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Title: The American Reformed Cattle Doctor
Author: Dadd, George
Language: English
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[Illustration: A West Highland Ox

The Property of Mr. Elliott of East Ham Essex.]



  THE
  AMERICAN REFORMED
  CATTLE DOCTOR;

  CONTAINING
  THE NECESSARY INFORMATION
  FOR
  PRESERVING THE HEALTH AND CURING THE DISEASES
  OF
  OXEN, COWS, SHEEP, AND SWINE,
  WITH
  A GREAT VARIETY OF ORIGINAL RECIPES,
  AND
  VALUABLE INFORMATION IN REFERENCE TO
  FARM AND DAIRY MANAGEMENT;
  WHEREBY
  EVERY MAN CAN BE HIS OWN CATTLE DOCTOR.



  THE PRINCIPLES TAUGHT IN THIS WORK ARE, THAT ALL MEDICATION
  SHALL BE SUBSERVIENT TO NATURE; THAT ALL MEDICINAL AGENTS
  MUST BE SANATIVE IN THEIR OPERATION, AND ADMINISTERED WITH
  A VIEW OF AIDING THE VITAL POWERS, INSTEAD OF DEPRESSING,
  AS HERETOFORE, WITH THE LANCET AND POISON.



  BY
  G. H. DADD, M. D., VETERINARY PRACTITIONER,
  AUTHOR OF "ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HORSE."



  BOSTON:
  PHILLIPS, SAMPSON, AND COMPANY,
  110 WASHINGTON STREET.
  1851.



  Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1851, by

  G. H. DADD, M. D.,

  In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the
  District of Massachusetts.

  STEREOTYPED AT THE
  BOSTON STEREOTYPE FOUNDRY.



CONTENTS.


                                                            PAGE

  INTRODUCTION,                                                9


  CATTLE.

  Importance of supplying Cattle with pure Water,             15
  Remarks on feeding Cattle,                                  17
  The Barn and Feeding Byre,                                  21
  Milking,                                                    24
  Knowledge of Agricultural and Animal Chemistry
      important to Farmers,                                   25
  On Breeding,                                                30
    The Bull,                                                 34
    Value of Different Breeds of Cows,                        35
  Method of preparing Rennet, as practised in England,        36
  Making Cheese,                                              37
    Gloucester Cheese,                                        38
    Chester Cheese,                                           39
    Stilton Cheese,                                           40
    Dunlop Cheese,                                            41
    Green Cheese,                                             42
  Making Butter,                                              44
    Washing Butter,                                           45
    Coloring Butter,                                          46
  Description of the Organs of Digestion in Cattle,           47
  Respiration and Structure of the Lungs,                     53
  Circulation of the Blood,                                   54
    The Heart viewed externally,                              55
  Remarks on Blood-letting,                                   58
  Efforts of Nature to remove Disease,                        67
  Proverbs of the Veterinary Reformers,                       70
  An Inquiry concerning the Souls of Brutes,                  72
  The Reformed Practice--Synoptical View of the
      Prominent Systems of Medicine,                          75
  Creed of the Reformers,                                     79
  True Principles,                                            80
  Inflammation,                                               88
  Remarks, showing that very little is known of the
      Nature and Treatment of Disease,                        94
  Nature, Treatment, and Causes of Disease in Cattle,        105
  Pleuro-Pneumonia,                                          107
  Locked-Jaw,                                                115
  Inflammatory Diseases,                                     121
    Inflammation of the Stomach, (Gastritis,)                121
    Inflammation of the Lungs, (Pneumonia,)                  122
    Inflammation of the Bowels, (Enteritis.--Inflammation
        of the Fibro-Muscular Coat of the Intestines,)       124
    Inflammation of the Peritoneal Coat of the Intestines,
        (Peritonitis,)                                       125
    Inflammation of the Kidneys, (Nephritis,)                125
    Inflammation of the Bladder, (Cystitis,)                 126
    Inflammation of the Womb,                                126
    Inflammation of the Brain, (Phrenitis,)                  127
    Inflammation of the Eye,                                 128
    Inflammation of the Liver, (Hepatitis,)                  128
  Jaundice, or Yellows,                                      130
  Diseases of the Mucous Surface,                            132
    Catarrh, or Hoose,                                       133
    Epidemic Catarrh,                                        134
    Malignant Epidemic, (Murrain,)                           135
    Diarrhoea, (Looseness of the Bowels,)                    136
    Dysentery,                                               138
    Scouring Rot,                                            139
  Disease of the Ear,                                        140
  Serous Membranes,                                          140
  Dropsy,                                                    141
  Hoove, or "Blasting,"                                      144
  Joint Murrain,                                             147
  Black Quarter,                                             149
  Open Joint,                                                151
  Swellings of Joints,                                       152
  Sprain of the Fetlock,                                     153
  Strain of the Hip,                                         154
  Foul in the Foot,                                          154
  Red Water,                                                 157
  Black Water,                                               160
  Thick Urine,                                               160
  Rheumatism,                                                161
  Blain,                                                     162
  Thrush,                                                    163
  Black Tongue,                                              163
  Inflammation of the Throat and its Appendages,             163
  Bronchitis,                                                164
  Inflammation of Glands,                                    164
  Loss of Cud,                                               166
  Colic,                                                     166
  Spasmodic Colic,                                           167
  Constipation,                                              168
  Falling down of the Fundament,                             171
  Calving,                                                   171
  Embryotomy,                                                175
  Falling of the Calf-Bed, or Womb,                          176
  Garget,                                                    177
  Sore Teats,                                                178
    Chapped Teats and Chafed Udder,                          178
  Fever,                                                     178
    Milk or Puerperal Fever,                                 182
    Inflammatory Fever,                                      183
    Typhus Fever,                                            186
  Horn Ail in Cattle,                                        189
  Abortion in Cows,                                          191
  Cow-Pox,                                                   194
  Mange,                                                     195
  Hide-bound,                                                196
  Lice,                                                      196
  Importance of keeping the Skin of Animals in a
      Healthy State,                                         197
  Spaying Cows,                                              201
    Operation of Spaying,                                    204


  SHEEP.

  Preliminary Remarks,                                       209
  Staggers,                                                  219
  Foot Rot,                                                  220
  Rot,                                                       221
  Epilepsy,                                                  222
  Red Water,                                                 223
  Cachexy, or General Debility,                              224
  Loss of Appetite,                                          224
  Foundering, (Rheumatism,)                                  224
  Ticks,                                                     225
  Scab, or Itch,                                             225
  Diarrhoea,                                                 227
  Dysentery,                                                 227
  Constipation, or Stretches,                                228
  Scours,                                                    230
  Dizziness,                                                 231
  Jaundice,                                                  232
  Inflammation of the Kidneys,                               232
  Worms,                                                     233
  Diseases of the Stomach from eating Poisonous Plants,      233
  Sore Nipples,                                              234
  Fractures,                                                 234
  Common Catarrh and Epidemic Influenza,                     235
  Castrating Lambs,                                          236
  Nature of Sheep,                                           237
  The Ram,                                                   238
  Leaping,                                                   239
  Argyleshire Breeders,                                      239
  Fattening Sheep,                                           240
  Improvement in Sheep,                                      244
  Description of the Different Breeds of Sheep,              249
    Teeswater Breed,                                         249
    Lincolnshire Breed,                                      250
    Dishley Breed,                                           250
    Cotswold Breed,                                          250
    Romney Marsh Breed,                                      251
    Devonshire Breed,                                        251
    Dorsetshire Breed,                                       251
    Wiltshire Breed,                                         252
    South Down Breed,                                        252
    Herdwick Breed,                                          253
    Cheviot Breed,                                           253
    Merino Breed,                                            253
    Welsh Sheep,                                             254


  SWINE.

  Preliminary Remarks,                                       255
  Natural History of the Hog,                                259
  Generalities,                                              262
  General Debility, or Emaciation,                           263
  Epilepsy, or Fits,                                         264
  Rheumatism,                                                264
  Measles,                                                   265
  Ophthalmia,                                                266
  Vermin,                                                    266
  Red Eruption,                                              267
  Dropsy,                                                    267
  Catarrh,                                                   267
  Colic,                                                     268
  Diarrhoea,                                                 268
  Frenzy,                                                    268
  Jaundice,                                                  269
  Soreness of the Feet,                                      269
  Spaying,                                                   270
  Various Breeds of Swine,                                   271
    Berkshire Breed,                                         271
    Hampshire Breed,                                         271
    Shropshire Breed,                                        272
    Chinese Breed,                                           272
  Boars and Sows for Breeding,                               272
  Rearing Pigs,                                              273
  Fattening Hogs,                                            275
  Method of Curing Swine's Flesh,                            277


  APPENDIX.

  On the Action of Medicines,                                279
  Clysters,                                                  281
    Forms of Clysters,                                       283
  Infusions,                                                 286
  Antispasmodics,                                            287
  Fomentations,                                              287
  Mucilages,                                                 289
  Washes,                                                    289
  Physic for Cattle,                                         290
    Mild Physic for Cattle,                                  291
  Poultices,                                                 292
  Styptics, to arrest Bleeding,                              296
  Absorbents,                                                296
    Forms of Absorbents,                                     297

  VETERINARY MATERIA MEDICA, embracing a List of the
    various Remedies used by the Author of this Work
    in the Practice of Medicine on Cattle, Sheep,
    and Swine,                                               299
  General Remarks on Medicines,                              312
  Properties of Plants,                                      315
  Potato,                                                    316

  TREATMENT OF DISEASE IN DOGS--Preliminary Remarks,         323
  Distemper,                                                 325
  Fits,                                                      326
  Worms,                                                     327
  Mange,                                                     328
  Internal Abscess of the Ear,                               329
  Ulceration of the Ear,                                     329
  Inflammation of the Bowels,                                329
  Inflammation of the Bladder,                               330
  Asthma,                                                    331
  Piles,                                                     331
  Dropsy,                                                    332
  Sore Throat,                                               332
  Sore Ears,                                                 332
  Sore Feet,                                                 333
  Wounds,                                                    333
  Sprains,                                                   333
  Scalds,                                                    334
  Ophthalmia,                                                334
  Weak Eyes,                                                 335
  Fleas and Vermin,                                          335
  Hydrophobia,                                               335

  MALIGNANT MILK SICKNESS of the Western States, or
    Contagious Typhus,                                       339

  BONE DISORDER IN COWS,                                     351



INTRODUCTION.


There is no period in the history of the United States when our domestic
animals have ranked so high as at the present time; yet there is no
subject on which there is such a lamentable want of knowledge as the
proper treatment of their diseases.

Governor Briggs, in a recent letter to the author, says, "You have my
thanks, and, in my opinion, are entitled to the thanks of the community,
for entering upon this important work. While the subject has engaged the
attention of scientific men in other countries, it has been too long
neglected in our own. Cruelty and ignorance have marked our treatment to
diseased animals. Ignorant himself both of the disease and the remedy,
the owner has been in the habit of administering the popular remedy of
every neighbor who had no better powers of knowing what should be done
than himself, until the poor animal, if the disease would not have
proved fatal, is left alone, until death, with a friendly hand, puts a
period to his sufferings: he is, however, often destroyed by the amount
or destructive character of the remedies, or else by the cruel mode of
administering them. I am persuaded that the community will approve of
your exertions, and find it to their interest to support and sustain
your system."

The author has labored for several years to substitute a safer and a
more efficient system of medication in the treatment of diseased
animals, and at the same time to point out to the American people the
great benefits they will derive from the diffusion of veterinary
education.

That many thousands of our most valuable cattle die under the treatment,
which consists of little else than blood-letting, purging, and
blistering, no one will deny; and these dangerous and destructive agents
are frequently administered by men who are totally unacquainted with the
nature of the agents they prescribe. But a better day is dawning;
veterinary information is loudly called for--demanded; and the farmers
will have it; _but it must be a safer and a more efficient system than
that heretofore practised_.

The object of the veterinary art is not only congenial with human
medicine, but the very same paths that lead to a knowledge of the
diseases of man lead also to a knowledge of those of brutes.

Our domestic animals deserve consideration at our hands. We have tried
all manner of experiments on them for the benefit of science; and
science and scientific men should do something to repay the debt, by
alleviating their sufferings and improving their condition. We are told
that physicians of all ages have applied themselves to the dissection of
animals, and that it was by analogy that those of Greece and Rome judged
of the structure of the human body. For example, the Greeks and Arabians
confined themselves to the dissection of apes and other quadrupeds.
Galen has given us the anatomy of the ape for that of man; and it is
clear that his dissections were restricted to brutes, when he says, that
"if learned physicians have been guilty of gross errors, it is because
they neglected to dissect animals." We advocate the establishment of
veterinary schools, and the cultivation of our reformed system of
veterinary medicine, on the broad principles of humanity. These poor
animals are as susceptible to pain and suffering as we are. Has not the
Almighty given us dominion over them, and placed them under our
protection? Have we done our duty by them? Can we render a good account
of our stewardship?

In almost every department of science the spirit of inquiry is abroad,
investigation is active; yet, in this department, every thing is left to
chance and ignorance. Men of all professions find it for their interest
to protect property. The merchant, previous to sending his vessel on a
voyage to a distant port, seeks out a skilful navigator to pilot that
vessel into her desired haven with safety. He protects his property. We
protect our property against the ravages of fire by insurance--we defend
our houses from the lightning by conducting that fluid down the sides of
the building into the earth. And shall we not protect our animals? Is
not property invested in live stock as valuable, in proportion, as that
invested in real estate? Can we permit live stock to degenerate and die
prematurely from a want of knowledge of the fundamental laws of their
being? Can we look on and see their heart's blood drawn from them--their
flesh setoned, burned, and blistered--simply because it was the
misguided custom of our ancestors?

We appeal to the American people at large. They have great encouragement
to educate young men in this important branch of study; for the
beneficial results will be, that the diseases of all classes of domestic
animals will be better understood, and the great losses which this
country sustains will, in a few years, be materially diminished. This is
not all. The value of live stock will be increased at least twenty-five
per cent!

Look for a moment at the amount of capital invested in live stock; and
from these statistics the reader will perceive that not only the
farmers, but the whole nation, will be enriched. There are in the United
States at least 6,000,000 horses and mules; these, at the rate of $50
per head, amount to $300,000,000. It is also estimated that there are
20,000,000 of neat cattle; reckon these at $25 per head, and we get the
snug little sum of $500,000,000. We have also 20,000,000 sheep, worth
the same number of dollars. The number of swine have been computed at
24,000,000; and these, at $3 per head, give us $72,000,000. Hence the
reader will see that the capital invested in this class of live stock
reaches the enormous sum of $892,000,000. Add the 25 per cent. just
alluded to, and we get a clear gain of $223,000,000. This sum would be
sufficient to build veterinary schools and colleges capable of affording
ample accommodations to every farmer's son in the Union. Hence we
entreat the farming community to ponder on these subjects. They have
only to say the word, and schools for the dissemination of veterinary
information shall spring up in every section of the Union.

Does the reader wish to know how the _farmers_ can accomplish this
important object? We answer, there are four millions of men engaged in
agricultural pursuits. Their number is three times greater than that of
those engaged in navigation, the learned professions, commerce, and
manufactures. Hence they have the numerical power to control the
government of these United States, and of course can plead their own
cause in the halls of congress, and vote their own supplies for
educational purposes.

When the author first commenced a warfare against the lancet and other
destructive agents, his only hopes of success were based on the
coöperation of this mighty host of husbandmen; he well knew that there
were many prejudices to be overcome, and none greater than those
existing among his brethren of the same profession. The farmers have
just begun to see the absurdity of bleeding an animal to death, with a
view of saving life; or pouring down their throats powerful and
destructive agents, with a view of making one disease to cure another!
If the cattle doctors, then, will not reform, they must be reformed
through the giant influence of popular opinion. Already the cry is, and
it emanates from some of the most influential agriculturists in the
country,--"_No more blood-letting!_" "_Use your poisons on yourselves._"

To the cattle-rearing interest, at the hands of many of whom the author
has received aid and encouragement, the following pages are dedicated;
they are intended to furnish them with practical information, with a
view of preventing disease, increasing the value of their stock, and
restoring them to health when sick.

In reference to our reformed system of veterinary medication, it will be
sufficient, in the present place, just to glance at the fundamental
principles. In the succeeding pages these principles will be more fully
explained. We contemplate the animal system as a complicated piece of
mechanism, subject to the uncompromising and immutable laws of nature,
as they are written upon the face of animate nature by the finger of
Omnipotence.

All our intentions of cure being in accordance with nature's laws,
(viz., promoting the integrity of the living powers,) we have termed our
system a _physiological_ one, though it is sometimes termed _botanic_,
in allusion to the fact that most of our remedial agents are derived
from the vegetable kingdom. We recognize a conservative or healing power
in the animal economy, whose unerring indications we endeavor to follow;
considering nature the physician, and the doctor her servant.

Our system proposes, under all circumstances, to restore the diseased
organs to a healthy state, by coöperating with the vitality remaining in
those organs, by the exhibition of sanative means, and, under all
circumstances, to assist, and not oppose, nature in her curative
processes. Poisonous substances, blood-letting, or processes of cure
that act pathologically, cannot be used by us. The laws of animal life
are physiological: they never were, nor ever will be, pathological.

The agents we use are just as we find them in the forest and the field,
compounded by the Great Physician. Hence the reader will perceive that
our aim is to depart from the popular debilitating and life-destroying
practice, and approach as near as possible to the sanative.

G. H. D.



THE

AMERICAN

REFORMED CATTLE DOCTOR.



IMPORTANCE OF SUPPLYING CATTLE WITH PURE WATER.


In order to prevent many of the diseases to which cattle are liable, it
is important that they be supplied with pure water. Cattle have often
been known to turn away from the filthy fluid found in some troughs,
which abound in slime and decayed vegetable matter; and, indeed, the
common stagnated pond water is no better than the former. Such water
has, in former years, proved itself to be a serious cause of disease;
and, at the present day, death is running riot among the stock of our
western, and also our northern farmers, when, to our certain knowledge,
the cause exists, in some cases, under their very noses. The farmers
ofttimes see their best stock sicken and die without any apparent cause;
and the cattle doctors are running rough-shod through the _materia
medica_, pouring down the throats of the poor brutes salts by the pound,
castor oil by the quart; aloes, lard, and a host of kindred trash,
follow in rapid succession, converting the stomach into a sort of
apothecary's shop; setons are inserted in the "dewlap;" the horns are
bored, and sometimes sawed off; and, as a last resort, the animals are
blistered and bled. They sometimes recover, in spite of the violence
done to the constitution; yet they drag out a low form of vitality,
living, it may be said, yet half dead, until some friendly epidemic
puts a period to their sufferings.

The author's attention was first called to this subject on reading an
article in an English work, the substance of which is as follows: A
number of working oxen were put into a pasture, in which was a pond,
considered to abound in good water. Soon after putting them there, they
were attacked with scouring, upon which they were immediately removed to
another field. The scouring continued. They still, however, drank at the
same pond. They were shifted to another piece of very sweet pasture
without arresting the disease. The farmer thought it evident that the
pastures were not the cause of the disease; and, contrary to the advice
of his friends, who affirmed that the spring was always noticed for the
excellence of its water, fenced his pond round, so that the cattle could
not drink; they were then driven to a distance and watered. The scouring
gradually disappeared. The farmer now proceeded to examine the suspected
pond; and, on stirring the water, he found it all alive with small
creatures. He now stirred into the water a quantity of lime, and soon
after an immense number of animalculæ were seen dead on the surface. In
a short time, the cattle drank of this water without any injurious
results.

There is no doubt but that inferior kinds of water produce derangement
of the digestive organs, and subsequently loss of flesh, debility, &c.
We have frequently made _post mortem_ examinations of animals that have
died from disease induced by debility, and have often found a large
number of worms in the stomach and intestines, which, we firmly believe,
had their origin either primarily from the water itself, or subsequently
from its effects on the digestive function.

All decayed animal and vegetable matter tends to corrupt water, and
render it unfit for the purposes of life. Now, if the farmer has the
best spring in the world, and the water shall flow from it, as it
sometimes does, through whole fields of gutter or dike, abounding in
decayed filth, such water will be impregnated with agents that will more
or less affect its purity.



REMARKS ON FEEDING CATTLE.


Many of the most complicated diseases of cattle originate from the food:
for example, it may be given in too large quantities--more than is
needed to build up and repair the waste that is constantly going on. The
consequence is, the animals get into a state of plethora, which is known
by heaviness, dulness, unwillingness to move; there is a disposition to
sleep, and they will lie down and often go to sleep in damp places. A
chill of the extremities, or collapse of the capillaries, takes place,
resulting in diseases of the lungs and pleura. At other times, if driven
a short distance, and made to walk fast, they are liable to disease of
the brain and other organs, which frequently terminates fatally.

The food may be of such a nature as shall be very difficult of
digestion, such as cornstalks, foxgrass, frosted turnips, &c. The clover
and grasses may abound in woody fibre, in consequence of being cut too
late; they will then require more than the usual amount of gastric
fluids to insalivate them, and more time to masticate, and, finally,
extract their nutrimental properties. The stomach becomes overworked,
producing sympathetic diseases of the brain and nervous structures. The
stomach not being able to act on fibrous matter with the same despatch
as on softer materials, the former accumulates in its different
compartments, distends the viscera, interferes with the motion of the
diaphragm, presses on the liver, seriously interfering with the
bile-secreting process. In order to prevent the grass and clover from
becoming tough and fibrous, it should be mowed early, and while in
flower, and should be afterwards almost constantly attended to, if the
weather is favorable; the more it is scattered about, the better will it
be made, and the more effectually will its fragrance and other good
qualities be preserved.

The food may also be deficient in nutriment. The effects of insufficient
food are too well known to need much description: debility includes them
all; it invades every function of the animal economy. And as life is
the sum of the powers that resist disease, if disease is only the
instrument of death, it follows, of course, that whatever enfeebles
life, or, in other words, produces debility, must predispose to disease.

Many cattle, during the winter, live on bad hay, which does not appear
to contain any of that saccharine and mucilaginous matter which is found
in good hay. When the spring comes, they are turned out to grass, and
thus regain their flesh. Many, however, die in consequence of the sudden
change.

It has been satisfactorily proved that fat cattle, of the best quality,
may be produced by feeding them on boiled food.

Dr. Whitlaw says, "On one occasion, a number of cows were selected from
a large stock, for the express purpose of making the trial: they were
such as appeared to be of the best kind, and those that gave the richest
milk. In order to ascertain what particular food would produce the best
milk, different species of grass and clover were tried separately, and
the quality and flavor of the butter were found to vary very much. But
what was of the most importance, many of the grasses were found to be
coated with silecia, or decomposed sand, too hard and insoluble for the
stomachs of cattle. In consequence of this, the grass was cut and well
steamed, and it was found to be readily digested; and the butter, that
was made from the milk, much firmer, better flavored, and would keep
longer without salt than any other kind. Another circumstance that
attended the experiment was that, in all the various grasses and grain
that were intended by our Creator as food for man or beast, the various
oils that enter into their composition were so powerfully assimilated or
combined with the other properties of the farinaceous plants, that the
oil partook of the character of essential oil, and was not so easily
evaporated as that of poisonous vegetables; and experience has proved
that the same quantity of grass, steamed and given to the cattle, will
produce more butter than when given in its dry state. This fact being
established from numerous experiments, then there must be a great saving
and superiority in this mode of feeding. The meat of such cattle is
more wholesome, tender, and better flavored than when fed in the
ordinary way." (For process of steaming, see Dadd's work on the Horse,
p. 67.)

A mixed diet (boiled) is supposed to be the most economical for
fattening cattle. "A Scotchman, who fattens 150 head of Galloway cattle,
annually, finds it most profitable to feed with bruised flaxseed, boiled
with meal or barley, oats or Indian corn, at the rate of one part
flaxseed to three parts meal, by weight,--the cooked compound to be
afterwards mixed with cut straw or hay. From four to twelve pounds of
the compound are given to each beast per day." The editor of the Albany
Cultivator adds, "Would it not be well for some of our farmers, who
stall-feed cattle, to try this or a similar mode? We are by no means
certain that the ordinary food (meaning, probably, bad hay and
cornstalks) would pay the expense of cooking; but flaxseed is known to
be highly nutritious, and the cooking would not only facilitate its
digestion, but it would serve, by mixing, to render the other food
palatable, and, by promoting the appetite and health of the animal,
would be likely to hasten its thrift."

Mr. Hutton, who has long been celebrated for producing exceedingly fat
cattle at a small cost, estimates that cost as follows:--

                                                              s. d.
  "13 lbs. of linseed, bruised, or 2 lbs. per day for six
  days, and 1 lb. for Sunday,                                 1  9

  32 lbs. of ground corn, or 5 lbs. per day for six days,
  and 2-1/2 lbs. for Sunday, at 1 d. per lb.,                 2  8

  35 lbs. of turnips, given twice a day for six days,
  and thrice on Sunday,                                       1  6

  Oats, 1-1/2 d.: labor on each beast, 6 d.,                     7-1/2
                                                             ---------
  Total cost of each beast per week,                          6  6-1/2

"The horses, cows, and young stock are also fed on this food, evidently
with great advantage."

Mr. Workington, a successful dairyman, combining cut feed and oil-cake
with different sorts of green food, found that, by giving a middle-sized
cow sixteen pounds of green food and two of boiled hay, with two pounds
of ground oil cake, (_linseed would be preferable_,) and eight pounds of
cut straw, the daily expense of her keep was only 5-1/2 d., (about ten
cents.) The oil-cake he found to be much more productive of milk when
given with steamed food, than when employed without it. Varying their
food from time to time is found to be of much more advantage to the cow;
and this may probably arise from the additional relish with which the
animal eats, or from the superior excitement of a new stimulus on the
different secretions.

The following table represents the nutritive properties in each article
of food:--

  ------------+--------+----------+--------+--------+--------+--------
              |        | Husk, or |Starch, |Gluten, |        |
              |        | woody    |gum, and|albumen,| Fatty  |Saline
              | Water. | fibre.   | sugar. | &c.    | matter |matter
  ------------+--------+----------+--------+--------+--------+--------
  Oats,       |   16   |    20    |  45    |  11    |    6   |  2.5
  Beans,      |   14   |  8 to 11 |  40    |  26    |    2.5 |  3
  Pease,      |   14   |     9    |  50    |  24    |    2.1 |  3
  Indian corn,|   14   |     6    |  70    |  12    | 5 to 9 |  1.5
  Barley,     |   15   |    14    |  52    |  13.5  | 2 to 3 |  3
  Meadow hay, |   14   |    30    |  40    |   7.1  | 2 to 5 |5 to 10
  Clover hay, |   14   |    25    |  40    |   9.3  | 3 to 5 |  9
  Pea straw,  |10 to 15|    25    |  45    |  12.3  |    1.5 |4 to 5
  Oat straw,  |   12   |    45    |  35    |   1.3  |    0.8 |  6
  Carrots,    |   85   |     3    |  10    |   1.5  |    0.4 |1 to 2
  Linseed,    |    9.2 |  8 to 9  |  35.3  |  20.3  |   20.0 |  6.3
  Bran,       |   13.1 |    53.6  |   2    |  19.3  |    4.7 |  7.3
  ------------+--------+----------+--------+--------+--------+--------

The most nutritious grasses are those which abound in sugar, starch, and
gluten. Sugar is an essential element in the formation of good milk;
hence the sweet-scented grasses are the most profitable to cultivate and
feed to milch cows. At the same time, the farmer, if he does not, ought
to know that large quantities of saccharine matter are extracted from
clover and sweet grasses by the bees. Mr. White tells us that, "on a
farm situated a few miles from London, the eldest son of the occupier
had the management and profit of the bees given him, which induced him
to increase the number of stocks beyond what had ever been kept on the
farm before. It so happened that the sheep did not thrive so well as in
former years, and on the farmer complaining at the cause to his man, as
they had plenty of keep, the man replied, '_You will never have fat
sheep so long as you suffer my young master to keep so many stocks of
bees; they suck all the honey from the flowers, so that the clover is
not half so nourishing, and does not produce half such good milk._'" Had
this man been acquainted with agricultural and animal chemistry, he
would have had a clear conception of the seeming absurdity. All our
labor or efforts to improve stock or crops will be fruitless, unless
guided by chemical science. We must have sugar, starch, gluten, and
other materials, to perfect animal organization. The animal may be in
good health, the different functions free and unobstructed, and possess
the power of reproducing the species; yet, if fed on substances which
lack the materials necessary to the composition of bones, blood-vessels,
and nerves, sooner or later its health becomes impaired. Reader, if you
own cattle, and wish to preserve their health, give them boiled food
occasionally; let them have their meals at regular hours, in sufficient
quantity, and no more, unless they are intended for the butcher; then,
an extra allowance may be given, with a view of fattening. They should
be well littered, and the barns well ventilated; finally, keep them
clean, avoid undue exposure, and govern them in a spirit of kindness and
mercy.



THE BARN AND FEEDING BYRE.


It is well known that the more cleanly and comfortable cattle are kept,
and the better the order in which their food is presented to them, the
better they will thrive, and the more profitable they will be to the
owner. Dr. Gunthier remarks, that "constant confinement to the barn is
opposed to the nature of oxen, and becomes the source of numberless
diseases. Endeavors are made to promote the lacteal secretion in cows,
and the fattening of oxen, by means of heat: for this purpose, stables
[barns] are converted into real stoves, either by not making them
sufficiently large, or by crowding them to excess, or by preventing the
access of air from without; and all this without recollecting that the
skin, thus over-excited, must necessarily fall into a state of atony in
a short time. Besides, the moist heat and the emanations of the dung
cannot fail to exercise a destructive influence on the lungs and entire
system. To these causes if we add the absolute want of exercise and the
excess of food, we shall not be surprised at the number of diseases
resulting from these different practices, and at the extraordinary forms
which they ofttimes assume.

"Persons propose to themselves, by feeding in the barn, to augment the
mass of dung; and the beasts are left in their excrement, sometimes up
to the very knees. Seldom is there any care taken to cleanse their skin,
and still less attention is directed to the feet. What wonder, then, if
they exhibit so many forms of disease?"

The byre recommended by Mr. Lawson consists of two apartments--an inner
apartment, or byre for feeding the cattle, and an outer apartment, or
barn for containing the fodder. The byre is constructed at right angles
with the barn, as follows: "At the distance of about three feet and a
half from the side of the building, within, there are constructed, on
the ground, in a straight line, a trough, having ten partitions for
feeding ten animals. The troughs are so constructed, that there is a
small and gradual declivity from the first or innermost to the last or
outermost one; and the partitions separating them being made with a
small arch at the bottom, a bucket of water, poured in at the uppermost,
runs out at the last one through a spout in the wall; and a sweep of the
broom carries off the whole remains of the food, rendering all the
troughs quite clean and sweet. The whole food of the cattle is thus kept
perfectly clean at all times.

"In a line with the feeding troughs, and immediately over them, runs a
strong beam of wood, from one end of the byre to the other; which is
strengthened by two strong upright supporters to the roof, placed at
equal distances from the ends of the byre; and the main beam is again
subdivided by the cattle stakes and chains, so as to keep each of the
ten oxen opposite to his own feeding trough and stall.

"The three and a half feet of space between the troughs and outer wall,
lighted by a glazed window, is the cattle feeder's walk, who passes
along it in front of the cattle, and, with a basket, deposits before
each of the cattle the food into the feeding trough of each. To prevent
any of the cattle from choking on small pieces of turnips, &c., as they
are very apt to do, the chains at the stakes are contrived of such a
length, that no ox can raise his head too high when eating; for in this
way, it is observed, cattle are generally choked.

"At the distance of about six feet eight inches from the feeding
troughs, and parallel to them, is a dung grove and urine gutter. Here
too, like the trough, there is a gradual declivity; so that the moment
the urine passes from the cattle, it runs to the lowest end of the
gutter, whence it is conveyed through the outer wall, in a spout, and
deposited in the urinarium outside of the building. At this place is a
large enclosed space, occupied as a compost dung-court. Here all sorts
of stuff are collected for increasing the manure, such as fat, earth,
cleanings of roads, ditches, ponds, rotten vegetables, &c.; and the
urine from the byre, being caused to run over all these collected
together, which is done very easily by a couple of wooden spouts, moved
backwards and forwards to the urinarium at pleasure, renders the whole
mass, in a short time, a rich compost dunghill; and this is done by the
urine alone, which, in general, is totally lost. The dung of the byre,
again, is cleared several times each day, and deposited in the
dung-court. Along the edge of the dung-court a few low sheds are
constructed, in which swine are kept, and these consume the refuse of
the food.

"In the side wall of the byre, and opposite to the heads of the cattle,
are constructed three ventilators; these are placed at the distance of
about two feet four inches from the ground, in the inside of the byre,
and pass out just under the roof. The inside openings of these are about
thirteen inches in length, seven in breadth, and nine in depth; and they
serve two good purposes. The breath of cattle being superficially
lighter than atmospheric air, the consequence is, that in some byres the
cattle are kept in a constant heat and sweat, because their breath and
heat have no way to escape; whereas, by means of the ventilators, the
air of the barn is kept in proper circulation, which conduces as much to
the health of the cattle as to the preservation of the walls and timber
of the byre, by drying up the moisture produced from the breath and
sweat of the cattle, which is found to injure those parts of the
building."



MILKING.


The operation of milking should, if possible, always be performed by the
same person, and in the most gentle manner; the violent tugging at the
teats by an inexperienced hand is apt to make the animal irritable and
uneasy during the operation, and unwilling to be milked. Many of the
diseases of the teats and udder can be traced to violence done to the
parts under the operation of milking. Young animals are often unwilling
to be milked: here a little patience and kindness will perform wonders.

It is not the quantity of milk that gives value to the dairy cow; for
the milk of one good cow will make more butter than that of two poor
ones, each giving the same quantity of milk. Its most abundant
principles are cream, caseous matter or curd, and whey. In these are
also contained a saccharine matter, (sugar of milk,) muriate and
phosphate of potassa, phosphate of lime, acetic acid, acetate of
potassa, and a trace of acetate of iron. The three principal
constituents (cream, curd, and whey) can easily be separated: thus the
cream rises to the surface, and the curd and whey will separate if the
milk becomes sour, or a little rennet is poured into it. When milk is
intended to be made into cheese, no part of the cream should be
separated. Good cheese is, consequently, rarely produced in those
dairies where much butter is made; the former being robbed for the sake
of the latter.

Sir J. Sinclair says, "If a few spoonfuls of milk are left in the udder
of the cow at milking; if any of the implements used in the dairy are
allowed to be tainted by neglect; if the dairy-house be kept dirty, or
out of order; if the milk is either too hot or too cold at coagulation;
if too much or too little rennet is put into the milk; if the whey is
not speedily taken off; if too much or too little salt is applied; if
butter is too slowly or too hastily churned; or if other minute
attentions are neglected, the milk will be in a great measure lost. If
these nice operations occurred once a month, or once a week, they might
be easily guarded against; but as they require to be observed during
every stage of the process, and almost every hour of the day, the most
vigilant attention must be kept up during the whole season."



A KNOWLEDGE OF AGRICULTURAL AND ANIMAL CHEMISTRY IMPORTANT TO FARMERS.


It is a well-known fact that plants require for their germination and
growth different constituents of soil, and that animals require
different forms of food to build up the waste, and promote the living
integrity--the vital powers.

Its order to supply the materials necessary for animal and vegetable
nutrition, we require alternate changes--the former in the diet, and the
latter in the soil. Experience has proved that the cultivation of a
plant for several successive years on the same soil impoverishes it, or
the plant degenerates. On the contrary, if a piece of land be suffered
to lie uncultivated for a short time, it will yield, in spite of the
loss of time, a greater quantity of grain; for, during the interval of
rest, the soil regains its original equilibrium. It has been
satisfactorily demonstrated that a fruit-tree cannot be made to grow and
bring forth good fruit on the same spot where another of the same
species has stood; at least not until a lapse of years. This is a fact
worth knowing, for it applies more or less to all forms of vegetation.
Another fact of experience is, that some plants thrive on the same soil
only after a lapse of years, while others may be cultivated in close
succession, _provided the soil is kept in equilibrium by artificial
means_; these are subsoiling, &c. Some kinds of plants improve the sod,
while others impoverish or exhaust it. Professor Liebig tells us,
"turnips, cabbages, beets, oats, and rye are considered to belong to the
class which impoverish the soil; while by wheat, hops, madder, hemp, and
poppies, it is supposed to be entirely exhausted." Many of our farmers
expend large sums of money in the purchase of manure, with a view of
improving the soil; and they suppose that their crops will be abundant
in proportion to the amount of manure; yet many have discovered that, in
spite of the extra expense and labor, the produce of their farms
decreased.

The alternation of crops seems destined to effect a great change in
agriculture. A French chemist informs us that the roots of plants imbibe
matter of every kind from the soil, and thus necessarily abstract a
number of substances, which are not adapted to the purposes of
nutrition, and that they are ultimately expelled by the excretory
vessels, and return to the soil as excrement. The excrementitious
portion of the food also returns to the soil. Now, as excrement cannot
be assimilated by the same animal or plant that ejected it, without
danger to the organs of digestion or eliminations, it follows that the
more vegetable excrement the soil contains, the more unfitted must it be
for plants of the same species; yet these excrementitious matters may,
however, still be capable of assimilation by another kind of plant,
which would absorb them from the soil, and render it again fertile for
the first. In connection with this, it has been observed that several
plants will flourish when growing beside each other; but it is not good
policy to sow two kinds of seed together: on the other hand, some plants
mutually prevent each other's development. The same happens if young
cattle are suffered to graze and sleep in the barn together; the one
lives at the expense of the other, which soon shows evidences of
disease. The injurious effects of permitting young children to sleep
with aged relatives are known to many of our readers; yet some parents
see their children sicken and die without knowing the why or wherefore.
From such facts as these,--which we might multiply to an indefinite
extent, were it necessary,--we learn that nature's laws are immutable
and uncompromising; and woe be to the man that transgresses them: they
are a part of the divine law, which cannot be set at nought with
impunity.

Ignorance on these important subjects has existed too long: yet we
perceive in the distant horizon a ray of intellectual light, streaming
through our schools and agricultural societies. The result will be, that
succeeding generations will be better acquainted with nature's laws,
from which shall flow untold blessings. Chemistry teaches us that
animals and vegetables are composed of a vast number of different
compounds, which are nearly all produced by the same elementary
principles. Vegetables consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; and the
same substances, with the addition of nitrogen, are the principal
constituents of the animal economy. In a word, all the constituents of
animal creation have actually been discovered in vegetables: this has,
we presume, led to the conclusion that "all flesh is grass."

Many horticulturists complain that certain fruits and seeds have "_run
out_," or degenerated. Has the stately oak, the elm, or the cedar
degenerated? No. Each has preserved its identity, and will continue so
to do, at least just as the Divine Artist intended they should, unless
man, by his fancied improvements, interferes; and here, reader, permit
us to ask if you ever knew a piece of nature's mechanism improved by
human agency. Can we make a light better adapted to the wants of
animate and inanimate creation than that which the sun, moon, and stars
afford? Whenever we attempt to improve on immutable laws, as they are
written on the face of creation, that moment we prevent the full and
free play of these laws. Hence the practice of grafting scions of
delicious fruit-trees on stock of an inferior order compromises its
identity; and successive crops will show unmistakable evidences of
encroachment. A son of the lamented Mr. Phinney tells us that he had
some very fine sows, that he was desirous of breeding from, with a view
of making "improvements." He bred in a close degree of relationship: in
a short time, to use his own expression, "their sides appeared like two
boards nailed together." Does the farmer wish to know how to prevent
seeds and fruit "running out"? Let him study chemistry. Chemistry
furnishes the information; it also teaches the husbandman the fact, that
to put a plant, composed of certain essential elements, on a soil
destitute of those elements,--or to graft a scion, requiring a certain
amount of sap or juice, on a stock destitute of such sap or juice,
expecting that they will germinate, grow to perfection, and preserve
their identity,--would be just as absurd as to expect that a dry sow
would nourish a sucking pig.

Agriculture being based on the equilibrium of the soils, a knowledge of
chemistry is indispensable to every one who is desirous of keeping pace
with the reforms of the age; for it is through the medium of that
science alone that we are enabled to ascertain with certainty how this
equilibrium is disturbed by the growth of vegetation. Then is it not a
matter of deep interest to the farmer to know how this equilibrium is
restored?

Does the farmer wish to know what kind of soil is necessary to nourish
and mature a plant? Chemistry solves the problem. Does the farmer wish
to know how to improve the soil? Let him refer to chemistry. Chemistry
will teach the farmer how to analyze the soil; by that means he will
learn which of the constituent elements of the plants and soil are
constant, and which are changeable. By making an analysis of the soil
at different periods, through the process of germination, growth, and
maturity, we are enabled to ascertain the amount of excretory elements
given out. Bergman tells us that he found, by analysis, in "100 parts of
fertile soil, coarse silex 30 parts, silecia 30 parts, carbonate of lime
30 parts:" hence the fertility of the soil diminishes in proportion as
one or the other of these elements predominates.

Ashes of wheat contain, among other elementary substances, 48 parts of
silecia. Now, what farmer could expect to raise a good crop of wheat
from a soil destitute of silecious earth, since this earth constitutes a
large amount of the earthy part of wheat? There is no barrier to
agricultural improvement so effectual as for farmers to continue their
old customs purely because their forefathers did so. But prejudices are
fast dying away before the rays of intellectual illumination; the
farmers are fast seceding from the supposed infallibles of their
forefathers, and will soon become "book" as well as practical
husbandmen. "Book farming," assisted by practical knowledge, teaches
that manures require admixture of milder materials to mitigate their
force; for some of them communicate a disgusting or offensive quality to
vegetables. They are charged with imparting a biting and acrimonious
taste to radishes and turnips. Potatoes and grapes are known to borrow
the foul taint of the ground. Millers observe a strong, disagreeable
odor in the meal of wheat that grew upon land highly charged with the
rotten recrements of cities. Stable dung is known to impart a
disagreeable flavor to vegetables.

The same effects may be illustrated in the animal kingdom. Ducks are
rendered so ill tasted from stuffing down garbage as sometimes to be
offensive to the palate when cooked. The quality of pork is known by the
food of the swine, and the peculiar flavor of water-fowl is rationally
traced to the fish they devour. Thus a portion of the elements of manure
and nutrimental matter passes into the living bodies without being
entirely subdued. For example, we can alter the color of the cow's milk
by mixing madder or saffron in the food; the odor may be influenced by
garlic; the flavor may be altered by pine and wormwood; and lastly, the
medicinal effect may be influenced.

In the cultivation of grass the farmer will find it to his advantage to
cultivate none but the best kinds; the whole pasture lands will then be
filled with valuable grass seeds. The number of grass seeds worth
cultivating is but few, and these should be sown separately. It is bad
policy to sow different kinds of grass seed together--just as bad as to
sow wheat, oats, turnips, and corn promiscuously.

The reason why the farmers, as a community, will be benefited by sowing
none but the best seed is, because grass seeds are distributed through
neighboring pastures by the winds, and there take root. Now, if the
neighboring pastures abound in inferior grasses, the fields will soon be
filled with useless plants, which are very difficult to be got rid of.
We refer those of our readers who desire to make themselves acquainted
with animal chemistry to Professor Liebig's work on that science.



ON BREEDING.


Large sums of money have, from time to time, been expended with a view
of improving stock, and many superior cattle have been introduced into
this country; yet, after a few generations, the beautiful form and
superior qualities of the originals are nearly lost, and the importer
finds to his cost that the produce is no better than that of his
neighbors. What are the causes of this deterioration? We are told--and
experience confirms the fact--that "like produces like." Good qualities
and perfect organization are perpetuated by a union of animals
possessing those properties: of course it follows, that malformation,
hereditary taints, and vices are transmitted and aggravated.

The destructive practice of breeding "in and in," or, in other words,
selecting animals of the same family, is one of the first causes of
degeneracy; and this destructive practice has proved equally unfortunate
in the human family. Physical defects are the result of the
intermarriage of near relatives. In Spain, the deformed and feeble state
of the aristocracy arises from their alliances being confined to the
same class of relatives through successive generations. But we need not
go to Spain to verify such facts. Go into our churchyards, and read on
the tombstones the names of thousands of infants,--gems withered in the
bud,--young men, and maidens, cut down and consigned to a premature
grave; and then prove, if you can, that early marriages and near
alliances are not the chief causes of this great mortality.

Mr. Colman, in an article on live stock, says, "There seems to be a
limit beyond which no person can go. The particular breed may be altered
and improved, but an entirely new breed cannot be produced; and in every
departure from the original there is a constant tendency to revert back
to it. The stock of the improved Durham cattle seems to establish this
fact. If we have the true history of it, it is a cross of a Teeswater
bull with a Galloway cow. The Teeswater or Yorkshire stock are a large,
coarse-boned animal: the object of this cross was to get a smaller bone
and greater compactness. By attempting to carry this improvement, if I
may so call it, still further by breeding continually in and in, that
is, with members of the same family, in a close degree of affinity, the
power of continuing the species seems to become extinct; at least it
approximates to such a result. On the other hand, by wholly neglecting
all selection, and without an occasional good cross with an animal of
some foreign blood, there appears a tendency to revert back to the
large-boned, long-legged animal, from which the _improvement_ began.

"There are, however, several instances of superior animals bred in the
closest affinity; whilst, in a very great majority of cases, the failure
has been excessive."

