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Title: Kankanay Ceremonies - (American Archaeology and Ethnology)
Author: Moss, C. R.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                 University of California Publications
                   American Archaeology and Ethnology

                      Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 343-384
                            October 29, 1920

                          KANKANAY CEREMONIES

                               C. R. MOSS

                     University of California Press


        Territory of the Kankanay
        Personal appearance and traits
        Industrial life
        Custom law
        Comparative culture

    Ceremonial system
        General comparison with the Nabaloi
        Spirits and deities
        Spoken ritual
        Dancing and songs
        Omens and taboo
        Comparative Nabaloi and southern Kankanay ceremonies
        Lepanto Kankanay ceremonies

    Particular ceremonies
        Bindian                     Pasang
        Mandit                      Abasang
        Dawak and Basit             Sibisib
        Batbat                      Gaysing
        Kapi                        Galon
        Amlag                       Mangilin
        Lawit                       Mansiyanun
        Tingiting                   Siling
        Palis                       Pugas
        Buang                       Kiad
        Mayilutlutkan               Kosde
        Palis chi Kabunian          Bugid
        Mantuis Bilig               Pungau
        Bilong                      Bugak
        Maydosadan                  Saldi
        Manbating                   Bilig
        Liblibian                   Dagas
        Ampasit                     Laglagiwin
        Dayau                       Tanong
        Tamo                        Sagausau

        The mountain Kabunian
        The origin of man



Since the Kankanay have been studied very little, the exact extent
of their culture area is not at present certain.

The Igorot of northern Benguet, and almost all of the people living
in Amburayan and southern Lepanto, speak the same dialect, have
similar customs, and call themselves by the same name, "Kakanay"
or "Kankanay." The people of this group have no important cultural
features by which to distinguish them from the Nabaloi, and linguistics
is the only basis on which they may be classed as a separate unity.

The inhabitants of northern Lepanto call themselves "Katangnang,"
speak a variation of the dialect spoken in the southern part of
the sub-province, and have some customs, such as communal sleeping
houses for unmarried boys and girls, which are more similar to certain
customs of the Bontoc than to any found among the southern Igorot.

It might also be mentioned that the towns of northern Lepanto are
comparatively large and compact like those of Bontoc, while the
Kankanay of southern Lepanto as well as those of Benguet and Amburayan
live in scattered settlements. Another difference is the amount of
authority exercised by the baknang or wealthy class. In northern
Lepanto the baknang are comparatively unimportant, while among the
southern Kankanay they are as powerful as among the Nabaloi.

However, the best authorities regard practically all the Lepanto
Igorot as Kankanay. This seems to be advisable at present, but it is
not improbable that a more thorough study of the Katangnang in the
northern part of the sub-province will result in their being classed
as a separate group.

Regarding the Igorot of northern Lepanto as Kankanay, the territorial
limits of the tribe are approximately as follows:

On the north, the Lepanto-Bontoc sub-provincial boundary; on the east,
the western boundary line of Ifugao; on the south, a line passing near
the southern limits of Alilem and Bacun, then through the southern
part of Kapangan between the barrios of Kapangan and Datakan, then
through the township of Atok a little north of the central barrio,
and then through the southern barrios of Buguias; and on the west,
a line passing through the foothills of Amburayan and Lepanto.


In personal appearance the majority of the Kankanay are very similar
to the Nabaloi except for the fact that they have hardly benefited
as much through contact with the outside world. Except in the case of
those who live near the sub-province of Bontoc, it is rather difficult
to distinguish a Kankanay man from a Nabaloi.

The women of the two tribes are easily distinguished by a difference
in dress, since the Kankanay women wear a waist instead of a jacket,
and a plain skirt instead of the kind with the folded effect worn by
the Nabaloi.

In personal traits the Benguet Kankanay are similar to the Nabaloi, but
farther north the people are more self-assertive and independent. The
difference in this respect between the cargadores of the various
culture areas is noticeable. In Benguet they will generally carry
without protest whatever size load they are given, but in Bontoc
the cargador decides exactly how much he will carry. While waiting
for his load, the Benguet man will probably remain out in the road,
the Lepanto man in the yard, the Ifugao on the porch; but the Bontoc
man comes into the house and acts as if he were in all respects the
equal of the one for whom he carries.


In agriculture and the industrial arts the Kankanay and the Nabaloi
have made about equal progress, and practically everything that
might be said of the one applies equally to the other. The standard
of living is about the same, except that as a rule the Nabaloi have
more rice. The houses and the method of their construction are similar,
but there is a larger proportion of good houses among the Nabaloi. The
household furnishings of the two peoples consist of the same or of
similar articles.


The custom law of the southern Kankanay differs from that of the
Nabaloi only in unimportant details. [1]

The order of inheritance is the same, and the general principle that
property must go to the next generation and that parents, brothers,
and uncles can hold it in trust only, applies to the southern Kankanay
as well as to the Nabaloi. Another principle of common application
by the two tribes is that all relatives of the same degree, whether
male or female, inherit equally.

The southern Kankanay and the Nabaloi also have similar customs in
regard to marriage, and children are betrothed by their parents in
the same way. Among the northern Kankanay the young people choose
their own spouses as they do in Bontoc.

Divorces among the Kankanay are rather frequent, though they claim
that they are never divorced after children have been born. I know
of two cases of divorce, however, between Kankanay wives and their
Nabaloi husbands after there were children.

In general, the customs of the southern Kankanay and the Nabaloi
regarding the discovery and punishment of crime are the same; but a
larger proportion of cases are settled by the Kankanay according to
their old custom law, since the Nabaloi have lately become more prone
to take their troubles to the white officials.

All the ordeals known to the Nabaloi for discovering criminals or
testing the veracity of witnesses are used by the Benguet Kankanay. In
addition to these they have the test called manman, decided by
looking at the gall of two chickens furnished by the respective
contestants. The Kankanay as well as the Nabaloi contestant always
appeals to the sun.

Taken as a whole the custom law of the southern Kankanay and the
Nabaloi is the same; and judging from the information at present
available we may conclude that all the Igorot groups administer
justice according to the same basic principles.


There is little difference in the amount of general knowledge possessed
by the Kankanay and the Nabaloi, but the latter are probably a little
more advanced in this respect. Whatever may be said of their native
culture, the Nabaloi are certainly showing a greater readiness to
adopt civilization than any other Igorot people.

Comparing the general Kankanay culture to that of the neighboring
groups, I should say that it is lower than the culture of the Nabaloi
and higher than that of the Bontoc. In some respects it is superior
to the culture of the Ifugao or Kalinga, while in other respects it
is inferior.



The Kankanay ceremonial system is similar to that of the Nabaloi. [2]
The rituals are the same in general purpose; they are based on a
similar belief in spirits; the important elements of both systems
are sacrifice and prayer; and the functions of the priests are the
same. The ceremonies of each group must be given in their appropriate
places, and a particular sacrifice must be offered in connection
with each, though there is probably more latitude of choice among
the Kankanay than among the Nabaloi.

There are Kankanay ceremonies corresponding in purpose to nearly
all the Nabaloi ceremonies, but as a rule the spoken ritual is quite
different. Some of the corresponding ceremonies are called by the same
name, and some by different names. In a few cases ceremonies called
by the same name are celebrated for entirely different purposes by
the two groups.

There is not the same uniformity in the ceremonies celebrated in the
various towns of the Kankanay as there is in those of the Nabaloi. As a
rule the same rituals are held in the towns of northwestern Benguet,
in Ampasungan of Lepanto, and in Bacun of Amburayan. Buguias and
Mancayan have the majority of these ceremonies, but not all. On the
other hand, a few are celebrated in the latter towns which are unknown
in the former.

From the data available, it seems that there is even more difference
between the ceremonies of the northern and southern Kankanay than there
is between those of the latter and the Nabaloi. It is quite certain,
however, that all the Lepanto ceremonies have not been recorded,
and when this has been done the rituals of the two sections may show
a closer resemblance than at present appears to be the case.


The southern Kankanay have no term by which a supreme ruler of the
universe is designated, and it is doubtful if any Kankanay, with the
exception of a few who live near the coast, have any conception of such
a personage. The translation of "Lumawig" as God in connection with
the description of some of the ceremonies presented in Robertson's
publication on the Lepanto Igorot, [3] may be explained by the
tendency of the Ilocano township secretaries who did the recording,
to interpret Igorot rituals in terms of the Christian religion.

It seems that all the Igorot tribes that have so far been studied
recognize Lumawig as one of their great culture heroes. The Benguet
Kankanay say that he once lived on earth and was one of them, and
that when he died his soul did not go to the mountains with the souls
of the other Igorot, but ascended to the sky, where it still remains
with the souls of Kabigat, Amdoyaan, and the other great heroes of
the past. All the culture heroes are objects of worship.

The kakading are the souls of the dead. They go to the mountains
but sometimes return to their villages and cause sickness in order
that sacrifice will be necessary. The tanong and amud are souls
of ancestors.

The Kankanay as well as the Nabaloi believe in the existence of
spirits other than the souls of the dead, which cause sickness or bad
luck. Their concept of the special functions of each class of spirits,
however, is not in all cases the same as that of the Nabaloi. The
belief in the amdag which catch the souls of the living with a net,
and in the pasang which prevent the birth of children, is common
to both tribes. On the other hand, the ampasit and the timungau,
malevolent spirits of the Nabaloi, seem to be regarded rather as
culture heroes by the Kankanay. In addition to the amdag and the
pasang, the southern Kankanay recognize the following:

The dagas, spirits which live with the people in their dwelling houses.

The bilig, spirits which live in the pasture or timber lands near
the settlements.

The pinading, spirits which live in the high mountains, and correspond
in some respects to the kakaising of the Nabaloi.

The Kankanay belief in Messeken, Akodau, and the other inhabitants
of the underworld is the same as that of the Nabaloi. The belief
regarding the underworld seems to be held in common by all the Igorot
tribes and to extend to the Tinguian of Abra.

The Kankanay in a very few ceremonies pray to the sun and moon,
but it is not probable that they pray to groups of stars as do the
Nabaloi. The elements are frequently personified in the sacred stories,
but it is not probable that prayer is offered to them.


The Kankanay make ceremonies for the same general purpose as the
Nabaloi. The majority of them are celebrated primarily against
sickness, or to avert calamities, such as crop failure. Incidentally,
all public ceremonies secure the good will of deities and spirits, and
cause the giver to live long, be lucky, and become rich. The matter
of personal pride and desire of power is also an important factor,
and it is said that the most expensive cañao celebrated by some of
the Lepanto Kankanay is given for no other purpose. I think this is
doubtful, however, and believe it probable that all cañaos possess some
religious significance, even when the givers have a material motive.

Another reason for ceremonies given by a member of the Kankanay baknang
might be interesting. He stated that if he did not give the mandit and
other public cañaos at frequent intervals, all his livestock would be
stolen, but that as long as the people knew that they would consume
the larger number of his animals, they were willing that he should
have the trouble and responsibility of raising them.


As with the Nabaloi, the mambunong is an institution; though the
Kankanay have more occasions on which they address the spirits and
deities without his intervention than the Nabaloi. Except in Buguias
the ceremonies are not shrouded in mystery to the same extent that
they are among the Nabaloi, and the people have more general knowledge
concerning them.

The compensation allowed the priest is about the same as among the
Nabaloi, and the priests appoint their successors in the same way;
that is, by selecting the one to whom the prayer is taught.


Anap, meaning "to find out," is the general name for the Kankanay
divination ceremonies. Three methods are used.

