish, flattened, sometimes conical,
truncated; Surface rough, yellow, covered with red, splashed with
bright red; Dots numerous, prominent, fawn-colored.

Basin wide, abrupt, regular; Eye short, wide, open; Segments short.

Cavity medium, acute, regular; Stem medium to long.

Core small, turbinate, regular, clasping; Seeds few, angular
imperfect; Flesh yellowish white, breaking, coarse-grained, juicy;
Flavor acid to sub-acid, rich; Quality good to very good; Use,
kitchen, market, drying; Season, September, October.


=Early Pennock.=

SHAKER YELLOW--HOMONY, of the South?

    [Illustration: Fig. 216.--EARLY PENNOCK.]

Origin unknown. Tree thrifty, upright, early bearer, productive, not
long-lived.

Fruit large, variable in form, being sometimes oval, and conical,
averaging roundish-conic, regular, handsome, sometimes inclined in the
axis; Surface smooth, yellow, partially covered with mixed and striped
scarlet, splashed carmine--often the yellow prevails; Dots numerous,
dark.

Basin shallow, plaited or regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity deep, regular, brown; Stem medium or short.

Core long, tapering to both ends, partially open in some, clasping the
eye; Seeds large, numerous, plump, dark; Flesh yellow, breaking,
rather coarse; Flavor acid; Quality poor; Use, market and kitchen;
Season, July and August.


=Fameuse.=

SNOW--CHIMNEY--POMME DE NEIGE.

This is a favorite Northern fruit of great beauty. Origin
uncertain--whether Canadian or French. It is greatly valued in the
North and Northwest as an early winter apple. Tree vigorous,
productive; Shoots red; Foliage dark, abundant.

Fruit medium, round, regular; Surface pale waxen yellow, almost wholly
covered deep red, made up of stripes and splashes that are not always
traceable in the depth of color--absent where a portion of the apple
has been shaded by a leaf; Dots minute.

Basin medium, regular; Eye very small, closed.

Cavity wide, wavy, green; Stem short.

Core medium, heart-shaped, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous,
pointed, rich brown; Flesh snowy white, very tender, fine-grained,
juicy; Flavor sub-acid, mild, delicately perfumed, not rich; Quality
good; Use, dessert, kitchen, market; Season, October to December.


=Farley Red.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 217.--FARLEY RED.]

A native of Kentucky, already somewhat extended northward. Tree
healthy, moderately thrifty, very productive, making it small.

Fruit small, round or oblong, flattened or truncated at the ends,
barrel shaped; Surface dull red stripes on yellow; Dots minute,
indented, purplish.

Basin shallow, folded or plaited; Eye small, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, wavy, brown; Stem medium.

Core regular, turbinate, open, clasping the point of the eye; Seeds
numerous, plump, angular; Flesh yellowish white, firm, juicy; Flavor
sub-acid; Quality only good; Use, Mr. R. Ragan finds it one of his
best market fruits; Season, March and April, keeping sound and very
salable.


=Glendale.=

Believed to have originated near Glendale, Hamilton County, Ohio,
where I obtained it from A.A. Mullet.

Tree vigorous, thrifty, spreading, well formed head, productive.

Fruit large, roundish, somewhat conical; Surface smooth, bright
yellow, striped and clouded with bright red; Dots small, russet.

Basin deep, abrupt; Eye small, closed.

Cavity medium, wavy, green; Stem long.

Core open; Seeds numerous, medium; Flesh yellowish, tender, juicy;
Flavor very mild sub-acid, almost saccharine, rich; Quality good; Use,
table; Season, September, October.


=Hagloe.=

This foreign variety has the general aspect of a Russian apple both in
tree and fruit.

Excellent for cooking, highly esteemed by the market gardeners of New
Jersey, where it is much grown.

Tree healthy, vigorous, round headed, productive; Shoots stout, blunt;
Foliage large, light green.

Fruit medium to large, round, somewhat flattened; Surface pale yellow,
distinctly striped and splashed bright red or carmine, covered with
white bloom.

Basin small, regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, regular; Stem short, thick.

Flesh whitish, not fine-grained, breaking, juicy; Flavor acid; Quality
good; Use, kitchen and market only; Season, August.


=Hannah.=

AUNT'S, not AUNT HANNAH of Massachusetts.

    [Illustration: Fig. 218.--HANNAH.]

This large and rather handsome fruit is found in many parts of the
country, but is not largely cultivated. Its occurrence among Southern
emigrants would lead us to suspect that they might have brought it
with them.

Fruit large, showy, round, somewhat flattened, regular, sometimes
unequal; Surface rather smooth, pale yellow, mixed, distinctly striped
and splashed crimson and carmine; Dots scattered, large, gray.

Basin medium, abrupt, regular, often slightly russeted; Eye medium but
long, closed.

Cavity wide, wavy, acute, deep, brown or green; Stem short to very
short.

Core round, flattened or wide, regular, open; Axis very short; Seeds
numerous, short, plump; Flesh light, yellowish white, breaking,
tender, juicy; Flavor sub-acid, aromatic, peculiar, not agreeable to
some palates; Quality only good; Use, kitchen, market, drying; Season,
October to December.


=Herefordshire Pearmain.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 219.--HEREFORDSHIRE PEARMAIN.]

This is supposed to be an old English variety which has reached
certain portions of the Western States from the East, though now
rarely seen there, as its place has been taken by other _Pearmains_ of
American origin and more vigor, such as the _Long Island Pearmain_,
described on another page. Tree slender and slow grower, medium size,
very productive.

Fruit small to medium, roundish, slightly conic, truncated sharply;
Surface smooth, deep red, splashes dark or maroon on rich yellow,
which only shows where the fruit has been shaded by a leaf; Dots
numerous, small, yellow.

Basin wide, regular, abrupt; Eye medium, open, reflexed.

Cavity medium, regular or wavy, green; Stem mostly short, stout,
sometimes quite thick.

Core wide, turbinate, closed, regular, clasping the eye; Seeds
numerous, small, pointed, dark, some imperfect; Flesh deep yellow,
firm, breaking, very fine-grained, juicy; Flavor rich, sub-acid,
aromatic, vinous, spicy, very agreeable; Quality best; Use, dessert;
Season, December to February.

Especially adapted to amateur collections.


=Hewes' Crab.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 220.--HEWES' CRAB.]

From Virginia. A famous cider apple, found in all extensive and good
cider orchards. Tree of slender growth, but makes a large, spreading
top, immensely productive alternate years, long lived; Twigs slender;
Foliage sparse.

Fruit quite small, round, somewhat flattened, regular; Surface mixed,
striped, purplish red on yellow; Dots numerous, large, pale or fawn.

Basin shallow; Eye small, closed.

Cavity deep, regular; Stem long, red.

Core round, regular, open, clasping; Seeds large, pointed; Flesh firm,
yellowish and greenish, juicy; Flavor acid, rich; the must is very
heavy; Quality best for cider; Season, November to January. Also
useful for cooking, except on account of its small size; the rich and
piquant acid makes it a particularly desirable ingredient in
mince-pies.

In Kentucky there is a variety of this apple known as _Beeler's Crab_,
with fruit of similar characters, but the tree is a better grower.


=Hubbardston.=

HUBBARDSTON NONSUCH.

    [Illustration: Fig. 221.--HUBBARDSTON.]

This fine apple originated in Hubbardston, Massachusetts. Tree
vigorous, healthy, productive, early bearer, round-leaved, branching.
At one time this and the Baldwin were confounded and mixed in some
Western collections.

Fruit large, fair, handsome, round, somewhat ovate, tapering both ways
from the middle, regular; Surface often uneven, yellow, covered with
mixed red and broken stripes, presenting a rich brownish appearance;
Dots scattered, gray, prominent.

Basin abrupt, wide, regular, leather-cracked, or russeted, or both;
Eye medium or small, open.

Cavity wide, regular, brown; Stem medium or short.

Core large, heart-shaped, regular, sometimes partially open, clasping
the eye; Seeds few, pointed; Flesh yellow, breaking, fine grained,
juicy; Flavor acid, sub-acid, rich; Quality very good; Use, cooking
early, table when perfectly ripe; Season, November, December.


=Krowser.=

Origin Berks County, Pennsylvania, where I found it very popular as a
productive winter apple for all purposes. Tree vigorous, healthy,
large, spreading, and very productive.

Fruit medium to large, round, slightly conic, regular; Surface rather
smooth, pale yellow, nearly covered with red, and splashed carmine.

Basin small, folded; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity medium; Stem short to medium.

Flesh whitish, tender, juicy; Flavor mild sub-acid, rich, agreeable;
Use, a good market fruit; Season, December to March.


=Large Striped Pearmain.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 222.--LARGE STRIPED PEARMAIN.]

This choice Western apple is supposed to have originated in
Kentucky--possibly further South. It is now to be found in Eastern
Ohio, Southern Indiana and Illinois, and in Missouri. Much grown in
Kentucky. In all places it seems to be doing well, and giving entire
satisfaction, excepting that the bark bursts near the ground even in
bearing trees, root-grafted.

Tree vigorous, thrifty, spreading, productive; Shoots rather slender,
dark; Foliage dark green, abundant on young trees.

Fruit large, round, flattened, regular, fair, handsome, though not so
beautifully colored as some others; Surface smooth, mixed, splashed
and striped, pale purplish red on yellow, which shows through the
shading; Dots minute, indented, gray, so that the fruit has a general
gray appearance.

Basin medium, regular, sometimes cracked; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, wavy, rather deep, brown; Stem short, medium, or rather
long.

Core roundish, medium, regular, open; Seeds numerous, large, angular,
some imperfect; Flesh yellow, breaking, somewhat coarse-grained,
juicy; Flavor sub-acid; Quality quite good; Use, market, kitchen,
table; Season, December to February.

In the West it is more flattened than in Ohio, becoming in large
specimens almost a flat or oblate apple. Highly recommended for
commercial orchards, whether for shipping North or South--particularly
the latter.


=Lewis.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 223.--LEWIS.]

This delicious apple originated in Decatur County, Indiana, near
Greensburgh, and was introduced to my notice by one of the early
pomologists of the region, a nurseryman by the name of Lewis, from
whom I obtained my trees after he had introduced me to the original,
which I found to be vigorous, healthy, upright, spreading and
productive.

The fruit was described in the _Western Horticultural Review_ for
1852, before I was aware that my friend Reuben Ragan had an apple of
the same name; nevertheless, this, by priority of publication, will
stand, unless there should prove to be another Lewis that can claim
seniority of publication. I distinguish the other apple by calling it
Lewis of Ragan; it is in another class.--[See Downing, p. 164.]

Fruit medium to large, round, somewhat ovate, regular; Surface smooth,
yellow, striped and marbled scarlet; Dots scattered, gray and yellow.

Basin deep, abrupt, regular; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity acute, deep, regular; Stem long, slender.

Core regular, oval, heart-shaped, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds
numerous, plump, brown; Flesh yellow, very tender, crisp, juicy;
Flavor acid to sub-acid, rich, delicious; Quality best; Use, table
and kitchen; Season, August. Marked in my notes "One of the very best
of the new apples."


=Liberty.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 224.--LIBERTY.]

This valuable market variety originated near Columbus, Ohio, where it
was brought into notice by M.B. Bateham, the excellent Secretary of
the Ohio Pomological Society, and founder of the Columbus Nurseries.

Tree vigorous, healthy, large, spreading and productive; believed to
be entirely hardy.

Fruit full medium to large, globular, inclining to oblong in
appearance, turbinated or flattened at the ends, regular; Surface not
smooth, yellow, covered with dull red and scarlet, mixed and splashed,
stripes indistinct; Dots minute, gray, prominent.

Basin medium, quite shallow, regular, indistinctly leather-cracked;
Eye small, closed.

Cavity medium, acute, wavy; Stem medium, inclined.

Core small, oval, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, pointed;
Flesh yellow, breaking, rather coarse, juicy; Flavor acid to sub-acid;
Quality good; Use, market and kitchen or table; Season, January to
March, or later.


=Lyscom.=

Origin Massachusetts. This pleasant dessert apple is not generally
known.

Fruit large, roundish, flattened, regular; Surface smooth, yellowish,
striped and splashed with red.

Basin large, plaited; Eye large.

Cavity deep, regular; Stem short.

Flesh whitish, fine-grained, tender, juicy; Flavor mild sub-acid,
agreeable; Quality good; Use, table and kitchen; Season, September to
November.


=Margil.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 225.--MARGIL.]

A famous old English dessert apple, rarely seen in this country, but
much better adapted for the closing of a feast than many which are
more pretentious in style and imposing in size. Certainly much more
economical to him who provides even at a higher price per bushel than
those which are too large to be eaten, and are only cut to be left on
the table and wasted. Tree of slender growth, but very productive.

Fruit quite small, round, somewhat conic, abruptly truncated, regular;
Surface smooth, red, mixed and striped; Dots yellow, prominent.

Basin wide, shallow, regular; Eye small, open; Calyx reflexed.

Cavity wide, not deep, regular, brown; Stem long.

Core turbinate, regular, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous,
pointed, long; Flesh yellow, crisp, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor
sub-acid, rich, aromatic, very agreeable; Quality best; Season,
November to January.


=Meach.=

From Vermont; Fruit large, roundish, conic; Skin greenish-yellow,
striped and mottled with light red, and sprinkled with brown dots;
Stalk long, rather slender, set in a pretty large cavity; Calyx closed
in a corrugated basin; Flesh yellowish, rather fine, juicy, rich,
mild, sub-acid, aromatic; October and November.--[Downing.]


=McKinley.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 226.--M'KINLEY.]

Highly esteemed by Reuben Ragan, of Indiana, who finds it profitable.

Fruit medium, roundish, flattened, slightly conic, regular; Surface,
smooth, dull red on greenish-yellow, stripes indistinct; Dots
scattered, large, gray.

Basin regular, shallow; Eye large, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, regular, brown; Stem slender, medium to short.

Core medium, ovate, regular, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous,
plump, brown; Flesh breaking, very fine-grained, very juicy; Flavor
sub-acid, good; Quality good to very good; Use, table; Season,
December and January.


=Mexico.=

Origin Canterbury, Connecticut. Tree hardy, productive. Not much known
in the West.

Fruit--obtained from E. Newburg, Brooklyn, Connecticut--medium, round,
regular; Surface bright crimson-red, striped darker; Dots numerous,
yellow-green.

Basin shallow, regular; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity acute, regular; Stem long or medium, slender.

Core large, open, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, angular, pointed;
Flesh white, tender, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor sub-acid; Quality
best; Use, table; Season, August and September.


=Monk's Favorite.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 227.--MONK'S FAVORITE.]

This large, showy apple originated in Delaware County, Indiana, and
was introduced to the public by Dr. J.C. Helme, of the State
Horticultural Society.

It was described in the _Western Horticultural Review_, some years
ago, as a promising fruit, and was favorably noticed at the time of
its introduction, but has not yet been sufficiently known for general
recommendation.

Tree vigorous, upright, spreading, productive.

Fruit large, globular, flattened, regular; Surface smooth, yellow,
pretty well covered with stripes and splashes of bright red; Dots
medium, ragged, gray, scattering.

Basin medium, regular; Eye medium, open.

Cavity wide, wavy; Stem medium to long, stout.

Core wide, heart-shaped, open, clasping; Seeds pointed; Flesh whitish,
breaking, juicy; Flavor sub-acid; Quality good; Use, kitchen, table,
and promising for market; Season, November to January.


=Neversink.=

Not having had an opportunity of examining this fruit, I quote the _ad
interim_ report of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society:

"Origin Berks County, Pennsylvania.

"Fruit large, roundish, exterior of an exceedingly beautiful waxen
orange-yellow color, with a few russet dots, and a delicately striped
and richly mottled carmine cheek; Stem very short and rather stout,
cavity narrow, acuminate, shallow; Calyx large, basin deep, rather
wide, furrowed; Flesh yellowish, somewhat tough, owing to the fact of
its being shriveled; Flavor approaches to that of a pineapple; Quality
very good; December to April."


=Newark King.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 228.--NEWARK KING.]

An old apple, supposed to have come from New Jersey; found in the
oldest orchards of grafted fruits in Southwestern Ohio, seldom
elsewhere in the West that I have seen.

Tree thrifty, upright, spreading, productive; Foliage dark.

Fruit full medium to large, roundish, flattened or truncated conic,
mostly regular, sometimes ribbed; Surface not very smooth, rich
yellow, nearly covered with dull red mixed, and darker stripes, giving
the fruit almost a mahogany color; Dots numerous, gray, elongated at
the extremities, and coalescing into russet about the blossom end.

Basin deep, abrupt, folded or plaited, covered with fine russet; Eye
small, closed.

Cavity acute, often lipped; Stem rather long, slender.

Core small, oval, closed, not clasping but meeting the eye; Seeds
numerous, angular; Flesh rich yellow, breaking, fine grained, juicy;
Flavor acid, rich, sprightly, high-flavored; Quality very good; Use,
kitchen, table and cider; Season, December, January, or longer.


=Patton.=

CARTER of Alabama--MANGUM--ALABAMA PEARMAIN of Peters.

This is a great favorite in the South, and deservedly so, on account
of its good qualities. Specimens from Dr. Jas. S. Blair, Limestone
County, North Alabama, afford me data for the following description. I
have preferred the name _Patton_ because of the other _Carters_:

Fruit large, roundish, somewhat flattened; Surface smooth, mixed,
marbled and splashed carmine on yellow; Dots scattered, distinct,
yellow.

Basin deep, abrupt, folded; Eye medium, open.

Cavity deep, acute; Stem long to medium, inclined, red.

Core small, regular, closed, half clasping; Seeds plump and imperfect;
Flesh yellow, firm, breaking, juicy; Flavor acid, agreeable; Quality
good; Season, November to January.


=Pomme Water.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 229.--POMME WATER.]

An apple by this name is found in Northern Illinois; little is known
of its origin or history.

Fruit full medium, globular truncate, slightly conic, regular; Surface
mixed, splashed scarlet on yellow; Dots minute, numerous, brown.

Basin wavy, medium; Eye large, closed.

Cavity medium, regular; Stem short, thick, green.

Core medium, round, closed, scarcely meeting the eye; Seeds numerous,
angular, imperfect; Flesh yellow, breaking, fine grained, juicy;
Flavor sub-acid; Quality good to very good; Use, table; Season,
September and October.

Specimens obtained from Henry Kimball, of Rockford, Winnebago County,
Illinois.


=Ragan's Red.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 230.--RAGAN'S RED.]

Origin Putnam County, Indiana, by R. Ragan. Tree vigorous, productive.

Fruit large, round, slightly conic, regular; Surface smooth, bright
red, splashed darker; Dots numerous, small.

Basin abrupt, deep, regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, regular; Stem long.

Core small, pyriform, regular, nearly closed; Seeds numerous, plump;
Flesh yellow, breaking, fine grained; Flavor sub-acid, aromatic;
Quality good; Use, table and market; Season, October and November.


=Ribston Pippin.=

This famous English apple does not seem to have many admirers among
our orchardists, but on some accounts it merits a place in the
amateur's collection.

Tree productive, early bearer.

Fruit medium to large, round, truncated, regular; Surface rough,
splashed and mixed dull red on yellow; Dots numerous, minute,
prominent, russet.

Basin abrupt, plaited or regular, russeted; Eye small, closed.

Cavity acute, wide, regular, brown; Stem long, slender.

Core regular, closed; Seeds numerous, angular, imperfect; Flesh
yellow, crisp, firm, juicy; Flavor acid, rich, aromatic; Use,
kitchen--scarcely for table; Season, October and later, but apt to
wilt.


=Sigler's Red.=

This very handsome apple, from near McConnellsville, Morgan County,
Ohio, was shown before the Ohio Pomological Society, at different
times, by Jos. Sigler, for whom it was named, because it was not
identified as any known variety.

Fruit medium, globular, slightly flattened, regular; Surface smooth,
mixed and splashed bright red; Dots minute, rare.

Basin shallow, regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity acute, wavy; Stem short to medium, knobby.

Core wide, indistinct, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds pointed, plump;
Flesh yellow, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor sub-acid, aromatic, rich;
Quality almost best; Use, table; Season, September.

A beautiful dessert fruit. Elliott gives it as synonym to _Autumn
Pearmain_.


=Small Black.=

BLACK APPLE of Coxe and Downing--AMERICAN BLACK.

    [Illustration: Fig. 231.--SMALL BLACK.]

This useful little apple is found in many collections where the
_Jersey Black_ is cultivated, but it seems to be quite distinct.
Origin unknown.

Fruit medium to small, globular, sometimes nearly oblate, regular;
Surface smooth, deep red, sometimes purplish, striping indistinct;
Dots numerous, indented, minute, pink or purple.

Basin shallow, abrupt, regular or folded; Eye small to medium, closed;
Segments reflexed.

Cavity acute, sometimes lipped, brown; Stem long, inclined, red or
green.

Core regular, round, slightly open, clasping the eye; Seeds numerous,
plump and angular; Flesh yellowish, often pink, tender, fine grained;
Flavor sub-acid, agreeable; Quality good; Use, dessert; Season,
November to January.


=Smith's.=

SMITH'S CIDER.

    [Illustration: Fig. 232.--SMITH'S.]

Origin Bucks County, Pennsylvania, where it still continues a favorite
variety. Its cultivation has extended widely to the westward, giving
great satisfaction as a market fruit, for culinary purposes, but
cannot be recommended for table.

Tree vigorous, hardy, productive, an early bearer; Limbs straggling,
shoots rather slender, light olive; Foliage large, light green.

Fruit medium to large, round, varying from flattened to elongated,
mostly regular, sometimes lop-sided; Surface smooth, pale yellow,
covered with mixed light red, splashed indistinctly with bright
carmine, beautiful; Dots distinct, rather large, light gray.

Basin shallow, wide, or more often plaited; Eye small, closed.

Cavity acute, regular, brown; Stem medium to long, variable.

Core wide, pyriform, open, clasping; Seeds numerous, plump, pointed;
Flesh white, breaking, juicy; Flavor acid, sub-acid, aromatic, not
rich, peculiar, not agreeable; Quality good for cooking only, making
very fine apple sauce--makes much cider, but thin and watery; Season,
December, January and later.

This is essentially a market fruit, and is one of the most profitable
apples planted in Southwestern Ohio and adjacent counties of Indiana.


=Sops of Wine.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 233.--SOPS OF WINE.]

European. Tree vigorous, spreading, productive.

Fruit small to medium, round, slightly conic, regular; Surface smooth,
mixed red, shaded dark red throughout; Dots small, scattered, yellow.

Basin shallow, plaited; Eye small, closed.

Cavity medium, wavy, somewhat browned; Stem long, red.

Core distinctly marked with a red line, wide, oval, closed, meeting
the eye; Seeds numerous, pointed, brown; Flesh yellow, fine grained,
tender, juicy; Flavor acid to sub-acid, agreeable; Quality good to
very good; Use, dessert; Season, August and September.


=Summer Janet.=

Specimens received from Mr. Johnson, Louisville, Ky.

Fruit medium, round, truncated, regular; Surface smooth, pale yellow,
mixed red, striped darker red; Dots scattered, gray.

Basin deep, abrupt, regular; Eye small, open.

Cavity shallow, regular, yellow; Stem medium to long, green.

Core pyriform, indistinct, closed, clasping; Seeds pointed, imperfect;
Flesh yellow, tender, fine grained; Flavor sub-acid, aromatic; Quality
good; Use, market; Season, September.