Overtaxing the generative powers of the male is another cause of
deterioration. The reader is probably aware of the woful results
attending too frequent sexual intercourse. If he has not given this
subject the attention it demands, then let him read the records of our
lunatic asylums: they tell a sad tale of woe, and prove to demonstration
that, before the blast of this dire tornado, _sexual excess_, lofty
minds, the suns and stars of our intellectual world, are suddenly
blotted out. It spares neither age, sex, profession, nor kind. Dr. White
relates a case which substantiates the truth of our position. "The
Prince of Wales, who afterwards became George the Fourth, had a stud
horse of very superior qualities. His highness caused a few of his own
mares to be bred to this stallion, and the produce proved every way
worthy of the sire. This horse was kept at Windsor for public covering
without charge, except the customary groom's fee of half a guinea. The
groom, anxious to pocket as many half guineas as possible, persuaded all
he could to avail themselves of the prince's liberality. The result was,
that, being kept in a stable without sufficient exercise, and covering
nearly one hundred mares yearly, the stock, although tolerably promising
in their early age, shot up into lank, weakly, awkward, good-for-nothing
creatures, to the entire ruin of the horse's character and sire. Some
gentlemen, aware of the cause, took pains to explain it, proving the
correctness of their statement by reference to the first of the horses
got, which were among the best horses in England."

There is no doubt but that brutes are often endowed with extraordinary
powers for sexual indulgence; yet, when kept for the purpose alluded to,
without sufficient muscular exercise,--breathing impure air, and living
on the fat of the farm,--his services in constant requisition,--then it
is no wonder, that if, under these circumstances, the offspring are weak
and inefficient.

Professor Youatt recommends that "valuable qualities once established,
which it is desirable to keep up, should thereafter be preserved by
occasional crosses with the best animals to be had of the same breed,
but of a different family. This is the great secret which has maintained
the blood horse in his great superiority."

The live stock of our farmers frequently degenerates in a very short
space of time. The why and the wherefore is not generally understood;
neither will it be, until animal physiology shall be better understood
than it is at the present time. Men are daily violating the laws of
animal organization in more ways than one, in the breeding, rearing, and
general management of all kinds of domestic animals,--until the
different breeds are so amalgamated, that, in many cases, it is a
difficult task to ascertain, with any degree of certainty, their
pedigree. If a farmer has in his possession a bull of a favorite breed,
the neighboring stock-raisers avail themselves of his bullship's
services by sending as many cows to him as possible: the consequence is,
that the offspring got in the latter part of the season are good for
nothing. The cow also, at the time of impregnation, may be in a state of
debility, owing to some derangement in the organs of digestion; if so,
impregnation is very likely to make the matter worse; for great sympathy
exists between the organs of generation and those of digestion, and
females of every order suffer more or less from a disturbed state of the
stomach during the early months of pregnancy. In fact, during the whole
stage they should be considered far from a state of health. Add to this
the fact that impregnated cows are milked, (not generally, yet we know
of such cases:) the foetus is thus deprived of its due share of
nourishment, and the extra nutrimental agents, necessary for its growth
and development, must be furnished at the expense of the mother. She, in
her turn, soon shows unmistakable evidences of this "robbing Peter to
pay Paul" system, by her sunken eye, loss of flesh, &c., and often,
before she has seen her sixth month of pregnancy, liberates the foetus
by a premature birth--in short, pays the penalty of disobedience to the
immutable law of nature. On the other hand, should such a cow go safely
through the whole period of gestation and parturition, the offspring
will not be worth keeping, and the milk of the former will lack, in some
measure, those constituents which go to make good milk, and without
which it is almost worthless for making butter or cheese. A cow should
never be bred from unless she shall be in good health and flesh. If she
cannot be fatted, then she may be spayed. (See article _Spaying Cows_.)
By that means, her health will improve, and she will be made a permanent
milker. Degeneracy may arise from physical defects on the part of the
bull. It is well known that infirmities, faults, and defects are
communicated by the sexual congress to the parties as well as their
offspring. Hence a bull should never be bred to unless he possesses the
requisite qualifications of soundness, form, size, and color. There are
a great number of good-for-nothing bulls about the country, whose
services can be had for a trifle; under these circumstances, and when
they can be procured without the trouble of sending the cow even a short
distance, it will be difficult to effect a change.

If the farming community desire to put a stop to this growing evil, let
them instruct their representatives to advocate the enactment of a law
prohibiting the breeding to bulls or stallions unless they shall possess
the necessary qualifications.

[Illustration: A First Prize Short Horned Bull]


THE BULL.

Mr. Lawson gives us the following description of a good bull. It would
be difficult to find one corresponding in all its details to this
description; yet it will give the reader an idea of what a good bull
ought to be. "The head of the bull should be rather long, and muzzle
fine; his eyes lively and prominent; his ears long and thin; his horns
white; his neck rising with a gentle curve from the shoulders, and small
and fine where it joins the head; his shoulders moderately broad at the
top, joining full to his chine and chest backwards, and to the neck-vein
forwards; his bosom open; breast broad, and projecting well before his
legs; his arms or fore thighs muscular, and tapering to his knees; his
legs straight, clean, and very fine boned; his chine and chest so full
as to leave no hollows behind the shoulders; the plates strong, to keep
his belly from sinking below the level of his breast; his back or loin
broad, straight, and flat; his ribs rising one above another, in such
a manner that the last rib shall be rather the highest, leaving only a
small space to the hips, the whole forming a round or barrel-like
carcass; his hips should be wide placed, round or globular, and a little
higher than the back; the quarters (from the hips to the rump) long,
and, instead of being square, as recommended by some, they should taper
gradually from the hips backwards; rump close to the tail; the tail
broad, well haired, and set on so as to be in the same horizontal line
with his back."


VALUE OF DIFFERENT BREEDS OF COWS.

Mr. Culley, in speaking of the relative value of long and short horns,
says, "The long-horns excel in the thickness and firm texture of the
hide, in the length and closeness of the hair, in their beef being finer
grained and more mixed and marbled than that of the short-horns, in
weighing more in proportion to their size, and in giving richer milk;
but they are inferior to the short-horns in giving a less quantity of
milk, in weighing less upon the whole, in affording less fat when
killed, in being generally slower feeders, in being coarser made, and
more leathery or bullish in the under side of the neck. In a few words,
the long-horns excel in hide, hair, and quality of beef; the short-horns
in the quantity of beef, fat, and milk. Each breed has long had, and
probably may have, their particular advocates; but if I may hazard a
conjecture, is it not probable that both kinds may have their particular
advantages in different situations? Why not the thick, firm hides, and
long, closer set hair, of the one kind be a protection and security
against tempestuous winds and heavy fogs and rains, while a regular
season and mild climate are more suitable to the constitutions of the
short-horns? But it has hitherto been the misfortune of the short-horned
breeders to seek the largest and biggest boned ones for the best,
without considering that those are the best that bring the most money
for a given quantity of food. However, the ideas of our short-horned
breeders being now more enlarged, and their minds more open to
conviction, we may hope in a few years to see great improvements made
in that breed of cattle.

"I would recommend to breeders of cattle to find out which breed is the
most profitable, and which are best adapted to the different situations,
and endeavor to improve that breed to the utmost, rather than try to
unite the particular qualities of two or more distinct breeds by
crossing, which is a precarious practice, for we generally find the
produce inherit the coarseness of both breeds, and rarely attain the
good properties which the pure distinct breeds individually possess.

"Short-horned cows yield much milk; the long-horned give less, but the
cream is more abundant and richer. The same quantity of milk also yields
a greater proportion of cheese. The Polled or Galloway cows are
excellent milkers, and their milk is rich. The Suffolk duns are much
esteemed for the abundance of their milk, and the excellence of the
butter it produces. Ayrshire or Kyloe cows are much esteemed in
Scotland; and in England the improved breed of the long-horned cattle is
highly prized in many dairy districts. Every judicious selector,
however, will always, in making his choice, keep in view not only the
different sons and individuals of the animal, but also the nature of the
farm on which the cows are to be put, and the sort of manufactured
produce he is anxious to bring to market. The best age for a milch cow
is betwixt four, or five, and ten. When old, she will give more milk;
but it is of an inferior quality, and she is less easily supported."



METHOD OF PREPARING RENNET, AS PRACTISED IN ENGLAND.


Take the calf's maw, or stomach, and having taken out the curd contained
therein, wash it clean, and salt it thoroughly, inside and out, leaving
a white coat of salt over every part of it. Put it into an earthen jar,
or other vessel, and let it stand three or four days; in which time it
will have formed the salt and its own natural juice into a pickle. Take
it out of the jar, and hang it up for two or three days, to let the
pickle drain from it; resalt it; place it again in the jar; cover it
tight down with a paper, pierced with a large pin; and let it remain
thus till it is wanted for use. In this state it ought to be kept twelve
months; it may, however, in case of necessity, be used a few days after
it has received the second salting; but it will not be as strong as if
kept a longer time. To prepare the rennet for use, take a handful of the
leaves of the sweet-brier, the same quantity of rose and bramble leaves;
boil them in a gallon of water, with three or four handfuls of salt,
about a quarter of an hour; strain off the liquor, and, having let it
stand until perfectly cool, put it into an earthen vessel, and add to it
the maw prepared as above. To this add a sound, good lemon, stuck round
with about a quarter of an ounce of cloves, which give the rennet an
agreeable flavor. The longer the bag remains in the liquor, the
stronger, of course, will be the rennet. The amount, therefore,
requisite to turn a given quantity of milk, can only be ascertained by
daily use and observation. A sort of average may be something less than
a half pint of good rennet to fifty gallons of milk. In Gloucestershire,
they employ one third of a pint to coagulate the above quantity.



MAKING CHEESE.


IT is generally admitted that many dairy farmers pay more attention to
the quantity than the quality of this article of food; now, as cheese is
"a surly elf, digesting every thing but itself," (this of course applies
to some of the white oak specimens, which, like the Jew's razors, were
made to sell,) it is surely a matter of great importance that they
should attend more to the quality, especially if it be intended for
exportation. There is no doubt but the home consumption of good cheese
would soon materially increase, for many thousands of our citizens
refuse to eat of the miserable stuff "misnamed cheese."

The English have long been celebrated for the superior quality of their
cheese; and we have thought that we cannot do a better service to our
dairy farmers than to give, in as few words as possible, the various
methods of making the different kinds of cheese, for which we are
indebted to Mr. Lawson's work on cattle.

"It is to be observed, in general, that cheese varies in quality,
according as it has been made of milk of one meal, or two meals, or of
skimmed milk; and that the season of the year, the method of milking,
the preparation of the rennet, the mode of coagulation, the breaking and
gathering of the curd, the management of the cheese in the press, the
method of salting, and the management of the cheese-room, are all
objects of the highest importance to the cheese manufacturer; and yet,
notwithstanding this, the practice, in most of these respects, is still
regulated by little else than mere chance or custom, without the
direction of enlightened observation or the aid of well-conducted
experiment.


GLOUCESTER CHEESE.

"In Gloucestershire, where the manufacture of cheese is perhaps as well
understood as in any part of the world, they make the best cheeses of a
single meal of milk; and, when this is done in the best manner, the
entire meal of milk is used, without any addition from a former meal.
But it not unfrequently happens that a portion of the milk is reserved
and set by to be skimmed for butter; and at the next milking this
proportion is added to the new milk, from which an equal quantity has
been taken for a similar purpose. One meal cheeses are principally made
here, and go by the name of _best making_, or simply _one meal cheeses_.
The cheeses are distinguished into _thin_ and _thick_, or _single_ and
_double_; the last having usually four to the hundred weight, (112
pounds,) the other about twice that number. The best double Gloucester
is always made from new milk.

"The true single Gloucester cheese is thought by many to be the best, in
point of flavor, of any we have. The season for making their thin or
single cheese is mostly from April to November; but the principal season
for the thick or double is confined to May, June, and the early part of
July. This is a busy season in the dairy; for at an earlier period the
milk is not rich enough, and if the cheese be made later in the summer,
they do not acquire sufficient age to be marketable next spring. Very
many cheeses, however, can be made even in winter from cows that are
well fed. The cows are milked in summer at a very early hour; generally
by four o'clock in the morning, before the day becomes hot, and the
animals restless and unruly.


CHESTER CHEESE.

"After the milk has been strained, to free it from any impurities, it is
conveyed into a cooler placed upon feet like a table, having a spigot at
the bottom for drawing off the milk. This, when sufficiently cooled, is
drawn off into pans, and the cooler again filled. In so cases, the
cooler is large enough to hold a whole meal's milk at once. The rapid
cooling thus produced (which, however, is necessary only in hot weather,
and during the summer season) is found to be of essential utility in
retarding the process of fermentation, and thereby preventing putridity
from commencing in the milk before two meals of it can be put together.
Some have thought that the cheese might be improved by cooling the
evening's milk still more rapidly, and that this might be effected by
repeatedly drawing it off from and returning it into the cistern. When
the milk is too cold, a portion of it is warmed over the fire and mixed
with the rest.

"The coloring matter, (annatto,) in Cheshire, is added by tying up as
much of the substance as is thought sufficient in a linen rag, and
putting it into a half pint of warm water, to stand over night. The
whole of this infusion is, in the morning, mixed with the milk in the
cheese-tub, and the rag dipped in the milk and rubbed on the palm of the
hand as long as any of the coloring matter can be made to come away.

"The next operation is salting; and this is done, either by laying the
cheese, immediately after it comes out of the press, on a clean, fine
cloth in the vat, immersed in brine, to remain for several days, turning
it once every day at least; or by covering the upper surface of the
cheese with salt every time it is turned, and repeating the application
for three successive days, taking care to change the cloth twice during
the time. In each of these methods, the cheese, after being so treated,
is taken out of the vat, placed upon the salting bench, and the whole
surface of it carefully rubbed with salt daily for eight or ten days. If
it be large, a wooden hoop or a fillet of cloth is employed to prevent
renting. The cheese is then washed in warm water or whey, dried with a
cloth, and laid on what is called the _drying bench_. It remains there
for about a week, and is thence removed to the _keeping house_. In
Cheshire, it is found that the greatest quantity of salt used for a
cheese of sixty pounds is about three pounds; but the proportion of this
retained in the cheese has not been determined.

"When, after salting and drying, the cheeses are deposited in the
cheese-room or store-house, they are smeared all over with fresh butter,
and placed on shelves fitted to the purpose, or on the floor. During the
first ten or fifteen days, smart rubbing is daily employed, and the
smearing with butter repeated. As long, however, as they are kept, they
should be every day turned; and the usual practice is to rub them three
times a week in summer and twice in winter.


STILTON CHEESE.

"Stilton cheese is made by putting the night's cream into the morning's
new milk along with the rennet. When the curd has come, it is not
broken, as in making other cheese, but taken out whole, and put into a
sieve to drain gradually. While this is going on, it is gently pressed,
and, having become firm and dry, is put into a vat, and kept on a dry
board. These cheeses are exceedingly rich and valuable. They are called
the Parmesan of England, and weigh from ten to twelve pounds. The
manufacture of them is confined almost exclusively to Leicestershire,
though not entirely so.


DUNLOP CHEESE.

"In Scotland, a species of cheese is produced, which has long been known
and celebrated under the name of _Dunlop_ cheese. The best cheese is
made by such as have a dozen or more cows, and consequently can make a
cheese every day; one half of the milk being immediately from the cow,
and the other of twelve hours' standing. Their method of making it is
simple. They endeavor to have the milk as near as may be to the heat of
new milk, when they apply the rennet, and whenever coagulation has taken
place, (which is generally in ten or twelve minutes,) they stir the curd
gently, and the whey, beginning to separate, is taken off as it gathers,
till the curd be pretty solid. When this happens, they put it into a
drainer with holes, and apply a weight. As soon as this has had its
proper effect, the curd is put back again into the cheese-tub, and, by
means of a sort of knife with three or four blades, is cut into very
small pieces, salted, and carefully mixed by the hand. It is now placed
in the vat, and put under the press. This is commonly a large stone of a
cubical shape, from half a ton to a ton in weight, fixed in a frame of
wood, and raised and lowered by an iron screw. The cheese is frequently
taken out, and the cloth changed; and as soon as it has been ascertained
that no more whey remains, it is removed, and placed on a dry board or
pine floor. It is turned and rubbed frequently with a hard, coarse
cloth, to prevent moulding or breeding mites. No coloring matter is
used in making Dunlop cheese, except by such as wish to imitate the
English cheese.


GREEN CHEESE.

"Green cheese is made by steeping ever night, in a proper quantity of
milk, two parts of sage with one of marigold leaves, and a little
parsley, after being bruised, and then mixing the curd of the milk, thus
_greened_, as it is called, with the curd of the white milk. These may
be mixed irregularly or fancifully, according to the pleasure of the
operator. The management in other respects is the same as for common
cheese."

       *       *       *       *       *

Mr. Colman says, "In conversation with one of the largest wholesale
cheesemongers and provision-dealers in the country, he suggested that
there were two great faults of the American cheese, which somewhat
prejudiced its sale in the English market. He is a person in whose
character and experience entire confidence may be placed.

"The first fault was the softness of the rind. It often cracked, and the
cheese became spoiled from that circumstance.

"The second fault is the acridness, or peculiar, smart, bitter taste
often found in American cheese. He thought this might be due, in part,
to some improper preparation or use of the rennet, and, in part, to some
kind of feed which the cows found in the pastures.

"The rind may be made of any desired hardness, if the cheese be taken
from the press, and allowed to remain in brine, so strong that it will
take up no more salt, for four or five hours. There must be great care,
however, not to keep it too long in the brine.

"The calf from which the rennet is to be taken should not be allowed to
suck on the day on which it is killed. The office of the rennet, or
stomach of the calf, is, to supply the gastric juice by which the
curdling of the milk is effected. If it has recently performed that
office, it will have become, to a degree, exhausted of its strength. Too
much rennet should not be applied. Dairymaids, in general, are anxious
to have the curd 'come soon,' and so apply an excessive quantity, to
which he thinks much of the acrid taste of the cheese is owing. Only so
much should be used as will produce the effect in about fifty minutes.
For the reason above given, the rennet should not, he says, be washed in
water when taken from the calf, as it exhausts its strength, but be
simply salted.

"When any cream is taken from the milk to be made into butter, the
buttermilk should be returned to the milk of which the cheese is to be
made. The greatest care should be taken in separating the whey from the
cheese. When the pressing or handling is too severe, the whey that runs
from the curd will appear of a white color. This is owing to its
carrying off with it the small creamy particles of the cheese, which
are, in fact, the richest part of it. After the curd is cut or broken,
therefore, and not squeezed with the hand, and all the whey is allowed
to separate from it that can be easily removed, the curd should be taken
out of the tub with the greatest care, and laid upon a coarse cloth
attached to a frame like a sieve, and there suffered to drain until it
becomes quite dry and mealy, before being put into the press. The object
of pressing should be, not to express the whey, but to consolidate the
cheese. There should be no aim to make whey butter. All the butter
extracted from the whey is so much of the proper richness taken from the
cheese."



MAKING BUTTER.


It is a matter of impossibility to make a superior article of butter
from the milk of a cow in a diseased state; for if either of the organs
of secretion, absorption, digestion, or circulation, be deranged, we
cannot expect good blood. The milk being a secretion from the blood, it
follows that, in order to have good milk, we must have pure blood. A
great deal depends also on the food; certain pastures are more favorable
to the production of good milk than others. We know that many
vegetables, such as turnips, garlic, dandelions, will impart a
disagreeable flavor to the milk. On the other hand, sweet-scented
grasses and boiled food improve the quality, and, generally, increase
the quantity of the milk, provided, however, the digestive organs are in
a physiological state.

The processes of making butter are various in different parts of the
United States. We are not prepared, from experience, to discuss the
relative merits of the different operations of churning; suffice it
to say, that the important improvements that have recently been made in
the construction of churns promise to be of great advantage to the
dairyman.

The method of churning in England is considered to be favorable to the
production of good butter. From twelve to twenty hours in summer, and
about twice as long in winter, are permitted to elapse before the milk
is skimmed, after it has been put into the milk-pans. If, on applying
the tip of the finger to the surface, nothing adheres to it, the cream
may be properly taken off; and during the hot summer months, this should
always be done in the morning, before the dairy becomes warm. The cream
should then be deposited in a deep pan, placed in the coolest part of
the dairy, or in a cool cellar, where free air is admitted. In hot
weather, churning should be performed, if possible, every other day; but
if this is not convenient, the cream should be daily shifted into a
clean pan, and the churning should never be less frequent than twice a
week. This work should be performed in the coolest time of the day, and
in the coolest part of the house. Cold water should be applied to the
churn, first by filling it with this some time before the cream is
poured in, or it may be kept cool by the application of a wet cloth.
Such means are generally necessary, to prevent the too rapid
acidification of the cream, and formation of the butter. We are indebted
for much of the poor butter, (_cart-grease_ would be a more suitable
name,) in which our large cities abound, to want of due care in
churning: it should never be done too hastily, but--like "Billy Gray's"
drumming--well done. In winter the churn may be previously heated by
first filling it with hot water, the operation to be performed in a
moderately warm room.

In churning, a moderate and uninterrupted motion should be kept up
during the whole process; for if the motion be too rapid, heat is
generated, which will give the butter a rank flavor; and if the motion
is relaxed, the butter will go back, as it is termed.


WASHING BUTTER.

"When the operation is properly conducted, the butter, after some time,
suddenly forms, and is to be carefully collected and separated from the
buttermilk. But in doing this, it is not sufficient merely to pour off
the milk, or withdraw the butter from it; because a certain portion of
the caseous and serous parts of the milk still remains in the
interstices of the butter, and must be detached from it by washing, if
we would obtain it pure. In washing butter, some think it sufficient to
press the mass gently between the hands; others press it strongly and
frequently, repeating the washings till the water comes off quite clear.
The first method is preferable when the butter is made daily, for
immediate use, from new milk or cream; because the portions of such
adhering to it, or mixed with it, contribute to produce the sweet
agreeable flavor which distinguishes new cream. But when our object is
to prepare butter for keeping, we cannot repeat the washings too often,
since the presence of a small quantity of milk in it will, in less than
twelve hours after churning, cause it sensibly to lose its good
qualities.

"The process of washing butter is usually nothing more than throwing it
into an earthen vessel of clear cool water, working it to and fro with
the hands, and changing the water until it comes off clear. A much
preferable method, however, and that which we believe is now always
practised by those who best understand the business, is to use two broad
pieces of wood, instead of the hands. This is to be preferred, not only
on account of its apparently greater cleanliness, but also because it is
of decided advantage to the quality of the butter. To this the warmth of
the hand gives always, more or less, a greasy appearance. The influence
of the heat of the hand is greater than might at first have been
suspected. It has always been remarked, that a person who has naturally
a warm hand never makes good butter."


COLORING BUTTER.

As butter made in winter is generally pale or white, and its richness,
at the same time, inferior to that which is made during the summer
months, the idea of excellence has been associated with the yellow
color. Means are therefore employed, by those who prepare and sell
butter, to impart to it the yellow color where that is naturally
wanting. The substances mostly employed in England and Scotland are the
root of the carrot and the flowers of the marigold. The juice of either
of these is expressed and passed through a linen cloth. A small quantity
of it (and the proportion of it necessary is soon learned by experience)
is diluted with a little cream, and this mixture is added to the rest of
the cream when it enters the churn. So little of this coloring matter
unites with the butter, that it never communicates to it any peculiar
taste.



DESCRIPTION OF THE ORGANS OF DIGESTION IN CATTLE.


_Oesophagus_, or _Gullet_.--This tube extends from the mouth to the
stomach, and is the medium through which the food is conveyed to the
latter organ. This tube is furnished with spiral muscles, which run in
different directions. By this arrangement, the food ascends or descends
at the will of the animal. The inner coat of the gullet is a
continuation of the same membrane that lines the mouth, nostrils, &c.
The gullet passes down the neck, inclining to the left side of the
windpipe, until it reaches the diaphragm, through a perforation of which
it passes, and finally terminates in the stomach. The food, having
undergone a slight mastication by the action of the teeth, is formed
into a pellet, and, being both moistened and lubricated with saliva,
passes down the gullet, by the action of the muscles, and falls
immediately into the paunch, or rumen; here the food undergoes a process
of maceration, or trituration. The food, after remaining in this portion
of the stomach a short time, and being submitted to the united action of
heat and moisture, passes into another division of the stomach, called
_reticulum_, the inner surface of which abounds in cells: at the bottom,
and indeed in all parts of them there are glands, which secrete from the
blood the gastric fluids. This stomach possesses a property similar to
that of the bladder, viz., that of contracting upon its contents. In the
act of contracting, it squeezes out a portion of the partly masticated
food and fluids; the former comes within the spiral muscles, is embraced
by them, and thus ascends the gullet, and passes into the mouth for
remastication. The soft and fluid parts continue on to the many plus and
true digestive stomach. The second stomach again receives a portion from
the paunch, and the process is continued.

Rumination and digestion, however, are mechanico-vital actions, and can
only be properly performed when the animal is in a healthy state.

Now, a portion of the food, we just observed, had ascended the gullet
by the aid of spiral muscles, and entered the mouth; it is again
submitted to the action of the grinders, and a fresh supply of saliva;
it is at length swallowed a second time, and goes through the same
routine as that just described, passing into the manyplus or manifolds,
as it is termed.

The manyplus abounds internally in a number of leaves, called laminæ.
Some of these are attached to the upper and lower portion of the
division, and also float loose, and penetrate into the oesophagian
canal. The laminæ have numerous projections on their surface, resembling
the papillæ to be found on the tongue. The action of this stomach is one
of alternate contraction and expansion: it secretes, however, like the
other compartments of the stomach, its due share of gastric fluids, with
a view not only of softening its contents, but for the purpose of
defending its own surface against friction. The mechanical action of the
stomach is communicated to it partly by the motion of the diaphragm, and
its own muscular arrangement. It will readily be perceived, that by this
joint action the food is submitted to a sort of grinding process. Hence
any over-distention of the viscera, from either food or gas, will
embarrass and prevent the free and full play of this organ. The papillæ,
or prominences, present a rough and sufficiently hard exterior to grind
down the food, unless it shall have escaped the reticulum in too fibrous
a form: foxgrass, cornstalks, and frosted turnips are very apt to make
sad havoc in this and other parts of the stomach, owing to their
unyielding nature; for the stomach, like other parts of the
organization, suffers from over-exertion, and a corresponding debility
ensues.

The fourth division of the stomach of the ox is called _abomasum_. It
somewhat resembles the duodenum of the horse in its function, it being
the true digestive stomach. It is studded with numerous nerves,
blood-vessels, and small glands. It is a laboratory admirably fitted up
by the Divine Artist, and is capable of carrying on the chemico-vital
process as long as the animal lives, provided its healthy functions are
not impaired. The glands alluded to secrete from the blood a powerful
solvent, called the _gastric juice_, which is the agent in reducing the
food to chyme and chyle. This, however, is accomplished by the united
agency of the bile and pancreatic juice. Both these fluids are conveyed
into the abomasum by means of small tubes or canals. Secretions also
take place from the inner membrane of the intestines, and, as the result
of the united action of all these fluids, aided by the muscular motion
just alluded to, which is also communicated to the intestines, a
substance is formed called _chyle_, which is the most nutritious portion
of the food, and has a milky appearance. The chyle is received into a
set of very minute tubes, called _lacteals_, which are exceedingly
numerous, and arise by open mouths from the inner surface of the
abomasum and intestines. They receive the chyle; from thence it passes
into a receptacle, and finally into the thoracic duct. The thoracic duct
opens into a vein leading directly to the heart; so that whatever
portion of the chyle is not actually needed by the organism is
thoroughly mixed with the general mass of blood. That portion of chyme
which is not needed, or cannot be converted into chyle, descends into
the intestines, and is finally carried out of the body by the rectum.

The manner in which the gastric fluids act on alimentary matter, is by
solution and chemical action; for cornstalks and foxgrass, that cannot
be dissolved by ammonia or alcohol, yield readily to the solvent power
of the gastric secretion. Bones and other hard substances are reduced to
a pulpy mass in the stomach of a dog; while, at the same time, many
bodies of delicate texture remain in the stomach, and ultimately are
ejected, without being affected by the gastric fluids. This different
action on different subjects is analogous to the operation of chemical
affinity, and corroborates the theory that digestion is effected by
solution and chemical action.

_The Spleen_, or _Milt_, is an oblong, dark-colored substance, having
attachments to the paunch. It is composed of blood-vessels, nerves, and
lymphatics, united by cellular structure. It appears to serve as a
reservoir for the blood that may be designed for the secretions of bile
in the liver. P. M. Roget says, "Any theory that assigns a very
important function to the spleen will be overturned by the fact, that in
many animals the removal of this organ, far from being fatal, or
interrupting, in any sensible manner, the continuance of the functions,
seems to be borne with perfect impunity." Sir E. Home, Bichat, Leuret,
Lassaigne, and others, suppose that "the spleen serves as a receptacle
for the superfluous quantity of fluid taken into the stomach."

_The Liver_ is a dense gland, of a lobulated structure, situated below
the diaphragm, or "skirt." It is supplied, like other organs, with
arterial blood, by vessels, called _hepatic_ arteries, which are sent
off from the great aorta. It receives also a large amount of venous
blood, which is distributed through its substance by a separate set of
vessels, derived from the venous system. The veins which receive the
blood that has circulated in the usual manner unite together into a
large trunk, called vena portæ, (gate vein,) and this vein, on entering
the liver, ramifies like an artery, and ultimately terminates in the
branches of the hepatic veins, which transmit the blood, in the ordinary
course of circulation, to the vena cava, (hollow vein.) Mr. Kiernan
says, "The hepatic veins, together with the lobules which surround them,
resemble, in their arrangement, the branches and leaves of a tree, the
substance of the lobules being disposed around the minute branches of
the veins like the parenchyma of a leaf around its fibres. The hepatic
veins may be divided into two classes, namely, those contained in
lobules, and those contained in canals formed by lobules. The first
class is composed of interlobular branches, one of which occupies the
centre of each lobule, and receives the blood from a plexus formed in
the lobule by the portal vein; and the second class of hepatic veins is
composed of all those vessels contained in canals formed by the lobules,
and including numerous small branches, as well as the large trunks
terminating in the inferior cava. The external surface of every lobule
is covered by an expansion of '_Glisson's capsule_,' by which it is
connected to, as well as separated from, contiguous lobules, and in
which branches of the hepatic duct, portal veins, and hepatic artery
ramify. The ultimate branches of the hepatic artery terminate in the
branches of the portal vein, where the blood they respectively contain
is mixed together, and from which mixed blood the bile is secreted by
the lobules, and conveyed away by the hepatic ducts. The remaining blood
is returned to the heart by the hepatic veins, the beginnings of which
occupy the centre of each lobule, and, when collected into trunks, pour
their contents into the inferior cava. Hence the blood which has
circulated through the liver, and has thereby lost its arterial
character, is, in common with that which is returning from other parts,
poured into the vena portæ, and contributes its share in furnishing
materials for the biliary secretion. The hepatic artery furnishes
nutrition to the liver itself."

The bile, having been secreted, accumulates in the gall-bladder, where
it is kept for future use. When the healthy action of the fourth stomach
is interrupted, the bile is supposed to be reabsorbed,--it enters into
the different tissues, producing yellowness of the eyes; the malady is
then termed _yellows_, _jaundice_, &c. Sometimes the passage of the bile
is obstructed by calculi, or gall-stones; they have been found in great
numbers in oxen.

_The Pancreas_ is composed of a number of lobules or glands; a small
duct proceeds from each; they unite and form a common canal, which
proceeds towards, and terminates in, the fourth stomach. The pancreatic
juice appears to be exceedingly analogous, both in its sensible
properties and chemical composition, to the saliva.

"The recent researches of MM. Bouchardat, Sandras, Mialhe, Bareswil, and
Bernard himself, have placed beyond a doubt the existence of a ferment,
in some of the fluids which mix with the alimentary mass, destined to
convert starchy matters into sugar. They have proved that the gastric
juice has for its peculiar office the solution and digestion of azotized
substances. There remained to be ascertained the real agent for the
digestion of fatty matters; that is to say, the agent in the formation
of chyle out of those substances.

"M. Bernard has proved that this remarkable office is performed by the
pancreatic juice; he has demonstrated the fact by three conclusive
proofs.

"1. The pancreatic juice, pure and recently formed, forms an emulsion
with oils and fats with the greatest facility. This emulsion may be
preserved for a long time, and the fatty substance soon undergoes a
fermentation which separates its constituent acids.

"2. The chyle only begins to appear in the lacteals below that part of
the intestinal tube where the pancreatic juice enters it to mix with the
alimentary matters.

"3. In disorders of the pancreas, we find that the fatty matters,
contained in the food, pass entire in the evacuations."

The above is an extract from the report of a body composed of several
members of the French Academy of Sciences. "M. Bernard" (continues the
report) "has exhibited to us the first of these experiments, and has
furnished us with the means of repeating it with the several varieties
of the gastric juice. We have not the slightest doubt on the subject. It
is incontestable that fatty substances are converted into an emulsion by
this juice, in a manner easy and persistent, and it is no less true that
the saliva, the gastric juice, and the bile are destitute of this
property.

"The second demonstration can be given in various modes; but the author
has discovered, in the peculiar arrangement of the digestive apparatus
of the rabbit, an unexceptional means of obtaining it with the greatest
precision, and at will. The pancreatic juice enters the intestinal tube
of this animal about fourteen inches below the point where the bile is
poured in. Now, as long as the food is above the region where it mixes
with the pancreatic juice, there appears to be no formation and
separation of a milky chyle; nothing shows that the fatty matters are
reduced to an emulsion. On the contrary, as soon as the pancreatic juice
mixes with the alimentary matters, we observe the fat to be converted
into an emulsion, and a milky chyle to fill the corresponding lacteals.
Nothing can give an idea of the result of these experiments, which have
all the accuracy of a chemical operation performed in the laboratory,
and all the beauty of the most perfect injection.

"We are not, therefore, surprised that divers pathological cases,
hitherto imperfectly understood, should come to confirm the views of M.
Bernard, by proving that, in diseases of the pancreas, fatty matters
have been observed to pass unchanged in the dejections.

"The committee cannot hesitate to conclude that the author has perfectly
demonstrated his physiological propositions; that he has completed the
general characters of the theory of digestion, and that he has made
known the mode of formation of the fatty matter of the chyle, and the
manner of the digestion of the fatty matters."

_The Kidneys._--Their office is, to secrete from the blood the useless
or excrementitious fluids in the form of urine. When the skin is
obstructed, the secretion is augmented, and profuse perspiration lessens
it. From a cavity in the centre of each kidney a canal or tube proceeds,
by which the urine is conveyed into the bladder. These tubes are named
_ureters_. As the ureters enter the bladder, they pass forward, a short
distance between its coats; which effectually prevents the urine from
taking a retrograde course. The urine is expelled by the muscular power
which the bladder possesses of contracting upon its contents.



RESPIRATION AND STRUCTURE OF THE LUNGS.


The organs of respiration are the larynx, the trachea, or windpipe,
bronchia, and the lungs.

The air is expelled from the lungs principally by the action of the
muscles of respiration; and when these relax, the lungs expand by virtue
of their own elasticity. This may be exemplified by means of a sponge,
which may be compressed into a small compass by the hand, but, upon
opening the hand, the sponge returns to its natural size, and all its
cavities become filled with air. The purification of the blood in the
lungs is of vital importance, and indispensably necessary to the due
performance of all the functions; for if they be in a diseased
state,--either tuberculous, or having adhesions to the pleura, their
function will be impaired; the blood will appear black; loaded with
carbon; and the phlebotomizer will have the very best (worst) excuse for
taking away a few quarts with a view of purifying the remainder! The
trachea, or windpipe, after dividing into smaller branches, called
_bronchia_, again subdivides into innumerable other branches, the
extremities of which are composed of an infinite number of small cells,
which, with the ramifications of veins, arteries, nerves, and connecting
membranes, make up the whole mass or substance of the lungs. The
internal surface of the windpipe, bronchia, and air-cells, is lined with
a delicate membrane, highly organized with blood-vessels, &c. The whole
is invested with a thin, transparent membrane--a continuation of that
lining the chest, named _pleura_. It also covers the diaphragm, and, by
a duplication of its folds, forms a separation between the lobes of the
lungs.



CIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD.


The blood contains the elements for building up, supplying the waste of,
and nourishing the whole animal economy. On making an examination of the
blood with a microscope, it is found full of little red globules, which
vary in their size and shape in different animals, and are more numerous
in the warm than in the cold-blooded. Probably this arises from the fact
that the latter absorb less oxygen than the former. When blood stands
for a time after being drawn, it separates into two parts. One is called
_serum_, and resembles the white of an egg; the other is the clot, or
crassamentum, and forms the red coagulum, or jelly-like substance. This
is accompanied by whitish tough threads, called _fibrine_.

  [Illustration: THE HEART VIEWED EXTERNALLY.

  _a_, the left ventricle; _b_, the right ventricle; _c_, _e_, _f_, the
  aorta; _g_, _h_, _i_, the carotid and other arteries springing from the
  aorta; _k_, the pulmonary artery; _l_, branches of the pulmonary artery
  in the lungs; _m_, _m_, the pulmonary veins emptying into the left
  auricle; _n_, the right auricle; _o_, the ascending vena cava; _q_, the
  descending vena cava; _r_, the left auricle; _s_, the coronary vein and
  artery. (See _Circulation of the Blood_, on the opposite page.)]

When blood has been drawn from an animal, and it assumes a cupped or
hollow form, if serum, or buffy coat, remains on its surface, it denotes
an impoverished state; but if the whole, when coagulated, be of one
uniform mass, it indicates a healthy state of that fluid. The blood of a
young animal, provided it be in health, coagulates into a firm mass,
while that of an old or debilitated one is generally less dense, and
more easily separated. The power that propels the blood through the
different blood-vessels is a mechanico-vital power, and is accomplished
through the involuntary contractions and relaxations of the heart; from
certain parts of which arteries arise, in other parts veins terminate.
(See Plate.)

The heart is invested with a strong membranous sac, called
_pericardium_, which adheres to the tendinous centre of the diaphragm,
and to the great vessels at its superior portion. The heart is
lubricated by a serous fluid, secreted within the pericardium, for the
purpose of guarding against friction. When an excess of fluid
accumulates within the sac, it is termed dropsy of the heart. The heart
is divided into four cavities, viz., two auricles, named from their
resemblance to an ear, and two ventricles, (as seen at _a_, _b_,)
forming the body. The left ventricle is smaller than the right, yet its
walls are much thicker and stronger than those of the latter: it is from
this part that the large trunk of the arteries proceed, called the
_great aorta_. The right cavity, or ventricle, is the receptacle for
blood returned by the venous structure after having gone the rounds of
the circulation; the veins terminating, as they approach the heart, in a
single vessel, called _vena cava_, (see plate, _o_, _q_, ascending and
descending portion.) The auricle on the left side of the heart receives
the blood that has been distributed through the lungs for purification.
Where the veins terminate in auricles, there are valves placed, to
prevent the blood from returning. For example, the blood proceeds out of
the heart along the aorta; the valve opens upwards; the blood also
moves upwards, and raises the valve, and passes through; the pressure
from above effectually closes the passage. The valves of the heart are
composed of elastic cartilage, which admits of free motion. They
sometimes, however, become ossified. The heart and its appendages are,
like other parts of the system, subject to various diseases, which are
frequently very little understood, yet often fatal. Now, the blood,
having passed through the veins and vena cava, flows into the right
auricle; and this, when distended, contracts, and forces its contents
into the right ventricle, which, contracting in its turn, propels the
blood into the pulmonary arteries, whose numerous ramifications bring it
in contact with the air-cells of the lungs. It then, being deprived of
its carbon, assumes a crimson color. Having passed through its proper
vessels, it accumulates in the left auricle. This also contracts, and
forces the blood through a valve into the left ventricle. This ventricle
then contracts in its turn, and the blood passes through another valve
into the great aorta, to go the round of the circulation and return in
the manner just described.

Many interesting experiments have been made to estimate the quantity of
blood in an animal. "The weight of a dog," says Mr. Percival, "being
ascertained to be seventy-nine pounds, a puncture was made with the
lancet into the jugular vein, from which the blood was collected. The
vein having ceased to bleed, the carotid artery of the same side was
divided, but no blood came from it; in a few seconds afterwards, the
animal was dead. The weight of the carcass was now found to be
seventy-three and a half pounds; consequently it had sustained a loss of
five and a half pounds--precisely the measure of the blood drawn. It
appears from this experiment, that an animal will lose about one
fifteenth part of its weight of blood before it dies; though a less
quantity may so far debilitate the vital powers, as to be, though less
suddenly, equally fatal. In the human subject, the quantity of blood has
been computed at about one eighth part of the weight of the body; and as
such an opinion has been broached from the results of experiments on
quadrupeds, we may fairly take that to be about the proportion of it in
the horse; so that if we estimate the weight of a horse to be thirteen
hundred and forty-four pounds, the whole quantity of blood will amount
to eighty-four quarts, or one hundred and sixty-eight pounds; of which
about forty-five quarts, or ninety pounds, will commonly flow from the
jugular vein prior to death; though the loss of a much less quantity
will deprive the animal of life."



REMARKS ON BLOOD-LETTING.


The author has been, for several years, engaged in a warfare against the
use of the lancet in the treatment of the various diseases of animals.
When this warfare was first commenced, the prospect was poor indeed. The
lancet was the great anti-phlogistic of the allopathic school; it had
powerful, talented, and uncompromising advocates, who had been
accustomed to resort to it on all occasions, from the early settlement
of America up to that period. The great mass had followed in the
footsteps of their predecessors, supposing them to be infallible. Men
and animals were bled; rivers of blood have been drawn from their
systems; yet they often got well, and men looked upon the lancet as one
of the blessings of the age, when, in fact, it is the greatest curse
that ever afflicted this country: it has produced greater losses to
owners of domestic animals than did ever pestilence or disease. A few
philanthropic practitioners have, from time to time, in other countries,
as well as in this, labored during their life, and on their death-bed,
to convince the world of the destructive tendency of blood-letting in
human practice; but none that we know of ever had the moral courage to
wage a general warfare against the practice in the veterinary
department, until we commenced it. We have met with great success, and
have given the blood-letting gentry who practise it at the present day
("just to please their employers or to make out a case") a partial
quietus: in a few more years, unless they abandon their false theories,
their occupation, notwithstanding their pretensions to cure _secundum
artem_, will, like Othello's, be "gone." But we are not writing for
doctors. Our business is with the farmers--the lords of creation. The
former are mere lords of pukes and purges; they, like the farmers, have
the materials, however, to mould themselves into men of common sense;
but the fact is, they are hide-bound; they want a national sweat, to rid
their systems, especially their upper works, of the theories of Sydenham
and Paracelsus, which have shipwrecked many thousands of the medical
profession. They shut their eyes to the results of medical reform, and
cling, with all their soul, and with all their might, worthy a better
cause, to a system that "always was false."

Lord Byron, like many other learned men, was well acquainted with the
impotency of the healing art, and held the lancet in utter abhorrence:
when beset, day and night, to be bled, the bard, in an angry tone,
exclaimed, "You are, I see, a d----d set of butchers; take away as much
blood as you like." "We seized the opportunity," says Dr. Milligan, "and
drew twenty ounces; yet the relief did not correspond to the hopes we
had formed." On the 17th, the bleeding was twice repeated, dangerous
symptoms still increasing, and on the 19th he expired, just about bled
to death. Washington, a man whose name is dear to every American, died
from the effects of an evil system of medication. He was attacked with
croup: his physician bled him, and gave him calomel and antimony. The
next day, physicians were called in, (to share the responsibility of the
butchery,) and he was subjected to two more copious bleedings: in all he
lost ninety ounces of blood. Which of our readers, at the present day,
would submit to such unwarrantable barbarity? We just said we were not
writing for doctors; yet we find ourselves off the track in thus
administering a small dose, as a sample of "_good and efficient
treatment_."

In reference to the success attending our labors in veterinary reform,
we do not claim the whole credit: much of it is due to the intelligence
of the American farmers, in appreciating the value and importance of a
safer and a more effectual system of medication; such a system as we
advocate. They have witnessed the results attending the practice of
cattle doctors generally, and they have seen the results of our sanative
system of medication, and a great majority in Massachusetts have decided
in favor of the latter. We have demonstrated to the satisfaction of our
patrons, and we are ready and willing to repeat our experiments on
diseased animals for the satisfaction of others, in showing that we can
restore an animal, when suffering under acute attacks of disease, in a
few hours, when, by the popular method, it takes weeks and months, if
indeed they ever recover from the effects of the destructive agents
used.

We are told that "horses and cattle are bled and get well immediately."
This may apply to some cases; but, in very many instances, the animals
are sent for a few weeks to "Dr. Green,"[1] to put them in the same
condition they were at the time of bleeding. But suppose that some
animals do get well after bleeding; is it thus proved that more would
not get well if no blood were drawn from any? A cow may fall down, and,
in so doing, lacerate her muscles, blood-vessels, &c., and lose a large
quantity of blood. She may get well, in spite of the violence and loss
of blood. So we say of blood-letting, if the abstraction of a certain
number of gallons of blood will kill a strong animal, then the
abstraction of a small quantity must injure it proportionately.

