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Title: Fishes of the Big Blue River Basin, Kansas
Author: Minckley, W. L.
Language: English
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  UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS
  MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

  Volume 11, No. 7, pp. 401-442, 2 plates, 4 figs. in text, 5 tabl.

  May 8, 1959



  Fishes of the Big Blue River Basin,
  Kansas

  BY

  W. L. MINCKLEY


  UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS
  LAWRENCE
  1959



  UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS, MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

  Editors: E. Raymond Hall, Chairman, Henry S. Fitch, Robert W. Wilson


  Volume 11, No. 7, pp. 401-442, 2 plates, 4 figs. in text, 5 tables
  Published May 8, 1959


  UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS
  Lawrence, Kansas

  A CONTRIBUTION FROM
  THE STATE BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF KANSAS


  PRINTED IN
  THE STATE PRINTING PLANT
  TOPEKA, KANSAS
  1959

  [Union Label]

  27-7080



Fishes of the Big Blue River Basin, Kansas

BY

W. L. MINCKLEY



CONTENTS


                                                                  PAGE
  Introduction                                                     403
  Acknowledgments                                                  404
  Tuttle Creek Dam and Reservoir                                   404
  Big Blue River Basin                                             404
  Geology of the basin                                             405
  Climate, population, and land-use                                406
  Physical features of streams                                     407
  Previous records of fishes                                       410
  Methods and materials                                            410
  Collecting stations                                              412
  Annotated list of species                                        414
  Hybrid combinations                                              431
  Relative abundance and discussion of species                     431
  Creel census                                                     435
  Recommendations                                                  437
  Summary                                                          438
  Literature cited                                                 438



INTRODUCTION


The Big Blue River in northeastern Kansas will soon be impounded by
the Tuttle Creek Dam, located about five miles north of Manhattan,
Kansas. Since the inception of this project by the U. S. Army Corps of
Engineers much argument has arisen as to the values of the dam and
reservoir as opposed to the values of farmland and cultural
establishments to be inundated (Schoewe, 1953; Monfort, 1956; and Van
Orman, 1956). Also, there has been some concern about the possible
effects of impoundment on the fish-resources of the area, which
supports "a catfish fishery that is notable throughout most of the
State of Kansas and in some neighboring states (U. S. Fish and
Wildlife Service, 1953:9)." The objectives of my study, conducted from
March 30, 1957, to August 9, 1958, were to record the species of fish
present and their relative abundance in the stream system, and to
obtain a measure of angler success prior to closure of the dam. These
data may be used as a basis for future studies on the fish and fishing
in the Big Blue River Basin, Kansas.



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


I thank Messrs. J. E. Deacon, D. A. Distler, Wallace Ferrel, D. L.
Hoyt, F. E. Maendele, C. O. Minckley, B. C. Nelson, and J. C. Tash for
assistance in the field and for valuable suggestions. Dr. J. B. Elder,
Kansas State College, arranged for loan of specimens, and Mr. B. C.
Nelson supplied data on _Notropis deliciosus_ (Girard) in Kansas, and
on specimens in the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology.

I thank the many landowners who allowed me access to streams in the
Big Blue River Basin. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Kansas City
District, also allowed access in the reservoir area, and furnished
information and some photographs. Mr. J. C. Tash did chemical
determinations on my water samples.

Dr. Frank B. Cross guided me in this study and in preparation of this
report. Drs. E. Raymond Hall and K. B. Armitage offered valuable
suggestions on the manuscript. Equipment and funds for my study were
furnished by the State Biological Survey of Kansas, and the Kansas
Forestry, Fish and Game Commission granted necessary permits.



TUTTLE CREEK DAM AND RESERVOIR


The data on Tuttle Creek Dam and Reservoir that follow were furnished
by Mr. Donald D. Poole, U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Kansas City
District. The dam, an earth-fill structure, will be 7,500 feet in
length, with a maximum height of 157 feet above the valley floor.
Release of water will be from beneath the west end of the dam, through
two tunnels 20 feet in diameter that have a capacity of 45,000 cubic
feet per second; however, releases exceeding 25,000 c. f. s. are not
planned. The gated spillway is located at the east end of the dam.
Freeboard will be 23 feet at the top of flood-control pool.

The reservoir will have a maximum pool of 2,280,000 acre-feet
capacity, a 53,500-acre surface area, and 368 miles of shoreline. The
present operational plan provides for a conservation pool having a
surface area of 15,700 acres, a shoreline of 112 miles, and a length
of 20 miles.



BIG BLUE RIVER BASIN


Big Blue River and its tributaries, a sub-basin of the Kansas River
System, drain approximately 9,600 square miles, of which 2,484 miles
are in Kansas (Colby, _et al._, 1956:44). The headwaters of the Big
Blue River are in central Hamilton County, Nebraska, near the Platte
River (Fig. 1). The stream flows generally south and east for 283
miles to its confluence with the Kansas River near Manhattan, Kansas.
Little Blue River, the largest tributary to the Big Blue, rises in
eastern Kearney and western Adams counties, Nebraska, and flows
southeast for 208 miles to join the Big Blue near Blue Rapids, Kansas
(Nebraska State Planning Board, 1936:628). The Big Blue River Basin
varies in width from 129 miles in the northwest, to approximately ten
miles near the mouth (Colby, _et al._, 1956:44).



GEOLOGY OF THE BASIN


In Kansas, outcrops of Pennsylvanian and Cretaceous age occur along
the extreme eastern and western sides of the Big Blue River Basin,
respectively, whereas Permian beds (overlain by Pleistocene deposits)
occur throughout most of the remainder of the watershed (see Moore and
Landes, 1937). The Big Blue and Little Blue rivers and their
tributaries have deeply incised the Permian beds of the Flint Hills in
Kansas, exposing limestones and shales of the Admire, Council Grove,
Chase, and Sumner groups (Wolfcampian and Leonardian series) (Walters,
1954:41-44). Pleistocene deposits in the Big Blue Basin in Kansas
consist of alluvium, glacial till, and glacial outwash from the Kansan
glacial stage, overlain by loess deposits of Wisconsin and Recent
stages (Frye and Leonard, 1952: pl. 1).

   [Illustration: FIG. 1. Big Blue River Basin, Kansas and Nebraska.]

The Big Blue River was formed "in part on the till plain surface and
in part by integration of spillway channels," in the latter portion of
the Kansan glaciation (Frye and Leonard, 1952:192). This stream, and
the Republican River to the west, carried waters from the areas that
are now the Platte, Niobrara, and upper Missouri River basins (Lugn,
1935:153). Drainage was southward, through Oklahoma, until
establishment of the east-flowing Kansas River (Frye and Leonard,
1952:189-190). As Kansan ice receded the Blue and Republican rivers
retained what is now the Platte River Basin. The lower Platte River
developed and the surface drainage became distinct in the Iowan
(Tazwellian) portion of the Wisconsin glacial stage (Lugn,
1935:152-153). However, according to Lugn (1935:203) the Platte River
Basin contributes about 300,000 acre-feet of water per year to the Big
Blue and Republican rivers by percolation through sands and gravels
underlying the uplands that now separate the basins.



CLIMATE, POPULATION, AND LAND-USE


Climate of the Big Blue River Basin is of the subhumid continental
type, with an average annual precipitation of 22 inches in the
northwest and 30 inches in the southeast. The mean annual evaporation
from water surfaces exceeds annual precipitation by approximately 30
inches (Colby, _et al._, 1956:32-33).

The average annual temperature for the basin is 53° F. (Flora,
1948:148). According to Kincer (1941:704-705) the average temperature
in July, the warmest month, is 78° F., and the coolest month, January,
averages 28° F. Periods of extreme cold and heat are sometimes of long
duration. Length of the growing season varies from less than 160 days
in the northwest to 180 days in the southeast (Kincer, _loc. cit._).

The human population of the Big Blue Basin varies from about 90
persons per square mile in one Nebraska county in the northwest and
one Kansas county in the southeast, to as few as six persons per
square mile in some northeastern counties. The population is most
dense along the eastern border of the basin, decreasing toward the
west. This decrease in population is correlated with the decrease in
average annual precipitation from east to west (Colby, _et al._,
1956:80).

The principal land-use in the Big Blue Watershed is tilled crops, with
wheat, sorghums, and corn being most important. Beef cattle are
important in some portions of the basin. Colby, _et al._ (1956:24)
reported that in 1954 as much as 55 per cent of the land in some
counties near the mouth of the Big Blue River was in pasture. Only one
Nebraska county had less than 15 per cent in pastureland.



PHYSICAL FEATURES OF STREAMS


Streams of the Big Blue River Basin are of three kinds: turbid,
sandy-bottomed streams, usually 150 to 300 feet in width; relatively
clear, mud-bottomed streams, ten to 60 feet in width; and clear,
deeply incised, gravel-bottomed streams, usually five to 30 feet in
width.

SAND-BOTTOMED STREAMS.--The Big Blue and Little Blue rivers represent
this kind of stream. The bottoms of these rivers consist almost
entirely of fine sand; nevertheless, their channels are primarily deep
and fairly uniform in width, rather than broad, shallow, and braided
as in the larger Kansas and Arkansas rivers in Kansas (Plate 11, Fig.
1). In the Big Blue River, gravel occurs rarely on riffles, and
gravel-rubble bottoms are found below dams (Plate 11, Fig. 2). The Big
Blue flows over a larger proportion of gravelly bottom than does the
Little Blue.

Big Blue River rises at about 1,800 feet above mean sea level and
joins the Kansas River at an elevation of 1,000 feet above m. s. l.
The average gradient is 2.8 feet per mile. Little Blue River,
originating at 2,200 feet, has an average gradient of 5.3 feet per
mile, entering the Big Blue at 1,100 feet above mean sea level
(Nebraska State Planning Board, 1936:628, 637). The Little Blue is the
shallower stream, possibly because of the greater amount of sandy
glacial deposits in its watershed and the swift flow that may cause
lateral cutting, increased movement, and "drifting" of the sandy
bottom.

For approximately a 50-year period, stream-flow in the Big Blue River
at its point of entry into Kansas (Barnston, Nebraska) averaged 603
cubic feet per second, with maximum and minimum instantaneous flows of
57,700 c. f. s. and one c. f. s. The Little Blue River at Waterville,
Kansas, averaged a daily discharge of 601 c. f. s. (maximum 50,400,
minimum 28). Below the confluence of the Big Blue and Little Blue
rivers, at Randolph, Kansas, the average daily discharge was 1,690
c.f.s. (maximum 98,000, minimum 31) (Kansas Water Resources
Fact-finding and Research Committee, 1955:27).

The turbidity of the Big Blue River, as determined by use of a Jackson
turbidimeter, varied from 27 parts per million in winter (January 10,
1958) to as high as 14,000 p.p.m. (July 12, 1958). The Little Blue
River has similar turbidities, with high readings being frequent. In
the summer of 1957, pH ranged from 7.2 to 8.4 in the Big Blue River
Basin--values that correspond closely with those of Canfield and Wiebe
(1931:3) who made 25 determinations ranging from 7.3 to 8.3 in the
streams of the Nebraskan portion of this basin in July, 1930. Surface
temperatures at various stations varied from 38° F. on January 10,
1958, to 90° F. in backwater-areas on July 19, 1957. The average
surface temperature at mid-day in July and August, 1957, was
approximately 86.5° F.

Chemical determinations were made on water-samples from my Station 4-S
on the Big Blue River, and Station 50-S on the Little Blue (Table 1).
These samples were taken from the surface in strong current.
Determinations were made by methods described in _Standard Methods for
the Examination of Water and Sewage_, 10th edition, 1955.


 TABLE 1.--CHEMICAL DETERMINATIONS IN MILLIGRAMS PER LITER AT FIVE
    STATIONS IN THE BIG BLUE RIVER BASIN, KANSAS, 1958.

 TABLE LEGEND:
  Column A: Phenolphthalein  alkalinity
  Column B: Methyl-orange alkalinity
  Column C: Chlorides
  Column D: Sulphates
  Column E: Nitrates
  Column F: Nitrites
  Column G: Ammonia
  Column H: Phosphate

 ==========+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====
   STATION |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
   AND     |  A  |  B  |  C  |  D  |  E  |  F  |  G  |  H
   DATE    |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
 ----------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
   4-S     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  August 9 | 0.0 | 154 |  16 |  28 | 3.5 |.083 |.250 |.225
           |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  50-S     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  August 9 | 0.0 | 125 |  24 |  20 | 2.5 |.669 |.427 |.240
           |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  35-M     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  August 9 | 0.0 | 366 |  15 | 108 | 9.4 |.220 |.750 |.080
           |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  11-G     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  July 8   | 0.0 | 272 |  15 |  60 | 4.5 |.060 |.625 |.140
           |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  18-G     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  July 22  | 0.0 | 183 |  10 |  60 | 1.6 |.938 |.293 |.240
 ----------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----


The banks of both the Big Blue and Little Blue rivers support narrow
riparian forests comprised primarily of elm, _Ulmus americanus_,
cottonwood, _Populus deltoides_, sycamore, _Platanus occidentalis_,
and willow, _Salix_ spp. Maple, _Acer_ sp., oak, _Quercus_ spp., and
ash, _Fraxinus_ sp. occur where the rivers flow near steep, rocky
hillsides. Many of the hills are virgin bluestem prairies
(_Andropogon_ spp.), but the floodplains are heavily cultivated.

