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´╗┐Title: Forest Trees of Illinois - How to Know Them
Author: Fuller George D., Miller R. B., Mattoon W. R., Nuuttila E. E.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Forest Trees of Illinois - How to Know Them" ***

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  +-----------------------------------------------------------+
  | Transcriber's note:                                       |
  |                                                           |
  |  Names in bold characters are enclosed within plus signs. |
  +-----------------------------------------------------------+

[Illustration: Frontcover]



  STATE OF ILLINOIS

  OTTO KERNER, Governor


  FOREST TREES

  OF ILLINOIS


  HOW TO KNOW THEM

  A POCKET MANUAL DESCRIBING THEIR MOST IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS

  Revised by Dr. George D. Fuller, Professor Emeritus of Botany,
  University of Chicago, Curator of Botany, Illinois State Museum, and
  State Forester E. E. Nuuttila.

  (_1st. ed., 1927, by Mattoon, W. R., and Miller, R. B._)

  _Revised 1955_


  DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION
  DIVISION OF FORESTRY
  SPRINGFIELD
  WILLIAM T. LODGE,
  Director


(Printed by Authority of the State of Illinois)



TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                Page

  Ailanthus                       54

  Alder, black                    19
    speckled                      19

  Apple, crab                     45

  Arbor vitae                      7

  Ash, black                      65
    blue                          65
    green                         64
    pumpkin                       65
    red                           64
    white                         64

  Aspen, large-tooth               8
    quaking                        8

  Bald cypress                     6

  Basswood                        60
    white                         60

  Beech                           22
    blue                          19

  Birch, black                    21
    river                         21
    white                         20
    yellow                        21

  Black locust                    53

  Black walnut                    11

  Bois d'arc                      37

  Box elder                       58

  Buckeye, Ohio                   59

  Buttonwood                      44

  Butternut                        2

  Catalpa                         66

  Cedar, northern white            7
    red                            7

  Cherry, black                   50
    choke                         50
    wild red                      50

  Chestnut                        22

  Coffee tree, Kentucky           52

  Cottonwood                       9
    swamp                          9

  Crab, apple                     45
    Bechtel's                     45
    prairie                       45
    sweet                         45

  Cucumber, magnolia              39

  Cypress, bald                    6

  Dogwood, alternate-leaved       61
    flowering                     61

  Elm, American                   34
    cork                          34
    red                           35
    rock                          34
    slippery                      35
    water                         35
    winged                        34

  Gum, cotton                     62
    sour                          62
    sweet                         43
    tupelo                        62

  Hackberry                       36
    southern                      36

  Haw, green                      48
    red                           48

  Hawthorn, cock-spur             47
    dotted                        47
    green                         48
    red                           48

  Hedge apple                     37

  Hercules' club                  63

  Hickories, key of Illinois      13

  Hickory, big shell-bark         16
    bitternut                     14
    Buckley's                     18
    king-nut                      16
    mockernut                     17
    pecan                         15
    pignut                        18
    shag-bark                     16
    sweet pignut                  17
    water                         14
    white                         17

  Honey locust                    51

  Hornbeam, American              19
    hop                           20

  Horse-chestnut                  59

  Kentucky coffee-tree            52

  Larch, American                  6
    European                       6

  Linden, American                60

  Locust, black                   53
    honey                         51
    water                         51

  Magnolia, cucumber              39

  Maple, ash-leaved               58
    black                         56

  Norway                          58
    red                           57
    river                         57
    silver                        57
    sugar                         56
    swamp                         57

  Mulberry, red                   38
    Russian                       38
    white                         38

  Oak, basket                     26
    black                         29
    black jack                    32
    bur                           25
    chinquapin                    26
    jack                          29
    northern pin                  29
    northern red                  28
    overcup                       24
    pin                           30
    post                          27
    red                           28
    rock chestnut                 26
    scarlet                       30
    shingle                       33
    Shumard's                     28
    southern red                  31
    Spanish                       31
    swamp chestnut                26
    swamp Spanish                 31
    swamp white                   25
    white                         24
    willow                        33
    yellow chestnut               26

  Oaks, of Illinois, a key        23

  Ohio buckeye                    59

  Orange, osage                   37

  Papaw                           41

  Paulownia                       66

  Pecan                           15

  Persimmon                       63

  Pine, Austrian                   4
    jack                           5
    Scotch                         5
    shortleaf                      5
    white                          4

  Plane tree                      44

  Plum, Canada                    49
    wild                          49
    wild goose                    49
    yellow                        49

  Poplar, balsam                   9
    Carolina                       9
    European white                 9
    Lombardy                       9
    yellow                        40

  Redbud                          52

  Red cedar                        7

  Sassafras                       42

  Service-berry                   46
    smooth                        46

  Shadblow                        46

  Sour gum                        62

  Spruce, Norway                   5

  Sweet gum                       43

  Sumac, shining                  55
    smooth                        55
    staghorn                      55

  Sycamore                        44
    European                      44

  Tamarack                         6

  Thorn, cock-spur                47
    dotted                        47
    pear                          47
    Washington                    48

  Tree of Heaven                  54

  Tulip tree                      40

  Tupelo gum                      62

  Walnut, black                   11
    white                         12

  Willow, black                   10
    crack                         10
    peach-leaved                  10
    weeping                       10
    white                         10


See pages 70 and 71 for Index of Scientific Names



+WHITE PINE+ _Pinus strobus_ L.

[Illustration: WHITE PINE

Two-thirds natural size.]

THE white pine is found along the bluffs overlooking Lake Michigan in
Lake and Cook counties and is also scattered along river bluffs in Jo
Daviess, Carroll, Ogle and LaSalle counties. The only grove of this
beautiful tree in Illinois is in the White Pines Forest State Park near
Oregon, Ogle County, where there are trees over 100 years old that have
attained a height of 90 feet with a diameter of 30 inches. This tree
formerly formed the most valuable forests in the northeastern United
States, stretching from Maine through New York to Minnesota. The
straight stem, regular pyramidal shape and soft gray-green foliage made
it universally appreciated as an ornamental tree and it has been freely
planted throughout the State.

The _leaves_, or needles, are 3 to 5 inches in length, bluish-green on
the upper surface and whitish beneath, and occur in bundles of 5, which
distinguishes it from all other eastern pines. The pollen-bearing
_flowers_ are yellow and clustered in cones, about 1/3 inch long at the
base of the growth of the season. The seed-producing flowers occur on
other twigs and are bright red in color. The cone, or _fruit_, is 4 to 6
inches long, cylindrical with thin usually very gummy scales, containing
small, winged seeds which require two years to mature.

The _wood_ is light, soft, durable, not strong, light brown in color,
often tinged with red, and easily worked. It was formerly much used in
old colonial houses where even the shingles were of white pine. It is
excellent for boxes, pattern making, matches, and many other products.

Its rapid growth and the high quality of the wood make it one of the
best trees for reforestation on light soils in the northern part of the
State. The white pine blister rust was introduced into America about 35
years ago, and has since become widespread and highly destructive of
both old trees and young growth.

  The Austrian pine, _Pinus nigra_ Arnold, has been naturalized in Lake
  County and has been planted as an ornamental tree throughout the
  State. Its leaves in 2's, from 3 to 5 inches long, stiff and dark
  green. The cone is heavy, 3 inches long with short prickles.


+SHORTLEAF PINE+ _Pinus echinata_ Mill.

[Illustration: SHORTLEAF PINE

Leaves, one-half natural size. Fruit, natural size.]

THE shortleaf pine, sometimes called yellow pine, occurs in very small
stands in the "Pine Hills" of Union County, in Jackson County, in Giant
City State Park, and near "Piney Creek" in Randolph County. It forms
forests on light sandy soils in Tennessee, Arkansas, Oklahoma and Texas.
At maturity, the tree has a tall, straight stem and an oval crown,
reaching a height of about 100 feet and a diameter of about 4 feet.

The _leaves_ are in clusters of two or three, from 3 to 5 inches long,
slender, flexible, and dark blue-green. The cones are the smallest of
our pines, 1-1/2 to 2-1/2 inches long, oblong, with small sharp prickles,
generally clustered, and often holding to the twigs for 3 or 4 years.
The _bark_ is light brownish-red, broken into rectangular plates on the
trunk but scaly on the branches.

The _wood_ of old trees is rather heavy and hard, of yellow-brown or
orange color, fine grained and less resinous than that of other
important southern pines. It is used largely for interior and exterior
finishing, general construction, veneers, paper pulp, excelsior,
cooperage, mine props, and other purposes. The tree transplants readily,
grows rapidly, succeeds on a variety of soils and has proved valuable
for reforestation.

   A few trees of jack pine, _Pinus banksiana_ Lamb., are found
   in Lake County. It is a small northern tree with leaves about
   an inch long, borne in 2's, with cones about 2 inches long. It
   is planted for reforestation in the State. The Scots pine,
   _Pinus sylvestris_ L., has been freely planted in Illinois and
   may be known by its orange-brown bark and its twisted leaves 2
   to 3 inches long, arranged in 2's. It has become naturalized
   on the sand dunes in Lake County.

   The Norway spruce, _Picea abies_ Karst., has been freely
   planted throughout the State. It forms a dense conical
   spire-topped crown and reaches a height of 50 to 70 feet. The
   leaves are needle-shaped, about an inch long, dark green, and
   persist for about 5 years. The pendulous cones are from 3 to 6
   inches long. It is desirable for ornamental planting.


+BALD CYPRESS+ _Taxodium distichum_ Richard

[Illustration: CYPRESS

Natural size.]

THE bald cypress is a tree found exclusively in deep swamps and was
found in southern Illinois from the Mississippi bottoms to Shawneetown.
Its straight trunk with numerous ascending branches, and narrow conical
outline makes the tree one of considerable beauty. In old age, the tree
generally has a broad fluted or buttressed base, a smooth slowly
tapering trunk and a broad, open, flat top of a few heavy branches and
numerous small branchlets. The original-growth timber attained heights
of 80 to 130 feet and diameters of 5 to 10 feet.

The _bark_ is silvery to cinnamon-red and finely divided by numerous
longitudinal fissures. The _leaves_ are about 1/2 to 3/4 of an inch in
length, arranged in feather-like fashion along two sides of small
branchlets, which fall in the autumn with the leaves still attached.

The _fruit_ is a rounded cone, or "ball", about one inch in diameter,
consisting of thick irregular scales.

The _wood_ is light, soft, easily worked, varies in color from light to
dark brown, and is particularly durable in contact with the soil. Hence
it is in demand for exterior trim of buildings, greenhouse planking,
boat and shipbuilding, shingles, posts, poles and crossties.

  The tamarack, or American larch, _Larix laricina_ K. Koch, resembles
  the bald cypress in growing in swamps and in shedding its leaves in
  autumn. This tree is found in Illinois growing in bogs in Lake and
  McHenry counties. The leaves are flat, soft, slender, about one inch
  long and borne in clusters. The cones are only 1/2 to 3/4 inch long.
  The European larch, _Larix decidua_ Mill., may be distinguished from
  the native species by having slightly longer leaves and larger cones
  that are more than an inch long.


+RED CEDAR+ _Juniperus virginiana_ L.

RED cedar, the most plentiful coniferous tree in the State, is very
valuable, growing on a great variety of soils, seeming to thrive on
hills where few other trees are found. It is more common in the southern
counties.

[Illustration: RED CEDAR

Natural size.]

There are two kinds of _leaves_, often both kinds being found on the
same tree. The commoner kind is dark green, minute and scale-like,
clasping the stem in four ranks, so that the stems appear square. The
other kind, often appearing on young growth or vigorous shoots, is
awl-shaped, quite sharp-pointed, spreading and whitened beneath. The two
kinds of _flowers_, appearing in February or March, are at the ends of
the twigs on separate trees. The staminate trees assume a golden color
from the small catkins, which, when shaken, shed clouds of yellow
pollen. The _fruit_, ripening the first season, is pale blue with a
white bloom, 1/4 inch in diameter, berry-like with sweet flesh. It is a
favorite winter food for birds.

The _bark_ is very thin, reddish-brown, peeling off in long, shred-like
strips. The tree is extremely irregular in its growth, so that the trunk
is usually more or less grooved.

The _heartwood_ is distinctly red, and the sapwood white, this color
combination making very striking effects when finished for cedar chests,
closets, and interior woodwork. The wood is aromatic, soft, strong, and
of even texture, and these qualities make it most desirable for lead
pencils. It is very durable in contact with the soil, and on that
account is in great demand for posts, poles and rustic work.

  The arbor vitae or northern white cedar, _Thuja occidentalis_ L., is
  found occasionally on the bluffs overlooking Lake Michigan, on the
  cliffs of Starved Rock, in Elgin City Park, and in bogs in Lake
  County. The leaves are aromatic, scale-like, 1/8 inch long, arranged
  to give small flat branches. The fruit is a cone 1/2 inch long. The
  wood is light, soft, durable, fragrant, and pale brown.


+QUAKING ASPEN+ _Populus tremuloides_ Michx.

THIS is one of the most widely distributed trees in North America. Its
range goes from Labrador to British Columbia and from New England and
New York far south in the Rocky Mountains to Arizona. In Illinois it is
common in the north, but of infrequent occurrence in the south.

[Illustration: ASPEN

Three-fourths natural size.]

The aspen is a small tree, reaching heights of 40 to 60 feet and
diameters of 10 to 20 inches. The young branches are reddish-brown soon
turning gray. The _winter buds_ are about 1/4 inch long, pointed and
shining. The _bark_ is thin, smooth, light gray tinged with green.

The _leaves_ are on slender flat petioles, arranged alternately on the
twigs, and broadly oval, short pointed and shallowly toothed. They are
green, shiny above and dull below, ranging from 2 to 4 inches long and
about the same in breadth.

The _flowers_ are in catkins and appear before the leaves begin to
expand. The two kinds are borne on separate trees, the staminate catkins
are about 2 inches long, but the seed-producing flowers form a long
slender cluster 4 inches in length. The _fruit_ is a conical capsule
filled with tiny cottony seeds which ripen in late spring before the
leaves are fully expanded.

The _wood_ is light brown, almost white. It is light, weak and not
durable, and is used for pulpwood, fruit-crates and berry boxes.

  The large-tooth aspen, _Populus grandidentata_ Michx., is found in the
  northern half of Illinois and frequently grows alongside the quaking
  aspen. Its leaves are larger than those of the quaking aspen and the
  edges are coarsely and irregularly toothed. The winter buds have dull
  chestnut-brown scales and are somewhat downy. The bark is light gray
  tinged with reddish-brown.


+COTTONWOOD+ _Populus deltoides_ Marsh.

THE cottonwood, or Carolina poplar, is one of the largest trees in
Illinois, growing on flood plains along small streams and in depressions
in the prairie. It is one of the best trees for forestry purposes for
planting where quick shade is desired. The wood is soft, light, weak,
fine-grained but tough. It is good for pulp, boxes and berry baskets.

[Illustration: COTTONWOOD

Leaf, one-third natural size. Twig, one-third natural size.]

The _leaves_ are simple, alternate, broadly triangular, pointed and
coarse toothed on the edges, 3 to 5 inches across, thick and firm
supported by flattened slender petioles, 2 to 3 inches long. The _winter
buds_ are large and covered with chestnut-brown shining resinous scales.