The mambunong puts tapuy in a glass and prays, asking the gods to
show what caused the sickness and what ceremony should be celebrated
to effect its cure. He then looks into the tapuy where he sees
something indicating the cause of the sickness and the ceremony to
be celebrated. This method corresponds to the Nabaloi bakno.

A stone is suspended by a string, the mambunong prays, the various
rituals are named; if the stone moves at the mention of a ceremony,
that one must be celebrated. This method corresponds to the Nabaloi

An egg is stood on end on the ground, the rituals are named, and
the one to be given is determined by the falling of the egg. This
corresponds to the buyon of the Nabaloi, except that the latter use
a stick instead of an egg.

The examination of the gall of a chicken is used to determine whether
or not one will be lucky in doing a certain thing, or whether a sick
person will recover. This divination is called manman.


As with the Nabaloi, the spoken ritual consists of either a petition
or a story which serves as a magical formula. The formula seems to
be used to a greater extent by the Kankanay than by the Nabaloi. The
prayer or formula must always be uttered at the appropriate place and
in the proper circumstances, or else it will not be effective. The
use of the formula as well as the prayer seems to be common to all
tribes of the Igorot including the Tinguian. [4]


There is no dancing in connection with the private ceremonies; but
the tayo, a dance by one man and woman at a time, forms a part of
nearly all public ceremonies. The dance is the same as the tayau of
the Nabaloi except that the Kankanay dance to faster time. The time
is faster among the northern than among the southern Kankanay.

While the dance is in progress the mambunong shouts the following at
intervals of about ten minutes to the man who is dancing:

    Baliwatak sika; matagoga, maganakka; bomaknangka; bomaknang
    abu tomoi mansida; bamaknang abu babayi manadong tauwadi,
    kasinsinopantaka si oaoay.

    I give you this blessing: may you live long, may you have children;
    may you be rich; may the giver of this ceremony also be rich;
    may the women dancing also be rich, so that there will be our
    gathering together always.

While the mambunong is reciting the baliwak, the man stops dancing,
but the woman continues. The baliwak corresponds to the datok of
the Nabaloi.

The typical dances of the Nabaloi and the Kankanay are very similar,
but this can not be stated of the dances of any of the other Igorot
tribes. The Bontoc, Ifugao, Apayao, and Kalinga dances all differ
considerably, and even the most common dances in various towns of
the same tribe differ to such an extent that an inhabitant of one
town can not take part in a dance of another.

Sacred songs form a part of the worship in connection with the Kankanay
mandit, palis, tamo, and bindian. The badio, which is an extemporaneous
chant similar to the badio of the Nabaloi, is always sung in connection
with all ceremonies if there is sufficient tapuy on which to become
intoxicated, but it is not regarded as a part of the worship.


The Kankanay pay even more attention to omens in connection with
rituals or in their ordinary occupations than do the Nabaloi. Snakes,
lizards, or certain birds crossing the roads are omens of bad luck. If
anything falls, if a rock becomes detached and rolls down the hill,
or a person stumbles, some calamity is sure to follow unless it can
be averted by means of ceremonies.

The taboos among the Kankanay are even more numerous and last longer
than among the Nabaloi. This may be partly due to the fact that the
Kankanay are a more primitive people.

The taboo and the belief in omens is common to all the Igorot tribes,
and the latter is prevalent to some extent among many of the lower
class Christian Filipinos.



Buyon, Sabat,  Anap            For divining cause of sickness and its
  Bakno                          cure by standing stick or egg on end,
                                 by swinging stone, or by looking into
                                 liquid mirror.
Manoni         Manman          Divining future by looking at gall of
Bindayan       Bindian         Originally a head-taking celebration.
                                 Now given to cure or prevent sickness,
                                 or in compliance with a promise made
                                 while sick.
Pachit         Mandit          Originally a peace celebration. Now
                                 given to cure or prevent sickness, to
                                 obtain long life and good luck, and to
                                 enhance the prestige of the giver.
Chawak         Dawak           A pachit or mandit on a small scale, and
                                 given for the same purpose.
Bayog          Basit dawak     A very small chawak or dawak. (The prayer
                                 in mandit is called bayog.)
Batbat         Batbat          Against sickness.
Saad           Saad            A small batbat.
Kapi           Kapi            To prevent sickness of which one has been
                                 warned in dreams.
Amdag          Amlag           To secure release of the soul when it has
                                 been imprisoned by the amlag.
Tawal          Lawit           To induce a soul which has wandered away
                                 to return.
Tingiting      Tingiting       To cause return of souls which have flown
                                 away with the fire and smoke of a
                                 burning dwelling house.
Palis          Palis           Against witches.
Sagausau       Palis           To cause harm to befall an enemy or to
                                 avert harm from the giver.
Buang          Buang           Against deafness.
Nansaang       Mayilutlutkan   Against headache.
Palis chi      Palis di        Against toothache. Also against headache
  kabunian       kabunian        by the Nabaloi.
Dosad, Sigop   Mantuis bilig,  Against diseases of the lungs or chest.
Kolos          Liblibian       Against diarrhoea or pains in the abdomen
                                 or stomach.
Basil          Ampasit         Against sexually caused diseases.
Sabosab, Diau  Dayau           To cure sores. (Nabaloi ceremonies also
  Chuntog,                       celebrated after a quarrel so that
  Diau Kasib                     sores will not result.)
Tamo           Tamo            Against insanity.
Pasang         Pasang          Against sterility.
Abasang        Abasang         At the birth of children.
Sibisib        Sibisib         To cure wounds.
Kaysing        Gaysing         Betrothal ceremony given by parents.
Kalon          Galon           Betrothal ceremony given by betrothed.
Mangidin       Mangilin        Marriage ceremony.
Pansijanan     Mansiyanun      Divorce ceremony.
Siling         Siling          Funeral ceremony.
Okat           Pugas           Ceremony held immediately after a corpse
                                 has been put into the coffin or buried.
Tabwak         Kiad            To induce the soul of a person who has
                                 recently died to go away and not cause
Kosday         Kosde           To cause agricultural products to grow.
Tawal ni payu  Bugid           To increase water for irrigation. (Tawal
                                 ni payu also against sickness caused by
                                 spirits living in rice fields.)
Pungau         Pungau          To cause the rice to increase when
Bakak          Bugak           To prevent sickness caused by eating new
Salchi         Saldi           To prevent sickness caused by eating
                                 animals which have fallen or died of
Kiad                           Against sickness caused by mountain
                                 spirits called kakaising.
Ampasit                        Against sickness caused by timber spirits
                                 called ampasit.
Pasang ni                      Against sickness caused by air spirits
  Mansakit                       called pasang.
Timungau                       Against sickness caused by water spirits
                                 called timungau.
Gangau                         To cure rheumatism.
Padad                          To foresee and avert death.
               Bilig           Against sickness caused by spirits of the
                                 same name.
               Dagas           Against sickness caused by house spirits
                                 called dagas.
               Laglagiwin      Against sickness caused by a guardian
               Tanong          Against sickness caused by the souls of
               Sagausau        For luck before starting on a journey.


A. Generally distributed through northern and central Lepanto:

Begnas or pakde, for the general welfare; made two or three times a
year, before or after the planting and the harvesting of rice. Similar
to the Ifugao honga, the Benguet Kankanay kosde, and the Nabaloi

Bayas, made by the rich to emphasize their station; also against
sickness. Made after marriage "every four or five years," or, "three
times during one's lifetime." Similar to the Ifugao bumaiyah, the
Benguet Kankanay mandit, and the Nabaloi pachit.

Bakid, variously described as "for the dead," "against ditches going
dry," and "part of other cañaos." Similar to the Benguet Kankanay
bugid; and the Nabaloi tawal ni payu.

Ubaya, divination, "for finding out." Similar to the Ifugao ubaya,
the Benguet Kankanay anap, and the Nabaloi buyon, sabat, and bakno.

Palis, against witches. Similar to the Benguet Kankanay palis and
the Nabaloi palis.

B. Mentioned only in the reports from this or that township:

Pasang, against sterility. Similar to the Benguet Kankanay pasang,
and the Nabaloi pasang.

Keslei, against sickness.

Tobag, against sickness.

Tonkala, in accordance with a vow rendered during sickness.

Bagaoas, for the rice crop; against mice and drouth.

Sepesep, nature and purpose not clear.



The bindian, called by the Kabayan Nabaloi bindayan, is celebrated
in Buguias, but in no other Kankanay town. The ceremony is held to
cure or to prevent sickness, or in compliance with a promise made
while a person is sick.

In general, the celebration is similar to that conducted in Kabayan;
but in Buguias instead of the dummy head being carved to represent the
head of a person, it represents the head of a snake. In the bindian
song for Buguias, the deeds of the heroes who went to Legleg and
succeeded in killing two large snakes which had been responsible for
the death of a large number of people, are commemorated. The olol,
instead of representing the takers of human heads as they do in
Kabayan, represent the persons who killed the snakes.

As among the Kabayan Nabaloi, hogs are used for sacrifice, and the
dancing is the same in the two towns. The prayer is also similar. As
a rule the celebration is not conducted on so large a scale in Buguias
as it is in Kabayan, and fewer people attend.

I do not know whether or not this ceremony is given in any of the
Lepanto Kankanay towns, but I have seen a dance in Bagnen which is
similar to the bindian dance. The Igorot farther north have their
head-taking celebrations, of which the bindian seems to be a survival.


The mandit of the Kankanay corresponds to the pachit of the
Nabaloi. The Nabaloi use the word manchit, meaning "to celebrate
the pachit." The Kankanay always substitute "d" for the "ch" of
the Nabaloi.

However, there is a difference in the purpose for which the Nabaloi
and the Kankanay of Kibungan and surrounding towns celebrate this
ceremony. In Kibungan it is given neither to cure nor to prevent
sickness, but only to cause the person celebrating it to become rich
and to be honored by the people. In the Kankanay town of Buguias it
is celebrated to cure or prevent sickness as well as to enhance the
prestige and to increase the wealth of the giver.

The following is an account of a mandit which I saw on the 3rd and
4th of October, 1916, at the house of Damadan, a rich Igorot living
in Kibungan:

The ceremony began about nine o'clock in the morning. The mambunong
took a cocoanut shell filled with tapuy, and squatted in front of the
house. He then prayed as follows, while holding the tapuy in his hand:

    Sikayao ay pinading ay kayilinganmi, ipitikenmi dakayos nan tapuy
    ut makikan kayo; ut adayo golgolidan di pakanenmi.

    You, the pinading living near us, we are giving you tapuy and
    food to eat and drink with us; so do not permit what we feed to
    have a skin disease.

The old men then squatted around in a group and sang the bayog,
which is as follows:

    Linmayad si Taydak, linmayad si Dakodak;
    Ginmosad si Soyaan, linmayad si Taydak;
    Ginmosad si Balitok, Balitok nay masobok.
    Tadyonay manyokayok dalingyos bintauwanyo,
    Linmoboi di baboiyo, inmingyap di manokyo,
    Ganakyoi sauwaswoo. Siya say isongdoyo
    Linan inmananito.
    Ginmosad si Aponan, ingosadna baboina
    Siay intayawanda sinan boi di mansina.
    Siya sat matoganda mobalung ya ipidwada
    Tamonmasinop nan litagua way panamtamangan un dayida.
    Ginmosad si Maodi balitok nay masodi,
    Madili ay babayi, dalingyos bintauwanyo,
    Liniboi di baboiyo, inmingyap di manokyo.
    Alanyat i songdoyo si bomooi ay nayo.
    Balbalungmo matago, ipidwanas bungbungo
    Ut maad adotako.
    Ginmosad si Angtan; galinay kinadangian.
    Tanbanos di baknang ingosad ni baboiyo
    Ay inbayogunyo.

