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Title: Notes on the Mammals of Gogebic and Ontonagon Counties, Michigan, 1920 - Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, Number 109
Author: Sherman, H. B., Dice, L. R.
Language: English
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NUMBER 109       FEBRUARY 25, 1922

OCCASIONAL PAPERS OF THE MUSEUM OF
ZOOLOGY

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN

ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN        PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY



NOTES ON THE MAMMALS OF GOGEBIC AND
ONTONAGON COUNTIES, MICHIGAN, 1920

BY L. R. DICE AND H. B. SHERMAN


The authors of this paper spent the summer of 1920 in western Michigan
studying the mammals of the region for the Michigan Geological and
Biological Survey. From June 25 to August 4 was spent in the Cisco Lake
Region with headquarters on Lindsley Lake; August 6 to August 20 a camp
was maintained in the woods four miles southeast of Little Girl's
Point; and from August 20 to September 6 was spent working from a camp
on the western shore of Lake Gogebic, about three miles south of Lake
Gogebic Station. The first two camps were in Gogebic County, the third
in Ontonagon County.

The field work was performed jointly by the two authors, under the
direction of the senior author, who is responsible for the
identification of the species, the descriptions of the general areas
and of the habitats, and is jointly concerned in writing the annotated
list.

In addition to our own records, we have secured many valuable notes on
the distribution of the larger species from J. E. Fischer, of
Merriweather, Ontonagon County, a trapper of many years' experience;
and from Benjamin J. Twombley, of Bent's Resort, Wisconsin, who has
made many observations on the mammals of the Cisco Lake Region. We have
also added a number of records from J. E. Marshall, who trapped for
many years, beginning 1884, in Ontonagon and Gogebic counties, and from
Ole Petersen, at one time a trapper at Gogebic Lake.

The habitats in which records of occurrence have been obtained for the
region under consideration are listed under each species; and the
number of individuals taken, or seen and positively identified, in each
habitat are given. From the figures a rough estimate of the relative
abundance of the various species in the different habitats can be
obtained, but the various habitats were not trapped or studied equally
intensively, and for the larger and the rarer forms the numbers give
little dependable data on relative abundance.



DESCRIPTIONS OF THE REGIONS STUDIED


_Cisco Lake Region._ In the Cisco Lake Region there are many lakes,
mostly small, but several of a length of one to three miles. The
water-level in the Cisco Lake chain has been raised six or ten feet by
a dam across the outlet, and this change in water-level has killed the
trees along the lake borders, so that the lakes are fringed by a narrow
line of dead trees. The habitats of emerging vegetation and of aquatic
vegetation have been much altered by the change in water-level, and
these habitats cannot be well studied in these lakes. However, the
neighboring lakes in which the water-level has not been changed show
that the forests of the region originally came down to the water's
edge, and that there was little normal development of marsh or swamp.

The ridges between the lakes rise in general to heights of twenty-five
feet or more, though bluffs are not formed. These ridges are mostly
covered by mixed hardwood forest in which the hard maple, yellow birch,
hemlock, and linden are the dominant trees. There are numerous small
wet depressions, some of them containing small black spruce bogs, while
others include a few arbor-vitae mixed with linden and other typical
trees of the wet hardwood forest. Small areas of nearly pure hemlock
occur on some slopes near the lake shores. A few large tamarack bogs
are present.

Though the pines formerly occurring have been taken out, the region
otherwise is in nearly its native condition. A few former clearings
along the lake shores have grown up to brush or to white birch saplings
or small trees.

_Little Girl's Point Region._ Much of the region in the near vicinity
of Little Girl's Point has been cleared or burned, but a few miles to
the east and southeast there are still considerable areas of native
forest. The high ridge running through the region bears a splendid
forest of maple, yellow birch, and linden, with little if any hemlock.
However, on the steeper lower slopes hemlock occurs in nearly a pure
stand. At one place was found a nice grove of large white pines, mixed,
on the lower edge of the slope, with a few hemlocks. Black
spruce-tamarack bogs are extensive and arbor-vitae swamps occur
commonly. The extensive burned areas south of the point have grown up
to a thicket of aspen, birch, and various shrubs and saplings. A few
small areas are under cultivation.

_Region at the north end of Gogebic Lake._ Most of the region about the
north end of Gogebic Lake is low and wet. A number of small black ash
swamps occur near the lake, and further back there are extensive black
spruce bogs. The main forest is of a much mixed wet hardwood type,
sugar maple, linden, yellow birch, elm, and hemlock, being the dominant
species. The forest in most places reaches the edge of the lake, though
a few sandy beaches occur. However, the level of the water in the lake
has been raised a few feet by a dam across the outlet, and beaches were
probably more abundant before this occurred. The lake is so large,
about 13 miles long by 1 to 2 miles broad, that wave action is quite
pronounced.

One beaver meadow was studied, this meadow including areas of grasses
and of sedges, traversed by ditches, small mud-flats covered with low
rushes, and alder thickets.

Just north of Lake Gogebic Station there are some high hills having
bluffs on the southern exposures. These hills were visited, but they
had been extensively logged and burned over and no attempt was made to
trap for mammals on them.

Some large burned areas have grown up to sapling forests of aspens.
Near the towns of Lake Gogebic and Merriweather nearly all the forests
have been cleared away, but farther south on the sides of the lake the
woods are still in their natural condition.



HABITATS


The habitats studied in Gogebic and Ontonagon counties may be listed as
follows:

    Exposed shores:
        Open-water
        Beach
        Dirt-bluff
        Forest--shore

    Protected shores:
        Water lily
        Pondweed
        Rush
        Submerged-sedge
        Cat-tail
        Willow-thicket
        Mud-flat

    Meadow:
        Ditch-border
        Tall-sedge
        Grassy-meadow
        Alder-thicket

    Swamps:
        Black ash swamp
        Arbor-vitae swamp

    Bogs:
        Leather leaf bog
        Sphagnum bog
        Black spruce--tamarack bog

    Forests:
        Hemlock forest
        White pine forest
        Wet hardwood forest
        Dry hardwood forest

    Mountains:
        Rock-bluff
        Mountain-heath

    Air:
        Aerial

    Burns and clearings:
        Herbaceous stage
        Shrub stage
        Paper birch--aspen stage
        Young hardwood forest stage

    Artificial conditions:
        Overflow swamp
        Cultivated-field
        Edificarian

This list of habitats is admittedly not complete for the regions
visited, but is intended to include those which we studied. We had no
opportunity of studying either the shores of a large river or jack pine
ridges, both of which situations will undoubtedly have habitats not
here recognized.

The habitats studied in Gogebic and Ontonagon counties but every
habitat has been listed which seems to form a distinct type of mammal
environment. We are firmly convinced that it is better to describe a
great number of habitats rather than to lump different kinds of
environments together. It is infinitely easier for a later worker to
combine several habitats, which have been split too finely, than it is
to separate the component habitats which may have been lumped together
under one name.

No attempt is made to give complete lists of the plants found in each
habitat, but only the more conspicuous plants or those of special
importance to the mammals are mentioned. The plant names used are
mostly taken from Darlington's list of Gogebic County plants.[1]


_Exposed Shores_

_Open-water habitat:_ This habitat includes the areas of open water
with no rooted vegetation in the deeper parts of the lakes and rivers.
On Lake Superior at Little Girl's Point this habitat comes directly to
the beach, for the wave action on this exposed point is sufficient to
prevent the growth of plants along the shore. In Gogebic Lake and in
the smaller lakes of the Cisco Lake Region there are also many parts
where there is no rooted vegetation along shore. This habitat,
therefore, covers by far the larger part of the aquatic conditions of
northwestern Michigan. We secured no records of mammals for this
habitat, and, though some aquatic species must occasionally occur in
the open water along lake shores, they are rare there, and are
practically absent from the areas of open water farther out in the
lakes.