The _flowers_ are in catkins, of two kinds, on different trees and
appear before the leaves. The _fruit_ ripens in late spring, appearing
as long drooping strings of ovoid capsules filled with small seeds.
These strings of fruit, 5 to 8 inches long, give to the tree the name of
"necklace poplar." The seeds are covered with white cottony hairs.

  The swamp cottonwood, _Populus heterophylla_ L., occurs in swamps in
  the southern part of Illinois, and may be known by its broadly ovate
  leaves, 3 to 5 inches wide and 4 to 7 inches long with blunt-apex and
  cordate base. A few trees of the balsam poplar, _Populus tacamahaca_
  Mill., are found in Lake County near the shores of Lake Michigan. The
  leaves are ovate-lanceolate, pointed, and cordate. The large buds are
  covered with fragrant resin.

  The European white poplar, _Populus alba_ L., with light gray bark and
  leaves, white wooly beneath, is often found near old houses and along
  roadsides. The Lombardy poplar, a tall narrow form of the European
  black poplar, _Populus nigra_ var. _italica_ Du Roi, is often planted
  and is a striking tree for the roadside.


+BLACK WILLOW+ _Salix nigra_ Marsh.

THE black willow is not only a denizen of the forest but it is at home
on the prairies and on the plains and even invades the desert. It grows
singly or in clumps along the water courses, a tree 40 to 60 feet in
height with a short trunk.

[Illustration: BLACK WILLOW

Two-thirds natural size.]

The _bark_ is deeply divided into broad flat ridges, often becoming
shaggy. The twigs, brittle at the base, are glabrous or pubescent,
bright red-brown becoming darker with age. The _winter buds_ are 1/8
inch long, covered with a single smooth scale. The _wood_ is soft,
light, close-grained, light brown and weak. It is often used in the
manufacture of artificial limbs.

The alternate simple _leaves_ are 3 to 6 inches long, and one-half inch
wide on very short petioles; the tips are much tapered and the margins
are finely toothed. They are bright green on both sides, turning pale
yellow in the early autumn. The _flowers_ are in catkins, appearing with
the leaves, borne on separate trees. The staminate flowers of the black
willow have 3 to 5 stamens each, while the white willow has flowers with
2 stamens.

  The native peach-leaved willow, _Salix amygdaloides_ Anders., is a
  smaller tree with leaves 2 to 6 inches long, 1/2 to 1-1/2 inches wide,
  light green and shining above, pale and glaucous beneath, on petioles
  about 3/4 inch long.

  The white willow, _Salix alba_ L., and the crack willow, _Salix
  fragilis_ L., with bright yellow twigs, are European species which are
  often planted for ornamental purposes. Their flowers have only 2
  stamens each and their leaves are silky, bright green above and
  glaucous beneath. The latter has twigs that are very brittle at the
  base. Another European species is the weeping willow, _Salix
  babylonica_ L., which may be known by its slender drooping branches.


+BLACK WALNUT+ _Juglans nigra_ L.

[Illustration: BLACK WALNUT

Leaf, one-fifth natural size. Twig, three-quarters natural size.]

THIS valuable forest tree occurs on rich bottom lands and on moist
fertile hillsides throughout the State. The black walnut is found from
Massachusetts westward to Minnesota and southward to Florida and Texas.
In the forest, where it grows singly, it frequently attains a height of
100 feet with a straight stem, clear of branches for half its height. In
open-grown trees, the stem is short and the crown broad and spreading.

The _bark_ is thick, dark brown in color, and divided by rather deep
fissures into rounded ridges. The twigs have cream-colored chambered
pith and leaf-scars without downy pads above.

The _leaves_ are alternate, compound, 1 to 2 feet long, consisting of
from 15 to 23 leaflets of yellowish-green color. The leaflets are about
3 inches long, extremely tapering at the end and toothed along the
margin.

The _fruit_ is a nut, borne singly or in pairs, and enclosed in a solid
green husk which does not split open, even after the nut is ripe. The
nut itself is black with a very hard, thick, finely ridged shell,
enclosing a rich, oily kernel edible and highly nutritious.

The _heartwood_ is of superior quality and value. It is heavy, hard and
strong, and its rich chocolate-brown color, freedom from warping and
checking, susceptibility to a high polish, and durability make it highly
prized for a great variety of uses, including furniture, cabinet work,
and gun-stocks. Walnut is easily propagated from the nuts and grows
rapidly on good soil, where it should be planted and grown for timber
and nuts. It is the most valuable tree found in the forests of Illinois
and originally grew extensively throughout the State.


+BUTTERNUT+ _Juglans cinerea_ L.

THE butternut, sometimes called the white walnut, is a smaller tree than
the black walnut, although it may reach a height of 70 feet and a
diameter of 3 feet. It is found all over the State, but the best is in
the ravines of southern Illinois. The butternut is found from Maine to
Michigan and southward to Kansas, Tennessee and northern Georgia. The
trunk is often forked or crooked and this makes it less desirable for
saw timber.

[Illustration: BUTTERNUT

Twig, one-half natural size. Leaf, one-third natural size.]

The _bark_ differs from that of the black walnut in being light gray on
branches and on the trunk of small trees, becoming darker on large
trees. This tree may also be distinguished from black walnut by the
velvet collars just above the scars left by last year's leaves. The
twigs have chocolate-brown chambered pith and bear obliquely blunt
winter buds somewhat flattened, brownish and hairy.

The compound _leaves_ are 15 to 30 inches long, each with 11 to 17
sharp-pointed, oblong, finely toothed leaflets 2 to 3 inches long.

The staminate and pistillate _flowers_ are on the same tree, the former
in long yellowish-green drooping catkins and the latter are short with
red-fringed stigmas.

The _fruit_ is a nut enclosed in an oblong, somewhat pointed,
yellowish-green husk, about 2 inches long, which is covered with short,
rusty, clammy, sticky hairs. The nut has a rough, grooved shell and an
oily, edible kernel.

The _wood_ is light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, light brown, and
takes a good polish. It is used for interior finish of houses and for
furniture. A yellow or orange dye can be made from the husks of the
nuts.


A KEY TO THE ILLINOIS HICKORIES

  A. Bud scales opposite; appearing somewhat grooved lengthwise;
     leaflets usually lanceolate, generally curved backwards;
     nut-husks usually winged; nut thin-shelled.
        B. Leaflets 5-9; leaves 6-10 inches long, winter buds
           bright yellow; nut gray globose, meat bitter    C. cordiformis
       BB. Leaflets 7-13; leaves 9-13 inches long, winter buds
           dark brown, nut brown, pear-shaped, meat bitter C. aquatica
      BBB. Leaflets 9-17; leaves 12-20 inches long, winter
           buds yellow, nut elongated, meat sweet          C. illinoensis

  AA. Bud scales not in pairs; more than 6; leaflets not recurved;
      nut husks usually not winged; nut thick-shelled.
        B. Buds large; twigs stout; nut angled; kernel sweet.
             C. Leaflets 5; leaves 8-14 inches long, nut
                whitish, bark shaggy                       C. ovata
            CC. Leaflets 7-9; leaves 15-20 inches long, nut
                reddish-brown                              C. laciniosa
           CCC. Leaflets 7-9; leaves 8-12 inches long,
                hairy                                      C. tomentosa
       BB. Buds small; twigs slender; nut angled.
             C. Leaflets usually 5; leaves 8-12 inches long;
                fruit pear-shaped; kernel astringent       C. glabra
            CC. Leaflets usually 7; leaves 8-10 inches long;
                fruit ovoid; shell ridged, thin; kernel
                sweet                                      C. ovalis
           CCC. Leaflets usually 7; leaves 10-12 inches
                long; shell thin, conspicuously veined     C. buckleyi


+BITTERNUT HICKORY+ _Carya cordiformis_ K. Koch

THE bitternut hickory is a tall slender tree with broadly pyramidal
crown, attaining a height of 100 feet and a diameter of 2 to 3 feet. It
is found along stream banks and on moist soil, and it is well known by
its roundish bitter nuts.

[Illustration: BITTERNUT HICKORY

Twig, one-half natural size. Leaf, one-third natural size.]

The _bark_ on the trunk is granite-gray, faintly tinged with yellow and
smoother than in most of the hickories, yet broken into thin plate-like
scales. The _winter buds_ are compressed, scurfy, and of a bright yellow
color.

The _leaves_ are alternate, compound, from 6 to 10 inches long, and
composed of from 7 to 11 leaflets. The individual leaflets are smaller
and more slender than those of the other hickories.

The _flowers_ are of two kinds on the same tree; the staminate in long
pendulous green catkins, the pistillate in 2 to 5 flowered spikes,
1/2 inch long, brown-hairy. The _fruit_ is about 1 inch long and
thin-husked, while the nut is usually thin-shelled and brittle, and the
kernel very bitter.

The _wood_ is hard, strong and heavy, reddish-brown in color. From this
last fact it gets its local name of red hickory. It is said to be
somewhat inferior to the other hickories, but is used for the same
purposes.


+PECAN+ _Carya illinoensis_ (Wang.) K. Koch

(_Carya pecan_ (Marsh.) E. & G.)

THE pecan is a river-bottom tree found in southern Illinois extending
its range northward to Adams, Peoria, Fayette and Lawrence counties. The
tree is the largest of the hickories, attaining heights of over 100 feet
and, when in the open, forming a large rounded top of symmetrical shape.
It makes an excellent shade tree and is also planted in orchards for its
nuts. The outer _bark_ is rough, hard, tight, but broken into scales; on
the limbs, it is smooth at first but later tends to scale or divide as
the bark grows old.

[Illustration: PECAN

One-quarter natural size.]

The _leaves_ resemble those of the other hickories and the black walnut.
They are made up of 9 to 17 leaflets, each oblong, toothed and
long-pointed, and 4 to 8 inches long by about 2 inches wide.

The _flowers_ appear in early spring and hang in tassels from 2 to 3
inches long. The _fruit_ is a nut, 4-winged or angled, pointed from 1 to
2 inches long, and one-half to 1 inch in diameter, borne in a husk which
divides along its grooved seams when the nut ripens in the fall. The
nuts, which vary in size and in the thickness of the shell, have been
greatly improved by selection and cultivation and are sold on the market
in large quantities.

The _wood_ is strong, tough, heavy and hard and is used occasionally in
making handles, parts for vehicles, for fuel and for veneers.

  The water hickory, _Carya aquatica_ Nutt., is a smaller tree, found in
  swamps in southern Illinois, with leaves made up of 7 to 13 leaflets;
  the nut is thin-shelled, angular and bitter.


+SHAG-BARK HICKORY+ _Carya ovata_ K. Koch

THE shag-bark hickory is well known for its sweet and delicious nuts. It
is a large commercial tree, averaging 60 to 100 feet high and 1 to 2
feet in diameter. It thrives best on rich, damp soil and is common along
streams, on rich uplands, and on moist hillsides throughout the State.

[Illustration: SHAG-BARK HICKORY

Leaf, one-third natural size. Twig, one-half natural size.]

The _bark_ of the trunk is rougher than other hickories, light gray and
separating into thick plates which are only slightly attached to the
tree. The terminal _winter buds_ are egg-shaped, the outer bud-scales
having narrow tips.

The _leaves_ are alternate, compound, from 8 to 15 inches long, and
composed of 5, rarely 7 obovate to ovate leaflets. The twigs are smooth
or clothed with short hairs.

The _fruit_ is borne singly or in pairs and is globular. The husk is
thick and deeply grooved at the seams. The nut is much compressed and
pale, the shell thick, and the kernel sweet. The flowers are of two
kinds, opening after the leaves have attained nearly their full size.

The _wood_ is heavy, hard, tough and strong; it is white largely in the
manufacture of agricultural implements and tool handles, and the
building of carriages and wagons. For fuel the hickories are the most
satisfactory of our native trees.

  The big shell bark or king-nut hickory, _Carya laciniosa_ (Michx. f.)
  Loud., becomes a tall tree on the rich bottom lands in the southern
  half of Illinois. It resembles the shag-bark hickory but the leaves
  are longer with 7 to 9 leaflets, and the nuts are 2 inches long with a
  thick bony shell and a sweet kernel.


+MOCKERNUT HICKORY+ _Carya tomentosa_ Nutt.

THE mockernut, or white hickory, is common on well-drained soils
throughout the State. It is a tall, short-limbed tree often 60 feet high
and 1 to 2 feet in diameter.

[Illustration: MOCKERNUT HICKORY

Leaf, one-fifth natural size. Twig, two-thirds natural size.]

The _bark_ is dark gray, hard, closely and deeply furrowed often
apparently cross-furrowed or netted. The winter buds are large, round or
broadly egg-shaped and covered with a downy growth.

The _leaves_ are large, strong-scented and hairy, composed of 7 to 9
obovate to oblong, pointed leaflets which turn a beautiful yellow in the
fall.

The _flowers_, like those of all other hickories, are of two kinds on
the same tree; the staminate in three-branched catkins, the pistillate
in clusters of 2 to 5. The _fruit_ is oval, nearly round or slightly
pear-shaped with a very thick, strong-scented husk which splits nearly
to the base when ripe. The nut is of various forms, but sometimes 4 to 6
ridged, light brown, and has a very thick shell and small, sweet kernel.

The _wood_ is heavy, hard, tough and strong; it is white excepting the
comparatively small, dark-brown heart, hence the name white hickory. It
is used for vehicle parts and handles. It furnishes the best of fuel.
This and other hickories are very desirable both for forest and shade
trees.

  In the southern part of Illinois, the small fruited or sweet pignut,
  _Carya ovalis_ Sargent, occurs on rich hillsides. The leaves have 7
  leaflets on reddish-brown twigs, with small yellowish winter buds. The
  nut is an inch long, enclosed in a very thin hairy husk, the shell is
  thin and the kernel sweet.


+PIGNUT HICKORY+ _Carya glabra_ Sweet

THE pignut hickory is rare in the northern part of Illinois but occurs
plentifully in the rest of the State, growing to a medium sized tree on
rich uplands. It has a tapering trunk and a narrow oval head with
drooping branches.

[Illustration: PIGNUT HICKORY

Leaf, one-third natural size. Twig, one-half natural size.]

The _bark_ is close, ridged and grayish, but occasionally rough and
flaky. The twigs are thin, smooth and glossy brown.

The _leaves_ are smooth, 8 to 12 inches long and composed of 5 to 7
leaflets. The individual leaflets are rather small and narrow.

The _winter buds_ are 1/2 inch long, egg-shaped, polished, and light
brown.

The _fruit_ is pear-shaped or rounded, usually with a neck at the base,
very thin husks splitting only half way to the base or not at all. The
nut is smooth, light brown in color, rather thick-shelled, and has a
somewhat astringent edible kernel.

The _wood_ is heavy, hard, strong, tough and flexible. Its uses are the
same as those of the other hickories.

  Buckley's hickory, _Carya buckleyi_ Durand, occurs on sandy uplands in
  the southwest. It is a small tree with spreading, contorted branches.
  The fruit is contained in a hairy husk, the nut is angular, marked
  with pale veins and has a sweet kernel.