    Became happy Taydak, became happy Dakodak;
    Came down from the sky Soyaan, became happy Taydak.
    Came down from the sky Balitok, Balitok who was kind.
    The wooden dishes being carried in and out will be seen in your yard,
    Will become fat your pigs, will increase in number your chickens.
    Your children born will be eighteen. That is why you will mourn the
    death of
    the one celebrating the ceremony.
    Came down Aponan, bringing hogs
    So that there would be dancing at the house where the mandit was
    So that they would know when they did it next,
    He called together the people that they might see everything.
    Came down from the sky Maodi, gold-shining.
    Growing fat are your pigs, increasing in number are your chickens.
    Admit you will mourn the death of the giver of this ritual.
    If you live, do it again in the future
    That we may increase.
    Came down Angtan; his blankets were those of a rich man.
    The greatest of all the rich men brought down your hogs,
    Singing the bayog.

After singing the bayog, the people danced and drank tapuy until noon,
when twelve hogs which were to be killed were tied and put in a row in
front of the house. Just before the first hog was killed the mambunong
prayed the prayer which is called batbat in Kibungan. It is as follows:

    Lumawig un Kabigat, si Pati, si Soyaan, si Amdoyan, si Wigan, si
    Bintauan, si Bangan, si Bogan, si Obongan, si Obung, si Laongan,
    si Singan, si Maodi, si Kolan, si Moan, si Angtan, si Gatan,
    si Angban, si Mantalau, si Balitok; minyaan midakayos, yan
    tagoundakami. Idauwatmoi masangbo, tamo matagokami pangiyaan di
    ibamin dakami; tamo dakayo ay kabunian waday pangiyaan min dakayo;
    tamo anakmi waday matago ya waday pangiyaan min dakayo.

    Mopakenmi adadoenyo, tauaday piditenmi. Mo manokmi abu, matago
    tauwaday panbiagmi. Mo mansamakmi, abu, mataguay; batong mataguay,
    din togi mataguay; ta waday panbiagmi. Mo mansamakmi, abu, si pina,
    ya kapi adadoi bagasna, ta waday ilaukami, ta waday iami sigalimi.

    Lumawig and Kabigat, Pati, Soyaan, Amdoyan, Wigan, Bintauan,
    Bangan, Bogan, Obongan, Obung, Laongan, Singan, Maodi, Kolan, Moan,
    Angtan, Gatan, Angban, Mantalau, Balitok; we are giving this to
    you that we may live long. Work for us to become rich so that while
    we live there will be the giving of meat to us by our companions;
    so that you the gods will have things given to you; so that our
    children will have life; so that there will be gifts for you.

    What we feed increase, so that there will be celebrations of
    ceremonies again. Cause our chickens also to live to be for keeping
    us alive. Make what we plant also to live; beans to live; camotes
    to live; to be for keeping us alive. Make what we plant, also,
    pineapples and coffee, to have much fruit, so that we may have
    it to sell, that we may have something with which to buy blankets.

The hogs were then killed, and after the meat was cooked the same
prayer was repeated. After the people had eaten, they began to
dance and sing again and continued to do so throughout the night;
but only a small number of those who were present during the day
remained. The majority went home, taking with them part of the meat
which had been left.

The second and third days were similar to the first; but fewer people
attended, and fewer hogs were killed.

The mambunong stated that, if after a person has celebrated the
mandit, a stone should become detached from the hillside and roll
down near his house, or if there should be a slide near, it would be
necessary for him to kill another hog, and have the mambunong pray
the following prayer:

    Sika ay napolug ay bato nay ay okaamka, ut bomaknangak ut adakna
    bitbitbitug. Mataguak abu ta maobananak.

    You, the falling stone, I am giving you this so that you will
    make me rich and will not make me poor. Cause me to live also
    until my hair is white.

While this ceremony corresponds in general to the Nabaloi pachit,
the song and prayer are entirely different. In the pachit the
prayer is addressed principally to the souls of dead relatives,
while in the mandit the hero deities are addressed. The prayer and
song resemble more closely those for the Nabaloi bindayan than those
for the pachit. It is not improbable that when the bindayan or its
equivalent became obsolete among the Kibungan Kankanay, a part of it
was incorporated in other rituals.

The corresponding Lepanto Kankanay ceremony is variously designated
as the bayas, bagnas, and daaus. The corresponding Ifugao ceremony
is called bumayah.


The dawak is a small mandit, and corresponds to the Nabaloi chawak. A
very small dawak called basit dawak corresponds to the Nabaloi bayog.


The batbat is given in all Benguet towns, by the Kankanay as well as
the Nabaloi, to cure or prevent sickness and to bring riches and long
life to the giver. The ceremony is held for the same general purpose
by both tribes, but the manner of celebrating it is different.

In the Kankanay towns from one to twelve hogs may be used for
this ceremony. The number varies according to the wealth of the
giver. Unlike the Nabaloi they do not pretend to deceive the spirits
by tying hogs which are not to be killed. The following story regarding
this difference was related in Legleg, [8] a barrio of Kapangan:

    Ud nabaon si Lumawig winatwatun ifugau gudu ta siay aduum si
    okana. Gomosad pay sin kayilokoan, ay mankadu si gudu adida
    donongun. Isakayatna pay sin Nabaloi; inamtada di nangia si esa
    ay yatdaum adadu di indawatna. Sin nangi bagaana sin Kankanay
    pay yaanda si adadu.

    Sia say gapona ay iwud diidawat si Iloko sin batbat, mo din
    Inibiloi ya anda si usaloi, mo di Kankanay pay yaanda si adadu.

    Long ago Lumawig gave the people hogs so that they would give some
    of the increase. When he came down from the sky to the Ilocano
    country and asked for hogs, they did not comply. He asked the
    Nabaloi; they knew how to give him one and pretend that many were
    given. When he asked the Kankanay, they gave him many.

    This is the reason the Ilocanos do not celebrate the batbat;
    why the Nabaloi give one (hog) only; why the Kankanay give many.

Before each hog is killed, the mambunong prays as follows while
holding a cup of tapuy in his hand:

    Kabigat ay maybungan, Lumawig ay maybungan, Buliwan ay maybungan,
    Pati ay maybungan, Gatan ay maybungan, Dulo ay maybungan,
    Bintawan ay maybungan, Balitok ay maybungan, Ubang ay maybungan,
    Bangon ay maybungan, Bugan ay maybungan, Singan ay maybungan,
    Ubagan ay maybungan, Kolan ay maybungan, Angtan ay maybungan,
    Soyaan ay maybungan, Amdoyaan ay maybungan, Wigan ay maybungan,
    Mantalau ay maybungan; mo wada pay di sangbounda ya bomaknangda ut
    ta mapno di dapatanda, ya mapno di kuboda, ya magabay sinanak, ya
    gamun ya salon, to wada pansosokubantayo si tapin di agou. Bomangan
    sin sasakit.

    Kabigat to whom prayer is offered, Lumawig to whom prayer is
    offered, Buliwan to whom prayer is offered, Pati to whom prayer
    is offered, Gatan to whom prayer is offered, Dulo to whom prayer
    is offered, Bintawan to whom prayer is offered, Balitok to whom
    prayer is offered, Ubang to whom prayer is offered, Bangon to whom
    prayer is offered, Bugan to whom prayer is offered, Singan to whom
    prayer is offered, Ubagan to whom prayer is offered, Kolan to whom
    prayer is offered, Angtan to whom prayer is offered, Soyaan to whom
    prayer is offered, Amdoyaan to whom prayer is offered, Wigan to
    whom prayer is offered, Mantalau to whom prayer is offered; since
    there is praying here may it cause them to be rich so that their
    yards will be filled with pigpens, and may they be lucky in having
    children and money and cattle pasturing, so that there will be our
    eating and drinking together some other day. May the sick be cured.

After the hog has been killed, the mambunong takes the stick with
which it was stuck, and swings it while praying as follows:

    Sika pay ay wikibuyak ta dakami di omanda ya bomaknang, nakasnatna,
    tan onmandakami, ta isakladmi di puogmi ya malipunan kami si anak,
    gamung, ya salon.

    You, the stick, are swung so that we shall live long and become
    rich, so that we shall live long, so that our legs shall be as
    horn, so that we shall have many children, much money, and many
    cattle grazing.

The prayer recorded above is used in Legleg and all the other Kankanay
barrios of Kapangan, but in Kibungan the prayer recorded under the
mandit is also used for batbat. In Buguias the souls of the dead and
the malevolent spirits as well as the deities are addressed, and the
prayer as a whole is probably more similar to the Nabaloi prayer for
batbat than to the one recorded above.

Dancing the tayo forms a part of this ceremony in all Benguet
Kankanay towns.

The ceremony may last from one to three days, and is generally more
expensive than the batbat of the Nabaloi. As a rule more hogs, tapuy,
and rice are used.

It will be noted that in the prayer used by the Kankanay for batbat
only the deities are addressed, while the Nabaloi not only relate a
sacred story, but also petition the souls of ancestors, the pasang,
and some of the constellations.

In some respects the Lepanto ceremony called keslei resembles the

Among the Benguet Kankanay as well as the Nabaloi the term saad is
used to designate the batbat on a small scale.


Kapi is celebrated by the Buguias Kankanay in compliance with dreams,
or a vow made during sickness.

A hog, tapuy, and rice are necessary. Just before the hog is killed,
the mambunong prays, addressing his prayer to the deities, the souls
of the dead, and the malevolent spirits. They are asked not to cause
sickness, but to give good luck, riches, and long life.

After the hog has been killed and cooked, the prayer is repeated. There
is no dancing, but the people generally remain all day and spend the
time drinking tapuy.

I have never seen this ceremony in any of the western Benguet
Kankanay towns, but have been told that it is sometimes celebrated
in Kapangan. It is celebrated in all Nabaloi settlements, and in the
township of Mancayan in Lepanto.


The amlag is a ceremony celebrated in all Benguet Kankanay towns. Its
purpose is to cause the release of the captured soul of a living

A chicken, some rice, and a collection of tools are necessary for
sacrifice. The mambunong holds the chicken in one hand and squats
beside the tapuy and rice while he prays.

He begins his prayer by addressing the amlag of the various settlements
from the coast town of San Fernando, La Union, to the place where the
ceremony is held; and then requests that if any of them have captured
the soul of the sick person, they release it in exchange for the food,
tapuy, and tools.

This ceremony is celebrated for the same purpose as the amdag of the
Nabaloi; but no sacred story is told by the Kankanay mambunong, nor
are the deities addressed. The ceremony is celebrated in the Lepanto
town of Mancayan, and probably in other Lepanto towns.


Lawit is a ceremony celebrated by the Benguet Kankanay to cause the
return of the soul of a living person which has wandered away. One
of the Kibungan mambunong said:

    Mo iitauum ay wadaka's adaway sin buuina, ifugau, sia amona aydin
    ababiikna tinaymana.

    If a person dreams that he is far away from his house, he knows
    that his soul has left him.

The mambunong takes a plate of rice from which tapuy has been fermented
and holds it in one hand, while holding a chicken in the other. He
turns his face toward the sky and says the following:

    Sika ababiikna ----, omalika, mo sinoi inmoyan, sinan buuitaka,
    tan inayan nanbuui di kakading. Mo ituum isa matika, ut ungay
    adika mangan sinan ilagbuam.