MUD-BOTTOMED STREAMS.--Streams of this kind are present in the
watershed of the Black Vermillion River that enters Big Blue River
from the east. The area east of the Big Blue River and north of the
Black Vermillion River is till plains, where relief seldom exceeds 100
feet (Walters, 1954:12). Streams in this portion of the basin, and
streams entering the Little Blue River from the west (Mill Creek and
Horseshoe Creek systems), tend to have V-shaped channels, fewer
riffles than the Little Blue and Big Blue rivers and in the gravelly
streams (to be described later), and have bottoms of mud or clay, with
few rocks (Plate 12, Fig. 1). However, in the extreme headwaters of
most western tributaries of the Little Blue River (in Washington and
Republic counties) sandy bottoms predominate. The Black Vermillion
River flows on a broad floodplain and is a mud-bottomed, sluggish
stream, with an average gradient of approximately one foot per mile.
Fringe-forests of elm, cottonwood, sycamore, and willow persist along
most of these stream-courses.

Notwithstanding the mud bottoms, the water in this kind of stream in
the Big Blue Basin remains clearer than that of the Big Blue and
Little Blue rivers. Heavy algal blooms were noted in the Black
Vermillion River and Mill Creek, Washington County, in 1957 and 1958.
Temperatures at Stations 45-M and 46-M on Mill Creek, Washington
County, averaged 85.5° F. on July 31, 1957. Chemical characteristics
of a water-sample from Station 35-M, Black Vermillion River, are in
Table 1.

GRAVEL-BOTTOMED STREAMS.--Most streams of this kind are tributary to
the Big Blue River; however, streams entering Black Vermillion River
from the south are also of this type (Plate 12, Fig. 2). The streams
are "characteristically a series of large pools (to 100 feet in length
and more than two feet in depth) connected by short riffles and
smaller pools" (Minckley and Cross, in press). The average gradients
are high: Carnahan Creek, 33 feet per mile; Mill Creek, Riley County,
21 feet; Clear Creek, 16 feet per mile. Stream-flow is usually less
than five cubic feet per second. In summer, these streams may become
intermittent, but springs and subsurface percolation maintain
pool-levels (Minckley and Cross, _loc. cit._).

The average temperatures of these small streams (79.5° to 81.0° F. in
July and August, 1957) were lower than temperatures in stream-types
previously described. Turbidities were usually less than 25 p.p.m. The
chemical properties of water-samples from two of these streams
(Stations 11-G and 18-G) are listed in Table 1.



PREVIOUS RECORDS OF FISHES


The earliest records of fishes from the Big Blue River Basin are those
of Cragin (1885) and Graham (1885) in independently published lists of
the fishes of Kansas. Meek (1895) recorded fishes collected in 1891
"from both branches of the Blue River, a few miles west of Crete,
Nebraska." Evermann and Cox (1896) reported five collections from the
Nebraskan part of the basin. Their collections were made in October,
1892, and August, 1893, and the stations were: in 1892, Big Blue River
at Crete; in 1893, Big Blue River at Seward, Lincoln Creek at Seward
and York, and Beaver Creek at York.

Canfield and Wiebe (1931) obtained fish from 18 localities in Nebraska
in July, 1930; however, their major concern was determination of water
quality. Their stations were: Big Blue River at Stromsburg, Polk Co.;
Surprise and Ulysses, Butler Co.; Staplehurst, Seward, and Milford,
Seward Co.; Crete and Wilber, Saline Co.; Beatrice, Blue Springs, and
Barnston, Gage Co.; Little Blue River at Fairbury, Jefferson Co.;
Hebron, Thayer Co.; Sandy Creek at Alexandria, Thayer Co.; West Fork
of Big Blue River at Stockham, Hamilton Co.; McCool Junction, York
Co.; Beaver Crossing, Seward Co.; and Beaver Creek at York, York Co.

Breukelman (1940) and Jennings (1942) listed fishes from the
University of Kansas Museum of Natural History and the Kansas State
College Museum, respectively, including some specimens collected from
the Big Blue River System in Kansas. Because records in these two
papers pertain to collections that were widely spaced in the basin and
in time, the specific localities are not given herein. One of
Jennings' (_loc. cit.)_ records, _Scaphirhynchus platorynchus_
(Rafinesque), was cited by Bailey and Cross (1954:191). More recently,
Minckley and Cross (in press) recorded several localities, and cited
some papers mentioned above, in a publication dealing with _Notropis
topeka_ (Gilbert) in Kansas.

Information on the fishes of the Nebraskan portion of the Big Blue
River Basin was compiled, and additional localities were reported, in
a doctoral thesis by Dr. Raymond E. Johnson, entitled The Distribution
of Nebraska Fishes, 1942, at the University of Michigan.



METHODS AND MATERIALS


_Collection of Fishes_

The gear and techniques used are listed below:

ENTRAPMENT DEVICES.--Hoop and fyke nets and wire traps were used for
288 trap/net hours in 1957. The nets were not baited, and were set
parallel to the current, with the mouths downstream. Hoop nets were
1½ to three feet in diameter at the first hoop, with a pot-mesh of
one inch; fyke nets were three feet at the first hoop, pot-mesh of
one inch; wire traps, with an opening at each end, were 2½ feet in
diameter and covered with one-inch-mesh, galvanized chicken wire.

GILL NETS.--Experimental gill nets were set on three occasions in
areas with little current. These nets were 125 feet in length, with
3/4 to two inch bar-mesh in 25-foot sections.

SEINES.--Seining was used more than other methods. An attempt was made
to seine all habitats at each station. In swift water, seine-hauls
were usually made downstream, but in quiet areas seining was done
randomly. Haul-seines six to 60 feet in length, three to eight feet in
depth, and with meshes of 1/8 to 1/2 inch were used. For collection of
riffle-fishes, the seine was planted below a selected area and the
bottom was kicked violently by one member of the party, while one or
two persons held the seine, raising it when the area had been
thoroughly disturbed. Seining on riffles was done with a four-foot by
four-foot bobbinet seine.

ROTENONE.--Rotenone was used in pools of smaller streams, mouths of
creeks, borrow-pits, and cut-off areas. Both powdered and emulsifiable
rotenone were used. The rotenone was mixed with water and applied by
hand, or into the backwash of an outboard motor.

ELECTRIC SHOCKER.--The electrical unit used in this study generated
115 volts and 600 to 700 watts, alternating current. The shocking unit
consisted of two booms, each with two electrodes, mounted on and
operated from a slowly moving boat. Fish were recovered in scape nets,
or in many cases were identified as they lay stunned and were not
collected.


_Estimation of Relative Abundance_

Data on relative abundance of fishes were obtained by counts of seine
hauls at 29 of the 59 stations, counts of rotenoned fish at seven
stations, and results with the electric shocker at nine stations.
Counts were usually made in the field; however, in some collections
all fish were preserved and counted in the laboratory. Some fish (or
"swirls" presumed to be fish) observed while shocking were not
identified and are not included in the calculations. However, all fish
positively identified while shocking are included.


_Age and Growth of Fishes_

Fish from selected size-groups were aged in this study. Scales for
age-determinations were removed from positions recommended by Lagler
(1952:108). Scales were placed in water between glass slides and were
read on a standard scale-projection device.

Pectoral spines of catfish were removed from one or both sides,
sectioned, and read by methods described by Marzolf (1955:243-244).

Calculation of length at the last annulus for both scale-fish and
catfish was made by direct proportion. All measurements are of total
length to the nearest tenth of an inch unless specified otherwise.


_Creel Census_

From April 6 to May 28, 1957, a creel census was taken below Turtle
Creek Dam. From June 16 to July 24, 1958, I periodically visited the
main points of access to the Big Blue River, beginning approximately
eight miles downstream from Tuttle Creek Dam and ending six miles
upstream from the maximal extension of the reservoir at capacity
level. Access-points consisted of 11 bridges, two power dams, and
three areas where county roads approached the river. Eleven eight-hour
days were spent in the 1957 census and 22 checks in 15 days were made
in 1958. An equal number of morning (6:00 a.m. to 12:00 noon) and
afternoon (12:00 noon to 8:30 p.m.) checks were made.

Fishermen contacted were asked the following questions: home address
(or residence at the time of the fishing trip); time they started
fishing; kind of fish sought; number and kinds of fish in possession;
and baits used. Also, the number of poles and type of fishing (from
the bank, from boat, _etc._) were recorded. Fishes caught were
examined to confirm identifications. About 80 per cent of all
fishermen seen were contacted.

Fish per man-hour, as used in this report, refers to the average
number of fish of all species caught by one fisherman in one hour.
Fisherman-day is the average time spent fishing in one day by one
person. Because some fishermen used more than one pole, the data are
also expressed as catch per pole-hour.



COLLECTING STATIONS


In the list that follows, stations are numbered consecutively from the
mouth of the Big Blue River, listing stations on each tributary as it
is ascended. The letters following station-numbers indicate the
general type of stream: S = sandy; M = muddy; and G = gravelly. The
Big Blue River is the boundary between Riley and Pottawatomie
counties, Kansas, along part of its length. Stations in this area have
been designated Riley County. The legal description of each station is
followed by the date(s) of collection, and each station is plotted in
Figure 2.

   [Illustration: FIG. 2. Collection stations in the Big Blue
       River Basin, Kansas, 1957 and 1958.]

   [Illustration: PLATE 11

       FIG. 1. Big Blue River at Station 3-S. U.S. Army Corps of
          Engineers photograph No. 563697.

       FIG. 2. Big Blue River at Oketo, Marshall County, Kansas. U.S.
          Army Corps of Engineers, photograph No. 67516.]

   [Illustration: PLATE 12

       FIG. 1. Black Vermillion River, approximately one mile upstream
          from its mouth. Photograph by Robert G. Webb.

       FIG. 2. Carnahan Creek at Station 11-G. Photograph by Robert G.
          Webb.]

 1-S: Pottawatomie Co., mouth of Big Blue River, Sec. 16, T. 10S, R. 8E,
   June 20, 1958.

 2-S: Riley Co., Big Blue River, Sec. 4, T. 10S, R. 8E, June 6, 12, and
   14, 1957.

 3-S: Riley Co., Big Blue River, E ½, Sec. 30, T. 9S, R. 8E, Mar. 30,
   Apr. 6, July 15, 16, 17, Aug. 14, and Dec. 26, 1957; Apr. 26, June
   20, and Aug. 5, 1958.

 4-S: Riley Co., Big Blue River at Rocky Ford Dam, W ½, Sec. 30, T. 9S,
   R. 8E, Aug. 14, 1957; and Aug. 5, 1958.

 5-G: Pottawatomie Co., McIntire Creek, Sec. 12, T. 9S, R. 7E, July 14,
   1958.

 6-S: Riley Co., Big Blue River and adjacent borrow-pit, Sec. 24, T. 9S,
   R. 7E, July 18 and 19, 1957; and July 11, 1958.

 7-G: Riley Co., Tuttle Creek, Sec. 10, T. 9S, R. 7E, Aug. 5, 1958.

 8-S: Riley Co., Big Blue River, Sec. 10, T. 9S, R. 7E, Aug. 14, 1957.

 9-G: Riley Co., Mill Creek, Sec. 4, T. 9S, R. 7E, July 20 and 25, 1958.

 10-G: Riley Co., Mill Creek, Sec. 2, T. 9S, R. 6E, Aug. 13, 1957.

 11-G: Pottawatomie Co., Carnahan Creek, Sec. 22, 27, and 34, T. 8S,
   R. 7E, Aug. 1, 1957; and July 8, 1958.

 12-G: Pottawatomie Co., unnamed tributary to Carnahan Creek, Sec. 15,
   T. 8S, R. 7E, Mar. 19, 1956 (collection made before my formal study
   was begun).

 13-G: Pottawatomie Co., Carnahan Creek, Sec. 36, T. 7S, R. 7E, Aug. 13,
   1957.

 14-S: Riley Co., Big Blue River, Sec. 18, T. 8S, R. 7E, Mar. 22, 1958.

 15-S: Riley Co., Big Blue River, Sec. 7, T. 8S, R. 7E, Apr. 3, and June
   12, 1958.

 16-G: Riley Co., unnamed creek, Sec. 1, T. 8S, R. 6E, July 10, and Aug.
   5, 1958.

 17-G: Riley Co., unnamed creek, Sec. 10, T. 8S, R. 6E, June 26, 1958.

 18-G: Riley Co., Fancy Creek, Sec. 14, T. 7S, R. 6E, July 29, 1957.

 19-G: Riley Co., Walnut Creek, Sec. 20, T. 7S, R. 6E, June 26, 1958.

 20-G: Riley Co., Fancy Creek, Sec. 2, T. 7S, R. 5E, Mar. 13, 1957; and
   June 26, 1958.

 21-G: Riley Co., Schoolhouse Branch, Sec. 35, T. 6S, R. 5E, July 22,
   1958.

 22-G: Riley Co., Fancy Creek, Sec. 33, T. 6S, R. 5E, June 1, 1957.

 23-G: Riley Co., West Branch Fancy Creek, Sec. 32 and 33, T. 6S, R. 5E,
   June 1 and 3, 1957.

 24-G: Clay Co., West Branch Fancy Creek, Sec. 32 and 33, T. 6S, R. 4E,
   July 22, 1958.

 25-S: Riley Co., Big Blue River, Sec. 5, T. 7S, R. 7E, Aug. 7, 1958.

 26-G: Riley Co., Swede Creek, Sec. 21, T. 6S, R. 7E, Mar. 22, 1958.

 27-G: Pottawatomie Co., unnamed creek, Sec. 14, T. 6S, R. 7E, Sept. 10,
   1957.

 28-G: Pottawatomie Co., Bluff Creek, Sec. 6, T. 6S, R. 8E, Oct. 6,
   1957.

 29-G: Pottawatomie Co., Bluff Creek, Sec. 15, T. 6S, R. 8E, June 29,
   1958.