=Summer Rose.=

Origin New Jersey. Tree vigorous, healthy, spreading, productive,
early bearer; Shoots stout; Foliage large, glaucous.

Fruit small, roundish, flattened, regular; Surface smooth polished,
very pale yellow, striped and splashed distinctly bright red and
carmine; Dots minute.

Basin abrupt, wide, regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity acute, regular; Stem medium.

Core large, regular, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, short,
plump; Flesh white, crisp, fine grained, juicy; Flavor sub-acid,
agreeable, not rich; Quality, one of the best early apples; Use,
family, table and kitchen; Season, June to August--ripening gradually.


=Sutton Beauty.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 234.--SUTTON BEAUTY.]

An old Massachusetts apple, occasionally found in the West, where it
attains increased size and beauty. My specimens were from W. Hampton,
with many other sorts of interest grown by him in Northwestern Ohio.

Fruit large, handsome, globular, regular; Surface smooth, yellow,
mottled and splashed carmine; Dots scattered, brown, vein-reflexed.

Basin wide, regular, russety; Eye large, open; Segments reflexed.

Cavity wide, acute, wavy, brown; Stem long, inclined.

Core medium to large, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous, pointed,
angular, dark; Flesh whitish, tender, breaking, juicy; Flavor acid,
sub-acid, agreeable; Quality good; Use, table, kitchen and market;
Season, December to March.

Thought by Mr. Hampton to be a seedling brought from Southern Ohio.


=Sylvester.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 235.--SYLVESTER.]

Introduced by Dr. Ware Sylvester, of Lyons, New York.

Fruit small to medium, round, regular; Surface smooth, white, blushed
and striped bright carmine; Dots scattered, minute.

Basin very shallow, plaited; Eye small, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, wavy; Stem medium.

Core indistinct, slightly open; Seeds numerous, plump, angular, long;
Flesh white, tender, fine grained, juicy; Flavor sub-acid; Quality
very good; Use, table and cooking; Season, September.


=Williams' Favorite.=

WILLIAMS' EARLY.

Origin Roxbury, Massachusetts.

Fruit small to medium, round, regular; Surface smooth, dark purplish
red, indistinctly striped; Dots none.

Basin abrupt, folded; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity wide, shallow; Stem long, slender.

Core large, round, closed; Seeds pointed, brown; Flesh whitish-yellow,
streaked red, breaking, not juicy; Flavor sub-acid, peculiar; Quality
scarcely good; Season, July and August.


=Willow.=

WILLOW TWIG--JAMES RIVER, ETC.

    [Illustration: Fig. 236.--WILLOW.]

This Virginia fruit has obtained a wide spread notoriety as a valuable
market apple throughout the West.

Tree very vigorous, healthy, productive, branching, twiggy, thorny
while young; Shoots slender, olive brown.

Fruit globular, truncated, looking oblong from its cylindrical sides;
Surface smooth, dull greenish-yellow, marbled and striped dull red;
Dots minute, gray.

Basin wide, abrupt, plaited; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity wide or acute, regular; Stem long, slender, inclined.

Core medium, round, regular, closed, meeting, not clasping the eye;
Seeds numerous, plump, brown; Flesh greenish-yellow, breaking, juicy;
Flavor acid; Quality only good, but valuable for market and culinary
uses; Season, December to April. Excellent for shipping South.


=Wilson's Volunteer.=

Origin believed to be a seedling or "Volunteer" on the banks of the
Ohio River. Received from George Sibbald.

Fruit large, globular, truncated or flattened, regular; Surface
yellow, mostly covered with mixed red, striped darker; Dots large,
gray and yellow.

Basin deep, regular, leather-cracked; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, regular; Stem long, slender.

Core small, round, regular, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous, pointed;
Flesh greenish-yellow, tender, juicy; Flavor sub-acid; Quality only
good; Use, kitchen; Season, December to February.


=Wright's Janet.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 237.--WRIGHT'S JANET.]

This fine keeping apple, received from N.J. Colman and other zealous
pomologists of St. Louis, Missouri, is supposed to have originated in
that region with Mr. W.G. Wright.

Fruit medium to large, round, sometimes flat, regular; Surface smooth,
waxen yellow, mixed, striped and splashed carmine; Dots minute,
prominent, scattering.

Basin medium, regular; Eye small, acute, closed.

Cavity deep, wavy, brown; Stem long, short, or very short.

Core medium, regular, somewhat open, clasping; Seeds numerous, small,
plump; Flesh deep yellow, breaking, very fine grained, juicy; Flavor
sub-acid, rich, very agreeable; Quality good to very good; Use, table,
kitchen and market; Season, January to June and keeps until August.


=Yadkin.=

Southern. Received from S.W. Westbrooke, of Greensboro', North
Carolina.

Fruit large, round, regular; Surface red, striped dark red; Dots
large, scattered, distinct, gray.

Basin abrupt, deep, regular; Eye small, open.

Cavity acute, regular, brown; Stem medium, brown.

Core small, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds small, pointed, brown;
Flesh white, breaking, dry; Flavor sub-acid; Quality only good;
Season, August--and on that account scarcely worth carrying to the
North.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS III.--ROUND APPLES.

+ORDER I.--REGULAR.+

SECTION 2.--SOUR.

SUB-SECTION 3.--RUSSET.


=Beeler's Russet.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 238.--BEELER'S RUSSET.]

Origin not known. Found in an old orchard on the banks of White River,
in Marion County, Indiana, by my lamented young friend, Geo. M.
Beeler.

Fruit medium to small, round, truncated or cylindrical, inclined;
Surface russeted; Dots minute, prominent.

Basin abrupt, uneven, green; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity regular; Stem long.

Core large, wide, heart-shaped, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous,
angular; Flesh yellow, crisp, fine-grained, tender, juicy; Flavor
sub-acid to acid, aromatic, spicy, very agreeable; Quality best; Use,
table, kitchen; Season, November, December.

A choice dessert apple.


=Columbian Russet.=

The origin of this fine, long-keeping russet is not known. Specimens
were received from H.N. Gillett, Lawrence County, Ohio. If the tree be
healthy and productive, this variety will be a valuable addition to
our orchards.

Fruit medium to small, round, truncated, lop-sided; Surface smooth,
russeted; Dots minute, scattered, prominent.

Basin medium, regular; Eye large, open.

Cavity acute, regular; Stem, long, slender.

Core medium, closed, pyriform, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous,
slender, angular, dark; Flesh very yellow, breaking, fine-grained,
juicy; Flavor acid to sub-acid, rich, aromatic; Quality best; Use,
table; Season, February to April.

Very like the _Golden Pearmain_, from J.S. Downer, which see; they may
prove to be the same variety.


=Court of Wyck.=

This spicy English apple, which has so many synonyms as evidences of
its popularity, has not been a favorite in this country, but
occasionally succeeds well; it has little to recommend it in its
looks.

Fruit very small, round, truncated abruptly, much flattened, regular;
Surface yellow, covered russet.

Basin wide, very shallow; Eye small, open; Segments reflexed.

Cavity rather wide; Stem long, slender.

Core small, ovate, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, large,
brown; Flesh rich yellow, firm, juicy; Flavor acid, aromatic, rich,
spicy, sharp; Quality good in its way; Use, "dessert;" Season,
December, January.


=Crownest.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 239.--CROWNEST.]

Originated at Kelley's Island, Ohio, in the orchard of Chas.
Carpenter.

Tree vigorous, thrifty, brushy, productive.

Fruit full medium, round, truncated or flattened, often unequal and
inclined; Surface greenish yellow, thinly covered with russet.

Basin regular, wide; Eye large, open.

Cavity irregular, lipped; Stem short, curved, fleshy.

Core round, regular, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds long, pointed,
angular; Flesh green, tender, breaking; Flavor sub-acid; Quality only
good for culinary uses; Season, November to January.


=English Golden.=

RUSSET GOLDEN, of Barry.

    [Illustration: Fig. 240.--ENGLISH GOLDEN.]

Among the russets there has been much confusion, which it is very
difficult to clear up. The apple about to be described came to the
West from the nurseries about Rochester; a very superior variety to
many others that resemble it, and may be distinguished by the palate,
or by the character of the twigs.

Tree thrifty, vigorous, spreading, productive, a rather early bearer;
Shoots slender, olive, speckled.

Fruit medium, round, large ones are oblate, often cylindrical,
sometimes inclined, regular; Surface greenish yellow, covered with
thick russet; Dots minute, white, scattered.

Basin regular, deep, leather-cracked; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, regular, rough; Stem short.

Core wide, regular, closed, clasping; Seeds small, flat; Flesh
greenish yellow, breaking, granular, juicy; Flavor sub-acid, rich;
Quality good to best; Use, table, kitchen; Season, January, February.

A choice dessert fruit. Succeeds well in parts of Kentucky.


=English Russet.=

Origin unknown. Procured from Mr. C.C. Cary, near Louisville,
Kentucky.

Fruit large, globular, flattened, somewhat one-sided; Surface uneven,
green; Dots minute, russety and russet streaks.

Basin medium, uneven; Eye small, closed.

Cavity acute, wavy, russeted; Stem medium, green.

Core medium, heart-shaped, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous, plump and
angular, some imperfect; Flesh yellow, firm, breaking, juicy; Flavor
acid; Quality good; Use, kitchen; Season, December, January.


=Golden Pearmain.=--[Of Kentucky.]

This is another very promising Southern variety, received from J.S.
Downer, of Kentucky; Origin unknown; he procured it from Tennessee.

Tree vigorous, but tardy and shy in bearing; Shoots stout, dark;
Foliage medium.

Fruit small to medium, globular, rather conical, truncated, lop-sided;
Surface yellow, blushed and russeted.

Basin abrupt, wide, regular; Eye large, open.

Cavity acute, regular; Stem short to medium, slender.

Core somewhat open, meeting the eye; Seeds plump and imperfect; Flesh
yellow, breaking, fine-grained; Flavor acid, aromatic, sprightly;
Quality very good, almost best; Use, dessert; Season, December,
February.--See _Columbian Russet_.


=Green Russet.=--[N.C.]

Specimens from Reuben Ragan.

Fruit quite large, globular, slightly oblate, regular; Surface yellow,
blushed dull red; Dots green, indented, russet veined.

Basin medium, regular; Eye medium, open.

Cavity deep, acute, regular, brown; Stem medium, thick.

Core regular, wide, closed, clasping; Axis short; Seeds numerous,
plump, dark; Flesh yellowish white, breaking, granular; Flavor
sub-acid; Quality only good, for culinary use; Season, December,
January.


=Hampton's Russet.=

Fruit small, globular-truncate, to flat; Surface yellow russet,
bronzed, broken russet stripes; Dots scattered, large, yellow.

Basin wide, regular; Eye large, open, green.

Cavity medium, regular, brown; Stem long, inclined.

Core medium, round, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, pointed,
brown; Flesh yellow, tender, breaking, fine-grained; Flavor sub-acid,
rich; Quality good; Use, table; Season, December.


=Knox Russet.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 241.--KNOX RUSSET.]

A very nice little apple, found in the orchard of J. Knox, Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania; trees obtained from near Greensburgh, Pennsylvania. Tree
spreading, very productive; Shoots slender.

Fruit small to medium, globular, somewhat conic, regular; Surface
smooth, yellow green, blushed, covered with light russet.

Basin shallow, regular; Eye medium, open; Segments reflexed.

Cavity deep, acute, regular; Stem long, red.

Core round, regular, slightly open, clasping the eye; Seeds numerous,
short, plump; Flesh yellow, very fine-grained; Flavor mild sub-acid,
aromatic; Quality good to very good; Use, dessert; Season, December,
January.


=Pryor's Red.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 242.--PRYOR'S RED.]

This southern apple, probably from Virginia, has been carried through
all the Western States, where it is a great favorite, though there are
some objectors, on account of its having shown signs of failure in
certain situations. The fruit is singularly affected by change of soil
and climate; thus, on the Ohio River, it is seen quite flat and
regular, with a dull green russeted skin, becoming yellow and ruddy;
in one part of the State of Indiana, on limestone, it is gibbous,
round, often very large, and covered with a rich cinnamon russet,
while on the coal measures, west of the center of the State, it is
smaller, regular, and distinctly striped deep red on red, with very
little russet. Specimens from Rochester, New York, have been shown
with scarcely a trace of russet, and having the stripes as distinct
and almost as beautiful as those of a _Duchess of Oldenburgh_, so that
no southern or western man would have recognized it for his home
favorite. The distinctive _leather-cracking_ about the eye was
present, however, in all.

Tree thrifty, growth upright, twiggy, attaining large size, productive
when old; Shoots slender, reddish olive, speckled; Foliage scattering,
folded, grayish green; Subject to leaf-blight.

Fruit large, globular-oblate, often unequal; Surface greenish, or dull
red, striped, russeted; Dots numerous, large, gray.

Basin shallow, regular or plaited, leather-cracked; Eye small, closed.

Cavity shallow, acute, often lipped; Stem medium.

Core round, regular, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, angular,
pointed; Flesh yellow, tender, melting, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor
sub-acid, rich; Quality best; Use, table, kitchen; Season, December,
February.


=Red Russet.=

Origin Hampton Falls, New Hampshire.

Tree very vigorous and productive; resembling Baldwin in almost every
particular.

"Fruit large, roundish, conic; Skin yellow, shaded with dull red and
deep carmine in the sun, and thickly covered with gray dots, and an
appearance of rough russet on most of the surface; Stalk rather short
and thick, inserted in a medium cavity, surrounded with thin russet;
Calyx nearly closed; Segments long, recurved, in a narrow, uneven
basin; Flesh yellow, solid, crisp, tender, with an excellent, rich,
sub-acid flavor, somewhat resembling _Baldwin_; Season, January to
April."--Downing.

This fruit is rarely seen in the West. It has been thought by some to
have originated as a sport from the Baldwin.


=Rolen's Keeper.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 243.--ROLEN'S KEEPER.]

Received from H.N. Gillett, Lawrence County, Ohio. Origin not given.

Fruit medium, round, regular; Surface rough, splashed red on russet;
Dots scattered, small, white.

Basin shallow, regular, leather-cracked; Eye small, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, regular; Stem long, slender.

Core roundish-ovate, regular, closed, clasping; Seeds very numerous,
short, plump; Flesh greenish yellow, fine-grained; Flavor acid, rich;
Quality good to very good; Use, table; Season, March, April.

Very promising as a keeper.


=Rustycoat Milam.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 244.--RUSTYCOAT MILAM.]

Fruit medium, globular, conic, regular; Surface russeted; Dots minute,
prominent.

Basin narrow, abrupt, shallow; Eye small, closed.

Cavity acute, regular; Stem medium to long.

Core medium, regular, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous, pointed,
plump; Flesh greenish yellow, breaking, fine-grained, tender; Flavor
sub-acid, aromatic; Quality good; Use, table; Season, December to
February.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS III.--ROUND APPLES.

+ORDER II.--IRREGULAR.+

SECTION 1.--SWEET.

SUB-SECTION 1.--SELF-COLORED OR BLUSHED.


=Mote's Sweet.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 245.--MOTE'S SWEET.]

This seedling from the _Stillwater Sweet_, grown by L.S. Mote, of
Miami County, Ohio, is quite an improvement upon its parent, which has
obtained a high reputation as a choice autumnal sweet apple. Tree
round, spreading, vigorous; Shoots pale; Foliage large, wide, finely
serrated, and rather pale.

Fruit large, globular, somewhat flattened, or conic-truncated, rather
angular; Surface very smooth, greenish yellow to whitish, with a rare
faint blush; Dots scattered, gray, often rosy, whitish bases.

Basin medium, abrupt, wavy; Eye medium, long, closed.

Cavity deep, wide, wavy; Stem long, yellow, curved.

Core medium, open, clasping; Seeds numerous, angular, pale; Flesh
yellow, very fine-grained, almost melting, juicy; Flavor very sweet,
pleasant; Use, table and kitchen; Quality best; Season, September. One
of the most delicious sweet apples.


=Northern Sweet.=

Origin unknown; supposed to be Vermont. Tree sufficiently healthy and
productive. Not generally nor extensively cultivated.

Fruit large, globular, somewhat flattened, angular or regular; Surface
smooth, very pale yellow, rarely blushed; Dots minute, with white
bases.

Basin deep, abrupt, regular; Eye long, closed.

Cavity rather wide, regular, green; Stem medium.

Core very small, closed, almost clasping; Seeds numerous, short; Flesh
whitish, breaking, juicy; Flavor very sweet; Quality pretty good; Use,
baking; Season, September, in Northern Indiana and Illinois. Downing
says "rich and excellent; September and October."


=Swaar.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 246.--SWAAR.]

Origin on the banks of the Hudson, in New York State. Tree vigorous,
spreading, productive; Shoots stout, dark colored; Foliage large,
curled.

Fruit large, form variable, being sometimes flat, where unusually
developed, generally roundish, somewhat flattened, more or less
angular or flattened on the sides, but not ribbed; Surface not smooth,
often rough, greenish yellow, bronzed, becoming a dead golden yellow
when ripe; Dots large, numerous.

Basin medium, wide, regular; Eye small, not long, closed.

Cavity wide, regular or wavy, green; Stem long, curved, pretty stout.

Core medium, regular, heart-shaped, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous,
angular, pale; Flesh very heavy, yellow, fine-grained; Flavor very
mild sub-acid, or sweet, very rich; Quality best; Use, table and
kitchen; Season, March.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS III.--ROUND APPLES.

+ORDER II.--IRREGULAR.+

SECTION 1.--SWEET.

SUB-SECTION 2.--STRIPED.


=Bailey Sweet.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 247.--BAILEY SWEET.]

From Wyoming County, New York. Tree vigorous, productive.

Fruit large, round, sometimes flattened, sometimes angular or ribbed;
Surface smooth, mottled, mixed and striped deep red; Dots numerous,
large, gray.

Basin narrow, abrupt, regular or folded; Eye small, closed.

Cavity regular, acute green; Stem long.

Core rather large, turbinate, open, clasping; Seeds numerous, angular,
dark; Flesh yellow, tender, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor very sweet,
rich; Quality good to very good; Use, kitchen, table; Season, October.

A very valuable variety also for stock.


=Brittle Sweet.=

"Origin unknown; good grower, and very productive.

"Fruit above medium, roundish, approaching conic, sometimes elongated,
angular; Skin greenish yellow, shaded and splashed with crimson,
sprinkled with gray dots; Stem short, inserted in a broad, shallow
cavity; Calyx closed, set in a small corrugated basin; Flesh
yellowish, crisp, tender, juicy, sweet, and excellent; Season,
September, October."--Downing.


=Hull Blossom.=

This is an Eastern or European variety, which I have not seen in the
West. Specimens from Massachusetts.

Fruit small, roundish-truncate, or flattened, uneven; Surface smooth,
yellow, mixed and striped, carmine; Dots large, yellow.

Basin shallow, folded; Eye small, closed.

Cavity deep, wavy; Stem short.

Core small, closed, roundish, meeting the eye; Seeds large, pale;
Flesh yellow, fine-grained; Flavor sweet; Quality good to very good;
Use, table, kitchen; Season, November.


=Sweet Pearmain.=

"This variety, according to Downing and Thomas, is the _English
Sweeting_; but, according to Manning, the English Sweeting is the
_Ramsdell's Sweeting_ of Downing. This fruit is extensively grown in
Central Ohio, and further West, suiting well the rich soils; keeping
finely all winter; highly valued for baking or eating."

"Fruit medium size or often above; Form roundish, slightly angular;
Color dull red, rough russet dots, and blueish bloom; Stem long,
slender; Cavity deep, wide, open; Calyx woolly; Basin medium; Flesh
yellowish, tender, moderately juicy, sweet; Core medium, with outer or
concentric lines; Seeds ovate, pyriform, dark brown; Season, December
to March."--Elliott.

I am not familiar with the above, but find a very strong resemblance
in the characters to those of my _Red Winter Pearmain_, Class II, I,
2, 2, from which, however, Elliott's outline would exclude it.


=Willis Sweet.=

This apple is supposed to have originated on Long Island, where it is
highly valued for baking.

Tree vigorous, productive; Fruit medium, round, somewhat angular,
striped red, very sweet and rich; Use, baking and stock.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS III.--ROUND APPLES.

+ORDER II.--IRREGULAR.+

SECTION 1.--SWEET.

SUB-SECTION 3.--RUSSET.


NONE.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS III.--ROUND APPLES.

+ORDER II.--IRREGULAR.+

SECTION 2.--SOUR.

SUB-SECTION 1.--SELF-COLORED.


=American Golden Pippin.=

GOLDEN PIPPIN, of Downing.--NEW YORK GREENING, &C.

    [Illustration: Fig. 248.--AMERICAN GOLDEN PIPPIN.]

Having mislaid my notes of this apple, I am obliged to quote Mr.
Downing's description of this fine fruit, which is believed to be
American; cultivated in parts of New York, and found to be profitable.

"Growth strong, similar to that of Rhode Island Greening, but less
drooping, making a round, spreading head; does not bear young, but
very productive when a little advanced, and a popular fruit where
known."

"Form variable, oblate, globular or conic, angular or ribbed; Stem
stout, short, inserted in a deep cavity; Calyx closed, set in an
irregular basin; Skin fine golden yellow, thinly sprinkled with dots,
sometimes slightly netted with thin russet; Flesh yellowish, tender,
juicy, nearly melting, with a rich, refreshing, almost vinous,
aromatic flavor; Core rather large; November to February."


=Brooke's Pippin.=

"Origin, Essex County, Virginia. The original tree is very large,
bears regular and large crops of fruit, which is always fair, of the
largest size, keeps well till May; Flesh fine, yellow, juicy and rich,
and of the finest flavor; young trees grow very thriftily."--[H.R.
Robey, Fredericksburgh, Va.]

Fruit large, roundish, inclining to conical, obscurely ribbed,
greenish yellow, faintly blushed.

Basin small, shallow, wavy, sometimes furrowed; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity deep, wavy, brown; Stem short, thick.

Flesh yellow, crisp, juicy, fine-grained; Flavor acid, spicy, rich;
Quality very good; Season, November to March.

As grown in Indiana, both tree and fruit resemble the _Newtown Pippin_
in appearance, and may prove identical after further trial.


=Champlain.=--[_Downing._]

PAPER--PAPER-SKIN.

This very delicate fruit was exhibited before the Ohio Pomological
Society by A.L. Benedict, of Morrow County, as the _Paper_ apple. He
obtained the scions from the celebrated apple region, Grand Isle,
Vermont, where it is sometimes called Champlain, and where it had been
introduced from Rhode Island, without a name, by his friend Macomber.
My friend Benedict informs me that "the growth of the tree is strong
and stocky, and that the fruit never scabs nor rots on the tree. It
is increasing in esteem as it becomes better known, and is preferred
to the _Red Astrachan_, ripening with it. When sent to J.J. Thomas, he
thought it synonymous with the _Primate_, but Jos. Newcomber, having
both varieties growing side by side, assured me they were quite
unlike, and that the _Paper_ was much the better apple of the two."

Tree medium size, vigorous, stocky.

Fruit full medium, globular, rather conical, angular; Surface smooth,
yellowish green, slightly blushed; Dots minute, indented.

Basin small, abrupt, folded; Eye small, long, closed.

Cavity acute, wavy, green; Stem long, slender.