    You, the soul of ----, come back if you have wandered away from
    our home, because it is dreadful to live in the home of the souls
    of the dead. If you stay there you will die, and you will not
    eat what you have earned.

The lawit is celebrated in Kibungan, Kapangan, Bacun, and Ampusungan;
but I do not know whether or not it is celebrated in any other Kankanay
towns. It corresponds to the Nabaloi tawal and to the Bontoc ofat.


The Buguias Kankanay celebrate a ceremony called tingiting to cause
the return of the souls of the persons who have occupied a house
which has been burned. It is believed that the souls fly away with
the fire and smoke.

One of those who has occupied the house holds some dried meat in his
hand, while he calls the names of all the sky deities he can remember,
and asks that they send the souls to earth again.

This ceremony is celebrated by the Nabaloi, and in the Lepanto Kankanay
town of Mancayan.


The palis is celebrated by the Benguet Kankanay against witchcraft,
and also to cause injury to befall an enemy.

Tapuy, cooked rice, and either a chicken or a dog are necessary
for sacrifice.

The prayer is addressed by the mambunong to the amlag. They are asked
to dissolve their alliance with the witch and take the side of the
people, or to visit the enemy and cause him bad luck, in consideration
of the tapuy and food which are furnished.

As soon as the prayer has been finished, the people present sing the
angba, a song in which the deities are called by name and asked to
witness the palis.

One man then dances and waves a spear as if he were attacking an enemy,
while some of the people keep time by beating together wooden sticks.

The palis is celebrated by the Nabaloi and the Lepanto Kankanay. The
ceremony, or its equivalent, is probably celebrated by all Igorot
tribes, since a belief in witchcraft is prevalent throughout their
territory. When the ceremony is celebrated to divert injury from
oneself to an enemy, it corresponds to the Nabaloi sagausau.


The buang is celebrated to cure deafness in Buguias, in some of the
Kankanay barrios of Atok, and probably in some if not all of the
Benguet Kankanay settlements farther west.

The mambunong holds in one hand the chicken to be sacrificed and
with the other hand he holds a cup of tapuy above the head of the
deaf person, while relating the following story:

    Kabigat of the earth was constructing a sod fence. While he was
    bending over to pick up a large piece of sod, he heard the noise
    of loud thunder. He did not look around, but continued to work.

    Soon his wife Bangan, who was working in a nearby camote field,
    called to him saying that it was time to go home. Kabigat did not
    answer, but continued to build fence. His wife became angry and
    began to scold, but when she turned around she saw the Thunder
    standing near. The Thunder said, "Do not become angry with your
    husband. He does not answer because he can not hear you. I made
    him deaf. If you want him to be cured get one chicken and one
    jar of tapuy and celebrate the buang."

Bangan did so and Kabigat was cured. Then they handed this down to
the people, and commanded that the name of Thunder, Kabigat, and
Bangan should be called.

This ceremony is celebrated by the Nabaloi, but a different version
of the story is told.


Mayilutlutkan is a ceremony given by the Kankanay against headache. The
mambunong takes a camote in his left hand and holds it against the
head of the sick person. He holds a knife in his right hand against
the camote, while praying as follows:

    Sika pay ay mayilutlutkanka's sumingising di agou,
    mayilutlutkanka's pangawan di agou, mayilutlutkanka's kalibiana
    agou, mayilutlutkanka's dimana agou, mayilutlutkanka's gomabisana
    agou, ya mayilutlutkanka's kapat aana; ado ut diya tubum dan dangau
    ay nay ta pangamoak di kasika ya dagosak iyuan sika's manokmo.

    You the mayilutlutkan of the morning sun, you the mayilutlutkan
    of the midday sun, you the mayilutlutkan of the afternoon sun,
    you the mayilutlutkan of the setting sun, you the mayilutlutkan
    of the time the cocks first crow, and you the mayilutlutkan of
    the dawn; may a complete cure be made by the dangau so that you
    will show yourself to me, and I will make you a gift of a chicken.

The mayilutlutkan corresponds to the Nabaloi nansaang.


The palis chi kabunian is celebrated in Buguias to cure toothache, but
I do not think it is celebrated in any other Benguet Kankanay towns.

A jar of tapuy and a chicken are used for sacrifice. The mambunong
holds the chicken in one hand, while with the other he holds a spear
against the aching tooth. He prays to the amlag asking that they cease
causing the tooth to ache, and that they visit their malevolence on
the patient's enemies instead.

The people then sing the angba, a song in which the deities are
asked to witness the palis. The patient then holds a spear in his
hand while he dances to the music produced by beating together two
seasoned wooden sticks.

The ceremony is celebrated by the Nabaloi, but the spoken ritual
is different.


Mantuis bilig is one of the ceremonies celebrated to cure pains
in the chest. A chicken, a jar of tapuy, and a basket of blankets,
breech-clouts, and headbands are necessary. The mambunong holds the
chicken in one hand, puts the basket on his head, squats beside the
tapuy, and says the following:

    Wada si Damogo ay manili us Natoo. Sia say Mantuis Bilig ay
    makagayang si ipugau. Inapuna usay galui, usay budbud, usay wanus,
    ya usay manok. Wada's Mayang ay manili ud Ampungut. Wada's
    Bokosan ay manili ud Odosan. Wada's Sigmayo ay manili ud
    Tabayo. Wada's Gomi ay manili ud Kasili. Wada's Palatang ay manili
    ud Manalang. Omali kayo ta badanganyo dakami si mugmug ya pakan
    tamo waday kamanina ya waday pangay ay yaganmin dakayo.

    There is Damogo, who lives in Natoo. He is Mantuis Bilig who
    spears the people. He requires one blanket, one breech-clout,
    one headband, and one chicken. There is Mayang who lives in
    Ampungut. There is Bokosan, who lives in Odosan. There is Sigmayo,
    who lives in Tabayo. There is Gomi, who lives in Kasili. There is
    Palatang, who lives in Manalang. You come to help us in feeding our
    chickens and in feeding our hogs, so that there may be (a ceremony)
    like this, so that there will be (something) for calling you names.


Bilong is a ceremony which is celebrated to cure diseases of the
lungs. The mambunong holds in one hand a piece of dried meat and says
the following:

    Wada, kano, da Ginsingan un Suyan. Mansida pay, kano, san
    tonodaisan adue ya mayaganda Ginsingan ya si Suyan. Amuida pay,
    kano, yan pinoda san usay takbada si patok yan pinoda san usay
    takbada san inapoi. Somaada pay, kano, yan manbidbidbidang ut
    san usay batang. Ingayon kinwanina ut, kano, un, "Manototo ut
    sina ta manganta."

    Omada ut, kano, isan patok ud idawista apoi. Kanuttut, kano,
    adi makaoto san apoi ay manbidbidang. Amui dapag pay, kano,
    gogoabna, yan tomagoda ut sia nangidawisan isan panganda ay patok
    ut dagos naoto.

    Makakanda pay, kano, yan somaada ud baboida. Manokda duandan
    mantogas eda. Anapunda pay, kano, yan bilong. Ingayan kinwanina,
    kano, un, "Payun tako's nan ipugau ta mo waday nankios bakun ya
    mantogpasda, ya daita di poon di sapon di bilong."

    There were Ginsingan and Suyan. A person celebrating a ceremony
    and his relatives far away invited Ginsingan and Suyan. When
    they went one basket of meat fell, and one basket of cooked
    rice fell. While they were on the way home, there was one tree
    blazing. Then they said, "Let us cook and eat here."

    They took the piece of meat and roasted it on the fire. They
    could not cook it on the blazing fire. They went below a little
    distance and roasted their food, the meat, and it cooked easily.

    When they had eaten they went home. They were coughing and
    spitting blood. Then they discovered the bilong. Then they said,
    "We will hand it down to the people so that if they have sickness
    or spit blood, we shall be called and shall be the origin of the
    prayer of bilong."


Maydosadan is one of the ceremonies which is held to cure pains in
the chest. The mambunong holds a chicken which is to be sacrificed,
while he relates the following:

    Bangan un Kabigat unda manorian. Inagton Bangan tagbana, yan
    inaligida Kabigat din pataklangna. Dintangda san dorian ay sin
    poon; anayan kaotanda ut mapno san tagban Bangan, ya mapno san
    pataklang Kabigat sin bugas di dorian.

    Angayan idondon Bangan si Kabigat ut inmangaya. Itotukduun pay
    sina ay Bangan. Amui pay si Kabigat ya binutbutna san kayi ay
    dakdakui yan tinmudtud san dada. Angayan kaapap si Kabigat isan
    paguna yan tamokdo.

    Ingayan sumaa ut asina kanan, "Kaasita pay sina adi pay nanatui
    sina tan samo waday kayi ay mandada." On gayutkan kinwanin Bangan,
    "Kambau! sian ay poon di atud di maydosadan." Ut magay pagnan
    ipaytok sinan kay ipugau.

    Bangan and Kabigat went to get dorian. [9] Bangan carried on the
    head in the carrying basket, and Kabigat carried on the back in
    the carrying frame. They found the dorian and then dug it up,
    and Bangan filled the carrying basket and Kabigat filled the
    carrying frame with the root of the dorian.

    Then Bangan sent Kabigat to get wood. Kabigat then went and picked
    up a large piece of wood dripping with blood. Then at once Kabigat
    put his hand on his chest and sat down.

    Then he went home immediately and said, "Pity us because there has
    been death here, since the wood was bleeding." Then Bangan said,
    "Oh! This is the origin of the remedy for maydosadan." So it was
    handed down to the people.

After the chicken has been killed and cooked, the story is repeated.


Manbating is one of the ceremonies which is held when a person is
bleeding from the nose or mouth. The mambunong holds a chicken in
one hand, while he sits in front of a basket containing a rope and
says the following:

    Wada, kano, san dua sin agi--Timungau. Unda pay, kano,
    nanogian. Datgnunda ut san usay togi ay imui us dalum san
    bugasna ut duiay pakdanonodun, yan dintangda san usay dalipoi ay
    bato. Tokwabunda payan.

    Ilaunda, kano, ut nabokalan san kadan di bato, ut nandahos san
    matada ud dalum. Ilaunda, payun nada, kano, baoi yan nada mansida
    us dalum. Ungayun alaunda ut, kano, san talida ut pansissilpoonda
    ut itakudda ut siay pandananda ay amui adalum.

    Domatunga payan mansida. Daeda unda mangan. Mangmanganda pay,
    kano, yan nguda utut, kanon, san iposan un, "Dupapuntako to
    ipangantako." Ungayan inmagyatda ut duiata kaaninta san iniwitanda
    ut itakudda isan pantu ta siay pangililanda si kawadata, yan
    duantapui komaan. Inayan siay inyatda.

    Asida ut dupapunda eda ut pay kanon nan sin agi, un "Adi kayo
    pompomsu ta asauwak san anakmo." Ungayan adida pinpinsuida eda
    ut pangasauwaun san anak Maseken. Ingayan konan, kono, Maseken,
    "Tako manganop."

    Amui dapag, kano, yan ituiun san inapona isan subang
    duanpag. Amuida Maseken yesan oduum ay kadwana, ut unda apayauun
    san kananda un noang ay nakay. Bumatung ut, kano, isan kadan si
    inapona, ut ilana nabakus san manugtug ay kadanda un anapanda.

