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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 12, Slice 2 - "Gloss" to "Gordon, Charles George"
Author: Various
Language: English
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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
      paragraphs.

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not
      inserted.

(5) [root] stands for the root symbol; [alpha], [beta], etc. for greek
      letters.

(6) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    ARTICLE GLUTARIC ACID: "By distillation of the ammonium salt
      glutarimide, CH2(CH2·CO)2NH ..." 'CH2(CH2·CO)2NH' amended from
      'CH2(CH2·CP)2NH'.

    ARTICLE GNOSTICISM: "In this respect the opposition to Gnosticism
      led to a reactionary movement." 'respect' amended from 'repect'.

    ARTICLE GODEFROY: "Other members of the family who attained
      distinction in the same branch of learning were the two sons of
      Denis Godefroy--Denis (1653-1719) ..." 'Godefroy' amended from
      'Godefroi'.

    ARTICLE GODWIT: "In Turner's days (1544) it was worth three times
      as much as a snipe, and at the same period Belon said of it ..."
      'period' amended from 'peroid'.

    ARTICLE GOITRE: "In exophthalmic goitre the bronchocele is but one
      of three phenomena, which together constitute the disease, viz.
      palpitation of the heart, enlargement of the thyroid gland, and
      protrusion of the eyeballs." 'enlargement' amended from
      'elargement'.

    ARTICLE GOLD COAST: "In 1907 the export was 292,125 oz.,
      £1,164,676." 'worth' amended from 'wotht'.

    ARTICLE GOLDSMITH, OLIVER: "Green Arbour Court and the ascent have
      long disappeared. Here, at thirty, the unlucky adventurer sat down
      to toil like a galley slave." 'disappeared' amended from
      'diasppeared'.

    ARTICLE GOLTZIUS, HENDRIK: "After studying painting on glass for
      some years under his father, he was taught the use of the burin by
      Dirk Volkertsz Coornhert, a Dutch engraver of mediocre attainment
      ..." 'Coornhert' amended from 'Coornlert'.

    ARTICLE GOMEZ DE AVELLANEDA, GERTRUDIS: "... for she has neither
      the monk's mastery of poetic form nor the nun's sublime simplicity
      of soul." 'nor' amended from 'not'.

    ARTICLE GORDON, ADAM LINDSAY: "A third volume of poetry, Bush
      Ballads and Galloping Rhymes, appeared in 1870." 'third' amended
      from 'second'.



          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


            VOLUME XII, SLICE II

          Gloss to Gordon, Charles



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


  GLOSS, GLOSSARY                    GOLDBEATING
  GLOSSOP                            GOLDBERG
  GLOUCESTER, EARLS AND DUKES OF     GOLD COAST
  GLOUCESTER, GILBERT DE CLARE       GOLDEN
  GLOUCESTER, HUMPHREY               GOLDEN BULL
  GLOUCESTER, RICHARD DE CLARE       GOLDEN-EYE
  GLOUCESTER, ROBERT                 GOLDEN FLEECE
  GLOUCESTER, THOMAS OF WOODSTOCK    GOLDEN HORDE
  GLOUCESTER (city of England)       GOLDEN ROD
  GLOUCESTER (Massachusetts, U.S.A.) GOLDEN ROSE
  GLOUCESTER CITY                    GOLDEN RULE
  GLOUCESTERSHIRE                    GOLDFIELD
  GLOVE                              GOLDFINCH
  GLOVER, SIR JOHN HAWLEY            GOLDFISH
  GLOVER, RICHARD                    GOLDFUSS, GEORG AUGUST
  GLOVERSVILLE                       GOLDIE, SIR GEORGE DASHWOOD TAUBMAN
  GLOW-WORM                          GOLDING, ARTHUR
  GLOXINIA                           GOLDINGEN
  GLUCINUM                           GOLDMARK, KARL
  GLUCK, CHRISTOPH WILLIBALD         GOLDONI, CARLO
  GLÜCKSBURG                         GOLDS
  GLÜCKSTADT                         GOLDSBORO
  GLUCOSE                            GOLDSCHMIDT, HERMANN
  GLUCOSIDE                          GOLDSMID
  GLUE                               GOLDSMITH, LEWIS
  GLUTARIC ACID                      GOLDSMITH, OLIVER
  GLUTEN                             GOLDSTÜCKER, THEODOR
  GLUTTON                            GOLDWELL, THOMAS
  GLYCAS, MICHAEL                    GOLDZIHER, IGNAZ
  GLYCERIN                           GOLETTA
  GLYCOLS                            GOLF
  GLYCONIC                           GOLIAD
  GLYPH                              GOLIARD
  GLYPTODON                          GOLIATH
  GLYPTOTHEK                         GOLITSUIN, BORIS ALEKSYEEVICH
  GMELIN                             GOLITSUIN, DMITRY MIKHAILOVICH
  GMÜND                              GOLITSUIN, VASILY VASILEVICH
  GMUNDEN                            GOLIUS, JACOBUS
  GNAT                               GOLLNOW
  GNATHOPODA                         GOLOSH
  GNATIA                             GOLOVIN, FEDOR ALEKSYEEVICH
  GNEISENAU, AUGUST WILHELM ANTON    GOLOVKIN, GAVRIIL IVANOVICH
  GNEISS                             GOLOVNIN, VASILY MIKHAILOVICH
  GNEIST, HEINRICH FRIEDRICH VON     GOLTZ, BOGUMIL
  GNESEN                             GOLTZ, COLMAR
  GNOME, and GNOMIC POETRY           GOLTZIUS, HENDRIK
  GNOMES                             GOLUCHOWSKI, AGENOR
  GNOMON                             GOMAL
  GNOSTICISM                         GOMARUS, FRANZ
  GNU                                GOMBERVILLE, MARIN LE ROY
  GO                                 GOMER
  GOA                                GOMERA
  GOAL                               GOMEZ, DIOGO
  GOALPARA                           GOMEZ DE AVELLANEDA, GERTRUDIS
  GOAT                               GOMM, SIR WILLIAM MAYNARD
  GOATSUCKER                         GOMPERS, SAMUEL
  GOBAT, SAMUEL                      GOMPERZ, THEODOR
  GOBEL, JEAN BAPTISTE JOSEPH        GONAGUAS
  GOBELIN                            GONÇALVES DIAS, ANTONIO
  GOBI                               GONCHAROV, IVAN ALEXANDROVICH
  GOBLET, RENÉ                       GONCOURT, DE
  GOBLET                             GONDA
  GOBY                               GONDAL
  GOCH                               GONDAR
  GOD                                GONDOKORO
  GODALMING                          GONDOMAR, DIEGO SARMIENTO DE ACUÑA
  GODARD, BENJAMIN LOUIS PAUL        GONDOPHARES
  GODAVARI (river of India)          GONDWANA
  GODAVARI (district of India)       GONFALON
  GODEFROY                           GONG
  GODESBERG                          GÓNGORA Y ARGOTE, LUIS DE
  GODET, FRÉDÉRIC LOUIS              GONIOMETER
  GODFREY, SIR EDMUND BERRY          GONTAUT, MARIE JOSÉPHINE LOUISE
  GODFREY OF BOUILLON                GONVILE, EDMUND
  GODFREY OF VITERBO                 GONZAGA
  GODHRA                             GONZAGA, THOMAZ ANTONIO
  GODIN, JEAN BAPTISTE ANDRÉ         GONZÁLEZ-CARVAJAL, TOMAS JOSÉ
  GODIVA                             GONZALO DE BERCEO
  GODKIN, EDWIN LAWRENCE             GOOCH, SIR DANIEL
  GODMANCHESTER                      GOOD, JOHN MASON
  GÖDÖLLÖ                            GOOD FRIDAY
  GODOLPHIN, SIDNEY GODOLPHIN        GOODMAN, GODFREY
  GODOY, ALVAREZ DE FARIA, MANUEL DE GOODRICH, SAMUEL GRISWOLD
  GODROON                            GOODRICH, THOMAS
  GODWIN, FRANCIS                    GOODSIR, JOHN
  GODWIN, MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT        GOODWILL
  GODWIN, WILLIAM                    GOODWIN, JOHN
  GODWIN-AUSTEN, ROBERT CLOYNE       GOODWIN, NATHANIEL CARL
  GODWINE                            GOODWIN, THOMAS
  GODWIT                             GOODWIN, WILLIAM WATSON
  GOEBEN, AUGUST KARL VON            GOODWIN SANDS
  GOEJE, MICHAEL JAN DE              GOODWOOD
  GOES, DAMIÃO DE                    GOODYEAR, CHARLES
  GOES, HUGO VAN DER                 GOOGE, BARNABE
  GOES                               GOOLE
  GOETHE, JOHANN WOLFGANG VON        GOOSE (bird)
  GOETZ, HERMANN                     GOOSE (game)
  GOFFE, WILLIAM                     GOOSEBERRY
  GOFFER                             GOOTY
  GOG                                GOPHER
  GOGO                               GÖPPINGEN
  GOGOL, NIKOLAI VASILIEVICH         GORAKHPUR
  GOGRA                              GORAL
  GOHIER, LOUIS JÉRÔME               GORAMY
  GÖHRDE                             GÖRBERSDORF
  GOITO                              GORBODUC
  GOITRE                             GORCHAKOV
  GOKAK                              GORDIAN
  GOKCHA                             GORDIUM
  GOLCONDA                           GORDON
  GOLD                               GORDON, ADAM LINDSAY
  GOLD AND SILVER THREAD             GORDON, ALEXANDER
  GOLDAST AB HAIMINSFELD, MELCHIOR   GORDON, CHARLES GEORGE



GLOSS, GLOSSARY, &c. The Greek word [Greek: glôssa] (whence our
"gloss"), meaning originally a tongue, then a language or dialect,
gradually came to denote any obsolete, foreign, provincial, technical or
otherwise peculiar word or use of a word (see Arist. _Rhet._ iii. 3. 2).
The making of collections and explanations[1] of such [Greek: glôssai]
was at a comparatively early date a well-recognized form of literary
activity. Even in the 5th century B.C., among the many writings of
Abdera was included a treatise entitled [Greek: Peri Homêrou ê
orthoepeiês kai glôsseôn]. It was not, however, until the Alexandrian
period that the [Greek: glôssographoi], glossographers (writers of
glosses), or glossators, became numerous. Of many of these perhaps even
the names have perished; but Athenaeus the grammarian alone (c. A.D.
250) alludes to no fewer than thirty-five. Among the earliest was
Philetas of Cos (d. c. 290 B.C.), the elegiac poet, to whom Aristarchus
dedicated the treatise [Greek: Pros Philptan]; he was the compiler of a
lexicographical work, arranged probably according to subjects, and
entitled [Greek: Hatakta] or [Greek: Glôssai] (sometimes [Greek: Ataktoi
glôssai]). Next came his disciple Zenodotus of Ephesus (c. 280 B.C.),
one of the earliest of the Homeric critics and the compiler of [Greek:
Glôssai Homêrikai]; Zenodotus in turn was succeeded by his greater pupil
Aristophanes of Byzantium (c. 200 B.C.), whose great compilation [Greek:
Peri lexeôn] (still partially preserved in that of Pollux), is known to
have included [Greek: Attikai lexeis, Lakônikai glôssai], and the like.
From the school of Aristophanes issued more than one glossographer of
name,--Diodorus, Artemidorus ([Greek: Glôssai], and a collection of
[Greek: lexeis opsartutikai]), Nicander of Colophon ([Greek: Glôssai],
of which some twenty-six fragments still survive), and Aristarchus (c.
210 B.C.), the famous critic, whose numerous labours included an
arrangement of the Homeric vocabulary ([Greek: lexeis]) in the order of
the books. Contemporary with the last named was Crates of Mallus, who,
besides making some new contributions to Greek lexicography and
dialectology, was the first to create at Rome a taste for similar
investigations in connexion with the Latin idioms. From his school
proceeded Zenodotus of Mallus, the compiler of [Greek: Ethnikai lexeis]
or [Greek: glôssai], a work said to have been designed chiefly to
support the views of the school of Pergamum as to the allegorical
interpretation of Homer.[2] Of later date were Didymus (Chalcenterus, c.
50 B.C.), who made collections of [Greek: lexeis tragôdoumenai kômikai],
&c.; Apollonius Sophista (c. 20 B.C.), whose Homeric Lexicon has come
down to modern times; and Neoptolemus, known distinctively as [Greek: ho
glôssographos]. In the beginning of the 1st century of the Christian era
Apion, a grammarian and rhetorician at Rome during the reigns of
Tiberius and Claudius, followed up the labours of Aristarchus and other
predecessors with [Greek: Glôssai Homêrikai], and a treatise [Greek:
Peri tês Hrômaïkês dialekton]; Heliodorus or Herodorus was another
almost contemporary glossographer; Erotian also, during the reign of
Nero, prepared a special glossary for the writings of Hippocrates, still
preserved. To this period also Pamphilus, the author of the [Greek:
Leimôn], from which Diogenian and Julius Vestinus afterwards drew so
largely, most probably belonged. In the following century one of the
most prominent workers in this department of literature was Aelius
Herodianus, whose treatise [Greek: Peri monêrous lexeôs] has been edited
in modern times, and whose [Greek: Epimerismoi] we still possess in an
abridgment; also Pollux, Diogenian ([Greek: Lexis pantodapê]), Julius
Vestinus ([Greek: 'Epitomê tôn Pamphilou glôssôn]) and especially
Phrynichus, who flourished towards the close of the 2nd century, and
whose _Eclogae nominum et verborum Atticorum_ has frequently been
edited. To the 4th century belongs Ammonius of Alexandria (c. 389), who
wrote [Greek: Peri Homoiôn kai diaphorôn lexeôn], a dictionary of words
used in senses different from those in which they had been employed by
older and approved writers. Of somewhat later date is the well-known
Hesychius, whose often-edited [Greek: Lexikon] superseded all previous
works of the kind; Cyril, the celebrated patriarch of Alexandria, also
contributed somewhat to the advancement of glossography by his [Greek:
Sunagôgê tôn pros diaphoron sêmasian diaphorôs tonoumenôn lexeôn]; while
Orus, Orion, Philoxenus and the two Philemons also belong to this
period. The works of Photius, Suidas and Zonaras, as also the
_Etymologicum magnum_, to which might be added the _Lexica Sangermania_
and the _Lexica Segueriana_, are referred to in the article DICTIONARY.

To a special category of technical glossaries belongs a large and
important class of works relating to the law-compilations of Justinian.
Although the emperor forbade under severe penalties all commentaries
([Greek: hupomnêmata]) on his legislation (_Const. Deo Auctore_, sec.
12; _Const. Tanta_, sec. 21), yet indices ([Greek: indikes]) and
references ([Greek: paratitla]), as well as translations ([Greek:
ermêneiai kata poda]) and paraphrases ([Greek: hermêneiai eis platos]),
were expressly permitted, and lavishly produced. Among the numerous
compilers of alphabetically arranged [Greek: lexeis Rhômaïkai] or
[Greek: Lateinikai], and [Greek: glôssai nomikai] (glossae nomicae),
Cyril and Philoxenus are particularly noted; but the authors of [Greek:
paragraphai], or [Greek: sêmeiôseis], whether [Greek: exôthen] or
[Greek: esôthen keimenai], are too numerous to mention. A collection of
these [Greek: paragraphai tôn palaiôn], combined with [Greek: neai
paragraphai] on the revised code called [Greek: ta basilika], was made
about the middle of the 12th century by a disciple of Michael
Hagiotheodorita. This work is known as the _Glossa ordinaria_ [Greek:
tôn basilikôn].[3]

In Italy also, during the period of the Byzantine ascendancy, various
glossae (glosae) and scholia on the Justinian code were produced[4];
particularly the Turin gloss (reprinted by Savigny), to which, apart
from later additions, a date prior to 1000 is usually assigned. After
the total extinction of the Byzantine authority in the West the study of
law became one of the free arts, and numerous schools for its
cultivation were instituted. Among the earliest of these was that of
Bologna, where Pepo (1075) and Irnerius (1100-1118) began to give their
expositions. They had a numerous following, who, besides delivering
exegetical lectures ("ordinariae" on the _Digest_ and _Code_,
"extraordinariae" on the rest of the _Corpus juris civilis_), also wrote
Glossae, first interlinear, afterwards marginal.[5] The series of these
glossators was closed by Accursius (q.v.) with the compilation known as
the _Glossa ordinaria_ or _magistralis_, the authority of which soon
became very great, so that ultimately it came to be a recognized maxim,
"Quod non agnoscit glossa, non agnoscit curia."[6] For some account of
the glossators on the canon law, see CANON LAW.

In late classical and medieval Latin, _glosa_ was the vulgar and romanic
(e.g. in the early 8th century Corpus Glossary, and the late 8th century
Leiden Glossary), _glossa_ the learned form (Varro, _De ling. Lat._ vii.
10; Auson. _Epigr_. 127. 2 (86. 2), written in Greek, Quint, i. 1. 34).
The diminutive _glossula_ occurs in Diom. 426. 26 and elsewhere. The
same meaning has _glossarium_ (Gell. xviii. 7. 3 _glosaria_ = [Greek:
glôssarion]), which also occurs in the modern sense of "glossary"
(Papias, "unde _glossarium_ dictum quod omnium fere partium glossas
contineat"), as do the words _glossa_, _glossae_, _glossulae_,
_glossemata_ (Steinmeyer, _Alth. Gloss._ iv. 408, 410), expressed in
later times by _dictionarium_, _dictionarius_, _vocabularium_,
_vocabularius_ (see DICTIONARY). _Glossa_ and _glossema_ (Varro vii. 34.
107; Asinius Gallus, ap. Suet. _De gramm._ 22; Fest. 166^b. 8, 181^a.
18; Quint. i. 8. 15, &c.) are synonyms, signifying (a) the word which
requires explanation; or (b) such a word (called _lemma_) together with
the interpretation (_interpretamentum_); or (c) the interpretation alone
(so first in the _Anecd. Helv._).

Latin, like Greek glossography, had its origin chiefly in the practical
wants of students and teachers, of whose names we only know a few. No
doubt even in classical times collections of glosses ("glossaries") were
compiled, to which allusion seems to be made by Varro (_De ling. Lat._
vii. 10, "tesca, aiunt sancta esse qui glossas scripserunt") and
Verrius-Festus (166^b .6, "naucum ... glossematorum ... scriptures fabae
grani quod haereat in fabulo"), but it is not known to what extent
Varro, for instance, used them, or retained their original forms. The
_scriptores glossematorum_ were distinguished from the learned
glossographers like Aurelius Opilius (cf. his _Musae_, ap. Suet. _De
gramm._ 6; Gell. i. 25. 17; Varro vii. 50, 65, 67, 70, 79, 106), Servius
Clodius (Varro vii. 70. 106), Aelius Stilo, L. Ateius Philol., whose
_liber glossematorum_ Festus mentions (181^{a}.18).

  Verrius Flaccus and his epitomists, Festus and Paulus, have preserved
  many treasures of early glossographers who are now lost to us. He
  copied Aelius Stilo (Reitzenstein, "Verr. Forsch.," in vol. i. of
  _Breslauer philol. Abhandl._, p. 88; Kriegshammer, _Comm. phil. Ien._
  vii. 1. 74 sqq.), Aurelius Opilius, Ateius Philol., the treatise _De
  obscuris Catonis_ (Reitzenstein, ib. 56. 92). He often made use of
  Varro (Willers, _De Verrio Flacco_, Halle, 1898), though not of his
  _ling. lat._ (Kriegshammer, 74 sqq.); and was also acquainted with
  later glossographers. Perhaps we owe to him the _glossae asbestos_
  (Goetz, _Corpus_, iv.; _id., Rhein. Mus._ xl. 328). Festus was used by
  Ps.-Philoxenus (Dammann, "De Festo Ps.-Philoxeni auctore," _Comm.
  Ien._ v. 26 sqq.), as appears from the _glossae ab absens_ (Goetz, "De
  Astrabae Pl. fragmentis," _Ind. Ien._, 1893, iii. sqq.). The distinct
  connexions with Nonius need not be ascribed to borrowing, as Plinius
  and Caper may have been used (P. Schmidt, _De Non. Marc. auctt.
  gramm._ 145; Nettleship, _Lect. and Ess._ 229; Fröhde, _De Non. Marc.
  et Verrio Flacco_, 2; W. M. Lindsay, "Non. Marc.," _Dict. of Repub.
  Latin_, 100, &c.).

  The _bilingual_ (Gr.-Lat., Lat.-Gr.) glossaries also point to an early
  period, and were used by the grammarians (1) to explain the
  peculiarities (_idiomata_) of the Latin language by comparison with
  the Greek, and (2) for instruction in the two languages (Charis. 254.
  9, 291. 7, 292. 16 sqq.; Marschall, _De Q. Remmii P. libris gramm.
  22_; Goetz, _Corp. gloss. lat._ ii. 6).

  For the purposes of grammatical instruction (Greek for the Romans,
  Latin for the Hellenistic world), we have systematic works, a
  translation of Dositheus and the so-called _Hermeneutica_, parts of
  which may be dated as early as the 3rd century A.D., and lexica (cf.
  Schoenemann, _De lexicis ant._ 122; Knaack, in _Phil. Rundsch._, 1884,
  372; Traube, in _Byzant. Ztschr._ iii. 605; David, _Comment. Ien._ v.
  197 sqq.).

  The most important remains of bilingual glossaries are two well-known
  lexica; one (Latin-Greek), formerly attributed (but wrongly, see
  Rudorff, in _Abh.. Akad. Berl._, 1865, 220 sq.; Loewe, _Prodr._ 183,
  190; Mommsen, _C.I.L._ v. 8120; A. Dammann, _De Festo Pseudo-philoxeni
  auctore_, 12 sqq.; Goetz, _Corp._ ii. 1-212) to Philoxenus (consul
  A.D. 525), clearly consists of two closely allied glossaries
  (containing glosses to Latin authors, as Horace, Cicero, Juvenal,
  Virgil, the Jurists, and excerpts from Festus), worked into one by
  some Greek grammarian, or a person who worked under Greek influence
  (his alphabet runs A, B, G, D, E, &c.); the other (Greek-Latin) is
  ascribed to Cyril (Stephanus says it was found at the end of some of
  his writings), and is considered to be a compilation of not later than
  the 6th century (Macrobius is used, and the _Cod. Harl._, which is the
  source of all the other MSS., belongs to the 7th century); cf. Goetz,
  _Corp._ ii. 215-483, 487-506, praef. _ibid._ p. xx. sqq. Furthermore,
  the bilingual medico-botanic glossaries had their origin in old lists
  of plants, as Ps.-Apuleius in the treatise _De herbarum virtutibus_,
  and Ps.-Dioscorides (cf. M. Wellmann, _Hermes_, xxxiii. 360 sqq., who
  thinks that the latter work is based on Pamphilus, q.v.; Goetz,
  _Corp._ iii.); the glossary, entitled _Hermeneuma_, printed from the
  _Cod. Vatic._ reg. Christ. 1260, contains names of diseases.

  Just as grammar developed, so we see the original form of the glosses
  extend. If _massucum edacem_ in Placidus indicates the original form,
  the allied gloss of Festus (_masucium edacem a mandendo scilicet_)
  shows an etymological addition. Another extension consists in adding
  special references to the original source, as e.g. at the gloss
  _Ocrem_ (Fest. 181^a. 17), which is taken from Ateius Philol. In this
  way collections arose like the _priscorum verborum cum exemplis_, a
  title given by Fest. (218^b. 10) to a particular work. Further the
  _glossae veterum_ (Charis. 242. 10); the _glossae antiquitatum_ (id.
  229. 30); the _idonei vocum antiquarum enarratores_ (Gell. xviii. 6.
  8); the _libri rerum verborumque veterum_ (_id._ xiii. 24. 25). L.
  Cincius, according to Festus (330^b. 2), wrote _De verbis priscis_;
  Santra, _De antiquitate verborum_ (Festus 277^a. 2).

  Of Latin glossaries of the first four centuries of the Roman emperors
  few traces are left, if we except Verrius-Festus. Charis, 229. 30,
  speaks of _glossae antiquitatum_ and 242. 10 of _glossae veterum_, but
  it is not known whether these glosses are identic, or in what relation
  they stand to the _glossemata per litteras Latinas ordine composita_,
  which were incorporated with the works of this grammarian according to
  the index in Keil, p. 6. Latin glosses occur in Ps.-Philoxenus, and
  Nonius must have used Latin glossaries; there exists a _glossarium
  Plautinum_ (Ritschl, Op. ii. 234 sqq.), and the bilingual glossaries
  have been used by the later grammarian Martyrius; but of this early
  period we know by name only Fulgentius and Placidus, who is sometimes
  called Luctatius Placidus, by confusion with the Statius scholiast,
  with whom the _glossae Placidi_ have no connexion. All that we know of
  him tends to show that he lived in North Africa (like Fulgentius and
  Nonius and perhaps Charisius) in the 6th century, from whence his
  glosses came to Spain, and were used by Isidore and the compiler of
  the _Liber glossarum_ (see below). These glosses we know from (1)
  Codices Romani (15th and 16th century); (2) the _Liber glossarum_; (3)
  the Cod. Paris. nov. acquis. 1298 (saec. xi.), a collection of
  glossaries, in which the Placidus-glosses are kept separate from the
  others, and still retain traces of their original order (cf. the
  editions published by A. Mai, _Class. auct._ iii. 427-503, and
  Deuerling, 1875; Goetz, _Corp._ v.; P. Karl, "De Placidi glossis,"
  _Comm. Ien._ vii. 2. 99, 103 sqq.; Loewe, _Gloss. Nom._ 86; F.
  Bücheler, in _Thesaur. gloss. emend._). His collection includes
  glosses from Plautus and Lucilius.

  (Fabius Planciades) Fulgentius (c. A.D. 468-533) wrote _Expositio
  sermonum antiquorum_ (ed. Rud. Helm, Lips. 1898; cf. Wessner,
  _Comment. Ien._ vi. 2. 135 sqq.) in sixty-two paragraphs, each
  containing a lemma (sometimes two or three) with an explanation giving
  quotations and names of authors. Next to him come the _glossae
  Nonianae_, which arose from the contents of the various paragraphs in
  Nonius Marcellus' work being written in the margin without the words
  of the text; these epitomized glosses were alphabetized and afterwards
  copied for other collections (see Goetz, _Corp._ v. 637 sqq., id. v.
  Praef. xxxv.; Onions and Lindsay, _Harvard Stud._ ix. 67 sqq.;
  Lindsay, _Nonii praef._ xxi.). In a similar way arose the _glossae
  Eucherii_ or _glossae spiritales secundum Eucherium episcopum_ found
  in many MSS. (cf. K. Wotke, _Sitz. Ber. Akad. Wien_, cxv. 425 sqq.; =
  the _Corpus Glossary_, first part), which are an alphabetical extract
  from the _formulae spiritalis intelligentiae_ of St Eucherius, bishop
  of Lyons, c. 434-450.[7]

  Other sources were the _Differentiae_, already known to Placidus and
  much used in the medieval glossaries; and the _Synonyma Ciceronis_;
  cf. Goetz, "Der Liber glossarum," in _Abhandl. der philol.-hist. Cl.
  der sächs. Gesellsch. d. Wiss._, 1893, p. 215; id. in _Berl. philol.
  Wochenschr._, 1890, p. 195 sqq.; Beck, in _Wochenschr._, p. 297 sqq.,
  and Sittls, _ibid._ p. 267; _Archiv f. lat. Lex._ vi. 594; W. L.
  Mahne, (Leid. 1850, 1851); also various collections of _scholia_. By
  the side of the scholiasts come the grammarians, as Charisius, or an
  ars similar to that ascribed to him; further, treatises _de dubiis
  generibus_, the _scriptores orthographici_ (especially Caper and
  Beda), and Priscianus, the chief grammarian of the middle ages (cf.
  Goetz in _Mélanges Boissier_, 224).

  During the 6th, 7th and 8th centuries glossography developed in
  various ways; old glossaries were worked up into new forms, or
  amalgamated with more recent ones. It ceased, moreover, to be
  exclusively Latin-Latin, and interpretations in Germanic (Old High
  German, Anglo-Saxon) and Romanic dialects took the place of or were
  used side by side with earlier Latin ones. The origin and development
  of the late classic and medieval glossaries preserved to us can be
  traced with certainty. While reading the manuscript texts of classical
  authors, the Bible or early Christian and profane writers, students
  and teachers, on meeting with any obscure or out-of-the-way words
  which they considered difficult to remember or to require elucidation,
  wrote above them, or in the margins, interpretations or explanations
  in more easy or better-known words. The interpretations written above
  the line are called "interlinear," those written in the margins of the
  MSS. "marginal glosses." Again, MSS. of the Bible or portions of the
  Bible were often provided with literal translations in the vernacular
  written above the lines of the Latin version (interlinear versions).

  Of such glossed MSS. or translated texts, photographs may be seen in
  the various palaeographical works published in recent years; cf. _The
  Palaeogr. Society_, 1st ser. vol. ii. pls. 9 (Terentius MS. of 4th or
  5th century, interlinear glosses) and 24 (Augustine's epistles, 6th or
  7th century, marginal glosses); see further, plates 10, 12, 33, 40,
  50-54, 57, 58, 63, 73, 75, 80; vol. iii. plates 10, 24, 31, 39, 44,
  54, 80.

  From these glossed or annotated MSS. and interlinear versions
  glossaries were compiled; that is, the obscure and difficult Latin
  words, together with the interpretations, were excerpted and collected
  in separate lists, in the order in which they appeared, one after the
  other, in the MSS., without any alphabetical arrangement, but with the
  names of the authors or the titles of the books whence they were
  taken, placed at the head of each separate collection or chapter. In
  this arrangement each article by itself is called a gloss; when
  reference is made only to the word explained it is called the _lemma_,
  while the explanation is termed the _interpretamentum_. In most cases
  the form of the lemma was retained just as it stood in its source, and
  explained by a single word (_tesca: sancta_, Varro vii. 10;
  _clucidatus: suavis, id._ vii. 107; cf. Isid. _Etym._ i. 30. 1, "quid
  enim illud sit in uno verbo positum declarat [_scil._ glossa] ut
  conticescere est tacere"), so that we meet with lemmata in the
  accusative, dative and genitive, likewise explained by words in the
  same cases; the forms of verbs being treated in the same way. Of this
  first stage in the making of glossaries, many traces are preserved,
  for instance, in the late 8th century Leiden Glossary (Voss. 69, ed.
  J. H. Hessels), where chapter iii. contains words or glosses excerpted
  from the _Life of St Martin_ by Sulpicius Severus; chs. iv., v. and
  xxxv. glosses from Rufinus; chs. vi. and xl. from Gildas; chs. vii. to
  xxv. from books of the Bible (Paralipomenon; Proverbs, &c., &c.); chs.
  xxvi. to xlviii, from Isidore, the _Vita S. Anthonii_, Cassiodorus, St
  Jerome, Cassianus, Orosius, St Augustine, St Clement, Eucherius, St
  Gregory, the grammarians Donatus, Phocas, &c. (See also Goetz, _Corp._
  v. 546. 23-547. 6. and i. 5-40 from Ovid's _Metam._; v. 657 from
  Apuleius, _De deo Socratis_; cf. Landgraf, in _Arch._ ix. 174).

  By a second operation the glosses came to be arranged in
  _alphabetical_ order according to the first letter of the lemma, but
  still retained in separate chapters under the names of authors or the
  titles of books. Of this _second_ stage the Leiden Glossary contains
  traces also: ch. i. (_Verba de Canonibus_) and ii. (_Sermones de
  Regulis_); see Goetz, _Corp._ v. 529 sqq. (from Terentius), iv. 427
  sqq. (Virgil).

  The third operation collected all the accessible glosses in
  alphabetical order, in the first instance according to the first
  letters of the lemmata. In this arrangement the names of the authors
  or the titles of the books could no longer be preserved, and
  consequently the sources whence the glosses were excerpted became
  uncertain, especially if the grammatical forms of the lemmata had been
  normalized.

  A fourth arrangement collected the glosses according to the first two
  letters of the lemmata, as in the Corpus Glossary and in the still
  earlier _Cod. Vat._ 3321 (Goetz, _Corp._ iv. 1 sqq.), where even many
  attempts were made to arrange them according to the first three
  letters of the alphabet. A peculiar arrangement is seen in the
  _Glossae affatim_ (Goetz, _Corp._ iv. 471 sqq.), where all words are
  alphabetized, first according to the initial letter of the word (a, b,
  c, &c.), and then further according to the first _vowel_ in the word
  (a, e, i, o, u).

  No date or period can be assigned to any of the above stages or
  arrangements. For instance, the first and second are both found in the
  Leiden Glossary, which dates from the end of the 8th century, whereas
  the Corpus Glossary, written in the beginning of the same century,
  represents already the fourth stage.

  For the purpose of identification titles have of late years been given
  to the various nameless collections of glosses, derived partly from
  their first lemma, partly from other characteristics, as glossae
  _abstrusae_; glossae _abavus major_ and _minor_; g. _affatim_; g. _ab
  absens_; g. _abactor_; g. _Abba Pater_; g. a, a; g. _Vergilianae_; g.
  _nominum_ (Goetz, _Corp._ ii. 563, iv.); g. _Sangallenses_ (Warren,
  _Transact. Amer. Philol. Assoc._ xv., 1885, p. 141 sqq.).

  A chief landmark in glossography is represented by the _Origines_
  (_Etymologiae_) of Isidore (d. 636), an encyclopedia in which he, like
  Cassiodorus, mixed human and divine subjects together. In many places
  we can trace his sources, but he also used glossaries. His work became
  a great mine for later glossographers. In the tenth book he deals with
  the etymology of many substantives and adjectives arranged
  alphabetically according to the first letter of the words, perhaps by
  himself from various sources. His principal source is Servius, then
  the fathers of the Church (Augustine, Jerome, Lactantius) and Donatus
  the grammarian. This tenth book was also copied and used separately,
  and mixed up with other works (cf. Loewe, _Prodr._ 167. 21). Isidore's
  _Differentiae_ have also had a great reputation.

  Next comes the _Liber glossarum_, chiefly compiled from Isidore, but
  all articles arranged alphabetically; its author lived in Spain c.
  A.D. 690-750; he has been called Ansileubus, but not in any of the
  MSS., some of which belong to the 8th century; hence this name is
  suspected to be merely that of some owner of a copy of the book (cf.
  Goetz, "Der Liber Glossarum," in _Abhandl. der philol.-hist. Class,
  der kön. sächs. Ges._ xiii., 1893; _id._, _Corp._ v., praef. xx. 161).

  Here come, in regard to time, some Latin glossaries already largely
  mixed with Germanic, more especially Anglo-Saxon interpretations: (1)
  the Corpus Glossary (ed. J. H. Hessels), written in the beginning of
  the 8th century, preserved in the library of Corpus Christi College,
  Cambridge; (2) the Leiden Glossary (end of 8th century, ed. Hessels;
  another edition by Plac. Glogger), preserved in the Leiden MS. Voss.
  Q^o. 69; (3) the Épinal Glossary, written in the beginning of the 9th
  century[8] and published in facsimile by the London Philol. Society
  from a MS. in the town library at Épinal; (4) the _Glossae
  Amplonianae_, i.e. three glossaries preserved in the Amplonian library
  at Erfurt, known as Erfurt¹, Erfurt² and Erfurt³. The first, published
  by Goetz (_Corp._ v. 337-401; cf. also Loewe, _Prodr._ 114 sqq.) with
  the various readings of the kindred Épinal, consists, like the latter,
  of different collections of glosses (also some from Aldhelm), some
  arranged alphabetically according to the first letter of the lemma,
  others according to the first two letters. The title of Erfurt²
  (_incipit II. conscriptio glosarum in unam_) shows that it is also a
  combination of various glossaries; it is arranged alphabetically
  according to the first two letters of the lemmata, and contains the
  _affatim_ and _abavus maior_ glosses, also a collection from Aldhelm;
  Erfurt³ are the _Glossae nominum_, mixed also with Anglo-Saxon
  interpretations (Goetz, _Corp._ ii. 563). The form in which the three
  Erfurt glossaries have come down to us points back to the 8th century.

  The first great glossary or collection of various glosses and
  glossaries is that of Salomon, bishop of Constance, formerly abbot of
  St Gall, who died A.D. 919. An edition of it in two parts was printed
  c. 1475 at Augsburg, with the headline _Salemonis ecclesie
  Constantiensis episcopi glosse ex illustrissimis collecte auctoribus_.
  The oldest MSS. of this work date from the 11th century. Its sources
  are the _Liber glossarum_ (Loewe, _Prodr._ 234 sqq.), the glossary
  preserved in the 9th-century MS. _Lat. Monac._ 14429 (Goetz, "Lib.
  Gloss." 35 sqq.), and the great Abavus Gloss (_id., ibid._ p. 37;
  _id._, _Corp._ iv. praef. xxxvii.).

  The _Lib. glossarum_ has also been the chief source for the important
  (but not original) glossary of Papias, of A.D. 1053 (cf. Goetz in
  _Sitz. Ber. Akad. Münch._, 1903, p. 267 sqq., who enumerates
  eighty-seven MSS. of the 12th to the 15th centuries), of whom we only
  know that he lived among clerics and dedicated his work to his two
  sons. An edition of it was published at Milan "per Dominicum de
  Vespolate" on the 12th of December 1476; other editions followed in
  1485, 1491, 1496 (at Venice). He also wrote a grammar, chiefly
  compiled from Priscianus (Hagen, _Anecd. Helv._ clxxix. sqq.).

  The same _Lib. gloss._ is the source (1) for the _Abba Pater_ Glossary
  (cf. Goetz, _ibid._ p. 39), published by G. M. Thomas (_Sitz. Ber.
  Akad. Münch._, 1868, ii. 369 sqq.); (2) the Greek glossary _Absida
  lucida_ (Goetz, ib. p. 41); and (3) the Lat.-Arab. glossary in the
  _Cod. Leid. Scal. Orient._ No. 231 (published by Seybold in _Semit.
  Studien_, Heft xv.-xvii., Berlin, 1900).

  The Paulus-Glossary (cf. Goetz, "Der Liber Glossarum," p. 215) is
  compiled from the second Salomon-Glossary (_abacti magistratus_), the
  _Abavus major_ and the _Liber glossarum_, with a mixture of Hebraica.
  Many of his glosses appear again in other compilations, as in the Cod.
  Vatic. 1469 (cf. Goetz, _Corp._ v. 520 sqq.), mixed up with glosses
  from Beda, Placidus, &c. (cf. a glossary published by Ellis in _Amer.
  Journ. of Philol._ vi. 4, vii. 3, containing besides Paulus glosses,
  also excerpts from Isidore; Cambridge _Journ. of Philol._ viii. 71
  sqq., xiv. 81 sqq.).

  Osbern of Gloucester (c. 1123-1200) compiled the glossary entitled
  _Panormia_ (published by Angelo Mai as _Thesaurus novus Latinitatis_,
  from Cod. Vatic. reg. Christ. 1392; cf. W. Meyer, _Rhein. Mus._ xxix.,
  1874; Goetz in _Sitzungsber. sächs. Ges. d. Wiss._, 1903, p. 133 sqq.;
  _Berichte üb. die Verhandl. der kön. sächs. Gesellsch. der Wiss._,
  Leipzig, 1902); giving derivations, etymologies, testimonia collected
  from Paulus, Priscianus, Plautus, Horace, Virgil, Ovid, Mart. Capella,
  Macrobius, Ambrose, Sidonius, Prudentius, Josephus, Jerome, &c., &c.
  Osbern's material was also used by Hugucio, whose compendium was still
  more extensively used (cf. Goetz, l.c., p. 121 sqq., who enumerates
  one hundred and three MSS. of his treatise), and contains many
  biblical glosses, especially Hebraica, some treatises on Latin
  numerals, &c. (cf. Hamann, _Weitere Mitteil. aus dem Breviloquus
  Benthemianus_, Hamburg, 1882; A. Thomas, "Glosses provençales inéd."
  in _Romania_, xxxiv. p. 177 sqq; P. Toynbee, _ibid._ xxv. p. 537
  sqq.).

  The great work of Johannes de Janua, entitled _Summa quae vocatur
  catholicon_, dates from the year 1286, and treats of (1) accent, (2)
  etymology, (3) syntax, and (4) so-called prosody, i.e. a lexicon,
  which also deals with quantity. It mostly uses Hugucio and Papias;
  its classical quotations are limited, except from Horace; it quotes
  the Vulgate by preference, frequently independently from Hugucio; it
  excerpts Priscianus, Donatus, Isidore, the fathers of the Church,
  especially Jerome, Gregory, Augustine, Ambrose; it borrows many Hebrew
  glosses, mostly from Jerome and the other collections then in use; it
  mentions the _Graecismus_ of Eberhardus Bethuniensis, the works of
  Hrabanus Maurus, the _Doctrinale_ of Alexander de Villa Dei, and the
  _Aurora_ of Petrus de Riga. Many quotations from the _Catholicon_ in
  Du Cange are really from Hugucio, and may be traced to Osbern. There
  exist many MSS. of this work, and the Mainz edition of 1460 is well
  known (cf. Goetz in _Berichte üb. die Verhandl. der kön. sächs.
  Gesellsch. der Wiss._, Leipzig, 1902).

  The gloss MSS. of the 9th and 10th centuries are numerous, but a
  diminution becomes visible towards the 11th. We then find grammatical
  treatises arise, for which also glossaries were used. The chief
  material was (1) the _Liber glossarum_; (2) the Paulus glosses; (3)
  the _Abavus major_; (4) excerpts from Priscian and glosses to
  Priscian; (5) Hebrew-biblical collections of proper names (chiefly
  from Jerome). After these comes medieval material, as the
  _derivationes_ which are found in many MSS. (cf. Goetz in
  _Sitzungsber. sächs. Ges. d. Wiss._, 1903, p. 136 sqq.; Traube in
  _Archiv f. lat. Lex._ vi. 264), containing quotations from Plautus,
  Ovid, Juvenal, Persius, Terence, occasionally from Priscian, Eutyches,
  and other grammarians, with etymological explanations. These
  _derivationes_ were the basis for the grammatical works of Osbern,
  Hugucio and Joannes of Janua.

  A peculiar feature of the late middle ages are the medico-botanic
  glossaries based on the earlier ones (see Goetz, _Corp._ iii.). The
  additions consisted in Arabic words with Latin explanations, while
  Greek, Latin, Hebrew and Arabic, interchange with English, French,
  Italian and German forms. Of glossaries of this kind we have (1) the
  _Glossae alphita_ (published by S. de Renzi in the 3rd vol. of the
  _Collect. Salernitana_, Naples, 1854, from two Paris MSS. of the 14th
  and 15th centuries, but some of the glosses occur already in earlier
  MSS.); (2) _Sinonoma Bartholomei_, collected by John Mirfeld, towards
  the end of the 14th century, ed. J. L. G. Mowat (_Anecd. Oxon._ i. 1,
  1882, cf. Loewe, _Gloss. Nom._ 116 sqq.); it seems to have used the
  same or some similar source as No. 1; (3) the compilations of Simon de
  Janua (_Clavis sanationis_, end of 13th century), and of Matthaeus
  Silvaticus (_Pandectae medicinae_, 14th century; cf. H. Stadler,
  "Dioscor. Longob." in _Roman. Forsch._ x. 3. 371; Steinmeyer,
  _Althochd. Gloss._ iii.).

  Of biblical glossaries we have a large number, mostly mixed with
  glosses on other, even profane, subjects, as Hebrew and other biblical
  proper names, and explanations of the text of the Vulgate in general,
  and the prologues of Hieronymus. So we have the _Glossae veteris ac
  novi testamenti_ (beginning "Prologus graece latine praelocutio sive
  praefatio") in numerous MSS. of the 9th to 14th centuries, mostly
  retaining the various books under separate headings (cf. Arevalo,
  _Isid._ vii. 407 sqq.; Loewe, _Prodr._ 141; Steinmeyer iv. 459; S.
  Berger, _De compendiis exegeticis quibusdam medii aevi_, Paris, 1879).
  Special mention should be made of Guil. Brito, who lived about 1250,
  and compiled a _Summa_ (beginning "difficiles studeo partes quas
  Biblia gestat Pandere"), contained in many MSS. especially in French
  libraries. This _Summa_ gave rise to the _Mammotrectus_ of Joh.
  Marchesinus, about 1300, of which we have editions printed in 1470,
  1476, 1479, &c.

  Finally we may mention such compilations as the _Summa Heinrici_; the
  work of Johannes de Garlandia, which he himself calls _dictionarius_
  (cf. Scheler in _Jahrb. f. rom. u. engl. Philol._ vi., 1865, p. 142
  sqq.); and that of Alexander Neckam (ib. vii. p. 60 sqq., cf. R.
  Ellis, in _Amer. Journ. of Phil._ x. 2); which are, strictly speaking,
  not glossographic. The _Breviloquus_ drew its chief material from
  Papias, Hugucio, Brito, &c. (K. Hamann, _Mitteil. aus dem Breviloquus
  Benthemianus_, Hamburg, 1879; id., _Weitere Mitteil._, &c., Hamburg,
  1882); so also the _Vocabularium Ex quo_; the various _Gemmae_;
  _Vocabularia rerum_ (cf. Diefenbach, _Glossar. Latino-Germanicum_).

  After the revival of learning, J. Scaliger (1540-1609) was the first
  to impart to glossaries that importance which they deserve (cf. Goetz,
  in _Sitzungsber. sächs. Ger. d. Wiss._, 1888, p. 219 sqq.), and in his
  edition of Festus made great use of Ps.-Philoxenus, which enabled O.
  Müller, the later editor of Festus, to follow in his footsteps.
  Scaliger also planned the publication of a _Corpus glossarum_, and
  left behind a collection of glosses known as _glossae Isidori_ (Goetz,
  _Corp._ v. p. 589 sqq.; id. in _Sitzungsber. sächs. Ges._, 1888, p.
  224 sqq.; Loewe, _Prodr._ 23 sqq.), which occurs also in old
  glossaries, clearly in reference to the tenth book of the
  _Etymologiae_.

  The study of glosses spread through the publication, in 1573, of the
  bilingual glossaries by H. Stephanus (Estienne), containing, besides
  the two great glossaries, also the _Hermeneumata Stephani_, which is a
  recension of the _Ps.-Dositheana_ (republished Goetz, _Corp._ iii.
  438-474), and the _glossae Stephani_, excerpted from a collection of
  the _Hermeneumata_ (ib. iii. 438-474).

  In 1600 Bonav. Vulcanius republished the same glossaries, adding (1)
  the glossae _Isidori_, which now appeared for the first time; (2) the
  _Onomasticon_; (3) _notae_ and _castigationes_, derived from Scaliger
  (Loewe, _Prodr._ 183).

  In 1606 Carolus and Petrus Labbaeus published, with the effective help
  of Scaliger, another collection of glossaries, republished, in 1679,
  by Du Cange, after which the 17th and 18th centuries produced no
  further glossaries (Erasm. Nyerup published extracts from the Leiden
  Glossary, Voss. 69, in 1787, _Symbolae ad Literat. Teut._), though
  glosses were constantly used or referred to by Salmasius, Meursius,
  Heraldus, Barth, Fabricius and Burman at Leiden, where a rich
  collection of glossaries had been obtained by the acquisition of the
  Vossius library (cf. Loewe, _Prodr._ 168). In the 19th century came
  Osann's _Glossarii Latini specimen_ (1826); the glossographic
  publications of Angelo Mai (_Classici auctores_, vols. iii., vi.,
  vii., viii., Rome, 1831-1836, containing Osbern's _Panormia_, Placidus
  and various glosses from Vatican MSS.); Fr. Oehler's treatise (1847)
  on the _Cod. Amplonianus_ of Osbern, and his edition of the three
  Erfurt glossaries, so important for Anglo-Saxon philology; in 1854 G.
  F. Hildebrand's _Glossarium Latinum_ (an extract from _Abavus minor_),
  preserved in a Cod. Paris. lat. 7690; 1857, Thomas Wright's vol. of
  Anglo-Saxon glosses, which were republished with others in 1884 by R.
  Paul Wülcker under the title _Anglo-Saxon and Old English
  Vocabularies_ (London, 2 vols., 1857); L. Diefenbach's supplement to
  Du Cange, entitled _Glossarium Latino-Germanicum mediae et infimae
  aetatis_, containing mostly glosses collected from glossaries,
  vocabularies, &c., enumerated in the preface; Ritschl's treatise
  (1870) on Placidus, which called forth an edition (1875) of Placidus
  by Deuerling; G. Loewe's _Prodromus_ (1876), and other treatises by
  him, published after his death by G. Goetz (Leipzig, 1884); 1888, the
  second volume of Goetz's own great _Corpus glossariorum Latinorum_, of
  which seven volumes (except the first) had seen the light by 1907, the
  last two being separately entitled _Thesaurus glossarum emendatarum_,
  containing many emendations and corrections of earlier glossaries by
  the author and other scholars; 1900, Arthur S. Napier, _Old English
  Glosses_ (Oxford), collected chiefly from Aldhelm MSS., but also from
  Augustine, Avianus, Beda, Boethius, Gregory, Isidore, Juvencus,
  Phocas, Prudentius, &c.

  There are a very great number of glossaries still in MS. scattered in
  various libraries of Europe, especially in the Vatican, at Monte
  Cassino, Paris, Munich, Bern, the British Museum, Leiden, Oxford,
  Cambridge, &c. Much has already been done to make the material
  contained in these MSS. accessible in print, and much may yet be done
  with what is still unpublished, though we may find that the
  differences between the glossaries which often present themselves at
  first sight are mere differences in form introduced by successive more
  or less qualified copyists.

  Some Celtic (Breton, Cornish, Welsh, Irish) glossaries have been
  preserved to us, the particulars of which may be learnt from the
  publications of Whitley Stokes, Sir John Rhys, Kuno Meyer, L. C.
  Stern, G. I. Ascoli, Heinr. Zimmer, Ernst Windisch, Nigra, and many
  others; these are published separately as books or in Zeuss's
  _Grammatica Celtica_, A. Kühn's _Beiträge zur vergleich.
  Sprachforschung, Zeitschr. für celtische Philologie, Archiv für
  Celtische Lexicographie, the Revue celtique, Transactions of the
  London Philological Society_, &c.

  The first Hebrew author known to have used glosses was R. Gershom of
  Metz (1000) in his commentaries on the Talmud. But he and other Hebrew
  writers after him mostly used the Old French language (though
  sometimes also Italian, Slavonic, German) of which an example has been
  published by Lambert and Brandin, in their _Glossaire hébreu-français
  du XIII^e siècle: recueil de mots hébreux bibliques avec traduction
  française_ (Paris, 1905). See further _The Jewish Encyclopedia_ (New
  York and London, 1903), article "Gloss."

  AUTHORITIES.--For a great part of what has been said above, the writer
  is indebted to G. Goetz's article on "Latein. Glossographie" in
  Pauly's _Realencyklopädie_. By the side of Goetz's _Corpus_ stands the
  great collection of Steinmeyer and Sievers, _Die althochdeutschen
  Glossen_ (in 4 vols., 1879-1898), containing a vast number of (also
  Anglo-Saxon) glosses culled from Bible MSS. and MSS. of classical
  Christian authors, enumerated and described in the 4th vol. Besides
  the works of the editors of, or writers on, glosses, already
  mentioned, we refer here to a few others, whose writings may be
  consulted: Hugo Blümner; _Catholicon Anglicum_ (ed. Hertage); De-Vit
  (at end of Forcellini's _Lexicon_); F. Deycks; Du Cange; Funck; J. H.
  Gallée (_Altsächs. Sprachdenkm._, 1894); Gröber; K. Gruber
  (_Hauptquellen des Corpus, Épin. u. Erfurt Gloss._, Erlangen, 1904);
  Hattemer; W. Heraeus (_Die Sprache des Petronius und die Glossen_,
  Leipzig, 1899); Kettner; Kluge; Krumbacher; Lagarde; Landgraf; Marx;
  W. Meyer-Lubke ("Zu den latein. Glossen" in _Wiener Stud._ xxv. 90
  sqq.); Henry Nettleship; Niedermann, _Notes d'étymol. lat._ (Macon,
  1902), _Contribut. à la critique des glosses latines_ (Neuchâtel,
  1905); Pokrowskij; Quicherat; Otto B. Schlutter (many important
  articles in _Anglia, Englische Studien, Archiv f. latein.
  Lexicographie_, &c.); Schöll; Schuchardt; Leo Sommer; Stadler;
  Stowasser; Strachan; H. Sweet; Usener (_Rhein. Mus._ xxiii. 496, xxiv.
  382); A. Way, _Promptorium parvulorum sive clericorum_ (3 vols.,
  London, 1843-1865); Weyman; Wilmanns (in _Rhein. Mus._ xxiv. 363);
  Wölfflin in _Arch. für lat. Lexicogr._; Zupitza. Cf. further, the
  various volumes of the following periodicals: _Romania_; _Zeitschr.
  für deutsches Alterthum_; _Anglia_; _Englische Studien_; _Journal of
  English and German Philology_ (ed. Cook and Karsten); _Archiv für
  latein. Lexicogr._, and others treating of philology, lexicography,
  grammar, &c.     (J. H. H.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The history of the literary gloss in its proper sense has given
    rise to the common English use of the word to mean an interpretation,
    especially in a disingenuous, sinister or false way; the form
    "gloze," more particularly associated with explaining away,
    palliating or talking speciously, is simply an alternative spelling.
    The word has thus to some extent influenced, or been influenced by,
    the meaning of the etymologically different "gloss" = lustrous
    surface (from the same root as "glass"; cf. "glow"), in its extended
    sense of "outward fair seeming."

  [2] See Matthaei, _Glossaria Graeca_ (Moscow, 1774/5).

  [3] See Labbé, _Veteres glossae verborum juris quae passim in
    Basilicis reperiuntur_ (1606); Otto, _Thesaurus juris Romani_, iii.
    (1697); Stephens, _Thesaurus linguae Graecae_, viii. (1825).

  [4] See Biener, _Geschichte der Novellen_, p. 229 sqq.

  [5] Irnerius himself is with some probability believed to have been
    the author of the Brachylogus (q.v.).

  [6] Thus Fil. Villani (_De origine civitatis Florentiae_, ed. 1847,
    p. 23), speaking of the Glossator Accursius, says of the Glossae that
    "tantae auctoritatis gratiaeque fuere, ut omnium consensu publice
    approbarentur, et reiectis aliis, quibuscumque penitus abolitis,
    solae juxta textum legum adpositae sunt et ubique terrarum sine
    controversia pro legibus celebrantur, ita ut nefas sit, non secus
    quam textui, Glossis Accursii contraire." For similar testimonies see
    Bayle's _Dictionnaire_, s.v. "Accursius," and Rudorff, _Röm.
    Rechtsgeschichte_, i. 338 (1857).

  [7] The so-called _Malberg_ glosses, found in various texts of the
    Lex Salica, are not glosses in the ordinary sense of the word, but
    precious remains of the parent of the present literary Dutch, namely,
    the Low German dialect spoken by the Salian Franks who conquered Gaul
    from the Romans at the end of the 5th century. It is supposed that
    the conquerors brought their Frankish law with them, either written
    down, or by oral tradition; that they translated it into Latin for
    the sake of the Romans settled in the country, and that the
    translators, not always knowing a proper Latin equivalent for certain
    things or actions, retained in their translations the Frankish
    technical names or phrases which they had attempted to translate into
    Latin. E.g. in chapter ii., by the side of "_porcellus lactans_" (a
    sucking-pig), we find the Frankish "_chramnechaltio_," lit. a
    stye-porker. The person who stole such a pig (still kept in an
    enclosed place, in a stye) was fined three times as much as one who
    stole a "_porcellus de campo qui sine matre vivere possit_," as the
    Latin text has it, for which the Malberg technical expression appears
    to have been _ingymus_, that is, a one year (winter) old animal, i.e.
    a yearling. Nearly all these glosses are preceded by "_mal_" or
    "_malb_," which is thought to be a contraction for "_malberg_," the
    Frankish for "forum." The antiquity and importance of these glosses
    for philology may be realized from the fact that the Latin
    translation of the Lex Salica probably dates from the latter end of
    the 5th century. For further information cf. Jac. Grimm's preface to
    Joh. Merkel's ed. (1850), and H. Kern's notes to J. H. Hessels's ed.
    (London, 1880) of the Lex Salica.

  [8] Anglo-Saxon scholars ascribe an earlier date to the text of the
    MS. on account of certain archaisms in its Anglo-Saxon words.



GLOSSOP, a market town and municipal borough, in the High Peak
parliamentary division of Derbyshire, England, on the extreme northern
border of the county; 13 m. E. by S. of Manchester by the Great Central
railway. Pop. (1901) 21,526. It is the chief seat of the cotton
manufacture in Derbyshire, and it has also woollen and paper mills, dye
and print works, and bleaching greens. The town consists of three main
divisions, the Old Town (or Glossop proper), Howard Town (or Glossop
Dale) and Mill Town. An older parish church was replaced by that of All
Saints in 1830; there is also a very fine Roman Catholic church. In the
immediate neighbourhood is Glossop Hall, the seat of Lord Howard, lord
of the manor, a picturesque old building with extensive terraced
gardens. On a hill near the town is Melandra Castle, the site of a Roman
fort guarding Longdendale and the way into the hills of the Peak
District. In the neighbourhood also a great railway viaduct spans the
Dinting valley with sixteen arches. To the north, in Longdendale, there
are five lakes belonging to the water-supply system of Manchester,
formed by damming the Etherow, a stream which descends from the high
moors north-east of Glossop. The town is governed by a mayor, 6 aldermen
and 18 councillors. Area, 3052 acres.

Glossop was granted by Henry I. to William Peverel, on the attainder of
whose son it reverted to the crown. In 1157 it was gifted by Henry II.
to the abbey of Basingwerk. Henry VIII. bestowed it on the earl of
Shrewsbury. It was made a municipal borough in 1866.



GLOUCESTER, EARLS AND DUKES OF. The English earldom of Gloucester was
held by several members of the royal family, including Robert, a natural
son of Henry I., and John, afterwards king, and others, until 1218, when
Gilbert de Clare was recognized as earl of Gloucester. It remained in
the family of Clare (q.v.) until 1314, when another Earl Gilbert was
killed at Bannockburn; and after this date it was claimed by various
relatives of the Clares, among them by the younger Hugh le Despenser (d.
1326) and by Hugh Audley (d. 1347), both of whom had married sisters of
Earl Gilbert. In 1397 Thomas le Despenser (1373-1400), a descendant of
the Clares, was created earl of Gloucester; but in 1399 he was degraded
from his earldom and in January 1400 was beheaded.

The dukedom dates from 1385, when Thomas of Woodstock, a younger son of
Edward III., was created duke of Gloucester, but his honours were
forfeited when he was found guilty of treason in 1397. The next holder
of the title was Humphrey, a son of Henry IV., who was created duke of
Gloucester in 1414. He died without sons in 1447, and in 1461 the title
was revived in favour of Richard, brother of Edward IV., who became king
as Richard III. in 1483.

In 1659 Henry (1639-1660), a brother of Charles II., was formally
created duke of Gloucester, a title which he had borne since infancy.
This prince, sharing the exile of the Stuarts, had incensed his mother,
Queen Henrietta Maria, by his firm adherence to the Protestant religion,
and had fought among the Spaniards at Dunkirk in 1658. Having returned
to England with Charles II., he died unmarried in London on the 13th of
September 1660. The next duke was William (1689-1700), son of the
princess Anne, who was, after his mother, the heir to the English
throne, and who was declared duke of Gloucester by his uncle, William
III., in 1689, but no patent for this creation was ever passed. William
died on the 30th of July 1700, and again the title became extinct.

Frederick Louis, the eldest son of George II., was known for some time
as duke of Gloucester, but when he was raised to the peerage in 1726 it
was as duke of Edinburgh only. In 1764 Frederick's third son, William
Henry (1743-1805), was created duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh by his
brother, George III. This duke's secret marriage with Maria (d. 1807),
an illegitimate daughter of Sir Edward Walpole and widow of James, 2nd
Earl Waldegrave, in 1766, greatly incensed his royal relatives and led
to his banishment from court. Gloucester died on the 25th of August
1805, leaving an only son, William Frederick (1776-1834), who now became
duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh. The duke, who served with the British
army in Flanders, married his cousin Mary (1776-1857), a daughter of
George III. He died on the 30th of November 1834, leaving no children,
and his widow, the last survivor of the family of George III., died on
the 30th of April 1857.



GLOUCESTER, GILBERT DE CLARE, EARL OF (1243-1295), was a son of Richard
de Clare, 7th earl of Gloucester and 8th earl of Clare, and was born at
Christchurch, Hampshire, on the 2nd of September 1243. Having married
Alice of Angoulême, half-sister of king Henry III., he became earl of
Gloucester and Clare on his father's death in July 1262, and almost at
once joined the baronial party led by Simon de Montfort, earl of
Leicester. With Simon Gloucester was at the battle of Lewes in May 1264,
when the king himself surrendered to him, and after this victory he was
one of the three persons selected to nominate a council. Soon, however,
he quarrelled with Leicester. Leaving London for his lands on the Welsh
border he met Prince Edward, afterwards king Edward I., at Ludlow, just
after his escape from captivity, and by his skill contributed largely to
the prince's victory at Evesham in August 1265. But this alliance was as
transitory as the one with Leicester. Gloucester took up the cudgels on
behalf of the barons who had surrendered at Kenilworth in November and
December 1266, and after putting his demands before the king, secured
possession of London. This happened in April 1267, but the earl quickly
made his peace with Henry III. and with Prince Edward, and, having
evaded an obligation to go on the Crusade, he helped to secure the
peaceful accession of Edward I. to the throne in 1272. Gloucester then
passed several years in fighting in Wales, or on the Welsh border; in
1289 when the barons were asked for a subsidy he replied on their behalf
that they would grant nothing until they saw the king in person (_nisi
prius personaliter viderent in Anglia faciem regis_), and in 1291 he was
fined and imprisoned on account of his violent quarrel with Humphrey de
Bohun, earl of Hereford. Having divorced his wife Alice, he married in
1290 Edward's daughter Joan, or Johanna (d. 1307). Earl Gilbert, who is
sometimes called the "Red," died at Monmouth on the 7th of December
1295, leaving in addition to three daughters a son, Gilbert, earl of
Gloucester and Clare, who was killed at Bannockburn.

  See C. Bémont, _Simon de Montfort, comte de Leicester_ (1884), and G.
  W. Prothero, _Simon de Montfort_ (1877).



GLOUCESTER, HUMPHREY, DUKE OF (1391-1447), fourth son of Henry IV. by
Mary de Bohun, was born in 1391. He was knighted at his father's
coronation on the 11th of October 1399, and created duke of Gloucester
by Henry V. at Leicester on the 16th of May 1414. He served in the war
next year, and was wounded at Agincourt, where he owed his life to his
brother's valour. In April 1416 Humphrey received the emperor Sigismund
at Dover and, according to a 16th-century story, did not let him land
till he had disclaimed all title to imperial authority in England. In
the second invasion of France Humphrey commanded the force which during
1418 reduced the Cotentin and captured Cherbourg. Afterwards he joined
the main army before Rouen, and took part in subsequent campaigns till
January 1420. He then went home to replace Bedford as regent in England,
and held office till Henry's own return in February 1421. He was again
regent for his brother from May to September 1422.

Henry V. measured Humphrey's capacity, and by his will named him merely
deputy for Bedford in England. Humphrey at once claimed the full
position of regent, but the parliament and council allowed him only the
title of protector during Bedford's absence, with limited powers. His
lack of discretion soon justified this caution. In the autumn of 1422 he
married Jacqueline of Bavaria, heiress of Holland, to whose lands Philip
of Burgundy had claims. Bedford, in the interest of so important an
ally, endeavoured vainly to restrain his brother. Finally in October
1424 Humphrey took up arms in his wife's behalf, but after a short
campaign in Hainault went home, and left Jacqueline to be overwhelmed by
Burgundy. Returning to England in April 1425 he soon entangled himself
in a quarrel with the council and his uncle Henry Beaufort, and stirred
up a tumult in London. Open war was averted only by Beaufort's prudence,
and Bedford's hurried return. Humphrey had charged his uncle with
disloyalty to the late and present kings. With some difficulty Bedford
effected a formal reconciliation at Leicester in March 1426, and forced
Humphrey to accept Beaufort's disavowal. When Bedford left England next
year Humphrey renewed his intrigues. But one complication was removed by
the annulling in 1428 of his marriage with Jacqueline. His open adultery
with his mistress, Eleanor Cobham, also made him unpopular. To check his
indiscretion the council, in November 1429, had the king crowned, and so
put an end to Humphrey's protectorate. However, when Henry VI. was soon
afterwards taken to be crowned in France, Humphrey was made lieutenant
and warden of the kingdom, and thus ruled England for nearly two years.
His jealousy of Bedford and Beaufort still continued, and when the
former died in 1435 there was no one to whom he would defer. The
defection of Burgundy roused English feeling, and Humphrey won
popularity as leader of the war party. In 1436 he commanded in a short
invasion of Flanders. But he had no real power, and his political
importance lay in his persistent opposition to Beaufort and the
councillors of his party. In 1439 he renewed his charges against his
uncle without effect. His position was further damaged by his connexion
with Eleanor Cobham, whom he had now married. In 1441 Eleanor was
charged with practising sorcery against the king, and Humphrey had to
submit to see her condemned, and her accomplices executed. Nevertheless,
he continued his political opposition, and endeavoured to thwart
Suffolk, who was now taking Beaufort's place in the council, by opposing
the king's marriage to Margaret of Anjou. Under Suffolk's influence
Henry VI. grew to distrust his uncle altogether. The crisis came in the
parliament of Bury St Edmunds in February 1447. Immediately on his
arrival there Humphrey was arrested, and four days later, on the 23rd of
February, he died. Rumour attributed his death to foul play. But his
health had been long undermined by excesses, and his end was probably
only hastened by the shock of his arrest.

Humphrey was buried at St Albans Abbey, in a fine tomb, which still
exists. He was ambitious and self-seeking, but unstable and
unprincipled, and, lacking the fine qualities of his brothers, excelled
neither in war nor in peace. Still he was a cultured and courtly prince,
who could win popularity. He was long remembered as the good Duke
Humphrey, and in his lifetime was a liberal patron of letters. He had
been a great collector of books, many of which he presented to the
university of Oxford. He contributed also to the building of the
Divinity School, and of the room still called Duke Humphrey's library.
His books were dispersed at the Reformation and only three volumes of
his donation now remain in the Bodleian library. Titus Livius, an
Italian in Humphrey's service, wrote a life of Henry V. at his patron's
bidding. Other Italian scholars, as Leonardo Aretino, benefited by his
patronage. Amongst English men of letters he befriended Reginald Pecock,
Whethamstead of St Albans, Capgrave the historian, Lydgate, and Gilbert
Kymer, who was his physician and chancellor of Oxford university. A
popular error found Humphrey a fictitious tomb in St Paul's Cathedral.
The adjoining aisle, called Duke Humphrey's Walk, was frequented by
beggars and needy adventurers. Hence the 16th-century proverb "to dine
with Duke Humphrey," used of those who loitered there dinnerless.

  The most important contemporary sources are Stevenson's _Wars of the
  English in France_, Whethamstead's _Register_, and Beckington's
  _Letters_ (all in Rolls Ser.), with the various _London Chronicles_,
  and the works of Waurin and Monstrelet. For his relations with
  Jacqueline see F. von Löher's _Jacobäa von Bayern und ihre Zeit_ (2
  vols., Nördlingen, 1869). For other modern authorities consult W.
  Stubbs's _Constitutional History_; J. H. Ramsay's _Lancaster and
  York_; _Political History of England_, vol. iv.; R. Pauli, _Pictures
  of Old England_, pp. 373-401 (1861); and K. H. Viekers, _Humphrey,
  Duke of Gloucester_ (1907). For Humphrey's correspondence with Piero
  Candido Decembrio see the _English Historical Review_, vols. x., xix.,
  xx.     (C. L. K.)



GLOUCESTER, RICHARD DE CLARE, EARL OF (1222-1262), was a son of Gilbert
de Clare, 6th earl of Gloucester and 7th earl of Clare, and was born on
the 4th of August 1222, succeeding to his father's earldoms on the
death of the latter in October 1230. His first wife was Margaret,
daughter of Hubert de Burgh, and after her death in 1237 he married
Maud, daughter of John de Lacy, earl of Lincoln, and passed his early
years in tournaments and pilgrimages, taking for a time a secondary and
undecided part in politics. He refused to help Henry III. on the French
expedition of 1250, but was afterwards with the king at Paris; then he
went on a diplomatic errand to Scotland, and was sent to Germany to work
among the princes for the election of his stepfather, Richard, earl of
Cornwall, as king of the Romans. About 1258 Gloucester took up his
position as a leader of the barons in their resistance to the king, and
he was prominent during the proceedings which followed the Mad
Parliament at Oxford in 1258. In 1259, however, he quarrelled with Simon
de Montfort, earl of Leicester; the dispute, begun in England, was
renewed in France and he was again in the confidence and company of the
king. This attitude, too, was only temporary, and in 1261 Gloucester and
Leicester were again working in concord. The earl died at his residence
near Canterbury on the 15th of July 1262. A large landholder like his
son and successor, Gilbert, Gloucester was the most powerful English
baron of his time; he was avaricious and extravagant, but educated and
able. He left several children in addition to Earl Gilbert.



GLOUCESTER, ROBERT, EARL OF (d. 1147), was a natural son of Henry I. of
England. He was born, before his father's accession, at Caen in
Normandy; but the exact date of his birth, and his mother's name are
unknown. He received from his father the hand of a wealthy heiress,
Mabel of Gloucester, daughter of Robert Fitz Hamon, and with her the
lordships of Gloucester and Glamorgan. About 1121 the earldom of
Gloucester was created for his benefit. His rank and territorial
influence made him the natural leader of the western baronage. Hence, at
his father's death, he was sedulously courted by the rival parties of
his half-sister the empress Matilda and of Stephen. After some
hesitation he declared for the latter, but tendered his homage upon
strict conditions, the breach of which should be held to invalidate the
contract. Robert afterwards alleged that he had merely feigned
submission to Stephen with the object of secretly furthering his
half-sister's cause among the English barons. The truth appears to be
that he was mortified at finding himself excluded from the inner
councils of the king, and so resolved to sell his services elsewhere.
Robert left England for Normandy in 1137, renewed his relations with the
Angevin party, and in 1138 sent a formal defiance to the king. Returning
to England in the following year, he raised the standard of rebellion in
his own earldom with such success that the greater part of western
England and the south Welsh marches were soon in the possession of the
empress. By the battle of Lincoln (Feb. 2, 1141), in which Stephen was
taken prisoner, the earl made good Matilda's claim to the whole kingdom.
He accompanied her triumphal progress to Winchester and London; but was
unable to moderate the arrogance of her behaviour. Consequently she was
soon expelled from London and deserted by the bishop Henry of Winchester
who, as legate, controlled the policy of the English church. With
Matilda the earl besieged the legate at Winchester, but was forced by
the royalists to beat a hasty retreat, and in covering Matilda's flight
fell into the hands of the pursuers. So great was his importance that
his party purchased his freedom by the release of Stephen. The earl
renewed the struggle for the crown and continued it until his death
(Oct. 31, 1147); but the personal unpopularity of Matilda, and the
estrangement of the Church from her cause, made his efforts unavailing.
His loyalty to a lost cause must be allowed to weigh in the scale
against his earlier double-dealing. But he hardly deserves the
extravagant praise which is lavished upon him by William of Malmesbury.
The sympathies of the chronicler are too obviously influenced by the
earl's munificence towards literary men.

  See the _Historia novella_ by William of Malmesbury (Rolls edition);
  the _Historia Anglorum_ by Henry of Huntingdon (Rolls edition); J. H.
  Round's _Geoffrey de Mandeville_ (1892); and O. Rössler's _Kaiserin
  Mathilde_ (Berlin, 1897).     (H. W. C. D.)



GLOUCESTER, THOMAS OF WOODSTOCK, DUKE OF (1355-1397), seventh and
youngest son of the English king Edward III., was born at Woodstock on
the 7th of January 1355. Having married Eleanor (d. 1399), daughter and
co-heiress of Humphrey de Bohun, earl of Hereford, Essex and Northampton
(d. 1373), Thomas obtained the office of constable of England, a
position previously held by the Bohuns, and was made earl of Buckingham
by his nephew, Richard II., at the coronation in July 1377. He took part
in defending the English coasts against the attacks of the French and
Castilians, after which he led an army through northern and central
France, and besieged Nantes, which town, however, he failed to take.

Returning to England early in 1381, Buckingham found that his brother,
John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, had married his wife's sister, Mary
Bohun, to his own son, Henry, afterwards King Henry IV. The relations
between the brothers, hitherto somewhat strained, were not improved by
this proceeding, as Thomas, doubtless, was hoping to retain possession
of Mary's estates. Having taken some part in crushing the rising of the
peasants in 1381, Buckingham became more friendly with Lancaster; and
while marching with the king into Scotland in 1385 was created duke of
Gloucester, a mark of favour, however, which did not prevent him from
taking up an attitude of hostility to Richard. Lancaster having left the
country, Gloucester placed himself at the head of the party which
disliked the royal advisers, Michael de la Pole, earl of Suffolk and
Robert de Vere, earl of Oxford, whose recent elevation to the dignity of
duke of Ireland had aroused profound discontent. The moment was
propitious for interference, and supported by those who were indignant
at the extravagance and incompetence, real or alleged, of the king,
Gloucester was soon in a position of authority. He forced on the
dismissal and impeachment of Suffolk; was a member of the commission
appointed in 1386 to reform the kingdom and the royal household; and
took up arms when Richard began proceedings against the commissioners.
Having defeated Vere at Radcot in December 1387 the duke and his
associates entered London to find the king powerless in their hands.
Gloucester, who had previously threatened his uncle with deposition, was
only restrained from taking this extreme step by the influence of his
colleagues; but, as the leader of the "lords appellant" in the
"Merciless Parliament," which met in February 1388 and was packed with
his supporters, he took a savage revenge upon his enemies, while not
neglecting to add to his own possessions.

He was not seriously punished when Richard regained his power in May
1389, but he remained in the background, although employed occasionally
on public business, and accompanying the king to Ireland in 1394. In
1396, however, uncle and nephew were again at variance. Gloucester
disliked the peace with France and Richard's second marriage with
Isabella, daughter of King Charles VI.; other causes of difference were
not wanting, and it has been asserted that the duke was plotting to
seize the king. At all events Richard decided to arrest him. By refusing
an invitation to dinner the duke frustrated the first attempt, but on
the 11th of July 1397 he was arrested by the king himself at his
residence, Pleshey castle in Essex. He was taken at once to Calais, and
it is probable that he was murdered by order of the king on the 9th of
September following. The facts seem to be as follows. At the beginning
of September it was reported that he was dead. The rumour, probably a
deliberate one, was false, and about the same time a justice, Sir
William Rickhill (d. 1407), was sent to Calais with instructions dated
the 17th of August to obtain a confession from Gloucester. On the 8th of
September the duke confessed that he had been guilty of treason, and his
death immediately followed this avowal. Unwilling to meet his parliament
so soon after his uncle's death, Richard's purpose was doubtless to
antedate this occurrence, and to foster the impression that the duke had
died from natural causes in August. When parliament met in September he
was declared guilty of treason and his estates forfeited. Gloucester had
one son, Humphrey (c. 1381-1399), who died unmarried, and four
daughters, the most notable of whom was Anne (c. 1380-1438), who was
successively the wife of Thomas, 3rd earl of Stafford, Edmund, 5th earl
of Stafford, and William Bourchier, count of Eu. Gloucester is supposed
to have written _L'Ordonnance d'Angleterre pour le camp à l'outrance, ou
gaige de bataille_.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--See T. Walsingham, _Historia Anglicana_, edited by H.
  T. Riley (London, 1863-1864); The Monk of Evesham, _Historia vitae et
  regni Ricardi II._, edited by T. Hearne (Oxford, 1729); _Chronique de
  la traison et mort de Richard II_, edited by B. Williams (London,
  1846); J. Froissart, _Chroniques_, edited by S. Luce and G. Raynaud
  (Paris, 1869-1897); W. Stubbs, _Constitutional History_, vol. ii.
  (Oxford, 1896); J. Tait in _Owens College Historical Essays_ and S.
  Armitage-Smith, _John of Gaunt_ (London, 1904).



GLOUCESTER (abbreviated as pronounced _Glo'ster_), a city, county of a
city, municipal and parliamentary borough and port, and the county town
of Gloucestershire, England, on the left (east) bank of the river
Severn, 114 m. W.N.W. of London. Pop. (1901) 47,955. It is served by the
Great Western railway and the west-and-north branch of the Midland
railway; while the Berkeley Ship Canal runs S.W. to Sharpness Docks in
the Severn estuary (16½ m.). Gloucester is situated on a gentle eminence
overlooking the Severn and sheltered by the Cotteswolds on the east,
while the Malverns and the hills of the Forest of Dean rise prominently
to the west and north-west.

The cathedral, in the north of the city near the river, originates in
the foundation of an abbey of St Peter in 681, the foundations of the
present church having been laid by Abbot Serlo (1072-1104); and Walter
Froucester (d. 1412) its historian, became its first mitred abbot in
1381. Until 1541, Gloucester lay in the see of Worcester, but the
separate see was then constituted, with John Wakeman, last abbot of
Tewkesbury, for its first bishop. The diocese covers the greater part of
Gloucestershire, with small parts of Herefordshire and Wiltshire. The
cathedral may be succinctly described as consisting of a Norman nucleus,
with additions in every style of Gothic architecture. It is 420 ft.
long, and 144 ft. broad, with a beautiful central tower of the 15th
century rising to the height of 225 ft. and topped by four graceful
pinnacles. The nave is massive Norman with Early English roof; the crypt
also, under the choir, aisles and chapels, is Norman, as is the
chapter-house. The crypt is one of the four apsidal cathedral crypts in
England, the others being at Worcester, Winchester and Canterbury. The
south porch is Perpendicular, with fan-tracery roof, as also is the
north transept, the south being transitional Decorated. The choir has
Perpendicular tracery over Norman work, with an apsidal chapel on each
side. The choir-vaulting is particularly rich, and the modern scheme of
colouring is judicious. The splendid late Decorated east window is
partly filled with ancient glass. Between the apsidal chapels is a cross
Lady chapel, and north of the nave are the cloisters, with very early
example of fan-tracery, the carols or stalls for the monks' study and
writing lying to the south. The finest monument is the canopied shrine
of Edward II. who was brought hither from Berkeley. By the visits of
pilgrims to this the building and sanctuary were enriched. In a
side-chapel, too, is a monument in coloured bog oak of Robert Curthose,
a great benefactor to the abbey, the eldest son of the Conqueror, who
was interred there; and those of Bishop Warburton and Dr Edward Jenner
are also worthy of special mention. A musical festival (the Festival of
the Three Choirs) is held annually in this cathedral and those of
Worcester and Hereford in turn. Between 1873 and 1890 and in 1897 the
cathedral was extensively restored, principally by Sir Gilbert Scott.
Attached to the deanery is the Norman prior's chapel. In St Mary's
Square outside the Abbey gate, Bishop Hooper suffered martyrdom under
Queen Mary in 1555.

Quaint gabled and timbered houses preserve the ancient aspect of the
city. At the point of intersection of the four principal streets stood
the Tolsey or town hall, replaced by a modern building in 1894. None of
the old public buildings, in fact, is left, but the New Inn in Northgate
Street is a beautiful timbered house, strong and massive, with external
galleries and courtyards, built in 1450 for the pilgrims to Edward II.'s
shrine, by Abbot Sebroke, a traditional subterranean passage leading
thence to the cathedral. The timber is principally chestnut. There are a
large number of churches and dissenting chapels, and it may have been
the old proverb, "as sure as God's in Gloucester," which provoked Oliver
Cromwell to declare that the city had "more churches than godliness." Of
the churches four are of special interest: St Mary de Lode, with a
Norman tower and chancel, and a monument of Bishop Hooper, on the site
of a Roman temple which became the first Christian church in Britain; St
Mary de Crypt, a cruciform structure of the 12th century, with later
additions and a beautiful and lofty tower; the church of St Michael,
said to have been connected with the ancient abbey of St Peter; and St
Nicholas church, originally of Norman erection, and possessing a tower
and other portions of later date. In the neighbourhood of St Mary de
Crypt are slight remains of Greyfriars and Blackfriars monasteries, and
also of the city wall. Early vaulted cellars remain under the Fleece and
Saracen's Head inns.

There are three endowed schools: the College school, refounded by Henry
VIII. as part of the cathedral establishment; the school of St Mary de
Crypt, founded by Dame Joan Cooke in the same reign; and Sir Thomas
Rich's Blue Coat hospital for 34 boys (1666). At the Crypt school the
famous preacher George Whitefield (1714-1770) was educated, and he
preached his first sermon in the church. The first Sunday school was
held in Gloucester, being originated by Robert Raikes, in 1780.

The noteworthy modern buildings include the museum and school of art and
science, the county gaol (on the site of a Saxon and Norman castle), the
Shire Hall and the Whitefield memorial church. A park in the south of
the city contains a spa, a chalybeate spring having been discovered in
1814. West of this, across the canal, are the remains (a gateway and
some walls) of Llanthony Priory, a cell of the mother abbey in the vale
of Ewyas, Monmouthshire, which in the reign of Edward IV. became the
secondary establishment.

Gloucester possesses match works, foundries, marble and slate works,
saw-mills, chemical works, rope works, flour-mills, manufactories of
railway wagons, engines and agricultural implements, and boat and
ship-building yards. Gloucester was declared a port in 1882. The
Berkeley canal was opened in 1827. The Gloucester canal-harbour and that
at Sharpness on the Severn are managed by a board. Principal imports are
timber and grain; and exports, coal, salt, iron and bricks. The salmon
and lamprey fisheries in the Severn are valuable. The tidal bore in the
river attains its extreme height just below the city, and sometimes
surmounts the weir in the western branch of the river, affecting the
stream up to Tewkesbury lock. The parliamentary borough returns one
member. The city is governed by a mayor, 10 aldermen and 30 councillors.
Area, 2315 acres.

_History._--The traditional existence of a British settlement at
Gloucester (Cær Glow, Gleawecastre, Gleucestre) is not confirmed by any
direct evidence, but Gloucester was the Roman municipality or _colonia_
of _Glevum_, founded by Nerva (A.D. 96-98). Parts of the walls can be
traced, and many remains and coins have been found, though inscriptions
(as is frequently the case in Britain) are somewhat scarce. Its
situation on a navigable river, and the foundation in 681 of the abbey
of St Peter by Æthelred favoured the growth of the town; and before the
Conquest Gloucester was a borough governed by a portreeve, with a castle
which was frequently a royal residence, and a mint. The first overlord,
Earl Godwine, was succeeded nearly a century later by Robert, earl of
Gloucester. Henry II. granted the first charter in 1155 which gave the
burgesses the same liberties as the citizens of London and Winchester,
and a second charter of Henry II. gave them freedom of passage on the
Severn. The first charter was confirmed in 1194 by Richard I. The
privileges of the borough were greatly extended by the charter of John
(1200) which gave freedom from toll throughout the kingdom and from
pleading outside the borough. Subsequent charters were numerous.
Gloucester was incorporated by Richard III. in 1483, the town being made
a county in itself. This charter was confirmed in 1489 and 1510, and
other charters of incorporation were received by Gloucester from
Elizabeth in 1560, James I. in 1604, Charles I. in 1626 and Charles II.
in 1672. The chartered port of Gloucester dates from 1580. Gloucester
returned two members to parliament from 1275 to 1885, since when it has
been represented by one member. A seven days' fair from the 24th of June
was granted by Edward I. in 1302, and James I. licensed fairs on the
25th of March and the 17th of November, and fairs under these grants are
still held on the first Saturday in April and July and the last Saturday
in November. The fair now held on the 28th of September was granted to
the abbey of St Peter in 1227. A market on Wednesday existed in the
reign of John, was confirmed by charter in 1227 and is still held. The
iron trade of Gloucester dates from before the Conquest, tanning was
carried on before the reign of Richard III., pin-making and
bell-founding were introduced in the 16th, and the long-existing coal
trade became important in the 18th century. The cloth trade flourished
from the 12th to the 16th century. The sea-borne trade in corn and wine
existed before the reign of Richard I.

  See W. H. Stevenson, _Records of the Corporation of Gloucester_
  (Gloucester, 1893); _Victoria County History, Gloucestershire_.



GLOUCESTER, a city and port of entry of Essex county, Massachusetts,
U.S.A., beautifully situated on Cape Ann. Pop. (1890) 24,651; (1900)
26,121, of whom 8768 were foreign-born, including 4388 English
Canadians, 800 French Canadians, 665 Irish, 653 Finns and 594
Portuguese; (1910 census) 24,398. Area, 53.6 sq. m. It is served by the
Boston & Maine railway and by a steamboat line to Boston. The surface is
sterile, naked and rugged, with bold, rocky ledges, and a most
picturesque shore, the beauties of which have made it a favourite summer
resort, much frequented by artists. Included within the city borders are
several villages, of which the principal one, also known as Gloucester,
has a deep and commodious harbour. Among the other villages, all summer
resorts, are Annisquam, Bay View and Magnolia (so called from the
_Magnolia glauca_, which grows wild there, this being probably its most
northerly habitat); near Magnolia are Rafe's Chasm (60 ft. deep and 6-10
ft. wide) and Norman's Woe, the scene of the wreck of the "Hesperus"
(which has only tradition as a basis), celebrated in Longfellow's poem.
There is some slight general commerce--in 1909 the imports were valued
at $130,098; the exports at $7853--but the principal business is
fishing, and has been since early colonial days. The pursuit of cod,
mackerel, herring and halibut fills up, with a winter coasting trade,
the round of the year. In this industry Gloucester is the most important
place in the United States; and is, indeed, one of the greatest fishing
ports of the world. Most of the adult males are engaged in it. The
"catch" was valued in 1895 at $3,212,985 and in 1905 at $3,377,330. The
organization of the industry has undergone many transformations, but a
notable feature is the general practice--especially since modern methods
have necessitated larger vessels and more costly gear, and
correspondingly greater capital--of profit-sharing; all the crew
entering on that basis and not independently. There are some
manufactures, chiefly connected with the fisheries. The total factory
product in 1905 was valued at $6,920,984, of which the canning and
preserving of fish represented $4,068,571, and glue represented
$752,003. An industry of considerable importance is the quarrying of the
beautiful, dark Cape Ann granite that underlies the city and all the
environs.

Gloucester harbour was probably noted by Champlain (as La Beauport), and
a temporary settlement was made by English fishermen sent out by the
Dorchester Company of "merchant adventurers" in 1623-1625; some of these
settlers returned to England in 1625, and others, with Roger Conant, the
governor, removed to what is now Salem.[1] Permanent settlement
ante-dated 1639 at least, and in 1642 the township was incorporated. From
Gosnold's voyages onward the extraordinary abundance of cod about Cape
Ann was well known, and though the first settlers characteristically
enough tried to live by farming, they speedily became perforce a
sea-faring folk. The active pursuit of fishing as an industry may be
dated as beginning about 1700, for then began voyages beyond Cape Sable.
Voyages to the Grand Banks began about 1741. Mackerel was a relatively
unimportant catch until about 1821, and since then has been an important
but unstable return; halibut fishing has been vigorously pursued since
about 1836 and herring since about 1856. At the opening of the War of
Independence Gloucester, whose fisheries then employed about 600 men, was
second to Marblehead as a fishing-port. The war destroyed the fisheries,
which steadily declined, reaching their lowest ebb from 1820 to 1840.
Meanwhile foreign commerce had greatly expanded. The cod take had
supported in the 18th century an extensive trade with Bilbao, Lisbon and
the West Indies, and though changed in nature with the decline of the
Bank fisheries after the War of Independence, it continued large through
the first quarter of the 19th century. Throughout more than half of the
same century also Gloucester carried on a varied and valuable trade with
Surinam, hake being the chief article of export and molasses and sugar
the principal imports. "India Square" remains, a memento of a bygone day.
About 1850 the fisheries revived, especially after 1860, under the
influence of better prices, improved methods and the discovery of new
grounds, becoming again the chief economic interest; and since that time
the village of Gloucester has changed from a picturesque hamlet to a
fairly modern, though still quaint and somewhat foreign, settlement.
Gasoline boats were introduced in 1900. Ship-building is another industry
of the past. The first "schooner" was launched at Gloucester in 1713.
From 1830 to 1907, 776 vessels and 5242 lives were lost in the fisheries;
but the loss of life has been greatly reduced by the use of better
vessels and by improved methods of fishing. Gloucester became a city in
1874.

  Gloucester life has been celebrated in many books; among others in
  Elizabeth Stuart Phelps-Ward's _Singular Life_ and _Old Maid's
  Paradise_, in Rudyard Kipling's _Captains Courageous_, and in James B.
  Connolly's _Out of Gloucester_ (1902), _The Deep Sea's Toll_ (1905),
  and _The Crested Seas_ (1907).

  See J. J. Babson, _History of the Town of Gloucester_ (Gloucester,
  1860; with _Notes and Additions_, on genealogy, 1876, 1891); and J. R.
  Pringle, _History of the Town and City of Gloucester_ (Gloucester,
  1892).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] According to some authorities (e.g. Pringle) a few settlers
    remained on the site of Gloucester, the permanent settlement thus
    dating from 1623 to 1625; of this, however, there is no proof, and
    the contrary opinion is the one generally held.



GLOUCESTER CITY, a city of Camden county, New Jersey, U.S.A., on the
Delaware river, opposite Philadelphia. Pop. (1890) 6564; (1900) 6840, of
whom 1094 were foreign-born; (1905) 8055; (1910) 9462. The city is
served by the West Jersey & Seashore and the Atlantic City railways, and
by ferry to Philadelphia, of which it is a residential suburb. Among its
manufactures are incandescent gas-burners, rugs, cotton yarns, boats and
drills. The municipality owns and operates the water works. It was near
the site of Gloucester City that the Dutch in 1623 planted the
short-lived colony of Fort Nassau, the first European settlement on the
Delaware river, but it was not until after the arrival of English
Quakers on the Delaware, in 1677, that a permanent settlement, at first
called Axwamus, was established on the site of the present city. This
was surveyed and laid out as a town in 1689. During the War of
Independence the place was frequently occupied by troops, and a number
of skirmishes were fought in its vicinity. The most noted of these was a
successful attack upon a detachment of Hessians on the 25th of November
1777 by American troops under the command of General Lafayette. In 1868
Gloucester City was chartered as a city. In Camden county there is a
township named GLOUCESTER (pop. in 1905, 2300), incorporated in 1798,
and originally including the present township of Clementon and parts of
the present townships of Waterford, Union and Winslow.



GLOUCESTERSHIRE, a county of the west midlands of England, bounded N. by
Worcestershire, N.E. by Warwickshire, E. by Oxfordshire, S.E. by
Berkshire and Wiltshire, S. by Somerset, and W. by Monmouth and
Herefordshire. Its area is 1243-3 sq. m. The outline is very irregular,
but three physical divisions are well marked--the hills, the vale and
the forest. (1) The first (the eastern part of the county) lies among
the uplands of the Cotteswold Hills (q.v.), whose westward face is a
line of heights of an average elevation of 700 ft., but exceeding 1000
ft. at some points. This line bisects the county from S.W. to N.E. The
watershed between the Thames and Severn valleys lies close to it, so
that Gloucestershire includes Thames Head itself, in the south-east near
Cirencester, and most of the upper feeders of the Thames which join the
main stream, from narrow and picturesque valleys on the north. (2) The
western Cotteswold line overlooks a rich valley, that of the lower
Severn, usually spoken of as "The Vale," or, in two divisions, as the
vale of Gloucester and the vale of Berkeley. This great river receives
three famous tributaries during its course through Gloucestershire. Near
Tewkesbury, on the northern border, the Avon joins it on the left and
forms the county boundary for 4 m. This is the river known variously as
the Upper, Worcestershire, Warwickshire, Stratford or Shakespeare's
Avon, which descends a lovely pastoral valley through the counties
named. It is to be distinguished from the Bristol Avon, which rises as
an eastward flowing stream of the Cotteswolds, in the south-east of
Gloucestershire, sweeps southward and westward through Wiltshire,
pierces the hills through a narrow valley which becomes a wooded gorge
where the Clifton suspension bridge crosses it below Bristol, and enters
the Severn estuary at Avonmouth. For 17 m. from its mouth it forms the
boundary between Gloucestershire and Somersetshire, and for 8 m. it is
one of the most important commercial waterways in the kingdom,
connecting the port of Bristol with the sea. The third great tributary
of the Severn is the Wye. From its mouth in the estuary, 8 m. N. of that
of the Bristol Avon, it forms the county boundary for 16 m. northward,
and above this, over two short reaches of its beautiful winding course,
it is again the boundary. (3) Between the Wye and the Severn lies a
beautiful and historic tract, the forest of Dean, which, unlike the
majority of English forests, maintains its ancient character.
Gloucestershire has thus a share in the courses of five of the most
famous of English rivers, and covers two of the most interesting
physical districts in the country. The minor rivers of the county are
never long. The vale is at no point within the county wider than 24 m.,
and so does not permit the formation of any considerable tributary to
the Severn from the Dean Hills on the one hand or the Cotteswolds on the
other. The Leadon rises east of Hereford, forms part of the
north-western boundary, and joins the Severn near Gloucester, watering
the vale of Gloucester, the northern part of the vale. In the southern
part, the vale of Berkeley, the Stroudwater traverses a narrow,
picturesque and populous valley, and the Little Avon flows past the town
of Berkeley, joining the Severn estuary on the left. The Frome runs
southward to the Bristol Avon at Bristol. The principal northern feeders
of the Thames are the Churn (regarded by some as properly the headwater
of the main river) rising in the Seven Springs, in the hills above
Cheltenham, and forming the southern county boundary near its junction
with the Thames at Cricklade; the Coln, a noteworthy trout-stream,
joining above Lechlade, and the Lech (forming part of the eastern county
boundary) joining below the same town; while from the east of the county
there pass into Oxfordshire the Windrush and the Evenlode, much larger
streams, rising among the bare uplands of the northern Cotteswolds.

  _Geology._--No county in England has a greater variety of geological
  formations. The pre-Cambrian is represented by the gneissic rocks at
  the south end of the Malvern Hills and by grits at Huntley. At Damory,
  Charfield and Woodford is a patch of greenstone, the cause of the
  upheaval of the Upper Silurian basin of Tortworth, in which are the
  oldest stratified rocks of the county. Of these the Upper Llandovery
  is the dominant stratum, exposed near Damory mill, Micklewood chase
  and Purton passage, wrapping round the base of May and Huntley hills,
  and reappearing in the vale of Woolhope. The Wenlock limestone is
  exposed at Falfield mill and Whitfield, and quarried for burning at
  May hill. The Lower Ludlow shales or mudstones are seen at Berkeley
  and Purton, where the upper part is probably Aymestry limestone. The
  series of sandy shales and sandstones which, as Downton sandstones and
  Ledbury shales, form a transition to the Old Red Sandstone are
  quarried at Dymock. The "Old Red" itself occurs at Berkeley, Tortworth
  Green, Thornbury, and several places in the Bristol coal-field, in
  anticlinal folds forming hills. It forms also the great basin
  extending from Ross to Monmouth and from Dymock to Mitcheldean,
  Abenhall, Blakeney, &c., within which is the Carboniferous basin of
  the forest. It is cut through by the Wye from Monmouth to Woolaston.
  This formation is over 8000 ft. thick in the forest of Dean. The
  Bristol and Forest Carboniferous basins lie within the synclinal folds
  of the Old Red Sandstone; and though the seams of coal have not yet
  been correlated, they must have been once continuous, as further
  appears from the existence of an intermediate basin, recently pierced,
  under the Severn. The lower limestone shales are 500 ft. thick in the
  Bristol area and only 165 in the forest, richly fossiliferous and
  famous for their bone bed. The great marine series known as the
  Mountain Limestone, forming the walls of the grand gorges of the Wye
  and Avon, is over 2000 ft. thick in the latter district, but only 480
  in the former, where it yields the brown hematite in pockets so
  largely worked for iron even from Roman times. It is much used too for
  lime and road metal. Above this comes the Millstone Grit, well seen at
  Brandon hill, where it is 1000 ft. in thickness, though but 455 in the
  forest. On this rest the Coal Measures, consisting in the Bristol
  field of two great series, the lower 2000 ft. thick with 36 seams, the
  upper 3000 ft. with 22 seams, 9 of which reach 2 ft. in thickness.
  These two series are separated by over 1700 ft. of hard sandstone
  (Pennant Grit), containing only 5 coal-seams. In the Forest coal-field
  the whole series is not 3000 ft. thick, with but 15 seams. At Durdham
  Down a dolomitic conglomerate, of the age known as Keuper or Upper
  Trias, rests unconformably on the edges of the Palaeozoic rocks, and
  is evidently a shore deposit, yielding dinosaurian remains. Above the
  Keuper clays come the Penarth beds, of which classical sections occur
  at Westbury, Aust, &c. The series consists of grey marls, black paper
  shales containing much pyrites and a celebrated bone bed, the Cotham
  landscape marble, and the White Lias limestone, yielding _Ostrea
  Liassica_ and _Cardium Rhaeticum_. The district of Over Severn is
  mainly of Keuper marls. The whole vale of Gloucester is occupied by
  the next formation, the Lias, a warm sea deposit of clays and clayey
  limestones, characterized by ammonites, belemnites and gigantic
  saurians. At its base is the insect-bearing limestone bed. The
  pastures producing Gloucester cheese are on the clays of the Lower
  Lias. The more calcareous Middle Lias or marlstone forms hillocks
  flanking the Oolite escarpment of the Cotteswolds, as at
  Wotton-under-Edge and Churchdown. The Cotteswolds consist of the great
  limestone series of the Lower Oolite. At the base is a transition
  series of sands, 30 to 40 ft. thick, well developed at Nailsworth and
  Frocester. Leckhampton hill is a typical section of the Lower Oolite,
  where the sands are capped by 40 ft. of a remarkable pea grit. Above
  this are 147 ft. of freestone, 7 ft. of oolite marl, 34 ft. of upper
  freestone and 38 ft. of ragstone. The Painswick stone belongs to lower
  freestone. Resting on the Inferior Oolite, and dipping with it to
  S.E., is the "fuller's earth," a rubbly limestone about 100 ft. thick,
  throwing out many of the springs which form the head waters of the
  Thames. Next comes the Great or Bath Oolite, at the base of which are
  the Stonesfield "slate" beds, quarried for roofing, paling, &c., at
  Sevenhampton and elsewhere. From the Great Oolite Minchinhampton stone
  is obtained, and at its top is about 40 ft. of flaggy Oolite with
  bands of clay known as the Forest Marble. Ripple marks are abundant on
  the flags; in fact all the Oolites seem to have been near shore or in
  shallow water, much of the limestone being merely comminuted coral.
  The highest bed of the Lower Oolite is the Cornbrash, about 40 ft. of
  rubble, productive in corn, forming a narrow belt from Siddington to
  Fairford. Near the latter town and Lechlade is a small tract of blue
  Oxford Clay of the Middle Oolite. The county has no higher Secondary
  or Tertiary rocks; but the Quaternary series is represented by much
  northern drift gravel in the vale and Over Severn, by accumulations of
  Oolitic detritus, including post-Glacial extinct mammalian remains on
  the flanks of the Cotteswolds, and by submerged forests extending from
  Sharpness to Gloucester.

  _Agriculture._--The climate is mild. Between three-quarters and
  seven-eighths of the total area is under cultivation, and of this some
  four-sevenths is in permanent pasture. Wheat is the chief grain crop.
  In the vale the deep rich black and red loamy soil is well adapted for
  pasturage, and a moist mild climate favours the growth of grasses and
  root crops. The cattle, save on the frontier of Herefordshire, are
  mostly shorthorns, of which many are fed for distant markets, and many
  reared and kept for dairy purposes. The rich grazing tract of the vale
  of Berkeley produces the famous "double Gloucester" cheeses, and the
  vale in general has long been celebrated for cheese and butter. The
  vale of Gloucester is the chief grain-growing district. Turnips, &c.,
  occupy about three-fourths of the green crop acreage, potatoes
  occupying only about a twelfth. A feature of the county is its apple
  and pear orchards, chiefly for the manufacture of cider and perry,
  which are attached to nearly every farm. The Cotteswold district is
  comparatively barren except in the valleys, but it has been famous
  since the 15th century for the breed of sheep named after it. Oats and
  barley are here the chief crops.

  _Other Industries._--The manufacture of woollen cloth followed upon
  the early success in sheep-farming among the Cotteswolds. This
  industry is not confined to the hill country or even to
  Gloucestershire itself in the west of England. The description of
  cloth principally manufactured is broadcloth, dressed with teazles to
  produce a short close nap on the face, and made of all shades of
  colour, but chiefly black, blue and scarlet. The principal centre of
  the industry lies in and at the foot of the south-western Cotteswolds.
  Stroud is the centre for a number of manufacturing villages, and
  south-west of this are Wotton-under-Edge, North Nibley and others.
  Machinery and tools, paper, furniture, pottery and glass are also
  produced. Ironstone, clay, limestone and sandstone are worked, and the
  coal-fields in the forest of Dean are important. Of less extent is the
  field in the south of the county, N.E. of Bristol. Strontium sulphate
  is dug from shallow pits in the red marl of Gloucestershire and
  Somersetshire.

  _Communications._--Railway communications are provided principally by
  the Great Western and Midland companies. Of the Great Western lines,
  the main line serves Bristol from London. It divides at Bristol, one
  section serving the south-western counties, another South Wales,
  crossing beneath the Severn by the Severn Tunnel, 4-1/3 m. in length,
  a remarkable engineering work. A more direct route, by this tunnel,
  between London and South Wales, is provided by a line from Wootton
  Bassett on the main line, running north of Bristol by Badminton and
  Chipping Sodbury. Other Great Western lines are that from Swindon on
  the main line, by the Stroud valley to Gloucester, crossing the Severn
  there, and continuing by the right bank of the river into Wales, with
  branches north-west into Herefordshire; the Oxford and Worcester trunk
  line, crossing the north-east of the county, connected with Cheltenham
  and Gloucester by a branch through the Cotteswolds from Chipping
  Norton junction; and the line from Cheltenham by Broadway to
  Honeybourne. The west-and-north line of the Midland railway follows
  the vale from Bristol by Gloucester and Cheltenham with a branch into
  the forest of Dean by Berkeley, crossing the Severn at Sharpness by a
  great bridge 1387 yds. in length, with 22 arches. The coal-fields of
  the forest of Dean are served by several branch lines. In the north,
  Tewkesbury is served by a Midland branch from Ashchurch to Malvern.
  The Midland and South-western Junction railway runs east and south
  from Cheltenham by Cirencester, affording communication with the south
  of England. The East Gloucester line of the Great Western from Oxford
  terminates at Fairford. The Thames and Severn canal, rising to a
  summit level in the tunnel through the Cotteswolds at Sapperton, is
  continued from Wallbridge (Stroud) by the Stroudwater canal, and gives
  communication between the two great rivers. The Berkeley Ship Canal
  (16½ m.) connects the port of Gloucester with its outport of Sharpness
  on Severn.

  _Population and Administration._--The area of the ancient county is
  795,709 acres, with a population in 1891 of 599,947 and in 1901 of
  634,729. The area of the administrative county is 805,482 acres. The
  county contains 28 hundreds. The municipal boroughs are--Bristol, a
  city and county borough (pop. 328,945); Cheltenham (49,439);
  Gloucester, a city and county borough (47,955); Tewkesbury (5419). The
  other urban districts are--Awre (1096), Charlton Kings (3806),
  Circenester (7536), Coleford (2541), Kingswood, on the eastern
  outskirts of Bristol (11,961), Nailsworth (3028), Newnham (1184),
  Stow-on-the-Wold (1386), Stroud (9153), Tetbury (1989),
  Westbury-on-Severn (1866). The number of small ancient market towns is
  large, especially in the southern part of the vale, on the outskirts
  of the forest, and among the foot hills of the wolds. Those in the
  forest district are mostly connected with the coal trade, such as
  Lydney (3559), besides Awre and Coleford; and, to the north, besides
  Newnham, Cinderford and Mitcheldean. South from Stroud there are
  Minchinhampton (3737) and Nailsworth; near the south-eastern boundary
  Tetbury and Marshfield; Stonehouse (2183), Dursley (2372),
  Wotton-under-Edge (2992) and Chipping Sodbury along the western line
  of the hills; and between them and the Severn, Berkeley and Thornbury
  (2594). Among the uplands of the Cotteswolds there are no towns, and
  villages are few, but in the east of the county, in the upper Thames
  basin, there are, besides Cirencester, Fairford on the Coln and
  Lechlade, close to the head of the navigation on the Thames itself.
  Far up in the Lech valley, remote from railway communication, is
  Northleach, once a great posting station on the Oxford and Cheltenham
  road. In the north-east are Stow-on-the-Wold, standing high, and
  Moreton-in-the-Marsh near the headwaters of the Evenlode. In a
  northern prolongation of the county, almost detached, is Chipping
  Campden. Winchcomb (2699) lies 6 m. N.E. of Cheltenham. In the
  north-west, Newent (2485) is the only considerable town.
  Gloucestershire is in the Oxford circuit, and assizes are held at
  Gloucester. It has one court of quarter sessions, and is divided into
  24 petty sessional divisions. The boroughs of Bristol, Gloucester and
  Tewkesbury have separate commissions of the peace and courts of
  quarter sessions. There are 359 civil parishes. Gloucestershire is
  principally in the diocese of Gloucester, but part is in that of
  Bristol, and small parts in those of Worcester and Oxford. There are
  408 ecclesiastical parishes or districts wholly or in part within the
  county. There are five parliamentary divisions, namely, Tewkesbury or
  northern, Cirencester or eastern, Stroud or mid, Thornbury or
  southern, and Forest of Dean, each returning one member. The county
  also includes the boroughs of Gloucester and Cheltenham, each
  returning one member; and the greater part of the borough of Bristol,
  which returns four members.

_History._--The English conquest of the Severn valley began in 577 with
the victory of Ceawlin at Deorham, followed by the capture of
Cirencester, Gloucester and Bath. The Hwiccas who occupied the district
were a West Saxon tribe, but their territory had become a dependency of
Mercia in the 7th century, and was not brought under West Saxon dominion
until the 9th century. No important settlements were made by the Danes
in the district. Gloucestershire probably originated as a shire in the
10th century, and is mentioned by name in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in
1016. Towards the close of the 11th century the boundaries were
readjusted to include Winchcomb, hitherto a county by itself, and at the
same time the forest district between the Wye and the Severn was added
to Gloucestershire. The divisions of the county for a long time remained
very unsettled, and the thirty-nine hundreds mentioned in the Domesday
Survey and the thirty-one hundreds of the Hundred Rolls of 1274 differ
very widely in name and extent both from each other and from the
twenty-eight hundreds of the present day.

Gloucestershire formed part of Harold's earldom at the time of the
Norman invasion, but it offered slight resistance to the Conqueror. In
the wars of Stephen's reign the cause of the empress Maud was supported
by Robert of Gloucester who had rebuilt the castle at Bristol, and the
castles at Gloucester and Cirencester were also garrisoned on her
behalf. In the barons' war of the reign of Henry III. Gloucester was
garrisoned for Simon de Montfort, but was captured by Prince Edward in
1265, in which year de Montfort was slain at Evesham. Bristol and
Gloucester actively supported the Yorkist cause during the Wars of the
Roses. In the religious struggles of the 16th century Gloucester showed
strong Protestant sympathy, and in the reign of Mary Bishop Hooper was
sent to Gloucester to be burnt as a warning to the county, while the
same Puritan leanings induced the county to support the Parliamentary
cause in the civil war of the 17th century. In 1643 Bristol and
Cirencester were captured by the Royalists, but the latter was recovered
in the same year and Bristol in 1645. Gloucester was garrisoned for the
parliament throughout the struggle.

On the subdivision of the Mercian diocese in 680 the greater part of
modern Gloucestershire was included in the diocese of Worcester, and
shortly after the Conquest constituted the archdeaconry of Gloucester,
which in 1290 comprised the deaneries of Campden, Stow, Cirencester,
Fairford, Winchcombe, Stonehouse, Hawkesbury, Bitton, Bristol, Dursley
and Gloucester. The district west of the Severn, with the exception of a
few parishes in the deaneries of Ross and Staunton, constituted the
deanery of the forest within the archdeaconry and diocese of Hereford.
In 1535 the deanery of Bitton had been absorbed in that of Hawkesbury.
In 1541 the diocese of Gloucester was created, its boundaries being
identical with those of the county. On the erection of Bristol to a see
in 1542 the deanery of Bristol was transferred from Gloucester to that
diocese. In 1836 the sees of Gloucester and Bristol were united; the
archdeaconry of Bristol was created out of the deaneries of Bristol,
Cirencester, Fairford and Hawkesbury; and the deanery of the forest was
transferred to the archdeaconry of Gloucester. In 1882 the archdeaconry
of Cirencester was constituted to include the deaneries of Campden,
Stow, Northleach north and south, Fairford and Cirencester. In 1897 the
diocese of Bristol was recreated, and included the deaneries of Bristol,
Stapleton and Bitton.

After the Conquest very extensive lands and privileges in the county
were acquired by the church, the abbey of Cirencester alone holding
seven hundreds at fee-farm, and the estates of the principal lay-tenants
were for the most part outlying parcels of baronies having their "caput"
in other counties. The large estates held by William Fitz Osbern, earl
of Hereford, escheated to the crown on the rebellion of his son Earl
Roger in 1074-1075. The Berkeleys have held lands in Gloucestershire
from the time of the Domesday Survey, and the families of Basset, Tracy,
Clifton, Dennis and Poyntz have figured prominently in the annals of the
county. Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester, and Richard of Cornwall
claimed extensive lands and privileges in the shire in the 13th century,
and Simon de Montfort owned Minsterworth and Rodley.

Bristol was made a county in 1425, and in 1483 Richard III. created
Gloucester an independent county, adding to it the hundreds of Dudston
and King's Barton. The latter were reunited to Gloucestershire in 1673,
but the cities of Bristol and Gloucester continued to rank as
independent counties, with separate jurisdiction, county rate and
assizes. The chief officer of the forest of Dean was the warden, who was
generally also constable of St Briavel Castle. The first justice-seat
for the forest was held at Gloucester Castle in 1282, the last in 1635.
The hundred of the duchy of Lancaster is within the jurisdiction of the
duchy of Lancaster for certain purposes.

The physical characteristics of the three natural divisions of
Gloucestershire have given rise in each to a special industry, as
already indicated. The forest district, until the development of the
Sussex mines in the 16th century, was the chief iron-producing area of
the kingdom, the mines having been worked in Roman times, while the
abundance of timber gave rise to numerous tanneries and to an important
ship-building trade. The hill district, besides fostering agricultural
pursuits, gradually absorbed the woollen trade from the big towns, which
now devoted themselves almost entirely to foreign commerce. Silk-weaving
was introduced in the 17th century, and was especially prosperous in the
Stroud valley. The abundance of clay and building-stone in the county
gave rise to considerable manufactures of brick, tiles and pottery.
Numerous minor industries sprang up in the 17th and 18th centuries, such
as flax-growing and the manufacture of pins, buttons, lace, stockings,
rope and sailcloth.

Gloucestershire was first represented in parliament in 1290, when it
returned two members. Bristol and Gloucester acquired representation in
1295, Cirencester in 1572 and Tewkesbury in 1620. Under the Reform Act
of 1832 the county returned four members in two divisions; Bristol,
Gloucester, Cirencester, Stroud and Tewkesbury returned two members
each, and Cheltenham returned one member. The act of 1868 reduced the
representation of Cirencester and Tewkesbury to one member each.

_Antiquities._--The cathedrals of Gloucester and Bristol, the
magnificent abbey church of Tewkesbury, and the church of Cirencester
with its great Perpendicular porch, are described under their separate
headings. Of the abbey of Hayles near Winchcomb, founded by Richard,
earl of Cornwall, in 1246, little more than the foundations are left,
but these have been excavated with great care, and interesting fragments
have been brought to light. Most of the old market towns have fine
parish churches. At Deerhurst near Tewkesbury, and Cleeve near
Cheltenham, there are churches of special interest on account of the
pre-Norman work they retain. The Perpendicular church at Lechlade is
unusually perfect; and that at Fairford was built (c. 1500), according
to tradition, to contain the remarkable series of stained-glass windows
which are said to have been brought from the Netherlands. These are,
however, adjudged to be of English workmanship, and are one of the
finest series in the country. The great Decorated Calcot Barn is an
interesting relic of the monastery of Kingswood near Tetbury. The castle
at Berkeley is a splendid example of a feudal stronghold. Thornbury
Castle, in the same district, is a fine Tudor ruin, the pretensions of
which evoked the jealousy of Cardinal Wolsey against its builder, Edward
Stafford, duke of Buckingham, who was beheaded in 1521. Near Cheltenham
is the fine 15th-century mansion of Southam de la Bere, of timber and
stone. Memorials of the de la Bere family appear in the church at
Cleeve. The mansion contains a tiled floor from Hayles Abbey. Near
Winchcomb is Sudeley Castle, dating from the 15th century, but the
inhabited portion is chiefly Elizabethan. The chapel is the burial place
of Queen Catherine Parr. At Great Badminton is the mansion and vast
domain of the Beauforts (formerly of the Botelers and others), on the
south-eastern boundary of the county.