_Beach habitat:_ The shore of Lake Superior at Little Girl's Point is
subjected to heavy pounding by the lake waves, leading to the formation
of a well-developed beach. To the east of the point the beach for some
distance is five to ten yards wide, mostly of small gravel, with sand
on the upper part; it ends abruptly against a steep dirt bluff. On the
beach no vegetation grows and only a few scattered drift logs occur. To
the west of Little Girl's Point undetached masses of solid rock are
more prominent, though small patches of gravel occur in partially
protected places. The beach here in general is narrow and rises
steeply, so that the different beach zones, lower, middle, and upper,
are not well marked. On the shores of Lake Gogebic are a few small sand
beaches; but around this lake, as well as around the smaller lakes of
the region, the forest comes, in general, directly to the edge of the
water. There was no opportunity to trap for mammals on a beach, and no
records for the habitat were obtained.

_Dirt-bluff habitat:_ To the east of Little Girl's Point the beach of
Lake Superior runs along the base of a dirt bluff about 35 feet high.
The storm waves of winter evidently wash against this bluff, eroding
it away and destroying the forest, which is of the hemlock type,
growing on the level above. The bluff is quite steep, and along with
small exposures of bare clay bears a number of scattered herbs and a
few shrubs and small trees, such as alder, willow, arbor-vitae, yellow
birch, paper birch, and red maple. No collecting was done in this
habitat and no records of mammals were obtained from it.

_Forest--shore habitat:_ Along all the lakes of the region, except Lake
Superior, the forests in general come down to the water's edge. The
marginal forests are frequently dominated by hemlock, though often a
wet hardwood forest occurs along the shores, and in a number of places
along Gogebic Lake black ash swamps border the water. Red maple (_Acer
rubrum_) and mountain ash (_Sorbus americana_) frequently occur along
the exposed shores of Gogebic Lake. Frequently young forests of paper
birch or quaking aspen have replaced the original forests in the
clearings and burned areas along the lake borders. The shore beside a
forest commonly rises abruptly a few inches to a foot or more in a firm
bank, and in most cases the trees overhang the water to some extent.
These shores are the favorite promenade of the porcupine; and the mink,
muskrat, and otter are typical of the habitat.


_Protected Shores_

_Water lily habitat:_ In shallow, protected parts of the lakes and
channels of the Cisco Lake chain there are extensive growths of white
and yellow water lilies (_Castalia tuberosa_ and _Nymphaea advena_).
Water lilies also occur in many places as a narrow border at the edge
of deep water. Muskrats were the only mammals noted in this habitat,
but mink and otter probably occur also.

_Pondweed habitat:_ A thick growth of pondweeds (Potamogeton spp.)
occurs in protected places along the shores in many parts of the lakes
of the Cisco Lake chain. Muskrats were noted in this habitat. In
Gogebic Lake the exposure to wave action is in most places too great
for a good development of pondweeds, though in the northern end of the
lake there are a number of widely scattered plants of this type, but
not forming a very well marked habitat.

_Rush habitat:_ On somewhat protected shoals, both in the lakes of the
Cisco Lake Region and in Gogebic Lake, there is sometimes a growth of
rushes (Juncus sp.). Along the lower course of the Merriweather River,
just before it enters Gogebic Lake, rushes thickly cover numerous small
areas. The plants in both cases grow partly submerged in the water. No
records for mammals were obtained from this type of habitat, though
doubtless some of the amphibious forms frequently occur here.

_Submerged-sedge habitat:_ Sedges in general do not occur as a definite
belt about the margins of the lakes in the region studied. The only
place where any considerable growth of sedges was noted at the edge of
the water was along the lower course of Merriweather River, just before
it enters Gogebic Lake. Here there are considerable areas of sedges
partially submerged by the water. No records of mammals were obtained
from this habitat.

_Cat-tail habitat:_ Under native conditions cat-tails (_Typha
latifolia_) apparently do not often form extensive habitats in the
region. Along the marshy borders of the lower Merriweather River at
Gogebic Lake a few small patches were seen. Small patches were seen in
other places along railroad tracks where embankments had produced small
areas of marshy ground.

In the Cisco Lake Region a few of the areas of timber killed by the
raising of the water-level have grown up to cat-tail swamps. In these
swamps there are many standing dead trees and fallen logs as well as
some areas of open water. The cat-tails seem to occur mostly in those
swamps having only a small connection with the main body of the lake.
In these places the cat-tail is dominant, though numerous sedges occur,
and there is some sphagnum growing on the fallen logs and along the
shore. A few small black spruces are starting. Along the edge of such a
swamp a few deer-mice were taken, but these were evidently stragglers
from the adjacent forest.

_Willow-thicket habitat:_ Willows do not occur commonly along the water
margins of the lakes of the region. The only place, except in
clearings, where willows were noted as a definite growth is along the
lower course of the Merriweather River at Gogebic Lake. Along this part
of the river there are extensive growths of shrubby willows, growing
(in early September) in a foot or more of water. The indications were
that earlier in the summer the water about these plants must have been
at least a foot higher. Signs of muskrat were noted at the edge of
these willows.

_Mud-flat habitat:_ Around the margin of a pond formed by an old
deserted beaver dam near Gogebic Lake, two miles southwest of
Merriweather, is a narrow strip of mud, very wet and sparsely covered
with a growth of low rushes. The strip of muddy ground varies from
about 1 to 4 meters in width and extends a short distance up along the
edge of the small ditch draining into the pond. At the upper border of
the strip of muddy shore is a thick growth of sedges, meeting the muddy
shore at a fairly sharp line.

In this habitat meadow mice are common and four jumping mice (_Zapus
hudsonius_) were taken.


_Meadows_

_Ditch-border habitat:_ A number of small ditches run through an old
beaver meadow of considerable size near Gogebic Lake, about two miles
southwest of Merriweather. The borders of the ditches are muddy and the
banks are from 6 to 18 inches high; in places the ditch borders are
closely encroached upon by the tall sedges of the adjacent meadow. A
small amount of water was present (in early September) in most of the
ditches. In mouse traps set at the edges of these ditches, partly in
the water, star-nosed moles and navigator shrews were taken. In a
larger trap a skunk was taken.

_Tall-sedge habitat:_ In the beaver meadow studied near Gogebic Lake,
an area about 200 meters by 100 meters or more is occupied by a heavy
growth of high, coarse sedges, reaching a height of about .75 to 1.00
meter. A few grasses and some low herbs occur sparingly among the
sedges. The habitat had not been burned over and the ground is covered
with a thick mat of the decaying leaves and stems of the sedges and
grasses. In most places the ground is quite wet, sometimes soggy to
walk upon, and in a few places low hummocks are numerous. A similar
habitat was found in rather a narrow strip at the edge of Mud Lake,
one-fourth mile southwest of Thousand Island Lake, Gogebic County. Here
a small area of meadow occurs along the inlet of a tiny stream. This
area apparently had been artificially cleared of its forest, but the
level of the lake had not been raised.

The habitat differs from the submerged-sedge habitat of protected lake
shores in being higher above the water and in not being covered with
water from July to September; probably water does not stand to any
depth on it at any time. The Richardson shrew is apparently a
characteristic mammal of this habitat, though other shrews and mice
were taken here also.

_Grassy-meadow habitat:_ Part of the beaver meadow studied near Gogebic
Lake is covered by a thick growth of grasses and sedges of a number of
species. The ground of the habitat was rather dry and had been burned
over the previous year. Grasses are also dominant over a few small
areas near Mud Lake in Gogebic County. On a small area of the clearing
near this lake a thick stand of bluegrass (Poa) is almost the only
plant present. This occurs on an area of fairly moist mud. On the drier
slope near the forest Poa also is abundant, forming the dominant
species over a strip about 5 to 10 meters wide. Jumping mice are common
in this habitat.

_Alder-thicket habitat:_ On very wet ground just below an old beaver
dam near Gogebic Lake there is a heavy growth of alder (_Alnus incana_)
about 20 feet high. No other shrubs were noted in the thicket. The
ground under the alders is mostly bare, there being only a few ferns,
grasses, and other herbs. On the ground are many dead sticks fallen
from the alders. This situation contained few mammals, only one Blarina
being taken in four days' trapping with 25 traps. At the south end of
the beaver meadow willows and alders are invading the sedges in very
wet ground. No trapping was done in this situation.