    Ungayan adina siniloan yan pinalobosna, ut amui. Dumatung pay
    si Maseken yan yamyamana san inapona, ut ungayan apayau unda san
    nabakus ay si ininada, ut dupapunda ut labakunda. Idatungda payan
    ut kananda ipanganda. Asi ut kinwanin san inapona un, "Adikami
    pay ladum san ipugau ay ipangan." Ingayan kinwanin Maseken un,
    "Mantaolika mo adi kayo laydum di ipugau ay ipangan."

    Ingayan mantaolida sinan sapui di lota, ut asida, kano,
    kinwanida un, "Manalako's tali ta waday sapountako si batun ta
    waday panbatungtako si ipangantako." Ingayan mansapoda si batun
    ta waday panbatung si ipugau. Asi kinwanin dua ay sin agi un,
    "Alauntakona ta ipangan." Asi ut kinwanin Maseken un, "Dakui ta
    omyada's tali ya manok ta mo adida omiya, asi alaun nan ipugau
    ay batungantako."

    There were two brothers, the Timungau. They went to get
    camotes. They found one camote the root of which went far into
    the ground, and they dug after it and found a wide stone. They
    turned it over.

    They looked into the opened place, and their eyes saw to the
    underworld. They saw there a house, and there was being celebrated
    a ceremony in the underworld. Then they got their rope and fastened
    and tied it, and it was this way they went to the underworld.

    Then they arrived at the ceremony. They went to eat. They were
    eating when they heard the inhabitants of the underworld say,
    "We will catch you so that we may eat you." Then they became
    afraid, and took off their breech-clouts and tied them on the
    door so that it would be thought they were there. This they did.

    Then they caught them, and one of the brothers said, "Do not
    kill us because I will marry your daughter." Then they did not
    kill them, and he married one of the daughters of Maseken. Then
    Maseken said, "Let us go to hunt."

    They went below, but the son-in-law stayed in the trail. Maseken
    and his companions went, and ran after an old carabao. They
    arrived at the place of the son-in-law, and he saw that an old
    woman was running at the place they were hunting.

    Then he did not lasso her, but let her go; then he went
    away. Maseken arrived and scolded his son-in-law, and then ran
    after the old woman, their mother, and caught her and wounded
    her. Then the son-in-law said, "We do not like to eat people." Then
    Maseken said, "Return, if you do not like to eat people."

    Then they returned to the top of the ground and said, "We will get
    the rope so that there is something for making a net so that we
    can catch our food with the net." Then they made a net so that
    there was something to net people with. Then the two brothers
    said, "Take this in order that you may eat." But Maseken said,
    "They will give us rope and chickens, because if they do not give
    them to us we will catch the people with the net."


The liblibian is a ceremony which is celebrated in Kibungan and the
neighboring Kankanay towns to cure diarrhoea and pains in the abdomen.

The mambunong holds in one hand a kind of plant called dungau while
relating the following story:

    Wada, kano, san dua ay sin agi, Bogan un Singan. Si Bogan baybayi,
    si Singan lalaki. Maanakda pay, kano, yan dua ay lalaki. Din
    dakdakui si Pintun; din banbanug sia si Liblibian.

    Ungay pay, kano, madakdakda yan adi da mangan. Idawad amada tan
    inada san gawan di inapoi ya gawan di atui yan adida laydum.

    Usay agou pay, kano, yan inmauway da amada ya inada dumatungda
    ut, kano, yan ingay kinanda pinilak san gambangda. Kinwanida un,
    "Ay takun ay gambang landok di laydingyo ay kanun." "Au, landok
    di laydunmi ay kanunmi."

    Ungayan mankoyog ut, kano, Liblibian un Pintun ut amuida isan
    kayiloguan. Domatungda payan siblaganda san anak di Iloko ta
    waday gapona si pangianda undaita si banig ta wada kanunda. Adi
    ut, kano, amonsan Iloko di mangiya un daeda si banigda, kano,
    yan pagdin adas di amoda. Kinwanida un, "Kambau! Adi amom nan
    Iloko di buni, ut amuitako'd sinan kayigorotan."

    Amuita pay, kano, yan sinan kayigorotan, yan siblaganda san usay
    anak di Igorot. Kaa ut, kano, usay, manok ya sinpo ya lima ay
    banig ut isay paday liblibian. Kinatut kakansan ut pay bomangan
    san anakda.

    There were a brother and sister, Bogan and Singan. Bogan was
    a woman and Singan was a man. They had children, two boys. The
    larger was Pintun, the smaller was Liblibian.

    When they became older they did not eat. Their father gave the
    cooked rice from the center (of the pot) and the center of the
    liver, but they did not like it.

    One day when their father and mother had gone to cultivate the
    land and had returned, they had already eaten one-half of their
    pot. They said, "How is this? you like to eat iron pots." "Yes,
    iron is what we like to eat."

    Then Liblibian and Pintun left together and went to the land of
    the Ilocano. When they arrived they made one child of an Ilocano
    sick so that there would be a reason for giving them bolos to
    eat. The Ilocano did not know enough to give them bolos to eat,
    but knew of medicine only. They said, "Oh! The Ilocano do not
    know the prayer, so let us go to Igorot land."

    They went to Igorot land and made sick one child of an Igorot. He
    took at once one chicken and fifteen bolos and held the ceremony
    liblibian. As soon as this was done, the sickness of the child
    was cured at once.


The ampasit is a ceremony which is celebrated by the western Benguet
Kankanay to cure sexually caused diseases. The mambunong holds in one
hand a chicken which is to be sacrificed, and relates the following

    Ud bayag waday isa ifugau ya asauwana waday isay anakda babayi
    mangadan si Ampasit. Sinamingsan si Ampasit inmui nan si
    lokto. Sinkadona sinadan isa anak Timungau ay lalaki intabona
    di anak ay babayi Ampasit. Sinkatauwataun si ama'n Ampasit adi
    makaanop. Yatda un natui si Ampasit.

    Sinisay agou sin inmoyan ama'n Ampasit ay manamus inilada si
    Ampasit ay imaylagui si abalug ay bato. Sin ama inyatna un,
    "Tola di inmoyarn?" "Inasauwak di Timungau ay lalaki, ut intabona
    sakun sina." Inyagan amana sin buida ut nankañauda ut inayagana
    si Timungau ya din kabaena.

    Kakdinganda ay mangan, si Timungau ya din kabaena sin naada. Si
    Timungau binmayun, ut nangamag, abu, kañau. Inayagona si Ampasit
    ya si amana ya si inana.

    Sin inmayan Ampasit ya si amana ya si inana sin kañau Timungau,
    inmagyatda mosino di namolod si gudu sin balayan tan adi di inila
    angan ililauunda.

    Si ama'n Ampasit nanmimi. Anmimianda din mata'n di asauwan Ampasit
    tan adina inila. Si Timungau inyatna, "Adimi pian ay makiasauwa sin
    anakmi ay lalaki din Ampasit tan angan mosin buuitako manmimianda
    din matatako. Sapoantabos da eda ta mansakitda ta adika manmimi."

    Ta makabangon sin sakit, si ama'n Ampasit nangamag si kañau,
    ut say inamwan ifugau di yatna ay maamay.

    Long ago there were a man and his wife who had a daughter named
    Ampasit. One day Ampasit went to get camotes. While she was on
    the way, a son of Timungau hid the girl Ampasit. For a long time
    the father of Ampasit could not find her. He thought that Ampasit
    was dead.

    One day when the parents of Ampasit had gone to bathe, they
    saw Ampasit standing on a large rock. Her father said to her,
    "Where have you been?" She said, "I married the son of Timungau,
    and he hid me here." Her father called her to the house and gave
    a ceremony, and invited Timungau and his family.

    After Timungau and his family had finished eating, they went
    home. Timungau was ashamed, and celebrated a ceremony also. He
    invited Ampasit and her father and her mother.

    When Ampasit and her father and her mother went to the ceremony
    of Timungau, they wondered how the pigs in the yard were tied,
    because they did not see, although they were looking.

    The father of Ampasit urinated. He urinated on the face of the
    husband of Ampasit, because he did not see him. Timungau said,
    "We do not wish to have Ampasit married to our son, because even
    at our own house they urinate on our faces. We will make them
    sick so that they can not urinate."

    So that they might get cured of the sickness, the father of
    Ampasit had a ceremony, and taught the people what to say in
    order to celebrate it.

The ampasit of the Kankanay is entirely different from the ceremony
of the same name celebrated by the Nabaloi. The Kankanay ampasit
corresponds in purpose to the Nabaloi basil. There is no similarity,
however, in the spoken rituals of these two ceremonies.


The dayau is celebrated in all Benguet Kankanay towns to cure sores.

A chicken and a jar of tapuy are necessary for sacrifice. The mambunong
holds the chicken in one hand, a cup of tapuy in the other, and relates
a version of the story recorded under the bilig (p. 377); but he adds
that after the quarrel both the Wind and the Lightning became covered
with sores, and that in compliance with the advice of Lumawig the
dayau was celebrated in order that a cure might be effected.

After the ceremony the patient bathes while saying:

    I am bathing for dayau. May my sores be cured. May I be like you,
    Water, free of sores.

The ceremony is very similar to the diau kasib of the Nabaloi. It
is celebrated in Mancayan, but I do not know whether or not it is
celebrated in any other Lepanto towns.


The tamo is held in Buguias to cure insanity. It is also made in
some of the villages of Mancayan, but I do not know whether it is
celebrated in other Kankanay towns.

The mambunong holds the chicken in his hand and prays, but I can not
state the nature of the prayer. After the prayer one man dances with a
spear in his hand. The dance, which is similar to that of the palis,
is repeated three times. Between dances the people sing, but no one
seems to be able to explain the meaning of the song. The majority of
the words used in both the song and the prayer are probably obsolete.

The ceremony is similar in some respects to the tamo of the Nabaloi.


The pasang is celebrated to cause children to be born. The mambunong
holds a chicken in each hand and squats between two baskets of
blankets, while relating the following story:

    Wada, kano, Bintauan un Apinan. Sin Agida. Adida, kanon, mananak
    ya mo manawasda pay, kano, sumakisakit sin agusda asauwada.

    Amuida ut, kanominda manpaanap. Datgnunda, kano, san usay bato
    ay bui; binmali san usay dakdakui ya ando ay ipugau ay maata di
    kadumna. Asi ibaganda Bintauan un Apinan ay mananap mo sinoi inmat
    un asauwada. Asina kanon un, "Amui kayo un boan si agou tan siay
    mangamo si anap."

    Ungayanan amuida Bintauan un Apinan. Datunga pay, kano,
    san nantotomtoman di lota ya ud tagui. Wada san dadakui ay
    buui. Binmali ut, kano, abu san usay ipugau ay mandada di matana
    mayatag kaduna. "Sinoi gapona si inmalianyo?" "Inkami manpaanap tan
    mo manowas san asauwami ya mansakit ya adikami mananak." "Adi pay,
    amok di anap, ut amui kayo unda agou un Boan tan daeda dimangamo
    si anap."

    Amuida ut, kano, ingilada di mantumtumog san dua ay kaman buui
    ay bato ay kalimlimosan si danom. Amugyapda, kano, ay amui ut
    impaononada san asoda. Ilanda ut, kano, nabasil. Ungayan omonodda
    si asoda. Mabas ilda ut diay nayapapa ut tagui, yan wada san
    adado ay buui ay nanataatang.