+BLUE BEECH+ _Carpinus caroliniana_ Walt.

THE blue beech, or American hornbeam, belongs to the birch family rather
than to the beeches. It is a small slow-growing bushy tree, 20 to 30
feet tall with a diameter 4 to 8 inches. It is found along streams and
in low ground through the State.

[Illustration: BLUE BEECH

Leaf, one-half natural size. Twig, one-half natural size.]

The trunk is smooth fluted with irregular ridges extending up and down
the tree. The _bark_ is light brownish-gray to dark bluish-gray in
color, sometimes marked with dark bands extending horizontally on the
trunk.

The _leaves_ are simple, alternate, oval, long-pointed, doubly-toothed
along the margin, 2 or 3 inches in length. They resemble those of the
American elm, but are smaller and thinner.

The _flowers_, appearing after the leaves, are borne in catkins
separately on the same tree; the staminate catkins are about 1-1/2
inches long, the pistillate being only 3/4 of an inch long with small
leaf-like green scales each bearing 2 pistils with long scarlet styles.

The _fruit_ ripens in midsummer, but often remains on the tree long
after the leaves have fallen. It is a nutlet about 1/3 of an inch long,
attached to a leaf-like halberd-shaped bract which acts as a wing in
aiding its distribution by the wind.

The _wood_ is tough, close-grained, heavy and strong. It is sometimes
selected for use for levers, tool handles, wooden cogs, mallets, wedges,
etc.

  Another small tree of the birch family is the speckled alder, _Alnus
  incana_ Moench, which is found occasionally in wet places in the
  northern part of the State. The black alder, _Alnus glutinosa_
  Gaertn., a European tree, has been planted near ponds. The flowers of
  the alders are in catkins and among the earliest in the spring. The
  fruit is a small cone which persists throughout the winter.


+HOP HORNBEAM+ _Ostrya virginiana_ K. Koch

THIS tree is also called ironwood and gets its common names from the
quality of its wood and the hop-like fruit. It is a small, slender,
generally round-topped tree, from 22 to 30 feet high and 7 to 10 inches
in diameter. The top consists of long, slender branches, commonly
drooped toward the ends. It is found throughout the State.

[Illustration: HOP HORNBEAM

Twig, one-half natural size. Leaf, one-third natural size.]

The _bark_ is mostly light brown or reddish-brown, and finely divided
into thin scales by which the tree, after a little acquaintance, can be
easily recognized.

The _leaves_ are simple, alternate, generally oblong with narrowed tips,
sharply toothed along the margin, sometimes doubly toothed, from 2 to 3
inches long.

The _flowers_ are of two kinds on the same tree; the staminate in
drooping catkins which form the previous summer, the pistillate, in
erect catkins on the newly formed twigs. The _fruit_, which resembles
that of common hop vine, consists of a branch of leafy bracts 1 to 2
inches long containing a number of flattened ribbed nutlets.

The _wood_ is strong, hard, durable, light brown to white, with thick
pale sapwood. It is often used for fence posts, handles of tools,
mallets and other small articles.

  The white birch, _Betula papyrifera_ Marsh., of the North Woods is
  rare in Illinois. It is found in Jo Daviess and Carroll counties and
  along the shores of Lake Michigan. The white papery bark distinguishes
  it from all other trees and was used by the northern Indians for
  covering their canoes and for making baskets, bags and other useful
  and ornamental things.


+RIVER BIRCH+ _Betula nigra_ L.

THE river, or back birch, is at home, as the name implies, along water
courses, and inhabits the deep, rich soils along the borders of the
larger rivers of the State and in swamps which are sometimes inundated
for weeks at a time.

[Illustration: RIVER BIRCH

Two-thirds natural size.]

The _bark_ provides a ready means of distinguishing this tree. It varies
from reddish-brown to cinnamon-red in color, and peels back in tough
papery layers. These layers persist on the trunk, presenting a very
ragged and quite distinctive appearance. Unlike the bark of our other
birches, the thin papery layers are usually covered with a gray powder.
On older trunks, the bark on the main trunk becomes thick, deeply
furrowed and of a dark reddish-brown color.

The _leaves_ are simple, alternate, 2 to 3 inches long, more or less
oval in shape, with double-toothed edges. The upper surface is dark
green and the lower a pale yellowish-green.

The _flowers_ are in catkins, the two kinds growing on the same tree.
The _fruit_ is cone-shaped about 1 inch long, and densely crowded with
little winged nutlets that ripen from May to June.

The _wood_ is strong and fairly close-grained. It has been used to some
extent in the manufacture of woodenware, in turnery and for wagon hubs.

  The yellow birch, _Betula lutea_ Michx., one of the most valuable
  hardwood timber trees around the Great Lakes, is represented in
  Illinois by a few small trees in Lee and Lake counties. It may be
  known by its bark becoming silvery-gray as the trunk expands and
  breaking into strips curled at the edges. The wood is strong and hard,
  close-grained, light brown tinged with red. It is used for interior
  finish, furniture, woodenware and turnery. It is prized as firewood.


+BEECH+ _Fagus grandifolia_ Ehrh.

THE beech is found from Maine to Wisconsin south to the Gulf and Texas,
growing along with maples, oaks and tulip trees. It occurs in the
ravines of the southern Illinois counties up to Vermilion County. It is
one of the most beautiful of all trees either in summer or winter.

[Illustration: BEECH

One-half natural size.]

The _bark_ is, perhaps, the most distinctive characteristic, as it
maintains an unbroken light gray surface throughout its life. So
tempting is this smooth expanse to the owner of a jack-knife that the
beech has been well designated the "initial tree."

The simple, oval _leaves_ are 3 to 4 inches long, pointed at the tip and
coarsely toothed along the margin. When mature, they are almost leathery
in texture. The beech produces a dense shade. The _winter buds_ are
long, slender and pointed.

The little, brown, three-sided beech-nuts are almost as well known as
chestnuts. They form usually in pairs in a prickly bur. The kernel is
sweet and edible, but so small as to offer insufficient reward for the
pains of biting open the thin-shelled husk.

The _wood_ of the beech is very hard, strong, and tough, though it will
not last long on exposure to weather or in the soil. It is used to some
extent for furniture, flooring, carpenter's tools, and novelty wares and
extensively in southern Illinois for railroad ties and car stock.

  The American chestnut, _Castanea dentata_ Borkh., extends its range
  from Maine to Michigan, and southward to Delaware and Tennessee. There
  is a stand of chestnuts in Pulaski County and some trees have been
  planted in the southern part of the State. They are easily recognized
  by their alternate simple, broadly lanceolate coarsely toothed leaves,
  and their prickly burs about 2 inches in diameter containing 1-3 nuts.


A KEY TO THE OAKS OF ILLINOIS


  A. Leaves without bristle tips; bark gray; acorns maturing
     at the end of 1 season; white oaks.
     B. Leaves lobed.
        C. Acorn-cup not enclosing the acorn.
           D. Acorn-cup shallow, warted            Q. alba
          DD. Acorn-cup covering 1/2 of the acorn    Q. stellata
       CC. Acorn-cup enclosing the acorn.
           D. Acorn-cup not fringed                Q. lyrata
          DD. Acorn-cup fringed                    Q. macrocarpa
    BB. Leaves not lobed, coarsely toothed.
        C. Acorn-stalked.
           D. Acorn-stalks longer than petioles    Q. bicolor
          DD. Acorn-stalks short
              E. Acorn-cup flat-bottomed; bark like
                 that of white oak                 Q. prinus
             EE. Acorn-cup deep; bark like that of
                 red oak                           Q. montana
       CC. Acorns sessile, cup deep                Q. muhlenbergii

  AA. Leaves with bristle tips; bark dark; acorns mature
      at the end of two seasons; black and red oaks.
      B. Leaves lobed.
         C. Deeply lobed.
            D. Leaves deep green on both sides.
               E. Acorn-cup broad and shallow
                  a. Acorn large                    Q. rubra
                 aa. Acorn small
                     b. Acorn ovoid                 Q. shumardii
                    bb. Acorn globose               Q. palustris
              EE. Acorn-cup deep
                  a. Cup-scales loosely imbricated
                     winter buds large and hairy    Q. velutina
                 aa. Cup-scales tightly appressed,
                     winter buds small and smooth
                     b. Acorn small                 Q. ellipsoidalis
                    bb. Acorn large                 Q. coccinea
           DD. Leaves pale green beneath            Q. falcata
        CC. Leaves shallowly lobed, winter buds
            rusty-hairy                             Q. marilandica
     BB. Leaves entire.
         C. Leaves hairy beneath; acorn sessile     Q. imbricaria
        CC. Leaves not hairy; acorn stalked         Q. phellos


+WHITE OAK+ _Quercus alba_ L.

WITHIN its natural range, which includes practically the entire eastern
half of the United States, the white oak is one of the most important
timber trees. It commonly reaches a height of 60 to 100 feet and a
diameter of 2 to 3 feet; sometimes it becomes much larger. It is found
in a wide variety of upland soils. When grown in a dense stand it has a
straight continuous trunk, free of side branches for over half its
height. In the open, however, the tree develops a broad crown with
far-reaching limbs. Well-grown specimens are strikingly beautiful.

[Illustration: WHITE OAK

Twig, one-third natural size. Leaf, one-quarter natural size.]

The _leaves_ are alternate, simple 5 to 9 inches long and about half as
broad. They are deeply divided into 5 to 9 rounded, finger-like lobes.
The young leaves are a soft silvery-gray or yellow or red while
unfolding, becoming later bright green above and much paler below. The
_flowers_ appear with the leaves, the staminate are in hairy catkins 2-3
inches long, the pistillate are sessile in axils of the leaves.

The _fruit_ is an acorn maturing the first year. The nut is 3/4 to 1
inch long, light brown, about one-quarter enclosed in the warty cup. It
is relished by hogs and other livestock. The _bark_ is thin, light
ashy-gray and covered with loose scales or broad plates.

The _wood_ is useful and valuable. It is heavy, strong, hard, tough,
close-grained, durable, and light brown in color. The uses are many,
including construction, shipbuilding, tight cooperage, furniture,
wagons, implements, interior finish, flooring, and fuel. Notwithstanding
its rather slow growth, white oak is valuable for forest, highway and
ornamental planting.

  The overcup oak, _Quercus lyrata_ Walt., is similar to the white oak,
  but may be distinguished by the nearly spherical cup which nearly
  covers the somewhat flattened acorn. This oak occurs in the river
  bottoms in southern Illinois.


+BUR OAK+ _Quercus macrocarpa_ Michx.

THE bur oak, which occurs throughout the State takes its name from the
fringe around the cup of the acorn. It usually has a broad top of heavy
spreading branches and a relatively short body. It is one of the largest
trees in the State. In maturity, it attains a diameter of 5 feet or more
and a height of over 80 feet. The _bark_ is light gray and is usually
broken up into small narrow flakes. The bur oak does not often form a
part of the forest stand, as do some other oaks, but occurs generally
singly in open stands and in fields. It requires a moist but
well-drained soil.

[Illustration: BUR OAK

One-third natural size.]

The _leaves_ resemble somewhat those of the common white oak, but have a
pair of deep indentations on their border near the base, and wavy
notches on the broad middle and upper portions of the leaf. They range
from 6 to 12 inches long and 3 to 6 inches wide. The _fruit_, or acorn,
is a nut set deeply in a fringed cup. It is sometimes 1 inch or more in
diameter but varies widely in respect to size and the degree to which
the nut is enclosed in the mossy fringed cup.

The _wood_ is heavy, hard, strong, tough and durable. It is used for
much the same purposes as the other white oaks, lumber, piling, veneer
logs, crossties and fuel.

  The swamp white oak, _Quercus bicolor_ Willd., occurs scattered in
  swamps, through the State. The leaves are obovate, coarsely toothed
  and wedge-shaped below. They are thick, dark green and shining above,
  pale and downy beneath. The acorns are borne in a deep rough scaly
  cup, on stems 2-4 inches long. The wood is like that of the white oak.
  The bark is gray-brown, separating into large, papery scales which
  curl back.


+YELLOW CHESTNUT OAK+ _Quercus muhlenbergii_ Engelm.

THIS oak, also called the chinquapin oak, which is an excellent timber
tree, occurs throughout the State. It grows on practically all classes
of soil and in all moisture conditions except in swamps, and is a very
tenacious tree on shallow, dry soil. The _bark_ is light gray, and
breaks up into short narrow flakes on the main trunk and old limbs. It
reaches a height of 70 to 90 feet. The straight shapely trunk bears a
round-topped head composed of small branches, which makes it an
attractive shade tree.

[Illustration: YELLOW CHESTNUT OAK

One-third natural size.]

The _leaves_ are oblong, 3 to 6 inches in length, 1-1/2 to 3 inches
wide, and equally toothed or notched on the edges, resembling the leaves
of the chestnut oak. The _fruit_, which ripens in the fall of the first
season, is light to dark brown when ripe, and edible if roasted. This
acorn is from one-half to nearly an inch long, usually less than one
inch in diameter, and is set in a shallow cup.

The _wood_ is like that of the white oak, heavy, very hard, tough,
strong, durable, and takes an excellent polish. It is used in
manufacturing lumber and timbers, crossties, fence posts and fuel. A
portion of the lumber no doubt goes into furniture.

  The basket oak, or swamp chestnut oak, _Quercus prinus_ L., is found
  in the woods in southern Illinois. It resembles the white oak in its
  bark and branches, but has larger acorns. The leaves resemble those of
  yellow chestnut oak.

  The rock chestnut oak, _Quercus montana_ Willd., is an eastern oak
  that is rare on the hills of Union and Alexander counties.


+POST OAK+ _Quercus stellata_ Wang.

THE post oak is usually a medium-sized tree, with a rounded crown,
commonly reaching a height of 50 to 80 feet and a diameter of 1 to 2
feet, but sometimes considerably larger. It occurs from Mason County
south to the Ohio River being most common in the "Post Oak Flats." The
soil is a light gray silt loam underlaid by "tight clay."

[Illustration: POST OAK

One-third natural size.]

The _bark_ is rougher and darker than the white oak and broken into
smaller scales. The stout young twigs and the leaves are coated at first
with a thick light-colored fuzz which soon becomes darker and later
drops away entirely.

The _leaves_ are usually 4 to 5 inches long and nearly as broad, deeply
5-lobed with broad rounded divisions, the lobes broadest at the ends.
They are thick and somewhat leathery, dark green and shiny on the upper
surface, lighter green and rough hairy beneath.

The _flowers_, like those of the other oaks, are of two kinds on the
same tree, the male in drooping, clustered catkins, the female
inconspicuous. The _fruit_ is an oval acorn, 1/2 to 1 inch long, set in
a rather small cup which may or may not be stalked.

The _wood_ is very heavy, hard, close-grained, light to dark brown,
durable in contact with the soil. It is used for crossties and fence
posts, and along with other oaks of the white oak class for furniture
and other purposes.


+NORTHERN RED OAK+ _Quercus rubra_ L.

(_Quercus borealis_ Michx.)

THE red oak of the North occurs throughout the State. It usually attains
a height of about 70 feet and a diameter ranging from 2 to 3 feet, but
is sometimes much larger. The forest-grown tree is tall and straight
with a clear trunk and narrow crown.