_Swamps_

_Black ash swamp habitat:_ A number of black ash swamps occur along the
shores of Gogebic Lake, being apparently partially flooded during
periods of heavy rains and during stages of high water. In a swamp of
this type near the north end of Gogebic Lake on the west side, black
ash (_Fraxinus nigra_) is the dominant tree, the trunks reaching
diameters up to 2 feet. Elms (_Ulmus americana_) sometimes reaching a
trunk diameter of 3 feet are common, and yellow birches and hard maples
are common also. Black maples are rare, and lindens are few. The trees
are high and the forest crown nearly closed. Underbrush is common in
the more open places, this being mostly mountain maple (_Acer
spicatum_) with a few young firs, young arbor-vitae, and Virginia
creepers (_Parthenocissus quinquefolia_). There are numerous ferns, and
herbs are abundant. Under the more closed parts of the forest canopy
the ground is mostly bare, underbrush and herbs being scanty. Smaller
black ash swamps occur in the Cisco Lake Region, and in the vicinity of
Little Girl's Point a number of small black ashes were noted in a swamp
of mixed arbor-vitae and black spruce.

_Arbor-vitae swamp habitat:_ In the Cisco Lake Region arbor-vitae
(_Thuja occidentalis_) occurs commonly near the edges of the lakes and
in the wet depressions in the forest. Near Gogebic Lake also the
arbor-vitae grows commonly near the shores of the lake and in wet
places in the woods, especially at the edges of swamps. But the trees
in both these areas, so far as seen, were small, and the arbor-vitae
did not form a dominant species, but occurred in a small percentage
mixed with the other types of forest. However, in part of the region
near Gogebic Lake extensive arbor-vitae swamps are reported to occur.
In the vicinity of Little Girl's Point arbor-vitae swamps are common,
occupying the wet lower northern slopes of the high ridge.

In a swamp of this type three miles southeast of the point arbor-vitae
is the dominant tree, reaching trunk diameters of two feet and more.
Under the dense shade of the high forest crown there are many young
trees of the same species, and the forest has evidently reached a
temporary climax. Of other trees, a few small yellow birch, a few young
firs and hemlocks, and one fallen white spruce (_Picea canadensis_)
were noted. The ground is very wet and there are numerous tiny
streams, which frequently disappear under the ground. Fallen trees and
decaying logs on the ground make a thick tangle, very difficult to
penetrate. The underbrush is scanty; mountain maple is rather common,
and there are a few young black ashes. Much moss grows on the ground
and on the decaying logs.

In a depression two miles south of Little Girl's Point is a mixed
growth of arbor-vitae, black spruce, with a few black ashes. The trees
are mostly small, none of them exceeding about eight inches in trunk
diameter. In August the ground was very wet, there being standing water
in some places, and the ground was heavily covered with sphagnum. This
situation may be considered transitional between the black spruce bog
and the arbor-vitae swamp. No traps for mammals were set in this
situation.


_Bogs_

_Leather leaf bog habitat:_ In the northwestern corner of Fish-hawk
Lake and at several places along the channel connecting Lindsley and
Cisco lakes a heavy growth of leather leaf (_Chamaedaphne calyculata_)
adjoins and overhangs the water, a considerable portion of the growth
actually floating on the water. With the leather leaf is associated
much sweet gale (_Myrica gale_) and alders, and these plants form
almost the entire mat in some of the wetter areas. At other places
sphagnum becomes abundant and the conditions approach those of a
sphagnum bog. Other plants commonly found in the leather leaf bog in
the Cisco Lake Region are the Labrador tea (_Ledum groenlandicum_),
swamp laurel (_Kalmia potifolia_), wild rosemary (_Andromeda
glaucophylla_), small cranberry (_Oxycoccus oxycoccus_), pitcher-plant
(_Sarracenia purpurea_), and small trees of black spruce and tamarack.
In a typical leather leaf bog on the Ontonagon River near the outlet
from Thousand Island Lake a large beaver house is located.

_Sphagnum bog habitat:_ In a restricted sense the name is here applied
to the part of a bog which is free from trees. It differs from the
leather leaf bog in having a greater amount of sphagnum, for while the
leather leaf bog when first developed over the water has little or no
sphagnum, the sphagnum bog, as here considered, is almost entirely
covered by sphagnum. The shrubs found in the two situations are
apparently identical, except that the leather leaf is less abundant. A
small bog of this type borders the edge of Mud Lake in the Cisco Lake
Region, and small parts of many bogs are free from trees. So far as was
determined, the mammal fauna is the same as that for the black
spruce--tamarack bog, from which the only difference is the absence of
trees.

_Black Spruce--Tamarack Bog habitat:_ The dominant bog tree in this
region is the black spruce (_Picea mariana_), which is usually small
and stunted. With the black spruces are a lesser number of small
tamaracks (_Larix larcina_), which in places may be dominant. The
ground is heavily covered with sphagnum, which is normally soaked with
water. Shrubs are abundant, though usually not forming a closed mat. Of
the shrubs the leather leaf is the most abundant, though Kalmia,
Andromeda, Ledum, and blueberries are common. A few young white pines
and red maples were noted. Sedges occur frequently, and the pitcher
plant is very characteristic.


_Forests_

_Hemlock forest habitat:_ In the Cisco Lake Region groves of hemlock
(_Tsuga canadensis_) frequently occupy the lower parts of steep slopes
adjoining the lakes. One such area studied is made up of practically a
pure stand of hemlocks, the trunks being from about 6 to 18 inches in
diameter. A few very old yellow birches are present, and also a few
young sugar maples and arbor-vitae, the latter chiefly near the
water's edge. Shrubs and herbs are nearly absent, and the forest floor
is covered by a thick carpet of dead needles. There are many decaying
logs, usually covered by a thin coat of moss. In the Little Girl's
Point Region nearly pure stands of large hemlocks cover many of the
lower parts of steep slopes and also occur commonly on well-drained
soil elsewhere. In the vicinity of the north end of Gogebic Lake a few
small groves of hemlocks were noted, but the ground in general is so
low and swampy that the species mostly occurs as a part of the mixed
forest of the region. Animals are rare in the habitat.

_White pine forest habitat:_ White pine (_Pinus strobus_), which
formerly was a common forest tree in northern Michigan, has now been
mostly removed for lumber. Near Little Girl's Point a small natural
grove of this species was studied, occupying a moderate southerly slope
above a black spruce bog. The area is about 50 by 150 meters in size.
White pines are by far the most numerous and dominant tree, the trunks
measuring up to about five feet in diameter. In the grove yellow birch,
some of large size, are common; toward the bottom of the slope hemlocks
are also common; and near the edge of the bog there are a few
arbor-vitae. Shrubs are almost absent, there being merely a few small
seedlings of arbor-vitae, hemlock, and fir, mostly toward the bottom of
the slope. A few scattered clumps of grass appear, but the forest floor
is mostly covered only by a thick carpet of dry pine needles. Numerous
dead limbs and sticks have fallen from the pines.

_Wet hardwood forest habitat:_ The land adjoining much of Gogebic Lake
is low and poorly drained. Here is found a mixed forest dominated by
sugar maple (_Acer saccharum_), black maple, hemlock, yellow birch
(_Betula lutea_), linden, elm (_Ulmus americana_), ash (not black ash),
and ironwood (_Ostrya virginiana_). The hardwoods are decidedly
dominant over the conifers. The forest crown is high and closed, and
the trees are large. The underbrush in general is scanty, though in
some places there is a thick growth of mountain maple (_Acer spicatum_)
and of sugar maple seedlings. Leatherwood (_Dirca palustris_), hazel,
ferns, and a few young firs (_Abies balsamea_) also occur.

Some of the lower forests in the Cisco Lake Region approach the wet
hardwood forest type, though none are extensive in area, and they are
usually surrounded and dominated by the dry forest condition.