Core medium, round, slightly open, clasping; Seeds numerous, angular,
dark; Flesh white, tender, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor sub-acid,
aromatic, delicate; Quality best; Use, the dessert especially; Season,
August, September.


=Drap d'Or.=

VRAI DRAP D'OR.--[Dahamel.]

    [Illustration: Fig. 249.--DRAP D'OR.]

This is an old French variety, respecting which there is some
uncertainty among cultivators.

Fruit large, globular, but variable, being conical-truncate to oblate;
Surface smooth, pale waxen yellow, rarely blushed.

Basin wide, plaited; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, wavy, brown; Stem long, inclined, yellow or red, angular.

Core large, regular, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous, angular, long;
Flesh pale yellow, breaking, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor sub-acid,
aromatic; Quality good to best; Use, market, kitchen, table; Season,
August, September.

For the table its place is supplanted by the _Primate_, _Dyer_ and
others.


=Dyer, or Pomme Royale.=

POMMEWATER, in Illinois.

    [Illustration: Fig. 250.--DYER, OR POMME ROYALE.]

Believed to be a French apple, but named Dyer by the Massachusetts
Horticultural Society, in the belief that it was a seedling of Rhode
Island.

Tree of moderate vigor, spreading, not very productive.

Fruit medium to large, globular, uneven, somewhat angular; Surface not
smooth, pale yellow, vein-russeted; Dots numerous, minute, dark.

Basin medium, shallow, folded or plaited; Eye small, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, lipped, brown; Stem long, slender.

Core regular, round, open or closed, clasping; Seeds numerous, plump,
short; Flesh yellowish, very tender, very fine-grained, very juicy;
Flavor sub-acid, aromatic, rich, delicate; Quality best; Use, the
dessert; Season, September, October.

Not attractive in appearance, but very fine for the amateur.


=Ewalt.=

Origin Pennsylvania. Introduced by Dr. Brinckle in his _ad-interim_
reports to the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society. Mr. Waring
considers it a valuable winter apple. Tree vigorous, handsome grower
in the nursery; Shoots erect, dark colored; an early, regular bearer.

Fruit large, very handsome, roundish, rather angular; Surface smooth,
yellow, with clear bright red in the sun, not striped; Dots numerous
about the base, greenish.

Basin medium, narrow, plaited; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity medium, acute; Stem short.

Flesh tender, fine-grained; Flavor acid, becoming mild, aromatic,
sprightly; Quality very good; Season, February to April.


=Golden Ball.=

A favorite Maine apple. Tree vigorous, productive, hardy.

Fruit large, round, ribbed; Surface smooth, greenish yellow; Dots few,
distinct, white bases.

Basin deep, abrupt, folded; Eye large, closed.

Cavity narrow; Stem medium.

Core indistinct, open, clasping; Seeds defective; Flesh yellowish,
tender, juicy; Flavor sub-acid, rich; Quality good; Use, table,
kitchen, market; Season, December to March in the North.


=Morgan White.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 251.--MORGAN WHITE.]

Origin unknown. Sent from Morgan County, Illinois, by Professor J.B.
Turner, of Jacksonville.

Fruit large, globular, somewhat flattened, irregular, ribbed, uneven;
Surface smooth, greenish, marked with gray striæ, rarely a faint
blush; Dots white, large.

Basin abrupt, ribbed; Eye small but long, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, wavy; Stem short to medium.

Core small, very wide, open, clasping; Axis short; Seeds numerous,
plump, short; Flesh greenish white, breaking, tender, fine-grained,
juicy; Flavor acid to sub-acid, agreeable; Quality good; Use, kitchen
and table; Season, September to January.


=Peck's Pleasant.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 252.--PECK'S PLEASANT.]

This fine fruit is credited to Rhode Island. The tree is healthy,
spreading, moderately vigorous, but productive, and a regular bearer.
This apple is said to resemble the Newtown Pippin, but I have never
been able to trace any resemblance, except that both are green; at
any rate there is no danger of the merest tyro in pomology confounding
the two varieties. There is, however, a remarkable diversity in the
fruit arising from the different soils and climates in which it is
cultivated, North and South, and while, like many other varieties, its
size is greatly developed, its texture and flavor are depreciated in
the migrations southward.

Fruit large, flattened, globular, somewhat angular, or flattened,
sometimes having a shallow sulcus or furrow on one side; Surface
smooth, yellow or orange, being sometimes faintly blushed; Dots gray,
with white bases.

Basin rather shallow and folded; Eye small and open, calycinal
segments being short.

Cavity wide, but often lipped, brown; Stem short, very thick, clubbed
or knobby.

Core large, closed, clasping the eye; Seeds numerous, angular; Flesh
yellow, tender, breaking, fine-grained; Flavor sub-acid and somewhat
aromatic; of first quality in the North; Use, table, kitchen or
market; Season, December to January, or later.


=Primate.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 253.--PRIMATE.]

This delicious table apple has strong claims upon our admiration, on
account of its good qualities as a dessert fruit, for the extreme
delicacy of its skin and flesh render it unfit for market; it is
therefore not profitable for the commercial orchard.

Tree thrifty, stocky, vigorous, strongly branched, productive; Shoots
stout, short, light olive; Buds prominent, foliage pale green.

Fruit full medium, globular, angular, irregular; Surface smooth,
greenish-yellow, becoming almost white, sometimes faintly blushed;
Dots minute.

Basin abrupt, folded; Eye small but long, closed; Segments reflexed.

Cavity acute, wavy, green; Stem medium to long, thick.

Core medium, round, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous, angular, long,
dark; Flesh greenish-white, very tender, fine-grained; Flavor mild
sub-acid, very agreeable; Quality best; Use, the dessert; Season, July
and August.


=Progress.=

Not having had the good fortune to study this apple, I quote the
description given by Downing:

"A native of Middletown, Connecticut. Tree a moderate grower and forms
a handsome head, bears early and very productive.

"Size above medium, rather globular, inclining to conic, sometimes
oblate, somewhat angular; Stem short, inserted into a round cavity,
surrounded by russet; Calyx large, partially closed, set in a shallow,
open basin; Skin smooth, yellow, with a sunny cheek, sometimes a few
scattered, gray dots; Flesh solid, tender, crisp, juicy, with a very
refreshing, vinous flavor. Ripe October until April."


=Quince.=

COLE'S QUINCE.

    [Illustration: Fig. 254.--QUINCE.]

This does not appear to be exactly the same as that described by Coxe,
and later by Downing. This fruit is not very extensively cultivated.
The specimens described are from that precise pomologist T.T. Lyon, of
Michigan.

Fruit full medium, globular, angular, ribbed; Surface smooth,
greenish-yellow, pale.

Basin narrow, folded, plaited; Eye small, closed.

Cavity acute, wavy; Stem medium, yellow.

Core oval, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, angular, plump,
brown; Flesh yellowish-white, tender, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor
sub-acid, aromatic; Quality good for cooking; Season, November to
January.


=September.=

This apple is highly esteemed by Mr. W.G. Waring, of Center County,
Pennsylvania, where it originated.

Tree hardy and vigorous, a good and regular bearer.

"Fruit large, globular, somewhat depressed, slightly conic, angular;
Skin yellow, slightly shaded and thinly sprinkled with brown dots; Stalk
short, inserted in a deep, abrupt cavity, surrounded by thin russet;
Calyx partially closed, set in an open basin; Flesh yellowish, tender,
juicy, with a very agreeable sub-acid flavor; October."--[Downing.]


=Sheepnose.=--_of Mears._

This substantial little apple was presented by Wm. E. Mears, a zealous
horticulturist of Clermont County, Ohio, where it is considerably
cultivated. Origin unknown.

Fruit medium, round, slightly conic, irregular; Surface smooth,
greenish yellow, white striæ about the base, like _White Winter
Pearmain_, which it resembles in some other respects; Dots minute.

Basin shallow, wavy; Eye long, closed.

Cavity acute, narrow, bronzed; Stem medium, knobbed.

Core roundish oval, irregular, open, clasping; Seeds numerous, plump,
dark; Flesh yellowish-white, breaking, tender, juicy; Flavor sub-acid;
Quality good; Use, table and kitchen; Season, December to February.


=Summer Pippin.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 255.--SUMMER PIPPIN.]

A favorite apple about New York--not known extensively. Tree vigorous,
forming a beautiful head, a regular and good bearer.

Fruit medium to large, variable in form, sometimes oblong-oval, or
inclining to conic, angular and irregular; Skin pale waxen yellow,
shaded with a delicate crimson blush, and sprinkled with green and
grayish dots; Stalk varies in length and thickness, inserted in a
deep, abrupt cavity; Calyx closed, set in a deep, abrupt, corrugated
basin; Flesh white, tender, moderately juicy, with a pleasant,
refreshing sub-acid flavor; Valuable for culinary uses; Ripens in
August and continues a month or more.--[Downing.]


=Transport.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 256.--TRANSPORT.]

Another of Reuben Ragan's Indiana seedlings. Tree poor in the
nursery--good in the orchard. Very productive.

Fruit large, globular, flattened, angular; Surface smooth, pale
yellow, blushed carmine; Dots scattered, green, with white bases,
becoming purple where exposed; Bloom white.

Basin medium, plaited; Eye small, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, brown; Stem medium to long.

Core irregular, closed, clasping; Axis short; Seeds dark, pointed,
imperfect; Flesh, yellowish-white, tender, melting, fine-grained,
juicy; Flavor mild sub-acid, rich; Quality good to very good; Use,
table, kitchen, market; Season, December to February. Not very
profitable.


=White Pippin.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 257.--WHITE PIPPIN.]

The origin of this valuable fruit is entirely unknown, and its history
can only be traced to the nursery of Silas Wharton, who may have
brought it with him from the East. For a time some of our leading
pomologists thought it was the _Canada Reinette_, but this idea has
long since been relinquished, and all agree that it is _sui generis_,
though it may have had a different name. In some of its external
characters it more nearly resembles the _Yellow Newtown Pippin_ than
any other fruit; but, while it lacks the high, spicy flavor of that
apple, it is found to be much more profitable in the orchard.

The tree is remarkably thrifty, vigorous and productive, upright, with
very dark shoots, covered with down, bearing large leaves that are
quite downy beneath, and deep green above.

Fruit large, variable in form, angular, sometimes lop-sided, generally
fair, free from scab; Surface smooth, green or greenish-white to very
pale yellow when ripe; the skin toward the base is often marked on the
unripe apple with indistinct wavy stripes of white, the interspaces
are sometimes colored by exposure, and assume a pink or purplish hue,
making the fruit appear to be striped; Dots very minute, and
surrounded by green bases that are most distinct before the fruit is
perfectly ripe; these and the white stripes are very characteristic.

Basin deep, abrupt, regular, wavy or folded; Eye small, closed.

Cavity wide, deep, wavy, brown and green: Stem short, sometimes thick.

Core small, pyriform, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous, angular, pale
brown, pointed; Flesh white or yellowish-white, breaking, granular,
juicy; Flavor acid to sub-acid, not spicy; Quality good; Use, kitchen
rather than table, cooks very well; Season, December and January; not
a very good keeper; may be preserved until March.


=Yellow Newtown.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 258.--YELLOW NEWTOWN.]

The origin of this variety of the Newtown Pippin, which has obtained
such a world-wide notoriety as the "American Apple," is very
uncertain. The distinction between this and the _Green Newtown_, as
described under Class III, I, 2, 1, was well known to Coxe.

Tree resembling that of the Green variety, slow grower in the nursery,
having rough bark when old, not an early bearer, but large, spreading,
and productive, and in suitable soils profitable. From some cause,
however, the orchards of both these apples are much less satisfactory
in their results than formerly in many parts of the country. Still it
is often seen in great perfection, and I am compiling this description
from outlines and notes of a large number that were very fine.

Fruit large, round, more or less modified by being cylindrical,
truncated, lop-sided, ribbed, and irregular, sometimes even conic;
Surface smooth, yellowish-green, sometimes bronzy, becoming yellow
when ripe, like the _White Pippin_, it is marked with gray striæ near
the base while green; Dots minute, scattered, whitish bases.

Basin large, folded, ribbed or plaited; Eye medium, rather open.

Cavity deep, acute; brown; Stem medium or short, rarely long.

Core medium, oval, regular, closed, meeting or clasping the eye; Seeds
pointed, brown, sometimes imperfect; Flesh yellow, firm, breaking,
juicy, not crisp like the Green variety; Flavor acid, aromatic, rich,
very agreeable; Quality best; Use, table, kitchen, market and cider;
Season, March.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS III.--ROUND APPLES.

+ORDER II.--IRREGULAR.+

SECTION 2.--SOUR.

SUB-SECTION 2.--STRIPED.


=Benoni.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 259.--BENONI.]

This handsome and delicious early apple is a native of Dedham,
Massachusetts. Its good qualities have caused its culture to be widely
extended, and it appears to give very general satisfaction; though not
so early as some other kinds, for the dessert especially, it is
indispensable to the amateur.

Tree small, upright, close, productive, early bearer; Shoots slender,
brown, leaves thin, long.

Fruit small to medium, round, truncated, somewhat angular, irregular;
Surface smooth, yellow, covered mixed red, striped scarlet and
carmine; Dots minute.

Basin wide, abrupt; Eye large, open or closed.

Cavity acute, wavy, brown; Stem medium, green, often stout.

Core small, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds angular, dark; Flesh
yellow, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor rich, sub-acid, spicy; Quality
best; Use, dessert, kitchen and market; Season, July and August.
Delicious and profitable.


=Brennaman.=

This fine apple, from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, was reported on
by the _ad interim_ Committee of the Pennsylvania Horticultural
Society, and was brought to my notice by Dr. J.K. Eshleman, of
Downingtown, in whose beautiful orchard I had an opportunity of
studying the variety.

Tree large, spreading, vigorous, productive, said to be hardy.

Fruit medium to large, round, somewhat angular; Surface smooth,
yellow, nearly covered with stripes of bright rich red.

Basin deep, wavy; Eye closed.

Cavity large, brown; Stem short to medium.

Flesh whitish, breaking, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor sub-acid,
agreeable; Quality good, especially for culinary use and market;
Season, August and September.


=Chronicle.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 260.--CHRONICLE.]

This is a famous long keeper of Indiana origin. The honors of its
discovery are divided between the Sigersons and R. Ragan.

Tree vigorous, healthy, productive, said to be hardy.

Fruit full medium to large, globular, truncated, cylindrical,
irregular, flattened at the sides or angular; Axis inclined in some;
Surface yellowish-green to yellow, mixed and striped dull red; Dots
large, scattered, yellow, indented.

Basin, wide, deep, regular or wavy; Eye small to medium, closed.

Cavity wide, wavy or acute, sometimes lipped, brown; Stem medium to
long, sometimes thick.

Core small, closed, meeting; Seeds numerous, pointed, plump; Flesh
greenish to yellow, firm; Flavor sub-acid, not spicy; Quality scarcely
good, except for culinary use and for market; Season, March to May.
Keeps sound even when bruised.


=Foundling.=

"From Massachusetts. Tree moderately vigorous, spreading,
productive."--[Downing.]

Fruit medium to large, round, flattened at the ends, angular or
uneven; Surface yellowish-green, mixed red, splashed deep red; Dots
minute, indented.

Basin wide, abrupt, folded; Eye small, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, wavy, green; Stem short or medium.

Core large, wide, open, clasping; Seeds numerous, small, pointed;
Flesh white, tender, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor sub-acid, aromatic;
Quality good; Use, table; Season, September.

Specimens obtained from Mr. Warren.


=Jersey Black.=

BLACK APPLE of Coxe?

    [Illustration: Fig. 261.--JERSEY BLACK.]

This admirable but unpretending fruit has extended its way quietly
through the country, along the parallels 40° to 42°, without ever
having had any extra puffing, such as has given notoriety to some of
its competitors for places in the orchard. Nobody speaks about this
apple, nor writes about it, and yet it is everywhere to be found. This
cannot be the _Black Apple_ of Coxe and Downing, being quite different
in some of its strong characters. Origin unknown, supposed to have
been introduced into the West by Silas Wharton, of Warren County,
Ohio, as it is found with the White Pippin and other favorite sorts of
his introduction, and is in his published list.

Tree sufficiently vigorous, but does not grow large, spreading, often
drooping when old, branches open, always fruitful, either well
distributed in a light crop, or crowded in a full one.

Fruit full medium, round, angular and irregular, sometimes ribbed;
Surface smooth, completely covered with deep red, striped darker,
giving a purple, almost black hue to the fruit, often covered with a
thin bloom; one variety is always lighter, stripes more distinct, and
the flesh more stained; Dots numerous, minute, indented, purple.

Basin mostly shallow, folded and plaited; Eye small to medium, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, brown, often wavy or folded; Stem short, medium or
long, usually stout, sometimes knobbed.

Core medium, regular, generally closed, clasping the eye; Seeds
numerous, short, plump, pointed, dark; Flesh yellow, crisp,
fine-grained, juicy, often stained pink or reddish; Flavor rich, mild
sub-acid, aromatic, not spicy, satisfying; Quality good; Use, table,
kitchen, cider and for stock; Season, December, January; keeps sound.
A good market apple.


=King.=

KING OF TOMPKINS COUNTY.

    [Illustration: Fig. 262.--KING.]

This splendid apple, which has attracted so much attention of recent
years, had its origin, as is supposed, in Tompkins County, New York,
where it has been much cultivated.

Tree vigorous, healthy, large and spreading, an abundant annual
bearer.

Fruit large, handsome, globular, irregular, somewhat conic, angular;
Surface smooth, yellow, covered deep red, marbled and striped; Dots
numerous, gray, large.

Basin shallow, folded; Eye large, short, closed.

Cavity wide, shallow, wavy; Stem short or long, thick or slender, red.

Core very large, turbinate, regular, closed; Seeds imperfect, angular;
Flesh yellowish-white, tender, breaking; Flavor sub-acid, aromatic;
Quality best; Use, table, kitchen and market; Season, December and
longer.


=Missouri Keeper.=

Specimens from Norman J. Colman, Esq., Editor of the Rural World, St.
Louis, Missouri. Origin unknown.

Fruit medium to small, round, irregular; Surface smooth, shaded,
mixed, striped red; Dots numerous, large, white, distinct.

Basin abrupt, regular; Eye small, closed.

Cavity narrow, regular; Stem medium to short, knobby, thick.

Core regular, closed; Seeds numerous, long, plump, angular; Flesh
yellow, breaking, tender, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor sub-acid;
Quality good to very good; Use, table, market and kitchen; Season,
January to July.

Specimens cut and described on the 25th of June were in perfect
condition.


=Nonpareil.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 263.--NONPAREIL.]

The history and origin of this nice autumn fruit have not been
ascertained, and it may prove to be an old variety with a changed
name--considerably grown in Northern Illinois. Specimens from Dr. Geo.
Haskell, of Rockford, are here described.

Fruit medium to large, round, somewhat conic, angular, ribbed; Surface
smooth, waxy-yellow, splashed crimson; Dots minute.

Basin shallow, folded and plaited; Eye small, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, wavy, sometimes lipped; Stem long to medium,
thick, green.

Core wide, regular, open, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, angular,
brown; Flesh white, tender, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor acid,
aromatic; Quality quite good; Use, table; Season, September and
October.


=Stewart's Nonpareil.=--Local Name.

This early apple is quite a favorite in Clarke County, Ohio, and may
prove to be the Tetofski, or some other known variety, when it comes
to be more thoroughly examined. Fruits received from my brother, J.T.
Warder.

Fruit medium, roundish, conical, irregular, angular; Surface smooth,
yellowish-green, splashed carmine; Dots minute, scattered, indented.

Basin small, abrupt, folded; Eye very small, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, narrow; Stem long, slender.

Core large, oval, open, clasping the eye; Seeds numerous, brown; Flesh
white, tender, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor sub-acid; Quality good to
best; Use, table and kitchen; Season, July and August, in latitude
40°.


=Tetofski.=

This little foreigner was brought from Russia, and seems as well
adapted to our climate and tastes as are its companions from the same
region.

Tree vigorous, hardy, productive, upright, leaves broad, pale or light
green.

Fruit small to medium, round, flattened, somewhat conic, angular;
Surface smooth, yellow, striped, splashed carmine, white bloom.

Basin shallow, folded; Eye large, closed.

Cavity wide, wavy, or deep, acute; Stem short, yellow.

Core large, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous, plump, brown; Flesh
yellowish-white, breaking, fine grained, juicy; Flavor acid; Quality
good; Use, market, kitchen; Season, June, July--before _Early
Harvest_.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS III.--ROUND APPLES.

+ORDER II--IRREGULAR.+

SECTION 2.--SOUR.

SUB-SECTION 3.--RUSSET.


=Golden Harvey.=

BRANDY APPLE.

This highly flavored English apple is often referred to, but is rarely
seen in American collections; but as it may be interesting to some, I
quote Downing's brief description:

"Fruit small, irregularly round; Skin rather rough, dull russet over a
yellow ground, with a russety red cheek; Flesh yellow, of fine
texture, with a rich sub-acid flavor. The fruit is apt to shrivel."

Tree of slender growth.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS IV.--OBLONG APPLES.

+ORDER I.--REGULAR.+

SECTION 1.--SWEET.

SUB-SECTION 1.--SELF-COLORED.


=Downing's Paragon.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 264.--DOWNING'S PARAGON.]

Originated at Canton, Illinois. Tree upright, bears annually,
productive.

Fruit large, round, but appearing oblong, regular; Surface smooth,
yellow to golden, slightly bronzed or blushed when fully ripe; this
and the dots can scarcely be seen while the fruit is immature.

Basin deep, abrupt, plaited; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, irregular; Stem long.

Core very small, oval, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, plump;
Flesh very tender; Flavor sweet, rich, aromatic; Quality good; Use,
table; September to December.


=Honey.=

Native of Pennsylvania. Tree very erect and an excellent bearer. Fruit
rather small, oblong or oblong-conical, greenish; Flesh tender, juicy.
If this apple ripened in October (apple butter season) it would be
more valuable.--[W.G. Waring's MS.]


=Pennsylvania Sweeting.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 265.--PENNSYLVANIA SWEETING.]

Found in Southern Illinois. Origin and history unknown.

Fruit large, oblong, regular; Surface dull greenish-yellow; Dots
numerous, dark, distinct.

Basin deep, abrupt, regular; Eye large, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, irregular; Stem medium.

Core irregular, large, open, clasping; Seeds numerous, small; Flesh
tender, melting, fine-grained; Flavor very sweet; Quality good; Use,
baking and stock; Season, early winter.


=Wells' Sweeting.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 266.--WELLS' SWEETING.]

Origin and history unknown.

Fruit medium, round or oblong, regular; Surface smooth, white, some
blush; Dots scattered, prominent.

Basin wide, regular, leather-cracked; Eye large, closed.

Cavity medium, regular, green; Stem medium.

Core pyriform, closed; Seeds numerous, angular, plump; Flesh white,
firm, juicy; Flavor sweet; Use, baking and stock; Season, October and
December.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS IV.--OBLONG APPLES.

+ORDER I.--REGULAR.+

SECTION 1.--SWEET.

SUB-SECTION 2.--STRIPED.


=Black Gilliflower.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 267.--BLACK GILLIFLOWER.]

An old variety, which cannot be very highly praised, for it is but an
indifferent fruit, and yet, on account of its productiveness and
keeping properties, it is considered profitable for orchard planting.

Fruit rather large, oblong-ovate, regular; Surface nearly covered with
stripes of very deep red that make it look nearly black.