[Illustration: NORTHERN RED OAK

Leaf, one-third natural size. Twig, one-half natural size.]

The _bark_ on young stems is smooth, gray to brown on older trees, thick
and broken by shallow fissures into regular, flat smooth-surfaced
plates.

The _leaves_ are simple, alternate, 5 to 9 inches long, and 4 to 6
inches wide, broader toward the tip, divided into 7 to 9 lobes, each
lobe being somewhat coarsely toothed and bristle-tipped, and firm, dull
green above, paler below, often turning to a brilliant red after frost.
The _winter buds_ are small, light reddish-brown and smooth. The
_flowers_, as in all the oaks, are of two kinds on the same tree, the
staminate in long drooping, clustered catkins, opening with the leaves,
the female solitary or slightly clustered. The _fruit_ is a large acorn
maturing the second year. The nut is from 3/4 to 1-3/4 inches long,
blunt-topped, flat at base, with only its base enclosed in the very
shallow dark brown cup.

The _wood_ is hard, strong, coarse-grained, with light, reddish-brown
heartwood and thin lighter-colored sapwood. It is used for cooperage,
interior finish, construction, furniture, and crossties. Because of its
average rapid growth, high-grade wood and general freedom from insect
and fungus attack, it should be widely planted in the State for timber
production and as a shade tree.

  This red oak, _Quercus shumardii_ Buckley, is found only in the
  southern counties along the borders of streams and swamps. Its leaves
  are dark green and lustrous, paler beneath and have tufts of pale
  hairs in the angles of the veins. The acorns are long-oval in shape,
  held in thick saucer-like cups composed of closely appressed hairy
  scales.


+BLACK OAK+ _Quercus velutina_ Lam.

THE black oak, sometimes farther north called yellow oak or
yellow-barked oak, usually grows to be about 80 feet in height and 1 to
3 feet in diameter. It is found commonly throughout the State. The crown
is irregularly shaped and wide, with a clear trunk for 20 feet or more
on large trees. The _bark_ on the very young trees is smooth and dark
brown but soon becomes thick and black, with deep furrows and rough
broken ridges. The bright yellow color and bitter taste of the inner
bark, due to tannic acid, are distinguishing characteristics.

[Illustration: BLACK OAK

Leaf, one-third natural size. Twig, one-half natural size.]

The _leaves_ are alternate, simple, 5 to 10 inches long and 3 to 8
inches wide, thick leathery shallow or deeply lobed, the shape varying
greatly. When mature, the leaves are dark green and shiny on the upper
surface, pale on the lower, more or less covered with down, and with
conspicuous rusty brown hairs in the forks of the veins.

The _winter buds_ are large, strongly angled, gray and hairy. The
_fruit_ matures the second season. The light brown nut is from 1/2 to 1
inch long, more or less hemispherical in shape, and from 1/2 to 3/4
enclosed in the thin, dark brown, scaly cup. The scales on the upper
part of the cup are loosely imbricated. The kernel is yellow and
extremely bitter.

The _wood_ is hard, heavy, strong, coarse-grained and checks easily. It
is a bright red-brown with a thin outer edge of paler sapwood. It is
used for the same purposes as red oak, under which name it is put on the
market. Its growth is rather slow.

  The jack oak, _Quercus ellipsoidalis_ Hill, is a smaller tree found
  frequently alongside black oak in the northern third of the State. The
  acorn is ellipsoid, small and enclosed in a deep cup, whose scales are
  closely appressed. The winter buds are slightly angular, smooth, and
  red-brown in color. Many small, drooping branches are sent out near
  the ground, which soon die, and the stubs or "pins" have given this
  oak the name of northern pin oak.


+PIN OAK+ _Quercus palustris_ Muench.

PIN oak is rarely found naturally except on the rich moist soil of
bottom lands and the borders of swamps. It is usually not abundant in
any locality, but found scattered with other kinds of trees. It more
commonly attains heights of 50 to 70 feet, with diameters up to 2 feet,
but sometimes larger. The tree commonly has a single, upright stem with
numerous long, tough branches, the lower ones drooping, the middle
horizontal, and the upper ascending. Many of the lower branches soon die
and their stubs are the "pins" which give the tree its name.

[Illustration: PIN OAK

Leaf, one-third natural size. Twig, one-half natural size.]

The _bark_ on young stems is smooth, shining and light brown; on old
trunks light gray-brown and covered by small, close scales. Because of
its beauty, its hardiness, and its fairly rapid growth, pin oak makes an
exceptionally fine street tree.

The _leaves_ generally resemble those of the northern red oak, but they
are smaller and much more deeply lobed. They are 3 to 5 inches long and
2 to 4 inches wide.

The _flowers_ are of two kinds on the same tree, and appear when the
leaves are about one-third grown. The _fruit_, taking two years to
mature, is an acorn nearly hemispheric, about one-half inch long, light
brown, often striped, enclosed only at the base in a thin, shallow,
saucer-shaped cup.

The _wood_ is heavy, hard, strong, and usually knotty. It is light
brown, with thin, darker-colored sapwood. It is sold and has the same
uses as red oak, although it is generally not so good in quality.

  The scarlet oak, _Quercus coccinea_ Muench., has deeply lobed leaves
  which turn brilliant scarlet in the autumn. The winter buds are
  reddish-brown and pubescent. The acorns are ovoid, enclosed for about
  half their length in a thick, deep cup. It is rarely found in the
  southern half of the State.


+SPANISH OAK+ _Quercus falcata_ Michx.

THIS oak, one of the common southern red oaks, ranges from Virginia and
Florida to Texas and Missouri, and appears in a dozen of the southern
counties in Illinois. It is usually called the Spanish oak, or southern
red oak, and has been known as _Quercus rubra_ L. or _Quercus digitata_
Sudw.

[Illustration: SPANISH OAK

Leaf, one-third natural size. Twig, one-half natural size.]

It is a variable species and hence has been known under so many names.
It grows to a height of 70 to 80 feet, and a diameter of 2 to 3 feet,
though larger trees are not infrequently found. Its large spreading
branches form a broad, round, open top.

The _bark_ is rough, though not deeply furrowed and varies from light
gray on younger trees to dark or almost black on older ones.

The _leaves_ are of two different types: (1) irregular-shaped lobes,
mostly narrow, bristle-tipped, the central lobe often the longest; or
(2) pear-shaped with 3 rounded lobes at the outer end. They are dark
lustrous green above and gray downy beneath, the contrast being
strikingly seen in a wind or rain storm.

The _flowers_ appear in April while the leaves are unfolding. The
_fruit_ ripens the second year. The small rounded acorn, about half an
inch long, is set in a thin saucer-shaped cup which tapers to a short
stem.

The _wood_ is heavy, hard, strong, coarse-grained and is less subject to
defects than most other red oaks. It is used for rough lumber and for
furniture, chairs, tables, etc. It is a desirable timber tree,
especially on the poorer, drier soils. The bark is rich in tannin.

  _Q. rubra_ var. _pagodaefolia_, called swamp Spanish oak, has been
  collected in four southern counties of Illinois.


+BLACK JACK+ _Quercus marilandica_ Muench.

THE black jack oak is a tree of sandy and clayey barren lands where few
other forest trees thrive. It ranges from New York to Florida and
westward into Illinois, Arkansas, and Texas. It reaches its largest size
in southern Arkansas and eastern Texas. It is found as one of the main
species in the "Post Oak Flats" in the southern half of the State and in
the sands along the Illinois River, near Havana. The tree sometimes
reaches a height of 50 to 60 feet and a diameter of 16 inches, but it is
usually much smaller. Its hard, stiff, drooping branches form a dense
crown which usually contains many persistent dead twigs. The _bark_ is
rough, very dark, often nearly black, and broken into small, hard scales
or flakes.

[Illustration: BLACK JACK OAK

Twig, two-thirds natural size. Leaf, one-third natural size.]

The _leaves_ are of a leathery texture, dark green on the upper surface,
lighter, hairy, and brown-scurfy below. The leaves are wedge-shaped, 4
to 10 inches long and about the same in width. There is a considerable
difference in the leaves of this oak both in size and shape.

The _fruit_ is an acorn about three-quarters of an inch long,
yellow-brown and often striped, enclosed for half its length or more in
a thick light brown cup.

The _wood_ is heavy, hard and strong; when used at all, it is used
mostly for firewood and mine props. It is also used for the manufacture
of charcoal.


+SHINGLE OAK+ _Quercus imbricaria_ Michx.

THIS oak is found throughout the State with the exception of the extreme
north portion. When growing alone, the tree develops a symmetrical
rounded top, conspicuous on account of the good-sized, regular-shaped,
oblong leaves which differ in shape from most other native oaks. It
forms a handsome tree. It is sometimes incorrectly called "laurel" oak.

[Illustration: SHINGLE OAK

Leaf, one-third natural size. Twig, three-fourths natural size.]

The _bark_ is rather thin and divided by shallow fissures into broad
ridges of a dark brown color.

The _leaves_ are alternate in arrangement along the stem, oblong in
shape, 4 to 6 inches long by 1 to 2 inches wide, leathery in texture
with smooth margins sometimes wavy in outline, dark green and shiny
above, and thick downy or velvety below.

The _fruit_ is an acorn about one-half inch in length, borne singly or
in pairs on stout stems, full or rounded at the end and faintly
streaked, enclosed for about one-half its length in a thin-walled cup.
Like all members of the black oak group, the fruit requires two seasons
to mature.

The _wood_ is heavy, hard, rather coarse-grained, and used for common
lumber, shingles (whence it gets its common name), posts and firewood.

  The willow oak, _Quercus phellos_ L., is a river bottom tree rarely
  found in southern Illinois. It is readily identified by its leaves,
  which as the name implies, resemble those of the willows. These leaves
  are from two to four inches long and one-half to one inch wide, light
  green, shiny above and smooth beneath.


+AMERICAN ELM+ _Ulmus americana_ L.

THIS is a famous shade tree of New England, whose range, however,
extends to the Rocky Mountains and southward to Texas. Within this vast
area, it is generally common except in the high mountains. It reaches an
average height of 60 to 70 feet and a diameter of 4 to 5 feet. The
_bark_ is dark gray, divided into irregular, flat-topped thick ridges,
and is generally firm, though on old trees it tends to come off in
flakes. An incision into the inner bark will show alternate layers of
brown and white.

[Illustration: AMERICAN ELM

Twig, one-half natural size. Leaf, one-half natural size.]

The _leaves_ are alternate, simple, 4 to 6 inches long, rather thick,
somewhat one-sided, doubly toothed on the margin, and generally smooth
above and downy below. The leaf-veins are very pronounced and run in
parallel lines from the mid-rib to leaf edge. The _winter buds_ are
pointed, brown, ovoid and smooth.

The _flowers_ are small, perfect, greenish, on slender stalks sometimes
an inch long, appearing before the leaves in the early spring. The
_fruit_ is a light green, oval shaped samara (winged fruit) with the
seed portion in the center and surrounded entirely by a wing. This wing
has a conspicuous notch at the end and is hairy on the margin, a mark
distinctive of the species. The seed ripens in the spring and by its
wing is widely disseminated by the wind.

The _wood_ is heavy, hard, strong, tough and difficult to split. It is
used for hubs of wheels, saddle trees, boats, ships, barrel hoops, and
veneer for baskets and crates.

Because of its spreading fan-shaped form, graceful pendulous branches,
and long life, the white elm justly holds its place as one of the most
desirable shade trees.

  The rock or cork elm, _Ulmus thomasi_ Sarg., is found occasionally in
  northern Illinois. Its excurrent branches are very different from
  those of other elms. Its twigs often have corky ridges and the winter
  buds are somewhat hairy.

  The winged elm, _Ulmus alata_ Michx., a small tree, is found in the
  southern part of the State. The twigs have two thin corky wings.


+RED OR SLIPPERY ELM+ _Ulmus rubra_ Muhl.

(_Ulmus fulva_ Michx.)

THE red elm, or slippery elm, is a common tree in all sections of the
State. It is found principally on the banks of streams and on low
hillsides in rich soil. It is a tree of small to moderate size, but
noticeably wide-spreading. It is usually less than 50 feet in height and
16 inches in diameter although trees of larger dimensions are
occasionally found.

[Illustration: SLIPPERY ELM

Twig, one-half natural size. Leaf, one-half natural size.]

The _bark_ on the trunk is frequently one inch thick, dark
grayish-brown, and broken by shallow fissures into flat ridges. The
inner bark is used to some extent for medical purposes, as it is
fragrant and when chewed, affords a slippery, mucilaginous substance,
whence the tree gets its name. The _winter buds_ are large and
conspicuously rusty-hairy.

The _leaves_ are simple, alternate on the stem, 4 to 6 inches in length,
sharp pointed, their bases unsymmetrical, doubly-toothed on the edges,
thick, dark green, and rough on both sides.

The _fruit_ consists of a seed surrounded by a thin, broad, greenish
wing, about one-half an inch in diameter; the _flowers_ appear in early
spring and the fruit ripens when the leaves are about half-grown.

The _wood_ is close-grained, tough, strong, heavy, hard, moderately
durable in contact with the soil. It is used for fence posts, crossties,
agricultural implements, ribs for small boats and for some other
purposes.

  The water elm, _Planera aquatica_ Gmel., is a small tree with slender
  branches forming a low broad head and is found in swamps in the valley
  of the Wabash River in this State. It reaches its best development in
  Arkansas and Louisiana. It has dull green leaves 2 inches long and 1
  inch wide. The fruit is an oblong, dark brown drupe.


+HACKBERRY+ _Celtis occidentalis_ L.

THE rough-leaved hackberry is found sparsely throughout the State. It
occurs most abundantly and of greatest size in the rich alluvial lands
in the lower part of the State, but thrives, however, on various types
of soil, from the poorest to the richest. It is usually a medium-sized
tree from 30 to 50 feet high and 10 to 20 inches in diameter, but trees
3 feet in diameter are found in the Wabash bottoms in southern Illinois.
Its limbs are often crooked and angular and bear a head made of slender,
pendant branches or short, bristly, stubby twigs. In the open the crown
is generally very symmetrical. It makes an excellent shade tree.

[Illustration: HACKBERRY

Leaf, one-third natural size. Twig, one-half natural size.]

The _bark_ is grayish and generally rough with scale-like or warty
projections of dead bark. In some instances the bark is smooth enough on
the limbs to resemble that of the beech.

The _leaves_ are simple, ovate, alternate, one-sided, 2 to 4 inches
long, the edges toothed towards the long point.

The _flowers_ are inconspicuous, and the two kinds are borne on the same
tree. They appear in April or May, and are of a creamy, greenish color.
The _fruit_ is a round, somewhat oblong drupe, or berry, from 1/4 to 1/3
of an inch in diameter. It has a thin, purplish skin, and sweet,
yellowish flesh. From this characteristic it is sometimes called
sugarberry. The berries frequently hang on the tree most of the winter.

The _wood_ is heavy, rather soft, weak, and decays readily when exposed.
It is used chiefly for fuel, but occasionally for lumber and railroad
ties which are given preservative treatment.