There is in the animal economy a power, called the vital principle,
which always operates in favor of health. If the provocation be gentle,
and does not seriously derange the machinery, then this power may
overcome both it and any disease the animal may at the time labor under.
For example, a horse falls down in the street, perhaps laboring under a
temporary congestion of the brain: now, if he were let alone until
nature has restored an equilibrium of the circulating fluid and nervous
action, he would soon get up and proceed on his way, as many thousands
do when a knife or lancet is not to be had. But, unfortunately, people
are too hasty. The moment a beast has fallen, they are bound to have him
on his perpendiculars in double quick time. The teamster cannot wait for
nature; she is "too slow a coach" for him. He tries what virtue there is
in the whip; this failing, he obtains a knife, if one is to be had, and
"_starts the blood_." By this time, nature, about resuming her empire,
causes the horse to show signs of returning animation, and the credit is
awarded to the blood-starter. Animals are often bled when diseased, and
the prominent symptoms that previously marked the character of the
malady disappear, or give place to symptoms of another order, less
evident, and men have supposed that a cure is effected, when, in fact,
they have just sown the seeds of a future disease. We are not bound to
prove, in every case, how an animal gets well after two or three
repeated bleedings. It is enough for us to prove that this operation
always tends to death, which can easily be produced by opening the
carotid artery of an animal.

Permit us, dear reader, at this stage of our article, to observe, that
"confession is good for the soul." We mean to put it in practice. So
here goes. We plead guilty to bleeding, blistering, calomelizing,
narcotizing, antimonializing, a great number of patients of the human
kind. We did it in our verdant days, because it was so scientific and
popular, and because we had been taught to reverence the stereotyped
practice of the allopathists. We have, however, done penance, and sought
forgiveness; and through the aid of a few men, devoted to medical
reform, we have been washed in the regenerating waters flowing through
the vineyard of reason and experience, and now advocate and observe the
self-regulating powers of the laws of life. On the other hand, we are
free from the charge of bleeding or poisoning domestic animals, and can
say, with a clear conscience, that we have never drawn a drop of blood
from a four-footed creature, (except in surgical operations, when it
could not be avoided;) neither will we, under any circumstances, resort
to the lancet; for we are convinced that blood-letting is a powerful
depressor of the vital powers.

Blood is the fuel that keeps the lamp of life burning; if the fuel be
withdrawn, the light is extinguished.

Professor Lobstein says, "So far from blood-letting being beneficial, it
is productive of the most serious consequences--a cruel practice, and a
scourge to humanity. How many thousands are sent by it to an untimely
grave! Without blood there is no heat, no motion in the body."

Dr. Reid says, "If the employment of the lancet was abolished
altogether, it would perhaps save annually a greater number of lives
than pestilence ever destroyed."

The fact of blood-letting having been practised by horse and cattle
doctors from time immemorial is certainly not a clear proof of its
utility, nor is it a sufficient recommendation that it may be practised
with safety. During my professional career, the preconceived theories
have commanded a due share of consideration; and, when weighed in the
scale of uninfluenced experience, they never failed of falling short. If
we grant that any deviation from the healthy state denotes debility of
one or more functions, then whatever has a tendency to debilitate
further cannot restore the animal to health. The following case will
serve to illustrate our position: "A horse was brought to be bled,
merely because he had been accustomed to it at that season of the year.
I did not examine him minutely; but as the groom stated there was
nothing amiss with him, I directed a moderate quantity of blood to be
drawn. About five pints were taken off; and while the operator was
pinning up the wound, the horse fell. He appeared to suffer much pain,
and had considerable difficulty of breathing. In this state he remained
twelve hours, and then died. Judging from the appearances at the post
mortem examination, it is probable that a loss of a moderate quantity of
blood caused a fatal interruption of the functions of the heart."

It is strange that such cases as these do not open men's eyes, and
compel them to acknowledge that there is something wrong in the medical
world. Such cases as these furnish us with unanswerable arguments
against blood-letting; for as the blood, which is the natural stimulus
of, and gives strength to, the organs, is withdrawn, its abstraction
leaves all those organs less capable of self-defence.

Horse and cattle doctors have recommended bleeding when animals have
been fed too liberally, or if their systems abound in morbific matter.
Now, the most sensible course would be, provided the animal had been
overfed, to reduce the quantity of food, or, in other words, remove the
cause. If the secretions are vitiated, or in a morbid state, then
regulate them by the means laid down in this work. For we cannot purify
a well of water by abstracting a few buckets; neither can we purify the
whole mass of blood by taking away a few quarts; for that which is left
will still be impure. If the different parts had between them partitions
impervious to fluids, then there would be some sense in drawing out of
the vessels over-filled; but unfortunately, if you draw from one, you
draw from all the rest.

In every disease wherein bleeding has been used, complete recovery has
been protracted, and the animal manifests the debility by swelled legs
and other unmistakable evidences. In some cases, however, the ill
effects of the loss of blood, unless excessive, are not always
immediately perceived; yet such animals, in after years, are subject to
staggers, and diseases of the lungs, pleura, and peritoneum.

Dr. Beach says, "The blood is properly called the _vital fluid_, and the
life of a person is said to be in the blood.[2] We know that just in
proportion to the loss of this substance are our vigor and strength
taken from us. When taken from the system by accident or the lancet, it
is succeeded by great prostration of strength, and a derangement of all
the functions of the body. These effects are invariably, in a greater
or less degree, consequent on bleeding. Is it not, then, reasonable to
suppose, that what will debilitate the strongest constitution in a state
of health, will be attended with most serious evils when applied to a
person laboring under any malady? Is it not like throwing spirits on a
fire to extinguish it?

"Bleeding is resorted to in all inflammatory complaints; but did
practitioners know the nature and design of inflammation, their
treatment would be different. In fever it is produced by an increased
action of the heart and arteries, to expel acrid and noxious humors, and
should be promoted until the irritating matter is dislodged from the
system. This should be effected, in general, by opening the outlets of
the body, inducing perspiration; to produce which a preternatural degree
of heat or inflammation must be excited by internal remedies. Fever is
nothing more or less than a wholesome and salutary effort of nature to
throw off some morbific matter; and, therefore, every means to lessen
this indication proves injurious. Bleeding, in consequence of the
debility it produces, prevents such indication from being fulfilled."

The inveterate phlebotomizers recommend and practise bleeding when "_the
animal has too much blood_." There may be at times too much blood, and
at others too little; but suppose there is--has any body found out any
better method of reducing what they please to term an excess, than that
of regular exercise in the open air, combined with a less quantity of
fodder than usual? Or has any body found out any method of making good
healthy blood, other than the slow process of nature, as exhibited in
the results of digestion, secretion, circulation, and nutrition? Have
they discovered any artificial means of restoring the blood to its
healthful quantity when it is deficient? Have they found any means of
purifying the blood, save the healthful operations of nature's secreting
and excreting laboratory? Finally, have they found any safety-valve or
outlet for the reduction of this excess other than the excrementitious
vessels? And if they have, are they better able to adjust the pressure
on that valve than He who made the whole machinery, and knows the
relative strength of all its parts? In an article on blood-letting,
found in the Farmer's Cyclopædia, the author says, "In summer, bleeding
is often necessary to prevent fevers." Now, it is evident that nature's
preventives are air, exercise, food, water, and sleep. Attention to the
rules laid down in this work, under the heads of _Watering_, _Feeding_,
&c., will be more satisfactory and less dangerous than that recommended
by the Cyclopædia. If the directions given in the latter were fully
carried out, the stock of our farms would be swept away as by the blast
of a tornado. Such a barbarous system would entail universal misery and
degeneracy on all classes of live stock; and we might then exclaim,
"They are living, yet half dead--victims to an inconsistent system of
medication!" But thanks to a discerning public, they just begin to see
the absurdity and wickedness of draining the system of the living
principles. Veterinary reform has germinated in the New England States,
and, in spite of all opposition, has struck its roots deep into the
minds of a class of men who have the means and power to send forth its
healing branches, and apply them to their own interest and the welfare
of their stock.

The same author continues: "Some farmers bleed horses three or four
times a year." We hope the farmers have too much good sense to follow
the wicked example of the former. Frequent bleeding is an indirect mode
of butchery--killing by inches; for it gives to the blood-vessels the
power to contract and adapt themselves to the measure of blood that
remains. It impoverishes the blood, and leads to hydrothorax,
(accumulation of water in the chest,) and materially shortens life.
Mackintosh says, "Some are bled who cannot bear it, and others who do
not require it; and the result is death." The conservative power of life
always operates in favor of health, and resists the encroachments upon
her province with all her might, and often recovers the dominion; but by
frequent bleedings, she is exhausted, and, on taking a little more blood
than usual, the animal drops down and dies; and the owner attributes to
disease what, in fact, is the result of bad treatment.

"Patients who recover after general and copious bleedings have been
employed, may attribute their recovery to the strength of their
constitution.

"If you should ask a modern _Sangrado_ what was most necessary in the
treatment of disease, doubtless he would reply, 'Bleeding.'

"Our modern pathologists, surgeons and others, think bleeding the
_factotum_ in all maladies; it is the _ne plus ultra_, when drawn in
large quantities. Blood-letting, say these authors, is not only the most
powerful and important, but the most generally used, of all our
remedies. Scarcely a case of acute, or, indeed, of chronic, disease
occurs in which it does not become necessary to consider the propriety
of having recourse to the lancet." (??) To what extent blood-letting is
carried, in our modern age, may be learned by reading Youatt and others,
who recommend it "when animals rub themselves, and the hair falls off;
when the eyes appear dull and languid, red or inflamed; in all
inflammatory complaints, as of the brain, lungs, kidneys, bowels, womb,
bladder, and joints; in all bruises, hurts, wounds, and all other
accidents; in cold, catarrh, paralysis, and locked-jaw." Yet, strange to
say, one of these authors qualifies his recommendations as follows: "No
man, however wise, can tell exactly how much blood ought to be taken in
a given case." Now, it is well known that the draining of blood from a
vein, though it diminishes the vital resistance, and lessens the volume
of fluids, does not mend the matter; for it thus gives to cold and
atmospheric agents the ascendant influence. A collapse takes place, the
secretions become impaired, the animal refuses its food, "looks
dumpish," &c.

We might continue this article to an indefinite length; but as we shall,
in the following pages, have occasion to refer to the use of the lancet
as a destructive agent, we conclude it with the following remarks of an
English physician: "Our most valuable remedies against inflammation are
but ill adapted for curing that state of disease. They do not act
directly on the diseased part; the action is only indirect; therefore it
is imperfect. Bleeding, the best of any of these remedies, is in this
predicament."

FOOTNOTES:

[1] A piece of pasture land.

[2] Then the life of an animal is also in the blood; and the same evil
consequences follow its abstraction.



EFFORTS OF NATURE TO REMOVE DISEASE.

     "Nature is ever busy, by the silent operations of her own forces,
     in curing disease."--_Dixon._


Whenever any irritating substance comes in contact with sensitive
surfaces, nature, or the _vis medicatrix naturæ_, goes immediately to
work to remove the offending cause: for example, should any substance
lodge on the mucous surface, within the nostril, although it be
imperceptible, as often happens when the hay is musty, it abounds in
particles whose specific gravity enables them to float in atmospheric
air; they are then inhaled in the act of respiration, and nature, in
order to wash off the offending matter, sends a quantity of fluid to the
part. The same process may be observed when a small piece of hay, or
other foreign matter, shall have fallen into the eye: the tears then
flow in great abundance, to prevent that delicate organ being injured.
"When a blister is applied to the surface, it first excites a genial
warmth, with inflammation of the skin; and nature, distressed, goes
instantly to work, separates the cuticle to form a bag, interposes serum
between the nerves and the offensive matter, then prepares another
cuticle, that, when the former, with the adhering substance, shall fall
off, the nervous papillæ may be again provided with a covering.

"The same reasoning will apply to the operation of emetics and
cathartics; for not only is the peristaltic motion either greatly
quickened or inverted, according to the urgency of the distress, but
both the mucous glands and the exhalent arteries pour forth their fluids
in abundance to wash away the offending matter, which at one time acts
chemically, at others mechanically."

If a horse, or an ox, be wounded in the foot with a nail, and a portion
of it is broken off and remains in the wound, inflammation sets in,
producing suppuration, and the nail is discharged.

A few days ago, we were called to see a horse, said to have swelling on
the _tarsus_, (hock.) On an examination, it proved to be an abscess,
well developed; the matter could be distinctly felt at the most
prominent part. We should certainly have been justified (at least in the
eyes of the medical world; and then it would have looked so
"doctor-like"!) in displaying a case of instruments and opening the
tumor. If ulceration, gangrene, &c., set in and the horse ultimately
became lame, no blame could be attached to us, because the practice is
_scientific_!--recognized by the schools as good and efficient
treatment. What was to be done? Why, it was evident that we could not do
better than to aid nature. A relaxing, anti-spasmodic poultice was
confined to the parts, and in six hours after, the sac discharged its
contents, and with it a piece of splinter two inches in length. The pain
immediately ceased, and the animal is now free from lameness. We here
see the design of nature: the consequent inflammation was to produce
suppuration, and make an outlet for the splinter.

Professor Kost says, "The laws of all organic life are remarkably
peculiar; they possess, in an eminent degree, the power of
self-regulation. When interrupted, disease, indeed, supervenes; but
unless the circumstances are particularly unfavorable, the physiological
state will soon be restored. All observation most clearly corroborates
this fact. The healing of wounds, restoration of fractured bones,
expulsion of obtruded substances, and particularly the manner in which
extravasated matter or pus is removed from internal organs, as in case
of abscess in the liver, in which exit may be gained by ulceration
through the parietes, or by an adhesion to and ulceration into the
intestines, or even by the adhesions to the diaphragm and lungs, in such
a manner as, by ulceration into the bronchia, a passage may be gained,
and the pus thus removed by expectoration,--all evince a most singular
conservative power. What is most remarkable in cases like the latter,
is, that the adhesions are so formed as to prevent the escape of the pus
into the peritoneal sac, which accident must inevitably prove fatal.

"Some very interesting experiments have been performed to test the
restorative power of the different tissues of the animal body. If a
portion of the intestines of a dog be taken out, and tied, so as to
obstruct completely the passage, it will be found that the adjacent
portions of the intestine will reunite, the ligature will separate into
the canal and be discharged, and the gut will heal up so as to preserve
its normal continuity, and the animal, in a fortnight, will have
recovered entirely from the effects of this fearful operation.

"When noxious or poisonous substances are thrown into any of the
cavities of the body from which their escape is impracticable, a cyst
will often form around them, and they thus become isolated from
absorption and the circulation, so as to prevent their doing harm.

"The less remarkable instances of this character are of more common
occurrence; and the self-regulating power of the laws of life, alias
_vis conservatrix naturæ_, is so universally known and depended on, that
it is rare, indeed, that indisposed persons take medicine, until they
have first waited at least a little, to see what nature would do for
them; and they are seldom disappointed, as it may perhaps be safely
asserted, that nine tenths of all the attacks of disease (taking the
slight indispositions; for such are most of them, as they are checked
before they become severe) are warded off by the vital force,
unassisted. Such, then, are the facts deduced from observing the
operations of nature in disease _unassisted_."

Dr. Beach says, "We are well aware, from what passes in the system
daily, that the Author of nature has wisely provided a principle which
is calculated to remove disease. It is very observable in fevers. No
sooner is noxious or morbid matter retained in the system, than there is
an increased action of the heart and arteries, to eliminate the existing
cause from the skin; or it may pass off by other outlets established
for that purpose. With what propriety, then, can this provision of
nature be denied, as it is by some? A noted professor in Philadelphia or
Baltimore ridicules this power in the constitution; he says to his
class, 'Kick nature out of doors.' It was this man, or a brother
professor, who exclaimed to his class, 'Give me mercury in one hand and
the lancet in the other, and I am prepared to cope with disease in every
shape and form.' I have not time to stop here, and comment upon such
palpable and dangerous doctrine. I have only to say, let the medical
historian record this sentiment, maintained in the highest medical
universities in America in the nineteenth century. I am pleased,
however, to observe, that all physicians do not coincide with such
views."



PROVERBS OF THE VETERINARY REFORMERS.


The merciful man is merciful to his domestic animals.

"Avoid blood-letting and poisons, for they are powerful depressors of
the vital energies. There are two medical _fulcra_--reason and
experience. Experience precedes, reason follows; hence, reasoning not
founded on experience avails nothing. He who cures by simples need not
seek for compounds."--_Villanov._

"The physician _destitute of a knowledge of plants_ can never properly
judge of the power of a plant."--_Whitlaw._

"The vegetable kingdom is the most noble in medicines."--_Ibid._

"Innocent medicines, which approach as near to food as possible,
preserve health, while chemical compounds destroy it. Heroic medicines
(such are antimony, copper, corrosive sublimate, lead, opium, hellebore,
arsenic, belladonna) are like the sword in the hands of a madman.

"Nature unassisted by art sometimes effects miracles."--_Whitlaw._

"It is the part of a wise physician to decline prescribing in a lost
case."--_Ibid._ Whenever there is free, full circulation of blood, there
is animal heat. If the heat of a part becomes deficient, the circulation
is correspondingly diminished. As soon as voluntary motion in a part
ceases, so soon the circulation becomes enfeebled; and if continued, the
part will wither and waste away.

The strength and health of an animal depend on a due share of exercise,
pure air, and suitable food. Deprive an animal of these, and he will
cease to exist. We believe in the great doctrine that the duty of the
physician is to aid nature in protecting herself in the enjoyment of
health, by proper attention to breeding, rearing, ventilation, and
proper farm and stable management.

"The tinsel glitter of fine-spun theory, or favorite hypothesis, which
prevails wherever allopathy hath been taught, so dazzles, flatters, and
charms human vanity and folly, that, so far from contributing to the
certain and speedy cure of diseases, it hath, in every age, proved the
bane and disgrace of healing art."--_Graham_, p. 15.

"Those physicians generally become the most distinguished who soonest
emancipate themselves from the tyranny of the schools of
physic."--RUSH.

"Availing ourselves of the privileges we possess, and animated by the
noblest impulses, let us cordially coöperate to give to medicine a new
direction, and attempt those great improvements which it imperiously
demands."--_Ther._, vol. i. p. 51.

"It has been proved by allopathists themselves, that 'a physician should
be nature's servant;' that 'bleeding tends directly to subdue nature's
efforts;' that 'all poisons suddenly and rapidly destroy a great
proportion of the vitality of the system;' that whatever be the
quantity, use, or manner of application, all the influence they
inherently possess is injurious, and that they are not fatal in every
instance of their use only because nature overpowers them."--_Curtis._



AN INQUIRY CONCERNING THE SOULS OF BRUTES.


  "Are these then made in vain? Is man alone,
  Of all the marvels of creative love,
  Blest with a scintillation of His essence--
  The heavenly spark of reasonable soul?
  And hath not yon sagacious dog, that finds
  A meaning in the shepherd's idiot face;
  Or the huge elephant, that lends his strength
  To drag the stranded galley to the shore,
  And strives with emulative pride t' excel
  The mindless crowd of slaves that toil beside him;
  Or the young generous war-horse, when he sniffs
  The distant field of blood, and quick and shrill
  Neighing for joy, instils a desperate courage
  Into the veteran trooper's quailing heart,--
  Have they not all an evidence of soul,
  (Of soul, the proper attribute of man,)
  The same in kind, though meaner in degree?
  Why should not that which hath been--be forever?
  And death, O, can it be annihilation?
  No,--though the stolid atheist fondly clings
  To that last hope, how kindred to despair!
  No,--'tis the struggling spirit's hour of joy,
  The glad emancipation of the soul,
  The moment when the cumbrous fetters drop,
  And the bright spirit wings its way to heaven!

  "To say that God annihilated aught,
  Were to declare that in an unwise hour
  He planned and made somewhat superfluous.
  Why should not the mysterious life that dwells
  In reptiles as in man, and shows itself
  In memory, gratitude, love, hate, and pride,
  Still energize, and be, though death may crush
  Yon frugal ant or thoughtless butterfly,
  Or, with the simoom's pestilential gale
  Strike down the patient camel in the desert?

  "There is one chain of intellectual soul,
  In many links and various grades, throughout
  The scale of nature; from the climax bright,
  The first great Cause of all, Spirit supreme,
  Incomprehensible, and unconfined,
  To high archangels blazing near the throne,
  Seraphim, cherubim, virtues, aids, and powers,
  All capable of perfection in their kind;--
  To man, as holy from his Maker's hand
  He stood in possible excellence complete,
  (Man, who is destined now to brighter glories,--
  As nearer to the present God, in One
  His Lord and Substitute,--than angels reach;)
  Then man has fallen, with every varied shade
  Of character and capability,
  From him who reads his title to the skies,
  Or grasps, with giant-mind, all nature's wonders,
  Down to the monster-shaped, inhuman form,
  Murderer, slavering fool, or blood-stained savage;
  Then to the prudent elephant, the dog
  Half-humanized, the docile Arab horse,
  The social beaver, and contriving fox,
  The parrot, quick in pertinent reply,
  The kind-affectioned seal, and patriot bee,
  The merchant-storing ant, and wintering swallow,
  With all those other palpable emanations
  And energies of one Eternal Mind
  Pervading and instructing all that live,
  Down to the sentient grass and shrinking clay.
  In truth, I see not why the breath of life,
  Thus omnipresent, and upholding all,
  Should not return to Him and be immortal,
  (I dare not say the same,) in some glad state
  Originally destined for creation,
  As well from brutish bodies, as from man.
  The uncertain glimmer of analogy
  Suggests the thought, and reason's shrewder guess;
  Yet revelation whispers nought but this,--
  'Our Father careth when a sparrow dies,'
  And that 'the spirit of a brute descends,'
  As to some secret and preserving Hades.

  "But for some better life, in what strange sort
  Were justice, mixed with mercy, dealt to these?
  Innocent slaves of sordid, guilty man,
  Poor unthanked drudges, toiling to his will,
  Pampered in youth, and haply starved in age,
  Obedient, faithful, gentle, though the spur,
  Wantonly cruel, or unsparing thong,
  Weal your galled hides, or your strained sinews crack
  Beneath the crushing load,--what recompense
  Can He who gave you being render you,
  If in the rank, full harvest of your griefs
  Ye sink annihilated, to the shame
  Of government unequal?--In that day
  When crime is sentenced, shall the cruel heart
  Boast uncondemned, because no tortured brute
  Stands there accusing? Shall the embodied deeds
  Of man not follow him, nor the rescued fly
  Bear its kind witness to the saving hand?
  Shall the mild Brahmin stand in equal sin
  Regarding nature's menials, with the wretch
  Who flays the moaning Abyssinian ox,
  Or roasts the living bird, or flogs to death
  The famishing pointer?--and must these again,
  These poor, unguilty, uncomplaining victims,
  Have no reward for life with its sharp pains?--
  They have my suffrage: Nineveh was spared,
  Though Jonah prophesied its doom, for sake
  Of sixscore thousand infants, and 'much cattle;'
  And space is wide enough for every grain
  Of the broad sands that curb our swelling seas,
  Each separate in its sphere to stand apart
  As far as sun from sun; there lacks not room,
  Nor time, nor care, where all is infinite."--_Tupper._



THE REFORMED PRACTICE.

SYNOPTICAL VIEW OF THE PROMINENT SYSTEMS OF MEDICINE.


Some of our readers, especially the non-medical, may desire to know what
the following remarks, which appear to apply generally to the human
family, have to do with cattle doctoring. We answer them in the language
of Professor Percival. "The object of the veterinary art is not only
congenial with human medicine, but the very same paths which lead to a
knowledge of the diseases of man, lead also to a knowledge of those of
brutes. An accurate examination of the interior parts of their bodies; a
studious survey of the arrangement, structure, use, connection, and
relation of these parts, and of the laws by which they act; as also of
the nature and properties of the various food and other agents which the
earth so liberally provides for their support and cure,--these form, in
a great measure, the sound and sure foundation of all medical science,
whatever living individual animal be the subject of our consideration.
Whether we prescribe for a man, horse, dog, or cat, the laws of the
animal economy are the same; and one system, and that based upon
established facts, is to guide our practice in all.

"The theory of medicine in the human subject is the theory of medicine
in the brute; it is the application of that theory--the practice
alone--that is different.

"We might as well, in reference to the principles of each, attempt to
separate surgery from medicine, as insist that either of these arts, in
theory, is essentially different from the veterinary: every day's
experience serves to confirm this our belief, and in showing us how
often the diseases of animals arise from the same causes as those of a
man, exhibit the same indications, and require a similar method of cure.

"The science of medicine, like others, consists of a collection of facts
of a common and not a specific character. These, therefore, admit of
arrangement into different systems, according to the notions of
theorists, and the various species of philosophy, brought to bear on the
subject.

"The first regular system was founded by Hippocrates, about three
hundred and eighty years before Christ. It was founded upon _theory_,
and comprised the doctrines of the ancient dogmatic school. Its
pathology rested upon a supposed change of the humors of the body,
particularly the blood and bile; and here are the first elements of the
'_humoral pathology_.' Its remedial intentions were founded upon the
existence of the _'vis conservatrix' et 'medicatrix naturæ;'_ and,
although often maintaining direct antipathic principles of action, it
rested mainly on physo-dynamic influence for the accomplishment of its
therapeutic purposes.

"About two hundred and ninety years before Christ, Philinus of Cos
introduced the ancient _Empiric System_, which was founded upon
_experience_ and _observation_. About one hundred years before the
Christian era, the _Methodic System_ was introduced by Asclepiades of
Bithynia. This system was got up with an avowed opposition to that of
Hippocrates, which was called 'a study of death.' Themison of Laodicea,
pupil of Asclepiades, gives an exposition of the fundamental principles
of the methodic system; and it seems that all physiological and
pathological action was considered to be dependent upon the _strictum_
and _laxum_ of the organic pores, or increased and decreased secretion,
and that all medicines act only on two principles, _i. e._, by inducing
contraction and relaxation, or an increase and decrease of the
secretions.

"It would seem that, in the first century of the Christian era, the
methodic system was divided into various subordinate ones--the
_Pneumatic_, _Episynthetic_, and _Eclectic_. The pneumatic system, which
was the most popular of the fragments of the methodic, was most indebted
to Athenæus of Attalia for its successful introduction. This system
contemplated the doctrine of the Stoics, which recognized the existence
of a spirit governing and directing every thing, and which, when
offended, would produce disease; hence the name _pneumatic_. The
indications of cure were more _moral_ than _physical_. Fire, air, water,
&c., were not considered elements, but their properties--heat, cold,
dryness, moisture, &c.--were alone entitled to the name.

"In the second century, the _Galenic System_ was founded by Claudius
Galenus. This might, indeed, only be considered the revival of the
dogmatic or Hippocratean system. Galen professed to have selected what
he found valuable from all the prevailing systems, and has embraced the
elements and ruling spirit of the pneumatic school. Thus he explained
the operation of medicines by reference to their elementary
qualities,--that is, heat, cold, dryness, and moisture,--of each of
which he admitted four degrees. But he was governed by a prevailing
partiality for the system of Hippocrates, which, he states, was either
misunderstood or misrepresented by all theorists, ever since the
establishment of the empiric and methodic schools. He devoted most of
his time to commenting upon and embellishing it, and thus again
established a system, founded on reason, observation, and sound
induction, which maintained its character, without a rival, for more
than one thousand five hundred years.

"Near the middle of the sixteenth century, Paracelsus introduced the
_Chemical System_. This was strongly opposed by Bellonius and Riverius,
who maintained the doctrine of Hippocrates and Galen. But the
presumptuous Paracelsus burned, 'in solemn state,' the works of the
ancients; and being succeeded by the indefatigable Van Helmont, the
whole science of medicine was overwhelmed by the mysticism of the
alchemical doctrines and languages. The chemical theory, in the main,
rejects the influence, or even the existence, of the _vis medicatrix
naturæ_, and explains all physiological, pathological, and therapeutic
operations upon abstract chemical laws. Thus chemical or inorganic
agents, and many of the most virulent poisons, as arsenic, mercury,
antimony, &c., were placed among the most prominent remedies.

"Soon after the introduction of the chemical system, medical science, if
we make one exception, became less eccentric, but much less marked for
the permanency of its systems. Boerhaave ingeniously blended most of the
prominent doctrines of the Galenic and chemical systems; and by an
application of several of the newly-developed natural sciences,
especially mathematics and natural philosophy, he led his successors
into a more even path and fixed method of investigation; for no more do
we find any abstract physical laws the sole basis of a system. But these
were the highest honors allowed Boerhaave; his particular system was
soon subverted by Stahl, who proved the supreme superintendence of an
immaterial, vital principle, corresponding to that pointed out by
Hippocrates. To this he ascribes intelligence, if not moral attributes.
Hoffman led Cullen into the path that brought him into the fruitful
field of _nervous pathology_ and solidism, which, with a modification of
Stahl's ruling _immaterial essence_, formed the groundwork of his
admired system.

"If, now, we except the eccentricities of Brown, comprising his system,
founded on the _sthenic_ and _asthenic_ diathesis, we find little
interruption to the general prevalence of the Cullenian system, till
nearly the present juncture. The succeeding authors, colleges, and
medical societies have only modified and amplified the general theory,
and regulated the practice into a comparative uniformity, which now
constitutes the popular _Allopathic System_. But notwithstanding the
comparatively settled state of medical science, it could not be supposed
that in this remarkable age of improvement, while all other liberal
sciences and arts are progressing as if prosecuted by superhuman agency,
medicine should fail to undergo corresponding improvement.

"Several new systems of medicine date themselves within the last forty
years, viz.: 1. The _Homæopathic_, introduced by Hahnemann, and founded
upon the principle, _similia similibus curantur_. 2. The _Botanic_,
established by a new class of medical philosophers, within the last
twenty years. 3. The _Eclectic_, corresponding, in its essential
doctrines, with the ancient eclectic system."



CREED OF THE REFORMERS.


We believe that a perfect system of medical science is that which never
allows disease to exist at all; which prevents disease, instead of
curing it, by means of a perfect hygienic system, proper modes of life,
attention to diet, ventilation, and exercise.

We believe that the next best system is that which, after disease has
made its appearance, promptly meets its development by the use of such
agencies as are perfectly in harmony with the laws of life and health,
and physiological in their action; such, for example, as water, air,
heat and cold, friction, food, drink, and medicines that are not usually
regarded as poisons, and are known to prove congenial to the animal
constitution.

We have no attachment to any remedy which experience shows unsafe; but,
on the contrary, we rejoice in the success of every attempt to
substitute sanative for disease-creating agents, and believe that a
number of the articles which are still occasionally used in the old
school, will in time become obsolete, as medical science progresses.

We hold that our opposition to any course of medical treatment should be
in proportion to the mischief it produces, entirely irrespective of
medical theories. Hence our hostility to the lancet.

We do not profess to know more about anatomy, physiology, surgery, &c.,
than our allopathic brethren; but the superiority which our system
claims over others is, in the main, to be found in our therapeutic
agents, all of which are harmless, safe, and efficient. While they
arouse the energies of nature to resist the ravages of disease, they act
harmoniously with the vital principle, in the restoration of the system
from a pathological to the physiological state.



TRUE PRINCIPLES.


"Our objection to the old school," says Professor Curtis, "has ever
been, that they not only have no true principles to guide their
practice, but they have adopted, fixed, and obstinately adhered to
principles the very reverse of the true. They have resolved that, in
disease, nature turns a somerset--reverses all her normal laws, and
requires them to do the same. They have decreed that the best means and
processes to cure the sick are those which will most speedily kill them
when in health. In the face of all reason and common sense, they have
adhered to this doctrine and practice for the last three centuries, and
they have been constrained to confess that the destruction they have
produced on human life and health has far exceeded all that has been
effected by the sword, pestilence, and famine. Still they obstinately
persevere. They say their science is progressive--improving; yet its
progression consists in contriving new ways and means to take part of
the life's blood, and poison all the balance.

"Medicine, being based on the laws of nature, is in itself an exact
science; and every process of the act should be directed by those laws.

"Medicine is a demonstrative science, and all its processes should be
based on fixed laws, and be governed by positive inductions. Then, and
not till then, will it deserve to be ranked among the exact sciences,
and contemplated as a liberal art.

"Truth is stationary; it never progresses. What was true in principle in
the days of Adam is so still. To talk of progress in principle is
ridiculous. Neither does a given practice progress. That which was ever
intrinsically good is so still. To talk, then, of the progress in
principles of medicine is absurd. We may learn the truth or error of
principles, and the comparative value or worthlessness of practices; but
the principles are still the same. This is our progress in knowledge,
not the progress of science or art. The constant changes that have taken
place in the adoption and rejection of various principles and practices
have ever been an injury to the healing art. Both truth and falsehood,
separately and combined, have been alternately received and rejected;
and this is that progress which is made in a circle, and not in lines
direct. The fault of the cultivators of medicine has been, not that they
never discovered the truth nor adopted the right practice, but that they
adopted wrong principles and practices as often as the right, and
rejected the right as readily as the wrong. They have ever been ready to
prove many, if not all things; but to cast off the bad and hold fast to
the good, they seem to have had but little discrimination and power.
They say truly, that the object of the healing art is to aid nature in
the prevention and cure of her diseases; yet, in practice, they do
violence to nature in the use of the lancet and poison."

We are told by the professors of allopathy that their medicines
constitute a class of deadly poisons, (see "Pocket Pharmacopoeia;")
"that, when given with a scientific hand, in small doses, they cure
disease." We deny their power to cure. If antimony, corrosive sublimate,
&c., ever proved destructive, they always possess that power, and can
never be used with any degree of assurance that they will make a sick
animal well. On the other hand, we have abundant every-day evidence of
their ability to make a well animal sick at any time. What difference
does it make whether poisons are given with a scientific or an
unscientific hand? Does it alter the tendency which all poisons possess,
namely, that of rapidly depriving the system of vitality?

The veterinary science was ushered into existence by men who practised
according to the doctrines of the theoretical schools. We may trace it
in its infancy when, in England, in the year 1788, it was rocked in the
cradle of allopathy by Sainbel, its texture varying to suit the skill of
Clark, Lawrence, Field, Blaine, and Coleman; yet with all their amount
of talent and wisdom, their pupils must acknowledge that the melancholy
triumph of disease over its victims clearly evinces that their combined
stock of knowledge is insufficient to perfect the veterinary science.
Dr. J. Bell says, "Anatomy is the basis of medical skill;" yet, in
another part of his work he says, "It enables the physician to
GUESS _at the seat, or causes, or consequences of disease_!"
This is what we propose hereafter to call the science--the science of
guessing! If such is the immense mortality in England, (amounting, as
Mr. Youatt states, in loss of cattle, alone, to $50,000,000,)--a country
that boasts of her veterinary institutions, and embraces within her
medical halo some of the brightest luminaries of the present
century,--what, we ask, is the mortality in the United States, where the
veterinary science scarcely has an existence, and where not one man in a
hundred can tell a disease of the bowels from one of the lungs?
Profiting by the experience of these men, we are in hopes to build up a
system of practice that will stand a tower of strength amid the rude
shock of medical theories. We have discovered that the lancet is a
powerful depressor of vitality, and that poisons derange, instead of
producing, healthy action. That they are generally resorted to in this
country, no one will deny, and often by men who are unacquainted with
the nature of the destructive agents they making use of.

Hence our business, as reformers, is to expose error, and disseminate
true principles. In doing so, we must be guided by the light of reason,
and interpret aright the doctrines of nature as they are written by the
Creator on the tablets of the whole universe, animate and inanimate.

In our reformed practice, we have true principles to guide us, which no
man can controvert; for they are based on the recognition of a curative
power in nature, identical with the vital principle, and governed by the
same laws that control its action in the healthy state. While,
therefore, this system must not change, it may improve; and while it
remains on the same foundation, it should progress.

The necessity of aiding nature, in all our modes of medication, is the
only true principle which should guide us. This we do by the aid of
medicines known to be harmless, at the same time paying proper attention
to diet, ventilation, exercise, &c., rejecting all processes of cure
that depress the vital energy, or destroy the equilibrium of its action.

Our reformed principles teach us that, "Fever is the same in its
essential character, under all circumstances and forms which it
exhibits. The different kinds, as they are called, are but varieties of
the same condition, produced by variations in the prevailing cause, or
the strength of vital resistance, or some other peculiarity of the
patient. Facts in abundance might be stated to justify this position.
Again, fever is not to be regarded as disease, but as a sanative effort;
in other words, as an increased or excited state of vital action, whose
tendency is to remove from the system any agents or causes that would
effect its integrity. Or, perhaps, it might be more properly said, that
fever is the effect, or symptom, of accumulated vital action--an index
pointing to the progress of causes, operating to ward off disease and
restore health.

"Our indications of cure and modes of treatment are to be learned from
those manifestations of the vital operations uniformly witnessed in the
febrile state. If fever marks the action of the healing power of nature,
which we must copy to be successful, why should we not consult the
febrile phenomena for our rule of action? Now, what are the indications
of cure which we derive from this source? In other words, what are the
results which nature designs to accomplish through the instrumentality
of fever? They are, an equilibrium of the circulation, a
properly-proportioned action of all the organs, and an increased
depuration of the system, principally by cutaneous evacuations."

Suppose the resistance of some local obstruction, as, for example, an
accumulation of partly digested food in the manyplus of the ox, and, for
want of a due portion of the gastric fluids to soften the mass and
prevent friction, it irritates the mucous covering of the laminæ. The
result is inflammation, (local fever,) then general excitement,
manifested in an increased state of the circulation generally. The
consequences of this general excitement of the mass of the circulation
are, a more equal distribution of the blood, and the stimulation of
every organ to do a part, according to its capacity, in removing
disease. In such cases, the cattle doctors, generally, suppose that the
inflammation is confined to the part, (manyplus;) yet it is evident that
nature has marshalled her forces and produced a like action on the
external surface. How can we prove that this is the case? By the heat,
and red surfaces of the membrane lining the nostril, by the accelerated
pulse, thirst, &c. Without heat there is no vitality in the system. Now,
if the surface be hot, it proves that a large quantity of blood is sent
there for the purpose of relieving the deranged internal organ. Hence
the reader will perceive, that the cattle doctor whose creed is, "The
more fever, the more blood-letting," must be one of the greatest
opponents nature has to deal with. Then it is no wonder that so many
cattle, sheep, and oxen die of fever. The practice of purging, in such a
case, would be almost as destructive as the former; for many articles
used as purges act on the mucous surfaces of the alimentary canal as
mechanical irritants. Nature would, in this case, have to recall her
forces from the surface, and concentrate them in the vicinity of parts
where they were not wanted, had not man's interference conflicted with
her well-planned arrangement, and made her "turn a somerset." When the
increased action and heat are manifested on the surface, does it not
prove that the different organs are acting harmoniously in self-defence?
And is not this action manifested through the same channels in a state
of health? Then why call it _disease_?

If obstructions exist as the cause of fever, will the mode of evacuation
be different from that of health? Certainly not. Hence the marked
tendency of fever to evacuation by the skin or the bowels; the former by
perspiration, and the latter by diarrhoea. Fever, then, is a vital
action, and the reformers have correct principles. On the other hand,
the allopathists tell us that they know very little about fever, but
that it is disease, and they treat it as such; hence, then, five, ten,
and fourteen days' fever, and often the death of the patient.

Our treatment is not directed with a view of combating the fever: we
generally aid it by following the indications which it presents; and we
often find it necessary, although the surface of the animal shall be
hot, and feverish symptoms appear, to use stimulants, (not alcoholic,)
combined with antispasmodics and relaxants. (See _Stimulants_, in the
APPENDIX.) This class of medicines, aided by warmth and
moisture, favors the cutaneous exhalation, and promotes the free and
full play of all the functions.

That the allopathist has but few principles to guide him is evident from
the following quotations:--

Veterinary surgeon Haycock says, "The profession may flatter itself that
it is advancing: for my part, however, I see little or no advancement.
Our labors, for the last ten years, have been little more than a
repetition of what has gone before. Our books are things of shreds and
patches; the system which is followed in the investigation of disease,
in the treatment of disease, and in the reporting of it, is altogether
so crude and barbarous, that I am thoroughly ashamed of the whole
matter.

"I have heard much noise about a _charter_, [which, we presume, means a
charter by which men may be licensed to kill _secundum artem_, and '_no
questions_ ASKED,'] the clamor of which may be compared to the
rattling of peas in a dried bladder, or to a storm in a horse-pond. I
have also read much which has been said about the _spirit_ of this
charter. Until I am convinced that it is the best term which can be
applied to it, verily the whole is a spirit; for no one, I am persuaded,
has ever yet discovered the substance.[3] It is not charters that we
want, _but it is that quiet spirit of earnestness which characterizes
the true laborer on science_. We require men who will labor for the
advancement of the profession from the pure love of the thing; we want,
in fact, a few John Fields, or men who know how to work, and who are
possessed of the will to do it."

We hear a great deal said about sending young men from this country to
Europe to acquire the principles of the veterinary art, with a view to
public teaching. Now, it appears to us that the United States can boast
of as great a number of talented physicians, as well qualified to soon
learn and understand the fundamental principles of the veterinary art,
as their brethren of the old world. There is no country, probably, that
can boast of such an amount of talent, in every department of
literature and art, in proportion to the population, as the United
States. We know that the veterinary art, with one exception, had its
existence from human practitioners, received their fostering care and
attention, and grew with their growth. Have we not the materials, then,
in this country, to educate and qualify young men to practise this
important branch of science? Most certainly. Just send a few to us, for
example, and if we do not impart to them a better system of medication
than that practised in Europe, by which they will be enabled to treat
disease with more success and less deaths, then we will agree to "throw
physic to the dogs," and abandon our profession.

The greatest part of the most valuable time of the students of
veterinary medicine is devoted to the study of pathology, in such a
manner as to afford little instruction. For example, we are told that in
"Bright's" disease of the kidneys they have detected albumen. What does
this amount to? Does it throw any rational light on the treatment other
than that proposed by us, of toning up the animal, and restoring the
healthy secretions? They have studied pathology to their hearts'
content; yet any intelligent farmer in this country, with a few simple
herbs, can beat them at curing disease. We would give details, were it
necessary. Suffice it to say, that it is done here every day, and often
through the aid of a little thoroughwort tea, or other harmless agent.
The pathologist may discover alterations in tissues, in the blood, and
the various organs, and tell us that herein lie the cause and seat of
disease; yet these changes themselves are but results, and preceding
these were other manifestations of disorder; therefore pathology must
always be imperfect, because it is a science of consequences.

The most powerful microscopes have been used to discover the seat of
disease; yet this has not taught us to cure one single disease hitherto
incurable.

The old school boast that their whole system of blood-letting, purging,
and poisoning is based on _enlightened experience_! yet their victims
have often discovered, by dear-bought "experience," (_many of whom are
now doing penance with ulcerated gums, rotten teeth, and foetid breath_,)
that, however valuable this "experience" may be to the M. D.'s, they,
the recipients, have not derived that benefit which they were led to
expect would accrue to them. From what has already been written in this
work, the reader, provided he divests himself of all prejudice, will
perceive that allopathic experience is not to be trusted, for their
principles are false; hence their experience is also false. Professor
Curtis, to whom we are indebted for much valuable information, says, "Do
not the old school argue that the most destructive agents in nature may
be made to '_aid the vital forces in the removal of disease_ by the
judicious application of them'? Does not Professor Harrison say, that
the lancet is the great anti-inflammatory agent of the _materia medica_,
that opium is the _magnum Dei donum_ (the great gift of God) for the
relief of pain, and that mercury is the great regulator of all the
secretions?"

Anatomy and physiology are now being taught in our public schools. The
people will, ere long, constitute themselves umpires to decide when
doctors disagree. We apprehend it will then be hard work to convince the
intelligent and thinking part of the community that poisons and the
lancet are sanative agents.

FOOTNOTE:

[3] Mr. White says, "According to the present system of teaching in
these chartered institutions, there is very little benefit to be derived
by the student."

Mr. Blane experienced in his own person the results of this imperfect
system of teaching. He was sent for to fire a valuable horse, and gives
the following account of it: "It was my first essay in firing on my own
account, and _fired_ as I was with my wishes to signalize myself, I
labored to enter my novitiate with all due honor. The farrier of the
village was ordered to attend, a sturdy old man, civil enough, but
looking as though impressed with no very high respect for a _gentleman
farrier's knowledge_. The horse was cast, awkwardly enough, and secured,
as will appear, even more so. I, however, proceeded to show the
superiority of the new over the old schools. I had just then left the
veterinary college, not as a pupil, but as a teacher, which I only
mention to mark the climax. On the very first application of the iron,
up started my patient, flinging me and my assistants in all directions
from him, while he trotted and snorted round the yard with rope, &c. at
his heels. As may be supposed, I was taken aback, and might have gone
back as I came, had not the old farrier, with much good humor, caught
the horse round the neck with his arms, and by some dexterous manoeuvre
brought him on his knees; when, with a jerk, as quick as unexpected, he
threw him at once on his side, when our immediate assistants fixed him,
and we proceeded. It is needless to remark that I retired mortified, and
left the village farrier lord of the ascendant."

"It cannot be doubted that the best operators in this case are always
the common country farriers, who, from devoting themselves entirely to
the occupation, soon become proficient."

This admission on the part of a regular graduate of a veterinary
institution of London shows that the veterinary science, as taught at
the present day, is a matter for reproach. The melancholy triumph of
disease over its victims shows that the science is mere moonshine; that,
in regard to its most important object, the _cure of disease_, it is
mere speculation, rich in theory, but poverty-stricken in its results.
Hence we have not only proof that the American people will be immense
gainers by availing themselves of the labors of reforms, but, as
interested individuals, they have great encouragement to favor our more
rational system of treatment. (For additional remarks on this subject,
see the author's work on the Horse, p. 105.)