Basin very shallow, often plaited; Eye small, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, brown; Stem long, slender.

Core very large, oval, regular, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, plump
or imperfect; Flesh whitish, dry; Flavor only sweet; Use, essentially
market, may be valuable for stock; Season, November to March.


=Mother.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 268.--MOTHER.]

Origin Bolton, Massachusetts. Tree rather slender, but productive.

Fruit medium to full medium, oblong, regular; Surface smooth, shaded
red on yellow, with close, fine stripes of red; Dots minute.

Basin medium, regular or plaited; Eye long, small, closed.

Cavity acute, regular or wavy; Stem long, slender.

Core medium, turbinate, regular, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous;
Flesh yellow, crisp, very fine-grained, juicy; Flavor sweet, very
rich, vinous, aromatic; Quality best; Use, dessert; Season, October to
January.


=Ramsdell's Red.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 269.--RAMSDELL'S RED.]

Origin Connecticut. Tree vigorous, upright, many branches, productive,
early bearer; Shoots slender, reddish; Foliage rather light green.

Fruit medium to large, oblong, regular, truncated; Surface smooth,
yellow, hidden by bright red, mixed and striped; Dots numerous,
yellow, distinct.

Basin rather deep, abrupt, wavy; Eye small to medium, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, wavy; Stem medium to long, often red.

Core large, oval, closed, clasping the eye; Seeds large; Flesh yellow,
breaking, juicy; Flavor very sweet, rich; Quality very good; Use,
baking and stock; Season, September to December.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS IV.--OBLONG APPLES.

+ORDER I.--REGULAR.+

SECTION 1.--SWEET.

SUB-SECTION 3.--RUSSET.


=Mansfield Russet.=

"Brought into notice by Dr. Joseph Mansfield, of Groton,
Massachusetts. Tree vigorous and very productive. Fruit small, oblong,
inclining to conic; Skin cinnamon russet; Stem long, inserted in a
deep, furrowed cavity; Calyx partially closed, set in an open basin;
Flesh not very juicy, rich, aromatic, saccharine, vinous; Keeps until
April and May."--[Downing.]

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS IV.--OBLONG APPLES.

+ORDER I.--REGULAR.+

SECTION 2.--SOUR.

SUB-SECTION 1.--SELF-COLORED.


=Bailey's Golden.=

"Origin Kennebec County, Maine. Tree productive; Fruit large, oblong,
flattened at base and crown; Skin yellowish, slightly russeted, with a
warm cheek; Stem short, surrounded by russet, in a broad, deep cavity;
Calyx large and open, basin shallow; Flesh white, with a pleasant
sub-acid flavor; January to March."--[Downing.]


=Carolina Red June.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 270.--CAROLINA RED JUNE.]

Origin southern, though long extensively grown in the North, and
everywhere in the West a favorite early fruit.

Tree hardy, vigorous, healthy, upright, early bearer, productive;
Shoots slender, dark; Foliage dark.

Fruit small to medium, form variable, but generally oblong-ovate,
regular; Surface smooth, deep red on white, nearly universal; Dots
minute.

Basin shallow, folded, plaited; Eye small, closed; Segments reflexed.

Cavity narrow, acute; Stem medium or short.

Core oval, open, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, small, plump; Flesh
white, very tender, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor sub-acid, not rich;
Quality good; Use, table and market; Season, June and July--one of the
earliest.

There is a striped variety, the _Striped June_, from Virginia, similar
in every respect except the external markings. It is, of course, quite
different from the _Virginia June_.--(Q. vide p. 500.)


=Crawford Keeper.=

This fruit was received from H.N. Gillett, Lawrence County, Ohio.

Fruit large, cylindrical, oblong, lop-sided; Surface smooth, purplish
red; Dots numerous, fawn colored.

Basin wide, shallow, wavy; Eye small, closed.

Cavity acute, regular, rough, brown; Stem medium.

Core regular, open; Seeds numerous, brown; Flesh yellow, breaking,
tender, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor sub-acid, rich; Quality good to
very good; Use, table; Season, February to April. Very desirable.


=Cumberland Spice.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 271.--CUMBERLAND SPICE.]

Origin New Jersey; not very extensively cultivated, for, though
sometimes excellent, it is not found to be a profitable sort.

Fruit rather oblong, contracted toward the eye, or ovate, regular;
sometimes the Axis is inclined; Surface pale yellow; Dots large,
brown, scattered.

Basin shallow, regular or folded; Eye large, partially closed.

Cavity deep, acute; Stem generally long.

Core large, round, very open, not touching the eye; Seeds numerous,
large, pointed; Flesh yellow, tender, breaking, juicy; Flavor acid to
sub-acid, rich, aromatic; Quality good to best, but uncertain; Use,
table, kitchen, not profitable; Season, October to December.


=Curtis Greening.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 272.--CURTIS GREENING.]

This fruit was found in Illinois; origin uncertain.

Fruit medium to large, cylindrical, oblong, truncated; Axis inclined;
Surface yellow, bronzy; Dots numerous, dark, indented.

Basin abrupt, wide, regular; Eye large, open.

Cavity deep, acute, regular; Stem short.

Core small, fig-shaped, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous, small,
plump; Flesh yellow, breaking; Flavor sub-acid, rich; Quality good;
Use, table and kitchen; Season, January and February.


=Dawson's Cluster.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 273.--DAWSON'S CLUSTER.]

From Clark County, Ohio.

Fruit full medium, oblong-truncate or ovate, regular; Surface smooth,
pale yellow, blushed lightly with brown; Dots scattered, gray.

Basin abrupt, regular; Eye large, closed.

Cavity very acute, wavy; Stem long, with a knob.

Core medium, heart-shaped, regular, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous,
plump, large; Flesh yellowish-white, fine-grained, tender, juicy;
Flavor sub-acid; Quality good; Use, kitchen, but chiefly recommended
for cider; Season, November. An enormous bearer.


=Franklin Golden.=[50]

HUGHES' AMERICAN GOLDEN PIPPIN.

Tree thrifty, upright, moderately productive; Fruit oblong,
cylindrical; Surface smooth, yellow; Dots distinct, gray, not
numerous.

Basin wide, shallow, finely plaited; Eye long, closed.

Cavity medium, greenish; Stem long.

Core small, pyriform, regular, closed, clasping; Seeds plump, pointed;
Flesh yellow, tender, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor acid, rich; Quality
very good; Use, table; Season, mid-winter.

A choice dessert fruit.


=Grimes' Golden.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 274.--GRIMES' GOLDEN.]

Another apple of similar and equally high character. Origin, Brooke
County, Virginia. Introduced to the State Pomological Society by our
zealous fellow member S.B. Marshall, Massillon, Ohio, who obtained it
from N. Wood, of Belmont County.

Tree vigorous, healthy, spreading, productive, bears early; Shoots
stout, dark; Foliage abundant, dark green.

Fruit full medium, cylindrical, regular; Surface yellow,
vein-russeted; Dots numerous, minute.

Basin abrupt, folded; Eye large, closed.

Cavity wide, regular, green; Stem long, curved.

Core small, pyriform, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, plump,
brown; Flesh yellow, firm, breaking, very fine-grained, juicy; Flavor
sub-acid, aromatic, spicy, rich, refreshing; Quality very best; Use,
dessert, too good for aught else; those who have tried it say that it
is excellent for cooking; Season, January to March.


=Kirkbridge White.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 275.--KIRKBRIDGE WHITE.]

This fruit has been pretty extensively cultivated in some parts of the
Western States, and sometimes mistaken for the _Yellow June_. Tree of
moderate growth, bears early, productive.

Fruit small, oblong-conic, regular; Surface smooth, pale yellow or
white; Dots minute, gray, scattered.

Basin small, shallow or abrupt, narrow, regular; Eye small, closed;
Segments reflexed.

Cavity deep, acute, regular, brown; Stem long, slender, green.

Core medium, pyriform, regular, open, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous,
plump, pointed, brown; Flesh white, fine-grained, tender, juicy;
Flavor sub-acid; Quality very good; Use, table, market; Season, July,
August, after Early Harvest.


=Ortley.=

WHITE BELLFLOWER, And Many Others.

    [Illustration: Fig. 276.--ORTLEY.]

This excellent New Jersey apple has been cultivated very
satisfactorily over a great extent of our country, and is still seen
in some Western collections, exhibiting all its peculiar beauty, but
in many places where it was a great favorite but a few years since, it
has become so defective from scab and bitter-rot that it is rapidly
disappearing from the nurseries and orchards.

Tree vigorous, healthy, upright, becoming large and spreading, very
productive; Shoots stout, dark, bearing limbs brittle, and often
broken by the fruit.

Fruit large, oblong, conic, truncated, regular; Surface smooth, pale
yellow, rarely blushed light carmine, and red spots; Dots minute,
indented, white bases seen only in the unripe fruit.

Basin medium, regular, plaited; Eye small, very long, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, regular, brown; Stem long, slender.

Core medium, oval, regular, open, meeting the very long eye; Seeds
numerous, short, plump, pointed, dark, easily loosened, when they
rattle in the large open capsules; Flesh yellowish, tender, breaking,
juicy; Flavor acid to sub-acid, sprightly, refreshing; Quality best;
Use, table, kitchen; Season, November to January.

The threatened failure of this fine fruit is much to be regretted. Its
tissue is so fine as to suit even the invalid or convalescent, who
could not safely partake of a more solid apple.


=Porter.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 277.--PORTER.]

Native of Sherburne, Massachusetts. Tree vigorous, healthy,
productive.

Fruit rather large, oblong, somewhat conic, often truncated; Surface
smooth, yellow, often faintly blushed; Dots few, sunken.

Basin abrupt, folded; Eye large, closed.

Cavity acute, wavy, brown; Stem medium.

Core medium, oval, regular, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous,
plump; Flesh yellowish white, breaking, tender, juicy; Flavor acid to
sub-acid; Quality good to very good; Use, kitchen, table, market;
Season, August to October.


=Spark's.=

SPARK'S LATE.

    [Illustration: Fig. 278.--SPARK'S.]

Fruited by Jas. H. Crain, of Undulation, Pulaski County, Illinois, on
trees received from J.W. Felt & Co., Crystal Springs, Mississippi.

Special origin unknown, but believed to be southern. Tree vigorous,
upright and productive; Shoots stout.

Fruit full medium to large, oblong, conic, regular, handsome; Surface
greenish-yellow; Dots numerous, rather large, gray and rough.

Basin shallow, small, regular; Eye very small, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, regular, green; Stem medium to long.

Core medium, oval, closed, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, plump;
Flesh yellow, breaking, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor sub-acid, rich,
very aromatic; Use, dessert especially; Season, December and January;
Quality best.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS IV.--OBLONG APPLES.

+ORDER I.--REGULAR.+

SECTION 2.--SOUR.

SUB-SECTION 2.--STRIPED.


=Boalsburg.=

"A seedling of Center County, Pennsylvania. Large, oblong, inclining
to conical, delicately mottled, and striped with red on yellow ground;
Stem short, thick, inserted in a deep, acuminate, russeted cavity;
Basin deep, moderately wide; Flesh yellow, juicy, sprightly,
refreshing; Very good; February."--[_Ad interim_ Reports.]

Mr. Waring, of Tyrone, Pennsylvania, writes me that the Boalsburg has
not proved to be productive, and that he has discontinued its
propagation.


=Cannon Pearmain.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 279.--CANNON PEARMAIN.]

A southern apple; probably from North Carolina. Grown to some extent
in parts of the West, where it proves a substitute for the Ben Davis,
keeping longer.

Tree vigorous, healthy, productive when old; Fruit medium, round,
oblong or ovate, regular; Surface smooth, yellow, shaded red, faintly
striped; Dots large, yellow, gray.

Basin deep, abrupt, regular, rarely wavy; Eye small, closed.

Cavity acute, often lipped; Stem long, slender, red.

Core medium, regular, oval, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous, long,
pointed; Flesh yellow, firm, breaking; Flavor mild sub-acid; Quality
only good; Use, market, kitchen, table; Season, January to April.


=Cooper's Market.=

"Tree vigorous, upright, with long, slender branches; productive and a
late keeper.

"Fruit medium, oblong, conic; Skin yellowish, shaded with red, striped
crimson; Stem short; Cavity deep, narrow; Calyx closed; Basin small;
Flesh white, tender, with a brisk, sub-acid flavor; December to
May."--[Downing.]


=Fall Butter.=--[_L. Jones._][51]

There are many apples with this name, but my good friend Lewis Jones
thinks this is the only genuine kind, and deserving the name from its
adaptation to the making of apple butter. Found in a seedling orchard
of Eastern Indiana, and a distinct sort.

Fruit large, handsome, globular; Surface smooth, greenish-yellow; Dots
minute, prominent.

Basin regular, abrupt, brown; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity deep, narrow, green; Stem short.

Core medium, round, open, clasping; Seeds numerous, short, plump,
dark; Flesh yellowish-white, breaking, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor
sweet; Quality best for table, baking and apple butter; Season,
December and January.


=Hague.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 280.--HAGUE.]

Introduced by Lewis Jones, Wayne County, Indiana. Believed to be a
seedling.

Fruit large, roundish, oblong, cylindrical, truncate; Surface smooth,
greenish yellow, shaded more or less with red, striped and splashed
deep red; Dots numerous or scattered, large, distinct, yellow.

Basin medium, regular; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, regular, brown; Stem short to medium, curved.

Core large, heart-shaped, regular, closed or open, clasping; Seeds
numerous, short, pointed, plump; Flesh yellow, tender, fine-grained,
juicy; Flavor sub-acid, aromatic, rich; Quality very good to best;
Use, table, market; Season, December to February. Worthy of
attention.


=Herman.=

"From Cumberland County, Pennsylvania. Tree vigorous, spreading, quite
prolific.

Fruit medium, oblong, conic; fine red, striped on green, Flesh
greenish white, tender, juicy, sub-acid, and high flavor; November to
April."--[Saml. Miller, in Downing.]


=Indiana Beauty.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 281.--INDIANA BEAUTY.]

This beautiful Indiana seedling always attracts attention by its
external appearance, but it is not destined to become a general
favorite.

Fruit large, cylindrical, oblong, unequal; Axis inclined; Surface very
smooth yellow, partially covered mixed scarlet, splashed carmine; Dots
numerous, small.

Basin deep, abrupt, folded; Eye medium to large, closed.

Cavity acute, wavy; Stem medium.

Core small, oval, closed, clasping the eye; Seeds numerous, long,
pointed, imperfect; Flesh yellowish, breaking, juicy; Flavor sub-acid,
aromatic; Quality only good; Use, market, kitchen; Season, September,
November.


=Jonathan.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 282.--JONATHAN.]

Origin, Kingston, New York. Described by Judge Buell. A very superior
dessert fruit; good for all purposes, and seems to do well everywhere.
Its excellence has caused it to be called, particularly, a gentleman's
apple, though quite acceptable to the farmers' boys.

Tree of rather slender growth; hence top-grafted in the orchard and
stock-grafted in the nursery to produce early results; Spreading,
rather drooping, productive; Shoots slender, light brown, buds small;
Foliage rather sparse, grayish.

Fruit medium, round or oblong, conic, truncated, regular; Surface very
smooth, waxy yellow, wholly covered brilliant dark red, mixed and
striped; Dots minute, russet-veined.

Basin deep, regular, russet-veined; Eye small, closed, green.

Cavity acute, deep, regular, reddish brown; Stem long, slender.

Core medium, roundish-oval, regular, closed, scarcely clasping the
eye; Seeds numerous, large, angular; Flesh, whitish yellow, tender,
breaking, very juicy; Flavor sub-acid, aromatic, equal to Spitzenberg;
Quality best; Use, dessert, cooking, &c.; December, January.

Should be in every orchard.


=Kaighn's Spitzenberg.=--[_Coxe._]

    [Illustration: Fig. 283.--KAIGHN'S SPITZENBERG.]

From Gloucester County, New Jersey. Tree spreading, very productive;
Shoots slender.

Fruit large, handsome, oblong, slightly conic, truncated, regular;
Surface smooth, yellow, striped crimson; Dots minute.

Basin deep, abrupt, folded or regular; Eye medium, closed; Segments
reflexed.

Cavity deep, acute, regular, brown; Stem long, slender, red.

Core large, pyriform, regular, clasping, generally open; Seeds
numerous, plump, angular, loose; Flesh yellow, breaking, juicy; Flavor
acid to sub-acid, rather rich; Quality good for culinary use; Market
and drying; Season, November, December.


=Knowles' Early.=

A favorite early apple about Philadelphia. Origin supposed to be Bucks
County, Pennsylvania.

Tree medium, thrifty, very productive, early bearer.

Fruit small, conical, oblong, striped dull red on yellow.

Basin shallow, plaited; Eye small, closed.

Cavity acute, regular; Stem medium to long.

Flesh yellowish, very tender, juicy; Flavor mild sub-acid, aromatic,
agreeable; Quality good; Use, table, kitchen; Season, July and August.


=Long Island Pearmain.=--[_Coxe._]

AUTUMN PEARMAIN, Thompson, according to Downing.--WINTER PEARMAIN,
Western markets.

An old variety found in all the early orchards of Ohio and Indiana,
that were within the influence of Silas Wharton's nursery. A good,
profitable variety that has been overlooked in the rage for novelties.

Tree large, spreading, very productive; Fruit full medium, round,
elongated, tapering slightly from the base, always truncated at the
apex, regular; Surface smooth, yellowish green, covered with dull red,
and striped maroon; Dots numerous, minute, gray; russet-veined towards
the base.

Basin regular, wide, rather deep, slightly leather-cracked; Eye
medium, open; Segments long.

Cavity rather wide; Stem long.

Core medium, heart-shaped, regular, closed, not clasping; Seeds
numerous, large, plump, brown;. Flesh yellow, breaking, firm, not very
juicy; Flavor sub-acid, aromatic, rich, agreeable; Quality good; Use,
family and market; Season, November till March.


=Marston's Red Winter.=

As I have never seen this fruit, I again quote from Downing:

"I received this beautiful apple from Nathan Norton, of Greenland, New
Hampshire, who said the original tree was more than a hundred years
old, and still standing.

"Tree hardy, of moderate growth, great bearer, and keeps as well as
Baldwin, and by many preferred to that variety, and is a popular fruit
in the neighborhood.

"Fruit above medium size, oblong, oval, inclining to ovate; Stem
three-quarters of an inch long, rather slender, in a narrow, deep,
compressed, slightly russeted cavity, sometimes with a lip; Calyx
partially closed; Segments long, in a deep, corrugated basin; Color
whitish yellow, shaded and striped with bright green and crimson,
thickly sprinkled with minute dots; Flesh whitish yellow, very juicy,
tender, sprightly, sub-acid flavor; December to March."


=Mifflin King.=

Origin Mifflin County, Pennsylvania. Fruit small, color of _Rambo_
perhaps a trifle more red, oblong; Flesh remarkably tender, juicy and
pleasant; First rate.--[American Pomological Society's Report.]

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS IV.--OBLONG APPLES.

+ORDER I.--REGULAR.+

SECTION 2.--SOUR.

SUB-SECTION 3.--RUSSET.


NONE.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS IV.--OBLONG APPLES.

+ORDER II.--IRREGULAR.+

SECTION 1.--SWEET.

SUB-SECTION 1.--SELF-COLORED.


=Sweet Bellflower.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 284.--SWEET BELLFLOWER.]

This apple is supposed to have originated in the neighborhood of
Dayton, Ohio, and is cultivated chiefly in the adjacent regions, and
when found elsewhere is traceable to this source.

Fruit large, roundish oblong, angular; Surface uneven, greenish
yellow, becoming creamy yellow, very rarely blushed or bronzed; Dots
minute, indented, surrounded by green in the unripe fruit.

Basin medium, folded; Eye small, closed; Segments long, reflexed.

Cavity acute, wavy, green; Stem long, slender.

Core regular, roundish, open, meeting the eye; Seeds numerous, plump,
angular, imperfect; Flesh white, fine-grained, breaking, juicy; Flavor
very sweet; Quality good to very good; Use, baking, table; Season,
December.

Not equal to Broadwell.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS IV.--OBLONG APPLES.

+ORDER II.--IRREGULAR.+

SECTION 1.--SWEET.

SUB-SECTION 2.--STRIPED.


=Harnish.=

"From Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Fruit medium, oblong, oval,
slightly angular; Skin mostly shaded with dark red, and sprinkled with
grayish dots; Flesh compact, tender, not juicy, almost sweet,
pleasant; September to October."--[Downing.]


=Illinois Pumpkin Sweet.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 285.--ILLINOIS PUMPKIN SWEET.]

This apple was found in Illinois. From the orchard of Mr. Montagu, who
esteemed it very highly.

Fruit medium, oblong, ovate, angular; Surface mixed, splashed and
striped with dull red; Dots scattered, distinct, yellow.

Basin abrupt, folded; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity acute, folded; Stem medium, inclined.

Core medium, pyriform, regular, closed, clasping; Seeds numerous,
angular, plump; Flesh yellow, rather tough in winter, but "becomes
melting in June"; Flavor very sweet; Quality good, Montagu says best;
Use, kitchen, table; Season, January till June.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS IV.--OBLONG APPLES.

+ORDER II.--IRREGULAR.+

SECTION 1.--SWEET.

SUB-SECTION 3.--RUSSET.


NONE.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS IV.--OBLONG APPLES.

+ORDER II.--IRREGULAR.+

SECTION 2.--SOUR.

SUB-SECTION 1.--SELF-COLORED.


=Genesee Chief.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 286.--GENESEE CHIEF.]

Fruit large to very large, roundish oblong, ribbed or angular; Surface
smooth, pale yellow, sometimes bronzed; Dots scattered, minute.

Basin shallow, medium; Eye small, but very long, closed.

Cavity narrow, pointed, green; Stem medium, knobby.

Core very large, round, clasping, very open; Seeds numerous,
defective, angular, brown; Flesh white, tender, breaking, juicy;
Flavor acid, thin; Quality second rate--good only for cooking; Season,
August.


=Henwood.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 287.--HENWOOD.]

A seedling of Indiana. Brought into notice by Lewis Jones, of Wayne
County, who has frequently exhibited the fruit, and distributed grafts
of this excellent apple, which may compensate for the failure of its
reputed parent, the _Ortley_.

Fruit large, oblong, conic or ovate, often angular or ribbed; Surface
smooth, pale yellow, rarely blushed; Dots scattered, dark.

Basin shallow, often abrupt, folded or plaited; Eye small, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, wavy; Stem long, slender.

Core rather small, round, regular, open, meeting the eye; Seeds
numerous, long, angular; Flesh yellow, tender, fine-grained, juicy;
Flavor acid to sub-acid, rich; Quality very good to best; Season,
December to February.


=Keswick Codling.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 288.--KESWICK CODLING.]

An old English variety, which has greatly pleased the people of our
country, who find it a valuable market and family fruit, particularly
desirable in the North and Northwest.

Tree vigorous, hardy, productive, an early bearer; Shoots branching in
a peculiar manner, dark.

Fruit medium, oblong, conical, truncated, ribbed; Surface smooth, pale
yellow; Dots scattered, minute.

Basin medium, folded; Eye medium to large, closed.

Cavity acute, regular, browned; Stem long, yellow.

Core large, open, clasping; Seeds numerous, angular; Flesh greenish
yellow, fine-grained, tender, juicy; Flavor acid; Quality good to very
good for its use--cooking; Season, August to October.