  The southern hackberry, _Celtis leavigata_ Willd., having narrow
  leaves, is found occasionally along the streams in southern Illinois.
  The fruit hangs from the axils of the leaves on slender stems. It is
  orange-red in color, changing to purple-black as it matures.


+OSAGE ORANGE+ _Maclura pomifera_ Schneid.

THE osage orange, hedge apple, or mock orange, although not a native of
Illinois, is found distributed throughout the State, but does not as a
rule occur as a forest tree. It grows chiefly in open fields along fence
rows, and as a pure hedge fence. Occasionally it reaches a height of 60
feet and a diameter of 30 inches, but more usually it is found from 20
to 40 feet in height and from 4 to 12 inches in diameter. This tree is
sometimes used for shade, but mostly for hedges, and as living fence
posts. The _bark_ is thin, gray, sometimes tinged with yellow, and on
old trees divided into strips or flakes. The bark of the root is used as
a yellow dye; that of the trunk has been used for tanning leather.

[Illustration: OSAGE ORANGE

Leaf and fruit, one-quarter natural size. Twig, two-thirds natural
size.]

The _leaves_ are deciduous, with milky sap and producing stout axillary
thorns. They are green on the upper surface, 3 to 5 inches long and 2 to
3 inches wide, and turn bright yellow in the autumn.

The yellowish _flowers_ appear in May. They are of two kinds on the same
tree--the staminate flowers in a linear cluster and the pistillate
flowers in a rounded ball. The _fruit_ is globular, from 2 to 5 inches
in diameter, somewhat resembling a very rough green orange.

The _wood_ is heavy, exceedingly hard, very strong and very durable in
contact with the soil. The heartwood is bright orange in color, turning
brown upon exposure. The Indians called it "bois d'arc", or bow-wood,
and used it for their finest bows. It does not shrink with weather
changes. It is largely used for posts; sometimes for wheel-stock, lumber
and fuel.


+RED MULBERRY+ _Morus rubra_ L.

THE red mulberry occurs throughout the State. It prefers the rich, moist
soils of the lower and middle districts, but it is nowhere abundant. It
is a small tree, rarely 50 feet high and 2 feet in diameter, often
growing in the shade of larger trees.

[Illustration: RED MULBERRY

Twig, two-thirds natural size. Leaf, one-third natural size.]

The _bark_ is rather thin, dark reddish-brown, peeling off in long
narrow flakes.

The _leaves_ are alternate, thin, rounded or somewhat heart-shaped,
toothed, pointed, 3 to 5 inches long, rough hairy above and soft hairy
beneath. Often some of the leaves, especially on the young trees and
thrifty shoots, are mitten-shaped or variously lobed.

The _flowers_ are of two kinds, on the same or different trees, in
drooping catkins. The catkins of the staminate flowers are about 2
inches long; the spikes of the pistillate flowers are about half as long
and stand on short stalks. The _fruit_ is dark red or black, and
resembles a blackberry; however, a stalk extends through it centrally,
and it is longer and narrower. The fruit is sweet and edible and greatly
relished by birds and various animals.

The _wood_ is rather light, soft, not strong, light orange-yellow, very
durable in contact with the soil. It is chiefly used for fence posts.
The tree might be planted for this purpose and to furnish food for
birds.

  The white mulberry, _Morus alba_ L., is a native of China, where its
  leaves are the chief food of the silkworm. Several varieties are
  planted for ornamental purposes. Its leaves are broad and smooth; its
  fruit is long, white, sweet, and insipid. A variety, under the name of
  the Russian mulberry, _Morus alba_ var. _tatarica_ Loudon, has been
  introduced into this country and has been cultivated for its fruit.
  This fruit varies from creamy white to violet and almost black.


+CUCUMBER MAGNOLIA+ _Magnolia acuminata_ L.

THE cucumber magnolia attains an average height of 40 to 80 feet and a
diameter of 1 to 2 feet. It occurs singly among other hardwood trees
throughout the richer, cooler north slopes and bottom lands of southern
Illinois, in Union, Johnson, Pope, Alexander and Pulaski counties.

[Illustration: CUCUMBER MAGNOLIA

Leaf, one-third natural size. Twig, two-thirds natural size.]

The _bark_ is aromatic and bitter; that of the young twigs is a lustrous
red-brown, while the bark of the trunk is rather thin, dark brown,
furrowed and broken into thin scales.

The _leaves_ are alternate, oblong, short-pointed, rounded at the base,
silky, hairy when unfolding, later smooth or slightly silky, 6 to 10
inches long, 4 to 6 inches wide, often with wavy edges, dark green
above, lighter beneath.

The _flowers_ are single, large--though smaller than those of the other
magnolias--2-1/2 to 3 inches long. The six upright petals are
whitish-green tinged with yellow.

The _fruit_ is a smooth, dark red, often crooked "cone", 2-1/2 to 3
inches long, somewhat resembling, when green, a small cucumber. The
seeds are 1/2 inch long, and covered with a pulpy, scarlet coat, which
attracts the birds, particularly as the seeds hang by thin cords from
the opening "cones."

The _wood_ is light, soft, close-grained, durable, of a light
yellow-brown color and is used for the same purposes as yellow poplar.
It is quite desirable for roadside and ornamental planting.


+TULIP TREE+ _Liriodendron tulipifera_ L.

THE tulip tree, tulip poplar, is one of the tallest trees in the State
with its straight trunk rising to a height of 125 feet. It is one of the
largest and most valuable hardwood trees of the United States. It
reaches its largest size in the deep moist soils along streams and in
the cool ravines of southern Illinois. Vermilion County on the east and
Randolph on the west side of the State represent its northern limit. As
more commonly seen, it has a height of 60 to 100 feet and a diameter of
3 to 4 feet. Growing with a straight central trunk like the pines, and
often clear of limbs for 30 to 50 feet, it has a narrow pyramidal head
which in older age becomes more spreading. The tree has been extensively
cut, but is reproducing rapidly and remains one of the most abundant and
valuable trees in our young second-growth forests. It has been planted
as an ornamental and shade tree.

[Illustration: TULIP TREE

Leaf, one-third natural size. Twig, two-thirds natural size.]

The _leaves_ are simple, 4 to 6 inches in length and breadth, 4-lobed,
dark green in summer, turning to a clear yellow in fall.

The greenish-yellow tulip-shaped _flowers_ appear in May or June. The
_fruit_ is a narrow light brown, upright cone, 2 to 3 inches long, made
up of seeds, each enclosed in a hard bony coat and provided with a wing
which makes it easily carried by the wind.

The _wood_ is light, soft, easily worked, light yellow or brown, with
wide cream-colored sapwood. It is extensively cut into lumber for
interior and exterior trim, vehicle bodies, veneers, turnery and other
high-grade uses. It is marketed under the name yellow poplar, because of
the yellow color of the heartwood.

The tulip tree transplants easily, grows rapidly and forms a tall stem.
It is one of the best trees for forest planting on good moist soil. It
can be recommended for roadside planting because it grows tall and has a
deep root system. Where conditions of life are not too severe, it may be
used for shade tree planting.


+PAPAW+ _Asimina triloba_ Dunal

THE papaw, which grows as a small tree or large shrub, is very well
known throughout the State, except in the northern parts, and is
sometimes called the "wild banana" tree. Most commonly it occurs as an
undergrowth in the shade of rich forests of the larger hardwood trees.
Its range extends from New York westward to Iowa and southward to
Florida and eastern Texas. When growing alone, however, it forms dense
clumps on deep, moist soils in creek bottoms. The _bark_ is thin, dark
grayish-brown, and smooth, or slightly fissured on old trees.

[Illustration: PAPAW

Leaf, one-quarter natural size. Twig, two-thirds natural size.]

The _leaves_ are alternate on the stem, pear-shaped with pointed ends
and tapering bases, smooth and light green above, from 8 to 10 inches
long, clustered toward the ends of the branches.

The dark purple, attractive _flowers_ appear with the leaves singly or
in two's along the branch, measure nearly 2 inches across, and produce
nectar which attracts the bees.

When thoroughly ripe, the _fruit_ is delicious and nutritious. It
measures from 3 to 5 inches in length, turns from greenish-yellow to
very dark brown in color, and holds rounded or elongated seeds which
separate readily from the pulp.

The _wood_ is light, soft or spongy, and weak, greenish to yellowish in
color, and of no commercial importance.

Because of its handsome foliage, attractive flowers and curious fruit,
the papaw has been much used in ornamental planting.


+SASSAFRAS+ _Sassafras albidum_ Nees.

THE sassafras is an aromatic tree, usually not over 40 feet in height or
a foot in diameter in Illinois. It is common throughout the State on dry
soils as far north as La Salle County, and is one of the first
broad-leaf trees to come up on abandoned fields, where the seeds are
dropped by birds. Its range extends from Maine, southern Ontario to Iowa
and south to Florida and west to Texas. In parts of its range it attains
large size.

[Illustration: SASSAFRAS

Twig, one-half natural size. Leaf, one-third natural size.]

The _bark_ of the trunk is thick, red-brown and deeply furrowed and that
of the twigs is bright green.

The _leaves_ are very characteristic. It is one of the few trees having
leaves of widely different shape on the same tree, or even on the same
twig. Some are oval and entire, 4 to 6 inches long; others have one
lobe, resembling the thumb on a mitten; while still others are divided
at the outer end into 3 distinct lobes. The young leaves and twigs are
quite mucilaginous.

The _flowers_ are clustered, greenish, yellow, and open with the first
unfolding of the leaves. The staminate and pistillate flowers are
usually on different trees. The _fruit_ is an oblong, dark blue or
black, lustrous berry, containing one seed and surrounded at the base by
what appears to be a small orange-red or scarlet cup at the end of a
scarlet stalk.

The _wood_ is light, soft, weak, brittle, and durable in the soil; the
heartwood is dull orange-brown. It is used for posts, rails, boat
building, cooperage and for ox-yokes. The bark of the roots yields the
very aromatic oil of sassafras much used for flavoring candies and
various commercial products.

The sassafras deserves more consideration than it has received as a
shade and ornamental tree. The autumnal coloring of its foliage is
scarcely surpassed by any tree, and it is very free from insect pests.


+SWEET GUM+ _Liquidambar styraciflua_ L.

THE sweet or red gum is a very common tree on low lands in southern
Illinois, but it is seldom found north of Jackson County in the west or
north of Richland in the east. It is usually abundant in old fields or
in cut-over woods. The _bark_ is a light gray, roughened by corky
scales, later becoming deeply furrowed. After the second year the twigs
often develop 2 to 4 corky projections of the bark, which give them a
winged appearance.

[Illustration: SWEET GUM

Leaf, one-third natural size. Twig, two-thirds natural size.]

The simple, alternate star-shaped _leaf_, with its 5 to 7 points or
lobes, is 5 to 7 inches across and very aromatic. In the fall its
coloring is brilliant, ranging from pale yellow through orange and red
to a deep bronze.

The _flowers_ are of two kinds on the same tree, unfolding with the
leaves. The _fruit_ at first glance reminds one of the balls of the
sycamore, but on closer inspection proves to be a head. It measures an
inch or more in diameter and is made up of many capsules with projecting
spines. It frequently hangs on the tree by its long swinging stem late
into the winter.

The _wood_ is heavy, moderately hard, close-grained, and not durable on
exposure. The reddish-brown heartwood, which suggests the name, red gum,
is not present to any appreciable extent in logs under 16 inches in
diameter. In the South, the wood is extensively used for flooring,
interior finish, paper pulp and veneers for baskets of all kinds.
Veneers of the heartwood are largely used in furniture, sometimes as
imitation mahogany or Circassian walnut. This tree should be more widely
planted for ornamental use.


+SYCAMORE+ _Platanus occidentalis_ L.

THE sycamore, also called buttonwood, is considered the largest hardwood
tree in North America. It occurs throughout the State, but is most
abundant and reaches its largest size along streams and on rich bottom
lands. It is one of the more rapidly-growing trees. In maturity it
occasionally attains a height of 140 to 170 feet and a diameter of 10 to
11 feet. It often forks into several large secondary trunks, and the
massive spreading limbs form an open head sometimes 100 feet across.

[Illustration: SYCAMORE

Leaf, one-third natural size. Twig, one-half natural size.]

The _bark_ of the sycamore is a characteristic feature. On the younger
trunk and large limbs it is very smooth, greenish-gray in color. The
outer bark yearly flakes off in large patches and exposes the nearly
white younger bark. Near the base of the old trees the bark becomes
thick, dark brown and divided by deep furrows. The _flowers_ are very
small and arranged in dense globular green heads.

The _leaves_ are simple, alternate, 4 to 7 inches long and about as
broad, light green and smooth above, and paler below. The base of the
leafstalk is hollow and in falling off exposes the winter bud. The
_fruit_ is a ball about 1 inch in diameter, conspicuous throughout the
winter as it hangs on its flexible stem, which is 3 to 5 inches long.
During early spring, the fruit ball breaks up, and the small seeds are
widely scattered by the wind.

The _wood_ is hard and moderately strong, but decays rapidly in the
ground. It is used for butchers' blocks, tobacco boxes, furniture and
interior finish.

The tree grows rapidly, bears transplanting well and is often planted as
a shade tree.

  The European sycamore or London plane tree, _Platanus acerifolia_
  Willd., is less subject to disease than our native species and has
  been widely planted in this country for ornament and shade. The leaves
  are more deeply lobed than our sycamore and there are two or three
  fruit balls on each stem.


+WILD CRAB APPLE+ _Malus ioensis_ Britton

THE wild crab apple, or prairie crab, is found throughout Illinois
forming small trees 20 to 30 feet high with trunks from 6 to 12 inches
in diameter. In the open it develops a broad open crown with rigid,
contorted branches bearing many short, spur-like branchlets, some of
which develop into sharp rigid thorns. Under less favorable conditions,
these crab apples often form bushy shrubs.

[Illustration: WILD CRAB APPLE

Flower, fruit and leaves one-half natural size.]

The _bark_ on the branches is smooth, thin and red-brown in color, while
on the trunk the thicker bark often breaks into scales. The twigs are at
first hoary-hairy, but soon become smooth and reddish.

The _leaves_ are alternate, simple, 3 to 4 inches long and almost as
broad. They are sometimes slightly lobed and sharply and deeply toothed.
They are dark green and shiny above, but pale and hairy beneath, borne
on stout, hairy petioles.

The _flowers_, which are from one to two inches broad, are borne in
clusters of 3 to 8, on wooly pedicels about an inch long. The white or
rosy petals form a cup which surrounds the numerous stamens and the five
styles. The calyx is pubescent.

The _fruit_ ripens in October, forming a globose, pale green, very
fragrant apple with a waxy surface. It is about an inch in diameter,
flattened at each end.

Like the other crabs, its handsome flowers have a delicious fragrance
which makes the tree popular for planting for ornamental purposes. The
fruit is sometimes gathered for jelly. The _wood_ is heavy,
close-grained and reddish-brown.

  The wild sweet crab, _Malus coronaria_ Mill., differs from the above
  in having more nearly smooth leaves and calyx. It is rarely found in
  Illinois but is common in Ohio. A cultivated variety, _Malus ioensis
  plena_ Rheder, is sold under the name of Bechtel's crab, and has
  large, double, rosy-pink blossoms.