  See _Victoria County History, Gloucestershire_; Sir R. Atkyns, _The
  Ancient and Present State of Gloucestershire_ (London, 1712; 2nd ed.,
  London, 1768); Samuel Rudder, _A New History of Gloucestershire_
  (Cirencester, 1779); Ralph Bigland, _Historical, Monumental and
  Genealogical Collections relative to the County of Gloucester_ (2
  vols., London, 1791); Thomas Rudge, _The History of the County of
  Gloucester_ (2 vols., Gloucester, 1803); T. D. Fosbroke _Abstract of
  Records and Manuscripts respecting the County of Gloucestershire
  formed into a History_ (2 vols., Gloucester, 1807); _Legends, Tales
  and Songs in the Dialect of the Peasantry of Gloucestershire_ (London,
  1876); J. D. Robertson, _Glossary of Dialect and Archaic Words of
  Gloucester_ (London, 1890); W. Bazeley and F. A. Hyett,
  _Bibliographers' Manual of Gloucestershire_ (3 vols., London,
  1895-1897); W. H. Hutton, _By Thames and Cotswold_ (London, 1903). See
  also _Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological
  Society_.



GLOVE (O. Eng. _glof_, perhaps connected with Gothic _lofa_, the palm of
the hand), a covering for the hand, commonly with a separate sheath for
each finger.

The use of gloves is of high antiquity, and apparently was known even to
the pre-historic cave dwellers. In Homer Laërtes is described as wearing
gloves ([Greek: cheiridas epi chersi]) while walking in his garden
(_Od._ xxiv. 230). Herodotus (vi. 72) tells how Leotychides filled a
glove ([Greek: cheiris]) with the money he received as a bribe, and
Xenophon (_Cyrop._ viii. 8. 17) records that the Persians wore fur
gloves having separate sheaths for the fingers ([Greek: cheiridas
daseias kai daktylêthras]). Among the Romans also there are occasional
references to the use of gloves. According to the younger Pliny (Ep.
iii. 5. 15) the secretary whom his uncle had with him when ascending
Vesuvius wore gloves (_manicae_) so that he might not be impeded in his
work by the cold, and Varro (_R.R._ i. 55. 1) remarks that olives
gathered with the bare fingers are better than those gathered with
gloves (_digitabula_ or _digitalia_). In the northern countries the
general use of gloves would be more natural than in the south, and it is
not without significance that the most common medieval Latin word for
glove (_guantus_ or _wantus_, Mod. Fr. _gant_) is of Teutonic origin (O.
H. Ger. _want_). Thus in the life of Columbanus by Jonas, abbot of
Bobbio (d. c. 665), gloves for protecting the hands in doing manual
labour are spoken of as _tegumenta manuum quae Galli wantos vocant_.
Among the Germans and Scandinavians, in the 8th and 9th centuries, the
use of gloves, fingerless at first, would seem to have been all but
universal; and in the case of kings, prelates and nobles they were often
elaborately embroidered and bejewelled. This was more particularly the
case with the gloves which formed part of the pontifical vestments (see
below). In war and in the chase gloves of leather, or with the backs
armoured with articulated iron plates, were early worn; yet in the
Bayeux tapestry the warriors on either side fight ungloved. The fact
that gloves are not represented by contemporary artists does not prove
their non-existence, since this might easily be an omission due to lack
of observation or of skill; but, so far as the records go, there is no
evidence to prove that gloves were in general use in England until the
13th century. It was in this century that ladies began to wear gloves as
ornaments; they were of linen and sometimes reached to the elbow. It
was, however, not till the 16th century that they reached their greatest
elaboration, when Queen Elizabeth set the fashion for wearing them
richly embroidered and jewelled.

The symbolic sense of the middle ages early gave to the use of gloves a
special significance. Their liturgical use by the Church is dealt with
below (_Pontifical gloves_); this was imitated from the usage of civil
life. Embroidered and jewelled gloves formed part of the _insignia_ of
the emperors, and also, and that quite early, of the kings of England.
Thus Matthew of Paris, in recording the burial of Henry II. in 1189,
mentions that he was buried in his coronation robes, with a golden crown
on his head and gloves on his hands. Gloves were also found on the hands
of King John when his tomb was opened in 1797, and on those of King
Edward I. when his tomb was opened in 1774.

  See W. B. Redfern, _Royal and Historic Gloves and Shoes_, with
  numerous examples.

_Gages._--Of the symbolical uses of the glove one of the most widespread
and important during the middle ages was the practice of tendering a
folded glove as a gage for waging one's law. The origin of this custom
is probably not far to seek. The promise to fulfil a judgment of a court
of law, a promise secured by the delivery of a _wed_ or gage, is one of
the oldest, if not the very oldest, of all enforceable contracts. This
gage was originally a chattel of value, which had to be deposited at
once by the defendant as security into his adversary's hand; and that
the glove became the formal symbol of such deposit is doubtless due to
its being the most convenient loose object for the purpose. The custom
survived after the contract with the _vadium_, _wed_ or gage had been
superseded by the contract with pledges (personal sureties). In the
rules of procedure of a baronial court of the 14th century we find: "He
shall wage his law with his folded glove (_de son gaunt plyee_) and
shall deliver it into the hand of the other, and then take his glove
back and find pledges for his law." The delivery of the glove had, in
fact, become a mere ceremony, because the defendant had his sureties
close at hand.[1]

Associated with this custom was the use of the glove in the wager of
battle (_vadium in duello_). The glove here was thrown down by the
defendant in open court as security that he would defend his cause in
arms; the accuser by picking it up accepted the challenge (see WAGER).
This form is still prescribed for the challenge of the king's champion
at the coronation of English sovereigns, and was actually followed at
that of George IV. (see CHAMPION). The phrase "to throw down the
gauntlet" is still in common use of any challenge.

_Pledges of Service._--The use of the glove as a pledge of fulfilment is
exemplified also by the not infrequent practice of enfeoffing vassals by
investing them with the glove; similarly the emperors symbolized by the
bestowal of a glove the concession of the right to found a town or to
establish markets, mints and the like; the "hands" in the armorial
bearings of certain German towns are really gloves, reminiscent of this
investiture. Conversely, fiefs were held by the render of presenting
gloves to the sovereign. Thus the manor of Little Holland in Essex was
held in Queen Elizabeth's time by the service of one knight's fee and
the rent of a pair of gloves turned up with hare's skin (Blount's
_Tenures_, ed. Beckwith, p. 130). The most notable instance in England,
however, is the grand serjeanty of finding for the king a glove for his
right hand on coronation day, and supporting his right arm as long as he
holds the sceptre. The right to perform this "honourable service" was
originally granted by William the Conqueror to Bertram de Verdun,
together with the manor of Fernham (Farnham Royal) in Buckinghamshire.
The male descendants of Bertram performed this serjeanty at the
coronations until the death of Theobald de Verdun in 1316, when the
right passed, with the manor of Farnham, to Thomas Lord Furnival by his
marriage with the heiress Joan. His son William Lord Furnival performed
the ceremony at the coronation of Richard II. He died in 1383, and his
daughter and heiress Jean de Furnival having married Sir Thomas Nevill,
Lord Furnival in her right, the latter performed the ceremony at the
coronation of Henry IV. His heiress Maud married Sir John Talbot (1st
earl of Shrewsbury) who, as Lord Furnival, presented the glove
embroidered with the arms of Verdun at the coronation of Henry V. When
in 1541 Francis earl of Shrewsbury exchanged the manor of Farnham with
King Henry VIII. for the site and precincts of the priory of Worksop in
Nottinghamshire he stipulated that the right to perform this serjeanty
should be reserved to him, and the king accordingly transferred the
obligation from Farnham to Worksop. On the 3rd of April 1838 the manor
of Worksop was sold to the duke of Newcastle and with it the right to
perform the service, which had hitherto always been carried out by a
descendant of Bertram de Verdun. At the coronation of King Edward VII.
the earl of Shrewsbury disputed the duke of Newcastle's right, on the
ground that the serjeanty was attached not to the manor but to the
priory lands at Worksop, and that the latter had been subdivided by sale
so that no single person was entitled to perform the ceremony and the
right had therefore lapsed. His petition for a regrant to himself as
lineal heir of Bertram de Verdun, however, was disallowed by the court
of claims, and the serjeanty was declared to be attached to the manor of
Worksop (G. Woods Wollaston, _Coronation Claims_, London, 1903, p. 133).

_Presentations._--From the ceremonial and symbolic use of gloves the
transition was easy to the custom which grew up of presenting them to
persons of distinction on special occasions. When Queen Elizabeth
visited Cambridge in 1578 the vice-chancellor offered her a "paire of
gloves, perfumed and garnished with embroiderie and goldsmithe's wourke,
price 60s.," and at the visit of James I. there in 1615 the mayor and
corporation of the town "delivered His Majesty a fair pair of perfumed
gloves with gold laces." It was formerly the custom in England for
bishops at their consecrations to make presents of gloves to those who
came to their consecration dinners and others, but this gift became such
a burden to them that by an order in council in 1678 It was commuted for
the payment of a sum of £50 towards the rebuilding of St Paul's.
Serjeants at law, on their appointment, were given a pair of gloves
containing a sum of money which was termed "regards"; this custom is
recorded as early as 1495, when according to the _Black Book_ of
Lincoln's Inn each of the new Serjeants received £6, 13s. 4d. and a pair
of gloves costing 4d., and it persisted to a late period. At one time it
was the practice for a prisoner who pleaded the king's pardon on his
discharge to present the judges with gloves by way of a fee.
Glove-silver, according to Jacob's _Law Dictionary_, was a name used of
extraordinary rewards formerly given to officers of courts, &c., or of
money given by the sheriff of a county in which no offenders were left
for execution to the clerk of assize and judge's officers; the
explanation of the term is that the glove given as a perquisite or fee
was in some cases lined with money to increase its value, and thus came
to stand for money ostensibly given in lieu of gloves. It is still the
custom in the United Kingdom to present a pair of white gloves to a
judge or magistrate who when he takes his seat for criminal business at
the appointed time finds no cases for trial. By ancient custom judges
are not allowed to wear gloves while actually sitting on the bench, and
a witness taking the oath must remove the glove from the hand that holds
the book. (See J. W. Norton-Kyshe, _The Law and Customs relating to
Gloves_, London, 1901.)

_Pontifical gloves_ (Lat. _chirothecae_) are liturgical ornaments
peculiar to the Western Church and proper only to the pope, the
cardinals and bishops, though the right to wear them is often granted by
the Holy See to abbots, cathedral dignitaries and other prelates, as in
the case of the other episcopal insignia. According to the present use
the gloves are of silk and of the liturgical colour of the day, the edge
of the opening ornamented with a narrow band of embroidery or the like,
and the middle of the back with a cross. They may be worn only at the
celebration of mass (except masses for the dead). In vesting, the gloves
are put on the bishop immediately after the dalmatic, the right hand one
by the deacon, the other by the subdeacon. They are worn only until the
ablution before the canon of the mass, after which they may not again be
put on.

At the consecration of a bishop the consecrating prelate puts the gloves
on the new bishop immediately after the mitre, with a prayer that his
hands may be kept pure, so that the sacrifice he offers may be as
acceptable as the gift of venison which Jacob, his hands wrapped in the
skin of kids, brought to Isaac. This symbolism (as in the case of the
other vestments) is, however, of late growth. The liturgical use of
gloves itself cannot, according to Father Braun, be traced beyond the
beginning of the 10th century, and their introduction was due, perhaps
to the simple desire to keep the hands clean for the holy mysteries, but
more probably merely as part of the increasing pomp with which the
Carolingian bishops were surrounding themselves. From the Frankish
kingdom the custom spread to Rome, where liturgical gloves are first
heard of in the earlier half of the 11th century. The earliest authentic
instance of the right to wear them being granted to a non-bishop is a
bull of Alexander IV. in 1070, conceding this to the abbot of S. Pietro
in Cielo d' Oro.

During the middle ages the occasions on which pontifical gloves (often
_wanti_, _guanti_, and sometimes _manicae_ in the inventories) were
worn were not so carefully defined as now, the use varying in different
churches. Nor were the liturgical colours prescribed. The most
characteristic feature of the medieval pontifical glove was the ornament
(_tasellus_, _fibula_, _monile_, _paratura_) set in the middle of the
back of the glove. This was usually a small plaque of metal, enamelled
or jewelled, generally round, but sometimes square or irregular in
shape. Sometimes embroidery was substituted; still more rarely the whole
glove was covered, even to the fingers, with elaborate needlework
designs.

Liturgical gloves have not been worn by Anglican bishops since the
Reformation, though they are occasionally represented as wearing them on
their effigies.

  See J. Braun, S.J., _Die liturgische Gewandung_ (Freiburg im Breisgau,
  1907), pp. 359-382, where many beautiful examples are illustrated.

_Manufacture of Gloves._--Three countries, according to an old proverb,
contribute to the making of a good glove--Spain dressing the leather,
France cutting it and England sewing it. But the manufacture of gloves
was not introduced into Great Britain till the 10th or 11th century. The
incorporation of glovers of Perth was chartered in 1165, and in 1190 a
glove-makers' gild was formed in France, with the object of regulating
the trade and ensuring good workmanship. The glovers of London in 1349
framed their ordinances and had them approved by the corporation, the
city regulations at that time fixing the price of a pair of common
sheepskin gloves at 1d. In 1464, when the gild received armorial
bearings, they do not seem to have been very strong, but apparently
their position improved subsequently and in 1638 they were incorporated
as a new company. In 1580 it is recorded that both French and Spanish
gloves were on sale in London shops, and in 1661 a company of glovers
was incorporated at Worcester, which still remains an important seat of
the English glove Industry. In America the manufacture of gloves dates
from about 1760, when Sir William Johnson brought over several families
of glove makers from Perth; these settled in Fulton county, New York,
which is now the largest seat of the glove trade in the United States.

  Gloves may be divided into two distinct categories, according as these
  are made of leather or are woven or knitted from fibres such as silk,
  wool or cotton. The manufacture of the latter kinds is a branch of the
  hosiery industry. For leather gloves skins of various animals are
  employed--deer, calves, sheep and lambs, goats and kids, &c.--but kids
  have had nothing to do with the production of many of the "kid gloves"
  of commerce. The skins are prepared and dressed by special processes
  (see LEATHER) before going to the glove-maker to be cut. Owing to the
  elastic character of the material the cutting is a delicate operation,
  and long practice is required before a man becomes expert at it.
  Formerly it was done by shears, the workmen following an outline
  marked on the leather, but now steel dies are universally employed not
  only for the bodies of the gloves but also for the thumb-pieces and
  fourchettes or sides of the fingers. When hand sewing is employed the
  pieces to be sewn together are placed between a pair of jaws, the
  holding edges of which are serrated with fine saw-teeth, and the sewer
  by passing the needle forwards and backwards between each of these
  teeth secures neat uniform stitching. But sewing machines are now
  widely employed on the work. The labour of making a glove is much
  subdivided, different operators sewing different pieces, and others
  again embroidering the back, forming the button-holes, attaching the
  buttons, &c. After the gloves are completed, they undergo the process
  of "laying off," in which they are drawn over metal forms, shaped like
  a hand and heated internally by steam; in this way they are finally
  smoothed and shaped before being wrapped in paper and packed in boxes.

  Gloves made of thin india-rubber or of white cotton are worn by some
  surgeons while performing operations, on account of the ease with
  which they can be thoroughly sterilized.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] F. W. Maitland and W. P. Baildon, _The Court Baron_ (Selden
    Society, London, 1891), p. 17. Maitland wrongly translates _gaunt
    plyee_ as "twisted" glove, adding "why it should be twisted I cannot
    say." An earlier instance of the delivery of a folded glove as gage
    is quoted from the 13th-century Anglo-Norman poem known as _The Song
    of Dermott and the Earl_ (ed. G. H. Orpen, Oxford, 1892) in J. H.
    Round's _Commune of London_, p. 153.



GLOVER, SIR JOHN HAWLEY (1829-1885), captain in the British navy,
entered the service in 1841 and passed his examination as lieutenant in
1849, but did not receive a commission till May 1851. He served on
various stations, and was wounded severely in an action with the Burmese
at Donabew (4th February 1853). But his reputation was not gained at sea
and as a naval officer, but on shore and as an administrative official
in the colonies. During his years of service as lieutenant in the navy
he had had considerable experience of the coast of Africa, and had taken
part in the expedition of Dr W. B. Baikie (1824-1864) up the Niger. On
the 21st of April 1863 he was appointed administrator of the government
of Lagos, and in that capacity, or as colonial secretary, he remained
there till 1872. During this period he had been much employed in
repelling the marauding incursions of the Ashantis. When the Ashanti war
broke out in 1873, Captain Glover undertook the hazardous and doubtful
task of organizing the native tribes, whom hatred of the Ashantis might
be expected to make favourable to the British authorities--to the extent
at least to which their fears would allow them to act. His services were
accepted, and in September of 1873 he landed at Cape Coast, and, after
forming a small trustworthy force of Hausa, marched to Accra. His
influence sufficed to gather a numerous native force, but neither he nor
anybody else could overcome their abject terror of the ferocious
Ashantis to the extent of making them fight. In January 1874 Captain
Glover was able to render some assistance in the taking of Kumasi, but
it was at the head of a Hausa force. His services were acknowledged by
the thanks of parliament and by his creation as G.C.M.G. In 1875 he was
appointed governor of Newfoundland and held the post till 1881, when he
was transferred to the Leeward Islands. He returned to Newfoundland in
1883, and died in London on the 30th September 1885.

  Lady Glover's _Life_ of her husband appeared in 1897.



GLOVER, RICHARD (1712-1785), English poet, son of Richard Glover, a
Hamburg merchant, was born in London in 1712. He was educated at Cheam
in Surrey. While there he wrote in his sixteenth year a poem to the
memory of Sir Isaac Newton, which was prefixed by Dr Pemberton to his
_View of Newton's Philosophy_, published in 1728. In 1737 he published
an epic poem in praise of liberty, _Leonidas_, which was thought to have
a special reference to the politics of the time; and being warmly
commended by the prince of Wales and his court, it soon passed through
several editions. In 1739 Glover published a poem entitled _London, or
the Progress of Commerce_; and in the same year, with a view to exciting
the nation against the Spaniards, he wrote a spirited ballad, _Hosier's
Ghost_, very popular in its day. He was also the author of two
tragedies, _Boadicea_ (1753) and _Medea_ (1761), written in close
imitation of Greek models. The success of Glover's _Leonidas_ led him to
take considerable interest in politics, and in 1761 he entered
parliament as member for Weymouth. He died on the 25th of November 1785.
The _Athenaid_, an epic in thirty books, was published in 1787, and his
diary, entitled _Memoirs of a distinguished literary and political
Character from 1742 to 1757_, appeared in 1813. Glover was one of the
reputed authors of _Junius_; but his claims--which were advocated in an
_Inquiry concerning the author of the Letters of Junius_ (1815), by R.
Duppa--rest on very slight grounds.



GLOVERSVILLE, a city of Fulton county, New York, U.S.A., at the
foot-hills of the Adirondacks, about 55 m. N.W. of Albany. Pop. (1890)
13,864; (1900) 18,349, of whom 2542 were foreign-born; (1910 census)
20,642. It is served by the Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville railway
(connecting at Fonda, about 9 m. distant, with the New York Central),
and by electric lines connecting with Johnstown, Amsterdam and
Schenectady. The city has a public library (26,000 volumes in 1908), the
Nathan Littauer memorial hospital, a state armoury and a fine government
building. Gloversville is the principal glove-manufacturing centre in
the United States. In 1900 Fulton county produced more than 57%, and
Gloversville 38.8%, of all the leather gloves and mittens made in the
United States; in 1905 Gloversville produced 29.9% of the leather gloves
and mittens made in the United States, its products being valued at
$5,302,196. Gloversville has more than a score of tanneries and
leather-finishing factories, and manufactures fur goods. In 1905 the
city's total factory product was valued at $9,340,763. The extraordinary
localization of the glove-making industry in Gloversville, Johnstown and
other parts of Fulton county, is an incident of much interest in the
economic history of the United States. The industry seems to have had
its origin among a colony of Perthshire families, including many
glove-makers, who were settled in this region by Sir William Johnson
about 1760. For many years the entire product seems to have been
disposed of in the neighbourhood, but about 1809 the goods began to find
more distant markets, and by 1825 the industry was firmly established on
a prosperous basis, the trade being handed down from father to son. An
interesting phase of the development is that, in addition to the factory
work, a large amount of the industry is in the hands of "home workers"
both in the town and country districts. Gloversville, settled originally
about 1770, was known for some time as Stump City, its present name
being adopted in 1832. It was incorporated as a village in 1851 and was
chartered as a city in 1890.



GLOW-WORM, the popular name of the wingless female of the beetle
_Lampyris noctiluca_, whose power of emitting light has been familiar
for many centuries. The luminous organs of the glow-worm consist of
cells similar to those of the fat-body, grouped into paired masses in
the ventral region of the hinder abdominal segments. The light given out
by the wingless female insect is believed to serve as an attraction to
the flying male, whose luminous organs remain in a rudimentary
condition. The common glow-worm is a widespread European and Siberian
insect, generally distributed in England and ranging in Scotland
northwards to the Tay, but unknown in Ireland. Exotic species of
_Lampyris_ are similarly luminous, and light-giving organs are present
in many genera of the family _Lampyridae_ from various parts of the
world. Frequently--as in the south European _Luciola italica_--both
sexes of the beetle are provided with wings, and both male and female
emit light. These luminous, winged Lampyrids are generally known as
"fire-flies." In correspondence with their power of emitting light, the
insects are nocturnal in habit.

Elongate centipedes of the family _Geophilidae_, certain species of
which are luminous, are sometimes mistaken for the true glow-worm.



GLOXINIA, a charming decorative plant, botanically a species of
_Sinningia_ (_S. speciosa_), a member of the natural order Gesneraceae
and a native of Brazil. The species has given rise under cultivation to
numerous forms showing a wonderful variety of colour, and hybrid forms
have also been obtained between these and other species of _Sinningia_.
A good strain of seed will produce many superb and charmingly coloured
varieties, and if sown early in spring, in a temperature of 65° at
night, they may be shifted on into 6-in. pots, and in these may be
flowered during the summer. The bulbs are kept at rest through the
winter in dry sand, in a temperature of 50°, and to yield a succession
should be started at intervals, say at the end of February and the
beginning of April. To prolong the blooming season, use weak manure
water when the flower-buds show themselves.



GLUCINUM, an alternative name for Beryllium (q.v.). When L. N. Vauquelin
in 1798 published in the _Annales de chimie_ an account of a new earth
obtained by him from beryl he refrained from giving the substance a
name, but in a note to his paper the editors suggested glucine, from
[Greek: glykys], sweet, in reference to the taste of its salts, whence
the name Glucinum or Glucinium (symbol Gl. or sometimes G). The name
beryllium was given to the metal by German chemists and was generally
used until recently, when the earlier name was adopted.



GLUCK,[1] CHRISTOPH WILLIBALD (1714-1787), operatic composer, German by
his nationality, French by his place in art, was born at Weidenwang,
near Neumarkt, in the upper Palatinate, on the 2nd of July 1714. He
belonged to the lower middle class, his father being gamekeeper to
Prince Lobkowitz; but the boy's education was not neglected on that
account. From his twelfth to his eighteenth year he frequented the
Jesuit school of Kommotau in the neighbourhood of Prince Lobkowitz's
estate in Bohemia, where he not only received a good general education,
but also had lessons in music. At the age of eighteen Gluck went to
Prague, where he continued his musical studies under Czernohorsky, and
maintained himself by the exercise of his art, sometimes in the very
humble capacity of fiddler at village fairs and dances. Through the
introductions of Prince Lobkowitz, however, he soon gained access to the
best families of the Austrian nobility; and when in 1736 he proceeded to
Vienna he was hospitably received at his protector's palace. Here he met
Prince Melzi, an ardent lover of music, whom he accompanied to Milan,
continuing his education under Giovanni Battista San Martini, a great
musical historian and contrapuntist, who was also famous in his own day
as a composer of church and chamber music. We soon find Gluck producing
operas at the rapid rate necessitated by the omnivorous taste of the
Italian public in those days. Nine of these works were produced at
various Italian theatres between 1741 and 1745. Although their artistic
value was small, they were so favourably received that in 1745 Gluck was
invited to London to compose for the Haymarket. The first opera produced
there was called _La Caduta dei giganti_; it was followed by a revised
version of one of his earlier operas. Gluck also appeared in London as a
performer on the musical glasses (see HARMONICA).

The success of his two operas, as well as that of a _pasticcio_ (i.e. a
collection of favourite arias set to a new libretto) entitled _Piramo e
Tisbe_, was anything but brilliant, and he accordingly left London. But
his stay in England was not without important consequences for his
subsequent career. Gluck at this time was rather less than an ordinary
producer of Italian opera. Handel's well-known saying that Gluck "knew
no more counterpoint than his cook" must be taken in connexion with the
less well-known fact that that cook was an excellent bass singer who
performed in many of Handel's own operas. But it indicates the musical
reason of Gluck's failure, while Gluck himself learnt the dramatic
reason through his surprise at finding that arias which in their
original setting had been much applauded lost all effect when adapted to
new words in the _pasticcio_. Irrelevant as Handel's criticism appears,
it was not without bearing on Gluck's difficulties. The use of
counterpoint has very little necessary connexion with contrapuntal
display; its real and final cause is a certain depth of harmonic
expression which Gluck attained only in his most dramatic moments, and
for want of which he, even in his finest works, sometimes moved very
lamely. And in later years his own mature view of the importance of
harmony, which he upheld in long arguments with Grétry, who believed
only in melody, shows that he knew that the dramatic expression of music
must strike below the surface. At this early period he was simply
producing Handelian opera in an amateurish style, suggesting an
unsuccessful imitation of Hasse; but the failure of his _pasticcio_ is
as significant to us as it was to him, since it shows that already the
effect of his music depended upon its characteristic treatment of
dramatic situations. This characterizing power was as yet not directly
evident, and it needed all the influence of the new instrumental
resources of the rising sonata-forms before music could pass out of what
we may call its architectural and decorative period and enter into
dramatic regions at all.

It is highly probable that the chamber music of his master, San Martini,
had already indicated to Gluck a new direction which was more or less
incompatible with the older art; and there is nothing discreditable
either to Gluck or to his contemporaries in the failure of his earlier
works. Had the young composer been successful in the ordinary _opera
seria_, there is reason to fear that the great dramatic reform,
initiated by him, might not have taken place. The critical temper of the
London public fortunately averted this calamity. It may also be assumed
that the musical atmosphere of the English capital, and especially the
great works of Handel, were not without beneficial influence upon the
young composer. But of still greater importance in this respect was a
short trip to Paris, where Gluck became for the first time acquainted
with the classic traditions and the declamatory style of the French
opera--a sphere of music in which his own greatest triumphs were to be
achieved. Of these great issues little trace, however, is to be found in
the works produced by Gluck during the fifteen years after his return
from England. In this period Gluck, in a long course of works by no
means free from the futile old traditions, gained technical experience
and important patronage, though his success was not uniform. His first
opera written for Vienna, _La Semiramide riconosciuta_, is again an
ordinary _opera seria_, and little more can be said of _Telemacco_,
although thirty years later Gluck was able to use most of its overture
and an energetic duet in one of his greatest works, _Armide_.

Gluck settled permanently at Vienna in 1756, having two years previously
been appointed court chapel-master, with a salary of 2000 florins, by
the empress Maria Theresa. He had already received the order of
knighthood from the pope in consequence of the successful production of
two of his works in Rome. During the long interval from 1756 to 1762
Gluck seems to have matured his plans for the reform of the opera; and,
barring a ballet named _Don Giovanni_, and some _airs nouveaux_ to
French words with pianoforte accompaniment, no compositions of any
importance have to be recorded. Several later _pièces d'occasion_, such
as _Il Trionfo di Clelia_ (1763), are still written in the old manner,
though already in 1762 _Orfeo ed Euridice_ shows that the composer had
entered upon a new career. Gluck had for the first time deserted
Metastasio for Raniero Calzabigi, who, as Vernon Lee suggests, was in
all probability the immediate cause of the formation of Gluck's new
ideas, as he was a hot-headed dramatic theorist with a violent dislike
for Metastasio, who had hitherto dominated the whole sphere of operatic
libretto.

Quite apart from its significance in the history of dramatic music,
_Orpheus_ is a work which, by its intrinsic beauty, commands the highest
admiration. Orpheus's air, _Che faro_, is known to every one; but still
finer is the great scena in which the poet's song softens even the
_ombre sdegnose_ of Tartarus. The ascending passion of the entries of
the solo (_Deh! placatevi_; _Mille pene_; _Men tiranne_), interrupted by
the harsh but gradually softening exclamations of the Furies, is of the
highest dramatic effect. These melodies, moreover, as well as every
declamatory passage assigned to Orpheus, are made subservient to the
purposes of dramatic characterization; that is, they could not possibly
be assigned to any other person in the drama, any more than Hamlet's
monologue could be spoken by Polonius. It is in this power of musically
realizing a character--a power all but unknown in the serious opera of
his day--that Gluck's genius as a dramatic composer is chiefly shown.
After a short relapse into his earlier manner, Gluck followed up his
_Orpheus_ by a second classical music-drama (1767) named _Alceste_. In
his dedication of the score to the grand-duke of Tuscany, he fully
expressed his aims, as well as the reasons for his total breach with the
old traditions. "I shall try," he wrote, "to reduce music to its real
function, that of seconding poetry by intensifying the expression of
sentiments and the interest of situations without interrupting the
action by needless ornament. I have accordingly taken care not to
interrupt the singer in the heat of the dialogue, to wait for a tedious
_ritornel_, nor do I allow him to stop on a sonorous vowel, in the
middle of a phrase, in order to show the nimbleness of a beautiful voice
in a long _cadenza_." Such theories, and the stern consistency with
which they were carried out, were little to the taste of the
pleasure-loving Viennese; and the success of _Alceste_, as well as that
of _Paris and Helena_, which followed two years later, was not such as
Gluck had desired and expected. He therefore eagerly accepted the chance
of finding a home for his art in the centre of intellectual and more
especially dramatic life, Paris. Such a chance was opened to him through
the _bailli_ Le Blanc du Roullet, attaché of the French embassy at
Vienna, and a musical amateur who entered into Gluck's ideas with
enthusiasm. A classic opera for the Paris stage was accordingly
projected, and the friends fixed upon Racine's _Iphigénie en Aulide_.
After some difficulties, overcome chiefly by the intervention of Gluck's
former pupil the dauphiness Marie Antoinette, the opera was at last
accepted and performed at the Académie de Musique, on the 19th of April
1774.

The great importance of the new work was at once perceived by the
musical amateurs of the French capital, and a hot controversy on the
merits of _Iphigénie_ ensued, in which some of the leading literary men
of France took part. Amongst the opponents of Gluck were not only the
admirers of Italian vocalization and sweetness, but also the adherents
of the earlier French school, who refused to see in the new composer the
legitimate successor of Lulli and Rameau. Marmontel, Laharpe and
D'Alembert were his opponents, the Abbé Arnaud and others his
enthusiastic friends. Rousseau took a peculiar position in the struggle.
In his early writings he is a violent partisan of Italian music, but
when Gluck himself appeared as the French champion Rousseau acknowledged
the great composer's genius; although he did not always understand it,
as for example when he suggested that in _Alceste_, "Divinités du Styx,"
perhaps the most majestic of all Gluck's arias, ought to have been set
as a rondo. Nevertheless in a letter to Dr Burney, written shortly
before his death, Rousseau gives a close and appreciative analysis of
_Alceste_, the first Italian version of which Gluck had submitted to him
for suggestions; and when, on the first performance of the piece not
being received favourably by the Parisian audience, the composer
exclaimed, "_Alceste est tombée_," Rousseau is said to have comforted
him with the flattering _bonmot_, "_Oui, mais elle est tombée du ciel_."
The contest received a still more personal character when Piccinni, a
celebrated and by no means incapable composer, came to Paris as the
champion of the Italian party at the invitation of Madame du Barry, who
held a rival court to that of the young princess (see OPERA). As a
dramatic controversy it suggests a parallel with the Wagnerian and
anti-Wagnerian warfare of a later age; but there is no such radical
difference between Gluck's and Piccinni's musical methods as the
comparison would suggest. Gluck was by far the better musician, but his
deficiencies in musical technique were of a kind which contemporaries
could perceive as easily as they could perceive Piccinni's. Both
composers were remarkable inventors of melody, and both had the gift of
making incorrect music sound agreeable. Gluck's indisputable dramatic
power might be plausibly dismissed as irrelevant by upholders of music
for music's sake, even if Piccinni himself had not chosen, as he did, to
assimilate every feature in Gluck's style that he could understand. The
rivalry between the two composers was soon developed into a quarrel by
the skilful engineering of Gluck's enemies. In 1777 Piccinni was given a
libretto by Marmontel on the subject of _Roland_, to Gluck's intense
disgust, as he had already begun an opera on that subject himself. This,
and the failure of an attempt to show his command of a lighter style by
furbishing up some earlier works at the instigation of Marie Antoinette,
inspired Gluck to produce his _Armide_, which appeared four months
before Piccinni's _Roland_ was ready, and raised a storm of controversy,
admiration and abuse. Gluck did not anticipate Wagner more clearly in
his dramatic reforms than in his caustic temper; and, as in Gluck's own
estimation the difference between _Armide_ and _Alceste_ is that "_l'un
(Alceste) doit faire pleurer et l'autre faire éprouver une voluptueuse
sensation_," it was extremely annoying for him to be told by Laharpe
that he had made Armide a sorceress instead of an enchantress, and that
her part was "_une criaillerie monotone et fatiguante_." He replied to
Laharpe in a long public letter worthy of Wagner in its venomous sarcasm
and its tremendous value as an advertisement for its recipient.

Gluck's next work was _Iphigénie en Tauride_, the success of which
finally disposed of Piccinni, who produced a work on the same subject at
the same time and who is said to have acknowledged Gluck's superiority.
Gluck's next work was _Écho et Narcisse_, the comparative failure of
which greatly disappointed him; and during the composition of another
opera, _Les Danaïdes_, an attack of apoplexy compelled him to give up
work. He left Paris for Vienna, where he lived for several years in
dignified leisure, disturbed only by his declining health. He died on
the 15th of November 1787.     (F. H.; D. F. T.)

The great interest of the dramatic aspect of Gluck's reforms is apt to
overshadow his merit as a musician, and yet in some ways to idealize it.
One is tempted to regard him as condoning for technical musical
deficiencies by sheer dramatic power, whereas unprejudiced study of his
work shows that where his dramatic power asserts itself there is no lack
of musical technique. Indeed only a great musician could so reform opera
as to give it scope for dramatic power at all. Where Gluck differs from
the greatest musicians is in his absolute dependence on literature for
his inspiration. Where his librettist failed him (as in his last
complete work, _Écho et Narcisse_), he could hardly write tolerably good
music; and, even in the finest works of his French period, the less
emotional situations are sometimes set to music which has little
interest except as a document in the history of the art. This must not
be taken to mean merely that Gluck could not, like Mozart and nearly all
the great song-writers, set good music to a bad text. Such inability
would prove Gluck's superior literary taste without casting a slur on
his musicianship. But it points to a certain weakness as a musician that
Gluck could not be inspired except by the more thrilling portions of his
libretti. When he was inspired there was no question that he was the
first and greatest writer of dramatic music before Mozart. To begin
with, he could invent sublime melodies; and his power of producing great
musical effects by the simplest means was nothing short of Handelian.
Moreover, in his peculiar sphere he deserves the title generally
accorded to Haydn of "father of modern orchestration." It is misleading
to say that he was the first to use the timbre of instruments with a
sense of emotional effect, for Bach and Handel well knew how to give a
whole aria or whole chorus peculiar tone by means of a definite scheme
of instrumentation. But Gluck did not treat instruments as part of a
decorative design, any more than he so treated musical forms. Just as
his sense of musical form is that of Philipp Emmanuel Bach and of
Mozart, so is his treatment of instrumental tone-colour a thing that
changes with every shade of feeling in the dramatic situation, and not
in accordance with any purely decorative scheme. To accompany an aria
with strings, oboes and flutes, was, for example, a perfectly ordinary
procedure; nor was there anything unusual in making the wind instruments
play in unison with the strings for the first part of the aria, and
writing a passage for one or more of them in the middle section. But it
was an unheard-of thing to make this passage consist of long
_appoggiaturas_ once every two bars in rising sequence on the first
oboe, answered by deep _pizzicato_ bass notes, while Agamemnon in
despair cries: "_J'entends retentir dans mon sein le cri plaintif de la
nature_." Some of Gluck's most forcible effects are of great subtlety,
as, for instance, in _Iphigénie en Tauride_, where Orestes tries to
reassure himself by saying: "_Le calme rentre dans mon coeur_," while
the intensely agitated accompaniment of the strings belies him. Again,
the sense of orchestral climax shown in the oracle scene in _Alceste_
was a thing inconceivable in older music, and unsurpassed in artistic
and dramatic spirit by any modern composer. Its influence in Mozart's
_Idomeneo_ is obvious at a first glance.

The capacity for broad melody always implies a true sense of form,
whether that be developed by skill or not; and thus Gluck, in rejecting
the convenient formalities of older styles of opera, was not, like some
reformers, without something better to substitute for them. Moreover he,
in consultation with his librettist, achieved great skill in holding
together entire scenes, or even entire acts, by dramatically apposite
repetitions of short arias and choruses. And thus in large portions of
his finest works the music, in spite of frequent full closes, seems to
move _pari passu_ with the drama in a manner which for naturalness and
continuity is surpassed only by the finales of Mozart and the entire
operas of Wagner. This is perhaps most noticeable in the second act of
_Orfeo_. In its original Italian version both scenes, that in Hades and
that in Elysium, are indivisible wholes, and the division into single
movements, though technically obvious, is aesthetically only a natural
means of articulating the structure. The unity of the scene in Hades
extends, in the original version, even to the key-system. This was
damaged when Gluck had to transpose the part of Orpheus from an alto to
a tenor in the French version. And here, we have one of many instances
in which the improvements his French experience enabled him to make in
his great Italian works were not altogether unmixed. Little harm,
however, was done to _Orfeo_ which has not been easily remedied by
transposing Orpheus's part back again; and in a suitable compromise
between the two versions _Orfeo_ remains Gluck's most perfect and
inspired work. The emotional power of the music is such that the
inevitable spoiling of the story by a happy ending has not the aspect of
mere conventionality which it had in cases where the music produced no
more than the normal effect upon 18th-century audiences. Moreover
Gluck's genius was of too high an order for him to be less successful in
portraying a sufficiently intense happiness than in portraying grief. He
failed only in what may be called the business capacities of artistic
technique; and there is less "business" in _Orfeo_ than in almost any
other music-drama. It was Gluck's first great inspiration, and his
theories had not had time to take action in paper warfare. _Alceste_
contains his grandest music and is also very free from weak pages; but
in its original Italian version the third act did not give Gluck scope
for an adequate climax. This difficulty so accentuated itself in the
French version that after continual retouchings a part for Hercules was,
in Gluck's absence, added by Gossec; and three pages of Gluck's music,
dealing with the supreme crisis where Alceste is rescued from Hades
(either by Apollo or by Hercules) were no longer required in performance
and have been lost. The Italian version is so different from the French
that it cannot help us to restore this passage, in which Gluck's music
now stops short just at the point where we realize the full height of
his power. The comparison between the Italian and French _Alceste_ is
one of the most interesting that can be made in the study of a
musician's development. It would have been far easier for Gluck to write
a new opera if he had not been so justly attached to his second Italian
masterpiece. So radical are the differences that in retranslating the
French libretto into Italian for performance with the French music not
one line of Calzabigi's original text can be retained.

In _Iphigénie en Aulide_ and _Iphigénie en Tauride_, Gluck shows signs
that the controversies aroused by his methods began to interfere with
his musical spontaneity. He had not, in _Orfeo_, gone out of his way to
avoid rondos, or we should have had no "_Che faro senza Euridice_." We
read with a respectful smile Gluck's assurance to the bailli Le Blanc du
Roullet that "you would not believe _Armide_ to be by the same composer"
as _Alceste_. But there is no question that _Armide_ is a very great
work, full of melody, colour and dramatic point; and that Gluck has
availed himself of every suggestion that his libretto afforded for
orchestral and emotional effects of an entirely different type from any
that he had attempted before. And it is hardly relevant to blame him for
his inability to write erotic music. In the first place, the libretto is
not erotic, though the subject would no doubt become so if treated by a
modern poet. In the second place a conflict of passions (as, for
instance, where Armide summons the demons of Hate to exorcise love from
her heart, and her courage fails her as soon as they begin) has never,
even in _Alceste_, been treated with more dramatic musical force. The
work as a whole is unequal, partly because there is a little too much
action in it to suit Gluck's methods; but it shows, as does no other
opera until Mozart's _Don Giovanni_, a sense of the _development_ of
characters, as distinguished from the mere presentation of them as
already fixed.

In _Iphigénie en Aulide_ and _Iphigénie en Tauride_, the very subtlety
of the finest features indicates a certain self-consciousness which,
when inspiration is lacking, becomes mannerism. Moreover, in both cases
the libretti, though skilfully managed, tell a rather more complicated
story than those which Gluck had hitherto so successfully treated; and,
where inspiration fails, the musical technique becomes curiously
amateurish without any corresponding naïveté. Still these works are
immortal, and their finest passages are equal to anything in _Alceste_
and _Orfeo_. _Écho et Narcisse_ we must, like Gluck's contemporaries,
regard as a failure. As in _Orfeo_, the pathetic story is ruined by a
violent happy ending, but here this artistic disaster takes place before
the pathos has had time to assert itself. Gluck had no opportunities in
this work for any higher qualities, musical or dramatic, than
prettiness; and with him beauty, without visible emotion, was indeed
skin-deep. It is a pity that the plan of the great Pelletan-Damcke
critical _édition de luxe_ of Gluck's French operas forbids the
inclusion of his Italian _Paride e Elena_, his third opera to
Calzabigi's libretto, which was never given in a French version; for
there can be no question that, whatever he owed to France, the period
of his greatness began with his collaboration with Calzabigi.
     (D. F. T.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Not, as frequently spelt, Glück.



GLÜCKSBURG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of
Schleswig-Holstein, romantically situated among pine woods on the
Flensburg Fjord off the Baltic, 6 m. N.E. from Flensburg by rail. Pop.
(1905) 1551. It has a Protestant church and some small manufactures and
is a favourite sea-bathing resort. The castle, which occupies the site
of a former Cistercian monastery, was, from 1622 to 1779, the residence
of the dukes of Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, passing then to the king
of Denmark and in 1866 to Prussia. King Frederick VII. of Denmark died
here on the 15th of November 1863.



GLÜCKSTADT, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of
Schleswig-Holstein, on the right bank of the Elbe, at the confluence of
the small river Rhin, and 28 m. N.W. of Altona, on the railway from
Itzehoe to Elmshorn. Pop. (1905) 6586. It has a Protestant and a Roman
Catholic church, a handsome town-hall (restored in 1873-1874), a
gymnasium, a provincial prison and a penitentiary. The inhabitants are
chiefly engaged in commerce and fishing; but the frequent losses from
inundations have greatly retarded the prosperity of the town. Glückstadt
was founded by Christian IV. of Denmark in 1617, and fortified in 1620.
It soon became an important trading centre. In 1627-28 it was besieged
for fifteen weeks by the imperialists under Tilly, without success. In
1814 it was blockaded by the allies and capitulated, whereupon its
fortifications were demolished. In 1830 it was made a free port. It came
into the possession of Prussia together with the rest of
Schleswig-Holstein in 1866.

  See Lucht, _Glückstadt. Beiträge zur Geschichte dieser Stadt_ (Kiel,
  1854).



GLUCOSE (from Gr. [Greek: glykys], sweet), a carbohydrate of the formula
C6H12O6; it may be regarded as the aldehyde of sorbite. The name is
applied in commerce to a complex mixture of carbohydrates obtained by
boiling starch with dilute mineral acids; in chemistry, it denotes, with
the prefixes d, l and d + l (or i), the dextro-rotatory, laevo-rotatory
and inactive forms of the definite chemical compound defined above. The
d modification is of the commonest occurrence, the other forms being
only known as synthetic products; for this reason it is usually termed
glucose, simply; alternative names are dextrose, grape sugar and
diabetic sugar, in allusion to its right-handed optical rotation, its
occurrence in large quantity in grapes, and in the urine of diabetic
patients respectively. In the vegetable kingdom glucose occurs, always
in admixture with fructose, in many fruits, especially grapes, cherries,
bananas, &c.; and in combination, generally with phenols and aldehydes
belonging to the aromatic series, it forms an extensive class of
compounds termed glucosides. It appears to be synthesized in the plant
tissues from carbon dioxide and water, formaldehyde being an
intermediate product; or it may be a hydrolytic product of a glucoside
or of a polysaccharose, such as cane sugar, starch, cellulose, &c. In
the plant it is freely converted into more complex sugars,
poly-saccharoses and also proteids. In the animal kingdom, also, it is
very widely distributed, being sometimes a normal and sometimes a
pathological constituent of the fluids and tissues; in particular, it is
present in large amount in the urine of those suffering from diabetes,
and may be present in nearly all the body fluids. It also occurs in
honey, the white appearance of candied honey being due to its
separation.

Pure d-glucose, which may be obtained synthetically (see SUGAR) or by
adding crystallized cane sugar to a mixture of 80% alcohol and 1/15
volume of fuming hydrochloric acid so long as it dissolves on shaking,
crystallizes from water or alcohol at ordinary temperatures in nodular
masses, composed of minute six-sided plates, and containing one molecule
of water of crystallization. This product melts at 86° C., and becomes
anhydrous when heated to 110° C. The anhydrous compound can also be
prepared, as hard crusts melting at 146°, by crystallizing concentrated
aqueous solutions at 30° to 35°. It is very soluble in water, but only
slightly soluble in strong alcohol. Its taste is somewhat sweet, its
sweetening power being estimated at from ½ to 3/5 that of cane sugar.
When heated to above 200° it turns brown and produces caramel, a
substance possessing a bitter taste, and used, in its aqueous solution
or otherwise, under various trade names, for colouring confectionery,
spirits, &c. The specific rotation of the plane of polarized light by
glucose solutions is characteristic. The specific rotation of a freshly
prepared solution is 105°, but this value gradually diminishes to 52.5°,
24 hours sufficing for the transition in the cold, and a few minutes
when the solution is boiled. This phenomenon has been called
mutarotation by T. M. Lowry. The specific rotation also varies with the
concentration; this is due to the dissociation of complex molecules into
simpler ones, a view confirmed by cryoscopic measurements.

Glucose may be estimated by means of the polarimeter, i.e. by
determining the rotation of the plane of polarization of a solution, or,
chemically, by taking advantage of its property of reducing alkaline
copper solutions. If a glucose solution be added to copper sulphate and
much alkali added, a yellowish-red precipitate of cuprous hydrate
separates, slowly in the cold, but immediately when the liquid is
heated; this precipitate rapidly turns red owing to the formation of
cuprous oxide. In 1846 L. C. A. Barreswil found that a strongly alkaline
solution of copper sulphate and potassium sodium tartrate (Rochelle
salt) remained unchanged on boiling, but yielded an immediate
precipitate of red cuprous oxide when a solution of glucose was added.
He suggested that the method was applicable for quantitatively
estimating glucose, but its acceptance only followed after H. von
Fehling's investigation. "Fehling's solution" is prepared by dissolving
separately 34.639 grammes of copper sulphate, 173 grammes of Rochelle
salt, and 71 grammes of caustic soda in water, mixing and making up to
1000 ccs.; 10 ccs. of this solution is completely reduced by 0.05
grammes of hexose. Volumetric methods are used, but the uncertainty of
the end of the reaction has led to the suggestion of special indicators,
or of determining the amount of cuprous oxide gravimetrically.

  _Chemistry._--In its chemical properties glucose is a typical
  oxyaldehyde or aldose. The aldehyde group reacts with hydrocyanic acid
  to produce two stereo-isomeric cyanhydrins; this isomerism is due to
  the conversion of an originally non-asymmetric carbon atom into an
  asymmetric one. The cyanhydrin is hydrolysable to an acid, the lactone
  of which may be reduced by sodium amalgam to a glucoheptose, a
  non-fermentable sugar containing seven carbon atoms. By repeating the
  process a non-fermentable gluco-octose and a fermentable glucononose
  may be prepared. The aldehyde group also reacts with phenyl hydrazine
  to form two phenylhydrazones; under certain conditions a hydroxyl
  group adjacent to the aldehyde group is oxidized and glucosazone is
  produced; this glucosazone is decomposed by hydrochloric acid into
  phenyl hydrazine and the keto-aldehyde glucosone. These
  transformations are fully discussed in the article SUGAR. On reduction
  glucose appears to yield the hexahydric alcohol _d_-sorbite, and on
  oxidation _d_-gluconic and _d_-saccharic acids. Alkalis partially
  convert it into _d_-mannose and _d_-fructose. Baryta and lime yield
  saccharates, e.g. C6H12O6·BaO, precipitable by alcohol.

        CH2OH             CH2OH
        .                 .
        CH·OH             CH·OH
        .                 .
        CH                CH
      /                /
    O<               O<
      \ .               \ .
       (CH·OH)2          (CH·OH2
        .                 .
       HC·OH           HO·CH

    [alpha]-glucose  [beta]-glucose

  The constitution of glucose was established by H. Kiliani in
  1885-1887, who showed it to be CH2OH·(CH·OH)4·CHO. The subject was
  taken up by Emil Fischer, who succeeded in synthesizing glucose, and
  also several of its stereo-isomers, there being 16 according to the Le
  Bel-van't Hoff theory (see Stereo-Isomerism and Sugar). This open
  chain structure is challenged in the views put forward by T. M. Lowry
  and E. F. Armstrong. In 1895 C. Tanret showed that glucose existed in
  more than one form, and he isolated [alpha], [beta] and [gamma]
  varieties with specific rotations of 105°, 52.5° and 22°. It is now
  agreed that the [beta] variety is a mixture of the [alpha] and
  [gamma]. This discovery explained the mutarotation of glucose. In a
  fresh solution [alpha]-glucose only exists, but on standing it is
  slowly transformed into [gamma]-glucose, equilibrium being reached
  when the [alpha] and [gamma] forms are present in the ratio
  0.368:0.632 (Tanret, _Zeit. physikal. Chem._, 1905, 53, p. 692). It is
  convenient to refer to these two forms as [alpha] and [beta]. Lowry
  and Armstrong represent these compounds by the following spatial
  formulae which postulate a [gamma]-oxidic structure, and 5 asymmetric
  carbon atoms, i.e. one more than in the Fischer formulae. These
  formulae are supported by many considerations, especially by the
  selective action of enzymes, which follows similar lines with the
  [alpha]- and [beta]-glucosides, i.e. the compounds formed by the
  interaction of glucose with substances generally containing hydroxyl
  groups (see GLUCOSIDE).

  _Fermentation of Glucose._--Glucose is readily fermentable. Of the
  greatest importance is the alcoholic fermentation brought about by
  yeast cells (_Saccharomyces cerevisiae seu vini_); this follows the
  equation C6H12O6 = 2C2H6O + 2CO2, Pasteur considering 94 to 95% of the
  sugar to be so changed. This character is the base of the plan of
  adding glucose to wine and beer wort before fermenting, the alcohol
  content of the liquid after fermentation being increased. Some fusel
  oil, glycerin and succinic acid appear to be formed simultaneously,
  but in small amount. Glucose also undergoes fermentation into lactic
  acid (q.v.) in the presence of the lactic acid bacillus, and into
  butyric acid if the action of the preceding ferment be continued, or
  by other bacilli. It also yields, by the so-called mucous
  fermentation, a mucous, gummy mass, mixed with mannitol and lactic
  acid.

  We may here notice the frequent production of glucose by the action of
  enzymes upon other carbohydrates. Of especial note is the
  transformation of maltose by maltase into glucose, and of cane sugar
  by invertase into a mixture of glucose and fructose (invert sugar);
  other instances are: lactose by lactase into galactose and glucose;
  trehalose by trehalase into glucose; melibiose by melibiase into
  galactose and glucose; and of melizitose by melizitase into touranose
  and glucose, touranose yielding glucose also when acted upon by the
  enzyme touranase.

  _Commercial Glucose._--The glucose of commerce, which may be regarded
  as a mixture of grape sugar, maltose and dextrins, is prepared by
  hydrolysing starch by boiling with a dilute mineral acid. In Europe,
  potato starch is generally employed; in America, corn starch. The acid
  employed may be hydrochloric, which gives the best results, or
  sulphuric, which is used in Germany; sulphuric acid is more readily
  separated from the product than hydrochloric, since the addition of
  powdered chalk precipitates it as calcium sulphate, which may be
  removed by a filter press. The processes of manufacture have much in
  common, although varying in detail. The following is an outline of the
  process when hydrochloric acid is used: Starch ("green" starch in
  America) is made into a "milk" with water, and the milk pumped into
  boiling dilute acid contained in a closed "converter," generally made
  of copper or cast iron; steam is led in at the same time, and the
  pressure is kept up to about 25 lb. to the sq. in. When the converter
  is full the pressure is raised somewhat, and the heating continued
  until the conversion is complete. The liquid is now run into
  neutralizing tanks containing sodium carbonate, and, after settling,
  the supernatant liquid, termed "light liquor," is run through bag
  filters and then on to bone-char filters, which have been previously
  used for the "heavy liquor." The colourless or amber-coloured filtrate
  is concentrated to 27° to 28° B., when it forms the "heavy liquor,"
  just mentioned. This is filtered through fresh bone-char filters, from
  which it is discharged as a practically colourless liquid. This liquid
  is concentrated in vacuum pans to a specific gravity of 40° to 44° B.,
  a small quantity of sodium bisulphite solution being added to bleach
  it, to prevent fermentation, and to inhibit browning. "Syrup glucose"
  is the commercial name of the product; by continuing the concentration
  further solid glucose or grape sugar is obtained.

  Several brands are recognized: "Mixing glucose" is used by syrup and
  molasses manufacturers, "jelly glucose" by makers of jellies,
  "confectioners' glucose" in confectionery, "brewers' glucose" in
  brewing, &c.



GLUCOSIDE, in chemistry, the generic name of an extensive group of
substances characterized by the property of yielding a sugar, more
commonly glucose, when hydrolysed by purely chemical means, or
decomposed by a ferment or enzyme. The name was originally given to
vegetable products of this nature, in which the other part of the
molecule was, in the greater number of cases, an aromatic aldehydic or
phenolic compound (exceptions are sinigrin and jalapin or scammonin). It
has now been extended to include synthetic ethers, such as those
obtained by acting on alcoholic glucose solutions with hydrochloric
acid, and also the polysaccharoses, e.g. cane sugar, which appear to be
ethers also. Although glucose is the commonest sugar present in
glucosides, many are known which yield rhamnose or iso-dulcite; these
may be termed pentosides. Much attention has been given to the non-sugar
parts of the molecules; the constitutions of many have been determined,
and the compounds synthesized; and in some cases the preparation of the
synthetic glucoside effected.

The simplest glucosides are the alkyl esters which E. Fischer (_Ber._,
28, pp. 1151, 3081) obtained by acting with hydrochloric acid on
alcoholic glucose solutions. A better method of preparation is due to E.
F. Armstrong and S. L. Courtauld (_Proc. Phys. Soc._, 1905, July 1),
who dissolve solid anhydrous glucose in methyl alcohol containing
hydrochloric acid. A mixture of [alpha]- and [beta]-glucose result,
which are then etherified, and if the solution be neutralized before the
[beta]-form isomerizes and the solvent removed, a mixture of the
[alpha]- and [beta]-methyl ethers is obtained. These may be separated by
the action of suitable ferments. Fischer found that these ethers did not
reduce Fehling's solution, neither did they combine with phenyl
hydrazine at 100°; they appear to be stereo-isomeric [gamma]-oxidic
compounds of the formulae I., II.: The difference between the [alpha]-
and [beta]-forms is best shown by the selective action of enzymes.
Fischer found that maltase, an enzyme occurring in yeast cells,
hydrolysed [alpha]-glucosides but not the [beta]; while emulsin, an
enzyme occurring in bitter almonds, hydrolyses the [beta] but not the
[alpha]. The ethers of non-fermentable sugars are themselves
non-fermentable. By acting with these enzymes on the natural glucosides,
it is found that the majority are of the [beta]-form; e.g. emulsin
hydrolyses salicin, helicin, aesculin, coniferin, syringin, &c.

       CH2OH                   CH2OH
       ·                       ·
       CHOH                    CHOH
       ·                       ·
     / CH                    / CH
  O <  ·                  O <  ·
     \(CHOH)2                \(CHOH)2
       ·                       ·
     H·C·OCH3             CH3O·C·H

  I. [alpha]-methyl     II. [beta]-methyl
     _d_-glucoside        _d_-glucoside

Classification of the glucosides is a matter of some difficulty. One
based on the chemical constitution of the non-glucose part of the
molecules has been proposed by Umney, who framed four groups: (1)
ethylene derivatives, (2) benzene derivatives, (3) styrolene
derivatives, (4) anthracene derivatives. A group may also be made to
include the cyanogenetic glucosides, i.e. those containing prussic acid.
J. J. L. van Rijn (_Die Glykoside_, 1900) follows a botanical
classification, which has several advantages; in particular, plants of
allied genera contain similar compounds. In this article the chemical
classification will be followed. Only the more important compounds will
be noticed, the reader being referred to van Rijn (_loc. cit._) and to
Beilstein's _Handbuch der organischen Chemie_ for further details.

  1. _Ethylene Derivatives._--These are generally mustard oils, and are
  characterized by a burning taste; their principal occurrence is in
  mustard and _Tropaeolum seeds_. Sinigrin or the potassium salt of
  myronic acid, C10H16NS2KO9·H2O, occurs in black pepper and in
  horse-radish root. Hydrolysis with baryta, or decomposition by the
  ferment myrosin, gives glucose, allyl mustard oil and potassium
  bisulphate. Sinalbin, C30H42N2S2O15, occurs in white pepper; it
  decomposes to the mustard oil HO·C6H4·CH2·NCS, glucose and sinapin, a
  compound of choline and sinapinic acid. Jalapin or scammonin,
  C34H56O16, occurs in scammony; it hydrolyses to glucose and
  jalapinolic acid. The formulae of sinigrin, sinalbin, sinapin and
  jalapinolic acid are:--

                 / N·C3H5                     / N·CH2·C6H4·OH
    C6H11O5·S·C <                C6H11O5·S·C <
                 \ O·SO2·OK                   \ O·SO2·OC16H24O5N
              Sinigrin                     Sinalbin

              (CH3O)2 \                          / (CH3)3
                       > C6H2·CH:CH·CO·C2H4·O·N <
                   HO /                          \ OH
                                Sinapin

                     CH3 \
                          > CH·CH(OH)·C10H20·CO2H
                    C2H6 /
                       Jalapinolic acid (Kramer)

  2. _Benzene Derivatives._--These are generally oxy and oxyaldehydic
  compounds. Arbutin, C12H16O7, which occurs in bearberry along with
  methyl arbutin, hydrolyses to hydroquinone and glucose.
  Pharmacologically it acts as a urinary antiseptic and diuretic; the
  benzoyl derivative, cellotropin, has been used for tuberculosis.
  Salicin, also termed "saligenin" and "glucose," C13H18O7, occurs in
  the willow. The enzymes ptyalin and emulsin convert it into glucose
  and saligenin, ortho-oxybenzylalcohol, HO·C6H4·CH2OH. Oxidation gives
  the aldehyde helicin. Populin, C20H22O8, which occurs in the leaves
  and bark of _Populus tremula_, is benzoyl salicin.

  3. _Styrolene Derivatives._--This group contains a benzene and also an
  ethylene group, being derived from styrolene C6H5·CH:CH2. Coniferin,
  C16H22O8, occurs in the cambium of coniferous woods. Emulsin converts
  it into glucose and coniferyl alcohol, while oxidation gives
  glycovanillin, which yields with emulsin glucose and vanillin (see
  EUGENOL and VANILLA). Syringin, which occurs in the bark of _Syringa
  vulgaris_, is methoxyconiferin. Phloridzin, C21H24O10, occurs in the
  root-bark of various fruit trees; it hydrolyses to glucose and
  phloretin, which is the phloroglucin ester of para-oxyhydratropic acid.
  It is related to the pentosides naringin, C21H26O11, which hydrolyses
  to rhamnose and naringenin, the phloroglucin ester of para-oxycinnamic
  acid, and hesperidin, C50H60O22(?), which hydrolyses to rhamnose and
  hesperetin, C16H14O6, the phloroglucin ester of
  meta-oxy-para-methoxycinnamic acid or isoferulic acid, C10H10O4. We may
  here include various coumarin and benzo-[gamma]-pyrone derivatives.
  Aesculin, C15H16O9, occurring in horse-chestnut, and daphnin, occurring
  in _Daphne alpina_, are isomeric; the former hydrolyses to glucose and
  aesculetin (4·5-dioxycoumarin), the latter to glucose and daphnetin
  (3·4-dioxycoumarin). Fraxin, C16H18O10, occurring in _Fraxinus
  excelsior_, and with aesculin in horse-chestnut, hydrolyses to glucose
  and fraxetin, the monomethyl ester of a trioxycoumarin. Flavone or
  benzo-[gamma]-pyrone derivatives are very numerous; in many cases they
  (or the non-sugar part of the molecule) are vegetable dyestuffs.
  _Quercitrin_, C21H22O12, is a yellow dyestuff found in _Quercus
  tinctoria_; it hydrolyses to rhamnose and quercetin, a
  dioxy-[beta]-phenyl-trioxybenzo-[gamma]-pyrone. Rhamnetin, a splitting
  product of the glucosides of _Rhamnus_, is monomethyl quercetin;
  fisetin, from _Rhus cotinus_, is monoxyquercetin; chrysin is
  phenyl-dioxybenzo-[gamma]-pyrone. Saponarin, a glucoside found in
  _Saponaria officinalis_, is a related compound. Strophanthin is the
  name given to three different compounds, two obtained from
  _Strophanthus Kombe_ and one from _S. hispidus_.

  4. _Anthracene Derivatives._--These are generally substituted
  anthraquinones; many have medicinal applications, being used as
  purgatives, while one, ruberythric acid, yields the valuable dyestuff
  madder, the base of which is alizarin (q.v.). Chrysophanic acid, a
  dioxymethylanthraquinone, occurs in rhubarb, which also contains
  emodin, a trioxymethylanthraquinone; this substance occurs in
  combination with rhamnose in frangula bark.

  The most important cyanogenetic glucoside is amygdalin, which occurs
  in bitter almonds. The enzyme maltase decomposes it into glucose and
  mandelic nitrile glucoside; the latter is broken down by emulsin into
  glucose, benzaldehyde and prussic acid. Emulsin also decomposes
  amygdalin directly into these compounds without the intermediate
  formation of mandelic nitrile glucoside. Several other glucosides of
  this nature have been isolated. The saponins are a group of substances
  characterized by forming a lather with water; they occur in soap-bark
  (q.v.). Mention may also be made of indican, the glucoside of the
  indigo plant; this is hydrolysed by the indigo ferment, indimulsin, to
  indoxyl and indiglucin.



GLUE (from the O. Fr. _glu_, bird-lime, from the Late Lat. _glutem_,
_glus_, glue), a valuable agglutinant, consisting of impure gelatin and
widely used as an adhesive medium for wood, leather, paper and similar
substances. Glues and gelatins merge into one another by imperceptible
degrees. The difference is conditioned by the degree of purity: the more
impure form is termed glue and is only used as an adhesive, the purer
forms, termed gelatin, have other applications, especially in culinary
operations and confectionery. Referring to the article GELATIN for a
general account of this substance, it is only necessary to state here
that gelatigenous or glue-forming tissues occur in the bones, skins and
intestines of all animals, and that by extraction with hot water these
agglutinating materials are removed, and the solution on evaporating and
cooling yields a jelly-like substance--gelatin or glue.

Glues may be most conveniently classified according to their sources:
bone glue, skin glue and fish glue; these may be regarded severally as
impure forms of bone gelatin, skin gelatin and isinglass.

_Bone Glue._--For the manufacture of glue the bones are supplied fresh
or after having been used for making soups; Indian and South American
bones are unsuitable, since, by reason of their previous treatment with
steam, both their fatty and glue-forming constituents have been already
removed (to a great extent). On the average, fresh bones contain about
50% of mineral matter, mainly calcium and magnesium phosphates, about
12% each of moisture and fat, the remainder being other organic matter.
The mineral matter reappears in commerce chiefly as artificial manure;
the fat is employed in the candle, soap and glycerin industries, while
the other organic matter supplies glue.

The separation of the fat, or "de-greasing of the bones" is effected (1)
by boiling the bones with water in open vessels; (2) by treatment with
steam under pressure; or (3) by means of solvents. The last process is
superseding the first two, which give a poor return of fat--a valuable
consideration--and also involve the loss of a certain amount of glue.
Many solvents have been proposed; the greatest commercial success
appears to attend Scottish shale oil and natural petroleum (Russian or
American) boiling at about 100° C. The vessels in which the extraction
is carried out consist of upright cylindrical boilers, provided with
manholes for charging, a false bottom on which the bones rest, and with
two steam coils--one for heating only, the other for leading in "live"
steam. There is a pipe from the top of the vessel leading to a
condensing plant. The vessels are arranged in batteries. In the actual
operation the boiler is charged with bones, solvent is run in, and the
mixture gradually heated by means of the dry coil; the spirit distils
over, carrying with it the water present in the bones; and after a time
the extracted fat is run off from discharge cocks in the bottom of the
extractor.[1] A fresh charge of solvent is introduced, and the cycle
repeated; this is repeated a third and fourth time, after which the
bones contain only about 0.2% of fat, and a little of the solvent, which
is removed by blowing in live steam under 70 to 80 lb. pressure. The
de-greased bones are now cleansed from all dirt and flesh by rotation in
a horizontal cylindrical drum covered with stout wire gauze. The
attrition accompanying this motion suffices to remove the loosely
adherent matter, which falls through the meshes of the gauze; this meal
contains a certain amount of glue-forming matter, and is generally
passed through a finer mesh, the residuum being worked up in the
glue-house, and the flour which passes through being sold as a
bone-meal, or used as a manure.

The bones, which now contain 5 to 6% of glue-forming nitrogen and about
60% of calcium phosphate, are next treated for glue. The most economical
process consists in steaming the bones under pressure (15 lb. to start
with, afterwards 5 lb.) in upright cylindrical boilers fitted with false
bottoms. The glue-liquors collect beneath the false bottoms, and when of
a strength equal to about 20% dry glue they are run off to the
clarifiers. The first runnings contain about 65 to 70% of the total
glue; a second steaming extracts another 25 to 30%. For clarifying the
solutions, ordinary alum is used, one part being used for 200 parts of
dry glue. The alum is added to the hot liquors, and the temperature
raised to 100°; it is then allowed to settle, and the surface scum
removed by filtering through coarse calico or fine wire filters.

The clear liquors are now concentrated to a strength of about 32% dry
glue in winter and 35% in summer. This is invariably effected in vacuum
pans--open boiling yields a dark-coloured and inferior product. Many
types of vacuum plant are in use; the Yaryan form, invented by H. T.
Yaryan, is perhaps the best, and the double effect system is the most
efficient. After concentration the liquors are bleached by blowing in
sulphur dioxide, manufactured by burning sulphur; by this means the
colour can be lightened to any desired degree. The liquors are now run
into galvanized sheet-iron troughs, 2 ft. long, 6 in. wide and 5 in.
deep, where they congeal to a firm jelly, which is subsequently removed
by cutting round the edges, or by warming with hot water, and turning
the cake out. The cake is sliced to sheets of convenient thickness,
generally by means of a wire knife, i.e. a piece of wire placed in a
frame. Mechanical slicers acting on this principle are in use. Instead
of allowing the solution to congeal in troughs, it may be "cast" on
sheets of glass, the bottoms of which are cooled by running water. After
congealing, the tremulous jelly is dried; this is an operation of great
nicety: the desiccation must be slow and is generally effected by
circulating a rapid current of air about the cakes supported on nets set
in frames; it occupies from four to five days, and the cake contains on
the average from 10 to 13% of water.

_Skin Glue._--In the preparation of skin glue the materials used are the
parings and cuttings of hides from tan-yards, the ears of oxen and
sheep, the skins of rabbits, hares, cats, dogs and other animals, the
parings of tawed leather, parchment and old gloves, and many other
miscellaneous scraps of animal matter. Much experience is needed in
order to prepare a good glue from such heterogeneous materials; one
blending may be a success and another a failure. The raw material has
been divided into three great divisions: (1) sheep pieces and fleshings
(ears, &c.); (2) ox fleshings and trimmings; (3) ox hides and pieces;
the best glue is obtained from a mixture of the hide, ear and face
clippings of the ox and calf. The raw material or "stock" is first
steeped for from two to ten weeks, according to its nature, in wooden
vats or pits with lime water, and afterwards carefully dried and stored.
The object of the lime steeping is to remove any blood and flesh which
may be attached to the skin, and to form a lime soap with the fatty
matter present. The "scrows" or glue pieces, which may be kept a long
time without undergoing change, are washed with a dilute hydrochloric
acid to remove all lime, and then very thoroughly with water; they are
now allowed to drain and dry. The skins are then placed in hemp nets and
introduced into an open boiler which has a false bottom, and a tap by
which liquid may be run off. As the boiling proceeds test quantities of
liquid are from time to time examined, and when a sample is found on
cooling to form a stiff jelly, which happens when it contains about 32%
dry glue, it is ready to draw off. The solution is then run to a
clarifier, in which a temperature sufficient to keep it fluid is
maintained, and in this way any impurity is permitted to subside. The
glue solution is then run into wooden troughs or coolers in which it
sets to a firm jelly. The cakes are removed as in the case of bone glue
(see above), and, having been placed on nets, are, in the Scottish
practice, dried by exposure to open air. This primitive method has many
disadvantages: on a hot day the cake may become unshapely, or melt and
slip through the net, or dry so rapidly as to crack; a frost may produce
fissures, while a fog or mist may precipitate moisture on the surface
and occasion a mouldy appearance. The surface of the cake, which is
generally dull after drying, is polished by washing with water. The
practice of boiling, clarification, cooling and drying, which has been
already described in the case of bone glue, has been also applied to the
separation of skin glue.

_Fish Glue._--Whereas isinglass, a very pure gelatin, is yielded by the
sounds of a limited number of fish, it is found that all fish offals
yield a glue possessing considerable adhesive properties. The
manufacture consists in thoroughly washing the offal with water, and
then discharging it into extractors with live steam. After digestion,
the liquid is run off, allowed to stand, the upper oily layer removed,
and the lower gluey solution clarified with alum. The liquid is then
filtered, concentrated in open vats, and bleached with sulphur
dioxide.[2] Fish glue is a light-brown viscous liquid which has a
distinctly disagreeable odour and an acrid taste; these disadvantages to
its use are avoided if it be boiled with a little water and 1% of sodium
phosphate, and 0.025% of saccharine added.

_Properties of Glue._--A good quality of glue should be free from all
specks and grit, have a uniform, light brownish-yellow, transparent
appearance, and should break with a glassy fracture. Steeped for some
time in cold water it softens and swells up without dissolving, and when
again dried it ought to resume its original properties. Under the
influence of heat it entirely dissolves in water, forming a thin syrupy
fluid with a not disagreeable smell. The adhesiveness of different
qualities of glue varies considerably; the best adhesive is formed by
steeping the glue, broken in small pieces, in water until they are quite
soft, and then placing them with just sufficient water to effect
solution in the glue-pot. The hotter the glue, the better the joint;
remelted glue is not so strong as the freshly prepared; and newly
manufactured glue is inferior to that which has been long in stock. It
is therefore seen that many factors enter into the determination of the
cohesive power of glue; a well-prepared joint may, under favourable
conditions, withstand a pull of about 700 lb. per sq. in. The following
table, after Kilmarsch, shows the holding power of glued joints with
various kinds of woods.

    +---------+-----------------------------+
    |         |       lb. per sq. in.       |
    |  Wood.  +-------------+---------------+
    |         | With grain. | Across grain. |
    +---------+-------------+---------------+
    | Beech   |     852     |     434.5     |
    | Maple   |     484     |     346       |
    | Oak     |     704     |     302       |
    | Fir     |     605     |     132       |
    +---------+-------------+---------------+

  _Special Kinds of Glues, Cements, &c._--By virtue of the fact that the
  word "glue" is frequently used to denote many adhesives, which may or
  may not contain gelatin, there will now be given an account of some
  special preparations. These may be conveniently divided into: (1)
  liquid glues, mixtures containing gelatin which do not jelly at
  ordinary temperatures but still possess adhesive properties; (2)
  water-proof glues, including mixtures containing gelatin, and also the
  "marine glues," which contain no glue; (3) glues or cements for
  special purposes, e.g. for cementing glass, pottery, leather, &c., for
  cementing dissimilar materials, such as paper or leather to iron.

  _Liquid Glues._--The demand for liquid glues is mainly due to the
  disadvantages--the necessity of dissolving and using while hot--of
  ordinary glue. They are generally prepared by adding to a warm glue
  solution some reagent which destroys the property of gelatinizing. The
  reagents in common use are acetic acid; magnesium chloride, used for a
  glue employed by printers; hydrochloric acid and zinc sulphate; nitric
  acid and lead sulphate; and phosphoric acid and ammonium carbonate.

  _Water-proof Glues._--Numerous recipes for water-proof glues have been
  published; glue, having been swollen by soaking in water, dissolved in
  four-fifths its weight of linseed oil, furnishes a good water-proof
  adhesive; linseed oil varnish and litharge, added to a glue solution,
  is also used; resin added to a hot glue solution in water, and
  afterwards diluted with turpentine, is another recipe; the best glue
  is said to be obtained by dissolving one part of glue in one and a
  half parts of water, and then adding one-fiftieth part of potassium
  bichromate. Alcoholic solutions of various gums, and also tannic acid,
  confer the same property on glue solutions. The "marine glues" are
  solutions of india-rubber, shellac or asphaltum, or mixtures of these
  substances, in benzene or naphtha. Jeffrey's marine glue is formed by
  dissolving india-rubber in four parts of benzene and adding two parts
  of shellac; it is extensively used, being easily applied and drying
  rapidly and hard. Another water-proof glue which contains no gelatin
  is obtained by heating linseed oil with five parts of quicklime; when
  cold it forms a hard mass, which melts on heating like ordinary glue.

  _Special Glues._--There are innumerable recipes for adhesives
  specially applicable to certain substances and under certain
  conditions. For repairing glass, ivory, &c. isinglass (q.v.), which
  may be replaced by fine glue, yields valuable cements; bookbinders
  employ an elastic glue obtained from an ordinary glue solution and
  glycerin, the water being expelled by heating; an efficient cement for
  mounting photographs is obtained by dissolving glue in ten parts of
  alcohol and adding one part of glycerin; portable or mouth glue--so
  named because it melts in the mouth--is prepared by dissolving one
  part of sugar in a solution of four parts of glue. An india-rubber
  substitute is obtained by adding sodium tungstate and hydrochloric
  acid to a strong glue solution; this preparation may be rolled out
  when heated to 60°.

  For further details see Thomas Lambert, _Glue, Gelatine and their
  Allied Products_ (London, 1905); R. L. Fernbach, _Glues and Gelatine_
  (1907); H. C. Standage, _Agglutinants of all Kinds for all Purposes_
  (1907).


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] This fat contains a small quantity of solvent, which is removed
    by heating with steam, when the solvent distils off. Hot water is
    then run in to melt the fat, which rises to the surface of the water
    and is floated off. Another boiling with water, and again floating
    off, frees the fat from dirt and mineral matter, and the product is
    ready for casking.

  [2] The residue in the extractors is usually dried in steam-heated
    vessels, and mixed with potassium and magnesium salts; the product is
    then put on the market as fish-potash guano.



GLUTARIC ACID, or NORMAL PYROTARIC ACID, HO2C·CH2·CH2·CH2·CO2H, an
organic acid prepared by the reduction of [alpha]-oxyglutaric acid with
hydriodic acid, by reducing glutaconic acid, HO2C·CH2·CH:CH·CO2H, with
sodium amalgam, by conversion of trimethylene bromide into the cyanide
and hydrolysis of this compound, or from acetoacetic ester, which, in
the form of its sodium derivative, condenses with [beta]-iodopropionic
ester to form acetoglutaric ester, CH3·CO·CH(CO2C2H5)·CH2·CH2·CO2C2H5,
from which glutaric acid is obtained by hydrolysis. It is also obtained
when sebacic, stearic and oleic acids are oxidized with nitric acid. It
crystallizes in large monoclinic prisms which melt at 97.5° C., and
distils between 302° and 304° C., practically without decomposition. It
is soluble in water, alcohol and ether. By long heating the acid is
converted into its anhydride, which, however, is obtained more readily
by heating the silver salt of the acid with acetyl chloride. By
distillation of the ammonium salt glutarimide, CH2(CH2·CO)2NH, is
obtained; it forms small crystals melting at 151° to 152° C. and
sublimes unchanged.

  On the alkyl glutaric acids, see C. Hell (_Ber._, 1889, 22, pp. 48,
  60), C. A. Bischoff (_Ber._, 1891, 24, p. 1041), K. Auwers (_Ber._,
  1891, 24, p. 1923) and W. H. Perkin, junr. (_Journ. Chem. Soc._, 1896,
  69, p. 268).



GLUTEN, a tough, tenacious, ductile, somewhat elastic, nearly tasteless
and greyish-yellow albuminous substance, obtained from the flour of
wheat by washing in water, in which it is insoluble. Gluten, when dried,
loses about two-thirds of its weight, becoming brittle and
semi-transparent; when strongly heated it crackles and swells, and burns
like feather or horn. It is soluble in strong acetic acid, and in
caustic alkalis, which latter may be used for the purification of starch
in which it is present. When treated with .1 to .2% solution of
hydrochloric acid it swells up, and at length forms a liquid resembling
a solution of albumin, and laevorotatory as regards polarized light.
Moistened with water and exposed to the air gluten putrefies, and
evolves carbon dioxide, hydrogen and sulphuretted hydrogen, and in the
end is almost entirely resolved into a liquid, which contains leucin and
ammonium phosphate and acetate. On analysis gluten shows a composition
of about 53% of carbon, 7% of hydrogen, and nitrogen 15 to 18%, besides
oxygen, and about 1% of sulphur, and a small quantity of inorganic
matter. According to H. Ritthausen it is a mixture of _glutencasein_
(Liebig's vegetable fibrin), _glutenfibrin_, _gliadin_ (Pflanzenleim),
_glutin_ or vegetable gelatin, and _mucedin_, which are all closely
allied to one another in chemical composition. It is the gliadin which
confers upon gluten its capacity of cohering to form elastic masses, and
of separating readily from associated starch. In the so-called gluten of
the flour of barley, rye and maize, this body is absent (H. Ritthausen
and U. Kreusler). The gluten yielded by wheat which has undergone
fermentation or has begun to sprout is devoid of toughness and
elasticity. These qualities can be restored to it by kneading with salt,
lime-water or alum. Gluten is employed in the manufacture of gluten
bread and biscuits for the diabetic, and of chocolate, and also in the
adulteration of tea and coffee. For making bread it must be used fresh,
as otherwise it decomposes, and does not knead well. Granulated gluten
is a kind of vermicelli, made in some starch manufactories by mixing
fresh gluten with twice its weight of flour, and granulating by means of
a cylinder and contained stirrer, each armed with spikes, and revolving
in opposite directions. The process is completed by the drying and
sifting of the granules.



GLUTTON, or WOLVERINE (_Gulo luscus_), a carnivorous mammal belonging to
the _Mustelidae_, or weasel family, and the sole representative of its
genus. The legs are short and stout, with large feet, the toes of which
terminate in strong, sharp claws considerably curved. The mode of
progression is semi-plantigrade. In size and form the glutton is
something like the badger, measuring from 2 to 3 ft. in length,
exclusive of the thick bushy tail, which is about 8 in. long. The head
is broad, the eyes are small and the back arched. The fur consists of an
undergrowth of short woolly hair, mixed with long straight hairs, to the
abundance and length of which on the sides and tail the creature owes
its shaggy appearance. The colour of the fur is blackish-brown, with a
broad band of chestnut stretching from the shoulders along each side of
the body, the two meeting near the root of the tail. Unlike the majority
of arctic animals, the fur of the glutton in winter grows darker. Like
other _Mustelidae_, the glutton is provided with anal glands, which
secrete a yellowish fluid possessing a highly foetid odour. It is a
boreal animal, inhabiting the northern regions of both hemispheres, but
most abundant in the circumpolar area of the New World, where it occurs
throughout the British provinces and Alaska, being specially numerous in
the neighbourhood of the Mackenzie river, and extending southwards as
far as New York and the Rocky Mountains. The wolverine is a voracious
animal, and also one with an inquisitive disposition. It feeds on
grouse, the smaller rodents and foxes, which it digs from their burrows
during the breeding-season; but want of activity renders it dependent
for most of its food on dead carcases, which it frequently obtains by
methods that have made it peculiarly obnoxious to the hunter and
trapper. Should the hunter, after succeeding in killing his game, leave
the carcase insufficiently protected for more than a single night, the
glutton, whose fear of snares is sufficient to prevent him from touching
it during the first night, will, if possible, get at and devour what he
can on the second, hiding the remainder beneath the snow. It annoys the
trapper by following up his lines of marten-traps, often extending to a
length of 40 to 50 m., each of which it enters from behind, extracting
the bait, pulling up the traps, and devouring or concealing the
entrapped martens. So persistent is the glutton in this practice, when
once it discovers a line of traps, that its extermination along the
trapper's route is a necessary preliminary to the success of his
business. This is no easy task, as the glutton is too cunning to be
caught by the methods successfully employed on the other members of the
weasel family. The trap generally used for this purpose is made to
resemble a cache, or hidden store of food, such as the Indians and
hunters are in the habit of forming, the discovery and rifling of which
is one of the glutton's most congenial occupations--the bait, instead of
being paraded as in most traps, being carefully concealed, to lull the
knowing beast's suspicions. One of the most prominent characteristics of
the wolverine is its propensity to steal and hide things, not merely
food which it might afterwards need, or traps which it regards as
enemies, but articles which cannot possibly have any interest except
that of curiosity. The following instance of this is quoted by Dr E.
Coues in his work on the _Fur-bearing Animals of North America_: "A
hunter and his family having left their lodge unguarded during their
absence, on their return found it completely gutted--the walls were
there, but nothing else. Blankets, guns, kettles, axes, cans, knives and
all the other paraphernalia of a trapper's tent had vanished, and the
tracks left by the beast showed who had been the thief. The family set
to work, and, by carefully following up all his paths, recovered, with
some trifling exceptions, the whole of the lost property." The cunning
displayed by the glutton in unravelling the snares set for it forms at
once the admiration and despair of every trapper, while its great
strength and ferocity render it a dangerous antagonist to animals larger
than itself, occasionally including man. The rutting-season occurs in
March, and the female, secure in her burrow, produces her young--four or
five at a birth--in June or July. In defence of these, she is
exceedingly bold, and the Indians, according to Dr Coues, "have been
heard to say that they would sooner encounter a she-bear with her cubs
than a carcajou (the Indian name of the glutton) under the same
circumstances." On catching sight of its enemy, man, the wolverine
before finally determining on flight, is said to sit on its haunches,
and, in order to get a clearer view of the danger, shade its eyes with
one of its fore-paws. When pressed for food it becomes fearless, and has
been known to come on board an ice-bound vessel, and in presence of the
crew seize a can of meat. The glutton is valuable for its fur, which,
when several skins are sewn together, forms elegant hearth and carriage
rugs.     (R. L.*)

[Illustration: The Glutton, or Wolverine (_Gulo luscus_).]



GLYCAS, MICHAEL, Byzantine historian (according to some a Sicilian,
according to others a Corfiote), flourished during the 12th century A.D.
His chief work is his _Chronicle_ of events from the creation of the
world to the death of Alexius I. Comnenus(1118). It is extremely brief
and written in a popular style, but too much space is devoted to
theological and scientific matters. Glycas was also the author of a
theological treatise and a number of letters on theological questions. A
poem of some 600 "political" verses, written during his imprisonment on
a charge of slandering a neighbour and containing an appeal to the
emperor Manuel, is still extant. The exact nature of his offence is not
known, but the answer to his appeal was that he was deprived of his
eyesight by the emperor's orders.

  Editions: "Chronicle and Letters," in J. P. Migne, _Patrologia
  Graeca_, clviii.; poem in E. Legrand, _Bibliothèque grecque vulgaire_,
  i.; see also F. Hirsch, _Byzantinische Studien_ (1876); C. Krumbacher
  in _Sitzungsberichte bayer. Acad._, 1894; C. F. Bähr in Ersch and
  Gruber's _Allgemeine Encyklopädie_.



GLYCERIN, GLYCERINE or GLYCEROL (in pharmacy _Glycerinum_) (from Gr.
[Greek: glykys], sweet), a trihydric alcohol, trihydroxypropane,
C3H5(OH)3. It is obtainable from most natural fatty bodies by the action
of alkalis and similar reagents, whereby the fats are decomposed, water
being taken up, and glycerin being formed together with the alkaline
salt of some particular acid (varying with the nature of the fat). Owing
to their possession of this common property, these natural fatty bodies
and various artificial derivatives of glycerin, which behave in the same
way when treated with alkalis, are known as glycerides. In the ordinary
process of soap-making the glycerin remains dissolved in the aqueous
liquors from which the soap is separated.

Glycerin was discovered in 1779 by K. W. Scheele and named _Ölsüss_
(_principe doux des huiles_--sweet principle of oils), and more fully
investigated subsequently by M. E. Chevreul, who named it glycerin, M.
P. E. Berthelot, and many other chemists, from whose researches it
results that glycerin is a trihydric alcohol indicated by the formula
C3H5(OH)3, the natural fats and oils, and the glycerides generally,
being substances of the nature of compound esters formed from glycerin
by the replacement of the hydrogen of the OH groups by the radicals of
certain acids, called for that reason "fatty acids." The relationship of
these glycerides to glycerin is shown by the series of bodies formed
from glycerin by replacement of hydrogen by "stearyl" (C18H35O), the
radical of stearic acid (C18H35O·OH):--

  Glycerin.   Monostearin.      Distearin.      Tristearin.

  CH2·OH     CH2·O(C18H35O)   CH2·O(C18H35O)   CH2·O(C18H35O)
  |          |                |                |
  CH·OH      CH·OH            CH·O(C18H35O)    CH·O(C18H35O)
  |          |                |                |
  CH2·OH     CH2·OH           CH2·OH           CH2·O(C18H35O)

The process of saponification may be viewed as the gradual progressive
transformation of tristearin, or some analogously constituted substance,
into distearin, monostearin and glycerin, or as the similar
transformation of a substance analogous to distearin or to monostearin
into glycerin. If the reaction is brought about in presence of an
alkali, the acid set free becomes transformed into the corresponding
alkaline salt; but if the decomposition is effected without the presence
of an alkali (i.e. by means of water alone or by an acid), the acid set
free and the glycerin are obtained together in a form which usually
admits of their ready separation. It is noticeable that with few
exceptions the fatty and oily matters occurring in nature are substances
analogous to tristearin, i.e. they are trebly replaced glycerins.
Amongst these glycerides may be mentioned the following:

  _Tristearin_--C3H5(O·C18H35O)3. The chief constituent of hard animal
  fats, such as beef and mutton tallow, &c.; also contained in many
  vegetable fats in smaller quantity.

  _Triolein_--C3H5(O·C18H33O)3. Largely present in olive oil and other
  saponifiable vegetable oils and soft fats; also present in animal
  fats, especially hog's lard.

  _Tripalmitin_--C3H5(O·C16H31O)3. The chief constituent of palm oil;
  also contained in greater or less quantities in human fat, olive oil,
  and other animal and vegetable fats.

  _Triricinolein_--C3H5(O·C18H33O2)3. The main constituent of castor
  oil.

Other analogous glycerides are apparently contained in greater or
smaller quantity in certain other oils. Thus in cows' butter,
_tributyrin_, C3H5(O·C4H7O)3, and the analogous glycerides of other
readily volatile acids closely resembling butyric acid, are present in
small quantity; the production of these acids on saponification and
distillation with dilute sulphuric acid is utilized as a test of a
purity of butter as sold. _Triacetin_, C3H5(O·C2H3O)3, is apparently
contained in cod-liver oil. Some other glycerides isolated from natural
sources are analogous in composition to tristearin, but with this
difference, that the three radicals which replace hydrogen in glycerin
are not all identical; thus kephalin, myelin and lecithin are glycerides
in which two hydrogens are replaced by fatty acid radicals, and the
third by a complex phosphoric acid derivative.

Glycerin is also a product of certain kinds of fermentation, especially
of the alcoholic fermentation of sugar; consequently it is a constituent
of many wines and other fermented liquors. According to Louis Pasteur,
about 1/30th of the sugar transformed under ordinary conditions in the
fermentation of grape juice and similar saccharine liquids into alcohol
and other products become converted into glycerin. In certain natural
fatty substances, e.g. palm oil, it exists in the free state, so that it
can be separated by washing with boiling water, which dissolves the
glycerin but not the fatty glycerides.

_Properties._--Glycerin is a viscid, colourless liquid of sp. gr. 1.265
at 15° C., possessing a somewhat sweet taste; below 0° C. it solidifies
to a white crystalline mass, which melts at 17° C. When heated alone it
partially volatilizes, but the greater part decomposes; under a pressure
of 12 mm. of mercury it boils at 170° C. In an atmosphere of steam it
distils without decomposition under ordinary barometric pressure. It
dissolves readily in water and alcohol in all proportions, but is
insoluble in ether. It possesses considerable solvent powers, whence it
is employed for numerous purposes in pharmacy and the arts. Its viscid
character, and its non-liability to dry and harden by exposure to air,
also fit it for various other uses, such as lubrication, &c., whilst its
peculiar physical characters, enabling it to blend with either aqueous
or oily matters under certain circumstances, render it a useful
ingredient in a large number of products of varied kinds.

  _Manufacture._--The simplest modes of preparing pure glycerin are
  based on the saponification of fats, either by alkalis or by
  superheated steam, and on the circumstance that, although glycerin
  cannot be distilled by itself under the ordinary pressure without
  decomposition, it can be readily volatilized in a current of
  superheated steam. Commercial glycerin is mostly obtained from the
  "spent lyes" of the soap-maker. In the van Ruymbeke process the spent
  lyes are allowed to settle, and then treated with "persulphate of
  iron," the exact composition of which is a trade secret, but it is
  possibly a mixture of ferric and ferrous sulphates. Ferric hydrate,
  iron soaps and all insoluble impurities are precipitated. The liquid
  is filter-pressed, and any excess of iron in the filtrate is
  precipitated by the careful addition of caustic soda and then removed.
  The liquid is then evaporated under a vacuum of 27 to 28 in. of
  mercury, and, when of specific gravity 1.295 (corresponding to about
  80% of glycerin), it is distilled under a vacuum of 28 to 29 in. In
  the Glatz process the lye is treated with a little milk of lime, the
  liquid then neutralized with hydrochloric acid, and the liquid
  filtered. Evaporation and subsequent distillation under a high vacuum
  gives crude glycerin. The impure glycerin obtained as above is
  purified by redistillation in steam and evaporation in vacuum pans.

  _Technical Uses._--Besides its use as a starting-point in the
  production of "nitroglycerin" (q.v.) and other chemical products,
  glycerin is largely employed for a number of purposes in the arts, its
  application thereto being due to its peculiar physical properties.
  Thus its non-liability to freeze (when not absolutely anhydrous, which
  it practically never is when freely exposed to the air) and its
  non-volatility at ordinary temperatures, combined with its power of
  always keeping fluid and not drying up and hardening, render it
  valuable as a lubricating agent for clockwork, watches, &c., as a
  substitute for water in wet gas-meters, and as an ingredient in
  cataplasms, plasters, modelling clay, pasty colouring matters, dyeing
  materials, moist colours for artists, and numerous other analogous
  substances which are required to be kept in a permanently soft
  condition. Glycerin acts as a preservative against decomposition,
  owing to its antiseptic qualities, which also led to its being
  employed to preserve untanned leather (especially during transit when
  exported, the hides being, moreover, kept soft and supple); to make
  solutions of gelatin, albumen, gum, paste, cements, &c. which will
  keep without decomposition; to preserve meat and other edibles; to
  mount anatomical preparations; to preserve vaccine lymph unchanged;
  and for many similar purposes. Its solvent power is also utilized in
  the production of various colouring fluids, where the colouring matter
  would not dissolve in water alone; thus aniline violet, the tinctorial
  constituents of madder, and various allied colouring matters dissolve
  in glycerin, forming liquids which remain coloured even when diluted
  with water, the colouring matters being either retained in suspension
  or dissolved by the glycerin present in the diluted fluid. Glycerin is
  also employed in the manufacture of formic acid (q.v.). Certain kinds
  of copying inks are greatly improved by the substitution of glycerin,
  in part or entirely, for the sugar or honey usually added.

  In its medicinal use glycerin is an excellent solvent for such
  substances as iodine, alkaloids, alkalis, &c., and is therefore used
  for applying them to diseased surfaces, especially as it aids in their
  absorption. It does not evaporate or turn rancid, whilst its marked
  hygroscopic action ensures the moistness and softness of any surface
  that it covers. Given by the mouth glycerin produces purging if large
  doses are administered, and has the same action if only a small
  quantity be introduced into the rectum. For this purpose it is very
  largely used either as a suppository or in the fluid form (one or two
  drachms). The result is prompt, safe and painless. Glycerin is useless
  as a food and is not in any sense a substitute for cod-liver oil. Very
  large doses in animals cause lethargy, collapse and death.



GLYCOLS, in organic chemistry, the generic name given to the aliphatic
dihydric alcohols. These compounds may be obtained by heating the
alkylen iodides or bromides (e.g. ethylene dibromide) with silver
acetate or with potassium acetate and alcohol, the esters so produced
being then hydrolysed with caustic alkalis, thus:

  C2H4Br2 + 2 C2H3O2·Ag --> C2H4(O·C2H3O)2 --> C2H4(OH)2 + 2 K·C2H3O2;

by the direct union of water with the alkylen oxides; by oxidation of
the olefines with cold potassium permanganate solution (G. Wagner,
_Ber._, 1888, 21, p. 1231), or by the action of nitrous acid on the
diamines.

Glycols may be classified as _primary_, containing two -CH2OH groups;
_primary-secondary_, containing the grouping -CH(OH)·CH2OH; _secondary_,
with the grouping -CH(OH)·CH(OH)-; and _tertiary_, with the grouping
>C(OH)·(OH)C<. The secondary glycols are prepared by the action of
alcoholic potash on aldehydes, thus:

  3(CH3)2CH·CHO + KHO = (CH3)2CHCO2K + (CH3)2CH·CH(OH)·CH(OH)·CH(CH3)2.

The tertiary glycols are known as _pinacones_ and are formed on the
reduction of ketones with sodium amalgam.

The glycols are somewhat thick liquids, of high boiling point, the
pinacones only being crystalline solids; they are readily soluble in
water and alcohol, but are insoluble in ether. By the action of
dehydrating agents they are converted into aldehydes or ketones. In
their general behaviour towards oxidizing agents the primary glycols
behave very similarly to the ordinary primary alcohols (q.v.), but the
secondary and tertiary glycols break down, yielding compounds with a
smaller carbon content.

  Ethylene glycol, C2H4(OH)2, was first prepared by A. Wurtz (_Ann.
  chim._, 1859 [3], 55, p. 400) from ethylene dibromide and silver
  acetate. It is a somewhat pleasant smelling liquid, boiling at 197° to
  197.5° C. and having a specific gravity of 1.125 (0°). On fusion with
  solid potash at 250° C. it completely decomposes, giving potassium
  oxalate and hydrogen,

    C2H6O2 + 2 KHO = K2C2O4 + 4H2.

  Two propylene glycols, C3H8O2, are known, viz. [alpha]-propylene
  glycol, CH3·CH(OH)·CH2OH, a liquid boiling at 188° to 189°, and
  obtained by heating glycerin with sodium hydroxide and distilling the
  mixture; and trimethylene glycol, CH2OH·CH2·CH2OH, a liquid boiling at
  214° C. and prepared by boiling trimethylene bromide with potash
  solution (A. Zander, _Ann._, 1882, 214, p. 178).



GLYCONIC (from Glycon, a Greek lyric poet), a form of verse, best known
in Catullus and Horace (usually in the catalectic variety _ [u_] _ u u _
u [u_]), with three feet--a spondee and two dactyls; or four--three
trochees and a dactyl, or a dactyl and three chorees. Sir R. Jebb
pointed out that the last form might be varied by placing the dactyl
second or third, and according to its place this verse was called a
First, Second or Third Glyconic.

  Cf. J. W. White, in _Classical Quarterly_ (Oct. 1909).



GLYPH (from Gr. [Greek: glyphein], to carve), in architecture, a
vertical channel in a frieze (see TRIGLYPH).



GLYPTODON (Greek for "fluted-tooth"), a name applied by Sir R. Owen to
the typical representative of a group of gigantic, armadillo-like, South
American, extinct Edentata, characterized by having the carapace
composed of a solid piece (formed by the union of a multitude of bony
dermal plates) without any movable rings. The facial portion of the
skull is very short; a long process of the maxillary bone descends from
the anterior part of the zygomatic arch; and the ascending ramus of the
mandible is remarkably high. The teeth, 8/8 in the later species, are
much alike, having two deep grooves or flutings on each side, so as to
divide them into three distinct lobes (fig.). They are very tall and
grew throughout life. The vertebral column is almost entirely welded
into a solid tube, but there is a complex joint at the base of the neck,
to allow the head being retracted within the carapace. The limbs are
very strong, and the feet short and broad, resembling externally those
of an elephant or tortoise.

[Illustration: Two views of the tooth of a _Glyptodon_; the upper figure
showing one side, and the lower the crown.]

  Glyptodonts constitute a family, the _Glyptodontidae_, whose position
  is next to the armadillos (_Dasypodidae_); the group being represented
  by a number of generic types. The Pleistocene forms, whose remains
  occur abundantly in the silt of the Buenos Aires pampas, are by far
  the largest, the skull and tail-sheath in some instances having a
  length of from 12 to 16 ft. In _Glyptodon_ (with which
  _Schistopleurum_ is identical) the tail-sheath consists of a series of
  coronet-like rings, gradually diminishing in diameter from base to
  tip. _Daedicurus_, in which the tail-sheath is in the form of a huge
  solid club, is the largest member of the family, in _Panochthus_ and
  _Sclerocalyptus_ (_Hoplophorus_) the tail-sheath consists basally of a
  small number of smooth rings, and terminally of a tube. In some
  specimens of these genera the horny shields covering the bony scutes
  of the carapace have been preserved, and since the foramina, which
  often pierce the latter, stop short of the former, it is evident that
  these were for the passage of blood-vessels and not receptacles for
  bristles. In the early Pleistocene epoch, when South America became
  connected with North America, some of the glyptodonts found their way
  into the latter continent. Among these northern forms some from Texas
  and Florida have been referred to _Glyptodon_. One large species from
  Texas has, however, been made the type of a separate genus, under the
  name of _Glyptotherium texanum_. In some respects it shows affinity
  with _Panochthus_, although in the simple structure of the tail-sheath
  it recalls the undermentioned _Propalaeohoplophorus_. All the above
  are of Pleistocene and perhaps Pliocene age, but in the Santa Cruz
  beds of Patagonia there occur the two curious genera
  _Propalaeohoplophorus_ and _Peltephilus_, the former of which is a
  primitive and generalized type of glyptodont, while the latter seems
  to come nearer to the armadillos. Both are represented by species of
  comparatively small size. In _Propalaeohoplophorus_ the scutes of the
  carapace, which are less deeply sculptured than in the larger
  glyptodonts, are arranged in distinct transverse rows, in three of
  which they partially overlap near the border of the carapace after the
  fashion of the armadillos. The skull and limb-bones exhibit several
  features met with in the latter, and the vertebrae of the back are not
  welded into a continuous tube. There are eight pairs of teeth, the
  first four of which are simpler than the rest, and may perhaps
  therefore be regarded as premolars. More remarkable is _Peltephilus_,
  on account of the fact that the teeth, which are simple, with a
  chevron-shaped section, form a continuous series from the front of the
  jaw backwards, the number of pairs being seven. Accordingly, a
  modification of the character, even of the true Edentata, as given in
  the earlier article, is rendered necessary. The head bears a pair of
  horn-like scutes, and the scutes of the carapace and tail, which are
  loosely opposed or slightly overlapping, form a number of transverse
  rows.

  LITERATURE.--R. Lydekker, "The Extinct Edentates of Argentina," _An.
  Mus. La Plata_--_Pal. Argent._ vol. iii. p. 2 (1904); H. F. Osborn,
  "'Glyptotherium texanum,' a Glyptodont from the Lower Pleistocene of
  Texas," _Bull. Amer. Mus._, vol. xvii. p. 491 (1903); W. B. Scott,
  "Mammalia of the Santa Cruz Beds--Edentata," _Rep. Princeton Exped. to
  Patagonia_, vol. v. (1903-1904).     (R. L.*)



GLYPTOTHEK (from Gr. [Greek: glyptos], carved, and [Greek: thêkê], a
place of storage), an architectural term given to a gallery for the
exhibition of sculpture, and first employed at Munich, where it was
built to exhibit the sculptures from the temple of Aegina.



GMELIN, the name of several distinguished German scientists, of a
Tübingen family. Johann Georg Gmelin (1674-1728), an apothecary in
Tübingen, and an accomplished chemist for the times in which he lived,
had three sons. The first, Johann Conrad (1702-1759), was an apothecary
and surgeon in Tübingen. The second, Johann Georg (1709-1755), was
appointed professor of chemistry and natural history in St Petersburg in
1731, and from 1733 to 1743 was engaged in travelling through Siberia.
The fruits of his journey were _Flora Sibirica_ (4 vols., 1749-1750) and
_Reisen durch Sibirien_ (4 vols., 1753). He ended his days as professor
of medicine at Tübingen, a post to which he was appointed in 1749. The
third son, Philipp Friedrich (1721-1768), was extraordinary professor of
medicine at Tübingen in 1750, and in 1755 became ordinary professor of
botany and chemistry. In the second generation Samuel Gottlieb
(1743-1774), the son of Johann Conrad, was appointed professor of
natural history at St Petersburg in 1766, and in the following year
started on a journey through south Russia and the regions round the
Caspian Sea. On his way back he was captured by Usmey Khan, of the
Kaitak tribe, and died from the ill-treatment he suffered, on the 27th
of July 1774. One of his nephews, Ferdinand Gottlob von Gmelin
(1782-1848), became professor of medicine and natural history at
Tübingen in 1805, and another, Christian Gottlob (1792-1860), who in
1828 was one of the first to devise a process for the artificial
manufacture of ultramarine, was professor of chemistry and pharmacy in
the same university. In the youngest branch of the family, Philipp
Friedrich had a son, Johann Friedrich (1748-1804), who was appointed
professor of medicine in Tübingen in 1772, and in 1775 accepted the
chair of medicine and chemistry at Göttingen. In 1788 he published the
13th edition of Linnaeus' _Systema Naturae_ with many additions and
alterations. His son Leopold (1788-1853), was the best-known member of
the family. He studied medicine and chemistry at Göttingen, Tübingen and
Vienna, and in 1813 began to lecture on chemistry at Heidelberg, where
in 1814 he was appointed extraordinary, and in 1817 ordinary, professor
of chemistry and medicine. He was the discoverer of potassium
ferricyanide (1822), and wrote the _Handbuch der Chemie_ (1st ed.
1817-1819, 4th ed. 1843-1855), an important work in its day, which was
translated into English for the Cavendish Society by H. Watts
(1815-1884) in 1848-1859. He resigned his chair in 1852, and died on the
13th of April in the following year at Heidelberg.



GMÜND, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Württemberg,[1] in a
charming and fruitful valley on the Rems, here spanned by a beautiful
bridge, 31 m. E.N.E. of Stuttgart on the railway to Nördlingen. Pop.
(1905) 18,699. It is surrounded by old walls, flanked with towers, and
has a considerable number of ancient buildings, among which are the fine
church of the Holy Cross; St John's church, which dates from the time of
the Hohenstaufen; and, situated on a height near the town, partly hewn
out of the rock, the pilgrimage church of the Saviour. Among the modern
buildings are the gymnasium, the drawing and trade schools, the Roman
Catholic seminary, the town hall and the industrial art museum. Clocks
and watches are manufactured here and also other articles of silver,
while the town has a considerable trade in corn, hops and fruit. The
scenery in the neighbourhood is very beautiful, near the town being the
district called Little Switzerland.

Gmünd was surrounded by walls in the beginning of the 12th century by
Duke Frederick of Swabia. It received town rights from Frederick
Barbarossa, and after the extinction of the Hohenstaufen became a free
imperial town. It retained its independence till 1803, when it came into
the possession of Württemberg. Gmünd is the birth-place of the painter
Hans Baldung (1475-1545) and of the architect Heinrich Arler or Parler
(fl. 1350). In the middle ages the population was about 10,000.

  See Kaiser, _Gmünd und seine Umgebung_ (1888).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] There are two places of this name in Austria. (1) Gmünd, a town
    in Lower Austria, containing a palace belonging to the imperial
    family, (2) a town in Carinthia, with a beautiful Gothic church and
    some interesting ruins.



GMUNDEN, a town and summer resort of Austria, in Upper Austria, 40 m.
S.S.W. of Linz by rail. Pop. (1900) 7126. It is situated at the efflux
of the Traun river from the lake of the same name and is surrounded by
high mountains, as the Traunstein (5446 ft.), the Erlakogel (5150 ft.),
the Wilde Kogel (6860 ft.) and the Höllen Gebirge. It is much frequented
as a health and summer resort, and has a variety of lake, brine,
vegetable and pine-cone baths, a hydropathic establishment, inhalation
chambers, whey cure, &c. There are a great number of excursions and
points of interest round Gmunden, specially worth mentioning being the
Traun Fall, 10 m. N. of Gmunden. It is also an important centre of the
salt industry in Salzkammergut. Gmunden was a town encircled with walls
already in 1186. On the 14th of November 1626, Pappenheim completely
defeated here the army of the rebellious peasants.

  See F. Krackowizer, _Geschichte der Stadt Gmunden in Oberösterreich_
  (Gmunden, 1898-1901, 3 vols.).



GNAT (O. Eng. _gnæt_), the common English name for the smaller dipterous
flies (see DIPTERA) of the family _Culicidae_, which are now included
among "mosquitoes" (see MOSQUITO). The distinctive term has no
zoological significance, but in England the "mosquito" has commonly been
distinguished from the "gnat" as a variety of larger size and more
poisonous bite.



GNATHOPODA, a term in zoological classification, suggested as an
alternative name for the group Arthropoda (q.v.). The word, which means
"jaw-footed," refers to the fact that in the members of the group, some
of the lateral appendages or "feet" in the region of the mouth act as
jaws.



GNATIA (also EGNATIA or IGNATIA, mod. _Anazzo_, near Fasano), an ancient
city of the Peucetii, and their frontier town towards the Sallentini
(i.e. of Apulia towards Calabria), in Roman times of importance for its
trade, lying as it did on the sea, at the point where the Via Traiana
joined the coast road,[1] 38 m. S.E. of Barium. The ancient city walls
have been almost entirely destroyed in recent times to provide building
material,[2] and the place is famous for the discoveries made in its
tombs. A considerable collection of antiquities from Gnatia is preserved
at Fasano, though the best are in the museum at Bari. Gnatia was the
scene of the prodigy at which Horace mocks (_Sat._ i. 5. 97). Near
Fasano are two small subterranean chapels with paintings of the 11th
century A.D. (E. Bertaux, _L'Art dans l'Italie méridionale_, Paris,
1904, 135).     (T. As.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] There is no authority for calling the latter Via Egnatia.

  [2] H. Swinburne, _Travels in the Two Sicilies_ (London, 1790), ii.
    15, mentions the walls as being 8 yds. thick and 16 courses high.



GNEISENAU, AUGUST WILHELM ANTON, COUNT NEITHARDT VON (1760-1831),
Prussian field marshal, was the son of a Saxon officer named Neithardt.
Born in 1760 at Schildau, near Torgau, he was brought up in great
poverty there, and subsequently at Würzburg and Erfurt. In 1777 he
entered Erfurt university; but two years later joined an Austrian
regiment there quartered. In 1782 taking the additional name of
Gneisenau from some lost estates of his family in Austria, he entered as
an officer the service of the margrave of Baireuth-Anspach. With one of
that prince's mercenary regiments in English pay he saw active service
and gained valuable experience in the War of American Independence, and
returning in 1786, applied for Prussian service. Frederick the Great
gave him a commission as first lieutenant in the infantry. Made
_Stabskapitän_ in 1790, Gneisenau served in Poland, 1793-1794, and,
subsequently to this, ten years of quiet garrison life in Jauer enabled
him to undertake a wide range of military studies. In 1796 he married
Caroline von Kottwitz. In 1806 he was one of Hohenlohe's staff-officers,
fought at Jena, and a little later commanded a provisional infantry
brigade which fought under Lestocq in the Lithuanian campaign. Early in
1807 Major von Gneisenau was sent as commandant to Colberg, which, small
and ill-protected as it was, succeeded in holding out until the peace of
Tilsit. The commandant received the much-prized order "pour le mérite,"
and was promoted lieutenant-colonel.

A wider sphere of work was now opened to him. As chief of engineers, and
a member of the reorganizing committee, he played a great part, along
with Scharnhorst, in the work of reconstructing the Prussian army. A
colonel in 1809, he soon drew upon himself, by his energy, the suspicion
of the dominant French, and Stein's fall was soon followed by Gneisenau's
retirement. But, after visiting Russia, Sweden and England, he returned
to Berlin and resumed his place as a leader of the patriotic party. In
open military work and secret machinations his energy and patriotism were
equally tested, and with the outbreak of the War of Liberation,
Major-General Gneisenau became Blücher's quartermaster-general. Thus
began the connexion between these two soldiers which has furnished
military history with its best example of the harmonious co-operation
between the general and his chief-of-staff. With Blücher, Gneisenau
served to the capture of Paris; his military character was the exact
complement of Blücher's, and under this happy guidance the young troops
of Prussia, often defeated but never discouraged, fought their way into
the heart of France. The plan of the march on Paris, which led directly
to the fall of Napoleon, was specifically the work of the chief-of-staff.
In reward for his distinguished service he was in 1814, along with York,
Kleist and Bülow, made count at the same time as Blücher became prince of
Wahlstatt; an annuity was also assigned to him.

In 1815, once more chief of Blücher's staff, Gneisenau played a very
conspicuous part in the Waterloo campaign (q.v.). Senior generals, such
as York and Kleist, had been set aside in order that the chief-of-staff
should have the command in case of need, and when on the field of Ligny
the old field marshal was disabled, Gneisenau at once assumed the
control of the Prussian army. Even in the light of the evidence that
many years' research has collected, the precise part taken by Gneisenau
in the events which followed is much debated. It is known that Gneisenau
had the deepest distrust of the British commander, who, he considered,
had left the Prussians in the lurch at Ligny, and that to the hour of
victory he had grave doubts as to whether he ought not to fall back on
the Rhine. Blücher, however, soon recovered from his injuries, and, with
Grolmann, the quartermaster-general, he managed to convince Gneisenau.
The relations of the two may be illustrated by Brigadier-General
Hardinge's report. Blücher burst into Hardinge's room at Wavre, saying
"_Gneisenau has given way_, and we are to march at once to your chief."

On the field of Waterloo, however, Gneisenau was quick to realize the
magnitude of the victory, and he carried out the pursuit with a
relentless vigour which has few parallels in history. His reward was
further promotion and the insignia of the "Black Eagle" which had been
taken in Napoleon's coach. In 1816 he was appointed to command the
VIIIth Prussian Corps, but soon retired from the service, both because
of ill-health and for political reasons. For two years he lived in
retirement on his estate, Erdmannsdorf in Silesia, but in 1818 he was
made governor of Berlin in succession to Kalkreuth, and member of the
_Staatsrath_. In 1825 he became general field marshal. In 1831 he was
appointed to the command of the Army of Observation on the Polish
frontier, with Clausewitz as his chief-of-staff. At Posen he was struck
down by cholera and died on the 24th of August 1831, soon followed by
his chief-of staff, who fell a victim to the same disease in November.

As a soldier, Gneisenau was the greatest Prussian general since
Frederick; as a man, his noble character and virtuous life secured him
the affection and reverence, not only of his superiors and subordinates
in the service, but of the whole Prussian nation. A statue by Rauch was
erected in Berlin in 1855, and in memory of the siege of 1807 the
Colberg grenadiers received his name in 1889. One of his sons led a
brigade of the VIIIth Army Corps in the war of 1870.