INFLAMMATION.


Inflammation has generally been considered the great bugbear of the old
school, and the scarecrow of the cattle doctor. But what do they know
about it? Let us see.

Dr. Thatcher says, "Numerous hypotheses or opinions respecting the true
nature and cause of inflammation have for ages been advanced, and for a
time sustained; but even at the present day, the various doctrines
appear to be considered altogether problematical."

Professor Percival says, "Inflammation consists in an increased action
of the arteries, and may be either _healthy_ or _unhealthy_[4]--a
distinction that appears to relate to some peculiarity of the
constitution."

We find inflammation described by most old school authors as disease,
and they treat it as such. Professor Payne says, "A great majority of
all the disorders to which the human frame is liable begin with
inflammation, or end in inflammation, or are accompanied by inflammation
in some part of their course, or resemble inflammation in their
symptoms. Most of the organic changes in different parts of the body
recognize inflammation as their cause, or lead to it as their effect. In
short, a very large share of the premature extinctions of human life in
general is more of less attributable to inflammation."

The term _inflammation_ has long been employed by medical men to denote
the existence of an unusual degree of redness, pain, heat, and swelling
in any of the textures or organs of which the body is composed.
Professor Curtis says, "But as inflammation sometimes exists without the
exhibition of any of these symptoms, authors have been obliged to
describe it by its causes, in attendant symptoms, and its effects. It is
not more strange than true, that, after studying this subject for, _as
they say_, four thousand years, experimenting on it and with it, and
defining it, the sum of all their knowledge and definitions is
this--inflammation in the animal frame is either a simple or compound
action, increased or diminished, or a cessation of all action; it either
causes, or is caused, or is accompanied, by all the forms of disease to
which the body is subject; it is the only agent of cure in every case in
which a cure is effected; it destroys all that die, except by accident
or old age; it is both disease itself, and the only antidote to disease;
it is the pathological principle which lies at the base of all others;
it is that which the profession least of all understand."

Who believes, then, that the science of medicine is based on a sure
foundation?

The following selections from the allopathic works will prove what is
above stated.

"Pure inflammation is rather an effort of nature than a disease; yet it
always implies disease or disturbance, inasmuch as there must be a
previous morbid or disturbed state to make such an effort
necessary."--_Hunter_, vol. iv. pp. 293, 294.

"As inflammation is an action produced for the restoration of the most
simple injury in sound parts which goes beyond the power of union by the
first intention, we must look upon it as one of the most simple
operations in nature, whatever it may be when arising from disease, or
diseased parts. Inflammation is to be considered only a disturbed state
of parts, which requires a new but salutary mode of action to restore
them to that state wherein a natural mode of action alone is necessary.
Therefore inflammation in itself is not to be considered a disease, but
a salutary operation consequent either to some violence or to some
disease."--_Ibid._ vol. iv. p. 285.

"A wound or bruise cannot recover itself but by inflammation_."--Ibid._
p. 286.

"From whatever cause inflammation arises, it appears to be nearly the
same in all; for in all it is an effort intended to bring about a
reinstatement of the parts to their natural function."--_Ibid._ p. 286.

_Results of Inflammation._--"Inflammation is said to terminate in
resolution, effusion, adhesion, suppuration, ulceration, granulation,
cicatrization, and mortification. All these different terminations,
except the last, may be regarded as so many _vital_ processes, exerted
in different parts of the animal economy."--_Prof. Thompson_, p. 97.

"Inflammation must needs occupy a large share of attention of both the
physician and the surgeon. In nine cases out of ten, the first question
which either of them asks himself, on being summoned to the patient, is,
_Have I to deal with inflammation here?_ It is constantly the object of
his treatment and watchful care. It affects all parts that are furnished
with blood-vessels, and it affects different parts very variously.... It
is by inflammation that wounds are closed and fractures repaired--that
parts adhere together when their adhesion is essential to the
preservation of the individual, and that foreign and hurtful matters are
conveyed out of the body. A cut finger, a deep sabre wound, alike
require inflammation to reunite the divided parts. Does ulceration occur
in the stomach or intestines, and threaten to penetrate through
them--inflammation will often forerun and provide against the
danger--glue the threatened membrane to whatever surface may be next
it.... The foot mortifies, is killed by injury or by exposure to
cold--inflammation will cut off the dead and useless part. An abscess
forms in the liver, or a large calculus concretes in the gall-bladder:
how is the pus or the calculus to be got rid of?... Partial inflammation
precedes and prepares for the expulsion; the liver or the gall-bladder
becomes adherent to the walls of the abdomen on the one hand, or to the
intestinal canal on the other; and then the surgeon may plunge his
lancet into the collection of pus, or the abscess; or the calculus may
cut its own way safely out of the body, through the skin or into the
bowels."--_Watson_, p. 94.

"The salutary acts of restoration and prevention just adverted to, are
such as nature conducts and originates. But we are ourselves able, in
many instances, to direct and control the effect of inflammation--nay,
we can excite it at our pleasure; and, having excited it, we are able,
in a great degree, to regulate its course. And for this reason it
becomes, in skilful hands, an instrument of cure."--_Ibid._ p. 94.

The above quotations are not complete. They are selections from the
sources whence they are drawn of those portions which testify that fever
and inflammation are one and the same thing, and that this same thing
consists in a salutary effort of nature to protect the organs of the
body from the action of the causes of disease, or to remove those causes
and their effects from the organs once diseased. That the same authors
teach the very contrary of all this in the same paragraphs, and often in
the same sentences, the following extracts will clearly prove:--

_Inflammation produces disease._--"When inflammation cannot accomplish
that salutary purpose, (a cure,) as in cancer, scrofula, &c., it does
mischief."--_Hunter_, p. 285.

"Inflammation is occasionally the cause of disease."--_Ibid._ p. 286.

"In one point of view, it may be considered as a disease
itself."--_Ibid._

"It may be divided into two kinds, the healthy and the unhealthy.... The
unhealthy admits of a vast variety," &c.--_Ibid._

"Inflammation often produces mortification or death in the inflamed
part."--_Ibid._ vol. iv. p. 305.

"In the light of such authorities, it is surely not strange that no
definite knowledge can be obtained of the nature, character, or tendency
of inflammation. Of course, no one will dispute the proposition, that
medicine, as taught in the schools, is a superstructure without a
foundation, and should be wholly rejected."--_Prof. Curtis._

If the regulars have no correct theory of inflammation, then their
system of blood-letting is all wrong. This they acknowledge; for many
with whom we have lately conversed say, "We do not use the lancet so
often as formerly." One very good reason is, the sovereign people will
not let them. Would it not be better for them to abolish its use
altogether, as we have done, and avail themselves of the reform of the
age?

The following remarks, selected from an address delivered by our
respected preceptor, Professor Brown, ought to be read by every friend
of humanity.

"The very air groans with the bitter anathemas the people pronounce upon
calomel, antimony, copper, zinc, arsenic, arsenious acid, stramonium,
foxglove, belladonna, henbane, nux vomica, opium, morphia, and
narcotin.

"Hear their bitter cries, borne on every breeze, 'Help! help! help!' See
the dim taper of life; it glimmers--'tis gone! Vitality struggled, and
struggled manfully to the last. The poisonous dose was repeated, till
the citadel was yielded up.

"The doctor arrives and attempts to comfort and quiet the broken-hearted
widow, and helpless, dependent, fatherless children, by recounting the
frailties of poor human nature, and reminding them of the fact that all
men must die.

"And thus the work of death goes on: the tenderest ties are severed;
children are left fatherless; parents are bereaved of their children;
families are reduced to fragments; society deprived of her best
citizens, and the world filled with misery, confusion, and poverty, in
consequence of an evil system of medication....

"The ball is in motion, the banner of medical reform waves gracefully
over our beloved country. Hosts of the right stripe are coming to the
rescue. Poisons are condemned, the lancet is growing dull, the effusion
of blood will soon cease, the battles are half fought, and the victory
is sure.... While we would have you adhere to the well-established,
fundamental principles of reformed medical science, as taught in this
school, we would have you recollect that discoveries in knowledge are
progressing.... Never entertain the foolish, absurd, and dangerous idea,
that because you have been to college, you have learned all that is to
be learned--that your education is finished, and you have nothing more
to learn. The college is a place where we go to learn how to learn, and
the world is the great university, in which our educational exercises
terminate with our last expiring breath."

The author craves the reader's indulgence for introducing Dr. Brown's
remarks at this stage of the work. It is intended for a class of readers
(_the farmers_) who have not the time to make themselves acquainted with
all that is going on in the medical world. We aim to make the book
acceptable to that class of men. If we fail, the fault is in us, not in
our subjects.

FOOTNOTE:

[4] Inflammation is a vital action, and cannot be properly termed
_diseased_ action. The only action that can be properly termed
_diseased_ is the chemical action.



REMARKS,

SHOWING THAT VERY LITTLE IS KNOWN OF THE NATURE AND TREATMENT OF
DISEASE.


Mr. Percival details a case of peritonitis,[5] after the usual symptoms
in the early stage had subsided. "The horse's bowels became much
relaxed: suspecting that there was some disorder in the alimentary
canal, and that this was an effort of nature to get rid of it, I
promoted the diarrhoea by giving mild doses of cathartic medicine, in
combination with calomel!" [Nature did not require such assistance: warm
drinks, composed of marshmallows, or slippery elm, would have been just
the thing.]

"On the third day from this, prolapsus ani (falling of the fundament)
made its appearance. After the return of the gut, the animal grew daily
duller, and more dejected, manifesting evident signs of considerable
inward disorder, though he showed none of acute pain; the diarrhoea
continued; swelling of the belly and tumefaction of the legs speedily
followed: eight pounds of blood were drawn, and two ounces of oil of
turpentine were given internally, and in spite of another bleeding, and
some subordinate measures, carried him off [the treatment, we presume]
in the course of a few hours.

"Dissection: a slight blush pervaded the peritoneum; at least the
parietal portion of it, for the coats of the stomach and intestines
preserved their natural whiteness. About eight gallons of water were
measured out of the belly.[6] The abdominal viscera, as well as the
thoracic, showed no marks of disease."

We have stated, in the preceding pages, that the farmers can generally
treat some cases of disease, by simple means, with much better success
than some of the regulars; yet there are exceptions. Some of them have
been inoculated with the virus of allopathy; and when an animal is taken
sick, and manifests evident signs of great derangement, they seem to
suppose that the more medicine they cram down the better, forgetting,
perhaps not knowing, that the province of the physician is to know when
to do nothing. Others err from want of judgment; and if they have an
animal sick, they send for the neighbors; each one has a favorite
remedy; down go castor oil, aloes, gin and molasses, in rapid
succession. "He has inflammation of the insides," says one; "give him
salts." No sooner said than done; the salts are hurried down, and, of
course, find their way into the paunch. These, together with a host of
medicines too numerous to mention, are tried without effect: all is
commotion within; fermentation commences; gas is evolved; the animal
gives signs of woe. As a last resort, paunching, bleeding, &c., follow;
perhaps the horns are bored, or some form of barbarity practised, and
the animal dies under the treatment.

A case similar to the above came under our notice a few months since. A
cow, of a superior breed, was sent a few miles into the country to
winter. Having always had the very best of feed, the owner gave
particular instructions that she should be fed accordingly; instead of
which, however, she was fed on foxgrass and other indigestible matter,
in consequence of which she was attacked with acute indigestion,
(gastric fever, as it is generally called,) more popularly known, in
barn-yard language, as a "stoppage." A man professing to understand
_cow-doctoring_ was sent for, who, after administering "every thing he
could think of" without success, gave a mixture of hog's lard and castor
oil. When asked what indication he expected to fulfil, he replied, "My
object was to wake up the cow's ideas"! Unfortunately, he awoke the
wrong ideas; for the cow died. On making a post mortem examination,
about half a bushel of partly-masticated foxgrass was found in the
paunch, and the manyplus was distended beyond its physiological
capacity. On making an incision into it, the partly-digested food was
quite hard and dry, and the mucous covering of the laminæ--even the
laminæ themselves--could be detached with the slightest force. The
farmer will probably inquire, What ought to be done in such cases?
Before we answer the question, a few remarks on the nature of the
obstruction seem to be necessary.

In the article _Description of the Organs of Digestion_, the reader will
learn the modes by which the food reaches the different compartments of
the stomach. In reference to the above case, the causes of derangement
are self-evident, which will be seen as we proceed. The animal had,
previous to the journey, (thirty miles,) received the greatest care and
attention; in short, she had been petted. Being pregnant at the time,
the stomach was more susceptible to derangement than at any other time.
The long journey could not act otherwise than unfavorably: first,
because it would fatigue the muscular system; secondly, because it would
irritate the nervous. Here, then, are the first causes; and it is
important, in all cases of a deviation from health, to ascertain, as
near as possible, the causes, and remove them. _This is considered the
first step towards a cure._ If we cannot remove the causes, we are
enabled, by an inquiry into them, to adopt the most efficient means for
the recovery of the animal. The animal having had a bountiful meal
before starting on the journey, and not being allowed sufficient time to
remasticate, (rumination is partially or totally suspended during active
exercise,) probably, combined with the above causes, an acute attack of
the stomach set in--subsided after a few days, and left those organs in
a debilitated state. The sudden change in diet also acted unfavorably,
especially as the foxgrass required more than ordinary gastric power to
reduce it to a pulpy mass, fit to enter the fourth, or true digestive
stomach. For want of a due share of vital action in the abomasum,
(fourth stomach,) it was unable to perform its part in the physiological
process of digestion; hence the accumulation found in the manyplus. The
causes of the detachment of laminæ, and the blanched appearances,--for
it was as white as new linen,--were partly chemical and partly
mechanical. The mechanical obstruction consisted in over-distention of
the manyplus from food, thereby obstructing the circulation of the blood
through its parietes, (walls,) and depriving it not only of nutriment,
from the nerves of nutrition, but paralyzing its secretive function. It
then became a prey to chemical action and decomposition. The indications
of cure were, to arouse the digestive organs by stimulants, then by
anti-spasmodic, relaxing, and tonic medicines, (for which see
APPENDIX:) the digestive organs would probably have recommenced
their healthy action, and the life of the animal might have been saved.
Oil and grease, of every description and kind, are not suitable remedies
to administer to cattle when laboring under indigestion; for at best
their action is purely mechanical, and cannot be assimilated by the
nutritive function so as to act medicinally. Linseed oil is, however,
absorbed and diffused. If the animal labors under obstinate
constipation, and it is evident that the obstruction is confined to the
intestines, then we may resort to a dose of oil.

The reader will perceive the benefits to be derived from a knowledge of
animal physiology and veterinary medicine, when based upon sound
principles and common sense. He will also see the importance of having
educated and honorable men employed in cattle-doctoring. No doubt there
are such; but surely something is "rotten in Denmark;" for we are
repeatedly told by our patrons that they "judge of the merits of the
veterinary art by the men they find engaged in it."

_Scientific Treatment of Colic, or Gripes._--"On the 5th September,
1824, a young bay mare was admitted into the infirmary with symptoms of
colic, for which she lost eight pounds of blood before she came in. The
following drench was prescribed to be given immediately: laudanum and
oil of turpentine, of each, three ounces, with the addition of six
ounces of decoction of aloes. In the course of half an hour, this was
repeated! But shortly after, she vomited the greater part by the mouth
and nostrils. No relief having been obtained, twelve pounds of blood
were taken from her, and the same drink was given. In another hour, this
drench was repeated; and, for the fourth time, during the succeeding
hour; both of which, before death, she rejected, as she had done the
second drink. Notwithstanding these active measures were promptly taken,
she died about three hours after her admission." (See Clark's _Essay on
Gripes_.) It appears that the doctors made short work of it. Twelve
ounces of laudanum, and the same of turpentine,[7] in three hours! But
this is "_secundum artem_" "skilful treatment"--a specimen of "science
and skill," and justifiable in every case where the symptoms are
"alarming." Let the reader, if he has ever seen a case of colic treated
by us, contrast the result. Had the case been treated with relaxing,
anti-spasmodic, carminative drinks, warmth and moisture externally,
injections internally, and frictions generally, the poor animal would,
probably, have been saved. We have attended many cases of the same sort,
and have not yet lost the first one.

_Extraordinary case of "cattle doctoring"!--which ought to be termed
cattle-killing._--We were requested by Mr. S. of Waltham, December 18,
1850, to see a sick cow. The following is the history of the case: The
cow, as near as we could judge, was of native breed, in good condition,
and in her eighth pregnant month; pulse, 80 per minute; respirations, 36
per minute; external surface, ears, horns, and legs, cold. She had not
dunged for several days. She was found lying on her belly, with her head
turned round towards the left side. She struggled occasionally, and
appeared to suffer from abdominal pain. She uttered a low, moaning sound
when pressure was made on the abdominal muscles. The following facts
were related to us by the owner, which we give in his own language. "I
bought the cow, and drove her about 200 miles to this place. She had
been here about a week, when I perceived she did not eat her feed as
well as usual. She became sick about nine days ago, I thought it best to
begin to doctor her! I employed a man who was reputed to be a pretty
good cattle doctor. She got pretty well dosed between us, for we first
gave her one pound of salts. The next day we gave her another pound.
Finding this also failed to have the desired effect, we gave her one
pound eight ounces more. She kept getting worse. We next gave her a
quart of urine. She still grew worse. Two table-spoonfuls of gunpowder
and a quarter of a pound of antimony were then given; still no
improvement. As a last resort, we gave her eight drops of croton oil; a
few hours afterwards, nine drops more were given; and a final dose of
twenty drops of the same article was administered. The cow rolled her
eyes as if she were about to die. I then called in the neighbors to kill
her, when one of them advised me to come and see you." The reader will
here perceive that we had a pretty desperate case; having been called in
just at the eleventh hour. We may here remark that the cow had been
under treatment nine days, during which time she had eaten scarcely any
food, and passed but very little excrement. The medicine had been given
at different stages during that period. There was evidently no
accumulation of excrement in the rectum, for she had been raked and
received several injections.

As we were not requested to take charge of the case, the owner being
unwilling to incur additional expense, we, therefore, with a view of
giving present relief, and fulfilling the necessary indications, ordered
the following:

  Powdered slippery elm,         1 table-spoonful.
    "      caraways,             1 tea-spoonful.
    "      marshmallows,         1 table-spoonful.
    "      skullcap,             1 tea-spoonful.
    "      grains of paradise,   1 tea-spoonful.

A sufficient quantity of boiling water to form it into the consistence
of thin gruel; a junk bottle full to be given every two hours.

Directions were given to rub the ears and extremities until they were
warm, and the strength of the animal to be supported with thin flour
gruel.

The indications to be fulfilled were as follows:--

1st. To lubricate the mucous surfaces, and defend them from the action
of the drugs.

2d. To arouse the digestive function, and prevent the generation of
carbonic acid gas.

3d. To allay nervous excitement, and remove spasms.

Lastly. To equalize the circulation.

The first indication can be fulfilled by slippery elm and marshmallows;
the second, by caraway seeds; the third, by skullcap; and the fourth, by
grains of paradise.

We have not been able, up to the present time, to ascertain the result.

Here, then, are a few examples of horse and cattle doctoring, which we
might multiply indefinitely, did we think it would benefit the reader.
We ask the reader to ponder on these facts, and then answer the
question, "What do horse and cattle doctors know about the treatment of
disease?"

It gives us much pleasure, however, and probably it will the reader, to
know that a few of the veterinary surgeons of London are just beginning
to see the error of their ways. The following contribution to the
Veterinarian, from the pen of Veterinary Surgeon Haycock, will be read
with interest. The quotations are not complete. We only select those
portions which we deem most instructive to our readers. The disease to
which it alludes, _puerperal fever_, has made, and is at the present
time making, sad havoc among the stock of our cattle-growing interest;
and it stands us in hand to gather honey wherever we can find it. "Of
the various questions which present themselves to traders and owners of
cattle respecting puerperal fever, the following are, perhaps, a few of
the most important: First. At what period of their life are cows the
most liable to be attacked with puerperal fever? Secondly. At what
period after the animal has calved does the disease generally supervene?
Thirdly. What is the average rate of mortality amongst cows attacked
with this disease? Fourthly. What is the best method to pursue with
cattle, in order, if possible, to prevent the disease? Fifthly. What is
the best mode of treatment to be pursued with cattle when so attacked?
To these several questions I shall endeavor to reply as fully as my own
knowledge of the matter will allow me. They are questions which ought to
have been answered years ago; [so they would have been, doctor, if, as
Curtis says, your brethren had not been _progressing in a circle,
instead of direct lines_;] but no one appears to have thought it
necessary. They are questions of great importance to the agriculturist;
if they were fully answered, he would be able to form a pretty accurate
estimate as to the amount of risk he was likely at all times to incur
with respect to puerperal diseases of a febrile nature. For instance,
suppose it was fully ascertained, from data furnished by the correct
observations of a number of practitioners, at what period of the cow's
life the animal is most liable to be attacked with puerperal fever; the
agriculturist and cow-keeper would be able, in a considerable degree, to
guard against it, either by feeding the animal, or taking such other
steps as a like experience proved to be the best. It is of no earthly
use practitioners writing 'grandiloquent' papers upon diseases like
puerperal fever; or in their telling the world, that puerperal fever is
a disease of the nervous system; or that the name which is given to it
is very improper, _and not suggestive; or that bleeding and the
administration of a powerful purgative are proper to commence with_;
together with hosts of stereotyped statements of a like
nature--statements which are unceasingly repeated, and which are without
one jot of sound experience to substantiate them. [All good and sound
doctrine.]

"Question First. _At what period of their lives are cows the most liable
to be attacked with puerperal fever?_ I have in my possession notes and
memoranda of twenty-nine cases of this disease, which notes and
memoranda I have collected from cases I have treated from the month of
July, 1842, to the month of July, 1849--a period of seven years; and
with reference to the above question the figures stand thus: Out of the
twenty-nine, three of them were attacked at the third parturient period,
five ditto at the fourth, sixteen at the fifth, two at the sixth, and
three at the eighth.

"It appears, then, from the above numbers, that cows are the most liable
to puerperal fever at the fifth parturient period--a fact which is
noticed by Mr. Barlow.

"Secondly. _At what period after the animal has calved does the disease
generally supervene?_ With reference to this question, the twenty-nine
cases stand thus:--

  5 cows immediately after parturition.
  8   "  in 20 hours   "        "
  6   "  in 23   "     "        "
  5   "  in 24   "     "        "
  3   "  in 30   "     "        "
  2   "  in 36   "     "        "
  1   "  in 72   "     "        "

"It appears, then, from the above, that after the twentieth and
twenty-fourth hours, the animals, comparatively speaking, may be
considered as safe from the disease; and that after the seventy-second
or seventy-third hour, all danger may be considered as past, beyond
doubt.

"Thirdly. _What is the average rate of mortality amongst cows attacked
with this disease?_ Out of the 29 cases, 12, I find, recovered and 17
died; which loss is equivalent to somewhere about 59 per cent.--a loss
which, I am inclined to think, is not so great as that of many other
practitioners. [It will be still less if you reject poison as well as
the lancet.]

"Mr. Cartwright, in the May number of the Veterinarian of the present
year, states that, 'Although I have seen at least a hundred cases,
chiefly in this neighborhood, [Whitchurch,] during the last twenty-five
years, yet I am almost ashamed to confess that I cannot call to
recollection that I ever cured a single case, [neither will you ever
cure one as long as the lancet and poison are coöperative,] nor have I
ever heard of a case ever being cured by any of the quacks in the
neighborhood.' [Of course not, for the quacks follow in the footsteps of
their prototypes, the _regular_ veterinary surgeons.]

"Fourthly. _What is the best method to pursue with cattle, in order, if
possible, to_ PREVENT _the disease?_ This is a question which I
hope to see amply discussed by veterinarians. I have but little to offer
respecting it myself; but I labor under a kind of feeling that something
valuable may not only be said, but done, by way of prevention. With
reference to preventing the disease, Mr. Barlow, in his Essay, says,
'There is a pretty certain preventive in milking the cow some time
before calving in full _blood-letting_ before or immediately after; in
purgatives, very limited diet, and other depletive measures; each and
all tending to illustrate the necessity of a vascular state of the
system for its development!'"

Mr. Haycock continues: "So far as my own experience is concerned, it is
at variance with almost every one of my observations. In the table which
I have given respecting question 2, the reader will recollect that I
stated that puerperal fever supervened in five cows immediately after
parturition. Now, it is worthy of remark, of these five cases, that
every animal had been milked many hours previous to calving. The full
udder, under such circumstances, is a powerful excitant to the uterus:
this is a well-known fact, and the consequence is, that if this natural
excitant be withdrawn, the action of the process at once becomes
diminished. I have known many cases, in addition to those already given,
where the parturient process was prolonged for hours in consequence of
the animal's being milked, in whom fever supervened almost immediately
afterwards. The prolonged process, I think, greatly weakens the animal,
and, as a natural result, the vital energies become less capable of
maintaining their normal integrity. With reference, again, to bleeding
and purging as preventives, I have nothing to offer in favor of either
mode. I do not believe that they are preventives. [Good, again, doctor:
you are one of the right stripe. It would give us pleasure to see a few
such as you on this side of the water.] First of all, we require to know
what percentage of calving cows are liable to be affected with puerperal
fever; then, whether that percentage becomes reduced in number in
consequence of such preventive measures being brought into force: these
are the only modes whereby the matter can be proved; and, so far as I
know, no one has ever brought the question to such a test. That bleeding
and purging are considered as preventives by people in general, I know
perfectly; but, like many other popular opinions, the thing which is
believed requires first to be proved ere it becomes truth.

"I perfectly agree with Mr. Barlow in recommending spare diet. I regard
it, in fact, as the great preventive.... When I say spare diet, I do not
mean poor diet. The food should be good, but they should not have that
huge bulk of matter which they are capable of devouring, and which they
appear so much to desire. I should commence the process for eight or ten
days prior to calving, or even, with some animals, much earlier; and the
diet I would give should consist of beans, boiled linseed, and boiled
oats, with occasionally small portions of hay. I should not always feed
upon one mixture. I might occasionally substitute boiled barley in place
of oats; and when the time for calving was very near at hand, say within
a day or so, I should become more sparing with my hay, and more copious
with my allowance of bran. With regard to the diet after calving, I
should pursue much the same course I have named: perhaps for the first
thirty hours I might allow the animal nothing but gruel and bran mash,
in which I should mix a little oatmeal, or very thick gruel. I have
sometimes thought--_but hitherto it has not gone beyond a thought with
me_--that a broad cotton or linen bandage, fixed moderately tight round
the cow's body immediately after calving, might prove of some assistance
as a preventive. I have had no experience in its benefit myself; I
merely suggest the thing; and if it did nothing more, it would prevent,
in some measure, the animal from feeling that sensation of vacuity which
must necessarily exist immediately and for some time after calving, and
which, I think, under some conditions of the system, may be injurious to
the animal. I am told by a medical friend of mine, that he has known
puerperal fever produced in women solely from midwives' neglecting to
bandage them after delivery; at any rate, a bandage, or a broad belt
having straps and buckles attached, and placed securely round the cow's
body immediately after calving, and kept there for a day or two, could
do no harm, if it failed of doing good.

"Fifthly. _Which is the best method of treatment to pursue with cows
when attacked with puerperal fever?_ Upon this question I feel that I
could say much; but at present I defer its consideration.... Suffice it
to say, then, that I never either bleed or administer purges. I used
once to do both, but my experience has shown me, in numerous cases, that
neither is necessary.... This malady I have written upon is fearfully
destructive; and if such diseases cannot be met with powers capable of
wrestling with it, I, for one, shall say that it is a stigma upon our
art--I will say that when we are most wanted, we are of the least use."

FOOTNOTES:

[5] Inflammation of the peritoneum.

[6] Water very frequently accumulates in the belly or chest, after
blood-letting.

[7] On remonstrating with a man who was about to administer half a pint
of turpentine to a cow, he replied, "She has no business to be a cow!"
We presume that some of the regulars have just as much, and not a
particle more, of the milk of animal kindness as this man seemed to
show.



NATURE, TREATMENT, AND CAUSES OF DISEASE IN CATTLE.


The pathology, or doctrine of diseases, is, as we have previously
stated, little understood. Many different causes have been assigned for
disease, and as many different modes of cure have been advocated. We
shall not discuss either the ancient or modern doctrines any further
than we conceive they interfere with correct principles. In doing so, we
shall endeavor to confine ourselves to truth, reason, and nature.

We entirely discard the popular doctrine that _fever_ and _inflammation_
are disease. We look upon them as simple acts of the constitution--sanative
in their nature. Then the reader may ask, "Why do you recommend medicine
for them?" We do not. We only prescribe medicine, for the purpose of aiding
nature to cure the diseases of which _they_ (the fever and inflammation)
are symptoms, and we do not expect to accomplish even that by medicine
alone. Ventilation, diet, and exercise, in nine cases out of ten, will do
more good than the destructive agents that have hitherto been used, and
christened "cattle medicines."

The great secret of curing diseases is, by accurately observing the
indications of nature to carry off and cure disease, and by observing by
what critical evacuations she does at last cast off the morbid matter
which caused them, and so restores health. By thus observing, following,
and assisting _nature_, agreeably to her indications, our practice will
always be more satisfactory.

Whenever the great outlets (skin, lungs, and kidneys) of the animal body
are obstructed, morbific and excrementitious substances are retained in
the system; they irritate, stimulate, and offend nature in such a
manner, that she always exerts her power to throw them off. And she acts
with great regularity in her endeavors to expel the offending matter,
and thus restore the animal to a healthy state.

Suppose an animal to be attacked with disease, and fever supervenes; the
whole system is then aroused to cast out this disease: nature invariably
points to certain outlets, as the only passages through which the enemy
must evacuate the system; and it is the province of the physician to aid
in this wise and well-established effort; but when such means are
resorted to as in the case of the cow at Waltham, (p. 98,) instead of
rendering nature the necessary assistance, her powers and energies are
entirely crushed.

Let us suppose a horse to have been exercised; during that exercise,
there is a determination of heat and fluids to the surface: the pores of
the skin expand and permit the fluids to make their exit: now, if the
horse is put into a cold stable, evaporation commences, leaving the
surface cold and the pores constricted, so that, after the circulating
system has rested a while, it commences a strong action again, to throw
off the remaining fluids that were thus suddenly arrested; there is no
chance for their escape, as the pores are closed; the skin then becomes
dry and harsh, the "coat stares," and the animal has, in common
parlance, taken cold, and "it has thrown him into a fever." Now, the
cold is the real enemy to be overcome, and the fever should be aided by
warmth, moisture, friction, and diffusables. If, at this stage, the cold
is removed, the fever will disappear; but if the disease (the cold) has
been allowed to advance until a general derangement or sympathetic
action is set up, and there is an accumulation of morbific matter in the
system, then the restorative process must be more powerful and
energetic; constantly bearing in mind that we must assist nature in her
endeavors to throw off whatever is the cause of her infirmities. Instead
of attacking the disease with the lancet and poison,--which is on the
principle of killing the horse to cure the fever,--we should use
remedies that are favorable to life. It matters not what organs are
affected; the means and processes are the same, and therefore the
division of inflammation and fever into a great number of parts
designated by as many names, and indicated by twenty times as many
complications of symptoms which may never be present, only serve to
bewilder the practitioner, and render his practice ineffectual.



PLEURO-PNEUMONIA.


As very little is, at present, known of the nature of this disease, we
give the reader the views of Mr. Dun, who received the gold medal
offered by the Agricultural Society for the best essay on this subject.

"The causes of the disease, both immediate and remote, are subjects full
of interest and importance; and a knowledge of them not only aids in the
prevention of disease, but also leads the practitioner to form a more
correct prognosis, and to pursue the most approved course of treatment.
It is, however, unfortunate that the causes of pleuro-pneumonia have not
as yet been satisfactorily explained. No department of the history of
the disease is less understood, or more involved in doubt and
obscurity. But in this respect pleuro-pneumonia is not peculiar: it is
but one of an extensive class which embraces most epidemic and epizoötic
diseases. And if the causes which produce influenza, fevers, and
cholera, were clearly explained, those which produce pleuro-pneumonia
would, in all probability, be easy of solution.

"Viewing the wide-spread and similar effects of pleuro-pneumonia, we may
surmise that they are referable to some common cause. And although much
difference of opinion exists upon this subject, it cannot be denied that
_contagion_ is a most active cause in the diffusion of the disease.
Indeed, a due consideration of the history and spread of
pleuro-pneumonia over all parts of the land will be sufficient to show
that, in certain stages of the disease, it possesses the power of
infecting animals apparently in a sound and healthy condition, and
otherwise unexposed to the action of any exciting cause. The peculiarity
of the progress of this disease, from the time that it first appeared in
England, is of itself no small evidence of its contagious nature. Its
slow and gradual progress is eminently characteristic of diffusion by
contagion; and not only were the earlier cases which occurred in this
island distinctly proved to have arisen from contact with the Irish
droves, but also subsequent cases, even up to the present day, show
numerous examples in which contagion is clearly and unequivocally
traceable.... Although pleuro-pneumonia is not produced by the action of
anyone of these circumstances alone, [referring to noxious effluvia,
&c.,] yet many of them must be considered as predisposing to the
disease; and although not its immediate exciting causes, yet, by
depressing the physical powers, they render the system more liable to
disease, and less able to withstand its assaults. Deficient ventilation,
filth, insufficient and bad food, may indeed predispose to the disease,
concentrate the animal effluvia, and become the _matrix_ and _nidus_ of
the organic poison; but still, not one, alone, of these circumstances,
or even all of them combined, can produce the disease in question. There
must be the subtle poison to call them into operation, the specific
influence to generate the disease."

"On the other hand, it appears probable that the exciting cause, whether
it be contagion, or whatever else, cannot, of itself, generate the
disease; but that certain conditions or predisposing causes are
necessary to its existence, and without which its specific effects
cannot be produced. But although these _remote_ or _predisposing_ causes
are very numerous, they are often difficult of detection; nay, it is
sometimes impossible to tell to what the disease is referable, or upon
what weak point the exciting cause has fixed itself. A source of
perplexity results from the fact.... The predisposing causes of the
disease admit of many divisions and subdivisions; they may, however, be
considered under two general heads--_hereditary_ and _acquired_.

"With reference to the former, we know that good points and properties
of an animal are transmitted from one generation to another; so also are
faults, and the tendencies to particular diseases. As in the same
families there is a similarity of external form, so is there also an
internal likeness, which accounts for the common nature of their
constitution, modified, however, by difference of age, sex, &c.

"Among the acquired predisposing causes of pleuro-pneumonia may be
enumerated general debility, local weakness, resulting from previous
disease, irritants and stimulants, exposure to cold, damp or sudden
changes of temperature, the want of cleanliness, the breathing of an
atmosphere vitiated by the decomposition of animal or vegetable matters,
or laden with any other impurity. In short, under this head may be
included every thing which tends to lower the health and vigor of the
system, and consequently to increase the susceptibility to disease.

"The primary symptoms of pleuro-pneumonia are generally obscure, and too
often excite but little attention or anxiety. As the disease steals on,
the animal becomes dull and dejected, and, if in the field, separates
itself from its fellows. It becomes uneasy, ceases to ruminate, and the
respirations are a little hurried. If it be a milk-cow, the lacteal
secretion is diminished, and the udder is hot and tender. The eyes are
dull, the head is lowered, nose protruded, and the nostrils expanded.
The urine generally becomes scanty and high-colored. It is seldom
thought that much is the matter with the animal until it ceases to eat;
but this criterion does not hold good in most cases of the disease, for
the animal at the outset still takes its food, and continues to do so
until the blood becomes impoverished and poisoned; it is then that the
system becomes deranged, the digestive process impaired, and fever
established. The skin adheres to the ribs, and there is tenderness along
the spine. Manipulation of the trachea, and percussion applied to the
sides, causes the animal to evince pain. Although the beast may have
been ill only three days, the number of pulsations are generally about
seventy per minute; but they are sometimes eighty, and even more. In the
first stage, the artery under the jaw feels full and large; but as the
disease runs on, the pulse rapidly becomes smaller, quicker, and more
oppressed. The breathing is labored, and goes on accelerating as the
local inflammation increases. The fore extremities are planted wide
apart, with the elbows turned out in order to arch the ribs, and form
fixed points for the action of those muscles which the animal brings
into operation to assist the respiratory process. In pleuro-pneumonia,
the hot stage of fever is never of long duration, [_simply because there
is not enough vitality in the system to keep up a continued fever_.] The
state of collapse quickly ensues, when the surface heat again decreases,
and the pulse becomes small and less distinct. We have now that low
typhoid fever so much to be dreaded, and which characterizes the disease
in common with epizoötics.

"... The horse laboring under pleuro-pneumonia, or, indeed, any
pulmonary disease, will not lie down; but, in the same circumstances,
cattle do so as readily as in health. They do not, however, lie upon
their side, but couch upon the sternum, which is broad and flat, and
covered by a quantity of fibro-cellular substance, which serves as a
cushion; while the articulation between the lower extremities of the
ribs admits of lateral expansion of the chest. In this position cattle
generally lie towards the side principally affected, thus relieving the
sounder side, and enabling it to act more freely. There is sometimes a
shivering and general tremor, which may exist throughout the whole
course of the disease. (This is owing to a loss of equilibrium between
the nerves of nutrition and the circulation.) ... As the case advances
in severity, and runs on to an unfavorable termination, the pulse loses
its strength and becomes quicker. Respiration is in most cases attended
by a grunt at the commencement of expiration--a symptom, however, not
observable in the horse. The expired air is cold, and of a _noisome_
odor. The animal crouches. There is sometimes an apparent knuckling over
at the fetlocks, caused by pain in the joints. This symptom is mostly
observable in cases when the pleura and pericardium are affected. The
animal grinds its teeth. The appetite has now entirely failed, and the
emaciation becomes extreme. The muscles, especially those employed in
respiration, become wasted; the belly is tucked, and the flanks heave;
the oppressive uneasiness is excessive; the strength fails, under the
convulsive efforts attendant upon respiration, and the poor animal dies.

"In using means to prevent the occurrence of the disease, we should
endeavor to maintain in a sound and healthy tone the physical powers of
the stock, and to avoid whatever tends to depress the vital force.
Exposure to the influence of contagion [and infection] must be guarded
against, and, on the appearance of the disease, every precaution must be
used to prevent the healthy having communication with the sick. By a
steady pursuance, on the part of the stock proprietor, of these
precautionary measures, and by the exercise of care, prudence, and
attention, the virulence of the disease will, we are sure, be much
abated, and its progress checked."

As the reader could not be benefited by our detailing the system of
medication pursued in England,--at least we should judge not, when we
take into consideration the great loss that attends their _best
efforts_,--we shall therefore proceed to inform the reader what the
treatment ought to be in the different stages of the disease.


_General Indication of Cure in Pleuro-Pneumonia._--Restore the
suppressed evacuations, or the secretions and excretions, if they are
obstructed.

If bronchial irritation or a cough be present, shield and defend the
mucous surfaces from irritation. Relieve congestions by equalizing the
circulation. Support the powers of the system. Relieve all urgent
symptoms.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Special Practice._--Suppose a cow to be attacked with a slight cough.
She appears dull, and is off her feed; pulse full, and bowels
constipated; and she is evidently out of condition.

Then the medicines should be anti-spasmodic and relaxant, tonic,
diaphoretic, and lubricating.

The following is a good example:--

  Powdered golden seal, (tonic,)                   1 table-spoonful.
    "      mandrake, (relaxant,)                   2 tea-spoonfuls.
    "      lobelia, (anti-spasmodic,)              1 tea-spoonful.
    "      slippery elm or mallows, (lubricating,) 1 table-spoonful.
    "      hyssop tea, (diaphoretic,)              1 gallon.

After straining the hyssop tea, mix with it the other ingredients, and
give a quart every two hours.

In the mean time, administer the following injection:--

  Powdered lobelia,             } of each, half a
    "      ginger,              } table-spoonful.
  Boiling water,                  1 gallon.

When cool, inject.

Particular attention must be paid to the general surface, If the surface
and the extremities are cold, then employ friction, warmth, and
moisture. The animal must be in a comfortable barn, neither too hot nor
too cold; if it be imperfectly ventilated, the atmosphere may be
improved by stirring a red-hot iron in vinegar or pyroligneous acid, or
by pouring either of these articles on heated bricks. The strength is to
be supported, provided the animal be in poor condition, with gruel, made
of flour and shorts, equal parts; but, as it frequently happens (in this
country) that animals in good flesh are attacked, in such case food
would be inadmissible.

Suppose the animal to have been at pasture, and she is not observed to
be "ailing" until rumination is suspended. She then droops her head, and
has a cough, accompanied with difficult breathing, weakness in the legs,
and sore throat. Then, in addition to warmth, moisture, and friction, as
already directed, apply to the joints and throat the following:

  Boiling vinegar,                   1 quart.
  African cayenne,                   1 table-spoonful.

The throat being sore, the part should be rubbed gently. The joints may
be rubbed with energy for several minutes. The liquid must not be
applied too hot.

Take

  Virginia snakeroot,       } of each, 2 ounces.
  Sage,                     }
  Skullcap, (herb,)                    1 ounce.
  Pleurisy root,                       1 ounce.
  Infuse in boiling water,             1 gallon.

After standing for the space of one hour, strain; then add a gill of
honey and an ounce of powdered licorice or slippery elm. Give a quart
every four hours.

Should the cough be troublesome, give

  Balsam copaiba,              1 table-spoonful.
  Sirup of garlic,             1 ounce.
  Thin gruel,                  1 quart.

Give the whole at a dose, and repeat as occasion may require. A second
dose, however, should not be given until twelve hours have elapsed.

Injections must not be overlooked, for several important indications can
be fulfilled by them. (For the different forms, see APPENDIX.)

If the disease has assumed a typhus form, then the indications will
be,--

First. To equalize the circulation and nervous system, and maintain that
equilibrium. This is done by giving the following:--

  Powdered African cayenne,     1 tea-spoonful.
     "     flagroot,            1 table-spoonful.
  Skullcap,                     1/2 ounce.
  Marshmallows,                 4 ounces.

Put the whole of the ingredients into a gallon of water; boil for five
minutes; and, when cool, strain; sweeten with a small quantity of honey;
then give a quart every two hours.

The next indication is, to counteract the tendency to putrescence. This
may be done by causing the animal to inhale the fumes of pyroligneous
acid, and by the internal use of bayberry bark. They are both termed
antiseptics. The usual method of generating vapor for inhalation is, by
first covering the animal's head with a horse-cloth, the corners of
which are suffered to fall below the animal's nose, and held by
assistants in such a manner as to prevent, as much as possible, the
escape of the vapor. A hot brick is then to be grasped in a pair of
tongs, and held about a foot beneath the nose. An assistant then pours
the acid, (_very gradually_,) on the brick. Half a pint of acid will be
sufficient for one steaming, provided it be used with discretion; for if
too much is poured on the brick at once, the temperature will be too
rapidly lowered.

In reference to the internal use of bayberry, it may be well to remark,
that it is a powerful astringent and antiseptic, and should always be
combined with relaxing, lubricating medicines. Such are licorice and
slippery elm.

The following may be given as a safe and efficient antiseptic drink:--

  Powdered bayberry bark,      half a table-spoonful.
    "      charcoal,           1 table-spoonful.
  Slippery elm,                1 ounce.
  Boiling water,               1 gallon.

Mix. Give a quart every two hours.

The diet should consist of flour gruel and boiled carrots. Boiled
carrots may be allowed (provided the animal will eat them) during the
whole stage of the malady.

The object of these examples of special practice is to direct the mind
of the farmer at once to something that will answer a given purpose,
without presuming to say that it is the best in the world for that
purpose. The reader will find in our _materia medica_ a number of
articles that will fulfil the same indications just as well.



LOCKED-JAW.


Mr. Youatt says, "Working cattle are most subject to locked-jaw, because
they may be pricked in shoeing; and because, after a hard day's work,
and covered with perspiration, they are sometimes turned out to graze
during a wet or cold night. Over-driving is not an uncommon cause of
locked-jaw in cattle. The drovers, from long experience, calculate the
average mortality among a drove of cattle in their journey from the
north to the southern markets; and at the head of the list of diseases,
and with the greatest number of victims, stands 'locked-jaw,' especially
if the principal drover is long absent from his charge."

The treatment of locked-jaw, both in horses and cattle, has, hitherto,
been notoriously unsuccessful. This is not to be wondered at when we
take into consideration the destructive character of the treatment.

"Take," says Mr. Youatt, "twenty-four pounds of blood from the animal;
or bleed him almost to fainting.... Give him Epsom salts in pound and a
half doses (!) until it operates. Purging being established, an attempt
must be made to allay the irritation of the nervous system by means of
sedatives; and the best drug is opium.[8] The dose should be a drachm
three times a day. [One fortieth part of the quantity here recommended
to be given in one day would kill a strong man who was not addicted to
its use.] At the same time, the action of the bowels must be kept up by
Epsom salts, or common salt, or sulphur, and the proportion of the
purgative and the sedative must be so managed, that the constitution
shall be under the influence of both.[9] A seton of black hellebore root
may be of service. It frequently produces a great deal of swelling and
inflammation.[10] ... If the disease terminates successfully, the beast
will be left sadly out of condition, and he will not thrive very
rapidly. He must, however, be got into fair plight, as prudence will
allow, and then sold; for he will rarely stand much work afterwards, or
carry any great quantity of flesh." The same happens to us poor mortals
when we have been dosed _secundum artem_. We resemble walking skeletons.