    Dumatang pay yan kabala san si asauwa'n agou, ut kinwanina,
    "Sinoi kayo?" "Unmali kami ta kami nanpaanap tan adi mananak si
    asauwami yan mo manawas da mansakitda." "Sangupkayo sian daounmi
    tan mo dumatung si agou malpa kayo." Ungayan singupda sin daoun
    di buui di agou.

    Dumatung pay, kano, si agou ut inbaga un, "Mo waday inmali
    ay ipugau ud kugau?" "Au, ay panada si daon di buui. Unda
    kanon manpaanap tan adi mananakda asauwada ya mansakitda mo
    manowasda." Ungayan ay agou inbgana Apinan un Bintauan, "Sinoi
    gapona si inmalianyo?" "Inmali kami tan un kami manpaanap." Ungayan
    kinwanina agou, "Sumaa kayo ut yaanyo di pasang, ut maganak kayo."

    Sumaada Apinan un Bintauan ut siay inyatda ut nanganakda, ya adi
    nansakit si asauwada mo manawasda.

    There were Bintauan and Apinan. They were brothers. They did not
    have children, and when their wives had their menses, they were
    sick in the abdomen.

    They went then to get some one to make the divination
    ceremony. They found a stone house; a large tall man with green
    eyebrows came out of it. Then Bintauan and Apinan asked him to make
    the divination ceremony so that they could learn what troubled
    their wives. Then he said, "Go to the Sun and Moon because they
    know the divination ceremony."

    Then Bintauan and Apinan went away. They arrived then at the
    meeting place of the earth and the sky. There was a large house. A
    red-eyed man with green eyebrows came out of it. "For what reason
    did you come?" "We came to cause the divination ceremony to be
    made, because when our wives have their menses they get sick and do
    not have children." "I do not know the divination ceremony; go to
    the Sun and the Moon, because they know the divination ceremony."

    They went on and saw two stones as large as a house striking each
    other, where the water empties. They were afraid to go farther,
    but sent their dog ahead. They saw he was on the other side. Then
    they followed their dog. They arrived on the other side, where
    there were many houses joined together.

    They arrived then, and the wife of the Sun came out and said,
    "Who are you?" "We came to have the divination ceremony made,
    because our wives do not have children and when they have their
    menses they are sick." "Come under the house because when the
    Sun arrives he will wilt you." Then they went under the house of
    the Sun.

    When the Sun arrived, he asked, "Did men come at noon?" "Yes,
    they are waiting under the house. They came to have the divination
    ceremony held, because their wives do not have children and they
    get sick when they have their menses." Then the Sun asked Apinan
    and Bintauan, "Why did you come?" "We came to have the divination
    ceremony celebrated." Then the Sun said, "Go home and celebrate
    the pasang, and you will have children."

    They went home and did so and had children, and their wives were
    not sick when they had their menses.

There is no dancing in connection with this ceremony in the western
Benguet Kankanay towns, but in Buguias the wife and husband dance. The
wife carries her camote basket filled with blankets, breech-clouts,
and cloth, which are offered to the pasang.

The pasang is celebrated for the same purpose by the Nabaloi, the
Lepanto Kankanay, and probably other Igorot tribes. I have been told
that a corresponding ceremony is celebrated as far north as Kalinga.


The abasang is celebrated in all Benguet Kankanay towns when children
are born.

A chicken and a jar of tapuy are used for sacrifice. The mambunong
holds the chicken in one hand, and prays to the laglagawin or guardian
spirit of the child, asking that it may live long and be lucky. A
magical story, which I was unable to secure, is also related.

This ceremony is celebrated by the Nabaloi, but I do not know whether
or not it is held in any Kankanay towns outside of Benguet.


The Kankanay as well as the Nabaloi celebrate sibisib to cure
wounds. The mambunong holds against the wound the instrument with
which it was inflicted, while relating the following:

    Si Boliwan waday dua anakna--da Lumawig un Kabigat.

    Sin agou inmeda manganop, ut inaday isa makawas. Sumaada pay
    nabayda ut nanibayda sin ilungan. Ginudgudda din patang ut

    Sin tinmotokdowanda din asoda inapayoda di oduum ay makawas. Din
    dua sin agi inonodda di asoda. Inyudda un amada un bantayana
    din patang.

    Din isa sinsin agi niangna din makawas, yan adida ut maykapsu. Din
    makawas linmayau ay waday gayang sin angina. Nantaolida sin
    nanayanda un amada. Inilada ay yuwud patang.

    Inyatna un amada, "Insedan mut patang." Inyat amada, "Adak insida,
    nayiwud sin manaukak." Inyat anakna, un "Adika ibagay maptung;
    insedan mut."

    Bintyakanut, Boliwan, agusna sin bangina ut mati. Ut inila din
    san agi ay iwud din patang sin agusna. Ut yatda un, "Angan yatmi
    insidam, adan binutyakan akusmo ta adika natay."

    Ut inbaladda ay manilit mo sino dinangisida sin patang. Inilada
    di idu sin tongdon di bimabaktadanda, ut inyatna un, "Au,
    insedak." Din dua sin agi inyatna un, "Puslundaka ut." Din idu
    inyatna un, "Adikayo pomsu, ta asak todoan si dakayo si mamuyan si
    magud, ya pabilayuk si amayo loman." Din idu inyatna un, "Yalio
    san gayang, banig, bislak, ya matadum ay bato." Ut inamagda. Din
    idu inpauina din gayanag, banig bislak, ya bato sin sagun nagudgud,
    ya inbunongna. Si Boliwan natagu loman.

    Din sin agi inyatda sin idu, "Waada ay anitoka." Din idu inyatna
    un, "Au, sakun di anito." Din sin agi inyatda, un, "Ingosadtako
    sin anak di ifugau tamo waday ingus nina ay manomang ya sidotako
    di pangigapwanda mo sibsibanda."

    Boliwan had two sons, Lumawig and Kabigat.

    One day they went hunting, and caught a deer. They started home,
    but became tired on the way. They cut the meat into pieces and
    dried it.

    While they were sitting down, their dogs ran after another
    deer. The two brothers followed their dogs. They told their father
    to guard the meat.

    One of the brothers hit the deer with his spear, but did not kill
    it. The deer ran away with the spear in his body. They returned
    to the place where their father was staying. They saw that the
    meat was gone.

    They said to their father, "You surely ate the meat." Their
    father said, "I did not eat it, it was taken away while I was
    sleeping." The sons said, "You do not speak well; you certainly
    ate it."

    Boliwan cut open his (own) abdomen with a bolo, and died. Then
    the two brothers saw that there was no meat in his stomach. Then
    they said, "Although we said that you ate the meat, you should
    not have cut open your abdomen and then you would not have died."

    Then they lay down and watched to see who had eaten the meat. They
    saw a snake above where they were standing, and said to it,
    "Probably you ate the meat." The Snake answered, "Yes, I ate
    it." The two brothers said, "We shall certainly kill you." The
    Snake answered, "Do not kill me; I will teach you how to cure
    wounds, and you can make your father alive again." The Snake said,
    "Give me your spears, bolos, sticks, and sharp stones." They
    gave them. The Snake put the spears, bolos, sticks, and rocks
    near the wound and prayed. Boliwan became alive again.

    The brothers said to the snake, "We think you are a god
    (anito)." The Snake answered, "Yes, I am a god." The brothers
    said, "We will tell the children of the people, so that if there
    is something like this they may cure it, and may call our names
    when celebrating the sibisib."

The story related in Buguias is substantially the same as the one
related by the Kabayan Nabaloi in the same ceremony.

The sibisib is celebrated in the town of Bacun in Amburayan, and in
Ampusungan of Lepanto, but I do not know whether it is made in other
Lepanto towns.


The larger number of the Benguet Kankanay are betrothed while children
by their parents. The betrothal ceremony is called gaysing. As a rule
this cañao is celebrated when the children are very young; frequently
while they are infants; and occasionally before one of them is born.

One of the primary objects of the gaysing is to cement friendship
between the parents, and it is frequently held after they have
quarreled and pressure has been brought to bear to cause them to
become friendly again.

An animal, generally a cow, is killed and tapuy is furnished, but
there is no spoken ritual.

The Nabaloi custom of betrothal is the same, and the same ceremony
is celebrated.


The betrothal ceremony celebrated by the young people themselves
without the intervention of their parents is called galon. It
is held only in the instances where there has been no gaysing, or
where the parties for whom the gaysing has been celebrated refuse to
marry. Except in the case of the rich, refusal to marry is rare, since
the one who refuses must pay all expenses incurred for the gaysing.

The galon is celebrated exactly like the gaysing.

The corresponding Nabaloi ceremony is called kalon.


The marriage ceremony, called mangilin, is similar to the mangidin
of the Nabaloi.

A hog is always offered for sacrifice, and the mambunong prays,
calling the names of the sky deities and asking them to witness the
marriage. They are also requested to cause those marrying to treat
each other properly, to cause them to have many children, to cause
everything which they plant to grow well, to cause them to have luck
with their livestock, and to give them long life and riches.

After the prayer the Mambunong passes a cup of water to the bridegroom,
who drinks, and then gives the cup to the bride.

A taboo is effective against both the bride and groom for three days
after the ceremony. At the end of this time they go to the brook to
bathe, the man taking his ax and the woman her camote basket. While
bathing each one repeats a short formula, after which they are husband
and wife.


In case of divorce the mansiyanun, which is the same as the pansijanun
of the Nabaloi, is made. There is no spoken ritual, but a hog and
tapuy are furnished the people.

The engagement, marriage, and divorce ceremonies are similar throughout
Benguet, eastern Amburayan, and southern Lepanto.


The siling, or funeral ceremony, is celebrated in all Benguet Kankanay
towns, and, indeed, under various names, by the majority if not all
of the Igorot tribes.

Except in the case of infants or very small children the dead are not
buried immediately, but are put into a death chair around which funeral
rites are held. In the meantime animals belonging to the dead person
or his relatives are killed and eaten, while the burial is delayed.

The interval between the death and the burial varies according to the
wealth of the deceased, sometimes lasting for months in the case of
the very wealthy. Even when the health authorities force immediate
burial on account of danger from infectious diseases, the siling
continues just the same with a dummy corpse in the death chair.

Before anything is killed, the mambunong prays, asking that the food
eaten at the siling may not cause sickness. A female relative then
leans on the death chair and says the following:

"You are dead, ----. We are giving everything we can for your
siling. Do not come back for us, but let us live long."

After the siling ends the corpse is put into the coffin and buried
in the ground, or placed in a natural cave. The burial takes place
either in the afternoon, between sunset and dark, or in the morning
before the sun rises.


After a dead person has been buried, the people gather in his
yard. They get a vessel of water, and the mambunong puts grass in it
and sprinkles them, while saying the following:

    Wada, kano, san dua sin agi. Daeda Balitok un Obog. Nananakda
    ut napno san kabilibilig. Asida naatui san kayilianda. Natui
    payan inkapotda. Asida matapog nan kayipupugau at alanda san
    usay pingan ya lima ay tabon di pao, ut manpagasda. Manpagasda
    pay, kano, yan laton utay magay mamatui un daeda. Ingayan duiay
    ya lida ut ipugasdasnan kayi ipuipugau ut sianan moada matui,
    maagum san ipugau ut manpagasna.

    There were two brothers. They were Balitok and Obog. They had
    children, and the mountains fell. Then their neighbors died. When
    they died they buried them. Then the people gathered together,
    and took one plate and five leaves of cogon grass and made a
    ceremony. They made the ceremony then so that none of them would
    die. Then they handed it down to the people so that when there were
    deaths, the people would gather together and perform the ceremony.