 30-M: Marshall Co., Black Vermillion River, Sec. 9, T. 5S, R. 8E, Mar.
   5, 1958.

 31-G: Pottawatomie Co., Clear Creek, Sec. 3, T. 6S, R. 9E, July 14,
   1958.

 32-G: Pottawatomie Co., unnamed creek, Sec. 14, T. 6S, R. 9E, July 14,
   1958.

 33-M: Marshall Co., Robidoux Creek, Sec. 20, T. 2S, R. 9E, July 23,
   1958.

 34-M: Marshall Co., Little Timber Creek, Sec. 10, T. 4S, R. 9E, Oct. 6,
   1957.

 35-M: Marshall Co., Black Vermillion River, Sec. 15, T. 4S, R. 9E, Aug.
   9, 1958.

 36-M: Marshall Co., unnamed creek, Sec. 8, T. 4S, R. 9E, Oct. 6, 1957.

 37-M: Marshall Co., Black Vermillion River, Sec. 11, T. 4S, R. 10E,
   Oct. 6, 1957.

 38-S: Marshall Co., Big Blue River, Sec. 18, T. 5S, R. 8E, Aug. 8,
   1958.

 39-S: Marshall Co., Big Blue River, Sec. 20, T. 4S, R. 7E, May 29,
   1958.

 40-M: Washington Co., Coon Creek, Sec. 27, T. 4S, R. 4E, July 22, 1958.

 41-S: Marshall Co., Little Blue River, Sec. 9, 16, and 17, T. 4S, R.
   6E, June 27, 1958.

 42-S: Washington Co., Little Blue River, Sec. 21, T. 3S, R. 5E, Aug. 8,
   1958.

 43-S: Washington Co., Little Blue River, Sec. 5 and 8, T. 3S, R. 5E,
   July 30, 1957.

 44-S: Washington Co., Little Blue River, Sec. 36, T. 1S, R. 4E, July
   31, 1957.

 45-M: Washington Co., Mill Creek, Sec. 35 and 36, T. 1S, R. 4E, July
   31, 1957.

 46-M: Washington Co., Mill Creek, Sec. 4, T. 2S, R. 4E, July 31, 1957.

 47-M: Washington Co., Spring Creek, Sec. 11 and 12, T. 2S, R. 3E, June
   19, 1958.

 48-M: Washington Co., Mill Creek, Sec. 28, T. 2S, R. 2E, June 19, 1958.

 49-M: Republic Co., Mill Creek, Sec. 8 and 17, T. 2S, R. 1W, July 23,
   1958.

 50-S: Washington Co., Little Blue River, Sec. 5, T. 1S, R. 4E, Aug. 9,
   1958.

 51-M: Republic Co., Rose Creek, Sec. 20, T. 1S, R. 2W, July 23, 1958.

 52-S: Marshall Co., Big Blue River, Sec. 6, T. 4S, R. 7E, Aug. 6, 1958.

 53-S: Marshall Co., Big Blue River, Sec. 18, T. 3S, R. 7E, July 29 and
   30, 1957; May 28, and Aug. 6, 1958.

 54-G: Marshall Co., Hop Creek, Sec. 13 and 18, T. 3S, R. 7E, May 28,
   1958.

 55-M: Marshall Co., Spring Creek, Sec. 29, T. 2S, R. 8E, July 9, 1958.

 56-S: Marshall Co., Big Blue River at Marysville Dam, Sec. 20, T. 2S,
   R. 7E, June 16, 1958.

 57-M: Marshall Co., Horseshoe Creek, Sec. 6, T. 2S, R. 7E, July 1,
   1958.

 58-G: Marshall Co., unnamed creek, Sec. 2, T. 1S, R. 7E, July 1, 1958.

 59-G: Marshall Co., Mission Creek, Sec. 3, T. 1S, R. 8E, Nov. 30, 1957.



ANNOTATED LIST OF SPECIES


Forty-eight species were obtained in this survey and five others
have been recorded in literature or are deposited in museums: KSC =
Kansas State College Museum; and UMMZ = University of Michigan
Museum of Zoology. Specimens, unless designated otherwise, are in
the University of Kansas Museum of Natural History (KU).

In this list, the scientific name of each species is followed by the
common name, citations of previous records, and the stations where
the species was obtained. I follow Bailey (1956:328-329) in treating
_Lepisosteus osseus_ (Linnaeus), _Catostomus commersonnii_
(Lacépède), _Semotilus atromaculatus_ (Mitchill), _Notropis
lutrensis_ (Baird and Girard), _Pimephales promelas_ Rafinesque,
_Ictalurus melas_ (Rafinesque), _Ictalurus punctatus_ (Rafinesque),
and _Lepomis macrochirus_ Rafinesque, in binomial form only.

=Scaphirhynchus platorynchus= (Rafinesque), shovelnose sturgeon:
Jennings (1942:364) as _Scaphirhynchus platorhynchus_ (Rafinesque);
Bailey and Cross (1954:191). Stations 3-S and 4-S.

Shovelnose sturgeon were found only in the lower portion of the Big
Blue River. On April 20, 1957, many were seen in fishermen's creels
at Stations 3-S and 4-S. One male and two females that I examined on
that date were ripe or nearly so; eggs seemed well developed and
milt flowed freely from the male. After April, 1957, none was
collected or observed until April 26, 1958, when one specimen was
obtained while shocking. Forbes and Richardson (1920:27) reported
that shovelnose sturgeon spawn in Illinois between April and June,
and Eddy and Surber (1947:80) reported spawning in May and early
June in Wisconsin and Minnesota.

=Lepisosteus platostomus= Rafinesque, shortnose gar: Jennings
(1942:364). Stations 3-S and 4-S.

I saw shortnose gar at various times in 1956 and 1957 at Rocky Ford
Dam on the Big Blue River (Station 4-S). One was seen while shocking
at Station 3-S on December 26, 1957.

=Lepisosteus osseus= (Linnaeus), longnose gar: Jennings (1942:364)
as _Lepisosteus osseus oxyurus_ Rafinesque. Stations 1-S, 2-S, 3-S,
4-S, 6-S, 8-S, 9-G, 15-S, 18-G, 25-S, 41-S, 44-S, 52-S, and 53-S.

Longnose gar were abundant in the mainstream of the Big Blue River
but usually evaded capture. This species, and the shortnose gar,
resided in the larger rivers, with _L. osseus_ being taken in only
two creeks near their mouths. In periods of high water, gar moved
into the flooded creeks, but returned to the river as stream-levels
subsided.

Young-of-the-year _L. osseus_, averaging 21.5 mm. in total length
(range 13 to 30 mm.), were taken on June 14, 1957, and larger young
(estimated 60 to 70 mm. total length) were taken on June 27, 1958.

=Dorosoma cepedianum= (LeSueur), gizzard shad: Jennings (1942:364).
Stations 1-S, 3-S, 4-S, 6-S, 8-S, 44-S, 45-M, and 53-S.

Most gizzard shad were young-of-the-year, taken on July 16 and 17,
1957, at Stations 3-S and 4-S. Twenty specimens from Station 6-S
that were in their second summer of life were from 3.8 to 5.9 inches
total length at the last annulus (average 4.3). This species was
usually found in quiet water and was most abundant near the mouth of
the Big Blue River.

=Hiodon alosoides= (Rafinesque), goldeye. Stations 3-S, 4-S, and
53-S.

I caught five specimens of _H. alosoides_ from the Big Blue River,
and another specimen, obtained by Dr. R. B. Moorman in 1954, is at
Kansas State College (KSC 4984).

One goldeye that I caught on April 20, 1956, prior to the beginning
of my study, was a ripe female measuring 15.5 inches total
length. The fish was beginning its seventh summer of life.

=Cycleptus elongatus= LeSueur, blue sucker. The blue sucker is
included on the basis of a single specimen (KSC 2917) collected
by I. D. Graham and labeled "Blue River." No other data are with
the specimen; however, most fishes deposited at Kansas State College
by Graham are dated "1885" or "1886" and were caught near
"Manhattan" (Riley County).

=Ictiobus cyprinella= (Valenciennes), bigmouth buffalo. Stations
3-S, 6-S, and 30-M.

Bigmouth buffalo were rare, and were taken only in quiet parts of
larger streams, and in the borrow-pit at Station 6-S.

=Ictiobus niger= (Rafinesque), black buffalo. Stations 3-S, 41-S,
and 53-S.

Only four individuals of _I. niger_ were taken. All were large
adults (more than 20 inches in total length), and all were shocked
in the deeper, swifter areas, where the channel narrowed.

=Ictiobus bubalus= (Rafinesque), smallmouth buffalo. Stations 1-S,
3-S, 6-S, 7-G, 18-G, 38-S, 41-S, 43-S, 46-M, and 53-S.

This species was found in relatively quiet waters in the main
channel, in cut-off areas, and in creek-mouths. The ages and total
lengths of 30 individuals obtained at Station 6-S were (average
followed by number of fish in parentheses): I, 2.4 (11); II, 4.4
(14); and III, 6.6 (5).

Canfield and Wiebe (1931:6-7, 10) recorded "buffalo-fish" and
"buffalo" from the Big Blue Basin in Nebraska; however, no specific
designation was given.

=Carpiodes forbesi= Hubbs, plains carpsucker. Station 3-S.

This represents the first record known to me of the plains
carpsucker from Kansas. The specimen (KU 4180), 430 mm. in standard
length, has the following characters: lower lip without a median,
nipple-like projection; dorsal fin-rays, 25; lateral-line scales,
38; diameter of orbit into distance from anterior nostril to tip of
snout, 1.1; body-depth into standard length, 3.3; and head-length
into standard length, 3.9. The specimen was taken while shocking a
wide, shallow channel, over sand bottom.

=Carpiodes carpio carpio= (Rafinesque), river carpsucker: Jennings
(1942:364). Stations 1-S, 2-S, 3-S, 4-S, 5-G, 6-S, 7-G, 8-S, 9-G,
11-G, 14-S, 15-S, 18-G, 19-G, 23-G, 25-S, 27-G, 28-G, 30-M, 38-S,
39-S, 41-S, 42-S, 43-S, 44-S, 45-M, 50-S, 52-S, and 53-S.

The river carpsucker occurred at most stations on the larger
streams, and in many of the smaller tributaries. In smaller streams
_C. c. carpio_ frequented the largest pools, in or near the
floodplains of larger streams. A marked preference for still water,
soft, silty bottoms, and areas with drift or other cover was
apparent; however, the species also occurred in open waters with
moderate to swift currents.

The sizes attained by the river carpsucker at different ages were
(averages followed by number of fish in parentheses): I, 1.9 (10);
II, 3.9 (5); III, 5.3 (8); IV, 7.7 (5); V, 11.9 (2); VI, 11.6 (7);
VII, 12.8 (6); VIII, 13.1 (1); IX, 14.9 (2); X, 15.8 (8); and XI,
17.6 (1). These averages are significantly less than those reported
by Buchholz (1957:594) for the river carpsucker in the Des Moines
River, Iowa.

Examination of the gonads of river carpsucker in summer, 1957,
indicated that spawning occurred in late July. Young-of-the-year,
averaging 21 mm. in total length, first appeared in my collections
on July 30, 1957.

=Carpiodes velifer= (Rafinesque), highfin carpsucker: Meek
(1895:135); Evermann and Cox (1896:389).

The highfin carpsucker was not taken in my survey. Meek (1895:135)
reported "this small sucker [_C. velifer_] ... common in Blue River
at Crete," characterizing the specimens as having "Dorsal rays, 24
to 30; scales in the lateral-line, 36 to 41; head 3½ to 4; and
depth 2½ to 3." The ranges in the number of dorsal rays and the
number of scales in the lateral-line are higher than usual in _C.
velifer_, or in _C. c. carpio_, which is now common in the Big Blue
River Basin. Both species normally have 33 to 37 lateral-line scales
and 27 or fewer dorsal rays (Bailey, 1956:352-353; Moore, 1957:79;
and Trautman, 1957:81-82). The other characters listed by Meek would
fit the young and some adults of either species, or possibly a
composite including _C. forbesi_.

Graham (1885:72) and Cragin (1885:107) reported _Ictiobus velifer_
(= _Carpiodes velifer_) from "Eureka Lake," Riley County, Kansas.
This lake, which no longer exists, was in the Kansas River Valley,
about ten miles upstream from the mouth of the Big Blue River.
Other, more recent records from the Kansas River Basin, in the
vicinity of the Big Blue River, are: Maple Leaf Lake, Riley Co.,
Oct. 4, 1925; Deep Creek, Riley Co., no date; Wildcat Creek, Riley
Co., Sept. 7, 1923; and Wildcat Creek, Riley Co., Sept. 29, 1925
(UMMZ 122187-90). Most of the collections were made by Minna E.
Jewell (Nelson, personal communication).

=Moxostoma aureolum= (LeSueur), northern redhorse: Cragin (1885:108)
as _Moxostoma macrolepidotum_ LeSueur; Meek (1895:136) as _Moxostoma
macrolepidotum duquesnei_ (LeSueur); Evermann and Cox (1896:394-395);
and Jennings (1942:364) as _Moxostoma erythrurum_ (Rafinesque).
Stations 41-S, 43-S, 44-S, and 53-S.

I collected three northern redhorse from the Big Blue River Basin, and
another specimen was seined in the mouth of Mill Creek, Riley County
(my present Station 9-G) by the Kansas State College class in
fisheries management in 1954 (KSC 5068). I reidentify as _M. aureolum_
the two specimens recorded by Jennings (_loc. cit._) as _M.
erythrurum_.

The subspecific status of _M. aureolum_ in the Kansas River Basin is
to be the subject of another paper.