+SERVICE BERRY+ _Amelanchier arborea_ (Michx. f.) Fern.

(_Amelanchier canadensis_ Medic.)

THE downy service berry, or shadblow, as it is more commonly called in
the East, has little economic importance except for its frequency
throughout the State and the touch of beauty its flowers give to our
forests early in the spring before the foliage has come out. It is a
small tree 20 to 50 feet high and seldom over 8 inches in diameter, with
a rather narrow, rounded top but is often little more than shrub. The
name shadblow was given by the early settlers who noticed that it
blossomed when the shad were running up the streams.

[Illustration: SERVICE BERRY One-half natural size.]

The _bark_ is smooth and light gray, and shallowly fissured into scaly
ridges. The _winter buds_ are long and slender.

The _leaves_ are alternate, slender-stalked, ovate, pointed, finely
toothed, 2 to 4 inches long, densely white-hairy when young, then
becoming a light green, and covered with scattered silky hairs.

The white _flowers_ appear in erect or drooping clusters in early
spring, before the leaves, making the tree quite conspicuous in the
leafless or budding forest. The petals are slender and rather more than
a half inch long.

The _fruit_ is sweet, edible, rounded, reddish-purple when ripe, 1/3 to
1/2 an inch in diameter, ripening early in June. Birds and denizens of
the forest are very fond of the berries.

The _wood_ is heavy, exceedingly hard, strong, close-grained and dark
brown. It is occasionally used for handles. This is a desirable
ornamental tree and should be planted for this purpose and to encourage
the birds.

  The smooth service berry, _Amelanchier leavis_ Wieg., differs from the
  above species in having smooth leaves, dark green and slightly
  glaucous when mature, and they are half grown at flowering time. The
  fruit is sweet, purple or nearly black, glaucous and edible.


+COCK-SPUR THORN+ _Crataegus crus-galli_ L.

THE hawthorns, or thorn-apples, are small trees or shrubs of the apple
family which are widely distributed throughout the northeastern United
States, with fewer species in the South and West. In North America, no
less than 150 species have been distinguished, but their proper
identification is a task for the expert. There are about a dozen haws
that reach tree size in Illinois, attaining a height of 20 to 30 feet
and a stem diameter of 8 to 12 inches. Of these, perhaps the best known
is the cock-spur thorn with its many strong straight spines and shining
leaves. Its _bark_ is pale gray and scaly. Its _winter buds_ are small,
globose and lustrous brown.

[Illustration: COCK-SPUR THORN Flowers and fruit one-half natural size.]

The _leaves_ are conspicuous because of their dark green glossy surface.
They are broadest toward the apex tapering to the short petiole. They
vary in size in different localities, the smaller-leaved varieties seem
to be more frequently met with in the southern part of the State than in
the north. These leaves are alternate, wedge-shaped, notched on the
edges, and from 2 to 3 inches long.

The _flowers_ are rather small, arranged in flat-topped clusters, white
in color, with about a dozen pink stamens.

The _fruit_ is 1/3 inch thick, greenish-red; the flesh is hard and dry.

This haw is one of the best for planting for ornamental purposes; with
its spreading branches, it forms a broad, rounded crown. It is hardy and
succeeds in a great variety of soils.

  The dotted hawthorn, _Crataegus punctata_ Jacq., also has wedge-shaped
  leaves but they are leathery, dull gray-green in color with
  conspicuous veins. The tree reaches a height of 25 feet with
  distinctly horizontal branches forming a broad flat crown. It is often
  almost without thorns. The fruit is oblong, dull red with pale dots,
  becoming mellow.

  The pear-thorn, _Crataegus calpodendron_ Med., is a smaller tree, with
  broader leaves, very few thorns and pear-shaped fruit. The haw is
  scarlet or orange-red, the flesh is thin and sweet.


+RED HAW+ _Crataegus mollis_ Scheele

LIKE almost all the hawthorns, the red haw is a tree of the pasture
lands, the roadside, the open woods and the stream banks. It is the
largest of our haws, occasionally reaching a height of 30 feet, with
ascending branches usually forming a low conical crown. The twigs are
hairy during the first season, but are soon smooth, slender, nearly
unarmed or occasionally armed with stout, curved thorns.

[Illustration: RED HAW

Flowers one-half natural size.]

The _leaves_ are ovate or nearly orbicular, coarsely toothed nearly to
the base, usually 3 to 5 pairs of broad, shallow lobes. Both surfaces
are hairy.

The _flowers_ are often nearly an inch across, in compact clusters. They
have about 20 cream-colored, densely hairy stamens.

The _fruit_, or the haw, is large, nearly 3/4 inch across, bright
crimson or scarlet in color. The edible sweet flesh is firm but mellow,
surrounding 5 bony seeds. It is often used for making jelly.

The _wood_ is strong, tough, heavy and hard, and is used for mallets,
tool handles and such small articles.

  The Washington thorn, _Crataegus phaenopyrum_ Med., is a smaller tree,
  with bright red fruit, but its broad leaves are smooth and bright
  green. The flowers are small, in very large clusters, followed by
  small bright scarlet edible haws.

  In the southern half of Illinois, growing on moist river bottoms, the
  green haw, _Crataegus viridis_ L., becomes a tree 20 feet tall. The
  broad leaves are dark green and quite smooth. The fruit is small but
  produced in large clusters becoming bright red or orange-red as it
  ripens.


+WILD PLUM+ _Prunus americana_ Marsh.

THE common wild plum, or yellow plum, is a small tree which at a height
usually of 3 to 6 feet divides into many spreading branches, often
drooping at the ends. Not uncommonly it grows in thickets where it
attains only large shrub size. The value of the tree lies in its fruit
from which jelly and preserves are made, and its handsome form, and
foliage, pure white fragrant flowers, and showy fruit which make it
desirable for ornamental planting.

[Illustration: WILD PLUM

Three-quarters natural size.]

The _leaves_ are alternate, oval, pointed, sharply toothed, (often
doubly toothed) along the margin, thick and firm, 3 to 4 inches long by
1 to 2 inches wide, narrowed or rounded at the base, and prominently
veined on both surfaces.

The _flowers_ appear in numerous small clusters before, or
simultaneously with, the leaves, and are white with small bright red
portions in the center. The _fruit_, or plum, which ripens in late
summer, is red or orange colored, about an inch in diameter, contains a
stone or pit that is flattened and about as long as the pulpy part, and
varies rather widely in its palatability.

The _wood_ is heavy, hard, close-grained, reddish-brown in color and has
no especial commercial uses.

  The Canada plum, _Prunus nigra_ Ait., is similar to the common wild
  plum, but the teeth of the leaves are blunt, the leaves are thin and
  the fruit is orange in color, almost without bloom.

  The wild goose plum, _Prunus hortulana_ Bailey, has thin lance-shaped
  leaves; its flowers have short petals and it has a rather hard, small
  globular fruit.


+BLACK CHERRY+ _Prunus serotina_ Ehrh.

A common tree in Illinois and attaining sizes up to about 70 feet in
height and 1 to 3 feet in diameter, black cherry as a tree is found all
over the State. The forest-grown trees have long clear trunks with
little taper; open-grown trees have spreading crowns. The _bark_ on
branches and young trees is smooth and bright reddish-brown, marked by
conspicuous, narrow white, horizontal lines, and has a bitter-almond
taste. On the older trunks the bark becomes rough and broken into thick,
irregular plates.

[Illustration: BLACK CHERRY

Twig, two-thirds natural size. Leaf, one-third natural size.]

The _leaves_ are alternate, simple, oval to lance-like in shape, with
edges broken by many fine incurved teeth, thick and shiny above, and
paler beneath.

The _fruit_ is dull purplish-black, about as large as a pea, and is
borne in long hanging clusters. It ripens in late summer, and is edible,
although it has a slightly bitter taste.

The _wood_ is reddish-brown with yellowish sapwood, moderately heavy,
hard, strong, fine-grained, and does not warp or split in seasoning. It
is valuable for its lustre and color and is used for furniture, interior
finish, tools, and implement handles. With the exception of black
walnut, black cherry lumber has a greater unit value than any other
hardwood of the eastern United States.

  The wild cherry, _Prunus pennsylvanica_ L., is a small tree, growing
  on light soils, in the northern part of the State. The bark is a dark
  reddish-brown; the leaves are lance-shaped bright green and shiny
  above, while the fruit is round and bright red in color.

  The choke cherry, _Prunus virginiana_ L., is common along fences and
  under larger trees in the forest in the northern half of the State. It
  seldom becomes a tree but it bears a fruit which is sweet but very
  astringent and is dark purple when ripe.


+HONEY LOCUST+ _Gleditsia triacanthos_ L.

THE honey locust occurs scattered throughout the State. It grows under a
wide variety of soil and moisture conditions. It sometimes occurs in the
forest, but more commonly in corners and waste places beside roads and
fields. It reaches a diameter of 30 inches and a height of 75 feet. The
_bark_ on old trees is dark gray and is divided into thin tight scales.
The strong thorns--straight, brown, branched, sharp and shiny which grow
on the 1-year-old wood and remain for many years--are sufficient to
identify the honey locust.

[Illustration: HONEY LOCUST

Twig, three-quarters natural size. Leaf, one-quarter natural size.]

The _leaf_ is pinnate, or feather-like with 18 to 28 leaflets; or it is
twice-pinnate, consisting of 4 to 7 pairs of pinnae or secondary
leaflets, each 6 to 8 inches long and somewhat resembling the leaf of
the black locust.

The _flowers_ which appear when the leaves are nearly full-grown are
inconspicuous, greenish-yellow and rich in honey. The petals vary from 3
to 5, the stamens are 3 to 10 and the ovary is wooly and one-celled.

The _fruit_ is a pod, 10 to 18 inches long, often twisted, 1 to 1-1/2
inches wide, flat, dark brown or black when ripe and containing yellow
sweetish pulp and seeds. The seeds are very hard and each is separated
from the others by the pulp. The pods are eaten by many animals, and as
the seeds are hard to digest, many are thus widely scattered from the
parent tree.

The _wood_ is coarse-grained, hard, strong and moderately durable in
contact with the ground. It is used for fence posts and crossties. It
should not be confused with the very durable wood of the black locust.

  The water locust, _Gleditsia aquatica_ Marsh., is found in river
  bottoms in southern Illinois, becoming a medium sized tree. It may be
  known by its short pods, 1 to 2 inches long, with only 2 or 3 seeds.


+REDBUD+ _Cercis canadensis_ L.

THE redbud is a small tree occurring under taller trees or on the
borders of fields or hillsides and in valleys throughout the State. It
ordinarily attains a height of 25 to 50 feet and a diameter of 6 to 12
inches. Its stout branches usually form a wide flat head.

[Illustration: REDBUD

Leaf, one-fourth natural size. Twig, and flowers, two-thirds natural
size.]

The _bark_ is bright red-brown, the long narrow plates separating into
thin scales.

The _leaves_ are alternate, heart-shaped, entire 3 to 5 inches long and
wide, glossy green turning in autumn to a bright clear yellow.

The conspicuous bright purplish-red, pea-shaped _flowers_ are in
clusters along the twigs and small branches and appear before or with
the leaves in early spring.

The _fruit_ is an oblong, flattened, many seeded pod, 2 to 4 inches
long, reddish during the summer, and often hanging on the tree most of
the winter.

The _wood_ is heavy, hard, not strong, rich, dark brown in color, and of
little commercial importance. The redbud is cultivated as an ornamental
tree and for that purpose might be planted more generally in this State.

  The Kentucky coffee-tree, _Gymnocladus dioicus_ K. Koch, though not
  anywhere a common tree, is found on rich bottom lands throughout the
  State. The much-divided leaves are 2 to 3 feet long. The pods are 5 to
  8 inches long and 1 to 2 inches wide and contain hard seeds 3/4 inch
  long. It has few qualities to recommend it for ornamental planting.


+BLACK LOCUST+ _Robinia pseudoacacia_ L.

THE black locust is a native to the Appalachian Mountains but has been
introduced into Illinois, and now occurs throughout the entire State
growing on all soils and under all conditions of moisture except in
swamps. It is found generally in thickets on clay banks and waste places
or along fence rows.

[Illustration: BLACK LOCUST

Leaf, one-third natural size. Twig and flower, two-thirds natural size.]

The twigs and branchlets are armed with straight or slightly curved
sharp, strong spines, sometimes as much as 1 inch in length which remain
attached to the outer bark for many years. The _bark_ is dark brown and
divides into strips as the tree grows older.

The _leaves_ are pinnate, or featherlike, from 6 to 10 inches in length,
consisting of from 7 to 19 oblong thin leaflets.

The _flowers_ are fragrant, white or cream-colored, and appear in early
spring in graceful pendent racemes. The _fruit_ is a pod from 3 to 5
inches long containing 4 to 8 small hard seeds which ripen late in the
fall. The pod splits open during the winter, discharging the seeds. Some
seeds usually remain attached to each half of the pod; the pod thus acts
as a wing upon which the seeds are borne to considerable distances
before the strong spring winds.

The _wood_ is yellow in color, coarse-grained, very heavy, very hard,
strong, and very durable in contact with the soil. It is used
extensively for fence posts, poles, tree nails, insulator pins and
occasionally for lumber and fuel.

The tree is very rapid in growth in youth but short-lived. It spreads by
underground shoots and is useful for holding and reclaiming badly
gullied lands. The usefulness of the black locust is, however, very
greatly limited by the fact that it is subject to great damage from an
insect known as the locust borer.


+TREE OF HEAVEN+ _Ailanthus altissima_ Swingle

THIS tree is a native of China but planted in Illinois because of its
tropical foliage. It has escaped and become naturalized. It is a
handsome, rapid-growing, short-lived tree, attaining a height of 40 to
60 feet, and a trunk diameter of 2 to 3 feet. Its crown is spreading,
rather loose and open. The twigs are smooth and thick with a large
reddish-brown pith. The _winter buds_ are small, globular and hairy,
placed just above the large leaf-scars.

[Illustration: TREE OF HEAVEN

Twig, one-half natural size. Leaf and fruit, one-fourth natural size.]

The _leaves_ are alternate, pinnately compound and one to three feet
long. The leaflets number from 11 to 41, are smooth, dark green above,
paler beneath, turning a clear yellow in autumn.

The _flowers_ appear soon after the leaves are full grown, on different
trees, borne in large upright panicles. They are small yellow-green in
color with 5 petals and 10 stamens. The staminate flowers have a
disagreeable odor.

The _fruit_, ripening in October but remaining on the tree during the
winter, is a one-seeded samara, spirally twisted, borne in crowded
clusters.

The tree of heaven is useful for landscape planting, succeeding in all
kinds of soils and all kinds of growing conditions. It makes a rapid
showing and is practically free from all diseases and insect injury.


+SMOOTH SUMAC+ _Rhus glabra_ L.

THE smooth sumac is usually a tall shrub but occasionally it develops as
a tree 20 to 25 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 6 to 10 inches. A few
large spreading branches form a broad, flat, open head. The twigs are
smooth and glabrous and have a thick, light brown pith with small round
winter buds.