Our own opinion of the disease is, that it is one of nervous origin, and
that the tonic spasm, always present in the muscles of voluntary
motion, is only symptomatic of derangement in the great, living
electro-galvanic battery, (the brain and spinal cord,) or in some of its
wires (nerves) of communication.

Mr. Percival says, "Tetanus consists, in a spasmodic contraction, more
or less general, of the muscles of voluntary motion, and especially of
those that move the lower jaw; hence the vulgar name of it,
_locked-jaw_, and the technical one of _trismus_."

In order to make ourselves clearly understood, and furnish the reader
with proper materials for him to prosecute his inquiries with success, a
few remarks on the origin of muscular motion seem to be absolutely
necessary.

It is generally understood by medical men, and taught in the schools,
that there are in the animal economy four distinct systems of nerves.

1st system. This consists of the sensitive nerves, which are distributed
to all parts of the animal economy endowed with feeling; and all
external impulses are reflected to the medulla oblongata, &c. (See
_Dadd's work on the Horse_, p. 127.) In short, these nerves are the
media through which the animal gets all his knowledge of external
relations.

2d system. The motive. These proceed from nearly the same centre of
perception, and distribute themselves to all the muscles of voluntary
motion. It is evident that the muscle itself cannot perform its office
without the aid of the nerves, (electric wires;) for it has been proved
by experiment on the living animal, that when the posterior columns of
nervous matter, which pass down from the brain towards the tail, are
severed, then all voluntary motion ceases. Motion may, however,
continue; but it can only be compared to a ship at sea without a rudder,
having nothing to direct its course. It follows, then, that if the
nerves of motion and sensation are severed, there is no communication
between the parts to which they are distributed and the brain. And the
part, if its nutritive function be also paralyzed, will finally become
as insensible as a stone--wither and die.

3d system. The respiratory. These are under the control of the will
only through the superior power, as manifested by the motive nerves. For
the animal will breathe whether it wishes to or not, as long as the
vital spark burns.

4th system. The sympathetic, sometimes called _nutritive nerves_. They
are distributed to all the organs of digestion, absorption, circulation,
and secretion. These four nervous structures, or systems, must all be in
a physiological state, in order to carry on, with unerring certainty,
their different functions. If they are injured or diseased, then the
perceptions of external relations are but imperfectly conveyed to the
mind. (_Brutes have a mind._) On the other hand, if the brain, or its
appendages, spinal marrow, &c., be in a pathological state, then the
manifestations of _mind_ or _will_ are but imperfectly represented. Now,
it is evident to every reasonable man, that the nerves may become
diseased from various causes; and this explains the reason why
locked-jaw sometimes sets in without any apparent cause. The medical
world have then agreed to call it _idiopathic_. This term only serves to
bewilder us, and fails to throw the least light on the nature of the
malady, or its causes. Many men ridicule the idea of the nerves being
diseased, just because alterations in their structure are not evident to
the senses. We cannot see the atoms of water, nor even the myriads of
living beings abounding in single drop of water! yet no one doubts that
water contains many substances imperceptible to the naked eye. We know
that epizoötic diseases are wafted, by the winds, from one part of the
world to another; yet none of us have ever seen the specific virus. Can
any man doubt its existence?

Hence it appears that diseases may exist in delicately-organized
filaments, without the cognizance of our external perceptions.

It is further manifest that locked-jaw is only symptomatic of diseased
nervous structures, and that a pathological state of the nervous
filaments may be brought about independent of a prick of a nail, or
direct injury to a nerve.

Hence, instead of tetanus consisting "in a spasmodic contraction of the
muscles of voluntary motion," it consists in a deranged state of the
nervous system; and the contracted state of the muscles is only
symptomatic of such derangement. Then what sense is there in blistering,
bleeding, and inserting setons in the dewlap? Of what use is it to treat
symptoms? Suppose a man to be attacked with hepatitis, (inflammation of
the liver:) he has a pain in the right shoulder. Suppose the physician
prescribes a plaster for the latter, without ascertaining the real
cause, or perhaps not knowing of its existence. We should then say that
the doctor only treated symptoms. "And he who treats symptoms never
cures disease." Suppose locked-jaw to have supervened from an attack of
acute indigestion: would it not be more rational to restore the lost
function?

Suppose locked-jaw to have set in from irritating causes, such as bots
in the stomach, worms in the intestines, &c.: would bleeding remove
them? would it not render the system less capable of recovering its
physiological equilibrium, and resisting the irritation produced by
these animals on the delicate nervous tissues?

Suppose, as Mr. Youatt says, that locked-jaw sets in "after turning the
animal out to graze during a cold night:" will a blister to the spine,
or a seton in the dewlap, restore the lost function of the skin?

In short, would it not be more rational, in cases of locked-jaw, to
endeavor to restore the healthy action of all the functions, instead of
depressing them with the agents referred to?

Then the question arises, What are the indications to be fulfilled?

_First._ Restore the lost function.

_Secondly._ Equalize the circulation, and maintain an equilibrium
between nervous and arterial action.

_Thirdly._ Support the powers of life.

_Fourthly._ If locked-jaw arise from a wound, then apply suitable
remedial agents to the part, and rescue the nervous system from a
pathological state.

To fulfil the fourth indication, we commence the treatment as follows:--

Suppose the foot to have been pricked or wounded. We make an
examination of the part, and remove all extraneous matter. The following
poultice must then be applied:

  Powdered skunk cabbage, }
     "     lobelia,       }    equal parts.
     "     poplar bark,   }
  Indian meal,                 1 pint.

Make it of the proper consistence with boiling water. When sufficiently
cool, put it into a flannel bag, and secure it above the pastern. To be
renewed every twelve hours. After the second application, examine the
foot, and if suppuration has commenced, and matter can be felt, or seen,
a small puncture may be made, taking care not to let the knife penetrate
beyond the bony part of the hoof.

In the mean time, prepare the following drink:--

  Indian hemp or milkweed, (herb,)     1 ounce.
  Powdered mandrake,                   1 table-spoonful.
  Powdered lobelia seeds,              1 tea-spoonful.
     "     poplar bark, (very fine,)   1 ounce.

Make a tea, in the usual manner--about one gallon. After straining it
through a cloth, add the other ingredients, and give a quart every two
hours.

A long-necked bottle is the most suitable vehicle in which to
administer; but it must be poured down in the most gradual manner. The
head should not be elevated too high.

A liberal allowance of camomile tea may be resorted to, during the whole
stage of the disease.

Next stimulate the external surface, by warmth and moisture, in the
following manner: Take about two quarts of vinegar, into which stir a
handful of lobelia; have a hot brick ready, (_the animal having a large
cloth, or blanket, thrown around him_;) pour the mixture gradually on
the brick, which is held over a bucket to prevent waste; the steam
arising will relax the surface. After repeating the operation, apply the
following mixture around the jaws, back, and extremities: take of
cayenne, skunk cabbage, and cypripedium, (lady's slipper,) powdered,
each two ounces, boiling vinegar two quarts; stir the mixture until
sufficiently cool, rub it well in with a coarse sponge; this will relax
the jaws a trifle, so that the animal can manage to suck up thin gruel,
which may be given warm, in any quantity. This process must be
persevered in; although it may not succeed in every case, yet it will be
more satisfactory than the blood-letting and poisoning system. No
medicine is necessary; the gruel will soften the fæces sufficiently; if
the rectum is loaded with fæces, give injections of an infusion of
lobelia.

FOOTNOTES:

[8] This is a narcotic vegetable poison; and although large quantities
have been occasionally given to the horse without apparent injury,
experience teaches us that poisons in general--notwithstanding the
various modes of their action, and the difference in their symptoms--all
agree in the abstraction of vitality from the system. Dr. Eberle says,
"Opiates never fail to operate perniciously on the whole organization."
Dr. Gallup says, "The practice of using opiates to mitigate pain is
greatly to be deprecated. It is probable that opium and its preparations
have done seven times the injury that they have rendered benefit on the
great scale of the civilized world. Opium is the most destructive of all
narcotics."

[9] This is a perfect seesaw between efforts to kill and efforts to
cure.

[10] Then it ought not to be used.



INFLAMMATORY DISEASES.


INFLAMMATION OF THE STOMACH, (GASTRITIS.)

Such a complicated piece of mechanism is the stomach of the ox, that
organ is particularly liable to disease. Inflammation, being the same as
local fever, (or a high grade of vital power, concentrated within a
small space,) may be produced by over-feeding, irritating and
indigestible food, or acrid, poisonous, and offensive medicines. The
farmer must remember that a small quantity of good, nutritious food,
capable of being easily penetrated by the gastric fluids, will repair
the waste that is going on, and improve the condition with more
certainty than an abundance of indifferent provender.

_Cure._--The first indication will be to allay the irritability of the
stomach; this will moderate the irritation and lessen the fever. Make a
mucilaginous drink of slippery elm, or marshmallows, and give half a
pint every two hours. All irritating food and drink must be carefully
avoided, and the animal must be kept quiet; all irritating cordials,
"including the popular remedy, gin and molasses," must be avoided. These
never fail to increase the malady, and may occasion death. If there is
an improper accumulation of food in the viscera, the remedies will be,
relaxing clysters, abstinence from food, and a tea of sassafras and
mandrake, made thus:--

  Sassafras, (_laurus sassafras_,)       1 ounce.
  Mandrake, (_podophyllum peltatum_,)    4 drachms.
  Boiling water,                              2 quarts.

Let the mixture stand until quite cool, and give a pint every four
hours.

Almost all animals, when suffering under acute symptoms, require
diluting, cooling drinks. This at once points out the use of water, or
any weak gruel of which water is the basis; the necessity of diluting
liquors is pointed out by the heat and dryness of the mouth, and
rigidity of the coat.

When the thirst is great, the following forms a grateful and cooling
beverage: Take lemon balm, (_melissa officinalis_,) two ounces; boiling
water, two quarts; when cool, strain, and add half a tea-spoonful of
cream of tartar. Give half a pint at intervals of two hours.

If the stomach continues to exhibit a morbid state, which may be known
by a profuse discharge of saliva from the mouth, then administer
camomile tea in small quantities: the addition of a little powdered
charcoal will prove beneficial.

_Remarks._--Gastritis cannot be long present without other parts of the
system sharing the disturbance: it is then termed gastric fever. This
fever is the result of the local affection. Our object is, to get rid of
the local affection, and the fever will subside. Authors have invariably
recommended destructive remedies for the cure of gastritis; but they
generally fail of hitting the mark, and always do more or less injury.

A light diet, rest, a clean bed of straw in a well-ventilated barn, will
generally perfect the cure.


INFLAMMATION OF THE LUNGS, (PNEUMONIA.)

_Causes._--Errors in feeding, over-exertion, exposure in wet pastures,
or suffering the animal, when in a state of perspiration, to partake
too bountifully of cold water, are among the direct causes of a
derangement of vital equilibrium. Want of pure air for the purpose of
vitalizing the blood, the inhalation of noxious gases, and filth and
uncleanliness, may produce this disease in its worst form; yet it must
be borne in mind that the same exciting causes will not develop the same
form of disease in all animals. It altogether depends on the amount of
vital resistance, or what is termed the peculiar idiosyncrasy of the
animal. On the other hand, several animals often suffer from the same
form of disease, from causes varying in their general character. Hence
the reader will see that it would be needless, in fact impossible, to
point to the direct cause in each grade of disease. The least
obstruction to universal vital action will produce pneumonia in some
animals, while in others it may result in disease of the bowels.

_Cure._--No special treatment can be successfully pursued in pneumonia;
for the lungs are not the only organs involved: no change of condition
can occur in the animal functions without the nervous system being more
or less deranged; for the latter is essential to all vital motions.
Hence disease, in every form, should be treated according to its
indications. A few general directions may, however, be found useful. The
first indication to be fulfilled is to equalize the blood. Flannels
saturated with warm vinegar should be applied to the extremities; they
may be folded round the legs, and renewed as often as they grow cold.
Poultices of slippery elm, applied to the feet, as hot as the animal can
bear them, have sometimes produced a better result than vinegar. If the
animal has shivering fits, and the whole surface is chilled, apply
warmth and moisture as recommended in article "_Locked-Jaw_." At the
same time, endeavor to promote the insensible perspiration by the
internal use of diaphoretics--_lobelia or thoroughwort tea_. A very good
diaphoretic and anti-spasmodic drink may be made thus:--

  Lobelia, (herb)                       2 ounces.
  Spearmint,                            1 ounce.
  Boiling water,                        2 quarts.

Let the above stand for a few minutes; strain, then add two
table-spoonfuls of honey. Give half a pint every hour, taking care to
pour it down the oesophagus very gently, so as to insure its reaching
the fourth or true digestive stomach. The following clyster must be
given:--

  Powdered lobelia,                        2 ounces.
  Boiling water,                           3 quarts.

When sufficiently cool, inject with a common metal syringe.

These processes should be repeated as the symptoms require, until the
animal gives evidence of relief; when a light diet of thin gruel will
perfect the cure. It must ever be borne in mind that in the treatment of
all forms of disease--those of the _lungs more especially_--the animal
must have pure, uncontaminated atmospheric air, and that any departure
from purity in the air which the animal respires, will counteract all
our efforts to cure.


INFLAMMATION OF THE BOWELS, (ENTERITIS,--INFLAMMATION OF THE
FIBRO-MUSCULAR COAT OF THE INTESTINES.)

_Character._--Acute pain; the animal appears restless, and frequently
turns his head towards the belly; moans, and appears dull; frequent
small, hard pulse; cold feet and ears.

_Causes._--Plethora, costiveness, or the sudden application of cold
either internally or externally, overworking, &c.

_Cure._--In the early stages of the disease, all forms of medication
that are in any way calculated to arouse the peristaltic motion of the
intestines should be avoided; hence purges are certain destruction.
Relax the muscular structure by the application of a blanket or
horse-cloth wrung out in hot water. In this disease, it is generally
sufficient to apply warmth and moisture as near the parts affected as
possible; yet if the ears and legs are cold, the general application of
warmth and moisture will more speedily accomplish the relaxation of the
whole animal. After the application of the above, injections of a mild,
soothing character (slippery elm, or flaxseed tea) should be used very
liberally. A drink of any mucilaginous, lubricating, and innocent
substance may be given, such as mallows, linseed, Iceland moss, slippery
elm. During convalescence, the diet must be light and of an unirritating
character, such as boiled carrots, scalded meal, &c.


INFLAMMATION OF TILE PERITONEAL COAT OF THE INTESTINES,
(PERITONITIS.)

This disease requires the same treatment as the latter malady.


INFLAMMATION OF THE KIDNEYS, (NEPHRITIS.)

The usual symptoms are a quick pulse; loss of appetite; high-colored
urine, passed in small quantities, with difficulty and pain. Pressure on
the loins gives pain, and the animal will shrink on placing the hand
over the region of the kidneys.

_Causes._--Cold, external injury, or injury from irritating substances,
that are often sent full tilt through the kidneys, as spirits of
turpentine, gin and molasses, saleratus. It is unnecessary to detail all
the causes of the disease: suffice it to say, that they exist in any
thing that can for a time obstruct the free and full play of the
different functions.

_Treatment._--This, too, will consist in the invitation of the blood to
the surface and extremities, and by removing all irritating matter from
the system, _in the same manner as for inflammation of the bowels_. The
application of a poultice of ground hemlock, or a charge of gum hemlock,
will generally be found useful. The best drinks--and these should only
be allowed in small quantities--are gum arabic and marshmallow
decoctions.


INFLAMMATION OF THE BLADDER, (CYSTITIS.)

During the latter months of pregnancy, the bladder is often in an
irritable state, and a frequent desire to void the urine is observed,
which frequently results from constipation. A peculiar sympathy exists
between the bladder and rectum; and when constipation is present, there
is a constant effort on the part of the animal to void the excrement.
This expulsive action also affects the bladder: hence the frequent
efforts to urinate. The irritable state of the bladder is caused by the
pressure of the loaded rectum on the neck of the former.

The common soap-suds make a good injection, and will quickly soften the
hardened excrement; after which the following clyster may be used:--

  Linseed tea,                          3 quarts.
  Cream of tartar,                      1 ounce.

After throwing into the rectum about one third of the above, press the
tail on the anus. The object is, to make it act as a fomentation in the
immediate vicinity of the parts. After the inflammation shall have
subsided, administer the following in a bottle, or horn:--

  Powdered blackroot, (_leptandra virginica_,)      half an ounce.
  Warm water,                                       1 pint.

Repeat the dose, if the symptoms are not relieved.


INFLAMMATION OF THE WOMB.

This may be treated in the same manner as the last-named disease. The
malady may be recognized by lassitude, loss of appetite, diminution in
the quantity, and deterioration in the quality, of the milk. As the
disease advances, there is often a fetid discharge from the parts; a
constant straining, which is attended with a frequent flow of urine.


INFLAMMATION OF THE BRAIN, (PHRENITIS.)

In this disease, the pia mater, arachnoid membrane, or the brain itself,
may be inflamed. It matters very little which of the above are deranged,
for the means of cure are the same. We have no method of making direct
application to either of the above, as they all lie within the cranium.
Neither can we act upon them medicinally except through the organs of
secretion, absorption, and circulation. Post mortem examinations reveal
to us evident marks of high inflammatory action, both in the substance
of the brain and in its membranes; and an effusion of blood, serum, or
of purulent matter, has been found in the ventricles of the brain.

_Treatment._--The indications are, to equalize the circulation by warmth
and moisture externally, and maintain the action to the surface by
rubbing the legs with the following counter-irritant:--

  Vinegar,                           1 quart.
  Common salt,                       2 ounces.

Set the mixture on the fire, (_in an earthen vessel_,) and allow it to
simmer for a few moments; then apply it to the legs. After the
circulation is somewhat equalized, give the following drench:--

  Extract of butternut,               half an ounce.
  Tea of hyssop,                      1 pint.

A stimulating clyster may then be given, composed of warm water, into
which a few grains of powdered capsicum may be sprinkled.

If due attention be paid to counter-irritation, and the head kept cool
by wet cloths, the chances of recovery are pretty certain.


INFLAMMATION OF THE EYE.

This disease is too well known to require any description; we shall
therefore, at once, proceed to point out the ways and means for its
cure.

_Treatment._--First wash the eyes with a weak decoction of camomile
flowers until they are well cleansed; then give a cooling drink,
composed of

  Cream of tartar,                          1 ounce.
  Decoction of lemon balm,                  1 quart.

Repeat this drink every six hours, until the bowels am moved. Should the
disease occur where these articles cannot be procured, give two ounces
of common salt in a pint of water. Should the eye still continue red and
swollen, give a dose of physic. (See _Physic for Cattle_.)

If a film can be observed, wash with a decoction of powdered bloodroot;
and if a weeping remain, use the following astringent:--

  Powdered bayberry bark,                   1 ounce.
  Boiling water,                            1 pint.

When cool, pour off the clear liquor. It is then fit for use.

Inflammation of the eye may assume different forms, but the above
treatment, combined with attention to rest, ventilation, a dark
location, and a light diet, will cover the whole ground.


INFLAMMATION OF THE LIVER, (HEPATITIS.)

Cattle very frequently show signs of diseased liver. Stall-fed oxen and
cows kept in cities are most liable to derangement of the liver; in such
animals, (after death,) there is an unusual yellowness of the fat. A
disease of the liver may exist for a long time without interfering much
with the general health. Mr. Youatt informs us that "a chronic form of
diseased liver may exist for some months, or years, not characterized by
any decided symptom, and but little interfering with health."

_Symptoms._--Permanent yellowness of the eyes; quick pulse; dry muzzle;
hot mouth; considerable pain when pressure is made on the right side.
Occasionally the animal looks round and licks the spot over the region
of the liver.

_Treatment._--First give half pint doses of thoroughwort tea, at
intervals of one hour, (_to the amount of two quarts_.) This will relax
the system, and equalize vital action. The following drench is then to
be given:--

  Extract of butternut,              half an ounce.
  Warm water,                        1 quart.

If the butternut cannot be obtained, substitute a dose of physic. (See
APPENDIX.) Stimulate the bowels to action by injections of
soap-suds. If the extremities are cold, proceed to warm them in the
manner alluded to in article _Inflammation of the Bowels_. On the other
hand, if the surface of the body is hot and dry, and there is much fever
present, indicated by a quick pulse and dry muzzle, then bathe the whole
surface with weak saleratus water, sufficiently warm to relax the
external surface. The following fever drink may be given daily until
rumination again commences:--

  Lemon balm,                            2 ounces.
  Cream of tartar,                       1 ounce.
  Honey,                                 1 gill.
  Water,                                 2 quarts.

First pour the boiling water on the balm; after standing a few minutes,
strain; then add the above ingredients.



JAUNDICE, OR YELLOWS.

THIS disease is well known to every farmer; the yellow appearance of the
skin, mouth, eyes, and saliva at once betray its presence. It consists
in the absorption of unchanged bile into the circulation, which bile
becomes diffused, giving rise to the yellow appearances.

In the treatment of jaundice, we first give a dose of physic, (see
APPENDIX,) and assist its operation by injections of weak lie,
made from wood ashes. The animal may roam about in the barn-yard, if the
weather will permit; or rub the external surface briskly with a wisp or
brush, which will answer the same purpose. The following may be given in
one dose, and repeated every day, or every other day, as the symptoms
may require:--

  Powdered golden seal,(_hydrastus
               canadensis_),                    1 table-spoonful.
     "      slippery elm,                         2 ounces.

Water sufficient to make it of the consistence of gruel.

Should a diarrhoea set in, it ought not to occasion alarm, but may be
considered as an effort of nature to rid the system of morbific matter.
It will be prudent, however, to watch the animal, and if the strength
and condition fail, then add to the last prescription a small quantity
of powdered gentian and caraway seeds.

There are various forms of disease in the liver, yet the treatment will
not differ much from that of the last-named disease. There is no such
thing as a medicine for a particular symptom, in one form of disease,
that is not equally good for the same symptom in every form. In short,
there is no such thing as a specific. Any medicine that will promote the
healthy action of the liver in one form of jaundice will be equally good
for the same purpose in another form of that disease.

Mr. Youatt states, "There are few diseases to which cattle are so
frequently subject, or which are so difficult to treat, as jaundice, or
yellows." Hence it is important that the farmer should know how and in
what manner the disease may be prevented. And he will succeed best who
understands the causes, which often exist in overworking the stomach,
with a desire to fatten. Men who raise cattle for the market often
attempt to get them in fine condition and flesh, without any regard to
the state of the digestive organs, the liver included; for the bile
which the latter secretes is absolutely necessary for the perfection of
the digestive process. They do not take into consideration the state of
the animals' health, the climate, the quality of food, and the quantity
best adapted to the digestive powers; and what is of still greater
importance, and too often overlooked, is, that all animals should be fed
at regular intervals. Some men suppose that so long as their cattle
shall have good food, without any regard to quantity,--if they eat all
day long, and cram their paunch to its utmost capacity,--they must
fatten; when, in fact, too much food deranges the whole digestive
apparatus. As soon as the paunch and stomach are overloaded, they press
on the liver, interfering with the bile-secreting process, producing
congestion and disorganization.

Diseases of the liver may be produced by any thing that will for a time
suspend the process of rumination: the known sympathy that exists
between the stomach and liver explains this fact.

Digestion, like every other vital process, requires a concentration of
power to accomplish it: now, if an ox should have a bountiful meal, and
then be driven several miles, the process of digestion, during the
journey, will be partly suspended. The act of compelling an ox to rise,
or annoying him in any way, will immediately suspend rumination, which
may result in an acute disease of the liver. In most cases, however, the
stomach is primarily affected.

Dealers in cattle often overfeed the animals they are about to dispose
of, in order to improve their external appearance, and increase their
own profits: the consequence is, that such animals are in a state of
plethora, and are liable at any moment to be attacked with congestion of
the liver or brain.

Again. If oxen are driven a long journey, and then turned into a pasture
abounding in highly nutritious grasses or clover, to which they are
unaccustomed, they fill the paunch to such an extent that it becomes a
matter of impossibility on the part of the animal to throw it up for
rumination; this mass of food, being submitted to the combined action of
heat and moisture, undergoes fermentation; carbonic acid gas is evolved;
the animal is then said to be "blown," "hoven," or "blasted." Post
mortem examination, in such cases, reveals a highly-congested state of
the liver and spleen.

In fattening cattle, the injury done to the organs of digestion is not
always observed in the early stages; for the vital power, which wages a
warfare against all encroachments, endeavors to accommodate itself to
the increased bulk; yet, by continuing to give an excess of diet, it
finally yields up the citadel to the insidious foe. Chemical action then
overpowers the vital, and disease is the result.

Thousands of valuable cattle are yearly destroyed by being too well, or,
rather, injudiciously fed. Many diseases of the liver and digestive
organs result from feeding on unwholesome, innutritious, and hard,
indigestible food. Bad water, and suffering the animal to partake too
bountifully of cold water when heated and fatigued, are among the direct
causes of disease.



DISEASES OF THE MUCOUS SURFACE.


The mucous membrane is a duplicature of the skin, and is folded into the
external orifices of the animal, as the mouth, ears, nose, lungs,
stomach, intestines, and bladder; but not being so much exposed to the
action of external agents, it is not so strong or thick as the skin. It
performs, however, nearly the same office as the skin. If the action of
one is suppressed, the other immediately commences the performance of
its office. Thus a common cold, which collapses the skin, immediately
stops insensible perspiration, which recedes to the mucous membrane,
producing a discharge from the nose, eyes, bowels, &c. So, when great
derangement of the mucous membrane exists, debilitating perspiration
succeeds. In the treatment of diseases of the mucous membrane, we
endeavor to remove the irritating causes from the organs affected,
restore the general tone of the system, and invite action to the
external surface.


CATARRH, OR HOOSE.

This disease often arises from exposure to wet or cold weather, and from
the food being of a bad quality, or deficient in quantity. If the animal
is enfeebled by poor feed, old age, or any other cause, then there is
very little resistance offered against the encroachments of disease:
hence young beasts and cows after calving are often the victims.

_Treatment._--It is necessary to attend to this disorder as soon as it
makes its appearance; for a common cold, neglected, often lays the
foundation of consumption. On the other hand, a little attention in the
early stages, and before sympathetic action sets in, would set all
right. The first indication to be fulfilled is to invite action to the
surface by friction and counter-irritants. The following liniment may be
applied to the feet and throat:--

  Olive oil,                                  4 ounces.
  Oil of cedar,                               1 ounce.
  Liquid ammonia,                             half an ounce.

Rub the mixture in well; then give

  Gruel,                                     1 quart.
  Powdered licorice,                         1 ounce.
  Composition,                               half a tea-spoonful.

Give this at a dose, and repeat two or three times during the
twenty-four hours. A drink of any warm aromatic tea, _such as
pennyroyal, hyssop, catnip or aniseed will have a good effect_. The diet
should consist of scalded meal, boiled carrots, flaxseed, or any
substance that is light and easy of digestion. Should the discharge
increase and the eyelids swell, recourse must be had to vapor, which may
be raised by pouring vinegar on a hot brick; the latter held, with a
pair of tongs, beneath the animal's nose, at the same time covering the
head with a blanket. A small quantity of bayberry bark may occasionally
be blown up the nostrils from a quill. It is very important, during the
treatment, that the animal be in a warm situation, with a good bed of
straw to rest on. If the glands under the jaw enlarge, the following
mixture should be rubbed about the throat:--

  Neat's foot oil,                       4 ounces.
  Hot drops,                             2 ounces.
  Vinegar,                               1 gill.

If the disease assumes a chronic form, and the animal is evidently
losing flesh, then give the following:--

  Golden seal, powdered,                 1 table-spoonful.
  Caraway seeds, "                       1        "

Divide into three parts; which may be given daily, (in thin gruel,)
until the animal is convalescent.


EPIDEMIC CATARRH.

This often prevails at particular seasons, and spreads over whole
districts, sometimes destroying a great number of cattle. It is a
disorder whose intensity varies considerably, being sometimes attended
with a high grade of fever, at other times quickly followed by general
debility.

_Treatment._--This requires the same treatment as the last-named
disease, but only more thoroughly and perseveringly applied; for every
portion of the system seems to be affected, either through sympathetic
action or from the absorption of morbid matter. Hence we must aid the
vital power to maintain her empire and resist the encroachments on her
sanative operations by the use of antiseptics and stimulants. The
following is a good example:--

  Powdered charcoal,                   1 ounce.
     "     bayberry bark,              half an ounce.
     "     pleurisy root,              1 ounce.
  Honey,                               1 table-spoonful.
  Thin gruel,                          1 quart.


MALIGNANT EPIDEMIC, (MURRAIN.)

This disease has been more or less destructive from the time of Pharaoh
up to the present period. For information on the origin, progress, and
termination of this malignant distemper, the reader is referred to Mr.
Youatt's work on cattle.

_Treatment._--The indications to be fulfilled are, first, to preserve
the system from putrescence, which can be done by the use of the
following drink:--

  Powdered capsicum,                     1 tea-spoonful.
     "     charcoal,                     2 ounces.
  Lime water,                            4 ounces.
  Sulphur,                               1 tea-spoonful.

Add to the capsicum, charcoal, and sulphur, a small quantity of gruel;
lastly, add the lime water. A second and similar dose may be given six
hours after the first, provided, however, the symptoms are not so
alarming.

The next indication is, to break down the morbid action of the nervous
and vascular systems; for which the following may be given freely:--

  Thoroughwort tea,                      2 quarts.
  Powdered assafoetida,                  2 drachms.

Aid the action of these remedies by the use of one of the following
injections:--

  Powdered lobelia,                       2 ounces.
  Oil of peppermint,                     20 drops.
  Warm water,                             2 quarts.

_Another._

  Infusion of camomile,                  2 quarts.
  Common salt,                           4 ounces.

In all cases of putrid or malignant fever, efforts should be made to
supply the system with caloric, (by the aid of stimulants,) promote the
secretions, and rid the system of morbific materials.


DIARRHOEA, (LOOSENESS OF THE BOWELS.)

In the early stages of this disease, it is not always to be checked. It
is often a salutary operation of nature to rid the system of morbific
materials, and all that we can do with safety is, to sheathe and
lubricate the mucous surfaces, in order to protect them from the acrid
and stimulating properties of the agents to be removed from the
alimentary canal.

When the disease, of which diarrhoea is only a symptom, proceeds from
exposure, apply warmth, moisture, friction, and stimulants to the
external surface, aided by the following lubricant:--

  Powdered slippery elm,              1 ounce.
     "     charcoal,                  1 table-spoonful.
  Boiling water,                      2 quarts.

Common starch, or flour, may be substituted for slippery elm. The
mixture should be given in pint doses, at intervals of two hours. When
the fecal discharges appear more natural and less frequent, a tea of
raspberry leaves or bayberry bark will complete the cure.

When the disease assumes a chronic form, and the animal loses flesh,
the following tonic, stimulating, astringent drink is recommended:--

  Infusion of camomile,                     1 quart.
  Powdered caraway seeds,                   1 ounce.
  Bayberry, powdered,                       half an ounce.

Mix for one dose.

_Remarks._--In the treatment of this disease, it is necessary for the
farmer to know, that through the instrumentality of the nervous
structure, there is constantly a sympathy kept up between the different
parts of the animal; whenever any part is affected, the corresponding
part feels the influence. Thus the external surface is opposed to the
internal, so that, if the function of the former be diminished, or
excessive, or suspended, that of the latter will soon become deranged;
and the restoration of the lost function is the only true way to effect
a cure. For example, if an animal be suffered to feed in wet lands, the
feet and external surface become cold; and hence diarrhoea, catarrh,
garget, dysentery, &c. If the circulation of the blood is obstructed by
exposure, we should restore the lost function by rubbing the surface,
and by the application of warmth and moisture. If the animal is in poor
condition, and there is not enough vitality to equalize the circulation,
give warm anti-spasmodics. (See APPENDIX.) In cases where
diarrhoea results from a want of power in the digestive organs to
assimilate the food, the latter acts on the mucous surfaces as a
mechanical irritant, producing inflammation, &c. Inflammation is the
concentration of the available vital force too much upon a small region
of the body, and it is invited there by irritation. Now, instead of the
popular error,--bleeding and purging,--the most rational way to proceed
is, to remove the cause of irritation, (no matter whether the stomach or
bowels are involved,) and invite the blood to the surface by means
already alluded to, and distribute it over the general system, so that
it will not be in excess any where. There is generally but little
difficulty in producing an equilibrium of action; the great point is to
sustain it. When the blood accumulates in a part, as in inflammation of
the bowels, the sensibility of the part is so highly exalted that the
least irritation causes a relapse; therefore the general treatment must
not be abandoned too early.


DYSENTERY.

The disease is generally ushered in with some degree of fever; as,
trembling, hot and cold stages, dryness of the mouth, loss of appetite,
general prostration, drooping of the head and ears, heaving of the
flanks; there are frequent stools, yet these seldom consist of natural
excrement, but are of a viscid, mucous character; the animal is
evidently in pain during these discharges, and sometimes the fundament
appears excoriated.

_Causes._--The cause of this complaint appears to be, generally,
exposure. Dr. White says, "Almost all the diseases of cattle arise
either from exposure to wet or cold weather, from their food being of a
bad quality, or deficient in quantity, or from the animal being changed
too suddenly from poor, unwholesome keep to rich pasture. It is
necessary to observe, also, that the animal is more liable to be injured
by exposure to wet and cold, when previously enfeebled by bad keep, old
age, or any other cause; and particularly when brought from a mild into
a cold situation. I have scarcely met with a disease that is not
attributable to a chill."

_Treatment._--This must be much the same as in diarrhoea--sheathing
the mucous membrane, and inviting action to the surface. The animal must
be warmly housed, well littered, and the extremities clothed with
flannel bandages. The diet must consist of flour gruel, scalded meal.
Raspberry tea will be the most suitable drink. Much can be done by good
nursing. Mr. Ellman says, "If any of my cattle get into a low, weak
state, I generally recommend nursing, which, in most cases, is much
better than a doctor; [meaning some of the poor specimens always to be
found in large cities;] having often seen the beast much weakened, and
the stomach relaxed, by throwing in a quantity of medicine
injudiciously, and the animal lost; when, with good nursing, in all
probability, it might have been otherwise."


SCOURING ROT.

_Cause._--Any thing that can reduce the vital energies.

_Symptoms._--A gradual loss of flesh, although the animal often feeds
well and ruminates. The excrements are of a dark color, frothy, and
fetid, and, in the latter stages, appear to be only half digested. There
are many symptoms and different degrees of intensity, during the
progress of this disease, indicate the amount of destruction going on;
yet the author considers them unimportant in a practical point of view,
at least as far as the treatment is concerned; for the disease is so
analogous to dysentery, that the same indications are to be fulfilled in
both; more care, however, should be taken to prevent and subdue
mortification.

In addition to the treatment recommended in article _Malignant
Epidemic_, the following injection may be substituted for the one
prescribed under that head:--

  Powdered charcoal,                   a tea-cupful.
  Common salt,                         2 ounces.
  Pyroligneous acid,[11]                half a wine-glass.
  Warm water,                          2 quarts.

Throw one quart of the above into the rectum, and the remainder six
hours after the first.

FOOTNOTE:

[11] Vinegar obtained from wood.



DISEASE OF THE EAR


Diseases of the ear are very rare in cattle; yet, as simple inflammatory
action does now and then occur, it is well that the farmer should be
able to recognize and treat it.

_Symptoms._--An unnatural heat and tenderness about the base of the ear,
and the animal carries the head on one side.

_Cure._--Fomentations of marshmallows; a light diet of scalded shorts;
an occasional drink of thoroughwort tea. These with a little rest, in a
comfortable barn, will perfect the cure.

_Remarks._--If any irritating substance is suspected to have fallen into
the ear, efforts must be made to remove it: if it cannot be got at, a
small quantity of olive oil may be poured into the cavity; then, by
rotating the head, with the affected ear downwards, the substances will
often pass out.



SEROUS MEMBRANES.


These membranes derive their name from the serous or watery fluid they
secrete, by which their surface is constantly moistened. They are to be
found in the three cavities of the chest; namely, one on each side,
containing the right and left lung, and the intermediate cavity,
occupied by the heart. The portion of the membrane lining the lungs is
named the _pleura_, and that lining and covering the heart is called the
_pericardium_. The membrane lining the abdomen is named the
_peritoneum_. The ventricles of the brain are also lined by this
membrane. The serous membranes, after lining their respective cavities,
are extended still farther, by being reflected back upon the organs
enclosed in their cavities; hence, if it were possible to dissect these
membranes from off the parts which they invest, they would have the
appearance of a sac without an opening. In the natural state, these
membranes are exceedingly thin and transparent; but they become
thickened by disease, and lose their transparency. The excessive
discharge of fluids into cavities lined by these membranes constitutes
the different forms of dropsy, on which we shall now treat.



DROPSY.


This disease consists in the accumulation of fluid in a cavity of the
body, as the abdomen or belly, the chest, and ventricles of the brain,
or in the cellular membrane under the skin. As the treatment of the
several forms of dropsy requires that the same indications shall be
fulfilled,--viz., to equalize the circulation, invite action to the
surface, promote absorption, and invigorate the general system,--so it
matters but little whether the effusion takes place under the skin,
producing anasarca, or within the chest or abdomen. The popular
treatment, which comprehends blood-letting, physicking, and the use of
powerful diuretics, has proved notoriously unsuccessful. Blood-letting
is charged as one of the direct causes of dropsy: how then can it be
expected that a system that will produce this form of disease can ever
cure it? In reference to physicking, if the bowels are forced to remove
the excess of fluids in a short time, they become much exhausted, lose
their tone, and do not recover their healthy power for some time. Dr.
Curtis says, "May we not give diuretics and drastic cathartics in
dropsy? I answer, if you do, and carry off the fluids of the body in
those directions, as you sometimes may, you have not always removed the
cause of the disease, which was the closing of the surface, or stoppage
of some natural secretion, while you have rendered the patient liable to
other forms of disease, quite as much to be dreaded as the dropsy which
was exchanged for it." Mild diuretic medicines may, however, be given,
provided attention he paid at the same time to the lungs and external
surface. The kidneys, lungs, and external surface constitute the great
outlets through which the excess of fluids finds egress; and if one of
these functions be excited to dislodge an accumulation of fluid, without
the coöperation of the rest, the excessive action is sure to injure the
organ; hence it is an injurious practice, and ought to be rejected.

_Causes._--Dropsy will occasionally be produced by the sudden stopping
of any evacuation; for example, if a diarrhoea be checked too
suddenly, it frequently results in dropsy of the belly. In pleurisy, and
when blood-letting has been practised to any extent, dropsy of the chest
will be the consequence. Exposure, poor diet, diseases of the liver and
spleen, want of exercise, and poisonous medicines are among the general
causes of dropsy.

_Treatment._--It is a law of the animal economy that all fluids are
determined to those surfaces from which they can most readily escape.
Now, instead of cramming down nauseous and poisonous drugs, with a view
of carrying off the fluid by the kidneys, we should restore the lost
function of the external exhalents, by warmth, moisture, friction, and
the application of stimulating embrocations to the general surface. The
following embrocation may be applied to the spine, ears, belly, and
legs:--

  Oil of cedar,                      1 ounce.
  Oil of juniper,                    1 ounce.
  Soft soap,                         1 pound.

A portion of the above should be rubbed in twice a day.

The best medicine is the following:--

  Powdered mandrake,                  1 ounce.
     "     lobelia,                   1 ounce.
  Poplar bark,                        2 ounces.
  Lemon balm,                         4 ounces.
  Boiling water,                      3 quarts.

Let the whole stand in a covered vessel for an hour; then strain, and
add a gill of honey. Give half a pint every third hour. If the animal be
in poor condition, the diet must be nourishing and easy of digestion.
Flour gruel and scalded meal will be the most appropriate. A drink made
by steeping cleavers, or hyssop, in boiling water may be given at
discretion.

If there is not sufficient vitality in the system to equalize the
circulation, (which may be known by the surface and extremities still
continuing cold,) the following drink will be found efficacious:--

  Hyssop tea,                                2 quarts.
  Powdered cayenne, (African,)               1 tea-spoonful.
       "   licorice,                         1 ounce.

Mix. To be given at a dose, and repeated if necessary. Should
inflammatory symptoms make their appearance, omit the cayenne, and
substitute the same quantity of cream of tartar.

The treatment of all the different forms of dropsy is upon the plan here
laid down. They are one and the same disease, only located in different
parts; and from predisposing causes the fluid is sometimes found in the
thorax, at others in the abdomen. Whenever costiveness occurs in dropsy,
the following laxative may be given:--

  Wormwood,                   2 ounces.
  Boiling water,              2 quarts.

Set them over the fire, and let them boil for a few moments; then add
two ounces of castile soap and a gill of molasses or honey. The whole to
be given at one dose.

The operation of tapping has been performed, but with very little
success; for, unless the function of the skin be restored, the water
will again accumulate. If, however, the disease shall be treated
according to the principles here laid down, there is no good reason why
the operation should not prove successful. It may be performed for
dropsy of the belly in the following manner: Take a common trocar and
canula, and after pinching upwards a fold of the skin, about three
inches from the line, (_linea alba_,) or centre of the belly, and about
seven from the udder, push the trocar through the skin, muscles, &c.,
into the abdominal cavity; withdraw the trocar, and the water will flow.
The operation is usually performed on the right side, taking care,
however, not to wound the milk vein, or artery.



HOOVE, OR "BLASTING."


When cattle or sheep are first turned into luxuriant pasture, after
being poorly fed, or laboring under any derangement of the digestive
organs, they are apt to be hoven, blown, or blasted.

_Treatment._--Should the symptoms be very alarming, a flexible tube may
be passed down the gullet. This will generally allow a portion of gas to
escape, and thus afford temporary relief, until more efficient means are
resorted to. These consist in arousing the digestive organs to action,
by the following stimulant and carminative drink:--

  Cardamom seeds,                        1 ounce.
  Fennel seeds,                          1 ounce.
  Powdered charcoal,                     1 table-spoonful.
  Boiling water,                         2 quarts.

Let the mixture stand until sufficiently cool; then strain, and
administer in pint doses, every ten minutes.

The following clyster should be given:--

  Powdered lobelia,       2 ounces.
     "     charcoal,      6 ounces.
  Common salt,            1 table-spoonful.
  Boiling water,          2 quarts.

When cool, strain, and inject.

If the animal is only blasted in a moderate degree, this treatment will
generally prove successful. Some practitioners recommend puncturing the
rumen or paunch; but there is always great danger attending it, and at
best it is only a palliative: the process of fermentation will continue
while the materials still remain in the paunch. Some cattle doctors make
a large incision into the paunch, and shovel out the contents with the
hand; but the remedy is quite as bad as the disease. For example, Mr.
Youatt tells us that "a cow had eaten a large quantity of food, and was
hoven. A neighbor, who was supposed to know a great deal about cattle,
made an incision into the paunch; the gas escaped, a great portion of
the food was removed with the hand, and the animal appeared to be
considerably relieved; but rumination did not return. On the following
day, the animal was dull; she refused her food, but was eager to drink.
She became worse and worse, and on the sixth day she died."

In all dangerous cases of hoove, we must not forget that our remedies
may be aided by the external application of warmth and moisture;
flannels wrung out in hot water should be secured to the belly; at the
same time, the legs and brisket should be rubbed with tincture of
assafoetida. These remedies must be repeated until the animal is
relieved. Steady and long-continued perseverance in rubbing the abdomen
often succeeds in liberating the gas. If the animal recovers, he should
be fed, very sparingly, on scalded food, consisting of equal parts of
meal and shorts, with the addition of a few grains of caraway seeds. A
drink composed of the following ingredients will aid in rapidly
restoring the animal to health:--

  Marshmallows,       2 ounces.
  Linseed,            1 ounce.
  Boiling water,      2 quarts.

Set the mixture near the fire, and allow it to macerate for a short
time; after straining through a sieve or coarse cloth, it may be given
and repeated at discretion.

_Remarks._--As prevention is much more convenient and less expensive
than the fashionable system of making a chemical laboratory of the poor
brute's stomach, the author would remind owners of stock that the
practice of turning the latter into green, succulent pasture when the
ground is damp, or permitting them to remain exposed to the night air,
is among the direct causes of hoove. The ox and many other animals are
governed by the same laws of nature to which man owes allegiance, and
any departure from the legitimate teachings, as they are fundamentally
ingrafted in the animate kingdom by the Omnipotent Creator, is sure to
subject us to the penalty. We are told that, during the night, noxious
gases and poisonous miasmata emanate from the soil, and that plants
throw off excrementitious matters, which assume a gaseous form, and are
more or less destructive. Now, these animals have no better powers of
resisting the encroachments on their organization (through the agency of
these deleterious gases) than we have; they must have atmospheric air to
vitalize the blood; any impurity in the air they breathe must impair
their health. Still, however, the powers of resistance are greater in
some than in others; this explains the reason why all do not suffer.
Sometimes, the gases are not in sufficient quantities to produce instant
death, but only derange the general health; yet if an animal be turned
into a pasture, the herbage and soil of which give out an excess of
nitrogen and carbonic acid, the animal will die; just as a man will, if
you lower him into a well abounding in either of these destructive
agents. From these brief remarks, the farmer will see the importance of
housing domestic animals at night.



JOINT MURRAIN.


This malady, in its early stages, assumes different forms; sometimes
making its appearance under a high grade of vital action, commonly
called inflammatory fever, and known by the red appearance of the
sclerotica, (white of the eye,) hurried breathing, expanded nostrils,
hot tongue, and dry muzzle, pulse full and bounding, manifestations of
pain, &c. &c. Different animals show, according to local or
constitutional peculiarities, different symptoms.