The pugas corresponds to the Nabaloi okat.


The kiad is a ceremony celebrated by the Kankanay of Kapangan and
Kibungan to cure sickness inflicted upon the wealthy by the souls of
their dead relatives.

A carabao, a cow, or a horse may be killed when the kiad is celebrated.

The people first take a jar of tapuy to the grave of that dead
relative of the sick person who is indicated by the anap as having
caused the sickness. A hole is made in the grave, and the mambunong
prays as follows:

    Amud, omalika ta yaanaka si noang, gale; ya maninommi tapuy.

    Soul of dead relative, come because you are given a carabao,
    a blanket; and we will drink tapuy.

The blanket is put into the grave, after which the people go to the
house of the sick person. They tie the animal to be killed, and give
the rope to the mambunong. He then prays as follows, while holding
the rope:

    Ud niman nay yaanakka si noang, ut masaoan di sakitna.

    Now I am giving you a carabao, and may the sickness be cured.

The carabao is then killed and cooked. Just before the people eat,
the mambunong says:

    Amud, omalika ta mangangtaka.

    Soul of the dead relative, come and eat with us.

After the people have eaten, the mambunong shakes the two blankets to
be used by the dancers, in order that he may shake out the spirits
of the blankets for the dead relative. While doing this he says
the following:

    Bomaknangkami, onmandokami, ta waday kadayyawanmo.

    May we be rich, may we live long, so that there is your

The people then spend the rest of the day dancing and drinking tapuy.

The ceremony is entirely different from the kiad of the Nabaloi. It
corresponds in purpose and occasion to the Nabaloi tabwak.


Kosde, called pakde in some barrios, is celebrated in all Benguet
Kankanay towns. The purpose of the ceremony is to cause agricultural
products to grow well, and it is always celebrated some time between
rice planting and rice harvesting, generally soon after the planting
has been finished.

The night before the ceremony begins, every fire in the barrio is
extinguished, and the next morning new fire is produced by means
of friction.

Each household must furnish a hog or chicken and a jar of tapuy. The
mambunong holds a separate ceremony at each house, and prays to the
gods and spirits asking that the yield may be sufficient for the
people and that there may be enough surplus with which to celebrate
many ceremonies.

After the ceremony has been held at each house, the meat and tapuy are
taken to one place. The men proceed to drink the tapuy, but the meat
is divided among the people according to the number in each family. The
part which can not be eaten is hung above the fire and dried.

This ceremony corresponds to the Nabaloi kosday; to the pakde or
begnas of the Lepanto Kankanay; and, in a general way, to the honga
of the Ifugao, and the chaka of the Bontoc.


The ceremony called bugid is held in the Benguet Kankanay towns when
the water for irrigation is not sufficient.

A jar of tapuy and some dried meat are taken to the field for
sacrifice, and the owner of the field prays to the spirits of suicides
asking them not to try to drink from the irrigation ditches.

The purpose of the ceremony corresponds to the tawal ni payu of
the Nabaloi, and to the bakid as celebrated in some of the Lepanto
Kankanay towns.


The pungau is celebrated by the Benguet Kankanay at the beginning of
rice harvest. Before any rice can be gathered, the owner of the field
must procure a jar of tapuy and either a chicken or dried meat, which
are taken to the field. The owner holds the chicken or dried meat in
one hand and prays that the rice to be harvested may increase to an
amount sufficient to last until the next harvest, and promises that
a large part of it will be used for ceremonies.

After the prayer all who are to take part in the ceremony drink
tapuy. No one else is allowed in the field until after the harvesting
has been completed, and a piece of cloth is displayed to warn away

This ceremony corresponds to the pungau of the Nabaloi and the safosab
of the Bontoc. The Lepanto Kankanay also celebrate a ceremony before
beginning rice harvest, but I do not know by what name it is designated
nor the manner in which it is celebrated.


Before any new rice is eaten, the ceremony called bugak is held. Some
of the new rice and either dried meat or a chicken are cooked. A
mambunong is not necessary, but the head of the household throws some
of the cooked rice in the fire and says:

    You, the fire which did the cooking, shall be the first to eat,
    in order that the rice shall not cause us to become sick.

He prays a similar prayer to the pots in which the cooking has been
done, to the rack on which the rice was dried, and to the mortar in
which it was threshed.

This ceremony corresponds to the bakak of the Nabaloi.


The ceremony called saldi is held before eating the meat of animals
which have died of disease or have fallen from a cliff.

Pieces of the animals' liver are thrown in various directions while
the mambunong addresses the bilig living in the pasture lands of the
animal, asking that sickness may not result from eating the meat.

After the meat has been cooked, the mambunong invites the fire and the
pot to eat first, in order that the people who eat may not become sick.

This ceremony, which corresponds to the Nabaloi salchi, is celebrated
in all Benguet Kankanay towns, and also in Bacun, Amburayan, and in
Ampusungan and Mancayan, Lepanto.


The bilig are spirits which are friendly to the people, but cause
sickness when they need blankets or food. The ceremony called bilig
is performed to cure the sickness caused by these spirits.

A chicken, tapuy, rice, and blankets are obtained. The mambunong puts
a basket full of blankets on his head, holds a chicken in one hand,
and while squatting beside the tapuy and rice says the following:

    Usay agou ud nabaon, din dagum ya din kimat nanbatbatda isan
    mabilig. Kinwanin kanon, dagum un, "Wawadaak mo si sika." Tumba
    pay, kano, si kimat, "Wawadaak mo si sika, tan mo kanuk sikayi,
    pantaoliuk ut matagua loman. Mo si sika payut mo waday kanun
    yan matui." Asi abun kanon dugum un, "Mo sakun kanuk yan matagua

    Asi kinwanina kimat un, "Mo si asa amuita sin bato ay dakdakui
    ta mo pitakun din bato. Ta mo adika pitakun din bato, asika
    pantaolinmo makipitak, yan mauabakko sika."

    Ungayan domagum si madadama yan adi makapitak sin bato. Mayisokat
    pay din kimat kapitat sin bato ut asina pantaoliun. Din kimat
    kinwanina un, "Mauabakko sika tan adika nakapitak sin bato."

    Ungayan alanda san takokoda ut inda manigay. Manigay pay si dagum
    yan usay odang yan usay dalit kitkitoi waday. Din kimat kinwanina
    un, "Sakun di manigay." Sia din putna adado adadaka ikan. Sia
    kinwanina sin dagum un, "Sika manotoka."

    Din dagum inana sin usay sugat ut apoiana. Din kimat kinwanina
    un, "Ay bakun adadosa. Adi makakan san banga. Sakun din manoto
    ta ilaum."

    Kaa ut, kano, si kimat ut siay manoto. Kaa usay bugas, ut pay
    inana isan bangada. Din bugas pinmona san bangada.

    Din kimat kinwanina un, "Manungdungka kakod." Din dagum inpaina din
    usay dakdakui ikan sin bangada. Ilan pay, Kanon, kimat kinwanina
    un, "Nakun, adi makakan san banga. Ilaum sakun di manungdung." Din
    kimat ginisgusna din ikan ut payuna di usay gusgus sin banga. Din
    gusgus pinmona san banga.

    Din kimat kinwanina un, "Tapagunta nan igan di ikanta, asita
    panoliunta eda loman." Makakanda pay, kano, yan itup eda san
    igan di inpangada. Itupada paysan igan di inpangan dagum. Adi
    nantaoli. Itupada paysan igan di inpangan kimat; manlangoi ut,
    kano, duwandan komaan.

    Din kimat kinwanina un, "Inauabakko sika." Din dagum kinwanina un,
    "Au, ungaykayiman naabakak isan." Ungayan mankayunda.

    One day, long ago, the Wind and the Lightning met on the top
    of a mountain. Said the Wind, "I am greater than you." Then the
    Lightning answered, "I am greater than you because when I destroy
    a tree, I make it live again. But when you have it for food, it
    dies." Then said the Wind again, "When I eat it, it lives again."

    Then said the Lightning, "Then we will go to a large rock, so
    that you can break the rock to pieces. Because if you do not
    break the rock to pieces and then return the broken pieces,
    I win against you."

    Then the Wind blew hard, but the rock was not broken. Immediately
    then the Lightning broke the rock, and then put it back
    together. The Lightning said, "I win against you, because you
    did not break the rock."

    Then they took their nets and went to fish. The Wind fished,
    and he caught one lobster and one small eel. The Lightning said,
    "I will fish." He caught many large fish. He said to the Wind,
    "You cook."

    The Wind took one chupa (of rice) to cook. The Lightning said,
    "Not that much. The pot will not contain it. I shall cook so that
    you will see."

    The Lightning went immediately and cooked. He immediately got one
    grain of rice, and put it into the pot. The grain of rice filled
    the pot.

    The Lightning said, "You cook the fish." The Wind put one large
    fish into the pot. When the Lightning saw it he said, "Not that
    much; the pot will not hold it. Watch me cook." The Lightning cut
    the fish into pieces and put one piece into the pot. The piece
    filled the pot.

    The Lightning said, "Put into a pile the bones of the fish;
    then we will cause them to become alive again." They finished
    eating, and then threw into the water the bones of what they had
    eaten. They threw into the water first the bones of what had been
    eaten by the Wind. They did not return to life. Then they threw
    into the water the bones of what had been eaten by the Lightning;
    they swam, and went away.

    The Lightning said, "I won against you." The Wind said, "Yes,
    truly, I lost this." Then they became friends.


When two or more persons living in one house become sick at the same
time, the anap generally shows that the dagas, which are spirits that
live in houses, have caused the sickness. When the people living in a
certain house have not had a cañao for a long time, the dagas which
live with them become hungry and make them sick. The ceremony which
must then be celebrated is called by the same name, dagas.

A chicken, rice, blankets, and tapuy are necessary. The mambunong
holds the chicken in one hand, and squats near the rice, tapuy,
and blankets while relating the following:

    Wada, kano, san dua ay sin agi. Bomalada pay, kano, mo waday
    mansida. Pankapokapoan san ipugau. Ay kaasi ta pay kanosna adi
    unya nan manili si ipanganta. Daeda kinwanina un, "Amuita ut ta
    unta masapos boita sin lomasan." Makasapoda payan unmadas asoda,
    ut unda manganop.

    Manganopoda pay, kano, yan guniyagiak san asoda isan gawanda
    kadu. Amuida ut, kano, gigyakunda san malawas ay kayi, ya malawas
    ay bulo, malawas ay maka. Daeda kinwanina, "Alauntako ut nata
    sapounta si boita."

    Alaunda pay, kano, ut sapounda boida. Yan kanutnut kasindan
    sasakit; ungayan alanda ut, kano, san usay manokda, ut ya anda
    san dagas pay mayilatonan. Asida pay ipaytok sinan ipugau ut siay
    yat abun nan ipugau.

    There were two brothers. They went out of the house when there
    was a ceremony. The people rubbed their greasy hands on them. They
    were sad because they were not given food by the people. They said,
    "Let us go and make our house out of sight." When they had left,
    they took their dogs and went to hunt.

    While they were hunting, their dogs barked in the midst of the
    forest. They went there, and they were barking at a branchless
    tree, a branchless bamboo, and a branchless vine. They said,
    "Let us take them and use (them) for making our house."

    They took them and used (them) for making their house. Then they
    were always sick, but they took one chicken and gave it to the
    dagas. Then they handed this down to the people, and it is being
    done again by the people.