=Catostomus commersonnii= (Lacépède), white sucker: Canfield and Wiebe
(1931:8) as "common suckers"; and Breukelman (1940:380). Stations 7-G,
11-G, 12-G, 13-G, 16-G, 18-G, 19-G, 23-G, 29-G, 31-G, 53-S, 57-M, and
58-G.

The white sucker occurred primarily in upland streams of the Flint
Hills, with one occurrence in muddy habitat, and one in the main
stream of the Big Blue River. Young _C. commersonnii_ were often
taken in riffles, but adults were in the larger, deeper pools. The
ages and total lengths at the last annulus for 12 white suckers
were: I, 2.8 (4); II, 3.9 (6); III, 8.2 (1); and IV, 9.2 (1).

=Cyprinus carpio= Linnaeus, carp: Canfield and Wiebe (1931:5-8, 10)
as "carp." Stations 1-S, 2-S, 3-S, 4-S, 6-S, 7-G, 8-S, 15-S, 16-G,
18-G, 23-G, 24-G, 25-S, 27-G, 30-M, 35-M, 38-S, 41-S, 42-S, 43-S,
44-S, 45-M, 52-S, 53-S, and 56-S.

Carp occurred throughout the basin. The habitat of this species
closely approximated that of the river carpsucker; however, carp
were more often taken in moderate to swift water than were _C. c.
carpio_.

The ages and average lengths at the last annulus for 40 carp from
the Big Blue River Basin were: I, 2.3 (4); II, 4.7 (10); III, 7.0
(10); IV, 9.0 (3); V, 11.3 (4); VI, 18.6 (1); VII, 18.9 (3); VIII,
no fish; IX, 20.6 (3); X, 19.1 (2); XI, 21.1 (1); XII, 22.0 (1); and
XIII, 24.1 (2).

=Carassius auratus= (Linnaeus), goldfish. Station 4-S.

I saw goldfish seined from Station 4-S by anglers obtaining bait on
April 20, 1957. Goldfish were commonly used for bait at Stations 4-S
and 54-S.

=Semotilus atromaculatus= (Mitchill), creek chub: Evermann and Cox
(1896:399); and Jennings (1942:364) as _Semotilus atromaculatus
atromaculatus_ (Mitchill). Stations 5-G, 7-G, 10-G, 11-G, 12-G,
13-G, 16-G, 17-G, 18-G, 23-G, 24-G, 27-G, 28-G, 29-G, 31-G, 32-G,
33-M, 34-M, 36-M, 37-M, 40-M, 46-M, 47-M, 48-M, 49-M, 50-S, 53-S,
54-G, 55-M, 56-S, 57-M, 58-G, and 59-G.

Creek chubs were found in all habitats in the Big Blue River Basin,
but were abundant only in the headwaters of muddy streams and in
clear upland creeks.

=Chrosomus erythrogaster= (Rafinesque), southern redbelly dace:
Jennings (1942:365). Stations 11-G, 12-G, 13-G, 16-G, 27-G, 29-G,
and 53-S.

This colorful species occupied the headwaters of the clear,
spring-fed creeks where it was abundant. Only one specimen was taken
in muddy or sandy habitat (at the mouth of a small creek at Station
53-S), where it may have been washed by floods just prior to my
collecting.

=Hybopsis storeriana= (Kirtland), silver chub. Station 3-S.

One specimen of _H. storeriana_ (KU 3810) was seined in swift water
near a sandbar on April 6, 1957, and another was taken at the same
locality on April 26, 1958.

=Hybopsis aestivalis= (Girard), speckled chub: Meek (1895:137); and
Evermann and Cox (1896:409), both as _Hybopsis hyostomus_ Gilbert.
Stations 3-S, 4-S, 14-S, 25-S, 38-S, 39-S, 50-S, and 56-S.

This species was restricted to wide, swift parts of the Big Blue and
Little Blue rivers, and was found over clean, sometimes shifting,
sand bottoms. On May 29, 1958, three males in breeding condition
were collected and on June 16, 1958, a large series of both male and
female _H. aestivalis_, all with well-developed gonads, was
collected. The water temperature was 77.0°F. Hubbs and Ortenburger
(1929:25-26) reported that _Extrarius tetranemus_ (Gilbert) (=
_Hybopsis aestivalis tetranemus_) spawns in summer especially in
early July. Cross (1950:135) reported a single pair of _H. a.
tetranemus_ that he considered in breeding condition on June 9,
1948.

Breukelman (1940:380) recorded speckled chubs in the Kansas River
Basin as _Extrarius_ (= _Hybopsis_) _aestivalis_: _sesquialis_ ×
_tetranemus_; however, the name _sesquialis_ is a _nomen nudum_,
and the status of this species in the Kansas River Basin is yet to
be elucidated.

=Phenacobius mirabilis= (Girard), plains suckermouth minnow: Meek
(1895:136); and Evermann and Cox (1896:408). Stations 2-S, 3-S, 4-S,
5-G, 6-S, 7-G, 8-S, 9-G, 11-G, 16-G, 18-G, 25-S, 26-G, 27-G, 35-M,
38-S, 39-S, 40-M, 42-S, 47-M, 50-S, 52-S, 53-S, 54-G, and 56-S.

_Phenacobius mirabilis_ was widespread in the basin, occurring most
frequently on riffles over bottoms of clean sand or gravel.
Young-of-the-year were usually taken in backwaters.

=Notropis percobromus= (Cope), plains shiner. Stations 3-S and 4-S.

The plains shiner occurred only in the lower part of the main stream
of the Big Blue River.

=Notropis rubellus= (Agassiz), rosyface shiner. Station 5-G.

One rosyface shiner (KU 4195) was taken. This species was previously
reported from only two localities in the Kansas River Basin: in the
Mill Creek Watershed, Wabaunsee County, and Blacksmith Creek,
Shawnee County as _Notropis rubrifrons_ (Cope) (Gilbert, 1886:208).
Mill Creek and Blacksmith Creek are northward-flowing tributaries of
the Kansas River that arise in the Flint Hills. Graham (1885:73)
also recorded _N. rubellus_ (as _N. rubrifrons_) from the "Kansas
and Missouri Rivers"; however, I suspect that his specimens were
_Notropis percobromus_, a species not generally recognized in
Graham's time (see Hubbs, 1945:16-17). _Notropis rubellus_ is now
abundant in the Mill Creek Watershed (Wabaunsee County), but, except
for my specimen No. 4195, has not been taken recently in other
streams in the Kansas River Basin.

=Notropis umbratilis umbratilis= (Girard), redfin shiner. Station
3-S.

One specimen of _N. u. umbratilis_ was captured near a sandbar on
March 26, 1958. The absence of this species in Flint Hills streams
of the Big Blue River Basin is unexplained; redfin shiners occur
commonly in southern tributaries of the Kansas River both upstream
and downstream from the mouth of the Big Blue River. In Kansas this
species is usually associated with the larger pools of clear, upland
streams.

Canfield and Wiebe (1931:6-8) may have referred to this species in
recording "black-fin minnows" from the Nebraskan portion of the Big
Blue River Basin.

=Notropis cornutus frontalis= (Agassiz), common shiner. Stations
4-S, 5-G, 7-G, 10-G, 11-G, 12-G, 13-G, 18-G, 22-G, 26-G, 27-G, 28-G,
29-G, 31-G, 32-G, and 59-G.

Common shiners were most abundant in middle sections of the clear,
gravelly creeks.

=Notropis lutrensis= (Baird and Girard), red shiner: Meek
(1895:136); and Evermann and Cox (1896:404-405). All stations
excepting 1-S, 17-G, 30-M, and 51-M.

Red shiners were the most widespread species taken in my survey,
occurring in all habitats, and in all kinds of streams. On two
occasions I observed what apparently was spawning behavior of this
species. Both times the specimens collected were in the height of
breeding condition, stripping in the hand easily, and often without
pressure. At the first locality (Station 29-G) no attempt was made
to obtain eggs, but by disturbing the bottom at the second (55-M) I
found eggs that were thought to be those of red shiners. The eggs
were slightly adhesive, clinging to the hand and to the bobbinet
seine.

On June 29, 1958, at Station 29-G, red shiners appeared to be
spawning in an open-water area measuring about 15 by 15 feet, over
nests of _Lepomis cyanellus_ Rafinesque and _L. humilis_ (Girard).
No interspecific activity was noted between the sunfish and the red
shiners. Water temperature at this station was 73.4°F., and the
bottom was gravel, sand, and mud. Observations were made from a high
cut-bank, by naked eye and by use of 7-X binoculars.

The red shiners moved rapidly at the surface of the water, with one
male (rarely two or more) following one female. The male followed
closely, passing the female and causing her to change direction. At
the moment of the female's hesitation, prior to her turn, the male
would erect his fins in display, at the side and a little in front
of the female. After brief display, usually less than two seconds,
the male resumed the chase, swimming behind and around the female in
a spiral fashion. After a chase of two to three feet, the female
would sometimes allow the male to approach closely on her left side.
The male nudged the female on the caudal peduncle and in the anal
region, moving alongside with his head near the lower edge of the
left operculum of the female, thus placing his genital pore about a
head-length behind and below that of the female. At this time
spawning must have occurred; however, possibly because of the speed
of the chase, I observed no vibration of the fish as described for
other species of _Notropis_ at the culmination of spawning
(Pfeiffer, 1955:98; Raney, 1947:106; and others). While the spawning
act presumably occurred the pair was in forward motion in a straight
course, for three to five feet, at the end of which the male moved
rapidly away, gyrating to the side and down. The female then swam
away at a slower rate. In instances when the female failed to allow
the male to move alongside, the male sometimes increased his speed,
striking the female, and often causing her to jump from the water.

Some conflict between males was observed, usually when two or more
followed one female. The males would leave the female, swerve to one
side, and stop, facing each other or side by side. At this moment
the fins were greatly elevated in display. There was usually a rush
on the part of one male, resulting in the flight of the other, and
the aggressive male would pursue for about two feet. Many times the
pursued male jumped from the water.

At Station 55-M, on July 9, 1958, activity similar to that described
above was observed in a small pool near a mass of debris. At this
station I watched from the bank, three feet from the spawning
shiners. Water temperature was not recorded.

The minnows performed the same types of chase and display, all in
open water, as described for Station 29-G, However, at Station 55-M,
much activity of males occurred near the small deposit of debris. It
seemed that conflict was taking place, with males behaving as
described above, and milling violently about. Examination of the
area revealed nests of _L. cyanellus_ near the debris, and some of
the activity by the shiners may have been raids on nests of the
sunfish. However, females nearing the group of males were
immediately chased by one to four individual males, with one usually
continuing pursuit after a short chase by the group. The male again
moved into position at the lower left edge of the operculum of the
female as at Station 29-G.

Another kind of behavior was observed also, in which the female
sometimes stopped. The male approached, erecting his fins and
arching his body to the left. The female also assumed this arch to
the left, and the pair moved in a tight, counter-clockwise circle,
with the male on the inside. After a short period in this position,
the male moved aside in display, and gyrated to the side and down.
Females at both stations moved about slowly, usually remaining in
the immediate vicinity of activity by males, and returning to the
area even when pursued and deserted some distance away.

=Notropis deliciosus= (Girard), sand shiner: Meek (1895:136);
Evermann and Cox (1896:402), both as _Notropis blennius_ (Girard);
and Jennings (1942:365) as _Notropis deliciosus missuriensis_
(Cope). All stations excepting 1-S, 10-G, 12-G, 17-G, 20-G, 21-G,
22-G, 24-G, 29-G, 30-M, 31-G, 32-G, 33-M, 35-M, 51-M, 55-M, 57-M,
58-G, and 59-G.

Nelson (personal communication) has studied the sand shiner in
Kansas, and has found that the Big Blue River is an area of
intergradation between the southwestern subspecies (_deliciosus_)
and the plains subspecies (_missuriensis_). _Notropis d. deliciosus_
prefers cool, rocky habitat, and occurs in small streams of the
Flint Hills, whereas _N. d. missuriensis_ occupies the sandy, turbid
Big Blue and Little Blue rivers. Intergrades occur most frequently
in the Big Blue River, but are found in all habitats.

=Notropis topeka= (Gilbert), Topeka shiner: Meek (1895:136);
Evermann and Cox (1896:403); and Minckley and Cross (in press).
Stations 10-G, 11-G, 12-G, 19-G, 31-G, and 32-G.

This species was common locally in the upland streams. Female Topeka
shiners stripped easily at Station 11-G on July 8, 1958, and adult
_N. topeka_ in high breeding condition were collected at Station
31-G on July 14, 1958. The water temperature at both stations was
77.5°F. Evermann and Cox (1896:403-404) recorded female Topeka
shiners "nearly ripe" on June 29, 1893.

=Notropis buchanani= Meek, ghost shiner. Stations 3-S and 4-S. Only
two specimens of _N. buchanani_ were taken, both on August 14, 1957.
These specimens (KU 3833), a female with well-developed ova, and a
tuberculate male, were near a sandbar in the main channel. To my
knowledge, this is the first published record of the ghost shiner
from the Kansas River Basin. Mr. James Booth, State Biological
Survey, collected _N. buchanani_ from two stations on Mill Creek,
Wabaunsee County, Kansas, 1953.

=Hybognathus nuchalis= Agassiz, silvery minnow. Stations 2-S, 3-S,
4-S, 7-G, 8-S, and 16-G.

This species was taken sporadically, but sometimes abundantly, in
the Big Blue River. At Stations 7-G and 16-G a few young-of-the-year
were found.


 TABLE 2. COMPARISONS OF THREE SERIES OF _HYBOGNATHUS_, 50 SPECIMENS
   EACH, FROM DIFFERENT STREAM SYSTEMS.