  See G. H. Pertz, _Das Leben des Feldmarschalls Grafen Neithardt von
  Gneisenau_, vols. 1-3 (Berlin, 1864-1869); vols. 4 and 5, G. Delbrück
  (ib. 1879, 1880), with numerous documents and letters; H. Delbrück,
  _Das Leben des G. F. M. Grafen von Gneisenau_ (2 vols., 2nd ed.,
  Berlin, 1894), based on Pertz's work, but containing much new
  material; Frau von Beguelin, _Denkwürdigkeiten_ (Berlin, 1892);
  Hormayr, _Lebensbilder aus den Befreiungskriegen_ (Jena, 1841); Pick,
  _Aus dem brieflichen Nachlass Gneisenaus_; also the histories of the
  campaigns of 1807 and 1813-15.



GNEISS, a term long used by the miners of the Harz Mountains to
designate the country rock in which the mineral veins occur; it is
believed to be a word of Slavonic origin meaning "rotted" or
"decomposed." It has gradually passed into acceptance as a generic term
signifying a large and varied series of metamorphic rocks, which mostly
consist of quartz and felspar (orthoclase and plagioclase) with
muscovite and biotite, hornblende or augite, iron oxides, zircon and
apatite. There is also a long list of accessory minerals which are
present in gneisses with more or less frequency, but not invariably, as
garnet, sillimanite, cordierite, graphite and graphitoid, epidote,
calcite, orthite, tourmaline and andalusite. The gneisses all possess a
more or less marked parallel structure or foliation, which is the main
feature by which many of them are separated from the granites, a group
of rocks having nearly the same mineralogical composition and closely
allied to many gneisses.

The felspars of the gneisses are predominantly orthoclase (often
perthitic), but microcline is common in the more acid types and
oligoclase occurs also very frequently, especially in certain
sedimentary gneisses, while more basic varieties of plagioclase are
rare. Quartz is very seldom absent and may be blue or milky and
opalescent. Muscovite and biotite may both occur in the same rock; in
other cases only one of them is present. The commonest and most
important types of gneiss are the mica-gneisses. Hornblende is green,
rarely brownish; augite pale green or nearly colourless; enstatite
appears in some granulite-gneisses. Epidote, often with enclosures of
orthite, is by no means rare in gneisses from many different parts of
the world. Sillimanite and andalusite are not infrequent ingredients of
gneiss, and their presence has been accounted for in more than one way.
Cordierite-gneisses are a special group of great interest and possessing
many peculiarities; they are partly, if not entirely, foliated
contact-altered sedimentary rocks. Kyanite and staurolite may also be
mentioned as occasionally occurring.

Many varieties of gneiss have received specific names according to the
minerals they consist of and the structural peculiarities they exhibit.
Muscovite-gneiss, biotite-gneiss and muscovite-biotite-gneiss, more
common perhaps than all the others taken together, are grey or pinkish
rocks according to the colour of their prevalent felspar, not unlike
granites, but on the whole more often fine-grained (though
coarse-grained types occur) and possessing a gneissose or foliated
structure. The latter consists in the arrangement of the flakes of mica
in such a way that their faces are parallel, and hence the rock has the
property of splitting more readily in the direction in which the mica
plates are disposed. This fissility, though usually marked, is not so
great as in the schists or slates, and the split faces are not so smooth
as in these latter rocks. The films of mica may be continuous and are
usually not flat, but irregularly curved. In some gneisses the parallel
flakes of mica are scattered through the quartz and felspar; in others
these minerals form discrete bands, the quartz and felspar being grouped
into lenticles separated by thin films of mica. When large felspars, of
rounded or elliptical form, are visible in the gneiss, it is said to
have augen structure (Ger. _Augen_ = eyes). It should also be remarked
that the essential component minerals of the rocks of this family are
practically always determinable by naked eye inspection or with the aid
of a simple lens. If the rock is too fine grained for this it is
generally relegated to the schists. When the bands of folia are very
fine and tortuous the structure is called helizitic.

In mica-gneisses sillimanite, kyanite, andalusite and garnet may occur.
The significance of these minerals is variously interpreted; they may
indicate that the gneiss consists wholly or in part of sedimentary
material which has been contact-altered, but they have also been
regarded as having been developed by metamorphic action out of biotite
or other primary ingredients of the rock.

Hornblende-gneisses are usually darker in colour and less fissile than
mica-gneisses; they contain more plagioclase, less orthoclase and
microcline, and more sphene and epidote. Many of them are rich in
hornblende and thus form transitions to amphibolites. Pyroxene-gneisses
are less frequent but occur in many parts of both hemispheres. The
"charnockite" series are very closely allied to the pyroxene-gneisses.
Hypersthene and scapolite both may occur in these rocks and they are
sometimes garnetiferous.

  In every country where the lowest and oldest rocks have come to the
  surface and been exposed by the long continued action of denudation in
  stripping away the overlying formations, gneisses are found in great
  abundance and of many different kinds. They are in fact the typical
  rocks of the Archean (Lewisian, Laurentian, &c.) series. In the Alps,
  Harz, Scotland, Norway and Sweden, Canada, South America, Peninsular
  India, Himalayas (to mention only a few localities) they occupy wide
  areas and exhibit a rich diversity of types. From this it has been
  inferred that they are of great geological age, and in fact this can
  be definitely proved in many cases, for the oldest known fossiliferous
  formations may be seen to rest unconformably on these gneisses and are
  made up of their débris. It was for a long time believed that they
  represented the primitive crust of the earth, and while this is no
  longer generally taught there are still geologists who hold that these
  gneisses are necessarily of pre-Cambrian age. Others, while admitting
  the general truth of this hypothesis, consider that there are
  localities in which typical gneisses can be shown to penetrate into
  rocks which may be as recent as the Tertiary period, or to pass into
  these rocks so gradually and in such a way as to make it certain that
  the gneisses are merely altered states of comparatively recent
  sedimentary or igneous rocks. Much controversy has arisen on these
  points; but this is certain, that gneisses are far the most common
  among Archean rocks, and where their age is not known the presumption
  is strong that they are at least pre-Cambrian.

  Many gneisses are undoubtedly sedimentary rocks that have been brought
  to their present state by such agents of metamorphism as heat,
  movement, crushing and recrystallization. This may be demonstrated
  partly by their mode of occurrence: they accompany limestones,
  graphitic schists, quartzites and other rocks of sedimentary type;
  some of them where least altered may even show remains of bedding or
  of original pebbly character (conglomerate gneisses). More conclusive,
  however, is the chemical composition of these rocks, which often is
  such as no igneous masses possess, but resembles that of many impure
  argillaceous sediments. These sedimentary gneisses (or paragneisses,
  as they are often called) are often rich in biotite and garnet and may
  contain kyanite and sillimanite, or less frequently calcite. Some of
  them, however, are rich in felspar and quartz, with muscovite and
  biotite; others may even contain hornblende and augite, and all these
  may bear so close a resemblance to gneisses of igneous origin that by
  no single character, chemical or mineralogical, can their original
  nature be definitely established. In these cases, however, a careful
  study of the relations of the rock in the field and of the different
  types which occur together will generally lead to some positive
  conclusion.

  Other gneisses are igneous (orthogneisses). These have very much the
  same composition as acid igneous rocks such as granite, aplite,
  hornblende granite, or intermediate rocks such as syenite and quartz
  diorite. Many of these orthogneisses are not equally well foliated
  throughout, but are massive or granitoid in places. They are sometimes
  subdivided into granite gneiss, diorite gneiss, syenite gneiss and so
  on. The sedimentary schists into which these rocks have been intruded
  may show contact alteration by the development of such minerals as
  cordierite, andalusite and sillimanite. In many of these orthogneisses
  the foliation is primitive, being an original character of the rock
  which was produced either by fluxion movements in a highly viscous,
  semi-solid mass injected at great pressure into the surrounding
  strata, or by folding stresses acting immediately after consolidation.
  That the foliation in other orthogneisses is subsequent or
  superinduced, having been occasioned by pressure and deformation of
  the solid mass long after it had consolidated and cooled, admits of no
  doubt, but it is very difficult to establish criteria by which these
  types may be differentiated. Those gneisses in which the minerals have
  been crushed and broken by fluxion or injection movements have been
  called protoclastic, while those which have attained their gneissose
  state by crushing long after consolidation are distinguished as
  cataclastic. There are also many examples of gneisses of mixed or
  synthetic origin. They may be metamorphosed sediments (granulites and
  schists) into which tongues and thin veins of granitic character have
  been intruded, following the more or less parallel foliation planes
  already present in the country rock. These veinlets produce that
  alternation in mineral composition and banded structure which are
  essential in gneisses. This intermixture of igneous and sedimentary
  material may take place on the finest scale and in the most intricate
  manner. Often there has been resorption of the older rocks, whether
  sedimentary or igneous, by those which have invaded them, and movement
  has gone on both during injection and at a later period, so that the
  whole complex becomes amalgamated and its elements are so completely
  confused that the geologist can no longer disentangle them.

  When we remember that in the earlier stages of the earth's history, to
  which most gneisses belong, and in the relatively deep parts of the
  earth's crust, where they usually occur, there has been most igneous
  injection and greatest frequency of earth movements, it is not
  difficult to understand the geological distribution of gneissose
  rocks. All the factors which are required for their production, heat,
  movement, plutonic intrusions, contact alteration, interstitial
  moisture at high temperatures, are found at great depths and have
  acted most frequently and with greatest power on the older rock
  masses. But locally, where the conditions were favourable, the same
  processes may have gone on in comparatively recent times. Hence,
  though most gneisses are Archean, all gneisses are not necessarily so.
       (J. S. F.)



GNEIST, HEINRICH RUDOLF HERMANN FRIEDRICH VON (1816-1895), German jurist
and politician, was born at Berlin on the 13th of August 1816, the son
of a judge attached to the "Kammergericht" (court of appeal) in that
city. After receiving his school education at the gymnasium at Eisleben
in Prussian Saxony, he entered the university of Berlin in 1833 as a
student of jurisprudence, and became a pupil of the famous Roman law
teacher von Savigny. Proceeding to the degree of _doctor juris_ in 1838,
young Gneist immediately established himself as a _Privatdozent_ in the
faculty of law. He had, however, already chosen the judicial branch of
the legal profession as a career, and having while yet a student acted
as _Auscultator_, was admitted _Assessor_ in 1841. He soon found leisure
and opportunity to fulfil a much-cherished wish, and spent the next few
years on a lengthened tour in Italy, France and England. He utilized his
_Wanderjahre_ for the purposes of comparative study, and on his return
in 1844 was appointed extraordinary professor of Roman law in Berlin
university, and thus began a professorial connexion which ended only
with his death. The first-fruits of his activity as a teacher were seen
in his brilliant work, _Die formellen Verträge des heutigen römischen
Obligationen-Rechtes_ (Berlin, 1845). _Pari passu_ with his academic
labours he continued his judicial career, and became in due course
successively assistant judge of the superior court and of the supreme
tribunal. But to a mind constituted such as his, the want of elasticity
in the procedure of the courts was galling. "Brought up," he tells, in
the preface to his _Englische Verfassungsgeschichte_, "in the laborious
and rigid school of Prussian judges, at a time when the duty of
formulating the matter in litigation was entailed upon the judge who
personally conducted the pleadings, I became acquainted both with the
advantages possessed by the Prussian bureau system as also with its weak
points." Feeling the necessity for fundamental reforms in legal
procedure, he published, in 1849, his _Trial by Jury_, in which, after
pointing out that the origin of that institution was common to both
Germany and England, and showing in a masterly way the benefits which
had accrued to the latter country through its more extended application,
he pleaded for its freer admission in the tribunals of his own country.

The period of "storm and stress" in 1848 afforded Gneist an opportunity
for which he had yearned, and he threw himself with ardour into the
constitutional struggles of Prussia. Although his candidature for
election to the National Assembly of that year was unsuccessful, he felt
that "the die was cast," and deciding for a political career, retired in
1850 from his judicial position. Entering the ranks of the National
Liberal party, he began both in writing and speeches actively to
champion their cause, now busying himself pre-eminently with the study
of constitutional law and history. In 1853 appeared his _Adel und
Ritterschaft in England_, and in 1857 the _Geschichte und heutige
Gestalt der Ämter in England_, a pamphlet primarily written to combat
the Prussian abuses of administration, but for which the author also
claimed that it had not been without its effect in modifying certain
views that had until then ruled in England itself. In 1858 Gneist was
appointed ordinary professor of Roman law, and in the same year
commenced his parliamentary career by his election for Stettin to the
Abgeordnetenhaus (House of Deputies) of the Prussian Landtag, in which
assembly he sat thenceforward uninterruptedly until 1893. Joining the
Left, he at once became one of its leading spokesmen. His chief
oratorical triumphs are associated with the early period of his
membership of the House; two noteworthy occasions being his violent
attack (September 1862) upon the government budget in connexion with the
reorganization of the Prussian army, and his defence (1864) of the
Polish chiefs of the (then) grand-duchy of Posen, who were accused of
high treason. In 1857-1863 was published _Das heutige englische
Verfassungsund Verwaltungsrecht_, a work which, contrasting English and
German constitutional law and administration, aimed at exercising
political pressure upon the government of the day. In 1868 Gneist became
a member of the North German parliament, and acted as a member of the
commission for organizing the federal army, and also of that for the
settlement of ecclesiastical controversial questions. On the
establishment of German unity his mandate was renewed for the Reichstag,
and in this he sat, an active and prominent member of the National
Liberal party, until 1884. In the Kulturkampf he sided with the
government against the attacks of the Clericals, whom he bitterly
denounced, and whose implacable enemy he ever showed himself. In 1879,
together with his colleague, von Hänel, he violently attacked the motion
for the prosecution of certain Socialist members, which as a result of
the vigour of his opposition was almost unanimously rejected. He was
parliamentary reporter for the committees on all great financial and
administrative questions, and his profound acquaintance with
constitutional law caused his advice to be frequently sought, not only
in his own but also in other countries. In Prussia he largely influenced
legislation, the reform of the judicial and penal systems and the new
constitution of the Evangelical Church being largely his work. He was
also consulted by the Japanese government when a constitution was being
introduced into that country. In 1875 he was appointed a member of the
supreme administrative court (_Oberverwaltungsgericht_) of Prussia, but
only held office for two years. In 1882 was published his _Englische
Verfassungsgeschichte_ (trans. _History of the English Constitution_,
London, 1886), which may perhaps be described as his _magnum opus_. It
placed the author at once on the level of such writers on English
constitutional history as Hallam and Stubbs, and supplied English
literature with a text-book almost unrivalled in point of historical
research. In 1888 one of the first acts of the ill-fated emperor
Frederick III., who had always, as crown prince, shown great admiration
for him, was to ennoble Gneist, and attach him as instructor in
constitutional law to his son, the emperor William II., a charge of
which he worthily acquitted himself. The last years of his life were
full of energy, and, in the possession of all his faculties, he
continued his wonted academic labours until a short time before his
death, which occurred at Berlin on the 22nd of July 1895.

As a politician, Gneist's career cannot perhaps be said to have been
entirely successful. In a country where parliamentary institutions are
the living exponents of the popular will he might have risen to a
foremost position in the state; as it was, the party to which he allied
himself could never hope to become more than what it remained, a
parliamentary faction, and the influence it for a time wielded in the
counsels of the state waned as soon as the Social-Democratic party grew
to be a force to be reckoned with. It is as a writer and a teacher that
Gneist is best known to fame. He was a jurist of a special type. To him
law was not mere theory, but living force; and this conception of its
power animates all his schemes of practical reform. As a teacher he
exercised a magnetic influence, not only by reason of the clearness and
cogency of his exposition, but also because of the success with which he
developed the talents and guided the aspirations of his pupils. He was a
man of noble bearing, religious, and imbued with a stern sense of duty.
He was proud of being a "Preussischer Junker" (a member of the Prussian
squirearchy), and throughout his writings, despite their liberal
tendencies, may be perceived the loyalty and affection with which he
clung to monarchical institutions. A great admirer and a true friend of
England, to which country he was attached by many personal ties, he
surpassed all other Germans in his efforts to make her free
institutions, in which he found his ideal, the common heritage of the
two great nations of the Teutonic race.

  Gneist was a prolific writer, especially on the subject he had made
  peculiarly his own, that of constitutional law and history, and among
  his works, other than those above named, may be mentioned the
  following: _Budget und Gesetz nach dem constitutionellen Staatsrecht
  Englands_ (Berlin, 1867); _Freie Advocatur_ (ib., 1867); _Der
  Rechtsstaat_ (ib., 1872, and 2nd edition, 1879); _Zur
  Verwaltungsreform in Preussen_ (Leipzig, 1880); _Das englische
  Parlament_ (Berlin, 1886); in English translation, _The English
  Parliament_ (London, 1886; 3rd edition, 1889); _Die Militär-Vorlage
  von 1892 und der preussische Verfassungsconflikt von 1862 bis 1866_
  (Berlin, 1893); _Die nationale Rechtsidee von den Ständen und das
  preussische Dreiklassenwahlsystem_ (ib., 1895); _Die
  verfassungsmässige Stellung des preussischen Gesamtministeriums_ (ib.,
  1895). See O. Gierke, _Rudolph von Gneist, Gedächtnisrede_ (Berlin,
  1895), an In Memoriam address delivered in Berlin.     (P. A. A.)



GNESEN (Polish, _Gniezno_), a town of Germany, in the Prussian province
of Posen, in an undulating and fertile country, on the Wrzesnia, 30 m.
E.N.E. of Posen by the railway to Thorn. Pop. (1905) 23,727. Besides the
cathedral, a handsome Gothic edifice with twin towers, which contains
the remains of St Adalbert, there are eight Roman Catholic churches, a
Protestant church, a synagogue, a clerical seminary and a convent of the
Franciscan nuns. Among the industries are cloth and linen weaving,
brewing and distilling. A great horse and cattle market is held here
annually. Gnesen is one of the oldest towns in the former kingdom of
Poland. Its name, _Gniezno_, signifies "nest," and points to early
Polish traditions. The cathedral is believed to have been founded
towards the close of the 9th century, and, having received the bones of
St Adalbert, it was visited in 1000 by the emperor Otto III., who made
it the seat of an archbishop. Here, until 1320, the kings of Poland were
crowned; and the archbishop, since 1416 primate of Poland, acted as
protector pending the appointment of a new king. In 1821 the see of
Posen was founded and the archbishop removed his residence thither,
though its cathedral chapter still remains at Gnesen. After a long
period of decay the town revived after 1815, when it came under the rule
of Prussia.

  See S. Karwowski, _Gniezno_ (Posen, 1892).



GNOME, AND GNOMIC POETRY. Sententious maxims, put into verse for the
better aid of the memory, were known by the Greeks as gnomes, [Greek:
gnômai], from [Greek: gnôme], an opinion. A gnome is defined by the
Elizabethan critic Henry Peacham (1576?-1643?) as "a saying pertaining
to the manners and common practices of men, which declareth, with an apt
brevity, what in this our life ought to be done, or not done." The
Gnomic Poets of Greece, who flourished in the 6th century B.C., were
those who arranged series of sententious maxims in verse. These were
collected in the 4th century, by Lobon of Argos, an orator, but his
collection has disappeared. The chief gnomic poets were Theognis, Solon,
Phocylides, Simonides of Amorgos, Demodocus, Xenophanes and Euenus. With
the exception of Theognis, whose gnomes were fortunately preserved by
some schoolmaster about 300 B.C., only fragments of the Gnomic Poets
have come down to us. The moral poem attributed to Phocylides, long
supposed to be a masterpiece of the school, is now known to have been
written by a Jew in Alexandria. Of the gnomic movement typified by the
moral works of the poets named above, Prof. Gilbert Murray has remarked
that it receives its special expression in the conception of the Seven
Wise Men, to whom such proverbs as "Know thyself" and "Nothing too much"
were popularly attributed, and whose names differed in different lists.
These gnomes or maxims were extended and put into literary shape by the
poets. Fragments of Solon, Euenus and Mimnermus have been preserved, in
a very confused state, from having been written, for purposes of
comparison, on the margins of the MSS. of Theognis, whence they have
often slipped into the text of that poet. Theognis enshrines his moral
precepts in his elegies, and this was probably the custom of the rest;
it is improbable that there ever existed a species of poetry made up
entirely of successive gnomes. But the title "gnomic" came to be given
to all poetry which dealt in a sententious way with questions of
ethics. It was, unquestionably, the source from which moral philosophy
was directly developed, and theorists upon life and infinity, such as
Pythagoras and Xenophanes, seem to have begun their career as gnomic
poets. By the very nature of things, gnomes, in their literary sense,
belong exclusively to the dawn of literature; their naïveté and their
simplicity in moralizing betray it. But it has been observed that many
of the ethical reflections of the great dramatists, and in particular of
Sophocles and Euripides, are gnomic distiches expanded. It would be an
error to suppose that the ancient Greek gnomes are all of a solemn
character; some are voluptuous and some chivalrous; those of Demodocus
of Leros had the reputation of being droll. In modern times, the gnomic
spirit has occasionally been displayed by poets of a homely philosophy,
such as Francis Quarles (1592-1644) in England and Gui de Pibrac
(1529-1584) in France. The once-celebrated _Quatrains_ of the latter,
published in 1574, enjoyed an immense success throughout Europe; they
were composed in deliberate imitation of the Greek gnomic writers of the
6th century B.C. These modern effusions are rarely literature and
perhaps never poetry. With the gnomic writings of Pibrac it was long
customary to bind up those of Antoine Favre (or Faber) (1557-1624) and
of Pierre Mathieu (1563-1621). Gnomes are frequently to be found in the
ancient literatures of Arabia, Persia and India, and in the Icelandic
staves. The _priamel_, a brief, sententious kind of poem, which was in
favour in Germany from the 12th to the 16th century, belonged to the
true gnomic class, and was cultivated with particular success by Hans
Rosenblut, the lyrical goldsmith of Nuremberg, in the 15th century.
     (E. G.)



GNOMES (Fr. _gnomes_, Ger. _Gnomen_), in folk-lore, the name now
commonly given to the earth and mountain spirits who are supposed to
watch over veins of precious metals and other hidden treasures. They are
usually pictured as bearded dwarfs clad in brown close-fitting garments
with hoods. The word "gnome" as applied to these is of comparatively
modern and somewhat uncertain origin. By some it is said to have been
coined by Paracelsus (so Hatzfeld and Darmesteter, _Dictionnaire_), who
uses _Gnomi_ as a synonym of _Pygmaei_, from the Greek [Greek: gnômê],
intelligence. The _New English Dictionary_, however, suggests a
derivation from _genomus_, i.e. a Greek type [Greek: gênomos],
"earth-dweller," on the analogy of [Greek: thalassonomos], "dwelling in
the sea," adding, however, that though there is no evidence that the
term was not used before Paracelsus, it is possibly "a mere arbitrary
invention, like so many others found in Paracelsus" (_N.E.D._ s.v.).



GNOMON, the Greek word for the style of a sundial, or any object,
commonly a vertical column, the shadow of which was observed in former
times in order to learn the altitude of the sun, especially when on the
meridian. The art of constructing a sundial is sometimes termed
_gnomonics_. In geometry, a gnomon is a plane figure formed by removing
a parallelogram from a corner of a larger parallelogram; in the figure
ABCDEFA is a gnomon. Gnomonic projection is a projection of a sphere in
which the centre of sight is the centre of the sphere.

       A                  B
        -------------------
       /                 /
      /                 /
   F /------- E        /
    /       /         /
   /       /         /
  -------------------
          D        C



GNOSTICISM (Gr. [Greek: gnôsis], knowledge), the name generally applied
to that spiritual movement existing side by side with genuine
Christianity, as it gradually crystallized into the old Catholic Church,
which may roughly be defined as a distinct religious syncretism bearing
the strong impress of Christian influences.

I. The term "Gnosis" first appears in a technical sense in 1 Tim. vi. 20
([Greek: hê pseudônymos gnôsis]). It seems to have at first been applied
exclusively, or at any rate principally, to a particular tendency within
the movement as a whole, i.e. to those sections of (the Syrian) Gnostics
otherwise generally known as Ophites or Naasseni (see Hippolytus,
_Philosophumena_, v. 2: [Greek: Naassênoi ... hoi heautous Gnôstikous
apokalountes]; Irenaeus i. 11. 1; Epiphanius, _Haeres._ xxvi. Cf. also
the self-assumed name of the Carpocratiani, Iren. i. 25. 6). But in
Irenaeus the term has already come to designate the whole movement. This
first came into prominence in the opening decades of the 2nd century
A.D., but is certainly older; it reached its height in the second third
of the same century, and began to wane about the 3rd century, and from
the second half of the 3rd century onwards was replaced by the
closely-related and more powerful Manichaean movement. Offshoots of it,
however, continued on into the 4th and 5th centuries. Epiphanius still
had the opportunity of making personal acquaintance with Gnostic sects.

II. Of the actual writings of the Gnostics, which were extraordinarily
numerous,[1] very little has survived; they were sacrificed to the
destructive zeal of their ecclesiastical opponents. Numerous fragments
and extracts from Gnostic writings are to be found in the works of the
Fathers who attacked Gnosticism. Most valuable of all are the long
extracts in the 5th and 6th books of the _Philosophumena_ of Hippolytus.
The most accessible and best critical edition of the fragments which
have been preserved word for word is to be found in Hilgenfeld's
_Ketzergeschichte des Urchristentums_. One of the most important of
these fragments is the letter of Ptolemaeus to Flora, preserved in
Epiphanius, _Haeres_. xxxiii. 3-7 (see on this point Harnack in the
_Sitzungsberichte der Berliner Akademie_, 1902, pp. 507-545). Gnostic
fragments are certainly also preserved for us in the _Acts of Thomas_.
Here we should especially mention the beautiful and much-discussed _Song
of the Pearl_, or _Song of the Soul_, which is generally, though without
absolute clear proof, attributed to the Gnostic Bardesanes (till lately
it was known only in the Syrian text; edited and translated by Bevan,
_Texts and Studies_,[2] v. 3, 1897; Hofmann, _Zeitschrift für
neutestamentliche Wissenschaft_, iv.; for the newly-found Greek text see
_Acta apostolorum_, ed. Bonnet, ii. 2, c. 108, p. 219). Generally also
much Gnostic matter is contained in the apocryphal histories of the
Apostles. To the school of Bardesanes belongs the "Book of the Laws of
the Lands," which does not, however, contribute much to our knowledge of
Gnosticism. Finally, we should mention in this connexion the text on
which are based the pseudo-Clementine _Homilies_ and _Recognitiones_
(beginning of the 3rd century). It is, of course, already permeated with
the Catholic spirit, but has drawn so largely upon sources of a
Judaeo-Christian Gnostic character that it comes to a great extent
within the category of sources for Gnosticism. Complete original Gnostic
works have unfortunately survived to us only from the period of the
decadence of Gnosticism. Of these we should mention the comprehensive
work called the _Pistis-Sophia_, probably belonging to the second half
of the 3rd century.[3] Further, the Coptic-Gnostic texts of the _Codex
Brucianus_; both the books of Ieu, and an anonymous third work (edited
and translated by C. Schmidt, _Texte und Untersuchungen_, vol. viii.,
1892; and a new translation by the same in _Koptische-gnostische
Schriften_, i.) which, contrary to the opinion of their editor and
translator, the present writer believes to represent, in their existing
form, a still later period and a still more advanced stage in the
decadence of Gnosticism. For other and older Coptic-Gnostic texts, in
one of which is contained the source of Irenaeus's treatises on the
Barbelognostics, but which have unfortunately not yet been made
completely accessible, see C. Schmidt in _Sitzungsberichte der Berl.
Akad._ (1896), p. 839 seq., and "Philotesia," dedicated to Paul Kleinert
(1907); p. 315 seq.

On the whole, then, for an exposition of Gnosticism we are thrown back
upon the polemical writings of the Fathers in their controversy with
heresy. The most ancient of these is Justin, who according to his
_Apol._ i. 26 wrote a _Syntagma_ against all heresies (c. A.D. 150), and
also, probably, a special polemic against Marcion (fragment in Irenaeus
iv. 6. 2). Both these writings are lost. He was followed by Irenaeus,
who, especially in the first book of his treatise _Adversus haereses_
([Greek: elegchou kai anatropês tês pseudônymou gnôseôs biblia pente],
c. A.D. 180), gives a detailed account of the Gnostic heresies. He
founds his work upon that of his master Justin, but adds from his own
knowledge among many other things, notably the detailed account of
Valentinianism at the beginning of the book. On Irenaeus, and probably
also on Justin, Hippolytus drew for his _Syntagma_ (beginning of the 3rd
century), a work which is also lost, but can, with great certainty, be
reconstructed from three recensions of it: in the _Panarion_ of
Epiphanius (after 374), in Philaster of Brescia, _Adversus haereses_,
and the Pseudo-Tertullian, _Liber adversus omnes haereses_. A second
work of Hippolytus [Greek: Katà pasôn haipeseôv elegchos] is preserved
in the so-called _Philosophumena_ which survives under the name of
Origen. Here Hippolytus gave a second exposition supplemented by fresh
Gnostic original sources with which he had become acquainted in the
meanwhile. These sources quoted in Hippolytus have lately met with very
unfavourable criticisms. The opinion has been advanced that Hippolytus
has here fallen a victim to the mystification of a forger. The truth of
the matter must be that Hippolytus probably made use of a collection of
Gnostic texts, put together by a Gnostic, in which were already
represented various secondary developments of the genuine Gnostic
schools. It is also possible that the compiler has himself attempted
here and there to harmonize to a certain extent the various Gnostic
doctrines, yet in no case is this collection of sources given by
Hippolytus to be passed over; it should rather be considered as
important evidence for the beginnings of the decay of Gnosticism. Very
noteworthy references to Gnosticism are also to be found scattered up
and down the _Stromateis_ of Clement of Alexandria. Especially important
are the _Excerpta ex Theodoto_, the author of which is certainly
Clement, which are verbally extracted from Gnostic writings, and have
almost the value of original sources. The writings of Origen also
contain a wealth of material. In the first place should be mentioned the
treatise _Contra Celsum_, in which the expositions of Gnosticism by both
Origen and Celsus are of interest (see especially v. 61 seq. and vi. 25
seq.). Of Tertullian's works should be mentioned: _De praescriptione
haereticorum_, especially _Adversus Marcionem_, _Adversus Hermogenem_,
and finally _Adversus Valentinianos_ (entirely founded on Irenaeus).
Here must also be mentioned the dialogue of Adamantius with the
Gnostics, _De recta in deum fide_ (beginning of 4th century). Among the
followers of Hippolytus, Epiphanius in his _Panarion_ gives much
independent and valuable information from his own knowledge of
contemporary Gnosticism. But Theodoret of Cyrus (d. 455) is already
entirely dependent on previous works and has nothing new to add. With
the 4th century both Gnosticism and the polemical literature directed
against it die out.[4]

III. If we wish to grasp the peculiar character of the great Gnostic
movement, we must take care not to be led astray by the catchword
"Gnosis." It is a mistake to regard the Gnostics as pre-eminently the
representatives of intellect among Christians, and Gnosticism as an
intellectual tendency chiefly concerned with philosophical speculation,
the reconciliation of religion with philosophy and theology. It is true
that when Gnosticism was at its height it numbered amongst its followers
both theologians and men of science, but that is not its main
characteristic. Among the majority of the followers of the movement
"Gnosis" was understood not as meaning "knowledge" or "understanding,"
in our sense of the word, but "revelation." These little Gnostic sects
and groups all lived in the conviction that they possessed a secret and
mysterious knowledge, in no way accessible to those outside, which was
not to be proved or propagated, but believed in by the initiated, and
anxiously guarded as a secret. This knowledge of theirs was not based on
reflection, on scientific inquiry and proof, but on revelation. It was
derived directly from the times of primitive Christianity; from the
Saviour himself and his disciples and friends, with whom they claimed to
be connected by a secret tradition, or else from later prophets, of whom
many sects boasted. It was laid down in wonderful mystic writings, which
were in the possession of the various circles (Liechtenhahn, _Die
Offenbarung im Gnosticismus_, 1901).

In short, Gnosticism, in all its various sections, its form and its
character, falls under the great category of mystic religions, which
were so characteristic of the religious life of decadent antiquity. In
Gnosticism as in the other mystic religions we find the same contrast of
the initiated and the uninitiated, the same loose organization, the same
kind of petty sectarianism and mystery-mongering. All alike boast a
mystic revelation and a deeply-veiled wisdom. As in many mystical
religions, so in Gnosticism, the ultimate object is individual
salvation, the assurance of a fortunate destiny for the soul after
death. As in the others, so in this the central object of worship is a
redeemer-deity who has already trodden the difficult way which the
faithful have to follow. And finally, as in all mystical religions, so
here too, holy rites and formulas, acts of initiation and consecration,
all those things which we call sacraments, play a very prominent part.
The Gnostic religion is full of such sacraments. In the accounts of the
Fathers we find less about them; yet here Irenaeus' account of the
Marcosians is of the highest significance (i. 21 seq.). Much more
material is to be found in the original Gnostic writings, especially in
the _Pistis-Sophia_ and the two books of Ieu, and again in the _Excerpta
ex Theodoto_, the _Acts of Thomas_, and here and there also in the
pseudo-Clementine writings. Above all we can see from the original
sources of the Mandaean religion, which also represents a branch of
Gnosticism, how great a part the sacraments played in the Gnostic sects
(Brandt, _Mandäische Religion_, p. 96 seq.). Everywhere we are met with
the most varied forms of holy rites--the various baptisms, by water, by
fire, by the spirit, the baptism for protection against demons,
anointing with oil, sealing and stigmatizing, piercing the ears, leading
into the bridal chamber, partaking of holy food and drink. Finally,
sacred formulas, names and symbols are of the highest importance among
the Gnostic sects. We constantly meet with the idea that the soul, on
leaving the body, finds its path to the highest heaven opposed by the
deities and demons of the lower realms of heaven, and only when it is in
possession of the names of these demons, and can repeat the proper holy
formula, or is prepared with the right symbol, or has been anointed with
the holy oil, finds its way unhindered to the heavenly home. Hence the
Gnostic must above all things learn the names of the demons, and equip
himself with the sacred formulas and symbols, in order to be certain of
a good destiny after death. The exposition of the system of the Ophites
given by Celsus (in Origen vi. 25 seq.), and, in connexion with Celsus,
by Origen, is particularly instructive on this point. The two "Coptic
Ieu" books unfold an immense system of names and symbols. This system
again was simplified, and as the supreme secret was taught in a single
name or a single formula, by means of which the happy possessor was able
to penetrate through all the spaces of heaven (cf. the name "Caulacau"
among the Basilidians; Irenaeus, _Adv. haer._ i. 24. 5, and among other
sects). It was taught that even the redeemer-god, when he once descended
on to this earth, to rise from it again, availed himself of these names
and formulas on his descent and ascent through the world of demons.
Traces of ideas of this kind are to be met with almost everywhere. They
have been most carefully collected by Anz (_Ursprung des Gnosticismus,
Texte und Untersuchungen_ xv. 4 _passim_) who would see in them the
central doctrine of Gnosticism.

IV. All these investigations point clearly to the fact that Gnosticism
belongs to the group of mystical religions. We must now proceed to
define more exactly the peculiar and distinctive character of the
Gnostic system. The basis of the Gnostic religion and world-philosophy
lies in a decided Oriental dualism. In sharp contrast are opposed the
two worlds of the good and of the evil, the divine world and the
material world [Greek: hulê], the worlds of light and of darkness. In
many systems there seems to be no attempt to derive the one world from
the other. The true Basilides (q.v.), perhaps also Satornil, Marcion and
a part of his disciples, Bardesanes and others, were frankly dualists.
In the case of other systems, owing to the inexactness of our
information, we are unable to decide; the later systems of Mandaeism and
Manichaeanism, so closely related to Gnosticism, are also based upon a
decided dualism. And even when there is an attempt at reconciliation, it
is still quite clear how strong was the original dualism which has to be
overcome. Thus the Gnostic systems make great use of the idea of a fall
of the Deity himself; by the fall of the Godhead into the world of
matter, this matter, previously insensible, is animated into life and
activity, and then arise the powers, both partly and wholly hostile, who
hold sway over this world. Such figures of fallen divinities, sinking
down into the world of matter are those of Sophia (i.e. Ahamoth) among
the Gnostics (Ophites) in the narrower sense of the word, the Simoniani
(the figure of Helena), the Barbelognostics, and in the system of the
_Pistis-Sophia_ or the Primal Man, among the Naasseni and the sect,
related to them, as described by Hippolytus.[5] A further weakening of
the dualism is indicated when, in the systems of the Valentinian school,
the fall of Sophia takes place within the godhead, and Sophia, inflamed
with love, plunges into the Bythos, the highest divinity, and when the
attempt is thus made genetically to derive the lower world from the
sufferings and passions of fallen divinity. Another attempt at
reconciliation is set forth in the so-called "system of emanations" in
which it is assumed that from the supreme divinity emanated a somewhat
lesser world, from this world a second, and so on, until the divine
element (of life) became so far weakened and attenuated, that the
genesis of a partly, or even wholly, evil world appears both possible
and comprehensible. A system of emanations of this kind, in its purest
form, is set forth in the expositions coming from the school of
Basilides, which are handed down by Irenaeus, while the propositions
which are set forth in the _Philosophumena_ of Hippolytus as being
doctrines of Basilides represent a still closer approach to a monistic
philosophy. Occasionally, too, there is an attempt to establish at any
rate a threefold division of the world, and to assume between the worlds
of light and darkness a middle world connecting the two; this is
clearest among the Sethiani mentioned by Hippolytus (and cf. the
Gnostics in Irenaeus i. 30. 1). Quite peculiar in this connexion are the
accounts in Books xix. and xx. of the Clementine _Homilies_. After a
preliminary examination of all possible different attempts at a solution
of the problem of evil, the attempt is here made to represent the devil
as an instrument of God. Christ and the devil are the two hands of God,
Christ the right hand, and the devil the left, the devil having power
over this world-epoch and Christ over the next. The devil here assumes
very much the characteristics of the punishing and just God of the Old
Testament, and the prospect is even held out of his ultimate pardon. All
these efforts at reconciliation show how clearly the problem of evil was
realized in these Gnostic and half-Gnostic sects, and how deeply they
meditated on the subject; it was not altogether without reason that in
the ranks of its opponents Gnosticism was judged to have arisen out of
the question, [Greek: pothen to kakon].

This dualism had not its origin in Hellenic soil, neither is it related
to that dualism which to a certain extent existed also in late Greek
religion. For the lower and imperfect world, which in that system too is
conceived and assumed, is the nebulous world of the non-existent and the
formless, which is the necessary accompaniment of that which exists, as
shadow is of light.

In Gnosticism, on the contrary, the world of evil is full of active
energy and hostile powers. It is an Oriental (Iranian) dualism which
here finds expression, though in one point, it is true, the mark of
Greek influence is quite clear. When Gnosticism recognizes in this
corporeal and material world the true seat of evil, consistently
treating the bodily existence of mankind as essentially evil and the
separation of the spiritual from the corporeal being as the object of
salvation, this is an outcome of the contrast in Greek dualism between
spirit and matter, soul and body. For in Oriental (Persian) dualism it
is within this material world that the good and evil powers are at war,
and this world beneath the stars is by no means conceived as entirely
subject to the influence of evil. Gnosticism has combined the two, the
Greek opposition between spirit and matter, and the sharp Zoroastrian
dualism, which, where the Greek mind conceived of a higher and a lower
world, saw instead two hostile worlds, standing in contrast to each
other like light and darkness. And out of the combination of these two
dualisms arose the teaching of Gnosticism, with its thoroughgoing
pessimism and fundamental asceticism.

Another characteristic feature of the Gnostic conception of the universe
is the rôle played in almost all Gnostic systems by the seven
world-creating powers. There are indeed certain exceptions; for
instance, in the systems of the Valentinian schools there is the figure
of the one Demiurge who takes the place of the Seven. But how widespread
was the idea of seven powers, who created this lower material world and
rule over it, has been clearly proved, especially by the systematic
examination of the subject by Anz (_Ursprung des Gnosticismus_). These
Seven, then, are in most systems half-evil, half-hostile powers; they
are frequently characterized as "angels," and are reckoned as the last
and lowest emanations of the Godhead; below them--and frequently
considered as derived from them--comes the world of the actually
devilish powers. On the other hand, among the speculations of the
Mandaeans, we find a different and perhaps more primitive conception of
the Seven, according to which they, together with their mother Namrus
(Ruha) and their father (Ur), belong entirely to the world of darkness.
They and their family are looked upon as captives of the god of light
(Manda-d'hayye, Hibil-Ziva), who pardons them, sets them on chariots of
light, and appoints them as rulers of the world (cf. chiefly Genza, in
_Tractat_. 6 and 8; W. Brandt, _Mandäische Schriften_, 125 seq. and 137
seq.; _Mandäische Religion_, 34 seq., &c.). In the Manichaean system it
is related how the helper of the Primal Man, the spirit of life,
captured the evil _archontes_, and fastened them to the firmament, or
according to another account, flayed them, and formed the firmament from
their skin (F. C. Baur, _Das manichäische Religionssystem_, v. 65), and
this conception is closely related to the other, though in this
tradition the number (seven) of the _archontes_ is lost. Similarly, the
last book of the _Pistis-Sophia_ contains the myth of the capture of the
rebellious _archontes_, whose leaders here appear as five in number
(Schmidt, _Koptisch-gnostische Schriften_, p. 234 seq.).[6] There can
scarcely be any doubt as to the origin of these seven (five) powers;
they are the seven planetary divinities, the sun, moon and five planets.

In the Mandaean speculations the Seven are introduced with the
Babylonian names of the planets. The connexion of the Seven with the
planets is also clearly established by the expositions of Celsus and
Origen (_Contra Celsum_, vi. 22 seq.) and similarly by the above-quoted
passage in the _Pistis-Sophia_, where the _archontes_, who are here
mentioned as five, are identified with the five planets (excluding the
sun and moon). This collective grouping of the seven (five) planetary
divinities is derived from the late Babylonian religion, which can
definitely be indicated as the home of these ideas (Zimmern,
_Keilinschriften in dem alten Testament_, ii. p. 620 seq.; cf.
particularly Diodorus ii. 30). And if in the old sources it is only the
first beginnings of this development that can be traced, we must assume
that at a later period the Babylonian religion centred in the adoration
of the seven planetary deities. Very instructive in this connexion is
the later (Arabian) account of the religion of the Mesopotamian
Sabaeans. The religion of the Sabaeans, evidently a later offshoot from
the stock of the old Babylonian religion, actually consists in the cult
of the seven planets (cf. the great work of Daniel Chwolsohn, _Die
Ssabier u. der Ssabismus_). But this reference to Babylonian religion
does not solve the problem which is here in question. For in the
Babylonian religion the planetary constellations are reckoned as the
supreme deities. And here the question arises, how it came about that in
the Gnostic systems the Seven appear as subordinate, half-daemonic
powers, or even completely as powers of darkness. This can only be
explained on the assumption that some religion hostile to, and stronger
than the Babylonian, has superimposed itself upon this, and has degraded
its principal deities into daemons. Which religion can this have been?
We are at first inclined to think of Christianity itself, but it is
certainly most improbable that at the time of the rise of Christianity
the Babylonian teaching about the seven planet-deities governing the
world should have played so great a part throughout all Syria, Asia
Minor and Egypt, that the most varying sections of syncretic
Christianity should over and over again adopt this doctrine and work it
up into their system. It is far more probable that the combination which
we meet with in Gnosticism is older than Christianity, and was found
already in existence by Christianity and its sects. We must also reject
the theory that this degradation of the planetary deities into daemons
is due to the influence of Hebrew monotheism, for almost all the Gnostic
sects take up a definitely hostile attitude towards the Jewish religion,
and almost always the highest divinity among the Seven is actually the
creator-God of the Old Testament. There remains, then, only one religion
which can be used as an explanation, namely the Persian, which in fact
fulfils all the necessary conditions. The Persian religion was at an
early period brought into contact with the Babylonian, through the
triumphant progress of Persian culture towards the West; at the time of
Alexander the Great it was already the prevailing religion in the
Babylonian plain (cf. F. Cumont, _Textes et monuments rel. aux mystères
de Mithra_, i. 5, 8-10, 14, 223 seq., 233). It was characterized by a
main belief, tending towards monotheism, in the Light-deity Ahuramazda
and his satellites, who appeared in contrast with him as powers of the
nature of angels.

A combination of the Babylonian with the Persian religion could only be
effected by the degradation of the Babylonian deities into half-divine,
half-daemonic beings, infinitely remote from the supreme God of light
and of heaven, or even into powers of darkness. Even the characteristic
dualism of Gnosticism has already proved to be in part of Iranian
origin; and now it becomes clear how from that mingling of late Greek
and Persian dualism the idea could arise that these seven half-daemonic
powers are the creators or rulers of this material world, which is
separated infinitely from the light-world of the good God. Definite
confirmation of this conjecture is afforded us by later sources of the
Iranian religion, in which we likewise meet with the characteristic
fundamental doctrine of Gnosticism. Thus the _Bundahish_ (iii. 25, v. 1)
is able to inform us that in the primeval strife of Satan against the
light-world, seven hostile powers were captured and set as
constellations in the heavens, where they are guarded by good
star-powers and prevented from doing harm. Five of the evil powers are
the planets, while here the sun and moon are of course not reckoned
among the evil powers--for the obvious reason that in the Persian
official religion they invariably appear as good divinities (cf. similar
ideas in the Arabic treatise on Persian religion _Ulema-i-Islam_,
Vullers, _Fragmente über die Religion Zoroasters_, p. 49, and in other
later sources for Persian religion, put together in Spiegel, _Eranische
Altertumskunde_, Bd. ii. p. 180). These Persian fancies can hardly be
borrowed from the Christian Gnostic systems, their definiteness and much
more strongly dualistic character recalling the exposition of the
Mandaean (and Manichaean) system, are proofs to the contrary. They are
derived from the same period in which the underlying idea of the
Gnostic systems also originated, namely, the time at which the ideas of
the Persian and Babylonian religions came into contact, the remarkable
results of which have thus partly found their way into the official
documents of Parsiism.

With this fundamental doctrine of Gnosticism is connected, as Anz has
shown in his book which we have so often quoted, a side of their
religious practices to which we have already alluded. Gnosticism is to a
great extent dominated by the idea that it is above all and in the
highest degree important for the Gnostic's soul to be enabled to find
its way back through the lower worlds and spheres of heaven ruled by the
Seven to the kingdom of light of the supreme deity of heaven. Hence, a
principal item in their religious practice consisted in communications
about the being, nature and names of the Seven (or of any other hostile
daemons barring the way to heaven), the formulas with which they must be
addressed, and the symbols which must be shown to them. But names,
symbols and formulas are not efficacious by themselves: the Gnostic must
lead a life having no part in the lower world ruled by these spirits,
and by his knowledge he must raise himself above them to the God of the
world of light. Throughout this mystic religious world it was above all
the influence of the late Greek religion, derived from Plato, that also
continued to operate; it is filled with the echo of the song, the first
note of which was sounded by the Platonists, about the heavenly home of
the soul and the homeward journey of the wise to the higher world of
light.

But the form in which the whole is set forth is Oriental, and it must be
carefully noted that the Mithras mysteries, so closely connected with
the Persian religion, are acquainted with this doctrine of the ascent of
the soul through the planetary spheres (Origen, _Contra Celsum_, vi.
22).

V. We cannot here undertake to set forth and explain in detail all the
complex varieties of the Gnostic systems; but it will be useful to take
a nearer view of certain principal figures which have had an influence
upon at least one series of Gnostic systems, and to examine their
origins in the history of religion. In almost all systems an important
part is played by the Great Mother ([Greek: mêtêr]) who appears under
the most varied forms (cf. GREAT MOTHER OF THE GODS). At an early
period, and notably in the older systems of the Ophites (a fairly exact
account of which has been preserved for us by Epiphanius and
Hippolytus), among the Gnostics in the narrower sense of the word, the
Archontici, the Sethites (there are also traces among the Naasseni, cf.
the _Philosophumena_ of Hippolytus), the [Greek: mêtêr] is the most
prominent figure in the light-world, elevated above the [Greek:
hebdomas], and the great mother of the faithful. The sect of the
Barbelognostics takes its name from the female figure of the Barbelo
(perhaps a corruption of [Greek: Parthenos]; cf. the form [Greek:
Barthenos] for "virgin" in Epiphanius, _Haer._ xxvi. 1). But Gnostic
speculation gives various accounts of the descent or fall of this
goddess of heaven. Thus the "Helena" of the Simoniani descends to this
world in order by means of her beauty to provoke to sensual passion and
mutual strife the angels who rule the world, and thus again to deprive
them of the powers of light, stolen from heaven, by means of which they
rule over the world. She is then held captive by them in extreme
degradation. Similar ideas are to be found among the "Gnostics" of
Epiphanius. The kindred idea of the light-maiden, who, by exciting the
sensual passions of the rulers ([Greek: archontes]), takes from them
those powers of light which still remain to them, has also a central
place in the Manichaean scheme of salvation (F. C. Baur, _Das
manichäische Religionssystem_, pp. 219, 315, 321). The light-maiden also
plays a prominent part in the _Pistis-Sophia_ (cf. the index to the
translation by C. Schmidt). With this figure of the mother-goddess who
descends into the lower world seems to be closely connected the idea of
the fallen Sophia, which is so widespread among the Gnostic systems.
This Sophia then is certainly no longer the dominating figure of the
light-world, she is a lower aeon at the extreme limit of the world of
light, who sinks down into matter (Barbelognostics, the anonymous
Gnostic of Irenaeus, Bardesanes, _Pistis-Sophia_), or turns in
presumptuous love towards the supreme God ([Greek: Buthos]), and thus
brings the Fall into the world of the _aeons_ (Valentinians). This
Sophia then appears as the mother of the "seven" gods (see above).

The origin of this figure is not far to seek. It is certainly not
derived from the Persian religious system, to the spirit of which it is
entirely opposed. Neither would it be correct to identify her entirely
with the great goddess Ishtar of the old Babylonian religion. But there
can hardly be any doubt that the figure of the great mother-goddess or
goddess of heaven, who was worshipped throughout Asia under various
forms and names (Astarte, Beltis, Atargatis, Cybele, the Syrian
Aphrodite), was the prototype of the [Greek: mêtêr] of the Gnostics (cf.
GREAT MOTHER OF THE GODS). The character of the great goddess of heaven
is still in many places fairly exactly preserved in the Gnostic
speculations. Hence we are able to understand how the Gnostic [Greek:
mêtêr], the Sophia, appears as the mother of the Hebdomas ([Greek:
hebdomas]). The great goddess of heaven is the mother of the stars.
Particularly instructive in this connexion is the fact that in those
very sects, in the systems of which the figure of the [Greek: mêtêr]
plays a special part, unbridled prostitution appears as a distinct and
essential part of the cult (cf. the accounts of particular branches of
the Gnostics, Nicolaitans, Philionites, Borborites, &c. in Epiphanius,
_Haer._ xxv., xxvi.). The meaning of this cult is, of course,
reinterpreted in the Gnostic sense: by this unbridled prostitution the
Gnostic sects desired to prevent the sexual propagation of mankind, the
origin of all evil. But the connexion is clear, and hence it also
explained the curious Gnostic myth mentioned above, namely that the
[Greek: mêtêr] (the light-maiden) by appearing to the archontes ([Greek:
archontes]), the lower powers of this world, inflames them to sexual
lusts, in order to take from them that share of light which they have
stolen from the upper world. This is a Gnostic interpretation of the
various myths of the great mother-goddess's many loves and
love-adventures with other gods and heroes. And when the pagan legend of
the Syrian Astarte tells how she lived for ten years in Tyre as a
prostitute, this directly recalls the Gnostic myth of how Simon found
Helena in a brothel in Tyre (Epiphanius, _Ancoratus_, c. 104). From the
same group of myths must be derived the idea of the goddess who descends
to the under-world, and is there taken prisoner against her will by the
lower powers; the direct prototype of this myth is to be found, e.g. in
Ishtar's journey to hell. And finally, just as the mother-goddess of
south-western Asia stands in particularly intimate connexion with the
youthful god of spring (Tammuz, Adonis, Attis), so we ought perhaps to
compare here as a parallel the relation of Sophia with the Soter in
certain Gnostic systems (see below).

Another characteristic figure of Gnosticism is that of the Primal Man
([Greek: prôtos anthrôpos]). In many systems, certainly, it has already
been forced quite into the background. But on closer examination we can
clearly see that it has a wide influence on Gnosticism. Thus in the
system of the Naasseni (see Hippolytus, _Philosophumena_), and in
certain related sects there enumerated, the Primal Man has a central and
predominant position. Again, in the text on which are based the
pseudo-Clementine writings (_Recognitions_, i. 16, 32, 45-47, 52, ii.
47; and _Homilies_, iii. 17 seq. xviii. 14), as in the closely related
system of the Ebionites in Epiphanius (_Haer._ xxx. 3-16; cf. liii. 1),
we meet with the man who existed before the world, the prophet who goes
through the world in various forms, and finally reveals himself in
Christ. Among the Barbelognostics (Irenaeus i. 29. 3), the Primal Man
(Adamas, _homo perfectus et verus_) and Gnosis appear as a pair of
aeons, occupying a prominent place in the whole series. In the
Valentinian systems the pair of aeons, Anthropos and Ekklesia, occupy
the third or fourth place within the _Oydoás_, but incidentally we learn
that with some representatives of this school the Anthropos took a still
more prominent place (first or second; Hilgenfeld, _Ketzergeschichte_,
p. 294 seq.). And even in the _Pistis-Sophia_ the Primal Man "Ieu" is
frequently alluded to as the King of the Luminaries (cf. index to C.
Schmidt's translation). We also meet with speculations of this kind
about man in the circles of non-Christian Gnosis. Thus in the
_Poimandres_ of Hermes man is the most prominent figure in the
speculation; numerous pagan and half-pagan parallels (the "Gnostics" of
Plotinus, Zosimus, Bitys) have been collected by Reitzenstein in his
work _Poimandres_ (pp. 81-116). Reitzenstein has shown (p. 81 seq.) that
very probably the system of the Naasseni described by Hippolytus was
originally derived from purely pagan circles, which are probably
connected in some way with the mysteries of the Attis cult. The figure
in the Mandaean system most closely corresponding to the Primal Man,
though this figure also actually occurs in another part of the system
(cf. the figure of Adakas Mana; Brandt, _Mandäische Religion_, p. 36
seq.) is that of Manda d'hayye ([Greek: gnôsis tês zôês]; cf. the pair
of aeons, Adamas and Gnosis, among the Barbelognostics, in Irenaeus i.
29. 3). Finally, in the Manichaean system, as is well known, the Primal
Man again assumes the predominant place (Baur, _Manich.
Religionssystem_, 49 seq.).

This figure of the Primal Man can particularly be compared with that of
the Gnostic Sophia. Wherever this figure has not become quite obscure,
it represents that divine power which, whether simply owing to a fall,
or as the hero who makes war on, and is partly vanquished by darkness,
descends into the darkness of the material world, and with whose descent
begins the great drama of the world's development. From this power are
derived those portions of light existing and held prisoner in this lower
world. And as he has raised himself again out of the material world, or
has been set free by higher powers, so shall also the members of the
Primal Man, the portions of light still imprisoned in matter, be set
free.

The question of the derivation of the myth of the Primal Man is still
one of the unsolved problems of religious history. It is worthy of
notice that according to the old Persian myth also, the development of
the world begins with the slaying of the primal man Gayomart by
Angra-Mainyu (Ahriman); further, that the Primal Man ("son of man" =
man) also plays a part in Jewish apocalyptic literature (Daniel, Enoch,
iv. Ezra), whence this figure passes into the Gospels; and again, that
the dogma of Christ's descent into hell is directly connected with this
myth. But these parallels do not carry us much further. Even the Persian
myth is entirely obscure, and has hitherto defied interpretation. It is
certainly true that in some way an essential part in the formation of
the myth has been played by the sun-god, who daily descends into
darkness, to rise from it again victoriously. But how to explain the
combination of the figure of the sun-god with that of the Primal Man is
an unsolved riddle. The meaning of this figure in the Gnostic
speculations is, however, clear. It answers the question: how did the
portions of light to be found in this lower world, among which certainly
belong the souls of the Gnostics, enter into it?

A parallel myth to that of the Primal Man are the accounts to be found
in most of the Gnostic systems of the creation of the first man. In all
these accounts the idea is expressed that so far as his body is
concerned man is the work of the angels who created the world. So e.g.
Satornil relates (Irenaeus i. 24. 1) that a brilliant vision appeared
from above to the world-creating angels; they were unable to hold it
fast, but formed man after its image. And as the man thus formed was
unable to move, but could only crawl like a worm, the supreme Power put
into him a spark of life, and man came into existence. Imaginations of
the same sort are also to be found, e.g. in the genuine fragments of
Valentinus (Hilgenfeld, _Ketzergeschichte_, p. 293), the Gnostics of
Irenaeus i. 30. 6, the Mandaeans (Brandt, _Religion der Mandäer_, p.
36), and the Manichaeans (Baur, _Religionssystem_, p. 118 seq.). The
Naasseni (Hippolytus, _Philosophumena_, v. 7) expressly characterize the
myth as Chaldean (cf. the passage from Zosimus, in Reitzenstein's
_Poimandres_, p. 104). Clearly then the question which the myth of the
Primal Man is intended to answer in relation to the whole universe is
answered in relation to the nature of man by this account of the coming
into being of the first man, which may, moreover, have been influenced
by the account in the Old Testament. That question is: how does it
happen that in this inferior body of man, fallen a prey to corruption,
there dwells a higher spark of the divine Being, or in other words, how
are we to explain the double nature of man?

VI. Of all the fundamental ideas of Gnosticism of which we have so far
treated, it can with some certainty be assumed that they were in
existence before the rise of Christianity and the influence of Christian
ideas on the development of Gnosticism. The main question with which we
have now to deal is that of whether the dominant figure of the Saviour
([Greek: Sôtêr]) in Gnosticism is of specifically Christian derivation,
or whether this can also be explained apart from the assumption of
Christian influence. And here it must be premised that, intimately as
the conception of salvation is bound up with the Gnostic religion, the
idea of salvation accomplished in a definite historical moment to a
certain extent remained foreign to it. Indeed, nearly all the Christian
Gnostic systems clearly exhibit the great difficulty with which they had
to contend in order to reconcile the idea of an historical redeemer,
actually occurring in the form of a definite person, with their
conceptions of salvation. In Gnosticism salvation always lies at the
root of all existence and all history. The fundamental conception varies
greatly. At one time the Primal Man, who sank down into matter, has
freed himself and risen out of it again, and like him his members will
rise out of darkness into the light (_Poimandres_); at another time the
Primal Man who was conquered by the powers of darkness has been saved by
the powers of light, and thus too all his race will be saved
(Manichaeism); at another time the fallen Sophia is purified by her
passions and sorrows and has found her _Syzygos_, the Soter, and wedded
him, and thus all the souls of the Gnostics who still languish in matter
will become the brides of the angels of the _Soter_ (Valentinus). In
fact salvation, as conceived in Gnosticism, is always a myth, a history
of bygone events, an allegory or figure, but not an historical event.
And this decision is not affected by the fact that in certain Gnostic
sects figured historical personages such as Simon Magus and Menander.
The Gnostic ideas of salvation were in the later schools and sects
transferred to these persons whom we must consider as rather obscure
charlatans and miracle-mongers, just as in other cases they were
transferred to the person of Christ. The "Helena" of the Simonian system
was certainly not an historical but a mythical figure. This explains the
laborious and artificial way in which the person of Jesus is connected
in many Gnostic systems with the original Gnostic conception of
redemption. In this patchwork the joins are everywhere still clearly to
be recognized. Thus, e.g. in the Valentinian system, the myth of the
fallen Sophia and the Soter, of their ultimate union, their marriage and
their 70 sons (Irenaeus i. 4. 5; Hippolytus, _Philos._ vi. 34), has
absolutely nothing to do with the Christian conceptions of salvation.
The subject is here that of a high goddess of heaven (she has 70 sons)
whose friend and lover finds her in the misery of deepest degradation,
frees her, and bears her home as his bride. To this myth the idea of
salvation through the earthly Christ can only be attached with
difficulty. And it was openly maintained that the Soter only existed for
the Gnostic, the Saviour Jesus who appeared on earth only for the
"Psychicus" (Irenaeus i. 6. 1).

VII. Thus the essential part of most of the conceptions of what we call
Gnosticism was already in existence and fully developed before the rise
of Christianity. But the fundamental ideas of Gnosticism and of early
Christianity had a kind of magnetic attraction for each other. What drew
these two forces together was the energy exerted by the universal idea
of salvation in both systems. Christian Gnosticism actually introduced
only one new figure into the already existing Gnostic theories, namely
that of the historical Saviour Jesus Christ. This figure afforded, as it
were, a new point of crystallization for the existing Gnostic ideas,
which now grouped themselves round this point in all their manifold
diversity. Thus there came into the fluctuating mass a strong movement
and formative impulse, and the individual systems and sects sprang up
like mushrooms from this soil.

It must now be our task to make plain the position of Gnosticism within
the Christian religion, and its significance for the development of the
latter. Above all the Gnostics represented and developed the distinctly
anti-Jewish tendency in Christianity. Paul was the apostle whom they
reverenced, and his spiritual influence on them is quite unmistakable.
The Gnostic Marcion has been rightly characterized as a direct disciple
of Paul. Paul's battle against the law and the narrow national
conception of Christianity found a willing following in a movement, the
syncretic origin of which directed it towards a universal religion. St
Paul's ideas were here developed to their extremest consequences, and in
an entirely one-sided fashion such as was far from being in his
intention. In nearly all the Gnostic systems the doctrine of the seven
world-creating spirits is given an anti-Jewish tendency, the god of the
Jews and of the Old Testament appearing as the highest of the seven. The
demiurge of the Valentinians always clearly bears the features of the
Old Testament creator-God.

The Old Testament was absolutely rejected by most of the Gnostics. Even
the so-called Judaeo-Christian Gnostics (Cerinthus), the Ebionite
(Essenian) sect of the Pseudo-Clementine writings (the Elkesaites), take
up an inconsistent attitude towards Jewish antiquity and the Old
Testament. In this respect the opposition to Gnosticism led to a
reactionary movement. If the growing Christian Church, in quite a
different fashion from Paul, laid stress on the literal authority of the
Old Testament, interpreted, it is true, allegorically; if it took up a
much more friendly and definite attitude towards the Old Testament, and
gave wider scope to the legal conception of religion, this must be in
part ascribed to the involuntary reaction upon it of Gnosticism.

The attitude of Gnosticism to the Old Testament and to the creator-God
proclaimed in it had its deeper roots, as we have already seen, in the
dualism by which it was dominated. With this dualism and the recognition
of the worthlessness and absolutely vicious nature of the material world
is combined a decided spiritualism. The conception of a resurrection of
the body, of a further existence for the body after death, was
unattainable by almost all of the Gnostics, with the possible exception
of a few Gnostic sects dominated by Judaeo-Christian tendencies. With
the dualistic philosophy is further connected an attitude of absolute
indifference towards this lower and material world, and the practice of
asceticism. Marriage and sexual propagation are considered either as
absolute Evil or as altogether worthless, and carnal pleasure is
frequently looked upon as forbidden. Then again asceticism sometimes
changes into wild libertinism. Here again Gnosticism has exercised an
influence on the development of the Church by way of contrast and
opposition. If here a return was made to the old material view of the
resurrection (the apostolic [Greek: anastasis tês sarkos]), entirely
abandoning the more spiritual conception which had been arrived at as a
compromise by Paul, this is probably the result of a reaction from the
views of Gnosticism. It was just at this point, too, that Gnosticism
started a development which was followed later by the Catholic Church.
In spite of the rejection of the ascetic attitude of the Gnostics, as a
blasphemy against the Creator, a part of this ascetic principle became
at a later date dominant throughout all Christendom. And it is
interesting to observe how, e.g., St Augustine, though desperately
combating the dualism of the Manichaeans, yet afterwards introduced a
number of dualistic ideas into Christianity, which are distinguishable
from those of Manichaeism only by a very keen eye, and even then with
difficulty.

The Gnostic religion also anticipated other tendencies. As we have seen,
it is above all things a religion of sacraments and mysteries. Through
its syncretic origin Gnosticism introduced for the first time into
Christianity a whole mass of sacramental, mystical ideas, which had
hitherto existed in it only in its earliest phases. But in the long run
even genuine Christianity has been unable to free itself from the magic
of the sacraments; and the Eastern Church especially has taken the same
direction as Gnosticism. Gnosticism was also the pioneer of the
Christian Church in the strong emphasis laid on the idea of salvation in
religion. And since the Gnostics were compelled to draw the figure of
the Saviour into a world of quite alien myths, their Christology became
so complicated in character that it frequently recalls the Christology
of the later dogmatic of the Greek Fathers.

Finally, it was Gnosticism which gave the most decided impulse to the
consolidation of the Christian Church as a church. Gnosticism itself is
a free, naturally-growing religion, the religion of isolated minds, of
separate little circles and minute sects. The homogeneity of wide
circles, the sense of responsibility engendered by it, and continuity
with the past are almost entirely lacking in it. It is based upon
revelation, which even at the present time is imparted to the
individual, upon the more or less convincing force of the religious
imagination and speculations of a few leaders, upon the voluntary and
unstable grouping of the schools round the master. Its adherents feel
themselves to be the isolated, the few, the free and the enlightened, as
opposed to the sluggish and inert masses of mankind degraded into
matter, or the initiated as opposed to the uninitiated, the Gnostics as
opposed to the "Hylici" ([Greek: hulikoi]); at most in the later and
more moderate schools a middle place was given to the adherents of the
Church as Psychici ([Greek: psychikoi]).

This freely-growing Gnostic religiosity aroused in the Church an
increasingly strong movement towards unity and a firm and inelastic
organization, towards authority and tradition. An organized hierarchy, a
definitive canon of the Holy Scriptures, a confession of faith and rule
of faith, and unbending doctrinal discipline, these were the means
employed. A part was also played in this movement by a free theology
which arose within the Church, itself a kind of Gnosticism which aimed
at holding fast whatever was good in the Gnostic movement, and obtaining
its recognition within the limits of the Church (Clement of Alexandria,
Origen). But the mightiest forces, to which in the end this theology too
had absolutely to give way, were outward organization and tradition.

It must be considered as an unqualified advantage for the further
development of Christianity, as a universal religion, that at its very
outset it prevailed against the great movement of Gnosticism. In spite
of the fact that in a few of its later representatives Gnosticism
assumed a more refined and spiritual aspect, and even produced blossoms
of a true and beautiful piety, it is fundamentally and essentially an
unstable religious syncretism, a religion in which the determining
forces were a fantastic oriental imagination and a sacramentalism which
degenerated into the wildest superstitions, a weak dualism fluctuating
unsteadily between asceticism and libertinism. Indirectly, however,
Gnosticism was certainly one of the most powerful factors in the
development of Christianity in the 1st century.

VIII. This sketch may be completed by a short review of the various
separate sects and their probable connexion with each other. As a point
of departure for the history of the development of Gnosticism may be
taken the numerous little sects which were apparently first included
under the name of "Gnostics" in the narrower sense. Among these probably
belong the Ophites of Celsus (in Origen), the many little sects included
by Epiphanius under the name of Nicolaitans and Gnostics (_Haer._ 25,
26); the Archontici (Epiphanius, _Haer._ xl.), Sethites (Cainites)
should also here be mentioned, and finally the Carpocratians. Common to
all these is the dominant position assumed by the "Seven" (headed by
Ialdabaoth); the heavenly world lying above the spheres of the Seven is
occupied by comparatively few figures, among which the most important
part is played by the [Greek: mêtêr], who is sometimes enthroned as the
supreme goddess in heaven, but in a few systems has already descended
from there into matter, been taken prisoner, &c. Numerous little groups
are distinguished from the mass, sometimes by one peculiarity, sometimes
by another. On the one hand we have sects with a strongly ascetic
tendency, on the other we find some characterized by unbridled
libertinism; in some the most abandoned prostitution has come to be the
most sacred mystery; in others again appears the worship of serpents,
which here appears to be connected in various and often very loose ways
with the other ideas of these Gnostics--hence the names of the
"Ophites," "Naasseni." To this class also fundamentally belong the
Simoniani, who have included the probably historical figure of Simon
Magus in a system which seems to be closely connected with those we have
mentioned, especially if we look upon the "Helena" of this system as a
mythical figure. A particular branch of the "Gnostic" sects is
represented by those systems in which the figure of Sophia sinking down
into matter already appears. To these belong the Barbelognostics (in the
description given by Irenaeus the figure of the Spirit takes the place
of that of Sophia), and the Gnostics whom Irenaeus (i. 30) describes
(cf. Epiphanius, _Haer._ xxvi.). And here may best be included
Bardesanes, a famous leader of a Gnostic school of the end of the 2nd
century. Most scholars, it is true, following an old tradition, reckon
Bardesanes among the Valentinians. But from the little we know of
Bardesanes, his system bears no trace of relationship with the
complicated Valentinian system, but is rather completely derived from
the ordinary Gnosticism, and is distinguished from it apparently only by
its more strongly dualistic character. The systems of Valentinus and his
disciples must be considered as a further development of what we have
just characterized as the popular Gnosticism, and especially of that
branch of it to which the figure of Sophia is already known. In them
above all the world of the higher aeons is further extended and filled
with a throng of varied figures. They also exhibit a variation from the
characteristic dualism of Gnosticism into monism, in their conception of
the fall of Sophia and their derivation of matter from the passions of
the fallen Sophia. The figures of the Seven have here entirely
disappeared, the remembrance of them being merely preserved in the name
of the [Greek: Dêmiourgos (hebdomas)]. In general, Valentinianism
displays a particular resemblance to the dominant ideas of the Church,
both in its complicated Christology, its triple division of mankind into
[Greek: pneumatikoi, psychikoi] and [Greek: hulikoi], and its
far-fetched interpretation of texts.[7] A quite different position from
those mentioned above is taken by Basilides (q.v.). From what little we
know of him he was an uncompromising dualist. Both the systems which are
handed down under his name by Irenaeus and Hippolytus, that of
emanations and the monistic-evolutionary system, represent further
developments of his ideas with a tendency away from dualism towards
monism. Characteristically, in these Basilidian systems the figure of
the "Mother" or of Sophia does not appear. This peculiarity the
Basilidian system shares with that of Satornil of Antioch, which has
only come down to us in a very fragmentary state, and in other respects
recalls in many ways the popular Gnosticism. By itself, on the other
hand, stands the system preserved for us by Hippolytus in the
_Philosophumena_ under the name of the Naasseni, with its central figure
of "the Man," which, as we have seen, is very closely related with
certain specifically pagan Gnostic speculations which have come down to
us (in the _Poimandres_, in Zosimus and Plotinus, _Ennead_ ii. 9). With
the Naasseni, moreover, are related also the other sects of which
Hippolytus alone gives us a notice in his _Philosophumena_ (Docetae,
Perates, Sethiani, the adherents of Justin, the Gnostic of Monoimos).
Finally, apart from all other Gnostics stands Marcion. With him, as far
as we are able to conclude from the scanty notices of him, the manifold
Gnostic speculations are reduced essentially to the one problem of the
good and the just God, the God of the Christians and the God of the Old
Testament. Between these two powers Marcion affirms a sharp and, as it
appears, originally irreconcilable dualism which with him rests moreover
on a speculative basis. Thanks to the noble simplicity and specifically
religious character of his ideas, Marcion was able to found not only
schools, but a community, a church of his own, which gave trouble to the
Church longer than any other Gnostic sect. Among his disciples the
speculative and fantastic element of Gnosticism again became more
apparent. As we have already intimated, Gnosticism had such a power of
attraction that it now drew within its limits even Judaeo-Christian
sects. Among these we must mention the Judaeo-Christian Gnostic
Cerinthus, also the Gnostic Ebionites, of whom Epiphanius (_Haer._)
gives us an account, and whose writings are to be found in a recension
in the collected works of the Pseudo-Clementine _Recognitions and
Homilies_; to the same class belong the Elkesaites with their mystical
scripture, the _Elxai_, extracts of which are given by Hippolytus in the
_Philos._ (ix. 13). Later evidence of the decadence of Gnosticism occurs
in the _Pistis-Sophia_ and the Coptic Gnostic writings discovered and
edited by Schmidt. In these confused records of human imagination gone
mad, we possess a veritable herbarium of all possible Gnostic ideas,
which were once active and now rest peacefully side by side. None the
less, the stream of the Gnostic religion is not yet dried up, but
continues on its way; and it is beyond a doubt that the later
Mandaeanism and the great religious movement of Mani are most closely
connected with Gnosticism. These manifestations are all the more
characteristic since in them we meet with a Gnosticism which remained
essentially more untouched by Christian influences than the Gnostic
systems of the 2nd century A.D. Thus these systems throw an important
light on the past, and a true perception of the nature and purpose of
Gnosticism is not to be obtained without taking them into consideration.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--A. Neander, _Genetische Entwicklung d. vornehmsten
  gnostischen Systeme_ (Berlin, 1818); F. Chr. Baur, _Die christl.
  Gnosis in ihrer geschichtl. Entwicklung_ (Tübingen, 1835); E. W.
  Möller, _Gesch. der Kosmologie in der griechischen Kirche bis
  Origenes_ (Halle, 1860); R. A. Lipsius, _Der Gnosticismus_ (Leipzig,
  1860; originally in Ersch and Gruber's _Encyclopädie_); H. L. Mansel,
  _The Gnostic Heresies of the 1st and 2nd Centuries_ (London, 1875); K.
  Kepler, _Über Gnosis und altbabylonische Religion_, a lecture
  delivered at the Congress of Orientalists (Berlin, 1881); A.
  Hilgenfeld, _Ketzergeschichte des Urchristentums_ (Leipzig, 1884); and
  in _Ztschr. für wissenschaftl. Theol._ 1890, i. "Der Gnosticismus"; A.
  Harnack, _Dogmengeschichte_, i. 271 seq. (cf. the corresponding
  sections of the _Dogmengeschichten_ of Loofs and Seeberg); W. Anz,
  "Zur Frage nach dem Ursprung des Gnosticismus," _Texte u.
  Untersuchungen_, xv. 4 (Leipzig, 1897); R. Liechtenhahn, _Die
  Offenbarung im Gnosticismus_ (Göttingen, 1901); C. Schmidt, "Plotins
  Stellung zum Gnosticismus u. kirchl. Christentum" _Texte u.
  Untersuch._ xx. 4 (1902); E. de Faye, _Introduction à l'étude du
  Gnosticisme_ (Paris, 1903); R. Reitzenstein, _Poimandres_ (Leipzig,
  1904); G. Krüger, article "Gnosticismus" in Herzog-Hauck's
  _Realencyklopädie_ (3rd ed.) vi. 728 ff.; Bousset, "Hauptprobleme der
  Gnosis," _Forschungen z. Relig. u. Lit. d. alten u. neuen Testaments_,
  10 (1907); T. Wendland, _Hellenistisch-römische Kultur in ihren
  Beziehungen zu Judentum und Christentum_ (1907), p. 161 seq. See
  further among important monographs on the individual Gnostic systems,
  R. A. Lipsius, "Die ophitischen Systeme," _Ztschr. f. wissensch.
  Theologie_ (1863); G. Heinrici, _Die valentinianische Gnosis u. d.
  Heilige Schrift_ (Berlin, 1871); A. Merx, _Bardesanes von Edessa_
  (Halle, 1863); A. Hilgenfeld, _Bardesanes, der letzte Gnostiker_
  (Leipzig, 1864); A. Harnack, "Über das gnostische Buch Pistis-Sophia,"
  _Texte u. Untersuch._ vii. 2; C. Schmidt, "Gnostische Schriften,"
  _Texte u. Untersuch._ viii. 1, 2; and also the works mentioned under §
  II. of this article.     (W. Bo.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] See the list of their titles in A. Harnack, _Geschichte der
    altchristlichen Literatur_, Teil I. v. 171; ib. Teil II. _Chronologie
    der altchristl. Literatur_, i. 533 seq.; also Liechtenhahn, _Die
    Offenbarung im Gnosticismus_ (1901).

  [2] For the text see A. Merx, _Bardesanes von Edessa_ (1863), and A.
    Hilgenfeld, _Bardesanes der letzte Gnostiker_ (1864).

  [3] Ed. Petermann-Schwartze; newly translated by C. Schmidt,
    _Koptisch-gnostische Schriften_, i. (1905), in the series _Die
    griechischen christlichen Schriftsteller der ersten drei
    Jahrhunderte_; see also A. Harnack, _Texte und Untersuchungen_, Bd.
    vii. Heft 2 (1891), and _Chronologie der altchristlichen Literatur_,
    ii. 193-195.

  [4] See R. A. Lipsius, _Die Quellen der ältesten Ketzergeschichte_
    (1875); A. Harnack, _Zur Quellenkritik der Geschichte des
    Gnosticismus_ (1873); A. Hilgenfeld, _Ketzergeschichte_, pp. 1-83;
    Harnack, _Geschichte der altchristlich. Literatur_, i. 171 seq., ii.
    533 seq., 712 seq.; J. Kunze, _De historiae Gnostic. fontibus_
    (1894). On the _Philosophumena_ of Hippolytus see G. Salmon, the
    cross-references in the Philosophumena, _Hermathena_, vol. xi. (1885)
    p. 5389 seq.; H. Staehelin, _Die gnostischen Quellen Hippolyts_,
    _Texte und Unters._ Bd. vi. Hft. 3 (1890).

  [5] Cf. the same idea of the fall of mankind in the pagan Gnosticism
    of "Poimandres"; see Reitzenstein, _Poimandres_ (1904); and the
    position of the Primal Man (_Urmensch_) among the Manichaeans is
    similar.

  [6] These ideas may possibly be traced still further back, and
    perhaps even underlie St Paul's exposition in Col. ii. 15.

  [7] For the disciples of Valentinus, especially Marcus, after whom
    was named a separate sect, the Marcosians, with their Pythagorean
    theories of numbers and their strong tincture of the mystical, magic,
    and sacramental, see VALENTINUS AND VALENTINIANS.



GNU, the Hottentot name for the large white-tailed South African
antelope (q.v.), now nearly extinct, know to the Boers as the black
wildebeest, and to naturalists as Connochaetes (or Catoblepas) gnu. A
second and larger species is the brindled gnu or blue wildebeest (_C.
taurinus_ or _Catoblepas gorgon_), also known by the Bechuana name
_kokon_ or _kokoon_; and there are several East African forms more or
less closely related to the latter which have received distinct names.

[Illustration: White-tailed Gnu, or Black Wildebeest (_Connochaetes
gnu_).]



GO, or GO-BANG (Jap. _Go-ban_, board for playing _Go_), a popular table
game. It is of great antiquity, having been invented in Japan, according
to tradition, by the emperor Yao, 2350 B.C., but it is probably of
Chinese origin. According to Falkener the first historical mention of it
was made about the year 300 B.C., but there is abundant evidence that it
was a popular game long before that period. The original Japanese Go is
played on a board divided into squares by 19 horizontal and 19 vertical
lines, making 361 intersections, upon which the flat round men, 181
white and 181 black, are placed one by one as the game proceeds. The men
are placed by the two players on any intersections (_me_) that may seem
advantageous, the object being to surround with one's men as many
unoccupied intersections as possible, the player enclosing the greater
number of vacant points being the winner. Completely surrounded men are
captured and removed from the board. This game is played in England upon
a board divided into 361 squares, the men being placed upon these
instead of upon the intersections.

A much simpler variety of Go, mostly played by foreigners, has for its
object to get five men into line. This may have been the earliest form
of the game, as the word _go_ means five. Except in Japan it is often
played on an ordinary draughts-board, and the winner is he who first
gets five men into line, either vertically, horizontally or diagonally.

  See _Go-Bang_, by A. Howard Cady, in Spalding's Home Library (New
  York, 1896); _Games Ancient and Oriental_, by Edward Falkener (London,
  1892); _Das japan.-chinesische Spiel Go_, by O. Korschelt (Yokohama,
  1881); _Das Nationalspiel der Japanesen_, by G. Schurig (Leipzig,
  1888).



GOA, the name of the past and present capitals of Portuguese India, and
of the surrounding territory more exactly described as Goa settlement,
which is situated on the western coast of India, between 15° 44' and 14°
53' N., and between 73° 45' and 74° 26' E. Pop. (1900) 475,513, area
1301 sq. m.

_Goa Settlement._--With Damaun (q.v.) and Diu (q.v.) Goa settlement
forms a single administrative province ruled by a governor-general, and
a single ecclesiastical province subject to the archbishop of Goa; for
judicial purposes the province includes Macao in China, and Timor in the
Malay Archipelago. It is bounded on the N. by the river Terakhul or
Araundem, which divides it from the Sawantwari state, E. by the Western
Ghats, S. by Kanara district, and W. by the Arabian Sea. It comprises
the three districts of Ilhas, Bardez and Salsette, conquered early in
the 16th century and therefore known as the Velhas Conquistas (Old
Conquests), seven districts acquired later and known as the Novas
Conquistas, and the island of Anjidiv or Anjadiva. The settlement, which
has a coast-line of 62 m., is a hilly region, especially the Novas
Conquistas; its distinguishing features are the Western Ghats, though
the highest summits nowhere reach an altitude of 4000 ft., and the
island of Goa. Numerous short but navigable rivers water the lowlands
skirting the coast. The two largest rivers are the Mandavi and the
Juari, which together encircle the island of Goa (Ilhas), being
connected on the landward side by a creek. The island (native name
Tisvadi, Tissuvaddy, Tissuary) is a triangular territory, the apex of
which, called the _cabo_ or cape, is a rocky headland separating the
harbour of Goa into two anchorages--Agoada or Aguada at the mouth of the
Mandavi, on the north, and Mormugão or Marmagão at the mouth of the
Juari, on the south. The northern haven is exposed to the full force of
the south-west monsoon, and is liable to silt up during the rains. The
southern, sheltered by the promontory of Salsette, is always open, but
is less used, owing to its greater distance from the city of Goa, which
is built on the island. A railway connects Mormagão, south of the Juari
estuary, with Castle Rock on the Western Ghats. Goa imports textiles
and foodstuffs, and exports coco-nuts, areca-nuts, spices, fish, poultry
and timber. Its trade is carried on almost entirely with Bombay, Madras,
Kathiawar and Portugal. Manganese is mined in large quantities, some
iron is obtained, and other products are salt, palm-spirit, betel and
bananas.

_Cities of Goa._--1. The ancient Hindu city of Goa, of which hardly a
fragment survives, was built at the southernmost point of the island,
and was famous in early Hindu legend and history for its learning,
wealth and beauty. In the Puranas and certain inscriptions its name
appears as Gove, Govapuri, Gomant, &c.; the medieval Arabian geographers
knew it as Sindabur or Sandabur, and the Portuguese as Goa Velha. It was
ruled by the Kadamba dynasty from the 2nd century A.D. to 1312, and by
Mahommedan invaders of the Deccan from 1312 until about 1370, during
which period it was visited and described by Ibn Batuta. It was then
annexed to the Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar, of which, according to
Ferishta, it still formed part in 1469, when it was conquered by the
Bahmani sultan of the Deccan; but two of the best Portuguese chroniclers
state that it became independent in 1440, when the second city (Old Goa)
was founded.

2. Old Goa is, for the most part, a city of ruins without inhabitants
other than ecclesiastics and their dependents. The chief surviving
buildings are the cathedral, founded by Albuquerque in 1511 to
commemorate his entry into Goa on St Catherine's day 1510, and rebuilt
in 1623, and still used for public worship; the convent of St Francis
(1517), a converted mosque rebuilt in 1661, with a portal of carved
black stone, which is the only relic of Portuguese architecture in India
dating from the first quarter of the 16th century; the chapel of St
Catherine (1551); the church of Bom Jesus (1594-1603), a superb example
of Renaissance architecture as developed by the Jesuits, containing the
magnificent shrine and tomb of St Francis Xavier (see XAVIER, FRANCISCO
DE); and the 17th-century convents of St Monica and St Cajetan. The
college of St Paul (see below) is in ruins.

3. Panjim, Pangim or New Goa, originally a suburb of Old Goa, is, like
the parent city, built on the left bank of the Mandavi estuary, in 15°
30' N. and 73° 33' E. Pop. (1901) 9500. It is a modern port with few
pretensions to architectural beauty. Ships of the largest size can
anchor in the river, but only small vessels can load or discharge at the
quay. Panjim became the residence of the viceroy in 1759 and the capital
of Portuguese India in 1843. It possesses a lyceum, a school for
teachers, a seminary, a technical school and an experimental
agricultural station.

_Political History._--With the subdivision of the Bahmani kingdom, after
1482, Goa passed into the power of Yusuf Adil Shah, king of Bijapur, who
was its ruler when the Portuguese first reached India. At this time Goa
was important as the starting-point of pilgrims from India to Mecca, as
a mart with no rival except Calicut on the west coast, and especially as
the centre of the import trade in horses (Gulf Arabs) from Hormuz, the
control of which was a vital matter to the kingdoms warring in the
Deccan. It was easily defensible by any power with command of the sea,
as the encircling rivers could only be forded at one spot, and had been
deliberately stocked with crocodiles. It was attacked on the 10th of
February 1510 by the Portuguese under Albuquerque. As a Hindu ascetic
had foretold its downfall and the garrison of Ottoman mercenaries was
outnumbered, the city surrendered without a struggle, and Albuquerque
entered it in triumph, while the Hindu townsfolk strewed filagree
flowers of gold and silver before his feet. Three months later Yusuf
Adil Shah returned with 60,000 troops, forced the passage of the ford,
and blockaded the Portuguese in their ships from May to August, when the
cessation of the monsoon enabled them to put to sea. In November
Albuquerque returned with a larger force, and after overcoming a
desperate resistance, recaptured the city, permitted his soldiers to
plunder it for three days, and massacred the entire Mahommedan
population.

Goa was the first territorial possession of the Portuguese in Asia.
Albuquerque intended it to be a colony and a naval base, as distinct
from the fortified factories which had been established in certain
Indian seaports. He encouraged his men to marry native women, and to
settle in Goa as farmers, retail traders or artisans. These married men
soon became a privileged caste, and Goa acquired a large Eurasian
population. Albuquerque and his successors left almost untouched the
customs and constitutions of the 30 village communities on the island,
only abolishing the rite of suttee. A register of these customs (_Foral
de usos e costumes_) was published in 1526, and is an historical
document of much value; an abstract of it is given in R. S. Whiteway's
_Rise of the Portuguese Empire in India_ (London, 1898).

Goa became the capital of the whole Portuguese empire in the East. It
was granted the same civic privileges as Lisbon. Its senate or municipal
chamber maintained direct communications with the king and paid a
special representative to attend to its interests at court. In 1563 the
governor even proposed to make Goa the seat of a parliament, in which
all parts of the Portuguese east were to be represented; this was vetoed
by the king.

In 1542 St Francis Xavier mentions the architectural splendour of the
city; but it reached the climax of its prosperity between 1575 and 1625.
_Goa Dourada_, or Golden Goa, was then the wonder of all travellers, and
there was a Portuguese proverb, "He who has seen Goa need not see
Lisbon." Merchandise from all parts of the East was displayed in its
bazaar, and separate streets were set aside for the sale of different
classes of goods--Bahrein pearls and coral, Chinese porcelain and silk,
Portuguese velvet and piece-goods, drugs and spices from the Malay
Archipelago. In the main street slaves were sold by auction. The houses
of the rich were surrounded by gardens and palm groves; they were built
of stone and painted red or white. Instead of glass, their balconied
windows had thin polished oyster-shells set in lattice-work.

The social life of Goa was brilliant, as befitted the headquarters of
the viceregal court, the army and navy, and the church; but the luxury
and ostentation of all classes had become a byword before the end of the
16th century. Almost all manual labour was done by slaves; common
soldiers assumed high-sounding titles, and it was even customary for the
poor noblemen who congregated together in boarding-houses to subscribe
for a few silken cloaks, a silken umbrella and a common man-servant, so
that each could take his turn to promenade the streets, fashionably
attired and with a proper escort. There were huge gambling saloons,
licensed by the municipality, where determined players lodged for weeks
together; and every form of vice, except drunkenness, was practised by
both sexes, although European women were forced to lead a kind of zenana
life, and never ventured unveiled into the streets; they even attended
at church in their palanquins, so as to avoid observation.

The appearance of the Dutch in Indian waters was followed by the gradual
ruin of Goa. In 1603 and 1639 the city was blockaded by Dutch fleets,
though never captured, and in 1635 it was ravaged by an epidemic. Its
trade was gradually monopolized by the Jesuits. Thevenot in 1666,
Baldaeus in 1672, Fryer in 1675 describe its ever-increasing poverty and
decay. In 1683 only the timely appearance of a Mogul army saved it from
capture by a horde of Mahratta raiders, and in 1739 the whole territory
was attacked by the same enemies, and only saved by the unexpected
arrival of a new viceroy with a fleet. This peril was always imminent
until 1759, when a peace with the Mahrattas was concluded. In the same
year the proposal to remove the seat of government to Panjim was carried
out; it had been discussed as early as 1684. Between 1695 and 1775 the
population dwindled from 20,000 to 1600, and in 1835 Goa was only
inhabited by a few priests, monks and nuns.

_Ecclesiastical History._--Some Dominican friars came out to Goa in
1510, but no large missionary enterprise was undertaken before the
arrival of the Franciscans in 1517. From their headquarters in Goa the
Franciscan preachers visited many parts of western India, and even
journeyed to Ceylon, Pegu and the Malay Archipelago. For nearly
twenty-five years they carried on the work of evangelization almost
alone, with such success that in 1534 Pope Paul III. made Goa a
bishopric, with spiritual jurisdiction over all Portuguese possessions
between China and the Cape of Good Hope, though itself suffragan to the
archbishopric of Funchal in Madeira. A Franciscan friar, João de
Albuquerque, came to Goa as its first bishop in 1538. In 1542 St Francis
Xavier came to Goa, and took over the Franciscan college of Santa Fé,
for the training of native missionaries; this was renamed the College of
St Paul, and became the headquarters of all Jesuit missions in the East,
where the Jesuits were commonly styled _Paulistas_. By a Bull dated the
4th of February 1557 Goa was made an archbishopric, with jurisdiction
over the sees of Malacca and Cochin, to which were added Macao (1575),
Japan (1588), Angamale or Cranganore (1600), Meliapur (Mylapur) (1606),
Peking and Nanking (1610), together with the bishopric of Mozambique,
which included the entire coast of East Africa. In 1606 the archbishop
received the title of Primate of the East, and the king of Portugal was
named Patron of the Catholic Missions in the East; his right of
patronage was limited by the Concordat of 1857 to Goa, Malacca, Macao
and certain parts of British India. The Inquisition was introduced into
Goa in 1560: a vivid account of its proceedings is given by C. Dellon,
_Relation de l'inquisition de Goa_ (1688). Five ecclesiastical councils,
which dealt with matters of discipline, were held at Goa--in 1567, 1575,
1585, 1592 and 1606; the archbishop of Goa also presided over the more
important synod of Diamper (Udayamperur, about 12 m. S.E. of Cochin),
which in 1599 condemned as heretical the tenets and liturgy of the
Indian Nestorians, or Christians of St Thomas (q.v.). In 1675 Fryer
described Goa as "a Rome in India, both for absoluteness and fabrics,"
and Hamilton states that early in the 18th century the number of
ecclesiastics in the settlement had reached the extraordinary total of
30,000. But the Jesuits were expelled in 1759, and by 1800 Goa had lost
much even of its ecclesiastical importance. The Inquisition was
abolished in 1814 and the religious orders were secularized in 1835.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--J. N. da Fonseca, _An Historical and Archaeological
  Sketch of Goa_ (Bombay, 1878) is a minute study of the city from the
  earliest times, illustrated. For the early history of Portuguese rule
  the chief authorities are _The Commentaries ... of Dalboquerque_
  (Hakluyt Society's translation, London, 1877), the _Cartas_ of
  Albuquerque (Lisbon, 1884), the _Historia ... da India_ of F. L. de
  Castanheda (Lisbon, 1833, written before 1552), the _Lendas da India
  of G. Correa_ (Lisbon, 1860, written 1514-1566), and the _Decadas da
  India_ of João de Barros and D. do Couto (Lisbon, 1778-1788, written
  about 1530-1616). Couto's _Soldado pratico_ (Lisbon, 1790) and S.
  Botelho's _Cartas and Tombo_, written 1547-1554, published in
  "Subsidios" of the Lisbon Academy (1868), are valuable studies of
  military life and administration. The _Archivo Portuguez oriental_ (6
  parts, New Goa, 1857-1877) is a most useful collection of documents
  dating from 1515; part 2 contains the privileges, &c. of the city of
  Goa, and part 4 contains the minutes of the ecclesiastical councils
  and of the synod of Diamper. The social life of Goa has been
  graphically described by many writers; see especially the travels of
  Varthema (c. 1505), Linschoten (c. 1580), Pyrard (1608) in the Hakluyt
  Society's translations; J. Mocquet, _Voyages_ (Paris, 1830, written
  1608-1610); P. Baldaeus, in _Churchill's Voyages_, vol. 3 (London,
  1732); J. Fryer, _A New Account of East India and Persia_ (London,
  1698); A. de Mandelslo, _Voyages_ (London, 1669); _Les Voyages de M.
  de Thevenot aux Indes Orientales_ (Amsterdam, 1779), and A. Hamilton,
  _A New Account of the East Indies_ (London, 1774). For Goa in the 20th
  century see _The Imperial Gazetteer of India_.     (K. G. J.)



GOAL, originally an object set up as the place where a race ends, the
winning-post, and so used figuratively of the end to which any effort is
directed. It is thus used to translate the Lat. _meta_, the boundary
pillar, set one at each end of the circus to mark the turning-point. The
word was quite early used in various games for the two posts, with or
without a cross-bar, through or over which the ball has to be driven to
score a point towards winning the game. The _New English Dictionary_
quotes the use in Richard Stanyhurst's _Description of Ireland_ (1577);
but the word _gol_ in the sense of a boundary appears as early as the
beginning of the 14th century in the religious poems of William de
Shoreham (c. 1315). The origin of the word is obscure. It is usually
taken to be derived from a French word _gaule_, meaning a pole or stick,
but this meaning does not appear in the English usage, nor does the
usual English meaning appear in the French. There is an O. Eng.
_gaélan_, to hinder, which may point to a lost _gál_, barrier, but there
is no evidence in other Teutonic languages for such a word.



GOALPARA, a town and district of British India, in the Brahmaputra
valley division of eastern Bengal and Assam. The town (pop. 6287)
overlooks the Brahmaputra. It was the frontier outpost of the Mahommedan
power, and has long been a flourishing seat of river trade. The civil
station is built on the summit of a small hill commanding a magnificent
view of the valley of the Brahmaputra, bounded on the north by the snowy
ranges of the Himalayas and on the south by the Garo hills. The native
town is built on the western slope of the hill, and the lower portion is
subject to inundation from the marshy land which extends in every
direction. It has declined in importance since the district headquarters
were removed to Dhubri in 1879, and it suffered severely from the
earthquake of the 12th of June 1897.

The DISTRICT comprises an area of 3961 sq. m. It is situated along the
Brahmaputra, at the corner where the river takes its southerly course
from Assam into Bengal. The scenery is striking. Along the banks of the
river grow clumps of cane and reed; farther back stretch fields of rice
cultivation, broken only by the fruit trees surrounding the villages,
and in the background rise the forest-clad hills overtopped by the white
peaks of the Himalayas. The soil of the hills is of a red ochreous
earth, with blocks of granite and sandstone interspersed; that of the
plains is of alluvial formation. Earthquakes are common and occasionally
severe shocks have been experienced. The Brahmaputra annually inundates
vast tracts of country. Numerous extensive forests yield valuable
timber. Wild animals of all kinds are found. In 1901 the population was
462,083, showing an increase of 2% in the decade. Rice forms the staple
crop. Mustard and jute are also largely grown. The manufactures consist
of the making of brass and iron utensils and of gold and silver
ornaments, weaving of silk cloth, basket-work and pottery. The
cultivation of tea has been introduced but does not flourish anywhere in
the district. Local trade is in the hands of Marwari merchants, and is
carried on at the _bazars_, weekly _hats_ or markets and periodical
fairs. The chief exports are mustard-seed, jute, cotton, timber, lac,
silk cloth, india-rubber and tea; the imports, Bengal rice, European
piece goods, salt, hardware, oil and tobacco.

Dhubri (pop. 3737), the administrative headquarters of the district,
stands on the Brahmaputra where that river takes its great bend south.
It is the termination of the emigration road from North Bengal and of
the river steamers that connect with the North Bengal railway. It is
also served by the eastern Bengal State railway.



GOAT (a common Teut. word; O. Eng. _gát_, Goth. _gaits_, Mod. Ger.
_Geiss_, cognate with Lat. _haedus_, a kid), properly the name of the
well-known domesticated European ruminant (_Capra hircus_), which has
for all time been regarded as the emblem of everything that is evil, in
contradistinction to the sheep, which is the symbol of excellence and
purity. Although the more typical goats are markedly distinct from
sheep, there is, both as regards wild and domesticated forms, an almost
complete gradation from goats to sheep, so that it is exceedingly
difficult to define either group. The position of the genus _Capra_ (to
all the members of which, as well as some allied species, the name
"goat" in its wider sense is applicable) in the family _Bovidae_ is
indicated in the article BOVIDAE, and some of the distinctions between
goats and sheep are mentioned in the article SHEEP. Here then it will
suffice to mention that goats are characterized by the strong and
offensive odour of the males, which are furnished with a beard on the
chin; while as a general rule glands are present between the middle toes
of the fore feet only.

Goats, in the wild state, are an exclusively old-world group, of which
the more typical forms are confined to Europe and south-western and
central Asia, although there are two outlying species in northern
Africa. The wild goat, or pasang, is represented in Europe in the
Cyclades and Crete by rather small races. more or less mingled with
domesticated breeds, the Cretan animal being distinguished as _Capra
hircus creticus_; but the large typical race _C. h. aegagrus_ is met
with in the mountains of Asia Minor and Persia, whence it extends to
Sind, where it is represented by a somewhat different race known as _C.
h. blythi_. The horns of the old bucks are of great length and beauty,
and characterized by their bold scimitar-like backward sweep and sharp
front edge, interrupted at irregular intervals by knots or bosses.
Domesticated goats have run wild in many islands, such as the Hebrides,
Shetland, Canaries, Azores, Ascension and Juan Fernandez. Some of these
reverted breeds have developed horns of considerable size, although not
showing that regularity of curve distinctive of the wild race. In the
Azores the horns are remarkably upright and straight, whence the name of
"antelope-goat" which has been given to these animals. The concretions
known as _bezoar-stones_, formerly much used in medicine and as
antidotes of poison, are obtained from the stomach of the wild goat.

Although there have in all probability been more or less important local
crosses with other wild species, there can be no doubt that domesticated
goats generally are descended from the wild goat. It is true that many
tame goats show spirally twisted horns recalling those of the
under-mentioned Asiatic markhor; but in nearly all such instances it
will be found that the spiral twists in the opposite direction. Among
the domesticated breeds the following are some of the more important.

Firstly, we have the common or European goats, of which there are
several more or less well-marked breeds, differing from each other in
length of hair, in colour and slightly in the configuration of the
horns. The ears are more or less upright, sometimes horizontal, but
never actually pendent, as in some Asiatic breeds. The horns are rather
flat at the base and not unfrequently corrugated; they rise vertically
from the head, curving to the rear, and are more or less laterally
inclined. The colour varies from dirty white to dark-brown, but when
pure-bred is never black, which indicates eastern blood. Most European
countries possess more than one description of the common goat. In the
British Isles there are two distinct types, one short and the other long
haired. In the former the hair is thick and close, with frequently an
under-coat resembling wool. The horns are large in the male, and of
moderate size in the female, flat at the base and inclining outwards.
The head is short and tapering, the forehead flat and wide, and the nose
small; while the legs are strong, thick and well covered with hair. The
colour varies from white or grey to black, but is frequently fawn, with
a dark line down the spine and another across the shoulders. The other
variety has a shaggy coat, generally reddish-black, though sometimes
grey or pied and occasionally white. The head is long, heavy and ugly,
the nose coarse and prominent, with the horns situated close together,
often continuing parallel almost to the extremities, being also large,
corrugated and pointed. The legs are long and the sides flat, the animal
itself being generally gaunt and thin. This breed is peculiar to
Ireland, the Welsh being of a similar type, but more often white. The
short-haired goat is the English goat proper. Both British breeds, as
well as those from abroad, are frequently ornamented with two
tassel-like appendages, hanging near together under the throat. It has
been supposed by many that these are traceable to foreign blood; but
although there are foreign breeds that possess them, they appear to
pertain quite as much to the English native breeds as to those of
distant countries, the peculiarity being mentioned in very old works on
the goats of the British Islands. The milk-produce in the common goat as
well as other kinds varies greatly with individuals. Irish goats often
yield a quantity of milk, but the quality is poor. The goats of France
are similar to those of Britain, varying in length of hair, colour and
character of horns. The Norway breed is frequently white with long hair;
it is rather small in size, with small bones, a short rounded body, head
small with a prominent forehead, and short, straight, corrugated horns.
The facial line is concave. The horns of the males are very large, and
curve round after the manner of the wild goat, with a tuft of hair
between and in front.

The Maltese goat has the ears long, wide and hanging down below the jaw.
The hair is long and cream-coloured. The breed is usually hornless.

The Syrian goat is met with in various parts of the East, in Lower
Egypt, on the shores of the Indian Ocean and in Madagascar. The hair and
ears are excessively long, the latter so much so that they are sometimes
clipped to prevent their being torn by stones or thorny shrubs. The
horns are somewhat erect and spiral, with an outward bend.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Male Angora Goat.]

The Angora goat is often confounded with the Kashmir, but is in reality
quite distinct. The principal feature of this breed, of which there are
two or three varieties, is the length and quantity of the hair, which
has a particularly soft and silky texture, covering the whole body and a
great part of the legs with close matted ringlets. The horns of the male
differ from those of the female, being directed vertically and in shape
spiral, whilst in the female they have a horizontal tendency, somewhat
like those of a ram. The coat is composed of two kinds of hair, the one
short and coarse and of the character of hair, which lies close to the
skin, the other long and curly and of the nature of wool, forming the
outer covering. Both are used by the manufacturer, but the exterior
portion, which makes up by far the greater bulk, is much the more
valuable. The process of shearing takes place in early spring, the
average amount of wool yielded by each animal being about 2½ lb. The
best quality comes from castrated males, females producing the next
best.

The breed was introduced at the Cape about 1864. The Angora is a bad
milker and an indifferent mother, but its flesh is better than that of
any other breed, and in its native country is preferred to mutton. The
kids are born small, but grow fast, and arrive early at maturity. The
Kashmir, or rather Tibet, goat has a delicate head, with semi-pendulous
ears, which are both long and wide. The hair varies in length, and is
coarse and of different colours according to the individual. The horns
are very erect, and sometimes slightly spiral, inclining inwards and to
such an extent in some cases as to cross. The coat is composed, as in
the Angora, of two materials; but in this breed it is the under-coat
that partakes of the nature of wool and is valued as an article of
commerce. This under-coat, or _pushm_, which is of a uniform
greyish-white tint, whatever the colour of the hair may be, is
beautifully soft and silky, and of a fluffy description resembling down.
It makes its appearance in the autumn, and continues to grow until the
following spring, when, if not removed, it falls off naturally; its
collection then commences, occupying from eight to ten days. The animal
undergoes during that time a process of combing by which all the wool
and a portion of the hair, which of necessity comes with it, is removed.
The latter is afterwards carefully separated, when the fleece in a good
specimen weighs about half a pound. This is the material of which the
far-famed and costly shawls are made, which at one time had such a
demand that, it is stated, 16,000 looms were kept in constant work at
Kashmir in their manufacture. Those goats having a short, neat head,
long, thin, ears, a delicate skin, small bones, and a long heavy coat,
are for this purpose deemed the best. There are several varieties
possessing this valuable quality, but those of Kashmir, Tibet and
Mongolia are the most esteemed.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Nubian Goat.]

The Nubian goat, which is met with in Nubia, Upper Egypt and Abyssinia,
differs greatly in appearance from those previously described. The coat
of the female is extremely short, almost like that of a race-horse, and
the legs are long. This breed therefore stands considerably higher than
the common goat. One of its peculiarities is the convex profile of the
face, the forehead being prominent and the nostrils sunk in, the nose
itself extremely small, and the lower lip projecting from the upper. The
ears are long, broad and thin, and hang down by the side of the head
like a lop-eared rabbit. The horns are black, slightly twisted and very
short, flat at the base, pointed at the tips, and recumbent on the head.
Among goats met with in England a good many show signs of a more or less
remote cross with this breed, derived probably from specimens brought
from the East on board ships for supplying milk during the voyage.

The Theban goat, of the Sudan, which is hornless, displays the
characteristic features of the last in an exaggerated degree, and in the
form of the head and skull is very sheep-like.

The Nepal goat appears to be a variety of the Nubian breed, having the
same arched facial line, pendulous ears and long legs. The horns,
however, are more spiral. The colour of the hair, which is longer than
in the Nubian, is black, grey or white, with black blotches.

Lastly the Guinea goat is a dwarf breed originally from the coast whence
its name is derived. There are three varieties. Besides the commonest
_Capra recurva_, there is a rarer breed, _Capra depressa_, inhabiting
the Mauritius and the islands of Bourbon and Madagascar. The other
variety is met with along the White Nile, in Lower Egypt, and at various
points on the African coast of the Mediterranean.

As regards wild goats other than the representatives of _Capra hircus_,
the members of the ibex-group are noticed under IBEX, while another
distinctive type receives mention under MARKHOR. The ibex are connected
with the wild goat by means of _Capra nubiana_, in which the front edge
of the horns is thinner than in either the European _C. ibex_ or the
Asiatic _C. sibirica_; while the Spanish _C. pyrenaica_ shows how the
ibex-type of horn may pass into the spirally twisted one distinctive of
the markhor, _C. falconeri_. In the article IBEX mention is made of the
Caucasus ibex, or tur, _C. caucasica_, as an aberrant member of that
group, but beside this animal the Caucasus is the home of another very
remarkable goat, or tur, known as _C. pallasi_. In this ruminant, which
is of a dark-brown colour, the relatively smooth black horns diverge
outwards in a manner resembling those of the bharal among the sheep
rather than in goat-fashion; and, in fact, this tur, which has only a
very short beard, is so bharal-like that it is commonly called by
sportsmen the Caucasian bharal. It is one of the species which render
it so difficult to give a precise definition of either sheep or goats.

The short-horned Asiatic goats of the genus _Hemitragus_ receive mention
in the article TAHR; but it may be added that fossil species of the same
genus are known from the Lower Pliocene formations of India, which have
also yielded remains of a goat allied to the markhor of the Himalayas.
The Rocky Mountain goat (q.v.) of America has no claim to be regarded as
a member of the goat-group.

  For full descriptions of the various wild species, see R. Lydekker,
  _Wild Oxen, Sheep, and Goats_ (London, 1898).     (R. L.*)



GOATSUCKER, a bird from very ancient times absurdly believed to have the
habit implied by the common name it bears in many European tongues
besides English--as testified by the Gr.[Greek: aigothêlas], the Lat.
_caprimulgus_, Ital. _succiacapre_, Span. _chotacabras_, Fr.
_tettechèvre_, and Ger. _Ziegenmelker_. The common goatsucker
(_Caprimulgus europaeus_, Linn.), is admittedly the type of a very
peculiar and distinct family, _Caprimulgidae_, a group remarkable for the
flat head, enormously wide mouth, large eyes, and soft, pencilled plumage
of its members, which vary in size from a lark to a crow. Its position
has been variously assigned by systematists. Though now judiciously
removed from the _Passeres_, in which Linnaeus placed all the species
known to him, Huxley considered it to form, with two other families--the
swifts (_Cypselidae_) and humming-birds (_Trochilidae_)--the division
_Cypselomorphae_ of his larger group Aegithognathae, which is equivalent
in the main to the Linnaean _Passeres_. There are two ways of regarding
the _Caprimulgidae_--one including the genus _Podargus_ and its allies,
the other recognizing them as a distinct family, _Podargidae_. As a
matter of convenience we shall here comprehend these last in the
_Caprimulgidae_, which will then contain two subfamilies, _Caprimulginae_
and _Podarginae_; for what, according to older authors, constitutes a
third, though represented only by _Steatornis_, the singular oil-bird, or
guacharo, certainly seems to require separation as an independent family
(see GUACHERO).

[Illustration: Common Goatsucker.]

Some of the differences between the _Caprimulginae_ and _Podarginae_
have been pointed out by Sclater (_Proc. Zool. Soc._, 1866, p. 123), and
are very obvious. In the former, the outer toes have _four_ phalanges
only, thus presenting a very uncommon character among birds, and the
middle claws are pectinated; while in the latter the normal number of
five phalanges is found, and the claws are smooth, and other
distinctions more recondite have also been indicated by him (_tom. cit._
p. 582). The Caprimulginae may be further divided into those having the
gape thickly beset by strong bristles, and those in which there are few
such bristles or none--the former containing the genera _Caprimulgus_,
_Antrostomus_, _Nyctidromus_ and others, and the latter _Podargus_,
_Chordiles_, _Lyncornis_ and a few more.

The common goatsucker of Europe (_C. europaeus_) arrives late in spring
from its winter-retreat in Africa, and its presence is soon made known
by its habit of chasing its prey, consisting chiefly of moths and
cockchafers, in the evening-twilight. As the season advances the song
of the cock, from its singularity, attracts attention amid all rural
sounds. This song seems to be always uttered when the bird is at rest,
though the contrary has been asserted, and is the continuous repetition
of a single burring note, as of a thin lath fixed at one end and in a
state of vibration at the other, and loud enough to reach in still
weather a distance of half-a-mile or more. On the wing, while toying
with its mate, or performing its rapid evolutions round the trees where
it finds its food, it has the habit of occasionally producing another
and equally extraordinary sound, sudden and short, but somewhat
resembling that made by swinging a thong in the air, though whether this
noise proceeds from its mouth is not ascertained. In general its flight
is silent, but at times when disturbed from its repose, its wings may be
heard to smite together. The goatsucker, or, to use perhaps its commoner
English name, nightjar,[1] passes the day in slumber, crouching on the
ground or perching on a tree--in the latter case sitting not across the
branch but lengthways, with its head lower than its body. In hot
weather, however, its song may sometimes be heard by day and even at
noontide, but it is then uttered, as it were, drowsily, and without the
vigour that characterizes its crepuscular or nocturnal performance.
Towards evening the bird becomes active, and it seems to pursue its prey
throughout the night uninterruptedly, or only occasionally pausing for a
few seconds to alight on a bare spot--a pathway or road--and then
resuming its career. It is one of the few birds that absolutely make no
nest, but lays its pair of beautifully-marbled eggs on the ground,
generally where the herbage is short, and often actually on the soil. So
light is it that the act of brooding, even where there is some vegetable
growth, produces no visible depression of the grass, moss or lichens on
which the eggs rest, and the finest sand equally fails to exhibit a
trace of the parental act. Yet scarcely any bird shows greater local
attachment, and the precise site chosen one year is almost certain to be
occupied the next. The young, covered when hatched with dark-spotted
down, are not easily found, nor are they more easily discovered on
becoming fledged, for their plumage almost entirely resembles that of
the adults, being a mixture of reddish-brown, grey and black, blended
and mottled in a manner that passes description. They soon attain their
full size and power of flight, and then take to the same manner of life
as their parents. In autumn all leave their summer haunts for the south,
but the exact time of their departure has hardly been ascertained. The
habits of the nightjar, as thus described, seem to be more or less
essentially those of the whole subfamily--the differences observable
being apparently less than are found in other groups of birds of similar
extent.

A second species of goatsucker (_C. ruficollis_), which is somewhat
larger, and has the neck distinctly marked with rufous, is a summer
visitant to the south-western parts of Europe, and especially to Spain
and Portugal. The occurrence of a single example of this bird at
Killingworth, near Newcastle-on-Tyne, in October 1856, has been recorded
by Mr Hancock (_Ibis_, 1862, p. 39); but the season of its appearance
argues the probability of its being but a casual straggler from its
proper home. Many other species of _Caprimulgus_ inhabit Africa, Asia
and their islands, while one (_C. macrurus_) is found in Australia. Very
nearly allied to this genus is _Antrostomus_, an American group
containing many species, of which the chuck-will's-widow (_A.
carolinensis_) and the whip-poor-will (_A. vociferus_) of the eastern
United States (the latter also reaching Canada) are familiar examples.
Both these birds take their common name from the cry they utter, and
their habits seem to be almost identical, with those of the old world
goatsuckers. Passing over some other forms which need not here be
mentioned, the genus _Nyctidromus_, though consisting of only one
species (_N. albicollis_) which inhabits Central and part of South
America, requires remark, since it has tarsi of sufficient length to
enable it to run swiftly on the ground, while the legs of most birds of
the family are so short that they can make but a shuffling progress.
_Heleothreptes_, with the unique form of wing possessed by the male,
needs mention. Notice must also be taken of two African species,
referred by some ornithologists to as many genera (_Macrodipteryx_ and
_Cosmetornis_), though probably one genus would suffice for both. The
males of each of them are characterized by the wonderful development of
the ninth primary in either wing, which reaches in fully adult specimens
the extraordinary length of 17 in. or more. The former of these birds,
the _Caprimulgus macrodipterus_ of Adam Afzelius, is considered to
belong to the west coast of Africa, and the shaft of the elongated
remiges is bare for the greater part of its length, retaining the web,
in a spatulate form, only near the tip. The latter, to which the
specific name of _vexillarius_ was given by John Gould, has been found
on the east coast of that continent, and is reported to have occurred in
Madagascar and Socotra. In this the remigial streamers do not lose their
barbs, and as a few of the next quills are also to some extent
elongated, the bird, when flying, is said to look as though it had four
wings. Specimens of both are rare in collections, and no traveller seems
to have had the opportunity of studying the habits of either so as to
suggest a reason for this marvellous sexual development.