When the mambunong decides that a person has been made sick by his
guardian spirit, he causes the sick person to hold a chicken in his
hand and to repeat the following:

    Sika Laklakiwin, ay poon di ababiik, omalika tan magay ya ak
    sika si manok makon sikay mamaspasaki, un ya adodi ya adi un
    pansakitun sakun.

    You, Laglagiwin, the origin of the ababiik, come, because I will
    give you a chicken if you are the one that has caused the sickness,
    and you will not again make me sick.

The chicken is then killed and cooked, and just before it is eaten
the sick person repeats the prayer.


The tanong is a ceremony celebrated to cure sickness caused by the
souls of dead ancestors. A carabao, a cow, a hog, or a chicken may be
sacrificed, according to the wealth of the sick person. A mambunong
is not necessary, but the sick person himself prays as follows:

    Yan nay ay din nouangko, ta mayilotonan din anguk, mokon dakayo
    paksau sinan angut ay mansakit. Yamo si bigat ya mataguak ya way
    nouangak ya andaka loman.

    Here I am giving for tanong my carabao so that my body will be
    cured if you made my body sick. If tomorrow I am alive and have
    a carabao, I will give it again.

The promise to make additional sacrifice is rarely kept, and I have
been told by those celebrating the ceremony that they had no intention
of keeping it.

After the prayer has been uttered, the animal is killed. If a carabao
or cow has been sacrificed, one of the men present cuts small pieces
from its liver and throws them in different directions, while saying
the following:

    Dakayo ay kakading isan nanaraban di nouang, ya andakayo sinan
    ginotmo alti to pakamonyo ay inpangantka din noung aynay.

    You, the souls of the dead in the pasture lands of the carabao,
    you are given these pieces of liver that you may know that the
    carabao has been sacrificed.

After the meat has been cooked, the sick person speaks the same prayer
which he recited before the animal was killed.


Among the Kankanay of Benguet the sagausau is generally celebrated
before starting on a journey, and always before starting on a journey
to trade.

A chicken is first killed and its gall examined. If the gall is
full and smooth the trader will have luck, but if the gall does not
look right, the trip is delayed and the next day another chicken is
killed. When the prospective trader finds a chicken whose gall is
all right, he then proceeds to celebrate the sagausau.

In the western Benguet Kankanay towns, the person giving the sagausau
prays as follows:

    Sika agou ya boan, nay ay manaugasauak; sina yamo amoya sin amoyak,
    ya yaanda sakun si galiko ya takoanda sakun ni nalaka.

    You, Sun and Moon, I am now celebrating the sagausau; and if I go,
    wherever I go, make them give me blankets and sell to me cheap.

In Buguias, where a large number of people make their living by acting
as middlemen, between the Nabaloi and Ilocano on the one hand, and
the Ifugao on the other, the prayer which is spoken by the mambunong
is as follows:

    You, Sun and Moon, come; witness the sagausau. ---- is about to
    start on a journey to trade. May he be successful in trading. May
    he be able to collect all that is due him and evade payment of
    what he owes. Cause the people to give him food and blankets.

In the Lepanto town of Mancayan the sagausau is celebrated, but I do
not know whether or not it is held in the other Lepanto towns.

The sagausau of the Nabaloi is celebrated for a different purpose
and is an entirely different ceremony.

MYTHS [10]


Guaday ifugau ay way onasna. Usay bungbungo idi una inila baung,
inila ay waday mangibot si onasna. Ud isay labi nantabon ta ilauna.

Inila nay adadu ay basang nay omali ay inbayat si si lupateha sin
alad. Inanay din lupot nay usali yan kimiti. Din isali nay babayi
inani di lupot, yan sinmayag, modin usali nabayan adin makasayag tan
din lupot inikudna din payadna.

Inkwanina sin ifugau un, "Iatudmo din lupotko, tan sakun talauak,
yan kianko ay sumayag ud kayang." Mon din ifugau yatna un, "Adiak
iatud din lupotmo anganas asauwam sakun." Ud niman manasauwada, mon
adina inatud din lupotna insisiya. Mo din lalaki inpuina di lupot
sin dalum di dakalan sin adina inila.

Ud niman angoi yay tolo ay tauan di manasauwanda, ut nananakda's
dua. Idi usali yay agou din babayi inmui nay sansinokatan din
dakdakalan, idi sinokatanan dakalan, dingtungna din lupotna.

Mo din usali nay anak mati. Din si inada maladi ay inanilaun di usali
yay anakna ay mabayan si nalabi, mon adin omali sin kagauan.

Sin namingsan nay labi, din si inana di anak piana nay alaun sisiya
ut kayang, mon din si amana inilana si asauwana. Idi anoka naniboda
ut mantolagada un panpapitakadda din anak. Si inana din kagadua,
ut nanbiagana; idi nanbiagana di kagadua, binugauwan naut di usali
yay kagaduana. Modin usali nay kagaduana nabuyok tan si amana adina
mabalin nay panbiagan. Idi namingsan nay labi, din si inana nanbiagana,
yan yatna un, "Sulabitam din kagaduum." Ud niman sinongbalana, mon
adiut napigsa tan nabayag ay nabuyok.

Nanbalin si kitkitoi yay kido, ut usali nay kagadua nanbalin nay
abalug ay kido.

There was a man who had sugar cane. One morning when he went to see
his field, he saw that some one had stolen his sugar cane. Then one
night he hid to watch.

He saw many beautiful women come and hang their clothing on the
fence. He took the clothing of one and made a loud noise. The other
women took their clothing and flew away, but the one remaining could
not fly because her wings were fastened to her clothing.

She said to the man, "Give me my clothing, because I am a star and wish
to fly away to the sky." But the man said, "I will not give you your
clothing until you marry me." Then they married, but he did not give
her clothing to her. But the man hid the clothing under the dakalan
[11] when she was not looking.

From that time until three years (afterwards) they were married,
and they had two children. One day the woman started to change the
dakalan; while changing the dakalan she found her clothing.

Then one of the children died. The mother continued to come to visit
the remaining child in the night, but would not come in the daytime.

One night the mother of the child wanted to take it to the sky, but
the father saw his wife. That time they quarreled and agreed to split
the child in two. The mother took one half and made it alive; when
the half had been made alive it called loudly for the other half. But
the other half was rotten because the father was not able to make it
live. Then one night the mother made it alive and said, "Answer your
half." Then it answered, but not loudly, because it was rotten.

It became the Little Thunder, and the other half became the Big


Ud agayao inmali sinan lota din Lumawig, ut inbuina dinisay babayi. Sia
adadu ditonodna ay babayi. Inapada ta bakun eda di masauwana, Dayida
ipaeda din posok sindaon di kaugunda. Din Lumawig sinongsongna din
posok, ian adina layidun.

Sia kinwanina sin asauwana, "Sakun mantaoliak ud tagoi; alayuk
dingudwan din anakta ya makayan dingudwana." Sia ginudwana din anakta,
ut inana din toktokna. Din toktona mabungut tan iwud din awakna ut
nanbugan. Din Lumawig sinapona din awak ya dinsikina, ut sia dinkedo.

Din gudwana ay binayan din Lumawig adi makali, ut sia inmali loman
ut sinapona din toktok, ut masauwana din kedo ut sia din kimat.

Long ago Lumawig came to the earth and married a girl. She had many
sisters. They were jealous because he had not married them. They
put garlic under their beds. Lumawig smelled the garlic and did not
like it.

He said to his wife, "I shall return to the sky; I shall take half
of our child and leave half." He divided the child into halves, and
took the head. The head was angry because it did not have its body,
and talked loudly. Lumawig made it a body and legs, and it became
the Thunder.

The half that Lumawig left could not talk, but he returned again
and made (it a) head, and it married the Thunder, and it (became)
the Lightning.


Waday isa ay liang sin isa ay bantag sined nabaon, kabunian
bonngonanona di ifugau nga oomoi sidi. Yatda un manganda mon adida
alaun din pilad. Kayipo ifugau di amoi ud guab ay un manlakos piana
amoi sin liang. Din anito bunganasda eda.

Sin mamingsan inmoi di isay lakay ut binonngan di anito yan inana
ut din nanagananna ay pilad. Ut nanbiliu si bato, ut inmaylagui
sin sookan di liang. Mapo di danom sin tupukna ut mo waday malabas
inomunda. Mayigapo sin nangisaanda si pilad tinekdan din kabunian
di manbumo.

There is a cave in a mountain where long ago the gods gave food to
the people who stopped there. They told them to eat, but not to carry
away the plates. Many people going to the seashore to trade would
stop at the cave. The gods gave them food.

Once a man stopped and was fed by the gods, but took away the dishes
in which he had eaten. Then he was turned to stone, and (now) stands
in front of the cave. Water gushes from his mouth, and when there are
(people) passing by they drink it. After the plates were taken away
the gods stopped giving food.


Id nabaon ginmosad si kabunian sinan lota, mo'n iwud di ifugau. Sia
kinwanida, "Maptung mo waday ifugau. Takosamopoa si lalaki iga
babayi." Eda inoma si lota ut sinmapo si dua ay sinan ifugau
ut pimatakdugna. Dinkingpas manok asina panglagtoan kinwanida,
"Pansiakak eda ta matagoda." Ut isa sinan ifugau naysiak. Sia nanbalin
si lalaki. Dinusa dinnguna dinganangona ut naysiak abu, ut nanbalin
si babayi.

Long ago the gods came to the earth, but there were no people. They
said, "It is good if there are people. We will make a man and a
woman." They took some earth and made two people and stood them
up. They plucked the feathers from a chicken and made it jump, saying,
"We shall make them laugh so that they will be alive." Then one of
the people laughed. He became a man. The other heard the first and
laughed also, and became a woman.


[1] See my Nabaloi Law and Ritual, present volume, pp. 236-271, 1920.

[2] Ibid., pp. 280-335.

[3] Phil. Jour. of Sci., IX, Section D, 465-527, 1914.

[4] Compare F. C. Cole, Traditions of the Tinguian, Publ. of Field
Museum of Natural History, Anthrop. Ser., XIV; and R. F. Barton,
Ifugao Law, present volume.

[5] See the present volume, p. 289.

[6] Based on the publication by J. A. Robertson, The Igorots of
Lepanto, Phil. Jour. of Sci., IX, section D, pp. 465-527, 1914. Ifugao
analogies are cited in this paper in footnotes.

[7] All the ceremonies described in this section were recorded
among the Benguet Kankanay in the townships of Kibungan, Kapangan,
and Buguias. All the texts were recorded in Kibungan except those of
the kiad, which were recorded in the central barrio of Kapangan, and
those of the ampasit and tanong, which were recorded in the barrio
of Legleg, Kapangan. Kibungan is a town in the northwestern corner
of Benguet. It is inaccessible, and has been affected very little by
outside influence. It adjoins the Amburayan town of Bacun, and the
Lepanto town of Ampasungan. Legleg is about midway between Kibungan and
the Nabaloi boundary; the barrio of Kapangan is on the line between
the Nabaloi and Kankanay; and Buguias is in the northeastern part of
Benguet, north of the Nabaloi town of Kabayan. The dialect is spoken
with some difference of pronunciation in the various towns. It is
believed that all public ceremonies celebrated by the Benguet Kankanay
are described in this section, but some of the private ceremonies
were probably overlooked.

[8] See note 7, p. 354.

[9] A kind of root eaten by the Igorot when the supply of rice or
camotes is limited.

[10] The first and fourth myths were recorded in Kibungan, the second
in Kapangan, the third in Legleg.

[11] The three rocks on which the pots sit.

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