  TABLE LEGEND:
    Column A:   [=X] = MEAN;,
    Column B:   [sigma] = ONE STANDARD DEVIATION;
    Column C: 2 [sigma]_{m} = TWO STANDARD ERRORS.

  RANGES ARE IN PARENTHESES.

  STANDARD LENGTHS OF SPECIMENS ARE:
    WALNUT RIVER, KANSAS, 60.0 TO 72.7 mm., [=X] = 67.1;
    BIG BLUE RIVER, 43.3 TO 63.3 mm., [=X] = 52.0; AND
    CHIPPEWA RIVER, WISCONSIN, 57.6 TO 74.4 mm., [=X] = 65.9.

 ================+=================+=================+==================
                 | Walnut River,   |                 | Chippewa River,
                 | Kansas          |                 | Wisconsin
    COUNT OR     | _H. n. placita_,| Big Blue River, | _H. n. nuchalis_,
    PROPORTIONAL | KU 3869         | Kansas  KU 3812 | KU 2012
    MEASUREMENT  +-------+----+----+-------+----+----+-------+-----+----
                 |   A   |  B |  C |   A   |  B |  C |  A    |  B  |  C
 ----------------+-------+----+----+-------+----+----+-------+-----+----
 Lateral-line    | 38.9  | 1.1| 0.4| 37.2  | 1.1| 0.4| 37.3  | 1.0 | 0.2
  scales         |(37-41)|    |    |(35-39)|    |    |(35-39)|     |
                 |       |    |    |       |    |    |       |     |
 Predorsal       | 16.8  | 0.9| 0.7| 15.9  | 0.8| 0.2| 15.1  | 0.5 | 0.1
  scale-rows     |(15-19)|    |    |(14-17)|    |    |(14-17)|     |
                 |       |    |    |       |    |    |       |     |
 Scale-rows below| 15.6  | 1.2| 0.3|  14.9 | 1.0| 0.3|  12.9 | 0.7 | 0.2
   lateral-line  |(13-18)|    |    |(12-16)|    |    |(12-15)|     |
                 |       |    |    |       |    |    |       |     |
 Scale-rows      | 16.2  | 1.1| 0.3|  15.8 | 0.8| 0.2|  13.8 | 0.6 | 0.2
   around caudal |(15-19)|    |    |(14-18)|    |    |(12-15)|     |
   peduncle      |       |    |    |       |    |    |       |     |
 ----------------+-------+----+----+-------+----+----+-------+-----+----


 TABLE 2.--Concluded.

 ============+===================+==================+===================
             | Walnut River,     |                  | Chippewa River,
             | Kansas            |                  | Wisconsin
 COUNT OR    | _H. n. placita_,  | Big Blue River,  | _H. n. nuchalis_,
 PROPORTIONAL| KU 3869           | Kansas  KU 3812  | KU 2012
 MEASUREMENT +-------+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+-------+-----+-----
             |   A   |  B  |  C  |   A  |  B  |  C  |  A    |  B  |  C
 ------------+-------+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+-------+-----+-----
 Orbit ÷     | .051  |.0035|.0010| .059 |.0047|.0013| .068  |.0044|.0013
 standard    |(044-  |     |     |(047- |     |     |(059-  |     |
 length      |    61)|     |     |   71)|     |     |    77)|     |
             |       |     |     |      |     |     |       |     |
 Gape-width ÷|.066   |.0046|.0013| .064 |.0044|.0013| .056  |.0038|.0011
 standard    |(055-  |     |     |(055- |     |     |(046-  |     |
 length      |    75)|     |     |   74)|     |     |    64)|     |
             |       |     |     |      |     |     |       |     |
 Orbit ÷     | .776  |.0083|.0024| .907 |.0080|.0023| 1.223 |.0119|.0034
 gape-width  |(647-  |     |     |(712- |     |     |(953-  |     |
             |   945)|     |     |1.067)|     |     | 1.566)|     |
 ------------+-------+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+-------+-----+-----


Bailey (1956:333) does not consider the southwestern _Hybognathus
placita_ (Girard) specifically distinct from the northeastern _H.
nuchalis_, but little evidence of intergradation has been published.
In Table 2, I have compared measurements and counts of 50 specimens
of _Hybognathus_ from the Big Blue River, 50 _H. n. placita_ from
the Walnut River, Kansas (Arkansas River Basin), and 50 _H. n.
nuchalis_ from Wisconsin. Measurements and counts were made by
methods described by Hubbs and Lagler (1947:8-15) and measurements
are expressed as thousandths of standard length.

_Hybognathus_ from the Big Blue River tend to have fewer, larger
scales than _H. n. placita_ from the Walnut River, Kansas, but more
and smaller scales than _H. n. nuchalis_ from Wisconsin. In
specimens from the Blue River, the size of the orbit divided by
standard length, and the width of gape divided by standard length
and width of orbit, are also intermediate between the Walnut River
and Wisconsin specimens, but tend toward the former. Specimens from
the Big Blue River resemble _H. n. placita_ from the Walnut River in
body shape, robustness, and in the embedding of scales on the nape.

=Pimephales notatus= (Rafinesque), bluntnose minnow: Meek
(1895:136); and Evermann and Cox (1896:399). Stations 2-S, 3-S, 5-G,
6-S, 8-S, 9-G, 10-G, 11-G, 12-G, 13-G, 16-G, 19-G, 27-G, 29-G, 53-S,
54-G, and 58-G.

The bluntnose minnow preferred the clearer creeks, with gravel or
gravel-silt bottoms, but occurred rarely in the mainstream of the
Big Blue River. Males and females in high breeding condition were
taken on July 14, 1958. The temperature of the water was 75.5° F.

=Pimephales promelas= Rafinesque, fathead minnow: Meek (1895: 136);
and Evermann and Cox (1896:397-398). All stations excepting 1-S,
4-S, 12-G, 30-M, 43-S, 44-S, and 56-S.

Small muddy streams were preferred by _P. promelas_; however, the
fathead minnow was taken in all habitats, and in association with
most other species.

Canfield and Wiebe (1931:6-7) may have recorded _P. promelas_ from
the Big Blue River Basin, Nebraska, as "blackhead minnows."

=Campostoma anomalum plumbeum= (Girard), stoneroller. All stations
excepting 1-S, 2-S, 3-S, 14-S, 15-S, 21-G, 22-G, 28-G, 30-M, 33-M,
34-M, 35-M, 36-M, 37-M, 38-S, 41-S, 44-S, 45-M, 51-M, 52-S, and
55-M.

Stonerollers were usually taken in riffles with gravel-rubble
bottoms. Those individuals collected in areas with mud or sand
bottoms were almost invariably in the current, or in the edge of
currents.

Specimens from the Big Blue River Basin have an average of 47.4
scale-rows around the body (range 42-54).

=Ictalurus melas= (Rafinesque), black bullhead: Evermann and Cox
(1896:387) as _Ameiurus melas_ (Rafinesque); and Canfield and Wiebe
(1931:5-7, 10) as "bullheads." Stations 2-S, 6-S, 7-G, 11-G, 16-G,
20-G, 22-G, 23-G, 24-G, 28-G, 35-M, 40-M, 51-M, 53-S, 55-M, 56-S,
57-M, and 58-G.

Black bullhead occurred in all habitats, but were less commonly
taken in the Big Blue and Little Blue rivers than in other streams.

=Ictalurus natalis= (LeSueur), yellow bullhead. Stations 7-G, 9-G,
10-G, 11-G, 17-G, 18-G, 19-G, 34-M, 35-M, 36-M, 37-M, 40-M, 47-M,
48-M, 53-S, and 55-M.

The yellow bullhead inhabited the muddy-bottomed streams and the
upland, gravelly creeks, usually occurring in the headwaters. I
obtained only one _I. natalis_ in the sandy Big Blue River.

=Ictalurus punctatus= (Rafinesque), channel catfish: Cragin
(1885:107); Meek (1895:135); Evermann and Cox (1896:386); and
Canfield and Wiebe (1931:6-7, 10) as "channel catfish." Stations
1-S, 2-S, 3-S, 4-S, 5-G, 6-S, 7-G, 8-S, 9-G, 11-G, 14-S, 15-S, 16-G,
18-G, 25-S, 27-G, 30-M, 35-M, 38-S, 39-S, 41-S, 42-S, 43-S, 44-S,
46-M, 50-S, 51-M, 52-S, 53-S, and 56-S.

Channel catfish were most common in the larger, sandy streams, but
occurred in other kinds of streams. The ages and calculated total
lengths at the last annulus for 40 channel catfish were: I, no fish;
II, 7.3 (16); III, 10.6 (5); IV, 12.3 (5); V, 13.3 (6); VI, 15.5
(4); VII, 18.0 (3); and VIII, 21.9 (1). These lengths are slightly
lower than averages reported by Finnell and Jenkins (1954:5) in
Oklahoma impoundments.

The length-frequency distribution of 438 channel catfish, collected
by rotenone on August 5 and 7, 1958, indicated that two age-groups
were represented. Without examination of spines, I assigned 265 fish
to age-group O (1.3 to 2.9 inches, average 2.5) and 173 fish to
age-group I (3.1 to 5.8 inches, average 4.5). The average total
length of age group I (4.5 inches) is only slightly higher than the
total length at the first annulus reported as average for Oklahoma
(4.0 inches, Finnell and Jenkins, _loc. cit._). It seems unlikely
that my yearling fish taken in August, 1958, would have reached the
length at the second annulus recorded in my study of spines (7.3
inches) by the end of the 1958 growing season.

From 1952 to 1956, severe drought was prevalent in Kansas, probably
causing streams to flow less than at any previously recorded time
(Minckley and Cross, in press). This drought must have resulted in
reduced populations of fishes in the streams. The channel catfish
hatched in 1956 were therefore subjected to low competition for
food and space when normal flow was resumed in 1957, and grew
rapidly, reaching an average total length of 7.3 inches at the
second annulus, while channel catfish that were members of the large
1957 and 1958 hatches suffered more competition and grew more
slowly.

=Noturus flavus= Rafinesque, stonecat: Jennings (1942:365). Stations
3-S, 4-S, 6-S, 16-G, 25-S, 28-G, 38-S, 41-S, 42-S, 43-S, 52-S, 53-S,
and 56-S.

_Noturus flavus_ frequented riffles and swift currents along
sandbars in the Big Blue and Little Blue rivers. Cross (1954:311)
reported that "the shale-strewn riffles of the South Fork [of the
Cottonwood River, Kansas] provide ideal habitat for the stonecat."
In my study-area, this species was found not only on rubble-bottomed
riffles, but occurred along both stationary and shifting sandbars
where no cover was apparent.

=Pylodictis olivaris= (Rafinesque), flathead catfish: Canfield and
Wiebe (1931:7) as "yellow catfish." Stations 3-S, 4-S, 6-S, 8-S,
15-S, 25-S, 38-S, 41-S, 43-S, 44-S, 53-S, and 56-S.

Flathead catfish were found only in the larger rivers. The species
was taken rarely by seine, but was readily obtained by electric
shocker. Data on the age and growth and food-habits of this species
are to be the subject of another paper.

=Anguilla bostoniensis= (LeSueur), American eel: Jennings
(1942:365).

American eels are now rare in Kansas, and none was taken in my
survey. The specimen reported by Jennings (_loc. cit._) is at Kansas
State College (KSC 2916), and was taken by I. D. Graham from the Big
Blue River, Riley County, 1885.

=Fundulus kansae= Garman, plains killifish. Station 42-S.

The plains killifish was collected by me only at Station 42-S.
Specimens were collected from my Station 4-S by the Kansas State
College class in fisheries management in 1954 (KSC 4985). My
specimens were 11 to 13 mm. in total length.

=Roccus chrysops= (Rafinesque), white bass. Station 3-S.

That the white bass is indigenous to Kansas is evidenced by records
of Graham (1885:77) and Cragin (1885:111); however, since that time,
and prior to the introduction of this species into reservoirs in the
State, _R. chrysops_ has rarely been recorded in Kansas. I collected
young white bass at Station 3-S in both 1957 and 1958, and I
collected them also in an oxbow of the Kansas River four miles west
of Manhattan, Riley County, Kansas, in the mouth of McDowell's
Creek, Riley County, and in Deep Creek, Wabaunsee County, and I saw
other specimens from an oxbow of the Kansas River on the Fort Riley
Military Reservation, Riley County, Kansas. The apparent increase in
abundance of white bass in the Kansas River Basin must be
attributable to introductions in reservoirs, with subsequent escape
and establishment in the streams.

=Micropterus salmoides salmoides= (Lacépède), largemouth bass.
Stations 6-S, 11-G, 43-S, and 45-M.

Four largemouth bass were taken. This species has been widely
stocked in farm-ponds and other impoundments in Kansas.

=Lepomis cyanellus= Rafinesque, green sunfish: Breukelman
(1940:382); and Canfield and Wiebe (1931:5, 7-8, 10) as "green
sunfish." All stations excepting 1-S, 2-S, 4-S, 8-S, 9-G, 15-S,
22-G, 25-S, 30-M, 32-G, 34-M, 38-S, 39-S, 41-S, 42-S, 43-S, 44-S,
45-M, 46-M, 47-M, 50-S, and 52-S.

Green sunfish occurred primarily in the muddy streams. The ages and
total lengths at the last annulus for 25 specimens are as follows:
I, 1.1 (9); II, 2.2 (4); III, 3.1 (7); IV, 5.4 (4); and V, 6.0 (1).
Male green sunfish were seen on nests on June 29, July 1, and July
9, 1958.