This disease, in consequence of its assuming different forms during its
progress, has a host of names applied to it, which rather embarrass than
assist the farmer. We admit that there are numerous tissues to be
obstructed; and if the disease were named from the tissue, it would have
as many names as there are tissues. If it were named from the location,
which often happens, then we get as many names as there are locations;
for example, horn ail, black leg, quarter evil, joint murrain, foot rot,
&c. In the above disease, the whole system partakes more or less of
constitutional disturbance; therefore it is of no use, except when we
want to avail ourselves of local applications, to decide what particular
muscle, blood-vessel, or nerve is involved, seeing that the only
rational treatment consists in acting on all the nerves, blood-vessels,
and muscles, and that this can only be accomplished through the healthy
operations of nature's secreting and excreting processes. The
indications of cure, according to the reformed principles, are, to relax
spasm, as in locked-jaw, stoppages of the bladder or intestines,
obstructed surfaces, &c.; to contract and strengthen weak and relaxed
organs, as in general or local debility, diarrhoea, scouring, lampas,
&c.; to stimulate inactive parts, as in black leg, joint murrain,
quarter ill, foot rot; to equalize the circulation, and distribute the
blood to the external surface and extremities, as in congestions; to
furnish the animal with sufficient nutriment for its growth and
development. No matter what the nature of disease may be, the treatment
should be conducted on these principles.

The farmer will overcome a host of obstacles, that might otherwise fall
in his way, in the treatment of joint murrain, when he learns that this
malady, together with black leg, quarter ill or evil, black quarter, and
dry gangrene are all analogous: by the different names are meant their
grades. In the early or mild forms, it consists of congestion in the
veins or venous radicles, and effusions into the cellular tissue. When
chemical action overpowers the vital, decomposition sets in; it then
assumes a putrid type; mortification, or a destruction of organic
integrity, is the result.

_Causes._--Its proximate causes exist in any thing that can for a time
interrupt the free and full play of any part of the vital machinery. Its
direct cause may be found in over-feeding, miasma, exposure, poisonous
plants, poor diet, &c. The milk of diseased cows is a frequent cause of
black leg in young calves. The reason why the disease is more likely to
manifest itself in the legs is, because they are more exposed, by the
feet coming in contact with damp ground, and because the blood has a
kind of up-hill work to perform.

_Treatment._--In the early stages of joint murrain and its kindred
maladies, if inflammatory fever is present, the first and most important
step is to relax the external surface, as directed in article
_Pneumonia_, p. 107. Should the animal be in a situation where it is not
convenient to do so, give the following anti-spasmodic:--

  Thoroughwort,        1 ounce.
  Lemon balm,          2 ounces.
  Garlic, bruised,     a few kernels.
  Boiling water,       3 quarts.

Allow the infusion to stand until cool; then strain, and give it a dose.

If the bowels are constipated, inject the following:--

  Soft soap,         half a pint.
  Warm water,        2 quarts.

Rub the joints with the following embrocation:--

  Oil of cedar,    }  equal parts.
  Fir balsam,      }

Keep the animal on warm, bland teas, such as catnip, pennyroyal, lemon
balm, and a light diet of powdered slippery elm gruel.



BLACK QUARTER.


_Symptoms._--Rapid decomposition, known by the pain which the slightest
pressure gives the animal. Carbonic acid gas is evolved from the
semi-putrid state of the system, which finds its way into the cellular
tissue, beneath the skin. A crackling noise can then be heard and felt
by pressing the finger on the hide.

_Causes._--Among the chief causes are the blood-letting and scouring
systems recommended by writers on cattle doctoring. In the inflammatory
stage, we are told, "The first and most important step is copious
bleeding. As much blood must be taken as the animal will bear to lose;
and the stream must flow on until the beast staggers or threatens to
fall. Here, more than in any other disease, there must be no foolish
directions about quantities. [_The heroic practice!_] As much blood must
be taken away as can be got; for it is only by the bold and persevering
use of the lancet that a malady can be subdued that runs its course so
rapidly." (See Youatt, p. 359.) From these directions we are led to
suppose that there are some hopes of bleeding the animal to life; for
the author above quoted seems to entertain no apprehension of bleeding
the animal to death. Mr. Percival and other veterinary writers inform
us, that "an animal will lose about one fifteenth part of its weight of
blood before it dies; though a less quantity may so far debilitate the
vital powers, as to be, though less suddenly, equally fatal." The latter
portion of the sentence means simply this; that if the bleeding does
not give the animal its quietus on the spot, it will produce black
quarter, gangrene, &c., which will be "equally fatal." In the latter
stages of the disease now under consideration, and, indeed, in dry
gangrene, there is a tendency to the complete destruction of life to the
parts involved: hence our remedies should be in harmony with the vital
operations. We should relax, stimulate, and cleanse the whole system,
and arouse every part to healthy action, by the aid of vapor,
injections, stimulating applications, poultices of charcoal and
capsicum, to parts where there is danger of rapid mortification; lastly,
stimulating drinks to vitalize the blood, which only requires
distribution, instead of abstraction.

In reference to the scouring system, (purging,) as a cause of
mortification, we leave the reader to form his own views, after reading
the following: "After abstracting as much blood as can be got away,
purging must immediately follow. A pound and a half of Epsom salts
dissolved in water or gruel, and poured down the throat as gently as
possible, should be our first dose. If this does not operate in the
course of six hours, another pound should be given; and after that, half
pound doses every six hours until the effect is produced"!!--_Youatt_,
p. 359.

_Treatment._--As the natural tendency of these different maladies is the
complete destruction of life to all parts of the organization, efforts
must be made to depurate the whole animal, and arouse every part to
healthy action in the manner recommended under article _Joint Murrain_.
Antiseptics may be freely used in the following form:--

  Powdered bayberry bark,     2 ounces.
     "     charcoal,          6 ounces.
     "     cayenne,           1 tea-spoonful.
     "     slippery elm,      1 ounce.

Add boiling water sufficient to make it of the consistence of thin
gruel.

All sores and foul ulcers may be washed with

  Pyroligneous acid,     1 ounce.
  Water,                 1 gill.

_Another._

  Chloride of lime,     1 ounce.
  Water,                1 pint.

_Another._

  Chloride of soda,      1 ounce.
  Water,                 6 ounces.

The affected parts should be often bathed with one of these washes. If
the disease is not arrested by these means, repeat them, and put the
animal on a diet of flour gruel.



OPEN JOINT.


Joints are liable to external injury from wounds or bruises, and,
although a joint may not be open in the first instance, subsequent
sloughing may expose its cavity. The ordinary effects of disease in
membranes covering joints are, a profuse discharge of joint oil,
(_synovia_,) and a thickening of the synovial membrane. Sometimes the
joint is cemented together; it is then termed anchylosis.

_Treatment._--The first object is, to promote adhesion, by bringing the
edges of the wound together, and confining them in contact by stitches.
A pledget of lint or linen, previously moistened with tincture of myrrh,
should then be bound on with a bandage forming a figure 8 around the
joint. If the parts feel hot and appear inflamed, apply a bandage, which
may be kept constantly wet with cold water. If adhesion of the parts
does not take place, apply the following:--

Powdered bayberry bark,      1 ounce.

Fir balsam, sufficient to form a thick, tenacious mass, which may be
spread thickly over the wound; lastly, a bandage. Should a fetid
discharge take place, poultice with

  Powdered charcoal, } equal parts.
     "     bayberry, }

In cases where the nature of the injury will not admit of the wounded
edges being kept in contact, and a large surface is exposed, we must
promote granulation by keeping the parts clean, and by the daily
application of fir balsam. Unhealthy granulations may be kept down by
touching them with burnt alum, or sprinkling on their surface powdered
bloodroot. The author has treated several cases, in which there was no
hope of healing by the first intention, by the daily use of tincture of
capsicum, together with tonic, stimulating, astringent, antiseptic
poultices and fomentations, as the case seemed to require, and they
always terminated favorably. In all cases of injury to joints, rest and
a light diet are indispensable.



SWELLINGS OF JOINTS.


Swellings frequently arise from bruises and strains; they are sometimes,
however, connected with a rheumatic affection, caused by cold, exposure
to rain, or turning an animal into wet pasture lands after active
exercise. In the acute stage, known by tenderness, unnatural heat, and
lameness, the animal should be put on a light diet of scalded shorts,
&c.; the parts to be frequently bathed with cold water; and, if
practicable, a bandage may be passed around the limb, and kept moist
with the same. If the part still continues painful, take four ounces of
arnica flowers, moisten them with boiling water, when cool, bind them
around the part, and let them remain twenty-four hours. This seldom
fails. On the other hand, should the parts be in a chronic state, which
may be recognized by inactivity, coldness, &c., then the following
embrocation will restore the lost tone:--

  Oil of wormwood,        1 ounce.
   "  "  cedar,           1 ounce.
  Hot drops,              4 ounces.
  Vinegar,                1 pint.

Mix, and rub the part faithfully night and morning. Friction with the
hand or a brush will materially assist to cure. In all cases where
suppuration has commenced, and matter can be distinctly felt, the sooner
the following poultice shall be applied, the better:--

  Powdered slippery elm,      } equal parts.
     "     linseed,           }

Boiling water sufficient to moisten; then add a wine-glass of vinegar.

To be renewed every twelve hours, until the matter escapes.



SPRAIN OF THE FETLOCK.


Sprain, or _strain_, as it is commonly termed, sometimes arises from
violent exertions; at other times, by the animal unexpectedly treading
on some uneven surface.

_Treatment._--First wash the foot clean, then carefully examine the
cleft, and remove any substance that may have lodged there. A cotton
bandage folded around the claws and continued above the fetlock, kept
wet with the following lotion, will speedily reduce any excess of
inflammatory action that may exist:--

  Acetic acid,        1 ounce.
  Water,              1 pint.

_Another._

  Vinegar,            1 pint.
  Water,              3 pints.



STRAIN OF THE HIP.


This may sometimes occur in working oxen. Rest is the principal remedy.
The part may, however, be bathed daily with the following:--

  Wormwood,             4 ounces.
  Scalding vinegar,     2 quarts.

The liquor must be applied cold.

_Strain of the knees_ or _shoulder_ may be treated in the same manner as
above.



FOUL IN THE FOOT.


A great deal of learned nonsense has been written on this subject, which
only serves to plunge the farmer into a labyrinth from which there is no
escape. The author will not trespass on the reader's patience so much as
to transcribe different authors' opinions in relation to the nature of
the disease and its treatment, but will proceed at once to point out a
common-sense explanation of its cause, and the proper mode of treating
it.

The disease is analogous to foot rot in sheep, and is the consequence of
feeding in wet pastures, or suffering the animals to wallow in filth. A
large quantity of morbific or excrementitious matter is thrown off from
the system through the surfaces between the cleft. Now, should those
surfaces be obstructed by filth, or contracted by cold, the delicate
mouths of these excrementitious vessels, or outlets, are unable to rid
the parts of their morbid accumulations: these vessels become distended
beyond their usual capacity, communicate with each other, and, when no
longer able to contain this mass of useless material, an artificial
drain, in the form of "foot rot," is established, by which simple method
the parts recover their reciprocal equilibrium. In this case, as in
diarrhoea, we recognize a simple and sanative operation of nature's
law, which, if aided, will generally prove beneficial.

That "foul in the foot" is caused by the sudden stoppage of some natural
evacuation is evident from the following facts: First, the disease is
most prevalent in cold, low, marshy countries, where the foot is kept
constantly moist. Secondly, the disease is neither contagious nor
epidemic. (See _Journal de Méd. Vét. et comparée_, 1826, p. 319.)

_Treatment._--In all cases of obstruction to the depurating apparatus,
there is a loss of equilibrium between secretion and excretion. The
first indication is, to restore the lost function. Previously, however,
to doing so, the animal must be removed to a dry situation. The cause
once removed, the cure is easy, provided we merely assist nature and
follow her teachings. As warmth and moisture are known to relax all
animal fibre, the part should be relaxed, warmed, and cleansed, first by
warm water and soap, lastly by poultice; at the same time bearing in
mind that the object is not to produce or invite suppuration, (formation
of matter,) but only to liberate the excess of morbid materials that may
already be present: as soon as this is accomplished, the poultice should
be discontinued.

_Poultice for Foul Feet._

  Roots of marshmallows, bruised,   half a pound.
  Powdered charcoal,                a handful.
     "     lobelia,                 a few ounces.
  Meal,                             a tea-cupful.
  Boiling water sufficient to soften the mass.

_Another_.

  Powdered lobelia,         }
  Slippery elm,             } equal parts.
  Pond lily, bruised,       }

Mix with boiling water. Put the ingredients into a bag, and secure it
above the fetlock.

Give the animal the following at a dose:--

  Flowers of sulphur,                 half an ounce.
  Powdered sassafras bark,            1 ounce.
  Burdock, (any part of the plant,)   2 ounces.

The above to be steeped in one quart of boiling water. When cool,
strain. All that is now needed is to keep the part cleansed, and at
rest. If a fetid smell still remains, wet the cleft, morning and
evening, with

  Chloride of soda,      1 ounce.
  Water,                 6 ounces.

Mix.

_Another._

  Pyroligneous acid,        2 ounces.
  Water,                    a pint.

Mix.

_Another._

  Common salt,          1 table-spoonful.
  Vinegar,              a wine-glass.
  Water,                1 quart.

Whenever any fungous excrescence makes its appearance between the claws,
apply powdered bloodroot or burnt alum.



RED WATER.


This affection takes its name from the high color of the urine. It is
not, strictly speaking, a disease, but only a symptom of derangement,
caused by high feeding or the suppression of some natural discharge. If,
for example, the skin be obstructed, then the insensible perspiration
and excrementitious matter, which should pass through this great outlet,
find some other mode of egress; either the lungs of kidneys have to
perform the extra work. If the lot falls on the latter, and they are not
in a physiological state, they give evidence of febrile or inflammatory
action (caused by the irritating, acrid character of their secretion) in
the form of high-colored urine. In all cases of derangement in the
digestive apparatus, liver included, both in man and oxen, the urine is
generally high colored; and the use of diuretic medicines is
objectionable, for, at best, it would only be treating symptoms. We lay
it down as a fundamental principle, that those who treat symptoms alone
never cure disease, for the animal often dies a victim to the treatment,
instead of the malady.

Whenever an animal is in a state of plethora, and the usual amount of
morbific matter cannot find egress, some portion of it is reabsorbed,
producing a deleterious effect: the urine will then be high colored,
plainly demonstrating that nature is making an effort to rid the system
of useless material, and will do so unless interfered with by the use of
means opposed to the cure, such as blood-letting, physicking, and
diuretics.

The urine will appear high colored, and approach a red hue, in many cows
after calving, in inflammation of the womb, gastric fever, puerperal
fever, fevers generally, inflammation of the kidneys, indigestion; in
short, many forms of acute disease are accompanied by high-colored
urine.

The treatment, like that of any other form of derangement, must be
general. Excite all parts of the system to healthy action. If the bowels
are constipated, give the following:--

  Golden seal,             1 table-spoonful.
  Thoroughwort tea,        2 quarts.

To be given at a dose. Scalded shorts will be the most suitable food, if
any is required; but, generally, abstinence is necessary, especially if
the animal be fat. If the surface and extremities are cold, give an
infusion of pennyroyal, catnip, sage, or hyssop; and rub the belly and
legs with

  Hot vinegar,                    1 quart.
  Powdered lobelia or cayenne,    1 ounce.

If the kidneys are inflamed,--which may be known by tenderness in the
region of the loins, and by the animal standing with the legs widely
separated,--the urine being of a dark red color, then, in addition to
the application of stimulating liniment to the belly and legs, a
poultice may be placed over the kidneys.

_Poultice for inflamed Kidneys._

  Slippery elm,             8 ounces.
  Lobelia,                  4 ounces.
  Boiling water sufficient.

_Another._

  Linseed,                  } equal parts
  Marshmallows,             }
  Boiling water sufficient.

Lay the poultice on the loins, pass a cloth over it, and secure under
the belly.

A drink of marshmallows is the only fluid that can with safety be
allowed.

If the horns, ears, and surface are hot, sponge the whole surface with
weak lie or saleratus water, and give the following antifebrile drink:--

  Lemon balm,                 2 ounces.
  Cream of tartar,            1 ounce.
  Boiling water,              2 quarts.
  Honey,                      1 gill.

When cold, strain, and give a pint every fifteen minutes.

If the bowels are constipated, use injections of soap-suds.

Suppose the animal to be in poor condition, hide bound, liver inactive,
the excrement of a dark color and fetid odor. Then use

  Powdered golden seal,          2 ounces.
     "     caraways,             1 ounce.
     "     cayenne,              1 tea-spoonful.
  Poplar bark, or slippery elm,  2 ounces.

Mix, divide into ten parts, and give one, in thin gruel, three times a
day. The animal should be fed on boiled carrots, scalded shorts, into
which a few handfuls of meal or flour may be stirred. In short, consider
the nature of the case; look beyond the symptoms, ascertain the cause,
and, if possible, remove it. An infusion of either of the following
articles may be given at discretion: marshmallows, linseed, juniper
berries, pond lily roots, poplar bark, or queen of the meadow.

Mr. Cole remarks that "red water is most common in cows of weak
constitution, a general relaxation, poor blood, &c."

In such cases, a nutritious diet, cleanliness, good nursing, friction on
the surface, comfortable quarters at night, and an occasional tonic will
accomplish wonders.

_Tonic Mixture._

  Powdered golden seal,       1 tea-spoonful.
     "     balmony,           2 tea-spoonfuls.

Mix the above in shorts or meal. Repeat night and morning until
convalescence is established. In cases of great prostration, where it is
necessary to act with promptitude, the following infusion may be
substituted:--

  Thoroughwort,             }
  Golden seal,              } of each, 1 ounce.
  Camomile flowers,         }
  Boiling water,              2 quarts.

After standing one hour, strain, and give a pint every four hours.



BLACK WATER.


My plan of treatment, in this malady, is similar to that for red water.
In both cases, it is indispensable to attend to the general health, to
promote the discharge of all the secretions, to remove all obstructions
to the full and free play of all parts of the living machinery. The same
remedies recommended in the preceding article are equally good in this
case, only they must be more perseveringly applied.



THICK URINE.


Whenever the urine is thick and turbid, deficient in quantity, or voided
with difficulty, either of the following prescriptions may be
administered:--

  Juniper berries,            2 ounces.
  Boiling water,              2 quarts.

Strain. Dose, 1 pint every four hours.

_Another._

  Slippery elm,                1 ounce.
  Poplar bark,                 2 ounces.

Make a tea; sweeten with molasses, and give pint doses every four hours.

_Another._

Make a tea of cedar or pine boughs, sweeten with honey, and give it at
discretion.



RHEUMATISM.


Rheumatism thrives in cold, damp situations, and in wet, foggy weather.
It is often confined to the membranes of the large joints, and sometimes
consists in a deficiency of joint oil, (_synovia._) It is liable to
become chronic, and involve the fibro-muscular tissues. Acute rheumatism
is known by the pain and swelling in certain parts. Chronic rheumatism
is recognized by coldness, rigidity about the muscles, want of vital
action, &c.

When lameness, after a careful examination, cannot be accounted for, and
is found to go off after exercise, and return again, it is probably
rheumatism.


_Treatment of Acute Rheumatism._--Bathe the parts with an infusion of
arnica flowers, made thus:--

  Arnica flowers,                    4 ounces.
  Boiling water,                     3 quarts.

When sufficiently cool, it is fit for use.

Give the following:--

  Sulphur,                  2 ounces.
  Cream of tartar,          3 ounces.
  Powdered pleurisy root,   1 ounce.
     "     licorice,        2 ounces.
  Indian meal,              1 pound.

Mix. Give a table-spoonful three times a day in the feed. A light diet
and rest are indispensable.


_Treatment of Chronic Rheumatism._--Put the animal on a generous diet,
and give an occasional spoonful of golden seal or balmony in the food,
and a drink of sassafras tea. The parts may be rubbed with stimulating
liniment, for which, see APPENDIX.



BLAIN.


Some veterinary writers describe this disease as "a watery tumor,
growing at the root of the tongue, and threatening suffocation. The
first symptoms are foaming at the mouth, gaping, and lolling out of the
tongue."

The disease first originates in the mucous surfaces, which enter into
the mouth, throat, and stomach. It partakes somewhat of the character of
thrush, and requires nearly the same treatment.

Make an infusion of raspberry leaves, to which add a small quantity of
borax or alum. Wash the mouth and tongue with the same by means of a
sponge. If there are any large pustules, open them with the point of a
penknife. After cleansing them, sprinkle with powdered bayberry bark, or
bloodroot. Rid the system of morbid matter by injection and physic,
(which see, in APPENDIX.) The following antiseptic drink will
then complete the cure:--

Make a tea of raspberry leaves by steeping two ounces in a quart of
boiling water; when cool, strain; then add

  Powdered charcoal,          2 ounces.
     "     bayberry bark,     1 ounce.
  Honey,                      2 table-spoonfuls.

Give a pint every four hours.

The diet should consist of scalded meal, boiled turnips, carrots, &c.,
to which a small portion of salt may be added. If the glands under the
ears and around the throat are sympathetically affected, and swollen,
they must be rubbed twice a day with the stimulating liniment. (See
APPENDIX.)

The disease is supposed, by some veterinarians, to originate in the
tongue, but post mortem examinations lead us to determine otherwise. Mr.
Youatt informs us that "post mortem examination shows intense
inflammation, or even gangrene, of the tongue, oesophagus, paunch, and
fourth stomach. The food in the paunch has a most offensive smell, and
that in the manyplus is hard and dry. Inflammation reaches to the small
intestines, which are covered with red and black patches in the
coecum, colon, and rectum."



THRUSH.


_Thrush_, and all eruptive diseases of the throat and internal surface,
are treated in the same manner as laid down in Blaine.



BLACK TONGUE.


Black Tongue appears when the system is deprived of vital force, as in
the last stages of blaine, &c. The indications to be fulfilled are the
same as in blaine, but applied with more perseverance.



INFLAMMATION OF THE THROAT AND ITS APPENDAGES.[12]


In many cases, if attended to immediately, nothing more will be
necessary than confining the animal to a light diet, with frequent
drinks of linseed tea, warmth and moisture applied locally in the form
of a slippery elm poultice, which may be kept in close contact with the
throat by securing it to the horns. But, in very severe attacks, mullein
leaves steeped in vinegar and applied to the parts, with an occasional
stimulating injection, (see APPENDIX,) together with a gruel
diet, are the only means of relief.

FOOTNOTE:

[12] This includes the larynx, pharynx, and trachea.



BRONCHITIS.


Bronchitis consists in a thickening of the fibrous and mucous surfaces
of the trachea, and generally results from maltreated hoose or catarrh.

_Symptoms._--A dry, husky, wheezing cough, laborious breathing, hot
breath, and dry tongue.

_Treatment._--Warm poultices of slippery elm or flaxseed, on the surface
of which sprinkle powdered lobelia. Apply them to the throat moderately
warm; if they are too hot they will prove injurious. In the first place
administer the following drink:--

  Powdered licorice,               1 ounce.
     "     elecampane,             half an ounce.
  Slippery elm,                    1 ounce.

Boiling water sufficient to make it of the consistence of thin gruel.

If there is great difficulty of breathing, add half a tea-spoon of
lobelia to the above, and repeat the dose night and morning. Linseed or
marshmallow tea is a valuable auxiliary in the treatment of this
disease. The animal should be comfortably housed, and the legs kept warm
by friction with coarse straw.



INFLAMMATION OF GLANDS.


There are numerous glandular bodies distributed over the animal
structure. Those to which the reader's attention is called are, first,
the parotid, situated beneath the ear; secondly, the sub-lingual,
beneath the tongue; lastly, the sub-maxillary, situated just within the
angle of the jaw. They are organized similarly to other glands, as the
kidneys, &c., possessing arteries, veins, lymphatics, &c., which
terminate in a common duct. They have also a ramification of nerves, and
the body of the gland has its own system of arterial vessels and
absorbents, which are enclosed by a serous membrane. They produce a
copious discharge of fluid, called saliva. Its use is to lubricate the
mouth, thereby preventing friction; also to lubricate the food, and
assist digestion.

Inflammation of either of these glands may be known by the heat,
tenderness, enlargement, and difficulty of swallowing. They are usually
sympathetically affected, as in hoose, catarrh, influenza, &c., and
generally resume their natural state when these maladies disappear.

_Treatment._--In the inflammatory stage, warm teas of marshmallows, or
slippery elm, and poultices of the same, are the best means yet known to
reduce it; they relax constricted or obstructed organs, and by being
directly applied to the parts affected, the more speedily and
effectually is the object accomplished. Two or three applications of
some relaxing poultice will be all that is needed; after which, apply

  Olive oil, or goose grease,      1 gill.
  Spirits of camphor,              1 ounce.
  Oil of cedar,                    1 ounce.
  Vinegar,                         half a gill.

Mix.

_Another._

  Pyroligneous acid,               2 ounces.
  Beef's gall,                     1 gill.
  Cayenne,                         1 tea-spoonful.

To be rubbed around the throat as occasion may require. All hard or
indigestible food will be injurious.



LOSS OF CUD.


Loss of Cud is a species of indigestion, and may be brought on by the
animal's eating greedily of some food to which it has been unaccustomed.
Loss of cud and loss of appetite are synonymous.

_Compound for Loss of Cud._

  Golden seal, powdered,        1 ounce.
  Caraway,        "             2 ounces.
  Cream of tartar,              half an ounce.
  Powdered poplar bark,         2 ounces.

Mix. Divide into six powders, and give one every four hours in a
sufficient quantity of camomile tea.



COLIC.


Colic is occasioned by a want of physiological power in the organs of
digestion, so that the food, instead of undergoing a chemico-vital
process, runs into fermentation, by which process carbonic acid gas is
evolved.

_Symptoms._--The animal is evidently in pain, and appears very restless;
it occasionally turns its head, with an anxious gaze, to the left side,
which seems to be distended more than the right; there is an occasional
discharge of gas from the mouth and anus.

_Treatment._--Give the following carminative:--

  Powdered aniseed,          half a tea-spoonful.
     "     cinnamon,          "          "

To be given in a quart of spearmint tea, and repeated if necessary.

_Another._

  Powdered assafoetida,          half a tea-spoon.
  Thin gruel of slippery elm,    2 quarts.
  Oil of aniseed,                20 drops.

To be given at a dose.

If the animal suffers much pain, apply fomentations to the belly, and
give the following injection:--

  Powdered ginger,             half an ounce.
  Common salt,                 1 table-spoonful.
  Hot water,                   1 gallon.



SPASMODIC COLIC.


This affection may be treated in the same manner as flatulent colic,
aided by warmth and moisture externally. The author has in many cases
cured animals of spasmodic colic with a little peppermint tea, brisk
friction upon the stomach and bowels, and an injection of warm water;
whereas, had the animals been compelled to swallow the usual amount of
gin, saleratus, castor oil, salts, and other nauseous, useless drugs,
they would probably have died. The reader, especially if he is an
advocate of the popular poisoning and blood-letting system, may ask,
What good can a little simple peppermint tea accomplish? We answer,
Nature delights in simples, and in all her operations invites us to
follow her example. The fact is, warm peppermint tea, although in the
estimation of the learned it is not entitled to any confidence as a
therapeutic agent, yet is an efficient anti-spasmodic in the hands of
reformers and common-sense farmers. It is evident that if any changes
are made in the symptoms, they ought to be for the better; yet under the
heroic practice they often grow worse.



CONSTIPATION.


In constipation there is a retention of the excrement, which becomes dry
and hard. It may arise from derangement of the liver and other parts of
the digestive apparatus: at other times, there is a loss of equilibrium
between the mucous and external surface, the secretion of the former
being deficient, and the external surface throwing off too much moisture
in the form of perspiration. In short, constipation, in nine cases out
of ten, is only a symptom of a more serious disorder in some important
function. The use of powerful purges is at all times attended with
danger, and in very many cases they fall short of accomplishing the
object. Mr. Youatt tells us that "a heifer had been feverish, and had
refused all food during five days; and four pounds of Epsom salts, and
the same quantity of treacle, and three fourths of a pint of castor oil,
and numerous injections, had been administered before any purgative
effect could be produced." Several cases have come under the author's
notice where large doses of aloes, salts, and castor oil had been given
without producing the least effect on the bowels, until within a few
minutes of the death of the animal. If the animal ever recovers from the
dangerous effects resulting from powerful purges, it is evident that the
delicate membranes lining the alimentary canal must lose their energy
and become torpid. All mechanical irritants--for purges are of that
class--divert the fluids of the body from the surface and kidneys,
producing watery discharges from the bowels. This may be exemplified by
a person taking a pinch of snuff; the irritating article comes in
contact with the mucous surfaces: they endeavor to wash off the
offending matter by secreting a quantity of fluid; this, together with
what is forced through the membranes in the act of sneezing, generally
accomplishes the purpose. A constant repetition of the vile habit
renders the parts less capable of self-defence; they become torpid, and
lose their natural power of resisting encroachments; finally, the
altered voice denotes the havoc made on the mucous membrane. This
explains the whole _modus operandi_ of artificial purging; and although,
in the latter case, the parts are not adapted to sneezing, yet there is
often a dreadful commotion, which has destroyed many thousands of
valuable animals. An eminent professor has said that "purgatives,
besides being uncertain and uncontrollable, often kill from the
dangerous debility they produce." The good results that sometimes appear
to follow the exhibition of irritating purges must be attributed to the
sanative action of the constitution, and not to the agent itself; and
the life of the patient depends, in all cases, on the existing ability
of the vital power to counteract the effects of purging, bleeding,
poisoning, and blistering.

The author does not wish to give the reader occasion to conclude that
purgatives can be entirely dispensed with; on the contrary, he thinks
that in many cases they are decidedly beneficial, when given with
discretion, and when the nature of the disease requires them; yet even
such cases, too much confidence should not be placed on them, so as to
exclude other and sometimes more efficient remedies, which come under
the head of laxatives, aperients, &c.

_Treatment._--If costiveness is suspected to be symptomatic of some
derangement, then a restoration of the general health will establish the
lost function of the bowels. In this case, purges are unnecessary; the
treatment will altogether depend on the symptoms. For example, suppose
the animal constipated; the white of the eye tinged yellow, head
drooping, and the animal is drowsy, and off its feed; then give the
following:--

  Powdered mandrake,              1 tea-spoonful.
  Castile soap, in shavings,      quarter of an ounce.
  Beef's gall,                    half a wine-glass.
  Powdered capsicum,              third of a table-spoon.

Dissolve the soap in a small quantity of hot water, then mix the whole
in three pints of thin gruel.

This makes a good aperient, and can be given with perfect safety in all
cases of constipation arising from derangement of the liver. The liquid
must be poured down the throat in a gradual manner, in order to insure
its reaching the fourth stomach. Aid the medicine by injections, and rub
the belly occasionally with straw.

Suppose the bowels to be torpid during an attack of inflammation of the
brain; then it will be prudent to combine relaxants and anti-spasmodics,
in the following form:--

  Extract of butternut,           half an ounce.
  Powdered skunk cabbage,               "
  Cream of tartar,                      "
  Powdered lobelia,               2 drachms.

First dissolve the butternut in two quarts of hot water; after which add
the remaining ingredients, and give it for a dose. The operation of this
prescription, like the preceding, must be aided by injection, friction,
and warm drinks made of hyssop or pine boughs.

Suppose the bowels to be constipated, at the same time the animal is
hide-bound, in poor condition, &c.; the aperient must then be combined
with tonics, as follows:--

  Extract of butternut,              half an ounce.
  Rochelle salt,                     4 ounces.
  Golden seal,                       1 ounce.
  Ginger,                            1 tea-spoonful.
  Hot water,                         3 quarts.

Dissolve and administer at a dose. In order to relieve the cold,
constricted, inactive state of the hide, recourse must be had to warmth,
moisture, and friction. A simple aperient of linseed oil may be given in
cases of stricture or intussusception of the bowels. The dose is one
pint.



FALLING DOWN OF THE FUNDAMENT.


Return the prolapsed part as quickly as possible by gently kneading the
parts within the rectum. In recent cases, the part should be washed with
an infusion of bayberry bark. (See APPENDIX.) The bowel may be
kept in position by applying a wad of cotton, kept wet with the
astringent infusion, confined with a bandage. A weak solution of alum
water may, however, be substituted, provided the bayberry or white oak
bark is not at hand.

Should the parts appear swollen and much inflamed, apply a large
slippery elm poultice, on the surface of which sprinkle powdered white
oak or bayberry bark. This will soon lessen the swelling, so that the
rectum may be returned.

The diet must be very sparing, consisting of flour gruel; and if the
bowels are in a relaxed state, add a small quantity of powdered
bayberry.



CALVING.


At the end of nine months, the period of the cow's gestation is
complete; but parturition does not always take place at that time; it is
sometimes earlier, at others later. "One hundred and sixteen cows had
their time of calving registered: fourteen of them calved from the two
hundred and forty-first day to the two hundred and sixty-sixth
day,--that is, eight months and one day to eight months and twenty-six
days; fifty-six from the two hundred and seventieth to the two hundred
and eightieth day; eighteen from the two hundred and eightieth to the
two hundred and ninetieth; twenty on the three hundredth day; five on
the three hundred and eighth day; consequently there were sixty-seven
days between the two extremities."

Immediately before calving, the animal appears uneasy; the tail is
elevated; she shifts from place to place, and is frequently lying down
and getting up again. The labor pains then come on; and by the expulsive
power of the womb, the foetus, with the membranes enveloping it, is
pushed forward. At first, the membranes appear beyond the vagina, or
"shape," often in the form of a bladder of water; the membranes burst,
the water is discharged, and the head and fore feet of the calf protrude
beyond the shape. We are now supposing a case of natural labor. The body
next appears, and soon the delivery is complete. In a short time, a
gradual contraction of the womb takes place, and the cleansings
(afterbirth) are discharged. When the membranes are ruptured in the
early stage of calving, and before the outlet be sufficiently expanded,
the process is generally tedious and attended with danger; and this
danger arises in part from the premature escape of the fluids contained
within the membranes, which are intended, ultimately, to serve the
double purpose of expanding or dilating the passage, and lubricating the
parts, thereby facilitating the birth.

Under these circumstances, it will be our duty to supply the latter
deficiency by carefully anointing the parts with olive oil; at the same
time, allow the animal a generous supply of slippery elm gruel: if she
refuses to partake of it, when offered in a bucket, it must be gently
poured down the throat from a bottle. At times, delivery is very slow; a
considerable time elapses before any part of the calf makes its
appearance. Here we have only to exercise patience; for if there is a
natural presentation, nature, being the best doctor under all
circumstances, will do the work in a more faithful manner unassisted
than when improperly assisted. "A meddlesome midwifery is bad."
Therefore the practice of attempting to hurry the process by driving the
animal about, or annoying her in any way, is very improper. In some
cases, however, when a wrong presentation is apparent, which seems to
render calving impracticable, we should, after smearing the hand with
lard, introduce it into the vagina, and endeavor to ascertain the
position of the calf, and change it when it is found unfavorable. When,
for example, the head presents without the fore legs, which are bent
under the breast, we may gently pass the hand along the neck, and,
having ascertained the position of the feet, we grasp them, and endeavor
to bring them forward, the cow at the same time being put into the most
favorable position, viz., the hind quarters being elevated. By this
means the calf can be gently pushed back, as the feet are advanced and
brought into the outlet. The calf being now in a natural position, we
wait patiently, and give nature an opportunity to perform her work.
Should the expulsive efforts cease, and the animal appear to be rapidly
sinking, no time must be lost; nature evidently calls for assistance,
but not in the manner usually resorted to, viz., that of placing a rope
around the head and feet of the calf, and employing the united strength
of several men to extract the foetus, without regard to position. Our
efforts must be directed to the mother; the calf is a secondary
consideration: the strength of the former, if it is failing, must be
supported; the expulsive power of the womb and abdominal muscles, now
feeble, must be aroused; and there are no means or processes that are
better calculated to fulfil these indications than that of administering
the following drink:--

  Bethroot,                  2 ounces.
  Powdered cayenne,          one third of a tea-spoon.
  Motherwort,                1 ounce.

Infuse in a gallon of boiling water. When cool, strain, then add a gill
of honey, and give it in pint doses, as occasion may require.

Under this treatment, there is no difficulty in reëstablishing uterine
action. If, however, the labor is still tedious, the calf may be grasped
with both hands, and as soon as a pain or expulsive effort is evident,
draw the calf from side to side. While making this lateral motion, draw
the calf forward. Expulsion generally follows.

If, on examination, it is clearly ascertained that the calf is lying in
an unnatural position,--for example, the calf may be in such a position
as to present its side across the outlet,--in such cases delivery is not
practicable unless the position is altered. Mr. White says, "I have seen
a heifer that it was found impossible to deliver. On examining her after
death, a very large calf was found lying quite across the mouth of the
uterus." In such cases, Mr. Lawson recommends that, "when every other
plan has failed for taming the calf, so as to put it in a favorable
position for delivery, the following has often succeeded: Let the cow be
thrown down in a proper position, and placed on her back; then, by means
of ropes and a pulley attached to a beam above, let the hind parts be
raised up, so as to be considerably higher than the fore parts; in this
position, the calf may be easily put back towards the bottom of the
uterus, so as to admit of being turned, or his head and fore legs
brought forward without difficulty."

We must ever bear in mind the important fact that the successful
termination of the labor depends on the strength and ability of the
parent; that if these fail, however successful we may be in bringing
about a right presentation, the birth is still tedious, and we may
finally have to take the foetus away piecemeal; by which process the
cow's life is put in jeopardy.

To avoid such an unfortunate occurrence, support the animal's strength
with camomile tea. The properties of camomile are antispasmodic,
carminative, and tonic--just what is wanted.

Mr. White informs us that "instances sometimes occur of the calf's head
appearing only, and so large that it is found impossible to put it back.
When this is found to be the case, the calf should be killed, and
carefully extracted, by cutting off the head and other parts that
prevent the extraction; thus the cow's life will be saved."

In cases of malformation of the head of the foetus, or when the
cranium is enormously distended by an accumulation of fluid within the
ventricles of the brain, after all other remedies, in the form of
fomentations, lubricating antispasmodic drinks, have failed, then
recourse must be had to embryotomy.



EMBRYOTOMY.


For the following method of performing the operation we are indebted to
Mr. Youatt's work. The details appeared in the London Veterinarian of
1831, and will illustrate the operation. M. Thibeaudeau, the operating
surgeon, says, "I was consulted respecting a Breton cow twenty years
old, which was unable to calve. I soon discovered the obstacle to the
delivery. The fore limbs presented themselves as usual; but the head and
neck were turned backwards, and fixed on the left side of the chest,
while the foetus lay on its right side, on the inferior portion of the
uterus." M. Thibeaudeau then relates the ineffectual efforts he made to
bring the foetus into a favorable position, and he at length found
that his only resource to save the mother was, to cut in pieces the
calf, which was now dead. "I amputated the left shoulder of the foetus,"
says he, "in spite of the difficulties which the position of the head
and neck presented. Having withdrawn the limb, I made an incision
through all the cartilages of the ribs, and laid open the chest through
its whole extent, by which means I was enabled to extract all the
thoracic viscera. Thus having lessened the size of the calf, I was
enabled, by pulling at the remaining fore leg, to extract the foetus
without much resistance, although the head and neck were still bent upon
the chest. The afterbirth was removed immediately afterwards." This
shows the importance of making an early examination, to determine the
precise position of the foetus; for if the head had been discovered in
such position in the early stage of labor, it might have been brought
forward, and thus prevented the butchery.



FALLING OF THE CALF-BED, OR WOMB.


When much force used in extracting the calf, it sometimes happens that
the womb falls out, or is inverted; and great care is required in
putting it back, so that it may remain in that situation.

_Treatment._--If the cow has calved during the night, in a cold
situation, and, from the exhausted state of the animal, we have reason
to suppose that the labor has been tedious, or that she has taken cold,
efforts must be made to restore the equilibrium. The following
restorative must be given:--

  Motherwort tea,            2 quarts.
  Hot drops,                 1 table-spoonful.
  Powdered cinnamon,         1 tea-spoonful.

Give a pint every ten minutes, and support the animal with flour gruel.

The uterus should be returned in the following manner: Place the cow in
such a position that the hind parts shall be higher than the fore. Wash
the uterus with warm water, into which sprinkle a small quantity of
powdered bayberry; remove any extraneous substance from the parts. A
linen cloth is then to be put under the womb, which is to be held by two
assistants. The cow should be made to rise, if lying down,--that being
the most favorable position,--and the operator is then to grasp the
mouth of the womb with both hands and return it. When so returned, one
hand is to be immediately withdrawn, while the other remains to prevent
that part from falling down again. The hand at liberty is then to grasp
another portion of the womb, which is to be pushed into the body, like
the former, and retained with one hand. This is to be repeated until the
whole of the womb is put back. If the womb does not contract, friction,
with a brush, around the belly and back, may excite contraction. An
attendant must, at the same time, apply a pad wetted with weak alum
water to the "shape," and keep it in close contact with the parts, while
the friction is going on. It is sometimes necessary to confine the pad
by a bandage.



GARGET.


In order to prevent this malady, the calf should be put to suck
immediately after the caw has cleansed it; and, if the bag is distended
with an overplus of milk, some of it should be milked off. If, however,
the teats or quarters become hot and tender, foment with an infusion of
elder or camomile flowers, which must be perseveringly applied, at the
same time drawing, in the most gentle manner, a small quantity of milk;
by which means the over-distended vessels will collapse to their healthy
diameter. An aperient must then be given, (see APPENDIX,) and
the animal be kept on a light diet. If there is danger of matter
forming, rub the bag with the following liniment:--

  Goose oil, }  equal parts.
  Hot drops, }

If the parts are exceedingly painful, wash with a weak lie, or wood
ashes, or sal soda. In spite of all our efforts, matter will sometimes
form. As soon as it is discovered, a lancet may be introduced, and the
matter evacuated; then wash the part clean, and apply the stimulating
liniment. (See APPENDIX.)



SORE TEATS.


First wash with castile soap and warm water; then apply the following:--

  Lime water,     } equal parts.
  Linseed oil,    }


CHAPPED TEATS AND CHAFED UDDER.

These may be treated in the same manner.

If the above preparation is not at hand, substitute bayberry tallow,
elder or marshmallow ointment.



FEVER.


_Description and Definition._--Fever is a powerful effort of the vital
principle to expel from the system morbific or irritating matter, or to
bring about a healthy action. The reason why veterinary practitioners
have not ascertained this fact heretofore is, because they have been
guided by false principles, to the exclusion of their own common
experience. Let them receive the truth of the definition we have given;
then the light will begin to shine, and medical darkness will be
rendered more visible. Fever, we have said, is a vital action--an effort
of the vital power to regain its equilibrium of action through the
system, and should never be subdued by the use of the lancet, or any
destructive agents that deprive the organs of the power to produce it.
Fever will be generally manifested in one or more of that combination of
signs known as follows: loss of appetite, increased velocity of the
pulse, difficult respiration, heaving at the flank, thirst, pain, and
swelling; some of which will be present, local or general, in greater or
less degree, in all forms of disease. When an animal has taken cold,
and there is power in the system to keep up a continual warfare against
encroachments, the disturbance of vital action being unbroken, the fever
is called pure or persistent. Emanations from animal or vegetable
substances in a state of decomposition or putrefaction, or the noxious
miasmata from marshy lands, if concentrated, and not sufficiently
diluted with atmospheric air, enter into the system, and produce a
specific effect. In order to dethrone the intruder, who keeps up a
system of aggression from one tissue to another, the vital power arrays
her artillery, in good earnest, to resist the invading foe; and if
furnished with the munitions of war in the form of sanative agents, she
generally conquers the enemy, and dictates her own terms. While the
forces are equally balanced, which may be known by a high grade of vital
action, it is also called _unbroken_ or _pure_ fever. The powers of the
system may become exhausted by efforts at relief, and the fever will be
periodically reduced; this form of fever is called _remittent_. By
remittent fever is to be understood this modification of vital action
which rests or abates, but does not go entirely off before a fresh
attack ensues. It is evident, in this case, also, that nature is busily
engaged in the work of establishing her empire; but being more
exhausted, she occasionally rests from her labors. It would be as absurd
to expect that the most accurate definition of fever in one animal would
correspond in all its details with another case, as to expect all
animals to be alike. There are many names given to fevers; for example,
in addition to the two already alluded to, we have milk or puerperal
fever, symptomatic, typhus, inflammatory, &c. Veterinary Surgeon
Percival, in an article on fever, says, "We have no more reason--not
near so much--to give fever a habitation in the abdomen, than we have to
enthrone it in the head; but it would appear from the full range of
observation, that no part of the body can be said to be unsusceptible of
inflammation, (local fever,) though, at the same time, no organ is
invariably or exclusively affected."

From this we learn that disease always attacks the weakest organ, and
that our remedies should be adapted to act on all parts of the system.

The same author continues, "All I wish to contend for is, that both
idiopathic and symptomatic fevers exhibit the same form, character,
species, and the same general means of cure; and that, were it not for
the local affection, it would be difficult or impossible to distinguish
them."