The fruit may be cooked in June.


=Newark Pippin.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 289.--NEWARK PIPPIN.]

Origin, New Jersey. Tree not large, brushy, limbs crooked, twiggy,
drooping, not very productive or satisfactory.

Fruit above medium, oblong, cylindrical, truncated very abruptly,
slightly angular; Surface smooth, rich yellow when ripe; Dots minute.

Basin wide, regular; Eye large, open.

Cavity wide, regular; Stem long, slender.

Core large, oval or pyriform, regular, closed, clasping; Seeds
numerous, angular, plump; Flesh deep yellow, breaking, fine-grained,
juicy; Flavor sub-acid, aromatic, rich, sprightly; Quality best; Use,
dessert, cooking; Season, December to February.

A delicious fruit for amateurs, but its place is supplanted by
_Grimes' Golden_, which is a much better tree, with fruit of similar
good qualities, and better.


=Rock Pippin.=

RIDGE PIPPIN, LEMON, &C.

    [Illustration: Fig. 290.--ROCK PIPPIN.]

This admirable long-keeper has claims upon the attention of the
commercial orchardist, on account of its soundness and beauty in the
spring. Tree very thrifty, large, productive; Branches open,
spreading; Shoots stout, dark; Foliage large, scattered.

Fruit full medium, oblong, ovate, angular, often ribbed, truncate at
the apex, sometimes unequal; Surface very smooth, very rich yellow,
blushed bright carmine when ripe; Dots few, small, dark.

Basin shallow, plaited or folded; Eye small, short, closed.

Cavity acute, often lipped; Stem medium.

Core medium, pyriform, open, somewhat clasping; Seeds numerous, long,
brown; Flesh yellow, breaking, rather dry; Flavor acid to sub-acid,
rich; Quality only good; Use, market and kitchen; Season, December to
May; of most value to sell at the latter period.

Cooks well all winter.


=Yellow Bellflower.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 291.--YELLOW BELLFLOWER.]

This noble and valuable constituent of our orchards came from
Burlington County, New Jersey, where it was first described by Coxe.
This apple has succeeded in almost all parts of the country, North and
South, and has proved remarkably hardy. The quality of the fruit
varies with the soil, being best and most highly flavored and colored
on exposed ridges of rather thin soil, while those on rich low bottoms
or prairies are slow in bearing, and then produce very large fruit.
The crops, however, are not always satisfactory in such situations,
though the trees become very large; the blossoms are often destroyed
by spring frosts.

Tree vigorous, thrifty, hardy, large, spreading, drooping; Twigs
slender, brown; Foliage abundant, long, wavy; Blossoms very large, on
long stems, exposed to the weather and not protected by the leaves.

Fruit large to very large, oblong, ovate, angular, ribbed; Surface
smooth, rich yellow, sometimes blushed; Dots scattered gray.

Basin shallow or moderately deep, plaited or folded; Eye small,
closed.

Cavity deep, acute or wide, wavy; Stem long, curved.

Core large, oval, open, clasping; Seeds dark, large, angular,
imperfect; Flesh yellow, breaking, fine-grained, juicy; Flavor acid to
sub-acid, aromatic, very rich and satisfying; Quality best; Use,
table, kitchen, market; Season, December.

One of the finest culinary apples in the catalogue.


=York Imperial.=

From the neighborhood of York, Pennsylvania. Exhibited before the
State Society at the meeting in Lebanon, 1855. Tree said to be healthy
and productive.

Fruit large, rather oblong, somewhat angular; Surface smooth, mixed
bright red on greenish yellow.

Basin wide, plaited; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity deep, wide; Stem short.

Flesh yellowish, tender, juicy; Flavor sub-acid, aromatic; Quality
quite good; Use, market, kitchen; Season, January, February.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS IV.--OBLONG APPLES.

+ORDER II.--IRREGULAR.+

SECTION 2.--SOUR.

SUB-SECTION 2.--STRIPED.


=Clyde Beauty.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 292.--CLYDE BEAUTY.]

"Origin, Wayne County, New York. Tree vigorous, upright, very
productive.

"Fruit large, roundish, conic, angular; Skin greenish, oily, sprinkled
and mottled with dull red, and bright red in the sun; Stem short,
slender, inserted in an acute cavity; Calyx closed, set in a small
corrugated basin; Flesh white, tender, juicy with a brisk sub-acid
flavor; October to January."--[Downing.]


=Frank or Chenango.=

CHENANGO STRAWBERRY.

This beautiful apple has been called also the _Late Strawberry_. So,
to avoid confusion, perhaps, it were better to adopt its local name
_Frank_. It is a native of New York.

Fruit medium to large oblong, tapering, irregular; Surface smooth,
beautifully striped on waxen yellow.

Basin folded and plaited, abrupt; Eye medium, closed.

Cavity acuminate; Stem medium.

Flesh tender, juicy; Flavor sub-acid, aromatic; Quality very good;
Use, dessert; Season, autumn.


=Minister.=

This New England apple was introduced by Mr. Manning; when he brought
it before the American Pomological Society, it met with so much favor
from the members of that body that it was adopted and recommended. In
the Western States it has failed to give satisfaction and is generally
discarded, but further North it may do as well as in New England. In
Ohio it becomes an autumn apple, and is only used for cooking, when we
have plenty of others that are preferred.

Tree healthy, vigorous, early bearer, and constantly productive.

Fruit full medium to large, oblong, tapering to the eye, ribbed,
irregular; Surface smooth, yellow, covered bright red mixed, splashed
carmine, often handsome; Dots minute.

Basin very narrow, folded, plaited; Eye small, closed.

Cavity deep, acute, sometimes brown; Stem long, slender.

Flesh yellowish, breaking, juicy; Flavor acid; Quality only good; Use,
kitchen; Season, September and later; not a winter fruit in latitude
forty.


=Striped Gilliflower.=

    [Illustration: Fig. 293.--STRIPED GILLIFLOWER.]

Fruit quite large, oblong, conical, truncated, ribbed; Surface smooth,
yellowish white, mixed red, splashed carmine; Dots rare, gray.

Basin abrupt, folded; Eye large, closed.

Cavity wide, wavy, brown; Stem short, curved.

Core large, round, very open, meeting the eye; Seeds small, plump,
black; Flesh yellowish white, breaking; Flavor sub-acid; Quality
scarcely good; Use, market only; Season, September.

Less ribbed than the _Scalloped Gilliflower_.


=Toccoa.=

"From Toccoa Falls, Habersham County, Georgia.

"Fruit rather large, conical, irregular or oblong; Skin whitish
yellow, considerably shaded with carmine, and sprinkled with a few
brown dots; Stem short, inserted in a deep cavity; Calyx partially
closed, set in a rather large basin; Flesh whitish, juicy, tender,
pleasant, mild sub-acid; November to February."--[Downing.]

Perhaps not an early bearer; my trees, set six years, have not yet
fruited.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASS IV.--OBLONG APPLES.

+ORDER II.--IRREGULAR.+

SECTION 2.--SOUR.

SUB-SECTION 3.--RUSSET.


=Bourrassa.=

Foreign. Said to do well in the North; have seen it handsome at
Detroit.

Fruit medium, oblong, ovate, somewhat angular and ribbed; Surface
yellow, covered lightly with a rich red russet, giving it an orange
hue.

Basin small; Eye small, closed; Segments very long.

Cavity deep, acute, wavy; Stem long.

Flesh white or stained, tender; Flavor acid, spicy, aromatic; Quality
pretty good, but apt to be tough and wilted; Season, November to
December.

Not worth trying in the South.

FOOTNOTES:

[49] Vide Horticulturist for 1861 p. 40.

[50] Fall Butter, on page 677, belongs here.

[51] See page 670.



CHAPTER XVII.

FRUIT LISTS.

  EVERY PLANTER MUST JUDGE FOR HIMSELF AND OBSERVE THE SORTS THAT
    SUCCEED IN HIS OWN NEIGHBORHOOD. ATTEMPTS TO MAKE LISTS FOR
    GENERAL CULTIVATION ABORTIVE. STATE AND REGIONAL LISTS MAY
    APPROXIMATE USEFULNESS. SO MANY ELEMENTS IN MAKING A DECISION.
    OUR TASTES DIFFER. REFERENCE TO THE LISTS OF THE AMERICAN
    POMOLOGICAL SOCIETY AND TO THOSE OF LOCAL SOCIETIES. PRESENT A
    FEW SELECTED LISTS. THE QUESTION OF HARDINESS IS OF GREAT
    INTEREST. LISTS OF HARDY AND TENDER VARIETIES. LISTS FOR CIDER.


Every orchard planter who examines the extended variety of fruits
presented to him in the books, and by the nurserymen, must feel
greatly embarrassed when he comes to select the varieties for his own
orchards. Almost every one of the long lists is recommended for some
good quality, and the number of _best_, which he is apt to conclude
means indispensable for him, is wonderfully large. Some persons are
bewildered by the array presented in the catalogue, and fall back upon
their own slender stock of information, selecting only one well known
variety; but most persons commit a far greater fault by attempting to
grasp all the varieties that are offered and commended, which is very
well for some one person in every region to do. It is a labor of love
for the benefit of his fellow townsmen; but it is far better for him
who is about to plant an orchard, either large or small, to determine
which varieties are best adapted for his purposes. For the small
planter, who is providing for the wants of his family, a number of
varieties that will ripen in succession will be best, and the sorts
should be selected with regard to their qualities for household uses.
The planter of extensive commercial orchards, on the contrary, will
need but a limited number of varieties, which should be selected with
a view to the wants of the markets he intends to supply, as well as to
the productiveness of the fruit, and its ability to bear
transportation. While it is desirable to have but a few well selected
varieties in such an orchard, it must be recollected that even when
there is a general failure of the crop, there are always some sorts
that bear fruit, and this is an argument against making the list too
small.

All attempts to make out lists of fruits for general cultivation over
the great extent of our country have been abortive. State and regional
lists are made by the Pomological and other societies, which are
useful in rendering approximate information; but, at last, every
planter should observe the fruits that succeed in his own
neighborhood, and upon soil similar to his own, and select his
varieties for planting accordingly.

In making up our judgment of the excellence of a fruit, there are many
elements that enter into the question of what constitutes a good
apple, and so much depends upon the tastes of the individuals who have
the question to decide, that at last every one is left to make up his
own mind as to what will be best for his particular case.

The American Pomological Society, many years ago, attempted to make
out lists that would be applicable to the whole country, but it was
very soon discovered that their recommendations were by no means of
universal application, and that what was valuable in one section was
worthless in another. The State and local societies took up the work,
and the result of their labors has been of great value to persons
similarly situated. In some States, regions, with peculiar soils and
different underlying rocks, were found to be more or less fitted for
the production of different varieties, and partial or local lists have
been made out upon this principle. The greater value of the data thus
obtained commended itself to the National Society, which has since
collated these lists so far as possible in a tabular form, which shows
the relative appreciation in which many varieties are held in the
several regions that have reported; to these the reader is
referred.[52] At present I propose to present a few lists which have
been given by eminent pomologists, in different parts of the country,
as the result of their extended observations, and applicable in their
several districts.

Henry Little and others recommend for Maine:

    Baldwin,
    Blue Pearmain,
    Bough,
    Danvers,
    Duchess of Oldenburgh,
    Fameuse,
    Golden Ball,
    Golden Sweet,
    Gravenstein,
    Hubbardston,
    Jewett's Fine Red,
    Minister,
    Mother,
    Northern Spy,
    Porter,
    Red Astrachan,
    Rhode Island Greening,
    Ribstone Pippin,
    Roxbury Russet,
    Sops of Wine,
    Tallman Sweet,
    Vandervere (Newtown Spitzenberg),
    Vermont,
    Williams' Favorite,
    Winthrop.

The following list was furnished by C. Goodrich for Vermont:

    Baldwin,
    Bough,
    Duchess of Oldenburgh,
    Early Harvest,
    Esopus Spitzenberg,
    Gravenstein,
    Newtown Pippin,
    Northern Spy,
    Porter,
    Red Astrachan,
    Rhode Island Greening,
    Roxbury Russet.

Recommended by Thomas Hancock for New Jersey:

    American Golden Russet,
    Bough,
    Early Harvest,
    Fall Pippin,
    Hagloe,
    Juneating,
    Maiden's Blush,
    Monmouth Pippin,
    Newtown Pippin,
    Rhode Island Greening,
    Summer Rose,
    Striped Harvest,
    Tewksbury Blush,
    White Seek-no-further.

Wm. Parry, of Burlington County, New Jersey, an excellent judge of
market qualities, recommends, after thorough trial, the following for
profit:

    Bachelor's Blush,
    Bough,
    Hagloe,
    Maiden's Blush.

Jno. Diehl gave this list as desirable for Delaware:

    American Summer Pearmain,
    Baldwin,
    Bough,
    Caleb,
    Danvers' Winter,
    Early Harvest,
    Early Red Margaret,
    Early Red Streak,
    English Russet,
    Fallawater,
    Fall Pippin,
    Gilpin,
    Greening,
    Herefordshire Pearmain,
    Lady,
    Maiden's Blush,
    Newtown Pippin,
    Rambo,
    Roman Stem,
    Smokehouse,
    Summer Golden Pippin,
    Summer Queen,
    White Juneating,
    Winesap,
    Yellow Bellflower.

Mr. Robey, of Fredericksburgh, recommends for that part of Virginia:

    Abram,
    Baltimore Pippin,
    Bowling Sweet,
    Brooke's Pippin,
    Carter,
    Garden,
    Gloucester White,
    Green Newtown Pippin,
    Hollady,
    Ladies' Favorite,
    Leather Coat,
    Limbertwig,
    Milam,
    Ogleby,
    Pryor's Red,
    Rawle's Janet,
    Red Cathead,
    Roberson's White,
    Russet (?),
    Spice (Va.),
    Strawn's Seedling,
    Summer Cheese,
    Summer Golden Pippin,
    Vandervere,
    Waugh's Crab,
    Winesap,
    Winter Cheese,
    Winter Queen.

Daniel K. Underwood, Michigan, gives the following extended catalogue:

SUMMER.

    Early Harvest,
    Early Joe,
    Early Strawberry,
    Golden Sweet,
    Maiden's Blush,
    Red Astrachan,
    Sweet Bough,
    Sine-qua-non,
    Summer Queen,
    Summer Rose.

AUTUMN.

    Alexander,
    Daniel,
    Duchess of Oldenburgh,
    Dyer,
    Fall Pippin,
    Fameuse,
    Gravenstein,
    Hawley,
    Jersey Sweet,
    Keswick Codling,
    Late Strawberry,
    Porter,
    Rambo,
    Cayuga Red Streak,
    Fall Wine.

WINTER.

    Baldwin,
    Belmont,
    Black Detroit,
    Blue Pearmain,
    Bourrassa,
    Cornish Gilliflower,
    Domine,
    English Russet,
    Esopus,
    Green Newtown,
    Golden Russet,
    Herefordshire,
    Hubbardston,
    Jonathan,
    Ladies' Sweeting,
    Lady,
    Northern Spy,
    Peck's Pleasant,
    Red Canada,
    Rawle's Janet,
    Roxbury,
    Swaar,
    Stone,
    Twenty Ounce Pippin,
    Rhode Island Greening,
    Vandervere (Newtown Spitzenberg),
    Westfield,
    Yellow Bellflower.

J.D.G. Nelson, President of the Indiana State Society, an extensive
orchardist at Fort Wayne, presented the following list as the result
of long experience in Northern Indiana:

SUMMER.

    Red Astrachan, less profitable.
    Early Harvest, less profitable.
    Duchess of Oldenburgh, more profitable.
    Keswick Codling, more profitable.
    Sweet Bough.
    High-top Sweet, for profit.

FALL.

    Maiden's Blush,
    Porter,
    Rambo,
    Trenton Early,
    Dyer,
    Lowell,
    Hawley,
    _Golden Sweet._

WINTER APPLES FOR EXTENSIVE CULTIVATION FOR MARKET.

  DARK.--Ben Davis, 500 trees.
         Smith's Cider, 300 trees.
         Jersey Black, 200 trees.

  LIGHT.--Belmont, need careful handling
          Wagener, need careful handling
          Yellow Bellflower, need careful handling

  SWEET.--Bentley Sweet, keeps well.
           London Sweet, keeps well.
           Talman Sweet, keeps well.

AMATEUR LIST.

    American Summer Pearmain,
    American Golden Russet,
    Evening Party,
    King of Tompkins County,
    Swaar,
    Newtown Pippin.

Dr. Cornett, of Versailles, Indiana, advised to plant

    American Summer Pearmain,
    Bohanon,
    Carolina Red June,
    Cooper,
    Early Harvest,
    Fall Pippin,
    Fall Wine,
    Golden Russet (American?),
    Newtown Pippin,
    Pryor's Red,
    Rambo,
    Rawle's Janet,
    Winesap,
    Yellow Bellflower.

Messrs. Lawyer, of South Pass, Union County, Illinois, recommends of
1,000 trees for profit:

    250 Ben Davis,
    100 Early Harvest,
     50 Nickajack,
     50 Pryor's Red,
    150 Rawle's Janet,
    150 Red Astrachan,
     50 Rome Beauty,
     50 Smith's Cider,
     50 White Pippin,
    100 Winesap.

Parker Earle, President of the Illinois State Horticultural Society,
an intelligent fruit cultivator in the Southern portion of that State
(called Egypt), recommends the following list as being well adapted
for profit:

    Ben Davis,
    Buckingham,
    Carolina Red June,
    Early Harvest,
    Golden Sweet,
    Jonathan,
    Keswick Codling,
    Newtown Pippin,
    Rambo,
    Rawle's Janet,
    Red Astrachan,
    White Pippin,
    White Winter Pearmain,
    Winesap,
    Yellow Bellflower.

Wm. C. Hampton, Hardin County, Ohio, recommends for a select list of
winter apples:

    Broadwell,
    Hubbardston,
    Michael Henry,
    Ortley,
    Rome Beauty,
    Seedling Jersey Sweet,
    Yellow Bellflower,
    Yellow Newtown Pippin.

H.B. Spencer, of Rockport, Cuyahoga County, Ohio, recommends the
following:

    Baldwin,
    Baltimore,
    Belmont,
    Esopus Spitzenberg,
    Peck's Pleasant,
    Red Canada,
    Roxbury Russet.

Mr. G.W. Dean, of Welshfield, Geauga County, Ohio, gives the following
list of ten:

    Baldwin,
    Baltimore,
    Canada Red,
    Hubbardston,
    Ladies' Sweeting,
    Peck's Pleasant,
    Rambo,
    Rhode Island Greening,
    Swaar,
    Westfield Seek-no-further.

Recommended by M.B. Bateham, Secretary Ohio Pomological Society, for
the Central and Southern portion of the State:

SUMMER.

    American Summer Pearmain,
    Bough,
    Early Harvest,
    Early Pennock,
    Early Strawberry,
    Golden Sweeting,
    High-top Sweet,
    Keswick Codling,
    Red Astrachan,
    Summer Queen,
    Tetofski.

AUTUMN.

    Cooper,
    Fall Pippin,
    Gravenstein,
    Jersey Sweet,
    Lowell,
    Maiden's Blush,
    Ohio Nonpareil,
    Orange Sweet,
    Rambo,
    Smokehouse.

WINTER.

    Bullock's Pippin,
    Domine,
    Fallawater,
    London Sweet,
    Milam,
    Mount Pleasant Sweet,
    Newtown Spitzenberg,
    Pryor's Red,
    Rawle's Janet,
    Rome Beauty,
    Smith's Cider,
    Tallman,
    Western Spy,
    White Pippin,
    Willow,
    Winesap,
    Yellow Bellflower.

Select lists from H.N. Gillett for Southern Ohio, Western Virginia and
Kentucky:

SUMMER VARIETIES.

    Benoni,
    Early Harvest,
    Early Chandler,
    Primate,
    Pound Royal,
    Red Astrachan,
    Summer Rose,
    Summer Queen,
    Summer Seek-no-further,
    Sine-qua-non.

FALL VARIETIES.

    Corse's Favorite,
    Cooper,
    Favorite,
    Fall Pippin,
    Fall Wine,
    Fallawater,
    Gravenstein,
    Maiden's Blush,
    King of Pippins,
    Porter.

WINTER VARIETIES.

    Ben Davis,
    Black Coal,
    Broadwell,
    Buckingham [Autumn],
    Bullock's Pippin,
    Carolina Red [Nickajack?],
    Defiance,
    Harrison,
    Hewes' Crab,
    Lady,
    Pryor's Red,
    Rawle's Janet,
    Red Cedar,
    Rolen's Keeper,
    Rome Beauty,
    Roxbury Russet,
    Smith's Cider,
    Winesap,
    Yellow Bellflower.

By Henry Hefflebower, an extensive orchardist at Montclovia, Lucas
County, Ohio:

    American Golden Russet,
    Baldwin,
    Bellflower,
    Belmont,
    Bough,
    Early Harvest,
    Fallawater,
    Fall Pippin,
    King of Tompkins,
    Maiden's Blush,
    Newtown Pippin,
    Newtown Spitzenberg,
    None Such,
    Porter,
    Primate,
    Rambo,
    Rawle's Janet,
    Red Astrachan,
    Seek-no-further,
    Smokehouse,
    Summer Queen,
    Summer Rose,
    Swaar,
    Sweet Bellflower,
    Tallow Pippin,
    Twenty Ounce.


HARDY AND TENDER.

After the sad experiences in many portions of the Northwest, where in
some severe winters whole orchards of trees and extensive nurseries
were ruined by the cold, it has become a most important question for
planters to ask whether the varieties recommended are _hardy_. The
testimony of some of our best observers has been collected, and will
be of value, though it may be observed that there is some discrepancy
as to certain sorts.

The following list of hardy and tender varieties was prepared by
Reuben Ragan, Putnam County, Indiana, and has since been carefully
revised. Soil a rich argillaceous loam on lime stone:

TENDER.

    Baldwin,
    Bullock's Pippin,
    Early Harvest,
    Esopus,
    Fall Pippin,
    Gravenstein,
    Michael Henry,
    *Newtown Spitzenberg,
    Ortley,
    Pryor's Red,
    Rambo,
    Rawle's Janet,
    Rhode Island Greening,
    *Roxbury Russet,
    *Summer Queen.

    * These suffered in the nursery especially.

HARDY.

    American Summer Pearmain,
    Carolina June (Red),
    Carolina June (Striped),
    Chronicle,
    Danvers' Winter Sweet,
    Early Strawberry,
    Fall Queen,
    Fall Wine,
    Farley Red,
    Hannah,
    Hoops,
    Horse,
    Lewis (of Ragan),
    McAffee,
    Newtown Pippin,
    Northern Spy,
    Pennock,
    Pottinger,
    President,
    Priestley,
    Ragan's Red,
    Red Astrachan,
    Red Streak,
    Rome Beauty,
    Sine-qua-non,
    Transport,
    Vandervere Pippin,
    Winesap,
    Yellow Bellflower,
    Yellow Juneating.

A.L. Benedict, of Monroe County, has taken great pains in making out
lists of those that were entirely destroyed, partially injured, and
slightly affected by the terribly severe winter of 1855-6:

ENTIRELY DESTROYED.

    Baldwin Sweet,
    Blue Pearmain,
    Cheeseboro Russet,
    Egg Top,
    English Russet,
    Esopus Spitzenberg,
    Fall Pippin,
    French Pippin,
    Lowre Queen,
    Newtown Spitzenberg,
    Red Juneating,
    Rhode Island Greening,
    Robinson,
    Romanite,
    Spice Sweeting,
    Wing Sweet,
    Yellow Vandervere.