The second group of _Caprimulginae_, those which are but poorly or not
at all furnished with rictal bristles, contains about five genera, of
which we may particularize _Lyncornis_ of the old world and _Chordiles_
of the new. The species of the former are remarkable for the tuft of
feathers which springs from each side of the head, above and behind the
ears, so as to give the bird an appearance like some of the "horned"
owls--those of the genus _Scops_, for example; and remarkable as it is
to find certain forms of two families, so distinct as are the
_Strigidae_ and the _Caprimulgidae_, resembling each other in this
singular external feature, it is yet more remarkable to note that in
some groups of the latter, as in some of the former, a very curious kind
of dimorphism takes place. In either case this has been frequently
asserted to be sexual, but on that point doubt may fairly be
entertained. Certain it is that in some groups of goatsuckers, as in
some groups of owls, individuals of the same species are found in
plumage of two entirely different hues--rufous and grey. The only
explanation as yet offered of this fact is that the difference is
sexual, but evidence to that effect is conflicting. It must not,
however, be supposed that this common feature, any more than that of the
existence of tufted forms in each group, indicates any close
relationship between them. The resemblances may be due to the same
causes, concerning which future observers may possibly enlighten us, but
at present we must regard them as analogies, not homologies. The species
of _Lyncornis_ inhabit the Malay Archipelago, one, however, occurring
also in China. Of _Chordiles_ the best-known species is the night-hawk
of North America (_C. virginianus_ or _C. popetue_), which has a wide
range from Canada to Brazil. Others are found in the Antilles and in
South America. The general habits of all these birds agree with those of
the typical goatsuckers.

We have next to consider the birds forming the genus _Podargus_ and
those allied to it, whether they be regarded as a distinct family, or as
a subfamily of _Caprimulgidae_. As above stated, they have feet
constructed as those of birds normally are, and their sternum seems to
present the constant though comparatively trivial difference of having
its posterior margin elongated into two pairs of processes, while only
one pair is found in the true goatsuckers. _Podargus_ includes the bird
(_P. cuvieri_) known from its cry as morepork to the Tasmanians,[2] and
several other species, the number of which is doubtful, from Australia
and New Guinea. They have comparatively powerful bills, and it would
seem feed to some extent on fruits and berries, though they mainly
subsist on insects, chiefly _Cicadae_ and _Phasmidae_. They also differ
from the true goatsuckers in having the outer toes partially reversible,
and they build a flat nest on the horizontal branch of a tree for the
reception of their eggs, which are of a spotless white. Apparently
allied to _Podargus_, but differing among other respects in its mode of
nidification, is _Aegotheles_, which belongs also to the Australian
sub-region; and farther to the northward, extending throughout the Malay
Archipelago and into India, comes _Batrachostomus_, wherein we again
meet with species having aural tufts somewhat like _Lyncornis_. The
_Podarginae_ are thought by some to be represented in the new world by
the genus _Nyctibius_, of which several species occur from the Antilles
and Central America to Brazil. Finally, it may be stated that none of
the _Caprimulgidae_ seem to occur in Polynesia or in New Zealand, though
there is scarcely any other part of the world suited to their habits in
which members of the family are not found.     (A. N.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Other English names of the bird are evejar, fern-owl, churn-owl
    and wheel-bird--the last from the bird's song resembling the noise
    made by a spinning-wheel in motion.

  [2] In New Zealand, however, this name is given to an owl
    (_Sceloglaux novae-zelandiae_).



GOBAT, SAMUEL (1799-1879), bishop of Jerusalem, was born at Crémine,
Bern, Switzerland, on the 26th of January 1799. After serving in the
mission house at Basel from 1823 to 1826, he went to Paris and London,
whence, having acquired some knowledge of Arabic and Ethiopic, he went
out to Abyssinia under the auspices of the Church Missionary Society.
The unsettled state of the country and his own ill health prevented his
making much headway; he returned to Europe in 1835 and from 1839 to 1842
lived in Malta, where he supervised an Arabic translation of the Bible.
In 1846 he was consecrated Protestant bishop of Jerusalem, under the
agreement between the British and Prussian governments (1841) for the
establishment of a joint bishopric for Lutherans and Anglicans in the
Holy Land. He carried on a vigorous mission as bishop for over thirty
years, his diocesan school and orphanage on Mount Zion being specially
noteworthy. He died on the 11th of May 1879.

  A record of his life, largely autobiographical, was published at Basel
  in 1884, and an English translation at London in the same year.



GOBEL, JEAN BAPTISTE JOSEPH (1727-1794), French ecclesiastic and
politician, was born at Thann, in Alsace, on the 1st of September 1727.
He studied theology in the German College at Rome, and then became
successively a member of the chapter of Porrentruy, bishop _in partibus_
of Lydda, and finally suffragan of Basel for that part of the diocese
situated in French territory. His political life began when he was
elected deputy to the states-general of 1789 by the clergy of the
_bailliage_ of Huningue. The turning-point of his life was his action in
taking the oath of the civil constitution of the clergy (Jan. 3rd,
1791); in favour of which he had declared himself since the 5th of May
1790. The civil constitution of the clergy gave the appointment of
priests to the electoral assemblies, and since taking the oath Gobel had
become so popular that he was elected bishop in several dioceses. He
chose Paris, and in spite of the difficulties which he had to encounter
before he could enter into possession, was consecrated on the 27th of
March 1791 by eight bishops, including Talleyrand. On the 8th of
November 1792, Gobel was appointed administrator of Paris. He was
careful to flatter the politicians by professing anti-clerical opinions,
declaring himself, among other things, opposed to the celibacy of the
clergy; and on the 17th Brumaire in the year II. (7th November 1793), he
came before the bar of the Convention, and, in a famous scene, resigned
his episcopal functions, proclaiming that he did so for love of the
people, and through respect for their wishes. The followers of Hébert,
who were then pursuing their anti-Christian policy, claimed Gobel as one
of themselves; while, on the other hand, Robespierre looked upon him as
an atheist, though apostasy cannot strictly speaking be laid to the
charge of the ex-bishop, nor did he ever make any actual profession of
atheism. Robespierre, however, found him an obstacle to his religious
schemes, and involved him in the fate of the Hébertists. Gobel was
condemned to death, with Chaumette, Hébert and Anacharsis Cloots, and
was guillotined on the 12th of April 1794.

  See E. Charavay, _Assemblée électorale de Paris_ (Paris, 1890); H.
  Monin, _La Chanson et l'Église sous la Révolution_ (Paris, 1892); A.
  Aulard, "La Culte de la raison" in the review, _La Révolution
  Française_ (1891). For a bibliography of documents relating to his
  episcopate see "Épiscopat de Gobel" in vol. iii. (1900) of M.
  Tourneux's _Bibliographie de l'histoire de Paris pendant la Rév. Fr._



GOBELIN, the name of a family of dyers, who in all probability came
originally from Reims, and who in the middle of the 15th century
established themselves in the Faubourg Saint Marcel, Paris, on the banks
of the Bièvre. The first head of the firm was named Jehan (d. 1476). He
discovered a peculiar kind of scarlet dyestuff, and he expended so much
money on his establishment that it was named by the common people _la
folie Gobelin_. To the dye-works there was added in the 16th century a
manufactory of tapestry (q.v.). So rapidly did the wealth of the family
increase, that in the third or fourth generation some of them forsook
their trade and purchased titles of nobility. More than one of their
number held offices of state, among others Balthasar, who became
successively treasurer general of artillery, treasurer extraordinary of
war, councillor secretary of the king, chancellor of the exchequer,
councillor of state and president of the chamber of accounts, and who in
1601 received from Henry IV. the lands and lordship of Briecomte-Robert.
He died in 1603. The name of the Gobelins as dyers cannot be found later
than the end of the 17th century. In 1662 the works in the Faubourg
Saint Marcel, with the adjoining grounds, were purchased by Colbert on
behalf of Louis XIV., and transformed into a general upholstery
manufactory, in which designs both in tapestry and in all kinds of
furniture were executed under the superintendence of the royal painter,
Le Brun. On account of the pecuniary embarrassments of Louis XIV., the
establishment was closed in 1694, but it was reopened in 1697 for the
manufacture of tapestry, chiefly for royal use and for presentation.
During the Revolution and the reign of Napoleon the manufacture was
suspended, but it was revived by the Bourbons, and in 1826 the
manufacture of carpets was added to that of tapestry. In 1871 the
building was partly burned by the Communists. The manufacture is still
carried on under the state.

  See Lacordaire, _Notice historique sur les manufactures impériales de
  tapisserie des Gobelin et de tapis de la Savonnerie, précédée du
  catalogue des tapisseries qui y sont exposés_ (Paris, 1853); Genspach,
  _Répertoire détaillé des tapisseries exécutées aux Gobelins,
  1662-1892_ (Paris, 1893); Guiffrey, _Histoire de la tapisserie en
  France_ (Paris, 1878-1885). The two last-named authors were directors
  of the manufactory.



GOBI (for which alternative Chinese names are SHA-MO, "sand desert," and
HAN-HAI, "dry sea"), a term which in its widest significance means the
long stretch of desert country that extends from the foot of the Pamirs,
in about 77° E., eastward to the Great Khingan Mountains, in 116°-118°
E., on the border of Manchuria, and from the foothills of the Altai, the
Sayan and the Yablonoi Mountains on the N. to the Astin-tagh or
Altyn-tagh and the Nan-shan, the northernmost constituent ranges of the
Kuen-lun Mountains, on the south. By conventional usage a relatively
small area on the east side of the Great Khingan, between the upper
waters of the Sungari and the upper waters of the Liao-ho, is also
reckoned to belong to the Gobi. On the other hand, geographers and
Asiatic explorers prefer to regard the W. extremity of the Gobi region
(as defined above), namely, the basin of the Tarim in E. Turkestan, as
forming a separate and independent desert, to which they have given the
name of Takla-makan. The latter restriction governs the present article,
which accordingly excludes the Takla-makan, leaving it for separate
treatment. The desert of Gobi as a whole is only very imperfectly known,
information being confined to the observations which individual
travellers have made from their respective itineraries across the
desert. Amongst the explorers to whom we owe such knowledge as we
possess about the Gobi, the most important have been Marco Polo
(1273-1275), Gerbillon (1688-1698), Ijsbrand Ides (1692-1694), Lange
(1727-1728 and 1736), Fuss and Bunge (1830-1831), Fritsche (1868-1873),
Pavlinov and Matusovski (1870), Ney Elias (1872-1873), N. M. Przhevalsky
(1870-1872 and 1876-1877), Zosnovsky (1875), M. V. Pjevtsov (1878), G.
N. Potanin (1877 and 1884-1886), Count Széchenyi and L. von Loczy
(1879-1880), the brothers Grum-Grzhimailo (1889-1890), P. K. Kozlov
(1893-1894 and 1899-1900), V. I. Roborovsky (1894), V. A. Obruchev
(1894-1896), Futterer and Holderer (1896); C. E. Bonin (1896 and 1899),
Sven Hedin (1897 and 1900-1901), K. Bogdanovich (1898), Ladyghin
(1899-1900) and Katsnakov (1899-1900).

Geographically the Gobi (a Mongol word meaning "desert") is the deeper
part of the gigantic depression which fills the interior of the lower
terrace of the vast Mongolian plateau, and measures over 1000 m. from
S.W. to N.E. and 450 to 600 m. from N. to S., being widest in the west,
along the line joining the Baghrash-kol and the Lop-nor (87°-89° E.).
Owing to the immense area covered, and the piecemeal character of the
information, no general description can be made applicable to the whole
of the Gobi. It will be more convenient, therefore, to describe its
principal distinctive sections _seriatim_, beginning in the west.

  _Ghashiun-Gobi and Kuruk-tagh._--The Yulduz valley or valley of the
  Khaïdyk-gol (83°-86° E., 43° N.) is enclosed by two prominent members
  of the Tian-shan system, namely the Chol-tagh and the Kuruk-tagh,
  running parallel and close to one another. As they proceed eastward
  they diverge, sweeping back on N. and S. respectively so as to leave
  room for the Baghrash-kol. These two ranges mark the northern and the
  southern edges respectively of a great swelling, which extends
  eastward for nearly twenty degrees of longitude. On its northern side
  the Chol-tagh descends steeply, and its foot is fringed by a string of
  deep depressions, ranging from Lukchun (425 ft. _below_ the level of
  the sea) to Hami (2800 ft. above sea-level). To the south of the
  Kuruk-tagh lie the desert of Lop, the desert of Kum-tagh, and the
  valley of the Bulunzir-gol. To this great swelling, which arches up
  between the two border-ranges of the Chol-tagh and Kuruk-tagh, the
  Mongols give the name of Ghashiun-Gobi or Salt Desert. It is some 80
  to 100 m. across from N. to S., and is traversed by a number of minor
  parallel ranges, ridges and chains of hills, and down its middle runs
  a broad stony valley, 25 to 50 m. wide, at an elevation of 3000 to
  4500 ft. The Chol-tagh, which reaches an average altitude of 6000 ft.,
  is absolutely sterile, and its northern foot rests upon a narrow belt
  of barren sand, which leads down to the depressions mentioned above.

  The Kuruk-tagh is the greatly disintegrated, denuded and wasted relic
  of a mountain range which formerly was of incomparably greater
  magnitude. In the west, between Baghrash-kol and the Tarim, it
  consists of two, possibly of three, principal ranges, which, although
  broken in continuity, run generally parallel to one another, and
  embrace between them numerous minor chains of heights. These minor
  ranges, together with the principal ranges, divide the region into a
  series of long, narrow valleys, mostly parallel to one another and to
  the enclosing mountain chains, which descend like terraced steps, on
  the one side towards the depression of Lukchun and on the other
  towards the desert of Lop. In many cases these latitudinal valleys are
  barred transversely by ridges or spurs, generally elevations _en
  masse_ of the bottom of the valley. Where such elevations exist, there
  is generally found, on the E. side of the transverse ridge, a
  cauldron-shaped depression, which some time or other has been the
  bottom of a former lake, but is now nearly a dry salt-basin. The
  surface configuration is in fact markedly similar to that which occurs
  in the inter-mont latitudinal valleys of the Kuen-lun. The hydrography
  of the Ghashiun-Gobi and the Kuruk-tagh is determined by these
  chequered arrangements of the latitudinal valleys. Most of the
  principal streams, instead of flowing straight down these valleys,
  cross them diagonally and only turn west after they have cut their way
  through one or more of the transverse barrier ranges.[1] To the
  highest range on the great swelling Grum-Grzhimailo gives the name of
  Tuge-tau, its altitude being 9000 ft. above the level of the sea and
  some 4000 ft. above the crown of the swelling itself. This range he
  considers to belong to the Chol-tagh system, whereas Sven Hedin would
  assign it to the Kuruk-tagh. This last, which is pretty certainly
  identical with the range of Khara-teken-ula (also known as the
  Kyzyl-sanghir, Sinir, and Singher Mountains), that overlooks the
  southern shore of the Baghrash-kol, though parted from it by the
  drift-sand desert of Ak-bel-kum (White Pass Sands), has at first a
  W.N.W. to E.S.E. strike, but it gradually curves round like a scimitar
  towards the E.N.E. and at the same time gradually decreases in
  elevation. In 91° E., while the principal range of the Kuruk-tagh
  system wheels to the E.N.E., four of its subsidiary ranges terminate,
  or rather die away somewhat suddenly, on the brink of a long narrow
  depression (in which Sven Hedin sees a N.E. bay of the former great
  Central Asian lake of Lop-nor), having over against them the écheloned
  terminals of similar subordinate ranges of the Pe-shan (Bey-san)
  system (see below). The Kuruk-tagh is throughout a relatively low, but
  almost completely barren range, being entirely destitute of animal
  life, save for hares, antelopes and wild camels, which frequent its
  few small, widely scattered oases. The vegetation, which is confined
  to these same relatively favoured spots, is of the scantiest and is
  mainly confined to bushes of saxaul (_Anabasis Ammodendron_), reeds
  (_kamish_), tamarisks, poplars, _Kalidium_ and _Ephedra_.

  _Desert of Lop._--This section of the Gobi extends south-eastward from
  the foot of the Kuruk-tagh as far as the present terminal basin of the
  Tarim, namely Kara-koshun (Przhevalsky's Lop-nor), and is an almost
  perfectly horizontal expanse, for, while the Baghrash-kol in the N.
  lies at an altitude of 2940 ft., the Kara-koshun, over 200 m. to the
  S., is only 300 ft. lower. The characteristic features of this almost
  dead level or but slightly undulating region are: (i.) broad, unbroken
  expanses of clay intermingled with sand, the clay (_shor_) being
  indurated and saliferous and often arranged in terraces; (ii.) hard,
  level, clay expanses, more or less thickly sprinkled with fine gravel
  (_say_), the clay being mostly of a yellow or yellow-grey colour;
  (iii.) benches, flattened ridges and tabular masses of consolidated
  clay (_jardangs_), arranged in distinctly defined _laminae_, three
  stories being sometimes superimposed one upon the other, and their
  vertical faces being abraded, and often undercut, by the wind, while
  the formations themselves are separated by parallel gullies or
  wind-furrows, 6 to 20 ft. deep, all sculptured in the direction of the
  prevailing wind, that is, from N.E. to S.W.; and (iv.) the absence of
  drift-sand and sand-dunes, except in the south, towards the outlying
  foothills of the Astin-tagh. Perhaps the most striking characteristic,
  after the jardangs or clay terraces, is the fact that the whole of
  this region is not only swept bare of sand by the terrific sandstorms
  (_burans_) of the spring months, the particles of sand with which the
  wind is laden acting like a sand-blast, but the actual substantive
  materials of the desert itself are abraded, filed, eroded and carried
  bodily away into the network of lakes in which the Tarim loses itself,
  or are even blown across the lower, constantly shifting watercourses
  of that river and deposited on or among the gigantic dunes which choke
  the eastern end of the desert of Takla-makan. Numerous indications,
  such as salt-stained depressions of a lacustrine appearance, traces of
  former lacustrine shore-lines, more or less parallel and concentric,
  the presence in places of vast quantities of fresh-water mollusc
  shells (species of _Limnaea_ and _Planorbis_), the existence of belts
  of dead poplars, patches of dead tamarisks and extensive beds of
  withered reeds, all these always on top of the jardangs, never in the
  wind-etched furrows, together with a few scrubby poplars and
  _Elaeagnus_, still struggling hard not to die, the presence of ripple
  marks of aqueous origin on the leeward sides of the clay terraces and
  in other wind-sheltered situations, all testify to the former
  existence in this region of more or less extensive freshwater lakes,
  now of course completely desiccated. During the prevalence of the
  spring storms the atmosphere that overhangs the immediate surface of
  the desert is so heavily charged with dust as to be a veritable pall
  of desolation. Except for the wild camel which frequents the reed
  oases on the N. edge of the desert, animal life is even less abundant
  than in the Ghashiun-Gobi, and the same is true as regards the
  vegetation.

  _Desert of Kum-tagh._--This section lies E.S.E. of the desert of Lop,
  on the other side of the Kara-koshun and its more or less temporary
  continuations, and reaches north-eastwards as far as the vicinity of
  the town of Sa-chow and the lake of Kara-nor or Kala-chi. Its southern
  rim is marked by a labyrinth of hills, dotted in groups and irregular
  clusters, but evidently survivals of two parallel ranges which are now
  worn down as it were to mere fragments of their former skeletal
  structure. Between these and the Astin-tagh intervenes a broad
  latitudinal valley, seamed with watercourses which come down from the
  foothills of the Astin-tagh and beside which scrubby desert plants of
  the usual character maintain a precarious existence, water reaching
  them in some instances at intervals of years only. This part of the
  desert has a general slope N.W. towards the relative depression of the
  Kara-koshun. A noticeable feature of the Kum-tagh is the presence of
  large accumulations of drift-sand, especially along the foot of the
  crumbling desert ranges, where it rises into dunes sometimes as much
  as 250 ft. in height and climbs half-way up the flanks of ranges
  themselves. The prevailing winds in this region would appear to blow
  from the W. and N.W. during the summer, winter and autumn, though in
  spring, when they certainly are more violent, they no doubt come from
  the N.E., as in the desert of Lop. Anyway, the arrangement of the sand
  here "agrees perfectly with the law laid down by Potanin, that in the
  basins of Central Asia the sand is heaped up in greater mass on the
  south, all along the bordering mountain ranges where the floor of the
  depressions lies at the highest level."[2] The country to the north of
  the desert ranges is thus summarily described by Sven Hedin:[3] "The
  first zone of drift-sand is succeeded by a region which exhibits
  proofs of wind-modelling on an extraordinarily energetic and well
  developed scale, the results corresponding to the jardangs and the
  wind-eroded gullies of the desert of Lop. Both sets of phenomena lie
  parallel to one another; from this we may infer that the winds which
  prevail in the two deserts are the same. Next comes, sharply
  demarcated from the zone just described, a more or less thin kamish
  steppe growing on level ground; and this in turn is followed by
  another very narrow belt of sand, immediately south of Achik-kuduk....
  Finally in the extreme north we have the characteristic and sharply
  defined belt of kamish steppe, stretching from E.N.E. to W.S.W. and
  bounded on N. and S. by high, sharp-cut clay terraces.... At the
  points where we measured them the northern terrace was 113 ft. high
  and the southern 85¼ ft.... Both terraces belong to the same level,
  and would appear to correspond to the shore lines of a big bay of the
  last surviving remnant of the Central Asian Mediterranean. At the
  point where I crossed it the depression was 6 to 7 m. wide, and thus
  resembled a flat valley or immense river-bed."

  _Desert of Hami and the Pe-shan Mountains._--This section occupies the
  space between the Tian-shan system on the N. and the Nan-shan
  Mountains on the S., and is connected on the W. with the desert of
  Lop. The classic account is that of Przhevalsky, who crossed the
  desert from Hami (or Khami) to Su-chow (not Sa-chow) in the summer of
  1879. In the middle this desert rises into a vast swelling, 80 m.
  across, which reaches an average elevation of 5000 ft. and a maximum
  elevation of 5500 ft. On its northern and southern borders it is
  overtopped by two divisions of the Bey-san (= Pe-shan) Mountains,
  neither of which attains any great relative altitude. Between the
  northern division and the Karlyk-tagh range or E. Tian-shan intervenes
  a somewhat undulating barren plain, 3900 ft. in altitude and 40 m.
  from N. to S., sloping downwards from both N. and S. towards the
  middle, where lies the oasis of Hami (2800 ft.). Similarly from the
  southern division of the Bey-san a second plain slopes down for 1000
  ft. to the valley of the river Bulunzir or Su-lai-ho, which comes out
  of China, from the south side of the Great Wall, and finally empties
  itself into the lake of Kala-chi or Kara-nor. From the Bulunzir the
  same plain continues southwards at a level of 3700 ft. to the foot of
  the Nan-shan Mountains. The total breadth of the desert from N. to S.
  is here 200 m. Its general character is that of an undulating plain,
  dotted over with occasional elevations of clay, which present the
  appearance of walls, table-topped mounds and broken towers
  (_jardangs_), the surface of the plain being strewn with gravel and
  absolutely destitute of vegetation. Generally speaking, the Bey-san
  ranges consist of isolated hills or groups of hills, of low relative
  elevation (100 to 300 ft.), scattered without any regard to order over
  the arch of the swelling. They nowhere rise into well-defined peaks.
  Their axis runs from W.S.W. to E.N.E. But whereas Przhevalsky and Sven
  Hedin consider them to be a continuation of the Kuruk-tagh, though the
  latter regards them as separated from the Kuruk-tagh by a well-marked
  bay of the former Central Asian Mediterranean (Lop-nor), Futterer
  declares they are a continuation of the Chol-tagh. The swelling or
  undulating plain between these two ranges of the Bey-san measures
  about 70 m. across and is traversed by several stretches of high
  ground having generally an east-west direction.[4] Futterer, who
  crossed the same desert twenty years after Przhevalsky, agrees
  generally in his description of it, but supplements the account of the
  latter explorer with several particulars. He observes that the ranges
  in this part of the Gobi are much worn down and wasted, like the
  Kuruk-tagh farther west and the tablelands of S.E. Mongolia farther
  east, through the effects of century-long insolation, wind erosion,
  great and sudden changes of temperature, chemical action and
  occasional water erosion. Vast areas towards the N. consist of
  expanses of gently sloping (at a mean slope of 3°) clay, intermingled
  with gravel. He points out also that the greatest accumulations of
  sand and other products of aerial denudation do not occur in the
  deepest parts of the depressions but at the outlets of the valleys and
  glens, and along the foot of the ranges which flank the depressions on
  the S. Wherever water has been, desert scrub is found, such as
  tamarisks, _Dodartia orientalis_, _Agriophyllum gobicum_, _Calligonium
  sinnex_, and _Lycium ruthenicum_, but all with their roots elevated on
  little mounds in the same way as the tamarisks grow in the Takla-makan
  and desert of Lop.

  Farther east, towards central Mongolia, the relations, says Futterer,
  are the same as along the Hami-Su-chow route, except that the ranges
  have lower and broader crests, and the detached hills are more denuded
  and more disintegrated. Between the ranges occur broad, flat,
  cauldron-shaped valleys and basins, almost destitute of life except
  for a few hares and a few birds, such as the crow and the pheasant,
  and with scanty vegetation, but no great accumulations of drift-sand.
  The rocks are severely weathered on the surface, a thick layer of the
  coarser products of denudation covers the flat parts and climbs a good
  way up the flanks of the mountain ranges, but all the finer material,
  sand and clay has been blown away partly S.E. into Ordos, partly into
  the Chinese provinces of Shen-si and Shan-si, where it is deposited as
  loess, and partly W., where it chokes all the southern parts of the
  basin of the Tarim. In these central parts of the Gobi, as indeed in
  all other parts except the desert of Lop and Ordos, the prevailing
  winds blow from the W. and N.W. These winds are warm in summer, and it
  is they which in the desert of Hami bring the fierce sandstorms or
  burans. The wind does blow also from the N.E., but it is then cold and
  often brings snow, though it speedily clears the air of the
  everlasting dust haze. In summer great heat is encountered here on the
  relatively low (3000-4600 ft.), gravelly expanses (_say_) on the N.
  and on those of the S. (4000-5000 ft.); but on the higher swelling
  between, which in the Pe-shan ranges ascends to 7550 ft., there is
  great cold even in summer, and a wide daily range of temperature.
  Above the broad and deep accumulations of the products of denudation
  which have been brought down by the rivers from the Tian-shan ranges
  (e.g. the Karlyk-tagh) on the N. and from the Nan-shan on the S., and
  have filled up the cauldron-shaped valleys, there rises a broad
  swelling, built up of granitic rocks, crystalline schists and
  metamorphosed sedimentary rocks of both Archaic and Palaeozoic age,
  all greatly folded and tilted up, and shot through with numerous
  irruptions of volcanic rocks, predominantly porphyritic and dioritic.
  On this swelling rise four more or less parallel mountain ranges of
  the Pe-shan system, together with a fifth chain of hills farther S.,
  all having a strike from W.N.W. to E.N.E. The range farthest N. rises
  to 1000 ft. above the desert and 7550 ft. above sea-level, the next
  two ranges reach 1300 ft. above the general level of the desert, and
  the range farthest south 1475 ft. or an absolute altitude of 7200 ft.,
  while the fifth chain of hills does not exceed 650 ft. in relative
  elevation. All these ranges decrease in altitude from W. to E. In the
  depressions which border the Pe-shan swelling on N. and S. are found
  the sedimentary deposits of the Tertiary sea of the Han-hai; but no
  traces of those deposits have been found on the swelling itself at
  altitudes of 5600 to 5700 ft. Hence, Futterer infers, in recent
  geological times no large sea has occupied the central part of the
  Gobi. Beyond an occasional visit from a band of nomad Mongols, this
  region of the Pe-shan swelling is entirely uninhabited.[5] And yet it
  was from this very region, avers G. E. Grum-Grzhimailo, that the
  Yue-chi, a nomad race akin to the Tibetans, proceeded when, towards
  the middle of the 2nd century B.C., they moved westwards and settled
  near Lake Issyk-kul; and from here proceeded also the Shanshani, or
  people who some two thousand years ago founded the state of Shanshan
  or Loû-lan, ruins of the chief town of which Sven Hedin discovered in
  the desert of Lop in 1901. Here, says the Russian explorer, the Huns
  gathered strength, as also did the Tukiu (Turks) in the 6th century,
  and the Uighur tribes and the rulers of the Tangut kingdom. But after
  Jenghiz Khan in the 12th century drew away the peoples of this region,
  and no others came to take their place, the country went out of
  cultivation and eventually became the barren desert it now is.[6]

  _Ala-shan._--This division of the great desert, known also as the
  Hsi-tau and the Little Gobi, fills the space between the great N. loop
  of the Hwang-ho or Yellow river on the E., the Edzin-gol on the W.,
  and the Nan-shan Mountains on the S.W., where it is separated from the
  Chinese province of Kan-suh by the narrow rocky chain of Lung-shan
  (Ala-shan), 10,500 to 11,600 ft. in altitude. It belongs to the middle
  basin of the three great depressions into which Potanin divides the
  Gobi as a whole. "Topographically," says Przhevalsky, "it is a
  perfectly level plain, which in all probability once formed the bed of
  a huge lake or inland sea." The data upon which he bases this
  conclusion are the level area of the region as a whole, the hard
  saline clay and the sand-strewn surface, and lastly the salt lakes
  which occupy its lowest parts. For hundreds of miles there is nothing
  to be seen but bare sands; in some places they continue so far without
  a break that the Mongols call them Tyngheri (i.e. sky). These vast
  expanses are absolutely waterless, nor do any oases relieve the
  unbroken stretches of yellow sand which alternate with equally vast
  areas of saline clay or, nearer the foot of the mountains, with barren
  shingle. Although on the whole a level country with a general altitude
  of 3300 to 5000 ft., this section, like most other parts of the Gobi,
  is crowned by a chequered network of hills and broken ranges going up
  1000 ft. higher. The vegetation is confined to a few varieties of
  bushes and a dozen kinds of grasses, the most conspicuous being saxaul
  and _Agriophyllum gobicum_[7] (a grass). The others include prickly
  convolvulus, field wormwood, acacia, _Inula ammophila_, _Sophora
  flavescens_, _Convolvulus Ammani_, _Peganum_ and _Astragalus_, but all
  dwarfed, deformed and starved. The fauna consists of little else
  except antelopes, the wolf, fox, hare, hedgehog, marten, numerous
  lizards and a few birds, e.g. the sand-grouse, lark, stonechat,
  sparrow, crane, _Podoces Hendersoni_, _Otocorys albigula_ and
  _Galerita cristata_.[8] The only human inhabitants of Ala-shan are the
  Torgod Mongols.

  _Ordos._--East of the desert of Ala-shan, and only separated from it
  by the Hwang-ho, is the desert of Ordos or Ho-tau, "a level steppe,
  partly bordered by low hills. The soil is altogether sandy or a
  mixture of clay and sand, ill adapted for agriculture. The absolute
  height of this country is between 3000 and 3500 ft., so that Ordos
  forms an intermediate step in the descent to China from the Gobi,
  separated from the latter by the mountain ranges lying on the N. and
  E. of the Hwang-ho or Yellow river."[9] Towards the south Ordos rises
  to an altitude of over 5000 ft., and in the W., along the right bank
  of the Hwang-ho, the Arbus or Arbiso Mountains, which overtop the
  steppe by some 3000 ft., serve to link the Ala-shan Mountains with the
  In-shan. The northern part of the great loop of the river is filled
  with the sands of Kuzupchi, a succession of dunes, 40 to 50 ft. high.
  Amongst them in scattered patches grow the shrub _Hedysarum_ and the
  trees _Calligonium Tragopyrum_ and _Pugionium cornutum_. In some
  places these sand-dunes approach close to the great river, in others
  they are parted from it by a belt of sand, intermingled with clay,
  which terminates in a steep escarpment, 50 ft. and in some localities
  100 ft. above the river. This belt is studded with little mounds (7 to
  10 ft. high), mostly overgrown with wormwood (_Artemisia campestris_)
  and the Siberian pea-tree (_Caragana_); and here too grows one of the
  most characteristic plants of Ordos, the liquorice root (_Glycyrrhiza
  uralensis_). Eventually the sand-dunes cross over to the left bank of
  the Hwang-ho, and are threaded by the beds of dry watercourses, while
  the level spaces amongst them are studded with little mounds (3 to 6
  ft. high), on which grow stunted _Nitraria Scoberi_ and _Zygophyllum_.
  Ordos, which was anciently known as Ho-nan ("the country south of the
  river") and still farther back in time as Ho-tau, was occupied by the
  Hiong-nu in the 1st and 2nd centuries A.D., but was almost depopulated
  during and after the Dungan revolt of 1869. North of the big loop of
  the Hwang-ho Ordos is separated from the central Gobi by a succession
  of mountain chains, the Kara-naryn-ula, the Sheiten-ula, and the
  In-shan Mountains, which link on to the south end of the Great Khingan
  Mountains. The In-shan Mountains, which stretch from 108° to 112° E.,
  have a wild Alpine character and are distinguished from other
  mountains in the S.E. of Mongolia by an abundance of both water and
  vegetation. In one of their constituent ranges, the bold Munni-ula, 70
  m. long and nearly 20 m. wide, they attain elevations of 7500 to 8500
  ft., and have steep flanks, slashed with rugged gorges and narrow
  glens. Forests begin on them at 5300 ft. and wild flowers grow in
  great profusion and variety in summer, though with a striking lack of
  brilliancy in colouring. In this same border range there is also a
  much greater abundance and variety of animal life, especially amongst
  the avifauna.

  _Eastern Gobi._--Here the surface is extremely diversified, although
  there are no great differences in vertical elevation. Between Urga
  (48° N. and 107° E.) and the little lake of Iren-dubasu-nor (111° 50'
  E. and 43° 45' N.) the surface is greatly eroded, and consists of
  broad flat depressions and basins separated by groups of flat-topped
  mountains of relatively low elevation (500 to 600 ft.), through which
  archaic rocks crop out as crags and isolated rugged masses. The floors
  of the depressions lie mostly between 2900 and 3200 ft. above
  sea-level. Farther south, between Iren-dubasu-nor and the Hwang-ho
  comes a region of broad tablelands alternating with flat plains, the
  latter ranging at altitudes of 3300 to 3600 ft. and the former at 3500
  to 4000 ft. The slopes of the plateaus are more or less steep, and are
  sometimes penetrated by "bays" of the lowlands. As the border-range of
  the Khingan is approached the country steadily rises up to 4500 ft.
  and then to 5350 ft. Here small lakes frequently fill the depressions,
  though the water in them is generally salt or brackish. And both here,
  and for 200 m. south of Urga, streams are frequent, and grass grows
  more or less abundantly. There is, however, through all the central
  parts, until the bordering mountains are reached, an utter absence of
  trees and shrubs. Clay and sand are the predominant formations, the
  watercourses, especially in the north, being frequently excavated 6 to
  8 ft. deep, and in many places in the flat, dry valleys or depressions
  farther south beds of loess, 15 to 20 ft. thick, are exposed. West of
  the route from Urga to Kalgan the country presents approximately the
  same general features, except that the mountains are not so
  irregularly scattered in groups but have more strongly defined
  strikes, mostly E. to W., W.N.W. to E.S.E., and W.S.W. to E.N.E. The
  altitudes too are higher, those of the lowlands ranging from 3300 to
  5600 ft., and those of the ranges from 650 to 1650 ft. higher, though
  in a few cases they reach altitudes of 8000 ft. above sea-level. The
  elevations do not, however, as a rule form continuous chains, but make
  up a congeries of short ridges and groups rising from a common base
  and intersected by a labyrinth of ravines, gullies, glens and basins.
  But the tablelands, built up of the horizontal red deposits of the
  Han-hai (Obruchev's Gobi formation) which are characteristic of the
  southern parts of eastern Mongolia, are absent here or occur only in
  one locality, near the Shara-muren river, and are then greatly
  intersected by gullies or dry watercourses.[10] Here there is,
  however, a great dearth of water, no streams, no lakes, no wells, and
  precipitation falls but seldom. The prevailing winds blow from the W.
  and N.W. and the pall of dust overhangs the country as in the
  Takla-makan and the desert of Lop. Characteristic of the flora are
  wild garlic, _Kalidium gracile_, wormwood, saxaul, _Nitraria Scoberi_,
  _Caragana_, _Ephedra_, saltwort and _dirisun_ (_Lasiagrostis
  splendens_).

  This great desert country of Gobi is crossed by several trade routes,
  some of which have been in use for thousands of years. Among the most
  important are those from Kalgan on the frontier of China to Urga (600
  m.), from Su-chow (in Kan-suh) to Hami (420 m.) from Hami to Peking
  (1300 m.), from Kwei-hwa-cheng (or Kuku-khoto) to Hami and Barkul, and
  from Lanchow (in Kan-suh) to Hami.

  _Climate._--The climate of the Gobi is one of great extremes, combined
  with rapid changes of temperature, not only at all seasons of the year
  but even within 24 hours (as much as 58° F.). For instance, at Urga
  (3770 ft.) the annual mean is 27.5° F., the January mean -15.7°, and
  the July mean 63.5°, the extremes being 100.5° and -44.5°; while at
  Sivantse (3905 ft.) the annual mean is 37°, the January mean 2.3°, and
  the July mean 66.3°, the range being from a recorded maximum of 93° to
  a recorded minimum of -53°. Even in southern Mongolia the thermometer
  goes down as low as -27°, and in Ala-shan it rises day after day in
  July as high as 99°. Although the south-east monsoons reach the S.E.
  parts of the Gobi, the air generally throughout this region is
  characterized by extreme dryness, especially during the winter. Hence
  the icy sandstorms and snowstorms of spring and early summer. The
  rainfall at Urga for the year amounts to only 9.7 in.

  _Sands of the Gobi Deserts._--With regard to the origin of the masses
  of sand out of which the dunes and chains of dunes (_barkhans_) are
  built up in the several deserts of the Gobi, opinions differ. While
  some explorers consider them to be the product of marine, or at any
  rate lacustrine, denudation (the Central Asian Mediterranean),
  others--and this is not only the more reasonable view, but it is the
  view which is gaining most ground--consider that they are the products
  of the aerial denudation of the border ranges (e.g. Nan-shan,
  Karlyk-tagh, &c.), and more especially of the terribly wasted ranges
  and chains of hills, which, like the gaunt fragments of montane
  skeletal remains, lie littered all over the swelling uplands and
  tablelands of the Gobi, and that they have been transported by the
  prevailing winds to the localities in which they are now accumulated,
  the winds obeying similar transportation laws to the rivers and
  streams which carry down sediment in moister parts of the world.
  Potanin points out[11] that "there is a certain amount of regularity
  observable in the distribution of the sandy deserts over the vast
  uplands of central Asia. Two agencies are represented in the
  distribution of the sands, though what they really are is not quite
  clear; and of these two agencies one prevails in the north-west, the
  other in the south-east, so that the whole of Central Asia may be
  divided into two regions, the dividing line between them being drawn
  from north-east to south-west, from Urga via the eastern end of the
  Tian-shan to the city of Kashgar. North-west of this line the sandy
  masses are broken up into detached and disconnected areas, and are
  almost without exception heaped up around the lakes, and consequently
  in the lowest parts of the several districts in which they exist.
  Moreover, we find also that these sandy tracts always occur on the
  western or south-western shores of the lakes; this is the case with
  the lakes of Balkash, Ala-kul, Ebi-nor, Ayar-nor (or Telli-nor),
  Orku-nor, Zaisan-nor, Ulungur-nor, Ubsa-nor, Durga-nor and Kara-nor
  lying E. of Kirghiz-nor. South-east of the line the arrangement of the
  sand is quite different. In that part of Asia we have three gigantic
  but disconnected basins. The first, lying farthest east, is embraced
  on the one side by the ramifications of the Kentei and Khangai
  Mountains and on the other by the In-shan Mountains. The second or
  middle division is contained between the Altai of the Gobi and the
  Ala-shan. The third basin, in the west, lies between the Tian-shan and
  the border ranges of western Tibet.... The deepest parts of each of
  these three depressions occur near their northern borders; towards
  their southern boundaries they are all alike very much higher....
  However, the sandy deserts are not found in the low-lying tracts but
  occur on the higher uplands which foot the southern mountain ranges,
  the In-shan and the Nan-shan. Our maps show an immense expanse of sand
  south of the Tarim in the western basin; beginning in the
  neighbourhood of the city of Yarkent (Yarkand), it extends eastwards
  past the towns of Khotan, Keriya and Cherchen to Sa-chow. Along this
  stretch there is only one locality which forms an exception to the
  rule we have indicated, namely, the region round the lake of Lop-nor.
  In the middle basin the widest expanse of sand occurs between the
  Edzin-gol and the range of Ala-shan. On the south it extends nearly as
  far as a line drawn through the towns of Lian-chow, Kan-chow and
  Kao-tai at the foot of the Nan-shan; but on the south it does not
  approach anything like so far as the latitude (42° N.) of the lake of
  Ghashiun-nor. Still farther east come the sandy deserts of Ordos,
  extending south-eastward as far as the mountain range which separates
  Ordos from the (Chinese) provinces of Shan-si and Shen-si. In the
  eastern basin drift-sand is encountered between the district of Ude in
  the north (44° 30' N.) and the foot of the In-shan in the south." In
  two regions, if not in three, the sands have overwhelmed large tracts
  of once cultivated country, and even buried the cities in which men
  formerly dwelt. These regions are the southern parts of the desert of
  Takla-makan (where Sven Hedin and M. A. Stein[12] have discovered the
  ruins under the desert sands), along the N. foot of the Nan-shan, and
  probably in part (other agencies having helped) in the north of the
  desert of Lop, where Sven Hedin discovered the ruins of Lou-lan and of
  other towns or villages. For these vast accumulations of sand are
  constantly in movement; though the movement is slow, it has
  nevertheless been calculated that in the south of the Takla-makan the
  sand-dunes travel bodily at the rate of roughly something like 160 ft.
  in the course of a year. The shape and arrangement of the individual
  sand-dunes, and of the barkhans, generally indicate from which
  direction the predominant winds blow. On the windward side of the dune
  the slope is long and gentle, while the leeward side is steep and in
  outline concave like a horse-shoe. The dunes vary in height from 30 up
  to 300 ft., and in some places mount as it were upon one another's
  shoulders, and in some localities it is even said that a third tier is
  sometimes superimposed.

  AUTHORITIES.--See N. M. Przhevalsky, _Mongolia, the Tangut Country,
  &c._ (Eng. trans., ed. by Sir H. Yule, London, 1876), and _From Kulja
  across the Tian Shan to Lob Nor_ (Eng. trans, by Delmar Morgan,
  London, 1879); G. N. Potanin, _Tangutsko-Tibetskaya Okraina Kitaya i
  Centralnaya Mongoliya, 1884-1886_ (1893, &c.); M. V. Pjevtsov, _Sketch
  of a Journey to Mongolia_ (in Russian, Omsk, 1883); G. E.
  Grum-Grzhimailo, _Opisanie Puteshestviya v Sapadniy Kitai_
  (1898-1899); V. A. Obruchev, _Centralnaya Asiya, Severniy Kitai i
  Nan-schan, 1892-1894_ (1900-1901); V. I. Roborovsky and P. K. Kozlov,
  _Trudy Ekspeditsiy Imp. Russ. Geog. Obshchestva Po Centralnoy Asiy,
  1893-1895_ (1900, &c.); Roborovsky, _Trudy Tibetskoi Ekspeditsiy,
  1889-1890_; Sven Hedin, _Scientific Results of a Journey in Central
  Asia, 1899-1902_ (6 vols., 1905-1907); Futterer, _Durch Asien_ (1901,
  &c.); K. Bogdanovich, _Geologicheskiya Isledovaniya v Vostochnom
  Turkestane_ and _Trudiy Tibetskoy Ekspeditsiy, 1889-1890_; L. von
  Loczy, _Die wissenschaftlichen Ergebnisse der Reise des Grafen
  Széchenyi in Ostasien, 1877-1880_ (1883); Ney Elias, in _Journ. Roy.
  Geog. Soc._ (1873); C. W. Campbell's "Journeys in Mongolia," in
  _Geographical Journal_ (Nov. 1903); Pozdnievym, _Mongolia and the
  Mongols_ (in Russian, St Petersburg, 1897 &c.); Deniker's summary of
  Kozlov's latest journeys in _La Géographie_ (1901, &c.); F. von
  Richthofen, _China_ (1877).     (J. T. Be.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Cf. G. E. Grum-Grzhimailo, _Opisaniye Puteshestviya_, i. 381-417.

  [2] Quoted in Sven Hedin, _Scientific Results_, ii. 499.

  [3] _Op. cit._ ii. 499-500.

  [4] Przhevalsky, _Iz Zayana cherez Hami v Tibet na Vershovya Shaltoy
    Reki_, pp. 84-91.

  [5] Futterer, _Durch Asien_, i. pp. 206-211.

  [6] G. E. Grum-Grzhimailo, _Opisanie Puteshestviya v Sapadniy Kitai_,
    ii. p. 127.

  [7] Its seeds are pounded by the Mongols to flour and mixed with
    their tea.

  [8] Przhevalsky, _Mongolia_ (Eng. trans. ed. by Sir H. Yule).

  [9] Przhevalsky, _op. cit._ p. 183.

  [10] Obruchev. in _Izvestia_ of Russ. Geogr. Soc. (1895).

  [11] In _Tangutsko-Tibetskaya Okraina Kitaya i Centralnaya
    Mongoliya_, i. pp. 96, &c.

  [12] See _Sand-buried Cities of Khotan_ (London, 1902).



GOBLET, RENÉ (1828-1905), French politician, was born at
Aire-sur-la-Lys, in the Pas de Calais, on the 26th of November 1828, and
was educated for the law. Under the Second Empire, he helped to found a
Liberal journal, _Le Progrès de la Somme_, and in July 1871 was sent by
the department of the Somme to the National Assembly, where he took his
place on the extreme left. He failed to secure election in 1876, but
next year was returned for Amiens. He held a minor government office in
1879, and in 1882 became minister of the interior in the Freycinet
cabinet. He was minister of education, fine arts and religion in Henri
Brisson's first cabinet in 1885, and again under Freycinet in 1886, when
he greatly increased his reputation by an able defence of the
government's education proposals. Meanwhile his extreme independence and
excessive candour had alienated him from many of his party, and all
through his life he was frequently in conflict with his political
associates, from Gambetta downwards. On the fall of the Freycinet
cabinet in December he formed a cabinet in which he reserved for himself
the portfolios of the interior and of religion. The Goblet cabinet was
unpopular from the outset, and it was with difficulty that anybody could
be found to accept the ministry of foreign affairs, which was finally
given to M. Flourens. Then came what is known as the Schnaebele
incident, the arrest on the German frontier of a French official named
Schnaebele, which caused immense excitement in France. For some days
Goblet took no definite decision, but left Flourens, who stood for
peace, to fight it out with General Boulanger, then minister of war, who
was for the despatch of an ultimatum. Although he finally intervened on
the side of Flourens, and peace was preserved, his weakness in face of
the Boulangist propaganda became a national danger. Defeated on the
budget in May 1887, his government resigned; but he returned to office
next year as foreign minister in the radical administration of Charles
Floquet. He was defeated at the polls by a Boulangist candidate in 1889,
and sat in the senate from 1891 to 1893, when he returned to the popular
chamber. In association with MM. E. Lockroy, Ferdinand Sarrien and P. L.
Peytral he drew up a republican programme which they put forward in the
_Petite République française_. At the elections of 1898 he was defeated,
and thenceforward took little part in public affairs. He died in Paris
on the 13th of September 1905.



GOBLET, a large type of drinking-vessel, particularly one shaped like a
cup, without handles, and mounted on a shank with a foot. The word is
derived from the O. Fr. _gobelet_, diminutive of _gobel_, _gobeau_,
which Skeat takes to be formed from Low Lat. _cupellus_, cup, diminutive
of _cupa_, tub, cask (see DRINKING-VESSELS).



GOBY. The gobies (_Gobius_) are small fishes readily recognized by their
ventrals (the fins on the lower surface of the chest) being united into
one fin, forming a suctorial disk, by which these fishes are enabled to
attach themselves in every possible position to a rock or other firm
substances. They are essentially coast-fishes, inhabiting nearly all
seas, but disappearing towards the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans. Many
enter, or live exclusively in, such fresh waters as are at no great
distance from the sea. Nearly 500 different kinds are known. The largest
British species, _Gobius capito_, occurring in the rock-pools of
Cornwall, measures 10 in. _Gobius alcocki_, from brackish and fresh
waters of Lower Bengal, is one of the very smallest of fishes, not
measuring over 16 millimetres (= 7 lines). The males are usually more
brilliantly coloured than the females, and guard the eggs, which are
often placed in a sort of nest made of the shell of some bivalve or of
the carapace of a crab, with the convexity turned upwards and covered
with sand, the eggs being stuck to the inner surface of this roof.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--_Gobius lentiginosus_.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--United Ventrals of Goby.]

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--_Periophthalmus koelreuteri_.]

Close allies of the gobies are the walking fish or jumping fish
(_Periophthalmus_), of which various species are found in great numbers
on the mud flats at the mouths of rivers in the tropics, skipping about
by means of the muscular, scaly base of their pectoral fins, with the
head raised and bearing a pair of strongly projecting versatile eyes
close together.



GOCH, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine province, on the Niers, 8
m. S. of Cleves at the junction of the railways Cologne-Zevenaar and
Boxtel-Wesel. Pop. (1905) 10,232. It has a Protestant and a Roman
Catholic church and manufactures of brushes, plush goods, cigars and
margarine. In the middle ages it was the seat of a large trade in linen.
Goch became a town in 1231 and belonged to the dukes of Gelderland and
later to the dukes of Cleves.



GOD, the common Teutonic word for a personal object of religious
worship. It is thus, like the Gr. [Greek: theos] and Lat. _deus_,
applied to all those superhuman beings of the heathen mythologies who
exercise power over nature and man and are often identified with some
particular sphere of activity; and also to the visible material objects,
whether an image of the supernatural being or a tree, pillar, &c. used
as a symbol, an idol. The word "god," on the conversion of the Teutonic
races to Christianity, was adopted as the name of the one Supreme Being,
the Creator of the universe, and of the Persons of the Trinity. The _New
English Dictionary_ points out that whereas the old Teutonic type of the
word is neuter, corresponding to the Latin _numen_, in the Christian
applications it becomes masculine, and that even where the earlier
neuter form is still kept, as in Gothic and Old Norwegian, the
construction is masculine. Popular etymology has connected the word with
"good"; this is exemplified by the corruption of "God be with you" into
"good-bye." "God" is a word common to all Teutonic languages. In Gothic
it is _Guth_; Dutch has the same form as English; Danish and Swedish
have _Gud_, German _Gott_. According to the _New English Dictionary_,
the original may be found in two Aryan roots, both of the form _gheu_,
one of which means "to invoke," the other "to pour" (cf. Gr. [Greek:
cheein]); the last is used of sacrificial offerings. The word would thus
mean the object either of religious invocation or of religious worship
by sacrifice. It has been also suggested that the word might mean a
"molten image" from the sense of "pour."

  See RELIGION; HEBREW RELIGION; THEISM, &c.



GODALMING, a market-town and municipal borough in the Guildford
parliamentary division of Surrey, England, 34 m. S.W. of London by the
London & South-Western railway. Pop. (1901) 8748. It is beautifully
situated on the right bank of the Wey, which is navigable thence to the
Thames, and on the high road between London and Portsmouth. Steep hills,
finely wooded, enclose the valley. The chief public buildings are the
church of SS. Peter and Paul, a cruciform building of mixed
architecture, but principally Early English and Perpendicular; the
town-hall, Victoria hall, and market-house, and a technical institute
and school of science and art. Charterhouse School, one of the principal
English public schools, originally founded in 1611, was transferred from
Charterhouse Square, London, to Godalming in 1872. It stands within
grounds 92 acres in extent, half a mile north of Godalming, and consists
of spacious buildings in Gothic style, with a chapel, library and hall,
besides boarding-houses, masters' houses and sanatoria. (See
CHARTERHOUSE.) Godalming has manufactures of paper, leather, parchment
and hosiery, and some trade in corn, malt, bark, hoops and timber; and
the Bargate stone, of which the parish church is built, is still
quarried. The borough is under a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors.
Area, 812 acres.

Godalming (Godelminge) belonged to King Alfred, and was a royal manor at
the time of Domesday. The manor belonged to the see of Salisbury in the
middle ages, but reverted to the crown in the time of Henry VIII.
Godalming was incorporated by Elizabeth in 1574, when the borough
originated. The charter was confirmed by James I. in 1620, and a fresh
charter was granted by Charles II. in 1666. The borough was never
represented in parliament. The bishop of Salisbury in 1300 received the
grant of a weekly market to be held on Mondays: the day was altered to
Wednesday by Elizabeth's charter. The bishop's grant included a fair at
the feast of St Peter and St Paul (29th of June). Another fair at
Candlemas (2nd of February) was granted by Elizabeth. The market is
still held. The making of cloth, particularly Hampshire kerseys, was the
staple industry of Godalming in the middle ages, but it began to decay
early in the 17th century and by 1850 was practically extinct. As in
other cases, dyeing was subsidiary to the cloth industry. Tanning,
introduced in the 15th century, survives. The present manufacture of
fleecy hosiery dates from the end of the 18th century.



GODARD, BENJAMIN LOUIS PAUL (1849-1895); French composer, was born in
Paris, on the 18th of August 1849. He studied at the Conservatoire, and
competed for the Prix de Rome without success in 1866 and 1867. He began
by publishing a number of songs, many of which are charming, such as "Je
ne veux pas d'autres choses," "Ninon," "Chanson de Florian," also a
quantity of piano pieces, some chamber music, including several violin
sonatas, a trio for piano and strings, a quartet for strings, a violin
concerto and a second work of the same kind entitled "Concerto
Romantique." Godard's chance arrived in the year 1878, when with his
dramatic cantata, _Le Tasse_, he shared with M. Théodore Dubois the
honour of winning the musical competition instituted by the city of
Paris. From that time until his death Godard composed a surprisingly
large number of works, including four operas, _Pedro de Zalamea_,
produced at Antwerp in 1884; _Jocelyn_, given in Paris at the Théâtre du
Château d'Eau, in 1888; _Dante_, played at the Opéra Comique two years
later; and _La Vivandière_, left unfinished and partly scored by another
hand. This last work was heard at the Opéra Comique in 1895, and has
been played in England by the Carl Rosa Opera Company. His other works
include the "Symphonie légendaire," "Symphonie gothique," "Diane" and
various orchestral works. Godard's productivity was enormous, and his
compositions are, for this reason only, decidedly unequal. He was at his
best in works of smaller dimensions, and has left many exquisite songs.
Among his more ambitious works the "Symphonie légendaire" may be singled
out as being one of the most distinctive. He had a decided
individuality, and his premature death at Cannes on the 10th of January
1895 was a loss to French art.



GODAVARI, a river of central and western India. It flows across the
Deccan from the Western to the Eastern Ghats; its total length is 900
m., the estimated area of its drainage basin, 112,200 sq. m. Its
traditional source is on the side of a hill behind the village of
Trimbak in Nasik district, Bombay, where the water runs into a
reservoir from the lips of an image. But according to popular legend it
proceeds from the same ultimate source as the Ganges, though
underground. Its course is generally south-easterly. After passing
through Nasik district, it crosses into the dominions of the nizam of
Hyderabad. When it again strikes British territory it is joined by the
Pranhita, with its tributaries the Wardha, the Penganga and Wainganga.
For some distance it flows between the nizam's dominions and the Upper
Godavari district, and receives the Indravati, the Tal and the Sabari.
The stream has here a channel varying from 1 to 2 m. in breadth,
occasionally broken by alluvial islands. Parallel to the river stretch
long ranges of hills. Below the junction of the Sabari the channel
begins to contract. The flanking hills gradually close in on both sides,
and the result is a magnificent gorge only 200 yds. wide through which
the water flows into the plain of the delta, about 60 m. from the sea.
The head of the delta is at the village of Dowlaishweram, where the main
stream is crossed by the irrigation anicut. The river has seven mouths,
the largest being the Gautami Godavari. The Godavari is regarded as
peculiarly sacred, and once every twelve years the great bathing
festival called _Pushkaram_ is held on its banks at Rajahmundry.

The upper waters of the Godavari are scarcely utilized for irrigation,
but the entire delta has been turned into a garden of perennial crops by
means of the anicut at Dowlaishweram, constructed by Sir Arthur Cotton,
from which three main canals are drawn off. The river channel here is 3½
m. wide. The anicut is a substantial mass of stone, bedded in lime
cement, about 2¼ m. long, 130 ft. broad at the base, and 12 ft. high.
The stream is thus pent back so as to supply a volume of 3000 cubic ft.
of water per second during its low season, and 12,000 cubic ft. at time
of flood. The main canals have a total length of 493 m., irrigating
662,000 acres, and all navigable; and there are 1929 m. of distributary
channels. In 1864 water-communication was opened between the deltas of
the Godavari and Kistna. Rocky barriers and rapids obstruct navigation
in the upper portion of the Godavari. Attempts have been made to
construct canals round these barriers with little success, and the
undertaking has been abandoned.



GODAVARI, a district of British India, in the north-east of the Madras
presidency. It was remodelled in 1907-1908, when part of it was
transferred to Kistna district. Its present area is 5634 sq. m. Its
territory now lies mainly east of the Godavari river, including the
entire delta, with a long narrow strip extending up its valley. The apex
of the delta is at Dowlaishweram, where a great dam renders the waters
available for irrigation. Between this point and the coast there is a
vast extent of rice fields. Farther inland, and enclosing the valley of
the great river, are low hills, steep and forest-clad. The north-eastern
part, known as the Agency tract, is occupied by spurs of the Eastern
Ghats. The coast is low, sandy and swampy, the sea very shallow, so that
vessels must lie nearly 5 m. from Cocanada, the chief port. The Sabari
is the principal tributary of the Godavari within the district. The
Godavari often rises in destructive floods. The population of the
present area in 1901 was 1,445,961. In the old district the increase
during the last decade was 11%. The chief towns are Cocanada and
Rajahmundry. The forests are of great value; coal is known, and graphite
is worked. The population is principally occupied in agriculture, the
principal crops being rice, oil-seeds, tobacco and sugar. The cigars
known in England as Lunkas are partly made from tobacco grown on
_lankas_ or islands in the river Godavari. Sugar (from the juice of the
palmyra palm) and rum are made by European processes at Samalkot. The
administrative headquarters are now at Cocanada, the chief seaport; but
Rajahmundry, at the head of the delta, is the old capital. A large but
decreasing trade is conducted at Cocanada, rice being shipped to
Mauritius and Ceylon, and cotton and oil-seeds to Europe. Rice-cleaning
mills have been established here and at other places. The district is
traversed by the main line of the East Coast railway, with a branch to
Cocanada; the iron girder bridge of forty-two spans over the Godavari
river near Rajahmundry was opened in 1900. There is a government college
at Rajahmundry, with a training college attached, and an aided college
at Cocanada.

The Godavari district formed part of the Andhra division of Dravida, the
north-west portion being subject to the Orissa kings, and the
south-western belonging to the Vengi kingdom. For centuries it was the
battlefield on which various chiefs fought for independence with varying
success till the beginning of the 16th century, when the whole country
may be said to have passed under Mahommedan power. At the conclusion of
the struggle with the French in the Carnatic, Godavari with the Northern
Circars was conquered by the English, and finally ceded by imperial
_sanad_ in 1765. The district was constituted in 1859, by the
redistribution of the territory comprising the former districts of
Guntur, Rajahmundry and Masulipatam, into what are now the Kistna and
Godavari districts.

  See H. Morris, _District Manual_ (1878); _District Gazetteer_ (1906).



GODEFROY (GOTHOFREDUS), a French noble family, which numbered among its
members several distinguished jurists and historians. The family claimed
descent from Symon Godefroy, who was born at Mons about 1320 and was
lord of Sapigneulx near Berry-au-bac, now in the department of Aisne.

DENIS GODEFROY (Dionysius Gothofredus) (1549-1622), jurist, son of Léon
Godefroy, lord of Guignecourt, was born in Paris on the 17th of October
1549. He was educated at the Collège de Navarre, and studied law at
Louvain, Cologne and Heidelberg, returning to Paris in 1573. He embraced
the reformed religion, and in 1579 left Paris, where his abilities and
connexions promised a brilliant career, to establish himself at Geneva.
He became professor of law there, received the freedom of the city in
1580; and in 1587 became a member of the Council of the Two Hundred.
Henry IV. induced him to return to France by making him _grand bailli_
of Gex, but no sooner had he installed himself than the town was sacked
and his library burnt by the troops of the duke of Savoy. In 1591 he
became professor of Roman law at Strassburg, where he remained until
April 1600, when in response to an invitation from Frederick IV.,
elector palatine, he removed to Heidelberg. The difficulties of his
position led to his return to Strassburg for a short time, but in
November 1604 he definitely settled at Heidelberg. He was made head of
the faculty of law in the university, and was from time to time employed
on missions to the French court. His repeated refusal of offers of
advancement in his own country was due to his Calvinism. He died at
Strassburg on the 7th of September 1622, having left Heidelberg before
the city was sacked by the imperial troops in 1621. His most important
work was the _Corpus juris civilis_, originally published at Geneva in
1583, which went through some twenty editions, the most valuable of them
being that printed by the Elzevirs at Amsterdam in 1633 and the Leipzig
edition of 1740.

  Lists of his other learned works may be found in Senebier's _Hist.
  litt. de Genève_, vol. ii., and in Nicéron's _Mémoires_, vol. xvii.
  Some of his correspondence with his learned friends, with his kinsman
  President de Thou, Isaac Casaubon, Jean Jacques Grynaeus and others,
  is preserved in the libraries of the British Museum, of Basel and
  Paris.

His eldest son, THEODORE GODEFROY (1580-1649), was born at Geneva on the
14th of July 1580. He abjured Calvinism, and was called to the bar in
Paris. He became historiographer of France in 1613, and was employed
from time to time on diplomatic missions. He was employed at the
congress of Münster, where he remained after the signing of peace in
1648 as chargé d'affaires until his death on the 5th of October of the
next year. His most important work is _Le Cérémonial de France ..._
(1619), a work which became a classic on the subject of royal
ceremonial, and was re-edited by his son in an enlarged edition in 1649.

  Besides his printed works he made vast collections of historical
  material which remains in MS. and fills the greater part of the
  Godefroy collection of over five hundred portfolios in the Library of
  the Institute in Paris. These were catalogued by Ludovic Lalanne in
  the _Annuaire Bulletin_ (1865-1866 and 1892) of the _Société de
  l'histoire de France_.


The second son of Denis, JACQUES GODEFROY (1587-1652), jurist, was born
at Geneva on the 13th of September 1587. He was sent to France in 1611,
and studied law and history at Bourges and Paris. He remained faithful
to the Calvinist persuasion, and soon returned to Geneva, where he
became active in public affairs. He was secretary of state from 1632 to
1636, and syndic or chief magistrate in 1637, 1641, 1645 and 1649. He
died on the 23rd of June 1652. In addition to his civic and political
work he lectured on law, and produced, after thirty years of labour, his
edition of the _Codex Theodosianus_. This code formed the principal,
though not the only, source of the legal systems of the countries formed
from the Western Empire. Godefroy's edition was enriched with a
multitude of important notes and historical comments, and became a
standard authority on the decadent period of the Western Empire. It was
only printed thirteen years after his death under the care of his friend
Antoine Marville at Lyons (4 vols. 1665), and was reprinted at Leipzig
(6 vols.) in 1736-1745. Of his numerous other works the most important
was the reconstruction of the twelve tables of early Roman law.

  See also the dictionary of Moreri, Nicéron's _Mémoires_ (vol. 17) and
  a notice in the _Bibliothèque universelle de Genève_ (Dec. 1837).

DENIS GODEFROY (1615-1681), eldest son of Théodore, succeeded his father
as historiographer of France, and re-edited various chronicles which had
been published by him. He was entrusted by Colbert with the care and
investigation of the records concerning the Low Countries preserved at
Lille, where great part of his life was spent. He was also the historian
of the reigns of Charles VII. and Charles VIII.

Other members of the family who attained distinction in the same branch
of learning were the two sons of Denis Godefroy--Denis (1653-1719), also
an historian, and Jean, sieur d'Aumont (1656-1732), who edited the
letters of Louis XII., the memoirs of Marguerite de Valois, of Castelnau
and Pierre de l'Estoile, and left some useful material for the history
of the Low Countries; Jean Baptiste Achille Godefroy, sieur de Maillart
(1697-1759), and Denis Joseph Godefroy, sieur de Maillart (1740-1819),
son and grandson of Jean Godefroy, who were both officials at Lille, and
left valuable historical documents which have remained in MS.

  For further details see _Les Savants Godefroy_ (Paris, 1873) by the
  marquis de Godefroy-Ménilglaise, son of Denis Joseph Godefroy.



GODESBERG, a spa of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine province, on the left
bank of the Rhine, almost opposite Königswinter, and 4 m. S. of Bonn, on
the railway to Coblenz. It is a fashionable summer resort, and contains
numerous pretty villas, the residences of merchants from Cologne,
Elberfeld, Crefeld and other Rhenish manufacturing centres. It has an
Evangelical and three Roman Catholic churches, a synagogue and several
educational establishments. Its chalybeate springs annually attract a
large number of visitors, and the pump-room, baths and public grounds
are arranged on a sumptuous scale. On a conical basalt hill, close by,
are the ruins, surmounted by a picturesque round tower, of Godesberg
castle. Built by Archbishop Dietrich I. of Cologne in the 13th century,
it was destroyed by the Bavarians in 1583.

  See Dennert, _Godesberg, eine Perle des Rheins_ (Godesberg, 1900).



GODET, FRÉDÉRIC LOUIS (1812-1900), Swiss Protestant theologian, was born
at Neuchâtel on the 25th of October 1812. After studying theology at
Neuchâtel, Bonn and Berlin, he was in 1850 appointed professor of
theology at Neuchâtel. From 1851 to 1866 he also held a pastorate. In
1873 he became one of the founders of the free Evangelical Church of
Neuchâtel, and professor in its theological faculty. He died there on
the 29th of October 1900. A conservative scholar, Godet was the author
of some of the most noteworthy French commentaries published in recent
times.

  His commentaries are on the Gospel of St John (2 vols., 1863-1865; 3rd
  ed., 1881-1888; Eng. trans. 1886, &c.); St Luke (2 vols., 1871; 3rd
  ed., 1888; Eng. trans. 1875, &c.); the Epistle to the Romans (2 vols.,
  1879-1880; 2nd ed., 1883-1890; Eng. trans., 1880, &c.); Corinthians (2
  vols., 1886-1887; Eng. trans. 1886, &c.). His other works include
  _Études bibliques_ (2 vols., 1873-1874; 4th ed., 1889; Eng. trans.
  1875 f.), and _Introduction au Nouveau Testament_ (1893 f.; Eng.
  trans., 1894, &c.); _Lectures in Defence of the Christian Faith_ (Eng.
  trans. 4th ed., 1900).



GODFREY, SIR EDMUND BERRY (1621-1678), English magistrate and
politician, younger son of Thomas Godfrey (1586-1664), a member of an
old Kentish family, was born on the 23rd of December 1621. He was
educated at Westminster school and at Christ Church, Oxford, and after
entering Gray's Inn became a dealer in wood. His business prospered. He
was made a justice of the peace for the city of Westminster, and in
September 1666 was knighted as a reward for his services as magistrate
and citizen during the great plague in London; but in 1669 he was
imprisoned for a few days for instituting the arrest of the king's
physician, Sir Alexander Fraizer (d. 1681), who owed him money. The
tragic events in Godfrey's life began in September 1678 when Titus Oates
and two other men appeared before him with written information about the
_Popish Plot_, and swore to the truth of their statements. During the
intense excitement which followed the magistrate expressed a fear that
his life was in danger, but took no extra precautions for safety. On the
12th of October he did not return home as usual, and on the 17th his
body was found on Primrose Hill, Hampstead. Medical and other evidence
made it certain that he had been murdered, and the excited populace
regarded the deed as the work of the Roman Catholics. Two committees
investigated the occurrence without definite result, but in December
1678 a certain Miles Prance, who had been arrested for conspiracy,
confessed that he had shared in the murder. According to Prance the deed
was instigated by some Roman Catholic priests, three of whom witnessed
the murder, and was committed in the courtyard of Somerset House, where
Godfrey was strangled by Robert Green, Lawrence Hill and Henry Berry,
the body being afterwards taken to Hampstead. The three men were
promptly arrested; the evidence of the informer William Bedloe, although
contradictory, was similar on a few points to that of Prance, and in
February 1679 they were hanged. Soon afterwards, however, some doubt was
cast upon this story; a war of words ensued between Prance and others,
and it was freely asserted that Godfrey had committed suicide. Later the
falsehood of Prance's confession was proved and Prance pleaded guilty to
perjury; but the fact remains that Godfrey was murdered. Godfrey was an
excellent magistrate, and was very charitable both in public and in
private life. Mr John Pollock, in the _Popish Plot_ (London, 1903),
confirms the view that the three men, Green, Hill and Berry, were
wrongfully executed, and thinks the murder was committed by some Jesuits
aided by Prance. Godfrey was feared by the Jesuits because he knew,
through Oates, that on the 24th of April 1678 a Jesuit congregation had
met at the residence of the duke of York to concert plans for the king's
murder. He concludes thus: "The success of Godfrey's murder as a
political move is indubitable. The duke of York was the pivot of the
Roman Catholic scheme in England, and Godfrey's death saved both from
utter ruin." On the other hand Mr Alfred Marks in his _Who killed Sir E.
B. Godfrey?_ (1905) maintains that suicide was the cause of Godfrey's
death.

  See the article OATES, TITUS, also R. Tuke, _Memoirs of the Life and
  Death of Sir Edmondbury Godfrey_ (London, 1682); and G. Burnet,
  _History of my Own Time; The Reign of Charles II._, edited by O. Airy
  (Oxford, 1900).



GODFREY OF BOUILLON (c. 1060-1100), a leader in the First Crusade, was
the second son of Eustace II., count of Boulogne, by his marriage with
Ida, daughter of Duke Godfrey II. of Lower Lorraine. He was designated
by Duke Godfrey as his successor; but the emperor Henry IV. gave him
only the mark of Antwerp, in which the lordship of Bouillon was included
(1076). He fought for Henry, however, both on the Elster and in the
siege of Rome; and he was invested in 1082 with the duchy of Lower
Lorraine. Lorraine had been penetrated by Cluniac influences, and
Godfrey would seem to have been a man of notable piety. Accordingly,
though he had himself served as an imperialist, and though the Germans
in general had little sympathy with the Crusaders (_subsannabant ...
quasi delirantes_), Godfrey, nevertheless, when the call came "to
follow Christ," almost literally sold all that he had, and followed.
Along with his brothers Eustace and Baldwin (the future Baldwin I. of
Jerusalem) he led a German contingent, some 40,000 strong, along
"Charlemagne's road," through Hungary to Constantinople, starting in
August 1096, and arriving at Constantinople, after some difficulties in
Hungary, in November. He was the first of the crusading princes to
arrive, and on him fell the duty of deciding what the relations of the
princes to the eastern emperor Alexius were to be. Eventually, after
several disputes and some fighting, he did homage to Alexius in January
1097; and his example was followed by the other princes. From this time
until the beginning of 1099 Godfrey appears as one of the minor princes,
plodding onwards, and steadily fighting, while men like Bohemund and
Raymund, Baldwin and Tancred were determining the course of events.

In 1099 he came once more to the front. The mass of the crusaders became
weary of the political factions which divided some of their leaders; and
Godfrey, who was more of a pilgrim than a politician, becomes the
natural representative of this feeling. He was thus able to force the
reluctant Raymund to march southward to Jerusalem; and he took a
prominent part in the siege, his division being the first to enter when
the city was captured. It was natural therefore that, when Raymund of
Provence refused the offered dignity, Godfrey should be elected ruler of
Jerusalem (July 22, 1099). He assumed the title not of king, but of
"advocate"[1] of the Holy Sepulchre. The new dignity proved still more
onerous than honourable; and during his short reign of a year Godfrey
had to combat the Arabs of Egypt, and the opposition of Raymund and the
patriarch Dagobert. He was successful In repelling the Egyptian attack
at the battle of Ascalon (August 1099); but he failed, owing to
Raymund's obstinacy and greed, to acquire the town of Ascalon after the
battle. Left alone, at the end of the autumn, with an army of some 2000
men, Godfrey was yet able, in the spring of 1100, probably with the aid
of new pilgrims, to exact tribute from towns like Acre, Ascalon, Arsuf
and Caesarea. But already, at the end of 1099 Dagobert, archbishop of
Pisa, had been substituted as patriarch for Arnulf (who had been acting
as vicar) by the influence of Bohemund; and Dagobert, whose vassal
Godfrey had at once piously acknowledged himself, seems to have forced
him to an agreement in April 1100, by which he promised Jerusalem and
Jaffa to the patriarch, in case he should acquire in their place Cairo
or some other town, or should die without issue. Thus were the
foundations of a theocracy laid in Jerusalem; and when Godfrey died
(July 1100) he left the question to be decided, whether a theocracy or a
monarchy should be the government of the Holy Land.

Because he had been the first ruler in Jerusalem Godfrey was idolized in
later saga. He was depicted as the leader of the crusades, the king of
Jerusalem, the legislator who laid down the assizes of Jerusalem. He was
none of these things. Bohemund was the leader of the crusades; Baldwin
was first king; the assizes were the result of a gradual development. In
still other ways was the figure of Godfrey idealized by the grateful
tradition of later days; but in reality he would seem to have been a
quiet, pious, hard-fighting knight, who was chosen to rule in Jerusalem
because he had no dangerous qualities, and no obvious defects.

  LITERATURE.--The narrative of Albert of Aix may be regarded as
  presenting the Lotharingian point of view, as the _Gesta_ presents the
  Norman, and Raymund of Agiles the Provençal. The career of Godfrey has
  been discussed in modern times by R. Röhricht, _Die Deutschen im
  heiligen Lande_, Band ii., and _Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzuges,
  passim_ (Innsbruck, 1901).     (E. Br.)

_Romances._--Godfrey was the principal hero of two French _chansons de
geste_ dealing with the Crusade, the _Chanson d'Antioche_ (ed. P. Paris,
2 vols., 1848) and the _Chanson de Jérusalem_ (ed. C. Hippeau, 1868),
and other poems, containing less historical material, were subsequently
added. In addition the parentage and early exploits of Godfrey were made
the subject of legend. His grandfather was said to be Helias, knight of
the Swan, one of the brothers whose adventures are well known, though
with some variation, in the familiar fairy tale of "The Seven Swans."
Helias, drawn by the swan, one day disembarked at Nijmwegen, and
reconquered her territory for the duchess of Bouillon. Marrying her
daughter he exacted a promise that his wife should not inquire into his
origin. The tale, which is almost identical with the Lohengrin legend,
belongs to the class of the Cupid and Psyche narratives. See LOHENGRIN.

  See also C. Hippeau, _Le Chevalier au cygne_ (Paris, 2 vols.,
  1874-1877); H. Pigeonneau, _Le Cycle de la croisade et de la famille
  de Bouillon_ (1877); W. Golther, "Lohengrin," in _Roman. Forsch._
  (vol. v., 1889); _Hist. litt. de la France_, vol. xxii. pp. 350-402;
  the English romance of _Helyas, Knyghte of the Swanne_ was printed by
  W. Copland about 1550.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] An "advocate" was a layman who had been invested with part of an
    ecclesiastic estate, on condition that he defended the rest, and
    exercised the blood-ban in lieu of the ecclesiastical owner (see
    ADVOCATE, sec. _Advocatus ecclesiae_).



GODFREY OF VITERBO (c. 1120-c. 1196), chronicler, was probably an
Italian by birth, although some authorities assert that he was a Saxon.
He evidently passed some of his early life at Viterbo, where also he
spent his concluding days, but he was educated at Bamberg, gaining a
good knowledge of Latin. About 1140 he became chaplain to the German
king, Conrad III.; but the greater part of his life was spent as
secretary (_notarius_) in the service of the emperor Frederick I., who
appears to have thoroughly trusted him, and who employed him on many
diplomatic errands. Incessantly occupied, he visited Sicily, France and
Spain, in addition to many of the German cities, in the emperor's
interests, and was by his side during several of the Italian campaigns.
Both before and after Frederick's death in 1190 he enjoyed the favour of
his son, the emperor Henry VI., for whom he wrote his _Speculum regum_,
a work of very little value. Godfrey also wrote _Memoria seculorum_, or
_Liber memorialis_, a chronicle dedicated to Henry VI., which professes
to record the history of the world from the creation until 1185. It is
written partly in prose and partly in verse. A revision of this work was
drawn up by Godfrey himself as _Pantheon_, or _Universitatis libri qui
chronici appellantur_. The author borrowed from Otto of Freising, but
the earlier part of his chronicle is full of imaginary occurrences.
_Pantheon_ was first printed in 1559, and extracts from it are published
by L. A. Muratori in the _Rerum Italicarum scriptores_, tome vii.
(Milan, 1725). The only part of Godfrey's work which is valuable is the
_Gesta Friderici I._, verses relating events in the emperor's career
from 1155 to 1180. Concerned mainly with affairs in Italy, the poem
tells of the sieges of Milan, of Frederick's flight to Pavia in 1167, of
the treaty with Pope Alexander III. at Venice, and of other stirring
episodes with which the author was intimately acquainted, and many of
which he had witnessed. Attached to the _Gesta Friderici_ is the _Gesta
Heinrici VI._, a shorter poem which is often attributed to Godfrey,
although W. Wattenbach and other authorities think it was not written by
him. The _Memoria seculorum_ was very popular during the middle ages,
and has been continued by several writers.

  Godfrey's works are found in the _Monumenta Germaniae historica_, Band
  xxii. (Hanover, 1872). The _Gesta Friderici I. et Heinrici VI._ is
  published separately with an introduction by G. Waitz (Hanover, 1872).
  See also H. Ulmann, _Gotfried von Viterbo_ (Göttingen, 1863), and W.
  Wattenbach, _Deutschlands Geschichtsquellen_, Band ii. (Berlin, 1894).
       (A. W. H.*)



GODHRA, a town of British India, administrative headquarters of the
Panch Mahals district of Bombay, and also of the Rewa Kantha political
agency; situated 52 m. N.E. of Baroda on the railway from Anand to
Ratlam. Pop. (1901) 20,915. It has a trade in timber from the
neighbouring forests.



GODIN, JEAN BAPTISTE ANDRÉ (1817-1888), French socialist, was born on
the 26th of January 1817 at Esquehéries (Aisne). The son of an artisan,
he entered an iron-works at an early age, and at seventeen made a tour
of France as journeyman. Returning to Esquehéries in 1837, he started a
small factory for the manufacture of castings for heating-stoves. The
business increased rapidly, and for the purpose of railway facilities
was transferred to Guise in 1846. At the time of Godin's death in 1888
the annual output was over four millions of francs (£160,000), and in
1908 the employees numbered over 2000 and the output was over £280,000.
An ardent disciple of Fourier, he advanced a considerable sum of money
towards the disastrous Fourierist experiment of V. P. Considérant (q.v.)
in Texas. He profited, however, by its failure, and in 1859 started the
_familistère_ or community settlement of Guise on more carefully laid
plans. It comprises, in addition to the workshops, three large
buildings, four storeys high, capable of housing all the work-people,
each family having two or three rooms. Attached to each building is a
vast central court, covered with a glass roof, under which the children
can play in all weathers. There are also crèches, nurseries, hospital,
refreshment rooms and recreation rooms of various kinds, stores for the
purchase of groceries, drapery and every necessity, and a large theatre
for concerts and dramatic entertainments. In 1880 the whole was turned
into a co-operative society, with provision by which it eventually
became the property of the workers. In 1871 Godin was elected deputy for
Aisne, but retired in 1876 to devote himself to the management of the
_familistère_. In 1882 he was created a knight of the legion of honour.

  Godin was the author of _Solutions sociales_ (1871); _Les Socialistes
  et les droits du travail_ (1874); _Mutualité sociale_ (1880); _La
  République du travail et la réforme parlementaire_ (1889). See
  Bernardot, _Le Familistère de Guise et son fondateur_ (Paris, 1887);
  Fischer, _Die Familistère Godin's_ (Berlin, 1890); Lestelle, _Étude
  sur le familistère de Guise_ (Paris, 1904); D. F. P., _Le Familistère
  illustré, résultats de vingt ans d'association_, 1880-1900 (Eng.
  trans., _Twenty-eight years of co-partnership at Guise_, by A.
  Williams, 1908).



GODIVA, a Saxon lady, who, according to the legend, rode naked through
the streets of Coventry to gain from her husband a remission of the
oppressive toll imposed on his tenants. The story is that she was the
beautiful wife of Leofric, earl of Mercia and lord of Coventry. The
people of that city suffering grievously under the earl's oppressive
taxation, Lady Godiva appealed again and again to her husband, who
obstinately refused to remit the tolls. At last, weary of her
entreaties, he said he would grant her request if she would ride naked
through the streets of the town. Lady Godiva took him at his word, and
after issuing a proclamation that all persons should keep within doors
or shut their windows, she rode through, clothed only in her long hair.
One person disobeyed her proclamation, a tailor, ever afterwards known
as Peeping Tom. He bored a hole in his shutters that he might see Godiva
pass, and is said to have been struck blind. Her husband kept his word
and abolished the obnoxious taxes.

The oldest form of the legend makes Godiva pass through Coventry market
from one end to the other when the people were assembled, attended only
by two soldiers, her long hair down so that none saw her, "apparentibus
cruribus tamen candidissimis." This version is given in _Flores
historiarum_ by Roger of Wendover, who quoted from an earlier writer.
The later story, with its episode of Peeping Tom, has been evolved by
later chroniclers. Whether the lady Godiva of this story is the Godiva
or Godgifu of history is undecided. That a lady of this name existed in
the early part of the 11th century is certain, as evidenced by several
ancient documents, such as the Stow charter, the Spalding charter and
the Domesday survey, though the spelling of the name varies
considerably. It would appear from _Liber Eliensis_ (end of 12th
century) that she was a widow when Leofric married her in 1040. In or
about that year she aided in the founding of a monastery at Stow,
Lincolnshire. In 1043 she persuaded her husband to build and endow a
Benedictine monastery at Coventry. Her mark, "[cross] Ego Godiva
Comitissa diu istud desideravi," was found on the charter given by her
brother, Thorold of Bucknall--sheriff of Lincolnshire--to the
Benedictine monastery of Spalding in 1051; and she is commemorated as
benefactress of other monasteries at Leominster, Chester, Wenlock,
Worcester and Evesham. She probably died a few years before the Domesday
survey (1085-1086), and was buried in one of the porches of the abbey
church. Dugdale (1656) says that a window, with representations of
Leofric and Godiva, was placed in Trinity Church, Coventry, about the
time of Richard II. The Godiva procession, a commemoration of the
legendary ride instituted on the 31st of May 1678 as part of Coventry
fair, was celebrated at intervals until 1826. From 1848 to 1887 it was
revived, and recently further attempts have been made to popularize the
pageant. The wooden effigy of Peeping Tom which, since 1812, has looked
out on the world from a house at the north-west corner of Hertford
Street, Coventry, represents a man in armour, and was probably an image
of St George. It was removed from another part of the town to its
present position.



GODKIN, EDWIN LAWRENCE (1831-1902), American publicist, was born in
Moyne, county Wicklow, Ireland, on the 2nd of October 1831. His father,
James Godkin, was a Presbyterian minister and a journalist, and the son,
after graduating in 1851 at Queen's College, Belfast, and studying law
in London, was in 1853-1855 war correspondent for the London _Daily
News_ in Turkey and Russia, being present at the capture of Sevastopol,
and late in 1856 went to America and wrote letters to the same journal,
giving his impressions of a tour of the southern states of the American
Union. He studied law in New York City, was admitted to the bar in 1859,
travelled in Europe in 1860-1862, wrote for the London _News_ and the
New York _Times_ in 1862-1865, and in 1865 founded in New York City the
_Nation_, a weekly projected by him long before, for which Charles Eliot
Norton gained friends in Boston and James Miller McKim (1810-1874) in
Philadelphia, and which Godkin edited until the end of the year 1899. In
1881 he sold the _Nation_ to the New York _Evening Post_, and became an
associate editor of the _Post_, of which he was editor-in-chief in
1883-1899, succeeding Carl Schurz. In the 'eighties he engaged in a
controversy with Goldwin Smith over the Irish question. Under his
leadership the _Post_ broke with the Republican party in the
presidential campaign of 1884, when Godkin's opposition to Blaine did
much to create the so-called Mugwump party (see MUGWUMP), and his organ
became thoroughly independent, as was seen when it attacked the
Venezuelan policy of President Cleveland, who had in so many ways
approximated the ideal of the _Post_ and _Nation_. He consistently
advocated currency reform, the gold basis, a tariff for revenue only,
and civil service reform, rendering the greatest aid to the last cause.
His attacks on Tammany Hall were so frequent and so virulent that in
1894 he was sued for libel because of biographical sketches of certain
leaders in that organization--cases which never came up for trial. His
opposition to the war with Spain and to imperialism was able and
forcible. He retired from his editorial duties on the 30th of December
1899, and sketched his career in the _Evening Post_ of that date.
Although he recovered from a severe apoplectic stroke early in 1900, his
health was shattered, and he died in Greenway, Devonshire, England, on
the 21st of May 1902. Godkin shaped the lofty and independent policy of
the _Post_ and the _Nation_, which had a small but influential and
intellectual class of readers. But as editor he had none of the personal
magnetism of Greeley, for instance, and his superiority to the influence
of popular feeling made Charles Dudley Warner style the Nation the
"weekly judgment day." He was an economist of the school of Mill, urged
the necessity of the abstraction called "economic man," and insisted
that socialism put in practice would not improve social and economic
conditions in general. In politics he was an enemy of sentimentalism and
loose theories in government. He published _A History of Hungary, A.D.
300-1850_ (1856), _Government_ (1871, in the American Science Series),
_Reflections and Comments_ (1895), _Problems of Modern Democracy_ (1896)
and _Unforeseen Tendencies of Democracy_ (1898).

  See _Life and Letters of E. L. Godkin_, edited by Rollo Ogden (2
  vols., New York, 1907).



GODMANCHESTER, a municipal borough in the southern, parliamentary
division of Huntingdonshire, England, on the right bank of the Ouse, 1
m. S.S.E. of Huntingdon, on a branch of the Great Eastern railway. Pop.
(1901) 2017. It has a beautiful Perpendicular church (St Mary's) and an
agricultural trade, with flour mills. The town is governed by a mayor, 4
aldermen and 12 councillors. Area, 4907 acres.

A Romano-British village occupied the site of Godmanchester. The town
(_Gumencestre, Gomecestre_) belonged to the king before the Conquest and
at the time of the Domesday survey. In 1213 King John granted the manor
to the men of the town at a fee-farm of £120 yearly, and confirmation
charters were granted by several succeeding kings, Richard II. in
1391-1392 adding exemption from toll, pannage, &c. James I. granted an
incorporation charter in 1605 under the title of bailiffs, assistants
and commonalty, but under the Municipal Reform Act of 1835 the
corporation was changed to a mayor, 4 aldermen and 12 councillors.
Godmanchester was formerly included for parliamentary purposes in the
borough of Huntingdon, which has ceased to be separately represented
since 1885. The incorporation charter of 1605 recites that the burgesses
are chiefly engaged in agriculture, and grants them a fair, which still
continues every year on Tuesday in Easter week.

  See _Victoria County History, Huntingdon_; Robert Fox, _The History of
  Godmanchester_ (1831).



GÖDÖLLÖ, a market town of Hungary, in the county of
Pest-Pilis-Solt-Kiskun, 23 m. N.E. of Budapest by rail. Pop. (1900)
5875. Gödöllö is the summer residence of the Hungarian royal family, and
the royal castle, built in the second half of the 18th century by Prince
Anton Grassalkovich, was, with the beautiful domain, presented by the
Hungarian nation to King Francis Joseph I. after the coronation in 1867.
In its park there are a great number of stags and wild boars. Gödöllö is
a favourite summer resort of the inhabitants of Budapest. In its
vicinity is the famous place of pilgrimage Mária-Besnyö, with a fine
Franciscan monastery, which contains the tombs of the Grassalkovich
family.



GODOLPHIN, SIDNEY GODOLPHIN, EARL OF (c. 1645-1712), was a cadet of an
ancient family of Cornwall. At the Restoration he was introduced into
the royal household by Charles II., with whom he had previously become a
favourite, and he also at the same period entered the House of Commons
as member for Helston. Although he very seldom addressed the House, and,
when he did so, only in the briefest manner, he gradually acquired a
reputation as its chief if not its only financial authority. In March
1679 he was appointed a member of the privy council, and in the
September following he was promoted, along with Viscount Hyde
(afterwards earl of Rochester) and the earl of Sunderland, to the chief
management of affairs. Though he voted for the Exclusion Bill in 1680,
he was continued in office after the dismissal of Sunderland, and in
September 1684 he was created Baron Godolphin of Rialton, and succeeded
Rochester as first lord of the treasury. After the accession of James
II. he was made chamberlain to the queen, and, along with Rochester and
Sunderland, enjoyed the king's special confidence. In 1687 he was named
commissioner of the treasury. He was one of the council of five
appointed by King James to represent him in London, when he went to join
the army after the landing of William, prince of Orange, in England,
and, along with Halifax and Nottingham, he was afterwards appointed a
commissioner to treat with the prince. On the accession of William,
though he only obtained the third seat at the treasury board, he had
virtually the chief control of affairs. He retired in March 1690, but
was recalled on the November following and appointed first lord. While
holding this office he for several years continued, in conjunction with
Marlborough, a treacherous intercourse with James II., and is said even
to have anticipated Marlborough in disclosing to James intelligence
regarding the intended expedition against Brest. Godolphin was not only
a Tory by inheritance, but had a romantic admiration for the wife of
James II. He also wished to be safe whatever happened, and his treachery
in this case was mostly due to caution. After Fenwick's confession in
1696 regarding the attempted assassination of William III., Godolphin,
who was compromised, was induced to tender his resignation; but when the
Tories came into power in 1700, he was again appointed lord treasurer
and retained office for about a year. Though not a favourite with Queen
Anne, he was, after her accession, appointed to his old office, on the
strong recommendation of Marlborough. He also in 1704 received the
honour of knighthood, and in December 1706 he was created Viscount
Rialton and earl of Godolphin. Though a Tory he had an active share in
the intrigues which gradually led to the predominance of the Whigs in
alliance with Marlborough. The influence of the Marlboroughs with the
queen was, however, gradually supplanted by that of Mrs Masham and
Harley, earl of Oxford, and with the fortunes of the Marlboroughs those
of Godolphin were indissolubly united. The services of both were so
appreciated by the nation that they were able for a time to regard the
loss of the queen's favour with indifference, and even in 1708 to
procure the expulsion of Harley from office; but after the Tory reaction
which followed the impeachment of Dr Sacheverel, who abused Godolphin
under the name of Volpone, the queen made use of the opportunity to take
the initiatory step towards delivering herself from the irksome thraldom
of Marlborough by abruptly dismissing Godolphin from office on the 7th
of August 1710. He died on the 15th of September 1712.

Godolphin owed his rise to power and his continuance in it under four
sovereigns chiefly to his exceptional mastery of financial matters; for
if latterly he was in some degree indebted for his promotion to the
support of Marlborough, he received that support mainly because
Marlborough recognized that for the prosecution of England's foreign
wars his financial abilities were an indispensable necessity. He was
cool, reserved and cautious, but his prudence was less associated with
high sagacity than traceable to the weakness of his personal antipathies
and prejudices, and his freedom from political predilections. Perhaps it
was his unlikeness to Marlborough in that moral characteristic which so
tainted Marlborough's greatness that rendered possible between them a
friendship so intimate and undisturbed: he was, it would appear,
exceptionally devoid of the passion of avarice; and so little advantage
did he take of his opportunities of aggrandizement that, though his
style of living was unostentatious,--and in connexion with his favourite
pastimes of horse-racing, card-playing and cock-fighting he gained
perhaps more than he lost,--all that he left behind him did not,
according to the duchess of Marlborough, amount to more than £12,000.

Godolphin married Margaret Blagge, the pious lady whose life was written
by Evelyn, on the 16th of May 1675, and married again after her death in
1678. His son and successor, Francis (1678-1766), held various offices
at court, and was lord privy seal from 1735 to 1740. He married
Henrietta Churchill (d. 1733), daughter of the duke of Marlborough, who
in 1722 became in her own right duchess of Marlborough. He died without
male issue in January 1766, when the earldom became extinct, and the
estates passed to Thomas Osborne, 4th duke of Leeds, the husband of the
earl's daughter Mary, whose descendant is the present representative of
the Godolphins.

  A life of Godolphin was published in 1888 in London by the Hon. H.
  Elliot.



GODOY, ALVAREZ DE FARIA, RIOS SANCHEZ Y ZARZOSA, MANUEL DE (1767-1851),
duke of El Alcudia and prince of the Peace, Spanish royal favourite and
minister, was born at Badajoz on the 12th of May 1767. His father, Don
José de Godoy, was the head of a very ancient but impoverished family of
nobles in Estremadura. His mother, whose maiden name was Maria Antonia
Alvarez de Faria, belonged to a Portuguese noble family. Manuel boasts
in his memoirs that he had the best masters, but it is certain that he
received only the very slight education usually given at that time to
the sons of provincial nobles. In 1784 he entered the Guardia de Corps,
a body of gentlemen who acted as the immediate body-guard of the king.
His well-built and stalwart person, his handsome foolish face, together
with a certain geniality of character which he must have possessed,
earned him the favour of Maria Luisa of Parma, the princess of Asturias,
a coarse, passionate woman who was much neglected by her husband, who on
his part cared for nothing but hunting.

When King Charles III. died in 1788, Godoy's fortune was soon made. The
princess of Asturias, now queen, understood how to manage her husband
Charles IV. Godoy says in his memoirs that the king, who had been
carefully kept apart from affairs during his father's life, and who
disliked his father's favourite minister Floridablanca, wished to have a
creature of his own. This statement is no doubt true as far as it goes.
But it requires to be completed by the further detail that the queen put
her lover in her husband's way, and that the king was guided by them,
when he thought he was ruling for himself through a subservient
minister. In some respects King Charles was obstinate, and Godoy is
probably right in saying that he never was an absolute "viceroy," and
that he could not always secure the removal of colleagues whom he knew
to be his enemies. He could only rule by obeying. Godoy adopted without
scruple this method of pushing his fortunes. When the king was set on a
particular course, he followed it; the execution was left to him and the
queen. His pliability endeared him to his master, whose lasting
affection he earned. In practice he commonly succeeded in inspiring the
wishes which he then proceeded to gratify. From the very beginning of
the new reign he was promoted in the army with scandalous rapidity, made
duke of El Alcudia, and in 1792 minister under the premiership of
Aranda, whom he succeeded in displacing by the close of the year.

His official life is fairly divided by himself into three periods. From
1792 to 1798 he was premier. In the latter year his unpopularity and the
intrigues of the French government, which had taken a dislike to him,
led to his temporary retirement, without, however, any diminution of the
king's personal favour. He asserts that he had no wish to return to
office, but letters sent by him to the queen show that he begged for
employment. They are written in a very unpleasant mixture of gush and
vulgar familiarity. In 1801 he returned to office, and until 1807 he was
the executant of the disastrous policy of the court. The third period of
his public life is the last year, 1807-1808, when he was desperately
striving for his place between the aggressive intervention of Napoleon
on the one hand, and the growing hatred of the nation, organized behind,
and about, the prince of Asturias, Ferdinand. On the 17th of March 1808
a popular outbreak at Aranjuez drove him into hiding. When driven out by
hunger and thirst he was recognized and arrested. By Ferdinand's order
he was kept in prison, till Napoleon demanded that he should be sent to
Bayonne. Here he rejoined his master and mistress. He remained with them
till Charles IV. died at Rome in 1819, having survived his queen. The
rest of Godoy's life was spent in poverty and obscurity. After the death
of Ferdinand VII., in 1833, he returned to Madrid, and endeavoured to
secure the restoration of his property confiscated in 1808. Part of it
was the estate of the Soto de Roma, granted by the cortes to the duke of
Wellington. He failed, and during his last years lived on a small
pension granted him by Louis Philippe. He died in Paris on the 4th of
October 1851.

As a favourite Godoy is remarkable for the length of his hold on the
affection of his sovereigns, and for its completeness. Latterly he was
supported rather by the husband than by the wife. He got rid of Aranda
by adopting, in order to please the king, a policy which tended to bring
on war with France. When the war proved disastrous, he made the peace of
Basel, and was created prince of the Peace for his services. Then he
helped to make war with England, and the disasters which followed only
made him dearer to the king. Indeed it became a main object with Charles
IV. to protect "Manuelito" from popular hatred, and if possible secure
him a principality. The queen endured his infidelities to her, which
were flagrant. The king arranged a marriage for him with Doña Teresa de
Bourbon, daughter of the infante Don Luis by a morganatic marriage,
though he was probably already married to Doña Josefa Tudó, and
certainly continued to live with her. Godoy, in his memoirs, lays claim
to have done much for Spanish agriculture and industry, but he did
little more than issue proclamations and appoint officers. His
intentions may have been good, but the policy of his government was
financially ruinous. In his private life he was not only profligate and
profuse, but childishly ostentatious. The best that can be said for him
is that he was good-natured, and did his best to restrain the
Inquisition and the purely reactionary parties.

  AUTHORITIES.--Godoy's _Memoirs_ were published in Spanish, English and
  French in 1836. A general account of his career will be found in the
  _Mémoires sur la Révolution d'Espagne_, by the Abbé de Pradt (1816).



GODROON, or GADROON (Fr. _godron_, of unknown etymology), in
architecture, a convex decoration (said to be derived from raised work
on linen) applied in France to varieties of the bead and reel, in which
the bead is often carved with ornament. In England the term is
constantly used by auctioneers to describe the raised convex decorations
under the bowl of stone or terra-cotta vases. The godroons radiate from
the vertical support of the vase and rise half-way up the bowl.



GODWIN, FRANCIS (1562-1633), English divine, son of Thomas Godwin,
bishop of Bath and Wells, was born at Hannington, Northamptonshire, in
1562. He was elected student of Christ Church, Oxford, in 1578, took his
bachelor's degree in 1580, and that of master in 1583. After holding two
Somersetshire livings he was in 1587 appointed subdean of Exeter. In
1590 he accompanied William Camden on an antiquarian tour through Wales.
He was created bachelor of divinity in 1593, and doctor in 1595. In 1601
he published his _Catalogue of the Bishops of England since the first
planting of the Christian Religion in this Island_, a work which
procured him in the same year the bishopric of Llandaff. A second
edition appeared in 1615, and in 1616 he published an edition in Latin
with a dedication to King James, who in the following year conferred
upon him the bishopric of Hereford. The work was republished, with a
continuation by William Richardson, in 1743. In 1616 Godwin published
_Rerum Anglicarum, Henrico VIII., Edwardo VI. et Maria regnantibus,
Annales_, which was afterwards translated and published by his son
Morgan under the title _Annales of England_ (1630). He is also the
author of a somewhat remarkable story, published posthumously in 1638,
and entitled _The Man in the Moone, or a Discourse of a Voyage thither,
by Domingo Gonsales_, written apparently some time between the years
1599 and 1603. In this production Godwin not only declares himself a
believer in the Copernican system, but adopts so far the principles of
the law of gravitation as to suppose that the earth's attraction
diminishes with the distance. The work, which displays considerable
fancy and wit, was translated into French, and was imitated in several
important particulars by Cyrano de Bergerac, from whom (if not from
Godwin direct) Swift obtained valuable hints in writing of Gulliver's
voyage to Laputa. Another work of Godwin's, _Nuncius inanimatus
Utopiae_, originally published in 1629 and again in 1657, seems to have
been the prototype of John Wilkins's _Mercury, or the Secret and Swift
Messenger_, which appeared in 1641. He died, after a lingering illness,
in April 1633.



GODWIN, MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT (1759-1797), English miscellaneous writer,
was born at Hoxton, on the 27th of April 1759. Her family was of Irish
extraction, and Mary's grandfather, who was a respectable manufacturer
in Spitalfields, realized the property which his son squandered. Her
mother, Elizabeth Dixon, was Irish, and of good family. Her father,
Edward John Wollstonecraft, after dissipating the greater part of his
patrimony, tried to earn a living by farming, which only plunged him
into deeper difficulties, and he led a wandering, shifty life. The
family roamed from Hoxton to Edmonton, to Essex, to Beverley in
Yorkshire, to Laugharne, Pembrokeshire, and back to London again.

After Mrs Wollstonecraft's death in 1780, soon followed by her husband's
second marriage, the three daughters, Mary, Everina and Eliza, sought to
earn their own livelihood. The sisters were all clever women--Mary and
Eliza far above the average--but their opportunities of culture had been
few. Mary, the eldest, went in the first instance to live with her
friend Fanny Blood, a girl of her own age, whose father, like
Wollstonecraft, was addicted to drink and dissipation. As long as she
lived with the Bloods, Mary helped Mrs Blood to earn money by taking in
needlework, while Fanny painted in watercolours. Everina went to live
with her brother Edward, and Eliza made a hasty and, as it proved,
unhappy marriage with a Mr Bishop. A legal separation was afterwards
obtained, and the sisters, together with Fanny Blood, took a house,
first at Islington, afterwards at Newington Green, and opened a school,
which was carried on with indifferent success for nearly two years.
During their residence at Newington Green, Mary was introduced to Dr
Johnson, who, as Godwin tells us, "treated her with particular kindness
and attention."

In 1785 Fanny Blood married Hugh Skeys, a merchant, and went with him to
Lisbon, where she died in childbed after sending for Mary to nurse her.
"The loss of Fanny," as she said in a letter to Mrs Skeys's brother,
George Blood, "was sufficient of itself to have cast a cloud over my
brightest days.... I have lost all relish for pleasure, and life seems a
burden almost too heavy to be endured." Her first novel, _Mary, a
Fiction_ (1788), was intended to commemorate her friendship with Fanny.
After closing the school at Newington Green, Mary became governess in
the family of Lord Kingsborough, in Ireland. Her pupils were much
attached to her, especially Margaret King, afterwards Lady Mountcashel;
and indeed, Lady Kingsborough gave the reason for dismissing her after
one year's service that the children loved their governess better than
their mother. Mary now resolved to devote herself to literary work, and
she was encouraged by Johnson, the publisher in St Paul's churchyard,
for whom she acted as literary adviser. She also undertook translations,
chiefly from the French. _The Elements of Morality_ (1790) from the
German of Salzmann, illustrated by Blake, an old-fashioned book for
children, and Lavater's _Physiognomy_ were among her translations. Her
_Original Stories from Real Life_ were published in 1791, and, with
illustrations by Blake, in 1796. In 1792 appeared _A Vindication of the
Rights of Woman_, the work with which her name is always associated.

It is not among the least oddities of this book that it is dedicated to
M. Talleyrand Périgord, late bishop of Autun. Mary Wollstonecraft still
believed him to be sincere, and working in the same direction as
herself. In the dedication she states the "main argument" of the work,
"built on this simple principle that, if woman be not prepared by
education to become the companion of man, she will stop the progress of
knowledge, for truth must be common to all, or it will be inefficacious
with respect to its influence or general practice." In carrying out this
argument she used great plainness of speech, and it was this that caused
all, or nearly all, the outcry. For she did not attack the institution
of marriage, nor assail orthodox religion; her book was really a plea
for equality of education, passing into one for state education and for
the joint education of the sexes. It was a protest against the
assumption that woman was only the plaything of man, and she asserted
that intellectual companionship was the chief, as it is the lasting,
happiness of marriage. She thus directly opposed the teaching of
Rousseau, of whom she was in other respects an ardent disciple.

Mrs Wollstonecraft, as she now styled herself, desired to watch the
progress of the Revolution in France, and went to Paris in 1792. Godwin,
in his memoir of his wife, considers that the change of residence may
have been prompted by the discovery that she was becoming attached to
Henry Fuseli, but there is little to confirm this surmise; indeed, it
was first proposed that she should go to Paris in company with him and
his wife, nor was there any subsequent breach in their friendship. She
remained in Paris during the Reign of Terror, when communication with
England was difficult or almost impossible. Some time in the spring or
summer of 1793 Captain Gilbert Imlay, an American, became acquainted
with Mary--an acquaintance which ended in a more intimate connexion.
There was no legal ceremony of marriage, and it is doubtful whether such
a marriage would have been valid at the time; but she passed as Imlay's
wife, and Imlay himself terms her in a legal document, "Mary Imlay, my
best friend and wife." In August 1793 Imlay was called to Havre on
business, and was absent for some months, during which time most of the
letters published after her death by Godwin were written. Towards the
end of the year she joined Imlay at Havre, and there in the spring of
1794 she gave birth to a girl, who received the name of Fanny, in
memory of the dear friend of her youth. In this year she published the
first volume of a never completed _Historical and Moral View of the
French Revolution_. Imlay became involved in a multitude of
speculations, and his affection for Mary and their child was already
waning. He left Mary for some months at Havre. In June 1795, after
joining him in England, Mary left for Norway on business for Imlay. Her
letters from Norway, divested of all personal details, were afterwards
published. She returned to England late in 1795, and found letters
awaiting her from Imlay, intimating his intention to separate from her,
and offering to settle an annuity on her and her child. For herself she
rejected this offer with scorn: "From you," she wrote, "I will not
receive anything more. I am not sufficiently humbled to depend on your
beneficence." They met again, and for a short time lived together, until
the discovery that he was carrying on an intrigue under her own roof
drove her to despair, and she attempted to drown herself by leaping from
Putney bridge, but was rescued by watermen. Imlay now completely
deserted her, although she continued to bear his name.

In 1796, when Mary Wollstonecraft was living in London, supporting
herself and her child by working, as before, for Mr Johnson, she met
William Godwin. A friendship sprang up between them,--a friendship, as
he himself says, which "melted into love." Godwin states that "ideas
which he is now willing to denominate prejudices made him by no means
willing to conform to the ceremony of marriage"; but these prejudices
were overcome, and they were married at St Pancras church on the 29th of
March 1797. And now Mary had a season of real calm in her stormy
existence. Godwin, for once only in his life, was stirred by passion,
and his admiration for his wife equalled his affection. But their
happiness was of short duration. The birth of her daughter Mary,
afterwards the wife of Percy Bysshe Shelley, on the 30th of August 1797,
proved fatal, and Mrs Godwin died on the 10th of September following.
She was buried in the churchyard of Old St Pancras, but her remains were
afterwards removed by Sir Percy Shelley to the churchyard of St Peter's,
Bournemouth.

  Her principal published works are as follows:--_Thoughts on the
  Education of Daughters, ..._ (1787); _The Female Reader_ (selections)
  (1789); _Original Stories from Real Life_ (1791); _An Historical and
  Moral View of the Origin and Progress of the French Revolution, and
  the effects it has produced in Europe_, vol. i. (no more published)
  (1790); _Vindication of the Rights of Woman_ (1792); _Vindication of
  the Rights of Man_ (1793); _Mary, a Fiction_ (1788); _Letters written
  during a Short Residence in Sweden, Norway and Denmark_ (1796);
  _Posthumous Works_ (4 vols., 1798). It is impossible to trace the many
  articles contributed by her to periodical literature.

  A memoir of her life was published by Godwin in 1798. A large portion
  of C. Kegan Paul's work, _William Godwin, his Friends and
  Contemporaries_, was devoted to her, and an edition of the _Letters to
  Imlay_ (1879), of which the first edition was published by Godwin, is
  prefaced by a somewhat fuller memoir. See also E. Dowden, _The French
  Revolution and English Literature_ (1897) pp. 82 et seq.; E. R.
  Pennell, _Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin_ (1885), in the Eminent Women
  Series; E. R. Clough, _A Study of Mary Wollstonecraft and the Rights
  of Woman_ (1898); an edition of her _Original Stories_ (1906), with
  William Blake's illustrations and an introduction by E. V. Lucas; and
  the _Love Letters of Mary Wollstonecraft to Gilbert Imlay_ (1908),
  with an introduction by Roger Ingpen.



GODWIN, WILLIAM, (1756-1836), English political and miscellaneous
writer, son of a Nonconformist minister, was born on the 3rd of March
1756, at Wisbeach in Cambridgeshire. His family came on both sides of
middle-class people, and it was probably only as a joke that Godwin, a
stern political reformer and philosophical radical, attempted to trace
his pedigree to a time before the Norman conquest and the great earl
Godwine. Both parents were strict Calvinists. The father died young, and
never inspired love or much regret in his son; but in spite of wide
differences of opinion, tender affection always subsisted between
William Godwin and his mother, until her death at an advanced age.

William Godwin was educated for his father's profession at Hoxton
Academy, where he was under Andrew Kippis the biographer and Dr Abraham
Rees of the _Cyclopaedia_, and was at first more Calvinistic than his
teachers, becoming a Sandemanian, or follower of John Glas (q.v.), whom
he describes as "a celebrated north-country apostle who, after Calvin
had damned ninety-nine in a hundred of mankind, has contrived a scheme
for damning ninety-nine in a hundred of the followers of Calvin." He
then acted as a minister at Ware, Stowmarket and Beaconsfield. At
Stowmarket the teachings of the French philosophers were brought before
him by a friend, Joseph Fawcet, who held strong republican opinions. He
came to London in 1782, still nominally a minister, to regenerate
society with his pen--a real enthusiast, who shrank theoretically from
no conclusions from the premises which he laid down. He adopted the
principles of the Encyclopaedists, and his own aim was the complete
overthrow of all existing institutions, political, social and religious.
He believed, however, that calm discussion was the only thing needful to
carry every change, and from the beginning to the end of his career he
deprecated every approach to violence. He was a philosophic radical in
the strictest sense of the term.

His first published work was an anonymous _Life of Lord Chatham_ (1783).
Under the inappropriate title _Sketches of History_ (1784) he published
under his own name six sermons on the characters of Aaron, Hazael and
Jesus, in which, though writing in the character of an orthodox
Calvinist, he enunciates the proposition "God Himself has no right to be
a tyrant." Introduced by Andrew Kippis, he began to write in 1785 for
the _Annual Register_ and other periodicals, producing also three novels
now forgotten. The "Sketches of English History" written for the _Annual
Register_ from 1785 onward still deserve study. He joined a club called
the "Revolutionists," and associated much with Lord Stanhope, Horne
Tooke and Holcroft. His clerical character was now completely dropped.

In 1793 Godwin published his great work on political science, _The
Inquiry concerning Political Justice, and its Influence on General
Virtue and Happiness_. Although this work is little known and less read
now, it marks a phase in English thought. Godwin could never have been
himself a worker on the active stage of life. But he was none the less a
power behind the workers, and for its political effect, _Political
Justice_ takes its place with Milton's _Areopagitica_, with Locke's
_Essay on Education_ and with Rousseau's _Émile_. By the words
"political justice" the author meant "the adoption of any principle of
morality and truth into the practice of a community," and the work was
therefore an inquiry into the principles of society, of government and
of morals. For many years Godwin had been "satisfied that monarchy was a
species of government unavoidably corrupt," and from desiring a
government of the simplest construction, he gradually came to consider
that "government by its very nature counteracts the improvement of
original mind." Believing in the perfectibility of the race, that there
are no innate principles, and therefore no original propensity to evil,
he considered that "our virtues and our vices may be traced to the
incidents which make the history of our lives, and if these incidents
could be divested of every improper tendency, vice would be extirpated
from the world." All control of man by man was more or less intolerable,
and the day would come when each man, doing what seems right in his own
eyes, would also be doing what is in fact best for the community,
because all will be guided by principles of pure reason. But all was to
be done by discussion, and matured change resulting from discussion.
Hence, while Godwin thoroughly approved of the philosophic schemes of
the precursors of the Revolution, he was as far removed as Burke himself
from agreeing with the way in which they were carried out. So logical
and uncompromising a thinker as Godwin could not go far in the
discussion of abstract questions without exciting the most lively
opposition in matters of detailed opinion. An affectionate son, and ever
ready to give of his hard-earned income to more than one ne'er-do-well
brother, he maintained that natural relationship had no claim on man,
nor was gratitude to parents or benefactors any part of justice or
virtue. In a day when the penal code was still extremely severe, he
argued gravely against all punishments, not only that of death. Property
was to belong to him who most wanted it; accumulated property was a
monstrous injustice. Hence marriage, which is law, is the worst of all
laws, and as property the worst of all properties. A man so passionless
as Godwin could venture thus to argue without suspicion that he did so
only to gratify his wayward desires. Portions of this treatise, and only
portions, found ready acceptance in those minds which were prepared to
receive them. Perhaps no one received the whole teaching of the book.
But it gave cohesion and voice to philosophic radicalism; it was the
manifesto of a school without which liberalism of the present day had
not been. Godwin himself in after days modified his communistic views,
but his strong feeling for individualism, his hatred of all restrictions
on liberty, his trust in man, his faith in the power of reason remained;
it was a manifesto which enunciated principles modifying action, even
when not wholly ruling it.