_Dry hardwood forest habitat:_ The highest development of the dry
hardwood type of forest was found on the upper parts of the moderately
high ridge near Little Girl's Point. The slopes in general are very
gentle, but well drained. The forest here is dominated by the sugar
maple (_Acer saccharum_), yellow birch (_Betula lutea_), and linden
(_Tilia americana_). Hemlocks are rare, and only one elm was seen. The
trees are large, the trunks frequently reaching diameters of two feet
or more. The forest crown is high and heavy. Underbrush is scanty and
low, being mostly young seedlings of sugar maple, though seedlings of
linden are numerous. Other shrubs and herbs noted were the leatherwood
(_Dirca palustris_), hazel (_Corylus rostrata_), yew (_Taxus
canadensis_), gooseberry, ferns, false Solomon's seal, and grass. On
the ground are many decaying leaves, these usually forming a heavy
carpet; decaying logs and freshly fallen sticks are common.

In the Cisco Lake Region the drainage is not so good as in the vicinity
of Little Girl's Point, and the forests of that district are of a type
somewhat intermediate between the wet hardwood forest and the dry
hardwood forest. In the Cisco Lake Region the topography is much
broken, there being many small hills and ridges, and many small
depressions, often poorly drained. In the damp depressions, if not wet
enough for a bog, arbor-vitae and hemlock are common, while on the
ridges sugar maple and linden are characteristic, though hemlock occurs
here sparingly also. There is accordingly much local variation in tree
forms, but the whole forest is decidedly of a hardwood type.

The dry hardwood forests of the Little Girl's Point Region are
inhabited by many deer-mice, while only a few of this species are found
in the wet hardwood forests near Gogebic Lake, bob-tailed shrews being
there the most abundant mammal and red-backed voles being common, both
of which are rare in the other districts. In the dry hardwood forest
near Little Girl's Point four woodland jumping mice (Napaeozapus) were
taken, while in the Cisco Lake Region only two were taken in a period
twice as long, and at Gogebic Lake none were secured. These
observations indicate that moisture conditions in hardwood forests have
an important influence on the mammal fauna.


_Mountains_

_Rock-bluff habitat:_ Rock exposures are rare in the region studied.
However there are several high hills with steep exposures of rock a
short distance north of Ironwood and Bessemer. These hills could not be
studied in the time available, and the only cliff examined was on a
small range of hills northeast of the station of Lake Gogebic. On one
of these hills is a nearly perpendicular rock cliff about 200 feet high
and facing to the southward. The small talus slope at the bottom is
overgrown with shrubs and trees, and on the small ledges and gullies of
the face of the cliff a few small trees, shrubs, and herbs are also
growing. The most conspicuous plants of the rock habitat are scrub
oaks, aspens, and heaths. No trapping was done in the habitat, and no
notes on mammals were secured. Probably the mammal fauna is not very
large.

_Mountain-heath habitat:_ A narrow, poorly developed belt of heath
fringes the upper edge of the rock cliff examined north of Lake
Gogebic. Characteristic plants are the blueberry and bearberry, mixed
with creeping juniper and a few scattered grasses. The habitat is very
narrow and is closely encroached upon by shrubs and trees, such as
sumac, cherry, white pine, jack pine, oaks, aspens, and paper birch.
Signs of fox were noted at the edge of the cliff, but no trapping was
carried on here.


_Air_

_Aerial habitat:_ The only aerial mammals are the bats, of which four
species were taken during the summer. The flying squirrel is not
considered to be a true aerial form.


_Burns and Clearings_

Fires have been numerous throughout northern Michigan and a large part
of the region is covered by various stages in the succession following
fires or clearings. The areas studied were selected as representative
of the natural conditions of the peninsula, but even in these districts
there are many burned areas.

Many large areas have been heavily logged over, sometimes followed by
fire, with a result similar to that of a fire. In the region studied
there are numerous small clearings, some of which are in use as the
residences of settlers, but most have been allowed to revert to a wild
condition. The stages in succession on an abandoned clearing seem to be
similar to those following a fire, and they are here considered
together.

_Herbaceous stage:_ After a fire in a forest in this region the first
vegetation to spring up seems to be the herbs, of which the fireweed
(_Chamaenerion angustifolium_) is most prominent. A number of areas
dominated by this type of vegetation were seen, but the type seems to
be short-lived, and is probably quickly replaced by shrubs and tree
seedlings. The stages in succession following a fire in swampy areas
may be somewhat different from that in a hardwood region, but no data
was obtained. No opportunity presented itself to study the mammals of
the herbaceous stage, and I have no records for the species found
there.

_Shrub stage:_ Following a fire or clearing in a hardwood area the
herbaceous stage is apparently quickly followed by a thick growth of
shrubs and young trees. The characters of the shrub growth vary
considerably with the texture of the soil, amount of soil moisture,
slope, and completeness of burning. The growth is usually quite thick,
though in some clearings where the growth has been kept down for some
time there may be open grassy patches. In small clearings near
Fish-hawk Lake the raspberry (_Rubus strigosus_) is a characteristic
species, but near Little Girl's Point it is much less common. A large
area of shrub studied near Little Girl's Point is on a rather steep
slope facing to the north, though part is at the bottom of the hill on
a very gentle slope. There are no large trees, but saplings up to
2-1/2-inch trunks occur; most, however, are smaller. The quaking and
large-toothed aspens (_Populus tremuloides_ and _P. grandidentata_),
paper and yellow birches (_Betula papyrifera_ and _B. lutea_), sugar
maple, and linden are common seedlings. Shrubs, such as the sumac
(_Rhus hirta_), wild cherry (_Prunus pennsylvanica_), raspberry,
willows (Salix spp.), mountain maple, red-berried elder (_Sambucus
racemosa_), and hazel are common. A few herbs, like the fireweed,
golden-rod, and pearly everlasting, occur in open places.

A number of mammals are found in the shrub stage, but they are far less
abundant than in mature hardwood forest.

_Paper birch--aspen stage:_ The continued growth of the young trees in
the shrub stage leads to the production of a sapling forest of the more
quickly growing species, the paper birches and aspens. Often one or
other of these species becomes dominant to the practical exclusion of
the other, but sometimes both occur together. On the slopes near the
lakes of the Cisco Lake chain aspens are rare, and the sapling forests
on the clearings and burns are almost a pure stand of paper birch. Near
Watersmeet, however, the aspen seems to be the dominant form, and few
paper birches were seen. Near Gogebic Lake, also, the quaking aspen is
the dominant form, though paper birches are common in the sapling
forests. The growth in these sapling forests is very thick, and the
ground is nearly bare of vegetation, though it is heavily covered with
dead sticks and small logs. In a thick growth of quaking aspens, on wet
ground studied near Gogebic Lake, a number of alders and paper birches,
a few young trees of sugar maple and arbor-vitae, and a rare elm occur.
A scanty undergrowth of mountain maple and numerous sugar maple
seedlings is present. Few mammals are found in this stage of the
forest.

On the western slope of Birch Point on Cisco Lake there is a good stand
of paper birches, growing in an open stand with much grass in the
spaces between the trees. This place has been much used for camping and
it may be that the development of the grass is the result of opening
the forest by clearing out some of the trees. Among the birches are
numerous young firs and white pines, with a few young sugar maples, and
a rare arbor-vitae. The birches show many signs of age, and would
evidently, if undisturbed, soon give way to a forest dominated by the
pines and firs. In the grass among these trees deer-mice, red-backed
voles, and jumping mice (Zapus) were taken. Signs of snowshoe hare were
seen.

_Young hardwood forest stage:_ On the eastern slope of a low ridge at
Birch Point, Cisco Lake, a young hardwood forest is rapidly replacing a
former growth of paper birches which has followed a fire. In this
growth numerous old paper birches still persist, but they are being
strongly crowded by a thick growth of vigorous young sugar maples, some
of which have trunk diameters up to about eight inches, and which form
a dense shade. Among the maples are numerous young firs and a few young
hemlocks and arbor-vitae. The ground is mostly bare, being scantily
covered by leaves. The soil is moist, but there is no grass and little
brush. In this habitat deer-mice were taken, and one red squirrel was
seen.


_Artificial Conditions_

_Overflow swamp habitat:_ Due to the rise in water-level of the lakes
of the Cisco Lake chain many low areas of forest have been flooded and
killed. Many of the dead trunks of these trees still remain standing,
mixed with fallen and decaying logs in the water. Locally these
habitats are called "overflow swamps," a name here adopted for the
habitat. There is little living vegetation in these swamps, an
occasional water lily being almost the only plant present. Porcupines
commonly walk out on the logs of the swamp to secure the water lily
leaves, and probably the mink occasionally runs over the logs in its
movements along the waterways.