=Lepomis humilis= (Girard), orangespotted sunfish: Meek (1895:137);
Evermann and Cox (1896:418); Canfield and Wiebe (1931:6) as "orange
spots"; and Breukelman (1940:382). All stations excepting 1-S, 9-G,
13-G, 15-G, 17-G, 21-G, 26-G, 34-M, 36-M, 38-M, 43-M, 44-S, 47-M,
50-S, and 52-S.

_Lepomis humilis_ was most common over sand-silt bottoms. Only two
age-groups were found; their calculated total lengths were I, 1.7
(15); and II, 2.4 (10). Orangespotted sunfish were seen nesting on
the same dates as _Lepomis cyanellus_.

=Lepomis macrochirus= Rafinesque, bluegill. Stations 7-G, 13-G,
16-G, 24-G, and 59-G.

This species has been widely stocked in Kansas. Only
young-of-the-year and sub-adults were taken, and these were rare.

=Pomoxis annularis= Rafinesque, white crappie: Canfield and Wiebe
(1931:5-8, 10) as "white crappie." Stations 3-S, 6-S, 8-S, 12-G,
42-S, and 53-S.

White crappie were rare, except in a borrow-pit at Station 6-S. Ages
and calculated total lengths at the last annulus for 50 specimens
from 6-S are as follows: I, 3.6 (22); II, 5.0 (14); III, 7.1 (5);
IV, 8.3 (7); and V, 10.7 (2).

=Pomoxis nigromaculatus= (LeSueur), black crappie. Station 6-S.

One black crappie (KU 4174) was taken. Canfield and Wiebe (1931:10)
noted: "The Black Crappie has been planted here [Big Blue River
Basin in Nebraska] by the State, but, apparently, is not propagating
itself."

=Stizostedion canadense= (Smith), sauger. Station 56-S.

Mr. Larry Stallbaumer, of Marysville, Kansas, obtained a sauger (KU
4179) while angling on May 25, 1958.

=Stizostedion vitreum= (Mitchill), walleye.

Though I failed to obtain the walleye in my survey, Dr. Raymond E.
Johnson (personal communication) reported that the species occurred
in the Nebraskan portion of the Big Blue River in recent years.
Canfield and Wiebe (1931:6, 10) reported that "yellow pike are taken
at Crete [Nebraska]," but may have referred to either the walleye or
the sauger.

=Perca flavescens= (Mitchill), yellow perch: Canfield and Wiebe
(1931:5-6, 10) as "ring perch" and "yellow perch."

This fish was not taken in my survey. Canfield and Wiebe (_loc.
cit_.) reported that the yellow perch "had been planted by the State
[Nebraska]."

=Etheostoma nigrum nigrum= Rafinesque, johnny darter: Jennings
(1942:365) as _Boleosoma nigrum nigrum_ (Rafinesque). Stations 10-G,
11-G, 12-G, 13-G, 16-G, 29-G, 40-M, 53-S, and 54-G.

The larger pools of gravelly streams were preferred by johnny
darters, but one specimen was taken from the main stream of the Big
Blue River, and the species was abundant in one stream over hard,
sand-silt bottom.

=Etheostoma spectabile pulchellum= (Girard), orangethroat darter:
Jennings (1942:365) as _Poecilichthys spectabilis pulchellus_
(Girard). Stations 5-G, 7-G, 10-G, 11-G, 12-G, 13-G, 16-G, 17-G,
18-G, 21-G, 23-G, 27-G, 28-G, 29-G, 33-M, 40-M, 49-M, 53-S, 54-G,
and 59-G.

The orangethroat darter was less restricted in habitat than the
johnny darter, occurring in all stream-types, but most often in the
riffles of gravelly streams. Most specimens from muddy or sandy
streams were small.

=Aplodinotus grunniens= Rafinesque, freshwater drum. Stations 3-S,
4-S, 6-S, 7-G, 8-S, 15-S, 38-S, 39-S, 53-S, and 56-S.

The ages and calculated total lengths at the last annulus for 42
freshwater drum from the Big Blue River were: I, 3.0 (10); II, 5.7
(6); III, 9.4 (7); IV, 12.1 (13); V, 14.0 (3); VI, 15.1 (2); and
VII, 16.3 (1).



HYBRID COMBINATIONS


I obtained two hybrid fishes in my study-area. One specimen of
_Notropis cornutus frontalis_ × _Chrosomus erythrogaster_ was taken
at Station 29-G. This combination was recorded by Trautman
(1957:114) in Ohio. The other hybrid was _Lepomis cyanellus_ ×
_Lepomis humilis_, captured at Station 24-G. This combination was
first recorded by Hubbs and Ortenburger (1929:42).

Hubbs and Bailey (1952:144) recorded another hybrid combination from
my area of study: _Campostoma anomalum plumbeum_ × _Chrosomus
erythrogaster_, UMMZ 103132, from a "spring-fed creek on 'Doc'
Wagner's farm, Riley County, Kansas; September 21, 1927; L. O. Nolf
[collector]."



RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AND DISCUSSION OF SPECIES


The relative abundance of different species was estimated by
combining counts of individual fishes taken in 290 seine-hauls, 26
hours and 15 minutes of shocking, and seven samples obtained with
rotenone. At some stations all seine-hauls were counted. At other
stations the seine-hauls in which complete counts were recorded had
been selected randomly in advance; that is to say, prior to
collecting at each station. I selected those hauls to be counted
from a table of random numbers (Snedecor, 1956:10-13). I did not use
the frequency-of-occurrence method as proposed by Starrett
(1950:114), in which the species taken and not the total number of
individuals are recorded for all seine-hauls. However, the frequency
of occurrence of each species is indicated by the number of stations
at which it was found, and those stations are listed in the previous
accounts. Table 3 shows the percentage of the total number of fish
that each species comprised in three kinds of streams: sandy (Big
Blue and Little Blue rivers), muddy, and gravelly streams.

The habitat preferences of some species affect their abundance in
different stream-types. _Notropis lutrensis_ and _P. mirabilis_
seemed almost ubiquitous. _Notropis deliciosus_ also occurred in all
kinds of streams (rarely in muddy streams); however, this species
was represented by the sand-loving _N. d. missuriensis_ in the Big
Blue and Little Blue rivers, and _N. d. deliciosus_ in the clear,
gravelly, upland creeks (Nelson, personal communication). Because of
its widespread occurrence, and for purposes of later discussion, I
refer to this minnow also as an ubiquitous species in the Big Blue
River Basin.

_Carpiodes carpio_, _Cyprinus carpio_, _I. punctatus_, _I. melas_,
and _L. humilis_ were widespread, but each was absent or rare in
one of the kinds of streams (Table 3). _Carpiodes carpio_, _Cyprinus
carpio_, and _I. punctatus_ occurred most frequently in the sandy
streams, whereas _L. humilis_ was most common in muddy streams. The
high per cent of _I. melas_ in collections from the Big Blue River
is a direct result of one large population that was taken with
rotenone in a borrow-pit at Station 6-S. In my opinion, this species
actually was most abundant in the muddy streams.


 TABLE 3. RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF FISHES IN PER CENT OF THE TOTAL NUMBER
   TAKEN, BIG BLUE RIVER BASIN, KANSAS. TRACE (TR.) IS USED FOR VALUES
   LESS THAN .05 PER CENT, AND DASHES SIGNIFY THAT THE SPECIES DID NOT
   OCCUR IN THE COUNTED COLLECTIONS ALTHOUGH IT MAY HAVE OCCURRED IN
   UNCOUNTED COLLECTIONS FROM THE SAME STREAM-TYPE. THREE SPECIES,
   _C. AURATUS_, _N. BUCHANANI_, AND _S. CANADENSE_, WERE NOT TAKEN IN
   COUNTED COLLECTIONS.

 ====================+=================+=========+==========
                     | Sandy streams   |         |
                     +--------+--------+ Muddy   | Gravelly
        SPECIES      | Big    | Little | streams | streams
                     | Blue   | Blue   |         |
                     | River  | River  |         |
 --------------------+--------+--------+---------+----------
 _N. lutrensis_      |  43.5  |  55.9  |   27.6  |   56.0
 _I. punctatus_      |  14.0  |   7.0  |    1.2  |    4.2
 _Carpiodes carpio_  |  11.9  |   2.0  |    5.0  |    0.5
 _N. deliciosus_     |   8.2  |  28.2  |    3.1  |   11.1
 _I. melas_          |   2.5  |   --   |    1.3  |    0.5
 _Cyprinus carpio_   |   2.3  |   1.9  |    2.7  |    0.2
 _P. olivaris_       |   1.8  |   0.8  |     --  |    --
 _L. humilis_        |   1.7  |   --   |    9.0  |    5.1
 _I. bubalus_        |   1.4  |   0.1  |     --  |    Tr.
 _P. mirabilis_      |   1.3  |   0.7  |    0.3  |    1.3
 _H. nuchalis_       |   1.2  |    --  |    --   |    Tr.
 _P. promelas_       |   0.8  |   1.0  |   28.7  |    4.0
 _H. aestivalis_     |   0.7  |   0.2  |    --   |    --
 _A. grunniens_      |   0.5  |   --   |    --   |    0.2
 _L. osseus_         |   0.5  |   1.0  |    --   |    --
 _C. anomalum_       |   0.4  |   0.2  |    2.7  |    4.6
 _C. commersonnii_   |   0.4  |   --   |    --   |    0.7
 _D. cepedianum_     |   0.4  |   Tr.  |    0.1  |    --
 _N. percobromus_    |   0.3  |   --   |    --   |    --
 _P. annularis_      |   0.3  |   Tr.  |    --   |    --
 _N. flavus_         |   0.2  |   0.4  |    --   |    Tr.
 _S. atromaculatus_  |   0.2  |   0.1  |   12.2  |    1.7
 _M. aureolum_       |   0.1  |   0.2  |    --   |    --
 _I. cyprinella_     |   0.1  |   --   |    0.1  |    --
 _P. notatus_        |   0.1  |   --   |    --   |    2.2
 _I. niger_          |   0.1  |   0.1  |    --   |    --
 _H. alosoides_      |   0.1  |   --   |    --   |    --
 _E. spectabile_     |   0.1  |   --   |    1.4  |    1.6
 _R. chrysops_       |   0.1  |   --   |    --   |    --
 _L. cyanellus_      |   0.1  |   --   |    3.5  |    Tr.
 _H. storeriana_     |   Tr.  |   --   |    --   |    --
 _L. platostomus_    |   Tr.  |   --   |    --   |    --
 _M. salmoides_      |   Tr.  |   --   |    --   |    --
 _P. nigromaculatus_ |   Tr.  |   --   |    --   |    --
 _I. natalis_        |   Tr.  |   --   |    1.0  |    Tr.
 _N. umbratilis_     |   Tr.  |   --   |    --   |    --
 _C. forbesi_        |   Tr.  |   --   |    --   |    --
 _S. platorynchus_   |   Tr.  |   --   |    --   |    --
 _F. kansae_         |   --   |   Tr.  |    --   |    --
 _E. nigrum_         |   Tr.  |   --   |    0.1  |    0.2
 _N. rubellus_       |   --   |   --   |    --   |    Tr.
 _N. topeka_         |   --   |   --   |    --   |    1.0
 _N. cornutus_       |   --   |   --   |    --   |    1.0
 _C. erythrogaster_  |   --   |   --   |    --   |    1.0
 _L. macrochirus_    |   --   |   --   |    --   |    1.0
 --------------------+--------+--------+---------+----------


Some fish were almost restricted to the sandy streams, apparently
because of preference for larger waters, or sandy stream-bottoms:
_P. olivaris_, _I. bubalus_, _H. nuchalis_, _H. aestivalis_, _A.
grunniens_, _L. osseus_, _D. cepedianum_, _N. percobromus_, _P.
annularis_, _N. flavus_, _M. aureolum_, _I. niger_, _H. alosiodes_,
and _R. chrysops_. Other species that were taken only in the larger
rivers, and that are sometimes associated with streams even larger
(or more sandy) than the Big Blue River are _H. storeriana_, _L.
platostomus_, _M. salmoides_, _P. nigromaculatus_, _C. forbesi_, _S.
platorynchus_, _F. kansae_, _N. buchanani_, _S. canadense_, and _C.
auratus_. _Ictiobus cyprinella_ also occurred more frequently in the
larger streams.

The muddy-bottomed streams supported populations composed primarily
of _P. promelas_, _N. lutrensis_, and _S. atromaculatus_. No
species was restricted to this habitat, but the following were
characteristic there: _P. promelas_, _S. atromaculatus_, _L.
humilis_, _L. cyanellus_, and _I. natalis_. _Carpiodes carpio_,
_Cyprinus carpio_, _C. anomalum_, _E. spectabile_, and _E. nigrum_
were locally common in muddy streams, but the first two were most
frequent in larger, sandy streams, and the last three in gravelly
streams.

In gravel-bottomed, upland streams, _N. cornutus_, _N. rubellus_,
_N. topeka_, and _C. erythrogaster_ characteristically occurred;
with the exception of _N. rubellus_ (only one specimen taken), all
were common at some stations. Other species in gravelly creeks were
_N. lutrensis_, _C. anomalum_, _C. commersonnii_, _P. notatus_, _L.
macrochirus_, _E. spectabile_, and _E. nigrum_. Although the one
specimen of _N. umbratilis_ taken in this survey was from the Big
Blue River, this species is more characteristic of the clearer
creeks in Kansas.

In order to illustrate the composition of the fauna in some specific
streams in the Big Blue River Basin, I segregated the fishes into
ecological groups, as in the above discussion: ubiquitous types;
species of larger, sandy streams; fishes of muddy streams; and
fishes of clear, gravelly creeks.