In May 1794 Godwin published the novel of _Caleb Williams, or Things as
they are_, a book of which the political object is overlooked by many
readers in the strong interest of the story. The book was dramatized by
the younger Colman as _The Iron Chest_. It is one of the few novels of
that time which may be said still to live.[1] A theorist who lived
mainly in his study, Godwin yet came forward boldly to stand by
prisoners arraigned of high treason in that same year--1794. The danger
to persons so charged was then great, and he deliberately put himself
into this same danger for his friends. But when his own trial was
discussed in the privy council, Pitt sensibly held that _Political
Justice_, the work on which the charge could best have been founded, was
priced at three guineas, and could never do much harm among those who
had not three shillings to spare.

From this time Godwin became a notable figure in London society, and
there was scarcely an important person in politics, on the Liberal side,
in literature, art or science, who does not appear familiarly in the
pages of Godwin's singular diary. For forty-eight years, beginning in
1788, and continuing to the very end of his life, Godwin kept a record
of every day, of the work he did, the books he read, the friends he saw.
Condensed in the highest degree, the diary is yet easy to read when the
style is once mastered, and it is a great help to the understanding of
his cold, methodical, unimpassioned character. He carried his method
into every detail of life, and lived on his earnings with extreme
frugality. Until he made a large sum by the publication of _Political
Justice_, he lived on an average of £120 a year.

In 1797, the intervening years having been spent in strenuous literary
labour, Godwin married Mary Wollstonecraft (see GODWIN, MARY
WOLLSTONECRAFT). Since both held the same views regarding the slavery of
marriage, and since they only married at all for the sake of possible
offspring, the marriage was concealed for some time, and the happiness
of the avowed married life was very brief; his wife's death on the 10th
of September left Godwin prostrated by affliction, and with a charge for
which he was wholly unfit--his infant daughter Mary, and her stepsister,
Fanny Imlay, who from that time bore the name of Godwin. His unfitness
for the cares of a family, far more than love, led him to contract a
second marriage with Mary Jane Clairmont in 1801. She was a widow with
two children, one of whom, Clara Mary Jane Clairmont, became the
mistress of Lord Byron. The second Mrs Godwin was energetic and
painstaking, but a harsh stepmother; and it may be doubted whether the
children were not worse off under her care than they would have been
under Godwin's neglect.

The second novel which proceeded from Godwin's pen was called _St Leon_,
and published in 1799. It is chiefly remarkable for the beautiful
portrait of Marguerite, the heroine, drawn from the character of his own
wife. His opinions underwent a change in the direction of theism,
influenced, he says, by his acquaintance with Coleridge. He also became
known to Wordsworth and Lamb. Study of the Elizabethan dramatists led to
the production in 1800 of the _Tragedy of Antonio_. Kemble brought it
out at Drury Lane, but the failure of this attempt made him refuse
_Abbas, King of Persia_, which Godwin offered him in the next year. He
was more successful with his _Life of Chaucer_, for which he received
£600.

The events of Godwin's life were few. Under the advice of the second Mrs
Godwin, and with her active co-operation, he carried on business as a
bookseller under the pseudonym of Edward Baldwin, publishing several
useful school books and books for children, among them Charles and Mary
Lamb's _Tales from Shakespeare_. But the speculation was unsuccessful,
and for many years Godwin struggled with constant pecuniary
difficulties, for which more than one subscription was raised by the
leaders of the Liberal party and by literary men. He became bankrupt in
1822, but during the following years he accomplished one of his best
pieces of work, _The History of the Commonwealth_, founded on pamphlets
and original documents, which still retains considerable value. In 1833
the government of Earl Grey conferred upon him the office known as
yeoman usher of the exchequer, to which were attached apartments in
Palace Yard, where he died on the 7th of April 1836.

In his own time, by his writings and by his conversation, Godwin had a
great power of influencing men, and especially young men. Though his
character would seem, from much which is found in his writings, and from
anecdotes told by those who still remember him, to have been
unsympathetic, it was not so understood by enthusiastic young people,
who hung on his words as those of a prophet. The most remarkable of
these was Percy Bysshe Shelley, who in the glowing dawn of his genius
turned to Godwin as his teacher and guide. The last of the long series
of young men who sat at Godwin's feet was Edward Lytton Bulwer,
afterwards Lord Lytton, whose early romances were formed after those of
Godwin, and who, in _Eugene Aram_, succeeded to the story as arranged,
and the plan to a considerable extent sketched out, by Godwin, whose age
and failing health prevented him from completing it. Godwin's character
appears in the worst light in connexion with Shelley. His early
correspondence with Shelley, which began in 1811, is remarkable for its
genuine good sense and kindness; but when Shelley carried out the
principles of the author of _Political Justice_ in eloping with Mary
Godwin, Godwin assumed a hostile attitude that would have been
unjustifiable in a man of ordinary views, and was ridiculous in the
light of his professions. He was not, moreover, too proud to accept
£1000 from his son-in-law, and after the reconciliation following on
Shelley's marriage in 1816, he continued to demand money until Shelley's
death. His character had no doubt suffered under his long embarrassments
and his unhappy marriage.

  Godwin's more important works are--_The Inquiry concerning Political
  Justice, and its Influence on General Virtue and Happiness_ (1793);
  _Things as they are, or the Adventures of Caleb Williams_ (1794); _The
  Inquirer, a series of Essays_ (1797); _Memoirs of the Author of the
  Rights of Woman_ (1798); _St Leon, a Tale of the Sixteenth Century_
  (1799); _Antonio, a Tragedy_ (1800); _The Life of Chaucer_ (1803);
  _Fleetwood, a Novel_ (1805); _Faulkner, a Tragedy_ (1807); _Essay on
  Sepulchres_ (1809); _Lives of Edward and John Philips, the Nephews of
  Milton_ (1815); _Mandeville, a Tale of the Times of Cromwell_ (1817);
  _Of Population, an answer to Malthus_ (1820); _History of the
  Commonwealth_ (1824-1828); _Cloudesley, a Novel_ (1830); _Thoughts on
  Man, a series of Essays_ (1831); _Lives of the Necromancers_ (1834). A
  volume of essays was also collected from his papers and published in
  1873, as left for publication by his daughter Mrs Shelley. Many other
  short and anonymous works proceeded from his ever busy pen, but many
  are irrecoverable, and all are forgotten. Godwin's life was published
  in 1876 in two volumes, under the title _William Godwin, his Friends
  and Contemporaries_, by C. Kegan Paul. The best estimate of his
  literary position is that given by Sir Leslie Stephen in his _English
  Thought in the 18th Century_ (ii. 264-281; ed., 1902). See also the
  article on William Godwin in W. Hazlitt's _The Spirit of the Age_
  (1825), and "Godwin and Shelley" in Sir L. Stephen's _Hours in a
  Library_ (vol. iii., ed. 1892).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] For an analysis of _Caleb Williams_ see the chapter on "Theorists
    of Revolution" in Professor E. Dowden's _The French Revolution and
    English Literature_ (1897).



GODWIN-AUSTEN, ROBERT ALFRED CLOYNE (1808-1884), English geologist, the
eldest son of Sir Henry E. Austen, was born on the 17th of March 1808.
He was educated at Oriel College, Oxford, of which he became a fellow in
1830. He afterwards entered Lincoln's Inn. In 1833 he married the only
daughter and heiress of General Sir Henry T. Godwin, K.C.B., and he took
the additional name of Godwin by Royal licence in 1854. At Oxford as a
pupil of William Buckland he became deeply interested in geology, and
soon afterwards becoming acquainted with De la Beche, he was inspired by
that great master, and assisted him by making a geological map of the
neighbourhood of Newton Abbot, which was embodied in the Geological
Survey map. He also published an elaborate memoir "On the Geology of the
South-East of Devonshire" (_Trans. Geol. Soc._ ser. 2, vol. viii.). His
attention was next directed to the Cretaceous rocks of Surrey, his
home-county, his estates being situated at Chilworth and Shalford near
Guildford. Later he dealt with the superficial accumulations bordering
the English Channel, and with the erratic boulders of Selsea. In 1855 he
brought before the Geological Society of London his celebrated paper "On
the possible Extension of the Coal-Measures beneath the South-Eastern
part of England," in which he pointed out on well-considered theoretical
grounds the likelihood of coal-measures being some day reached in that
area. In this article he also advocated the freshwater origin of the Old
Red Sandstone, and discussed the relations of that formation, and of the
Devonian, to the Silurian and Carboniferous. He was elected F.R.S. in
1849, and in 1862 he was awarded the Wollaston medal by the Geological
Society of London, on which occasion he was styled by Sir R. I.
Murchison "pre-eminently the physical geographer of bygone periods." He
died at Shalford House near Guildford on the 25th of November 1884.

His son, Lieut-Colonel HENRY HAVERSHAM GODWIN-AUSTEN (b. 1834), entered
the army in 1851, and served for many years on the Trigonometrical
Survey of India, retiring in 1877. He gave much attention to geology,
but is more especially distinguished for his researches on the natural
history of India and as the author of _The Land and Freshwater Mollusca
of India_ (1882-1887).



GODWINE (d. 1053), son of Wulfnoth, earl of the West-Saxons, the leading
Englishman in the first half of the 11th century. His birth and origin
are utterly uncertain; but he rose to power early in Canute's reign and
was an earl in 1018. He received in marriage Gytha, a connexion of the
king's, and in 1020 became earl of the West-Saxons. On the death of
Canute in 1035 he joined with Queen Emma in supporting the claim of
Hardicanute, the son of Canute and Emma, to the crown of his father, in
opposition to Leofric and the northern party who supported Harold
Harefoot (see HARDICANUTE). While together they held Wessex for
Hardicanute, the ætheling Ælfred, son of Emma by her former husband
Æthelred II., landed in England in the hope of winning back his father's
crown; but falling into the hands of Godwine, he and his followers were
cruelly done to death. On the death of Hardicanute in 1042 Godwine was
foremost in promoting the election of Edward (the Confessor) to the
vacant throne. He was now the first man in the kingdom, though his power
was still balanced by that of the other great earls, Leofric of Mercia
and Siward of Northumberland. His sons Sweyn and Harold were promoted to
earldoms; and his daughter Eadgyth was married to the king (1045). His
policy was strongly national in opposition to the marked Normanizing
tendencies of the king. Between him and Edward's foreign favourites,
particularly Robert of Jumièges, there was deadly feud. The appointment
of Robert to the archbishopric of Canterbury in 1051 marks the decline
of Godwine's power; and in the same year a series of outrages committed
by one of the king's foreign favourites led to a breach between the king
and the earl, which culminated in the exile of the latter with all his
family (see EDWARD THE CONFESSOR). But next year Godwine returned in
triumph; and at a great meeting held outside London he and his family
were restored to all their offices and possessions, and the archbishop
and many other Normans were banished. In the following year Godwine was
smitten with a fit at the king's table, and died three days later on the
15th of April 1053.

Godwine appears to have had seven sons, three of whom--King Harold,
Gyrth and Leofwine--were killed at Hastings; two others, Wulfnoth and
Ælfgar, are of little importance; another was Earl Tostig (q.v.). The
eldest son was Sweyn, or Swegen (d. 1052), who was outlawed for seducing
Eadgifu abbess of Leominster. After fighting for the king of Denmark he
returned to England in 1049, when his murder of his cousin Beorn
compelled him to leave England for the second time. In 1050, however, he
regained his earldom, and in 1051 he shared his father's exile. To atone
for the murder of Beorn, Sweyn went on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and on
the return journey he died on the 29th of September 1052, meeting his
death, according to one account, at the hands of the Saracens.



GODWIT, a word of unknown origin, the name commonly applied to a
marsh-bird in great repute, when fattened, for the table, and formerly
abundant in the fens of Norfolk, the Isle of Ely and Lincolnshire. In
Turner's days (1544) it was worth three times as much as a snipe, and at
the same period Belon said of it--"C'est vn Oyseau es delices des
Françoys." Casaubon, who Latinized its name "_Dei ingenium_"
(_Ephemerides_, 19th September 1611), was told by the "_ornithotrophaeus_"
he visited at Wisbech that in London it fetched twenty pence. Its fame as
a delicacy is perpetuated by many later writers, Ben Jonson among them,
and Pennant says that in his time (1766) it sold for half-a-crown or five
shillings. Under the name godwit two perfectly distinct species of British
birds were included, but that which seems to have been especially prized
is known to modern ornithologists as the black-tailed godwit, _Limosa
aegocephala_, formerly called, from its loud cry, a yarwhelp,[1] shrieker
or barker, in the districts it inhabited. The practice of netting this
bird in large numbers during the spring and summer, coupled with the
gradual reclamation of the fens, to which it resorted, has now rendered it
but a visitor in England; and it probably ceased from breeding regularly
in England in 1824 or thereabouts, though under favourable conditions it
may have occasionally laid its eggs for some thirty years later or more
(Stevenson, _Birds of Norfolk_, ii. 250). This godwit is a species of wide
range, reaching Iceland, where it is called _Jardraeka_ (= earth-raker),
in summer, and occurring numerously in India in winter. Its chief
breeding-quarters seem to extend from Holland eastwards to the south of
Russia. The second British species is that which is known as the
bar-tailed godwit, _L. lapponica_, and this seems to have never been more
than a bird of double passage in the United Kingdom, arriving in large
flocks on the south coast about the 12th of May, and, after staying a few
days, proceeding to the north-eastward. It is known to breed in Lapland,
but its eggs are of great rarity. Towards autumn the young visit the
English coasts, and a few of them remain, together with some of the other
species, in favourable situations throughout the winter. One of the local
names by which the bar-tailed godwit is known to the Norfolk gunners is
scamell, a word which, in the mouth of Caliban (_Tempest_, II. ii.), has
been the cause of much perplexity to Shakespearian critics.

The godwits belong to the group _Limicolae_, and are about as big as a
tame pigeon, but possess long legs, and a long bill with a slight upward
turn. It is believed that in the genus _Limosa_ the female is larger
than the male. While the winter plumage is of a sober greyish-brown, the
breeding-dress is marked by a predominance of bright bay or chestnut,
rendering the wearer a very beautiful object. The black-tailed godwit,
though varying a good deal in size, is constantly larger than the
bar-tailed, and especially longer in the legs. The species may be
further distinguished by the former having the proximal third of the
tail-quills pure white, and the distal two-thirds black, with a narrow
white margin, while the latter has the same feathers barred with black
and white alternately for nearly their whole length.

America possesses two species of the genus, the very large marbled
godwit or marlin, _L. fedoa_, easily recognized by its size and the buff
colour of its axillaries, and the smaller Hudsonian godwit, _L.
hudsonica_, which has its axillaries of a deep black. This last, though
less numerous than its congener, seems to range over the whole of the
continent, breeding in the extreme north, while it has been obtained
also in the Strait of Magellan and the Falkland Islands. The first seems
not to go farther southward than the Antilles and the Isthmus of
Panama.

From Asia, or at least its eastern part, two species have been
described. One of them, _L. melanuroides_, differs only from _L.
aegocephala_ in its smaller size, and is believed to breed in Amurland,
wintering in the islands of the Pacific, New Zealand and Australia. The
other, _L. uropygialis_, is closely allied to and often mistaken for _L.
lapponica_, from which it chiefly differs by having the rump barred like
the tail. This was found breeding in the extreme north of Siberia by Dr
von Middendorff, and ranges to Australia, whence it was, like the last,
first described by Gould.     (A. N.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] This name seems to have survived in Whelp Moor, near Brandon, in
    Suffolk.



GOEBEN, AUGUST KARL VON (1816-1880), Prussian general of infantry, came
of old Hanoverian stock. Born at Stade on the 10th of December 1816, he
aspired from his earliest years to the Prussian service rather than that
of his own country, and at the age of seventeen obtained a commission in
the 24th regiment of Prussian infantry. But there was little scope there
for the activities of a young and energetic subaltern, and, leaving the
service in 1836, he entered the Carlist army campaigning in Spain. In
the five campaigns which he made in the service of Don Carlos he had
many and various vicissitudes of fortune. He had not fought for two
months when he fell, severely wounded, into the hands of the Spanish
Royal troops. After eight months' detention he escaped, but it was not
long before he was captured again. This time his imprisonment was long
and painful, and on two occasions he was compelled to draw lots for his
life with his fellow-captives. When released, he served till 1840 with
distinction. In that year he made his way back, a beggar without means
or clothing, to Prussia. The Carlist lieutenant-colonel was glad to be
re-admitted into the Prussian service as a second lieutenant, but he was
still young, and few subalterns could at the age of twenty-four claim
five years' meritorious war service. In a few years we find him serving
as captain on the Great General Staff, and in 1848 he had the good
fortune to be transferred to the staff of the IV. army corps, his
immediate superior being Major von Moltke. The two "coming men" became
fast friends, and their mutual esteem was never disturbed. In the Baden
insurrection Goeben served with distinction on the staff of Prince
William, the future emperor. Staff and regimental duty (as usual in the
Prussian service) alternated for some years after this, till in 1863 he
became major-general commanding the 26th infantry brigade. In 1860, it
should be mentioned, he was present with the Spanish troops in Morocco,
and took part in the battle of Tetuan.

In the first of Prussia's great wars (1864) he distinguished himself at
the head of his brigade at Rackebüll and Sonderburg. In the war of 1866
Lieutenant-General von Goeben commanded the 13th division, of which his
old brigade formed part, and, in this higher sphere, once more displayed
the qualities of a born leader and skilful tactician. He held almost
independent command with conspicuous success in the actions of Dermbach,
Laufach, Kissingen, Aschaffenburg, Gerchsheim, Tauber-Bischofsheim and
Würzburg. The mobilization of 1870 placed him at the head of the VIII.
(Rhineland) army corps, forming part of the First Army under Steinmetz.
It was his resolute and energetic leading that contributed mainly to the
victory of Spicheren (6th August), and won the only laurels gained on
the Prussian right wing at Gravelotte (18th August). Under Manteuffel
the VIII. corps took part in the operations about Amiens and Bapaume,
and on the 8th of January 1871 Goeben succeeded that general in the
command of the First Army, with which he had served throughout the
campaign as a corps commander. A fortnight later he had brought the war
in northern France to a brilliant conclusion, by the decisive victory of
St Quentin (18th and 19th January 1871). The close of the Franco-German
War left Goeben one of the most distinguished men in the victorious
army. He was colonel of the 28th infantry, and had the grand cross of
the Iron Cross. He commanded the VIII. corps at Coblenz until his death
in 1880.

General von Goeben left many writings. His memoirs are to be found in
his works _Vier Jahre in Spanien_ (Hanover, 1841), _Reise- und
Lagerbriefe aus Spanien und vom spanischen Heere in Marokko_ (Hanover,
1863) and in the Darmstadt _Allgemeine Militärzeitung_. The former
French port (Queuleu) at Metz was renamed Goeben after him, and the 28th
infantry bears his name. A statue of Goeben by Schaper was erected at
Coblenz in 1884.

  See G. Zernin, _Das Leben des Generals August von Goeben_ (2 vols.,
  Berlin, 1895-1897); H. Barth, _A. von Goeben_ (Berlin, 1906); and, for
  his share in the war of 1870-71; H. Kunz, _Der Feldzug im N. und N.W.
  Frankreichs 1870-1871_ (Berlin, 1889), and the 14th Monograph of the
  Great General Staff (1891).



GOEJE, MICHAEL JAN DE (1836-1909), Dutch orientalist, was born in
Friesland in 1836. He devoted himself at an early age to the study of
oriental languages and became especially proficient in Arabic, under the
guidance of Dozy and Juynboll, to whom he was afterwards an intimate
friend and colleague. He took his degree of doctor at Leiden in 1860,
and then studied for a year in Oxford, where he examined and collated
the Bodleian MSS. of Idrisi (part being published in 1866, in
collaboration with R. P. Dozy, as _Description de l'Afrique et de
l'Espagne_). About the same time he wrote _Mémoires de l'histoire et de
la géographie orientales_, and edited _Expugnatio regionum_. In 1883, on
the death of Dozy, he became Arabic professor at Leiden, retiring in
1906. He died on the 17th of May 1909. Though perhaps not a teacher of
the first order, he wielded a great influence during his long
professoriate not only over his pupils, but over theologians and eastern
administrators who attended his lectures, and his many editions of
Arabic texts have been of the highest value to scholars, the most
important being his great edition of Tabari. Though entirely averse from
politics, he took a keen interest in the municipal affairs of Leiden and
made a special study of elementary education. He took the leading part
in the International Congress of Orientalists at Algiers in 1905. He was
a member of the Institut de France, was awarded the German Order of
Merit, and received an honorary doctorate of Cambridge University. At
his death he was president of the newly formed International Association
of Academies of Science. Among his chief works are _Fragmenta
historicorum Arabicorum_ (1869-1871); _Diwan of Moslim ibn al-Walid_
(1875); _Bibliotheca geographorum Arabicorum_ (1870-1894); _Annals of
Tabari_ (1879-1901); edition of Ibn Qutaiba's biographies (1904); of the
travels of Ibn Jubaye (1907, 5th vol. of Gibb Memorial). He was also the
chief editor of the _Encyclopaedia of Islam_ (vols. i.-iii.), and
contributed many articles to periodicals. He wrote for the 9th and the
present edition of the _Encyclopaedia Britannica_.



GOES, DAMIÃO DE (1502-1574), Portuguese humanist, was born of a
patrician family at Alemquer, in February 1502. Under King John III. he
was employed abroad for many years from 1523 on diplomatic and
commercial missions, and he travelled over the greater part of Europe.
He was intimate with the leading scholars of the time, was acquainted
with Luther and other Protestant divines, and in 1532 became the pupil
and friend of Erasmus. Goes took his degree at Padua in 1538 after a
four years' course. In 1537, at the instance of his friend Cardinal
Sadoleto, he undertook to mediate between the Church and the Lutherans,
but failed through the attitude of the Protestants. He married in
Flanders a rich and noble Dutch lady, D. Joanna de Hargen, and settled
at Louvain, then the literary centre of the Low Countries, where he was
living in 1542 when the French besieged the town. He was given the
command of the defending forces, and saved Louvain, but was taken
prisoner and confined for nine months in France, till he obtained his
freedom by a heavy ransom. He was rewarded, however, by a grant of arms
from Charles V. He finally returned to Portugal in 1545, with a view of
becoming tutor to the king's son, but he failed to obtain this post,
owing to the denunciations of Father Simon Rodriguez, provincial of the
Jesuits, who accused Goes of favouring the Lutheran doctrines and of
being a disciple of Erasmus. Nevertheless in 1548 he was appointed chief
keeper of the archives and royal chronicler, and at once introduced some
much-needed reforms into the administration of his office.

In 1558 he was given a commission to write a history of the reign of
King Manoel, a task previously confided to João de Barros, but
relinquished by him. It was an onerous undertaking for a conscientious
historian, since it was necessary to expose the miseries as well as
relate the glories of the period, and so to offend some of the most
powerful families. Goes had already written a _Chronicle_ of Prince John
(afterwards John II.), and when, after more than eight years' labour, he
produced the First Part of his _Chronicle_ of King Manoel (1566), a
chorus of attacks greeted it, the edition was destroyed, and he was
compelled to issue a revised version. He brought out the three other
parts in 1566-1567, though chapters 23 to 27 of the Third Part were so
mutilated by the censorship that the printed text differs largely from
the MS. Hitherto Goes, notwithstanding his Liberalism, had escaped the
Inquisition, though in 1540 his _Fides, religio, moresque Aethiopum_ had
been prohibited by the chief inquisitor, Cardinal D. Henrique; but the
denunciation of Father Rodriguez in 1545, which had been vainly renewed
in 1550, was now brought into action, and in 1571 he was arrested to
stand his trial. There seems to be no doubt that the Inquisition made
itself on this occasion, as on others, the instrument of private enmity;
for eighteen months Goes lay ill in prison, and then he was condemned,
though he had lived for thirty years as a faithful Catholic, and the
worst that could be proved against him was that in his youth he had
spoken against Indulgences, disbelieved in auricular confession, and
consorted with heretics. He was sentenced to a term of reclusion, and
his property was confiscated to the crown. After he had abjured his
errors in private, he was sent at the end of 1572 to do penance at the
monastery of Batalha. Later he was allowed to return home to Alemquer,
where he died on the 30th of January 1574. He was buried in the church
of Nossa Senhora da Varzea.

Damião de Goes was a man of wide culture and genial and courtly manners,
a skilled musician and a good linguist. He wrote both Portuguese and
Latin with classic strength and simplicity, and his style is free from
affectation and rhetorical ornaments. His portrait by Albrecht Dürer
shows an open, intelligent face, and the record of his life proves him
to have been upright and fearless. His prosperity doubtless excited
ill-will, but above all, his ideas, advanced for Portugal, his foreign
ways, outspokenness and honesty contributed to the tragedy of his end,
at a time when the forces of ignorant reaction held the ascendant. He
had, it may be presumed, given some umbrage to the court by condemning,
in the _Chronicle of King Manoel_, the royal ingratitude to
distinguished public servants, though he received a pension and other
rewards for that work, and he had certainly offended the nobility by his
administration of the archive office and by exposing false genealogical
claims in his _Nobiliario_. He paid the penalty for telling the truth,
as he knew it, in an age when an historian had to choose between
flattery of the great and silence. The _Chronicle of King Manoel_ was
the first official history of a Portuguese reign to be written in a
critical spirit, and Damião de Goes has the honour of having been the
first Portuguese royal chronicler to deserve the name of an historian.

  His Portuguese works include _Chronica do felicissimo rei Dom Emanuel_
  (parts i. and ii., Lisbon, 1566, parts iii. and iv., ib. 1567). Other
  editions appeared in Lisbon in 1619 and 1749 and in Coimbra in 1790.
  _Chronica do principe Dom Joam_ (Lisbon, 1558), with subsequent
  editions in 1567 and 1724 in Lisbon and in 1790 in Coimbra. _Livro de
  Marco Tullio Ciceram chamado Catam Mayor_ (Venice, 1538). This is a
  translation of Cicero's _De senectute_. His Latin works, published
  separately, comprise: (1) _Legatio magni imperatoris Presbiteri
  Joannis, &c._ (Antwerp, 1532); (2) _Legatio Davidis Ethiopiae regis,
  &c._ (Bologna, 1533); (3) _Commentarii rerum gestarum in India_
  (Louvain, 1539); (4) _Fides, religio, moresque Aethiopum_ (Louvain,
  1540), incorporating Nos. (1) and (2); (5) _Hispania_ (Louvain, 1542);
  (6) _Aliquot epistolae Sadoleti Bembi et aliorum clarissimorum
  virorum, &c._ (Louvain, 1544); (7) _Damiani a Goes equitis Lusitani
  aliquot opuscula_ (Louvain, 1544); (8) _Urbis Lovaniensis obsidia_
  (Lisbon, 1546); (9) _De bello Cambaico ultimo_ (Louvain, 1549); (10)
  _Urbis Olisiponensis descriptio_ (Evora, 1554); (11) _Epistola ad
  Hieronymum Cardosum_ (Lisbon, 1556). Most of the above went through
  several editions, and many were afterwards included with new works in
  such collections as No. (7), and seven sets of _Opuscula_ appeared,
  all incomplete. Nos. (3), (4) and (5) suffered mutilation in
  subsequent editions, at the hands of the censors, because they
  offended against religious orthodoxy or family pride.

  AUTHORITIES.--(A) Joaquim de Vasconcellos, _Goesiana_ (5 vols.), with
  the following sub-titles: (1) _O Retrato de Albrecht Dürer_ (Porto,
  1879); (2) _Bibliographia_ (Porto, 1879), which describes 67 numbers
  of books by Goes; (3) As Variantes das Chronicus Portuguezas (Porto,
  1881); (4) _Damião de Goes: Novos Estudos_ (Porto, 1897); (5) _As
  Cartas Latinas_--in the press (1906). Snr. Vasconcellos only printed a
  very limited number of copies of these studies for distribution among
  friends, so that they are rare. (B) Guilherme J. C. Henriques,
  _Ineditos Goesianos_, vol. i. (Lisbon, 1896), vol. ii. (containing the
  proceedings at the trial by the Inquisition) (Lisbon, 1898). (C) A. P.
  Lopes de Mendonça, _Damião de Goes e a Inquisição de Portugal_
  (Lisbon, 1859). (D) Dr Sousa Viterbo, _Damião de Goes e D. Antonio
  Pinheiro_ (Coimbra, 1895). (E) Dr Theophilo Braga, _Historia da
  Universidade de Coimbra_ (Lisbon, 1892), i. 374-380. (F) Menendez y
  Pelayo, _Historia de los Heter. Españoles_, ii. 129-143.     (E. Pr.)



GOES, HUGO VAN DER (d. 1482), a painter of considerable celebrity at
Ghent, was known to Vasari, as he is known to us, by a single picture in
a Florentine monastery. At a period when the family of the Medici had
not yet risen from the rank of a great mercantile firm to that of a
reigning dynasty, it employed as an agent at the port of Bruges Tommaso
Portinari, a lineal descendant, it was said, of Folco, the father of
Dante's Beatrix. Tommaso, at that time patron of a chapel in the
hospital of Santa Maria Nuova at Florence, ordered an altar-piece of
Hugo van der Goes, and commanded him to illustrate the sacred theme of
"Quem genuit adoravit." In the centre of a vast triptych, comprising
numerous figures of life size, Hugo represented the Virgin kneeling in
adoration before the new-born Christ attended by Shepherds and Angels.
On the wings he portrayed Tommaso and his two sons in prayer under the
protection of Saint Anthony and St Matthew, and Tommaso's wife and two
daughters supported by St Margaret and St Mary Magdalen. The triptych,
which has suffered much from decay and restoring, was for over 400 years
at Santa Maria Nuova, and is now in the Uffizi Gallery. Imposing because
composed of figures of unusual size, the altar-piece is more remarkable
for portrait character than for charms of ideal beauty.

There are also small pieces in public galleries which claim to have been
executed by Van der Goes. One of these pictures in the National Gallery
in London is more nearly allied to the school of Memling than to the
triptych of Santa Maria Nuova; another, a small and very beautiful "John
the Baptist," at the Pinakothek of Munich, is really by Memling; whilst
numerous fragments of an altar-piece in the Belvedere at Vienna, though
assigned to Hugo, are by his more gifted countryman of Bruges. Van der
Goes, however, was not habitually a painter of easel pieces. He made his
reputation at Bruges by producing coloured hangings in distemper. After
he settled at Ghent, and became a master of his gild in 1465, he
designed cartoons for glass windows. He also made decorations for the
wedding of Charles the Bold and Margaret of York in 1468, for the
festivals of the Rhetoricians and papal jubilees on repeated occasions,
for the solemn entry of Charles the Bold into Ghent in 1470-1471, and
for the funeral of Philip the Good in 1474. The labour which he expended
on these occasions might well add to his fame without being the less
ephemeral. About the year 1475 he retired to the monastery of Rouge
Cloître near Ghent, where he took the cowl. There, though he still clung
to his profession, he seems to have taken to drinking, and at one time
to have shown decided symptoms of insanity. But his superiors gradually
cured him of his intemperance, and he died in the odour of sanctity in
1482.



GOES, a town in the province of Zeeland, Holland, on the island of South
Beveland, 11½ m. by rail E. of Middelburg. Pop. (1900) 6919. It is
connected by a short canal with the East Scheldt, and has a good harbour
(1819) defended by a fort. The principal buildings are the interesting
Gothic church (1423) and the picturesque old town hall (restored 1771).
There are various educational and charitable institutions. Goes has
preserved for centuries its prosperous position as the market-town of
the island. The chief industries are boat-building, brewing,
book-binding and cigar-making. The town had its origin in the castle of
Oostende, built here by the noble family of Borssele. It received a
charter early in the 15th century from the countess Jacoba of Holland,
who frequently stayed at the castle.



GOETHE, JOHANN WOLFGANG VON (1749-1832), German poet, dramatist and
philosopher, was born at Frankfort-on-Main on the 28th of August 1749.
He came, on his father's side, of Thuringian stock, his
great-grandfather, Hans Christian Goethe, having been a farrier at
Artern-on-the-Unstrut, about the middle of the 17th century. Hans
Christian's son, Friedrich Georg, was brought up to the trade of a
tailor, and in this capacity settled in Frankfort in 1686. A second
marriage, however, brought him into possession of the Frankfort inn,
"Zum Weidenhof," and he ended his days as a well-to-do innkeeper. His
son, Johann Kaspar, the poet's father (1710-1782), studied law at
Leipzig, and, after going through the prescribed courses of practical
training at Wetzlar, travelled in Italy. He hoped, on his return to
Frankfort, to obtain an official position in the government of the free
city, but his personal influence with the authorities was not
sufficiently strong. In his disappointment he resolved never again to
offer his services to his native town, and retired into private life, a
course which his ample means facilitated. In 1742 he acquired, as a
consolation for the public career he had missed, the title of
_kaiserlicher Rat_, and in 1748 married Katharina Elisabeth (1731-1808),
daughter of the _Schultheiss_ or _Bürgermeister_ of Frankfort, Johann
Wolfgang Textor. The poet was the eldest son of this union. Of the later
children only one, Cornelia, born in 1750, survived the years of
childhood; she died as the wife of Goethe's friend, J. G. Schlosser, in
1777. The best elements in Goethe's genius came from his mother's side;
of a lively, impulsive disposition, and gifted with remarkable
imaginative power, Frau Rat was the ideal mother of a poet; moreover,
being hardly eighteen at the time of her son's birth, she was herself
able to be the companion of his childhood. From his father, whose stern,
somewhat pedantic nature repelled warmer feelings on the part of the
children, Goethe Inherited that "holy earnestness" and stability of
character which brought him unscathed through temptations and passions,
and held the balance to his all too powerful imagination.

Unforgettable is the picture which the poet subsequently drew of his
childhood spent in the large house with its many nooks and crannies, in
the Grosse Hirschgraben at Frankfort. Books, pictures, objects of art,
antiquities, reminiscences of Rat Goethe's visit to Italy, above all a
marionette theatre, kindled the child's quick intellect and imagination.
His training was conducted in its early stages by his father, and was
later supplemented by tutors. Meanwhile the varied and picturesque life
of Frankfort was in itself an education. In 1759, during the Seven
Years' War, the French, as Maria Theresa's allies, occupied the town,
and, much to the irritation of Goethe's father, who was a stanch
partisan of Frederick the Great, a French lieutenant, Count Thoranc, was
quartered on the Goethe household. The foreign occupation also led to
the establishment of a French troupe of actors, and to their
performances the boy, through his grandfather's influence, had free
access. Goethe has also recorded his memories of another picturesque
event, the coronation of the emperor Joseph II. in the Frankfort Römer
or town hall in 1764; but these memories were darkened by being
associated in his mind with the tragic dénouement of his first love
affair. The object of this passion was a certain Gretchen, who seems to
have taken advantage of the boy's interest in her to further the
dishonest ends of one of her friends. The discovery of the affair and
the investigation that followed cooled Goethe's ardour and caused him to
turn his attention seriously to the studies which were to prepare him
for the university. Meanwhile the literary instinct had begun to show
itself; we hear of a novel in letters--a kind of linguistic exercise, in
which the characters carried on the correspondence in different
languages--of a prose epic on the subject of Joseph, and various
religious poems of which one, _Die Höllenfahrt Christi_, found its way
in a revised form into the poet's complete works.

In October 1765, Goethe, then a little over sixteen, left Frankfort for
Leipzig, where a wider and, in many respects, less provincial life
awaited him. He entered upon his university studies with zeal, but his
own education in Frankfort had not been the best preparation for the
scholastic methods which still dominated the German universities; of his
professors, only Gellert seems to have won his interest, and that
interest was soon exhausted. The literary beginnings he had made in
Frankfort now seemed to him amateurish and trivial; he felt that he had
to turn over a new leaf, and, under the guidance of E. W. Behrisch, a
genial, original comrade, he learned the art of writing those light
Anacreontic lyrics which harmonized with the tone of polite Leipzig
society. Artificial as this poetry is, Goethe was, nevertheless,
inspired by a real passion in Leipzig, namely, for Anna Katharina
Schönkopf, the daughter of a wine-merchant at whose house he dined. She
is the "Annette" after whom the recently discovered collection of lyrics
was named, although it must be added that neither these lyrics nor the
_Neue Lieder_, published in 1770, express very directly Goethe's
feelings for Käthchen Schönkopf. To his Leipzig student-days belong also
two small plays in Alexandrines, _Die Laune des Verliebten_, a pastoral
comedy in one act, which reflects the lighter side of the poet's love
affair, and _Die Mitschuldigen_ (published in a revised form, 1769), a
more sombre picture, in which comedy is incongruously mingled with
tragedy. In Leipzig Goethe also had time for what remained one of the
abiding interests of his life, for art; he regarded A. F. Oeser
(1717-1799), the director of the academy of painting in the
Pleissenburg, who had given him lessons in drawing, as the teacher who
in Leipzig had influenced him most. His art studies were also furthered
by a short visit to Dresden. His stay in Leipzig came, however, to an
abrupt conclusion; the distractions of student life proved too much for
his strength; a sudden haemorrhage supervened, and he lay long ill,
first in Leipzig, and, after it was possible to remove him, at home in
Frankfort. These months of slow recovery were a time of serious
introspection for Goethe. He still corresponded with his Leipzig
friends, but the tone of his letters changed; life had become graver and
more earnest for him. He pored over books on occult philosophy; he
busied himself with alchemy and astrology. A friend of his mother's,
Susanne Katharina von Klettenberg, who belonged to pietist circles in
Frankfort, turned the boy's thoughts to religious mysticism. On his
recovery his father resolved that he should complete his legal studies
at Strassburg, a city which, although then outside the German empire,
was, in respect of language and culture, wholly German. From the first
moment Goethe set foot in the narrow streets of the Alsatian capital, in
April 1770, the whole current of his thought seemed to change. The
Gothic architecture of the Strassburg minster became to him the symbol
of a national and German ideal, directly antagonistic to the French
tastes and the classical and rationalistic atmosphere that prevailed in
Leipzig. The second moment of importance in Goethe's Strassburg period
was his meeting with Herder, who spent some weeks in Strassburg
undergoing an operation of the eye. In this thinker, who was his senior
by five years, Goethe found the master he sought; Herder taught him the
significance of Gothic architecture, revealed to him the charm of
nature's simplicity, and inspired him with enthusiasm for Shakespeare
and the _Volkslied_. Meanwhile Goethe's legal studies were not
neglected, and he found time to add to knowledge of other subjects,
notably that of medicine. Another factor of importance in Goethe's
Strassburg life was his love for Friederike Brion, the daughter of an
Alsatian village pastor in Sesenheim. Even more than Herder's precept
and example, this passion showed Goethe how trivial and artificial had
been the Anacreontic and pastoral poetry with which he had occupied
himself in Leipzig; and the lyrics inspired by Friederike, such as
_Kleine Blumen, kleine Blätter_ and _Wie herrlich leuchtet mir die
Natur!_ mark the beginning of a new epoch in German lyric poetry. The
idyll of Sesenheim, as described in _Dichtung und Wahrheit_, is one of
the most beautiful love-stories in the literature of the world. From the
first, however, it was clear that Friederike Brion could never become
the wife of the Frankfort patrician's son; an unhappy ending to the
romance was unavoidable, and, as is to be seen in passionate outpourings
like the _Wanderers Sturmlied_, and in the bitter self-accusations of
_Clavigo_, it left deep wounds on the poet's sensitive soul.

To Strassburg we owe Goethe's first important drama, _Götz von
Berlichingen_, or, as it was called in its earliest form, _Geschichte
Gottfriedens von Berlichingen dramatisiert_ (not published until 1831).
Revised under the now familiar title, it appeared in 1773, after
Goethe's return to Frankfort. In estimating this drama we must bear in
mind Goethe's own Strassburg life, and the turbulent spirit of his own
age, rather than the historical facts, which the poet found in the
autobiography of his hero published in 1731. The latter supplied only
the rough materials; the Götz von Berlichingen whom Goethe drew, with
his lofty ideals of right and wrong, and his enthusiasm for freedom, is
a very different personage from the unscrupulous robber-knight of the
16th century, the rough friend of Franz von Sickingen and of the
revolting peasants. Still less historical justification is to be found
for the vacillating Weisslingen in whom Goethe executed poetic justice
on himself as the lover of Friederike, or in the women of the play, the
gentle Maria, the heartless Adelheid. But there is genial, creative
power in the very subjectivity of these characters, and a vigorous
dramatic life, which is irresistible in its appeal. With _Götz von
Berlichingen_, Shakespeare's art first triumphed on the German stage,
and the literary movement known as _Sturm und Drang_ was inaugurated.

Having received his degree in Strassburg, Goethe returned home in August
1771, and began his initiation into the routine of an advocate's
profession. In the following year, in order to gain insight into another
side of his calling, he spent four months at Wetzlar, where the imperial
law-courts were established. But Goethe's professional duties had only a
small share in the eventful years which lay between his return from
Strassburg and that visit to Weimar at the end of 1775, which turned the
whole course of his career, and resulted in his permanent attachment to
the Weimar court. Goethe's life in Frankfort was a round of stimulating
literary intercourse; in J. H. Merck (1741-1791), an army official in
the neighbouring town of Darmstadt, he found a friend and mentor, whose
irony and common-sense served as a corrective to his own exuberance of
spirits. Wetzlar brought new friends and another passion, that for
Charlotte Buff, the daughter of the _Amtmann_ there--a love-story which
has been immortalized in _Werthers Leiden_--and again the young poet's
nature was obsessed by a love which was this time strong enough to bring
him to the brink of that suicide with which the novel ends. A visit to
the Rhine, where new interests and the attractions of Maximiliane von
Laroche, a daughter of Wieland's friend, the novelist Sophie von
Laroche, brought partial healing; his intense preoccupation with
literary work on his return to Frankfort did the rest. In 1775 Goethe
was attracted by still another type of woman, Lili Schönemann, whose
mother was the widow of a wealthy Frankfort banker. A formal betrothal
took place, and the beauty of the lyrics which Lili inspired leaves no
room for doubt that here was a passion no less genuine than that for
Friederike or Charlotte. But Goethe--more worldly wise than on former
occasions--felt instinctively that the gay, social world in which Lili
moved was not really congenial to him. A visit to Switzerland in the
summer of 1775 may not have weakened his interest in her, but it at
least allowed him to regard her objectively; and, without tragic
consequences on either side, the passion was ultimately allowed to yield
to the dictates of common-sense. Goethe's departure for Weimar in
November made the final break less difficult.

The period from 1771 to 1775 was, in literary respects, the most
productive of the poet's life. It had been inaugurated with _Götz von
Berlichingen_, and a few months later this tragedy was followed by
another, _Clavigo_, hardly less convincing in its character-drawing, and
reflecting even more faithfully than the former the experiences Goethe
had gone through in Strassburg. Again poetic justice is effected on the
unfortunate hero who has chosen his own personal advancement in
preference to his duty to the woman he loves; more pointedly than in
_Götz_ is the moral enforced by Clavigo's worldly friend Carlos, that
the ground of Clavigo's tragic end lies not so much in the defiance of a
moral law as in the hero's vacillation and want of character. With _Die
Leiden des jungen Werthers_ (1774), the literary precipitate of the
author's own experiences in Wetzlar, Goethe succeeded in attracting, as
no German had done before him, the attention of Europe. Once more it was
the gospel that the world belongs to the strong, which lay beneath the
surface of this romance. This, however, was not the lesson which was
drawn from it by Goethe's contemporaries; they shed tears of sympathy
over the lovelorn youth whose burden becomes too great for him to bear.
While _Götz_ inaugurated the manlier side of the _Sturm und Drang_
literature, _Werther_ was responsible for its sentimental excesses. And
to the sentimental rather than to the heroic side belongs also _Stella_,
"a drama for lovers," in which the poet again reproduced, if with less
fidelity than in _Werther_, certain aspects of his own love troubles. A
lighter vein is to be observed in various dramatic satires written at
this time, such as _Götter_, _Helden und Wieland_ (1774), _Hanswursts
Hochzeit_, _Fastnachtsspiel vom Pater Brey_, _Satyros_, and in the
_Singspiele_, _Erwin und Elmire_ (1775) and _Claudine von Villa Bella_
(1776); while in the _rankfurter Gelehrte Anzeiger_ (1772-1773), Goethe
drove home the principles of the new movement of _Sturm und Drang_ in
terse and pointed criticism. The exuberance of the young poet's genius
is also to be seen in the many unfinished fragments of this period; at
one time we find him occupied with dramas on _Caesar_ and _Mahomet_, at
another with an epic on _Der ewige Jude_, and again with a tragedy on
_Prometheus_, of which a magnificent fragment has passed into his works.
Greatest of all the torsos of this period, however, was the
dramatization of _Faust_. Thanks to a manuscript copy of the play in its
earliest form--discovered as recently as 1887--we are now able to
distinguish how much of this tragedy was the immediate product of the
_Sturm und Drang_, and to understand the intentions with which the young
poet began his masterpiece. Goethe's hero changed with the author's
riper experience and with his new conceptions of man's place and duties
in the world, but the Gretchen tragedy was taken over into the finished
poem, practically unaltered, from the earliest _Faust_ of the _Sturm und
Drang_. With these wonderful scenes, the most intensely tragic in all
German literature, Goethe's poetry in this period reaches its climax.
Still another important work, however, was conceived, and in large
measure written at this time, the drama of _Egmont_, which was not
published until 1788. This work may, to some extent, be regarded as
supplementary to _Faust_; it presents the lighter, more cheerful and
optimistic side of Goethe's philosophy in these years; Graf Egmont, the
most winning and fascinating of the poet's heroes, is endowed with that
"demonic" power over the sympathies of men and women, which Goethe
himself possessed in so high a degree. But _Egmont_ depends for its
interest almost solely on two characters, Egmont himself and Klärchen,
Gretchen's counterpart; regarded as a drama, it demonstrates the
futility of that defiance of convention and rules with which the _Sturm
und Drang_ set out. It remained for Goethe, in the next period of his
life, to construct on classic models a new vehicle for German dramatic
poetry.

In December 1774 the young "hereditary prince" of Weimar, Charles
Augustus, passing through Frankfort on his way to Paris, came into
personal touch with Goethe, and invited the poet to visit Weimar when,
in the following year, he took up the reins of government. In October
1775 the invitation was repeated, and on the 7th of November of that
year Goethe arrived in the little Saxon capital which was to remain his
home for the rest of his life. During the first few months in Weimar the
poet gave himself up to the pleasures of the moment as unreservedly as
his patron; indeed, the Weimar court even looked upon him for a time as
a tempter who led the young duke astray. But the latter, although
himself a mere stripling, had implicit faith in Goethe, and a firm
conviction that his genius could be utilized in other fields besides
literature. Goethe was not long in Weimar before he was entrusted with
responsible state duties, and events soon justified the duke's
confidence. Goethe proved the soul of the Weimar government, and a
minister of state of energy and foresight. He interested himself in
agriculture, horticulture and mining, which were of paramount importance
to the welfare of the duchy, and out of these interests sprang his own
love for the natural sciences, which took up so much of his time in
later years. The inevitable love-interest was also not wanting. As
Friederike had fitted into the background of Goethe's Strassburg life,
Lotte into that of Wetzlar, and Lili into the gaieties of Frankfort, so
now Charlotte von Stein, the wife of a Weimar official, was the
personification of the more aristocratic ideals of Weimar society. We
possess only the poet's share of his correspondence with Frau von Stein,
but it is possible to infer from it that, of all Goethe's loves, this
was intellectually the most worthy of him. Frau von Stein was a woman of
refined literary taste and culture, seven years older than he and the
mother of seven children. There was something more spiritual, something
that partook rather of the passionate friendships of the 18th century
than of love in Goethe's relations with her. Frau von Stein dominated
the poet's life for twelve years, until his journey to Italy in
1786-1788. Of other events of this period the most notable were two
winter journeys, the first in 1777, to the Harz Mountains, the second,
two years later, to Switzerland--journeys which gave Goethe scope for
that introspection and reflection for which his Weimar life left him
little time. On the second of these journeys he revisited Friederike in
Sesenheim, saw Lili, who had married and settled in Strassburg, and made
the personal acquaintance of Lavater in Zürich.

The literary results of these years cannot be compared with those of the
preceding period; they are virtually limited to a few wonderful lyrics,
such as _Wanderers Nachtlied_, _An den Mond_, _Gesang der Geister über
den Wassern_, or ballads, such as _Der Erlkönig_, a charming little
drama, _Die Geschwister_ (1776), in which the poet's relations to both
Lili and Frau von Stein seem to be reflected, a dramatic satire, _Der
Triumph der Empfindsamkeit_ (1778), and a number of _Singspiele_, _Lila_
(1777), _Die Fischerin_, _Scherz, List und Rache_, and _Jery und Bätely_
(1780). But greater works were in preparation. A religious epic, _Die
Geheimnisse_, and a tragedy _Elpenor_, did not, it is true, advance much
further than plans; but in 1777, under the influence of the theatrical
experiments at the Weimar court, Goethe conceived and in great measure
wrote a novel of the theatre, which was to have borne the title _Wilhelm
Meisters theatralische Sendung_; and in 1779 himself took part in a
representation before the court at Ettersburg, of his drama _Iphigenie
auf Tauris_. This _Iphigenie_ was, however, in prose; in the following
year Goethe remoulded it in iambics, but it was not until he went to
Rome that the drama finally received the form in which we know it.

In September, 1786 Goethe set out from Karlsbad--secretly and
stealthily, his plan known only to his servant--on that memorable
journey to Italy, to which he had looked forward with such intense
longing; he could not cross the Alps quickly enough, so impatient was he
to set foot in Italy. He travelled by way of Munich, the Brenner and
Lago di Garda to Verona and Venice, and from thence to Rome, where he
arrived on the 29th of October 1786. Here he gave himself up
unreservedly to the new impressions which crowded on him, and he was
soon at home among the German artists in Rome, who welcomed him warmly.
In the spring of 1787 he extended his journey as far as Naples and
Sicily, returning to Rome in June 1787, where he remained until his
final departure for Germany on the 2nd of April 1788. It is difficult to
exaggerate the importance of Goethe's Italian journey. He himself
regarded it as a kind of climax to his life; never before had he
attained such complete understanding of his genius and mission in the
world; it afforded him a vantage-ground from which he could renew the
past and make plans for the future. In Weimar he had felt that he was no
longer in sympathy with the _Sturm und Drang_, but it was Italy which
first taught him clearly what might take the place of that movement in
German poetry. To the modern reader, who may well be impressed by
Goethe's extraordinary receptivity, it may seem strange that his
interests in Italy were so limited; for, after all, he saw comparatively
little of the art treasures of Italy. He went to Rome in Winckelmann's
footsteps; it was the antique he sought, and his interest in the artists
of the Renaissance was virtually restricted to their imitation of
classic models. This search for the classic ideal is reflected in the
works he completed or wrote under the Italian sky. The calm beauty of
Greek tragedy is seen in the new iambic version of _Iphigenie auf
Tauris_ (1787); the classicism of the Renaissance gives the ground-tone
to the wonderful drama of _Torquato Tasso_ (1790), in which the conflict
of poetic genius with the prosaic world is transmuted into imperishable
poetry. Classic, too, in this sense, were the plans of a drama on
_Iphigenie auf Delphos_ and of an epic, _Nausikaa_. Most interesting of
all, however, is the reflection of the classic spirit in works already
begun in earlier days, such as _Egmont_ and _Faust_. The former drama
was finished in Italy and appeared in 1788, the latter was brought a
step further forward, part of it being published as a _Fragment_ in
1790.

Disappointment in more senses than one awaited Goethe on his return to
Weimar. He came back from Italy with a new philosophy of life, a
philosophy at once classic and pagan, and with very definite ideas of
what constituted literary excellence. But Germany had not advanced; in
1788 his countrymen were still under the influence of that _Sturm und
Drang_ from which the poet had fled. The times seemed to him more out of
joint than ever, and he withdrew into himself. Even his relations to the
old friends were changed. Frau von Stein had not known of his flight to
Italy until she received a letter from Rome; but he looked forward to
her welcome on his return. The months of absence, however, the change he
had undergone, and doubtless those lighter loves of which the _Römische
Elegien_ bear evidence, weakened the Weimar memories; if he left Weimar
as Frau von Stein's lover he returned only as her friend; and she
naturally resented the change. Goethe, meanwhile, satisfied to continue
the freer customs to which he had adapted himself in Rome, found a new
mistress in Christiane Vulpius (1765-1816), the least interesting of all
the women who attracted him. But Christiane gradually filled up a gap in
the poet's life; she gave him, quietly, unobtrusively, without making
demands on him, the comforts of a home. She was not accepted by court
society; it did not matter to her that even Goethe's intimate friends
ignored her; and she, who had suited the poet's whim when he desired to
shut himself off from all that might dim the recollection of Italy,
became with the years an indispensable helpmate to him. On the birth in
1789 of his son, Goethe had some thought of legalizing his relations
with Christiane, but this intention was not realized until 1806, when
the invasion of Weimar by the French made him fear for both life and
property.

The period of Goethe's life which succeeded his return from Italy was
restless and unsettled; relieved of his state duties, he returned in
1790 to Venice, only to be disenchanted with the Italy he had loved so
intensely a year or two before. A journey with the duke of Weimar to
Breslau followed, and in 1792 he accompanied his master on that campaign
against France which ended so ingloriously for the German arms at Valmy.
In later years Goethe published his account both of this _Campagne in
Frankreich_ and of the _Belagerung von Mainz_, at which he was also
present in 1793. His literary work naturally suffered under these
distractions. _Tasso_, and the edition of the _Schriften_ in which it
was to appear, had still to be completed on his return from Italy; the
_Römische Elegien_, perhaps the most Latin of all his works, were
published in 1795, and the _Venetianische Epigramme_, the result of the
second visit to Italy, in 1796. The French Revolution, in which all
Europe was engrossed, was in Goethe's eyes only another proof that the
passing of the old régime meant the abrogation of all law and order, and
he gave voice to his antagonism to the new democratic principles in the
dramas _Der Grosskophta_ (1792), _Der Bürgergeneral_ (1793), and in the
unfinished fragments _Die Aufgeregten_ and _Das Mädchen von Oberkirch_.
The spirited translation of the epic of _Reinecke Fuchs_ (1794) he took
up as a relief and an antidote to the social disruption of the time. Two
new interests, however, strengthened the ties between Goethe and
Weimar,--ties which the Italian journey had threatened to sever: his
appointment in 1791 as director of the ducal theatre, a post which he
occupied for twenty-two years, and his absorption in scientific studies.
In 1790 he published his important _Versuch, die Metamorphose der
Pflanzen zu erklären_, which was an even more fundamental achievement
for the new science of comparative morphology than his discovery some
six years earlier of the existence of a formation in the human jaw-bone
analogous to the intermaxillary bone in apes; and in 1791 and 1792
appeared two parts of his _Beiträge zur Optik_.

Meanwhile, however, Goethe had again taken up the novel of the theatre
which he had begun years before, with a view to finishing it and
including it in the edition of his _Neue Schriften_ (1792-1800).
_Wilhelm Meisters theatralische Sendung_ became _Wilhelm Meisters
Lehrjahre_; the novel of purely theatrical interests was widened out to
embrace the history of a young man's apprenticeship to life. The change
of plan explains, although it may not exculpate, the formlessness and
loose construction of the work, its extremes of realistic detail and
poetic allegory. A hero, who was probably originally intended to
demonstrate the failure of the vacillating temperament when brought face
to face with the problems of art, proved ill-adapted to demonstrate
those precepts for the guidance of life with which the _Lehrjahre_
closes; unstable of purpose, Wilhelm Meister is not so much an
illustration of the author's life-philosophy as a lay-figure on which he
demonstrates his views. _Wilhelm Meister_ is a work of extraordinary
variety, ranging from the commonplace realism of the troupe of strolling
players to the poetic romanticism of Mignon and the harper; its flashes
of intuitive criticism and its weighty apothegms add to its value as a
_Bildungsroman_ in the best sense of that word. Of all Goethe's works,
this exerted the most immediate and lasting influence on German
literature; it served as a model for the best fiction of the next thirty
years.

In completing _Wilhelm Meister_, Goethe found a sympathetic and
encouraging critic in Schiller, to whom he owed in great measure his
renewed interest in poetry. After years of tentative approaches on
Schiller's part, years in which that poet concealed even from himself
his desire for a friendly understanding with Goethe, the favourable
moment arrived; it was in June 1794, when Schiller was seeking
collaborators for his new periodical _Die Horen_; and his invitation
addressed to Goethe was the beginning of a friendship which continued
unbroken until the younger poet's death. The friendship of Goethe and
Schiller, of which their correspondence is a priceless record, had its
limitations; it was purely intellectual in character, a certain barrier
of personal reserve being maintained to the last. But for the literary
life of both poets the gain was incommensurable. As far as actual work
was concerned, Goethe went his own way as he had always been accustomed
to do; but the mere fact that he devoted himself with increasing
interest to literature was due to Schiller's stimulus. It was Schiller,
too, who induced him to undertake those studies on the nature of epic
and dramatic poetry which resulted in the epic of _Hermann und Dorothea_
and the fragment of the _Achilleis_; without the friendship there would
have been no _Xenien_ and no ballads, and it was his younger friend's
encouragement which induced Goethe to betake himself once more to the
"misty path" of _Faust_, and bring the first part of that drama to a
conclusion.

Goethe's share in the _Xenien_ (1796) may be briefly dismissed. This
collection of distichs, written in collaboration with Schiller, was
prompted by the indifference and animosity of contemporary criticism,
and its disregard for what the two poets regarded as the higher
interests of German poetry. The _Xenien_ succeeded as a retaliation on
the critics, but the masterpieces which followed them proved in the long
run much more effective weapons against the prevailing mediocrity. Prose
works like the _Unterhaltungen deutscher Ausgewanderten_ (1795) were
unworthy of the poet's genius, and the translation of Benvenuto
Cellini's _Life_ (1796-1797) was only a translation. But in 1798
appeared _Hermann und Dorothea_, one of Goethe's most perfect poems. It
is indeed remarkable--when we consider by how much reflection and
theoretic discussion the composition of the poem was preceded and
accompanied--that it should make upon the reader so simple and "naïve"
an impression; in this respect it is the triumph of an art that conceals
art. Goethe has here taken a simple story of village life, mirrored in
it the most pregnant ideas of his time, and presented it with a skill
which may well be called Homeric; but he has discriminated with the
insight of genius between the Homeric method of reproducing the heroic
life of primitive Greece and the same method as adapted to the
commonplace happenings of 18th-century Germany. In this respect he was
undoubtedly guided by a forerunner who has more right than he to the
attribute "naïve," by J. H. Voss, the author of _Luise_. Hardly less
imposing in their calm, placid perfection are the poems with which, in
friendly rivalry, Goethe seconded the more popular ballads of his
friend; _Der Zauberlehrling_, _Der Gott und die Bayadere_, _Die Braut
von Korinth_, _Alexis und Dora_, _Der neue Pausias_ and _Die schöne
Müllerin_--a cycle of poems in the style of the _Volkslied_--are among
the masterpieces of Goethe's poetry. On the other hand, even the
friendship with Schiller did not help him to add to his reputation as a
dramatist. _Die natürliche Tochter_ (1803), in which he began to embody
his ideas of the Revolution on a wide canvas, proved impossible on the
stage, and the remaining dramas, which were to have formed a trilogy,
were never written. Goethe's classic principles, when applied to the
swift, direct art of the theatre, were doomed to failure, and _Die
natürliche Tochter_, notwithstanding its good theoretic intention,
remains the most lifeless and shadowy of all his dramas. Even less in
touch with the living present were the various prologues and
_Festspiele_, such as _Paläophron und Neoterpe_ (1800), _Was wir
bringen_ (1802), which in these years he composed for the Weimar
theatre.

Goethe's classicism brought him into inevitable antagonism with the new
Romantic movement which had been inaugurated in 1798 by the _Athenaeum_,
edited by the brothers Schlegel. The sharpness of the conflict was,
however, blunted by the fact that, without exception, the young Romantic
writers looked up to Goethe as its master; they modelled their fiction
on _Wilhelm Meister_; they regarded his lyrics as the high-water mark of
German poetry; Goethe, Novalis declared, was the "Statthalter of poetry
on earth." With regard to painting and sculpture, however, Goethe felt
that a protest was necessary, if the insidious ideas propounded in works
like Wackenroder's _Herzensergiessungen_ were not to do irreparable
harm, by bringing back the confusion of the _Sturm und Drang_; and, as a
rejoinder to the Romantic theories, Goethe, in conjunction with his
friend Heinrich Meyer (1760-1832), published from 1798 to 1800 an art
review, _Die Propyläen_. Again, in _Winckelmann und seine Zeit_ (1805)
Goethe vigorously defended the classical ideals of which Winckelmann had
been the founder. But in the end he proved himself the greatest enemy to
the strict classic doctrine by the publication in 1808 of the completed
first part of _Faust_, a work which was accepted by contemporaries as a
triumph of Romantic art. _Faust_ is a patchwork of many colours. With
the aid of the vast body of _Faust_ literature which has sprung up in
recent years, and the many new documents bearing on its history--above
all, the so-called _Urfaust_, to which reference has already been
made--we are able now to ascribe to their various periods the component
parts of the work; it is possible to discriminate between the _Sturm und
Drang_ hero of the opening scenes and of the Gretchen tragedy--the
contemporary of Götz and Clavigo--and the superimposed Faust of calmer
moral and intellectual ideals--a Faust who corresponds to Hermann and
Wilhelm Meister. In its original form the poem was the dramatization of
a specific and individualized story; in the years of Goethe's friendship
with Schiller it was extended to embody the higher strivings of
18th-century humanism; ultimately, as we shall see, it became, in the
second part, a vast allegory of human life and activity. Thus the
elements of which _Faust_ is composed were even more difficult to blend
than were those of _Wilhelm Meister_; but the very want of uniformity is
one source of the perennial fascination of the tragedy, and has made it
in a peculiar degree the national poem of the German people, the mirror
which reflects the national life and poetry from the outburst of _Sturm
und Drang_ to the well-weighed and tranquil classicism of Goethe's old
age.

The third and final period of Goethe's long life may be said to have
begun after Schiller's death. He never again lost touch with literature
as he had done in the years which preceded his friendship with
Schiller; but he stood in no active or immediate connexion with the
literary movement of his day. His life moved on comparatively
uneventfully. Even the Napoleonic régime of 1806-1813 disturbed but
little his equanimity. Goethe, the cosmopolitan _Weltbürger_ of the 18th
century, had himself no very intense feelings of patriotism, and, having
seen Germany flourish as a group of small states under enlightened
despotisms, he had little confidence in the dreamers of 1813 who hoped
to see the glories of Barbarossa's empire revived. Napoleon, moreover,
he regarded not as the scourge of Europe, but as the defender of
civilization against the barbarism of the Slavs; and in the famous
interview between the two men at Erfurt the poet's admiration was
reciprocated by the French conqueror. Thus Goethe had no great sympathy
for the war of liberation which kindled young hearts from one end of
Germany to the other; and when the national enthusiasm rose to its
highest pitch he buried himself in those optical and morphological
studies, which, with increasing years, occupied more and more of his
time and interest.

The works and events of the last twenty-five years of Goethe's life may
be briefly summarized. In 1805, as we have seen, he suffered an
irreparable loss in the death of Schiller; in 1806, Christiane became
his legal wife, and to the same year belongs the magnificent tribute to
his dead friend, the _Epilog zu Schillers Glocke_. Two new friendships
about this time kindled in the poet something of the juvenile fire and
passion of younger days. Bettina von Arnim came into personal touch with
Goethe in 1807, and her _Briefwechsel Goethes mit einem Kinde_
(published in 1835) is, in its mingling of truth and fiction, one of the
most delightful products of the Romantic mind; but the episode was of
less importance for Goethe's life than Bettina would have us believe. On
the other hand, his interest in Minna Herzlieb, foster-daughter of the
publisher Frommann in Jena, was of a warmer nature, and has left its
traces on his sonnets.

In 1808, as we have seen, appeared the first part of _Faust_, and in
1809 it was followed by _Die Wahlverwandtschaften_. The novel, hardly
less than the drama, effected a change in the public attitude towards
the poet. Since the beginning of the century the conviction had been
gaining ground that Goethe's mission was accomplished, that the day of
his leadership was over; but here were two works which not merely
re-established his ascendancy, but proved that the old poet was in
sympathy with the movement of letters, and keenly alive to the change of
ideas which the new century had brought in its train. The intimate
psychological study of four minds, which forms the subject of the
_Wahlverwandtschaften_, was an essay in a new type of fiction, and
pointed out the way for developments of the German novel after the
stimulus of _Wilhelm Meister_ had exhausted itself. Less important than
_Die Wahlverwandtschaften_ was _Pandora_ (1810), the final product of
Goethe's classicism, and the most uncompromisingly classical and
allegorical of all his works. And in 1810, too, appeared his treatise on
_Farbenlehre_. In the following year the first volume of his
autobiography was published under the title _Aus meinem Leben, Dichtung
und Wahrheit_. The second and third volumes of this work followed in
1812 and 1814; the fourth, bringing the story of his life up to the
close of the Frankfort period in 1833, after his death. Goethe felt,
even late in life, too intimately bound up with Weimar to discuss in
detail his early life there, and he shrank from carrying his biography
beyond the year 1775. But a number of other publications--descriptions
of travel, such as the _Italienische Reise_ (1816-1817), the materials
for a continuation of _Dichtung und Wahrheit_ collected in _Tag- und
Jahreshefte_ (1830)--have also to be numbered among the writings which
Goethe has left us as documents of his life. Meanwhile no less valuable
biographical materials were accumulating in his diaries, his voluminous
correspondence and his conversations, as recorded by J. P. Eckermann,
the chancellor Müller and F. Soret. Several periodical publications,
_Über Kunst und Altertum_ (1816-1832), _Zur Naturwissenschaft überhaupt_
(1817-1824). _Zur Morphologie_ (1817-1824), bear witness to the
extraordinary breadth of Goethe's interests in these years. Art,
science, literature--little escaped his ken--and that not merely in
Germany: English writers, Byron, Scott and Carlyle, Italians like
Manzoni, French scientists and poets, could all depend on friendly words
of appreciation and encouragement from Weimar.

In _West-östlicher Diwan_ (1819), a collection of lyrics--matchless in
form and even more concentrated in expression than those of earlier
days--which were suggested by a German translation of Hafiz, Goethe had
another surprise in store for his contemporaries. And, again, it was an
actual passion--that for Marianne von Willemer, whom he met in 1814 and
1815--which rekindled in him the lyric fire. Meanwhile the years were
thinning the ranks of Weimar society: Wieland, the last of Goethe's
greater literary contemporaries, died in 1813, his wife in 1816,
Charlotte von Stein in 1827 and Duke Charles Augustus in 1828. Goethe's
retirement from the direction of the theatre in 1817 meant for him a
break with the literary life of the day. In 1822 a passion for a young
girl, Ulrike von Levetzow, whom he met at Marienbad, inspired the fine
_Trilogie der Leidenschaft_, and between 1821 and 1829 appeared the
long-expected and long-promised continuation of _Wilhelm Meister,
Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre_. The latter work, however, was a
disappointment: perhaps it could not have been otherwise. Goethe had
lost the thread of his romance and it was difficult for him to resume
it. Problems of the relation of the individual to society and industrial
questions were to have formed the theme of the _Wanderjahre_; but since
the French Revolution these problems had themselves entered on a new
phase and demanded a method of treatment which it was not easy for the
old poet to learn. Thus his intentions were only partially carried out,
and the volumes were filled out by irrelevant stories, which had been
written at widely different periods.

But the crowning achievement of Goethe's literary life was the
completion of _Faust_. The poem had accompanied him from early manhood
to the end and was the repository for the fullest "confession" of his
life; it is the poetic epitome of his experience. The second part is, in
form, far removed from the impressive realism of the _Urfaust_. It is a
phantasmagory; a drama the actors in which are not creatures of flesh
and blood, but the shadows of an unreal world of allegory. The lover of
Gretchen had, as far as poetic continuity is concerned, disappeared with
the close of the first part. In the second part it is virtually a new
Faust who, at the hands of a new Mephistopheles, goes out into a world
that is not ours. Yet behind these unconvincing shadows of an imperial
court with its financial difficulties, of the classical
_Walpurgisnacht_, of the fantastic creation of the Homunculus, the noble
Helena episode and the impressive mystery-scene of the close, where the
centenarian Faust finally triumphs over the powers of evil, there lies a
philosophy of life, a ripe wisdom born of experience, such as no
European poet had given to the world since the Renaissance. _Faust_ has
been well called the "divine comedy" of 18th-century humanism.

The second part of _Faust_ forms a worthy close to the life of Germany's
greatest man of letters, who died in Weimar on the 22nd of March 1832.
He was the last of those universal minds which have been able to compass
all domains of human activity and knowledge; for he stood on the brink
of an era of rapidly expanding knowledge which has made for ever
impossible the universality of interest and sympathy which distinguished
him. As a poet, his fame has undergone many vicissitudes since his
death, ranging from the indifference of the "Young German" school to the
enthusiastic admiration of the closing decades of the 19th century--an
enthusiasm to which we owe the Weimar _Goethe-Gesellschaft_ (founded in
1885) and a vast literature dealing with the poet's life and work; but
the fact of his being Germany's greatest poet and the master of her
classical literature has never been seriously put in question. The
intrinsic value of his poetic work, regarded apart from his personality,
is smaller in proportion to its bulk than is the case with many lesser
German poets and with the greatest poets of other literatures. But
Goethe was a type of literary man hitherto unrepresented among the
leading writers of the world's literature; he was a poet whose supreme
greatness lay in his subjectivity. Only a small fraction of Goethe's
work was written in an impersonal and objective spirit, and sprang from
what might be called a conscious artistic impulse; by far the
larger--and the better--part is the immediate reflex of his feelings and
experiences.

It is as a lyric poet that Goethe's supremacy is least likely to be
challenged; he has given his nation, whose highest literary expression
has in all ages been essentially lyric, its greatest songs. No other
German poet has succeeded in attuning feeling, sentiment and thought so
perfectly to the music of words as he; none has expressed so fully that
spirituality in which the quintessence of German lyrism lies. Goethe's
dramas, on the other hand, have not, in the eyes of his nation,
succeeded in holding their own beside Schiller's; but the reason is
rather because Goethe, from what might be called a wilful obstinacy,
refused to be bound by the conventions of the theatre, than because he
was deficient in the cunning of the dramatist. For, as an interpreter of
human character in the drama, Goethe is without a rival among modern
poets, and there is not one of his plays that does not contain a few
scenes or characters which bear indisputable testimony to his mastery.
_Faust_ is Germany's most national drama, and it remains perhaps for the
theatre of the future to prove itself capable of popularizing
psychological masterpieces like _Tasso_ and _Iphigenie_. It is as a
novelist that Goethe has suffered most by the lapse of time. The
_Sorrows of Werther_ no longer moves us to tears, and even _Wilhelm
Meister_ and _Die Wahlverwandtschaften_ require more understanding for
the conditions under which they were written than do _Faust_ or
_Egmont_. Goethe could fill his prose with rich wisdom, but he was only
the perfect artist in verse.

Little attention is nowadays paid to Goethe's work in other fields, work
which he himself in some cases prized more highly than his poetry. It is
only as an illustration of his many-sidedness and his manifold activity
that we now turn to his work as a statesman, as a theatre-director, as a
practical political economist. His art-criticism is symptomatic of a
phase of European taste which tried in vain to check the growing
individualism of Romanticism. His scientific studies and discoveries
awaken only an historical interest. We marvel at the obstinacy with
which he, with inadequate mathematical knowledge, opposed the Newtonian
theory of light and colour; and at his championship of "Neptunism," the
theory of aqueous origin, as opposed to "Vulcanism," that of igneous
origin of the earth's crust. Of far-reaching importance was, on the
other hand, his foreshadowing of the Darwinian theory in his works on
the metamorphosis of plants and on animal morphology. Indeed, the
deduction to be drawn from Goethe's contributions to botany and anatomy
is that he, as no other of his contemporaries, possessed that type of
scientific mind which, in the 19th century, has made for progress; he
was Darwin's predecessor by virtue of his enunciation of what has now
become one of the commonplaces of natural science--organic evolution.
Modern, too, was the outlook of the aging poet on the changing social
conditions of the age, wonderfully sympathetic his attitude towards
modern industry, which steam was just beginning to establish on a new
basis, and towards modern democracy. The Europe of his later years was
very different from the idyllic and enlightened autocracy of the 18th
century, in which he had spent his best years and to which he had
devoted his energies; yet Goethe was at home in it.

From the philosophic movement, in which Schiller and the Romanticists
were so deeply involved, Goethe stood apart. Comparatively early in life
he had found in Spinoza the philosopher who responded to his needs;
Spinoza taught him to see in nature the "living garment of God," and
more he did not seek or need to know. As a convinced realist he took his
standpoint on nature and experience, and could afford to look on
objectively at the controversies of the metaphysicians. Kant he by no
means ignored, and under Schiller's guidance he learned much from him;
but of the younger thinkers, only Schelling, whose mystic
nature-philosophy was a development of Spinoza's ideas, touched a
sympathetic chord in his nature. As a moralist and a guide to the
conduct of life--an aspect of Goethe's work which Carlyle, viewing him
through the coloured glasses of Fichtean idealism, emphasized and
interpreted not always justly--Goethe was a powerful force on German
life in years of political and intellectual depression. It is difficult
even still to get beyond the maxims of practical wisdom he scattered so
liberally through his writings, the lessons to be learned from _Meister_
and _Faust_, or even that calm, optimistic fatalism which never deserted
Goethe, and was so completely justified by the tenor of his life. If the
philosophy of Spinoza provided the poet with a religion which made
individual creeds and dogmas unnecessary and impossible, so Leibnitz's
doctrine of predestinism supplied the foundations for his faith in the
divine mission of human life.

This many-sided activity is a tribute to the greatness of Goethe's mind
and personality; we may regard him merely as the embodiment of his
particular age, or as a poet "for all time"; but with one opinion all
who have felt the power of Goethe's genius are in agreement--the opinion
which was condensed in Napoleon's often cited words, uttered after the
meeting at Erfurt: _Voilà un homme!_ Of all modern men, Goethe is the
most universal type of genius. It is the full, rich humanity of his life
and personality--not the art behind which the artist disappears, or the
definite pronouncements of the thinker or the teacher--that constitutes
his claim to a place in the front rank of men of letters. His life was
his greatest work.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--(a) _Collected Works, Diaries, Correspondence,
  Conversations_. The following authorized editions of Goethe's writings
  appeared in the poet's lifetime: _Schriften_ (8 vols., Leipzig,
  1787-1790); _Neue Schriften_ (7 vols., Berlin, 1792-1800); _Werke_ (13
  vols., Stuttgart, 1806-1810); _Werke_ (20 vols., Stuttgart,
  1815-1819); to which six volumes were added in 1820-1822; Werke
  (Vollständige Ausgabe letzter Hand) (40 vols., Stuttgart, 1827-1830).
  Goethe's _Nachgelassene Werke_ appeared as a continuation of this
  edition in 15 volumes (Stuttgart, 1832-1834), to which five volumes
  were added in 1842. These were followed by several editions of
  Goethe's _Sämtliche Werke_, mostly in forty volumes, published by
  Cotta of Stuttgart. The first critical edition with notes was
  published by Hempel, Berlin, in thirty-six volumes, 1868-1879; that in
  Kürschner's _Deutsche Nationalliteratur_, vols. 82-117 (1882-1897) is
  also important. In 1887 the monumental Weimar edition, which is now
  approaching completion, began to appear; it is divided into four
  sections: I. _Werke_ (c. 56 vols.); II. _Naturwissenschaftliche Werke_
  (12 vols.); III. _Tagebücher_ (13 vols.); IV. _Briefe_ (c. 45 vols.).
  Of other recent editions the most noteworthy are: Sämtliche Werke
  (Jubiläums-Ausgabe), edited by E. von der Hellen (40 vols., Stuttgart,
  1902 ff.); _Werke_, edited by K. Heinemann (30 vols., Leipzig, 1900
  ff.), and the cheap edition of the _Sämtliche Werke_, edited by L.
  Geiger (44 vols., Leipzig, 1901). There are also innumerable editions
  of selected works; reference need only be made here to the useful
  collection of the early writings and letters published by S. Hirzel
  with an introduction by M. Bernays, _Der junge Goethe_ (3 vols.,
  Leipzig, 1875, 2nd ed., 1887). A French translation of Goethe's
  _Oeuvres complètes_, by J. Porchat, appeared in 9 vols., at Paris, in
  1860-1863. There is, as yet, no uniform English edition, but Goethe's
  chief works have all been frequently translated and a number of them
  will be found in Bohn's standard library.

  The definitive edition of Goethe's diaries and letters is that forming
  Sections III. and IV. of the Weimar edition. Collections of selected
  letters based on the Weimar edition have been published by E. von der
  Hellen (6 vols., 1901 ff.), and by P. Stein (8 vols., 1902 ff.). Of
  the many separate collections of Goethe's correspondence mention may
  be made of the _Briefwechsel zwischen Schiller und Goethe_, edited by
  Goethe himself (1828-1829; 4th ed., 1881; also several cheap reprints.
  English translation by L. D. Schmitz, 1877-1879); _Briefwechsel
  zwischen Goethe und Zelter_ (6 vols., 1833-1834; reprint in Reclam's
  _Universalbibliothek_, 1904; English translation by A. D. Coleridge,
  1887); _Bettina von Arnim, Goethes Briefwechsel mit einem Kinde_
  (1835; 4th ed., 1890; English translation, 1838); _Briefe von und an
  Goethe_, edited by F. W. Riemer (1846); _Goethes Briefe an Frau von
  Stein_, edited by A. Schöll (1848-1851; 3rd ed. by J. Wahle,
  1899-1900); _Briefwechsel zwischen Goethe und K. F. von Reinhard_
  (1850); _Briefwechsel zwischen Goethe und Knebel_ (2 vols., 1851);
  _Briefwechsel zwischen Goethe und Staatsrat Schultz_ (1853);
  _Briefwechsel des Herzogs Karl August mit Goethe_ (2 vols., 1863);
  _Briefwechsel zwischen Goethe und Kaspar Graf von Sternberg_ (1866);
  _Goethes naturwissenschaftliche Korrespondenz_, and _Goethes
  Briefwechsel mit den Gebrüdern von Humboldt_, edited by F. T.
  Bratranek (1874-1876); _Goethes und Carlyles Briefwechsel_ (1887),
  also in English; _Goethe und die Romantik_, edited by C. Schüddekopf
  and O. Walzel (2 vols., 1898-1899); _Goethe und Lavater_, edited by H.
  Funck (1901); _Goethe und Österreich_, edited by A. Sauer (2 vols.,
  1902-1903). Besides the correspondence with Schiller and Zelter,
  Bonn's library contains a translation of _Early and Miscellaneous_
  _Letters_, by E. Bell (1884). The chief collections of Goethe's
  conversations are: J. P. Eckermann, _Gespräche mit Goethe_ (1836; vol.
  iii., also containing conversations with Soret, 1848; 7th ed. by H.
  Düntzer, 1899; also new edition by L. Geiger, 1902; English
  translation by J. Oxenford, 1850). The complete conversations with
  Soret have been published in German translation by C. A. H. Burkhardt
  (1905); _Goethes Unterhaltungen mit dem Kanzler F. von Müller_ (1870).
  Goethe's collected _Gespräche_ were published by W. von Biedermann in
  10 vols. (1889-1896).

  (b) _Biography._--Goethe's autobiography, _Aus meinem Leben: Dichtung
  und Wahrheit_, appeared in three parts between 1811 and 1814, a fourth
  part, bringing the history of his life as far as his departure for
  Weimar in 1775, in 1833 (English translation by J. Oxenford, 1846); it
  is supplemented by other biographical writings, as the _Italienische
  Reise, Aus einer Reise in die Schweiz im Jahre 1797_; _Aus einer Reise
  am Rhein, Main und Neckar in den Jahren 1814 und 1815, Tag- und
  Jahreshefte_, &c., and especially by his diaries and correspondence.
  The following are the more important biographies: H. Döring, _Goethes
  Leben_ (1828; subsequent editions, 1833, 1849, 1856); H. Viehoff,
  _Goethes Leben_ (4 vols., 1847-1854; 5th ed., 1887); J. W. Schäfer,
  _Goethes Leben_ (2 vols., 1851; 3rd ed., 1877); G. H. Lewes, _The Life
  and Works of Goethe_ (2 vols., 1855; 2nd ed., 1864; 3rd ed., 1875;
  cheap reprint, 1906; the German translation by J. Frese is in its 18th
  edition, 1900; a shorter biography was published by Lewes in 1873
  under the title _The Story of Goethe's Life)_; W. Mézières, _W.
  Goethe, les oeuvres expliquées par la vie_ (1872-1873); A. Bossert,
  _Goethe_ (1872-1873); K. Goedeke, _Goethes Leben und Schriften_ (1874;
  2nd ed., 1877); H. Grimm, _Goethe: Vorlesungen_ (1876; 8th ed., 1903;
  English translation, 1880); A. Hayward, _Goethe_ (1878); H. H.
  Boyesen, _Goethe and Schiller, their Lives and Works_ (1879); H.
  Düntzer, _Goethes Leben_ (1880; 2nd ed., 1883; English translation,
  1883); A. Baumgartner, _Goethe, sein Leben und seine Werke_ (1885); J.
  Sime, _Life of Goethe_ (1888); K. Heinemann, _Goethes Leben und Werke_
  (1889; 3rd ed., 1903); R. M. Meyer, _Goethe_ (1894; 3rd ed., 1904); A.
  Bielschowsky, _Goethe, sein Leben und seine Werke_ (vol. i., 1895; 5th
  ed., 1904; vol. ii., 1903; English translation by W. A. Cooper, 1905
  ff.); G. Witkowsky, Goethe (1899); H. G. Atkins, _J. W. Goethe_
  (1904); P. Hansen and R. Meyer, _Goethe, hans Liv og Vaerker_ (1906).

  Of writings on special periods and aspects of Goethe's life the more
  important are as follows (the titles are arranged as far as possible
  in the chronological sequence of the poet's life): H. Düntzer,
  _Goethes Stammbaum_ (1894); K. Heinemann, _Goethes Mutter_ (1891; 6th
  ed., 1900); P. Bastier, _La Mère de Goethe_ (1902); _Briefe der Frau
  Rat_ (2 vols., 2nd ed., 1905); F. Ewart, _Goethes Vater_ (1899); G.
  Witkowski, _Cornelia die Schwester Goethes_ (1903); P. Besson,
  _Goethe, sa soeur et ses amies_ (1898); H. Düntzer, _Frauenbilder aus
  Goethes Jugendzeit_ (1852); W. von Biedermann, _Goethe und Leipzig_
  (1865); P. F. Lucius, _Friederike Brion_ (1878; 3rd ed., 1904); A.
  Bielschowsky, _Friederike Brion_ (1880); F. E. von Durckheim, _Lili's
  Bild geschichtlich entworfen_ (1879; 2nd ed., 1894); W. Herbst,
  _Goethe in Wetzlar_ (1881); A. Diezmann, _Goethe und die lustige Zeit
  in Weimar_ (1857; 2nd ed., 1901); H. Düntzer, _Goethe und Karl August_
  (1859-1864; 2nd ed., 1888); also, by the same author, _Aus Goethes
  Freundeskreise_ (1868) and _Charlotte von Stein_ (2 vols., 1874); J.
  Haarhuus, _Auf Goethes Spuren in Italien_ (1896-1898); O. Harnack,
  _Zur Nachgeschichte der italienischen Reise_ (1890); H. Grimm,
  _Schiller und Goethe_ (_Essays_, 1858; 3rd ed., 1884); G. Berlit,
  _Goethe und Schiller im persönlichen Verkehre, nach brieflichen
  Mitteilungen von H. Voss_ (1895); E. Pasqué, _Goethes Theaterleitung
  in Weimar_ (2 vols., 1863); C. A. H. Burkhards, _Das Repertoire des
  weimarischen Theaters unter Goethes Leitung_ (1891); J. Wahle, _Das
  Weimarer Hoftheater unter Goethes Leitung_ (1892); O. Harnack, _Goethe
  in der Epoche seiner Vollendung_ (2nd ed., 1901); J. Barbey
  d'Aurevilly, _Goethe et Diderot_ (1880); A Fischer, _Goethe und
  Napoleon_ (1899; 2nd ed., 1900); R. Steig, _Goethe und die Gebrüder
  Grimm_ (1892).

  (c) _Criticism._--H. G. Graef, _Goethe über seine Dichtungen_ (1901
  ff.); J. W. Braun, _Goethe im Urteile seiner Zeitgenossen_ (3 vols.,
  1883-1885); T. Carlyle, _Essays on Goethe_ (1828-1832); X. Marmier,
  _Études sur Goethe_ (1835); W. von Biedermann, _Goethe-Forschungen_
  (1879, 1886); J. Minor and A. Sauer, _Studien zur Goethe-Philologie_
  (1880); H. Düntzer, _Abhandlungen zu Goethes Leben und Werken_ (1881);
  A. Schöll, _Goethe in Hauptzügen seines Lebens und Wirkens_ (1882); V.
  Hehn, _Gedanken über Goethe_ (1884; 4th ed., 1900); W. Scherer,
  _Aufsätze über Goethe_ (1886); J. R. Seeley, _Goethe reviewed after
  Sixty Years_ (1894); E. Dowden, _New Studies in Literature_ (1895); É.
  Rod, _Essai sur Goethe_ (1898); A. Luther, _Goethe, sechs Vorträge_
  (1905); R. Saitschik, _Goethes Charakter_ (1898); W. Bode, _Goethes
  Lebenskunst_ (1900; 2nd ed., 1902); by the same, _Goethes Ästhetik_
  (1901); T. Vollbehr, _Goethe und die bildende Kunst_ (1895); E.
  Lichtenberger, _Études sur les poésies lyriques de Goethe_ (1878); T.
  Achelis, _Grundzüge der Lyrik Goethes_ (1900); B. Litzmann, _Goethes
  Lyrik_ (1903); R. Riemann, _Goethes Romantechnik_ (1901); R. Virchow,
  _Goethe als Naturforscher_ (1861); E. Caro, _La Philosophie de Goethe_
  (1866; 2nd ed., 1870); R. Steiner, _Goethes Weltanschauung_ (1897); F.
  Siebeck, _Goethe als Denker_ (1902); F. Baldensperger, Goethe en
  France (1904); S. Waetzoldt, _Goethe und die Romantik_ (1888).

  More special treatises dealing with individual works are the
  following: W. Scherer, _Aus Goethes Frühzeit_ (1879); R. Weissenfels,
  _Goethe in Sturm und Drang_, vol. i. (1894); W. Wilmanns,
  _Quellenstudien zu Goethes Götz von Berlichingen_ (1874); J.
  Baechtold, _Goethes Götz von Berlichingen in dreifacher Gestalt_
  (1882); J. W. Appell, _Werther und seine Zeit_ (1855; 4th ed., 1896);
  E. Schmidt, _Richardson, Rousseau und Goethe_ (1875); M. Herrmann,
  _Das Jahrmarktsfest zu Plundersweilen_ (1900); E. Schmidt, Goethes
  Faust in ursprünglicher Gestalt (1887; 5th ed., 1901); J. Collin,
  _Goethes Faust in seiner ältesten Gestalt_ (1896); H. Hettner,
  _Goethes Iphigenie in ihrem Verhältnis zur Bildungsgeschichte des
  Dichters_ (1861; in _Kleine Schriften_, 1884); K. Fischer, _Goethes
  Iphigenie_ (1888); F. T. Bratranek, _Goethes Egmont und Schillers
  Wallenstein_ (1862); C. Schuchardt, _Goethes italienische Reise_
  (1862); H. Düntzer, _Iphigenie auf Tauris; die drei ältesten
  Bearbeitungen_ (1854); F. Kern, _Goethes Tasso_ (1890); J. Schubart,
  _Die philosophischen Grundgedanken in Goethes Wilhelm Meister_ (1896);
  E. Boas, _Schiller und Goethe in Xenienkampf_ (1851); E. Schmidt and
  B. Suphan, _Xenien 1796, nach den Handschriften_ (1893); W. von
  Humboldt, _Ästhetische Versuche: Hermann und Dorothea_ (1799); V.
  Hehn, _Über Goethes Hermann und Dorothea_ (1893); A. Fries, _Quellen
  und Komposition der Achilleis_ (1901); K. Alt, _Studien zur
  Entstehungsgeschichte von Dichtung und Wahrheit_ (1898); A. Jung,
  _Goethes Wanderjahre und die wichtigsten Fragen des 19. Jahrhunderts_
  (1854); F. Kreyssig, _Vorlesungen über Goethes Faust_ (1866); the
  editions of _Faust_ by G. von Loeper (2 vols., 1879), and K. J.
  Schröer (2 vols., 3rd and 4th ed., 1898-1903); K. Fischer, _Goethes
  Faust_ (3 vols., 1893, 1902, 1903); O. Pniower, _Goethes Faust,
  Zeugnisse und Excurse zu seiner Entstehungsgeschichte_ (1899); J.
  Minor, _Goethes Faust, Entstehungsgeschichte und Erklärung_ (2 vols.,
  1901).

  (d) _Bibliographical Works, Goethe-Societies, &c._--L. Unflad, _Die
  Goethe-Literatur in Deutschland_ (1878); S. Hirzel, _Verzeichnis einer
  Goethe-Bibliothek_ (1884), to which G. von Loeper and W. von
  Biedermann have supplied supplements. F. Strehlke, _Goethes Briefe:
  Verzeichnis unter Angabe der Quelle_ (1882-1884); _British Museum
  Catalogue of Printed Books: Goethe_ (1888); Goedeke's _Grundriss zur
  Geschichte der deutschen Dichtung_ (2nd ed., vol. iv. 1891); and the
  bibliographies in the _Goethe-Jahrbuch_ (since 1880). Also K. Hoyer,
  _Zur Einführung in die Goethe-Literatur_ (1904). On Goethe in England
  see E. Oswald, _Goethe in England and America_ (1899; 2nd ed., 1909);
  W. Heinemann, _A Bibliographical List of the English Translations and
  Annotated Editions of Goethe's Faust_ (1886). Reference may also be
  made here to F. Zarncke's _Verzeichnis der Originalaufnahmen von
  Goethes Bildnissen_ (1888).

  _A Goethe-Gesellschaft_ was founded at Weimar in 1885, and numbers
  over 2800 members; its publications include the annual
  _Goethe-Jahrbuch_ (since 1880), and a series of _Goethe-Schriften_. A
  _Goethe-Verein_ has existed in Vienna since 1887, and an English
  Goethe society, which has also issued several volumes of publications,
  since 1886.     (J. G. R.)

_Goethe's Descendants._--Goethe's only son, AUGUST, born on the 25th of
December 1789 at Weimar, married in 1817 Ottilie von Pogwisch
(1796-1872), who had come as a child to Weimar with her mother (_née_
Countess Henckel von Donnersmarck). The marriage was a very unhappy one,
the husband having no qualities that could appeal to a woman who,
whatever the censorious might say of her moral character, was
distinguished to the last by a lively intellect and a singular charm.
August von Goethe, whose sole distinction was his birth and his position
as grand-ducal chamberlain, died in Italy, on the 27th of October 1830,
leaving three children; WALTHER WOLFGANG, born on April 9, 1818, died on
April 15, 1885; WOLFGANG MAXIMILIAN, born on September 18, 1820, died on
January 20, 1883; ALMA, born on October 22, 1827, died on September 29,
1844.

Of Walther von Goethe little need be said. In youth he had musical
ambitions, studied under Mendelssohn and Weinlig at Leipzig, under Loewe
at Stettin, and afterwards at Vienna. He published a few songs of no
great merit, and had at his death no more than the reputation among his
friends of a kindly and accomplished man.

Wolfgang or, as he was familiarly called, Wolf von Goethe, was by far
the more gifted of the two brothers, and his gloomy destiny by so much
the more tragic. A sensitive and highly imaginative boy, he was the
favourite of his grandfather, who made him his constant companion. This
fact, instead of being to the boy's advantage, was to prove his bane.
The exalted atmosphere of the great man's ideas was too rarefied for the
child's intellectual health, and a brain well fitted to do excellent
work in the world was ruined by the effort to live up to an impossible
ideal. To maintain himself on the same height as his grandfather, and to
make the name of Goethe illustrious in his descendants also, became
Wolfgang's ambition; and his incapacity to realize this, very soon borne
in upon him, paralyzed his efforts and plunged him at last into bitter
revolt against his fate and gloomy isolation from a world that seemed to
have no use for him but as a curiosity. From the first, too, he was
hampered by wretched health; at the age of sixteen he was subjected to
one of those terrible attacks of neuralgia which were to torment him to
the last; physically and mentally alike he stood in tragic contrast with
his grandfather, in whose gigantic personality the vigour of his race
seems to have been exhausted.

From 1839 to 1845 Wolfgang studied law at Bonn, Jena, Heidelberg and
Berlin, taking his degree of _doctor juris_ at Heidelberg in 1845.
During this period he had made his first literary efforts. His
_Studenten-Briefe_ (Jena, 1842), a medley of letters and lyrics, are
wholly conventional. This was followed by _Der Mensch und die
elementarische Natur_ (Stuttgart and Tübingen, 1845), in three parts
(_Beiträge_): (1) an historical and philosophical dissertation on the
relations of mankind and the "soul of nature," largely influenced by
Schelling, (2) a dissertation on the juridical side of the question, _De
fragmento Vegoiae_, being the thesis presented for his degree, (3) a
lyrical drama, _Erlinde_. In this last, as in his other poetic attempts,
Wolfgang showed a considerable measure of inherited or acquired ability,
in his wealth of language and his easy mastery of the difficulties of
rhythm and rhyme. But this was all. The work was characteristic of his
self-centred isolation: ultra-romantic at a time when Romanticism was
already an outworn fashion, remote alike from the spirit of the age and
from that of Goethe. The cold reception it met with shattered at a blow
the dream of Wolfgang's life; henceforth he realized that to the world
he was interesting mainly as "Goethe's grandson," that anything he might
achieve would be measured by that terrible standard, and he hated the
legacy of his name.

The next five years he spent in Italy and at Vienna, tormented by facial
neuralgia. Returning to Weimar in 1850, he was made a chamberlain by the
grand-duke, and in 1852, his health being now somewhat restored, he
entered the Prussian diplomatic service and went as attaché to Rome. The
fruit of his long years of illness was a slender volume of lyrics,
_Gedichte_ (Stuttgart and Tübingen, 1851), good in form, but seldom
inspired, and showing occasionally the influence of a morbid sensuality.
In 1854 he was appointed secretary of legation; but the aggressive
ultramontanism of the Curia became increasingly intolerable to his
overwrought nature, and in 1856 he was transferred, at his own request,
as secretary of legation to Dresden. This post he resigned in 1859, in
which year he was raised to the rank of _Freiherr_ (baron). In 1866 he
received the title of councillor of legation; but he never again
occupied any diplomatic post.

The rest of his life he devoted to historical research, ultimately
selecting as his special subject the Italian libraries up to the year
1500. The outcome of all his labours was, however, only the first part
of _Studies and Researches in the Times and Life of Cardinal Bessarion_,
embracing the period of the council of Florence (privately printed at
Jena, 1871), a catalogue of the MSS. in the monastery of Sancta Justina
at Padua (Jena, 1873), and a mass of undigested material, which he
ultimately bequeathed to the university of Jena.

In 1870 Ottilie von Goethe, who had resided mainly at Vienna, returned
to Weimar and took up her residence with her two sons in the Goethehaus.
So long as she lived, her small salon in the attic storey of the great
house was a centre of attraction for many of the most illustrious
personages in Europe. But after her death in 1872 the two brothers lived
in almost complete isolation. The few old friends, including the
grand-duke Charles Alexander, who continued regularly to visit the
house, were entertained with kindly hospitality by Baron Walther;
Wolfgang refused to be drawn from his isolation even by the advent of
royalty. "Tell the empress," he cried on one occasion, "that I am not a
wild beast to be stared at!" In 1879, his increasing illness
necessitating the constant presence of an attendant, he went to live at
Leipzig, where he died.

Goethe's grandsons have been so repeatedly accused of having displayed a
dog-in-the-manger temper in closing the Goethehaus to the public and
the Goethe archives to research, that the charge has almost universally
come to be regarded as proven. It is true that the house was closed and
access to the archives only very sparingly allowed until Baron Walther's
death in 1885. But the reason for this was not, as Herr Max Hecker
rather absurdly suggests, Wolfgang's jealousy of his grandfather's
oppressive fame, but one far more simple and natural. From one cause or
another, principally Ottilie von Goethe's extravagance, the family was
in very straitened circumstances; and the brothers, being thoroughly
unbusinesslike, believed themselves to be poorer than they really
were.[1] They closed the Goethehaus and the archives, because to have
opened them would have needed an army of attendants.[2] If they deserve
any blame it is for the pride, natural to their rank and their
generation, which prevented them from charging an entrance fee, an
expedient which would not only have made it possible for them to give
access to the house and collections, but would have enabled them to save
the fabric from falling into the lamentable state of disrepair in which
it was found after their death. In any case, the accusation is
ungenerous. With an almost exaggerated _Pietät_ Goethe's descendants
preserved his house untouched, at great inconvenience to themselves, and
left it, with all its treasures intact, to the nation. Had they been the
selfish misers they are sometimes painted, they could have realized a
fortune by selling its contents.

  _Wolf Goethe_ (Weimar, 1889) is a sympathetic appreciation by Otto
  Mejer, formerly president of the Lutheran consistory in Hanover. See
  also Jenny v. Gerstenbergk, _Ottilie von Goethe und ihre Söhne Walther
  und Wolf_ (Stuttgart, 1901), and the article on Maximilian Wolfgang
  von Goethe by Max F. Hecker in _Allgem. deutsche Biographie_, Bd. 49,
  _Nachträge_ (Leipzig, 1904).     (W. A. P.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] After Walther's death upwards of £10,000 in bonds, &c., were
    discovered put away and forgotten in escritoires and odd corners.

  [2] This was the reason given by Baron Walther himself to the
    writer's mother, an old friend of Frau von Goethe, who lived with her
    family in the Goethehaus for some years after 1871.



GOETZ, HERMANN (1840-1876), German musical composer, was born at
Königsberg in Prussia, on the 17th of December 1840, and began his
regular musical studies at the comparatively advanced age of seventeen.
He entered the music-school of Professor Stern at Berlin, and studied
composition chiefly under Ulrich and Hans von Bülow. In 1863 he was
appointed organist at Winterthur in Switzerland, where he lived in
obscurity for a number of years, occupying himself with composition
during his leisure hours. One of his works was an opera, _The Taming of
the Shrew_, the libretto skilfully adapted from Shakespeare's play.
After much delay it was produced at Mannheim (in October 1874), and its
success was as instantaneous as it has up to the present proved lasting.
It rapidly made the round of the great German theatres, and spread its
composer's fame over all the land. But Goetz did not live to enjoy this
happy result for long. In December 1876 he died at Zürich from overwork.
A second opera, _Francesco da Rimini_, on which he was engaged, remained
a fragment; but it was finished according to his directions, and was
performed for the first time at Mannheim a few months after the
composer's death on the 4th of December 1876. Besides his dramatic work,
Goetz also wrote various compositions for chamber-music, of which a trio
(Op. 1) and a quintet (Op. 16) have been given with great success at the
London Monday Popular Concerts. Still more important is the _Symphony in
F_. As a composer of comic opera Goetz lacks the sprightliness and
artistic _savoir faire_ so rarely found amongst Germanic nations. His
was essentially a serious nature, and passion and pathos were to him
more congenial than humour. The more serious sides of the subject are
therefore insisted upon more successfully than Katherine's ravings and
Petruchio's eccentricities. There are, however, very graceful passages,
e.g. the singing lesson Bianca receives from her disguised lover.
Goetz's style, although influenced by Wagner and other masters, shows
signs of a distinct individuality. The design of his music is
essentially of a polyphonic character, and the working out and
interweaving of his themes betray the musician of high scholarship. But
breadth and beautiful flow of melody also were his, as is seen in the
symphony, and perhaps still more in the quintet for pianoforte and
strings above referred to. The most important of Goetz's posthumous
works are a setting of the 137th Psalm for soprano solo, chorus and
orchestra, a "Spring" overture (Op. 15), and a pianoforte sonata for
four hands (Op. 17).



GOFFE (or GOUGH), WILLIAM (fl. 1642-1660), English parliamentarian, son
of Stephen Goffe, puritan rector of Stanmer in Essex, began life as an
apprentice to a London salter, a zealous parliamentarian, but on the
outbreak of the civil war he joined the army and became captain in
Colonel Harley's regiment of the new model in 1645. He was imprisoned in
1642 for his share in the petition to give the control of the militia to
the parliament. By his marriage with Frances, daughter of General Edward
Whalley, he became connected with Oliver Cromwell's family and one of
his most faithful followers. He was a member of the deputation which on
the 6th of July 1647 brought up the charge against the eleven members.
He was active in bringing the king to trial and signed the death
warrant. In 1649 he received the honorary degree of M.A. at Oxford. He
distinguished himself at Dunbar, commanding a regiment there and at
Worcester. He assisted in the expulsion of Barebone's parliament in
1653, took an active part in the suppression of Penruddock's rising in
July 1654, and in October 1655 was appointed major-general for
Berkshire, Sussex and Hampshire. Meanwhile he had been elected member
for Yarmouth in the parliament of 1654 and for Hampshire in that of
1656. He supported the proposal to bestow a royal title upon Cromwell,
who greatly esteemed him, was included in the newly-constituted House of
Lords, obtained Lambert's place as major-general of the Foot, and was
even thought of as a fit successor to Cromwell. As a member of the
committee of nine appointed in June 1658 on public affairs, he was
witness to the protector's appointment of Richard Cromwell as his
successor. He supported the latter during his brief tenure of power and
his fall involved his own loss of influence. In November 1659 he took
part in the futile mission sent by the army to Monk in Scotland, and at
the Restoration escaped with his father-in-law General Edward Whalley to
Massachusetts. Goffe's political aims appear not to have gone much
beyond fighting "to pull down Charles and set up Oliver"; and he was no
doubt a man of deep religious feeling, who acted throughout according to
a strict sense of duty as he conceived it. He was destined to pass the
rest of his life in exile, separated from his wife and children, dying,
it is supposed, about 1679.



GOFFER, to give a fluted or crimped appearance to anything, particularly
to linen or lace frills or trimmings by means of heated irons of a
special shape, called goffering-irons or tongs. "Goffering," or the
French term _gaufrage_, is also used of the wavey or crimped edging in
certain forms of porcelain, and also of the stamped or embossed
decorations on the edges of the binding of books. The French word
_gaufre_, from which the English form is adapted, means a thin cake
marked with a pattern like a honeycomb, a "wafer," which is
etymologically the same word. _Waufre_ appears in the phrase _un fer à
waufres_, an iron for baking cakes on (quotation of 1433 in J. B.
Roquefort's _Glossaire de la langue romane_). The word is Teutonic, cf.
Dutch _wafel_, Ger. _Waffel_, a form seen in "waffle," the name given to
the well-known batter-cakes of America. The "wafer" was so called from
its likeness to a honeycomb, _Wabe_, ultimately derived from the root
_wab_-, to weave, the cells of the comb appearing to be woven together.



GOG (possibly connected with the Gentilic _Gagaya_, "of the land of
Gag," used in Amarna Letters i. 38, as a synonym for "barbarian," or
with Ass. _Gagu_, a ruler of the land of _Sahi_, N. of Assyria, or with
_Gyges_, Ass. _Gugu_, a king of Lydia), a Hebrew name found in Ezek.
xxxviii.-xxxix. and in Rev. xx., and denoting an antitheocratic power
that is to manifest itself in the world immediately before the final
dispensation. In the later passage, Gog and Magog are spoken of as
co-ordinate; in the earlier, Gog is given as the name of the person or
people and Magog as that of the land of origin. Magog is perhaps a
contracted form of Mat-gog, _mat_ being the common Assyrian word for
"land." The passages are, however, intimately related and both depend
upon Gen. x. 2, though here Magog alone is mentioned. He is the second
"son" of Japhet, and the order of the names here and in Ezekiel xxxviii.
2, indicates a locality between Cappadocia and Media, i.e. in Armenia.
According to Josephus, who is followed by Jerome, the Scythians were
primarily intended by this designation; and this plausible opinion has
been generally followed. The name [Greek: Skythai], it is to be
observed, however, is often but a vague word for any or all of the
numerous and but partially known tribes of the north; and any attempt to
assign a more definite locality to Magog can only be very hesitatingly
made. According to some, the Maiotes about the Palus Maeotis are meant;
according to others, the Massagetae; according to Kiepert, the
inhabitants of the northern and eastern parts of Armenia. The imagery
employed in Ezekiel's prophetic description was no doubt suggested by
the Scythian invasion which about the time of Josiah, 630 B.C., had
devastated Asia (Herodotus i. 104-106; Jer. iv. 3-vi. 30). Following on
this description, Gog figures largely in Jewish and Mahommedan as well
as in Christian eschatology. In the district of Astrakhan a legend is
still to be met with, to the effect that Gog and Magog were two great
races, which Alexander the Great subdued and banished to the inmost
recesses of the Caucasus, where they are meanwhile kept in by the terror
of twelve trumpets blown by the winds, but whence they are destined
ultimately to make their escape and destroy the world.

The legends that attach themselves to the gigantic effigies (dating from
1708 and replacing those destroyed in the Great Fire) of Gog and Magog
in Guildhall, London, are connected only remotely, if at all, with the
biblical notices. According to the _Recuyell des histoires de Troye_,
Gog and Magog were the survivors of a race of giants descended from the
thirty-three wicked daughters of Diocletian; after their brethren had
been slain by Brute and his companions, Gog and Magog were brought to
London (Troy-novant) and compelled to officiate as porters at the gate
of the royal palace. It is known that effigies similar to the present
existed in London as early as the time of Henry V.; but when this legend
began to attach to them is uncertain. They may be compared with the
giant images formerly kept at Antwerp (Antigomes) and Douai (Gayant).
According to Geoffrey of Monmouth (_Chronicles_, i. 16), Goëmot or
Goëmagot (either corrupted from or corrupted into "Gog and Magog") was a
giant who, along with his brother Corineus, tyrannized in the western
horn of England until slain by foreign invaders.



GOGO, or GOGHA, a town of British India in Ahmedabad district, Bombay,
193 m. N.W. of Bombay. Pop. (1901) 4798. About ¾ m. east of the town is
an excellent anchorage, in some measure sheltered by the island of
Piram, which lies still farther east. The natives of this place are
reckoned the best sailors in India; and ships touching here may procure
water and supplies, or repair damages. The anchorage is a safe refuge
during the south-west monsoon, the bottom being a bed of mud and the
water always smooth. Gogo has lost its commercial importance and has
steadily declined in population and trade since the time of the American
Civil War, when it was an important cotton-mart.



GOGOL, NIKOLAI VASILIEVICH (1809-1852), Russian novelist, was born in
the province of Poltava, in South Russia, on the 31st of March 1809.
Educated at the Niezhin gymnasium, he there started a manuscript
periodical, "The Star," and wrote several pieces including a tragedy,
_The Brigands_. Having completed his course at Niezhin, he went in 1829
to St Petersburg, where he tried the stage but failed. Next year he
obtained a clerkship in the department of appanages, but he soon gave it
up. In literature, however, he found his true vocation. In 1829 he
published anonymously a poem called _Italy_, and, under the pseudonym of
V. Alof, an idyll, _Hans Kuchel Garten_, which he had written while
still at Niezhin. The idyll was so ridiculed by a reviewer that its
author bought up all the copies he could secure, and burnt them in a
room which he hired for the purpose at an inn. Gogol then fell back upon
South Russian popular literature, and especially the tales of Cossackdom
on which his boyish fancy had been nursed, his father having occupied
the post of "regimental secretary," one of the honorary officials in
the Zaporogian Cossack forces.

In 1830 he published in a periodical the first of the stories which
appeared next year under the title of _Evenings in a Farm near Dikanka:
by Rudy Panko_. This work, containing a series of attractive pictures of
that Little-Russian life which lends itself to romance more readily than
does the monotony of "Great-Russian" existence, immediately obtained a
great success--its light and colour, its freshness and originality being
hailed with enthusiasm by the principal writers of the day in Russia.
Whereupon Gogol planned, not only a history of Little-Russia, but also
one of the middle ages, to be completed in eight or nine volumes. This
plan he did not carry out, though it led to his being appointed to a
professorship in the university of St Petersburg, a post in which he met
with small success and which he resigned in 1835. Meanwhile he had
published his _Arabesques_, a collection of essays and stories; his
_Taras Bulba_, the chief of the _Cossack Tales_ translated into English
by George Tolstoy; and a number of novelettes, which mark his transition
from the romantic to the realistic school of fiction, such as the
admirable sketch of the tranquil life led in a quiet country house by
two kindly specimens of _Old-world Gentlefolks_, or the description of
the petty miseries endured by an ill-paid clerk in a government office,
the great object of whose life is to secure the "cloak" from which his
story takes its name. To the same period belongs his celebrated comedy,
the _Revizor_, or government inspector. His aim in writing it was to
drag into light "all that was bad in Russia," and to hold it up to
contempt. And he succeeded in rendering contemptible and ludicrous the
official life of Russia, the corruption universally prevailing
throughout the civil service, the alternate arrogance and servility of
men in office. The plot of the comedy is very simple. A traveller who
arrives with an empty purse at a provincial town is taken for an
inspector whose arrival is awaited with fear, and he receives all the
attentions and bribes which are meant to propitiate the dreaded
investigator of abuses. The play appeared on the stage in the spring of
1836, and achieved a full success, in spite of the opposition attempted
by the official classes whose malpractices it exposed. The aim which
Gogol had in view when writing the _Revizor_ he afterwards fully
attained in his great novel, _Mertvuiya Dushi_, or Dead Souls, the first
part of which appeared in 1842. The hero of the story is an adventurer
who goes about Russia making fictitious purchases of "dead souls," i.e.
of serfs who have died since the last census, with the view of pledging
his imaginary property to the government. But his adventures are merely
an excuse for drawing a series of pictures, of an unfavourable kind, of
Russian provincial life, and of introducing on the scene a number of
types of Russian society. Of the force and truth with which these
delineations are executed the universal consent of Russian critics in
their favour may be taken as a measure. From the French version of the
story a general idea of its merits may be formed, and some knowledge of
its plot and its principal characters may be gathered from the English
adaptation published in 1854, as an original work, under the title of
_Home Life in Russia_. But no one can fully appreciate Gogol's merits as
a humorist who is not intimate with the language in which he wrote as
well as with the society which he depicted.

In 1836 Gogol for the first time went abroad. Subsequently he spent a
considerable amount of time out of Russia, chiefly in Italy, where much
of his _Dead Souls_ was written. His residence there, especially at
Rome, made a deep impression on his mind, which, during his later years,
turned towards mysticism. The last works which he published, his
_Confession_ and _Correspondence with Friends_, offer a painful contrast
to the light, bright, vigorous, realistic, humorous writings which had
gained and have retained for him his immense popularity in his native
land. Asceticism and mystical exaltation had told upon his nervous
system, and its feeble condition showed itself in his literary
compositions. In 1848 he made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and on his
return settled down at Moscow, where he died on the 3rd of March 1852.

  See _Materials for the Biography of Gogol_ (in Russian) (1897), by
  Shenrok; "Illness and Death of Gogol," by N. Bazhenov, _Russkaya
  Muisl_, January 1902.     (W. R. S.-R.)



GOGRA, or GHAGRA, a river of northern India. It is an important
tributary of the Ganges, bringing down to the plains more water than the
Ganges itself. It rises in Tibet near Lake Manasarowar, not far from the
sources of the Brahmaputra and the Sutlej, passes through Nepal where it
is known as the Kauriala, and after entering British territory becomes
the most important waterway in the United Provinces. It joins the Ganges
at Chapra after a course of 600 m. Its tributary, the Rapti, also has
considerable commercial importance. The Gogra has the alternative name
of Sarju, and in its lower course is also known as the Deoha.