[Illustration: SMOOTH SUMAC

Twig, one-half natural size. Leaf and fruit, one-fourth natural size.]

The compound _leaves_ are 6 to 18 inches long, composed of 9 to 27
leaflets with sharply notched margins. They are dark green above,
whitish beneath, changing to red, purple and yellow early in the autumn.

The _flowers_ are small and green, produced in dense terminal panicles.
The _fruit_ is a small globose berry, covered with crimson hairs and has
a pleasant acid taste. The conspicuous deep red panicles of fruit remain
unchanged on the tree during the winter.

The _wood_ is light and of a golden yellow color. Either as a tree, or
as a shrub, the smooth sumac is excellent for ornamental planting, being
particularly desirable on terraces or hillsides, where mass effects are
desired. It transplants very readily and spreads freely.

  The staghorn sumac, _Rhus typhina_ L., is a slightly taller tree, as
  it reaches a height of 20 to 35 feet, and a stem diameter of 8 to 12
  inches. The twigs and leaves are similar to those of the smooth sumac
  but are conspicuously hairy. Its occurrence is limited to the northern
  part of the State.

  The shining sumac, _Rhus copallina_ L., usually occurs in shrub form
  but it occasionally reaches a height of 20 feet with a stem diameter
  of 6 inches. The leaves are smooth above but somewhat hairy beneath
  with a winged rachis and about 9 to 21 leaflets that are slightly
  toothed. Late in the summer its foliage turns a brilliant red. The
  fruit clusters are much smaller than the preceding species. It is
  found throughout the State.


+SUGAR MAPLE+ _Acer saccharum_ Marsh.

THE sugar maple is an important member of the climax forests which
stretch from Maine to Minnesota and southward to Texas and Florida. It
is an associate of the hemlocks and the birches in the North, with the
beeches and chestnuts through the middle states, with the oaks in the
West and with the tulip and the magnolias in the South. In Illinois it
is a common and favorite tree throughout the State. In the open it grows
fairly rapidly and has a very symmetrical, dense crown, affording heavy
shade. It is, therefore, quite extensively planted as a shade tree. The
_bark_ on young trees is light gray and brown and rather smooth, but as
the tree grows older, it breaks up into long, irregular plates or
scales, which vary from light gray to almost black. The twigs are smooth
and reddish-brown, and the _winter buds_ are smooth and sharp-pointed.
The tree attains a height of more than 100 feet and a diameter of 3 feet
or more. The sap yields maple sugar and maple syrup.

[Illustration: SUGAR MAPLE

Leaf, one-third natural size.

Twig, one-half natural size.]

The _leaves_ are 3 to 5 inches across, simple, opposite, with 3 to 5
pointed and sparsely-toothed lobes, the divisions between the lobes
being rounded. The leaves are dark green on the upper surface, lighter
green beneath, turning in autumn to brilliant shades of dark red,
scarlet, orange and clear yellow.

The _flowers_ are yellowish-green, on long threadlike stalks, appearing
with the leaves, the two kinds in separate clusters. The _fruit_, which
ripens in the fall, consists of a two-winged "samara", or "key", the two
wings nearly parallel, each about 1 inch in length and containing a
seed. It is easily carried by the wind.

The _wood_ is hard, heavy, strong, close-grained and light brown in
color. It is known, commercially as hard maple, and is used in the
manufacture of flooring, furniture, shoe-lasts and a great variety of
novelties.

  The black maple, _Acer nigrum_ Michx., occurs with the sugar maple
  with darker bark. The leaves are usually wider than long, yellow-green
  and downy beneath, and the base of the petioles enlarged. The two
  lower lobes are very small; the lobes are undulate or entire.


+SILVER MAPLE+ _Acer saccharinum_ L.

THE silver or river maple, also called the soft maple, occurs on moist
land and along streams. It attains heights of 100 feet or more and
diameters of 3 feet or over. It usually has a short trunk which divides
into a number of large ascending limbs. These again subdivide, and the
branches droop but turn upward at the tips. The _bark_ on the old stems
is dark gray and broken into long flakes or scales; on the young shoots
it is smooth and varies in color from reddish to a yellowish-gray. The
silver maple grows rapidly and has been much planted as a shade tree.
Because of the brittleness of its wood, it is often damaged by summer
storms and winter sleet.

[Illustration: SILVER MAPLE

Twig, one-half natural size. Leaf, one-third natural size.]

The _leaves_ are opposite on the stem, have from 3 to 5 lobes ending in
long points with toothed edges and are separated by deep angular sinuses
or openings; they are pale green on the upper surface and silvery-white
underneath. The buds are rounded, red or reddish-brown, blunt-pointed;
generally like those of red maple.

The _flowers_ appear in the spring before the leaves, in dense clusters,
and are of a greenish-yellow color. The _fruit_ ripens in late spring.
It consists of a pair of winged seeds or "keys" with wings 1 to 2 inches
long on slender, flexible, threadlike stems about an inch long.

The _wood_ is soft, weak, even-textured, rather brittle, easily worked,
and decays readily when exposed. It is considerably used for boxboards,
furniture, veneers and fuel.

  The red maple, or swamp maple, _Acer rubrum_ L., has leaves deeply
  lobed with the lobes sharply toothed. The autumn color is deep red.
  The flowers also are red and the fruit is small reddish, maturing late
  in spring.


+BOX ELDER+ _Acer negundo_ L.

THE box elder is a fairly rapidly growing tree, found commonly along
streams rather generally over the State. It is a tree of medium size,
rarely reaching over 24 inches in diameter and 60 to 70 feet in height.
It has been considerably planted for shade because in good soil its
growth is rapid. Its limbs and branches, however, are fragile, and the
tree as a whole is rather subject to disease. It is not long-lived or
generally satisfactory for any purpose. It is prolific in reproduction
but is largely destroyed by grazing and cultivation.

[Illustration: BOX ELDER

Twig, two-thirds natural size. Leaf, one-third natural size.]

The _bark_ on young branches is smooth and green to purple in color; on
old trees it is thin, grayish to light brown and deeply divided.

The _leaves_ are compound, with usually 3 leaflets (rarely 5 or 7),
opposite, smooth and lustrous, green, and borne on a leaf stem or
petiole 2 to 3 inches long. The leaflets are 2 to 4 inches long by 1 to
2 inches wide, making the whole leaf 5 to 8 inches in length.

The _fruit_ is a samara, or key, winged similarly to that of a sugar
maple, but smaller. It ripens in late summer or early fall, and so is
like its close relative, the sugar maple, but unlike its close
relatives, the red maple and silver maple.

The _wood_ is soft, light, weak, close-grained and decays readily in
contact with heat and moisture. It is used occasionally for fuel.

  The Norway maple, _Acer platanoides_ L., is a European species which
  has been extensively planted. It forms a round, spreading crown of
  stout branches with coarse twigs. The leaves resemble those of the
  sugar maple but somewhat broader and the petioles exude a milky juice
  when cut. The flowers are larger than those of our native maples and
  fruit is large with diverging wings. It holds its leaves longer in the
  fall and the autumn coloring is pale yellow. It succeeds well as a
  city shade tree.


+OHIO BUCKEYE+ _Aesculus glabra_ Willd.

THE buckeye is rare in the northern fourth of Illinois, but is known in
the rest of the State, forming no considerable part of the forest stand.
It reaches a height of 60 to 70 feet and a diameter of 18 to 24 inches.
The trunk is usually short, limby, and knotty. The crown or head, is
generally open and made up of small spreading branches and twigs
orange-brown to reddish-brown in color. The _bark_ is light gray and, on
old trees, divided or broken into flat scales, which make the stem of
the tree rough; the bark is ill-smelling when bruised.

[Illustration: OHIO BUCKEYE

Twig, two-thirds natural size. Nut, one-third natural size.

Leaf, one-quarter natural size.]

The _leaves_ are opposite on the twigs, compound and consisting of 5
long-oval, rarely 7, pointed, toothed, yellow-green leaflets, set like
the fingers of a hand at the top of slender petioles 4 to 6 inches long.
They usually turn yellow and then fall early in the autumn.

The _flowers_ appear after the leaves unfold; are cream-colored; in
terminal panicles 5 to 7 inches long and 2 to 3 inches broad, quite
downy.

The _fruit_ is a thick, leathery, prickly capsule about an inch in
diameter, and, breaking into 2 or 3 valves, discloses the bright, shiny,
mahogany colored seeds, or nuts.

The _wood_ is light, soft and weak, and decays rapidly when exposed. It
is used for woodenware, artificial limbs, paper pulp, and for lumber and
fuel.

  The horse-chestnut, _Aesculus hippocastanum_ L., is a handsome
  European tree with a very symmetrical crown. The flowers are larger
  than those of our native species and add beauty to the foliage. It
  forms a desirable shade tree.


+BASSWOOD+ _Tilia americana_ L.

THE basswood, or American linden, is a rather tall tree with a broad,
round-topped crown. It ranges throughout Illinois and may be found
wherever rich, wooded slopes, moist stream banks and cool ravines occur.
It grows best in river bottoms, where it is common and forms a valuable
timber tree, attaining a height of 80 feet and a diameter of 4 feet. The
_bark_ is light brown, deeply furrowed and the inner bark furnishes bast
for making mats.

[Illustration: BASSWOOD

Leaf, one-third natural size. Twig, one-half natural size.]

The _leaves_ are broadly heart-shaped, 3 to 6 inches long, coarsely
saw-toothed, smooth on both sides, except for some hairs on the axils of
the veins. They are dark above but light green beneath.

The _flowers_ are yellowish-white, in drooping clusters opening in early
summer, and flower stem is united to the middle of a long narrow
leaf-like bract. They are very fragrant and from them the bees make a
large amount of choice grade honey.

The _fruit_ is a berry-like, dry, 1 or 2 seeded, rounded nutlet 1/4 to
1/2 an inch in diameter, covered with short, thick and brownish wool. It
remains attached in clusters to the leafy bract, which later acts as a
wing to bear it away on the wind.

The _wood_ is light, soft, tough, not durable, light brown in color. It
is used in the manufacture of pulp, woodenware, furniture, trunks,
excelsior and many other articles.

It makes a fine shade tree, grows rapidly and is easily transplanted.

  The white basswood, _Tilia heterophylla_ Vent., is similar to the
  preceding species, but with somewhat lighter bark. The leaves are
  larger, dark yellow-green above, the under surface being generally
  densely covered with short, silvery or gray hairs with tufts of brown
  hairs in the axils of the veins. It is more plentiful in the southern
  part of the State.


+FLOWERING DOGWOOD+ _Cornus florida_ L.

THE flowering dogwood is rare in the northern third of the State. It is
a small tree, growing under the larger forest trees, usually 15 to 30
feet in height and 6 to 12 inches in diameter, with a rather flat and
spreading crown and short, often crooked trunk. The _bark_ is
reddish-brown to black and broken up into small 4-sided scaly blocks.

[Illustration: FLOWERING DOGWOOD

Leaf and flowers, one-half natural size. Twig, two-thirds natural size.]

The _leaves_ are opposite, ovate, 3 to 5 inches long, 2 to 3 inches
wide, pointed, entire or wavy on the margin, bright green above, pale
green or grayish beneath.

The _flowers_, which unfold from the conspicuous round, grayish, winter
flower buds before the leaves come out, are small greenish-yellow,
arranged in dense heads surrounded by large white or rarely pinkish
petal-like bracts, which give the appearance of large spreading flowers
2 to 4 inches across.

The _fruit_ is a bright scarlet "berry", 1/2 inch long and containing a
hard nutlet in which are 1 or 2 seeds. Usually several fruits, or
"berries", are contained in one head. They are relished by birds,
squirrels and other animals.

The _wood_ is hard, heavy, strong, very close-grained, brown to red in
color. It is in great demand for cotton-mill machinery, turnery handles
and forms. One other tree has quite similar wood--the persimmon.

The dogwood, with its masses of early spring flowers, its dark red
autumn foliage and its bright red berries, is probably our most
ornamental native tree. It should be used much more extensively in
roadside and ornamental planting.

  The alternate-leaved dogwood, _Cornus alternifolia_ L., occasionally
  reaches tree size with long slender branches arranged in irregular
  whorls giving the tree a storied effect. The flowers are small,
  followed by blue-black fruit borne in loose red-stemmed clusters.


+SOUR GUM+ _Nyssa sylvatica_ Marsh.

THE sour gum, often called black gum, is found in many types of soil and
in most conditions of soil moisture in southern Illinois, but it becomes
rare in the northern half of the State. In lowlands, it is occasionally
found in year-round swamps with cypress, and in the hills on dry slopes
with oaks and hickories.

[Illustration: SOUR GUM

One-half natural size.]

The _leaves_ are simple, 2 to 3 inches long, entire, often broader near
the apex, shiny, dark green in color. In the fall the leaves turn a most
brilliant red.

The _bark_ on younger trees is furrowed between flat ridges, and
gradually develops into quadrangular blocks that are dense, hard and
nearly black. Most of the branches are nearly horizontal.

The greenish _flowers_ on long slender stems appear in early spring when
the leaves are about one-third grown. They are usually of two kinds, the
male in many-flowered heads and the female in two to several-flowered
clusters on different trees. The _fruit_ is a dark blue, fleshy berry,
2/3 of an inch long, containing a single hard-shelled seed, and is borne
on long stems, 2 to 3 in a cluster.

The _wood_ is very tough, cross-grained, not durable in contact with the
soil, hard to work, and warps easily. It is used for crate and basket
veneers, box shooks, rollers, mallets, rough floors, mine trams,
pulpwood and fuel.

  The tupelo gum, or cotton gum, _Nyssa aquatica_ L., is found in deep
  river swamps which are flooded during a part of the year. It occurs in
  4 or 5 of the southern counties of Illinois in cypress swamps. The
  enlarged base and the larger fruit serve to distinguish it from the
  sour gum. This fruit or "plum" is about an inch long, dark purple and
  has a tough skin enclosing a flattened stone. The wood is light, soft,
  and not strong and is used for woodenware, handles, fruit and
  vegetable packages.


+PERSIMMON+ _Diospyros virginiana_ L.

THE persimmon, often called "simmon", is well known throughout its
range. It is a small tree, rarely exceeding 50 feet in height and 1 inch
in diameter, occurring throughout the State from the southern part north
to Peoria County. It seems to prefer dry, open situations, and is most
abundant in the old fields, though it also occurs on rich bottom lands.
The _bark_ of old trees is almost black and separated into thick nearly
square blocks, much like the black gum.

[Illustration: PERSIMMON

Leaf, one-half natural size. Twig, three-quarters natural size.]

The _leaves_ are alternate, oval, entire, 4 to 6 inches long, dark green
and shining above, paler beneath.

The small _flowers_, which appear in May, are yellowish or creamy white,
somewhat bell-shaped, the two kinds occurring on separate trees; the
male in clusters of 2 or 3, the female solitary. They are visited by
many insects.

The _fruit_ is a pulpy, round, orange-colored or brown berry, an inch or
more in diameter and containing several flattened, hard, smooth seeds.
It is strongly astringent while green, but quite sweet and delicious
when thoroughly ripe.