Fever has always been the great bugbear, to scare the farmer and cattle
doctor into a wholesale system of blood-letting and purging; they
believe that the more fever the animal manifests, the more unwearied
must be their exertions. The author advises the farmer not to feel
alarmed about the fever; for when that is present it shows that the
vital principle is up and doing. Efforts should be made to open the
outlets of the body, through which the morbific materials may pass: the
fever will then subside. It will be difficult to make the community
credit this simple truth, because fever is quite a fashionable disease,
and it is an easy matter to make the farmer believe that his cow has a
very peculiar form of it, that requires an entirely different mode of
treatment from that of another form. Then it is very profitable to the
interested allopathic doctor, who can produce any amount of "learned
nonsense" to justify the ways and means, and support his theory.

The author does not wish, at the present time, to enter into a learned
discussion of the merit or demerit of allopathy: the object of this work
is, to impart practical information to farmers and owners of stock. In
order to accomplish this object, an occasional reference to the
absurdities of the old school is unavoidable.

A celebrated writer has said, "The very medicines [meaning those used by
the old school, which kill more than they ever cure] which aggravate and
protract the malady bind a laurel on the doctor's brow. When, at last,
the sick are saved by the living powers of nature struggling against
death and the physician, he receives all the credit of a miraculous
cure; he is lauded to the skies for delivering the sick from the details
of the most deadly symptoms of misery into which he himself had plunged
them, and out of which they never would have arisen, but by the
restorative efforts of that living power which at once triumphed over
poison, blood-letting, disease, and death."

In the treatment of disease, and when fever is manifested by the signs
just enumerated, the object is, to invite the blood to the external
surface; or, in other words, equalize the circulation by warmth and
moisture; give diaphoretic or sudorific medicines, (see
APPENDIX,) with a view of relaxing the capillary structure,
ridding the system of morbific materials, and allaying the general
excitement. If the ears and legs are cold, rub them diligently with a
brush; if they again relapse into a cold state, rub them with
stimulating liniment, and bandage them with flannel. In short, to
contract, to stimulate, remove obstructions, and furnish the system with
the materials for self-defence, are the means to be resorted to in the
cure of fevers.

We shall now give a few examples of the treatment of fever; from which
the reader will form some idea of the course to be pursued in other
forms not enumerated. But we may be asked why we make so many divisions
of fever when it is evidently a unit. We answer the question, in the
words of Professor Curtis, whose teachings first emancipated us from the
absurdity of allopathic theories. "These divisions were made by the
learned in physic, and we follow them out in their efforts to divide
what is in its nature indivisible, to satisfy the demands of the public,
and to give it in small crumbs to those practitioners of the art who
have not capacity enough to take in the whole at a single mouthful."

In the treatment of fevers, we must endeavor to remove all intruding
agents, their influences and effects, and reëstablish a full, free, and
universal equilibrium throughout the system. "The means are," says
Professor Curtis, "antispasmodics, stimulants, and tonics, with
emollients to grease the wheels of life. Disprove these positions, and
we lay by the pen and 'throw physic to the dogs.' Adhere strictly to
them in the use of the best means, and you will do all that can be done
in the hour of need."


MILK OR PUERPERAL FEVER.

_Treatment._--Aperients are exceedingly important in the early stages,
for they liberate any offending matter that may have accumulated in the
different compartments of the stomach or intestines, and deplete the
system with more certainty and less danger than blood-letting.

_Aperient for Puerperal Fever._

  Rochelle salts,               4 ounces.
  Manna,                        2 ounces.
  Extract of butternut,         half an ounce.
  Dissolve in boiling water,    3 quarts.

To be given at a dose.

By the aid of one or more of the following drinks, the aperient will
generally operate:--

Give a bountiful supply of hyssop tea, sweetened with honey. Keep the
surface warm.

Suppose the secretion of milk to be arrested; then apply warm
fomentations to the udder.

Suppose the bowels to be torpid; then use injections of soap-suds and
salt.

Suppose the animal to be in poor condition; then give the following:--

  Powdered balmony or gentian,     1 ounce.
  Golden seal,                     1 ounce.
  Flour gruel,                     1 gallon.

To be given in quart doses, every four hours.

Suppose the bowels to be distended with gas; then give the following:--

  Powdered caraways,       1 ounce.
  Assafoetida,             1 tea-spoonful.
  Boiling water,           2 quarts.

To be given at a dose.

Any of the above preparations may be repeated, as circumstances seem to
require. Yet it must be borne in mind that we are apt to do too much,
and that the province of the good physician is "to know when to do
nothing." The following case from Mr. Youatt's work illustrates this
fact:--

"A very singular variety of milk fever has already been hinted at. The
cow is down, but there is apparently nothing more the matter with her
than that she is unable to rise; she eats and drinks, and ruminates as
usual, and the evacuations are scarcely altered. In this state she
continues from ten days to a fortnight, and then she gets up well." Yes,
and many thousands more would "get up well," if they were only let
alone. Nature requires assistance sometimes; hence the need of doctors
and nurses. All, however, that is required of the doctor to do is, just
to attend to the calls of nature,--whose servant he is,--and bring her
what she wants to use in her own way. The nearer the remedies partake or
consist of air, water, warmth, and food, the more sure and certain are
they to do good.

If a cow, in high condition, has just calved, appears restless, becomes
irritable, the eye and tongue protruding, and a total suspension of milk
takes place, we may conclude that there is danger of puerperal fever. No
time should be lost: the aperient must be given immediately; warm
injections must be thrown into the rectum, and the teats must be
industriously drawn, to solicit the secretion of milk. In this case, all
food should be withheld: "starve a fever" suits this case exactly.


INFLAMMATORY FEVER.

Inflammatory fever manifests itself very suddenly. The animal may appear
well during the day, but at night it appears dull, refuses its food,
heaves at the flanks, seems uneasy, and sometimes delirious; the pulse
is full and bounding; the mouth hot; urine high colored and scanty.
Sometimes there are hot and cold stages.

_Remarks._--When disease attacks any particular organ suddenly, or in an
acute form, inflammatory fever generally manifests itself. Now, disease
may attack the brain, the lungs, kidneys, spleen, bowels, pleura, or
peritoneum. Inflammatory fever may be present in each case. Now, it is
evident that the fever is not the real enemy to be overcome; it is only
a manifestation of disorder, not the cause of it. The skin may be
obstructed, thereby retaining excrementitious materials in the system:
the reabsorption of the latter produces fever; hence it is obvious that
a complete cure can only be effected by the removal of its causes, or,
rather, the restoration of the suppressed evacuations, secretions, or
excretions.

It is very important that we observe and imitate nature in her method of
curing fever, which is, the restoration of the secretions, and, in many
cases, by sweat, or by diarrhoea; either of which processes will
remove the irritating or offending cause, and promote equilibrium of
action throughout the whole animal system. In fulfilling these
indications consists the whole art of curing fever.

But says one, "It is a very difficult thing to sweat an ox." Then the
remedies should be more perseveringly applied. Warm, relaxing,
antispasmodic drinks should be freely allowed, and these should be aided
by warmth, moisture, and friction externally; and by injection, if
needed. If the ox does not actually sweat under this system of
medication, he will throw off a large amount of insensible perspiration.

_Causes._--In addition to the causes already enumerated, are the
accumulation of excrementitious and morbific materials in the system.
Dr. Eberle says, "A large proportion of the recrementitious elements of
perspirable matter must, when the surface is obstructed, remain and
mingle with the blood, (unless speedily removed by the vicarious action
of some other emunctory,) and necessarily impart to this fluid qualities
that are not natural to it. Most assuredly the retention of materials
which have become useless to the system, and for whose constant
elimination nature has provided so extensive a series of emunctories as
the cutaneous exhalents, cannot be long tolerated by the animal economy
with entire impunity."

Dr. White says, "Many of the diseases of horses and cattle are caused by
suppressed or checked perspiration; the various appearances they assume
depending, perhaps, in great measure, upon the suddenness with which
this discharge is stopped, and the state of the animal at the time it
takes place.

"Cattle often suffer from being kept in cold, bleak situations,
particularly in the early part of spring, during the prevalence of an
easterly wind; in this case, the suppression of the discharge is more
gradual, and the diseases which result from it are slower in their
progress, consequently more insidious in their nature; and it often
happens that the animal is left in the same cold situation until the
disease is incurable."

It seems probable that, in these cases, the perspiratory vessels
gradually lose their power, and that, at length, a total and permanent
suppression of that necessary discharge takes place; hence arise
inflammatory fever, consumption, decayed liver, rot, mesenteric
obstructions, and various other complaints. How necessary, therefore, is
it for proprietors of cattle to be provided with sheltered situations
for their stock! How many diseases might they prevent by such
precaution, and how much might they save, not only in preserving the
lives of their cattle, but in avoiding the expense (too often useless,
to say the least of it) of cattle doctoring!

_Treatment._--We first give an aperient, (see APPENDIX,) to
deplete the system. The common practice is to deplete by blood-letting,
which only protracts the malady, and often brings on typhus, black
quarter, joint murrain, &c. Promote the secretions and excretions in the
manner already referred to under the head of _Puerperal Fever_; this
will relieve the stricture of the surface. A drink made from either of
the following articles should be freely given: lemon balm, wandering
milk weed, thoroughwort, or lady's slipper, made as follows:--

Take either of the above articles,      2 ounces.
Boiling water,                          2 quarts.

When cool, strain, and add a wine-glass of honey.

If there is great thirst, and the mouth is hot and dry, the animal may
have a plentiful supply of water.

If the malady threatens to assume a putrid or malignant type, add a
small quantity of capsicum and charcoal to the drink, and support the
strength of the animal with flour gruel.


TYPHUS FEVER.

_Causes._--Sudden changes in the temperature of the atmosphere, the
animal being at the same time in a state of debility, unable to resist
external agencies.

_Treatment._--Support the powers of the system through the means of
nutritious diet, in the form of flour gruel, scalded meal and shorts,
bran-water, &c.

Give tonics, relaxants, and antispasmodics, in the following form:--

  Powdered capsicum,             1 tea-spoonful.
    "      bloodroot,            1 ounce.
    "      cinnamon,             half an ounce.
  Thoroughwort or valerian,      2 ounces.
  Boiling water,                 1 gallon.

When cold, strain, and give a quart every two hours.

Remove the contents of the rectum by injections of a stimulating
character, and invite action to the extremities by rubbing them with
stimulating liniment, (which see.) A drink of camomile tea should be
freely allowed; if diarrhoea sets in, add half a tea-spoon of bayberry
bark to every two quarts of the tea.

These few examples of the treatment of fever will give the farmer an
idea of the author's manner of treating it, who can generally break up a
fever in a few hours, whereas the popular method of "smothering the
fire," as Mr. Youatt terms the blood-letting process, instead of curing,
will produce all forms of fever. Here is a specimen of the treatment, in
fever of a putrid type, recommended by Dr. Brocklesby. He says,
"Immediately upon refusing fodder, the beast should have three quarts of
blood taken away; and after twelve hours, two quarts more; after the
next twelve hours, about three pints may be let out; and after the
following twelve hours, diminish a pint of blood from the quantity taken
away at the preceding blood-letting; lastly, about a single pint should
be taken away in less than twelve hours after the former bleeding; so
that, when the beast has been blooded five times, in the manner here
proposed, the worst symptoms will, it is hoped, abate; but if the
difficulty and panting for breath continue very great, I see no reason
against repeated bleeding." (See Lawson's work on cattle, p. 312.) The
author has consulted several authorities on the treatment of typhus, and
finds that the use of the lancet is invariably recommended. We do not
expect to find, among our American farmers, any one so reckless, so lost
to the common feelings of humanity, and his own interest, as to follow
out the directions here given by Dr. B.; still blood-letting is
practised, to some extent, in every section of the Union, and will
continue to be the sheet-anchor of the cattle doctor just so long as the
influential and cattle-rearing community shall be kept in darkness to
its destructive tendency. Unfortunately for the poor dumb brute,
veterinary writers have from time immemorial been uncompromising
advocates for bleeding; and through the influence which their talents
and position confer, they have wielded the medical sceptre with a
despotism worthy of a better cause. It were a bootless task to attempt
to reform the disciples of allopathy; for, if you deprive them of the
lancet, and their _materia medica_ of poisons, they cannot practise.
They must be reformed through public opinion; and for this purpose we
publish our own experience, and that of others who have dared to assail
allopathy, with the moral certainty that they would expose themselves to
contempt, and be branded as "medical heretics."

No treatment is scientific, in the estimation of some, unless it
includes the lancet, firing-iron, setons, boring horns, cramming down
salts by the pound, and castor oil by the quart. The object of this work
is to correct this erroneous notion, and show the _farming community_
that a safer and more efficient system of medication has just sprung
into existence. When the principles of this reformed system of
medication are understood and practised, then the veterinary science
will be a very different thing from what it has heretofore been, and men
will hail it as a blessing instead of a "curse." They will then know the
power that really cures, and devise means of prevention. And here,
reader, permit us to introduce the opinions of an able advocate of
reform in human practice:[13] the same remarks apply to cattle; for they
are governed by the same universal laws that we are, and whether we
prescribe for a man or an ox, the laws of the animal economy are the
same, and require that the same indications shall be fulfilled.

"A little examination into the consequences of blood-letting will prove
that, so far from its being beneficial, it is productive of the most
serious effects.

"Nature has endowed the animal frame with the power of preparing, from
proper aliment, a certain quantity of blood. This vital fluid,
subservient to nutrition, is, by the amazing structure of the heart and
blood-vessels, circulated through the different parts of the system. A
certain natural balance between what is taken in and what passes off by
the several outlets of the body is, in a state of health, regularly
preserved. When this balance, so essential to health and life, is,
contrary to the laws of the animal constitution, interrupted, either a
deviation from a sound state is immediately perceived, or health from
that moment is rendered precarious. Blood-letting tends artificially to
destroy the natural balance in the constitution." (For more important
information on blood-letting, see the author's work on the Horse; also
page 58 of the present volume.)

FOOTNOTE:

[13] Dr. Beach.



HORN AIL IN CATTLE.


On applying the hand to the horn or horns of a sick beast, an unnatural
heat, or sometimes coldness, is felt: this enables us to judge of the
degree of sympathetic disturbance. And here, reader, permit us to
protest against a cruel practice, that is much in fashion, viz., that of
boring the horns with a gimlet; for it does not mend the matter one jot,
and at best it is only treating symptoms. The gimlet frequently
penetrates the frontal sinuses which communicate with the nasal
passages, and where mucous secretion, if vitiated or tenacious, will
accumulate. On withdrawing the gimlet, a small quantity of thick mucus,
often blood, escapes, and the interested operator will probably bore the
other horn. Now, it often happens that after the point of the gimlet has
passed through one side of the horn and bony structure, it suddenly
enters a sinus, and does not meet with any resistance until it reaches
the opposite side. Many a "mare's nest" has been found in this way,
usually announced as follows: "The horn is hollow!" Again, in aged
animals, the bony structure within the horn often collapses or shrinks,
forming a sinus or cavity within the horn: by boring in a lateral
direction, the gimlet enters it; the horn is then pronounced hollow!
and, according to the usual custom, must be doctored. An abscess will
sometimes form in the frontal sinuses, resulting from common catarrh or
"hoose;" the gimlet may penetrate the sac containing the pus, which thus
escapes; but it would escape, finally, through the nostrils, if it were
let alone. Here, again, the "horns are diseased;" and should the animal
recover, (which it would, eventually, without any interference,) the
recovery is strangely attributed to the boring process. An author, whose
name has escaped our memory, recommends "cow doctors to carry a gimlet
in their pocket." We say to such men, Lead yourselves not into
temptation! if you put a gimlet into your pocket, you will be very
likely to slip it into the cow's horn. Some men have a kind of
instinctive impulse to bore the cow's horns; we allude to those who are
unacquainted with the fact that "horn ail" is only a symptom of
derangement. It is no more a disease of the horns than it is of the
functions generally; for if there be an excess or deficiency of vital
action within or around the base of the horn, there must be a
corresponding deficiency or excess, as the case may be, in some other
region.

"Horn ail," as it is improperly termed, we have said, may accompany
common catarrh, also that of an epidemic form; the horns will feel
unnatural if there be a determination of blood to the head: this might
be easily equalized by stimulating the external surface and extremities,
at the same time giving antispasmodic teas and regulating the diet. The
horns will feel cold whenever there is an unnatural distribution of the
blood, and this may arise from exposure, or suffering the animal to
wallow in filth. The author has been consulted in many cases of "horn
ail," in several of which there were slow fecal movements, or
constipation; the conjunctiva of the eyes were injected with yellow
fluid, and of course a deficiency of bile in the abomasum, or fourth
stomach; thus plainly showing that the animals were laboring under
derangement of the digestive organs. Our advice was, to endeavor to
promote a healthy action through the whole system; to stimulate the
digestive organs; to remove obstructions, both by injection, if
necessary, and by the use of aperients; lastly, to invite action to the
extremities, by stimulating liniments. Whenever these indications are
fulfilled, "horn ail" soon disappears.



ABORTION IN COWS.


Cows are particularly liable to the accident of "slinking the calf." The
common causes of abortion are, the respiration and ultimate absorption
of emanations from putrid animal remains, over-feeding, derangement of
the stomach, &c. The filthy, stagnant water they are often compelled to
drink is likewise a serious cause, not only of abortion, but also of
general derangement of the animal functions. Dr. White, V. S., tells us
that "a farm in England had been given up three successive times in
consequence of the loss the owners sustained by abortion in their
cattle. At length the fourth proprietor, after suffering considerably in
losses occasioned by abortion in his stock, suspected that the water of
his ponds, which was extremely filthy, might be the cause of the
mischief. He therefore dug three wells upon his farm, and, having fenced
round the pond to prevent the cattle from drinking there, caused them to
be supplied with the well water, in stone troughs erected for the
purpose; and from this moment the evil was remedied, and the quality of
the butter and cheese made on his farm was greatly improved. In order to
show," says the same author, "that the accident of abortion may arise
from a vitiated state of the digestive organs, I will here notice a few
circumstances tending to corroborate this opinion. In 1782, all the cows
of the farmer D'Euruse, in Picardy, miscarried. The period at which they
warped was about the fourth or fifth month. The accident was attributed
to the excessive heat of the preceding summer; but, as the water they
were in the habit of drinking was extremely bad, and they had been kept
on oat, wheat, and rye straw, it appears to me more probable, that the
great quantity of straw they were obliged to eat, in order to obtain
sufficient nourishment, and the injury sustained by the third stomach in
expressing the fluid parts of the masticated or ruminated mass, together
with the large quantity of water they drank, while kept on this dry
food, were the real causes of the miscarriage.

"A farmer at Chariton, out of a dairy of twenty-eight cows, had sixteen
slip their calves at different periods of gestation. The summer had been
very dry; they had been pastured in a muddy place, which was flooded by
the Seine. Here the cows were generally up to their knees in mud and
water. In 1789, all the cows in a village near Mantes miscarried. All
the lands in this place were so stiff as to be, for some time,
impervious to water; and as a vast quantity of rain fell that year, the
pastures were for a time completely inundated, on which account the
grass became bad. This proves that keeping cows on food that is
deficient in nutritive properties, and difficult of digestion, is one of
the principal causes of miscarriage." Mr. Youatt says, "It is supposed
that the sight of a slipped calf, or the smell of putrid animal
substances, are apt to produce warping. Some curious cases of abortion,
which are worthy of notice, happened in the dairy of a French farmer.
For thirty years his cows had been subject to abortion. His cow-house
was large and well ventilated; his cows were in apparent health; they
were fed like others in the village; they drank the same water; there
was nothing different in the posture; he had changed his servants many
times in the course of thirty years; he pulled down the barn and
cow-house, and built another, on a different plan; he even, agreeably to
superstition, took away the aborted calf through the window, that the
curse of future abortion might not be entailed on the cow that passed
over the same threshold. To make all sure, he had broken through the
wall at the end of the cow-house, and opened a new door. But still the
trouble continued. Several of his cows had died in the act of abortion,
and he had replaced them by others; many had been sold, and their
vacancies filled up. He was advised to make a thorough change. This had
never occurred to him; but at once he saw the propriety of the counsel.
He sold every beast, and the pest was stayed, and never appeared in his
new stock. This was owing, probably, to sympathetic influence: the
result of such influence is as fatal as the direst contagion."

My own opinion of this disease is, that it is one of nervous origin;
that there is a loss of equilibrium between the nerves of voluntary and
involuntary motion. The direct causes of this pathological state exist
in any thing that can derange the organs of digestion. Great sympathy is
known to exist between the organs of generation and the stomach: if the
latter be deranged, the former feels a corresponding influence, and the
sympathetic nerves are the media by which the change takes place.

It invariably follows that, as soon as impregnation takes place, the
stomach from that moment takes on an irritable state, and is more
susceptible to the action of unfavorable agents. Thus the odor of putrid
substances cases nausea or relaxation when the animal is in a state of
pregnancy; otherwise, the same odor would not affect it in the least.
Professor Curtis says, "The nervous system constitutes the check lines
by which the vital spirit governs, as a coachman does his horses, the
whole motive apparatus of the animal economy; that every line, or
pencil, or ganglion of lines, in it, is antagonistic to some other line
or ganglion, so that, whenever the function of one is exalted, that of
some other is depressed. It follows, of course, that to equalize the
nervous action, and to sustain the equilibrium, is one of the most
important duties of the physician."

In addition to the causes of abortion already enumerated, we may add
violent exercise, jumping dikes or hedges, sudden frights, and blows or
bruises.

_Treatment._--When a cow has slipped her foetus, and appears in good
condition, the quantity of food usually given should be lessened. Give
the following drink every night for a week:--

  Valerian, (herb,)            1 ounce.
  Powdered skunk cabbage,      1 tea-spoonful.

Steep in half a gallon of boiling water. When cold, strain and
administer.

Suppose the animal to be in poor condition; then put her on a nourishing
diet, and give tonics and stimulants, as follows:--

  Powdered gentian,         1 ounce.
      "    sassafras,       1 ounce.
  Linseed or flaxseed,      1 pound.

Mix. Divide into six portions, and give one, night and morning, in the
food, which ought to consist of scalded meal and shorts. A sufficient
quantity of hay should be allowed; yet grass will be preferable, if the
season permits.

Suppose the animal to have received an injury; then rest and a scalded
diet are all that are necessary. As a means of prevention, see article
_Feeding_, page 17.



COW-POX.


This malady makes its appearance on the cow's teats in the form of small
pustules, which, after the inflammatory stage, suppurate. A small
quantity of matter then escapes, and forms a crust over the
circumference of each pustule. If the crust be suffered to remain until
new skin is formed beneath, they will heal without any interference. It
often happens, however, that, in the process of milking, the scabs are
rubbed off. The following wash must then be resorted to:--

  Pyroligneous acid,      a wine-glass.
  Water,                  1 pint.

Wet the parts two or three times a day; medicine is unnecessary. A few
meals of scalded food will complete the cure.



MANGE.


"Mange may be generated either from excitement of the skin itself, or
through the medium of that sympathetic influence which is known to exist
between the skin and organs of digestion. We have, it appears to me, an
excellent illustration of this in the case of mange supervening upon
poverty--a fact too notorious to be disputed, though there may be
different ways of theorizing on it."

Mr. Blanie says, "Mange has three origins--filth, debility, and
contagion."


_Treatment._--Rid the system of morbific materials with the following:--

  Powdered sassafras,  2 ounces.
     "     charcoal,   a handful.
  Sulphur,             1 ounce.

Mix, and divide into six parts; one to be given in the feed, night and
morning. The daily use of the following wash will then complete the
cure, provided proper attention be paid to the diet.

  _Wash for Mange._

  Pyroligneous acid,  4 ounces.
  Water,              a pint.

The mange is known to be infectious: this suggests the propriety of
removing the animal from the rest of the herd.



HIDE-BOUND.


This is seldom, if ever, a primary disease. The known sympathy existing
between the digestive organs and the skin enables us to trace the malady
to acute or chronic indigestion.


_Treatment._--The indications to be fulfilled are, to invite action to
the surface by the aid of warmth, moisture, friction, and stimulants, to
tone up the digestive organs, and relax the whole animal. The latter
indications are fulfilled by the use of the following:--

  Powdered balmony, (snakehead,)  2 ounces.
      "    sassafras,             1 ounce.
  Linseed,                        2 pounds.
  Sulphur,                        1 ounce.

Mix together, and divide the mass into eight equal parts, and give one
night and morning, in scalded shorts or meal; the better way, however,
is, to turn it down the throat.

A few boiled carrots should be allowed, especially in the winter season,
for they possess peculiar remedial properties, which are generally
favorable to the cure.



LICE.


_Treatment._--Wash the skin, night and morning, with the following:--

  Powdered lobelia seeds,  2 ounces.
  Boiling water,           1 quart.

After standing a few hours, it is fit for use, and can be applied with a
sponge.



IMPORTANCE OF KEEPING THE SKIN OF ANIMALS IN A HEALTHY STATE.


This is a subject of great importance to the farmer; for many of the
diseases of cattle arise from the filthy, obstructed state of the
surface. This neglect of cleansing the hide of cattle arises, in some
cases, from the absurd notion (often expressed to the author) that the
hide of cattle is so thick and dense that they never sweat, except on
the muzzle! For the information of those who may have formed such an
absurd and dangerous notion, we give the views of Professor Bouley. "In
all animals, from the exterior tegumentary surface incessantly exhale
vaporous or gaseous matters, the products of chemical operations going
on in the interior of the organism, of which the uninterrupted
elimination is a necessary condition for the regular continuance of the
functions. Regarded in this point of view, the skin may be considered as
a dependency of the respiratory apparatus, of which it continues and
completes the function, by returning incessantly to the atmosphere the
combusted products, which are water and carbonic acid.

"Therefore the skin, properly speaking, is an expiratory apparatus,
which, under ordinary conditions of the organism, exhales, in an
insensible manner, products analogous to those expired from the
pulmonary surface; with this difference, that the quantity of carbonic
acid is very much less considerable in the former than in the latter of
these exhalations; according to Burbach, the proportion of carbonic
acid, as inhaled by the skin, being to that expired by the lungs as 350
to 23,450, or as 1 to 67.

"The experiments made on inferior animals, such as frogs, toads,
salamanders, or fish, have demonstrated the waste by general
transpiration to be, in twenty-four hours, little less than half the
entire weight of the body."

The same author remarks, "Direct experiment has shown, in the clearest
manner, the close relation of function existing between the perspiratory
and respiratory membranes."

"M. Fourcault, with a view of observing, through different species of
animals, the effect of the suppression of perspiration, conceived the
notion of having the skins of certain live animals covered with varnish.
After having been suitably prepared, some by being plucked, others by
being shorn, he smeared them with varnish of variable composition; the
substances employed being tar, paste, glue, pitch, and other plastic
matters. Sometimes these, one or more of them, were spread upon parts,
sometimes upon the whole of the body. The effects of the operation have
varied, showing themselves, soon or late afterwards, decisively or
otherwise, according as the varnishing has been complete or general, or
only partial, thick, thin, &c. In every instance, the health of the
animal has undergone strange alterations, and life has been grievously
compromised. Those that have been submitted to experiment under our eyes
have succumbed in one, two, three days, and even at the expiration of
some hours." (See _London Veterinarian_ for 1850, p. 353.)

In a subsequent number of the same work we find the subject resumed;
from which able production we select the following:--

"The suppression of perspiration has at all times been thought to have a
good deal to do with the production of disease. Without doubt this has
been exaggerated. But, allowing this exaggeration, is it not admitted by
all practitioners that causes which act through the medium of the skin
are susceptible, in sufficient degree, of being appreciated in the
circumstances ushering in the development of very many diseases,
especially those characterized by any active flux of the visceral
organs? For example, is it not an incontestable pathological fact, that
catarrhal, bronchial, pulmonic, and pleuritic affections, congestions of
the most alarming description in the vascular abdominal system of the
horse, inflammation of the peritoneum and womb following labor,
catarrhal inflammations of the bowels, even congestions of the feet,
&c., derive their origin, in a great number of instances, from cold
applied to the skin in a state of perspiration? What happens in the
organism after the application of such a cause? Is its effect
instantaneous? Let us see. Immediately on the repercussive action of
cold being felt by the skin, the vascular system of internal parts finds
itself filled with repelled blood. Though this effect, however, be
simply hydrostatic, the diseased phenomena consecutive on it are far
otherwise.

"It is quite certain that, in the immense system of communicating
vessels forming the circulating apparatus, whenever any large quantity
of blood flows to any one particular part of the body, the other vessels
of the system must be comparatively empty.[14] The knowledge of this
organic hydrostatic fact it is that has given origin to the use of
revulsives under their various forms, and we all well know how much
service we derive from their use.

"But in what does this diseased condition consist? Whereabouts is it
seated?

"The general and undefined mode it has of showing its presence in the
organism points this out. Immediately subsequent to the action of the
cause, the actual seat of the generative condition of the disease about
to appear is the blood; this fluid it is which, having become actually
modified in its chemical compositions under the influence of the cause
that has momentarily obstructed the cutaneous exhalations, carries about
every where with it the disordered condition, and ultimately giving
rise, through it, to some local disease, as a sort of eruptive effort,
analogous in its object, but often less salutary in its effect; owing to
the functional importance of the part attacked, to the external
eruptions produced by the presence in the blood of virus, which alters
both its dynamic and chemical properties.

"But what is the nature of this alteration? In this case, every clew to
the solution of this question fails us. We know well, when the
experiment is designedly prolonged, the blood grows black, as in
_asphyxia_, (loss of pulse,) through the combination with it of carbonic
acid, whose presence is opposed to the absorption of oxygen. But what
relation is there between this chemical alteration of blood here and the
modifications in composition it may undergo under the influence of
instantaneous suppression, but not persistent, of the cutaneous
exhalations and secretions? The experiments of Dr. Fourcault tend, on
the whole, to explain this. His experiments discover the primitive form
and almost the nature of the alteration the blood undergoes under the
influence of the cessation of the functions of the skin. They
demonstrate that under these conditions the regularity of the course of
this fluid is disturbed--that it has a tendency to accumulate and
stagnate within the internal organs: witness the abdominal pains so
frequently consequent on the application of plasters upon the skin, and
the congestions of the abdominal and pulmonary vascular systems met with
almost always on opening animals which have been suffocated through tar
or pitch plasters.

"They prove, in fact, the thorough aptitude of impression of the nervous
system to blood altered in its chemical properties, while they afford us
an explication of the phenomena of depression, and muscular prostration,
and weakness, which accompany the beginning of disease consecutive on
the operation of cold.

"How often do we put a stop to the ulterior development of disease by
restoring the function of the skin by mere [dry] friction, putting on
thick clothing, exposing to exciting fumigation, applying temporary
revulsives in the shape of mustard poultices, administering diffusible
stimuli made warm in drenches, trying every means to force the skin, and
so tend, by the reëstablishment of its exhalent functions, to permit
the elimination of blood saturated with carbonic matters opposed to the
absorption by it of oxygen!

"Do we not here perceive, so to express ourselves, the evil enter and
depart through the skin?

"M. Roche-Lubin gives an account of some lambs which were exposed, after
being shorn, to a humid icy cold succeeding upon summer heat. These
animals all died; and their post mortem examination disclosed nothing
further than a blackened condition of blood throughout the whole
circulating system, with stagnation in some organs, such as the liver,
the spleen, or abdominal vascular system.

"From the foregoing disclosures, which might be multiplied if there was
need of it, we learn that the regularity or perversion of the functions
of the skin exercises an all-powerful influence over the conservation or
derangement of the health, and that very many diseases can be traced to
no other origin than the interruption, more or less, of these
functions."

These remarks are valuable, inasmuch as they go to prove the importance,
in the treatment of disease, of a restoration of the lost function. Our
system of applying friction, warmth, and moisture to the external
surface, in all cases of internal disease, here finds, in the authors
just quoted, able advocates.

FOOTNOTE:

[14] What a destructive system, then, must blood-letting be, which
proposes to supply this deficiency in the empty vessels by opening a
vein and suffering the contents of the overcharged vessels to fall to
the ground! If the blood abstracted from the full veins could be
returned into those "empty" ones, then there would be some sense in
blood-letting.



SPAYING COWS.


The castration of cows has been practised for several years in different
parts of the world, with such remarkable success, that no one will doubt
there are advantages to be derived from it. For the benefit of those who
may have doubts on this subject, we give the opinions of a committee
appointed by the Rheims Academy to investigate the matter.

"To the question put to the committee--

"1st. Is the spaying of cows a dangerous operation?

"The answer is, This operation, in itself, involves no more danger than
many others of as bold a character, (as puncture of the rumen,) which
are performed without accident by men even strangers to the veterinary
art. Two minutes suffice for the extraction of the ovaries; two minutes
more for suturing the wound.

"2dly. Will not the spaying of cows put an end to the production of the
species?

"Without doubt, this is an operation which must be kept within bounds.
It is in the vicinity of large towns that most benefit will be derived
from it, where milk is most generally sought after, and where pasturage
is scanty, and consequently food for cows expensive. On this account it
is not the practice to raise calves about the environs of Paris. Indeed,
at Cormenteul, near Rheims, out of one hundred and forty-five cows kept,
not more than from ten to fifteen calves are produced yearly.

"3dly. Is spaying attended with amelioration of the quality of the meat?

"That cows fatten well after being spayed is an incontestable fact, long
known to agriculturists.

"4thly. Does spaying prolong the period of lactation, and increase the
quantity of milk?

"The cow will be found to give as much milk after eighteen months as
immediately after the operation; and there was found in quantity, in
favor of the spayed cows, a great difference.

"5thly. Is the quality of the milk ameliorated by spaying?

"To resolve this question, we have thought proper to make an appeal to
skilful chemists resident in the neighborhood; and they have determined
that the milk abounds more by one third in cheese and butter than that
of ordinary cows."

Mr. Percival says, "No person hesitates to admit the advantages
derivable from the castration of bulls and stallions. I do not hesitate
to aver, that equal, if not double, advantages are to be derived from
the same operation when performed on cows."

"It is to America we are indebted for this discovery. In 1832, an
American traveller, a lover of milk, no doubt, asked for some of a
farmer at whose house he was. Surprised at finding at this farm better
milk than he had met with elsewhere, he wished to know the reason of it.
After some hesitation, the farmer avowed, that he had been advised to
perform on his cows the same operation as was practised on the bulls.
The traveller was not long in spreading this information. The Veterinary
Society of the country took up the discovery, when it got known in
America. The English--those ardent admirers of beefsteaks and roast
beef--profited by the new procedure, as they know how to turn every
thing to account, and at once castrated their heifers, in order to
obtain a more juicy meat.

"The Swiss, whose principal employment is agricultural, had the good
fortune to possess a man distinguished in his art, who foresaw, and was
anxious to realize, the advantages of castrating milch cows. M. Levrat,
veterinary surgeon at Lausanne, found in the government of his country
an enlightened assistant in his praiseworthy and useful designs, so
that, at the present day, instructions in the operation of spaying enter
into the requirements of the programme of the professors of agriculture,
and the gelders of the country are not permitted to exercise their
calling until they have proved their qualifications on the same
point."--_London Vet._ p. 274, 1850.

For additional evidence in favor of spaying, see Albany Cultivator, p.
195, vol. vi.

We have conversed with several farmers in this section of the United
States, and find, as a general thing, that they labor under the
impression that spaying is chiefly resorted to with a view of fattening
cattle for the market. We have, on all occasions, endeavored to correct
this erroneous conclusion, and at the same time to point out the
benefits to be derived from this practice. The quality of the milk is
superior, and the quantity is augmented. Many thousands of the miserable
specimens of cows, that the farmer, with all his care, and having, at
the same time an abundance of the best kind of provender, is unable to
fatten, might, after the operation of spaying, be easily fattened, and
rendered fit for the market; or, if they shall have had calves, they may
be made permanent, and, of course, profitable milkers.

If a cow be in a weak, debilitated state, or, in other words, "out of
condition," she may turn out to be a source of great loss to the owner.
In the first place, her offspring will be weak and inefficient;
successive generations will deteriorate; and if the offspring be in a
close degree of relationship, they will scarcely be worth the trouble of
rearing. The spaying of such a cow, rather than she shall give birth to
weak and worthless offspring, would be a great blessing; for then one of
the first causes of degeneracy in live stock will have been removed.

Again, a cow in poor condition is a curse to the farmer; for she is
often the medium through which epidemics, infectious diseases, puerperal
fever, &c., are communicated to other stock. If there are such diseases
in the vicinity, those in poor flesh are sure to be the first victims;
and they, coming in contact with others laboring under a temporary
indisposition, involve them in the general ruin. If prevention be
cheaper than cure,--and who doubts it?--then the farmer should avail
himself of the protection which spaying seems to hold out.


OPERATION OF SPAYING.

The first and most important object in the successful performance of
this operation is to secure the cow, so that she shall not injure
herself, nor lie down, nor be able to kick or injure the operator. The
most convenient method of securing the cow is, to place her in the
trevis;[15] the hind legs should then be securely tied in the usual
manner: the band used for the purpose of raising the hind quarters when
being shod must be passed under the belly, and tightened just sufficient
to prevent the animal lying down. Having secured the band in this
position, we proceed, with the aid of two or more assistants, in case
the animal should be irritable, to perform the operation. And here, for
the benefit of that portion of our readers who desire to perform the
operation _secundum artem_, we detail the method recommended by Morin, a
French veterinary surgeon; although it has been, and can again be,
performed with a common knife, a curved needle, and a few silken threads
to close the external wound. The author is acquainted with a farmer, now
a resident of East Boston, who has performed this operation with
remarkable success, both in this country and Scotland, with no other
instruments than a common shoemaker's knife and a curved needle. The
fact is, the ultimate success of the operation does not depend so much
on the instruments as on the skill of the operator. If he is an
experienced man, understands the anatomy of the parts, and is well
acquainted, by actual experience, with the nature of the operation, then
the instruments become a matter of taste. The best operators are those
who devote themselves entirely to the occupation. (See Mr. Blane's
account of his "first essay in firing," p. 85, note.) Morin advises us
to secure the cow, by means of five rings, to the wall. (See Albany
Cultivator, vol. vi. p. 244, 1850.) "The cow being conveniently disposed
of, and the instruments and appliances,--such as curved scissors, upon a
table, a convex-edged bistoury, a straight one, and one buttoned at the
point, suture needle filled with double thread of desired length,
pledgets of lint of appropriate size and length, a mass of tow (in
pledgets) being collected in a shallow basket, held by an assistant,--we
place ourselves opposite to the left flank, our back turned a little
towards the head of the animal; we cut off the hair which covers the
hide in the middle of the flanks, at an equal distance between the back
and hip, for the space of thirteen or fourteen centimetres in
circumference; this done, we take the convex bistoury, and place it open
between our teeth, the edge out, the point to the left; then, with both
hands, we seize the hide in the middle of the flank, and form of it a
wrinkle of the requisite elevation, and running lengthwise of the body.

"We then direct an assistant to seize, with his right hand, the right
side of this wrinkle. We then take the bistoury, and cut the wrinkle at
one stroke through the middle, the wrinkle having been suffered to go
down, a separation of the hide is presented of sufficient length to
enable us to introduce the hand; thereupon we separate the edges of the
hide with the thumb and fore finger of the left hand, and, in like
manner, we cut through the abdominal muscles, the iliac, (rather
obliquely,) and the lumbar, (cross,) for a distance of a centimetre
from the lower extremity of the incision made in the hide: this done,
armed with the straight bistoury, we make a puncture of the peritoneum,
at the upper extremity of the wound; we then introduce the buttoned
bistoury, and we move it obliquely from above to the lower part up to
the termination of the incision made in the abdominal muscles. The flank
being opened, we introduce the right hand into the abdomen, and direct
it along the right side of the cavity of the pelvis, behind the paunch
and underneath the rectum, where we find the horns of the uterus; after
we have ascertained the position of these viscera, we search for the
ovaries, which are at the extremity of the _cornua_, or horns,
(fallopian tubes,) and when we have found them, we seize them between
the thumb and fore finger, detach them completely from the ligaments
that keep them in their place, pull lightly, separating the cord, and
the vessels (uterine or fallopian tubes) at their place of union with
the ovarium, by means of the nails of the thumb and fore finger, which
presents itself at the point of touch; in fact, we break the cord, and
bring away the ovarium.

"We then introduce again the hand in the abdominal cavity, and we
proceed in the same manner to extract the other ovarium.

"This operation terminated, we, by the assistance of a needle, place a
suture of three or four double threads, waxed, at an equal distance, and
at two centimetres, or a little less, from the lips of the wound;
passing it through the divided tissues, we move from the left hand with
the piece of thread; having reached that point, we fasten with a double
knot; we place the seam in the intervals of the thread from the right,
and as we approach the lips of the wound, we fasten by a simple knot,
being careful not to close too tightly the lower part of the seam, so
that the suppuration, which may be established in the wound, may be able
to escape.

"The operation effected, we cover up the wound with a pledget of lint,
kept in its place by three or four threads passed through the stitches,
and all is completed.

"It happens, sometimes, that in cutting the muscles of which we have
before spoken, we cut one or two of the arteries, which bleed so much
that there is necessity for a ligature before opening the peritoneal
sac, because, if this precaution be omitted, blood will escape into the
abdomen, and may occasion the most serious consequences."

The best time for spaying cows, with a view of making them permanent
milkers, is between the ages of five and seven, especially if they have
had two or three calves. If intended to be fattened for beef, the
operation should not be performed until the animal has passed its second
year, nor after the twelfth.

We usually prepare the animal by allowing a scalded mash every night,
within a few days of the operation. The same precaution is observed
after the operation.

If, after the operation, the animal appears dull and irritable, and
refuses her food, the following drink must be given:--

  Valerian,       2 ounces.
  Boiling water,  2 quarts.

Set the mixture aside to cool. Then strain, and add infusion of
marshmallows (see APPENDIX) one quart; which may be given in
pint doses every two hours.

If a bad discharge sets up from the wound,--but this will seldom happen,
unless the system abounds in morbific materials,--then, in addition to
the drink, wash the wound with

  Pyroligneous acid,  2 ounces.
  Water,              2 quarts.

Mix.

FOOTNOTES:

[15] Although we recommend that cows be confined in the trevis for the
purpose of performing this operation, it by no means follows that it
cannot be done as well in other ways. In fact, the trevis is
inadmissible where chloroform is used. The animal must be cast in order
to use that agent with any degree of safety. If the trevis is not at
hand, we should prefer to operate, having the cow secured to the floor,
or held in that position by trusty assistants. We lately operated on a
cow, the property of Mr. C. Drake of Holliston, in this state, under
very unfavorable circumstances; yet, as will appear from the
accompanying note, the cow is likely to do well, notwithstanding. The
history of the case is as follows: We were sent for by Mr. D. to see a
heifer having a swelling under the jaw, which proved to be a scirrhous
gland. After giving our opinion and prescribing the usual remedies, the
conversation turned upon spaying cattle; and Mr. D. remarked that he had
a five year old cow, on which we might, if we chose, operate. This we
rather objected to at first, as the cow was in a state of plethora, and
the stomach very much distended with food; yet, as the owner appeared
willing to share the responsibility, we consented to perform the
operation. The cow was accordingly cast, in the usual manner, she lying
on her right side, her head being firmly held by an assistant. We then
made an incision through the skin, muscles, and peritoneum. The hand was
then introduced, and each ovary in its turn brought as near to the
external wound as possible, and separated from its attachment with a
button-pointed bistoury. The wound was then brought together with four
interrupted sutures, and dressed as already described. Directions were
given to keep the animal quiet, and on a light diet: the calf, which was
four weeks old, to suckle as usual. The operation was performed on the
17th of January, 1851, and on the 27th, the following communication was
received:--

     DR. DADD.

     Dear Sir: Agreeably to request, I will inform you as regards the
     cow. I must say that, so far as appearances are concerned, she is
     doing well. She has a good appetite, and chews her cud, and the
     wound is not swelled or inflamed.

                              Yours truly,
                                    C. DRAKE.

     HOLLISTON, _Jan 27, 1851_.


[Illustration: Three South Down Wethers

The Property of Mr. Jonas Webb of Babraham, near Cambridge, which
obtained Prizes in their respective classes at the Smithfield Cattle
Show, Decr. 1839.]



SHEEP.


PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

Many of the diseases to which sheep are subject can be traced to want of
due care in their management. The common practice of letting them range
in marshy lands is one of the principal causes of disease.

The feet of sheep are organized in such a manner as to be capable, when
in a healthy state, of eliminating from the system a large amount of
worn-out materials--excrementitious matter, which, if retained in the
system, would be injurious. The direct application of cold tends to
contract the mouths of excrementitious vessels, and the morbid matter
accumulates. This is not all. There are in the system numerous
outlets,--for example, the kidneys, lungs, surface, feet, &c. The health
of the animal depends on all these functions being duly performed. If a
certain function be interrupted for any length of time, it is sure to
derange the system. Diseases of the feet are very common in wet
situations, and are a source of great loss to the farming community.
Hence it becomes a matter of great importance to know how to manage them
so as to prevent diseases of the feet.

Professor Simonds says, "No malady was probably so much feared by the
agriculturist as the rot; and with reason, for it was most destructive
to his hopes. It was commonly believed to be incurable, and therefore it
was all important to inquire into the causes which gave rise to it.
Some pastures were notorious for rotting sheep; on other lands, sheep,
under all ordinary circumstances, were pastured with impunity; but, as a
broad principle, it might be laid down that an excess of moisture is
prejudicial to the health of the animal. Sheep, by nature, are not only
erratic animals, wandering over a large space of ground, but are also
inhabitants of arid districts. The skill of man has increased and
improved the breed, and has naturalized the animal in moist and
temperate climates. But, nevertheless, circumstances now and then take
place which show that its nature is not entirely changed; thus, a wet
season occurs, the animals are exposed to the debilitating effects of
moisture, and the rot spreads among them to a fearful extent. The malady
is not confined to England or to Europe; it is found in Asia and Africa,
and occurs also in Egypt on the receding of the waters of the Nile.