The total number of species taken in each of the streams was
divided into the number of species from that stream that were in
each of these units, to give a percentage. The resultant data are
presented graphically in Figure 3.

   [Illustration: FIG. 3. Composition of the fauna of the entire
       Big Blue River Basin, and of seven streams or stream systems
       in that basin. "Mill Creek, Wash. Co." refers to all streams
       in the Mill Creek System, Washington and Republic counties.
       "Bl. Vermillion R. System" includes all streams in that
       watershed excepting Clear Creek and one of its tributaries
       (Stations 31-G and 32-G).]

   [Illustration: FIG. 4. Composition of the fauna of the Big Blue
       River, and of five collecting-sites on Carnahan Creek,
       Pottawatomie County. Lowermost sites are at the left of the
       figure.]

Figure 3 gives a generalized picture of the faunal composition in
different kinds of streams. However, the fauna of a small tributary
becomes more distinct from the fauna of the larger stream into which
the small stream flows as one moves toward the headwaters (Metcalf,
1957:92, 95-100). Figure 4 illustrates this in Carnahan Creek.
Station 11-G included four sampling-sites, which were approximately
one, two, three, and four miles upstream from the mouth of Carnahan
Creek. Station 13-G (one collection) was about four miles upstream
from the closest sampling-site of Station 11-G. Applying the same
methods as for Figure 3, my findings show a gradual decline in the per
cent of the fauna represented by the "large-river-fishes," and an
increase in the segment classified as "upland-fishes," from downstream
to upstream.



CREEL CENSUS


Fifty-three fishermen were interviewed in the 1957 creel census
period, and 152 in 1958. Only those fishermen using pole and line were
interviewed. In the area censused, much additional fishing is done
with set-lines, that are checked periodically by the owners.

In the 1958 census, 22 checks along approximately 80 miles of river
were made, and seven of these trips were made without seeing one
fisherman. The average fishing pressure for the entire area was
estimated at one fisherman per 7.9 miles of stream, or one fisherman
per 15.7 miles of shoreline.

Seven species of fish were identified from fishermen's creels in 1957
and 1958. These, in order of abundance were: channel catfish; carp;
freshwater drum; flathead catfish; shovelnose sturgeon; smallmouth
buffalo; and river carpsucker. Shovelnose sturgeon occurred in
fishermen's creels only in April, 1957, and freshwater drum occurred
more frequently in the spring-census of 1957 than in the summer of
1958.

Sixty-two of the fishermen interviewed in 1958 were fishing for
"anything they could catch," 68 were fishing specifically for catfish,
and 22 sought species other than catfish. The order of preference was
as follows: channel catfish, 21.1 per cent; flathead catfish, 15.1 per
cent; unspecified catfish, 12.5 per cent; carp, 9.2 per cent;
freshwater drum, 1.3 per cent; and unspecified, 40.8 per cent. The
kinds of fish desired by those fishermen checked in 1957 were not
ascertained.

Of all fishermen checked in 1957 and 1958, 165 were men, 17 were
women, and 24 were children. Ninety-three per cent were fishing from
the bank, five per cent were fishing from bridges, and two per cent
were wading. All but two per cent of those checked were fishing
"tightline"; the remainder fished with a cork.

The ten baits most commonly used, in order of frequency, were worms,
doughballs, minnows, liver, beef-spleen, chicken-entrails, coagulated
blood, crayfish, shrimp, and corn.

For purposes of later comparison the data on angler success (Table 4)
have been divided according to areas: Area I, below Tuttle Creek Dam;
Area II, in the Tuttle Creek Reservoir area; and Area III, above the
reservoir. Areas I and III received the most fishing pressure,
especially Station 4-S (in Area I), and Station 56-S (in Area III).

In Area I, the success ranged from 0.91 fish per fisherman-day in 1957
to 0.26 fish per fisherman-day in 1958. The 1957 census was made in
April and May, when fishing in warm-water streams is considered better
than in July (Harrison, 1956:203). The 1958 census was from late June
through July, and stream-flow in this period was continuously above
normal. Therefore, fewer people fished the river, and catches were
irregular. Catches in 1958 ranged from 0.26 fish per fisherman-day in
Area I to 0.44 fish per fisherman-day in Area III. In 1951, in the
Republican River of Kansas and Nebraska, the average fisherman-day
yielded 0.36 fish, 0.09 fish per man-hour, and 0.06 fish per pole-hour
(U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1952:13-14). The average
fisherman-day in the Republican River study was 3.0 hours, whereas the
average on the Big Blue River was 2.2 hours for all areas in 1958
(Table 4).


 TABLE 4. ANGLING SUCCESS IN THE BIG BLUE RIVER, KANSAS, 1957 AND 1958.

 =================================================================
 AREA, YEAR,    |Average      |Number       |Number  |Number
 AND NUMBER     |length of    |fish per     |fish per|fish per
 OF FISHERMEN   |fisherman-day|fisherman-day|man-hour|pole-hour[A]
 ---------------+-------------+-------------+--------+------------
 Area I,  1957  | 2.7 hours   |   0.91      |  0.33  |  0.23
   53 fishermen |             |             |        |
 Area I,  1958  | 2.5 hours   |   0.26      |  0.10  |  0.07
   84 fishermen |             |             |        |
 Area II, 1958  | 1.7 hours   |   0.37      |  0.22  |  0.14
   27 fishermen |             |             |        |
 Area III, 1958 | 2.4 hours   |   0.44      |  0.16  |  0.11
   41 fishermen |             |             |        |
 All areas, 1958| 2.2 hours   |   0.33      |  0.14  |  0.09
   152 fishermen|             |             |        |

  [A] Fishermen used an average of 1.44 poles.


In the Big Blue River 47.7 per cent of all fishermen were successful in
Area I in 1957, while only 13.1 per cent were successful in the same
area in 1958 (Table 5). In the Republican River, 24 per cent of the
fishing parties were successful (1.64 persons per party) (U. S. Fish and
Wildlife Service, _loc. cit._). The average distance that each fisherman
had traveled to fish in the Big Blue River was 15.7 miles. Seventy-nine
per cent of the persons contacted lived within 25 miles of the spots
where they fished. In the study on the Republican River, 77 per cent of
the parties interviewed came less than 25 miles to fish.


 TABLE 5. PER CENT OF TOTAL FISHERMEN SUCCESSFUL, AND DISTANCES
   TRAVELLED TO FISH, BIG BLUE RIVER BASIN, KANSAS, 1957 AND 1958.
   ALL DISTANCES WERE MEASURED IN AIRLINE MILES.

 ============================+=======+=======+=======+=======+======
                             | 1957  | 1958  | 1958  | 1958  | 1958
                             | Area  | Area  | Area  | Area  | All
                             |  I    |  I    |  II   | III   | areas
 ----------------------------+-------+-------+-------+-------+------
 Per cent of                 |  47.1 |  13.1 |  18.5 | 19.5  |  15.8
   fishermen successful      |       |       |       |       |
                             |       |       |       |       |
 Distances traveled to fish  | 0-121 | 1-197 | 0-124 | 0-60  | 0-197
 (averages in parentheses)   |(15.6) |(20.5) |(13.5) |(7.4)  |(15.7)
 ----------------------------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------



RECOMMENDATIONS


My primary recommendation is for continued study of the Tuttle Creek
Reservoir, and the Big Blue River above and below the reservoir, to
trace changes in the fish population that result from impoundment.

Probably the fishes that inhabit the backwaters, creek-mouths, and
borrow-pits in the Big Blue River Basin (gars, shad, carpsucker,
buffalo, carp, sunfishes, and white bass) will increase in abundance
as soon as Tuttle Creek Reservoir is formed. Also, as in eastern
Oklahoma reservoirs (see Finnell, _et al_., 1956:61-73), populations
of channel and flathead catfish should increase. Because of the
presence of brood-stock of the major sport-fishes of Kansas (channel
and flathead catfish, bullhead, bluegill, crappie, largemouth bass,
and white bass), stocking of these species would be an economic waste:
exception might be made for the white bass. It may be above Tuttle
Creek Dam, but was not found there.

I do recommend immediate introduction of walleye, and possibly
northern pike (_Esox lucius_ Linnaeus), the latter species having been
successfully stocked in Harlan County Reservoir, Nebraska, in recent
years (Mr. Donald D. Poole, personal communication). These two species
probably are native to Kansas, but may have been extirpated as
agricultural development progressed. Reservoirs may again provide
habitats suitable for these species in the State.

If Tuttle Creek Reservoir follows the pattern found in most Oklahoma
reservoirs, large populations of "coarse fish"--fishes that are,
however, commercially desirable--will develop (Finnell, _et al._,
_loc. cit._). To utilize this resource, and possibly to help control
"coarse fish" populations for the betterment of sport-fishing, some
provision for commercial harvest should be made in the reservoir.



SUMMARY


1. The Big Blue River Basin in northeastern Kansas was studied between
March 30, 1957, and August 9, 1958. The objectives were to record the
species of fish present and their relative abundance in the stream,
and to obtain a measure of angling success prior to closure of Tuttle
Creek Dam.

2. Fifty-nine stations were sampled one or more times, using seines,
hoop and fyke nets, wire traps, experimental gill nets, rotenone, and
an electric fish shocker.

3. Forty-eight species of fish were obtained, and five others have
been recorded in literature or found in museums. One species,
_Carpiodes forbesi_, is recorded from Kansas for the first time.

4. _Notropis lutrensis_ was the most abundant fish in the Big Blue
River Basin, followed by _Notropis deliciosus_ and _Ictalurus
punctatus_. The most abundant sport-fishes were _I. punctatus_,
_I. melas_, and _Pylodictis olivaris_, respectively.

5. The spawning behavior of _Notropis lutrensis_ is described.

6. A creel census at major points of access to the Big Blue River, was
taken in 1957 (below Tuttle Creek Dam) and in 1958 (above, in, and
below the dam-site). Fishing pressure averaged one fisherman per 15.7
miles of shoreline. The average length of the fisherman-day averaged
2.2 hours, with an average of 0.33 fish per fisherman-day being caught
in 1958. The average number of fish per man-hour in 1958 was 0.14 and
15.8 per cent of the fishermen were successful. Distances traveled in
order to fish ranged from 0 to 197 miles (airline) and averaged 15.7
miles.

7. The primary recommendation is that studies be continued, to
document changes that result from impoundment. Because brood-stock of
the major sport-fishes is already present, stocking is unnecessary,
except for walleye and northern pike. Also, I recommend commercial
harvest of non-game food-fishes.



LITERATURE CITED


BAILEY, R. M.

   1956. A revised list of fishes of Iowa, with keys for
         identification. _In_ Iowa Fish and Fishing, by J. R. Harlan
         and E. B. Speaker. Iowa State Cons. Comm., Des Moines,
         pp. 325-377.


----, and CROSS, F. B.

   1954. River sturgeons of the American genus _Scaphirhynchus_:
         characters, distribution, and synonymy. Pap. Michigan Acad.
         Sci., Arts, and Letters, 39 (1953): 169-208.


BREUKELMAN, J.

   1940. A collection of Kansas fish in the State University
         Museum. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., 43: 377-384.


BUCHHOLZ, M.

   1957. Age and growth of river carpsucker in Des Moines River,
         Iowa. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci., 64: 589-600.


CANFIELD, H. L., and WIEBE, A. H.

   1931. A cursory survey of the Blue River System of Nebraska.
         U. S. Dept. Comm., Bur. of Fisheries, Econ. Circ. 73: 1-10.


COLBY, C., DILLINGHAM, H., ERICKSON, E., JENKS, G., JONES, J., and
     SINCLAIR, R.

   1956. The Kansas Basin, Pilot Study of a Watershed. Univ. of
         Kansas Press, Lawrence, ix + 103 pp.


CRAGIN, F. W.

   1885. Preliminary list of Kansas fishes. Bull. Washburn Lab. of
         Nat. Hist., 1 (3):105-111.


CROSS, F. B.

   1950. Effects of sewage and of a headwaters impoundment on the
         fishes of Stillwater Creek in Payne County, Oklahoma.
         Amer. Midl. Nat., 43 (1):128-145.

   1954. Fishes of Cedar Creek and the South Fork of the
         Cottonwood River, Chase County, Kansas. Trans.
         Kansas Acad. Sci., 57 (3): 303-314.


EDDY, S., and SURBER, T.

   1947. Northern Fishes, with Special Reference to the Upper
         Mississippi Valley. Univ. of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis,
         xii + 276 pp.


EVERMANN, B. W., and COX, U. O.

   1896. Report upon the fishes of the Missouri River Basin.
         Appendix 5. Rept. U. S. Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries
         for 1894. pp. 325-429.


FINNELL, J. C., and JENKINS, R. M.

   1954. Growth of channel catfish in Oklahoma waters: 1954
         revision. Oklahoma Fish Res. Lab. Rept. 41: ii + 1-37.


----, JENKINS, R. M. and HALL, G. E.

   1956. The fishery resources of the Little River System,
         McCurtain County, Oklahoma. Oklahoma Fish.
         Res. Lab. Rept. 55: ii + 1-82.


FLORA, S. D.

   1948. Climate of Kansas. Rept. Kansas State Board of Agri.,
         67 (285): xii + 1-320.


FORBES, S. A., and RICHARDSON, R. E.

   1920. The Fishes of Illinois. Nat. Hist. Survey of Illinois.
         Illinois Printing Co., Danville, cxxxi + 357 pp.


FRYE, J. C., and LEONARD, A. B.

   1952. Pleistocene geology of Kansas. Kansas Geol. Survey,
         Bull. 99: 1-230.


GILBERT, C. H.