GOHIER, LOUIS JÉRÔME (1746-1830), French politician, was born at
Semblançay (Indre-et-Loire) on the 27th of February 1746, the son of a
notary. He was called to the bar at Rennes, and practised there until he
was sent to represent the town in the states-general. In the Legislative
Assembly he represented Ille-et-Vilaine. He took a prominent part in the
deliberations; he protested against the exaction of a new oath from
priests (Nov. 22, 1791), and demanded the sequestration of the
emigrants' property (Feb. 7, 1792). He was minister of justice from
March 1793 to April 1794, and in June 1799 he succeeded Treilhard in the
Directory, where he represented the republican interest. His wife was
intimate with Josephine Bonaparte, and when Bonaparte suddenly returned
from Egypt in October 1799 he repeatedly protested his friendship for
Gohier, who was then president of the Directory, and tried in vain to
gain him over. After the _coup d'état_ of the 18th Brumaire (Nov. 9,
1799), he refused to abdicate his functions, and sought out Bonaparte at
the Tuileries "to save the republic," as he boldly expressed it. He was
escorted to the Luxembourg, and on his release he retired to his estate
at Eaubonne. In 1802 Napoleon made him consul-general at Amsterdam, and
on the union of the Netherlands with France he was offered a similar
post in the United States. His health did not permit of his taking up a
new appointment, and he died at Eaubonne on the 29th of May 1830.

  His _Mémoires d'un vétéran irréprochable de la Révolution_ was
  published in 1824, his report on the papers of the civil list
  preparatory to the trial of Louis XVI. is printed in Le _Procès de
  Louis XVI_ (Paris, an III) and elsewhere, while others appear in the
  _Moniteur_.



GÖHRDE, a forest of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hanover,
immediately W. of the Elbe, between Wittenberg and Lüneburg. It has an
area of about 85 sq. m. and is famous for its oaks, beeches and game
preserves. It is memorable for the victory gained here, on the 16th of
September 1813, by the allies, under Wallmoden, over the French forces
commanded by Pecheur. The hunting-box situated in the forest was built
in 1689 and was restored by Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover. It is
known to history on account of the constitution of Göhrde, promulgated
here in 1719.



GOITO, a village of Lombardy, Italy, in the province of Mantua, from
which it is 11 m. N.W., on the road to Brescia. Pop. (village) 737;
(commune) 5712. It is situated on the right bank of the Mincio near the
bridge. Its position has given it a certain military importance in
various campaigns and it has been repeatedly fortified as a bridge-head.
The Piedmontese forces won two actions (8th of April and 30th of May
1848) over the Austrians here.



GOITRE (from Lat. _guttur_, the throat; synonyms, Bronchocele,
Derbyshire Neck), a term applied to a swelling in the front of the neck
caused by enlargement of the thyroid gland. This structure, which lies
between the skin and the anterior surface of the windpipe, and in health
is not large enough to give rise to any external prominence (except in
the pictures of certain artists), is liable to variations in size, more
especially in females, a temporary enlargement of the gland being not
uncommon at the catamenial periods, as well as during pregnancy. In
goitre the swelling is conspicuous and is not only unsightly but may
occasion much discomfort from its pressure upon the windpipe and other
important parts of the neck. J. L. Alibert recorded cases of goitre
where the tumour hung down over the breast, or reached as low as the
middle of the thigh.

Goitre usually appears in early life, often from the eighth to the
twelfth year; its growth is at first slow, but after several years of
comparative quiescence a sudden increase is apt to occur. In the earlier
stages the condition of the gland is simply an enlargement of its
constituent parts, which retain their normal soft consistence; but in
the course of time other changes supervene, and it may become cystic, or
acquire hardness from increase of fibrous tissue or from calcareous
deposits. Occasionally the enlargement is uniform, but more commonly one
of the lobes, generally the right, is the larger. In rare instances the
disease is limited to the isthmus which connects the two lobes of the
gland. The growth is unattended with pain, and is not inconsistent with
good health.

Goitre is a marked example of an endemic disease. There are few parts of
the world where it is not found prevailing in certain localities, these
being for the most part valleys and elevated plains in mountainous
districts (see CRETINISM). The malady is generally ascribed to the use
of drinking water impregnated with the salts of lime and magnesia, in
which ingredients the water of goitrous districts abounds. But in
localities not far removed from those in which goitre prevails, and
where the water is of the same chemical composition, the disease may be
entirely unknown. The disease may be the result of a combination of
causes, among which local telluric or malarial influences concur with
those of the drinking water. Goitre is sometimes cured by removal of the
individual from the district where it prevails, and it is apt to be
acquired by previously healthy persons who settle in goitrous
localities; and it is only in such places that the disease exhibits
hereditary tendencies.

In the early stages, change of air, especially to the seaside, is
desirable, and small doses of iron and of iodine should be given; if
this fails small doses of thyroid extract should be tried. If palliative
measures prove unsuccessful, operation must be undertaken for the
removal of one lateral lobe and the isthmus of the tumour. This may be
done under chloroform or after the subcutaneous injection of cocaine. If
chloroform is used, it must be given very sparingly, as the breathing is
apt to become seriously embarrassed during the operation. After the
successful performance of the operation great improvement takes place,
the remaining part of the gland slowly decreasing in size. The whole of
the gland must not be removed during the operation, lest the strange
disease known as Myxoedema should be produced (see METABOLIC DISEASES).

In _exophthalmic goitre_ the bronchocele is but one of three phenomena,
which together constitute the disease, viz. palpitation of the heart,
enlargement of the thyroid gland, and protrusion of the eyeballs. This
group of symptoms is known by the name of "Graves's disease" or "Von
Basedow's disease"--the physicians by whom the malady was originally
described. Although occasionally observed in men, this affection occurs
chiefly in females, and in comparatively early life. It is generally
preceded by impoverishment of blood, and by nervous or hysterical
disorders, and it is occasionally seen in cases of organic heart
disease. It has been suddenly developed as the effect of fright or of
violent emotion. The first symptom is usually the palpitation of the
heart, which is aggravated by slight exertion, and may be so severe as
not only to shake the whole frame but even to be audible at some
distance. A throbbing is felt throughout the body, and many of the
larger blood-vessels are, like the heart, seen to pulsate strongly. The
enlargement of the thyroid is gradual, and rarely increases to any great
size, thus differing from the commoner form of goitre. The enlarged
gland is of soft consistence, and communicates a thrill to the touch
from its dilated and pulsating blood-vessels. Accompanying the goitre a
remarkable change is observed in the eyes, which attract attention by
their prominence, and by the startled expression thus given to the
countenance. In extreme cases the eyes protrude from their sockets to
such a degree that the eyelids cannot be closed, and injury may thus
arise to the constantly exposed eyeballs. Apart from such risk, however,
the vision is rarely affected. It occasionally happens that in undoubted
cases of the disease one or other of the three above-named phenomena is
absent, generally either the goitre or the exophthalmos. The palpitation
of the heart is the most constant symptom. Sleeplessness, irritability,
disorders of digestion, diarrhoea and uterine derangements, are frequent
accompaniments. It is a serious disease and, if unchecked, may end
fatally. Some cases are improved by general hygienic measures, others by
electric treatment, or by the administration of animal extracts or of
sera. Some cases, on the other hand, may be considered suitable for
operative treatment.     (E. O.*)



GOKAK, a town of British India, in the Belgaum district of Bombay, 8 m.
from a station on the Southern Mahratta railway. Pop. (1901) 9860. It
contains old temples with inscriptions, and is known for a special
industry of modelled toys. About 4 m. N.W. are the Gokak Falls, where
the Ghatprabha throws itself over a precipice 170 ft. high. Close by,
the water has been impounded for a large reservoir, which supplies not
only irrigation but also motive power for a cotton-mill employing 2000
hands.



GOKCHA, (GÖK-CHAI; Armenian _Sevanga_; ancient _Haosravagha_), the
largest lake of Russian Transcaucasia, in the government of Erivan, in
40° 9' to 40° 38' N. and 45° 1' to 45° 40' E. Its altitude is 6345 ft.,
it is of triangular shape, and measures from north-west to south-east 45
m., its greatest width being 25 m., and its maximum depth 67 fathoms.
Its area is 540 sq. m. It is surrounded by barren mountains of volcanic
origin, 12,000 ft. high. Its outflow is the Zanga, a left bank tributary
of the Aras (_Araxes_); it never freezes, and its level undergoes
periodical oscillations. It contains four species of _Salmonidae_, and
two of _Cyprinidae_, which are only met with in the drainage area of
this lake. A lava island in the middle is crowned by an Armenian
monastery.



GOLCONDA, a fortress and ruined city of India, in the Nizam's Dominions,
5 m. W. of Hyderabad city. In former times Golconda was the capital of a
large and powerful kingdom of the Deccan, ruled by the Kutb Shahi
dynasty which was founded in 1512 by a Turkoman adventurer on the
downfall of the Bahmani dynasty, but the city was subdued by Aurangzeb
in 1687, and annexed to the Delhi empire. The fortress of Golconda,
situated on a rocky ridge of granite, is extensive, and contains many
enclosures. It is strong and in good repair, but is commanded by the
summits of the enormous and massive mausolea of the ancient kings about
600 yds. distant. These buildings, which are now the chief
characteristics of the place, form a vast group, situated in an arid,
rocky desert. They have suffered considerably from the ravages of time,
but more from the hand of man, and nothing but the great solidity of
their walls has preserved them from utter ruin. These tombs were erected
at a great expense, some of them being said to have cost as much as
£150,000. Golconda fort is now used as the Nizam's treasury, and also as
the state prison. Golconda has given its name in English literature to
the diamonds which were found in other parts of the dominions of the
Kutb Shahi dynasty, not near Golconda itself.



GOLD [symbol Au, atomic weight 195.7(H = 1), 197.2(O = 16)], a metallic
chemical element, valued from the earliest ages on account of the
permanency of its colour and lustre. Gold ornaments of great variety and
elaborate workmanship have been discovered on sites belonging to the
earliest known civilizations, Minoan, Egyptian, Assyrian, Etruscan (see
JEWELRY, PLATE, EGYPT, CRETE, AEGEAN CIVILIZATION, NUMISMATICS), and in
ancient literature gold is the universal symbol of the highest purity
and value (cf. passages in the Old Testament, e.g. Ps. xix. 10 "More to
be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold"). With regard
to the history of the metallurgy of gold, it may be mentioned that,
according to Pliny, mercury was employed in his time both as a means of
separating the precious metals and for the purposes of gilding.
Vitruvius also gives a detailed account of the means of recovering gold,
by amalgamation, from cloth into which it had been woven.

_Physical Properties._--Gold has a characteristic yellow colour, which
is, however, notably affected by small quantities of other metals; thus
the tint is sensibly lowered by small quantities of silver, and
heightened by copper. When the gold is finely divided, as in "purple of
Cassius," or when it is precipitated from solutions, the colour is
ruby-red, while in very thin leaves it transmits a greenish light. It is
nearly as soft as lead and softer than silver. When pure, it is the most
malleable of all metals (see GOLDBEATING). It is also extremely ductile;
a single grain may be drawn into a wire 500 ft. in length, and an ounce
of gold covering a silver wire is capable of being extended more than
1300 m. The presence of minute quantities of cadmium, lead, bismuth,
antimony, arsenic, tin, tellurium and zinc renders gold brittle,
1/2000th part of one of the three metals first named being sufficient to
produce that quality. Gold can be readily welded cold; the finely
divided metal, in the state in which it is precipitated from solution,
may be compressed between dies into disks or medals. The specific
gravity of gold obtained by precipitation from solution by ferrous
sulphate is from 19.55 to 20.72. The specific gravity of cast gold
varies from 18.29 to 19.37, and by compression between dies the specific
gravity may be raised from 19.37 to 19.41; by annealing, however, the
previous density is to some extent recovered, as it is then found to be
19.40. The melting-point has been variously given, the early values
ranging from 1425° C. to 1035° C. Using improved methods, C. T. Heycock
and F. H. Neville determined it to be 1061.7° C.; Daniel Berthelot gives
1064° C., while Jaquerod and Perrot give 1066.1-1067.4° C. At still
higher temperatures it volatilizes, forming a reddish vapour. Macquer
and Lavoisier showed that when gold is strongly heated, fumes arise
which gild a piece of silver held in them. Its volatility has also been
studied by L. Eisner, and, in the presence of other metals, by Napier
and others. The volatility is barely appreciable at 1075°; at 1250° it
is four times as much as at 1100°. Copper and zinc increase the
volatility far more than lead, while the greatest volatility is induced,
according to T. Kirke Rose, by tellurium. It has also been shown that
gold volatilizes when a gold-amalgam is distilled. Gold is dissipated by
sending a powerful charge of electricity through it when in the form of
leaf or thin wire. The electric conductivity is given by A. Matthiessen
as 73 at 0° C., pure silver being 100; the value of this coefficient
depends greatly on the purity of the metal, the presence of a few
thousandths of silver lowering it by 10%. Its conductivity for heat has
been variously given as 103 (C. M. Despretz), 98 (F. Crace-Calvert and
R. Johnson), and 60 (G. H. Wiedemann and R. Franz), pure silver being
100. Its specific heat is between 0.0298 (Dulong and Petit) and 0.03244
(Regnault). Its coefficient of expansion for each degree between 0° and
100° C. is 0.000014661, or for gold which has been annealed 0.000015136
(Laplace and Lavoisier). The spark spectrum of gold has been mapped by
A. Kirchhoff, R. Thalén, Sir William Huggins and H. Krüss; the brightest
lines are 6277, 5960, 5955 and 5836 in the orange and yellow, and 5230
and 4792 in the green and blue.

_Chemical Properties._--Gold is permanent in both dry and moist air at
ordinary or high temperatures. It is insoluble in hydrochloric, nitric
and sulphuric acids, but dissolves in _aqua regia_--a mixture of
hydrochloric and nitric acids--and when very finely divided in a heated
mixture of strong sulphuric acid and a little nitric acid; dilution with
water, however, precipitates the metal as a violet or brown powder from
this solution. The metal is soluble in solutions of chlorine, bromine,
thiosulphates and cyanides; and also in solutions which generate
chlorine, such as mixtures of hydrochloric acid with nitric acid,
chromic acid, antimonious acid, peroxides and nitrates, and of nitric
acid with a chloride. Gold is also attacked when strong sulphuric acid
is submitted to electrolysis with a gold positive pole. W. Skey showed
that in substances which contain small quantities of gold the precious
metal may be removed by the solvent action of iodine or bromine in
water. Filter paper soaked with the clear, solution is burnt, and the
presence of gold is indicated by the purple colour of the ash. In
solution minute quantities of gold may be detected by the formation of
"purple of Cassius," a bluish-purple precipitate thrown down by a
mixture of ferric and stannous chlorides.

The atomic weight of gold was first determined with accuracy by
Berzelius, who deduced the value 195.7 (H = 1) from the amount of
mercury necessary to precipitate it from the chloride, and 195.2 from
the ratio between gold and potassium chloride in potassium aurichloride,
KAuCl4. Later determinations were made by Sir T. E. Thorpe and A. P.
Laurie, Krüss and J. W. Mallet. Thorpe and Laurie converted potassium
auribromide into a mixture of metallic gold and potassium bromide by
careful heating. The relation of the gold to the potassium bromide, as
well as the amounts of silver and silver bromide which are equivalent to
the potassium bromide, were determined. The mean value thus adduced was
195.86. Krüss worked with the same salt, and obtained the value 195.65;
while Mallet, by analyses of gold chloride and bromide, and potassium
auribromide, obtained the value 195.77.

_Occlusion of Gas by Gold._--T. Graham showed that gold is capable of
occluding by volume 0.48% of hydrogen, 0.20% of nitrogen, 0.29% of
carbon monoxide, and 0.16% of carbon dioxide. Varrentrapp pointed out
that "cornets" from the assay of gold may retain gas if they are not
strongly heated.

_Occurrence and Distribution._--Gold is found in nature chiefly in the
metallic state, i.e. as "native gold," and less frequently in
combination with tellurium, lead and silver. These are the only certain
examples of natural combinations of the metal, the minute, though
economically valuable, quantity often found in pyrites and other
sulphides being probably only present in mechanical suspension. The
native metal crystallizes in the cubic system, the octahedron being the
commonest form, but other and complex combinations have been observed.
Owing to the softness of the metal, large crystals are rarely well
defined, the points being commonly rounded. In the irregular crystalline
aggregates branching and moss-like forms are most common, and in
Transylvania thin plates or sheets with diagonal structures are found.
More characteristic, however, than the crystallized are the irregular
forms, which, when large, are known as "nuggets" or "pepites," and when
in pieces below ¼ to ½ oz. weight as gold dust, the larger sizes being
distinguished as coarse or nuggety gold, and the smaller as gold dust
proper. Except in the larger nuggets, which may be more or less angular,
or at times even masses of crystals, with or without associated quartz
or other rock, gold is generally found bean-shaped or in some other
flattened form, the smallest particles being scales of scarcely
appreciable thickness, which, from their small bulk as compared with
their surface, subside very slowly when suspended in water, and are
therefore readily carried away by a rapid current. These form the "float
gold" of the miner. The physical properties of native gold are generally
similar to that of the melted metal.

  Of the minerals containing gold the most important are sylvanite or
  graphic tellurium (Ag, Au) Te2, with 24 to 26%; calaverite, AuTe2,
  with 42%; nagyagite or foliate tellurium (Pb, Au)16 Sb3(S, Te)24, with
  5 to 9% of gold; petzite, (Ag, Au)2Te, and white tellurium. These are
  confined to a few localities, the oldest and best known being those of
  Nagyag and Offenbanya in Transylvania; they have also been found at
  Red Cloud, Colorado, in Calaveras county, California, and at Perth and
  Boulder, West Australia. The minerals of the second class, usually
  spoken of as "auriferous," are comparatively numerous. Prominent among
  these are galena and iron pyrites, the former being almost invariably
  gold-bearing. Iron pyrites, however, is of greater practical
  importance, being in some districts exceedingly rich, and, next to the
  native metal, is the most prolific source of gold. Magnetic pyrites,
  copper pyrites, zinc blende and arsenical pyrites are other and less
  important examples, the last constituting the gold ore formerly worked
  in Silesia. A native gold amalgam is found as a rarity in California,
  and bismuth from South America is sometimes rich in gold. Native
  arsenic and antimony are also very frequently found to contain gold
  and silver.

  The association and distribution of gold may be considered under two
  different heads, namely, as it occurs in mineral veins--"reef gold,"
  and in alluvial or other superficial deposits which are derived from
  the waste of the former--"alluvial gold." Four distinct types of reef
  gold deposits may be distinguished: (1) Gold may occur disseminated
  through metalliferous veins, generally with sulphides and more
  particularly with pyrites. These deposits seem to be the primary
  sources of native gold. (2) More common are the auriferous
  quartz-reefs--veins or masses of quartz containing gold in flakes
  visible to the naked eye, or so finely divided as to be invisible. (3)
  The "banket" formation, which characterizes the goldfields of South
  Africa, consists of a quartzite conglomerate throughout which gold is
  very finely disseminated. (4) The siliceous sinter at Mount Morgan,
  Queensland, which is obviously associated with hydrothermal action, is
  also gold-bearing. The genesis of the last three types of deposit is
  generally assigned to the simultaneous percolation of solutions of
  gold and silica, the auriferous solution being formed during the
  disintegration of the gold-bearing metalliferous veins. But there is
  much uncertainty as to the mechanism of the process; some authors hold
  that the soluble chloride is first formed, while others postulate the
  intervention of a soluble aurate.

  In the alluvial deposits the associated minerals are chiefly those of
  great density and hardness, such as platinum, osmiridium and other
  metals of the platinum group, tinstone, chromic, magnetic and brown
  iron ores, diamond, ruby and sapphire, zircon, topaz, garnet, &c.
  which represent the more durable original constituents of the rocks
  whose distintegration has furnished the detritus.

_Statistics of Gold Production._--The supply of gold, and also its
relation to the supply of silver, has, among civilized nations, always
been of paramount importance in the economic questions concerning money
(see MONEY and BIMETALLISM); in this article a summary of the modern
gold-producing areas will be given, and for further details reference
should be made to the articles on the localities named. The chief
sources of the European supply during the middle ages were the mines of
Saxony and Austria, while Spain also contributed. The supplies from
Mexico and Brazil were important during the 16th and 17th centuries.
Russia became prominent in 1823, and for fourteen years contributed the
bulk of the supply. The United States (California) after 1848, and
Australia after 1851, were responsible for enormous increases in the
total production, which has been subsequently enhanced by discoveries in
Canada, South Africa, India, China and other countries.

  TABLE I.

  +-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
  |   Period. |     Oz.   |  Period.  |    Oz.    |
  +-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
  | 1801-1810 |   590,750 | 1856-1860 | 6,350,180 |
  | 1811-1820 |   380,300 | 1861-1865 | 5,951,770 |
  | 1821-1830 |   472,400 | 1866-1870 | 6,169,660 |
  | 1831-1840 |   674,200 | 1871-1875 | 5,487,400 |
  | 1841-1850 | 1,819,600 | 1876-1880 | 5,729,300 |
  | 1851-1855 | 6,350,180 |     --    |     --    |
  +-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+

The average annual world's production for certain periods from 1801 to
1880 in ounces is given in Table I. The average production of the five
years 1881-1885 was the smallest since the Australian and Californian
mines began to be worked in 1848-1849; the minimum 4,614,588 oz.,
occurred in 1882. It was not until after 1885 that the annual output of
the world began to expand. Of the total production in 1876, 5,016,488
oz., almost the whole was derived from the United States, Australasia
and Russia. Since then the proportion furnished by these countries has
been greatly lowered by the supplies from South Africa, Canada, India
and China. The increase of production has not been uniform, the greater
part having occurred most notably since 1895. Among the regions not
previously important as gold-producers which now contribute to the
annual output, the most remarkable are the goldfields of South Africa
(Transvaal and Rhodesia, the former of which were discovered in 1885).
India likewise has been added to the list, its active production having
begun at about the same time as that of South Africa. The average annual
product of India for the period 1886 to 1899 inclusive was £698,208, and
its present annual product averages about 550,000 oz., or about
£2,200,000, obtained almost wholly from the free-milling quartz veins of
the Colar goldfields in Mysore, southern India. In 1900 the output was
valued at £1,891,804, in 1905 at £2,450,536, and in 1908 at £2,270,000.
Canada, too, assumed an important rank, having contributed in 1900
£5,583,300; but the output has since steadily declined to £1,973,000 in
1908. The great increase during the few years preceding 1899 was due to
the development of the goldfields of the North-Western Territory,
especially British Columbia. From the district of Yukon (Klondike, &c.)
£2,800,000 was obtained in 1899, wholly from alluvial workings, but the
progress made since has been slower than was expected by sanguine
people. It is, however, probable that the North-Western Territory will
continue to yield gold in important quantities for some time to come.

The output of the United States increased from £7,050,000 in 1881 to
£16,085,567 in 1900, £17,916,000 in 1905, and to £20,065,000 in 1908.
This increase was chiefly due to the exploitation of new goldfields. The
fall in the price of silver stimulated the discovery and development of
gold deposits, and many states formerly regarded as characteristically
silver districts have become important as gold producers. Colorado is a
case in point, its output having increased from about £600,000 in 1880
to £6,065,000 in 1900; it was £5,139,800 in 1905. Somewhat more than
one-half of the Colorado gold is obtained from the Cripple Creek
district. Other states also showed a largely augmented product. On the
other hand, the output of California, which was producing over
£3,000,000 per annum in 1876, has fallen off, the average annual output
from 1876 to 1900 being £2,800,000; in 1905 the yield was £3,839,000.
This decrease was largely caused by the practical suspension for many
years of the hydraulic mining operations, in preparation for which
millions of dollars had been expended in deep tunnels, flumes, &c., and
the active continuance of which might have been expected to yield some
£2,000,000 of gold annually. This interruption, due to the practical
prohibition of the industry by the United States courts, on the ground
that it was injuring, through the deposit of tailings, agricultural
lands and navigable streams, was lessened, though not entirely removed,
by compromises and regulations which permit, under certain restrictions,
the renewed exploitation of the ancient river-beds by the hydraulic
method. On the other hand, the progressive reduction of mining and
metallurgical costs effected by improved transportation and machinery,
and the use of high explosives, compressed air, electric-power
transmission, &c., resulted in California (as elsewhere) in a notable
revival of deep mining. This was especially the case on the "Mother
Lode," where highly promising results were obtained. Not only is
vein-material formerly regarded as unremunerative now extracted at a
profit, but in many instances increased gold-values have been
encountered below zones of relative barrenness, and operators have been
encouraged to make costly preparations for really deep mining--more than
3000 ft. below the surface. The gold product of California, therefore,
may be fairly expected to maintain itself, and, indeed, to show an
advance. Alaska appeared in the list of gold-producing countries in
1886, and gradually increased its annual output until 1897, when the
country attracted much attention with a production valued at over
£500,000; the opening up of new workings has increased this figure
immensely, from about £1,400,000 in 1901 to £3,006,500 in 1905. The
Alaska gold was derived almost wholly from the large low-grade quartz
mines of Douglas Island prior to 1899, but in that year an important
district was discovered at Cape Nome, on the north-western coast. The
result of a few months' working during that year was more than £500,000
of gold, and a very much larger annual output may reasonably be
anticipated in the future; in 1905 it was about £900,000. The gold
occurs in alluvial deposits designated as gulch-, bar-, beach-, tundra-
and bench-placers. The tundra is a coastal plain, swampy and covered
with undergrowth and underlaid by gravel. The most interesting and, thus
far, the most productive are the beach deposits, similar to those on the
coast of Northern California. These occur in a strip of comparatively
fine gravel and sand, 150 yds. wide, extending along the shore. The gold
is found in stratified layers, with "ruby" and black sand. The "ruby"
sand consists chiefly of fine garnets and magnetites, with a few
rose-quartz grains. Further exploration of the interior will probably
result in the discovery of additional gold districts.

Mexico, from a gold production of £200,000 in 1891, advanced to about
£1,881,800 in 1900 and to about £3,221,000 in 1905. Of this increase, a
considerable part was derived from gold-quartz mining, though much was
also obtained as a by-product in the working of the ores of other
metals. The product of Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas, Brazil,
Uruguay, Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador amounted in 1900 to
£2,481,000 and to £2,046,000 in 1905.

In 1876 Australasia produced £7,364,000, of which Victoria contributed
£3,084,000. The annual output of Victoria declined until the year 1892,
when it began to increase rapidly, but not to its former level, the
values for 1900 and 1905 being £3,142,000 and £3,138,000. There has been
an important increase in Queensland, which advanced from £1,696,000 in
1876 to £2,843,000 in 1900, and subsequently declined to £2,489,000 in
1905. There has been no increase, and, indeed, no large fluctuation
until quite recently in the output of New Zealand, which averaged
£1,054,000 per annum from 1876 to 1898, but the production of the two
years 1900 and 1905 rose to £1,425,459 and £2,070,407 respectively. By
far the most important addition to the Australasian product has come
from West Australia, which began its production in 1887--about the time
of the inception of mining at Witwatersrand ("the Rand") in South
Africa--and by continuous increase, which assumed large proportions
towards the close of the 19th century, was £6,426,000 in 1899,
£6,179,000 in 1900, and £8,212,000 in 1905. The total Australasian
production in 1908 was valued at £14,708,000.

Undoubtedly the greatest of the gold discoveries made in the latter half
of the 19th century was that of the Witwatersrand district in the
Transvaal. By reason of its unusual geological character and great
economic importance this district deserves a more extended description.
The gold occurs in conglomerate beds, locally known as "banket." There
are several series of parallel beds, interstratified with quartzite and
schist, the most important being the "main reef" series. The gold in
this conglomerate reef is partly of detrital origin and partly of the
genetic character of ordinary vein-gold. The formation is noted for its
regularity as regards both the thickness and the gold-tenor of the
ore-bearing reefs, in which respect it is unparalleled in the geology of
the auriferous formations. The gold carries, on an average, £2 per ton,
and is worked by ordinary methods of gold-mining, stamp-milling and
cyaniding. In 1899, 5762 stamps were in operation, crushing 7,331,446
tons of ore, and yielding £15,134,000, equivalent to 25.5% of the
world's production. Of this, 80% came from within 12 m. of Johannesburg.
After September 1899 operations were suspended, almost entirely owing to
the Boer War, but on the 2nd of May 1901 they were started again. In
1905 the yield was valued at £20,802,074, and in 1909 at £30,925,788. So
certain is the ore-bearing formation that engineers in estimating its
auriferous contents feel justified in assuming, as a factor in their
calculations, a vertical extension limited only by the lowest depths at
which mining is feasible. On such a basis they arrived at more than
£600,000,000 as the available gold contained in the Witwatersrand
conglomerates. This was a conservative estimate, and was made before the
full extent of the reefs was known; in 1904 Lionel Phillips stated that
the main reef series had been proved for 61 m., and he estimated the
gold remaining to be mined to be worth £2,500,000,000. Deposits similar
to the Witwatersrand banket occur in Zululand, and also on the Gold
Coast of Africa. In Rhodesia, the country lying north of the Transvaal,
where gold occurs in well-defined quartz-veins, there is unquestionable
evidence of extensive ancient workings. The economic importance of the
region generally has been fully proved. Rhodesia produced £386,148 in
1900 and £722,656 in 1901, in spite of the South African War; the
product for 1905 was valued at £1,480,449, and for 1908 at £2,526,000.

The gold production of Russia has been remarkably constant, averaging
£4,899,262 per annum; the gold is derived chiefly from placer workings
in Siberia.

The gold production of China was estimated for 1899 at £1,328,238 and
for 1900 at £860,000; it increased in 1901 to about £1,700,000, to fall
to £340,000 in 1905; in 1906 and 1907 it recovered to about £1,000,000.

  TABLE II.--_Gold Production of Certain Countries, 1881-1908 (in oz.)._

  +------+-----------+-----------+----------+---------+----------+-----------+-----------+------------+
  |      |  Austral- |           |          |         |          |           |  United   |            |
  | Year.|   asia.   |  Africa.  |  Canada. |  India. |  Mexico. |  Russia.  |  States.  |   Totals.  |
  +------+-----------+-----------+----------+---------+----------+-----------+-----------+------------+
  | 1881 | 1,475,161 |     ..    |   52,483 |    ..   |   41,545 | 1,181,853 | 1,678,612 |  4,976,980 |
  | 1882 | 1,438,067 |     ..    |   52,000 |    ..   |   45,289 | 1,154,613 | 1,572,187 |  4,825,794 |
  | 1883 | 1,333,849 |     ..    |   46,150 |    ..   |   46,229 | 1,132,219 | 1,451,250 |  4,614,588 |
  | 1884 | 1,352,761 |     ..    |   46,000 |    ..   |   57,227 | 1,055,642 | 1,489,950 |  4,902,889 |
  | 1885 | 1,309,804 |     ..    |   53,987 |    ..   |   46,941 | 1,225,738 | 1,538,325 |  5,002,584 |
  | 1886 | 1,257,670 |     ..    |   66,061 |    ..   |   29,702 |   922,226 | 1,693,125 |  5,044,363 |
  | 1887 | 1,290,202 |    28,754 |   59,884 |  15,403 |   39,861 |   971,656 | 1,596,375 |  5,061,490 |
  | 1888 | 1,344,002 |   240,266 |   53,150 |  35,034 |   47,117 | 1,030,151 | 1,604,841 |  5,175,623 |
  | 1889 | 1,540,607 |   366,023 |   62,658 |  78,649 |   33,862 | 1,154,076 | 1,587,000 |  5,611,245 |
  | 1890 | 1,453,172 |   497,817 |   55,625 | 107,273 |   37,104 | 1,134,590 | 1,588,880 |  5,726,966 |
  | 1891 | 1,518,690 |   729,268 |   45,022 | 131,776 |   48,375 | 1,168,764 | 1,604,840 |  6,287,591 |
  | 1892 | 1,638,238 | 1,210,869 |   43,905 | 164,141 |   54,625 | 1,199,809 | 1,597,098 |  7,102,172 |
  | 1893 | 1,711,892 | 1,478,477 |   44,853 | 207,152 |   63,144 | 1,345,224 | 1,739,323 |  7,772,585 |
  | 1894 | 2,020,180 | 2,024,164 |   50,411 | 210,412 |  217,688 | 1,167,455 | 1,910,813 |  8,813,848 |
  | 1895 | 2,170,505 | 2,277,640 |   92,440 | 257,830 |  290,250 | 1,397,767 | 2,254,760 |  9,814,505 |
  | 1896 | 2,185,872 | 2,280,892 |  136,274 | 323,501 |  314,437 | 1,041,794 | 2,568,132 |  9,950,861 |
  | 1897 | 2,547,704 | 2,832,776 |  294,582 | 350,585 |  362,812 | 1,124,511 | 2,774,935 | 11,420,068 |
  | 1898 | 3,137,644 | 3,876,216 |  669,445 | 376,431 |  411,187 | 1,231,791 | 3,118,398 | 13,877,806 |
  | 1899 | 3,837,181 | 3,532,488 |1,031,563 | 418,869 |  411,187 | 1,072,333 | 3,437,210 | 14,837,775 |
  | 1900 | 3,555,506 |   419,503 |1,348,720 | 456,444 |  435,375 |   974,537 | 3,829,897 | 12,315,135 |
  | 1901 | 3,719,080 |   439,704 |1,167,216 | 454,527 |  497,527 | 1,105,412 | 3,805,500 | 12,698,089 |
  | 1902 | 3,946,374 | 1,887,773 |1,003,355 | 463,824 |  491,156 | 1,090,053 | 3,870,000 | 14,313,660 |
  | 1903 | 4,315,538 | 3,289,409 |  911,118 | 552,873 |  516,524 | 1,191,582 | 3,560,000 | 15,852,620 |
  | 1904 | 4,245,744 | 4,156,084 |  793,350 | 556,097 |  609,781 | 1,199,857 | 3,892,480 | 16,790,351 |
  | 1905 | 4,159,220 | 5,477,841 |  700,863 | 576,889 |  779,181 | 1,063,883 | 4,265,742 | 18,360,945 |
  | 1906 | 3,984,538 | 6,449,749 |  581,709 | 525,527 |  896,615 | 1,087,056 | 4,565,333 | 19,620,272 |
  | 1907 | 3,659,693 | 7,270,464 |  399,844 | 495,965 |  903,672 | 1,282,635 | 4,374,827 | 19,988,144 |
  | 1908 | 3,557,705 | 7,983,348 |  462,467 | 504,309 |1,182,445 | 1,497,076 | 4,659,360 | 21,529,300 |
  +------+-----------+-----------+----------+---------+----------+-----------+-----------+------------+

  _Alloys._--Gold forms alloys with most metals, and of these many are
  of great importance in the arts. The alloy with mercury--gold
  amalgam--is so readily formed that mercury is one of the most powerful
  agents for extracting the precious metal. With 10% of gold present the
  amalgam is fluid, and with 12.5% pasty, while with 13% it consists of
  yellowish-white crystals. Gold readily alloys with silver and copper
  to form substances in use from remote times for money, jewelry and
  plate. Other metals which find application in the metallurgy of gold
  by virtue of their property of extracting the gold as an alloy are
  lead, which combines very readily when molten, and which can
  afterwards be separated by cupellation, and copper, which is separated
  from the gold by solution in acids or by electrolysis; molten lead
  also extracts gold from the copper-gold alloys. The relative amount of
  gold in an alloy is expressed in two ways: (1) as "fineness," i.e. the
  amount of gold in 1000 parts of alloy; (2) as "carats," i.e. the
  amount of gold in 24 parts of alloy. Thus, pure gold is 1000 "fine" or
  24 carat. In England the following standards are used for plate and
  jewelry: 375, 500, 625, 750 and 916.6, corresponding to 9, 12, 15, 18
  and 22 carats, the alloying metals being silver and copper in varying
  proportions. In France three alloys of the following standards are
  used for jewelry, 920, 840 and 750. A greenish alloy used by
  goldsmiths contains 70% of silver and 30% of gold. "Blue gold" is
  stated to contain 75% of gold and 25% of iron. The Japanese use for
  ornament an alloy of gold and silver, the standard of which varies
  from 350 to 500, the colour of the precious metal being developed by
  "pickling" in a mixture of plum-juice, vinegar and copper sulphate.
  They may be said to possess a series of bronzes, in which gold and
  silver replace tin and zinc, all these alloys being characterized by
  patina having a wonderful range of tint. The common alloy,
  Shi-ya-ku-Do, contains 70% of copper and 30% of gold; when exposed to
  air it becomes coated with a fine black patina, and is much used in
  Japan for sword ornaments. Gold wire may be drawn of any quality, but
  it is usual to add 5 to 9 dwts. of copper to the pound. The "solders"
  used for red gold contain 1 part of copper and 5 of gold; for light
  gold, 1 part of copper, 1 of silver and 4 of gold.

  _Gold and Silver._--Electrum is a natural alloy of gold and silver.
  Matthiessen observed that the density of alloys, the composition of
  which varies from AuAg6 to Au6Ag, is greater than that calculated from
  the densities of the constituent metals. These alloys are harder, more
  fusible and more sonorous than pure gold. The alloys of the formulae
  AuAg, AuAg2, AuAg4 and AuAg20 are perfectly homogeneous, and have been
  studied by Levol. Molten alloys containing more than 80% of silver
  deposit on cooling the alloy AuAg9, little gold remaining in the
  mother liquor.

  _Gold and Zinc._--When present in small quantities zinc renders gold
  brittle, but it may be added to gold in larger quantities without
  destroying the ductility of the precious metal; Péligot proved that a
  triple alloy of gold, copper and zinc, which contains 5.8% of the
  last-named, is perfectly ductile. The alloy of 11 parts gold and 1
  part of zinc is, however, stated to be brittle.

  _Gold and Tin._--Alchorne showed that gold alloyed with 1/37th part of
  tin is sufficiently ductile to be rolled and stamped into coin,
  provided the metal is not annealed at a high temperature. The alloys
  of tin and gold are hard and brittle, and the combination of the
  metals is attended with contraction; thus the alloy SnAu has a density
  14.243, instead of 14.828 indicated by calculation. Matthiessen and
  Bose obtained large crystals of the alloy Au2Sn5, having the colour of
  tin, which changed to a bronze tint by oxidation.

  _Gold and Iron._--Hatchett found that the alloy of 11 parts gold and 1
  part of iron is easily rolled without annealing. In these proportions
  the density of the alloy is less than the mean of its constituent
  metals.

  _Gold and Palladium._--These metals are stated to alloy in all
  proportions. According to Chenevix, the alloy composed of equal parts
  of the two metals is grey, is less ductile than its constituent metals
  and has the specific gravity 11.08. The alloy of 4 parts of gold and 1
  part of palladium is white, hard and ductile. Graham showed that a
  wire of palladium alloyed with from 24 to 25 parts of gold does not
  exhibit the remarkable retraction which, in pure palladium, attends
  its loss of occluded hydrogen.

  _Gold and Platinum._--Clarke states that the alloy of equal parts of
  the two metals is ductile, and has almost the colour of gold.

  _Gold and Rhodium._--Gold alloyed with ¼th or 1/5th of rhodium is,
  according to Wollaston, very ductile, infusible and of the colour of
  gold.

  _Gold and Iridium._--Small quantities of iridium do not destroy the
  ductility of gold, but this is probably because the metal is only
  disseminated through the mass, and not alloyed, as it falls to the
  bottom of the crucible in which the gold is fused.

  _Gold and Nickel._--Eleven parts of gold and 1 of nickel yield an
  alloy resembling brass.

  _Gold and Cobalt._--Eleven parts of gold and 1 of cobalt form a
  brittle alloy of a dull yellow colour.

  _Compounds._--Aurous oxide, Au2O, is obtained by cautiously adding
  potash to a solution of aurous bromide, or by boiling mixed solutions
  of auric chloride and mercurous nitrate. It forms a dark-violet
  precipitate which dries to a greyish-violet powder. When freshly
  prepared it dissolves in cold water to form an indigo-coloured
  solution with a brownish fluorescence of colloidal aurous oxide; it is
  insoluble in hot water. This oxide is slightly basic. Auric oxide,
  Au2O3, is a brown powder, decomposed into its elements when heated to
  about 250° or on exposure to light. When a concentrated solution of
  auric chloride is treated with caustic potash, a brown precipitate of
  auric hydrate, Au(OH)3, is obtained, which, on heating, loses water to
  form auryl hydrate, AuO(OH), and auric oxide, Au2O3. It functions
  chiefly as an acidic oxide, being less basic than aluminium oxide, and
  forming no stable oxy-salts. It dissolves in alkalis to form
  well-defined crystalline salts; potassium aurate, KAuO2·3H2O, is very
  soluble in water, and is used in electro-gilding. With concentrated
  ammonia auric oxide forms a black, highly explosive compound of the
  composition AuN2H3·3H2O, named "fulminating gold"; this substance is
  generally considered to be Au(NH2)NH·3H2O, but it may be an ammine of
  the formula [Au(NH3)2(OH)2]OH. Other oxides, e.g. Au2O2, have been
  described.

  Aurous chloride, AuCl, is obtained as a lemon-yellow, amorphous
  powder, insoluble in water, by heating auric chloride to 185°. It
  begins to decompose into gold and chlorine at 185°, the decomposition
  being complete at 230°; water decomposes it into gold and auric
  chloride. Auric chloride, or gold trichloride, AuCl3, is a dark
  ruby-red or reddish-brown, crystalline, deliquescent powder obtained
  by dissolving the metal in aqua regia. It is also obtained by
  carefully evaporating a solution of the metal in chlorine water. The
  gold chloride of commerce, which is used in photography, is really a
  hydrochloride, chlorauric or aurichloric acid, HAuCl4·3H2O, and is
  obtained in long yellow needles by crystallizing the acid solution.
  Corresponding to this acid, a series of salts, named chloraurates or
  aurichlorides, are known. The potassium salt is obtained by
  crystallizing equivalent quantities of potassium and auric chlorides.
  Light-yellow monoclinic needles of 2KAuCl4·H2O are deposited from
  warm, strongly acid solutions, and transparent rhombic tables of
  KAuCl4·2H2O from neutral solutions. By crystallizing an aqueous
  solution, red crystals of AuCl3·2H2O are obtained. Auric chloride
  combines with the hydrochlorides of many organic bases--amines,
  alkaloids, &c.--to form characteristic compounds. Gold dichloride,
  probably Au2Cl4, = Au·AuCl4, aurous chloraurate, is said to be
  obtained as a dark-red mass by heating finely divided gold to
  140°-170° in chlorine. Water decomposes it into gold and auric
  chloride. The bromides and iodides resemble the chlorides. Aurous
  bromide, AuBr, is a yellowish-green powder obtained by heating the
  tribromide to 140°; auric bromide, AuBr3, forms reddish-black or
  scarlet-red leafy crystals, which dissolve in water to form a
  reddish-brown solution, and combines with bromides to form bromaurates
  corresponding to the chloraurates. Aurous iodide, AuI, is a
  light-yellow, sparingly soluble powder obtained, together with free
  iodine, by adding potassium iodide to auric chloride; auric iodide,
  AuI3, is formed as a dark-green powder at the same time, but it
  readily decomposes to aurous iodide and iodine. Aurous iodide is also
  obtained as a green solid by acting upon gold with iodine. The
  iodaurates correspond to the chlor- and bromaurates; the potassium
  salt, KAuI4, forms highly lustrous, intensely black, four-sided
  prisms.

  Aurous cyanide, AuCN, forms yellow, microscopic, hexagonal tables,
  insoluble in water, and is obtained by the addition of hydrochloric
  acid to a solution of potassium aurocyanide, KAu(CN)2. This salt is
  prepared by precipitating a solution of gold in _aqua regia_ by
  ammonia, and then introducing the well-washed precipitate into a
  boiling solution of potassium cyanide. The solution is filtered and
  allowed to cool, when colourless rhombic pyramids of the aurocyanide
  separate. It is also obtained in the action of potassium cyanide on
  gold in the presence of air, a reaction utilized in the
  MacArthur-Forrest process of gold extraction (see below). Auric
  cyanide, Au(CN)3, is not certainly known; its double salts, however,
  have been frequently described. Potassium auricyanide, 2KAu(CN)4·3H2O,
  is obtained as large, colourless, efflorescent tablets by
  crystallizing concentrated solutions of auric chloride and potassium
  cyanide. The acid, auricyanic acid, 2HAu(CN)4·3H2O, is obtained by
  treating the silver salt (obtained by precipitating the potassium salt
  with silver nitrate) with hydrochloric acid; it forms tabular
  crystals, readily soluble in water, alcohol and ether.

  Gold forms three sulphides corresponding to the oxides; they readily
  decompose on heating. Aurous sulphide, Au2S, is a brownish-black
  powder formed by passing sulphuretted hydrogen into a solution of
  potassium aurocyanide and then acidifying. Sodium aurosulphide,
  NaAuS·4H2O, is prepared by fusing gold with sodium sulphide and
  sulphur, the melt being extracted with water, filtered in an
  atmosphere of nitrogen, and evaporated in a vacuum over sulphuric
  acid. It forms colourless, monoclinic prisms, which turn brown on
  exposure to air. This method of bringing gold into solution is
  mentioned by Stahl in his _Observationes Chymico-Physico-Medicae_; he
  there remarks that Moses probably destroyed the golden calf by burning
  it with sulphur and alkali (Ex. xxxii. 20). Auric sulphide, Au2S3, is
  an amorphous powder formed when lithium aurichloride is treated with
  dry sulphuretted hydrogen at -10°. It is very unstable, decomposing
  into gold and sulphur at 200°.

  Oxy-salts of gold are almost unknown, but the sulphite and
  thiosulphate form double salts. Thus by adding acid sodium sulphite
  to, or by passing sulphur dioxide at 50° into, a solution of sodium
  aurate, the salt, 3Na2SO3·Au2SO3·3H2O is obtained, which, when
  precipitated from its aqueous solution by alcohol, forms a purple
  powder, appearing yellow or green by reflected light. Sodium
  aurothiosulphate, 3Na2S2O3·Au2S2O3·4H2O, forms colourless needles; it
  is obtained in the direct action of sodium thiosulphate on gold in the
  presence of an oxidizing agent, or by the addition of a dilute
  solution of auric chloride to a sodium thiosulphate solution.


_Mining and Metallurgy._

The various deposits of gold may be divided into two classes--"veins"
and "placers." The vein mining of gold does not greatly differ from that
of similar deposits of metals (see MINERAL DEPOSITS). In the placer or
alluvial deposits, the precious metal is found usually in a water-worn
condition imbedded in earthy matter, and the method of working all such
deposits is based on the disintegration of the earthy matter by the
action of a stream of water, which washes away the lighter portions and
leaves the denser gold. In alluvial deposits the richest ground is
usually found in contact with the "bed rock"; and, when the overlying
cover of gravel is very thick, or, as sometimes happens, when the older
gravel is covered with a flow of basalt, regular mining by shafts and
levels, as in what are known as tunnel-claims, may be required to reach
the auriferous ground.

The extraction of gold may be effected by several methods; we may
distinguish the following leading types:

1. By simple washing, i.e. dressing auriferous sands, gravels, &c.;

2. By amalgamation, i.e. forming a gold amalgam, afterwards removing the
mercury by distillation;

3. By chlorination, i.e. forming the soluble gold chloride and then
precipitating the metal;

4. By the cyanide process, i.e. dissolving the gold in potassium cyanide
solution, and then precipitating the metal;

5. Electrolytically, generally applied to the solutions obtained in
processes (3) and (4).

  1. _Extraction of Gold by Washing._--In the early days of gold-washing
  in California and Australia, when rich alluvial deposits were common
  at the surface, the most simple appliances sufficed. The most
  characteristic is the "pan," a circular dish of sheet-iron or "tin,"
  with sloping sides about 13 or 14 in. in diameter. The pan, about
  two-thirds filled with the "pay dirt" to be washed, is held in the
  stream or in a hole filled with water. The larger stones having been
  removed by hand, gyratory motion is given to the pan by a combination
  of shaking and twisting movements so as to keep its contents
  suspended in the stream of water, which carries away the bulk of the
  lighter material, leaving the heavy minerals, together with any gold
  which may have been present. The washing is repeated until enough of
  the enriched sand is collected, when the gold is finally recovered by
  careful washing or "panning out" in a smaller pan. In Mexico and South
  America, instead of the pan, a wooden dish or trough, known as
  "batea," is used.

  The "cradle" is a simple appliance for treating somewhat larger
  quantities, and consists essentially of a box, mounted on rockers, and
  provided with a perforated bottom of sheet iron in which the "pay
  dirt" is placed. Water is poured on the dirt, and the rocking motion
  imparted to the cradle causes the finer particles to pass through the
  perforated bottom on to a canvas screen, and thence to the base of the
  cradle, where the auriferous particles accumulate on transverse bars
  of wood, called "riffles."

  The "tom" is a sort of cradle with an extended sluice placed on an
  incline of about 1 in 12. The upper end contains a perforated riddle
  plate which is placed directly over the riffle box, and under certain
  circumstances mercury may be placed behind the riffles. Copper plates
  amalgamated with mercury are also used when the gold is very fine, and
  in some instances amalgamated silver coins have been used for the same
  purpose. Sometimes the stuff is disintegrated with water in a
  "puddling machine," which was used, especially in Australia, when the
  earthy matters are tenacious and water scarce. The machine frequently
  resembles a brickmaker's wash-mill, and is worked by horse or steam
  power.

  In workings on a larger scale, where the supply of water is abundant,
  as in California, sluices were generally employed. They are shallow
  troughs about 12 ft. long, about 16 to 20 in. wide and 1 ft. in depth.
  The troughs taper slightly so that they can be joined in series, the
  total length often reaching several hundred feet. The incline of the
  sluice varies with the conformation of the ground and the tenacity of
  the stuff to be washed, from 1 in 16 to 1 in 8. A rectangular trough
  of boards, whose dimensions depend chiefly on the size of the planks
  available, is set up on the higher part of the ground at one side of
  the claim to be worked, upon trestles or piers of rough stone-work, at
  such an inclination that the stream may carry off all but the largest
  stones, which are kept back by a grating of boards about 2 in. apart.
  The gravel is dug by hand and thrown in at the upper end, the stones
  kept back being removed at intervals by two men with four-pronged
  steel forks. The floor of the sluice is laid with riffles made of
  strips of wood 2 in. square laid parallel to the direction of the
  current, and at other points with boards having transverse notches
  filled with mercury. These were known originally as Hungarian riffles.

  In larger plant the upper ends of the sluices are often cut in rock or
  lined with stone blocks, the grating stopping the larger stones being
  known as a "grizzly." In order to save very fine and especially rusty
  particles of gold, so-called "under-current sluices" are used; these
  are shallow wooden tanks, 50 sq. yds. and upwards in area, which are
  placed somewhat below the main sluice, and communicate with it above
  and below, the entry being protected by a grating so that only the
  finer material is admitted. These are paved with stone blocks or lined
  with mercury riffles, so that from the greatly reduced velocity of
  flow, due to the sudden increase of surface, the finer particles of
  gold may collect. In order to save finely divided gold, amalgamated
  copper plates are sometimes placed in a nearly level position, at a
  considerable distance from the head of the sluice, the gold which is
  retained in it being removed from time to time. Sluices are often made
  double, and they are usually cleaned up--that is, the deposit rich in
  gold is removed from them--once a week.

  The "pan" is now only used by prospectors, while the "cradle" and
  "tom" are practically confined to the Chinese; the sluice is
  considered to be the best contrivance for washing gold gravels.

2. _The Amalgamation Process._--This method is employed to extract gold
from both alluvial and reef deposits: in the first case it is combined
with "hydraulic mining," i.e. disintegrating auriferous gravels by
powerful jets of water, and the sluice system described above; in the
second case the vein stuff is prepared by crushing and the amalgamation
is carried out in mills.

  Hydraulic mining has for the most part been confined to the country of
  its invention, California, and the western territories of America,
  where the conditions favourable for its use are more fully developed
  than elsewhere--notably the presence of thick banks of gravel that
  cannot be utilized by other methods, and abundance of water, even
  though considerable work may be required at times to make it
  available. The general conditions to be observed in such workings may
  be briefly stated as follows: (1) The whole of the auriferous gravel,
  down to the "bed rock," must be removed,--that is, no selection of
  rich or poor parts is possible; (2) this must be accomplished by the
  aid of water alone, or at times by water supplemented by blasting; (3)
  the conglomerate must be mechanically disintegrated without
  interrupting the whole system; (4) the gold must be saved without
  interrupting the continuous flow of water; and (5) arrangements must
  be made for disposing of the vast masses of impoverished gravel.

  The water is brought from a ditch on the high ground, and through a
  line of pipes to the distributing box, whence the branch pipes
  supplying the jets diverge. The stream issues through a nozzle,
  termed a "monitor" or "giant," which is fitted with a ball and socket
  joint, so that the direction of the jet may be varied through
  considerable angles by simply moving a handle. The material of the
  bank being loosened by blasting and the cutting action of the water,
  crumbles into holes, and the superincumbent mass, often with large
  trees and stones, falls into the lower ground. The stream, laden with
  stones and gravel, passes into the sluices, where the gold is
  recovered in the manner already described. Under the most advantageous
  conditions the loss of gold may be estimated at 15 or 20%, the amount
  recovered representing a value of about two shillings per ton of
  gravel treated. The loss of mercury is about the same, from 5 to 6
  cwt. being in constant use per mile of sluice.

  In working auriferous river-beds, dredges have been used with
  considerable success in certain parts of New Zealand and on the
  Pacific slope in America. The dredges used in California are almost
  exclusively of the endless-chain bucket or steam-shovel pattern. Some
  dredges have a capacity under favourable conditions of over 2000 cub.
  yds. of gravel daily. The gravel is excavated as in the ordinary form
  of endless-chain bucket dredge and dumped on to the deck of the
  dredge. It then passes through screens and grizzlies to retain the
  coarse gravel, the finer material passing on to sluice boxes provided
  with riffles, supplied with mercury. There are belt conveyers for
  discharging the gravel and tailings at the end of the vessel remote
  from the buckets. The water necessary to the process is pumped from
  the river; as much as 2000 gallons per minute is used on the larger
  dredges.

  The dressing or mechanical preparation of vein stuff containing gold
  is generally similar to that of other ores (see ORE-DRESSING), except
  that the precious metal should be removed from the waste substances as
  quickly as possible, even although other minerals of value that are
  subsequently recovered may be present. In all cases the quartz or
  other vein stuff must be reduced to a very fine powder as a
  preliminary to further operations. This may be done in several ways,
  e.g. either (1) by the Mexican crusher or _arrastra_, in which the
  grinding is effected upon a bed of stone, over which heavy blocks of
  stone attached to cross arms are dragged by the rotation of the arms
  about a central spindle, or (2) by the Chilean mill or _trapiche_,
  also known as the edge-runner, where the grinding stones roll upon the
  floor, at the same time turning about a central upright--contrivances
  which are mainly used for the preparation of silver ores; but by far
  the largest proportion of the gold quartz of California, Australia and
  Africa is reduced by (3) the stamp mill, which is similar in principle
  to that used in Europe for the preparation of tin and other ores.

  The stamp mill was first used in California, and its use has since
  spread over the whole world. In the mills of the Californian type the
  stamp is a cylindrical iron pestle faced with a chilled cast iron
  shoe, removable so that it can be renewed when necessary, attached to
  a round iron rod or lifter, the whole weighing from 600 to 900 lb.;
  stamps weighing 1320 lb. are in use in the Transvaal. The lift is
  effected by cams acting on the under surface of tappets, and formed by
  cylindrical boxes keyed on to the stems of the lifter about one-fourth
  of their length from the top. As, however, the cams, unlike those of
  European stamp mills, are placed to one side of the stamp, the latter
  is not only lifted but turned partly round on its own axis, whereby
  the shoes are worn down uniformly. The height of lift may be between 4
  and 18 in., and the number of blows from 30 to over 100 per minute.
  The stamps are usually arranged in batteries of five; the order of
  working is usually 1, 4, 2, 5, 3, but other arrangements, e.g. 1, 3,
  5, 2, 4, and 1, 5, 2, 4, 3, are common. The stuff, previously broken
  to about 2-in. lumps in a rock-breaker, is fed in through an aperture
  at the back of the "battery box," a constant supply of water is
  admitted from above, and mercury in a finely divided state is added at
  frequent intervals. The discharge of the comminuted material takes
  place through an aperture, which is covered by a thin steel plate
  perforated with numerous slits about 1/50th in. broad and ½ in. long,
  a certain volume being discharged at every blow and carried forward by
  the flushing water over an apron or table in front, covered by copper
  plates filled with mercury. Similar plates are often used to catch any
  particles of gold that may be thrown back, while the main operation is
  so conducted that the bulk of the gold may be reduced to the state of
  amalgam by bringing the two metals into intimate contact under the
  stamp head, and remain in the battery. The tables in front are laid at
  an incline of about 8° and are about 13 ft. long; they collect from 10
  to 15% of the whole gold; a further quantity is recovered by leading
  the sands through a gutter about 16 in. broad and 120 ft. long, also
  lined with amalgamated copper plates, after the pyritic and other
  heavy minerals have been separated by depositing in catch pits and
  other similar contrivances.

  When the ore does not contain any considerable amount of free gold
  mercury is not, as a rule, used during the crushing, but the
  amalgamation is carried out in a separate plant. Contrivances of the
  most diverse constructions have been employed. The most primitive is
  the rubbing together of the concentrated crushings with mercury in
  iron mortars. Barrel amalgamation, i.e. mixing the crushings with
  mercury in rotating barrels, is rarely used, the process being
  wasteful, since the mercury is specially apt to be "floured" (see
  below).

  At Schemnitz, Kerpenyes, Kreuzberg and other localities in Hungary,
  quartz vein stuff containing a little gold, partly free and partly
  associated with pyrites and galena, is, after stamping in mills,
  similar to those described above, but without rotating stamps, passed
  through the so-called "Hungarian gold mill" or "quick-mill." This
  consists of a cast-iron pan having a shallow cylindrical bottom
  holding mercury, in which a wooden muller, nearly of the same shape as
  the inside of the pan, and armed below with several projecting blades,
  is made to revolve by gearing wheels. The stuff from the stamps is
  conveyed to the middle of the muller, and is distributed over the
  mercury, when the gold subsides, while the quartz and lighter
  materials are guided by the blades to the circumference and are
  discharged, usually into a second similar mill, and subsequently pass
  over blanket tables, i.e. boards covered with canvas or sacking, the
  gold and heavier particles becoming entangled in the fibres. The
  action of this mill is really more nearly analogous to that of a
  centrifugal pump, as no grinding action takes place in it. The amalgam
  is cleaned out periodically--fortnightly or monthly--and after
  filtering through linen bags to remove the excess of mercury, it is
  transferred to retorts for distillation (see below).

  Many other forms of pan-amalgamators have been devised. The Laszlo is
  an improved Hungarian mill, while the Piccard is of the same type. In
  the Knox and Boss mills, which are also employed for the amalgamation
  of silver ores, the grinding is effected between flat horizontal
  surfaces instead of conical or curved surfaces as in the previously
  described forms.

  One of the greatest difficulties in the treatment of gold by
  amalgamation, and more particularly in the treatment of pyrites,
  arises from the so-called "sickening" or "flouring" of the mercury;
  that is, the particles, losing their bright metallic surfaces, are no
  longer capable of coalescing with or taking up other metals. Of the
  numerous remedies proposed the most efficacious is perhaps sodium
  amalgam. It appears that amalgamation is often impeded by the tarnish
  found on the surface of the gold when it is associated with sulphur,
  arsenic, bismuth, antimony or tellurium. Henry Wurtz in America (1864)
  and Sir William Crookes in England (1865) made independently the
  discovery that, by the addition of a small quantity of sodium to the
  mercury, the operation is much facilitated. It is also stated that
  sodium prevents both the "sickening" and the "flouring" of the mercury
  which is produced by certain associated minerals. The addition of
  potassium cyanide has been suggested to assist the amalgamation and to
  prevent "flouring," but Skey has shown that its use is attended with
  loss of gold.

  _Separation of Gold from the Amalgam._--The amalgam is first pressed
  in wetted canvas or buckskin in order to remove excess of mercury.
  Lumps of the solid amalgam, about 2 in. in diameter, are introduced
  into an iron vessel provided with an iron tube that leads into a
  condenser containing water. The distillation is then effected by
  heating to dull redness. The amalgam yields about 30 to 40% of gold.
  Horizontal cylindrical retorts, holding from 200 to 1200 lb. of
  amalgam, are used in the larger Californian mills, pot retorts being
  used in the smaller mills. The bullion left in the retorts is then
  melted in black-lead crucibles, with the addition of small quantities
  of suitable fluxes, e.g. nitre, sodium carbonate, &c.

  The extraction of gold from auriferous minerals by fusion, except as
  an incident in their treatment for other metals, is very rarely
  practised. It was at one time proposed to treat the concentrated black
  iron obtained in the Ural gold washings, which consists chiefly of
  magnetite, as an iron ore, by smelting it with charcoal for auriferous
  pig-iron, the latter metal possessing the property of dissolving gold
  in considerable quantity. By subsequent treatment with sulphuric acid
  the gold could be recovered. Experiments on this point were made by
  Anossow in 1835, but they have never been followed in practice.

  Gold in galena or other lead ores is invariably recovered in the
  refining or treatment of the lead and silver obtained. Pyritic ores
  containing copper are treated by methods analogous to those of the
  copper smelter. In Colorado the pyritic ores containing gold and
  silver in association with copper are smelted in reverberatory
  furnaces for regulus, which, when desilverized by Ziervogel's method,
  leaves a residue containing 20 or 30 oz. of gold per ton. This is
  smelted with rich gold ores, notably those containing tellurium, for
  white metal or regulus; and by a following process of partial
  reduction analogous to that of selecting in copper smelting, "bottoms"
  of impure copper are obtained in which practically all the gold is
  concentrated. By continuing the treatment of these in the ordinary way
  of refining, poling and granulating, all the foreign matters other
  than gold, copper and silver are removed, and, by exposing the
  granulated metal to a high oxidizing heat for a considerable time the
  copper may be completely oxidized while the precious metals are
  unaltered. Subsequent treatment with sulphuric acid renders the copper
  soluble in water as sulphate, and the final residue contains only gold
  and silver, which is parted or refined in the ordinary way. This
  method of separating gold from copper, by converting the latter into
  oxide and sulphate, is also used at Oker in the Harz.

_Extraction by Means of Aqueous Solutions._--Many processes have been
suggested in which the gold of auriferous deposits is converted into
products soluble in water, from which solutions the gold may be
precipitated. Of these processes, two only are of special importance,
viz. the chlorination or Plattner process, in which the metal is
converted into the chloride, and the cyanide or MacArthur-Forrest
process, in which it is converted into potassium aurocyanide.

  (3) _Chlorination or Plattner Process._--In this process moistened
  gold ores are treated with chlorine gas, the resulting gold chloride
  dissolved out with water, and the gold precipitated with ferrous
  sulphate, charcoal, sulphuretted hydrogen or otherwise. The process
  originated in 1848 with C. F. Plattner, who suggested that the
  residues from certain mines at Reichenstein, in Silesia, should be
  treated with chlorine after the arsenical products had been extracted
  by roasting. It must be noticed, however, that Percy independently
  made the same discovery, and stated his results at the meeting of the
  British Association (at Swansea) in 1849, but the Report was not
  published until 1852. The process was introduced in 1858 by Deetken at
  Grass Valley, California, where the waste minerals, principally
  pyrites from tailings, had been worked for a considerable time by
  amalgamation. The process is rarely applied to ores direct;
  free-milling ores are generally amalgamated, and the tailings and
  slimes, after concentration, operated upon. Three stages in the
  process are to be distinguished: (i) calcination, to convert all the
  metals, except gold and silver, into oxides, which are unacted upon by
  chlorine; (ii.) chlorinating the gold and lixiviating the product;
  (iii.) precipitating the gold.

  The calcination, or roasting, is conducted at a low temperature in
  some form of reverberatory furnace. Salt is added in the roasting to
  convert any lime, magnesia or lead which may be present, into the
  corresponding chlorides. The auric chloride is, however, decomposed at
  the elevated temperature into finely divided metallic gold, which is
  then readily attacked by the chlorine gas. The high volatility of gold
  in the presence of certain metals must also be considered. According
  to Egleston the loss may be from 40 to 90% of the total gold present
  in cupriferous ores according to the temperature and duration of
  calcination. The roasted mineral, slightly moistened, is introduced
  into a vat made of stoneware or pitched planks, and furnished with a
  double bottom. Chlorine, generally prepared by the interaction of
  pyrolusite, salt and sulphuric acid, is led from a suitable generator
  beneath the false bottom, and rises through the moistened ore, which
  rests on a bed of broken quartz; the gold is thus converted into a
  soluble chloride, which is afterwards removed by washing with water.
  Both fixed and rotating vats are employed, the chlorination proceeding
  more rapidly in the latter case; rotating barrels are sometimes used.
  There have also been introduced processes in which the chlorine is
  generated in the chloridizing vat, the reagents used being dilute
  solutions of bleaching powder and an acid. Munktell's process is of
  this type. In the Thies process, used in many districts in the United
  States, the vats are rotating barrels made, in the later forms, of
  iron lined with lead, and provided with a filter formed of a finely
  perforated leaden grating running from one end of the barrel to the
  other, and rigidly held in place by wooden frames. Chlorine is
  generated within the barrel from sulphuric acid and chloride of lime.
  After charging, the barrel is rotated, and when the chlorination is
  complete the contents are emptied on a filter of quartz or some
  similar material, and the filtrate led to settling tanks.

  After settling the solution is run into the precipitating tanks. The
  precipitants in use are: ferrous sulphate, charcoal and sulphuretted
  hydrogen, either alone or mixed with sulphur dioxide; the use of
  copper and iron sulphides has been suggested, but apparently these
  substances have achieved no success.

  In the case of ferrous sulphate, prepared by dissolving iron in dilute
  sulphuric acid, the reaction follows the equation AuCl3 + 3FeSO4 =
  FeCl3 + Fe2(SO4)3 + Au. At the same time any lead, calcium, barium and
  strontium present are precipitated as sulphates; it is therefore
  advantageous to remove these metals by the preliminary addition of
  sulphuric acid, which also serves to keep any basic iron salts in
  solution. The precipitation is carried out in tanks or vats made with
  wooden sides and a cement bottom. The solutions are well mixed by
  stirring with wooden poles, and the gold allowed to settle, the time
  allowed varying from 12 to 72 hours. The supernatant liquid is led
  into settling tanks, where a further amount of gold is deposited, and
  is then filtered through sawdust or sand, the sawdust being afterwards
  burnt and the gold separated from the ashes and the sand treated in
  the chloridizing vat. The precipitated gold is washed, treated with
  salt and sulphuric acid to remove iron salts, roughly dried by
  pressing in cloths or on filter paper, and then melted with salt,
  borax and nitre in graphite crucibles. Thus prepared it has a fineness
  of 800-960, the chief impurities usually being iron and lead.

  Charcoal is used as the precipitant at Mount Morgan, Australia. Its
  use was proposed as early as 1818 and 1819 by Hare and Henry; Percy
  advocated it in 1869, and Davis adopted it on the large scale at a
  works in Carolina in 1880. The action is not properly understood; it
  may be due to the reducing gases (hydrogen, hydrocarbons, &c.) which
  are invariably present in wood charcoal. The process consists
  essentially in running the solution over layers of charcoal, the
  charcoal being afterwards burned. It has been found that the reaction
  proceeds faster when the solution is heated.

  Precipitation with sulphur dioxide and sulphuretted hydrogen proceeds
  much more rapidly, and has been adopted at many works. Sulphur
  dioxide, generated by burning sulphur, is forced into the solution
  under pressure, where it interacts with any free chlorine present to
  form hydrochloric and sulphuric acids. Sulphuretted hydrogen, obtained
  by treating iron sulphide or a coarse matte with dilute sulphuric
  acid, is forced in similarly. The gold is precipitated as the
  sulphide, together with any arsenic, antimony, copper, silver and lead
  which may be present. The precipitate is collected in a filter-press,
  and then roasted in muffle furnaces with nitre, borax and sodium
  carbonate. The fineness of the gold so obtained is 900 to 950.

  4. _Cyanide Process._--This process depends upon the solubility of
  gold in a dilute solution of potassium cyanide in the presence of air
  (or some other oxidizing agent), and the subsequent precipitation of
  the gold by metallic zinc or by electrolysis. The solubility of gold
  in cyanide solutions was known to K. W. Scheele in 1782; and M.
  Faraday applied it to the preparation of extremely thin films of the
  metal. L. Eisner recognized, in 1846, the part played by the
  atmosphere, and in 1879 Dixon showed that bleaching powder, manganese
  dioxide, and other oxidizing agents, facilitated the solution. S. B.
  Christy (_Trans. A.I.M.E._, 1896, vol. 26) has shown that the solution
  is hastened by many oxidizing agents, especially sodium and manganese
  dioxides and potassium ferricyanide. According to G. Bodländer (_Zeit.
  f. angew. Chem._, 1896, vol. 19) the rate of solution in potassium
  cyanide depends upon the subdivision of the gold--the finer the
  subdivision the quicker the solution,--and on the concentration of the
  solution--the rate increasing until the solution contains 0.25% of
  cyanide, and remaining fairly stationary with increasing
  concentration. The action proceeds in two stages; in the first
  hydrogen peroxide and potassium aurocyanide are formed, and in the
  second the hydrogen peroxide oxidizes a further quantity of gold and
  potassium cyanide to aurocyanide, thus (1) 2Au + 4KCN + O2 + 2H2O =
  2KAu(CN)2 + 4KOH + H2O2; (2) 2Au + 4KCN + 2H2O2 = 2KAu(CN)2 + 4KOH.
  The end reaction may be written 4Au + 8KCN + 2H2O + O2 = 4KAu(CN)2 +
  4KOH.

  The commercial process was patented in 1890 by MacArthur and Forrest,
  and is now in use all over the world. It is best adapted for
  free-milling ores, especially after the bulk of the gold has been
  removed by amalgamation. It has been especially successful in the
  Transvaal. In the Witwatersrand the ore, which contains about 9 dwts.
  of gold to the metric ton (2000 lb.), is stamped and amalgamated, and
  the slimes and tailings, containing about 3½ dwts. per ton, are
  cyanided, about 2 dwts. more being thus extracted. The total cost per
  ton of ore treated is about 6s., of which the cyaniding costs from 2s.
  to 4s.

  The process embraces three operations: (1) Solution of the gold; (2)
  precipitation of the gold; (3) treatment of the precipitate.

  The ores, having been broken and ground, generally in tube mills,
  until they pass a 150 to 200-mesh sieve, are transferred to the
  leaching vats, which are constructed of wood, iron or masonry; steel
  vats, coated inside and out with pitch, of circular section and
  holding up to 1000 tons, have come into use. The diameter is generally
  26 ft., but may be greater; the best depth is considered to be a
  quarter of the diameter. The vats are fitted with filters made of
  coco-nut matting and jute cloth supported on wooden frames. The
  leaching is generally carried out with a strong, medium, and with a
  weak liquor, in the order given; sometimes there is a preliminary
  leaching with a weak liquor. The strengths employed depend also upon
  the mode of precipitation adopted, stronger solutions (up to 0.25%
  KCN) being used when zinc is the precipitant. For electrolytic
  precipitation the solution may contain up to 0.1% KCN. The liquors are
  run off from the vats to the electrolysing baths or precipitating
  tanks, and the leached ores are removed by means of doors in the sides
  of the vats into wagons. In the Transvaal the operation occupies 3½ to
  4 days for fine sands, and up to 14 days for coarse sands; the
  quantity of cyanide per ton of tailings varies from 0.26 to 0.28 lb.,
  for electrolytic precipitation, and 0.5 lb. for zinc precipitation.

  The precipitation is effected by zinc in the form of bright turnings,
  or coated with lead, or by electrolysis. According to Christy, the
  precipitation with zinc follows equations 1 or 2 according as
  potassium cyanide is present or not:

  (1) 4KAu(CN)2 + 4Zn + 2H2O = 2Zn(CN)2 + K2Zn(CN)4 + Zn(OK)2 + 4H + 4Au;

  (2) 2KAu(CN)2 + 3Zn + 4KCN + 2H2O = 2K2Zn(CN)4 + Zn(OK)2 + 4H + 2Au;

  one part of zinc precipitating 3.1 parts of gold in the first case,
  and 2.06 in the second. It may be noticed that the potassium zinc
  cyanide is useless in gold extraction, for it neither dissolves gold
  nor can potassium cyanide be regenerated from it.

  The precipitating boxes, generally made of wood but sometimes of
  steel, and set on an incline, are divided by partitions into
  alternately wide and narrow compartments, so that the liquor travels
  upwards in its passage through the wide divisions and downwards
  through the narrow divisions. In the wider compartments are placed
  sieves having sixteen holes to the square inch and bearing zinc
  turnings. The gold and other metals are precipitated on the under
  surfaces of the turnings and fall to the bottom of the compartment as
  a black slime. The slime is cleaned out fortnightly or monthly, the
  zinc turnings being cleaned by rubbing and the supernatant liquor
  allowed to settle in the precipitating boxes or in separate vessels.
  The slime so obtained consists of finely divided gold and silver
  (5-50%), zinc (30-60%), lead (10%), carbon (10%), together with tin,
  copper, antimony, arsenic and other impurities of the zinc and ores.
  After well washing with water, the slimes are roughly dried in
  bag-filters or filter-presses, and then treated with dilute sulphuric
  acid, the solution being heated by steam. This dissolves out the zinc.
  Lime is added to bring down the gold, and the sediment, after washing
  and drying, is fused in graphite crucibles.

  5. _Electrolytic Processes._--The electrolytic separation of the gold
  from cyanide solutions was first practised in the Transvaal. The
  process, as elaborated by Messrs. Siemens and Halske, essentially
  consists in the electrolysis of weak solutions with iron or steel
  plate anodes, and lead cathodes, the latter, when coated with gold,
  being fused and cupelled. Its advantages over the zinc process are
  that the deposited gold is purer and more readily extracted, and that
  weaker solutions can be employed, thereby effecting an economy in
  cyanide.

  In the process employed at the Worcester Works in the Transvaal, the
  liquors, containing about 150 grains of gold per ton and from 0.08 to
  0.01% of cyanide, are treated in rectangular vats in which is placed a
  series of iron and leaden plates at intervals of 1 in. The cathodes,
  which are sheets of thin lead foil weighing 1½ lb. to the sq. yd., are
  removed monthly, their gold content being from 0.5 to 10%, and after
  folding are melted in reverberatory furnaces to ingots containing 2 to
  4% of gold. Cupellation brings up the gold to about 900 fine. Many
  variations of the electrolytic process as above outlined have been
  suggested. S. Cowper Coles has suggested aluminium cathodes; Andreoli
  has recommended cathodes of iron and anodes of lead coated with lead
  peroxide, the gold being removed from the iron cathodes by a brief
  immersion in molten lead; in the Pelatan-Cerici process the gold is
  amalgamated at a mercury cathode (see also below).

_Refining or Parting of Gold._--Gold is almost always silver-bearing,
and it may be also noticed that silver generally contains some gold.
Consequently the separation of these two metals Is one of the most
important metallurgical processes. In addition to the separation of the
silver the operation extends to the elimination of the last traces of
lead, tin, arsenic, &c. which have resisted the preceding cupellation.

  The "parting" of gold and silver is of considerable antiquity. Thus
  Strabo states that in his time a process was employed for refining and
  purifying gold in large quantities by cementing or burning it with an
  aluminous earth, which, by destroying the silver, left the gold in a
  state of purity. Pliny shows that for this purpose the gold was placed
  on the fire in an earthen vessel with treble its weight of salt, and
  that it was afterwards again exposed to the fire with two parts of
  salt and one of argillaceous rock, which, in the presence of moisture,
  effected the decomposition of the salt; by this means the silver
  became converted into chloride.

  The methods of parting can be classified into "dry," "wet" and
  electrolytic methods. In the "dry" methods the silver is converted
  into sulphide or chloride, the gold remaining unaltered; in the "wet"
  methods the silver is dissolved by nitric acid or boiling sulphuric
  acid; and in the electrolytic processes advantage is taken of the fact
  that under certain current densities and other circumstances silver
  passes from an anode composed of a gold-silver alloy to the cathode
  more readily than gold. Of the dry methods only F. B. Miller's
  chlorine process is of any importance, this method, and the wet
  process of refining by sulphuric acid, together with the electrolytic
  process, being the only ones now practised.

  The conversion of silver into the sulphide may be effected by heating
  with antimony sulphide, litharge and sulphur, pyrites, or with sulphur
  alone. The antimony, or _Guss und Fluss_, method was practised up till
  1846 at the Dresden mint; it is only applicable to alloys containing
  more than 50% of gold. The fusion results in the formation of a
  gold-antimony alloy, from which the antimony is removed by an
  oxidizing fusion with nitre. The sulphur and litharge, or
  _Pfannenschmied_, process was used to concentrate the gold in an alloy
  in order to make it amenable to "quartation," or parting with nitric
  acid. Fusion with sulphur was used for the same purpose as the
  Pfannenschmied process. It was employed in 1797 at the St Petersburg
  mint.

  The conversion of the silver into the chloride may be effected by
  means of salt--the "cementation" process--or other chlorides, or by
  free chlorine--Miller's process. The first process consists
  essentially in heating the alloy with salt and brickdust; the latter
  absorbs the chloride formed, while the gold is recovered by washing.
  It is no longer employed. The second process depends upon the fact
  that, if chlorine be led into the molten alloy, the base metals and
  the silver are converted into chlorides. It was proposed in 1838 by
  Lewis Thompson, but it was only applied commercially after Miller's
  improvements in 1867, when it was adopted at the Sydney mint. Sir W.
  C. Roberts-Austen introduced it at the London mint; and it has also
  been used at Pretoria. It is especially suitable to gold containing
  little silver and base metals--a character of Australian gold--but it
  yields to the sulphuric acid and electrolytic methods in point of
  economy.

  The separation of gold from silver in the wet way may be effected by
  nitric acid, sulphuric acid or by a mixture of sulphuric acid and
  _aqua regia_.

  Parting by nitric acid is of considerable antiquity, being mentioned
  by Albertus Magnus (13th cent.), Biringuccio (1540) and Agricola
  (1556). It is now rarely practised, although in some refineries both
  the nitric acid and the sulphuric acid processes are combined, the
  alloy being first treated with nitric acid. It used to be called
  "quartation" or "inquartation," from the fact that the alloy best
  suited for the operation of refining contained 3 parts of silver to 1
  of gold. The operation may be conducted in vessels of glass or
  platinum, and each pound of granulated metal is treated with a pound
  and a quarter of nitric acid of specific gravity 1.32. The method is
  sometimes employed in the assay of gold.

  Refining by sulphuric acid, the process usually adopted for separating
  gold from silver, was first employed on the large scale by d'Arcet in
  Paris in 1802, and was introduced into the Mint refinery, London, by
  Mathison in 1829. It is based upon the facts that concentrated hot
  sulphuric acid converts silver and copper into soluble sulphates
  without attacking the gold, the silver sulphate being subsequently
  reduced to the metallic state by copper plates with the formation of
  copper sulphate. It is applicable to any alloy, and is the best method
  for parting gold with the exception of the electrolytic method.

  The process embraces four operations: (1) the preparation of an alloy
  suitable for parting; (2) the treatment with sulphuric acid; (3) the
  treatment of the residue for gold; (4) the treatment of the solution
  for silver.

  It is necessary to remove as completely as possible any lead, tin,
  bismuth, antimony, arsenic and tellurium, impurities which impair the
  properties of gold and silver, by an oxidizing fusion, e.g. with
  nitre. Over 10% of copper makes the parting difficult; consequently in
  such alloys the percentage of copper is diminished by the addition of
  silver free from copper, or else the copper is removed by a chemical
  process. Other undesirable impurities are the platinum metals, special
  treatment being necessary when these substances are present. The
  alloy, after the preliminary refining, is granulated by being poured,
  while molten, in a thin stream into cold water which is kept well
  agitated.

  The acid treatment is generally carried out in cast iron pots;
  platinum vessels used to be employed, while porcelain vessels are only
  used for small operations, e.g. for charges of 190 to 225 oz. as at
  Oker in the Harz. The pots, which are usually cylindrical with a
  hemispherical bottom, may hold as much as 13,000 to 16,000 oz. of
  alloy. They are provided with lids, made either of lead or of wood
  lined with lead, which have openings to serve for the introduction of
  the alloy and acid, and a vent tube to lead off the vapours evolved
  during the operation. The bullion with about twice its weight of
  sulphuric acid of 66° Bé is placed in the pot, and the whole gradually
  heated. Since the action is sometimes very violent, especially when
  the bullion is treated in the granulated form (it is steadier when
  thin plates are operated upon), it is found expedient to add the acid
  in several portions. The heating is continued for 4 to 12 hours
  according to the amount of silver present; the end of the reaction is
  known by the absence of any hissing. Generally the reaction mixture is
  allowed to cool, and the residue, which settles to the bottom of the
  pot, consists of gold together with copper, lead and iron sulphates,
  which are insoluble in strong sulphuric acid; silver sulphate may also
  separate if present in sufficient quantity and the solution be
  sufficiently cooled. The solution is removed by ladles or by siphons,
  and the residue is leached out with boiling water; this removes the
  sulphates. A certain amount of silver is still present and, according
  to M. Pettenkofer, it is impossible to remove all the silver by means
  of sulphuric acid. Several methods are in use for removing the silver.
  Fusion with an alkaline bisulphate converts the silver into the
  sulphate, which may be extracted by boiling with sulphuric acid and
  then with water. Another process consists in treating a mixture of the
  residue with one-quarter of its weight of calcined sodium sulphate
  with sulphuric acid, the residue being finally boiled with a large
  quantity of acid. Or the alloy is dissolved in _aqua regia_, the
  solution filtered from the insoluble silver chloride, and the gold
  precipitated by ferrous chloride.

  The silver present in the solution obtained in the sulphuric acid
  boiling is recovered by a variety of processes. The solution may be
  directly precipitated with copper, the copper passing into solution as
  copper sulphate, and the silver separating as a mud, termed "cement
  silver." Or the silver sulphate may be separated from the solution by
  cooling and dilution, and then mixed with iron clippings, the
  interaction being accompanied with a considerable evolution of heat.
  Or Gutzkow's method of precipitating the metal with ferrous sulphate
  may be employed.

  The electrolytic parting of gold and silver has been shown to be more
  economical and free from the objections--such as the poisonous
  fumes--of the sulphuric acid process. One process depends upon the
  fact that, with a suitable current density, if a very dilute solution
  of silver nitrate be electrolysed between an auriferous silver anode
  and a silver cathode, the silver of the anode is dissolved out and
  deposited at the cathode, the gold remaining at the anode. The silver
  is quite free from gold, and the gold after boiling with nitric acid
  has a fineness of over 999.

  Gold is left in the anode slime when copper or silver are refined by
  the usual processes, but if the gold preponderate in the anode these
  processes are inapplicable. A cyanide bath, as used in electroplating,
  would dissolve the gold, but is not suitable for refining, because
  other metals (silver, copper, &c.) passing with gold into the solution
  would deposit with it. Bock, however, in 1880 (_Berg- und
  hüttenmännische Zeitung_, 1880, p. 411) described a process used at
  the North German Refinery in Hamburg for the refining of gold
  containing platinum with a small proportion of silver, lead or
  bismuth, and a subsequent patent specification (1896) and a paper by
  Wohlwill (_Zeits. f. Elektrochem._, 1898, pp. 379, 402, 421) have
  thrown more light upon the process. The electrolyte is gold chloride
  (2.5-3 parts of pure gold per 100 of solution) mixed with from 2 to 6%
  of the strongest hydrochloric acid to render the gold anodes readily
  soluble, which they are not in the neutral chloride solution. The bath
  is used at 65° to 70° C. (150° to 158° F.), and if free chlorine be
  evolved, which is known at once by its pungent smell, the temperature
  is raised, or more acid is added, to promote the solubility of the
  gold. The bath is used with a current-density of 100 ampères per sq.
  ft. at 1 volt (or higher), with electrodes about 1.2 in. apart. In
  this process all the anode metals pass into solution except iridium
  and other refractory metals of that group, which remain as metals, and
  silver, which is converted into insoluble chloride; lead and bismuth
  form chloride and oxychloride respectively, and these dissolve until
  the bath is saturated with them, and then precipitate with the silver
  in the tank. But if the gold-strength of the bath be maintained, only
  gold is deposited at the cathode--in a loose powdery condition from
  pure solutions, but in a smooth detachable deposit from impure
  liquors. Under good conditions the gold should contain 99.98% of the
  pure metal. The tank is of porcelain or glazed earthenware, the
  electrodes for impure solutions are ½ in. apart (or more with pure
  solutions), and are on the multiple system, and the potential
  difference at the terminals of the bath is 1 volt. A high
  current-density being employed, the turn-over of gold is rapid--an
  essential factor of success when the costliness of the metal is taken
  into account. Platinum and palladium dissolved from the anode
  accumulate in the solution, and are removed at intervals of, say, a
  few months by chemical precipitation. It is essential that the bath
  should not contain more than 5% of palladium, or some of this metal
  will deposit with the gold. The slimes are treated chemically for the
  separation of the metals contained in them.

  AUTHORITIES.--Standard works on the metallurgy of gold are the
  treatises of T. Kirke Rose and of M. Eissler. The cyanide process is
  especially treated by M. Eissler, _Cyanide Process for the Extraction
  of Gold_, which pays particular attention to the Witwatersrand
  methods; Alfred James, _Cyanide Practice_; H. Forbes Julian and Edgar
  Smart, _Cyaniding Gold and Silver Ores_. Gold milling is treated by
  Henry Louis, _A Handbook of Gold Milling_; C. G. Warnford Lock, _Gold
  Milling_; T. A. Rickard, _Stamp Milling of Gold Ores_. Gold dredging
  is treated by Captain C. C. Longridge in _Gold Dredging_, and
  hydraulic mining is discussed by the same author in his _Hydraulic
  Mining_. For operations in special districts see J. M. Maclaren,
  _Gold_ (1908); J. H. Curle, _Gold Mines of the World_; Africa: F. H.
  Hatch and J. A. Chalmers, _Gold Mines of the Rand_; S. J. Truscott,
  _Witwatersrand Goldfields Banket and Mining Practice_; Australasia: D.
  Clark, _Australian Mining and Metallurgy_; Karl Schmeisser,
  _Goldfields of Australasia_; A. G. Charleton, _Gold Mining and Milling
  in Western Australia_; India: F. H. Hatch, _The Kolar Gold-Field_.



GOLD AND SILVER THREAD. Under this heading some general account may be
given of gold and silver strips, threads and gimp used in connexion with
varieties of weaving, embroidery and twisting and plaiting or lace work.
To this day, in many oriental centres where it seems that early
traditions of the knowledge and the use of fabrics wholly or partly
woven, ornamented, and embroidered with gold and silver have been
maintained, the passion for such brilliant and costly textiles is still
strong and prevalent. One of the earliest mentions of the use of gold in
a woven fabric occurs in the description of the ephod made for Aaron
(Exod. xxxix. 2, 3), "And he made the ephod of gold, blue, and purple,
and scarlet, and fine twined linen. And they did beat the gold into thin
plates, and cut it into wires (strips), to work it in the blue, and in
the purple, and in the scarlet, and in the fine linen, with cunning
work." This is suggestive of early Syrian or Arabic in-darning or
weaving with gold strips or tinsel. In both the _Iliad_ and the
_Odyssey_ allusion is frequently made to inwoven and embroidered golden
textiles. Assyrian sculpture gives an elaborately designed ornament upon
the robe of King Assur-nasir-pal (884 B.C.) which was probably an
interweaving of gold and coloured threads, and testifies to the
consummate skill of Assyrian or Babylonian workers at that date. From
Assyrian and Babylonian weavers the conquering Persians of the time of
Darius derived their celebrity as weavers and users of splendid stuffs.
Herodotus describes the corselet given by Amasis king of Egypt to the
Minerva of Lindus and how it was inwoven or embroidered with gold.
Darius, we are told, wore a war mantle on which were figured (probably
inwoven) two golden hawks as if pecking at each other. Alexander the
Great is said to have found Eastern kings and princes arrayed in robes
of gold and purple. More than two hundred years later than Alexander the
Great was the king of Pergamos (the third bearing the name Attalus) who
gave much attention to working in metals and is mentioned by Pliny as
having invented weaving with gold, hence the historic Attalic cloths.
There are several references in Roman writings to costumes and stuffs
woven and embroidered with gold threads and the Graeco-Roman
_chryso-phrygium_ and the Roman _auri-phrygium_ are evidences not only
of Roman work with gold threads but also of its indebtedness to Phrygian
sources. The famous tunics of Agrippina and those of Heliogabalus are
said to have been of tissues made entirely with gold threads, whereas
the robes which Marcus Aurelius found in the treasury of Hadrian, as
well as the costumes sold at the dispersal of the wardrobe of Commodus,
were different in character, being of fine linen and possibly even of
silken stuffs inwoven or embroidered with gold threads. The same
description is perhaps correct of the reputedly splendid hangings with
which King Dagobert decorated the early medieval oratory of St Denis.
Reference to these and many such stuffs is made by the respectively
contemporary or almost contemporary writers; and a very full and
interesting work by Monsieur Francisque Michel (Paris, 1852) is still a
standard book for consultation in respect of the history of silk, gold
and silver stuffs.

From indications such as these, as well as those of later date, one sees
broadly that the art of weaving and embroidering with gold and silver
threads passed from one great city to another, travelling as a rule
westward. Babylon, Tarsus, Bagdad, Damascus, the islands of Cyprus and
Sicily, Constantinople, Venice and southern Spain appear successively in
the process of time as famous centres of these much-prized manufactures.
During the middle ages European royal personages and high ecclesiastical
dignitaries used cloth and tissues of gold and silver for their state
and ceremonial robes, as well as for costly hangings and decoration; and
various names--ciclatoun, tartarium, naques or nac, baudekin or
baldachin (Bagdad) and tissue--were applied to textiles in the making of
which gold threads were almost always introduced in combination with
others. The thin flimsy paper known as tissue paper is so called because
it originally was placed between the folds of gold "tissue" (or weaving)
to prevent the contiguous surfaces from fraying each other. Under the
articles dealing with carpets, embroidery, lace and tapestry will be
found notices of the occasional use in such productions of gold and
silver threads. Of early date in the history of European weaving are
rich stuffs produced in Southern Spain by Moors, as well as by Saracenic
and Byzantine weavers at Palermo and Constantinople in the 12th century,
in which metallic threads were freely used. Equally esteemed at about
the same period were corresponding stuffs made in Cyprus, whilst for
centuries later the merchants in such fabrics eagerly sought for and
traded in Cyprus gold and silver threads. Later the actual manufacture
of them was not confined to Cyprus, but was also carried on by Italian
thread and trimming makers from the 14th century onwards. For the most
part the gold threads referred to were of silver gilt. In rare instances
of middle-age Moorish or Arabian fabrics the gold threads are made with
strips of parchment or paper gilt and still rarer are instances of the
use of real gold wire.

In India the preparation of varieties of gold and silver threads is an
ancient and important art. The "gold wire" of the manufacturer has been
and is as a rule silver wire gilt, the silver wire being, of course,
composed of pure silver. The wire is drawn by means of simple
draw-plates, with rude and simple appliances, from rounded bars of
silver, or gold-plated silver, as the case may be. The wire is flattened
into strip, tinsel or ribbon-like form, by passing fourteen or fifteen
strands simultaneously, over a fine, smooth, round-topped anvil and
beating each as it passes with a heavy hammer having a slightly convex
surface. Such strips or tinsel of wire so flattened are woven into
Indian _soniri_, tissue or cloth of gold, the web or warp being composed
entirely of golden strips, and _ruperi_, similar tissue of silver. Other
gold and silver threads suitable for use in embroidery, pillow and
needlepoint lace making, &c., consist of fine strips of flattened wire
wound round cores of orange (in the case of silver, white) silk thread
so as to completely cover them. Wires flattened or partially flattened
are also twisted into exceedingly fine spirals and much used for heavy
embroideries. Spangles for embroideries, &c., are made from spirals of
comparatively stout wire, by cutting them down ring by ring, laying each
C-like ring on an anvil, and by a smart blow with a hammer flattening it
out into a thin round disk with a slit extending from the centre to one
edge. The demand for many kinds of loom-woven and embroidered gold and
silver work in India is immense, and the variety of textiles so
ornamented is also very great, chief amongst which are the golden or
silvery tinsel fabrics known as kincobs.

Amongst Western communities the demand for gold and silver embroideries
and braid lace now exists chiefly in connexion with naval, military and
other uniforms, masonic insignia, court costumes, public and private
liveries, ecclesiastical robes and draperies, theatrical dresses, &c.

The proportions of gold and silver in the gold thread for the woven
braid lace or ribbon trade varies, but in all cases the proportion of
gold is exceedingly small. An ordinary gold braid wire is drawn from a
bar containing 90 parts of silver and 7 of copper, and plated with 3 of
gold. On an average each ounce troy of a bar so plated is drawn into
1500 yds. of wire; and therefore about 16 grains of gold cover 1 m. of
wire.     (A. S. C.)



GOLDAST AB HAIMINSFELD, MELCHIOR (1576-1635), Swiss writer, an
industrious though uncritical collector of documents relating to the
medieval history and Constitution of Germany, was born on the 6th of
January 1576 (some say 1578), of poor Protestant parents, near
Bischofszell, in the Swiss Canton of Thurgau. His university career,
first at Ingolstadt (1585-1586), then at Altdorf near Nuremberg
(1597-1598), was cut short by his poverty, from which he suffered all
his life, and which was the main cause of his wanderings. In 1598 he
found a rich protector in the person of Bartholomaeus Schobinger, of St
Gall, by whose liberality he was enabled to study at St Gall (where he
first became interested in medieval documents, which abound in the
conventual library) and elsewhere in Switzerland. Before his patron's
death (1604) he became (1603) secretary to Henry, duke of Bouillon, with
whom he went to Heidelberg and Frankfort. But in 1604 he entered the
service of the Baron von Hohensax, then the possessor of the precious
MS. volume of old German poems, returned from Paris to Heidelberg in
1888, and, partially published by Goldast. Soon he was back in
Switzerland, and by 1606 in Frankfort, earning his living by preparing
and correcting books for the press. In 1611 he was appointed councillor
at the court of Saxe-Weimar, and in 1615 he entered the service of the
count of Schaumburg at Bückeburg. In 1624 he was forced by the war to
retire to Bremen; there in 1625 he deposited his library in that of the
town (his books were bought by the town in 1646, but many of his MSS.
passed to Queen Christina of Sweden, and hence are now in the Vatican
library), he himself returning to Frankfort. In 1627 he became
councillor to the emperor and to the archbishop-elector of Trèves, and
in 1633 passed to the service of the landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. He
died at Giessen early in 1635.

His immense industry is shown by the fact that his biographer,
Senckenburg, gives a list of 65 works published or written by him, some
extending to several substantial volumes. Among the more important are
his _Paraeneticorum veterum pars i._ (1604), which contained the old
German tales of _Kunig Tyrol von Schotten_, the _Winsbeke_ and the
_Winsbekin; Suevicarum rerum scriptores_ (Frankfort, 1605, new edition,
1727); _Rerum Alamannicarum scriptores_ (Frankfort, 1606, new edition by
Senckenburg, 1730); _Constitutiones imperiales_ (Frankfort, 1607-1613, 4
vols.); _Monarchia s. Romani imperii_ (Hanover and Frankfort, 1612-1614,
3 vols.); _Commentarii de regni Bohemiae juribus_ (Frankfort, 1627, new
edition by Schmink, 1719). He also edited De Thou's _History_
(1609-1610) and Willibald Pirckheimer's works (1610). In 1688 a volume
of letters addressed to him by his learned friends was published.

  _Life_ by Senckenburg, prefixed to his 1730 work. See also R. von
  Raumer's _Geschichte d. germanischen Philologie_ (Munich, 1870).
       (W. A. B. C.)



GOLDBEATING.--The art of goldbeating is of great antiquity, being
referred to by Homer; and Pliny (_N.H._ 33. 19) states that 1 oz. of
gold was extended to 750 leaves, each leaf being four fingers (about 3
in.) square; such a leaf is three times as thick as the ordinary leaf
gold of the present time. In all probability the art originated among
the Eastern nations, where the working of gold and the use of gold
ornaments have been distinguishing characteristics from the most remote
periods. On Egyptian mummy cases specimens of original leaf-gilding are
met with, where the gold is so thin that it resembles modern gilding
(q.v.). The minimum thickness to which gold can be beaten is not known
with certainty. According to Mersenne (1621) 1 oz. was spread out over
105 sq. ft.; Réaumur (1711) obtained 146½ sq. ft.; other values are 189
sq. ft. and 300 sq. ft. Its malleability is greatly diminished by the
presence of other metals, even in very minute quantity. In practice the
average degree of tenuity to which the gold is reduced is not nearly so
great as the last example quoted above. A "book of gold" containing 25
leaves measuring each 3¼ in., equal to an area of 264 sq. in., generally
weighs from 4 to 5 grains.

The gold used by the goldbeater is variously alloyed, according to the
colour required. Fine gold is commonly supposed to be incapable of being
reduced to thin leaves. This, however, is not the case, although its use
for ordinary purposes is undesirable on account of its greater cost. It
also adheres on one part of a leaf touching another, thus causing a
waste of labour by the leaves being spoiled; but for work exposed to the
weather it is much preferable, as it is more durable, and does not
tarnish or change colour. The external gilding on many public buildings,
e.g. the Albert Memorial in Kensington Gardens, London, is done with
pure gold. The following is a list of the principal classes of leaf
recognized and ordinarily prepared by British beaters, with the
proportions of alloy per oz. they contain.

    +---------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
    |               |Proportion |Proportion |Proportion |
    | Name of leaf. | of gold.  | of Silver.| of Copper.|
    +---------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
    |               |  Grains.  |  Grains.  |  Grains.  |
    | Red           |  456-460  |     ..    |  20-24    |
    | Pale red      |    464    |     ..    |    16     |
    | Extra deep    |    456    |     12    |    12     |
    | Deep          |    444    |     24    |    12     |
    | Citron        |    440    |     30    |    10     |
    | Yellow        |    408    |     72    |    ..     |
    | Pale yellow   |    384    |     96    |    ..     |
    | Lemon         |    360    |    120    |    ..     |
    | Green or pale |    312    |    168    |    ..     |
    | White         |    240    |    240    |    ..     |
    +---------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+

  The process of goldbeating is as follows: The gold, having been
  alloyed according to the colour desired, is melted in a crucible at a
  higher temperature than is simply necessary to fuse it, as its
  malleability is improved by exposure to a greater heat; sudden cooling
  does not interfere with its malleability, gold differing in this
  respect from some other metals. It is then cast into an ingot, and
  flattened, by rolling between a pair of powerful smooth steel rollers,
  into a ribbon of 1½ in. wide and 10 ft. in length to the oz. After
  being flattened it is annealed and cut into pieces of about 6½ grs.
  each, or about 75 per oz., and placed between the leaves of a "cutch,"
  which is about ½ in. thick and 3½ in. square, containing about 180
  leaves of a tough paper. Formerly fine vellum was used for this
  purpose, and generally still it is interleaved in the proportion of
  about one of vellum to six of paper. The cutch is beaten on for about
  20 minutes with a 17-lb. hammer, which rebounds by the elasticity of
  the skin, and saves the labour of lifting, by which the gold is spread
  to the size of the cutch; each leaf is then taken out, and cut into
  four pieces, and put between the skins of a "shoder," 4½ in. square
  and ¾ in. thick, containing about 720 skins, which have been worn out
  in the finishing or "mould" process. The shoder requires about two
  hours' beating upon with a 9-lb. hammer. As the gold will spread
  unequally, the shoder is beaten upon after the larger leaves have
  reached the edges. The effect of this is that the margins of larger
  leaves come out of the edges in a state of dust. This allows time for
  the smaller leaves to reach the full size of the shoder, thus
  producing a general evenness of size in the leaves. Each leaf is again
  cut into four pieces, and placed between the leaves of a "mould,"
  composed of about 950 of the finest gold-beaters' skins, 5 in. square
  and ¾ in. thick, the contents of one shoder filling three moulds. The
  material has now reached the last and most difficult stage of the
  process; and on the fineness of the skin and judgment of the workman
  the perfection and thinness of the leaf of gold depend. During the
  first hour the hammer is allowed to fall principally upon the centre
  of the mould. This causes gaping cracks upon the edges of the leaves,
  the sides of which readily coalesce and unite without leaving any
  trace of the union after being beaten upon. At the second hour, when
  the gold is about the 150,000th part of an inch in thickness, it for
  the first time permits the transmission of the rays of light. Pure
  gold, or gold but slightly alloyed, transmits green rays; gold highly
  alloyed with silver transmits pale violet rays. The mould requires in
  all about four hours' beating with a 7-lb. hammer, when the ordinary
  thinness for the gold leaf of commerce will be reached. A single ounce
  of gold will at this stage be extended to 75 × 4 × 4 = 1200 leaves,
  which will trim to squares of about 3¼ in. each. The finished leaf is
  then taken out of the mould, and the rough edges are trimmed off by
  slips of the ratan fixed in parallel grooves of an instrument called a
  waggon, the leaf being laid upon a leathern cushion. The leaves thus
  prepared are placed into "books" capable of holding 25 leaves each,
  which have been rubbed over with red ochre to prevent the gold
  clinging to the paper. Dentist gold is gold leaf carried no farther
  than the cutch stage, and should be perfectly pure gold.

  By the above process also silver is beaten, but not so thin, the
  inferior value of the metal not rendering it commercially desirable to
  bestow so much labour upon it. Copper, tin, zinc, palladium, lead,
  cadmium, platinum and aluminium can be beaten into thin leaves, but
  not to the same extent as gold or silver.

The fine membrane called goldbeater's skin, used for making up the
shoder and mould, is the outer coat of the caecum or blind gut of the
ox. It is stripped off in lengths about 25 or 30 in., and freed from fat
by dipping in a solution of caustic alkali and scraping with a blunt
knife. It is afterwards stretched on a frame; two membranes are glued
together, treated with a solution of aromatic substances or camphor in
isinglass, and subsequently coated with white of egg. Finally they are
cut into squares of 5 or 5½ in.; and to make up a mould of 950 pieces
the gut of about 380 oxen is required, about 2½ skins being got from
each animal. A skin will endure about 200 beatings in the mould, after
which it is fit for use in the shoder alone.

  The dryness of the cutch, shoder and mould is a matter of extreme
  delicacy. They require to be hot-pressed every time they are used,
  although they may be used daily, to remove the moisture which they
  acquire from the atmosphere, except in extremely frosty weather, when
  they acquire so little moisture that a difficulty arises from their
  over-dryness, whereby the brilliancy of the gold is diminished, and it
  spreads very slowly under the hammer. On the contrary, if the cutch or
  shoder be damp, the gold will become pierced with innumerable
  microscopic holes; and in the moulds in its more attenuated state it
  will become reduced to a pulverulent state. This condition is more
  readily produced in alloyed golds than in fine gold. It is necessary
  that each skin of the mould should be rubbed over with calcined gypsum
  each time the mould may be used, in order to prevent the adhesion of
  the gold to the surface of the skin in beating.



GOLDBERG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Silesia,[1] 14
m. by rail S.W. of Liegnitz, on the Katzbach, an affluent of the Oder.
Pop. (1905) 6804. The principal buildings are an old church dating from
the beginning of the 13th century, the Schwabe-Priesemuth institution,
completed in 1876, for the board and education of orphans, and the
classical school or gymnasium (founded in 1524 by Duke Frederick II. of
Liegnitz), which in the 17th century enjoyed great prosperity, and
numbered Wallenstein among its pupils. The chief manufactures are
woollen cloth, flannel, gloves, stockings, leather and beer, and there
is a considerable trade in corn and fruit. Goldberg owes its origin and
name to a gold mine in the neighbourhood, which, however, has been
wholly abandoned since the time of the Hussite wars. The town obtained
civic rights in 1211. It suffered heavily from the Tatars in 1241, from
the plague in 1334, from the Hussites in 1428, and from the Saxon,
Imperial and Swedish forces during the Thirty Years' War. On the 27th of
May 1813 a battle took place near it between the French and the
Russians; and on the 23rd and the 27th of August of the same year
fights between the allies and the French.

  See Sturm, _Geschichte der Stadt Goldberg in Schlesien_ (1887).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Goldberg is also the name of a small town in the grand-duchy of
    Mecklenburg-Schwerin.



GOLD COAST, that portion of the Guinea Coast (West Africa) which extends
from Assini upon the west to the river Volta on the east. It derives its
name from the quantities of grains of gold mixed with the sand of the
rivers traversing the district. The term Gold Coast is now generally
identified with the British Gold Coast colony. This extends from 3° 7'
W. to 1° 14' E., the length of the coast-line being about 370 m. It is
bounded W. by the Ivory Coast colony (French), E. by Togoland (German).
On the north the British possessions, including Ashanti (q.v.) and the
Northern Territories, extend to the 11th degree of north latitude. The
frontier separating the colony from Ashanti (fixed by order in council,
22nd of October 1906) is in general 130 m. from the coast, but in the
central portion of the colony the southern limits of Ashanti project
wedge-like to the confluence of the rivers Ofin and Prah, which point is
but 60 m. from the sea at Cape Coast. The combined area of the Gold
Coast, Ashanti and the Northern Territories, is about 80,000 sq. m.,
with a total population officially estimated in 1908 at 2,700,000; the
Gold Coast colony alone has an area of 24,200 sq. m., with a population
of over a million, of whom about 2000 are Europeans.

[Map: Gold Coast and Hinterland.]

  _Physical features._--Though the lagoons common to the West African
  coast are found both at the western and eastern extremities of the
  colony (Assini in the west and Kwitta in the east) the greater part of
  the coast-line is of a different character. Cape Three Points (4° 44'
  40" N. 2° 5' 45" W.) juts boldly into the sea, forming the most
  southerly point of the colony. Thence the coast trends E. by N., and
  is but slightly indented. The usually low sandy beach is, however,
  diversified by bold, rocky headlands. The flat belt of country does
  not extend inland any considerable distance, the spurs of the great
  plateau which forms the major part of West Africa advancing in the
  east, in the Akwapim district, near to the coast. Here the hills reach
  an altitude of over 2000 ft. Out of the level plain rise many isolated
  peaks, generally of conical formation. Numerous rivers descend from
  the hills, but bars of sand block their mouths, and the Gold Coast
  possesses no harbours. Great Atlantic rollers break unceasingly upon
  the shore. The chief rivers are the Volta (q.v.), the Ankobra and the
  Prah. The Ankobra or Snake river traverses auriferous country, and
  reaches the sea some 20 m. west of Cape Three Points. It has a course
  of about 150 m., and is navigable in steam launches for about 80 m.
  The Prah ("Busum Prah," sacred river) is regarded as a fetish stream
  by the Fanti and Ashanti. One of its sub-tributaries has its rise near
  Kumasi. The Prah rises in the N.E. of the colony and flows S.W. Some
  60 m. from its mouth it is joined by the Ofin, which comes from the
  north-west. The united stream flows S. and reaches the sea in 1° 35'
  W. As a waterway the river, which has a course of 400 m., is almost
  useless, owing to the many cataracts in its course. Another river is
  the Tano, which for some distance in its lower course forms the
  boundary between the colony and the Ivory Coast.

  _Geology._--Cretaceous rocks occur at intervals along the coast belt,
  but are mostly hidden under an extensive development of superficial
  deposits. Basalt occurs at Axim. Inland is a broad belt of sandstone
  and marl with an occasional band of auriferous conglomerate, best
  known and most extensively worked for gold in the Wasaw district.
  Though the conglomerates bear some resemblance to the "Banket" of
  South Africa they are most probably of more recent date. The alluvial
  silts and gravels also carry gold.

  _Climate._--The climate on the coast is hot, moist and unhealthy,
  especially for Europeans. The mean temperature in the shade in the
  coast towns is 78° to 80° F. Fevers and dysentery are the diseases
  most to be dreaded by the European. The native inhabitants, although
  they enjoy tolerable health and live to an average age, are subject in
  the rainy season to numerous chest complaints. There are two wet
  seasons. From April to August are the greater rains, whilst in October
  and November occur the "smalls" or second rains. From the end of
  December to March the dry harmattan wind blows from the Sahara. In
  consequence of the prevalence of the sea-breeze from the south-west
  the western portion of the colony, up to the mouth of the Sekum river
  (a small stream to the west of Accra), is called the windward
  district, the eastward portion being known as the leeward. The
  rainfall at Accra, in the leeward district, averages 27 in. in the
  year, but at places in the windward district is much greater,
  averaging 79 in. at Axim.

  _Flora._--The greater part (probably three-fourths) of the colony is
  covered with primeval forest. Here the vegetation is so luxuriant that
  for great distances the sky is shut out from view. As a result of the
  struggle to reach the sunlight the forest growths are almost entirely
  vertical. The chief trees are silk cottons, especially the bombax, and
  gigantic hard-wood trees, such as the African mahogany, ebony, odum
  and camwood. The bombax rises for over 100 ft., a straight column-like
  shaft, 25 to 30 ft. in circumference, and then throws out horizontally
  a large number of branches. The lowest growth in the forest consists
  of ferns and herbaceous plants. Of the ferns some are climbers
  reaching 30 to 40 ft. up the stems of the trees they entwine.
  Flowering plants are comparatively rare; they include orchids and a
  beautiful white lily. The "bush" or intermediate growth is made up of
  smaller trees, the rubber vine and other creepers, some as thick as
  hawsers, bamboos and sensitive mimosa, and has a height of from 30 to
  60 ft. The creepers are found not only in the bush, but on the ground
  and hanging from the branches of the highest trees. West of the Prah
  the forest comes down to the edge of the Atlantic. East of that river
  the coast land is covered with bushes 5 to 12 ft. high, occasional
  large trees and groves of oil palms. Still farther east, by Accra, are
  numerous arborescent Euphorbias, and immediately west of the lower
  Volta forests of oil palms and grassy plains with fan palms. Behind
  all these eastern regions is a belt of thin forest country before the
  denser forest is reached. In the north-east are stretches of
  orchard-like country with wild plum, shea-butter and kola trees,
  baobabs, dwarf date and fan palms. The cotton and tobacco plants grow
  wild. At the mouths of the rivers and along the lagoons the mangrove
  is the characteristic tree. There are numerous coco-nut palms along
  the coast. The fruit trees and plants also include the orange,
  pine-apple, mango, papaw, banana and avocado or alligator pear.

  _Fauna._--The fauna includes leopards, panthers, hyenas, Potto lemurs,
  jackals, antelopes, buffaloes, wild-hogs and many kinds of monkey,
  including the chimpanzee and the _Colobus vellerosus_, whose skin,
  with long black silky hair, is much prized in Europe. The elephant has
  been almost exterminated by ivory hunters. The snakes include pythons,
  cobras, horned and puff adders and the venomous water snake. Among the
  lesser denizens of the forest are the squirrel and porcupine.
  Crocodiles and in fewer numbers manatees and otters frequent the
  rivers and lagoons and hippopotami are found in the Volta. Lizards of
  brilliant hue, tortoises and great snails are common. Birds, which are
  not very numerous, include parrots and hornbills, kingfishers,
  ospreys, herons, crossbills, curlews, woodpeckers, doves, pigeons,
  storks, pelicans, swallows, vultures and the spur plover (the
  last-named rare). Shoals of herrings frequent the coast, and the other
  fish include mackerel, sole, skate, mullet, bonito, flying fish,
  fighting fish and shynose. Sharks abound at the mouths of all the
  rivers, edible turtle are fairly common, as are the sword fish,
  dolphin and sting ray (with poisonous caudal spine). Oysters are
  numerous on rocks running into the sea and on the exposed roots of
  mangrove trees. Insect life is multitudinous; beetles, spiders, ants,
  fireflies, butterflies and jiggers abound. The earthworm is rare. The
  mosquitos include the _Culex_ or ordinary kind, the _Anopheles_, which
  carry malarial fever, and the _Stegomyia_, a striped white and black
  mosquito which carries yellow-fever.

  _Inhabitants._--The natives are all of the Negro race. The most
  important tribe is the Fanti (q.v.), and the Fanti language is
  generally understood throughout the colony. The Fanti and Ashanti are
  believed to have a common origin. It is certain that the Fanti came
  originally from the north and conquered many of the coast tribes, who
  anciently had owned the rule of the king of Benin. The districts in
  general are named after the tribes inhabiting them. Those in the
  western part of the colony are mainly of Fanti stock; the Accra and
  allied tribes inhabit the eastern portion and are believed to be the
  aboriginal inhabitants. The Akim (Akem), who occupy the north-east
  portion of the colony, have engaged in gold-digging from time
  immemorial. The capital of their country is Kibbi. The Akwapim
  (Aquapem), southern neighbours of the Akim, are extensively engaged in
  agriculture and in trade. The Accra, a clever race, are to be found in
  all the towns of the West African coast as artisans and sailors. They
  are employed by the interior tribes as middlemen and interpreters. On
  the right bank of the Volta occupying the low marshy land near the sea
  are the Adangme. The Krobos live in little villages in the midst of
  the palm tree woods which grow round about the Kroboberg, an eminence
  about 1000 ft. high. Their country lies between that of the Akim and
  the Adangme. In the west of the colony is the Ahanta country, formerly
  an independent kingdom. The inhabitants were noted for their skill in
  war. They are one of the finest and most intelligent of the tribes of
  Accra stock. The Apollonia, a kindred race, occupy the coast region
  nearest the Ivory Coast.


    Native Languages.