The _wood_ is hard, dense, heavy, strong, the heartwood brown or black,
the wide sapwood white or yellowish. It is particularly valued for
shuttles, golf-stick heads, and similar special uses, but is not of
sufficient commercial use to warrant its general encouragement as a
timber tree.

  The Hercules' club, _Aralia spinosa_ L., grows to tree size in
  southern Illinois, with a spiny stem 25 to 30 feet tall and a
  flat-topped head. The doubly compound leaves are often more than 3
  feet long. Its small greenish-white flowers are followed by large
  clusters of purple juicy berries. It is desirable for ornamental
  planting.


+WHITE ASH+ _Fraxinus americana_ L.

THE white ash is found throughout the State, but grows to best advantage
in the rich moist soils of bottom lands. It reaches an average height of
50 to 80 feet and a diameter of 2 to 3 feet, though much larger trees
are found in virgin forests. The _bark_ varies in color from a light
gray to a gray-brown. The rather narrow ridges are separated with marked
regularity by deep, diamond-shaped fissures.

[Illustration: WHITE ASH

Twig, one-half natural size. Leaf, one-third natural size.]

The opposite _leaves_ of the white ash are from 8 to 12 inches long and
have from 5 to 9 plainly stalked, sharp-pointed leaflets, dark green and
smooth above, pale green beneath.

The _flowers_ are of two kinds on different trees, the staminate in
dense reddish-purple clusters and the pistillate in more open bunches.
The _fruit_ of the ash is winged, 1 to 1-1/2 inches long, resembling the
blade of a canoe paddle in outline, with the seed at the handle end. The
fruits mature in late summer and are distributed effectively by the
winds.

The _wood_ of the white ash is extremely valuable on account of its
toughness and elasticity. It is preferred to all other native woods for
small tool handles, such athletic implements as rackets, bats, and oars,
and agricultural implements. It is also used extensively for furniture
and interior finish.

  The green ash, _Fraxinus pennsylvanica lanceolata_ Sarg., is common in
  stream valleys throughout the State. The hairy form of this tree is
  known as the red ash. This species differs from the white ash in
  having the leaves bright green or yellow-green on both sides. The
  fruit has the wing portion extending well down past the middle of the
  seed-bearing part, and with the wing sometimes square or slightly
  notched at the outer end. The wood is similar to that of the white
  ash, but is not quite so tough.


+BLUE ASH+ _Fraxinus quadrangulata_ Michx.

THE blue ash is not very common but widely distributed in the upland
portions of the State, where it is limited to limestone bluffs,
occasionally descending to the adjacent bottom lands. It becomes a large
tree 60 feet or more in height with a trunk 2 feet in diameter. The
young twigs are usually square, sometimes winged or 4-ridged between the
leaf bases.

[Illustration: BLUE ASH

Leaf, one-third natural size. Fruit and twig, two-thirds natural size.]

The _bark_ is light gray tinged with red, 1/2 to 2/3 inch thick,
irregularly divided into large plate-like scales. Macerating the inner
bark in water yields a blue dye.

The _leaves_ are 8 to 12 inches long, having 7 to 11 stalked leaflets,
long pointed and coarsely toothed, thick and firm, smooth and
yellowish-green above, paler beneath.

The _flowers_ are without petals and appear in clusters when the buds
begin to expand.

The _fruit_ is flattened and oblong, 1 to 2 inches long and less than
1/2 inch wide and usually notched at the outer end. The wing is about
twice the length of the seed-bearing portion and extends down the sides
past the middle.

The _wood_ is heavy, hard, and close-grained, light yellow, streaked
with brown, with a very broad zone of lighter sapwood. It is not usually
distinguished commercially from the wood of other ashes.

  The pumpkin ash, _Fraxinus tomentosa_ Michx., grows in deep river
  swamps in southern Illinois. It is a tall slender tree, usually with a
  much enlarged base. The twigs are light gray. The leaves, with 7 to 9
  leaflets, smooth above and soft downy below, are from 10 to 18 inches
  long.

  The black ash, _Fraxinus nigra_ Marsh., appears occasionally on the
  flood plains in the northern part of the State. It may be known by its
  ashy light gray bark, its very thick twigs and sessile, long-pointed
  sharply serrate leaflets.


+CATALPA+ _Catalpa speciosa_ Warder

THIS is a native to the Wabash Valley of Illinois, but has been widely
planted and has spread somewhat farther as a result of cultivation. It
is a medium sized tree with a short trunk and broad head with spreading
branches. Because of its attractive flowers and conspicuous heart-shaped
leaves, it is considerably used for shade and ornament. The _bark_
varies from dark gray to brown, slightly rough, being divided in narrow
shallow strips or flakes. The _leaves_ are simple, opposite, oval,
long-pointed, 6 to 10 inches long, and heart-shaped at the base.

[Illustration: CATALPA

Leaf, one-third natural size. Twig, two-thirds natural size.]

The _flowers_ appear in clusters or panicles in May or June. They are
white with purple and yellow markings, and this makes them decidedly
showy and attractive. The _fruit_ consists of a bean-like pod, 8 to 16
inches long. It hangs on the tree over winter and gradually splits into
2 parts, or valves. The seeds are about 1 inch long and terminate in
wings that are rounded and short-fringed at the ends. They are freely
carried by the wind.

The _wood_ is rather soft, light, coarse-grained and durable in contact
with the soil. It is used for fence posts, poles and fuel, and
occasionally for railroad ties.

  The paulownia, _Paulownia tomentosa_ (Thumb). Steud., is a large tree
  native of China with the aspect of the catalpa with broad opposite
  leaves. Its upright pyramidal clusters of pale violet flowers which
  appear with the unfolding of the leaves are strikingly handsome. The
  individual flowers are bell-shaped, two inches long and spotted with
  darker purple.



DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION


Division of Forestry

THE State Division of Forestry was organized in 1926 as a division of
the Department of Conservation. It was organized at that time as a
result of an increased need for proper forestry practices within the
State on the part of the owners of timber land and potential timber
lands.

The objectives of the Division are as follows:

  1. To promote and assist in the reforestation of idle lands unfit for
       agriculture.

  2. To prevent and control woods fires.

  3. To control erosion by the planting of trees.

  4. To establish State forests to act as demonstration areas in timber
       land management.

  5. To assist Illinois farmers, landowners, and corporations in
       woodland management practices.

  6. To assist in the establishment of county and community forests.

  7. To disseminate forestry knowledge through the publication of
       forestry literature.


Reforestation

Illinois has within its total land area of approximately 35,800,000
acres, 2,500,000 acres of land that should be reforested. These lands
are lying idle at present due to the fact that they are too poor for
agricultural purposes. As such they provide an economic burden to their
owners and to the State because they are unproductive. These same lands
will grow trees profitably, therefore, it is necessary that they be
planted to trees for a future timber crop which ultimately will bring a
revenue to the landowners and community.

To meet this situation, the Department of Conservation, Division of
Forestry has developed two large forest tree nurseries capable of
producing 15,000,000 trees annually for reforestation and erosion
control purposes. These trees are available to farmers and landowners at
prices varying from $5.00 to $15.00 per thousand, dependent upon the
species of trees desired. Trees secured from the State must be used only
for reforestation and erosion control and cannot be used for landscape
or ornamental plantings.

Definite progress has been made in the State reforestation program of
idle lands. The first major distribution of trees took place in 1936 at
which time 300,000 trees were planted in the State. Since 1936 the
State's reforestation program has steadily been enlarged to the extent
that in 1940, 6,250,000 trees were distributed from State nurseries and
in 1954, 9,996,000 trees left the Division's nurseries to be planted by
farmers and public agencies in the State.

Considerable progress has been made, however, it is hoped that the
reforestation program in Illinois will continue to expand until all idle
lands in Illinois are growing a useful timber crop.


Forest Fire Protection

Woodland fires in Illinois always present a serious problem to the
future growth and quality of our forests. Thousands of dollars worth of
damage is done annually to our existing woodlands by fires which not
only destroy our merchantable timber but also cause severe mortality to
young forest seedlings. Fires seriously affect the soil, destroy
wildlife and disrupt the entire biological balance of the forest. Every
effort should be made, therefore, to prevent woods fires.

In 1938 the State Division of Forestry inaugurated a program in forest
fire protection. Since that time ten fire protection districts and a
forest fire protection headquarters have been established in southern
Illinois. Fire fighting personnel has been hired, radio communication
established, and ten State forest fire towers have been erected. Fire
protection has been established on all State forests. Necessary tools
and equipment for use by both forestry personnel and volunteer groups
have been purchased. As a result, 3,674,000 acres of State and private
land are now receiving fire protection. This program will be enlarged as
funds permit until all woodland acreage in need of protection will
receive necessary fire protection.

Our forest resources are a valuable asset to Illinois and one of the
most valuable renewable resources that we have. They can only be so,
however, if adequate forest fire protection is afforded them.


Woodland Management

Illinois' total forest acreage, when our first settlers came to the
State, included 15,273,000 acres of the finest timber to be found in the
Middle West. This represented 42 per cent of the total acreage. Although
Illinois today is considered strictly an agricultural State, at one time
we were rich in forest resources and they were the State's most valuable
asset. Today Illinois has but 3,996,000 acres of woodlands of which 92%
is in private ownership. The trained foresters of the Division of
Forestry are making every effort to assist farmers and landowners in
their woodland management problems. It is vitally necessary that proper
forestry practices be conducted on our woodlands today in order that the
landowners realize an income from their forest lands and thereby make
them an asset rather than a liability. Advice on woodland management is
available free of charge from the Division.

The marketing and proper utilization of our existing forest resources is
the concern of the Division of Forestry. Approximately 1,000 small
sawmills are operating in the State and, of course, much timber is
needed annually to keep such mills in operation. Every effort is being
made to advise timber landowners as to proper cutting practices and
disposal of merchantable timber.


State Forests

The State at present has 10,110 acres in State forests. It is hoped that
this acreage can be enlarged in future years as State appropriations
permit. The above acreage includes three State forests located in Union,
Mason and Henderson counties. Illinois State forests will always be
smaller than those of other states because of the unavailability of low
valued land. The Division's proposed State forest plan provides for a
large number of small State forests throughout the State which would
serve as ideal examples of proper woodland management and reforestation
practices. As funds permit these will be acquired in the future.

Our State forests provide ideal recreational areas at present and
thousands of visitors use them annually. In addition, as the timber
matures on them, they will provide a revenue from timber sales and
become self-sustaining.


Community Forests

Community forests are the oldest type of forest lands in public
ownership. Some have been in existence for 200 years in the eastern
states and records of older community forests have been found in some of
the European countries. The Division of Forestry is cooperating with
counties and communities in an effort to get a large scale community
forest program in Illinois. To date there are 58 community forests
having a total acreage of 52,296 acres. Up to the present time 700,000
trees have been planted on these areas in cooperation with the Division
of Forestry.

Nine counties in the State have County Forest Preserve Districts at
present. The ratio of ten acres for each 1,000 population within the
county appears to be a fair goal for county forest preserve systems in
accordance with the Illinois State Planning Commission. On this basis 19
counties in Illinois should have forest preserves.


Summary

As a result of increased appropriations for forestry in recent years a
definite well-planned forestry program is in effect in Illinois. For
additional information on the Division's activities, write the State
Forester, Springfield.



INDEX OF SCIENTIFIC NAMES


                        Page

  Acer
    negundo,              58
    nigrum,               56
    platanoides,          58
    rubrum,               57
    saccharum,            56
    saccharinum,          57

  Aesculus
    hippocastanum,        59
    glabra,               59

  Ailanthus
    altissima,            54

  Alnus
    glutinosa,            19
    incana,               19

  Amelanchier
    arborea,              46
    canadensis,           46
    laevis,               46

  Aralia
    spinosa,              63

  Asimina
    tribola,              41


  Betula
    lutea,                21
    nigra,                21
    papyrifera,           20


  Carpinus
    caroliniana,          19

  Carya
    aquatica,         13, 15
    buckleyi,         13, 18
    cordiformis,      13, 14
    glabra,           13, 18
    illinoensis,      13, 15
    laciniosa,        13, 16
    ovalis,           13, 17
    ovata,            13, 16
    pecan,                15
    tomentosa,        13, 17

  Castanea
    dentata,              22

  Catalpa
    speciosa,             66

  Celtis
    leavigata,            36
    occidentalis,         36

  Cercis
    canadensis,           52

  Cornus
    alternifolia,         61
    florida,              61

  Crataegus
    calpodendron,         47
    crus-galli,           47
    mollis,               48
    phoenopyrum,          48
    punctata,             47
    viridis,              48


  Diospyros
    virginiana,           63


  Fagus
    grandifolia,          22

  Fraxinus
    americana,            64
    nigra,                65
    pennsylvanica,        64
    quadrangulata,        65
    tomentosa,            65


  Gleditsia
    aquatica,             51
    triacanthos,          51

  Gymnocladus
    dioicus,              52


  Juglans
    cinerea,              12
    nigra,                11

  Juniperus
    virginiana,            7


  Larix
    decidua,               6
    laricina,              6

  Liquidambar
    styraciflua,          43

  Liriodendron
    tulipifera,           40


  Maclura
    pomifera,             37

  Magnolia
    acuminata,            39

  Malus
    coronaria,            45
    iensis,               45



  Morus
    alba,                 38
    rubra,                38


  Nyssa
    aquatica,             62
    sylvatica,            62


  Ostrya
    virginiana,           20


  Paulownia
    tomentosa,            66

  Picea
    abies,                 5

  Pinus
    banksiana,             5
    echinata,              5
    nigra,                 4
    strobus,               4
    sylvestris,            5

  Planera
    aquatica,             35

  Platanus
    acerifolia,           44
    occidentalis,         44

  Populus
    alba,                  9
    deltoides,             9
    grandidenta,           8
    nigra,                 9
    heterophylla,          9
    tacamahaca,            9
    tremuloides,           8

  Prunus
    americana,            49
    hortulana,            49
    nigra,                49
    pennsylvanica,        50
    serotina,             50
    virginiana,           50


  Quercus
    alba,             23, 24
    borealis,             28
    bicolor,          23, 25
    coccinea,         23, 30
    digitata,             31
    ellipsoidalis,    23, 29
    falcata,          23, 31
    imbricaria,       23, 33
    lyrata,           23, 24
    macrocarpa,       23, 25
    marilandica,      23, 32
    montana,              26
    muhlenbergii,     23, 26
    pagodaefolia,         31
    palustris,        23, 30
    phellos,          23, 33
    prinus,           23, 26
    rubra,            28, 31
    shumardii,        23, 28
    stellata,         23, 27
    velutina,         23, 29


  Rhus
    copallina,            55
    glabra,               55
    typhina,              55

  Robinia
    pseudoacacia,         53


  Sassafras
    albidum,              42

  Salix
    alba,                 10
    amygdaloides,         10
    babylonica,           10
    nigra,                10
    fragilis,             10


  Taxodium
    distichum,             6

  Thuja
    occidentalis,          7

  Tilia
    americana,            60
    heterophylla,         60


  Ulmus
    alata,                34
    americana,            34
    fulva,                35
    rubra,                35
    thomasi,              34

[Illustration: Backcover]





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