PARTIALLY INJURED.

    American Golden Russet,
    Belmont,
    Black,
    Bough,
    Butter,
    Colvert,
    Detroit Black,
    Early Harvest,
    Fall Wine,
    Golden Sweet,
    Gray Vandervere,
    Hoops,
    Kaighn's Spitzenberg,
    London Winter Sweet,
    Newtown Pippin,
    Ortley,
    Peck's Pleasant,
    Pennock,
    Pine,
    Rambo,
    Raritan Sweet,
    Roxbury Russet,
    Scallop Gilliflower,
    Streaked Vandervere,
    Swaar,
    Sweet Gilliflower,
    Tift's Sweet,
    Tulpehocken,
    White Pippin,
    Winesap,
    Yellow Bellflower.

HARDY OR BUT SLIGHTLY INJURED.

    Bethlemite,
    Black Gilliflower,
    Blockley,
    Gloria Mundi,
    Grindstone,
    Harrison (Newark King),
    Jersey King,
    Maiden's Blush,
    May,
    Molasses,
    Pennsylvania Red Streak,
    Pound Pippin,
    Pumpkin Sweet,
    Red Winter Sweet,
    Roman Stem,
    Saint Lawrence,
    Saner's Early Sweet,
    Summer Queen,
    Summer Rose,
    Sweet Vandervere,
    Tallman Sweet,
    Westfield Seek-no-further,
    White Rambo,
    Whitmore's Sweeting,
    Yellow Newtown Pippin.

M.L. Comstock, of Iowa, gives the following list of apples that are
found to be tender in that region:

    Baldwin,
    Esopus Spitzenberg,
    Fall Pippin,
    Fameuse,
    Gravenstein,
    Golden Russet,
    Hubbardston,
    Jonathan,
    Ladies' Sweet,
    Newtown Spitzenberg,
    Peck's Pleasant,
    Pomme Grise,
    Rawle's Janet,
    Red Canada,
    Rhode Island Greening,
    White Winter Pearmain.

F.W. Landon, Janesville, Wisconsin, thinking the hardy list would be
too long, gives the following as tender:

    Autumn Strawberry,
    Baldwin,
    Cloth of Gold,
    Early Strawberry,
    Esopus Spitzenberg,
    Lady,
    Newtown Spitzenberg,
    Northern Spy,
    Norton's Melon,
    Westfield Seek-no-further.

J.C. Brayton, Azatlan, Wisconsin, gives the following list of hardy
and valuable fruits for the rich lands in the western part of the
State:

SUMMER.

    American Summer Pearmain,
    Benoni,
    Early Harvest,
    Early Pennock,
    Early Red,
    Fall Stripe,
    High-top Sweet.

AUTUMN.

    Bailey Sweet,
    Fall Orange,
    Fall Winesap,
    Fameuse,
    Late Strawberry,
    Red Streak,
    Roseau,
    Saint Lawrence,
    Sweet Pear,
    Trenton Early,
    Utter's Large,
    White Gilliflower.

WINTER.

    Broadwell,
    Domine,
    Flushing Spitzenberg,
    Golden Russet,
    Hoops?
    Limbertwig,
    Northern Spy,
    Perry Russet,
    Rawle's Janet,
    Red Spitzenberg,
    Tallman's Sweet,
    Wagener,
    Westfield Seek-no-further,
    White Winter Pearmain,
    Winesap,
    Yellow Bellflower.

HARDY, IF TOP-GRAFTED.

    Autumn Swaar,
    Belmont,
    English Russet,
    Fulton,
    Golden Sweet,
    Herefordshire Pearmain,
    Jonathan,
    Lowell,
    Maiden's Blush,
    Red June,
    Sops of Wine.


SWEET APPLES FOR BAKING AND FOR STOCK FEEDING.

With many persons the consumption of sweet apples becomes an important
item of household economy; for the feeding and fattening of stock
sweet apples have deservedly attracted the attention of intelligent
farmers, and they may yet be much more extensively planted in many
places where the land is not well adapted to the production of grain
and other staple crops for the support of man and the animals under
his care.

With a view to aid the planter the following lists have been collated:

Sweet apples to be planted for stock feeding. Recommended by T.S.
Humrickhouse, of Coshocton, Ohio, in Ohio Cultivator, vol. VI, page
283:

SUMMER.

    *Duling Sweet,
    Golden Sweet,
    *Jersey Sweet,
    Pumpkin Sweet,
    Red and Green Sweet,
    Summer Sweet,
    *Summer Sweet Paradise,
    *Sweet Bough.

    * My friends write that they would have preferred more of these
      sorts, and that they planted such trees as were at hand at that
      time.

AUTUMN.

    *Haskell Sweet,
    *Kinsey's Sweet,
    Lyman's Pumpkin,
    Ramsdell's,
    Spice Sweet,
    *Superb Sweet.

    * My friends write that they would have preferred more of these
      sorts, and that they planted such trees as were at hand at that
      time.

WINTER.

    Baldwin Sweet,
    Broadwell,
    Butter Sweet,
    *Danvers' Winter,
    Honey Sweeting,
    *Ladies' Sweeting,
    Late Pound Sweet,
    May,
    McKay's Favorite,
    *Phillips' Sweeting,
    *Tallman's Sweeting,
    Wells' Sweeting,
    Winter Sweeting.

    * My friends write that they would have preferred more of these
      sorts, and that they planted such trees as were at hand at that
      time.

ALSO, LESS KNOWN,

    Acid Sweet,
    Akeson's Sweet,
    Beauty of the West,
    Cash Sweet,
    Charlotte Sweet,
    Climb Sweet,
    Ling Sweet,
    London Sweet,
    Merritt's Sweet,
    Mt. Pleasant Sweet,
    Morgan's Favorite,
    Red Sweet Pippin,
    Stone Sweet.

Planted by A.L. Benedict, Morrow County, Ohio, in a lot to be devoted
to hogs. The numbers of each might be varied:

     2 Bough,
     3 Golden Sweet,*
     6 Jersey Sweet,*
    16 May of Myers,
    10 Moore's Sweeting,
    32 Pumpkin Sweet,
     8 Raritan Sweet,
    17 Spice Sweet,
     1 Tift's Sweet,
    19 Tallman Sweet,
    30 Whitmore Sweet,
    14 Wing Sweet.

    * My friends write that they would have preferred more of these
      sorts, and that they planted such trees as were at hand at that
      time.

L. Hampton's list[53] for a succession through the year:

    Bentley Sweet,
    Bough,
    Broadwell,
    Fall Sweet,
    Federal Sweet,
    Golden Sweet,
    Hightop Sweet,
    Honey Greening,
    Kentucky Sweet,
    Paradise Winter,
    Scarlet Sweet,
    Simpson's,
    Smith's Sweet,
    Sweet Favorite,
    Winter Sweet.

For Illinois, by W. Cutter, in _Prairie Farmer_:

    Broadwell,
    Golden Sweet,
    Paradise Winter,
    Ramsdell Sweet,
    Sweet June,
    Sweet Nonesuch.

Sweet apples arranged in succession for stock. Those marked _T._ are
also fine for the dessert; those marked _B._ are superior for baking:

    Hightop, _B._
    Bough, _T._
    Golden Sweeting, _B._
    Victuals and Drink, _B._ _T._
    Jersey Sweet,
    Lyman's Pumpkin, _B._
    Bailey Sweet, _B._ _T._
    Ramsdell's, _B._
    Mote's Sweet, _B._ _T._
    Stillwater Sweeting, _B._
    Higby Sweet, _B._
    Dr. Watson, _T._
    Molasses,
    Fall Queen, _B._ _T._
    Buckingham,
    Baltimore,
    Fallawater,
    Michael Henry,
    Broadwell, _T._ _B._
    Sweet Bellflower,
    Sweet Janet, _B._
    London Sweet, _B._
    Winter Sweet Paradise, _T._ _B._
    Jersey Black,
    Ladies' Sweeting, _T._ _B._
    Tallman's, B.
    Holton's,
    Moore's Sweeting,
    Gilpin,
    Campfield,
    Sweet Vandervere,
    Red Winter Pearmain,
    Swaar,
    Black Gilliflower.

In giving selections of Cider Apples I will begin with the veteran
_Coxe's list_:

    American Pippin,
    Campfield,
    Cooper's Russeting,
    Gloucester White,
    Golden Reinette,
    Hagloe Crab,
    Harrison,
    Hewes' Crab,
    House, or Gray-House,
    Red Streak,
    Roane's White Crab,
    Ruckman's Pearmain,
    Styre,
    Winesap.

A select list of Cider Apples that may be found in many collections,
all good bearers:

    Campfield,
    Gilpin,
    Harrison,
    Hewes' Crab,
    Newtown Pippin,
    Priestley,
    Rawle's Janet,
    Waugh's Crab,
    Winesap.

FOOTNOTES:

[52] See Reports of _American Pomological Society_.

[53] Ohio Cultivator, vol. VI, page 269.



CATALOGUE AND INDEX OF APPLES.


EXPLANATION.

The first column presents the name of the apple, next its size, then
its origin; or, if in brackets, the place where the variety is
cultivated and was found. The Roman numerals indicate the _Class_ and
_Order_ to which it is referred, and the Arabics, the _Section_ and
_Sub-section_, according to the classification adopted in this work.
After this comes the season of maturity, Summer, Autumn, Winter,
Spring, and the estimate of quality, from very best, best, very good,
good; good? meaning almost good; poor? meaning rather so, and last
plainly poor, when considered decidedly inferior. The names of
varieties described in this volume are given in =full faced= type,
with reference to the pages, while synonyms are printed in _Italics_.
Abbreviations will explain themselves.


  Key:
  small: sm.
  medium: med.
  f. Medium: f.m.
  large: lg.
  very large: v.g.