  The Tshi, Tchwi or Chi language,[1] which is that spoken on the Gold
  Coast, belongs to the great prefix-pronominal group. It comprises many
  dialects, which may, however, be reduced to two classes or types. Akan
  dialects are spoken in Assini, Amanahia (Apollonia), Awini, Ahanta,
  Wasaw, Tshuforo (Juffer or Tufel), and Denkyera in the west, and in
  Asen, Akim, and Akwapim in the east, as well as in the different parts
  of Ashanti. Fanti dialects are spoken, not only in Fanti proper, but
  in Afutu or the country round Cape Coast, in Abora, Agymako, Akomfi,
  Gomoa and Agona. The difference between the two types is not very
  great; a Fanti, for example, can converse without much difficulty with
  a native of Akwapim or Ashanti, his language being in fact a
  deteriorated form of the same original. Akim is considered the finest
  and purest of all the Akan dialects. The Akwapim, which is based on
  the Akim but has imbibed Fanti influences, has been made the
  book-language by the Basel missionaries. They had reduced it to
  writing before 1850. About a million people in all, it is estimated,
  speak dialects of the Tshi.

  The south-eastern corner of the Gold Coast is occupied by another
  language known as the Ga or Accra, which comprises the Ga proper and
  the Adangme and Krobo dialects. Ga proper is spoken by about 40,000
  people, including the inhabitants of Ga and Kinka (i.e. Accra, in
  Tshi, Nkran and Kankan), Osu (i.e. Christiansborg), La, Tessi, Ningua
  and numerous inland villages. It has been reduced to writing by the
  missionaries. The Adangme and Krobo dialects are spoken by about
  80,000 people. They differ very considerably from Ga proper, but books
  printed in Ga can be used by both the Krobo and Adangme natives.
  Another language known as Guan is used in parts of Akwapim and in Anum
  beyond the Volta; but not much is known either about it or the Obutu
  tongue spoken in a few towns in Agona, Gomoa and Akomfi.


    Religion and education.

  Fetishism (q.v.) is the prevailing religion of all the tribes. Belief
  in a God is universal, as also is a belief in a future state.
  Christianity and Mahommedanism are both making progress. The natives
  professing Christianity number about 40,000. A Moravian mission was
  started at Christiansborg about 1736; the Basel mission (Evangelical)
  was begun in 1828, the missionaries combining manual training and farm
  labour with purely religious work; the Wesleyans started a mission
  among the Fanti in 1835, and the Anglican and Roman Catholic Churches
  are also represented, as well as the Bremen Missionary Society.
  Elementary education is chiefly in the hands of the Wesleyan, Basel,
  Bremen and Roman Catholic missions, who have schools at many towns
  along the coast and in the interior. There are also government and
  Mahommedan schools. The natives generally are extremely intelligent.
  They obtain easily the means of subsistence, and are disinclined to
  unaccustomed labour, such as working in mines. They are keen traders.
  The native custom of burying the dead under the floors of the houses
  prevailed until 1874, when it was prohibited by the British
  authorities.

  _Towns._--Unlike the other British possessions on the west coast of
  Africa, the colony has many towns along the shore, this being due to
  the multiplicity of traders of rival nations who went thither in quest
  of gold. Beginning at the west, Newtown, on the Assini or Eyi lagoon,
  is just within the British frontier. The first place of importance
  reached is Axim (pop., 1901, 2189), the site of an old Dutch fort
  built near the mouth of the Axim river, and in the pre-railway days
  the port of the gold region. Rounding Cape Three Points, whose
  vicinity is marked by a line of breakers nearly 2½ m. long, Dixcove is
  reached. Twenty miles farther east is Sekondi (q.v.), (pop. about
  5000), the starting-point of the railway to the goldfields and Kumasi.
  Elmina (q.v.), formerly one of the most important posts of European
  settlement, is reached some distance after passing the mouth of the
  Prah. Eight miles east of Elmina is Cape Coast (q.v.), pop. (1901)
  28,948. Anamabo is 9 m. farther east. Here, in 1807, a handful of
  English soldiers made a heroic and successful defence of its fort
  against the whole Ashanti host. Saltpond, towards the end of the 19th
  century, diverted to itself the trade formerly done by Anamabo, from
  which it is distant 9 m. Saltpond is a well-built, flourishing town,
  and is singular in possessing no ancient fort. Between Anamabo and
  Saltpond is Kormantine (Cormantyne), noted as the place whence the
  English first exported slaves from this coast. Hence the general name
  Coromantynes given in the West Indies to slaves from the Gold Coast.
  Eighty miles from Cape Coast is Accra (q.v.) (pop. 17,892), capital of
  the colony. (Winnebah is passed 30 m. before Accra is reached. It is
  an old town noted for the manufacture of canoes.) There is no station
  of much importance in the 60 m. between Accra and the Volta, on the
  right bank of which river, near its mouth, is the town of Addah (pop.
  13,240). Kwitta (pop. 3018) lies beyond the Volta not far from the
  German frontier. Of the inland towns Akropong, the residence of the
  king of Akwapim, is one of the best known. It is 39 m. N.E. of Accra,
  stands on a ridge 1400 ft. above sea-level, and is a healthy place for
  European residents. At Akropong are the headquarters of the Basel
  Missionary Society. Akuse is a large town on the banks of the Volta.
  Tarkwa is the centre of the gold mining industry in the Wasaw
  district. Its importance dates from the beginning of the 20th century.
  Accra, Cape Coast and Sekondi possess municipal government.

  _Agriculture and Trade._--The soil is everywhere very fertile and the
  needs of the people being few there is little incentive to work. The
  forests alone supply an inexhaustible source of wealth, notably in the
  oil palm. Among vegetable products cultivated are cocoa, cotton,
  Indian corn, yams, cassava, peas, peppers, onions, tomatoes,
  groundnuts (_Arachis hypogaea_), Guinea corn (_Sorghum vulgare_) and
  Guinea grains (_Amomum grana-paradisi_). The most common article of
  cultivation is, however, the kola nut (_Sterculia acuminata_), the
  favourite substitute in West Africa for the betel nut. In 1890 efforts
  were made by the establishment of a government botanical station at
  Aburi in the Accra district to induce the natives to improve their
  methods of cultivation and to enlarge the number of their crops. This
  resulted in the formation of hundreds of cocoa plantations, chiefly in
  the district immediately north of Accra. Subsequently the cultivation
  of the plant extended to every district of the colony. The industry
  had been founded in 1879 by a native of Accra, but it was not until
  1901, as the result of the government's fostering care, that the
  export became of importance. In that year the quantity exported
  slightly exceeded 2,000,000 lb. and fetched £42,000. In 1907 the
  quantity exported was nearly 21,000,000 lb. and in value exceeded
  £515,000. In 1904 efforts were begun by the government and the British
  Cotton Growing Association in co-operation to foster the growing of
  cotton for export and by 1907 the cotton industry had become firmly
  established. Tobacco and coffee are grown at some of the Basel
  missionary stations.

  The chief exports are gold, palm oil and palm kernels, cocoa, rubber,
  timber (including mahogany) and kola nuts. Of these articles the gold
  and rubber are shipped chiefly to England, whilst Germany, France and
  America, take the palm products and groundnuts. The rubber comes
  chiefly from Ashanti. The imports consist of cotton goods, rum, gin
  and other spirits, rice, sugar, tobacco, beads, machinery, building
  materials and European goods generally.

  The value of the trade increased from £1,628,309 in 1896 to £4,055,351
  in 1906. In the last named year the imports were valued at £2,058,839
  and the exports at £1,996,412. While the value of imports had remained
  nearly stationary since 1902 the value of exports had nearly trebled
  in that period. In the five years 1903-1907 the total trade increased
  from £3,063,486 to £5,007,869. Great Britain and British colonies take
  66% of the exports and supply over 60% of the imports. In both import
  and export trade Germany is second, followed by France and the United
  States. Specie is included in these totals, over a quarter of a
  million being imported in 1904.

  Fishing is carried on extensively along the coast, and salted and
  sun-dried fish from Addah and Kwitta districts find a ready sale
  inland. Cloths are woven by the natives from home-grown and imported
  yarn; the making of canoes, from the silk-cotton trees, is a
  flourishing industry, and salt from the lagoons near Addah is roughly
  prepared. There are also native artificers in gold and other metals,
  the workmanship in some cases being of conspicuous merit. Odum wood is
  largely used in building and for cabinet work.

  _Gold Mining._--Gold is found in almost every part of the colony, but
  only in a few districts in paying quantities. Although since the
  discovery of the coast gold had been continuously exported to Europe
  from its ports, it was not until the last twenty years of the 19th
  century that efforts were made to extract gold according to modern
  methods. The richness of the Tarkwa main reef was first discovered by
  a French trader, M. J. Bennat, about 1880. During the period 1880 to
  1900 the value of the gold exported varied from a minimum of £32,000
  to a maximum (1889) of £103,000. The increased interest shown in the
  industry led to the construction of a railway (see below) to the chief
  goldfields, whereby the difficulties of transport were largely
  overcome. Consequent upon the taking up of a number of concessions, a
  concessions ordinance was issued in August 1900. This was followed in
  1901 by the grant of 2825 concessions, and a "boom" in the West
  African market on the London stock exchange. Many concessions were
  speedily abandoned, and in 1901 the export of gold dropped to its
  lowest point, 6162 oz., worth £22,186, but in 1902 a large company
  began crushing ore and the output of gold rose to 26,911 oz., valued
  at £96,880. In 1907 the export was 292,125 oz., worth £1,164,676. It
  should be noted that one of the principal gold mines is not in the
  colony proper, but at Obuassi in Ashanti. Underground labour is
  performed mainly by Basas and Krumen from Liberia. Of native tribes
  the Apollonia have proved the best for underground work, as they have
  mining traditions dating from Portuguese times. A good deal of
  alluvial gold is obtained by dredging apparatus. The use of dredging
  apparatus is modern, but the natives have worked the alluvial soil and
  the sand of the seashore for generations to get the gold they contain.

  _Communications._--The colony possesses a railway, built and owned by
  the government, which serves the gold mines, and has its sea terminus
  at Sekondi. Work was begun in August 1898, but owing to the
  disturbance caused by the Ashanti rising of 1900 the rails only
  reached Tarkwa (39 m.) in May 1901. Thence the line is carried to
  Kumasi, the distance to Obuassi (124 m.) being completed by December
  1902, whilst the first train entered the Ashanti capital on the 1st of
  October 1903. The total length of the line is 168 m. The cost of
  construction was £1,820,000. The line has a gauge 3 ft. 6 in. There is
  a branch line, 20 m. long, from Tarkwa N.W. to Prestea on the Ankobra
  river. Another railway, built 1907-10, 35 m. in length, runs from
  Accra to Mangoase, in the centre of the chief cocoa plantations. An
  extension to Kumasi has been surveyed.

  Tortuous bush tracks are the usual means of internal communication.
  These are kept in fair order in the neighbourhood of government
  stations. There is a well-constructed road 141 m. long from Cape Coast
  to Kumasi, and roads connecting neighbouring towns are maintained by
  the government. Systematic attempts to make use of the upper Volta as
  a means of conveying goods to the interior were first tried in 1900.
  The rapids about 60 m. from the mouth of the river effectually prevent
  boats of large size passing up the stream. Where railways or canoes
  are not available goods are generally carried on the heads of porters,
  60 lb. being a full load. Telegraphs, introduced in 1882, connect all
  the important towns in the colony, and a line starting at Cape Coast
  stretches far inland, via Kumasi to Wa in the Northern Territories.
  Accra and Sekondi are in telegraphic communication with Europe, the
  Ivory Coast, Lagos and the Cape of Good Hope. There is regular and
  frequent steamship communication with Europe by British, Belgian and
  German lines.

  _Administration, Revenue, &c._--The country is governed as a crown
  colony, the governor being assisted by a legislative council composed
  of officials and nominated unofficial members. Laws, called
  ordinances, are enacted by the governor with the advice and consent of
  this council. The law of the colony is the common law and statutes of
  general application in force in England in 1874, modified by local
  ordinances passed since that date. The governor is also governor of
  Ashanti and the Northern Territories, but in those dependencies the
  legislative council has no authority.

  Native laws and customs--which are extremely elaborate and
  complicated--are not interfered with "except when repugnant to natural
  justice." Those relating to land tenure and succession may be thus
  summarized. Individual tenure is not unknown, but most land is held by
  the tribe or by the family in common, each member having the right to
  select a part of the common land for his own use. Permanent alienation
  can only take place with the unanimous consent of the family and is
  uncommon, but long leases are granted. Succession is through the
  female, i.e. when a man dies his property goes to his sister's
  children. The government of the tribes is by their own kings and
  chiefs under the supervision of district commissioners. Slavery has
  been abolished in the colony. In the Northern Territories the dealing
  in slaves is unlawful, neither can any person be put in pawn for debt;
  nor will any court give effect to the relations between master and
  slave except in so far as those relations may be in accordance with
  the English laws relating to master and servant.

  For administrative purposes the colony is divided into three provinces
  under provincial commissioners, and each province is subdivided into
  districts presided over by commissioners, who exercise judicial as
  well as executive functions. The supreme court consists of a chief
  justice and three puisne judges. The defence of the colony is
  entrusted to the Gold Coast regiment of the West African Frontier
  Force, a force of natives controlled by the Colonial Office but
  officered from the British army. There is also a corps of volunteers
  (formed 1892).

  The chief source of revenue is the customs and (since 1902) railway
  receipts, whilst the heaviest items of expenditure are transport
  (including railways) and mine surveys, medical and sanitary services,
  and maintenance of the military force. The revenue, which in the
  period 1894-1898 averaged £244,559 yearly, rose in 1898-1903 to an
  average of £556,316 a year. For the five years 1903-1907 the average
  annual revenue was £647,557 and the average annual expenditure
  £615,696. Save for municipal purposes there is no direct taxation in
  the colony and no poor-houses exist. There is a public debt of
  (December 1907) £2,206,964. It should be noted that the expenditure on
  Ashanti and the Northern Territories is included in the Gold Coast
  budget.

_History._--It is a debated question whether the Gold Coast was
discovered by French or by Portuguese sailors. The evidence available is
insufficient to prove the assertion, of which there is no contemporary
record, that a company of Norman merchants established themselves about
1364 at a place they named La Mina (Elmina), and that they traded with
the natives for nearly fifty years, when the enterprise was abandoned.
It is well established that a Portuguese expedition under Diogo
d'Azambuja, accompanied probably by Christopher Columbus, took
possession of (or founded) Elmina in 1481-1482. By the Portuguese it was
called variously São Jorge da Mina or Ora del Mina--the mouth of the
(gold) mines. That besides alluvial washings they also worked the gold
mines was proved by discoveries in the latter part of the 19th century.
The Portuguese remained undisturbed in their trade until the
Reformation, when the papal bull which had given the country, with many
others, to Portugal ceased to have a binding power. English ships in
1553 brought back from Guinea gold to the weight of 150 lb. The fame of
the Gold Coast thereafter attracted to it adventurers from almost every
European nation. The English were followed by French, Danes,
Brandenburgers, Dutch and Swedes. The most aggressive were the Dutch,
who from the end of the 16th century sought to oust the Portuguese from
the Gold Coast, and in whose favour the Portuguese did finally withdraw
in 1642, in return for the withdrawal on the part of the Dutch of their
claims to Brazil. The Dutch henceforth made Elmina their headquarters on
the coast. Traces of the Portuguese occupation, which lasted 160 years,
are still to be found, notably in the language of the natives. Such
familiar words as palaver, fetish, caboceer and dash (i.e. a gift) have
all a Portuguese origin.


  Appearance of the English.

An English company built a fort at Kormantine previously to 1651, and
some ten years later Cape Coast Castle was built. The settlements made
by the English provoked the hostility of the Dutch and led to war
between England and Holland, during which Admiral de Ruyter destroyed
(1664-1665) all the English forts save Cape Coast castle. The treaty of
Breda in 1667 confirmed the Dutch in the possession of their conquests,
but the English speedily opened other trading stations. Charles II. in
1672 granted a charter to the Royal African Company, which built forts
at Dixcove, Sekondi, Accra, Whydah and other places, besides repairing
Cape Coast Castle. At this time the trade both in slaves and gold was
very great, and at the beginning of the 18th century the value of the
gold exported annually was estimated by Willem Bosman, the chief Dutch
factor at Elmina, to be over £200,000. The various European traders were
constantly quarrelling among themselves and exercised scarcely any
control over the natives. Piracy was rife along the coast, and was not
indeed finally stamped out until the middle of the 19th century. The
Royal African Company, which lost its monopoly of trade with England in
1700, was succeeded by another, the African Company of Merchants, which
was constituted in 1750 by act of parliament and received an annual
subsidy from government. The slave trade was then at its height and some
10,000 negroes were exported yearly. Many of the slaves were prisoners
of war sold to the merchants by the Ashanti, who had become the chief
native power. The abolition of the slave trade (1807) crippled the
company, which was dissolved in 1821, when the crown took possession of
the forts.


  Danish and Dutch forts purchased.

Since the beginning of the 19th century the British had begun to
exercise territorial rights in the towns where they held forts, and in
1817 the right of the British to control the natives living in the coast
towns was recognized by Ashanti. In 1824 the first step towards the
extension of British authority beyond the coast region was taken by
Governor Sir Charles M'Carthy, who incited the Fanti to rise against
their oppressors, the Ashanti. (The Fanti's country had been conquered
by the Ashanti in 1807.) Sir Charles and the Fanti army were defeated,
the governor losing his life, but in 1826 the English gained a victory
over the Ashanti at Dodowah. At this period, however, the home
government, disgusted with the Gold Coast by reason of the perpetual
disturbances in the protectorate and the trouble it occasioned,
determined to abandon the settlements, and sent instructions for the
forts to be destroyed and the Europeans brought home. The merchants,
backed by Major Rickets, 2nd West India regiments, the administrator,
protested, and as a compromise the forts were handed over to a committee
of merchants (Sept. 1828), who were given a subsidy of £4000 a year. The
merchants secured (1830) as their administrator Mr George Maclean--a
gentleman with military experience on the Gold Coast and not engaged in
trade. To Maclean is due the consolidation of British interests in the
interior. He concluded, 1831, a treaty with the Ashanti advantageous to
the Fanti, whilst with very inadequate means he contrived to extend
British influence over the whole region of the present colony. In the
words of a Fanti trader Maclean understood the people, "he settled
things quietly with them and the people also loved him."[2] Complaints
that Maclean encouraged slavery reached England, but these were
completely disproved, the governor being highly commended on his
administration by the House of Commons Committee. It was decided,
nevertheless, that the Colonial Office should resume direct control of
the forts, which was done in 1843, Maclean continuing to direct native
affairs until his death in 1847. The jurisdiction of England on the Gold
Coast was defined by the bond of the 6th of March 1844, an agreement
with the native chiefs by which the crown received the right of trying
criminals, repressing human sacrifice, &c. The limits of the
protectorate inland were not defined. The purchase of the Danish forts
in 1850, and of the Dutch forts and territory in 1871, led to the
consolidation of the British power along the coast; and the Ashanti war
of 1873-74 resulted in the extension of the area of British influence.
Since that time the colony has been chiefly engaged in the development
of its material resources, a development accompanied by a slow but
substantial advance in civilization among the native population. (For
further historical information see ASHANTI.)

For a time the Gold Coast formed officially a limb of the "West African
Settlements" and was virtually a dependency of Sierra Leone. In 1874 the
settlements on the Gold Coast and Lagos were created a separate crown
colony, this arrangement lasting until 1886 when Lagos was cut off from
the Gold Coast administration.


_Northern Territories._

The Northern Territories of the Gold Coast form a British protectorate
to the north of Ashanti. They are bounded W. and N.--where 11° N. is the
frontier line except at the eastern extremity--by the French colonies of
the Ivory Coast and Upper Senegal and Niger, E. by the German colony of
Togoland. The southern frontier, separating the protectorate from
Ashanti, is the Black Volta to a point a little above its junction with
the White Volta. Thence the frontier turns south and afterwards east so
as to include the Brumasi district in the protectorate, the frontier
gaining the main Volta below Yeji. The Territories include nearly all
the country from the meridian of Greenwich to 3° W. and between 8° and
11° N., and cover an area of about 33,000 sq. m.

Lying north of the great belt of primeval forest which extends parallel
to the Guinea coast, the greater part of the protectorate consists of
open country, well timbered, and much of it presenting a park-like
appearance. There are also large stretches of grassy plains, and in the
south-east an area of treeless steppe. The flora and fauna resemble
those of Ashanti. The country is well watered, the Black Volta forming
the west and southern frontier for some distance, while the White Volta
traverses its central regions. Both rivers, and also the united stream,
contain rapids which impede but do not prevent navigation (see VOLTA).
The climate is much healthier than that of the coast districts, and the
fever experienced is of a milder type. The rainfall is less than on the
coast; the dry season lasts from November (when the harmattan begins to
blow) to March. The mean temperature at Gambaga is 80° F., the mean
annual rainfall 43 in. The inhabitants were officially estimated in 1907
to number "at least 1,000,000." The Dagomba, Dagarti, Grunshi, Kangarga,
Moshi and Zebarima, Negro or Negroid tribes, constitute the bulk of the
people, and Fula, Hausa and Yoruba have settled as traders or cattle
raisers. A large number of the natives are Moslems, the rest are fetish
worshippers. The tribal organization is maintained by the British
authorities, who found comparatively little difficulty in putting an end
to slave-raiding and gaining the confidence of the chiefs. Trained by
British officers, the natives make excellent soldiers.

  _Agriculture and Trade._--The chief crops are maize, guinea-corn,
  millet, yams, rice, beans, groundnuts, tobacco and cotton. Cotton is
  grown in most parts of the protectorate, the soil and climate in many
  districts being very suitable for its cultivation. Rubber is found in
  the north-western regions. When the protectorate was assumed by Great
  Britain the Territories were singularly destitute of fruit trees. The
  British have introduced the orange, citron, lime, guava, mango and
  soursop, and among plants the banana, pine-apple and papaw. A large
  number of vegetables and flowers have also been introduced by the
  administration.

  Stock-raising is carried on extensively, and besides oxen and sheep
  there are large numbers of horses and donkeys in the Territories. The
  chief exports are cattle, _dawa-dawa_ (a favourite flavouring matter
  for soup among the Ashanti and other tribes) and shea-butter--the
  latter used in cooking and as an illuminant. The principal imports are
  kola-nuts, salt and cotton goods. A large proportion of the European
  goods imported is German and comes through Togoland. The
  administration levies a tax on traders' caravans, and in return
  ensures the safety of the roads. This tax is the chief local source of
  revenue. The revenue and expenditure of the Territories, as well as
  statistics of trade, are included in those of the Gold Coast.

  Gold exists in quartz formation, chiefly in the valley of the Black
  Volta, and is found equally on the British and French sides of the
  frontier.

  _Towns._--The headquarters of the administration are at Tamale (or
  Tamari), a town in the centre of the Dagomba country east of the White
  Volta and 200 m. N.E. of Kumasi. Its inhabitants are keen traders, and
  it forms a distributing centre for the whole protectorate. Gambaga, an
  important commercial centre and from 1897 to 1907 the seat of
  government, is in Mamprusi, the north-east corner of the protectorate
  and is 85 m. N.N.E. of Tamale. A hundred and forty miles due south of
  Gambaga is Salaga. This town is situated on the caravan route from the
  Hausa states to Ashanti, and has a considerable trade in kola-nuts,
  shea-butter and salt. On the White Volta, midway between Gambaga and
  Salaga, is the thriving town of Daboya. On the western frontier are
  Bole (Baule) and Wa. They carry on an extensive trade with Bontuku,
  the capital of Jaman, and other places in the Ivory Coast colony. In
  all the towns the population largely consists of aliens--Hausa,
  Ashanti, Mandingos, &c.

  _Communications._--Lack of easy communication with the sea hinders the
  development of the country. The ancient caravan routes have been,
  however, supplemented by roads built by the British, who have further
  organized a service of boats on the Volta. Large cargo boats, chiefly
  laden with salt, ascend that river from Addah to Yeji and Daboya. From
  Yeji, the port of Salaga, a good road, 150 m. long, has been made to
  Gambaga. There is also a river service from Yeji to Longoro on the
  Black Volta, the port of Kintampo, in northern Ashanti. There is a
  complete telegraphic system connecting the towns of the protectorate
  with Kumasi and the Gold Coast ports.

_History._--It was not until the last quarter of the 19th century that
the country immediately north of Ashanti became known to Europeans. The
first step forward was made by Monsieur M. J. Bonnat (one of the Kumasi
captives, see ASHANTI) who, ascending the Volta, reached Salaga
(1875-1876). In 1882 Captain R. La Trobe Lonsdale, an officer in British
colonial service, went farther, visiting Yendi in the north and Bontuku
in the west. Two years later Captain Brandon Kirby made his way to
Kintampo. In 1887-1889 Captain L. G. Binger, a French officer, traversed
the country from north to south. Thereafter the whole region was visited
by British, French and German political missions. Prominent among the
British agents was Mr George E. Ferguson, a native of West Africa, who
had previously explored northern Ashanti. Between 1892 and 1897 Ferguson
concluded several treaties guarding British interests. In 1897
Lieutenant Henderson and Ferguson occupied Wa, where they were attacked
by the _sofas_ of Samory (see SENEGAL, § 3). Henderson, who had gone to
the _sofa_ camp to parley, was held prisoner for some time, while
Ferguson was killed. Meantime negotiations were opened in Europe to
settle the spheres of influence of the respective countries. (The
Anglo-French agreement of 1889 had fixed the boundaries of the
hinterlands of the French colony of the Ivory Coast and the British
colony of the Gold Coast as far as 9° N. only.) A period of considerable
tension, arising from the proximity of British and French troops in the
disputed territory, was ended by the signature of a convention in Paris
(14th of June 1898), in which the western and northern boundaries were
defined. The British abandoned their claim to the important town and
district of Wagadugu in the north. In the following year (14th of
November 1899) an agreement defining the eastern frontier was concluded
with Germany. Previously a square block of territory to the north of 8°
N. had been regarded as neutral, both by Britain and Germany. This was
in virtue of an arrangement made in 1888. By the 1899 convention the
neutral zone was parcelled out between the two powers. The delimitation
of the frontiers agreed upon took place during 1900-1904.

In 1897 the Northern Territories were constituted a separate district of
the Gold Coast hinterland, and were placed in charge of a chief
commissioner. Colonel H. P. Northcott (killed in the Boer War,
1899-1902) was the first commissioner and commandant of the troops. He
was succeeded by Col. A. H. Morris. In 1901 the Territories were made a
distinct administration, under the jurisdiction of the governor of the
Gold Coast colony. The government was at first of a semi-military
character, but in 1907 a civilian staff was appointed to carry on the
administration, and a force of armed constabulary replaced the troops
which had been stationed in the protectorate and which were then
disbanded. The prosperity of the country under British administration
has been marked.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--A good summary of the condition and history of the
  colony to the close of the 19th century will be found in vol. 3, "West
  Africa," of the _Historical Geography of the British Empire_ by C. P.
  Lucas (2nd ed., Oxford, 1900). For current information see the _Gold
  Coast Civil Service List_ (London, yearly), the annual Blue Books
  published in the colony, and the annual _Report_ issued by the
  Colonial Office, London. For fuller information consult the _Report
  from the Select Committee on Africa_ (_Western Coast_) (London, 1865),
  a mine of valuable information; _The Gold Coast, Past and Present_, by
  G. Macdonald (London, 1898); _History of the Gold Coast and Ashanti_,
  by C. C. Reindorf, a native pastor (Basel, 1895); _A History of the
  Gold Coast_, by Col. A. B. Ellis (London, 1893); _Wanderings in West
  Africa_ (London, 1863) and _To the Gold Coast for Gold_ (London,
  1883), both by Sir Richard Burton. Of the earlier books the most
  notable are _The Golden Coast or a Description of Guinney together
  with a relation of such persons as got wonderful estates by their
  trade thither_ (London, 1665), and _A New and Accurate Description of
  the Coast of Guinea_ written (in Dutch) by Willem Bosman, chief factor
  for the Dutch at Elmina (Eng. trans., 2nd ed., 1721). For a complete
  survey of the Gold Coast under Dutch control see "Die Niederländisch
  West-Indische Compagnie an der Gold-Küste" by J. G. Doorman in _Tijds
  Indische Taal-, Land- en Volkenk_, vol. 40 (1898). For ethnography,
  religion, law, &c., consult _The Land of Fetish_ (London, 1883) and
  _The Tshi-speaking Peoples of the West Coast of Africa_ (London,
  1887), both by Col. A. B. Ellis; _Fanti Customary Law_ (2nd ed.,
  London, 1904) and _Fanti Law Report_ (London, 1904), both by J. M.
  Sarbah. The _Sketch of the Forestry of West Africa_ by Sir Alfred
  Moloney (London, 1887) contains a comprehensive list of economic
  plants. See also _Report on Economic Agriculture on the Gold Coast_
  (Colonial Office Reports, No. 110, 1890), and _Papers relating to the
  Construction of Railways in ... the Gold Coast_ (London, 1904). The
  best map is that of Major F. G. Guggisberg, over 70 sheets, scale 1 :
  125,000 (London, 1907-1909). There is a War Office map on the scale 1
  : 1,000,000 in one sheet. See also the works quoted under ASHANTI.

  For the Northern Territories see L. G. Binger, _Du Niger au Golfe de
  Guinée_ (Paris, 1892), a standard authority; H. P. Northcott, _Report
  on the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast_ (War Office, London,
  1899), a valuable compilation summarizing the then available
  information. Annual _Reports_ on the protectorate are issued by the
  British Colonial Office. A map on the scale of 1 : 1,000,000 is issued
  by the War Office.     (F. R. C.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] This name appears in a great variety of forms--Kwi, Ekwi, Okwi,
    Oji, Odschi, Otsui, Tyi, Twi, Tschi, Chwee or Chee.

  [2] Blue Book on _Africa_ (_Western Coast_) (1865), p. 233.



GOLDEN, a city and the county-seat of Jefferson county, Colorado,
U.S.A., on Clear Creek (formerly called the Vasquez fork of the South
Platte), about 14 m. W. by N. of Denver. Pop. (1900) 2152; (1910) 2477.
Golden is a residential suburb of Denver, served by the Colorado &
Southern, the Denver & Intermountain (electric), and the Denver &
North-Western Electric railways. It is about 5700 ft. above sea-level.
About 600 ft. above the city is Castle Rock, with an amusement park, and
W. of Golden is Lookout Mountain, a natural park of 3400 acres. About 1
m. S. of the city is a state industrial school for boys, and in Golden
is the Colorado State School of Mines (opened 1874), which offers
courses in mining engineering and metallurgical engineering. The
Independent Pyritic Smelter is at Golden, and among the city's
manufactures are pottery, firebrick and tile, made from clays found near
by, and flour. There are deposits of coal, copper and gold in the
vicinity. Truck-farming and the growing of fruit are important
industries in the neighbourhood. The first settlement here was a gold
mining camp, established in 1859, and named in honour of Tom Golden, one
of the pioneer prospectors. The village was laid out in 1860, and Golden
was incorporated as a town in 1865 and was chartered as a city in 1870.
Golden was made the capital of Colorado Territory in 1862, and several
sessions (or parts of sessions) of the Assembly were held here between
1864 and 1868, when the seat of government was formally established at
Denver; the territorial offices of Colorado, however, were at Golden
only in 1866-1867.



GOLDEN BULL (Lat. _Bulla Aurea_), the general designation of any charter
decorated with a golden seal or _bulla_, either owing to the intrinsic
importance of its contents, or to the rank and dignity of the bestower
or the recipient. The custom of thus giving distinction to certain
documents is said to be of Byzantine origin, though if this be the case
it is somewhat strange that the word employed as an equivalent for
golden bull in Byzantine Greek should be the hybrid [Greek:
chrysoboullon] (cf. Codinus Curopalates, [Greek: ho megas logothetês
diatattei ta para tou basileôs apostellomena prostagmata kai
chrysoboulla pros te Hrêgas, Soultanas, kai toparchous]; and Anna
Comnena, Alexiad, lib. iii. [Greek: dia Xpusobouliou logou]; lib. viii.,
[Greek: chrysoboulon logon]). In Germany a Golden Bull is mentioned
under the reign of Henry I. the Fowler in Chronica Cassin. ii. 31, and
the oldest German example, if it be genuine, dates from 983. At first
the golden seal was formed after the type of a solid coin, but at a
later date, while the golden surface presented to the eye was greatly
increased, the seal was really composed of two thin metal plates filled
in with wax. The number of golden bulls issued by the imperial chancery
must have been very large; the city of Frankfort, for example, preserves
no fewer than eight.

The name, however, has become practically restricted to a few documents
of unusual political importance, the golden bull of the Empire, the
golden bull of Brabant, the golden bull of Hungary and the golden bull
of Milan--and of these the first is undoubtedly _the_ Golden Bull _par
excellence_. The main object of the Golden Bull was to provide a set of
rules for the election of the German kings, or kings of the Romans, as
they are called in this document. Since the informal establishment of
the electoral college about a century before (see ELECTORS), various
disputes had taken place about the right of certain princes to vote at
the elections, these and other difficulties having arisen owing to the
absence of any authoritative ruling. The spiritual electors, it is true,
had exercised their votes without challenge, but far different was the
case of the temporal electors. The families ruling in Saxony and in
Bavaria had been divided into two main branches and, as the German
states had not yet accepted the principles of primogeniture, it was
uncertain which member of the divided family should vote. Thus, both the
prince ruling in Saxe-Lauenburg and the prince ruling in Saxe-Wittenberg
claimed the vote, and the two branches of the family of Wittelsbach, one
settled in Bavaria and the other in the Rhenish palatinate, were
similarly at variance, while the duke of Bavaria also claimed the vote
at the expense of the king of Bohemia. Moreover, there had been several
disputed and double elections to the German crown during the past
century. In more than one instance a prince, chosen by a minority of the
electors, had claimed to exercise the functions of king, and as often
civil war had been the result. Under these circumstances the emperor
Charles IV. determined by an authoritative pronouncement to make such
proceedings impossible in the future, and at the same time to add to his
own power and prestige, especially in his capacity as king of Bohemia.

Having arranged various disputes in Germany, and having in April 1355
secured his coronation in Rome, Charles gave instructions for the bull
to be drawn up. It is uncertain who is responsible for its actual
composition. The honour has been assigned to Bartolo of Sassoferrato,
professor of law at Pisa and Perugia, to the imperial secretary, Rudolph
of Friedberg, and even to the emperor himself, but there is no valid
authority for giving it to any one of the three in preference to the
others. In its first form the bull was promulgated at the diet of
Nuremberg on the 10th of January 1356, but it was not accepted by the
princes until some modifications had been introduced, and in its final
form it was issued at the diet of Metz on the 25th of December
following.

The text of the Golden Bull consists of a prologue and of thirty-one
chapters. Some lines of verse invoking the aid of Almighty God are
followed by a rhetorical statement of the evils which arise from discord
and division, illustrations being taken from Adam, who was divided from
obedience and thus fell, and from Helen of Troy who was divided from her
husband. The early chapters are mainly concerned with details of the
elaborate ceremonies which are to be observed on the occasion of an
election. The number of electors is fixed at seven, the duke of
Saxe-Wittenberg, not the duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, receiving the Saxon
vote, and the count palatine, not the duke of Bavaria, obtaining the
vote of the Wittelsbachs. The electors were arranged in order of
precedence thus: the archbishops of Mainz, of Trier and of Cologne, the
king of Bohemia, _qui inter electores laicos ex regiae dignitatis
fastigio jure et merito obtinet primatiam_, the count palatine of the
Rhine, the duke of Saxony and the margrave of Brandenburg. The three
archbishops were respectively arch-chancellors of the three principal
divisions of the Empire, Germany, Arles and Italy, and the four secular
electors each held an office in the imperial household, the functions of
which they were expected to discharge on great occasions. The king of
Bohemia was the arch-cupbearer, the count palatine was the arch-steward
(_dapifer_), the duke of Saxony was arch-marshal, and the margrave of
Brandenburg was arch-chamberlain. The work of summoning the electors and
of presiding over their deliberations fell to the archbishop of Mainz,
but if he failed to discharge this duty the electors were to assemble
without summons within three months of the death of a king. Elections
were to be held at Frankfort; they were to be decided by a majority of
votes, and the subsequent coronation at Aix-la-Chapelle was to be
performed by the archbishop of Cologne. During a vacancy in the Empire
the work of administering the greater part of Germany was entrusted to
the count palatine of the Rhine, the duke of Saxony being responsible,
however, for the government of Saxony, or rather for the districts _ubi
Saxonica jura servantur_.

The chief result of the bull was to add greatly to the power of the
electors; for, to quote Bryce (_Holy Roman Empire_), it "confessed and
legalized the independence of the electors and the powerlessness of the
crown." To these princes were given sovereign rights in their dominions,
which were declared indivisible and were to pass according to the rule
of primogeniture. Except in extreme cases, there was to be no appeal
from the sentences of their tribunals, and they were confirmed in the
right of coining money, of taking tolls, and in other privileges, while
conspirators against their lives were to suffer the penalties of
treason. One clause gave special rights and immunities to the king of
Bohemia, who, it must be remembered, at this time was Charles himself,
and others enjoined the observance of the public peace. Provision was
made for an annual meeting of the electors, to be held at Metz four
weeks after Easter, when matters _pro bono et salute communi_ were to be
discussed. This arrangement, however, was not carried out, although the
electors met occasionally. Another clause forbade the cities to receive
_Pfahlbürger_, i.e. forbade them to take men dwelling outside their
walls under their protection. It may be noted that there is no admission
whatever that the election of a king needs confirmation from the pope.

The Golden Bull was thus a great victory for the electors, but it
weakened the position of the German king and was a distinct humiliation
for the other princes and for the cities. The status of those rulers who
did not obtain the electoral privilege was lowered by this very fact,
and the regulations about the _Pfahlbürger_, together with the
prohibition of new leagues and associations, struck a severe blow at the
cities. The German kings were elected according to the conditions laid
down in the bull until the dissolution of the Empire in 1806. At first
the document was known simply as the Lex Carolina; but gradually the
name of the Book with the Golden Bull came into use, and the present
elliptical title was sufficiently established by 1417 to be officially
employed in a charter by King Sigismund. The original autograph was
committed to the care of the elector of Mainz, and it was preserved in
the archives at Mainz till 1789. Official transcripts were probably
furnished to each of the seven electors at the time of the promulgation,
and before long many of the other members of the Empire secured copies
for themselves. The transcript which belonged to the elector of Trier is
preserved in the state archives at Stuttgart, that of the elector of
Cologne in the court library at Darmstadt, and that of the king of
Bohemia in the imperial archives at Vienna. Berlin, Munich and Dresden
also boast the possession of an electoral transcript; and the town of
Kitzingen has a contemporary copy in its municipal archives. There
appears, however, to be good reason to doubt the genuineness of most of
these so-called original transcripts. But perhaps the best known example
is that of Frankfort-on-Main, which was procured from the imperial
chancery in 1366, and is adorned with a golden seal like the original.
Not only was it regularly quoted as the indubitable authority in regard
to the election of the emperors in Frankfort itself, but it was from
time to time officially consulted by members of the Empire.

  The manuscript consists of 43 leaves of parchment of medium quality,
  each measuring about 10-1/8 in. in height by 7-1/8 in breadth. The
  seal is of the plate and wax type. On the obverse appears a figure of
  the emperor seated on his throne, with the sceptre in his right hand
  and the globe in his left; a shield, with the crowned imperial eagle,
  occupies the space on the one side of the throne, and a corresponding
  shield, with the crowned Bohemian lion with two tails, occupies the
  space on the other side; and round the margin runs the legend,
  _Karolus quartus divina favente clementia, Romanorum imperator semper
  Augustus et Boëmiae rex_. On the reverse is a castle, with the words
  _Aurea Roma_ on the gate, and the circumscription reads, _Roma caput
  mundi regit orbis frena rotundi_. The original Latin text of the bull
  was printed at Nuremberg by Friedrich Creussner in 1474, and a second
  edition by Anthonius Koburger (d. 1532) appeared at the same place in
  1477. Since that time it has been frequently reprinted from various
  manuscripts and collections. M. Goldast gave the Palatine text,
  compared with those of Bohemia and Frankfort, in his _Collectio
  constitutionum et legum imperialium_ (Frankfort, 1613). Another is to
  be found in _De comitiis imperii_ of O. Panvinius, and a third, of
  unknown history, is prefixed to the _Codex recessuum Imperii_ (Mainz,
  1599, and again 1615). The Frankfort text appeared in 1742 as _Aurea
  Bulla secundum exemplar originale Frankfurtense_, edited by W. C.
  Multz, and the text is also found in J. J. Schmauss, Corpus juris
  publici, edited by R. von Hommel (Leipzig, 1794), and in the
  _Ausgewählte Urkunden zur Erläuterung der Verfassungsgeschichte
  Deutschlands im Mittelalter_, edited by W. Altmann and E. Bernheim
  (Berlin, 1891, and again 1895). German translations, none of which,
  however, had any official authority, were published at Nuremberg about
  1474, at Venice in 1476, and at Strassburg in 1485. Among the earlier
  commentators on the document are H. Canisius and J. Limnaeus who wrote
  _In Auream Bullam_ (Strassburg, 1662). The student will find a good
  account of the older literature on the subject in C. G. Biener's
  _Commentarii de origine et progressu legum juriumque Germaniae_
  (1787-1795). See also J. D. von Olenschläger, _Neue Erläuterungen der
  Guldenen Bulle_ (Frankfort and Leipzig, 1766); H. G. von Thulemeyer,
  _De Bulla Aurea, Argentea_, &c. (Heidelberg, 1682); J. St Pütter,
  _Historische Entwickelung der heutigen Staatsverfassung des teutschen
  Reichs_ (Göttingen, 1786-1787), and O. Stobbe, _Geschichte der
  deutschen Rechtsquellen_ (Brunswick, 1860-1864). Among the more modern
  works may be mentioned: E. Nerger, _Die Goldne Bulle nach ihrem
  Ursprung_ (Göttingen, 1877), O. Hahn, _Ursprung und Bedeutung der
  Goldnen Bulle_ (Breslau, 1903); and M. G. Schmidt, _Die
  staatsrechtliche Anwendung der Goldnen Bulle_ (Halle, 1894). There is
  a valuable contribution to the subject in the _Quellensammlung zur
  Geschichte der deutschen Reichsverfassung_, edited by K. Zeumer
  (Leipzig, 1904), and another by O. Harnack in his _Das Kurfürsten
  Kollegium bis zur Mitte des 14ten Jahrhunderts_ (Giessen, 1883). There
  is an English translation of the bull in E. F. Henderson's _Select
  Historical Documents of the Middle Ages_ (London, 1903).
       (A. W. H.*)



GOLDEN-EYE, a name indiscriminately given in many parts of Britain to
two very distinct species of ducks, from the rich yellow colour of their
irides. The commonest of them--the _Anas fuligula_ of Linnaeus and
_Fuligula cristata_ of most modern ornithologists--is, however, usually
called by English writers the tufted duck, while "golden-eye" is
reserved in books for the _A. clangula_ and _A. glaucion_ of Linnaeus,
who did not know that the birds he so named were but examples of the
same species, differing only in age or sex; and to this day many fowlers
perpetuate a like mistake, deeming the "Morillon," which is the female
or young male, distinct from the "Golden-eye" or "Rattle-wings" (as from
its noisy flight they oftener call it), which is the adult male. This
species belongs to the group known as diving ducks, and is the type of
the very well-marked genus _Clangula_ of later systematists, which,
among other differences, has the posterior end of the sternum prolonged
so as to extend considerably over, and, we may not unreasonably suppose,
protect the belly--a character possessed in a still greater degree by
the mergansers (_Merginae_), while the males also exhibit in the
extraordinarily developed bony labyrinth of their trachea and its midway
enlargement another resemblance to the members of the same subfamily.
The golden-eye, _C. glaucion_ of modern writers, has its home in the
northern parts of both hemispheres, whence in winter it migrates
southward; but as it is one of the ducks that constantly resorts to
hollow trees for the purpose of breeding it hardly transcends the limit
of the Arctic forests on either continent. So well known is this habit
to the people of the northern districts of Scandinavia, that they very
commonly devise artificial nest-boxes for its accommodation and their
own profit. Hollow logs of wood are prepared, the top and bottom closed,
and a hole cut in the side. These are affixed to the trunks of living
trees in suitable places, at a convenient distance from the ground, and,
being readily occupied by the birds in the breeding season, are
regularly robbed, first of the numerous eggs, and finally of the down
they contain, by those who have set them up.

The adult male golden-eye is a very beautiful bird, mostly black above,
but with the head, which is slightly crested, reflecting rich green
lights, a large oval white patch under each eye and elongated white
scapulars; the lower parts are wholly white and the feet bright orange,
except the webs, which are dusky. In the female and young male, dark
brown replaces the black, the cheek-spots are indistinct and the
elongated white scapulars wanting. The golden-eye of North America has
been by some authors deemed to differ, and has been named _C.
americana_, but apparently on insufficient grounds. North America,
however, has, in common with Iceland, a very distinct species, _C.
islandica_, often called Barrow's duck, which is but a rare straggler to
the continent of Europe, and never, so far as known, to Britain. In
Iceland and Greenland it is the only habitual representative of the
genus, and it occurs from thence to the Rocky Mountains. In
breeding-habits it differs from the commoner species, not placing its
eggs in tree-holes; but how far this difference is voluntary may be
doubted, for in the countries it frequents trees are wanting. It is a
larger and stouter bird, and in the male the white cheek-patches take a
more crescentic form, while the head is glossed with purple rather than
green, and the white scapulars are not elongated. The New World also
possesses a third and still more beautiful species of the genus in _C.
albeola_, known in books as the buffel-headed duck, and to American
fowlers as the "spirit-duck" and "butter-ball"--the former name being
applied from its rapidity in diving, and the latter from its exceeding
fatness in autumn. This is of small size, but the lustre of the feathers
in the male is most brilliant, exhibiting a deep plum-coloured gloss on
the head. It breeds in trees, and is supposed to have occurred more than
once in Britain.     (A. N.)



GOLDEN FLEECE, in Greek mythology, the fleece of the ram on which
Phrixus and Helle escaped, for which see ARGONAUTS. For the modern
order of the Golden Fleece, see KNIGHTHOOD AND CHIVALRY, section _Orders
of Knighthood_.



GOLDEN HORDE, the name of a body of Tatars who in the middle of the 13th
century overran a great portion of eastern Europe and founded in Russia
the Tatar empire of khanate known as the Empire of the Golden Horde or
Western Kipchaks. They invaded Europe about 1237 under the leadership of
Batu Khan, a younger son of Juji, eldest son of Jenghiz Khan, passed
over Russia with slaughter and destruction, and penetrated into Silesia,
Poland and Hungary, finally defeating Henry II., duke of Silesia, at
Liegnitz in the battle known as the Wahlstatt on the 9th of April 1241.
So costly was this victory, however, that Batu, finding he could not
reduce Neustadt, retraced his steps and established himself in his
magnificent tent (whence the name "golden") on the Volga. The new
settlement was known as _Sir Orda_ ("Golden Camp," whence "Golden
_Horde_"). Very rapidly the powers of Batu extended over the Russian
princes, and so long as the khanate remained in the direct descent from
Batu nothing occurred to check the growth of the empire. The names of
Batu's successors are Sartak (1256), Bereke (Baraka) (1256-1266),
Mangu-Timur (1266-1280), Tuda Mangu (1280-1287). (?) Tula Bugha
(1287-1290), Toktu (1290-1312), Uzbeg (1312-1340), Tin-Beg (1340),
Jani-Beg (1340-1357). The death of Jani-Beg, however, threw the empire
into confusion. Birdi-Beg (Berdi-Beg) only reigned for two years, after
which two rulers, calling themselves sons of Jani-Beg occupied the
throne during one year. From that time (1359) till 1378 no single ruler
held the whole empire under control, various members of the other
branches of the old house of Juji assuming the title. At last in 1378
Toktamish, of the Eastern Kipchaks, succeeded in ousting all rivals, and
establishing himself as ruler of eastern and western Kipchak. For a
short time the glory of the Golden Horde was renewed, until it was
finally crushed by Timur in 1395.

  See further MONGOLS and RUSSIA; Sir Henry Howorth's _History of the
  Mongols_; S. Lane-Poole's _Mohammadan Dynasties_ (1894), pp. 222-231;
  for the relations of the various descendants of Jenghiz, see Stockvis,
  _Manuel d'histoire_, vol. i. chap. ix. table 7.



GOLDEN ROD, in botany, the popular name for _Solidago virgaurea_
(natural order Compositae), a native of Britain and widely distributed
in the north temperate region. It is an old-fashioned border-plant
flowering from July to September, with an erect, sparingly-branched stem
and small bright-yellow clustered heads of flowers. It grows well in
common soil and is readily propagated by division in the spring or
autumn.



GOLDEN ROSE (_rosa aurea_), an ornament made of wrought gold and set
with gems, generally sapphires, which is blessed by the pope on the
fourth (_Laetare_) Sunday of Lent, and usually afterwards sent as a mark
of special favour to some distinguished individual, to a church, or a
civil community. Formerly it was a single rose of wrought gold, coloured
red, but the form finally adopted is a thorny branch with leaves and
flowers, the petals of which are decked with gems, surmounted by one
principal rose. The origin of the custom is obscure. From very early
times popes have given away a rose on the fourth Sunday of Lent, whence
the name Dominica Rosa, sometimes given to this feast. The practice of
blessing and sending some such symbol (e.g. _eulogiae_) goes back to the
earliest Christian antiquity, but the use of the rose itself does not
seem to go farther back than the 11th century. According to some
authorities it was used by Leo IX. (1049-1054), but in any case Pope
Urban II. sent one to Fulk of Anjou during the preparations for the
first crusade. Pope Urban V., who sent a golden rose to Joanna of Naples
in 1366, is alleged to have been the first to determine that one should
be consecrated annually. Beginning with the 16th century there went
regularly with the rose a letter relating the reasons why it was sent,
and reciting the merits and virtues of the receiver. When the change was
made from the form of the simple rose to the branch is uncertain. The
rose sent by Innocent IV. in 1244 to Count Raymond Berengar IV. of
Provence was a simple flower without any accessory ornamentation, while
the one given by Benedict XI. in 1303 or 1304 to the church of St
Stephen at Perugia consisted of a branch garnished with five open and
two closed roses enriched with a sapphire, the whole having a value of
seventy ducats. The value of the gift varied according to the character
or rank of the recipient. John XXII. gave away some weighing 12 oz., and
worth from £250 to £325. Among the recipients of this honour have been
Henry VI. of England, 1446; James III. of Scotland, on whom the rose
(made by Jacopo Magnolio) was conferred by Innocent VIII., James IV. of
Scotland; Frederick the Wise, elector of Saxony, who received a rose
from Leo X. in 1518; Henry VIII. of England, who received three, the
last from Clement VII. in 1524 (each had nine branches, and rested on
different forms of feet, one on oxen, the second on acorns, and the
third on lions); Queen Mary, who received one in 1555 from Julius III.;
the republic of Lucca, so favoured by Pius IV., in 1564; the Lateran
Basilica by Pius V. three years later; the sanctuary of Loreto by
Gregory XIII. in 1584; Maria Theresa, queen of France, who received it
from Clement IX. in 1668; Mary Casimir, queen of Poland, from Innocent
XI. in 1684 in recognition of the deliverance of Vienna by her husband,
John Sobieski; Benedict XIII. (1726) presented one to the cathedral of
Capua, and in 1833 it was sent by Gregory XVI. to the church of St
Mark's, Venice. In more recent times it was sent to Napoleon III. of
France, the empress Eugénie, and the queens Isabella II., Christina
(1886) and Victoria (1906) of Spain. The gift of the golden rose used
almost invariably to accompany the coronation of the king of the Romans.
If in any particular year no one is considered worthy of the rose, it is
laid up in the Vatican.

Some of the most famous Italian goldsmiths have been employed in making
the earlier roses; and such intrinsically valuable objects have, in
common with other priceless historical examples of the goldsmiths' art,
found their way to the melting-pot. It is, therefore, not surprising
that the number of existing historic specimens is very small. These
include one of the 14th century in the Cluny Museum, Paris, believed to
have been sent by Clement V. to the prince-bishop of Basel; another
conferred in 1458 on his native city of Siena by Pope Pius II.; and the
rose bestowed upon Siena by Alexander VII., a son of that city, which is
depicted in a procession in a fresco in the Palazzo Pubblico at Siena.
The surviving roses of more recent date include that presented by
Benedict XIII. to Capua cathedral; the rose conferred on the empress
Caroline by Pius VII., 1819, at Vienna; one of 1833 (Gregory XVI.) at St
Mark's, Venice; and Pope Leo XIII.'s rose sent to Queen Christina of
Spain, which is at Madrid.

  AUTHORITIES.--Angelo Rocca, _Aurea Rosa_, &c. (1719); Busenelli, _De
  Rosa Aurea. Epistola_ (1759); Girbal, _La Rosa de oro_ (Madrid, 1820);
  C. Joret, _La Rose d'or dans l'antiquité et au moyen âge_ (Paris,
  1892), pp. 432-435; Eugène Muntz in _Revue d'art chrétien_ (1901),
  series v. vol. 12 pp. 1-11; De F. Mely, _Le Trésor de Chartres_
  (1886); Marquis de Mac Swiney Mashanaglass, _Le Portugal et le Saint
  Siège: Les Roses d'or envoyées par les Papes aux rois de Portugal au
  XVI^e siècle_ (1904); Sir C. Young, _Ornaments and Gift consecrated by
  the Roman Pontiffs: the Golden Rose, the Cap and Swords presented to
  Sovereigns of England and Scotland_ (1864).     (J. T. S.*; E. A. J.)



GOLDEN RULE, the term applied in all European languages to the rule of
conduct laid down in the New Testament (Matthew vii. 12 and Luke vi.
31). "whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to
them, for this is the law and the prophets." This principle has often
been stated as the fundamental precept of social morality. It is
sometimes put negatively or passively, "do not that to another which
thou wouldst not have done to thyself" (cf. Hobbes, _Leviathan_, xv. 79,
xvii. 85), but it should be observed that in this form it implies merely
abstention from evil doing. In either form the precept in ordinary
application is part of a hedonistic system of ethics, the criterion of
action being strictly utilitarian in character.

  See H. Sidgwick, _History of Ethics_ (5th ed., 1902), p. 167; James
  Seth, _Ethical Principles_, p. 97 foll.



GOLDFIELD, a town and the county-seat of Esmeralda county, Nevada,
U.S.A., about 170 m. S.E. of Carson City. Pop. (1910, U.S. census) 4838.
It is served by the Tonopah & Groldfield, Las Vegas & Tonopah, and
Tonopah & Tidewater railways. The town lies in the midst of a desert
abounding in high-grade gold ores, and is essentially a mining camp. The
discovery of gold at Tonopah, about 28 m. N. of Goldfield, in 1900 was
followed by its discovery at Goldfield in 1902 and 1903; in 1904 the
Goldfield district produced about 800 tons of ore, which yielded
$2,300,000 worth of gold, or 30% of that of the State. This remarkable
production caused Goldfield to grow rapidly, and it soon became the
largest town in the state. In addition to the mines, there are large
reduction works. In 1907 Goldfield became the county-seat. The gold
output in 1907 was $8,408,396; in 1908, $4,880,251. Soon after mining on
an extensive scale began, the miners organized themselves as a local
branch of the Western Federation of Miners, and in this branch were
included many labourers in Goldfield other than miners. Between this
branch and the mine-owners there arose a series of more or less serious
differences, and there were several set strikes--in December 1906 and
January 1907, for higher wages; in March and April 1907, because the
mine-owners refused to discharge carpenters who were members of the
American Federation of Labour, but did not belong to the Western
Federation of Miners or to the Industrial Workers of the World
affiliated with it, this last organization being, as a result of the
strike, forced out of Goldfield; in August and September 1907, because a
rule was introduced at some of the mines requiring miners to change
their clothing before entering and after leaving the mines,--a rule made
necessary, according to the operators, by the wholesale stealing (in
miners' parlance, "high-grading") of the very valuable ore (some of it
valued at as high as $20 a pound); and in November and December 1907,
because some of the mine-owners, avowedly on account of the hard times,
adopted a system of paying in cashier's checks. Excepting occasional
attacks upon non-union workmen, or upon persons supposed not to be in
sympathy with the miners' union, there had been no serious disturbance
in Goldfield; but in December 1907, Governor Sparks, at the instance of
the mine-owners, appealed to President Roosevelt to send Federal troops
to Goldfield, on the ground that the situation there was ominous, that
destruction of life and property seemed probable, and that the state had
no militia and would be powerless to maintain order. President Roosevelt
thereupon (December 4th) ordered General Frederick Funston, commanding
the Division of California, at San Francisco, to proceed with 300
Federal troops to Goldfield. The troops arrived in Goldfield on the 6th
of December, and immediately afterwards the mine-owners reduced wages
and announced that no members of the Western Federation of Miners would
thereafter be employed in the mines. President Roosevelt, becoming
convinced that conditions had not warranted Governor Sparks's appeal for
Federal assistance, but that the immediate withdrawal of the troops
might nevertheless lead to serious disorders, consented that they should
remain for a short time on condition that the state should immediately
organize an adequate militia or police force. Accordingly, a special
meeting of the legislature was immediately called, a state police force
was organized, and on the 7th of March 1908 the troops were withdrawn.
Thereafter work was gradually resumed in the mines, the contest having
been won by the mine-owners.



GOLDFINCH (Ger. _Goldfink_[1]), the _Fringilla carduelis_ of Linnaeus
and the _Carduelis elegans_ of later authors, an extremely well-known
bird found over the greater parts of Europe and North Africa, and
eastwards to Persia and Turkestan. Its gay plumage is matched by its
sprightly nature; and together they make it one of the most favourite
cage-birds among all classes. As a songster it is indeed surpassed by
many other species, but its docility and ready attachment to its master
or mistress make up for any defect in its vocal powers. In some parts of
England the trade in goldfinches is very considerable. In 1860 Mr Hussey
reported (_Zool._, p. 7144) the average annual captures near Worthing to
exceed 11,000 dozens--nearly all being cock-birds; and a witness before
a committee of the House of Commons in 1873 stated that, when a boy, he
could take forty dozens in a morning near Brighton. In these districts
and others the number has become much reduced, owing doubtless in part
to the fatal practice of catching the birds just before or during the
breeding-season; but perhaps the strongest cause of their growing
scarcity is the constant breaking-up of waste lands, and the extirpation
of weeds (particularly of the order _Compositae_) essential to the
improved system of agriculture; for in many parts of Scotland, East
Lothian for instance, where goldfinches were once as plentiful as
sparrows, they are now only rare stragglers, and yet there they have not
been thinned by netting. Though goldfinches may occasionally be observed
in the coldest weather, incomparably the largest number leave Britain in
autumn, returning in spring, and resorting to gardens and orchards to
breed, when the lively song of the cock, and the bright yellow wings of
both sexes, quickly attract notice. The nest is a beautifully neat
structure, often placed at no great height from the ground, but
generally so well hidden by the leafy bough on which it is built as not
to be easily found, until, the young being hatched, the constant visits
of the parents reveal its site. When the broods leave the nest they move
into the more open country, and frequenting pastures, commons, heaths
and downs, assemble in large flocks towards the end of summer. Eastward
of the range of the present species its place is taken by its congener
_C. caniceps_, which is easily recognized by wanting the black hood and
white ear-coverts of the British bird. Its home seems to be in Central
Asia, but it moves southward in winter, being common at that season in
Cashmere, and is not unfrequently brought for sale to Calcutta. The
position of the genus _Carduelis_ in the family _Fringillidae_ is not
very clear. Structurally it would seem to have some relation to the
siskins (_Chrysomitris_), though the members of the two groups have very
different habits, and perhaps its nearest kinship lies with the
hawfinches (_Coccothraustes_). See FINCH.     (A. N.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The more common German name, however, is _Distelfink_
    (Thistle-Finch) or _Stieglitz_.



GOLDFISH (_Cyprinus_ or _Carassius auratus_), a small fish belonging to
the Cyprinid family, a native of China but naturalized in other
countries. In the wild state its colours do not differ from those of a
Crucian carp, and like that fish it is tenacious of life and easily
domesticated. Albinos seem to be rather common; and as in other fishes
(for instance, the tench, carp, eel, flounder), the colour of most of
these albinos is a bright orange or golden yellow; occasionally even
this shade of colour is lost, the fish being more or less pure white or
silvery. The Chinese have domesticated these albinos for a long time,
and by careful selection have succeeded in propagating all those strange
varieties, and even monstrosities, which appear in every domestic
animal. In some individuals the dorsal fin is only half its normal
length, in others entirely absent; in others the anal fin has a double
spine; in others all the fins are of nearly double the usual length. The
snout is frequently malformed, giving the head of the fish an appearance
similar to that of a bull-dog. The variety most highly prized has an
extremely short snout, eyes which almost wholly project beyond the
orbit, no dorsal fin, and a very long three- or four-lobed caudal fin
(Telescope-fish).

[Illustration: Telescope-fish.]

The domestication of the goldfish by the Chinese dates back from the
highest antiquity, and they were introduced into Japan at the beginning
of the 16th century; but the date of their importation into Europe is
still uncertain. The great German ichthyologist, M. E. Bloch, thought he
could trace it back in England to the reign of James I., whilst other
authors fix the date at 1691. It appears certain that they were brought
to France, only much later, as a present to Mme de Pompadour, although
the de Goncourts, the historians of the mistresses of Louis XV., have
failed to trace any records of this event. The fish has since spread
over a considerable part of Europe, and in many places it has reverted
to its wild condition. In many parts of south-eastern Asia, in
Mauritius, in North and South Africa, in Madagascar, in the Azores, it
has become thoroughly acclimatized, and successfully competes with the
indigenous fresh-water fishes. It will not thrive in rivers; in large
ponds it readily reverts to the coloration of the original wild stock.
It flourishes best in small tanks and ponds, in which the water is
constantly changing and does not freeze; in such localities, and with a
full supply of food, which consists of weeds, crumbs of bread, bran,
worms, small crustaceans and insects, it attains to a length of from 6
to 12 in., breeding readily, sometimes at different times of the same
year.



GOLDFUSS, GEORG AUGUST (1782-1848), German palaeontologist, born at
Thurnau near Bayreuth on the 18th of April 1782, was educated at
Erlangen, where he graduated Ph.D. in 1804 and became professor of
zoology in 1818. He was subsequently appointed professor of zoology and
mineralogy in the university of Bonn. Aided by Count G. Münster he
issued the important _Petrefacta Germaniae_ (1826-1844), a work which
was intended to illustrate the invertebrate fossils of Germany, but it
was left incomplete after the sponges, corals, crinoids, echinids and
part of the mollusca had been figured. Goldfuss died at Bonn on the 2nd
of October 1848.



GOLDIE, SIR GEORGE DASHWOOD TAUBMAN (1846-   ), English administrator,
the founder of Nigeria, was born on the 20th of May 1846 at the Nunnery
in the Isle of Man, being the youngest son of Lieut.-Colonel John
Taubman Goldie-Taubman, speaker of the House of Keys, by his second wife
Caroline, daughter of John E. Hoveden of Hemingford, Cambridgeshire. Sir
George resumed his paternal name, Goldie, by royal licence in 1887. He
was educated at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, and for about two
years held a commission in the Royal Engineers. He travelled in all
parts of Africa, gaining an extensive knowledge of the continent, and
first visited the country of the Niger in 1877. He conceived the idea of
adding to the British empire the then little known regions of the lower
and middle Niger, and for over twenty years his efforts were devoted to
the realization of this conception. The method by which he determined to
work was the revival of government by chartered companies within the
empire--a method supposed to be buried with the East India Company. The
first step was to combine all British commercial interests in the Niger,
and this he accomplished in 1879 when the United African Company was
formed. In 1881 Goldie sought a charter from the imperial government
(the 2nd Gladstone ministry). Objections of various kinds were raised.
To meet them the capital of the company (renamed the National African
Company) was increased from £125,000 to £1,000,000, and great energy was
displayed in founding stations on the Niger. At this time French
traders, encouraged by Gambetta, established themselves on the lower
river, thus rendering it difficult for the company to obtain territorial
rights; but the Frenchmen were bought out in 1884, so that at the Berlin
conference on West Africa in 1885 Mr Goldie, present as an expert on
matters relating to the river, was able to announce that on the lower
Niger the British flag alone flew. Meantime the Niger coast line had
been placed under British protection. Through Joseph Thomson, David
Mclntosh, D. W. Sargent, J. Flint, William Wallace, E. Dangerfield and
numerous other agents, over 400 political treaties--drawn up by
Goldie--were made with the chiefs of the lower Niger and the Hausa
states. The scruples of the British government being overcome, a charter
was at length granted (July 1886), the National African Company
becoming the Royal Niger Company, with Lord Aberdare as governor and
Goldie as vice-governor. In 1895, on Lord Aberdare's death, Goldie
became governor of the company, whose destinies he had guided
throughout.

The building up of Nigeria as a British state had to be carried on in
face of further difficulties raised by French travellers with political
missions, and also in face of German opposition. From 1884 to 1890,
Prince Bismarck was a persistent antagonist, and the strenuous efforts
he made to secure for Germany the basin of the lower Niger and Lake Chad
were even more dangerous to Goldie's schemes of empire than the
ambitions of France. Herr E. R. Flegel, who had travelled in Nigeria
during 1882-1884 under the auspices of the British company, was sent out
in 1885 by the newly-formed German Colonial Society to secure treaties
for Germany, which had established itself at Cameroon. After Flegel's
death in 1886 his work was continued by his companion Dr Staudinger,
while Herr Hoenigsberg was despatched to stir up trouble in the occupied
portions of the Company's territory,--or, as he expressed it, "to burst
up the charter." He was finally arrested at Onitsha, and, after trial by
the company's supreme court at Asaba, was expelled the country. Prince
Bismarck then sent out his nephew, Herr von Puttkamer, as German
consul-general to Nigeria, with orders to report on this affair, and
when this report was published in a White Book, Bismarck demanded heavy
damages from the company. Meanwhile Bismarck maintained constant
pressure on the British government to compel the Royal Niger Company to
a division of spheres of influence, whereby Great Britain would have
lost a third, and the most valuable part, of the company's territory.
But he fell from power in March 1890, and in July following Lord
Salisbury concluded the famous "Heligoland" agreement with Germany.
After this event the aggressive action of Germany in Nigeria entirely
ceased, and the door was opened for a final settlement of the
Nigeria-Cameroon frontiers. These negotiations, which resulted in an
agreement in 1893, were initiated by Goldie as a means of arresting the
advance of France into Nigeria from the direction of the Congo. By
conceding to Germany a long but narrow strip of territory between
Adamawa and Lake Chad, to which she had no treaty claims, a barrier was
raised against French expeditions, semi-military and semi-exploratory,
which sought to enter Nigeria from the east. Later French efforts at
aggression were made from the western or Dahomeyan side, despite an
agreement concluded with France in 1890 respecting the northern
frontier.

The hostility of certain Fula princes led the company to despatch, in
1897, an expedition against the Mahommedan states of Nupé and Illorin.
This expedition was organized and personally directed by Goldie and was
completely successful. Internal peace was thus secured, but in the
following year the differences with France in regard to the frontier
line became acute, and compelled the intervention of the British
government. In the negotiations which ensued Goldie was instrumental in
preserving for Great Britain the whole of the navigable stretch of the
lower Niger. It was, however, evidently impossible for a chartered
company to hold its own against the state-supported protectorates of
France and Germany, and in consequence, on the 1st of January 1900, the
Royal Niger Company transferred its territories to the British
government for the sum of £865,000. The ceded territory together with
the small Niger Coast Protectorate, already under imperial control, was
formed into the two protectorates of northern and southern Nigeria (see
further NIGERIA).

In 1903-1904, at the request of the Chartered Company of South Africa,
Goldie visited Rhodesia and examined the situation in connexion with the
agitation for self-government by the Rhodesians. In 1902-1903 he was one
of the royal commissioners who inquired into the military preparations
for the war in South Africa (1899-1902) and into the operations up to
the occupation of Pretoria, and in 1905-1906 was a member of the royal
commission which investigated the methods of disposal of war stores
after peace had been made. In 1905 he was elected president of the Royal
Geographical Society and held that office for three years. In 1908 he
was chosen an alderman of the London County Council. Goldie was created
K.C.M.G. in 1887, and a privy councillor in 1898. He became an F.R.S.,
honorary D.C.L. of Oxford University (1897) and honorary LL.D. of
Cambridge (1897). He married in 1870 Matilda Catherine (d. 1898),
daughter of John William Elliott of Wakefield.



GOLDING, ARTHUR (c. 1536-c. 1605), English translator, son of John
Golding of Belchamp St Paul and Halsted, Essex, one of the auditors of
the exchequer, was born probably in London about 1536. His half-sister,
Margaret, married John de Vere, 16th earl of Oxford. In 1549 he was
already in the service of Protector Somerset, and the statement that he
was educated at Queen's College, Cambridge, lacks corroboration. He
seems to have resided for some time in the house of Sir William Cecil,
in the Strand, with his nephew, the poet, the 17th earl of Oxford, whose
receiver he was, for two of his dedications are dated from Cecil House.
His chief work is his translation of Ovid. _The Fyrst Fower Bookes of P.
Ovidius Nasos worke, entitled Metamorphosis, translated oute of Latin
into Englishe meter_ (1565), was supplemented in 1567 by a translation
of the fifteen books. Strangely enough the translator of Ovid was a man
of strong Puritan sympathies, and he translated many of the works of
Calvin. To his version of the _Metamorphoses_ he prefixed a long
metrical explanation of his reasons for considering it a work of
edification. He sets forth the moral which he supposes to underlie
certain of the stories, and shows how the pagan machinery may be brought
into line with Christian thought. It was from Golding's pages that many
of the Elizabethans drew their knowledge of classical mythology, and
there is little doubt that Shakespeare was well acquainted with the
book. Golding translated also the _Commentaries_ of Caesar (1565),
Calvin's commentaries on the Psalms (1571), his sermons on the Galatians
and Ephesians, on Deuteronomy and the book of Job, Theodore Beza's
_Tragedie of Abrahams Sacrifice_ (1577) and the _De Beneficiis_ of
Seneca (1578). He completed a translation begun by Sidney from Philippe
de Mornay, _A Worke concerning the Trewnesse of the Christian Religion_
(1604). His only original work is a prose _Discourse_ on the earthquake
of 1580, in which he saw a judgment of God on the wickedness of his
time. He inherited three considerable estates in Essex, the greater part
of which he sold in 1595. The last trace we have of Golding is contained
in an order dated the 25th of July 1605, giving him licence to print
certain of his works.



GOLDINGEN (Lettish, _Kuldiga_), a town of Russia, in the government of
Courland, 55 m. by rail N.E. of Libau, and on Windau river, in 56° 58'
N. and 22° E. Pop. (1897) 9733. It has woollen mills, needle and match
factories, breweries and distilleries, a college for teachers, and ruins
of a castle of the Teutonic Knights, built in 1248 and used in the 17th
century as the residence of the dukes of Courland.



GOLDMARK, KARL (1832-   ), Hungarian composer, was born at
Keszthely-am-Plattensee, in Hungary, on the 18th of May 1832. His
father, a poor cantor in the local Jewish synagogue, was unable to
assist to any extent financially in the development of his son's
talents. Yet in the household much music was made, and on a cheap violin
and home-made flute, constructed by Goldmark himself from reeds cut from
the riverbank, the future composer gave rein to his musical ideas. His
talent was fostered by the village schoolmaster, by whose aid he was
able to enter the music-school of the Oedenburger Verein. Here he
remained but a short time, his success at a school concert finally
determining his parents to allow him to devote himself entirely to
music. In 1844, then, he went to Vienna, where Jansa took up his cause
and eventually obtained for him admission to the conservatorium. For two
years Goldmark worked under Jansa at the violin, and on the outbreak of
the revolution, after studying all the orchestral instruments he
obtained an engagement in the orchestra at Raab. There, on the
capitulation of Raab, he was to have been shot for a spy, and was only
saved at the eleventh hour by the happy arrival of a former colleague.
In 1850 Goldmark left Raab for Vienna, where from his friend Mittrich he
obtained his first real knowledge of the classics. There, too, he
devoted himself to composition. In 1857 Goldmark, who was then engaged
in the Karl-theater band, gave a concert of his own works with such
success that his first quartet attracted very general attention. Then
followed the "Sakuntala" and "Penthesilea" overtures, which show how
Wagner's influence had supervened upon his previous domination by
Mendelssohn, and the delightful "Ländliche Hochzeit" symphony, which
carried his fame abroad. Goldmark's reputation was now made, and very
largely increased by the production at Vienna in 1875 of his first and
best opera, _Die Königin von Saba_. Over this opera he spent seven
years. Its popularity is still almost as great as ever. It was followed
in November 1886, also at Vienna, by _Merlin_, much of which has been
rewritten since then. A third opera, a version of Dickens's _Cricket on
the Hearth_, was given by the Royal Carl Rosa Company in London in 1900.
Goldmark's chamber music has not made much lasting impression, but the
overtures "Im Frühling," "Prometheus Bound," and "Sapho" are fairly well
known. A "programme" seems essential to him. In opera he is most
certainly at his best, and as an orchestral colourist he ranks among the
very highest.



GOLDONI, CARLO (1707-1793), Italian dramatist, the real founder of
modern Italian comedy, was born at Venice, on the 25th of February 1707,
in a fine house near St Thomas's church. His father Giulio was a native
of Modena. The first playthings of the future writer were puppets which
he made dance; the first books he read were plays,--among others, the
comedies of the Florentine Cicognini. Later he received a still stronger
impression from the _Mandragora_ of Machiavelli. At eight years old he
had tried to sketch a play. His father, meanwhile, had taken his degree
in medicine at Rome and fixed himself at Perugia, where he made his son
join him; but, having soon quarrelled with his colleagues in medicine,
he departed for Chioggia, leaving his son to the care of a philosopher,
Professor Caldini of Rimini. The young Goldoni soon grew tired of his
life at Rimini, and ran away with a Venetian company of players. He
began to study law at Venice, then went to continue the same pursuit at
Pavia, but at that time he was studying the Greek and Latin comic poets
much more and much better than books about law. "I have read over
again," he writes in his own _Memoirs_, "the Greek and Latin poets, and
I have told to myself that I should like to imitate them in their style,
their plots, their precision; but I would not be satisfied unless I
succeeded in giving more interest to my works, happier issues to my
plots, better drawn characters and more genuine comedy." For a satire
entitled _Il Colosso_, which attacked the honour of several families of
Pavia, he was driven from that town, and went first to study with the
jurisconsult Morelli at Udine, then to take his degree in law at Modena.
After having worked some time as clerk in the chanceries of Chioggia and
Feltre, his father being dead, he went to Venice, to exercise there his
profession as a lawyer. But the wish to write for the stage was always
strong in him, and he tried to do so; he made, however, a mistake in his
choice, and began with a tragedy, _Amalasunta_, which was represented at
Milan and proved a failure. In 1734 he wrote another tragedy,
_Belisario_, which, though not much better, chanced nevertheless to
please the public. This first success encouraged him to write other
tragedies, some of which were well received; but the author himself saw
clearly that he had not yet found his proper sphere, and that a radical
dramatic reform was absolutely necessary for the stage. He wished to
create a characteristic comedy in Italy, to follow the example of
Molière, and to delineate the realities of social life in as natural a
manner as possible. His first essay of this kind was _Momolo Cortesan_
(Momolo the Courtier), written in the Venetian dialect, and based on his
own experience. Other plays followed--some interesting from their
subject, others from the characters; the best of that period are--_Le
Trentadue Disgrazie d' Arlecchino_, _La Notte critica_, _La Bancarotta_,
_La Donna di Garbo_. Having, while consul of Genoa at Venice, been
cheated by a captain of Ragusa, he founded on this his play
_L'Impostore_. At Leghorn he made the acquaintance of the comedian
Medebac, and followed him to Venice, with his company, for which he
began to write his best plays. Once he promised to write sixteen
comedies in a year, and kept his word; among the sixteen are some of his
very best, such as _Il Caffè_, _Il Bugiardo_, _La Pamela_. When he left
the company of Medebac, he passed over to that maintained by the
patrician Vendramin, continuing to write with the greatest facility. In
1761 he was called to Paris, and before leaving Venice he wrote _Una
delle ultime sere di Carnevale_ (One of the Last Nights of Carnival), an
allegorical comedy in which he said good-bye to his country. At the end
of the representation of this play, the theatre resounded with applause,
and with shouts expressive of good wishes. Goldoni, at this proof of
public sympathy, wept as a child. At Paris, during two years, he wrote
comedies for the Italian actors; then he taught Italian to the royal
princesses; and for the wedding of Louis XVI. and of Marie Antoinette he
wrote in French one of his best comedies, _Le Bourru bienfaisant_, which
was a great success. When he retired from Paris to Versailles, the king
made him a gift of 6000 francs, and fixed on him an annual pension of
1200 francs. It was at Versailles he wrote his _Memoirs_, which occupied
him till he reached his eightieth year. The Revolution deprived him all
at once of his modest pension, and reduced him to extreme misery; he
dragged on his unfortunate existence till 1793, and died on the 6th of
February. The day after, on the proposal of André Chénier, the
Convention agreed to give the pension back to the poet; and as he had
already died, a reduced allowance was granted to his widow.

  The best comedies of Goldoni are: _La Donna di Garbo_, _La Bottega di
  Caffè_, _Pamela nubile_, _Le Baruffe chiozzotte_, _I Rusteghi_,
  _Todero Brontolon_, _Gli Innamorati_, _Il Ventaglio_, _Il Bugiardo_,
  _La Casa nova_, _Il Burbero benefico_, _La Locandiera_. A collected
  edition (Venice, 1788) was republished at Florence in 1827. See P. G.
  Molmenti, _Carlo Goldoni_ (Venice, 1875); Rabany, _Carlo Goldoni_
  (Paris, 1896). The _Memoirs_ were translated into English by John
  Black (Boston, 1877). with preface by W. D. Howells.



GOLDS, a Mongolo-Tatar people, living on the Lower Amur in south-eastern
Siberia. Their chief settlements are on the right bank of the Amur and
along the Sungari and Usuri rivers. In physique they are typically
Mongolic. Like the Chinese they wear a pigtail, and from them, too, have
learnt the art of silk embroidery. The Golds live almost entirely on
fish, and are excellent boatmen. They keep large herds of swine and
dogs, which live, like themselves, on fish. Geese, wild duck, eagles,
bears, wolves and foxes are also kept in menageries. There is much
reverence paid to the eagles, and hence the Manchus call the Golds
"Eaglets." Their religion is Shamanism.

  See L. Schrenck, _Die Völker des Amurlandes_ (St Petersburg, 1891);
  Laufer, "The Amoor Tribes," in _American Anthropologist_ (New York,
  1900); E. G. Ravenstein, _The Russians on the Amur_ (1861).



GOLDSBORO, a city and the county-seat of Wayne county, North Carolina,
U.S.A., on the Neuse river, about 50 m. S.E. of Raleigh. Pop. (1890)
4017; (1900) 5877 (2520 negroes); (1910) 6107. It is served by the
Southern, the Atlantic Coast Line and the Norfolk & Southern railways.
The surrounding country produces large quantities of tobacco, cotton and
grain, and trucking is an important industry, the city being a
distributing point for strawberries and various kinds of vegetables. The
city's manufactures include cotton goods, knit goods, cotton-seed oil,
agricultural implements, lumber and furniture. Goldsboro is the seat of
the Eastern insane asylum (for negroes) and of an Odd Fellows' orphan
home. The municipality owns and operates its water-works and
electric-lighting plant. Goldsboro was settled in 1838, and was first
incorporated in 1841. In the campaign of 1865 Goldsboro was the point of
junction of the Union armies under generals Sherman and Schofield,
previous to the final advance to Greensboro.



GOLDSCHMIDT, HERMANN (1802-1866), German painter and astronomer, was the
son of a Jewish merchant, and was born at Frankfort on the 17th of June
1802. He for ten years assisted his father in his business; but, his
love of art having been awakened while journeying in Holland, he in 1832
began the study of painting at Munich under Cornelius and Schnorr, and
in 1836 established himself at Paris, where he painted a number of
pictures of more than average merit, among which may be mentioned the
"Cumaean Sibyl" (1844); an "Offering to Venus" (1845); a "View of Rome"
(1849); the "Death of Romeo and Juliet" (1857); and several Alpine
landscapes. In 1847 he began to devote his attention to astronomy; and
from 1852 to 1861 he discovered fourteen asteroids between Mars and
Jupiter, on which account he received the grand astronomical prize from
the Academy of Sciences. His observations of the protuberances on the
sun, made during the total eclipse on the 10th of July 1860, are
included in the work of Mädler on the eclipse, published in 1861.
Goldschmidt died at Fontainebleau on the 26th of August 1866.



GOLDSMID, the name of a family of Anglo-Jewish bankers sprung from Aaron
Goldsmid (d. 1782), a Dutch merchant who settled in England about 1763.
Two of his sons, Benjamin Goldsmid (c. 1753-1808) and Abraham Goldsmid
(c. 1756-1810), began business together about 1777 as bill-brokers in
London, and soon became great powers in the money market, during the
Napoleonic war, through their dealings with the government. Abraham
Goldsmid was in 1810 joint contractor with the Barings for a government
loan, but owing to a depreciation of the scrip he was forced into
bankruptcy and committed suicide. His brother, in a fit of depression,
had similarly taken his own life two years before. Both were noted for
their public and private generosity, and Benjamin had a part in founding
the Royal Naval Asylum. Benjamin left four sons, the youngest being
Lionel Prager Goldsmid; Abraham a daughter, Isabel.

Their nephew, Sir Isaac Lyon Goldsmid, Bart. (1778-1859), was born in
London, and began in business with a firm of bullion brokers to the Bank
of England and the East India Company. He amassed a large fortune, and
was made Baron da Palmeira by the Portuguese government in 1846 for
services rendered In settling a monetary dispute between Portugal and
Brazil, but he is chiefly known for his efforts to obtain the
emancipation of the Jews in England and for his part in founding
University College, London. The Jewish Disabilities Bill, first
introduced in Parliament by Sir Robert Grant in 1830, owed its final
passage to Goldsmid's energetic work. He helped to establish the
University College hospital in 1834, serving as its treasurer for
eighteen years, and also aided in the efforts to obtain reform in the
English penal code. Moreover he assisted by his capital and his
enterprise to build part of the English southern railways and also the
London docks. In 1841 he became the first Jewish baronet, the honour
being conferred upon him by Lord Melbourne. He had married his cousin
Isabel (see above), and their second son was Sir Francis Henry Goldsmid,
Bart. (1808-1878), born in London, and called to the bar at Lincoln's
Inn in 1833 (the first Jew to become an English barrister; Q.C. 1858).
After the passing of the Jewish Disabilities Bill, in which he had aided
his father with a number of pamphlets that attracted great attention, he
entered Parliament in 1860 (having succeeded to the baronetcy) as member
for Reading, and represented that constituency until his death. He was
strenuous on behalf of the Jewish religion, and the founder of the great
Jews' Free School. He was a munificent contributor to charities and
especially to the endowment of University College. He, like his father,
married a cousin, and, dying without issue, was succeeded in the
baronetcy by his nephew Sir Julian Goldsmid, Bart. (1838-1896), son of
Frederick David Goldsmid (1812-1866), long M.P. for Honiton. Sir Julian
was for many years in Parliament, and his wealth, ability and influence
made him a personage of considerable importance. He was eventually made
a privy councillor. He had eight daughters, but no son, and his entailed
property passed to his relation, Mr d'Avigdor, his house in Piccadilly
being converted into the Isthmian Club.

Another distinguished member of the same family, Sir Frederic John
Goldsmid (1818-1908), son of Lionel Prager Goldsmid (see above), was
educated at King's College, London, and entering the Madras army in 1839
served in the China War of 1840-41, with the Turkish troops in eastern
Crimea in 1855-56, and was given political employment by the Indian
government. He received the thanks of the commander-in-chief and of the
war office for services during the Egyptian campaign, and was retired a
major-general in 1875. Sir Frederic Goldsmid's name is, however,
associated less with military service than with much valuable work in
exploration and in surveying, for which he repeatedly received the
thanks of government. From 1865 to 1870 he was director-general of the
Indo-European telegraph, and carried through the telegraph convention
with Persia; and between 1870 and 1872, as commissioner, he settled with
Persia the difficult questions of the Perso-Baluch and Perso-Afghan
boundaries. In the course of his work he had to travel extensively, and
he followed this up by various responsible missions connected with
emigration questions. In 1881-1882 he was in Egypt, as controller of the
Daira Sanieh, and doing other miscellaneous military work; and in 1883
he went to the Congo, on behalf of the king of the Belgians, as one of
the organizers of the new state, but had to return on account of
illness. From his early years he had made studies of several Eastern
languages, and he ranked among the foremost Orientalists of his day. In
1886 he was president of the geographical section of the British
Association meeting held at Birmingham. He had married in 1849, and had
two sons and four daughters. In 1871 he was made a K.C.S.I. Besides
important contributions to the 9th edition of the _Encyclopaedia
Britannica_ and many periodicals, he wrote an excellent and
authoritative biography of Sir James Outram (2 vols., 1880).

A sister of the last-named married Henry Edward Goldsmid (1812-1855), an
eminent Indian civil servant, son of Edward Goldsmid; his reform of the
revenue system in Bombay, and introduction of a new system, established
after his death, through his reports in 1840-1847, and his devoted
labour in land-surveys, were of the highest importance to western India,
and established his memory there as a public benefactor.



GOLDSMITH, LEWIS (c. 1763-1846), Anglo-French publicist, of
Portuguese-Jewish extraction, was born near London about 1763. Having
published in 1801 _The Crimes of Cabinets, or a Review of the Plans and
Aggressions for Annihilating the Liberties of France, and the
Dismemberment of her Territories_, an attack on the military policy of
Pitt, he moved, in 1802, from England to Paris. Talleyrand introduced
him to Napoleon, who arranged for him to establish in Paris an English
tri-weekly, the _Argus_, which was to review English affairs from the
French point of view. According to his own account, he was in 1803
entrusted with a mission to obtain from the head of the French royal
family, afterwards Louis XVIII., a renunciation of his claims to the
throne of France, in return for the throne of Poland. The offer was
declined, and Goldsmith says that he then received instructions to
kidnap Louis and kill him if he resisted, but, instead of executing
these orders, he revealed the plot. He was, nevertheless, employed by
Napoleon on various other secret service missions till 1807, when his
Republican sympathies began to wane. In 1809 he returned to England,
where he was at first imprisoned but soon released; and he became a
notary in London. In 1811, being now violently anti-republican, he
founded a Sunday newspaper, the _Anti-Gallican Monitor_ and
_Anti-Corsican Chronicle_, subsequently known as the _British Monitor_,
in which he denounced the French Revolution. In 1811 he proposed that a
public subscription should be raised to put a price on Napoleon's head,
but this suggestion was strongly reprobated by the British government.
In the same year he published _Secret History of the Cabinet of
Bonaparte and Recueil des manifestes, or a Collection of the Decrees of
Napoleon Bonaparte_, and in 1812 _Secret History of Bonaparte's
Diplomacy_. Goldsmith alleged that in the latter year he was offered
£200,000 by Napoleon to discontinue his attacks. In 1815 he published
_An Appeal to the Governments of Europe on the Necessity of bringing
Napoleon Bonaparte to a Public Trial_. In 1825 he again settled down in
Paris, and in 1832 published his _Statistics of France_. His only child,
Georgiana, became, in 1837, the second wife of Lord Lyndhurst. He died
in Paris on the 6th of January 1846.



GOLDSMITH, OLIVER (1728-1774), English poet, playwright, novelist and
man of letters, came of a Protestant and Saxon family which had long
been settled in Ireland. He is usually said to have been born at Pallas
or Pallasmore, Co. Longford; but recent investigators have contended,
with much show of probability, that his true birthplace was Smith-Hill
House, Elphin, Roscommon, the residence of his mother's father, the Rev.
Oliver Jones. His father, Charles Goldsmith, lived at Pallas, supporting
with difficulty his wife and children on what he could earn, partly as a
curate and partly as a farmer.

While Oliver was still a child his father was presented to the living of
Kilkenny West, in the county of West Meath. This was worth about £200 a
year. The family accordingly quitted their cottage at Pallas for a
spacious house on a frequented road, near the village of Lissoy. Here
the boy was taught his letters by a relative and dependent, Elizabeth
Delap, and was sent in his seventh year to a village school kept by an
old quartermaster on half-pay, who professed to teach nothing but
reading, writing and arithmetic, but who had an inexhaustible fund of
stories about ghosts, banshees and fairies, about the great Rapparee
chiefs, Baldearg O'Donnell and galloping Hogan, and about the exploits
of Peterborough and Stanhope, the surprise of Monjuich and the glorious
disaster of Brihuega. This man must have been of the Protestant
religion; but he was of the aboriginal race, and not only spoke the
Irish language, but could pour forth unpremeditated Irish verses. Oliver
early became, and through life continued to be, a passionate admirer of
the Irish music, and especially of the compositions of Carolan, some of
the last notes of whose harp he heard. It ought to be added that Oliver,
though by birth one of the Englishry, and though connected by numerous
ties with the Established Church, never showed the least sign of that
contemptuous antipathy with which, in his days, the ruling minority in
Ireland too generally regarded the subject majority. So far indeed was
he from sharing in the opinions and feelings of the caste to which he
belonged that he conceived an aversion to the Glorious and Immortal
Memory, and, even when George III. was on the throne, maintained that
nothing but the restoration of the banished dynasty could save the
country.

From the humble academy kept by the old soldier Goldsmith was removed in
his ninth year. He went to several grammar-schools, and acquired some
knowledge of the ancient languages. His life at this time seems to have
been far from happy. He had, as appears from the admirable portrait of
him by Reynolds at Knole, features harsh even to ugliness. The small-pox
had set its mark on him with more than usual severity. His stature was
small, and his limbs ill put together. Among boys little tenderness is
shown to personal defects; and the ridicule excited by poor Oliver's
appearance was heightened by a peculiar simplicity and a disposition to
blunder which he retained to the last. He became the common butt of boys
and masters, was pointed at as a fright in the play-ground, and flogged
as a dunce in the schoolroom. When he had risen to eminence, those who
had once derided him ransacked their memory for the events of his early
years, and recited repartees and couplets which had dropped from him,
and which, though little noticed at the time, were supposed, a quarter
of a century later, to indicate the powers which produced the _Vicar of
Wakefield_ and the _Deserted Village_.

On the 11th of June 1744, being then in his sixteenth year, Oliver went
up to Trinity College, Dublin, as a sizar. The sizars paid nothing for
food and tuition, and very little for lodging; but they had to perform
some menial services from which they have long been relieved. Goldsmith
was quartered, not alone, in a garret of what was then No. 35 in a range
of buildings which has long since disappeared. His name, scrawled by
himself on one of its window-panes is still preserved in the college
library. From such garrets many men of less parts than his have made
their way to the woolsack or to the episcopal bench. But Goldsmith,
while he suffered all the humiliations, threw away all the advantages of
his situation. He neglected the studies of the place, stood low at the
examinations, was turned down to the bottom of his class for playing the
buffoon in the lecture-room, was severely reprimanded for pumping on a
constable, and was caned by a brutal tutor for giving a ball in the
attic storey of the college to some gay youths and damsels from the
city.

While Oliver was leading at Dublin a life divided between squalid
distress and squalid dissipation, his father died, leaving a mere
pittance. In February 1749 the youth obtained his bachelor's degree,
and left the university. During some time the humble dwelling to which
his widowed mother had retired was his home. He was now in his
twenty-first year; it was necessary that he should do something; and his
education seemed to have fitted him to do nothing but to dress himself
in gaudy colours, of which he was as fond as a magpie, to take a hand at
cards, to sing Irish airs, to play the flute, to angle in summer and to
tell ghost stories by the fire in winter. He tried five or six
professions in turn without success. He applied for ordination; but, as
he applied in scarlet clothes, he was speedily turned out of the
episcopal palace. He then became tutor in an opulent family, but soon
quitted his situation in consequence of a dispute about pay. Then he
determined to emigrate to America. His relations, with much
satisfaction, saw him set out for Cork on a good horse, with £30 in his
pocket. But in six weeks he came back on a miserable hack, without a
penny, and informed his mother that the ship in which he had taken his
passage, having got a fair wind while he was at a party of pleasure, had
sailed without him. Then he resolved to study the law. A generous uncle,
Mr Contarine, advanced £50. With this sum Goldsmith went to Dublin, was
enticed into a gaming-house and lost every shilling. He then thought of
medicine. A small purse was made up; and in his twenty-fourth year he
was sent to Edinburgh. At Edinburgh he passed eighteen months in nominal
attendance on lectures, and picked up some superficial information about
chemistry and natural history. Thence he went to Leiden, still
pretending to study physic. He left that celebrated university, the
third university at which he had resided, in his twenty-seventh year,
without a degree, with the merest smattering of medical knowledge, and
with no property but his clothes and his flute. His flute, however,
proved a useful friend. He rambled on foot through Flanders, France and
Switzerland, playing tunes which everywhere set the peasantry dancing,
and which often procured for him a supper and a bed. He wandered as far
as Italy. His musical performances, indeed, were not to the taste of the
Italians; but he contrived to live on the alms which he obtained at the
gates of convents. It should, however, be observed that the stories
which he told about this part of his life ought to be received with
great caution; for strict veracity was never one of his virtues; and a
man who is ordinarily inaccurate in narration is likely to be more than
ordinarily inaccurate when he talks about his own travels. Goldsmith,
indeed, was so regardless of truth as to assert in print that he was
present at a most interesting conversation between Voltaire and
Fontenelle, and that this conversation took place at Paris. Now it is
certain that Voltaire never was within a hundred leagues of Paris during
the whole time which Goldsmith passed on the continent.

In February 1756 the wanderer landed at Dover, without a shilling,
without a friend and without a calling. He had indeed, if his own
unsupported evidence may be trusted, obtained a doctor's degree on the
continent; but this dignity proved utterly useless to him. In England
his flute was not in request; there were no convents; and he was forced
to have recourse to a series of desperate expedients. There is a
tradition that he turned strolling player. He pounded drugs and ran
about London with phials for charitable chemists. He asserted, upon one
occasion, that he had lived "among the beggars in Axe Lane." He was for
a time usher of a school, and felt the miseries and humiliations of this
situation so keenly that he thought it a promotion to be permitted to
earn his bread as a bookseller's hack; but he soon found the new yoke
more galling than the old one, and was glad to become an usher again. He
obtained a medical appointment in the service of the East India Company;
but the appointment was speedily revoked. Why it was revoked we are not
told. The subject was one on which he never liked to talk. It is
probable that he was incompetent to perform the duties of the place.
Then he presented himself at Surgeons' Hall for examination, as "mate to
an hospital." Even to so humble a post he was found unequal. Nothing
remained but to return to the lowest drudgery of literature. Goldsmith
took a room in a tiny square off Ludgate Hill, to which he had to climb
from Sea-coal Lane by a dizzy ladder of flagstones called Breakneck
Steps. Green Arbour Court and the ascent have long disappeared. Here, at
thirty, the unlucky adventurer sat down to toil like a galley slave.
Already, in 1758, during his first bondage to letters, he had translated
Marteilhe's remarkable _Memoirs of a Protestant, Condemned to the
Galleys of France for his Religion_. In the years that now succeeded he
sent to the press some things which have survived, and many which have
perished. He produced articles for reviews, magazines and newspapers;
children's books, which, bound in gilt paper and adorned with hideous
woodcuts, appeared in the window of Newbery's once far-famed shop at the
corner of Saint Paul's churchyard; _An Inquiry into the State of Polite
Learning in Europe_, which, though of little or no value, is still
reprinted among his works; a volume of essays entitled _The Bec; a Life
of Beau Nash_; a superficial and incorrect, but very readable, _History
of England_, in a series of letters purporting to be addressed by a
nobleman to his son; and some very lively and amusing sketches of London
Society in another series of letters purporting to be addressed by a
Chinese traveller to his friends. All these works were anonymous; but
some of them were well known to be Goldsmith's; and he gradually rose in
the estimation of the booksellers for whom he drudged. He was, indeed,
emphatically a popular writer. For accurate research or grave
disquisition he was not well qualified by nature or by education. He
knew nothing accurately; his reading had been desultory; nor had he
meditated deeply on what he had read. He had seen much of the world; but
he had noticed and retained little more of what he had seen than some
grotesque incidents and characters which had happened to strike his
fancy. But, though his mind was very scantily stored with materials, he
used what materials he had in such a way as to produce a wonderful
effect. There have been many greater writers; but perhaps no writer was
ever more uniformly agreeable. His style was always pure and easy, and,
on proper occasions, pointed and energetic. His narratives were always
amusing, his descriptions always picturesque, his humour rich and
joyous, yet not without an occasional tinge of amiable sadness. About
everything that he wrote, serious or sportive, there was a certain
natural grace and decorum, hardly to be expected from a man a great part
of whose life had been passed among thieves and beggars, street-walkers
and merryandrews, in those squalid dens which are the reproach of great
capitals.

As his name gradually became known, the circle of his acquaintance
widened. He was introduced to Johnson, who was then considered as the
first of living English writers; to Reynolds, the first of English
painters; and to Burke, who had not yet entered parliament, but had
distinguished himself greatly by his writings and by the eloquence of
his conversation. With these eminent men Goldsmith became intimate. In
1763 he was one of the nine original members of that celebrated
fraternity which has sometimes been called the Literary Club, but which
has always disclaimed that epithet, and still glories in the simple name
of the Club.

By this date Goldsmith had quitted his miserable dwelling at the top of
Breakneck Steps, and, after living for some time at No. 6 Wine Office
Court, Fleet Street, had moved into the Temple. But he was still often
reduced to pitiable shifts, the most popular of which is connected with
the sale of his solitary novel, the _Vicar of Wakefield_. Towards the
close of 1764(?) his rent is alleged to have been so long in arrear that
his landlady one morning called in the help of a sheriff's officer. The
debtor, in great perplexity, despatched a messenger to Johnson; and
Johnson, always friendly, though often surly, sent back the messenger
with a guinea, and promised to follow speedily. He came, and found that
Goldsmith had changed the guinea, and was railing at the landlady over a
bottle of Madeira. Johnson put the cork into the bottle, and entreated
his friend to consider calmly how money was to be procured. Goldsmith
said that he had a novel ready for the press. Johnson glanced at the
manuscript, saw that there were good things in it, took it to a
bookseller, sold it for £60 and soon returned with the money. The rent
was paid; and the sheriff's officer withdrew. (Unfortunately, however,
for this time-honoured version of the circumstances, it has of late
years been discovered that as early as October 1762 Goldsmith had
already sold a third of the _Vicar_ to one Benjamin Collins of
Salisbury, a printer, by whom it was eventually printed for F. Newbery,
and it is difficult to reconcile this fact with Johnson's narrative.)

But before the _Vicar of Wakefield_ appeared in 1766, came the great
crisis of Goldsmith's literary life. In Christmas week 1764 he published
a poem, entitled the _Traveller_. It was the first work to which he had
put his name, and it at once raised him to the rank of a legitimate
English classic. The opinion of the most skilful critics was that
nothing finer had appeared in verse since the fourth book of the
_Dunciad_. In one respect the _Traveller_ differs from all Goldsmith's
other writings. In general his designs were bad, and his execution good.
In the _Traveller_ the execution, though deserving of much praise, is
far inferior to the design. No philosophical poem, ancient or modern,
has a plan so noble, and at the same time so simple. An English
wanderer, seated on a crag among the Alps, near the point where three
great countries meet, looks down on the boundless prospect, reviews his
long pilgrimage, recalls the varieties of scenery, of climate, of
government, of religion, of national character, which he has observed,
and comes to the conclusion, just or unjust, that our happiness depends
little on political institutions, and much on the temper and regulation
of our own minds.

While the fourth edition of the _Traveller_ was on the counters of the
booksellers, the _Vicar of Wakefield_ appeared, and rapidly obtained a
popularity which has lasted down to our own time, and which is likely to
last as long as our language. The fable is indeed one of the worst that
ever was constructed. It wants, not merely that probability which ought
to be found in a tale of common English life, but that consistency which
ought to be found even in the wildest fiction about witches, giants and
fairies. But the earlier chapters have all the sweetness of pastoral
poetry, together with all the vivacity of comedy. Moses and his
spectacles, the vicar and his monogamy, the sharper and his cosmogony,
the squire proving from Aristotle that relatives are related, Olivia
preparing herself for the arduous task of converting a rakish lover by
studying the controversy between Robinson Crusoe and Friday, the great
ladies with their scandal about Sir Tomkyn's amours and Dr Burdock's
verses, and Mr Burchell with his "Fudge," have caused as much harmless
mirth as has ever been caused by matter packed into so small a number of
pages. The latter part of the tale is unworthy of the beginning. As we
approach the catastrophe, the absurdities lie thicker and thicker, and
the gleams of pleasantry become rarer and rarer.

The success which had attended Goldsmith as a novelist emboldened him to
try his fortune as a dramatist. He wrote the _Good Natur'd Man_, a piece
which had a worse fate than it deserved. Garrick refused to produce it
at Drury Lane. It was acted at Covent Garden in January 1768, but was
coldly received. The author, however, cleared by his benefit nights, and
by the sale of the copyright, no less than £500, five times as much as
he had made by the _Traveller_ and the _Vicar of Wakefield_ together.
The plot of the _Good Natur'd Man_ is, like almost all Goldsmith's
plots, very ill constructed. But some passages are exquisitely
ludicrous,--much more ludicrous indeed than suited the taste of the town
at that time. A canting, mawkish play, entitled _False Delicacy_, had
just been produced, and sentimentality was all the mode. During some
years more tears were shed at comedies than at tragedies; and a
pleasantry which moved the audience to anything more than a grave smile
was reprobated as low. It is not strange, therefore, that the very best
scene in the _Good Natur'd Man_, that in which Miss Richland finds her
lover attended by the bailiff and the bailiff's follower in full court
dresses, should have been mercilessly hissed, and should have been
omitted after the first night, not to be restored for several years.

In May 1770 appeared the _Deserted Village_. In mere diction and
versification this celebrated poem is fully equal, perhaps superior, to
the _Traveller_; and it is generally preferred to the _Traveller_ by
that large class of readers who think, with Bayes in the _Rehearsal_,
that the only use of a plot is to bring in fine things. More discerning
judges, however, while they admire the beauty of the details, are
shocked by one unpardonable fault which pervades the whole. The fault
which we mean is not that theory about wealth and luxury which has so
often been censured by political economists. The theory is indeed false;
but the poem, considered merely as a poem, is not necessarily the worse
on that account. The finest poem in the Latin language--indeed, the
finest didactic poem in any language--was written in defence of the
silliest and meanest of all systems of natural and moral philosophy. A
poet may easily be pardoned for reasoning ill; but he cannot be pardoned
for describing ill, for observing the world in which he lives so
carelessly that his portraits bear no resemblance to the originals, for
exhibiting as copies from real life monstrous combinations of things
which never were and never could be found together. What would be
thought of a painter who should mix August and January in one landscape,
who should introduce a frozen river into a harvest scene? Would it be a
sufficient defence of such a picture to say that every part was
exquisitely coloured, that the green hedges, the apple-trees loaded with
fruit, the waggons reeling under the yellow sheaves, and the sun-burned
reapers wiping their foreheads were very fine, and that the ice and the
boys sliding were also very fine? To such a picture the _Deserted
Village_ bears a great resemblance. It is made up of incongruous parts.
The village in its happy days is a true English village. The village in
its decay is an Irish village. The felicity and the misery which
Goldsmith has brought close together belong to two different countries
and to two different stages in the progress of society. He had assuredly
never seen in his native island such a rural paradise, such a seat of
plenty, content and tranquillity, as his Auburn. He had assuredly never
seen in England all the inhabitants of such a paradise turned out of
their homes in one day and forced to emigrate in a body to America. The
hamlet he had probably seen in Kent; the ejectment he had probably seen
in Münster; but by joining the two, he has produced something which
never was and never will be seen in any part of the world.

In 1773 Goldsmith tried his chance at Covent Garden with a second play,
_She Stoops to Conquer_. The manager was, not without great difficulty,
induced to bring this piece out. The sentimental comedy still reigned,
and Goldsmith's comedies were not sentimental. The _Good Natur'd Man_
had been too funny to succeed; yet the mirth of the _Good Natur'd Man_
was sober when compared with the rich drollery of _She Stoops to
Conquer_, which is, in truth, an incomparable farce in five acts. On
this occasion, however, genius triumphed. Pit, boxes and galleries were
in a constant roar of laughter. If any bigoted admirer of Kelly and
Cumberland ventured to hiss or groan, he was speedily silenced by a
general cry of "turn him out," or "throw him over." Later generations
have confirmed the verdict which was pronounced on that night.

While Goldsmith was writing the _Deserted Village_ and _She Stoops to
Conquer_, he was employed on works of a very different kind--works from
which he derived little reputation but much profit. He compiled for the
use of schools a _History of Rome_, by which he made £250; a _History of
England_, by which he made £500; a _History of Greece_, for which he
received £250; a _Natural History_, for which the booksellers covenanted
to pay him 800 guineas. These works he produced without any elaborate
research, by merely selecting, abridging and translating into his own
clear, pure and flowing language, what he found in books well known to
the world, but too bulky or too dry for boys and girls. He committed
some strange blunders, for he knew nothing with accuracy. Thus, in his
_History of England_, he tells us that Naseby is in Yorkshire; nor did
he correct this mistake when the book was reprinted. He was very nearly
hoaxed into putting into the _History of Greece_ an account of a battle
between Alexander the Great and Montezuma. In his _Animated Nature_ he
relates, with faith and with perfect gravity, all the most absurd lies
which he could find in books of travels about gigantic Patagonians,
monkeys that preach sermons, nightingales that repeat long
conversations. "If he can tell a horse from a cow," said Johnson, "that
is the extent of his knowledge of zoology." How little Goldsmith was
qualified to write about the physical sciences is sufficiently proved by
two anecdotes. He on one occasion denied that the sun is longer in the
northern than in the southern signs. It was vain to cite the authority
of Maupertuis. "Maupertuis!" he cried, "I understand those matters
better than Maupertuis." On another occasion he, in defiance of the
evidence of his own senses, maintained obstinately, and even angrily,
that he chewed his dinner by moving his upper jaw.

Yet, ignorant as Goldsmith was, few writers have done more to make the
first steps in the laborious road to knowledge easy and pleasant. His
compilations are widely distinguished from the compilations of ordinary
bookmakers. He was a great, perhaps an unequalled, master of the arts of
selection and condensation. In these respects his histories of Rome and
of England, and still more his own abridgments of these histories, well
deserved to be studied. In general nothing is less attractive than an
epitome; but the epitomes of Goldsmith, even when most concise, are
always amusing; and to read them is considered by intelligent children
not as a task but as a pleasure.

Goldsmith might now be considered as a prosperous man. He had the means
of living in comfort, and even in what to one who had so often slept in
barns and on bulks must have been luxury. His fame was great and was
constantly rising. He lived in what was intellectually far the best
society of the kingdom, in a society in which no talent or
accomplishment was wanting, and in which the art of conversation was
cultivated with splendid success. There probably were never four talkers
more admirable in four different ways than Johnson, Burke, Beauclerk and
Garrick; and Goldsmith was on terms of intimacy with all the four. He
aspired to share in their colloquial renown, but never was ambition more
unfortunate. It may seem strange that a man who wrote with so much
perspicuity, vivacity and grace should have been, whenever he took a
part in conversation, an empty, noisy, blundering rattle. But on this
point the evidence is overwhelming. So extraordinary was the contrast
between Goldsmith's published works and the silly things which he said,
that Horace Walpole described him as an inspired idiot. "Noll," said
Garrick, "wrote like an angel, and talked like poor Poll." Charnier
declared that it was a hard exercise of faith to believe that so foolish
a chatterer could have really written the _Traveller_. Even Boswell
could say, with contemptuous compassion, that he liked very well to hear
honest Goldsmith run on. "Yes, sir," said Johnson, "but he should not
like to hear himself." Minds differ as rivers differ. There are
transparent and sparkling rivers from which it is delightful to drink as
they flow; to such rivers the minds of such men as Burke and Johnson may
be compared. But there are rivers of which the water when first drawn is
turbid and noisome, but becomes pellucid as crystal and delicious to the
taste, if it be suffered to stand till it has deposited a sediment; and
such a river is a type of the mind of Goldsmith. His first thoughts on
every subject were confused even to absurdity, but they required only a
little time to work themselves clear. When he wrote they had that time,
and therefore his readers pronounced him a man of genius; but when he
talked he talked nonsense and made himself the laughing-stock of his
hearers. He was painfully sensible of his inferiority in conversation;
he felt every failure keenly; yet he had not sufficient judgment and
self-command to hold his tongue. His animal spirits and vanity were
always impelling him to try to do the one thing which he could not do.
After every attempt he felt that he had exposed himself, and writhed
with shame and vexation; yet the next moment he began again.

His associates seem to have regarded him with kindness, which, in spite
of their admiration of his writings, was not unmixed with contempt. In
truth, there was in his character much to love, but very little to
respect. His heart was soft even to weakness; he was so generous that
he quite forgot to be just; he forgave injuries so readily that he might
be said to invite them, and was so liberal to beggars that he had
nothing left for his tailor and his butcher. He was vain, sensual,
frivolous, profuse, improvident. One vice of a darker shade was imputed
to him, envy. But there is not the least reason to believe that this bad
passion, though it sometimes made him wince and utter fretful
exclamations, ever impelled him to injure by wicked arts the reputation
of any of his rivals. The truth probably is that he was not more
envious, but merely less prudent, than his neighbours. His heart was on
his lips. All those small jealousies, which are but too common among men
of letters, but which a man of letters who is also a man of the world
does his best to conceal, Goldsmith avowed with the simplicity of a
child. When he was envious, instead of affecting indifference, instead
of damning with faint praise, instead of doing injuries slyly and in the
dark, he told everybody that he was envious. "Do not, pray, do not, talk
of Johnson in such terms," he said to Boswell; "you harrow up my very
soul." George Steevens and Cumberland were men far too cunning to say
such a thing. They would have echoed the praises of the man whom they
envied, and then have sent to the newspapers anonymous libels upon him.
Both what was good and what was bad in Goldsmith's character was to his
associates a perfect security that he would never commit such villainy.
He was neither ill-natured enough, nor long-headed enough, to be guilty
of any malicious act which required contrivance and disguise.

Goldsmith has sometimes been represented as a man of genius, cruelly
treated by the world, and doomed to struggle with difficulties, which at
last broke his heart. But no representation can be more remote from the
truth. He did, indeed, go through much sharp misery before he had done
anything considerable in literature. But after his name had appeared on
the title-page of the _Traveller_, he had none but himself to blame for
his distresses. His average income, during the last seven years of his
life, certainly exceeded £400 a year, and £400 a year ranked, among the
incomes of that day, at least as high as £800 a year would rank at
present. A single man living in the Temple, with £400 a year, might then
be called opulent. Not one in ten of the young gentlemen of good
families who were studying the law there had so much. But all the wealth
which Lord Clive had brought from Bengal and Sir Lawrence Dundas from
Germany, joined together, would not have sufficed for Goldsmith. He
spent twice as much as he had. He wore fine clothes, gave dinners of
several courses, paid court to venal beauties. He had also, it should be
remembered, to the honour of his heart, though not of his head, a
guinea, or five, or ten, according to the state of his purse, ready for
any tale of distress, true or false. But it was not in dress or
feasting, in promiscuous amours or promiscuous charities, that his chief
expense lay. He had been from boyhood a gambler, and at once the most
sanguine and the most unskilful of gamblers. For a time he put off the
day of inevitable ruin by temporary expedients. He obtained advances
from booksellers by promising to execute works which he never began. But
at length this source of supply failed. He owed more than £2000; and he
saw no hope of extrication from his embarrassments. His spirits and
health gave way. He was attacked by a nervous fever, which he thought
himself competent to treat. It would have been happy for him if his
medical skill had been appreciated as justly by himself as by others.
Notwithstanding the degree which he pretended to have received on the
continent, he could procure no patients. "I do not practise," he once
said; "I make it a rule to prescribe only for my friends." "Pray, dear
Doctor," said Beauclerk, "alter your rule; and prescribe only for your
enemies." Goldsmith, now, in spite of this excellent advice, prescribed
for himself. The remedy aggravated the malady. The sick man was induced
to call in real physicians; and they at one time imagined that they had
cured the disease. Still his weakness and restlessness continued. He
could get no sleep. He could take no food. "You are worse," said one of
his medical attendants, "than you should be from the degree of fever
which you have. Is your mind at ease?" "No; it is not," were the last
recorded words of Oliver Goldsmith. He died on the 4th of April 1774, in
his forty-sixth year. He was laid in the churchyard of the Temple; but
the spot was not marked by any inscription and is now forgotten. The
coffin was followed by Burke and Reynolds. Both these great men were
sincere mourners. Burke, when he heard of Goldsmith's death, had burst
into a flood of tears. Reynolds had been so much moved by the news that
he had flung aside his brush and palette for the day.