   1886. Third series of notes on the fishes of Kansas. Bull.
         Washburn Lab. of Nat. Hist., 1 (6): 207-211.


GRAHAM, I. D.

   1885. Preliminary list of Kansas fishes. Trans.
         Kansas Acad. Sci., 9: 69-78.


HARRISON, H. M.

   1956. Angling for channel catfish. _In_ Iowa Fish and Fishing,
         by J. R. Harlan and E. B. Speaker. Iowa State Cons. Comm.,
         Des Moines. Pp. 202-212.


HUBBS, C. L.

   1945. Corrected distributional records for Minnesota fishes.
         Copeia, 1945 (1):13-22.


----, and ORTENBURGER, A. I.

   1929. Further notes on the fishes of Oklahoma with descriptions
         of new species of Cyprinidae. Pub. Univ. Oklahoma Biol.
         Survey, 1 (2): 17-43.


----, and LAGLER, K. F.

   1947. Fishes of the Great Lakes Region. Cranbrook Inst. of
         Sci., Bull. 26: xi + 1-186.


----, and BAILEY, R. M.

   1952. Identification of _Oxygeneum pulverulentum_ Forbes, from
         Illinois, as a hybrid cyprinid fish. Pap. Michigan Acad.
         Sci., Arts, and Letters, 37 (1951): 143-152.


JENNINGS, D.

   1942. Kansas fish in the Kansas State College Museum at
         Manhattan. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., 45: 363-366.


KANSAS WATER RESOURCES FACT-FINDING AND RESEARCH COMMITTEE.

   1955. Water in Kansas. A Report to the Kansas State Legislature ...
         Univ. of Kansas. 1-216 pp.


KINCER, J. B.

   1941. Climate and weather data for the United States. _In_
         Climate and Man, Yearbook of Agri. for 1941. House Doc. 27.
         pp. 685-699.


LAGLER, K. F.

   1952. Freshwater Fishery Biology. Wm. C. Brown Co., Dubuque,
         Iowa. x + 360 pp.


LUGN, A. L.

   1935. The Pleistocene geology of Nebraska. Nebraska Geol.
         Survey, Bull. 10, 2nd series: 1-223.


MARZOLF, R. C.

   1955. Use of pectoral spines and vertebrae for determining age
         and rate of growth of the channel catfish. Jour. Wildl. Mgmt.,
         19 (2): 243-249.


MEEK, S. E.

   1895. Notes on the fishes of western Iowa and eastern Nebraska.
         Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 14 (1894): 133-138.


METCALF, A. L.

   1957. Fishes of Chautauqua, Cowley and Elk counties, Kansas.
         Univ. Kansas Publ., Mus. Nat. Hist., 11:345-400.


MINCKLEY, W. L., and CROSS, F. B.

   In press. Habitat, distribution, and abundance of _Notropis
             topeka_ (Gilbert) in Kansas. Amer. Midl. Nat.


MONFORT, E.

   1956. A layman looks at water. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci.,
         59 (1):118-123.


MOORE, G. A.

   1957. Fishes. _In_ Vertebrates of the United States, by W.
         Blair, A. Blair, P. Brodkorb, F. Cagle, and G. Moore.
         McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, N. Y. pp. 31-210.


MOORE, R. C., and LANDES, K. K.

   1937. Geologic map of Kansas. Scale 1:500,000. Kansas Geol.
         Survey.


NEBRASKA STATE PLANNING BOARD.

   1936. Water resources of Nebraska. Mimeo. by Nebraska State
         Planning Board. Lincoln, xxviii + 695 pp.


PFEIFFER, R. A.

   1955. Studies on the life history of the rosyface shiner,
         _Notropis rubellus_. Copeia, 1955 (2):95-104.


RANEY, E. C.

   1947. Subspecies and breeding behavior of the cyprinid fish
         _Notropis procne_ (Cope). Copeia, 1947 (2):103-109.


SCHOEWE, W. H.

   1953. The geography of Kansas, Part III--concluded,
         hydrogeography. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., 56 (2):131-190.


SNEDECOR, G. W.

   1956. Statistical Methods. Iowa State College Press, Ames.
         xiii + 534 pp.


STARRETT, W. C.

   1950. Distribution of the fishes of Boone County, Iowa, with
         special reference to the minnows and darters. Amer. Midl.
         Nat., 43 (1): 112-127.


TRAUTMAN, M. B.

   1957. The Fishes of Ohio. Waverly Press, Inc., Baltimore, Md.
         xvii + 683 pp.


U. S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE.

   1952. A one-year creel census and evaluation of the Republican
         River, Nebraska and Kansas, 1951. Mimeo. by the Staff,
         Missouri River Basin Studies, Billings, Mont. 29 pp.,
         Appendix.

   1953. A preliminary report on fish and wildlife resources in
         relation to the water development plan for the Tuttle Creek
         Dam and Reservoir, Big Blue River, Missouri River Basin,
         Kansas. Mimeo. by the Staff, Missouri River Basin Studies,
         Billings, Mont. 25 pp.


VAN ORMAN, C. R.

   1956. Surface water--its control and retention for use. Trans.
         Kansas Acad. Sci., 59 (1):105-110.


WALTERS, K. L.

   1954. Geology and ground-water resources of Marshall County,
         Kansas. Kansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 106:1-116.


_Transmitted December 19, 1958._

[]

27-7080



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                By Terry A. Vaughan. Pp. 513-582, 1 figure in text,
                12 tables. November 15, 1954.

            10. A new bat (Genus Pipistrellus) from northeastern Mexico.
                By Rollin H. Baker.  Pp. 583-586.  November 15, 1954.

            11. A new subspecies of pocket mouse from Kansas. By E.
                Raymond Hall. Pp. 587-590. November 15, 1954.

            12. Geographic variation in the pocket gopher, Cratogeomys
                castanops, in Coahuila, Mexico. By Robert J. Russell
                and Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 591-608. March 15, 1955.

            13. A new cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) from
                northeastern Mexico. By Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 609-612.
                April 8, 1955.

            14. Taxonomy and distribution of some American shrews.
                By James S. Findley, Pp. 613-618. June 10, 1955.

            15. The pigmy woodrat, Neotoma goldmani, its distribution
                and systematic position. By Dennis G. Rainey and Rollin
                H. Baker. Pp. 619-624, 2 figures in text. June 10, 1955.

             Index. Pp. 625-651.

  Vol.  8.  1. Life history and ecology of the five-lined skink,
               Eumeces fasciatus. By Henry S. Fitch. Pp. 1-156, 26 figs.
               in text. September 1, 1954.

            2. Myology and serology of the Avian Family Fringillidae, a
               taxonomic study. By William B. Stallcup. Pp. 157-211,
               23 figures in text, 4 tables. November 15, 1954.

            3. An ecological study of the collared lizard (Crotaphytus
               collaris). By Henry S. Fitch. Pp. 213-274, 10 figures in
               text. February 10, 1956.

            4. A field study of the Kansas ant-eating frog, Gastrophryne
               olivacea. By Henry S. Fitch. Pp. 275-306, 9 figures in
               text. February 10, 1956.

            5. Check-list of the birds of Kansas. By Harrison B.
               Tordoff. Pp. 307-359, 1 figure in text. March 10, 1956.

            6. A population study of the prairie vole (Microtus
               ochrogaster) in northeastern Kansas. By Edwin P. Martin.
               Pp. 361-416, 19 figures in text. April 2, 1956.

            7. Temperature responses in free-living amphibians and
               reptiles of northeastern Kansas. By Henry S. Fitch.
               Pp. 417-476, 10 figures in text, 6 tables. June 1, 1956.

            8. Food of the crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm, in
               south-central Kansas. By Dwight Platt. Pp. 477-498,
               4 tables. June 8, 1956.

            9. Ecological observations on the woodrat Neotoma
               floridana. By Henry S. Fitch and Dennis G. Rainey.
               Pp. 499-533, 3 figures in text. June 12, 1956.

           10. Eastern woodrat, Neotoma floridana; Life history and
               ecology. By Dennis G. Rainey. Pp. 585-646, 12 plates,
               13 figures in text. August 15, 1956.

            Index. Pp. 647-675.

  Vol.  9.  1. Speciation of the wandering shrew. By James S. Findley.
               Pp. 1-68, 18 figures in text. December 10, 1955.

            2. Additional records and extensions of ranges of mammals
               from Utah. By Stephen D. Durrant, M. Raymond Lee, and
               Richard M. Hansen. Pp. 69-80. December 10, 1955.

            3. A new long-eared myotis (Myotis evotis) from northeastern
               Mexico. By Rollin H. Baker and Howard J. Stains.
               Pp. 81-84. December 10, 1955.

            4. Subspeciation in the meadow mouse, Microtus
               pennsylvanicus, in Wyoming. By Sydney Anderson.
               Pp. 85-104, 2 figures in text. May 10, 1956.

            5. The condylarth genus Ellipsodon. By Robert W. Wilson.
               Pp. 105-116, 6 figures in text. May 19, 1956.

            6. Additional remains of the multituberculate genus
               Eucosmodon. By Robert W. Wilson. Pp. 117-123, 10 figures
               in text. May 19, 1956.

            7. Mammals of Coahuila, Mexico. By Rollin H. Baker.
               Pp. 125-335, 75 figures in text. June 15, 1956.

            8. Comments on the taxonomic status of Apodemus peninsulae,
               with description of a new subspecies from North China.
               By J. Knox Jones, Jr. Pp. 337-346, 1 figure in text,
               1 table. August 15, 1956.

            9. Extensions of known ranges of Mexican bats. By Sydney
               Anderson. Pp. 347-351. August 15, 1956.

           10. A new bat (Genus Leptonycteris) from Coahuila. By Howard
               J. Stains. Pp. 353-356. January 21, 1957.

           11. A new species of pocket gopher (Genus Pappogeomys) from
               Jalisco, Mexico. By Robert J. Russell. Pp. 357-361.
               January 21, 1957.

           12. Geographic variation in the pocket gopher, Thomomys
               bottae, in Colorado. By Phillip M. Youngman. Pp. 363-387,
               7 figures in text. February 21, 1958.

           13. New bog lemming (genus Synaptomys) from Nebraska. By J.
               Knox Jones, Jr. Pp. 385-388. May 12, 1958.

           14. Pleistocene bats from San Josecito Cave, Nuevo Leon,
               Mexico. By J. Knox Jones, Jr. Pp. 389-396. December 19,
               1958.

           15. New subspecies of the rodent Baiomys from Central
               America. By Robert L. Packard. Pp. 397-404. December 19,
               1958.

            More numbers will appear in volume 9.

  Vol. 10.  1. Studies of birds killed in nocturnal migration. By
               Harrison B. Tordoff and Robert M. Mengel. Pp. 1-44,
               6 figures in text, 2 tables. September 12, 1956.

            2. Comparative breeding behavior of Ammospiza caudacuta and
               A. maritima. By Glen E. Woolfenden. Pp. 45-75, 6 plates,
               1 figure. December 20, 1956.

            3. The forest habitat of the University of Kansas Natural
               History Reservation. By Henry S. Fitch and Ronald R.
               McGregor. Pp. 77-127, 2 plates, 7 figures in text,
               4 tables. December 31, 1956.

            4. Aspects of reproduction and development in the prairie
               vole (Microtus ochrogaster). By Henry S. Fitch.
               Pp. 129-161, 8 figures in text, 4 tables. December 19,
               1957.

            5. Birds found on the Arctic slope of northern Alaska.
               By James W. Bee. Pp. 163-211, pls. 9-10, 1 figure in
               text, March 12, 1958.

            6. The wood rats of Colorado: distribution and ecology.
               By Robert B. Finley, Jr. Pp. 213-552, 34 plates,
               8 figures in text, 35 tables. November 7, 1958.

            More numbers will appear in volume 10.

  Vol. 11.  1. The systematic status of the colubrid snake, Leptodeira
               discolor Günther. By William E. Duellman. Pp. 1-9,
               4 figs. July 14, 1958.

            2. Natural history of the six-lined racerunner,
               Cnemidophorus sexlineatus. By Henry S. Fitch. Pp. 11-62,
               9 figs., 9 tables. September 19, 1958.

            3. Home ranges, territories, and seasonal movements of
               vertebrates of the Natural History Reservation.
               By Henry S. Fitch. Pp. 63-326, 6 plates, 24 figures in
               text, 3 tables. December 12, 1958.

            4. A new snake of the genus Geophis from Chihuahua, Mexico.
               By John M. Legler. Pp. 327-334, January 28, 1959.

            5. A new tortoise, genus Gopherus, from north-central
               Mexico. By John M. Legler. Pp. 335-343, April 24, 1959.

            6. Fishes of Chautauqua, Cowley and Elk counties, Kansas.
               By Artie L. Metcalf. Pp. 345-400, 2 plates, 2 figures in
               text, 10 tables. May 6, 1959.

            7. Fishes of the Big Blue River Basin, Kansas. By W. L.
               Minckley. Pp. 401-442, 2 plates, 4 figures in text,
               5 tables. May 8, 1959.

            More numbers will appear in volume 11.



Transcriber's Notes


Except as noted below, the text presented herein is that contained in
the original printed version. Minor corrections (such as missing
punctuation) may have been corrected. The original version had a
list of publications printed inside the cover and inside and on the
back cover. The cover page was not retained as it is a copy of the
first page and the list inside the cover was moved past the end of the
article.


Notations

The greek letter sigma is represented as [sigma]. And [=X] indicates
letter X with a line above it which is a standard notation for mean.


Typographical Corrections

  Page  Correction
  ====  =================================
   408  Phenophthalein => Phenolphthalein


Text Emphasis

  _Text_ : Italics

  =Text= : Bold and Italics





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