_Cultivated-field habitat:_ Cleared fields occur only sparingly in the
regions visited, and these fields are small in size. No study of their
inhabitants was made, though silver-haired bats were collected while
they were flying over a small clearing in the Little Girl's Point
Region.

_Edificarian habitat:_ Towns and buildings are not very common in
northern Michigan. In and around a cabin on Lindsley Lake a number of
deer-mice were trapped, and signs that porcupines had invaded the cabin
were noted.



ANNOTATED LIST OF MAMMALS

_Condylura cristata._ Star-nosed Mole.

    Tall-sedge, 2.
Two were trapped September 3 and 5, 1920, in a short, open runway in
very moist soil at the edge of a small ditch running through tall
sedges in a beaver meadow near Gogebic Lake, Ontonagon County.

_Sorex personatus personatus._ Masked Shrew.

    Grassy-meadow, 2.
    Black spruce--tamarack bog, 2.
    Wet hardwood forest, 3.
    Dry hardwood forest, 3.
    Shrub stage, 2.

In the Cisco Lake Region in July, one was taken in a small black spruce
bog, two in a narrow tongue of grass between tall sedges and sphagnum
bordering Mud Lake, three in the wetter parts of the hardwood forest,
and three in the upland, well-drained hardwood forest. Near Little
Girl's Point in August, two were taken in a growth of shrubs in a burn.
Near Gogebic Lake, Ontonagon County, one was taken September 4 in a
black spruce bog.

_Sorex richardsonii._ Richardson Shrew.

    Tall-sedge, 15.
    Grassy-meadow, 1.
    Sphagnum bog, 1.

This species was found only in or near tall sedges growing in moist or
marshy situations. In the Cisco Lake Region six were taken near Mud
Lake in July. Four of these were taken in tall sedges, one in grass
alongside the sedges, and one in sphagnum between the sedges and the
lake. August 30 to September 5, eleven were taken in tall sedges in a
beaver meadow near Gogebic Lake, Ontonagon County.

An adult female trapped at Mud Lake, July 30, contained five large
embryos. There were two pairs of inguinal and one pair of abdominal
mammae. Another adult female trapped in the same place, July 22, had
two pairs of inguinal mammae, but no abdominal mammae were found.

The latter individual was moulting, patches of new fur having replaced
the old on the top of the head midway between the ears and eyes,
between the shoulders, and on the rump. The other female mentioned
above, taken July 30, had nearly completed her moult.

Only two specimens have been previously recorded from Michigan, one
from Alger County and the other from Chippewa County.[2]

_Neosorex palustris palustris._ Marsh Shrew, Water Shrew.

    Tall-sedge, 1.
    Ditch-border, 3.

September 1 a marsh shrew was trapped in the tall sedges of a beaver
meadow near Gogebic Lake, Ontonagon County. Most of the body had been
eaten by some carnivore. Other specimens were taken on each of the two
succeeding days, and a fourth on September 5.

The first specimen taken was trapped eight feet from a tiny stream
which flowed through the marshy sedges. Two of the others were taken on
the muddy bank of the stream near the water's edge, and the fourth
about 35 feet from the water. All were secured within a radius of 35
feet.

This species has been recorded but once previously from Michigan, from
Chippewa County.[3]

_Microsorex hoyi._ Hoy Shrew.

    Black spruce-tamarack bog, 1.
    Wet hardwood forest, 1.

One specimen was taken July 17 at Fish-hawk Lake in a moderately wet
part of the hardwood forest. Another was taken July 29 at the edge of a
small black spruce bog.

_Blarina brevicauda talpoides._ Bob-tailed Shrew.

    Tall-sedge, 8.
    Grassy-meadow, 6.
    Alder-thicket, 1.
    Black ash swamp, 6.
    Arbor-vitae swamp, 4.
    Black spruce--tamarack bog, 1.
    Wet hardwood forest, 32.
    Dry hardwood forest, 8.
    Shrub stage, 1.
    Paper birch--aspen stage, 6.

The species is rather generally distributed, but is by far the most
common in moist woods. In the Cisco Lake Region 11 were secured; in the
Little Girl's Point district, 10; and near Gogebic Lake in Ontonagon
County, 52. In the latter district it was the most abundant mammal
species, even exceeding Peromyscus in numbers; indeed, Peromyscus was
relatively uncommon in the partly swampy woods of the region, and it
might be that the abundance of the bob-tailed shrews accounts for the
scarcity of the deer-mice, for the shrews undoubtedly at times prey
upon the mice. The specimen recorded above from the black
spruce-tamarack bog was taken near Gogebic Lake in a boggy swamp,
which, while dominated by black spruces, yet contained a considerable
number of arbor-vitae and hemlocks.

In the wet hardwood forest near Gogebic Lake Blarina runways are
exceedingly abundant, usually running along or under sticks or logs.
Commonly they are just under the leaves, but sometimes for a short
distance are without covering. One old log examined was found to be
honey-combed with these tunnels. The deeper runways nearly always
follow down just under a tree root.

The uterus of a female taken July 10, at Fish-hawk Lake, showed a few
small swellings which were identified in the field as embryos.
Unfortunately, the uterus was not preserved. No embryos were found in
26 other females taken between July 15 and September 4. In the latter
part of the season fewer immature specimens were taken than earlier in
the summer. These facts show that in this region the species breeds in
the spring or early summer and does not usually breed again during July
and August.

_Myotis lucifugus lucifugus._ Little Brown Bat.

    Aerial, 15.

Nine individuals were shot while they were flying over the lakes in the
Cisco Lake Region. These were taken between 8:00 and 9:00 p. m. from
July 1 to August 2; but on moonlight nights bats, believed to be of
this species, were seen flying as late as 10:00 p. m. At the camp near
Little Girl's Point one was shot at 7:55 p. m., August 11, as it flew
about over the road through the dry hardwood forest. Five others were
shot at the Gogebic Lake camp as they flitted through an opening in the
wet hardwood forest. These were taken between 7:30 and 7:55 p. m.,
August 23 to September 2; but bats almost certainly of this species
appeared regularly in the evenings about 7:10 p. m.

_Lasionycteris noctivagans._ Silver-haired Bat.

    Aerial, 3.

Near the Little Girl's Point camp one was shot at 7:50 p. m., August 9,
and two more in the same region about 7:45 p. m., August 17. One was
flying along a road through the dry hardwood forest at a height about
equal to that of the tree-tops, and the others were taken in a small
clearing in the same forest.

_Nycteris borealis borealis._ Red Bat.

    Aerial, 2.

Two were secured near the Little Girl's Point camp at about 7:45 p. m.,
one August 9 and the other August 14, as they flew about over the road
through the dry hardwood forest.

_Nycteris cinerea._ Hoary Bat.

    Aerial, 1.

The only specimen secured was shot at 7:55 p. m., August 9, while it
was flying over the road through the dry hardwood forest near Little
Girl's Point.

_Ursus americanus americanus._ Black Bear.

    Wet hardwood forest, 1.
    Dry hardwood forest, 1.

Reported by residents as being rather common. July 10 a large black
bear was seen to cross the railroad track and enter the hardwood forest
not over a quarter-mile from Cisco Lake Station. Tracks of a large
individual were seen in the mud bordering a small brook in
maple-birch-hemlock forest about three miles southeast of the station
July 17 and August 15. At dusk, August 28, while Mr. Sherman was
setting up a camera and flashgun along a deer trail about 100 yards
from the camp on Gogebic Lake, a small bear passed within twenty-five
paces of him, apparently but little concerned with his presence or that
of the nearby camp and fire, except that it sniffed the air
occasionally.

_Canis lycaon._ Timber Wolf.

    Mud-flat, signs.
    Tall-sedge, tracks.
    Dry hardwood forest, reported.

Residents reported it common in all the districts visited by us. We saw
signs and tracks in several habitats; and residents saw a wolf in the
dry hardwood forest near our camp in the Little Girl's Point district.

_Canis latrans._ Coyote.