A short time after Goldsmith's death, a little poem appeared, which
will, as long as our language lasts, associate the names of his two
illustrious friends with his own. It has already been mentioned that he
sometimes felt keenly the sarcasm which his wild blundering talk brought
upon him. He was, not long before his last illness, provoked into
retaliating. He wisely betook himself to his pen; and at that weapon he
proved himself a match for all his assailants together. Within a small
compass he drew with a singularly easy and vigorous pencil the
characters of nine or ten of his intimate associates. Though this little
work did not receive his last touches, it must always be regarded as a
masterpiece. It is impossible, however, not to wish that four or five
likenesses which have no interest for posterity were wanting to that
noble gallery, and that their places were supplied by sketches of
Johnson and Gibbon, as happy and vivid as the sketches of Burke and
Garrick.

Some of Goldsmith's friends and admirers honoured him with a cenotaph in
Westminster Abbey. Nollekens was the sculptor, and Johnson wrote the
inscription. It is much to be lamented that Johnson did not leave to
posterity a more durable and a more valuable memorial of his friend. A
life of Goldsmith would have been an inestimable addition to the Lives
of the Poets. No man appreciated Goldsmith's writings more justly than
Johnson; no man was better acquainted with Goldsmith's character and
habits; and no man was more competent to delineate with truth and spirit
the peculiarities of a mind in which great powers were found in company
with great weaknesses. But the list of poets to whose works Johnson was
requested by the booksellers to furnish prefaces ended with Lyttelton,
who died in 1773. The line seems to have been drawn expressly for the
purpose of excluding the person whose portrait would have most fitly
closed the series. Goldsmith, however, has been fortunate in his
biographers.     (M.)

  Goldsmith's life has been written by Prior (1837), by Washington
  Irving (1844-1849), and by John Forster (1848, 2nd ed. 1854). The
  diligence of Prior deserves great praise; the style of Washington
  Irving is always pleasing; but the highest place must, in justice, be
  assigned to the eminently interesting work of Forster. Subsequent
  biographies are by William Black (1878), and Austin Dobson (1888,
  American ed. 1899). The above article by Lord Macaulay has been
  slightly revised for this edition by Mr Austin Dobson, as regards
  questions of fact for which there has been new evidence.



GOLDSTÜCKER, THEODOR (1821-1872), German Sanskrit scholar, was born of
Jewish parents at Königsberg on the 18th of January 1821, and, after
attending the gymnasium of that town, entered the university in 1836 as
a student of Sanskrit. In 1838 he removed to Bonn, and, after graduating
at Königsberg in 1840, proceeded to Paris; in 1842 he edited a German
translation of the _Prabodha Chandrodaya_. From 1847 to 1850 he resided
at Berlin, where his talents and scholarship were recognized by
Alexander von Humboldt, but where his advanced political views caused
the authorities to regard him with suspicion. In the latter year he
removed to London, where in 1852 he was appointed professor of Sanskrit
in University College. He now worked on a new Sanskrit dictionary, of
which the first instalment appeared in 1856. In 1861 he published his
chief work: _Panini: his place in Sanskrit Literature_; and he was one
of the founders and chief promoters of the Sanskrit Text Society; he was
also an active member of the Philological Society, and of other learned
bodies. He died in London on the 6th of March 1872.

  As _Literary Remains_ some of his writings were published in two
  volumes (London, 1879), but his papers were left to the India Office
  with the request that they were not to be published until 1920.



GOLDWELL, THOMAS (d. 1585), English ecclesiastic, began his career as
vicar of Cheriton in 1531, after graduating M.A. at All Souls College,
Oxford. He became chaplain to Cardinal Pole and lived with him at Rome,
was attainted in 1539, but returned to England on Mary's accession, and
in 1555 became bishop of St Asaph, a diocese which he did much to win
back to the old faith. On the death of Mary, Goldwell escaped from
England and in 1561 became superior of the Theatines at Naples. He was
the only English bishop at the council of Trent, and in 1562 was again
attainted. In the following year he was appointed vicar-general to Carlo
Borromeo, archbishop of Milan. He died in Rome in 1585, the last of the
English bishops who had refused to accept the Reformation.



GOLDZIHER, IGNAZ (1850-   ), Jewish Hungarian orientalist, was born in
Stuhlweissenburg on the 22nd of June 1850. He was educated at the
universities of Budapest, Berlin, Leipzig and Leiden, and became privat
docent at Budapest in 1872. In the next year, under the auspices of the
Hungarian government, he began a journey through Syria, Palestine and
Egypt, and took the opportunity of attending lectures of Mahommedan
sheiks in the mosque of el-Azhar in Cairo. He was the first Jewish
scholar to become professor in the Budapest University (1894), and
represented the Hungarian government and the Academy of Sciences at
numerous international congresses. He received the large gold medal at
the Stockholm Oriental Congress in 1889. He became a member of several
Hungarian and other learned societies, was appointed secretary of the
Jewish community in Budapest. He was made Litt. D. of Cambridge (1904)
and LL.D. of Aberdeen (1906). His eminence in the sphere of scholarship
is due primarily to his careful investigation of pre-Mahommedan and
Mahommedan law, tradition, religion and poetry, in connexion with which
he published a large number of treatises, review articles and essays
contributed to the collections of the Hungarian Academy.

  Among his chief works are: _Beiträge zur Literaturgeschichte der
  Schi'a_ (1874); _Beiträge zur Geschichte der Sprachgelehrsamkeit bei
  den Arabern_ (Vienna, 1871-1873); _Der Mythos bei den Hebräern und
  seine geschichtliche Entwickelung_ (Leipzig, 1876; Eng. trans., R.
  Martineau, London, 1877); _Muhammedanische Studien_ (Halle, 1889-1890,
  2 vols.); _Abhandlungen zur arabischen Philologie_ (Leiden, 1896-1899,
  2 vols.); _Buch v. Wesen d. Seele_ (ed. 1907).



GOLETTA [LA GOULETTE], a town on the Gulf of Tunis in 36° 50' N. 10° 19'
E., a little south of the ruins of Carthage, and on the north side of
the ship canal which traverses the shallow Lake of Tunis and leads to
the city of that name. Built on the narrow strip of sand which separates
the lake from the gulf, Goletta is defended by a fort and battery. The
town contains a summer palace of the bey, the old seraglio, arsenal and
customhouse, and many villas, gardens and pleasure resorts, Goletta
being a favourite place for sea-bathing. A short canal, from which the
name of the town is derived (Arab. _Halk-el-Wad_, "throat of the
canal"), 40 ft. broad and 8½ ft. deep, divides the town and affords
communication between the ship canal and a dock or basin, 1082 ft. long
and 541 ft. broad. An electric tramway which runs along the north bank
of the ship canal connects Goletta with the city of Tunis (q.v.). Pop.
(1907) about 5000, mostly Jews and Italian fishermen.

Beyond Cape Carthage, 5 m. N. of Goletta, is La Marsa, a summer resort
overlooking the sea. The bey has a palace here, and the French
resident-general, the British consul, other officials, and many
Tunisians have country-houses, surrounded by groves of olive trees.

Before the opening of the ship canal in 1893 Goletta, as the port of
Tunis, was a place of considerable importance. The basin at the Goletta
end of the canal now serves as a subsidiary harbour to that of Tunis.
The most stirring events in the history of the town are connected with
the Turkish conquest of the Barbary states. Khair-ed-Din Barbarossa
having made himself master of Tunis and its port, Goletta was attacked
in 1535 by the emperor Charles V., who seized the pirate's fleet, which
was sheltered in the small canal, his arsenal, and 300 brass cannon. The
Turks regained possession in 1574. (See TUNISIA: _History_.)



GOLF (in its older forms GOFF, GOUFF or GOWFF, the last of which gives
the genuine old pronunciation), a game which probably derives its name
from the Ger. _kolbe_, a club--in Dutch, _kolf_--which last is nearly in
sound identical and might suggest a Dutch origin,[1] which many pictures
and other witnesses further support.

_History._--One of the most ancient and most interesting of the pictures
in which the game is portrayed is the tailpiece to an illuminated _Book
of Hours_ made at Bruges at the beginning of the 16th century. The
original is in the British Museum. The players, three in number, have
but one club apiece. The heads of the clubs are steel or steel covered.
They play with a ball each. That which gives this picture a peculiar
interest over the many pictures of Dutch schools that portray the game
in progress is that most of them show it on the ice, the putting being
at a stake. In this _Book of Hours_ they are putting at a hole in the
turf, as in our modern golf. It is scarcely to be doubted that the game
is of Dutch origin, and that it has been in favour since very early
days. Further than that our knowledge does not go. The early Dutchmen
played golf, they painted golf, but they did not write it.

It is uncertain at what date golf was introduced into Scotland, but in
1457 the popularity of the game had already become so great as seriously
to interfere with the more important pursuit of archery. In March of
that year the Scottish parliament "decreted and ordained that
_wapinshawingis_ be halden be the lordis and baronis spirituale and
temporale, four times in the zeir; and that the fute-ball and _golf be
utterly cryit down, and nocht usit_; and that the bowe-merkis be maid at
ilk paroche kirk a pair of buttis, and _schuttin be usit ilk Sunday_."
Fourteen years afterwards, in May 1471, it was judged necessary to pass
another act "anent wapenshawings," and in 1491 a final and evidently
angry fulmination was issued on the general subject, with pains and
penalties annexed. It runs thus--"Futeball and Golfe forbidden. Item, it
is statut and ordainit that in na place of the realme there be usit
fute-ball, _golfe, or uther sik unprofitabill sportis_," &c. This, be it
noted, is an edict of James IV.; and it is not a little curious
presently to find the monarch himself setting an ill example to his
commons, by practice of this "unprofitabill sport," as is shown by
various entries in the accounts of the lord high treasurer of Scotland
(1503-1506).

About a century later, the game again appears on the surface of history,
and it is quite as popular as before. In the year 1592 the town council
of Edinburgh "ordanis proclamation to be made threw this burgh, that na
inhabitants of the samyn be seen at ony pastymes within or without the
toun, upoun the Sabboth day, sic as golfe, &c."[2] The following year
the edict was re-announced, but with the modification that the
prohibition was "in tyme of sermons."

Golf has from old times been known in Scotland as "The _Royal and
Ancient_ Game of Goff." Though no doubt Scottish monarchs handled the
club before him, James IV. is the first who figures formally in the
golfing record. James V. was also very partial to the game distinctively
known as "royal"; and there is some scrap of evidence to show that his
daughter, the unhappy Mary Stuart, was a golfer. It was alleged by her
enemies that, as showing her shameless indifference to the fate of her
husband, a very few days after his murder, she "was seen playing _golf_
and pallmall in the fields beside Seton."[3] That her son, James VI.
(afterwards James I. of England), was a golfer, tradition confidently
asserts, though the evidence which connects him with the personal
practice of the game is slight. Of the interest he took in it we have
evidence in his act--already alluded to--"anent _golfe ballis_,"
prohibiting their importation, except under certain restrictions.
Charles I. (as his brother Prince Henry had been[4]) was devotedly
attached to the game. Whilst engaged in it on the links of Leith, in
1642, the news reached him of the Irish rebellion of that year. He had
not the equanimity to finish his match, but returned precipitately and
in much agitation to Holyrood.[5] Afterwards, while prisoner to the
Scots army at Newcastle, he found his favourite diversion in "the royal
game." "The King was nowhere treated with more honour than at Newcastle,
as he himself confessed, both he and his train having liberty to go
abroad and play at goff in the Shield Field, without the walls."[6] Of
his son, Charles II., as a golfer, nothing whatever is ascertained, but
James II. was a known devotee.[7] After the Restoration, James, then
duke of York, was sent to Edinburgh in 1681/2 as commissioner of the
king to parliament, and an historical monument of his prowess as a
golfer remains there to this day in the "Golfer's Land," as it is still
called, 77 Canongate. The duke having been challenged by two English
noblemen of his suite, to play a match against them, for a very large
stake, along with any Scotch ally he might select, chose as his partner
one "Johne Patersone," a shoemaker. The duke and the said Johne won
easily, and half of the large stake the duke made over to his humble
coadjutor, who therewith built himself the house mentioned above. In
1834 William IV. became patron of the St Andrews Golf Club (St Andrews
being then, as now, the most famous seat of the game), and approved of
its being styled "The _Royal and Ancient_ Golf Club of St Andrews." In
1837, as further proof of royal favour, he presented to it a magnificent
gold medal, which "should be challenged and played for annually"; and in
1838 the queen dowager, duchess of St Andrews, became patroness of the
club, and presented to it a handsome gold medal--"The Royal
Adelaide"--with a request that it should be worn by the captain, as
president, on all public occasions. In June 1863 the prince of Wales
(afterwards Edward VII.) signified his desire to become patron of the
club, and in the following September was elected captain by acclamation.
His engagements did not admit of his coming in person to undertake the
duties of the office, but his brother Prince Leopold (the duke of
Albany), having in 1876 done the club the honour to become its captain,
twice visited the ancient city in that capacity.

In more recent days, golf has become increasingly popular in a much
wider degree. In 1880 the man who travelled about England with a set of
golf clubs was an object of some astonishment, almost of alarm, to his
fellow-travellers. In those days the commonest of questions in regard to
the game was, "You have to be a fine rider, do you not, to play golf?"
so confounded was it in the popular mind with the game of polo. At
Blackheath a few Scotsmen resident in London had long played golf. In
1864 the Royal North Devon Club was formed at Westward Ho, and this was
the first of the seaside links discovered and laid out for golf in
England. In 1869 the Royal Liverpool Club established itself in
possession of the second English course of this quality at Hoylake, in
Cheshire. A golf club was formed in connexion with the London Scottish
Volunteers corps, which had its house on the Putney end of Wimbledon
Common on Putney Heath; and, after making so much of a start, the
progress of the game was slow, though steady, for many years. A few more
clubs were formed; the numbers of golfers grew; but it could not be said
that the game was yet in any sense popular in England. All at once, for
no very obvious reason, the qualities of the ancient Scottish game
seemed to strike home, and from that moment its popularity has been
wonderfully and increasingly great. The English links that rose into
most immediate favour was the fine course of the St George's Golf Club,
near Sandwich, on the coast of Kent. To the London golfer it was the
first course of the first class that was reasonably accessible, and the
fact made something like an epoch in English golf. A very considerable
increase, it is true, in the number of English golfers and English golf
clubs had taken place before the discovery for golfing purposes of the
links at Sandwich. Already there was a chain of links all round the
coast, besides numerous inland courses; but since 1890 their increase
has been extraordinary, and the number which has been formed in the
colonies and abroad is very large also, so that in the _Golfer's Year
Book_ for 1906 a space of over 300 pages was allotted to the Club
Directory alone, each page containing, on a rough average, six clubs. To
compute the average membership of these clubs is very difficult. There
is not a little overlapping, in the sense that a member of one club will
often be a member of several others; but probably the average may be
placed at something like 200 members for each club.

The immense amount of golf-playing that this denotes, the large industry
in the making of clubs and balls, in the upkeep of links, in the actual
work of club-carrying by the caddies, and in the instruction given by
the professional class, is obvious. Golf has taken a strong hold on the
affections of the people in many parts of Ireland, and the fashion for
golf in England has reacted strongly on Scotland itself, the ancient
home of the game, where since 1880 golfers have probably increased in
the ratio of forty to one. Besides the industry that such a growth of
the game denotes in the branches immediately connected with it, as
mentioned above, there is to be taken into further account the visiting
population that it brings to all lodging-houses and hotels within reach
of a tolerable golf links, so that many a fishing village has risen into
a moderate watering-place by virtue of no other attractions than those
which are offered by its golf course. Therefore to the Briton, golf has
developed from something of which he had a vague idea--as of
"curling"--to something in the nature of an important business, a
business that can make towns and has a considerable effect on the
receipts of railway companies.

Moreover, ladies have learned to play golf. Although this is a crude and
brief sentence, it does not state the fact too widely nor too forcibly,
for though it is true that before 1885 many played on the short links of
St Andrews, North Berwick, Westward Ho and elsewhere, still it was
virtually unknown that they should play on the longer courses, which
till then had been in the undisputed possession of the men. At many
places women now have their separate links, at others they play on the
same course as the men. But even where links are set apart for women,
they are far different from the little courses that used to be assigned
to them. They are links only a little less formidable in their bunkers,
a little less varied in their features than those of men. The ladies
have their annual championship, which they play on the long links of the
men, sometimes on one, sometimes on another, but always on courses of
the first quality, demanding the finest display of golfing skill.

The claim that England made to a golfing fellowship with Scotland was
conceded very strikingly by the admission of three English greens, first
those of Hoylake and of Sandwich, and in 1909 Deal, into the exclusive
list of the links on which the open championship of the game is decided.
Before England had so fully assimilated Scotland's game this great
annual contest was waged at St Andrews, Musselburgh and Prestwick in
successive years. Now the ancient green of Musselburgh, somewhat worn
out with length of hard and gallant service, and moreover, as a
nine-holes course inadequately accommodating the numbers who compete in
the championships to-day, has been superseded by the course at Muirfield
as a championship arena.

While golf had been making itself a force in the southern kingdom, the
professional element--men who had learned the game from childhood, had
become past-masters, were capable of giving instruction, and also of
making clubs and balls and looking after the greens on which golf was
played--had at first been taken from the northern side of the Border.
But when golf had been started long enough in England for the little
boys who were at first employed as "caddies"--in carrying the players'
clubs--to grow to sufficient strength to drive the ball as far as their
masters, it was inevitable that out of the number who thus began to play
in their boyhood some few should develop an exceptional talent for the
game. This, in fact, actually happened, and English golfers, both of the
amateur and the professional classes, have proved themselves so adept
at Scotland's game, that the championships in either the Open or the
Amateur competitions have been won more often by English than by
Scottish players of late years. Probably in the United Kingdom to-day
there are as many English as Scottish professional golf players, and
their relative number is increasing.

Golf also "caught on," to use the American expression, in the United
States. To the American of 1890 golf was largely an unknown thing. Since
then, however, golf has become perhaps a greater factor in the life of
the upper and upper-middle classes in the United States than it ever has
been in England or Scotland. Golf to the English and the Scots meant
only one among several of the sports and pastimes that take the man and
the woman of the upper and upper-middle classes into the country and the
fresh air. To the American of like status golf came as the one thing to
take him out of his towns and give him a reason for exercise in the
country. To-day golf has become an interest all over North America, but
it is in the Eastern States that it has made most difference in the life
of the classes with whom it has become fashionable. Westerners and
Southerners found more excuses before the coming of golf for being in
the open country air. It is in the Eastern States more especially that
it has had so much influence in making the people live and take exercise
out of doors. In a truly democratic spirit the American woman golfer
plays on a perfect equality with the American man. She does not compete
in the men's championships; she has championships of her own; but she
plays, without question, on the same links. There is no suggestion of
relegating her, as a certain cynical writer in the Badminton volume on
golf described it, to a waste corner, a kind of "Jews' Quarter," of the
links. And the Americans have taken up golf in the spirit of a sumptuous
and opulent people, spending money on magnificent clubhouses beyond the
finest dreams of the Englishman or the Scot. The greatest success
achieved by any American golfer fell to the lot of Mr Walter Travis of
the Garden City club, who in 1904 won the British amateur championship.

So much enthusiasm and so much golf in America have not failed to make
their influence felt in the United Kingdom. Naturally and inevitably
they have created a strong demand for professional instruction, both by
example and by precept, and for professional advice and assistance in
the laying-out and upkeep of the many new links that have been created
in all parts of the States, sometimes out of the least promising
material. By the offer of great prizes for exhibition matches, and of
wages that are to the British rate on the scale of the dollar to the
shilling, they have attracted many of the best Scottish and English
professionals to pay them longer or shorter visits as the case may be,
and thus a new opening has been created for the energies of the
professional golfing class.

_The Game._--The game of golf may be briefly defined as consisting in
hitting the ball over a great extent of country, preferably of that
sand-hill nature which is found by the seaside, and finally hitting or
"putting" it into a little hole of some 4 in. diameter cut in the turf.
The place of the hole is commonly marked by a flag. Eighteen is the
recognized number of these holes on a full course, and they are at
varying distances apart, from 100 yds. up to anything between a ¼ and ½
m. For the various strokes required to achieve the hitting of the ball
over the great hills, and finally putting it into the small hole, a
number of different "clubs" has been devised to suit the different
positions in which the ball may be found and the different directions in
which it is wished to propel it. At the start for each hole the ball may
be placed on a favourable position (e.g. "tee'd" on a small mound of
sand) for striking it, but after that it may not be touched, except with
the club, until it is hit into the next hole. A "full drive," as the
farthest distance that the ball can be hit is called, is about 200 yds.
in length, of which some three-fourths will be traversed in the air, and
the rest by bounding or running over the ground. It is easily to be
understood that when the ball is lying on the turf behind a tall
sand-hill, or in a bunker, a differently-shaped club is required for
raising it over such an obstacle from that which is needed when it is
placed on the tee to start with; and again, that another club is needed
to strike the ball out of a cup or out of heavy grass. It is this
variety that gives the game its charm. Each player plays with his own
ball, with no interference from his opponent, and the object of each is
to hit the ball from the starting-point into each successive hole in the
fewest strokes. The player who at the end of the round (i.e. of the
course of eighteen holes) has won the majority of the holes is the
winner of the round; or the decision may be reached before the end of
the round by one side gaining more holes than there remain to play. For
instance, if one player be four holes to the good, and only three holes
remain to be played, it is evident that the former must be the winner,
for even if the latter win every remaining hole, he still must be one to
the bad at the finish.

The British Amateur Championship is decided by a tournament in matches
thus played, each defeated player retiring, and his opponent passing on
into the next round. In the case of the Open Championship, and in most
medal competitions, the scores are differently reckoned--each man's
total score (irrespective of his relative merit at each hole) being
reckoned at the finish against the total score of the other players in
the competition. There is also a species of competition called "bogey"
play, in which each man plays against a "bogey" score--a score fixed for
each hole in the round before starting--and his position in the
competition relatively to the other players is determined by the number
of holes that he is to the good or to the bad of the "bogey" score at
the end of the round. The player who is most holes to the good, or
fewest holes to the bad, wins the competition. It may be mentioned
incidentally that golf occupies the almost unique position of being the
only sport in which even a single player can enjoy his game, his
opponent in this event being "Colonel Bogey"--more often than not a
redoubtable adversary.

  The links which have been thought worthy, by reason of their
  geographical positions and their merits, of being the scenes on which
  the golf championships are fought out, are, as we have already said,
  three in Scotland--St Andrews, Prestwick and Muirfield--and three in
  England--Hoylake, Sandwich and Deal. This brief list is very far from
  being complete as regards links of first-class quality in Great
  Britain. Besides those named, there are in Scotland--Carnoustie, North
  Berwick, Cruden Bay, Nairn, Aberdeen, Dornoch, Troon, Machrihanish,
  South Uist, Islay, Gullane, Luffness and many more. In England there
  are--Westward Ho, Bembridge, Littlestone, Great Yarmouth, Brancaster,
  Seaton Carew, Formby, Lytham, Harlech, Burnham, among the seaside
  ones; while of the inland, some of them of very fine quality, we
  cannot even attempt a selection, so large is their number and so
  variously estimated their comparative merits. Ireland has Portrush,
  Newcastle, Portsalon, Dollymount and many more of the first class; and
  there are excellent courses in the Isle of Man. In America many fine
  courses have been constructed. There is not a British colony of any
  standing that is without its golf course--Australia, India, South
  Africa, all have their golf championships, which are keenly contested.
  Canada has had courses at Quebec and Montreal for many years, and the
  Calcutta Golf Club, curiously enough, is the oldest established (next
  to the Blackheath Club), the next oldest being the club at Pau in the
  Basses-Pyrénées.

  The Open Championship of golf was started in 1860 by the Prestwick
  Club giving a belt to be played for annually under the condition that
  it should become the property of any who could win it thrice in
  succession. The following is the list of the champions:--

    1860. W. Park, Musselburgh           174--at Prestwick.
    1861. Tom Morris, sen., Prestwick    163--at Prestwick.
    1862. Tom Morris, sen., Prestwick    163--at Prestwick.
    1863. W. Park, Musselburgh           168--at Prestwick.
    1864. Tom Morris, sen., Prestwick    160--at Prestwick.
    1865. A. Strath, St Andrews          162--at Prestwick.
    1866. W. Park, Musselburgh           169--at Prestwick.
    1867. Tom Morris, sen., St Andrews   170--at Prestwick.
    1868. Tom Morris, jun., St Andrews   154--at Prestwick.
    1869. Tom Morris, jun., St Andrews   157--at Prestwick.
    1870. Tom Morris, jun., St Andrews   149--at Prestwick.

  Tom Morris, junior, thus won the belt finally, according to the
  conditions. In 1871 there was no competition; but by 1872 the three
  clubs of St Andrews, Prestwick and Musselburgh had subscribed for a
  cup which should be played for over the course of each subscribing
  club successively, but should never become the property of the winner.
  In later years the course at Muirfield was substituted for that at
  Musselburgh, and Hoylake and Sandwich were admitted into the list of
  championship courses. Up to 1891, inclusive, the play of two rounds,
  or thirty-six holes, determined the championship, but from 1892 the
  result has been determined by the play of 72 holes.

  After the interregnum of 1871, the following were the champions:--

    1872. Tom Morris, jun., St Andrews    166--at Prestwick.
    1873. Tom Kidd, St Andrews            179--at St Andrews.
    1874. Mungo Park, Musselburgh         159--at Musselburgh.
    1875. Willie Park, Musselburgh        166--at Prestwick.
    1876. Bob Martin, St Andrews          176--at St Andrews.
    1877. Jamie Anderson, St Andrews      160--at Musselburgh.
    1878. Jamie Anderson, St Andrews      157--at Prestwick.
    1879. Jamie Anderson, St Andrews      170--at St Andrews.
    1880. Bob Fergusson, Musselburgh      162--at Musselburgh.
    1881. Bob Fergusson, Musselburgh      170--at Prestwick.
    1882. Bob Fergusson, Musselburgh      171--at St Andrews.
    1883. W. Fernie, Dumfries             159--at Musselburgh.
    1884. Jack Simpson, Carnoustie        160--at Prestwick.
    1885. Bob Martin, St Andrews          171--at St Andrews.
    1886. D. Brown, Musselburgh           157--at Musselburgh.
    1887. Willie Park, jun., Musselburgh  161--at Prestwick.
    1888. Jack Burns, Warwick             171--at St Andrews.
    1889. Willie Park, jun., Musselburgh  155--at Musselburgh.
    1890. Mr John Ball, jun., Hoylake     164--at Prestwick.
    1891. Hugh Kirkaldy, St Andrews       166--at St Andrews.
    1892. Mr H. H. Hilton, Hoylake        305--at Muirfield.
    1893. W. Auchterlonie, St Andrews     322--at Prestwick.
    1894. J. H. Taylor, Winchester        326--at Sandwich.
    1895. J. H. Taylor, Winchester        322--at St Andrews.
    1896. H. Vardon, Scarborough          316--at Muirfield.
    1897. Mr H. H. Hilton, Hoylake        314--at Hoylake.
    1898. H. Vardon, Scarborough          307--at Prestwick.
    1899. H. Vardon, Scarborough          310--at Sandwich.
    1900. J. H. Taylor, Richmond          309--at St Andrews.
    1901. J. Braid, Romford               309--at Muirfield.
    1902. A. Herd, Huddersfield           307--at Hoylake.
    1903. H. Vardon, Ganton               300--at Prestwick.
    1904. J. White, Sunningdale           296--at Sandwich.
    1905. J. Braid, Walton Heath          318--at St Andrews.
    1906. J. Braid, Walton Heath          300--at Muirfield.
    1907. Arnaud Massey, La Boulie        312--at Hoylake.
    1908. J. Braid, Walton Heath          291--at Prestwick.
    1909. J. H. Taylor, Richmond          295--at Deal.
    1910. J. Braid, Walton Heath          298--at St Andrews.

  The Amateur Championship is of far more recent institution.

    1886. Mr Horace Hutchinson     at St Andrews.
    1887. Mr Horace Hutchinson     at Hoylake.
    1888. Mr John Ball             at Prestwick.
    1889. Mr J. E. Laidlay         at St Andrews.
    1890. Mr John Ball             at Hoylake.
    1891. Mr J. E. Laidlay         at St Andrews.
    1892. Mr John Ball             at Sandwich.
    1893. Mr P. Anderson           at Prestwick.
    1894. Mr John Ball             at Hoylake.
    1895. Mr L. Balfour-Melville   at St Andrews.
    1896. Mr F. G. Tait            at Sandwich.
    1897. Mr J. T. Allan           at Muirfield.
    1898. Mr John Ball             at Prestwick.
    1899. Mr F. G. Tait            at Hoylake.
    1900. Mr H. H. Hilton          at Sandwich.
    1901. Mr H. H. Hilton          at St Andrews.
    1902. Mr C. Hutchings          at Hoylake.
    1903. Mr R. Maxwell            at Muirfield.
    1904. Mr W. J. Travis          at Sandwich.
    1905. Mr A. G. Barry           at St Andrews.
    1906. Mr J. Robb               at Hoylake.
    1907. Mr John Ball             at St Andrews.
    1908. Mr E. A. Lassen          at Sandwich.
    1909. Mr Robert Maxwell        at Muirfield.
    1910. Mr John Ball             at Hoylake.

  The Ladies' Championship was started in 1893.

    1893. Lady M. Scott            at St Annes.
    1894. Lady M. Scott            at Littlestone.
    1895. Lady M. Scott            at Portrush.
    1896. Miss A. B. Pascoe        at Hoylake.
    1897. Miss E. C. Orr           at Gullane.
    1898. Miss L. Thompson         at Yarmouth.
    1899. Miss M. Hezlet           at Newcastle.
    1900. Miss R. K. Adair         at Westward Ho.
    1901. Miss M. A. Graham        at Aberdovy.
    1902. Miss M. Hezlet           at Deal.
    1903. Miss R. K. Adair         at Portrush.
    1904. Miss L. Dod              at Troon.
    1905. Miss B. Thompson         at Cromer.
    1906. Mrs Kennion              at Burnham.
    1907. Miss M. Hezlet           at Newcastle (Co. Down).
    1908. Miss M. Titterton        at St Andrews.
    1909. Miss D. Campbell         at Birkdale.
    1910. Miss Grant Suttie        at Westward Ho.

There have been some slight changes of detail and arrangement as time
has gone on, in the rules of the game (the latest edition of the Rules
should be consulted). A new class of golfer has arisen, requiring a code
of rules framed rather more exactly than the older code. The Scottish
golfer, who was "teethed" on a golf club, as Mr Andrew Lang has
described it, imbibed all the traditions of the game with his natural
sustenance. Very few rules sufficed for him. But when the Englishman,
and still more the American (less in touch with the traditions), began
to play golf as a new game, then they began to ask for a code of rules
that should be lucid and illuminating on every point--an ideal perhaps
impossible to realize. It was found, at least, that the code put forward
by the Royal and Ancient Club of St Andrews did not realize it
adequately. Nevertheless the new golfers were very loyal indeed to the
club that had ever of old held, by tacit consent, the position of fount
of golfing legislation. The Royal and Ancient Club was appealed to by
English golfers to step into the place, analogous to that of the
Marylebone Cricket Club in cricket, that they were both willing and
anxious to give it. It was a place that the Club at St Andrews did not
in the least wish to occupy, but the honour was thrust so insistently
upon it, that there was no declining. The latest effort to meet the
demands for some more satisfactory legislation on the thousand and one
points that continually must arise for decision in course of playing a
game of such variety as golf, consists of the appointment of a standing
committee, called the "Rules of Golf Committee." Its members all belong
to the Royal and Ancient Club; but since this club draws its membership
from all parts of the United Kingdom, this restriction is quite
consistent with a very general representation of the views of north,
south, east and west--from Westward Ho and Sandwich to Dornoch, and all
the many first-rate links of Ireland--on the committee. Ireland has,
indeed, some of the best links in the kingdom, and yields to neither
Scotland nor England in enthusiasm for the game. This committee, after a
general revision of the rules into the form in which they now stand,
consider every month, either by meeting or by correspondence, the
questions that are sent up to it by clubs or by individuals; and the
committee's answers to these questions have the force of law until they
have come before the next general meeting of the Royal and Ancient Club
at St Andrews, which may confirm or may reject them at will. The ladies
of Great Britain manage otherwise. They have a Golfing Union which
settles questions for them; but since this union itself accepts as
binding the answers given by the Rules of Golf Committee, they really
arrive at the same conclusions by a slightly different path. Nor does
the American Union, governing the play of men and women alike in the
States, really act differently. The Americans naturally reserve to
themselves freedom to make their own rules, but in practice they conform
to the legislation of Scotland, with the exception of a more drastic
definition of the status of the amateur player, and certain differences
as to the clubs used.

A considerable modification has been effected in the implements of the
game. The tendency of the modern wooden clubs is to be short in the head
as compared with the clubs of, say, 1880 or 1885. The advantage claimed
(probably with justice) for this shape is that it masses the weight
behind the point on which the ball is struck. Better material in the
wood of the club is a consequence of the increased demand for these
articles and the increased competition among their makers. Whereas under
the old conditions a few workers at the few greens then in existence
were enough to supply the golfing wants, now there is a very large
industry in golf club and ball making, which not only employs workers in
the local club-makers' shops all the kingdom over, but is an important
branch of the commerce of the stores and of the big athletic outfitters,
both in Great Britain and in the United States. By far the largest
modification in the game since the change to gutta-percha balls from
balls of leather-covering stuffed with feathers, is due to the American
invention of the india-rubber cased balls. Practically it is as an
American invention that it is still regarded, although the British law
courts decided, after a lengthy trial (1905), that there had been "prior
users" of the principle of the balls' manufacture, and therefore that
the patent of Mr Haskell, by whose name the first balls of the kind
were called, was not good. It is singular to remark that in the first
introduction of the gutta-percha balls, superseding the leather and
feather compositions, they also were called by the name of their first
maker, "Gourlay." The general mode of manufacture of the rubber-cored
ball, which is now everywhere in use, is interiorly, a hard core of
gutta-percha or some other such substance; round this is wound, by
machinery, india-rubber thread or strips at a high tension, and over all
is an outer coat of gutta-percha. Some makers have tried to dispense
with the kernel of hard substance, or to substitute for it kernels of
some fluid or gelatinous substance, but in general the above is a
sufficient, though rough, description of the mode of making all these
balls. Their superiority over the solid gutta-percha lies in their
superior resiliency. The effect is that they go much more lightly off
the club. It is not so much in the tee-shots that this superiority is
observed, as in the second shots, when the ball is lying badly; balls of
the rubber-cored kind, with their greater liveliness, are more easy to
raise in the air from a lie of this kind. They also go remarkably well
off the iron clubs, and thus make the game easier by placing the player
within an iron shot of the hole at a distance at which he would have to
use a wooden club if he were playing with a solid gutta-percha ball.
They also tend to make the game more easy by the fact that if they are
at all mis-hit they go much better than a gutta-percha ball similarly
inaccurately struck. As a slight set-off against these qualities, the
ball, because of the greater liveliness, is not quite so good for the
short game as the solid ball; but on the whole its advantages distinctly
overbalance its disadvantages.

When these balls were first put on the market they were sold at two
shillings each and even, when the supply was quite unequal to the
demand, at a greater deal higher price, rising to as much as a guinea a
ball. But the normal price, until about a year after the decision in the
British courts of law affirming that there was no patent in the balls,
was always two shillings for the best quality of ball. Subsequently
there was a reduction down to one shilling for the balls made by many of
the manufacturing companies, though in 1910 the rise in the price of
rubber sent up the cost. The rubber-cored ball does not go out of shape
so quickly as the gutta-percha solid ball and does not show other marks
of ill-usage with the club so obviously. It has had the effect of making
the game a good deal easier for the second- and third-class players,
favouring especially those who were short drivers with the old
gutta-percha ball. To the best players it has made the least difference,
nevertheless those who were best with the old ball are also best with
the new; its effect has merely been to bring the second, third and
fourth best closer to each other and to the best.

Incidentally, the question of the expense of the game has been touched
on in this notice of the new balls. There is no doubt that the balls
themselves tend to a greater economy, not only because of their own
superior durability but also because, as a consequence of their greater
resiliency, they are not nearly so hard on the clubs, and the clubs
themselves being perhaps made of better material than used to be given
to their manufacture, the total effect is that a man's necessary annual
expenditure on them is very small indeed even though he plays pretty
constantly. Four or five rounds are not more than the average of golfers
will make an india-rubber cored ball last them, so that the outlay on
the weapons is very moderate. On the other hand the expenditure of the
clubs on their courses has increased and tends to increase. Demands are
more insistent than they used to be for a well kept course, for
perfectly mown greens, renewed teeing grounds and so on, and probably
the modern golfer is a good deal more luxurious in his clubhouse wants
than his father used to be. This means a big staff of servants and
workers on the green, and to meet this a rather heavy subscription is
required. Such a subscription as five guineas added to a ten or fifteen
guinea entrance fee is not uncommon, and even this is very moderate
compared with the subscriptions to some of the clubs in the United
States, where a hundred dollars a year, or twenty pounds of our money,
is not unusual. But on the whole golf is a very economical pastime, as
compared with almost any other sport or pastime which engages the
attention of Britons, and it is a pastime for all the year round, and
for all the life of a man or woman.

  _Glossary of Technical Terms used in the Game._

  _Addressing the Ball._--Putting oneself in position to strike the
  ball.

  _All Square._--Term used to express that the score stands level,
  neither side being a hole up.

  _Baff._--To strike the ground with the club when playing, and so loft
  the ball unduly.

  _Baffy._--A short wooden club, with laid-back face, for lofting shots.

  _Bogey._--The number of strokes which a good average player should
  take to each hole. This imaginary player is usually known as "Colonel
  Bogey," and plays a fine game.

  _Brassy._--A wooden club with a brass sole.

  _Bulger._--A driver in which the face "bulges" into a convex shape.
  The head is shorter than in the older-fashioned driver.

  _Bunker._--A sand-pit.

  _Bye._--The holes remaining after one side has become more holes up
  than remain for play.

  _Caddie._--The person who carries the clubs. Diminutive of "cad"; cf.
  laddie (from Fr. _cadet_).

  _Cleek._--The iron-headed club that is capable of the farthest drive
  of any of the clubs with iron heads.

  _Cup._--A depression in the ground causing the ball to lie badly.

  _Dead._--A ball is said to be "dead" when so near the hole that the
  putting it in in the next stroke is a "dead" certainty. A ball is said
  to "fall dead" when it pitches with hardly any run.

  _Divot._--A piece of turf cut out in the act of playing, which, be it
  noted, should always be replaced before the player moves on.

  _Dormy._--One side is said to be "dormy" when it is as many holes to
  the good as remain to be played--so that it cannot be beaten.

  _Driver._--The longest driving club, used when the ball lies very well
  and a long shot is needed.

  _Foozle._--Any very badly missed or bungled stroke.

  "_Fore!_"--A cry of warning to people in front.

  _Foursome._--A match in which four persons engage, two on each side
  playing alternately with the same ball.

  _Green._--(a) The links as a whole; (b) the "putting-greens" around
  the holes.

  _Grip._--(a) The part of the club-shaft which is held in the hands
  while playing; (b) the grasp itself--e.g. "a firm grip," "a loose
  grip," are common expressions.

  _Half-Shot._--A shot played with something less than a full swing.

  _Halved._--A hole is "halved" when both sides have played it in the
  same number of strokes. A round is "halved" when each side has won and
  lost the same number of holes.

  _Handicap._--The strokes which a player receives either in match play
  or competition.

  _Hanging._--Said of a ball that lies on a slope inclining downwards in
  regard to the direction in which it is wished to drive.

  _Hazard._--A general term for bunker, whin, long grass, roads and all
  kinds of bad ground.

  _Heel._--To hit the ball on the "heel" of the club, i.e. the part of
  the face nearest the shaft, and so send the ball to the right, with
  the same result as from a slice.

  _Honour._--The privilege (which its holder is not at liberty to
  decline) of striking off first from the tee.

  _Iron._--An iron-headed club intermediate between the cleek and
  lofting mashie. There are driving irons and lofting irons according to
  the purposes for which they are intended.

  _Lie._--(a) The angle of the club-head with the shaft (e.g. a "flat
  lie," "an upright lie"); (b) the position of the ball on the ground
  (e.g. "a good lie," "a bad lie").

  _Like, The._--The stroke which makes the player's score equal to his
  opponent's in course of playing a hole.

  _Like-as-we-Lie._--Said when both sides have played the same number of
  strokes.

  _Line._--The direction in which the hole towards which the player is
  progressing lies with reference to the present position of his ball.

  _Mashie._--Ah iron club with a short head. The _lofting mashie_ has
  the blade much laid back, for playing a short lofting shot. The
  _driving mashie_ has the blade less laid back, and is used for longer,
  less lofted shots.

  _Match-Play._--Play in which the score is reckoned by holes won and
  lost.

  _Medal-Play._--Play in which the score is reckoned by the total of
  strokes taken on the round.

  _Niblick._--A short stiff club with a short, laid back, iron head,
  used for getting the ball out of a very bad lie.

  _Odd, The._--A stroke more than the opponent has played.

  _Press._--To strive to hit harder than you can hit with accuracy.

  _Pull._--To hit the ball with a pulling movement of the club, so as to
  make it curve to the left.

  _Putt._--To play the short strokes near the hole (pronounced as in
  "but").

  _Putter._--The club used for playing the short strokes near the hole.
  Some have a wooden head, some an iron head.

  _Rub-of-the-Green._--Any chance deflection that the ball receives as
  it goes along.

  _Run Up._--To send the ball low and close to the ground in approaching
  the hole--opposite to lofting it up.

  _Scratch Player._--Player who receives no odds in handicap
  competitions.

  _Slice._--To hit the ball with a cut across it, so that it flies
  curving to the right.

  _Stance._--(a) The place on which the player has to stand when
  playing--e.g. "a bad stance," "a good stance," are common expressions;
  (b) the position relative to each other of the player's feet.

  _Stymie._--When one ball lies in a straight line between another and
  the hole the first is said to "stymie," or "to be a stymie to" the
  other--from an old Scottish word given by Jamieson to mean "the
  faintest form of anything." The idea probably was, the "stymie" only
  left you the "faintest form" of the hole to aim at.

  _Tee._--The little mound of sand on which the ball is generally placed
  for the first drive to each hole.

  _Teeing-Ground._--The place marked as the limit, outside of which it
  is not permitted to drive the ball off. This marked-out ground is also
  sometimes called "the tee."

  _Top._--To hit the ball above the centre, so that it does not rise
  much from the ground.

  _Up._--A player is said to be "one up," "two up," &c., when he is so
  many holes to the good of his opponent.

  _Wrist-Shot._--A shot less in length than a half-shot, but longer than
  a putt.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The literature of the game has grown to some
  considerable bulk. For many years it was practically comprised in the
  fine work by Mr Robert Clark, _Golf: A Royal and Ancient Game_,
  together with two handbooks on the game by Mr Chambers and by Mr
  Forgan respectively, and the _Golfiana Miscellanea_ of Mr Stewart. A
  small book by Mr Horace Hutchinson, named _Hints on Golf_, was very
  shortly followed by a much more important work by Sir Walter Simpson,
  Bart., called _The Art of Golf_, a title which sufficiently explains
  itself. The Badminton Library book on _Golf_ attempted to collect into
  one volume the most interesting historical facts known about the game,
  with _obiter dicta_ and advice to learners, and, on similar didactic
  lines, books have been written by Mr H. C. S. Everard, Mr Garden Smith
  and W. Park, the professional player. Mr H. J. Whigham, sometime
  amateur champion golfer of the United States, has given us a book
  about the game in that country. _The Book of Golf and Golfers_,
  compiled, with assistance, by Mr Horace Hutchinson, is in the first
  place a picture-gallery of famous golfers in their respective
  attitudes of play. Taylor, Vardon and Braid have each contributed a
  volume of instruction, and Mr G. W. Beldam has published a book with
  admirable photographs of players in action, called _Great Golfers:
  their Methods at a Glance_. A work intended for the use of green
  committees is among the volumes of the _Country Life_ Library of
  Sport. Much interesting lore is contained in the _Golfing Annual_, in
  the _Golfer's Year Book_ and in the pages of _Golf_, which has now
  become _Golf Illustrated_, a weekly paper devoted to the game. Among
  works that have primarily a local interest, but yet contain much of
  historical value about the game, may be cited the _Golf Book of East
  Lothian_, by the Rev. John Kerr, and the _Chronicle of Blackheath
  Golfers_, by Mr W. E. Hughes.     (H. G. H.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] From an enactment of James VI. (then James I. of England),
    bearing date 1618, we find that a considerable importation of golf
    balls at that time took place from Holland, and as thereby "na small
    quantitie of gold and silver is transported zierly out of his Hienes'
    kingdome of Scoteland" (see letter of His Majesty from Salisbury, the
    5th of August 1618), he issues a royal prohibition, at once as a wise
    economy of the national moneys, and a protection to native industry
    in the article. From this it might almost seem that the game was at
    that date still known and practised in Holland.

  [2] _Records of the City of Edinburgh_.

  [3] _Inventories of Mary Queen of Scots_, preface, p. lxx. (1863).

  [4] Anonymous author of MS. in the Harleian Library.

  [5] See _History of Leith_, by A. Campbell (1827).

  [6] _Local Records of Northumberland_, by John Sykes (Newcastle,
    1833).

  [7] Robertson's _Historical Notices of Leith_.



GOLIAD, an unincorporated village and the county-seat of Goliad county,
Texas, U.S.A., on the N. bank of the San Antonio river, 85 m. S.E. of
San Antonio. Pop. (1900) about 1700. It is served by the Galveston,
Harrisburg & San Antonio railway (Southern Pacific System). Situated in
the midst of a rich farming and stock-raising country, Goliad has flour
mills, cotton gins and cotton-seed oil mills. Here are the interesting
ruins of the old Spanish mission of La Bahia, which was removed to this
point from the Guadaloupe river in 1747. During the struggle between
Mexico and Spain the Mexican leader Bernardo Gutierrez (1778-1814) was
besieged here. The name Goliad, probably an anagram of the name of the
Mexican patriot Hidalgo (1753-1811), was first used about 1829. On the
outbreak of the Texan War of Liberation Goliad was garrisoned by a small
force of Mexicans, who surrendered to the Texans in October 1835, and on
the 20th of December a preliminary "declaration of independence" was
published here, antedating by several months the official Declaration
issued at Old Washington, Texas, on the 2nd of March 1836. In 1836, when
Santa Anna began his advance against the Texan posts, Goliad was
occupied by a force of about 350 Americans under Colonel James W. Fannin
(c. 1800-1836), who was overtaken on the Coletta Creek while attempting
to carry out orders to withdraw from Goliad and to unite with General
Houston; he surrendered after a sharp fight (March 19-20) in which he
inflicted a heavy loss on the Mexicans, and was marched back with his
force to Goliad, where on the morning of the 27th of March they were
shot down by Santa Anna's orders. Goliad was nearly destroyed by a
tornado on the 19th of May 1903.



GOLIARD, a name applied to those wandering students (_vagantes_) and
clerks in England, France and Germany, during the 12th and 13th
centuries, who were better known for their rioting, gambling and
intemperance than for their scholarship. The derivation of the word is
uncertain. It may come from the Lat. _gula_, gluttony (Wright), but was
connected by them with a mythical "Bishop Golias," also called
"_archipoëta_" and "_primas_"--especially in Germany--in whose name
their satirical poems were mostly written. Many scholars have accepted
Büdinger's suggestion (_Über einige Reste der Vagantenpoesie in
Österreich_, Vienna, 1854) that the title of Golias goes back to the
letter of St Bernard to Innocent II., in which he referred to Abelard as
Goliath, thus connecting the goliards with the keen-witted student
adherents of that great medieval critic. Giesebrecht and others,
however, support the derivation of goliard from _gailliard_, a gay
fellow, leaving "Golias" as the imaginary "patron" of their fraternity.

Spiegel has ingeniously disentangled something of a biography of an
_archipoëta_ who flourished mainly in Burgundy and at Salzburg from 1160
to beyond the middle of the 13th century; but the proof of the reality
of this individual is not convincing. It is doubtful, too, if the
jocular references to the rules of the "gild" of goliards should be
taken too seriously, though their aping of the "orders" of the church,
especially their contrasting them with the mendicants, was too bold for
church synods. Their satires were almost uniformly directed against the
church, attacking even the pope. In 1227 the council of Trèves forbade
priests to permit the goliards to take part in chanting the service. In
1229 they played a conspicuous part in the disturbances at the
university of Paris, in connexion with the intrigues of the papal
legate. During the century which followed they formed a subject for the
deliberations of several church councils, notably in 1289 when it was
ordered that "no clerks shall be jongleurs, goliards or buffoons," and
in 1300 (at Cologne) when they were forbidden to preach or engage in the
indulgence traffic. This legislation was only effective when the
"privileges of clergy" were withdrawn from the goliards. Those
historians who regard the middle ages as completely dominated by ascetic
ideals, regard the goliard movement as a protest against the spirit of
the time. But it is rather indicative of the wide diversity in
temperament among those who crowded to the universities in the 13th
century, and who found in the privileges of the clerk some advantage and
attraction in the student life. The goliard poems are as truly
"medieval" as the monastic life which they despised; they merely voice
another section of humanity. Yet their criticism was most keenly
pointed, and marks a distinct step in the criticism of abuses in the
church.

Along with these satires went many poems in praise of wine and riotous
living. A remarkable collection of them, now at Munich, from the
monastery at Benedictbeuren in Bavaria, was published by Schmeller (3rd
ed., 1895) under the title _Carmina Burana_. Many of these, which form
the main part of song-books of German students to-day, have been
delicately translated by John Addington Symonds in a small volume,
_Wine, Women and Song_ (1884). As Symonds has said, they form a prelude
to the Renaissance. The poems of "Bishop Golias" were later attributed
to Walter Mapes, and have been published by Thomas Wright in _The Latin
Poems commonly attributed to Walter Mapes_ (London, 1841).

The word "goliard" itself outlived these turbulent bands which had given
it birth, and passed over into French and English literature of the 14th
century in the general meaning of jongleur or minstrel, quite apart from
any clerical association. It is thus used in _Piers Plowman_, where,
however, the _goliard_ still rhymes in Latin, and in Chaucer.

  See, besides the works quoted above, M. Haezner, _Goliardendichtung
  und die Satire im 13ten Jahrhundert in England_ (Leipzig, 1905);
  Spiegel, _Die Vaganten und ihr "Orden"_ (Spires, 1892); Hubatsch, _Die
  lateinischen Vagantenlieder des Mittelalters_ (Görlitz, 1870); and the
  article in _La grande Encyclopédie_. All of these have bibliographical
  apparatus.     (J. T. S.*)



GOLIATH, the name of the giant by slaying whom David achieved renown (1
Sam. xvii.). The Philistines had come up to make war against Saul and,
as the rival camps lay opposite each other, this warrior came forth day
by day to challenge to single combat. Only David ventured to respond,
and armed with a sling and pebbles he overcame Goliath. The Philistines,
seeing their champion killed, lost heart and were easily put to flight.
The giant's arms were placed in the sanctuary, and it was his famous
sword which David took with him in his flight from Saul (1 Sam. xxi.
1-9). From another passage we learn that Goliath of Gath, "the shaft of
whose spear was like a weaver's beam," was slain by a certain Elhanan of
Bethlehem in one of David's conflicts with the Philistines (2 Sam. xxi.
18-22)--the parallel 1 Chron. xx. 5, avoids the contradiction by reading
the "brother of Goliath." But this old popular story has probably
preserved the more original tradition, and if Elhanan is the son of Dodo
in the list of David's mighty men (2 Sam. xxiii. 9, 24), the resemblance
between the two names may have led to the transference. The narratives
of David's early life point to some exploit by means of which he gained
the favour of Saul, Jonathan and Israel, but the absence of all
reference to his achievement in the subsequent chapters (1 Sam. xxi. 11,
xxix. 5) is evidence of the relatively late origin of a tradition which
in course of time became one of the best-known incidents in David's life
(Ps. cxliv., LXX. title, the apocryphal Ps. cli., Ecclus. xlvii. 4).

  See DAVID; SAMUEL (BOOKS) and especially Cheyne, _Aids and Devout
  Study of Criticism_, pp. 80 sqq., 125 sqq. In the old Egyptian romance
  of _Sinuhit_ (ascribed to about 2000 B.C.), the story of the slaying
  of the Bedouin hero has several points of resemblance with that of
  David and Goliath. See L. B. Paton, _Hist. of Syr. and Pal._, p. 60;
  A. Jeremias, _Das A. T. im Lichte d. alten Orients_, 2nd ed. pp. 299,
  491; A. R. S. Kennedy, _Century Bible: Samuel_, p. 122, argues that
  David's Philistine adversary was originally nameless, in 1 Sam. xvii.
  he is named only in v. 4.



GOLITSUIN, BORIS ALEKSYEEVICH (1654-1714), Russian statesman, came of a
princely family, claiming descent from Prince Gedimin of Lithuania.
Earlier members of the family were Mikhail (d. c. 1552), a famous
soldier, and his great-grandson Vasily Vasilevich (d. 1619), who was
sent as ambassador to Poland to offer the Russian crown to Prince
Ladislaus. Boris became court chamberlain in 1676. He was the young tsar
Peter's chief supporter when, in 1689, Peter resisted the usurpations of
his elder sister Sophia, and the head of the loyal council which
assembled at the Troitsa monastery during the crisis of the struggle.
Golitsuin it was who suggested taking refuge in that strong fortress and
won over the boyars of the opposite party. In 1690 he was created a
boyar and shared with Lev Naruishkin, Peter's uncle, the conduct of home
affairs. After the death of the tsaritsa Natalia, Peter's mother, in
1694, his influence increased still further. He accompanied Peter to the
White Sea (1694-1695); took part in the Azov campaign (1695); and was
one of the triumvirate who ruled Russia during Peter's first foreign
tour (1697-1698). The Astrakhan rebellion (1706), which affected all the
districts under his government, shook Peter's confidence in him, and
seriously impaired his position. In 1707 he was superseded in the Volgan
provinces by Andrei Matvyeev. A year before his death he entered a
monastery. Golitsuin was a typical representative of Russian society of
the end of the 17th century in its transition from barbarism to
civilization. In many respects he was far in advance of his age. He was
highly educated, spoke Latin with graceful fluency, frequented the
society of scholars and had his children carefully educated according to
the best European models. Yet this eminent, this superior personage was
an habitual drunkard, an uncouth savage who intruded upon the
hospitality of wealthy foreigners, and was not ashamed to seize upon any
dish he took a fancy to, and send it home to his wife. It was his
reckless drunkenness which ultimately ruined him in the estimation of
Peter the Great, despite his previous inestimable services.

  See S. Solovev, _History of Russia_ (Rus.), vol. xiv. (Moscow, 1858);
  R. N. Bain, _The First Romanovs_ (London, 1905).     (R. N. B.)



GOLITSUIN, DMITRY MIKHAILOVICH (1665-1737), Russian statesman, was sent
in 1697 to Italy to learn "military affairs"; in 1704 he was appointed
to the command of an auxiliary corps in Poland against Charles XII.;
from 1711 to 1718 he was governor of Byelogorod. In 1718 he was
appointed president of the newly erected _Kammer Kollegium_ and a
senator. In May 1723 he was implicated in the disgrace of the
vice-chancellor Shafirov and was deprived of all his offices and
dignities, which he only recovered through the mediation of the empress
Catherine I. After the death of Peter the Great, Golitsuin became the
recognized head of the old Conservative party which had never forgiven
Peter for putting away Eudoxia and marrying the plebeian Martha
Skavronskaya. But the reformers, as represented by Alexander Menshikov
and Peter Tolstoi, prevailed; and Golitsuin remained in the background
till the fall of Menshikov, 1727. During the last years of Peter II.
(1728-1730), Golitsuin was the most prominent statesman in Russia and
his high aristocratic theories had full play. On the death of Peter II.
he conceived the idea of limiting the autocracy by subordinating it to
the authority of the supreme privy council, of which he was president.
He drew up a form of constitution which Anne of Courland, the newly
elected Russian empress, was forced to sign at Mittau before being
permitted to proceed to St Petersburg. Anne lost no time in repudiating
this constitution, and never forgave its authors. Golitsuin was left in
peace, however, and lived for the most part in retirement, till 1736,
when he was arrested on suspicion of being concerned in the conspiracy
of his son-in-law Prince Constantine Cantimir. This, however, was a mere
pretext, it was for his anti-monarchical sentiments that he was really
prosecuted. A court, largely composed of his antagonists, condemned him
to death, but the empress reduced the sentence to lifelong imprisonment
in Schlüsselburg and confiscation of all his estates. He died in his
prison on the 14th of April 1737, after three months of confinement.

  See R. N. Bain, _The Pupils of Peter the Great_ (London, 1897).
       (R. N. B.)



GOLITSUIN, VASILY VASILEVICH (1643-1714), Russian statesman, spent his
early days at the court of Tsar Alexius where he gradually rose to the
rank of boyar. In 1676 he was sent to the Ukraine to keep in order the
Crimean Tatars and took part in the Chigirin campaign. Personal
experience of the inconveniences and dangers of the prevailing system of
preferment, the so-called _myestnichestvo_, or rank priority, which had
paralysed the Russian armies for centuries, induced him to propose its
abolition, which was accomplished by Tsar Theodore III. (1678). The May
revolution of 1682 placed Golitsuin at the head of the _Posolsky
Prikaz_, or ministry of foreign affairs, and during the regency of
Sophia, sister of Peter the Great, whose lover he became, he was the
principal minister of state (1682-1689) and "keeper of the great seal,"
a title bestowed upon only two Russians before him, Athonasy
Orduin-Nashchokin and Artamon Matvyeev. In home affairs his influence
was insignificant, but his foreign policy was distinguished by the peace
with Poland in 1683, whereby Russia at last recovered Kiev. By the terms
of the same treaty, he acceded to the grand league against the Porte,
but his two expeditions against the Crimea (1687 and 1689), "the First
Crimean War," were unsuccessful and made him extremely unpopular. Only
with the utmost difficulty could Sophia get the young tsar Peter to
decorate the defeated commander-in-chief as if he had returned a victor.
In the civil war between Sophia and Peter (August-September 1689),
Golitsuin half-heartedly supported his mistress and shared her ruin. His
life was spared owing to the supplications of his cousin Boris, but he
was deprived of his boyardom, his estates were confiscated and he was
banished successively to Kargopol, Mezen and Kologora, where he died on
the 21st of April 1714. Golitsuin was unusually well educated. He
understood German and Greek as well as his mother-tongue, and could
express himself fluently in Latin. He was a great friend of foreigners,
who generally alluded to him as "the great Golitsuin."

His brother MIKHAIL (1674-1730) was a celebrated soldier, who is best
known for his governorship of Finland (1714-1721), where his admirable
qualities earned the remembrance of the people whom he had conquered.
And Mikhail's son Alexander (1718-1783) was a diplomat and soldier, who
rose to be field-marshal and governor of St Petersburg.

  See R. N. Bain, _The First Romanovs_ (London, 1905); A. Brückner,
  _Fürst Golizin_ (Leipzig, 1887); S. Solovev, _History of Russia_
  (Rus.), vols. xiii.-xiv. (Moscow, 1858, &c.).     (R. N. B.)



GOLIUS or (GOHL), JACOBUS (1596-1667), Dutch Orientalist, was born at
the Hague in 1596, and studied at the university of Leiden, where in
Arabic and other Eastern languages he was the most distinguished pupil
of Erpenius. In 1622 he accompanied the Dutch embassy to Morocco, and on
his return he was chosen to succeed Erpenius (1624). In the following
year he set out on a Syrian and Arabian tour from which he did not
return until 1629. The remainder of his life was spent at Leiden where
he held the chair of mathematics as well as that of Arabic. He died on
the 28th of September 1667.

  His most important work is the _Lexicon Arabico-Latinum_, fol.,
  Leiden, 1653, which, based on the _Sihah_ of Al-Jauhari, was only
  superseded by the corresponding work of Freytag. Among his earlier
  publications may be mentioned editions of various Arabic texts
  (_Proverbia quaedam Alis, imperatoris Muslemici, et Carmen
  Tograipoëtae doctissimi, necnon dissertatio quaedam Aben Synae_, 1629;
  and _Ahmedis Arabsiadae vitae et rerum gestarum Timuri, qui vulgo
  Tamer, lanes dicitur, historia_, 1636). In 1656 he published a new
  edition, with considerable additions, of the _Grammatica Arabica_ of
  Erpenius. After his death, there was found among his papers a
  _Dictionarium Persico-Latinum_ which was published, with additions, by
  Edmund Castell in his _Lexicon heptaglotton_ (1669). Golius also
  edited, translated and annotated the astronomical treatise of Alfragan
  (_Muhammedis, filii Ketiri Ferganensis, qui vulgo Alfraganus dicitur,
  elementa astronomica Arabice et Latine_, 1669).



GOLLNOW, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Pomerania, on
the right bank of the Ihna, 14 m. N.N.E. of Stettin, with which it has
communication by rail and steamer. Pop. (1905) 8539. It possesses two
Evangelical churches, a synagogue and some small manufactures. Gollnow
was founded in 1190, and was raised to the rank of a town in 1268. It
was for a time a Hanse town, and came into the possession of Prussia in
1720, having belonged to Sweden since 1648.



GOLOSH, or GALOSH (from the Fr. _galoche_, Low Lat. _calopedes_, a
wooden shoe or clog; an adaptation of the Gr. [Greek: kalopodion], a
diminutive formed of [Greek: kalon], wood, and [Greek: pous], foot),
originally a wooden shoe or patten, or merely a wooden sole fastened to
the foot by a strap or cord. In the middle ages "galosh" was a general
term for a boot or shoe, particularly one with a wooden sole. In modern
usage, it is an outer shoe worn in bad weather to protect the inner one,
and keep the feet dry. Goloshes are now almost universally made of
rubber, and in the United States they are known as "rubbers" simply, the
word golosh being rarely if ever used. In the bootmakers' trade, a
"golosh" is the piece of leather, of a make stronger than, or different
from that of the "uppers," which runs around the bottom part of a boot
or shoe, just above the sole.



GOLOVIN, FEDOR ALEKSYEEVICH, COUNT (d. 1706), Russian statesman, learnt,
like so many of his countrymen in later times, the business of a ruler
in the Far East. During the regency of Sophia, sister of Peter the
Great, he was sent to the Amur to defend the new Muscovite fortress of
Albazin against the Chinese. In 1689 he concluded with the Celestial
empire the treaty of Nerchinsk, by which the line of the Amur, as far as
its tributary the Gorbitsa, was retroceded to China because of the
impossibility of seriously defending it. In Peter's grand embassy to the
West in 1697 Golovin occupied the second place immediately after Lefort.
It was his chief duty to hire foreign sailors and obtain everything
necessary for the construction and complete equipment of a fleet. On
Lefort's death, in March 1699, he succeeded him as admiral-general. The
same year he was created the first Russian count, and was also the first
to be decorated with the newly-instituted Russian order of St Andrew.
The conduct of foreign affairs was at the same time entrusted to him,
and from 1699 to his death he was "the premier minister of the tsar."
Golovin's first achievement as foreign minister was to supplement the
treaty of Carlowitz, by which peace with Turkey had only been secured
for three years, by concluding with the Porte a new treaty at
Constantinople (June 13, 1700), by which the term of the peace was
extended to thirty years and, besides other concessions, the Azov
district and a strip of territory extending thence to Kuban were ceded
to Russia. He also controlled, with consummate ability, the operations
of the brand-new Russian diplomatists at the various foreign courts. His
superiority over all his Muscovite contemporaries was due to the fact
that he was already a statesman, in the modern sense, while they were
still learning the elements of statesmanship. His death was an
irreparable loss to the tsar, who wrote upon the despatch announcing it,
the words "Peter filled with grief."

  See R. N. Bain, _The First Romanovs_ (London, 1905).     (R. N. B.)



GOLOVKIN, GAVRIIL IVANOVICH, COUNT (1660-1734), Russian statesman, was
attached (1677), while still a lad, to the court of the tsarevitch
Peter, afterwards Peter the Great, with whose mother Natalia he was
connected, and vigilantly guarded him during the disquieting period of
the regency of Sophia, sister of Peter the Great (1682-1689). He
accompanied the young tsar abroad on his first foreign tour, and worked
by his side in the dockyards of Saardam. In 1706 he succeeded Golovin in
the direction of foreign affairs, and was created the first Russian
grand-chancellor on the field of Poltava (1709). Golovkin held this
office for twenty-five years. In the reign of Catherine I. he became a
member of the supreme privy council which had the chief conduct of
affairs during this and the succeeding reigns. The empress also
entrusted him with her last will whereby she appointed the young Peter
II. her successor and Golovkin one of his guardians. On the death of
Peter II. in 1730 he declared openly in favour of Anne, duchess of
Courland, in opposition to the aristocratic Dolgorukis and Golitsuins,
and his determined attitude on behalf of autocracy was the chief cause
of the failure of the proposed constitution, which would have converted
Russia into a limited monarchy. Under Anne he was a member of the first
cabinet formed in Russia, but had less influence in affairs than
Ostermann and Münnich. In 1707 he was created a count of the Holy Roman
empire, and in 1710 a count of the Russian empire. He was one of the
wealthiest, and at the same time one of the stingiest, magnates of his
day. His ignorance of any language but his own made his intercourse with
foreign ministers very inconvenient.

  See R. N. Bain, _The Pupils of Peter the Great_ (London, 1897).
       (R. N. B.)



GOLOVNIN, VASILY MIKHAILOVICH (1776-1831), Russian vice-admiral, was
born on the 20th of April 1776 in the village of Gulynki in the province
of Ryazan, and received his education at the Cronstadt naval school.
From 1801 to 1806 he served as a volunteer in the English navy. In 1807
he was commissioned by the Russian government to survey the coasts of
Kamchatka and of Russian America, including also the Kurile Islands.
Golovnin sailed round the Cape of Good Hope, and on the 5th of October
1809, arrived in Kamchatka. In 1810, whilst attempting to survey the
coast of the island of Kunashiri, he was seized by the Japanese, and was
retained by them as a prisoner, until the 13th of October 1813, when he
was liberated, and in the following year he returned to St Petersburg.
Soon after this the government planned another expedition, which had for
its object the circumnavigation of the globe by a Russian ship, and
Golovnin was appointed to the command. He started from St Petersburg on
the 7th of September 1817, sailed round Cape Horn, and arrived in
Kamchatka in the following May. He returned to Europe by way of the Cape
of Good Hope, and landed at St Petersburg on the 17th of September 1819.
He died on the 12th of July 1831.

  Golovnin published several works, of which the following are the most
  important:--_Journey to Kamchatka_ (2 vols., 1819); _Journey Round the
  World_ (2 vols., 1822); and _Narrative of my Captivity in Japan,
  1811-1813_ (2 vols., 1816). The last has been translated into French,
  German and English, the English edition being in three volumes (1824).
  A complete edition of his works was published at St Petersburg in five
  volumes in 1864, with maps and charts, and a biography of the author
  by N. Grech.



GOLTZ, BOGUMIL (1801-1870), German humorist and satirist, was born at
Warsaw on the 20th of March 1801. After attending the classical schools
of Marienwerder and Königsberg, he learnt farming on an estate near
Thorn, and in 1821 entered the university of Breslau as a student of
philosophy. But he soon abandoned an academical career, and, after
returning for a while to country life, retired to the small town of
Gollub, where he devoted himself to literary studies. In 1847 he settled
at Thorn, "the home of Copernicus," where he died on the 12th of
November 1870. Goltz is best known to literary fame by his _Buch der
Kindheit_ (Frankfort, 1847; 4th ed., Berlin, 1877), in which, after the
style of Jean Paul, and Adalbert Stifter, but with a more modern
realism, he gives a charming and idyllic description of the impressions
of his own childhood. Among his other works must be noted _Ein
Jugendleben_ (1852); _Der Mensch und die Leute_ (1858); _Zur
Charakteristik und Naturgeschichte der Frauen_ (1859); _Zur Geschichte
und Charakteristik des deutschen Genius_ (1864), and _Die Weltklugheit
und die Lebensweisheit_ (1869).

  Goltz's works have not been collected, but a selection will be found
  in Reclam's _Universalbibliothek_ (ed. by P. Stein, 1901 and 1906).
  See O. Roquette, _Siebzig Jahre_, i. (1894).



GOLTZ, COLMAR, FREIHERR VON DER (1843-   ), Prussian soldier and
military writer, was born at Bielkenfeld, East Prussia, on the 12th of
August 1843, and entered the Prussian infantry in 1861. In 1864 he
entered the Berlin Military Academy, but was temporarily withdrawn in
1866 to serve in the Austrian war, in which he was wounded at Trautenau.
In 1867 he joined the topographical section of the general staff, and at
the beginning of the Franco-German War of 1870-71 was attached to the
staff of Prince Frederick Charles. He took part in the battles of
Vionville and Gravelotte and in the siege of Metz. After its fall he
served under the Red Prince in the campaign of the Loire, including the
battles of Orleans and Le Mans. He was appointed in 1871 professor at
the military school at Potsdam, and the same year was promoted captain
and placed in the historical section of the general staff. It was then
he wrote _Die Operationen der II. Armee bis zur Capitulation von Metz_
and _Die Sieben Tage von Le Mans_, both published in 1873. In 1874 he
was appointed to the staff of the 6th division, and while so employed
wrote _Die Operationen der II. Armee an der Loire and Léon Gambetta und
seine Armeen_, published in 1875 and 1877 respectively. The latter was
translated into French the same year, and both are impartially written.
The views expressed in the latter work led to his being sent back to
regimental duty for a time, but it was not long before he returned to
the military history section. In 1878 von der Goltz was appointed
lecturer in military history at the military academy at Berlin, where he
remained for five years and attained the rank of major. He published, in
1883, _Rossbach und Jena_ (new and revised edition, _Von Rossbach bis
Jena und Auerstädt_, 1906), _Das Volk in Waffen_ (English translation
_The Nation in Arms_), both of which quickly became military classics,
and during his residence in Berlin contributed many articles to the
military journals. In June 1883 his services were lent to Turkey to
reorganize the military establishments of the country. He spent twelve
years in this work, the result of which appeared in the Greco-Turkish
War of 1897, and he was made a pasha and in 1895 a _mushir_ or
field-marshal. On his return to Germany in 1896 he became a
lieutenant-general and commander of the 5th division, and in 1898, head
of the Engineer and Pioneer Corps and inspector-general of
fortifications. In 1900 he was made general of infantry and in 1902
commander of the I. army corps. In 1907 he was made inspector-general of
the newly created sixth army inspection established at Berlin, and in
1908 was given the rank of colonel-general (_Generaloberst_).

  In addition to the works already named and frequent contributions to
  military periodical literature, he wrote _Kriegführung_ (1895, later
  edition _Krieg- und Heerführung_, 1901; Eng. trans. _The Conduct of
  War_); _Der thessalische Krieg_ (Berlin, 1898); _Ein Ausflug nach
  Macedonien_ (1894); _Anatolische Ausflüge_ (1896); a map and
  description of the environs of Constantinople; _Von Jena bis Pr.
  Eylau_ (1907), a most important historical work, carrying on the story
  of _Rossbach und Jena_ to the peace of Tilsit, &c.



GOLTZIUS, HENDRIK (1558-1617), Dutch painter and engraver, was born in
1558 at Mülebrecht, in the duchy of Jülich. After studying painting on
glass for some years under his father, he was taught the use of the
burin by Dirk Volkertsz Coornhert, a Dutch engraver of mediocre
attainment, whom he soon surpassed, but who retained his services for
his own advantage. He was also employed by Philip Galle to engrave a set
of prints of the history of Lucretia. At the age of twenty-one he
married a widow somewhat advanced in years, whose money enabled him to
establish at Haarlem an independent business; but his unpleasant
relations with her so affected his health that he found it advisable in
1590 to make a tour through Germany to Italy, where he acquired an
intense admiration for the works of Michelangelo, which led him to
surpass that master in the grotesqueness and extravagance of his
designs. He returned to Haarlem considerably improved in health, and
laboured there at his art till his death, on the 1st of January 1617.
Goltzius ought not to be judged chiefly by the works he valued most, his
eccentric imitations of Michelangelo. His portraits, though mostly
miniatures, are master-pieces of their kind, both on account of their
exquisite finish, and as fine studies of individual character. Of his
larger heads, the life-size portrait of himself is probably the most
striking example. His "master-pieces," so called from their being
attempts to imitate the style of the old masters, have perhaps been
overpraised. In his command of the burin Goltzius is not surpassed even
by Dürer; but his technical skill is often unequally aided by higher
artistic qualities. Even, however, his eccentricities and extravagances
are greatly counterbalanced by the beauty and freedom of his execution.
He began painting at the age of forty-two, but none of his works in this
branch of art--some of which are in the imperial collection at
Vienna--display any special excellences. He also executed a few pieces
in chiaroscuro.

  His prints amount to more than 300 plates, and are fully described in
  Bartsch's _Peintre-graveur_, and Weigel's supplement to the same work.



GOLUCHOWSKI, AGENOR, COUNT (1849-   ), Austrian statesman, was born on
the 25th of March 1849. His father, descended from an old and noble
Polish family, was governor of Galicia. Entering the diplomatic service,
the son was in 1872 appointed attaché to the Austrian embassy at Berlin,
where he became secretary of legation, and thence he was transferred to
Paris. After rising to the rank of counsellor of legation, he was in
1887 made minister at Bucharest, where he remained till 1893. In these
positions he acquired a great reputation as a firm and skilful
diplomatist, and on the retirement of Count Kalnoky in May 1895 was
chosen to succeed him as Austro-Hungarian minister for foreign affairs.
The appointment of a Pole caused some surprise in view of the importance
of Austrian relations with Russia (then rather strained) and Germany,
but the choice was justified by events. In his speech of that year to
the delegations he declared the maintenance of the Triple Alliance, and
in particular the closest intimacy with Germany, to be the keystone of
Austrian policy; at the same time he dwelt on the traditional friendship
between Austria and Great Britain, and expressed his desire for a good
understanding with all the powers. In pursuance of this policy he
effected an understanding with Russia, by which neither power was to
exert any separate influence in the Balkan peninsula, and thus removed a
long-standing cause of friction. This understanding was formally
ratified during a visit to St Petersburg on which he accompanied the
emperor in April 1897. He took the lead in establishing the European
concert during the Armenian troubles of 1896, and again resisted
isolated action on the part of any of the great powers during the Cretan
troubles and the Greco-Turkish War. In November 1897, when the
Austro-Hungarian flag was insulted at Mersina, he threatened to bombard
the town if instant reparation were not made, and by his firm attitude
greatly enhanced Austrian prestige in the East. In his speech to the
delegations in 1898 he dwelt on the necessity of expanding Austria's
mercantile marine, and of raising the fleet to a strength which, while
not vying with the fleets of the great naval powers, would ensure
respect for the Austrian flag wherever her interests needed protection.
He also hinted at the necessity for European combination to resist
American competition. The understanding with Russia in the matter of the
Balkan States temporarily endangered friendly relations with Italy, who
thought her interests threatened, until Goluchowski guaranteed in 1898
the existing order. He further encouraged a good understanding with
Italy by personal conferences with the Italian foreign minister,
Tittoni, in 1904 and 1905. Count Lamsdorff visited Vienna in December
1902, when arrangements were made for concerted action in imposing on
the sultan reforms in the government of Macedonia. Further steps were
taken after Goluchowski's interview with the tsar at Mürzsteg in 1903,
and two civil agents representing the countries were appointed for two
years to ensure the execution of the promised reforms. This period was
extended in 1905, when Goluchowski was the chief mover in forcing the
Porte, by an international naval demonstration at Mitylene, to accept
financial control by the powers in Macedonia. At the conference
assembled at Algeciras to settle the Morocco Question, Austria supported
the German position, and after the close of the conferences the emperor
William II. telegraphed to Goluchowski: "You have proved yourself a
brilliant second on the duelling ground and you may feel certain of like
services from me in similar circumstances." This pledge was redeemed in
1908, when Germany's support of Austria in the Balkan crisis proved
conclusive. By the Hungarians, however, Goluchowski was hated; he was
suspected of having inspired the emperor's opposition to the use of
Magyar in the Hungarian army, and was made responsible for the slight
offered to the Magyar deputation by Francis Joseph in September 1905. So
long as he remained in office there was no hope of arriving at a
settlement of a matter which threatened the disruption of the Dual
monarchy, and on the 11th of October 1906 he was forced to resign.



GOMAL, or GUMAL, the name of a river of Afghanistan, and of a mountain
pass on the Dera Ismail Khan border of the North-West Frontier Province
of British India. The Gomal river, one of the most important rivers in
Afghanistan, rises in the unexplored regions to the south-east of
Ghazni. Its chief tributary is the Zhob. Within the limits of British
territory the Gomal forms the boundary between the North-West Frontier
Province and Baluchistan, and more or less between the Pathan and Baluch
races. The Gomal pass is the most important pass on the Indian frontier
between the Khyber and the Bolan. It connects Dera Ismail Khan with the
Gomal valley in Afghanistan, and has formed for centuries the outlet for
the povindah trade. Until the year 1889 this pass was almost unknown to
the Anglo-Indian official; but in that year the government of India
decided that, in order to maintain the safety of the railway as well as
to perfect communication between Quetta and the Punjab, the Zhob valley
should, like the Bori valley, be brought under British protection and
control, and the Gomal pass should be opened. After the Waziristan
expedition of 1894 Wana was occupied by British troops in order to
dominate the Gomal and Waziristan; but on the formation of the
North-West Frontier Province in 1901 it was decided to replace these
troops by the South Waziristan militia, who now secure the safety of the
pass.



GOMARUS, FRANZ (1563-1641), Dutch theologian, was born at Bruges on the
30th of January 1563. His parents, having embraced the principles of the
Reformation, emigrated to the Palatinate in 1578, in order to enjoy
freedom to profess their new faith, and they sent their son to be
educated at Strassburg under Johann Sturm (1507-1589). He remained there
three years, and then went in 1580 to Neustadt, whither the professors
of Heidelberg had been driven by the elector-palatine because they were
not Lutherans. Here his teachers in theology were Zacharius Ursinus
(1534-1583), Hieronymus Zanchius (1560-1590), and Daniel Tossanus
(1541-1602). Crossing to England towards the end of 1582, he attended
the lectures of John Rainolds (1549-1607) at Oxford, and those of
William Whitaker (1548-1595) at Cambridge. He graduated at Cambridge in
1584, and then went to Heidelberg, where the faculty had been by this
time re-established. He was pastor of a Reformed Dutch church in
Frankfort from 1587 till 1593, when the congregation was dispersed by
persecution. In 1594 he was appointed professor of theology at Leiden,
and before going thither received from the university of Heidelberg the
degree of doctor. He taught quietly at Leiden till 1603, when Jakobus
Arminius came to be one of his colleagues in the theological faculty,
and began to teach Pelagian doctrines and to create a new party in the
university. Gomarus immediately set himself earnestly to oppose these
views in his classes at college, and was supported by Johann B.
Bogermann (1570-1637), who afterwards became professor of theology at
Franeker. Arminius "sought to make election dependent upon faith, whilst
they sought to enforce absolute predestination as the rule of faith,
according to which the whole Scriptures are to be interpreted" (J. A.
Dorner, _History of Protestant Theology_, i. p. 417). Gomarus then
became the leader of the opponents of Arminius, who from that
circumstance came to be known as Gomarists. He engaged twice in personal
disputation with Arminius in the assembly of the estates of Holland in
1608, and was one of five Gomarists who met five Arminians or
Remonstrants in the same assembly of 1609. On the death of Arminius
shortly after this time, Konrad Vorstius (1569-1622), who sympathized
with his views, was appointed to succeed him, in spite of the keen
opposition of Gomarus and his friends; and Gomarus took his defeat so
ill that he resigned his post, and went to Middleburg in 1611, where he
became preacher at the Reformed church, and taught theology and Hebrew
in the newly founded _Illustre Schule_. From this place he was called in
1614 to a chair of theology at Saumur, where he remained four years, and
then accepted a call as professor of theology and Hebrew to Groningen,
where he stayed till his death on the 11th of January 1641. He took a
leading part in the synod of Dort, assembled in 1618 to judge of the
doctrines of Arminius. He was a man of ability, enthusiasm and learning,
a considerable Oriental scholar, and also a keen controversialist. He
took part in revising the Dutch translation of the Old Testament in
1633, and after his death a book by him, called the _Lyra Davidis_, was
published, which sought to explain the principles of Hebrew metre, and
which created some controversy at the time, having been opposed by Louis
Cappel. His works were collected and published in one volume folio, in
Amsterdam in 1645. He was succeeded at Groningen in 1643 by his pupil
Samuel Maresius (1599-1673).



GOMBERVILLE, MARIN LE ROY, SIEUR DU PARC ET DE (1600-1674), French
novelist and miscellaneous writer, was born at Paris in 1600. At
fourteen years of age he wrote a volume of verse, at twenty a _Discours
sur l'histoire_ and at twenty-two a pastoral, _La Carithée_, which is
really a novel. The persons in it, though still disguised as shepherds
and shepherdesses, represent real persons for whose identification the
author himself provides a key. This was followed by a more ambitious
attempt, _Polexandre_ (5 vols. 1632-1637). The hero wanders through the
world in search of the island home of the princess Alcidiane. It
contains much history and geography; the travels of Polexandre extending
to such unexpected places as Benin, the Canary Islands, Mexico and the
Antilles, and incidentally we learn all that was then known of Mexican
history. _Cythérée_ (4 vols.) appeared in 1630-1642, and in 1651 the
_Jeune Alcidiane_, intended to undo any harm the earlier novels may have
done, for Gomberville became a Jansenist and spent the last twenty-five
years of his life in pious retirement. He was one of the earliest and
most energetic members of the Academy. He died in Paris on the 14th of
June 1674.



GOMER, the biblical name of a race appearing in the table of nations
(Gen. x. 2), as the "eldest son" of Japheth and the "father" of
Ashkenaz, Riphath and Togarmah; and in Ezek. xxxviii. 6 as a companion
of "the house of Togarmah in the uttermost parts of the north," and an
ally of Gog; both Gomer and Togarmah being credited with "hordes,"[1]
E.V., i.e. "bands" or "armies." The "sons" of Gomer are probably tribes
of north-east Asia Minor and Armenia, and Gomer is identified with the
Cimmerians. These are referred to in cuneiform inscriptions under the
Assyrian name _gimmira_ (_gimirrai_) as raiding Asia Minor from the
north and north-east of the Black Sea, and overrunning Lydia in the 7th
century B.C. (see CIMMERII, SCYTHIA, LYDIA). They do not seem to have
made any permanent settlements, unless some such are indicated by the
fact that the Armenians called Cappadocia _Gamir_. It is, however,
suggested that this name is borrowed from the Old Testament.[2]

  The name Gomer (Gomer bath Diblaim) was also borne by the unfaithful
  wife of Hosea, whom he pardoned and took back (Hosea i. 3). Hosea uses
  these incidents as symbolic of the sin, punishment and redemption of
  Israel, but there is no need to regard Gomer as a purely imaginary
  person.     (W. H. Be.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] [Hebrew: agaf] _Agaph_, a word peculiar to Ezekiel, Clarendon
    Press _Heb. Lex._

  [2] A. Jeremias, _Das A.T. im Lichte des alten Orients_, pp. 145 f.



GOMERA, an island in the Atlantic Ocean, forming part of the Spanish
archipelago of the Canary Islands (q.v.). Pop. (1900) 15,358; area 144
sq. m. Gomera lies 20 m. W.S.W. of Teneriffe. Its greatest length is
about 23 m. The coast is precipitous and the interior mountainous, but
Gomera has the most wood and is the best watered of the group. The
inhabitants are very poor. Dromedaries are bred on Gomera in large
numbers. San Sebastian (3187) is the chief town and a port. It was
visited by Columbus on his first voyage of discovery in 1492.



GOMEZ, DIOGO (DIEGO) (fl. 1440-1482), Portuguese seaman, explorer and
writer. We first trace him as a _cavalleiro_ of the royal household; in
1440 he was appointed receiver of the royal customs--in 1466 judge--at
Cintra (_juiz das causas e feitorias contadas de Cintra_); on the 5th of
March 1482 he was confirmed in the last-named office. He wrote,
especially for the benefit of Martin Behaim, a Latin chronicle of great
value, dealing with the life and discoveries of Prince Henry the
Navigator, and divided into three parts: (1) _De prima inventione
Guineae_; (2) _De insulis primo inventis in mare (sic) Occidentis_; (3)
_De inventione insularum de Açores_. This chronicle contains the only
contemporary account of the rediscovery of the Azores by the Portuguese
in Prince Henry's service, and is also noteworthy for its clear
ascription to the prince of deliberate scientific and commercial purpose
in exploration. For, on the one hand, the infante sent out his caravels
to search for new lands (_ad quaerendas terras_) from his wish to know
the more distant parts of the western ocean, and in the hope of finding
islands or _terra firma_ beyond the limits laid down by Ptolemy (_ultra
descriptionem Tolomei_); on the other hand, his information as to the
native trade from Tunis to Timbuktu and the Gambia helped to inspire his
persistent exploration of the West African coast--"to seek those lands
by way of the sea." Chart and quadrant were used on the prince's
vessels, as by Gomez himself on reaching the Cape Verde Islands; Henry,
at the time of Diogo's first voyage, was in correspondence with an Oran
merchant who kept him informed upon events even in the Gambia
_hinterland_; and, before the discovery of the Senegal and Cape Verde in
1445, Gomez' royal patron had already gained reliable information of
_some_ route to Timbuktu. In the first part of his chronicle Gomez tells
how, no long time after the disastrous expedition of the Danish nobleman
"Vallarte" (Adalbert) in 1448, he was sent out in command of three
vessels along the West African coast, accompanied by one Jacob, an
Indian interpreter, to be employed in the event of reaching India. After
passing the Rio Grande, beyond Cape Verde, strong currents checked his
course; his officers and men feared that they were approaching the
extremity of the ocean, and he put back to the Gambia. He ascended this
river a considerable distance, to the negro town of "Cantor," whither
natives came from "Kukia" and Timbuktu for trade; he gives elaborate
descriptions of the negro world he had now penetrated, refers to the
Sierra Leone ("Serra Lyoa") Mountains, sketches the course of this
range, and says much of Kukia (in the upper Niger basin?), the centre of
the West African gold trade, and the resort of merchants and caravans
from Tunis, Fez, Cairo and "all the land of the Saracens." Mahommedanism
was already dominant at the Cambria estuary, but Gomez seems to have won
over at least one important chief, with his court, to Christianity and
Portuguese allegiance. Another African voyage, apparently made in 1462,
two years after Henry the Navigator's death (though assigned by some to
1460), resulted in a fresh discovery of the Cape Verde Islands, already
found by Cadamosto (q.v.). To the island of Santiago Gomez, like his
Venetian forerunner, claims to have given its present name. His
narrative is a leading authority on the last illness and death of Prince
Henry, as well as on the life, achievements and purposes of the latter;
here alone is recorded what appears to have been the earliest of the
navigator's exploring ventures, that which under João de Trasto reached
Grand Canary in 1415.

  Of Gomez' chronicle there is only one MS., viz. _Cod. Hisp._ 27, in
  the Hof- und Staats-Bibliothek, Munich; the original Latin text was
  printed by Schmeller "Über Valentim Fernandez Alemão" in the
  _Abhandlungen der philosoph.-philolog. Kl. der bayerisch. Akademie der
  Wissenschaften_, vol. iv., part iii. (Munich, 1847); see also Sophus
  Ruge, "Die Entdeckung der Azoren," pp. 149-180 (esp. 178-179) in the
  27th _Jahresbericht des Vereins für Erdkunde_ (Dresden, 1901); Jules
  Mees, _Histoire de la découverte des îles Açores_, pp. 44-45, 125-127
  (Ghent, 1901); R. H. Major, _Life of Prince Henry the Navigator_, pp.
  xviii., xix., 64-65, 287-299, 303-305 (London, 1868); C. R. Beazley,
  _Prince Henry the Navigator_, 289-298, 304-305; and Introduction to
  Azurara's _Discovery and Conquest of Guinea_, ii., iv., xiv.,
  xxv.-xxvii., xcii.-xcvi. (London, 1899).     (C. R. B.)



GOMEZ DE AVELLANEDA, GERTRUDIS (1814-1873), Spanish dramatist and poet,
was born at Puerto Príncipe (Cuba) on the 23rd of March 1814, and
removed to Spain in 1836. Her _Poesías líricas_ (1841), issued with a
laudatory preface by Gallego, made a most favourable impression and were
republished with additional poems in 1850. In 1846 she married a
diplomatist named Pedro Sabater, became a widow within a year, and in
1853 married Colonel Domingo Verdugo. Meanwhile she had published _Sab_
(1839), _Guatimozín_ (1846), and other novels of no great importance.
She obtained, however, a series of successes on the stage with _Alfonso
Munio_ (1844), a tragedy in the new romantic manner; with _Saúl_ (1849),
a biblical drama indirectly suggested by Alfieri; and with _Baltasar_
(1858), a piece which bears some resemblance to Byron's _Sardanapalus_.
Her commerce with the world had not diminished her natural piety, and,
on the death of her second husband, she found so much consolation in
religion that she had thoughts of entering a convent. She died at Madrid
on the 2nd of February 1873, full of mournful forebodings as to the
future of her adopted country. It is impossible to agree with Villemain
that "le génie de don Luis de Léon et de sainte Thérèse a reparu sous le
voile funèbre de Gomez de Avellaneda," for she has neither the monk's
mastery of poetic form nor the nun's sublime simplicity of soul. She has
a grandiose tragical vision of life, a vigorous eloquence rooted in
pietistic pessimism, a dramatic gift effective in isolated acts or
scenes; but she is deficient in constructive power and in intellectual
force, and her lyrics, though instinct with melancholy beauty, or the
tenderness of resigned devotion, too often lack human passion and
sympathy. The edition of her _Obras literarias_ (5 vols., 1869-1871),
still incomplete, shows a scrupulous care for minute revision uncommon
in Spanish writers; but her emendations are seldom happy. But she is
interesting as a link between the classic and romantic schools of
poetry, and, whatever her artistic shortcomings, she has no rivals of
her own sex in Spain during the 19th century.



GOMM, SIR WILLIAM MAYNARD (1784-1875), British soldier, was gazetted to
the 9th Foot at the age of ten, in recognition of the services of his
father, Lieut.-Colonel William Gomm, who was killed in the attack on
Guadaloupe (1794). He joined his regiment as a lieutenant in 1799, and
fought in Holland under the duke of York, and subsequently was with
Pulteney's Ferrol expedition. In 1803 he became Captain, and shortly
afterwards qualified as a staff officer at the High Wycombe military
college. On the general staff he was with Cathcart at Copenhagen, with
Wellington in the Peninsula, and on Moore's staff at Corunna. He was
also on Chatham's staff in the disastrous Walcheren expedition of 1809.
In 1810 he rejoined the Peninsular army as Leith's staff officer, and
took part in all the battles of 1810, 1811 and 1812, winning his
majority after Fuentes d'Onor and his lieutenant-colonelcy at Salamanca.
His careful reconnaissances and skilful leading were invaluable to
Wellington in the Vittoria campaign, and to the end of the war he was
one of the most trusted men of his staff. His reward was a transfer to
the Coldstream Guards and the K.C.B. In the Waterloo campaign he served
on the staff of the 5th British Division. From the peace until 1839 he
was employed on home service, becoming colonel in 1829 and major-general
in 1837. From 1839 to 1842 he commanded the troops in Jamaica. He became
lieutenant-general in 1846, and was sent out to be commander-in-chief in
India, arriving only to find that his appointment had been cancelled in
favour of Sir Charles Napier, whom, however, he eventually succeeded
(1850-1855). In 1854 he became general and in 1868 field marshal. In
1872 he was appointed constable of the Tower, and he died in 1875. He
was twice married, but had no children. His _Letters and Journals_ were
published by F. C. Carr-Gomm in 1881. Five "Field Marshal Gomm"
scholarships were afterwards founded in his memory at Keble College,
Oxford.



GOMPERS, SAMUEL (1850-   ), American labour leader, was born in London
on the 27th of January 1850. He was put to work in a shoe-factory when
ten years old, but soon became apprenticed to a cigar-maker, removed to
New York in 1863, became a prominent member of the International
Cigar-makers' Union, was its delegate at the convention of the
Federation of Organized Trade and Labor Unions of the United States and
Canada, later known as the American Federation of Labor, of which he
became first president in 1882. He was successively re-elected up to
1895, when the opposition of the Socialist Labor Party, then attempting
to incorporate the Federation into itself, secured his defeat; he was
re-elected in the following year. In 1894 he became editor of the
Federation's organ, _The American Federationist_.



GOMPERZ, THEODOR (1832-   ), German philosopher and classical scholar,
was born at Brünn on the 29th of March 1832. He studied at Brünn and at
Vienna under Herman Bonitz. Graduating at Vienna in 1867 he became
_Privatdozent_, and subsequently professor of classical philology
(1873). In 1882 he was elected a member of the Academy of Science. He
received the degree of Doctor of Philosophy _honoris causa_ from the
university of Königsberg, and Doctor of Literature from the universities
of Dublin and Cambridge, and became correspondent for several learned
societies. His principal works are: _Demosthenes der Staatsmann_ (1864),
_Philodemi de ira liber_ (1864). _Traumdeutung und Zauberei_ (1866),
_Herkulanische Studien_ (1865-1866), _Beiträge zur Kritik und Erklärung
griech. Schriftsteller_ (7 vols., 1875-1900), _Neue Bruchstücke Epikurs_
(1876), _Die Bruchstücke der griech. Tragiker und Cobets neueste
kritische Manier_ (1878), _Herodoteische Studien_ (1883), _Ein bisher
unbekanntes griech. Schriftsystem_ (1884), _Zu Philodems Büchern von der
Musik_ (1885), _Über den Abschluss des herodoteischen Geschichtswerkes_
(1886), _Platonische Aufsätze_ (3 vols., 1887-1905), _Zu Heraklits Lehre
und den Überresten seines Werkes_ (1887), _Zu Aristoteles' Poëtik_ (2
parts, 1888-1896), _Über die Charaktere Theophrasts_ (1888), _Nachlese
zu den Bruchstücken der griech. Tragiker_ (1888), _Die Apologie der
Heilkunst_ (1890), _Philodem und die ästhetischen Schriften der
herculanischen Bibliothek_ (1891), _Die Schrift vom Staatswesen der
Athener_ (1891), _Die jüngst entdeckten Überreste einer den Platonischen
Phädon enthaltenden Papyrusrolle_ (1892), _Aus der Hekale des
Kallimachos_ (1893), _Essays und Erinnerungen_ (1905). He supervised a
translation of J. S. Mill's complete works (12 vols., Leipzig,
1869-1880), and wrote a life (Vienna, 1889) of Mill. His _Griechische
Denker_: _Geschichte der antiken Philosophie_ (vols. i. and ii.,
Leipzig, 1893 and 1902) was translated into English by L. Magnus (vol.
i., 1901).



GONAGUAS ("borderers"), descendants of a very old cross between the
Hottentots and the Kaffirs, on the "ethnical divide" between the two
races, apparently before the arrival of the whites in South Africa. They
have been always a despised race and regarded as outcasts by the Bantu
peoples. They were threatened with extermination during the Kaffir wars,
but were protected by the British. At present they live in settled
communities under civil magistrates without any tribal organization, and
in some districts could be scarcely distinguished from the other natives
but for their broken Hottentot-Dutch-English speech.



GONÇALVES DIAS, ANTONIO (1823-1864), Brazilian lyric poet, was born near
the town of Caxias, in Maranhão. From the university of Coimbra, in
Portugal, he returned in 1845 to his native province, well-equipped with
legal lore, but the literary tendency which was strong within him led
him to try his fortune as an author at Rio de Janeiro. Here he wrote for
the newspaper press, ventured to appear as a dramatist, and in 1846
established his reputation by a volume of poems--_Primeiros
Cantos_--which appealed to the national feelings of his Brazilian
readers, were remarkable for their autobiographic impress, and by their
beauty of expression and rhythm placed their author at the head of the
lyric poets of his country. In 1848 he followed up his success by
_Segundos Cantos e sextilhas de Frei Antão_, in which, as the title
indicates, he puts a number of the pieces in the mouth of a simple old
Dominican friar; and in the following year, in fulfilment of the duties
of his new post as professor of Brazilian history in the Imperial
College of Pedro II. at Rio de Janeiro, he published an edition of
Berredo's _Annaes historicos do Maranhão_ and added a sketch of the
migrations of the Indian tribes. A third volume of poems, which appeared
with the title of _Ultimos Cantos_ in 1851, was practically the poet's
farewell to the service of the muse, for he spent the next eight years
engaged under government patronage in studying the state of public
instruction in the north and the educational institutions of Europe. On
his return to Brazil in 1860 he was appointed a member of an expedition
for the exploration of the province of Ceará, was forced in 1862 by the
state of his health to try the effects of another visit to Europe, and
died in September 1864, the vessel that was carrying him being wrecked
off his native shores. While in Germany he published at Leipzig a
complete collection of his lyrical poems, which went through several
editions, the four first cantos of an epic poem called _Os Tymbiras_
(1857) and a _Diccionario da lingua Tupy_ (1858).

  A complete edition of the works of Dias has made its appearance at Rio
  de Janeiro. See Wolf, _Brésil littéraire_ (Berlin, 1863); Innocencio
  de Silva, _Diccionario bibliographico portuguez_, viii. 157; Sotero
  dos Reis, _Curso de litteratura portugueza e brazileira_, iv.
  (Maranhão, 1868); José Verissimo, _Estudos de literatura brazileira,
  segunda serie_ (Rio, 1901).



GONCHAROV, IVAN ALEXANDROVICH (1812-1891), Russian novelist, was born
6/18 July 1812, being the son of a rich merchant in the town of
Simbirsk. At the age of ten he was placed in one of the gymnasiums at
Moscow, from which he passed, though not without some difficulty on
account of his ignorance of Greek, into the Moscow University. He read
many French works of fiction, and published a translation of one of the
novels of Eugène Sue. During his university career he devoted himself to
study, taking no interest in the political and Socialistic agitation
among his fellow-students. He was first employed as secretary to the
governor of Simbirsk, and afterwards in the ministry of finance at St
Petersburg. Being absorbed in bureaucratic work, Goncharov paid no
attention to the social questions then ardently discussed by such men as
Herzen, Aksakov and Bielinski. He began his literary career by
publishing translations from Schiller, Goethe and English novelists. His
first original work was _Obuiknovennaya Istoria_, "A Common Story"
(1847). In 1856 he sailed to Japan as secretary to Admiral Putiatin for
the purpose of negotiating a commercial treaty, and on his return to
Russia he published a description of the voyage under the title of "The
Frigate _Pallada_." His best work is _Oblomov_ (1857), which exposed the
laziness and apathy of the smaller landed gentry in Russia anterior to
the reforms of Alexander II. Russian critics have pronounced this work
to be a faithful characterization of Russia and the Russians. Dobrolubov
said of it, "Oblomofka [the country-seat of the Oblomovs] is our
fatherland: something of Oblomov is to be found in every one of us."
Peesarev, another celebrated critic, declared that "Oblomovism," as
Goncharov called the sum total of qualities with which he invested the
hero of his story, "is an illness fostered by the nature of the Slavonic
character and the life of Russian society." In 1858 Goncharov was
appointed a censor, and in 1868 he published another novel called
_Obreev_. He was not a voluminous writer, and during the latter part of
his life produced nothing of any importance. His death occurred on 15/27
September 1891.



GONCOURT, DE, a name famous in French literary history. EDMOND LOUIS
ANTOINE HUOT DE GONCOURT was born at Nancy on the 26th of May 1822, and
died at Champrosay on the 16th of July 1896. JULES ALFRED HUOT DE
GONCOURT, his brother, was born in Paris on the 17th of December 1830,
and died in Paris on the 20th of June 1870.

Writing always in collaboration, until the death of the younger, it was
their ambition to be not merely novelists, inventing a new kind of
novel, but historians; not merely historians, but the historians of a
particular century, and of what was intimate and what is unknown in it;
to be also discriminating, indeed innovating, critics of art, but of a
certain section of art, the 18th century, in France and Japan; and also
to collect pictures and bibelots, always of the French and Japanese 18th
century. Their histories (_Portraits intimes du XVIII^e siècle_ (1857),
_La Femme au XVIII^{e} siècle_ (1862), _La du Barry_ (1878), &c.) are
made entirely out of documents, autograph letters, scraps of costume,
engravings, songs, the unconscious self-revelations of the time; their
three volumes on _L'Art du XVIII^e siècle_ (1859-1875) deal with Watteau
and his followers in the same scrupulous, minutely enlightening way,
with all the detail of unpublished documents; and when they came to
write novels, it was with a similar attempt to give the inner,
undiscovered, minute truths of contemporary existence, the _inédit_ of
life. The same morbidly sensitive noting of the _inédit_, of whatever
came to them from their own sensations of things and people around them,
gives its curious quality to the nine volumes of the _Journal_,
1887-1896, which will remain, perhaps, the truest and most poignant
chapter of human history that they have written. Their novels, _Soeur
Philomène_ (1861), _Renée Mauperin_ (1864), _Germinie Lacerteux_ (1865),
_Manette Salomon_ (1865), _Madame Gervaisais_ (1869), and, by Edmond
alone, _La Fille Elisa_ (1878), _Les Frères Zemganno_ (1879), _La
Faustin_ (1882), _Chérie_ (1884), are, however, the work by which they
will live as artists. Learning something from Flaubert, and teaching
almost everything to Zola, they invented a new kind of novel, and their
novels are the result of a new vision of the world, in which the very
element of sight is decomposed, as in a picture of Monet. Seen through
the nerves, in this conscious abandonment to the tricks of the eyesight,
the world becomes a thing of broken patterns and conflicting colours,
and uneasy movement. A novel of the Goncourts is made up of an infinite
number of details, set side by side, every detail equally prominent.
While a novel of Flaubert, for all its detail, gives above all things an
impression of unity, a novel of the Goncourts deliberately dispenses
with unity in order to give the sense of the passing of life, the heat
and form of its moments as they pass. It is written in little chapters,
sometimes no longer than a page, and each chapter is a separate notation
of some significant event, some emotion or sensation which seems to
throw sudden light on the picture of a soul. To the Goncourts humanity
is as pictorial a thing as the world it moves in; they do not search
further than "the physical basis of life," and they find everything that
can be known of that unknown force written visibly upon the sudden faces
of little incidents, little expressive moments. The soul, to them, is a
series of moods, which succeed one another, certainly without any of the
too arbitrary logic of the novelist who has conceived of character as a
solid or consistent thing. Their novels are hardly stories at all, but
picture-galleries, hung with pictures of the momentary aspects of the
world. French critics have complained that the language of the Goncourts
is no longer French, no longer the French of the past; and this is true.
It is their distinction--the finest of their inventions--that, in order
to render new sensations, a new vision of things, they invented a new
language. (A. Sy.)

  In his will Edmond de Goncourt left his estate for the endowment of an
  academy, the formation of which was entrusted to MM. Alphonse Daudet
  and Léon Hennique. The society was to consist of ten members, each of
  whom was to receive an annuity of 6000 francs, and a yearly prize of
  5000 francs was to be awarded to the author of some work of fiction.
  Eight of the members of the new academy were nominated in the will.
  They were: Alphonse Daudet, J. K. Huysmans, Léon Hennique, Octave
  Mirbeau, the two brothers J. H. Rosny, Gustave Geffroy and Paul
  Margueritte. On the 19th of January 1903, after much litigation, the
  academy was constituted, with Elémir Bourges, Lucien Descaves and
  Léon Daudet as members in addition to those mentioned in de Goncourt's
  will, the place of Alphonse Daudet having been left vacant by his
  death in 1897.

  On the brothers de Goncourt see the _Journal des Goncourt_ already
  cited; also M. A. Belloc (afterwards Lowndes) and M. L. Shedlock,
  _Edmond and Jules de Goncourt, with Letters and Leaves from their
  Journals_ (1895); Alidor Delzant, _Les Goncourt_ (1889) which contains
  a valuable bibliography; _Lettres de Jules de Goncourt_ (1888), with
  preface by H. Céard; R. Doumic, _Portraits d'écrivains_ (1892); Paul
  Bourget, _Nouveaux Essais de psychologie contemporaine_ (1886); Émile
  Zola, _Les Romanciers naturalistes_ (1881). &c.



GONDA, a town and district of British India, in the Fyzabad division of
the United Provinces. The town is 28 m. N.W. of Fyzabad, and is an
important junction on the Bengal & North-Western railway. The site on
which it stands was originally a jungle, in the centre of which was a
cattle-fold (_Gontha_ or _Gothah_), where the cattle were enclosed at
night as a protection against wild beasts, and from this the town
derives its name. Pop. (1901) 15,811. The cantonments were abandoned in
1863.

The district of Gonda has an area of 2813 sq. m. It consists of a vast
plain with very slight undulations, studded with groves of mango trees.
The surface consists of a rich alluvial deposit which is naturally
divided into three great belts known as the _tarai_ or swampy tract, the
_uparhar_ or uplands, and the _tarhar_ or wet lowlands, all three being
marvellously fertile. Several rivers flow through the district, but only
two, the Gogra and Rapti, are of any commercial importance, the first
being navigable throughout the year, and the latter during the rainy
season. The country is dotted with small lakes, the water of which is
largely used for irrigation. On the outbreak of the Mutiny in 1857, the
raja of Gonda, after honourably escorting the government treasure to
Fyzabad, joined the rebels. His estates, along with those of the rani of
Tulsipur, were confiscated, and conferred as rewards upon the maharajas
of Balrampur and Ajodhya, who had remained loyal. In 1901 the population
was 1,403,195, showing a decrease of 4% in one decade. The district is
traversed by the main line and three branches of the Bengal &
Northwestern railway.



GONDAL, a native state of India, in the Kathiawar political agency of
Bombay, situated in the centre of the peninsula of Kathiawar. Its area
is 1024 sq. m.; pop. (1901) 162,859. The estimated gross revenue is
about £100,000, and the tribute £7000. Grain and cotton are the chief
products. The chief, whose title is Thakur Sahib, is a Jadeja Rajput, of
the same clan as the Rao of Cutch. The Thakur Sahib, Sir Bhagvat Sinhji
(b. 1865), was educated at the Rajkot college, and afterwards graduated
in arts and medicine at the university of Edinburgh. He published (in
English) a _Journal of a Visit to England_ and _A Short History of Aryan
Medical Science_. In 1892 he received the honorary degree of D.C.L. of
Oxford University. He was created K.C.I.E. in 1887 and G.C.I.E. in 1897.
The state has long been conspicuous for its progressive administration.
It is traversed by a railway connecting it with Bhaunagar, Rajkot and
the sea-board. The town of Gondal is 23 m. by rail S. of Rajkot; pop.
(1901) 19,592.



GONDAR, properly GUENDAR, a town of Abyssinia, formerly the capital of
the Amharic kingdom, situated on a basaltic ridge some 7500 ft. above
the sea, about 21 m. N.E. of Lake Tsana, a splendid view of which is
obtained from the castle. Two streams, the Angreb on the east side and
the Gaha or Kaha on the west, flow from the ridge, and meeting below the
town, pass onwards to the lake. In the early years of the 20th century
the town was much decayed, numerous ruins of castles, palaces and
churches indicating its former importance. It was never a compact city,
being divided into districts separated from each other by open spaces.
The chief quarters were those of the Abun-Bed or bishop, the Etchege-Bed
or chief of the monks, the Debra Berhan or Church of the Light, and the
Gemp or castle. There was also a quarter for the Mahommedans. Gondar was
a small village when at the beginning of the 16th century it was chosen
by the Negus Sysenius (Seged I.) as the capital of his kingdom. His son
Fasilidas, or A'lem-Seged (1633-1667), was the builder of the castle
which bears his name. Later emperors built other castles and palaces,
the latest in date being that of the Negus Yesu II. This was erected
about 1736, at which time Gondar appears to have been at the height of
its prosperity. Thereafter it suffered greatly from the civil wars which
raged in Abyssinia, and was more than once sacked. In 1868 it was much
injured by the emperor Theodore, who did not spare either the castle or
the churches. After the defeat of the Abyssinians at Debra Sin in August
1887 Gondar was looted and fired by the dervishes under Abu Anga.
Although they held the town but a short time they inflicted very great
damage, destroying many churches, further damaging the castles and
carrying off much treasure. The population, estimated by James Bruce in
1770 at 10,000 families, had dwindled in 1905 to about 7000. Since the
pacification of the Sudan by the British (1886-1889) there has been some
revival of trade between Gondar and the regions of the Blue Nile. Among
the inhabitants are numbers of Mahommedans, and there is a settlement of
Falashas. Cotton, cloth, gold and silver ornaments, copper wares, fancy
articles in bone and ivory, excellent saddles and shoes are among the
products of the local industry.

Unlike any other buildings in Abyssinia, the castles and palaces of
Gondar resemble, with some modifications, the medieval fortresses of
Europe, the style of architecture being the result of the presence in
the country of numbers of Portuguese. The Portuguese were expelled by
Fasilidas, but his castle was built, by Indian workmen, under the
superintendence of Abyssinians who had learned something of architecture
from the Portuguese adventurers, helped possibly by Portuguese still in
the country. The castle has two storeys, is 90 ft. by 84 ft., has a
square tower and circular domed towers at the corners. The most
extensive ruins are a group of royal buildings enclosed in a wall. These
ruins include the palace of Yesu II., which has several fine chambers.
Christian Levantines were employed in its construction and it was
decorated in part with Venetian mirrors, &c. In the same enclosure is a
small castle attributed to Yesu I. The exterior walls of the castles and
palaces named are little damaged and give to Gondar a unique character
among African towns. Of the forty-four churches, all in the circular
Abyssinian style, which are said to have formerly existed in Gondar or
its immediate neighbourhood, Major Powell-Cotton found only one intact
in 1900. This church contained some well-executed native paintings of St
George and the Dragon, The Last Supper, &c. Among the religious
observances of the Christians of Gondar is that of bathing in large
crowds in the Gaha on the Feast of the Baptist, and again, though in
more orderly fashion, on Christmas day.

  See E. Rüppell, _Reise in Abyssinien_ (Frankfort-on-the-Main,
  1838-1840); T. von Heuglin, _Reise nach Abessinien_ (Jena, 1868); G.
  Lejean, _Voyage en Abyssinie_ (Paris, 1872); Achille Raffray, _Afrique
  orientale; Abyssinie_ (Paris, 1876); P. H. G. Powell-Cotton, _A
  Sporting Trip through Abyssinia_, chaps. 27-30 (London, 1902); and
  _Boll. Soc. Geog. Italiana_ for 1909. Views of the castle are given by
  Heuglin, Raffray and Powell-Cotton.



GONDOKORO, a government station and trading-place on the east bank of
the upper Nile, in 4° 54' N., 31° 43' E. It is the headquarters of the
Northern Province of the (British) Uganda protectorate, is 1070 m. by
river S. of Khartum and 350 m. N.N.W. in a direct line of Entebbe on
Victoria Nyanza. The station, which is very unhealthy, is at the top of
a cliff 25 ft. above the river-level. Besides houses for the civil and
military authorities and the lines for the troops, there are a few huts
inhabited by Bari, the natives of this part of the Nile. The importance
of Gondokoro lies in the fact that it is within a few miles of the limit
of navigability of the Nile from Khartum up stream. From this point the
journey to Uganda is continued overland.

Gondokoro was first visited by Europeans in 1841-1842, when expeditions
sent out by Mehemet Ali, pasha of Egypt, ascended the Nile as far as the
foot of the rapids above Gondokoro. It soon became an ivory and
slave-trading centre. In 1851 an Austrian Roman Catholic mission was
established here, but it was abandoned in 1859. It was at Gondokoro that
J. H. Speke and J. A. Grant, descending the Nile after their discovery
of its source, met, on the 15th of February 1863, Mr (afterwards Sir)
Samuel Baker and his wife who were journeying up the river. In 1871
Baker, then governor-general of the equatorial provinces of Egypt,
established a military post at Gondokoro which he named Ismailia, after
the then khedive. Baker made this post his headquarters, but Colonel
(afterwards General) C. G. Gordon, who succeeded him in 1874, abandoned
the station on account of its unhealthy site, removing to Lado.
Gondokoro, however, remained a trading-station. It fell into the hands
of the Mahdists in 1885. After the destruction of the Mahdist power in
1898 Gondokoro was occupied by British troops and has since formed the
northernmost post on the Nile of the Uganda protectorate (see SUDAN;
NILE; and UGANDA).



GONDOMAR, DIEGO SARMIENTO DE ACUÑA, COUNT OF (1567-1626), Spanish
diplomatist, was the son of Garcia Sarmiento de Sotomayor, corregidor of
Granada, and governor of the Canary Islands, by his marriage with Juana
de Acuña, an heiress. Diego Sarmiento, their eldest son, was born in the
parish of Gondomar, in the bishopric of Tuy, Galicia, Spain, on the 1st
of November 1567. He inherited wide estates both in Galicia and in Old
Castile. In 1583 he was appointed by Philip II. to the military command
of the Portuguese frontier and sea coast of Galicia. He is said to have
taken an active part in the repulse of an English coast-raid in 1585,
and in the defence of the country during the unsuccessful English attack
on Corunna in 1589. In 1593 he was named corregidor of Toro. In 1603 he
was sent from court to Vigo to superintend the distri