  --------------------+----+------+------------------+--------+-------+----
   Name.              |Size| Orig.| Class.           |Season. |Quality| P.
  --------------------+----+------+------------------+--------+-------+----
  Abbot Sweet         |lg. | N.H. |   II.  I. 1. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  =Abram=             |sm. | Va.? |{   I.  I. 2. 2. }| Spring | good  |419
                      |    |      |{ III.  I. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  Adams               |lg. | Penn.|    I.  I. 2. 2.  |L. Wint.| good  |
  Agnes               |sm. | Penn.|    I. II. 2. 2.  | Autumn | good  |
  Ailes               |lg. | Penn.|    I.  I. 2. 2.  |L. Wint.| good  |
  Akeson's Winter     |    |      |                  |        |       |
   Sweet              |    | South|                  | Winter |       |
  Alabama Winter      |    | Ala. |                  | Winter |       |
  Albemarle           |lg. | Va.  |  III. II. 2. 1.  | Winter | good  |
  =Alexander=         |lg. | Russ.|   II.  I. 2. 2.  | Summer | good  |510
  Alexander           |lg. |   ?  |  III. II. 2. 2.  | Autumn | good  |
  Allen's Pippin      |med.| Ga.  |   II.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn | good  |
  Allen's Sweeting    |med.| Mass.|  III.  I. 1. 1.  | Winter | good  |
  All Summer          |    |      |    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Summer |       |
  All Summer Sweeting |    |      |  III.  I. 1. 1.  | Summer |       |
  Allum               |med.| N.C. |    I. II. 2. 2.  | Spring | good  |
  Alsace              |    |      |   II.  I. 2. 1.  |        |       |
  Amber Crab          |sm. | Eur. |   II.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good  |
  American Beauty     |lg. | Mass.|  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  American Black      |sm. |   ?  |    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Wint'r?| good  |
  American Black      |med.|   ?  |    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  =Am. Golden Pippin= |med.| Am.  |  III. II. 2. 1.  | Winter |v. good|636
  =Am. Golden Russet= |med.| Am.  |   II.  I. 2. 3.  |E. Wint.| Best  |521
  American Marygold   |    |      |    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn |       |
  =American Pippin=   |sm. | Am.  |    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Spring | poor  |420
  =Am. Sum. Pearmain= |med.| N.J. |{  II.  I. 2. 2. }| Summer | best  |582
                      |    |      |{ III.  I. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  =Angle Sweet=       |med.|   ?  |    I. II. 1. 2.  | Winter | good  |476
  Anglo-American      |med.| Can. |{  II. II. 1. 2. }| Autumn |v. good|
                      |    |      |{ III. II. 1. 2. }|        |       |
  Annette             |sm. | Va.  |    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter |v. good|
  Apple Butter        |sm. |   ?  |    I.  I. 1. 2.  | Autumn | good  |
  Aromatic            |med.| South|  III.  I. 2. 2.  |        |       |
  Aromatic            |lg. | Car. |    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Summer | good  |
  Ashland             |lg. |   ?  |   II. II. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  =Ashmore=           |med.| Am.  |  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good  |566
  Ashmore Striped     |med.| Am.  |  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn | good  |
  August              |    | Ohio |                  | Summer | good  |
  Augustine           |lg. | Am.  |   II. II. 1. 1.  | Summer | poor  |
  August Stripe       |med.|   ?  |   II.  I. 2. 2.  | Summer | good? |
  =August Tart=       |med.|   ?  |   II.  I. 2. 1.  | Summer | good  |504
  August Vandervere   |lg. |(Ind.)|   II.  I. 2. 2.  | Summer | poor  |
  Aunt Anna           |med.| Ohio |    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn | good? |
  Aunt Hannah         |lg. | Mass.|  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | good? |
  Aunt's Apple        |lg. |   ?  |    I.  I. 2. 2.  |E. Wint.| good? |
  Autumnal Bough      |med.| Am.  |  III.  I. 1. 1.  | Autumn | good  |
  Autumnal Paradise   |    |      |    I.  I. 1. 1.  | Autumn | good  |
  _Autumn Seek-no-further_, Synonym of Dr. Watson.                    |
  _Autumn Swaar_, see Fall Swaar of the West                          |
  Autumnal Sweet      |lg. |   ?  |    I.  I. 1. 1.  | Autumn | good  |
  =Autumnal Sw. Swaar=|lg. |   ?  |    I. II. 1. 1.  | Autumn | good  |471
  Autumn Pearmain     |med.|   ?  |   IV.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  Autumn Sweet        |    |      |    I.  I. 1. 1.  | Autumn | good  |
  Averill             |lg. | Conn.|   II. II. 2. 2.  | Spring | good  |
  Baccalinus          |sm. | South|{ III.  I. 2. 2. }|L. Wint.| good  |583
                      |    |      |{   I.  I. 2. 1. }|        |       |
  _Bachelor_ is Equineteley.                                          |
  Bachelor's Blush    |lg. | N.J. |    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Summer | good  |
  Badger's Bellflower |lg. | Ohio?|   IV.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  Baer                |sm. | Penn.|  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Spring |"v.gd."|
  _Bagby Russet_, Synonym of Egyptian Russet.                         |
  =Bailey's Golden=   |lg. | Maine|   IV.  I. 2. 1.  |L. Wint.| good  |665
  Bailey's Spice      |med.| N.Y. |   II.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good  |
  =Bailey's Sweet=    |lg. | N.Y. |{ III. II. 1. 2. }| Winter | good  |633
                      |    |      |{  II.  I. 1. 2. }|        |       |
  Bake Apple          |sm. |(N.Y.)|  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn | good? |
  Baker               |    | Penn?|  III.  I. 2. 1.  |        |       |
  Baker's Sweet       |med.| Conn |  III.  I. 1. 1.  |E. Wint.| good  |
  =Baldwin=           |lg. | Mass.|{   I.  I. 2. 2. }| Winter | good  |421
                      |    |      |{ III. II. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  Baldwin, N.C.       |lg. | N.C. |    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  Baldwin Sweet       |lg. |      |  III.  I. 1. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  _Baltimore_, Synonym of Mammoth Pippin.                             |
  =Baltimore=,        |med.|   ?  |{   I.  I. 1. 2. }| Winter | good  |391
    (Elliott)         |    |      |{ III.  I. 1. 2. }|        |       |
  Baltzley            |    |      |    I.  I. 1. 1.  |        |       |
  Barbour             |med.| Penn.|    I.  I. 2. 2.  |        | good  |
  Barrett             |med.| Conn.|   II.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  Bars                |lg. | R.I. |  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Summer | good  |
  _Bartlett_, Synonym of Priestley.                                   |
  Barton              |    | Penn.|                  |        |       |
  Basom Sweet         |    |      |  III.  I. 1. 1.  |        |       |
  Bassett Sweet       |sm. | Ohio.|   II.  I. 1. 1.  | Autumn | good  |
  _Bastard Geneton_, Synonym of Wright's Janet.                       |
  Battlefield         |    | South|    I.  I. 1. 1.  |        |       |
  Beard's Seedling    |med.| Ohio |  III. II. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  Beaufin Norfolk     |med.| Engl.|    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | poor  |
  =Beauty of Kent=    |lg. | Engl.|  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn |only gd|584
  Beauty of the West  |lg. | Am.  |  III.  I. 1. 2.  |E. Wint.| poor  |
  Bedfordshire        |    |      |                  |        |       |
    Foundling         |lg. | Engl.|   IV. II. 2. 1.  | Winter | good? |
  Beefsteak           |med.| Mass.|    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | poor  |
  =Beeler's Russet=   |med.|(Ind.)|  III.  I. 2. 3.  | Winter | best  |621
  Belle et Bonne      |lg. | Conn.|   IV.  I. 2. 1.  |E. Wint.| good? |
  =Belden Sweet=      |sm. | Conn?|   II. II. 1. 1.  | Winter | good  |526
  Bellflower Pippin   |lg. | Ind. |  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good  |
  =Belmont=           |lg. | Va.  |{  II. II. 2. 1. }|E. Wint.| best  |529
                      |    |      |{ III. II. 2. 1. }|        |       |
  Ben or _Eustis_     |lg. | Mass.|   IV.  I. 2. 2.  |E. Wint.| good? |
  =Ben Davis=         |lg. | Ky.  |{ III.  I. 2. 2. }| Winter | good  |585
                      |    |      |{  IV.  I. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  Ben Harris          |    | South|    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter |       |
  =Benoni=            |sm. | Mass.|{ III. II. 2. 2. }| Summer | best  |650
                      |    |      |{  IV.  I. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  =Bentley Sweet=     |lg. | Va.? |} III.  I. 1. 2. {|        |       |
                      |    |      |}  IV. II. 1. 2. {| Spring | good  |558
  Berkely Red         |    | South|    I. II. 2. 2.  |        |       |
  =Berry=             |lg. |  Va.?|    I. II. 2. 2.  |E. Wint.| good  |486
  =Bethlemite=        |med.|  Ohio|{   I.  I. 2. 2. }| Winter |v. good|423
                      |    |      |{ III.  I. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  Betsey's Fancy      |med.|   ?  |    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  =Better than Good=  |med.| Penn.|    I.  I. 2. 1.  |E. Wint.| good  |400
  Bevan's Favorite    |med.| N.J. |    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Summer | good  |
  Beverley Red        |    |      |                  |        |       |
  _Big Hill_, Synonym of Pryor's Red.                                 |
  _Big Rambo_, Synonym of Western Beauty.                             |
  Big Red Sweet       |    | South|  III.  I. 1. 2.  |        |       |
  Bigger's Late Red   |    | South|                  |        |       |
  Birmingham          |med.| Penn?|    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good  |
  _Black_, Synonym of Jersey Black.                                   |
  Black's Annette     |med.| (Ky.)|   II. II. 2. 1.  | Summer |v. good|
  =Blackburn=         |lg. |  Ky.?|{ III.  I. 2. 2. }| Autumn | good? |586
                      |    |      |{   I.  I. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  Black Canada        |med.| Can.?|   II.  I. 2. 1.  |E. Wint?| good  |
  Black Coal          |lg. |   ?  |  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter?| good? |
  Black Detroit       |lg. | Can. |   II. II. 2. 1.  | Autumn | poor  |
  _Black Eyes._ Synonym of Cheese.                                    |
  =Black Gilliflower= |lg. |   ?  |   IV.  I. 1. 2.  | Spring | poor  |662
  Black Jack          |sm. | Ohio |    I.  I. 1. 2.  | Winter | poor  |
  Black Lady Apple    |sm. | Eur. |    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | poor  |
  Black of Michigan   |med.| Can.?|    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | poor  |
  Blackshear          |    | South|    I.  I. 2. 1.  |        |       |
  Black's Late Sweet  |    | South|                  | Winter |       |
  Black Tom           |med.| Md.  |    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn | poor  |
  Blakeley            |lg. | Vt.  |    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | good  |
  =Bledsoe=           |med.| Ky.  |{ III.  I. 2. 1. }| Winter | good? |568
                      |    |      |{   I.  I. 2. 1. }|        |       |
  Blenheim Orange     |med.| Eng. |  III.  I. 1. 2.  | Autumn | good  |
  =Blockley=          |lg. | Penn.|{   I. II. 2. 1. }| Winter | v.gd. |478
                      |    |      |{ III. II. 2. 1. }|        |       |
  _Blockley Pippin_, Synonym of Blockley.                             |
  =Blondin=           |lg. | Ind. |{   I.  I. 2. 2. }|E. Wint.| good  |424
                      |    |      |{ III.  I. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  =Blooming Orange=   |lg. | Eng. |}   I.  I. 2. 2. {| Autumn |v. good|424
                      |    |      |} III.  I. 2. 1. {|        |       |
  Bloomington         |med.| Ills.|   IV.  I. 1. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  Blue Bloom          |med.|   ?  |   II.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn | good? |
  Blue Pearmain       |lg. |   ?  |  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn | good? |
  =Bluff Sweet=       |med.| Ind. |  III.  I. 1. 1.  | Winter | good  |548
  =Boalsburgh=        |lg. | Penn.|   IV.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn | good  |675
  Boas or Kelter      |    | Penn.|    I.  I. 2. 1.  |        |       |
  =Bohanon=           |med.| Va.? |    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn |v. good|400
  =Bonum=             |med.| N.C. |    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn |v. good|424
  Boravitski          |med.| Russ.|  III. II. 2. 2.  | Summer | poor  |
  Borsdorffer         |sm. | Germ.|    I. II. 2. 1.  | Winter | good  |
  _Boston Russet_, Synonym of Roxbury.                                |
  =Bough=             |lg. | Am.  |{ III.  I. 1. 1. }| Summer |v. good|491
                      |    |      |{  II.  I. 1. 1. }|        |       |
  =Bourrassa=         |lg. | Eur.?|   IV. II. 2. 3.  | Winter | poor  |697
  Bowback Sweet       |    | Ohio |                  |        |       |
  Bowker              |med.|      |    I. II. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good  |
  =Bowling Sweet=     |med.| Va.  |  III.  I. 1. 2.  | Winter | good  |559
  Brabant Bellflower  |lg. | Holl.|  III. II. 2. 2.  |E. Wint.| good? |
  Brace's Seek-no-further, Synonym of White Seek-no-further.          |
  =Bracken=           |sm. | Ky.  |    I. II. 2. 1.  | Summer |v. good|478
  Bradford's Best     |    |      |                  |        |       |
  =Brandywine=        |med.| Del. |{   I.  I. 2. 2.} | Winter | good? |425
                      |    |      |{ III.  I. 2. 2.} |        |       |
  =Brennaman=         |lg. | Penn.|  III. II. 2. 2.  | Autumn |v. good|651
  Brigg's Auburn      |med.| Me.  |    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn |v. good|
  =Brittle Sweet=     |med.|   ?  |  III. II. 1. 2.  | Autumn |v. good|634
  =Broadwell=         |lg. | Ohio |  III.  I. 1. 1.  | Winter | best  |549
  =Brooke's Pippin=   |lg. | Va.  |  III. II. 2. 1.  | Winter |v. good|637
  Brown's Superior    |lg. | Ohio?|  III. II. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  Bruce               |lg. |   ?  |   II.  I. 1. 2.  | Summer | good? |
  =Buchanan's=        |med.| Ohio |    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Spring | good? |426
  =Buckingham=        |lg. | Ga.  |   II. II. 2. 2.  | Autumn |v. good|537
  Buck Meadow         |lg. | Conn.|  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  Buck's County       |lg. | Penn.|    I. II. 2. 1.  |   ?    | good  |
  =Buff=              |v.l.| N.C. |    I. II. 2. 2.  |E. Wint.| good? |486
  Buffington's Early  |sm. | Penn.|    I. II. 2. 1.  | Summer |       |
  =Bush=              |lg. | Penn.|  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn |v. good|568
  Bush's Beauty       |med.| Ohio?|   II. II. 2. 2.  | Autumn | poor  |
  _Bullock's Pippin_, Synonym of American Golden Russet.              |
  =Butter=            |sm. | Ohio |    I.  I. 1. 2.  | Autumn | good  | 392
  Butter              |lg. | Ind. |  III.  I. 1. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  Butter              |med.| Penn.|  III.  I. 1. 1.  | Autumn | good  |
  Butter              |lg. |   ?  |   IV.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good? |
  Butter Sweet        |    |      |                  |        |       |
  Button              |    |      |    I.  I. 1. 2.  |        |       |
  Button Core         |med.| Mass.|  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | good? |
  _Byer's_, Synonym of Equinetelee.                                   |
  Cabashea            |lg. |   ?  |    I. II. 2. 2.  | Winter | poor  |
  Cabin               |med.|   ?  |    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | poor  |
  Cache               |med.|(Ills)|   II. II. 2. 1.  |L. Wint.| good  |
  Cake                |med.| Conn.|    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good? |
  =Caleb=             |med.| Penn.|  III.  I. 1. 1.  | Summer | good  |549
  Calville White      |    |      |                  |        |       |
    Winter            |med.| Fr.  |  III. II. 2. 1.  | Winter | poor  |
  =Camack Sweet=      |med.| N.C. |    I.  I. 1. 1.  | Spring | good? |581
  =Campfield=         |med.| N.J. |    I.  I. 1. 1.  | Spring | poor  |382
  Canada Black        |lg. | Can.?|  III.  I. 2. 1.  |E. Wint.| poor  |
  Canada Red          |lg. | Can.?|   II.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | best  |
  =Canada Reinette=   |lg. | Eur.?|    I. II. 2. 1.  | Winter |v. good|479
  Cane Creek Sweeting |    | South|   IV.  I. 1. 1.  |        |       |
  Cann                |lg. |   ?  |   II.  I. 1. 1.  | Winter | good? |
  Canon               |med.| South|    I.  I. 1. 1.  | Autumn |       |
  =Canon Pearmain=    |med.| Va.  |   IV.  I. 2. 2.  | Spring | good  |676
  =Capital=           |med.| Ind. |  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | good  |587
  Capron's Pleasant   |med.|   ?  |    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good  |
  Carbage             |lg. |   ?  |   II.  I. 1. 1.  |        | poor  |
  Carey's Pippin      |lg. | Ohio |  III.  I. 1. 1.  | Winter |v. good|
  Carmell Sweet       |    | N.Y. |    I.  I. 1. 1.  |        |       |
  Carnahan's Favorite |lg. | Ohio |  III.  I. 1. 2.  |        |       |
  Carnation           |med.| South|    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn | "best"|
  =Carolina Baldwin=  |lg. | South|    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |427
  Carolina Greening   |    | South|    I.  I. 2. 1.  |        |       |
  Carolina Horse      |lg. | South|  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good  |
  Carolina Pippin     |lg. | South|  III.  I. 2. 2.  |        |       |
  =Carolina Red June= |sm. | N.C. |{  IV.  I. 2. 1. }| Summer | good  | 666
                      |    |      |{  II. II. 2. 1. }|        |       |
  Carolina Russet     |med.| N.C. |{ III.  I. 2. 3. }|L. Wint.|v. good|
                      |    |      |{   I.  I. 2. 3. }|        |       |
  Carolina Striped    |sm. | N.C.?|{  IV.  I. 2. 2. }| Summer | good  |
    June              |    |      |{  II. II. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  Caroline            |med.| N.J. |    I. II. 2. 1.  | Winter | good  |
  Caroline Watson     |    |      |  III.  I. 2. 2.  |        |       |
  Carpenter's No. 1   |med.| Ohio |  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  =Carter=            |med.| Mass.|{ III.  I. 2. 2. }| Winter | good  | 587
                      |    |      |{ III. II. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  _Carter_, Synonym of Patton.                                        |
  Carter              |    | N.C. |                  | Winter |       |
  Carter's Blue       |    | South|    I.  I. 2. 2.  |        |       |
  Carver              |    |      |                  |        |       |
  =Cary's Summer=     |lg. |   ?  |  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Summer | good  | 588
  Cash Sweet          |med.|   ?  |   II.  I. 1. 1.  | Autumn | poor  |
  Cataling            |    |      |   II.  I. 2. 2.  |        |       |
  Cathead Sweet       |lg. |   ?  |   II.  I. 1. 1.  | Autumn | poor  |
  Catline             |sm. | Md.  |    I.  I. 2. 2.  |E. Wint.| good  |
  Cat's-head          |lg. |      |  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good? |
  Cattel              |sm. | Ohio |                  | Autumn | good  |
  _Cattell._ Synonym of Ohio Nonpareil.                               |
  =Cayuga Redstreak=  |lg. | Conn.|   II.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn | good  |510
  Caywood             |med.| N.Y. |    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Spring | good? |
  =Celestia=          |lg. | Ohio |   II. II. 2. 1.  | Autumn | best  |530
  Centers             |    | N.C. |                  |        |       |
  =Challenge=         |med.| Ohio |    I. II. 1. 1.  | Autumn |v. good|472
  =Champlain=         |lg. | (Vt.)|  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good  |637
  Chandler            |lg. | Conn.|  III. II. 2. 2.  | Winter |v. good|
  Charlotte Sweet     |    |      |                  |        |       |
  Chattahoochie       |    |      |                  |        |       |
    Greening          |    | Ga.  |    I. II. 2. 1.  |        |       |
  =Cheese=            |med.| Va.  |{   I.  I. 2. 2. }|E. Wint.| good? |427
                      |    |      |{   I. II. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  Cheese              |lg. |(Ind.)|    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | good  |
  =Cheeseboro=        |lg. |   ?  |   II.  I. 2. 3.  |E. Wint.| poor  |522
  Cheltenham          |    |      |  III. II. 2. 2.  |        |       |
  Cherokee Red        |    | South|                  |        |       |
  Cherry Crab         |sm. |   ?  |  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good  |
  Chestatee           |    | South|   II. II. 2. 1.  |        |       |
  Chester             |med.| Penn.|    I.  I. 2. 1.  |E. Wint.|"good" |
  Chester Red         |    | Sou.?|                  |        |       |
  Chillicothe         |lg. | Ohio |    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | good  |
  Chillicothe         |    |      |                  |        |       |
    Redstreak         |lg. | Ohio |   II.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  Christiana          |med.| Del. |  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn |"v.gd."|
  =Chronicle=         |med.| Ind. |  III. II. 2. 2.  | Spring | good? |652
  Churchhill Greening |lg. |   ?  |    I. II. 2. 1.  | Winter | good  |
  Clark's             |    |      |   IV. II. 2. 1.  |        |       |
  Clark's Greening    |    | Va.  |    I.  I. 2. 1.  |        |       |
  =Clark's Pearmain=  |med.| N.C. |   II.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |511
  Claybank            |med.| Ohio |    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn |v. good|
  =Clayton=           |lg. | Ind. |   II.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |511
  Climb Sweet         |    |      |                  |        |       |
  Close Set,          |    |      |                  |        |       |
    (Lindsley)        |med.| (O.) |  III. II. 2. 2.  | Autumn | good  |
  Cloth of Gold       |lg. | Eur. |   II. II. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good  |
  Cloud               |    | South|    I.  I. 2. 2.  |        |       |
  Cluster             |sm. |   ?  |    I.  I. 1. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  =Cluster Pearmain=  |med.| Ind. |{ III.  I. 2. 2. }| Autumn |v. good|589
                      |    |      |{   I.  I. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  =Clyde Beauty=      |lg. | N.Y. |   IV. II. 2. 2.  | Autumn | good  |694
  _Codling Keswick_, Synonym of Keswick.                              |
  Coe                 |    |      |                  |        |       |
  =Coggswell=         |lg. | Mass?|  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn |v. good|589
  Cole                |lg. | Engl.|  III. II. 2. 2.  | Summer | poor  |
  Cole's Quince       |med.| Mass?|{ III. II. 2. 1. }| Autumn | good  |
                      |    |      |{  IV. II. 2. 1. }|        |       |
  Columbia            |    |      |                  |        |       |
  =Columbian Russet=  |sm. | Sou.?|  III.  I. 2. 3.  | Winter |v. good|622
  Columbus Red        |med.|      |  III.  I. 2. 2.  |L. Wint.| good  |
  =Colvert=           |lg. | N.Y.?|    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn | good? |427
  Companion           |    | South|    I.  I. 2. 1.  |        |       |
  =Conant's Red=      |med.|   ?  |    I.  I. 1. 2.  | Winter | good  |393
  Congress            |    |      |                  |        |       |
  =Connett Sweet=     |med.| Ind.?|    I.  I. 1. 2.  | Winter | good  |394
  Conrad's Eating     |    |   ?  |    I.  I. 2. 2.  |        |       |
  Conway              |med.|   ?  |    I. II. 2. 1.  | Winter | good  |
  Cook's Favorite     |med.| Ind. |   II. II. 2. 1.  | Summer | good  |
  Cook's Greening     |lg. |      |  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | good? |
  Cook's Red          |    |      |   II. II. 2. 1.  |        |       |
  =Cooper=            |lg. |   ?  |    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn | best  |428
  Cooper's Early White|sm. |   ?  |    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Summer | good  |
  =Cooper's Market=   |med.|   ?  |{  II.  I. 2. 2. }| Winter | good  |513
                      |    |      |{  IV.  I. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  _Cooper's Redling_, Synonym of Cooper's Market.                     |
  Copper's Russeting  |sm. | N.Y. |   IV.  I. 2. 3.  | Winter | good  |
  Cope's Red Sweet    |sm. | Ohio |   IV.  I. 1. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  Cope's Sweet        |sm. | Ohio |  III.  I. 1. 2.  | Winter | good? |
  Cornell's Fancy     |med.| Penn.|   IV.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn | good  |
  Cornfield           |    | South|    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter |       |
  =Cornfield=         |med.| Ohio |   IV.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good? |401
  =Cornish Aromatic=  |med.| Engl.|  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter |v. good|569
  Cornish Gilliflower |med.| Engl.|   II. II. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  Corse's Favorite    |    |      |    I.  I. 2. 1.  |        |       |
  Cos                 |lg. | N.Y. |  III. II. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  =Court of Wyck=     |sm. | Engl.|{ III.  I. 2. 3. }| Winter | good? |623
                      |    |      |{ III.  I. 2. 1. }|        |       |
  Court Pendu Plat    |med.| Eur. |    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | "gd." |
  =Cracking=          |lg. | Ohio |{   I.  I. 2. 1. }| Autumn | good  |401
                      |    |      |{ III. II. 2. 1. }|        |       |
  =Cranberry Pippin=  |lg. | N.Y. |{   I.  I. 2. 1. }| Winter | good? |402
                      |    |      |{   I. II. 2. 1. }|        |       |
  =Cranberry Russet=  |med.| Ohio |    I. II. 2. 3.  | Winter | good? |491
  =Crawford's Keeper= |med.| Son.?|   IV.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | "gd." |667
  Creighton           |sm. | Ohio |    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Summer | good  |
  Crib                |sm. | Ohio |  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | poor? |
  _Crooked Limb_, Synonym of Watson's Dumpling.                       |
  =Cropsey's Favorite=|med.| Ills.|{ III.  I. 2. 2. }| Winter | good  |590
                      |    |      |{  IV.  I. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  Crow's Egg          |med.| Ind. |   IV. II. 1. 2.  | Winter | poor? |
  Crow's Egg          |    | South|                  |        |       |
  =Crownest=          |lg. | Ohio |  III.  I. 2. 3.  | Winter | good  |624
  =Cullasaga=         |med.| S.C. |  III.  I. 1. 2.  | Winter | good  |559
  Cullawhee           |    | South|  III. II. 2. 2.  |        |       |
  Culloden            |    | South|   II.  I. 2. 2.  |        |       |
  =Culp=              |lg. | Ohio |  III. II. 2. 1.  |E. Wint.| good? |480
  =Cumberland Spice=  |lg. | N.J. |   IV.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | good  |668
  =Curtis Greening=   |med.| Ills.|   IV.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | good  |668
  Curtis Pippin       |med.| Ills.|   IV.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  Curtis Sweet        |lg. |   ?  |   IV. II. 1. 2.  | Autumn | good  |
  Dahlonega           |    | South|   IV.  I. 2. 2.  |        |       |
  =Dalton=            |    | Ga.  |    I.  I. 2. 1.  |        |       |402
  =Dana=              |sm. |   ?  |    I. II. 2. 2.  | Summer | good  |487
  =Daniel=            |med.|   ?  |  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn |v. good|591
  =Dan. Pearmain=     |med.| Ind. |  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |591
  =Danvers' Wint.     |    |      |                  |        |       |
    Sweet=            |lg. | Mass.|  III.  I. 1. 1.  | Winter | good? |550
  Darby Pippin        |lg. | Penn.|   IV.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter |       |
  Darlington          |    | Penn?|  III.  I. 2. 3.  |        |       |
  Davis               |sm. | Mich.|   IV.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  Davis Ortley        |lg. | Ind. |   IV.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | good  |
  Davis               |    | Miss.|                  |        |       |
  =Dawson's Cluster=  |med.| Ohio |   IV.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | good  |669
  =Day=               |lg. | Ind. |  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good? |591
  Deacon's Pryor      |lg. | Ky.  |  III. II. 2. 3.  | Winter | good  |
  Deal's Red          |med.|(Ind.)|    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good? |
  Dean's Sweeting     |med.|(Ind.)|  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  Defiance            |lg. | Ga.  |{  II. II. 2. 2. }| Summer | good  |
                      |    |      |{  II. II. 1. 2. }|        |       |
  Degruchy            |    | South|                  |        |       |
  Delasure            |    | South|  III.  I. 2. 1.  |        |       |
  =Delight=           |med.| Ohio |    I. II. 1. 1.  | Winter | good  |473
  =Democrat=          |med.| (O.) |   II.  I. 2. 1.  |E. Wint.| good  |505
  Demurry             |    | South|                  |        |       |
  Derry Nonsuch       |lg. | N.H. |   IV. II. 2. 2.  |L. Wint.| good  |
  =Detroit Black=     |lg. | Can.?|   II. II. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good? |532
  Detroit Red         |lg. | Can.?|   II. II. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good? |
  Devonshire          |    |      |                  |        |       |
    Quarrenden        |sm. | Engl.|    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn | good? |
  Dewees              |med.| Ind. |   II. II. 2. 2.  |E. Wint.| good? |
  _Dewitt_, Synonym of Doctor Dewitt.                                 |
  Dick's Seedling     |    |   ?  |  III.  I. 2. 2.  |        |       |
  Dillaways           |    | Ohio |                  |        |       |
  =Dillingham=        |med.| Ohio |{ III.  I. 2. 2. }| Spring | good  |383
                      |    |      |{  II.  I. 1. 1. }|        |       |
  Disharoon           |med.| Ga.  |{  II.  I. 2. 1. }|E. Wint.| good  |
                      |    |      |{ III.  I. 2. 1. }|        |       |
  Doctor Dewitt       |lg. | Penn.|    I.  I. 2. 2.  |E. Wint.| good  |
  =Doct. Fulcher=     |med.| Ky.  |  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |592
  =Doct. Watson=      |med.| Penn?|    I.  I. 2. 2.  |E. Wint.|v. good|429
  _Dodge's Crimson_, Synonym of Ashmore?                              |
  Dodge's Early       |med.|   ?  |  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Summer | good  |
  Dole's Red          |med.| Ohio |  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good? |
  =Domine=            |lg. | N.Y. |    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter |v. good|430
  =Downing's Paragon= |lg. | Ills.|   IV.  I. 1. 1.  | Winter | good  |658