J. E. Fischer reported in 1920 that coyotes had appeared and become
numerous in the region at the north end of Lake Gogebic within the last
few years. We have secured several skulls and skeletons taken by him in
1920-21.

_Vulpes fulva._ Red Fox.

    Mountain-heath, signs.

Signs of fox were found in late August in a narrow growth of heath at
the top of a cliff about a mile north of Lake Gogebic Station. J. E.
Fischer has sent us a fox taken in January, 1921, in Gogebic County
near Gogebic Lake. Benjamin J. Twombley reports that a few occur in the
Cisco Lake Region. J. E. Marshall, in 1911, reported that a few
occurred around Gogebic Lake.

_Urocyon cinereoargenteus._ Gray Fox.

J. E. Marshall reported in 1911 that it was rare, but that he had
trapped two near Gogebic Lake.

_Martes americanus americanus._ Marten.

J. E. Marshall reported in 1911 that it was getting scarce in Gogebic
and Ontonagon counties. He trapped a number near Gogebic Lake in the
winter of 1884-1885, and took 15 in the winter of 1889-90. In 1920 J.
E. Fischer reported marten rare near Gogebic Lake.

_Martes pennantii pennantii._ Fisher.

In 1911 J. E. Marshall reported that it was getting scarce near Gogebic
Lake; he trapped four in the winter of 1889-90 and two in 1890-91. J.
E. Fischer took one in Ontonagon County near Gogebic Lake in the winter
of 1919-20. Ole Petersen in 1911 reported it rare near Gogebic Lake.

_Mustela cicognanii cicognanii._ Bonaparte Weasel.

    Black spruce--tamarack bog, 1.
    Dry hardwood forest, 4.

Trappers report it common throughout the areas visited. We took five
specimens near Little Girl's Point. Several specimens taken in the
Cisco Lake Region during the winter of 1920-21 were presented to us by
Benjamin J. Twombley, and J. E. Fischer sent us a specimen taken in
December, 1920, near Gogebic Lake.

_Mustela vison letifera._ Mink.

    Forest--shore, 6.
    Wet hardwood forest, den.

Reported by trappers as common throughout the area studied. In the
Cisco Lake Region two were trapped at the water's edge beside a growth
of paper birch saplings; and another was shot as it was running along
the bank of the Ontonagon River at the edge of a stand of hemlocks.
Three others were seen swimming near the latter locality July 29. Upon
the approach of the canoe they swam rapidly to an old hollow log in wet
hardwood forest on shore. Around and through the log well-worn runways
showed evidence of the presence of a den.

_Mephitis hudsonica._ Skunk.

    Ditch-border, 1.
    Dry hardwood forest, 5.

Four skunks were taken in the dry hardwood forest of the Cisco Lake
Region, one in the same type of habitat near the Little Girl's Point
camp, and another in a trap set in the bottom of a muddy ditch in the
beaver meadow near Gogebic Lake.

An adult male, trapped July 14 in the Cisco Lake Region, was badly
infested with tapeworms in the middle part of the small intestine. An
adult female, taken July 19, was found to have many tapeworms in the
intestine, many nematodes in the lung tissue, an infested liver, and a
large number of nematodes in a cavity in the top of the skull.

While we were photographing a captive juvenile August 2 at Lindsley
Lake a horsefly (identified as _Tabanus atratus_ by J. S. Rogers)
burrowed into the fur on the rump of the skunk and began sucking blood.

_Taxidea taxus taxus._ Badger.

J. E. Marshall reports that he trapped one in the winter of 1889-90
between Gogebic Lake and Lake Superior.

_Lutra canadensis canadensis._ Otter.

In 1911 J. E. Marshall reported that quite a few remained around
Gogebic Lake; he took quite a number in the winter of 1884 and several
in the winters of 1889 to 1891. J. E. Fischer took two in Ontonagon
County in January, 1921.

_Lynx canadensis._ Canada Lynx.

J. E. Marshall reports that it was not very plentiful near Gogebic Lake
in 1884. He took one in the winter of 1890-91; in 1911 it had almost or
entirely disappeared.

_Lynx ruffus ruffus._ Bob-cat.

J. E. Marshall reports that he took three or four near Gogebic Lake in
the winter of 1890-91; in 1891-92 it had become quite numerous; and it
continued to increase until 1911 at least. In 1920 residents reported
that a few occurred in all the regions visited by us.

_Peromyscus maniculatus gracilis._ Deer-mouse.

    Tall-sedge, 4.
    Black ash swamp, 5.
    Arbor-vitae swamp, 11.
    Black spruce--tamarack bog, 4.
    Hemlock forest, 16.
    White pine forest, 5.
    Wet hardwood forest, 78.
    Dry hardwood forest, 143.
    Shrub stage, 19.
    Paper birch--aspen, 15.
    Young hardwood forest stage, 2.
    Edificarian, 6.

In the Cisco Lake Region and in the vicinity of Little Girl's Point
this species is the most abundant mammal, but in the wet woods at the
Gogebic Lake camp it is much less abundant, being exceeded in numbers
by the bob-tailed shrew. A total of 308 deer-mice were taken during the
summer. It was found in a variety of forest habitats, but it is most
abundant in the dry upland woods of the Little Girl's Point Region. The
individuals taken in the tall sedges at Mud Lake were probably
stragglers from the nearby shrubs and forest, for no deer-mice were
taken in the extensive sedges of the large beaver meadow studied near
Gogebic Lake. Probably most of those taken in the black spruce bogs
were stragglers also, though one individual taken in a large black
spruce bog was 50 yards from the nearest deciduous woods.

When we arrived in the Cisco Lake Region in late June young and
subadults were abundant, many of the female subadults, as well as the
adults, carrying embryos. Embryos were found throughout the summer up
to August 25. Of females containing embryos, five had 4 embryos each,
ten females 5 embryos each, nine females 6 embryos each, and one female
8 embryos.

_Synaptomys cooperi fatuus._ Lemming-vole.

    Tall-sedge, 1.
    Black spruce--tamarack bog, 2.
    Wet hardwood forest, 1.
    Dry hardwood forest, 1.

In the Cisco Lake Region an adult female was taken in dry hardwood
forest near Fish-hawk Lake June 28, 1920. It contained 6 embryos each
21 mm. long. A juvenile was trapped July 26 on top a log in the tall
sedges at Mud Lake. The log bridged over a particularly wet part of the
marshy sedges and was at the edge of the hardwood forest. Two other
juveniles were taken the next day, one in a small black spruce log, and
the other in wet hardwood forest at the edge of the same bog. In
Ontonagon County near Gogebic Lake a subadult male was taken September
5 in a large black spruce bog.

_Evotomys gapperi gapperi._ Red-backed vole.

    Black ash swamp, 2.
    Black spruce--tamarack bog, 6.
    Arbor-vitae swamp, 2.
    Hemlock forest, 5.
    White pine forest, 2.
    Wet hardwood forest, 18.
    Dry hardwood forest, 17.
    Shrub stage, 5.
    Paper birch--aspen stage, 3.

Thirty were taken in the Cisco Lake Region, 10 at the Little Girl's
Point camp, and 20 near Gogebic Lake in Ontonagon County. It was most
common in the forests. Two individuals recorded from the arbor-vitae
swamp were taken in a mixed swamp of small arbor-vitae, black spruce,
and hemlock with many alders, this situation probably forming a stage
in the succession following a beaver meadow. Also, one of the specimens
recorded from the paper birch--aspen stage was taken in an open stand
of old paper birches with a forest floor of grass, conditions not
typical of the stage.

Of 13 females examined from June to August, two contained 4 embryos
each, two 5 embryos each, and two 6 embryos each. August 14, at Little
Girl's Point, was the last date on which embryos were found.

The species is somewhat diurnal. Several times one was seen in daylight
about the camp in the Cisco Lake Region, and several were trapped
during daylight hours.

A captive was fond of tender grass blades, but refused the harder
stems. In eating he sat up on the hind feet and handled the food with
the fore feet.

An immature male taken August 8 near Little Girl's Point had a
considerable infestation of seed ticks on the posterior lobes of both
ears.

_Microtus pennsylvanicus pennsylvanicus._ Meadow vole.

    Mud-flat, 6.
    Tall-sedge, 28.
    Grassy-meadow, 6.
    Black ash swamp, 1.
    Arbor-vitae swamp, 1.
    Leather leaf bog, 15.
    Sphagnum bog, 9.
    Black spruce--tamarack bog, 1.
    Shrub stage, 17.

Sixty-five were taken in the Cisco Lake Region and 19 in Ontonagon
County, near Gogebic Lake. It is most abundant in grassy and sedgy
meadows and in open bogs, though it is found rarely in swamps and
tree-covered bogs. The individual listed from the arbor-vitae swamp was
taken in a young growth of arbor-vitae, black spruce, hemlock, and many
alders, and not in typical arbor-vitae swamp habitat. Of the 17 listed
from the shrub stage, one was taken in a wet, sedgy part of a
shrub-covered burn at Poor Lake, and the others were secured in the
shrub and grass clearing around the camp house on Lindsley Lake.

Of ten females examined, July 10 to September 5, one contained 3
embryos, one 4 embryos, and two 5 embryos each. September 5 was the
last date on which embryos were found. The three embryos found on the
last date were each 23 mm. in length and together they weighed 8.5
grams, which was 26 per cent of the weight of the mother with the
embryos removed.

Both adults and immature young were seen moving about, and were also
trapped in broad daylight, but it is more active in the evening just
before sunset.

A captive juvenile was placed July 19 in a large tub with an adult
female, which might have been its mother, for both were taken on
succeeding days in the same trap. The young one immediately tried to
nurse, but was severely bitten and driven away, though it made numerous
unsuccessful attempts later. When approaching the old female the baby
frequently gave a high-pitched squeak, and the old female replied by a
hoarse squeak, evidently of warning, for the young one was bitten when
it approached in defiance of the warning note and threatening attitude
of the adult. The baby evidently had been weaned, and the old female
was found to contain five large embryos.

_Ondatra zibethica zibethica._ Muskrat.

    Forest--shore, 5.
    Water lily, 1.
    Pondweed, 2.
    Willow-thicket, signs.

Muskrats are numerous in the Cisco Lake Region, and five specimens were
taken. Near Little Girl's Point one was seen swimming in a small
stream. At the mouth of Merriweather Creek on Gogebic Lake signs were
noted in a willow thicket, and muskrats were reported numerous in the
region.

An adult female trapped July 6 at Fish-hawk Lake contained six large
embryos; another female taken July 10 contained no embryos, but the
mammae were filled with milk; and two females taken July 26 contained
no embryos.

In the Cisco Lake Region broken mussel shells were abundant in the
muskrat runways along the shores. Remains of pondweeds were also
frequently found in the runways, and a quantity of leaves with a few
heads containing flowers and seeds collected July 8 were identified by
E. A. Bessey as _Potamogeton richardsonii_.

_Zapus hudsonius hudsonius._ Jumping-mouse.

    Mud-flat, 4.
    Tall-sedge, 12.
    Grassy-meadow, 8,
    Arbor-vitae swamp, 1.
    Sphagnum bog, 1.
    Black spruce--tamarack bog, 1.
    Wet hardwood forest, 2.
    Dry hardwood forest, 1.
    Shrub stage, 10.
    Paper birch--aspen stage, 2.

Numerous in suitable habitats in the Cisco Lake Region, at Little
Girl's Point, and at Gogebic Lake. Most common in open grasses and
sedges. Five of those recorded above from the shrub stage were taken
in open shrubs and grass in the clearing around the camp house on
Lindsley Lake; and the two recorded from the paper birch--aspen stage
were taken at Cisco Lake in an open stand of old paper birch with a
forest floor of grass.

Juveniles were taken throughout the summer, but no one of seven adult
or nearly adult females examined between July 7 and September 4
contained embryos.

A captive taken July 18, after feeding ravenously on a cooky, retired
to a corner and went to sleep. The position taken in this case was a
sitting one, the animal resting on the widely spread feet as far as the
heels, and on the tail. The head was bent far over, the nose extending
between the hind legs. The long tail was curled around the body, it
resting on the ground for its whole length. The operation of cleaning
the tail was observed two days later. The animal worked from the base
of the tail toward the tip, using the fore feet to present the tail to
the mouth, where it was licked off. During the process the head was
held over on one side, nearly touching the ground.

_Napaeozapus insignis fructectanus._ Woodland Jumping Mouse.

    Wet hardwood forest, 1.
    Dry hardwood forest, 6.

Three were taken in the Cisco Lake Region and four in the Little Girl's
Point Region, all in heavy forest.

Neither of two adult females taken August 8 and 10 contained embryos.

_Erethizon dorsatum dorsatum._ Porcupine.

    Forest--shore, 13.
    Wet hardwood forest, 10.
    Dry hardwood forest, 17.
    Shrub stage, 5.
    Paper birch--aspen stage, 10.
    Overflow swamp, 5.
    Edificarian, 1.

Common at all camps. Many were taken in traps set for carnivores.
Well-marked trails at the edges of lakes and streams through the
forests are evidently made mostly by these animals. It is detested by
the inhabitants of the region, chiefly for the damage done to any
woodwork which contains the least amount of salt.

Porcupines spend a considerable amount of time inside hollow linden,
yellow birch, and hemlock trees, as shown by the large piles of
droppings noted at the lower openings of numerous such hollow trees.

June 30, and again on July 2, young individuals were closely observed
while feeding on the leaves of the yellow water lily. These individuals
were on the logs in an overflow swamp, and they reached down with a
fore foot into the water to secure the food, which was then presented
to the mouth with the same foot. One of these porcupines seemed to be
very disinclined to wet his feet, except the fore feet in reaching for
food; the other individual waded out on a log which was submerged
several inches, but he showed a ludicrous determination to hold the
tail up out of the water.

A juvenile weighing only 914 grams was taken as late as July 21 at
Fish-hawk Lake, but no embryos were found in the period between June 29
and September 3. It is often active throughout the day as well as in
the night.

A young individual taken in a trap July 3 was found surrounded by a
swarm of mosquitoes, which seemed to annoy him considerably, for he
shook his skin frequently to dislodge them. One mosquito settled on a
lower eyelid as we watched, and others kept alighting on his nose. When
he raised his quills on our approach many mosquitoes attacked the skin
exposed on the back.

_Marmota monax canadensis._ Canada Woodchuck.

    Hemlock forest, 5.
    Shrub stage, 9.

A few occur in the Cisco Lake Region, where they are most common in
the shrubby clearings. Several adults fed commonly on the refuse from
the camp. The stomach of a captured individual contained a considerable
quantity of cooked corn, spaghetti, and boiled ham. Three woodchucks
were noted at different times in hemlock forest along the lake shores.

A half-grown juvenile was seen to swim the Ontonagon River near its
entrance to Cisco Lake. This was on July 10, near noon, with bright
sunshine. The river here is at least 75 yards in width, but has no
perceptible current.

Juveniles taken in traps were observed to extrude scent glands from the
anus when approached. These glands are three in number, one on each
side of the anus and one beneath. They are small, whitish, and
cup-shaped. Normally they lie just inside the anus, but on excitement
they are everted and the fold of skin forming the edge of the anus is
rolled outward so that the glands lie outside. We detected a faint
musky odor which might have come from these glands.

In the Little Girl's Point district several inhabited a woodpile in
hemlock forest at the edge of a wide road. None were found near Gogebic
Lake.

_Eutamias borealis neglectus._ Lake Superior Chipmunk.

    Tall-sedge, 1.
    Grassy-meadow, 3.
    Black spruce--tamarack bog, 1.
    Hemlock forest, 1.
    Wet hardwood forest, 1.
    Shrub stage, 20.
    Paper birch--aspen stage, 2.

Common in shrubby clearings and burns in the Cisco Lake and Little
Girl's Point regions. A few were taken in tall sedges and grass not far
from shrubs; one was taken in a small black spruce bog, about five
yards from the surrounding wet hardwood forest; one was taken in
hemlock forest near the lake shore; and one was seen in wet hardwood
forest near the lake shore. Not seen near Gogebic Lake.