  Downton Pippin      |sm. | Engl.|  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good  |
  =Drap d'Or=         |lg. | Eur. |{ III. II. 2. 1. }| Autumn |v. good|638
                      |    |      |{  II. II. 2. 1. }|        |       |
  Drumore             |    |      |                  |        |       |
  =Duchess of         |lg. | Eur. |{   I.  I. 2. 2. }| Summer | good  |431
    Oldenburg=        |    |      |{ III.  I. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  Duckett             |lg. | South|    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good  |
  =Duffield Pippin=   |lg. | Penn.|  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter |v. good|570
  Duling Sweet        |    |      |                  |        |       |
  Dumelow             |lg. | Engl.|  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | good  |
  _Dumpling_, Synonym of Watson's Dumpling.                           |
  Dunlevy             |    | (O.) |                  |        |       |
  Durable Keeper      |lg. |(Ind.)|  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Spring | poor? |
  Durham Winter       |    |      |                  |        |       |
    Pearmain          |    |      |  III.  I. 1. 1.  |        |       |
  Dutch Codling       |lg. | Eur. |  III. II. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good? |
  =Dutch Mignonne=    |lg. | Eur. |  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn | good? |593
  =Dyer=              |lg. | Fr.  |  III. II. 2. 1.  | Autumn | best  |639
  Early Chandler      |sm. |   ?  |    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Summer | good  |
  Early Cider         |med.|   ?  |   II.  I. 2. 2.  | Summer | good  |
  _Early George_, Synonym of George.                                  |
  =Early Harvest=     |lg. | N.Y. |    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Summer | best  |403
  =Early Joe=         |med.| N.Y. |{  II.  I. 2. 2. }| Summer | best  |513
                      |    |      |{   I.  I. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  Early Longstem      |sm. |   ?  |   IV. II. 2. 1.  | Summer | good? |
  Early Nonsuch       |sm. |   ?  |  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Summer | good  |
  =Early Pennock=     |lg. | Am.  |{ III.  I. 2. 2. }| Summer | good  |594
                      |    |      |{  II.  I. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  Early Greening      |med.| Penn.|    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Summer |       |
  Early Red Margaret  |med.| Engl.|{ III. II. 2. 2. }| Summer | good  |
                      |    |      |{  II. II. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  _Early Redstreak_, Synonym of Harvest Redstreak.                    |
  _Early Red Stripe_, Synonym of Red Stripe.                          |
  Early Ripe          |    | Penn?|                  | Summer |       |
  =Early Strawberry=  |med.| N.Y. |   II.  I. 2. 2.  | Summer |v. good|514
  Early York          |    |      |  III. II. 2. 2.  | Summer |       |
  Easter Pippin       |med.| Engl.|    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Spring | good? |
  Eaton               |med.| N.Y. |   IV.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  Egg Top             |med.|   ?  |   IV. II. 2. 2.  |E. Wint.| poor? |
  Egypt Red Summer    |med.|(Ills)|  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Summer | good? |
  Egypt Red Winter    |med.|(Ills)|    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good? |
  =Egyptian Russet=   |med.|(Ills)|   II.  I. 2. 3.  | Winter |v. good|523
  Elarkee             |    | South|   II.  I. 2. 1.  |        |       |
  Eldorado            |    | South|  III.  I. 2. 1.  |        |       |
  Elgin Pippin        |lg. | Miss.|   II.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter |v. good|
  Elicke's Winter     |med.| Penn.|    I.  I. 1. 2.  | Winter | good? |
  Ellis               |sm. | Conn.|   II.  I. 2. 2.  | Spring | good? |
  Ellwill's Late      |    | South|                  | Winter |       |
  Emersine Sweet      |med.| Ohio?|    I.  I. 1. 1.  | Winter | good? |
  _Emperor_, see Alexander.                                           |
  Emperor             |lg. |(Ill.)|    I. II. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  Emperor, (Dickson's)|    | Scot.|    I. II. 2. 2.  |        |       |
  =Ene's Winter Sweet=|med.| Ky.  |    I.  I. 1. 1.  | Winter | good  |384
  Enfield             |    |      |  III.  I. 2. 2.  |        |       |
  Enfield Pearmain    |sm. |   ?  |  III.  I. 1. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  English Codling     |lg. | Engl.|  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good  |
  English Golden      |    |      |                  |        |       |
    Pippin            |    | Engl.|  III   I. 2. 1.  | Winter | good  |
  =English Golden     |    |      |                  |        |       |
    Russet=           |med.| Engl?|  III.  I. 2. 3   | Winter |v. good|624
  English Pearmain    |lg. |   ?  |    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn | good  |
  English Redstreak   |lg. |(Ind.)|    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter |v. good|
  English Redstreak   |lg. | Engl.|  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good? |
  English Red Sweeting|    | Engl.|   IV.  I. 1. 2.  |        |       |
  =English Russet=    |med.| Engl?|  III.  I. 2. 3.  | Winter | poor  |625
  English Sweeting    |    | Engl.|   II.  I. 1. 2.  |        |       |
  _Epse Sweeting_, Synonym of Danvers.                                |
  Epsy                |sm. | Vt.  |   II.  I. 1. 1.  | Winter | good  |
  =Equinetelee=       |    | Ga. ?|{   I.  I. 2. 2. }|E. Wint.|       |432
                      |    |      |{   I. II. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  _Ernst's Pippin_, Synonym of Ohio Pippin.                           |
  =Esopus Spitzenberg=|med.| N.Y. |   II. II. 2. 2.  | Winter | best  |539
  Esten               |lg. | R.I. |   IV. II. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good  |
  _Eustis_, Synonym of Ben.                                           |
  =Evening Party=     |med.| Penn.|{   I. II. 2. 2. }| Winter | best  |433
                      |    |      |{   I.  I. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  =Ewalt=             |lg. | Penn.|  III. II. 2. 1.  | Winter | good? |640
  Excel               |lg. | Conn.|    I. II. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  Exquisite           |sm. | Ills.|{   I.  I. 1. 2. }| Autumn |v. good|
                      |    |      |{   I.  I. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  Fairbanks           |med.| Me.  |{   I.  I. 2. 2. }| Autumn | good  |
                      |    |      |{  II.  I. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  Fair Maid           |    | Penn.|    I.  I. 2. 1.  |        |       |
  Fair Winter         |    |      |  III.  I. 2. 2.  |        |       |
  Falder              |    | Penn.|   IV.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter |       |
  =Fallawater=        |lg. | Penn.|   II.  I. 1. 1.  | Winter | poor? |495
  =Fall Butter=       |lg. | Ind. |   IV.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn | good  |677
  Fall Chandler       |    |      |   II. II. 2. 1.  | Autumn |       |
  =Fall Geneting=     |lg. | Conn.|   II. II. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good  |533
  Fall Greening       |    |   ?  |    I. II. 2. 1.  | Autumn |       |
  =Fall Harvey=       |lg. | Mass.|    I. II. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good  |482
  Fall Orange         |lg. | Mass.|  III. II. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good  |
  Fall Pearmain       |lg. | Conn.|   II.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn | good  |
  =Fall Pippin=       |lg. | Am.  |  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn | best  |571
  Fall Pippin         |lg. | (Ky.)|{  IV. II. 2. 1. }| Autumn | good  |
                      |    |      |{ III. II. 2. 1. }|        |       |
  Fall Queen          |lg. | South|{  II.  I. 2. 2. }| Autumn |v. good|
                      |    |      |{  IV.  I. 2. 1. }|        |       |
  Fall Seek-no-further|lg. |(Con.)|    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn | good  |
  =Fall Swaar of West=|lg. |   ?  |{ III.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good  |572
                      |    |      |{ III. II. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good  |
  Fall Vandervere     |lg. | (O.) |{   I.  I. 2. 2. }| Autumn | good  |
                      |    |      |{ III.  I. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  =Fall Wine=         |med.| Am.  |    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn | best  |434
  Fall Winesap        |med.|   ?  |  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn | good? |
  =Fameuse=           |med.| Can. |  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn |v. good|595
  =Family=            |    | South|   II.  I. 2. 2.  |        |       |515
  =Fancher=           |lg. | South|  III.  I. 1. 1.  | Autumn | good  |550
  =Farley Red=        |sm. | Ky.  |{ III.  I. 2. 2. }| Winter | good  |595
                      |    |      |{  IV. II. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  Farrer's Summer     |    |      | III.  II. 2. 1.  | Summer |       |
  Father Abraham      |med.| Va.  |{   I.  I. 2. 2. }| Spring | good  |
                      |    |      |{ III.  I. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  =Faust=             |sm. | N.C. |{   I.  I. 2. 1. }| Spring |v. good|404
                      |    |      |{ III.  I. 2. 1. }|        |       |
  Favorite            |sm. | Ky.  |  III.  I. 2. 2.  |E. Wint.| good  |
  Fay's Russet        |sm. | Vt.  |   II.  I. 2. 3.  | Spring | good  |
  Fay's Sweet         |    |      |    I.  I. 1. 1.  |        |       |
  Federal             |lg. | Ohio |  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good? |
  Felt's Strawberry   |lg. | N.Y. |   II.  I. 2. 2.  | Summer |"v.gd."|
  =Fenley=            |lg. | Ky.  |    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Summer |good   |405
  Fenouillet Rouge    |med.| Fr.? |  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn |       |
  _Fenton Sweet_, Synonym of Trumbull Sweet.                         |
  =Ferdinand=         |lg. | Va.  |   II. II. 2. 1.  | Winter | good? |533
  =Fink=              |sm. | Ohio |    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Spring | good? |406
  Fisk's              |med.| N.H. |    I.  I. 1. 2.  | Autumn | good  |
  Flamingo            |    | South|  III.  I. 1. 2.  |        |       |
  Flat Sweet          |lg. | Am.  |    I. II. 1. 1.  | Winter | good  |
  Fleiner             |lg. | Eur. |   IV.  I. 2. 1.  | Summer | poor  |
  Flora               |    | South|    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Summer |       |
  Flower of Kent      |lg. | Engl.|  III. II. 2. 2.  | Winter | good? |
  =Flushing           |    |      |                  |        |       |
    Spitzenberg=      |med.|L. Is.|   II.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |515
  Focht               |lg. | Penn.|    I. II. 2. 1.  |E. Wint.| good  |
  Ford                |lg. | N.Y. |  III.  I. 2. 1.  |E. Wint.| good  |
  Forest Sweet        |med.| Ohio |    I.  I. 1. 1.  | Winter | good? |
  Fort Meigs          |med | Ohio |    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  =Fort Miami=        |med.| Ohio |{  II. II. 2. 3. }| Winter |v. good|547
                      |    |      |{  IV.  I. 2. 3. }|        |       |
  Foster              |med.| Ohio |    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good  |
  =Foundling=         |lg. | Mass.|{ III. II. 2. 2. }| Autumn | good  |653
                      |    |      |{   I. II. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  _Fourth of July_, supposed Synonym of Tetofski.                     |
  Foxite              |lg. |(Ind.)|  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good? |
  =Frank or Chenango= |lg. | N.Y. |   IV. II. 2. 2.  | Autumn | good  |695
  Franklin            |    |      |{   I.  I. 1. 2. }|        |       |
                      |    |      |{  IV.  I. 2. 1. }|        |       |
  =Franklin Golden=   |lg. | Am.  |   II.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | good  |670
  Freeze and Thaw     |    | Penn?|   II.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter |       |
  French              |    | (Pa.)|  III.  I. 2. 1.  |        |       |
  French Pippin       |lg. |(Pa.?)|   IV. II. 2. 1.  | Winter | good  |
  French Pippin       |lg. | N.J. |    I.  I. 2. 1.  |E. Wint.| good  |
  French Pippin       |lg. | (O.) |    I. II. 2. 1.  |E. Wint.|v. good|
  French Royal        |med.|   ?  |   IV.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | poor  |
  French's Sweet      |lg. | Mass.|  III.  I. 1. 1.  | Autumn | good  |
  Fronclin            |med.| Penn.|  III.  I. 2. 2.  |        | good  |
  Fuller              |--  | Sou.?|    I. II. 2. 1.  |        |       |
  =Fulton=            |lg. | Ills.|    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | good  |406
  Fulton Strawberry   |med.| Ills.|  III.  I. 2. 2.  |E. Wint.| good  |
  =Gabriel=           |med.|   ?  |  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn |v. good|515
  Gabriel             |    | South|   II.  I. 2. 2.  |        |       |
  Gallup's Russet     |lg. | (O.) |   II.  I. 2. 3.  | Winter | good? |
  =Garden=            |lg. | (O.) |    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn |v. good|435
  Garden Royal        |sm. | Mass.|  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn | good  |
  =Garretson's Early= |sm. | N.J. |{  I.  II. 2. 1. }| Summer | good  |482
                      |    |      |{ III. II. 2. 1. }|        |       |
  Gatch               |med.| Ohio.|   II.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good? |
  =Genesee Chief=     |lg. | N.Y. |   IV. II. 2. 1.  | Summer | poor  |686
  George              |med.| Ohio |    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Summer | good  |
  _Germanite_, Synonym of Jarminite.                                  |
  Gewiss Good         |med.| Penn.|{   I.  I. 2. 1. }| Winter | good  |
                      |    |      |{ III.  I. 2. 1. }|        |       |
  Giles               |med.| Conn.|   II.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn |"v.gd."|
  Gillett's Profusion |    | Ohio |                  |        |       |
  Gillett's Sweet     |    |      |                  |        |       |
    Bellflower        |    | Ohio |                  |        |       |
  Gillett's Winesap   |    | Ohio |                  |        |       |
  =Gilpin=            |med.| Va.  |  III.  I. 1. 2.  | Spring | good? |559
  Gilpin Seedling     |med.| Ills.|  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Spring | good? |
  Giltner's           |med.|   ?  |    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn | good  |
  Gladney Red         |    | South|   II. II. 2. 1.  |        |       |
  =Glendale=          |lg. | Ohio?|  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn | good  |596
  _Gloria Mundi_, Synonym of Mammoth Pippin.                          |
  =Gloucester White=  |med.| Va.  |  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good  |573
  Goff                |lg. | Ohio |  III. II. 2. 2.  | Autumn | good  |
  =Golay=             |med.| Ind. |{   I.  I. 2. 2. }| Winter | good  |436
                      |    |      |{  II.  I. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  =Golden Ball=       |lg. | Conn.|{ III. II. 2. 1. }| Winter | good  |640
                      |    |      |{ III.  I. 2. 1. }|        |       |
  _Golden Drop_, Synonym of Court of Wyck.                            |
  Golden Drop         |    | South|                  |        |       |
  =Golden Harvey=     |sm. | Engl.|  III. II. 2. 3.  | Winter | good? |658
  Golden Pearmain     |sm. |   ?  |  III.  I. 2. 3.  | Winter | good  |
  =Golden Pearmain=   |sm. | (Ky.)|  III.  I. 2. 1.  |        |       |
                      |    |      |             or 3.| Winter |v. good|625
  Golden Pippin       |sm. | Eng.?|  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | good? |
  Golden Pippin--     |Am. |      |{   I. II. 2. 1. }| Winter | good  |
    American          |    |      |{   I. II. 2. 1. }|        |       |
  Golden Reinette     |sm. | Eur. |{   I.  I. 2. 2. }| Winter | good? |
                      |    |      |{ III.  I. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  Golden Rose         |    | Sou? |                  |        |       |
  Golden Russet       |med.|   ?  |  III.  I. 2. 3.  | Winter | good? |
  Golden Russet of    |    |      |                  |        |       |
    Mass              |med.| Mass.|  III.  I. 2. 3.  | Winter | good  |
  =Golden Seedling=   |lg. | Mo.  |    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | good  |407
  =Golden Sweet=      |lg. | Conn.|  III.  I. 1. 1.  | Summer | good  |551
  Golden Winter Sweet |    |(N.Y.)|    I.  I. 1. 1.  | Winter |       |
  Good Russet         |med.| (O.) |  III.  I. 2. 3.  | Winter | poor? |
  Gordon's Seedling   |med.| N.C. |   II.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  Governor            |lg. | Vt.  |  III.  I. 2. 1.  |E. Wint.| good  |
  Gov. Morrow         |med.| Ohio |    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  Grandfather         |lg. | N.E. |{   I. II. 2. 2. }| Autumn | good? |
                      |    |      |{ III. II. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  _Grand Sachem_, Synonym of Black Detroit.                           |
  Granite Beauty      |lg. | Mass.|   IV. II. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  =Granniwinkle=      |med.| N.J. |    I.  I. 1. 2.  |E. Wint.| good  |394
  =Gravenstein=       |lg. | Germ.|    I. II. 2. 2.  | Summer |v. good|487
  Great Keeper        |    |   ?  |    I.  I. 2. 3.  | Spring |       |
  Green Cheese        |med.| Tenn.|    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | good? |
  Green's Choice      |med.| Penn.|  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Summer | good  |
  =Green Crank=       |lg. | South|{   I.  I. 2. 1. }| Winter | good  |408
                      |    |      |{ III.  I. 2. 1. }|        |       |
  Green Domine        |med.| Pen.?|    I.  I. 1. 2.  | Winter | good? |
  _Green Everlasting_, Synonym of American Pippin.                    |
  Green Flat          |    |   ?  |    I.  I. 2. 1.  |        |       |
  Green Flour         |    | Penn.|   II.  I. 2. 1.  |        |       |
  Green Gilliflower   |    |      |   II.  I. 1. 1.  |        |       |
  Green Horse         |    | South|                  |        |       |
  Green Mountain      |med.| Ga.  |{   I.  I. 2. 1. }| Winter | good  |
    Pippin            |    |      |{ III.  I. 2. 1. }|        |       |
  Green Newtown Pippin|lg. | L.Is.|  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter |v. good|
  Green Pearmain      |    | Sou.?|    I.  I. 2. 1.  |        |       |
  Green Pippin        |lg. |(Ind.)|  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | good  |
  =Green Russet=      |lg. | N.C. |  III.  I. 2. 3.  | Winter |       |626
  Green               |    |      |                  |        |       |
    Seek-no-further   |lg. | L.Is.|   II.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good  |
  Green Skin          |med.| N.C. |    I.  I. 2. 1.  |E. Wint.| good  |
  =Green Sweet=       |med.| Mass?|    I.  I. 1. 1.  | Spring | good  |385
  Green Winter        |lg. | (O.) |   II.  I. 1. 1.  | Winter |v. good|
  _Gregson_, Synonym of Catline.                                      |
  Greyhouse           |med.|   ?  |  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | poor? |
  Griest's Favorite   |    | Penn.|  III.  I. 2. 2.  |        |       |
  _Griffith_, Synonym of Clay Bank.                                   |
  =Grimes' Golden=    |med.| Va.  |   IV.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | best  |670
  Grosh               |    | Penn.|    I.  I. 2. 2.  |        |       |
  Grosser Erdbeere    |med.| Eur. |  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Summer | good? |
  Gullett             |    |      |                  |        |       |
  Gully               |    | N.C. |                  |        |       |
  _Gully_, Synonym of Mangum.                                         |
  Gully               |sm. | Penn.|                  |        |  good |
  =Hagloe=            |lg. | N.J. |  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Summer |  good |596
  Hagloe Crab         |sm. | Engl.|   IV. II. 2. 1.  | Wint.? | good? |
  =Hague=             |lg. | Ind. |{  IV.  I. 2. 2. }| Winter | good  |677
                      |    |      |{ III.  I. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  Hain                |lg. | Penn.|  III.  I. 1. 2.  | Winter | good  |
                      |    | N C.?|                  |        |       |
  Halleck's Favorite  |med.| (O.) |    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good? |
  Halliday            |    | Va.  |    I.  I. 1. 1.  | Winter |       |
  =Hall=              |sm. | N.C. |  III.  I. 1. 2.  | Winter | Best? |560
  Hamilton            |    | South|  III. II. 2. 2.  |        |       |
  Hamilton's          |lg. | (Ind)|   II.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | good  |
  Hampton's Honey     |med.| Ohio |    I.  I. 1. 1.  | Winter | good  |
  Hampton's Red Winter|    |      |                  |        |       |
    Sweet             |med.| Ohio |    I. II. 1. 2.  | Winter | good? |
  =Hampton's Russet=  |sm. | Ohio |{ III.  I. 2. 3. }| Winter | good? |626
                      |    |      |{   I.  I. 2. 3. }|        |       |
  =Hannah=            |lg. |   ?  |{ III.  I. 2. 2. }| Winter | good  |597
                      |    |      |{  II. II. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  =Harnish=           |med.| Penn.|   IV. II. 1. 2.  | Autumn | good? |685
  Harper Sweet        |med.| Ills.|    I.  I. 1. 2.  | Autumn | good  |
  =Harris=            |lg. | N.C. |    I. II. 2. 1.  |E. Wint.| good  |482
  =Harrison=          |med.| N.J. |   II. II. 2. 1.  | Winter | good  |534
  Hartford Sweet      |med.| Conn.|    I.  I. 1. 2.  | Winter | good  |
                      |    |      |  III.  I. 1. 2.  |        |       |
  =Harvest Redstreak= |lg. | Penn.|    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Summer | good? |436
  =Haskell Sweet=     |lg. | Mass.|    I.  I. 1. 1.  | Summer | good  |385
  =Hawley=            |lg. | N.Y. |{   I.  I. 2. 1. }| Summer | best  |410
                      |    |      |{  II. II. 2. 1. }|        |       |
  =Hawthornden=       |lg. | Scot.|    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good  |410
  =Hayboys=           |lg. | (O.) |    I.  I. 1. 1.  | Summer | good  |385
  _Hays_, Synonym of Wine.                                            |
  Hector              |lg. | Penn.|   IV.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter |"v.gd."|
  Heister             |    | Penn.|                  |        |       |
  Helen's Favorite    |med.| Ohio |  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter |"v.gd."|
  Hemphill            |med?| N.C. |  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | good  |
  Henley              |    | Sou.?|   II.  I. 1. 1.  |        |       |
  Henrick Sweet       |med.|      |    I.  I. 1. 2.  | Winter | good? |
  Henry               |lg. | Vt.  |   II. II. 2. 1.  | E. Wint| good  |
  =Henwood=           |lg. | Ind. |   IV. II. 2. 1.  | Winter |v. good|687
  Hepler              |med.| Penn.|    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | good? |
  =Herefordshire      |    |      |                  |        |       |
    Pearm.=           |med.| Engl.|  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | best? |598
  =Herman=            |med.| Penn.|{  IV.  I. 2. 2. }| Winter | good  |678
                      |    |      |{  II.  I. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  Hersey Keeper       |    |      |  III.  I. 2. 2.  |        |       |
  Hess                |med.| Penn.|  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter |"v.gd."|
  =Hewes' Crab=       |sm. | Va.  |  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | best  |599
  Hick's              |    | Penn.|                  |        |       |
  =Higby Sweet=       |med.| Ohio |{ III.  I. 1. 1. }| Autumn | good  |552
                      |    |      |{  II.  I. 1. 1. }|        |       |
  Highlander          |med.| Vt.  |    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn | good  |
  =Hightop=, (Jones)  |lg. | Ind. |    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |437
  =Hightop Sweet=     |sm. | Con.?|  III.  I. 1. 1.  | Summer | good  |553
  Hiker's             |med.| Ky.  |{   I.  I. 2. 2. }| Spring | good  |
                      |    |      |{ III.  I. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  Hill's Favorite     |med.| Mass.|  III. II. 2. 2.  | Summer | good  |
  Hilton              |lg. | N.Y. |  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good  |
  Hinesley            |lg. |(Ind.)|    I.  I. 1. 2.  | Winter | poor  |
  Hoary Morning       |lg. | Engl.|    I.  I. 2. 2.  |E. Wint.| good  |
  Hockett Sweet       |    | South|  III.  I. 2. 2.  |        |       |
  =Hocking=           |lg. |   ?  |    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Summer | good? |438
  Hodge's Limbertwig  |med.| West?|   II.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  Hog Island Sweet    |med.| N.Y. |    I.  I. 1. 1.  | Autumn | good  |
  Hog Snout           |med.| N.C. |  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good? |
  =Holland Pippin=    |lg. | Eur.?|{  II.  I. 2. 1. }| Autumn | good? |506
                      |    |      |{ III.  I. 2. 1. }|        |       |
  Holland's Red Winter|    | (O.) |                  | Winter |       |
  Holland's Sweet     |med.|      |   II.  I. 1. 2.  |        |       |
  Hollow Crown        |med.|   ?  |    I.  I. 2. 2.  |E. Wint.| good  |
  Holly               |    | South|  III.  I. 1. 2.  |        |       |
  _Holman?_ Synonym of Nickajack.                                     |
  =Holston Sweet=     |med.|   ?  |  III.  I. 1. 1.  | Winter | good  |553
  Hommacher           |lg. | Penn.|  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | good  |
  Homony              |lg. | South|{  II.  I. 2. 2. }| Summ'r | good  |
                      |    |      |{  IV. II. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  Hovey               |    |   ?  |    I.  I. 1. 2.  |        |       |
  =Honey=             |    | Penn.|   IV.  I. 1. 1.  |        |       |659
  Honey Greening      |lg. | West |   IV. II. 1. 1.  | Winter | good  |
  Honey Pippin        |    |      |   II.  I. 1. 2.  |        |       |
  Honey Sweet         |lg. | (O.) |  III.  I. 1. 1.  | Winter | good  |
  Honiker             |    | Penn.|                  |        |       |
  Hooker              |med.| Conn.|   II.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good? |
  Hoopbole            |sm. | (O.) |{ III.  I. 2. 2. }| Winter | good  |
                      |    |      |{   I.  I. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  Hoops               |med.| Penn.|    I.  I. 1. 2.  | Spring | poor  |
  Hoosier             |med.| Ind. |   IV.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  Hoosier Red         |med.| Ind. |  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | good? |
  Hoover              |lg. | S.C. |{  II.  I. 2. 1. }| Winter | good? |
                      |    |      |{ III.  I. 2. 1. }|        |       |
  _Hopkin's Red Cheek_, Synonym of Monmouth Pippin.                   |
  Hopper              |    | South|   II.  I. 2. 2.  |        |       |
  Horn                |med.| Ga.  |{   I. II. 2. 2. }| Winter | good? |
                      |    |      |{   I.  I. 2. 1. }|        |       |
  Hornet              |lg. | Penn.|                  | Autumn | good  |
  =Horse=             |lg. | N.C. |{ III.  I. 2. 1. }| Autumn | good  |573
                      |    |      |{  IV. II. 2. 1. }|        |       |
  Horton Sweet        |    | (O.) |                  |        |       |
  Housum Red          |lg. | Penn.|{  IV.  I. 2. 2. }|E. Wint.|"v.gd."|
                      |    |      |{  IV. II. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  Howe's Russet       |    | Mass.|    I. II. 2. 3.  |        |       |
  Hoyle's Nonpareil   |    | Sou.?|    I. II. 2. 2.  |        |       |
  =Hubbardston=       |lg. | Mass.|{ III.  I. 2. 2. }|E. Wint.|v. good| 600
                      |    |      |{  IV.  I. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  Hubbardton          |lg. | N.H.?|  III. II. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  Hughes              |lg. | Penn.|  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Spring | good  |
  Hughes' Am. Golden  |    |      |                  |        |       |
    Pippin            |lg. | Am.  |  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter |v. good|
  =Hull Blossom=      |sm. | N.E. |  III. II. 1. 2.  |E. Wint.| good  | 635
  =Hunge=             |lg. | N.C. |  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good? | 574
  =Hunt=              |med.| Ind. |    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |
  Hunter              |med.| Penn.|  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Autumn | good  |
  Hunter's Sweet      |    | (O.) |                  |        |       |
  Huntsman Russet     |    |      |   II.  I. 2. 3.  |        |       |
  Hunt's Russet       |sm. | Mass.|   II.  I. 2. 3.  | Winter | good  |
  Hurlbutt            |med.| Conn.|{   I.  I. 2. 2. }|E. Wint.| good  |
                      |    |      |{   I. II. 2. 2. }|        |       |
  _Hutchings Seedling_, Synonym of Sugar Loaf Pippin.                 |
  Hyatt's Wonderful   |    | Sou.?|    I.  I. 2. 1.  |        |       |
  Ice Cream           |med.| Ky.  |    I.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good? |
  Illinois Greening   |med.| Ills.|  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | good? |
  Illinois Pippin     |med.| Ills.|  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | good? |
  =Ills. Pumpkin      |    |      |                  |        |       |
    Sweet=            |med.| Ills.|   IV. II. 1. 2.  |L. Wint.| good  |685
  _Imperial Russet_, Synonym of Spice Russet.                         |
  =Indiana Beauty=    |lg. | Ind. |   IV.  I. 2. 2.  |E. Wint.| poor  |678
  =Indiana Favorite=  |med.| Ind. |    I.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | good  |438
  Indian Prince       |med.| Am.  |  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Autumn | good? |
  Indian Winter       |    | South|   II.  I. 2. 2.  |        |       |
  Innes               |    |   ?  |    I.  I. 2. 2.  |        |       |
  _Iola_, Synonym of Equinetelec.                                     |
  Irish Peach         |med.| Eur. |  III. II. 2. 2.  | Summ'r | good? |
  Iron                |    | South|  III.  I. 2. 1.  |        |       |
  Iron Mountain       |med.| Mo.  |  III.  I. 2. 1.  | Winter | good  |
  Iron Pippin         |med.| Ky.  |  III.  I. 2. 2.  | Winter | poor  |
  Isom                |    |   ?  |    I.  I. 2. 1.  |        |       |
  Jabez               |med.| Conn.|  III.  I. 1. 1.  | Winter | good. |
  Jackman's Sweet.    |    | Penn.|  III.  I. 1. 1.  |E. Wint.|       |
  Jackson             |    | Ga.  |    I.  I. 2. 1.  |        |       |
  Jackson             |med.| Penn.|  {II.  I. 2. 1. }| Winter |"v.gd."|
                      |    |      |{ III.  I. 2. 2. }|