These chipmunks were several times observed feeding on ripe
raspberries. August 5, near Watersmeet, one was seen sitting on a rail
fence beside a pasture, eating a grasshopper, the remains of which have
been identified by T. H. Hubbell as _Melanoplus_ sp. probably
_bivittatus_.

_Tamias striatus griseus._ Gray Chipmunk.

    Black ash swamp, 1.
    Hemlock forest, 1.
    Wet hardwood forest, 10.
    Dry hardwood forest, 8.
    Shrub stage, 2.

Five records were obtained in the Cisco Lake Region; 9 near Little
Girl's Point, and 8 near Gogebic Lake. It is most numerous in hardwood
forest.

An adult male taken July 5 had in its cheek-pouches numerous seeds of
Carex and a fruit capsule of Viola, the identification being by E. A.
Bessey. Of eight adult or nearly adult females examined between July 5
and September 1, one taken July 15 in the Cisco Lake Region contained
eight large embryos.

_Sciurus hudsonicus loquax._ Southeastern Red-squirrel.

    Black ash swamp, 1.
    Arbor-vitae swamp, 3.
    Black spruce--tamarack bog, 2.
    Hemlock forest, 1.
    White pine forest, 1.
    Wet hardwood forest, 9.
    Dry hardwood forest, 7.
    Shrub stage, 1.
    Paper birch--aspen stage, 3.
    Early hardwood forest stage, 1.
    Edificarian, 1.

Seventeen records from the Cisco Lake Region; 6 from Little Girl's
Point; and 7 from Gogebic Lake. None were noted more than a few yards
from the protection of a forest.

In a grove of white pines near Little Girl's Point cut pine scales were
numerous August 13 on the ground and on logs, and one red-squirrel
taken had much pitch on the fur around the mouth. August 24, cut-open
fir cones were numerous around the small fir trees in a paper
birch--aspen growth near Gogebic Lake, and were certainly the work of
this species. July 2 a young red-squirrel which had frequently been
seen around the camp in the Cisco Lake Region was found ravenously
feeding on the kidney of a recently skinned woodchuck. After feeding it
showed no fear, and allowed itself to be picked up; it seemed very
sleepy and slept for about a half-hour before running away. This
individual was badly infested with fleas. Another juvenile taken July 1
in the same region was infested with small patches of red seed ticks
around the anus, anterior to the genital opening, on the belly, on the
thigh, and at the base of one ear.

Six small embryos were found in an adult female taken in the Cisco Lake
Region July 16.

_Sciurus carolinensis leucotis._ Gray-squirrel.

In 1911, J. E. Marshall reported that a few occurred near Gogebic Lake.

_Glaucomys sabrinus macrotis._ Mearns Flying-squirrel.

    Black ash swamp, 1.
    Hemlock forest, 1.
    Wet hardwood forest, 2.
    Dry hardwood forest, 1.

Two were taken in the Cisco Lake Region and three near Gogebic Lake in
Ontonagon County. A female taken July 4 near Fish-hawk Lake was still
suckling young, and contained no embryos, but a female taken July 6 in
the same region contained five small embryos. An immature female taken
August 27 near Gogebic Lake was without embryos.

_Castor canadensis michiganensis._ Woods Beaver.

    Leather leaf bog, house.

Two houses were found in the Cisco Lake Region, both being in leather
leaf bogs near deep water. Around the house studied there was an
incomplete moat connected with a channel leading to deep water, and
canals and tunnels radiated out through the bog. No beavers were
observed nor secured, but fresh cuttings were noted at the edges of
some of the "forms" in the bog.

A few beaver are reported to occur near Little Girl's Point and near
Gogebic Lake. E. E. Brewster in 1895 wrote Dr. Gibbs that it was not
uncommon in Gogebic County and in probably all the counties of the
Upper Peninsula where trapping and lumbering had been discontinued; he
stated that beaver were appearing again even in localities where
formerly most sought. In 1911, J. E. Marshall reported it scarce near
Gogebic Lake.

_Lepus americanus phæonotus._ Snowshoe Hare.

    Forest--shore, 1.
    Arbor-vitae swamp, signs.
    Leather leaf bog, signs.
    Black spruce--tamarack bog, 1.
    Wet hardwood forest, signs.
    Dry hardwood forest, 1.
    Shrub stage, 7.
    Paper birch--aspen stage, 1.
    Cultivated-field, 1.
    Edificarian, 1.

Rare during the season of 1920 in the areas visited. In the Cisco Lake
Region an adult female was taken in a trap set for muskrat under water
on a brushy point. Other hares were occasionally seen in the evenings
in the shrubby clearing around the camp house; and one was even seen on
the porch. Droppings were found in a leather leaf bog, and a hare was
seen at the edge of a black spruce--tamarack bog. Near Little Girl's
Point a juvenile was taken August 13 in the upland hardwood forest, but
was partly eaten in the trap by some carnivore; several were seen in
shrubby clearings; and a young one was reported captured in an oat
field by a farmer. Droppings were found in an arbor-vitae swamp. Near
Gogebic Lake in Ontonagon County droppings were found in wet hardwood
forest, in a thick growth of aspen and white birch saplings, and in an
extensive tamarack bog.

An adult female taken July 4 at Fish-hawk Lake had much milk in the
mammae. At the camp on Lindsley Lake June 27 one was seen to eat some
wood ashes; and June 30 one was seen to feed on the blades of quack
grass (_Agropyron repens_), which was identified by E. A. Bessey.

_Odocoileus virginianus borealis._ Northern White-tailed Deer.

    Forest--shore, 1.
    Mud-flat, signs.
    Tall-sedge, 1.
    Grassy-meadow, 1.
    Alder-thicket, signs.
    Black ash swamp, signs.
    Arbor-vitae swamp, signs.
    Black spruce--tamarack bog, signs.
    Hemlock forest, signs.
    Wet hardwood forest, 10.
    Dry hardwood forest, 7.
    Shrub stage, 8.
    Paper birch--aspen stage, 1.

Deer are abundant in the Cisco Lake Region; they are less common near
Lake Gogebic; and only a few were seen near Little Girl's Point. Most
of those seen were in the hardwood forest and in the brushy clearings,
but trails and signs were common in many habitats.

Wolves were reported to prey extensively on deer in the region, and
wolf dung examined August 7 near Little Girl's Point contained much
deer hair and some deer bones.

_Alces americanus._ Moose.

J. E. Marshall reports that a moose was seen near Gogebic Lake in the
winter of 1885, and an individual, perhaps the same one, was killed on
Flambeau Reservation that year.


NORTHERN MICHIGAN MAMMALS        PLATE I

[Illustration: Fig. 1. Beach of Lake Superior just east of Little
Girl's Point. A dirt bluff at the right of the picture. August 10,
1920.]

[Illustration: Fig. 2. Tall-sedge habitat in a beaver meadow on the
west side of Gogebic Lake, Ontonagon County. September 1, 1920.]


NORTHERN MICHIGAN MAMMALS         PLATE II

[Illustration: Fig. 1. Leather leaf bog invaded by tamaracks, Ontonagon
River near Cisco Lake. August 3, 1920.]

[Illustration: Fig. 2. Arbor-vitae swamp four miles southeast of Little
Girl's Point. The ground is very moist. August 16, 1920.]


NORTHERN MICHIGAN MAMMALS         PLATE III

[Illustration: Fig. 1. Dry hardwood on a ridge four miles southeast of
Little Girl's Point. Sugar maple, yellow birch, and linden are
dominant. Undergrowth low. August 16, 1920.]

[Illustration: Fig. 2. Virgin white pine grove, Gogebic County. Trunks
up to four feet in diameter. Little undergrowth. August 17, 1920.]



FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 1: H. T. Darlington, _Mich. Acad. Sci._, 22nd Ann. Rept.,
1921.]

[Footnote 2: 1914. N. A. Wood, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool., No. 6.]

[Footnote 3: N. A. Wood, _op. cit._]


       *       *       *       *       *


Transcriber's Notes

Page 35: Changed "porcppines" to "porcupines".
  Originally: One of these porcppines seemed to be very disinclined

Pages 42-47: Combined figure captions and images.
  Originally: Images were on pages following their captions.





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