"These facts are valuable, because they show that the cause of the
disease is not local--that it is not produced by climate or temperature;
for it is found that animals in any temperature become affected, and on
any soil in certain seasons. A great deal had been written on rot in
sheep, which it were to be wished had not been. Many talented
individuals had devoted their time to its investigation, endeavoring to
trace out a cause for it, as if it originated from one cause alone. But
the facts here alluded to would show that it arose from more causes than
one. He had mentioned the circumstance with regard to land sometimes
producing rot, and sometimes not; but he would go a step further, and
ask, Was there any particular period of the year when animals were
subject to the attack? Undoubtedly there was. In the rainy season, the
heat and moisture combined would produce a most luxuriant herbage; but
that herbage would be deficient in nutriment, and danger would be run;
the large quantity of watery matter in the food acting as a direct
excitement to the abnormal functions of the digestive organs. Early
disturbance of the liver led to the accumulation of fat, (state of
plethora;) consequently, an animal being 'touched with the rot' thrived
much more than usual. This reminded him that the celebrated Bakewell was
said to be in the habit of placing his sheep on land notorious for
rotting them, in order to prevent other people from getting his stock,
and likewise to bring them earlier to market for the butcher."

Referring to diseases of the liver, Professor S. remarked, that "the
bile in rot, in consequence of the derangement of the liver being
continued, lost the property of converting the chymous mass into
nutritious matter, and the animal fell away in condition. Every part of
the system was now supplied with impure blood, for we might as well
expect pure water from a poisoned fountain as pure blood when the
secretion of bile was unhealthy. This state of the liver and the system
was associated with the existence of parasites in the liver.

"Some persons suppose that these parasites, which, from their particular
form, were called flukes, were the cause of the rot. They are only the
effect; yet it is to be remembered that they multiply so rapidly that
they become the cause of further diseased action. Sheep, in the earlier
stages of the affection, before their biliary ducts become filled with
flukes, may be restored; but, when the parasites existed in abundance,
there was no chance of the animal's recovery. Those persons who supposed
flukes to be the cause of rot had, perhaps, some reason for that
opinion. Flukes are oviparous; their ova mingle with the biliary
secretion, and thus find their way out of the intestinal canal into the
soil; as in the feculent matter of rotten sheep may be found millions of
flukes. A Mr. King, of Bath, (England,) had unhesitatingly given it as
his opinion that flukes were the cause of rot; believing that, if sheep
were pastured on land where the ova existed, they would be taken up with
the food, enter into the ramifications of the biliary ducts, and thus
contaminate the whole liver. There appeared some ground for this
assertion, because very little indeed was known with reference to the
duration of life in its latent form in the egg. How long the eggs of
birds would remain without undergoing change, if not placed under
circumstances favorable to the development of life in a more active
form, was undecided. It was the same with the ova of these parasites; so
long as they remained on the pasture they underwent no change; but place
them in the body of the animal, and subject them to the influence of
heat, &c., then those changes would commence which ended in the
production of perfect flukes. Take another illustration of the long
duration of latent life: Wheat had been locked up for hundreds of
years--nay, for thousands--in Egyptian mummies, without undergoing any
change, and yet, when planted, had been found prolific.

... He was not, then, to say that rot was in all cases a curable
affection; but at the same time he was fully aware that many animals,
that are now considered incurable, might be restored, if sufficient
attention was given to them. About two years ago, he purchased seven or
eight sheep, all of them giving indisputable proof of rot in its
advanced stage. He intended them for experiment and dissection; but as
he did not require all of them, and during the winter season only he
could dissect, he kept some till summer. They were supplied with food of
nutritious quality, free from moisture; they were also protected from
all storms and changes of weather, being placed in a shed. The result
was, that without any medicine, two of these rotten sheep quite
recovered; and when he killed them, although he found that the liver had
undergone some change, still the animals would have lived on for years.
Rot, in its advanced stage, was a disease which might be considered as
analogous to dropsy. A serous fluid accumulates in various parts of the
body, chiefly beneath the cellular tissue; consequently, some called it
the _water_ rot, others the _fluke_ rot; but these were merely
indications of the same disease in different stages. If flukes were
present, it was evident that, in order to strike at the root of the
malady, they must get rid of these _entozoa_, and that could only be
effected by bringing about a healthy condition of the system. Nothing
that could be done by the application of medicine would act on them to
affect their vitality. It was only by strengthening their animal powers
that they were enabled to give sufficient tone to the system to throw
off the flukes; for this purpose many advocated salt. Salt was an
excellent stimulative to the digestive organs, and might also be of
service in restoring the biliary secretion, from the soda which it
contained. So well is its stimulative action known, that some
individuals always keep salt in the troughs containing the animal's
food. This was a preventive, they had good proof, seeing that it
mattered not how moist the soil might be in salt marshes; no sheep were
ever attacked by rot in them, whilst those sent there infected very
often came back free. Salt, therefore, must not be neglected; but then
came the question, Could they not do something more? He believed they
could give tonics with advantage....

"The principles he wished to lay down were, to husband the animals'
powers by placing them in a situation where they should not be exposed
to the debilitating effects of cold storms; to supply them with
nutritious food, and such as contained but a small quantity of water;
and, as a stimulant to the digestive organs, to mix it with salt."

The remarks of Professor S. are valuable to the American farmer. First,
because they throw some light on the character of a disease but
imperfectly understood; secondly, they recommend a safe, efficient, and
common-sense method of treating it; and lastly, they recommend such
preventive measures as, in this enlightened age, every farmer must
acknowledge to be the better part of sheep doctoring. The reader will
easily perceive the reason why the food of sheep is injurious when wet
or saturated with its own natural juices, when he learns that the
digestive process is greatly retarded, unless the masticated food be
well saturated with the gastric fluid. If the gastric fluid cannot
pervade it, then fermentation takes place; by which process the
nutritive properties of the food are partly destroyed, and what remains
cannot be taken up before it passes from the vinous into the acetous or
putrefactive fermentation; the natural consequence is, that internal
disease ensues, which often gravitates to the feet, thereby producing
rot. This is not all. Such food does not furnish sufficient material to
replenish the daily waste and promote the living integrity. In short, it
produces debility, and debility includes one half the causes of disease.
It must be a matter of deep interest to the farmer to know how to
prevent disease in his flock, and improve their condition, &c.; for if
he possessed the requisite knowledge, he would not be compelled to offer
mutton at so low a rate as from three to four cents a pound, at which
price it is often sold in the Boston market. We have already alluded to
the fact that neat cattle can, with the requisite knowledge, be improved
at least twenty-five per cent.; and we may add, without fear of
contradiction, that the same applies to sheep. If, then, their value can
be increased in the same ratio as that of other classes of live stock,
how much will the proprietors of sheep gain by the operation? Suppose we
set down the number of sheep in the United States at twenty-seven
millions,--which will not fall far short of the mark,--and value them at
the low price of one dollar per head: we get a clear gain, in the
carcasses alone, of six millions seven hundred and fifty thousand
dollars. The increase in the quantity, and of course in the value, of
wool would pay the additional expenses incurred. It is a well-known fact
that, when General Washington left his estate to engage in the councils
of his country, his sheep then yielded five pounds of wool. At the time
of his return, the animals had so degenerated as to yield but two and a
half pounds per fleece. This was not altogether owing to the quality of
their food, but in part to want of due care in breeding.

It is well known that many diseases are propagated and aggravated
through the sexual congress; and no matter how healthy the dam is, or
how much vital resistance she possesses,--if the male be weak and
diseased, the offspring will be more or less diseased at birth. (See
article _Breeding_.)

Dr. Whitlaw observes, "The Deity has given power to man to ameliorate
his condition, as may be truly seen by strict attention to the laws of
nature. An attentive observer may soon perceive, that milk, butter, and
meat, of animals that feed on good herbage, in high and dry soils, are
the best; and that strong nourishment is the produce of those animals
that feed on bottom land; but those that feed on a marshy, wet soil
produce more acrid food, even admitting that the herbage be of the bland
and nutritious kind; but if it be composed in part of poisonous plants,
the sheep become diseased and rotten, much more so than cattle, for they
do not drink to the same degree, and therefore (particularly those that
chew the cud) are not likely to throw off the poison. Horses would be
more liable to disease than cattle were it not for their sagacity in
selecting the wholesome from the poisonous herbage.

"A great portion of the mutton slaughtered is unfit for food, from the
fact that their lungs are often in a state of decomposition, their
livers much injured by insects, and their intestines in a state of
ulceration, from eating poisonous herbs."

Linnæus says, "A dry place renders plants sapid; a succulent place,
insipid; and a watery place, corrosive."

One farmer, in the vicinity of Sherburne, (England,) had, during the
space of a few weeks, lost nearly nine hundred sheep by the rot. The
fear of purchasing diseased mutton is so prevalent in families, that the
demand for mutton has become extremely limited.

In the December number of the London Veterinarian we find an interesting
communication from the pen of Mr. Tavistock, V. S., which will throw
some light on the causes of disease in sheep. The substance of these
remarks is as follows: "On a large farm, situated in the fertile valley
of the Tavey, is kept a large flock of sheep, choice and well bred. It
is deemed an excellent sheep farm, and for some years no sheep could be
healthier than were his flock. About eighteen months ago, however, some
ewes were now and then found dead. This was attributed to some of the
many maladies sheep-flesh is 'heir to,' and thought no more about. Still
it did not cease; another and another died, from time to time, until at
length, it becoming a question of serious consequence, my attention was
called to them. I made, as opportunities occurred, minute post mortem
examinations. The sheep did not die rapidly, but one a week, and
sometimes one a fortnight, or even three weeks. No previous illness
whatever was manifested. They were always found dead in the attitude of
sleep; the countenance being tranquil and composed, not a blade of grass
disturbed by struggling; nor did any circumstance evidence that pain or
suffering was endured. It was evident that the death was sudden. We
fancied the ewes must obtain something poisonous from the herbage, and
the only place they could get any thing different from the other sheep
was in the orchards, since there the ewes went at the lambing time, and
occasionally through the summer. But so they had done for years before,
and yet contracted no disease. Well, then, the orchards were the
suspected spots, and it was deemed expedient to request Mr. Bartlett, a
botanist, to make a careful examination of the orchards, and give us his
opinion thereon. The following is the substance of his report:--

"The part of the estate to which the sheep unfortunately had access,
where the predisposing causes of disease prevailed, was an orchard,
having a gradual slope of about three quarters of a mile in extent, from
the high ground to the bed of the river, ranging about east and west;
the hills on each side being constituted of argillaceous strata of
laminated slate, which, although having an angle of inclination favoring
drainage on the slopes, yet in the valleys often became flat or
horizontal, and on which also accumulated the clays, and masses of rock,
in detached blocks, often to the depth of twenty feet--a state of things
which gives the valley surface and soil a very rugged and unequal
outline; the whole, at the same time, offering the greatest obstruction
to regular drainage.

"These are spots selected for orchard draining in England; the truth
being lost sight of, that surfaces and soil for apple-tree growth
require the most perfect admixture with atmospheric elements, and the
freest outlet for the otherwise accumulating moisture, to prevent
dampness and acidity, the result of the shade of the tree itself,
produced by the fall of the leaf.

"On this estate these things had never been dreamt of before planting
the orchards. The apple-tree, in short, as soon as its branches and
leaves spread with the morbid growth of a dozen years, aids itself in
the destructive process; the soil becomes yearly more poisonous, the
roots soon decay, and the tree falls to one side, as we witness daily,
while the herbage beneath and around becomes daily more unfit to sustain
animal life. Numerous forms of poisonous fungi, microscopic and
otherwise, are here at home, and nourished by the carburetted and other
forms of hydrogen gas hourly engendered and saturating the soil; while
on the dampest spots the less noxious portions of such hydrates are
assimilated by the mint plant in the shape of oil; and which disputes
with sour, poisonous, and blossomless grasses for the occupancy of the
surface, mingled with the still more noxious straggling forms of the
ethusa, occasionally the angelica, vison, conium, &c.

"This state of things, brought into existence by this wretched and
barbarous mode of planting orchard valleys, usually reaches its
consummation in about thirty years, and sometimes much less, as in the
valley under notice. Thus it is that such spots, often the richest in
capabilities on the estate, (the deep soil being the waste and spoil of
the higher ground and slopes,) become a bane to every form of useful
vegetation; and, at the same time, are a hotbed of luxuriance to every
thing that is poisonous, destructive, and deleterious to almost every
form of animal life. And such an animal as the sheep, while feeding
among such herbage, would inhale a sufficiency of noxious gases,
especially in summer, through the nostrils alone, to produce disease
even in a few hours, though the herbage devoured should lie harmless in
the stomach. But with regard to the sheep in the present case, we fear
they had no choice in the matter, and were driven by hunger to feed,
being shut into these orchards; and thus not only ate the poisoned
grasses, but with every mouthful swallowed a portion of the
water-engendering mint, the acrid crowfoot, ranunculus leaves, &c.,
surrounding every blade of grass; while the other essential elements of
vegetable poison, the most virulent forms of agarici and their spawn,
with other destructive fungi, were swallowed as a sauce to the whole.
This fearful state of things, to which sheep had access, soon manifested
its results; for although a hog or a badger might here fatten, yet to an
animal so susceptible to atmospheric influences, unwholesome, undrained
land, &c., as the sheep, the organization forbids the assimilation of
such food; and although a process of digestion goes on, yet its hydrous
results (if we may use such a term) not only overcharge the blood with
serum, but, through unnatural channels, cause effusion into the chest,
heart, veins, &c., when its effects are soon manifested in sudden and
quick dissolution, being found dead in the attitude of sleep."

It is probable that the gases which arose from this imperfectly drained
estate played their part in the work of destruction; not only by coming
in immediate contact with the blood through the medium of the air-cells
in the lungs, but by mixing with the food in the process of digestion.
This may appear a new idea to those who have never given the subject a
thought; yet it is no less true. During the mastication of food, the
saliva possesses the remarkable property of enclosing air within its
globules. Professor Liebig tells us that "the saliva encloses air in the
shape of froth, in a far higher degree than even soap-suds. This air, by
means of the saliva, reaches the stomach with the food, and there its
oxygen enters into combination, while its nitrogen is given out through
the skin and lungs." This applies to pure air. Now, suppose the sheep
are feeding in pastures notorious for giving out noxious gases, and at
the same time the function of the skin or lungs is impaired; instead of
the "nitrogen" or noxious gases being set free, they will accumulate in
the alimentary canal and cellular tissues, to the certain destruction of
the living integrity. Prof. L. further informs us that "the longer
digestion continues,--that is, the greater resistance offered to the
solvent action by the food,--the more saliva, and consequently the more
air, enter the stomach."



STAGGERS.


This disease is known to have its origin in functional derangement of
the stomach; and owing to the sympathy that exists between the brain and
the latter, derangements are often overlooked, until they manifest
themselves by the animal's appearing dull and stupid, and separating
itself from the rest of the flock. An animal attacked with staggers is
observed to go round in a giddy manner; the optic nerve becomes
paralyzed, and the animal often appears blind. It sometimes continues to
feed well until it dies.


_Indications of Cure._--First, to remove the cause. If it exist in a too
generous supply of food, reduce the quantity. If, on the other hand, the
animal be in poor condition, a generous supply of nutritious food must
be allowed.

Secondly, to impart healthy action to the digestive organs, and
lubricate their surfaces.

Having removed the cause, take

  Powdered snakeroot,     1 ounce.
     "     slippery elm,  2 ounces.
     "     fennel seed,   half an ounce.

Mix. Half a table-spoonful may be given daily in warm water, or it may
be mixed in the food.

_Another._

  Powdered gentian,      1 ounce.
     "     poplar bark,  2 ounces.
     "     aniseed,      half an ounce.

Mix, and give as above.

If the bowels are inactive, give a wine-glass of linseed oil.

The animal should be kept free from all annoyance by dogs, &c.; for fear
indirectly influences the stomach through the pneumogastric nerves, by
which the secretion of the gastric juice is arrested, and an immediate
check is thus given to the process of digestion. For the same reason,
medicine should always be given in the food, if possible. In cases of
great prostration, accompanied with loss of appetite, much valuable time
would be lost. In such cases, we must have recourse to the bottle.



FOOT ROT.


When a sheep is observed to be lame, and, upon examination, matter can
be discovered, then pare away the hoof, and make a slight puncture, so
that the matter may escape; then wash the foot with the following
antiseptic lotion:--

  Pyroligneous acid,  2 ounces.
  Water,              3 ounces.

Suppose that, on examination, the feet have a fetid odor; then apply the
following:--

  Vinegar,      half a pint.
  Common salt,  1 table-spoonful.
  Water,        half a pint.

Mix, and apply daily. At the same time, put the sheep in a dry place,
and give a dose of the following every morning:--

  Powdered bayberry bark,  half an ounce.
    "  flaxseed,           2 pounds.
    "  sulphur,            1 ounce.
    "  charcoal,           1 ounce.
    "  sassafras,          1 ounce.

Mix. A handful to be given in the food twice a day.


_Remarks._--Foot rot is generally considered a local disease; yet should
it be neglected, or maltreated, the general system will share in the
local derangement.



ROT.


The progress of this disease is generally very slow, and a person
unaccustomed to the management of sheep would find some difficulty in
recognizing it. A practical eye would distinguish it, even at a
distance. The disease is known by one or more of the following symptoms:
The animal often remains behind the flock, shaking its head, with its
ears depressed; it allows itself to be seized, without any resistance.
The eye is dull and watery; the eyelids are swollen; the lips, gums, and
palate have a pale tint; the skin, which is of a yellowish white,
appears puffed, and retains the impression; the wool loses its
brightness, and is easily torn off; the urine is high colored, and the
excrement soft. As the disease progresses, there is loss of appetite,
great thirst, general emaciation, &c.

The indications are, to improve the secretions, vitalize the blood, and
sustain the living powers. For which purpose, take

  Powdered charcoal,     2 ounces.
     "     ginger,       1 ounce.
     "     golden seal,  1 ounce.
  Oatmeal,               1 pound.

Mix. Feed to each animal a handful per day, unless rumination shall have
ceased; then omit the oatmeal, and give a tea-spoonful of the mixed
ingredients, in half a pint of hyssop, or horsemint tea. Continue as
occasion may require.

The food should be boiled, if possible. The best kind, especially in the
latter stages of rot, is, equal parts of linseed and ground corn.

If the urine is high colored, and the animal is thirsty, give an
occasional drink of

  Cleavers, (_galium aparine_,)  2 ounces.
  Boiling water,                      2 quarts.

When cold, strain. Dose, one pint. To be repeated, if necessary.



EPILEPSY.


This is somewhat different from staggers, as the animal does not remain
quietly on the ground, but it suffers from convulsions, it kicks, rolls
its eyes, grinds its teeth, &c. The duration of the fit varies much,
sometimes it terminates at the expiration of a few minutes; at other
times, a quarter of an hour elapses before it is perfectly conscious. In
this malady, there is a loss of equilibrium between the nervous and
muscular systems, which may arise from hydatids in the brain, offering
mechanical obstructions to the conducting power of the nerves. This
malady may attack animals in apparently good health. We frequently see
children attacked with epilepsy (fits) without any apparent cause, and
when they are in good flesh.

The symptoms are not considered dangerous, except by their frequent
repetition.

The following may be given with a view of equalizing the circulation and
nervous action:--

  Assafoetida,                     one third of a tea-spoonful.
  Gruel made from slippery elm,    1 pint.

Mix, while hot. Repeat the dose every other day. Make some change in the
food. Thus, if the animal has been fed on green fodder for any length of
time, let it have a few meals of shorts, meal, linseed, &c. The water
must be of the best quality.

Suppose the animal to be in poor condition; then combine tonics and
alteratives in the following form:--

  Assafoetida,            1 tea-spoonful.
  Powdered golden seal,   1 ounce.
      "    slippery elm,  2 ounces.
  Oatmeal,                1 pound.

Mix thoroughly, and divide into eight equal parts. A powder to be given
every morning.



RED WATER.


This is nothing more nor less than a symptom of deranged function. The
cure consists in restoring healthy action to all parts of the animal
organization. For example, high-colored urine shows that there is too
much action on the internal surfaces, and too little on the external.
This at once points to the propriety of keeping the sheep in a warm
situation, in order to invite action to the skin.

_Compound for Red Water._

  Powdered slippery elm,  }
     "     pleurisy root, } of each, 1 ounce.
     "     poplar bark,   }
  Indian meal,                       1 pound.

Mix. To be divided into ten parts, one of which may be given every
morning.



CACHEXY,[16] OR GENERAL DEBILITY.


_Indications of Cure._--First. To build up and promote the living
integrity by a generous diet, one or more of the following articles may
be scalded and given three times a day: carrots, parsnips, linseed, corn
meal, &c.

Secondly. To remove morbific materials from the system, and restore the
lost functions, one of the following powders may be given, night and
morning, in the fodder:--

  Powdered balmony, (snakehead,)  1 ounce.
      "    marshmallows,          1 ounce.
      "    common salt,           1 table-spoonful.
  Linseed meal,                   1 pound.

Mix. Divide into ten powders.

FOOTNOTE:

[16] It implies a vitiated state of the solids and fluids.



LOSS OF APPETITE.


This is generally owing to a morbid state of the digestive organs. All
that is necessary in such case is, to restore the lost tone by the
exhibition of bitter tonics. A bountiful supply of camomile tea will
generally prove sufficient. If, however, the bowels are inactive, add to
the above a small portion of extract of butternut. The food should be
slightly salted.



FOUNDERING, (RHEUMATISM)


In this malady, the animal becomes slow in its movements; its walk is
characterized by rigidity of the muscular system, and, when lying down,
requires great efforts in order to rise.


_Causes._--Exposure to sudden changes in temperature, feeding on wet
lands, &c.


_Indications of Cure._--To equalize the circulation, invite and maintain
action to the external surface, and remove the cause. To fulfil the
latter indication, remove the animal to a dry, warm situation.

The following antispasmodic and diaphoretic will complete the cure:
Powdered lady's slipper, (_cypripedium_,) 1 tea-spoonful. To be given
every morning in a pint of warm pennyroyal tea.

If the malady does not yield in a few days, take

  Powdered sassafras bark,  1 tea-spoonful.
  Boiling water,            1 pint.
  Honey,                    1 tea-spoonful.

Mix, and repeat the dose every other morning.



TICKS.


Ticks, or, in short, any kind of insects, may be destroyed by dropping
on them a few drops of an infusion or tincture of lobelia seeds.



SCAB, OR ITCH.


Scab, itch, erysipelas, &c., all come under the head of cutaneous
diseases, and require nearly the same general treatment. The following
compound may be depended on as a safe and efficient remedy in either of
the above diseases:--

  Sulphur,                2 ounces.
  Powdered sassafras,     1 ounce.

Honey, sufficient to amalgamate the above. Dose, a table-spoonful every
morning. To prevent the sheep from rubbing themselves, apply

  Pyroligneous acid,      1 gill.
  Water,                  1 quart.

Mix, and wet the parts with a sponge.


_Remarks._--In reference to the scab, Dr. Gunther says, "Of all the
preservatives which have been proposed, inoculation is the best. It has
two advantages: first, the disease so occasioned is much more mitigated,
and very rarely proves fatal; in the next place, an entire flock may get
well from it in the space of fifteen days, whilst the natural form of
the disorder requires care and attention for at least six months. It has
been ascertained that the latter kills[17] more than one half of those
attacked; whilst among the sheep that have been inoculated, the greatest
proportion that die of it is one per cent."

Whenever the scab makes its appearance, the whole flock should be
examined, and every one having the least abrasion eruption of the skin
should be put under medical treatment.

In most cases, itch is the result of infection. A single sheep infected
with it is sufficient to infect a whole flock. If a few applications of
the pyroligneous wash, aided by the medicine, are not sufficient to
remove the malady, then recourse must be had to the following:--

  Fir balsam,       half a pint.
  Sulphur,          1 ounce.

Mix. Anoint the sores daily.

The only additional treatment necessary in erysipelas is, to give a
bountiful supply of tea made of lemon balm, sweetened with honey.

FOOTNOTE:

[17] More likely the remedies. They are tobacco and corrosive
sublimate--destructive poisons.



DIARRHOEA.


This is not always to be considered as a disease, but in many cases it
proves salutary operation of nature; therefore it should not be too
suddenly checked.

We commence the treatment by feeding on boiled meal. We then give
mucilaginous drink made from marshmallows, slippery elm, or poplar bark.
If, at the end of two days, symptoms of amendment have not made their
appearance, the following draught must be given:--

Make a strong infusion of raspberry leaves, to a pint of which add a
tea-spoonful of tincture of capsicum, (hot drops,) and one of charcoal.
To be repeated every morning, until healthy action is established.



DYSENTERY.


This malady may be treated in the same manner as diarrhoea. Should
blood and slime be voided in large quantities, the excrement emit a
fetid odor, and the animal waste rapidly, then, in addition to the
mucilaginous drink, administer the following:--

  Powdered charcoal,        1 tea-spoonful.
     "     golden seal,     half a tea-spoonful.

To be given, in hardhack tea, as occasion may require.

A small quantity of charcoal, given three times a day, with boiled food,
will frequently cure the disease, alone.

Dysentery is sometimes mistaken for diarrhoea; but they may be
distinguished by the following characteristics:--

1st. Diarrhoea most frequently attacks weak animals; whereas dysentery
ofttimes attacks animals in good condition.

2d. Dysentery generally attacks sheep in the hot months; on the other
hand, diarrhoea terminates at the commencement of the hot season.

3d. In diarrhoea, there are scarcely any feverish symptoms, and no
straining before evacuation, as in dysentery.

4th. In diarrhoea, the excrement is loose, but in other respects
natural, without any blood or slime; whereas in dysentery the fæces
consist of hard lumps, blood, and slime.

5th. There is not that degree of fetor in the fæces, in diarrhoea,
which takes place in dysentery.

6th. In dysentery, the appetite is totally gone; in diarrhoea, it is
generally better than usual.

7th. Diarrhoea is not contagious; dysentery is supposed to be highly
so.

8th. In dysentery, the animal wastes rapidly; but by diarrhoea, only a
temporary stop is put to thriving, after which it makes rapid advances
to strength, vigor, and proportion.



CONSTIPATION, OR STRETCHES.


By these terms are implied a preternatural or morbid detention and
hardening of the excrement; a disease to which all animals are subject,
unless proper attention be paid to their management. It mostly arises
from want of exercise, feeding on frosted oats, indigestible matter of
every kind, impure water, &c. Costiveness is often the case of flatulent
and spasmodic colic, and often of inflammation of the bowels.

Mr. Morrill says, "I have always found that the quantity of medicine
necessary to act as an _opiate_ on this dry mass [alluding to that
found in the manyplus and intestines] will kill the animal. If I am
mistaken, I will take it kindly to be set right." You are quite right.

Let us see what Professor J. A. Gallup says, in his Institutes of
Medicine, vol. ii. p. 187. "The practice of giving opiates to mitigate
pain, &c., is greatly to be deprecated; it is not only unjustifiable,
but should be esteemed unpardonable. It is probable that, for forty
years past, opium and its preparations have done _seven times the
injury_ that they have rendered benefit"--killed seven where they have
saved one! Page 298, he calls opium the "most destructive of all
narcotics," and wishes he could "speak through a lengthened trumpet,
that he might tingle the ears" of those who use and prescribe it. All
the opiates used by the allopathists contain more or less of this
poisonous drug. Opiates given with a view of softening mass alluded to
will certainly disappoint those who administer them; for, under the use
of such "palliatives," the digestive powers fail, and a general state of
feebleness and inactivity ensues, which exhausts the vital energies.

It will be found in stretches, that other organs, as well as the
"manyplus," are not performing their part in the business of
physiological or healthy action, and they must be excited to perform
their work; for example, if the food remains in either of the stomachs
in the form of a hard mass, then the surface of the body is evaporating
too much moisture from the general system; the skin should be better
toned. Pure air is one of the best and most valuable of nature's tonics.
Let the flock have pure air to breathe, and sufficient room to use their
limbs, with proper diet, and there will be little occasion for medicine.


_Treatment._--The disease is to be obviated by proper attention to diet,
exercise, and ventilation; and when these fail, to have recourse to
bitter laxatives, injections, and aperients. The use of salts and castor
oil creates a necessity for their repetition, for they overwork the
mucous surfaces, and their delicate vessels lose their natural
sensibility, and become torpid. Scalded shorts are exceedingly valuable
in this complaint, as also are boiled carrots, parsnips, &e.

The derangement must be treated according to its indications, thus:--

Suppose the digestive organs to be deranged, and rumination to have
ceased; then take a tea-spoonful of extract of butternut, and dissolve
it in a pint of thoroughwort tea, and give it at a dose. Use an
injection of soap-suds, if necessary.

Suppose the excrement to be hard, coated with slime, and there be danger
of inflammation in the mucous surfaces; then give a wine-glass of
linseed oil,[18] to which add a raw egg.

It is scarcely ever necessary to repeat the dose, provided the animal is
allowed a few scalded shorts.

If the liver is supposed to be inactive, give, daily, a tea-spoonful of
golden seal in the food.

If the animal void worms with the fæces, then give a tea made from cedar
boughs, or buds, to which add a small quantity of salt.

FOOTNOTE:

[18] Olive oil will answer the same purpose.



SCOURS.


In scours, the surface evaporates too little of the moisture, and should
be relaxed by diffusible stimulants in the form of ginger tea. The
treatment that we have found the most successful is as follows: take
four ounces raw linseed oil, two ounces of lime water; mix. Let this
quantity be given to a sheep on the first appearance of the above
disease; half the quantity will suffice for a lamb. Give about a
wine-glass full of ginger tea at intervals of four hours, or mix a small
quantity of ginger in the food. Let the animal be fed on gruel, or
mashes of ground meal. If the above treatment fails to arrest the
disease, add half a tea-spoonful of powdered bayberry bark. If the
extremities are cold, rub them with the tincture of capsicum.



DIZZINESS.


Mr. Gunther says, "Sheep are often observed to describe eccentric
circles for whole hours, then step forwards a pace, then again stop, and
turn round again. The older the disease, the more the animal turns,
until at length it does it even in a trot. The appetite goes on
diminishing, emaciation becomes more and more perceptible, and the state
of exhaustion terminates in death. On opening the skull, there are met,
either beneath the bones of the cranium, or beneath the dura mater,[19]
or in the brain itself, hydatids varying in number and size, sometimes a
single one, often from three to six, the size of which varies: according
as these worms occupy the right side or the left, the sheep turns to the
right or left; but if they exist on both sides, the turning takes place
to the one and the other alternately.

"The animal very often does not turn, which happens when the worm is
placed on the median line; then the affected animal carries the head
down, and though it seems to move rapidly, it does not change place.
When the hydatid is situated on the posterior part of the brain, the
animal carries the head high, runs straight forward, and throws itself
on every object it meets."

_Treatment._--Take

  Powdered worm seeds, (_chenopodium } 1 ounce.
           anthelminticum_,)         }
     "     sulphur,                     half an ounce.
     "     charcoal,                    2 ounces.
  Linseed, or flaxseed,                 1 pound.

Mix. Divide into eight parts, and feed one every morning. Make a drink
from the white Indian hemp, (_asclepias incarnata_,) one ounce of which
may be infused in a quart of water, one fourth to be given every night.

FOOTNOTE:

[19] The membrane which lines the interior of the skull.



JAUNDICE.


This malady generally involves the whole system in its deranged action.
It is recognized by the yellow tint of the conjunctiva, (white of the
eye,) and mucous membranes lining the nostrils and mouth. We generally
employ for its cure

  Powdered mandrake,         1 tea-spoonful.
     "     ginger,           1 tea-spoonful.
     "     golden seal,      2 tea-spoonfuls.

Mix. Divide into two parts. Give one dose in the morning, and the other
at night. An occasional drink of camomile tea, a few bran mashes, and
boiled carrots, will complete the cure.



INFLAMMATION OF THE KIDNEYS.


A derangement of these organs may result from external violence, or it
may depend on the animal having eaten stimulating or poisonous plants.

Its symptoms are, pain in the region of the kidneys; the back is arched,
and the walk stiff and painful, with the legs widely separated; there is
a frequent desire to make water, and that is high colored or bloody; the
appetite is more or less impaired, and there is considerable thirst.

The indications are, to lubricate the mucous surfaces, remove morbific
materials from the system, and improve the general health.

We commence the treatment by giving

  Poplar bark, finely powdered,     1 ounce.
  Pleurisy root, "       "          1 tea-spoonful.

Make a mucilage of the poplar bark, by stirring in boiling water; then
add the pleurisy root; the whole to be given in the course of
twenty-four hours. The diet should consist of a mixture of linseed,
boiled carrots, and meal.



WORMS.


The intestinal worms generally arise from impaired digestion. The
symptoms are, a diminution of rumination, wasting away of the body, and
frequent snorting, obstruction of the nostrils with mucus of a greater
or less thickness.

_Compound for Worms._

  Powdered worm seed,        }
     "     skunk cabbage,    } equal parts.
     "     ginger,           }

Dose, a tea-spoonful night and morning in the fodder.



DISEASES OF THE STOMACH FROM EATING POISONOUS PLANTS.


_Treatment._--Take the animal from pasture, and put it on a boiled diet,
of shorts, meal, linseed, and carrots. The following alterative may be
mixed in the food:--

  Powdered marshmallows,            1 ounce.
     "     sassafras bark,          2 ounces.
     "     charcoal,                2 ounces.
     "     licorice,                2 ounces.

Dose, one table-spoonful every night.



SORE NIPPLES.


Lambs often die of hunger, from their dams refusing them suck. The cause
of this is sore nipples, or some tumor in the udder, in which violent
pain is excited by the tugging of the lamb. Washing with poplar bark, or
anointing the teats with powdered borax and honey, will generally effect
a cure.



FRACTURES.


The mending of a broken bone, though somewhat tedious, is by no means
difficult, when the integuments are not torn. Let the limb be gently
distended, and the broken ends of the bone placed in contact with each
other. A piece of stiff leather, of pasteboard, or of thin shingle,
wrapped in a soft rag, is then to be laid along the limb, so that it may
extend an inch or two beyond the contiguous part. The splints are then
to be secured by a bandage of linen an inch and a half broad. After
being firmly rolled up, it should be passed spirally round the leg,
taking care that every turn of the bandage overlaps about two thirds of
the preceding one. When the inequality of the parts causes the margin to
slack, it must be reversed or folded over; that is, its upper margin
must become the lower, &c. The bandage should be moderately tight, so as
to support the parts without intercepting the circulation, and should be
so applied as to press equally on every part. The bandage may be
occasionally wet with a mixture of equal parts of vinegar and water.



COMMON CATARRH AND EPIDEMIC INFLUENZA.


The seat of the disease is in the mucous membrane, which is a
continuation of the external skin, folded into all the orifices of the
body, as the mouth, eyes, nose, ears, lungs, stomach, intestines and
bladder; its structure of arterial capillaries, veins, arteries, nerves,
&c., is similar to the external skin; its most extensive surfaces are
those of the lungs and intestines, the former of which is supposed to be
greater than the whole external surface of the body.

The healthy office of this membrane is to furnish from the blood a fluid
called mucus, to lubricate its own surface, and protect it from the
action of materials taken into the system. The mucous membrane and the
external surface of the body seem to be a counterpart of each other, and
perform nearly the same offices; hence, if the action of one is
suppressed, the other commences the performance of its office; thus a
cold which closes the skin immediately stops the perspiration, which is
now forced through the mucous membrane, producing the discharge of
watery humors, pus intermixed with blood, dry cough, emaciation, &c.
There are two varieties of this disease; the first is called _common
catarrh_, which proceeds from cold taken in pasture that is not properly
drained, also from atmospheric changes; it may also proceed from acrid
or other irritating effluvia inhaled in the air, or from poisonous
substances taken in the stomach in the form of food. The second variety
is called _epidemic influenza_, and is produced by general causes; the
attack is sometimes sudden; although of nearly the same nature as the
first form, it is more obstinate, and the treatment must be more
energetic. It is very difficult to lay down correct rules for the
treatment of this malady, under its different forms and stages. The
principal object to be kept in view is, to equalize the circulation,
remove the irritating causes from the organs affected, and restore the
tone of the system.

For this purpose, we make use of the following articles:--

  Horehound, (herb,)                      1 ounce.
  Marshmallow, (root,)      1 ounce.
  Powdered elecampane, (root,)            half an ounce.
      "    licorice,      "               half an ounce.
  Powdered cayenne,                       half a tea-spoonful.
  Molasses,                               2 table-spoonfuls.
  Vinegar,                                2 table-spoonfuls.

Mix, pour on the whole one quart of boiling water, set it aside for two
hours, then strain through cotton cloth, and give a table-spoonful night
and morning.[20] If the bowels are constipated, a dose of linseed oil
should precede the mixture. No water should be allowed during the
treatment.

The following injection may be used:--

  Powdered bayberry bark,          1 ounce.
      "    gum arabic,             half an ounce.
  Boiling water,                   1 pint.

Stir occasionally while cooling, and strain as above.

The legs and ears should be briskly rubbed with tincture of capsicum;
this latter acts as a counter-irritant, equalizes the circulation, and,
entering into the system, gives tone and vigor to the whole animal
economy.

FOOTNOTE:

[20] This preparation undergoes a process of fermentation in the course
of forty-eight hours, and should therefore only be made in sufficient
quantities for present use.



CASTRATING LAMBS.


The lambs are first driven into a small enclosure. Select the ewe from
the ram lambs, and let the former go. Two assistants are necessary. One
catches the lambs; the other is seated on a low bench for the purpose of
taking the lamb on his lap, where he holds it by the four legs. The
operator, having previously supplied himself with a piece of waxed silk
and the necessary implements, grasps the scrotum in his left hand. He
then makes an incision over the most prominent part of the testicle,
through the skin, cellular structure, &c. The testicle escapes from the
scrotum. A ligature is now passed around the spermatic artery, and tied,
and the cord is severed, bringing the testicle away at one stroke of the
knife. As soon as the operation is completed, the animal is released.
The evening is the best time for performing the operation, for then the
animal remains quiet during the night, and the wound heals kindly.



NATURE OF SHEEP.


"The sheep, though in most countries under the protection and control of
man, is not that stupid and contemptible animal that has been
represented. Amidst those numerous flocks which range without control on
extensive mountains, where they seldom depend upon the aid of man, it
will be found to assume very different character. In those situations, a
ram or a wether will boldly attack a single dog, and often come off
victorious; but when the danger is more alarming, they have recourse to
the collected strength of the whole flock. On such occasions, they draw
up into a compact body, placing the young and the females in the centre,
while the males take the foremost ranks; keeping close by each other.
Thus an armed front is presented to all quarters, and cannot be easily
attacked, without danger or destruction to the assailant. In this manner
they wait with firmness the approach of the enemy; nor does their
courage fail them in the moment of attack; for when the aggressor
advances to within a few yards of the line, the rams dart upon him with
such impetuosity, as to lay him dead at their feet, unless he save
himself by flight. Against the attack of a single dog, when in this
situation, they are perfectly secure."



THE RAM.


Mr. Lawson says, "It may be observed that the rams of different breeds
of sheep vary greatly in their forms, wools, and fleeces, and other
properties; but the following description, by that excellent
stock-farmer, Mr. Culley, deserves the attention of the breeder and
grazier. According to him, the head of the ram should be fine and small;
his nostrils wide and expanded; his eyes prominent, and rather bold or
daring; his ears thin; his collar fall from his breast and shoulders,
but tapering gradually all the way to where the neck and head join,
which should be very fine and graceful, being perfectly free from any
coarse leather hanging down; the shoulders full, which must, at the same
time, join so easy to the collar forward, and chine backward, as to
leave not the least hollow in either place; the mutton upon his arm or
fore thigh must come quite to the knee; his legs upright, with a clean
fine bone, being equally clear from superfluous skin and coarse, hairy
wool from the knee and hough downwards; the breast broad and well
forward, which will keep his fore legs at a proper width; his girt or
chest full and deep, and instead of a hollow between the shoulders, that
part by some called the fore flank should be quite full; the back and
loins broad, flat, and straight, from which the ribs must rise with a
fine circular arch; his belly straight; the quarters long and full, with
the mutton quite down to the hough, which should neither stand in nor
out; his twist, or junction of the inside of the thighs, deep, wide, and
full, which, with the broad breast, will keep his legs open and upright;
the whole body covered with a thin pelt, and that with fine, bright,
soft wool.

"It is to be observed that the nearer any breed of sheep come up to the
above description, the nearer they approach towards excellence of
form."



LEAPING.


"The manner of treating rams has lately received a very great
improvement. Instead of turning them loose among the ewes at large, as
heretofore, and agreeably to universal practice, they are kept apart, in
a separate paddock, or small enclosure, with a couple of ewes only each,
to make them rest quietly; having the ewes of the flock brought to them
singly, and leaping each only once. By this judicious and accurate
regulation, a ram is enabled to impregnate near twice the number of ewes
he would do if turned loose among them, especially a young ram. In the
old practice, sixty or eighty ewes were esteemed the full number for a
ram. [Overtaxing the male gives rise to weak and worthless offspring.]

"The period during which the rams are to go with the ewes must be
regulated by climate, and the quantity of spring food provided. It is of
great importance that lambs should be dropped as early as possible, that
they not only be well nursed, but have time to get stout, and able to
provide for themselves before the winter sets in. It is also of good
advantage to the ewes that they may get into good condition before the
rutting season. The ram has been known to live to the age of fifteen
years, and begins to procreate at one. When castrated, they are called
_wethers_; they then grow sooner fat, and the flesh becomes finer and
better flavored."



ARGYLESHIRE BREEDERS.


In Argyleshire, the principal circumstances attended to by the most
intelligent sheep-farmers are these: to stock lightly, which will mend
the size of the sheep, with the quantity and quality of the wool, and
also render them less subject to diseases; (in all these respects it is
allowed, by good judges, that five hundred sheep, kept well, will
return more profit than six hundred kept indifferently;) to select the
best lambs, and such as have the finest, closest, and whitest wool, for
tups and breeding ewes, and to cut and spay the worst; to get a change
of rams frequently, and of breeding ewes occasionally; to put the best
tups to the best ewes, which is considered necessary for bringing any
breed to perfection; not to top three-year-old ewes, (which, in bad
seasons especially, would render the lambs produced by them of little
value, as the lambs would not have a sufficiency of milk; and would also
tend to lessen the size of the stock;) to keep no rams above three, or
at most four years old, nor any breeding ewes above five or six; to
separate the rams from the 10th of October, for a month or six weeks, to
prevent the lambs from coming too early in the spring; to separate the
lambs between the 15th and 25th of June; to have good grass prepared for
them; and if they can, to keep them separate, and on good grass all
winter, that they may be better attended to, and have the better chance
of avoiding disease. A few, whose possessions allow them to do it, keep
not only their lambs, but also their wethers, ewes, &c., in separate
places, by which every man, having his own charge, can attend to it
better than if all were in common; and each kind has its pasture that
best suits it.



FATTENING SHEEP.


We are indebted to Mr. Cole, editor of the New England Farmer, for the
following article, which is worthy the attention of the reader:--

"Quietude and warmth contribute greatly to the fattening process. This
is a fact which has not only been developed by science, but proved by
actual practice. The manner in which these agents operate is simple, and
easily explained. Motion increases respiration, and the excess of
oxygen, thus taken, requires an increased quantity of carbon, which
would otherwise be expended in producing fat. So, likewise, _cold robs
the system of animal heat_; to supply which, more oxygen and more carbon
must be employed in extra combustion, to restore the diminution of
temperature. Nature enforces the restoration of warmth, by causing cold
to produce both hunger and a disposition for motion, supplying carbon by
the gratification of the former, and oxygen by the indulgence of the
latter. The above facts are illustrated by Lord Ducie:--

"One hundred sheep were placed in a shed, and ate twenty pounds of
Swedish turnips each per day; whilst another hundred, in the open air,
ate twenty-five pounds each; and at that rate for a certain period: the
former animals weighed each thirty pounds more than the latter; plainly
showing that, to a certain extent, _warmth is a substitute for food_.
This was also proved, by the same nobleman, in other experiments, which
also illustrated the effect of exercise.

"No. 1. Five sheep were fed in the open air, between the 21st of
November and the 1st of December. They consumed ninety pounds of food
per day, the temperature being 44°. At the end of this time, they
weighed two pounds less than when first exposed.

"No. 2. Five sheep were placed under shelter, and allowed to run at a
temperature of 49°. They consumed at first eighty-two pounds, then
seventy pounds, and increased in weight twenty-three pounds.

"No. 3. Five sheep were placed in the same shed, but not allowed any
exercise. They ate at first sixty-four pounds, then fifty-eight pounds,
and increased in weight thirty pounds.

"No. 4. Five sheep were kept in the dark, quiet and covered. They ate
thirty-five pounds per day, and increased in weight eight pounds.

"A similar experiment was tried by Mr. Childers, M. P. He states, that
eighty Leicester sheep, in the open field, consumed fifty baskets of cut
turnips per day, besides oil cake. On putting them in a shed, they were
immediately able to consume only thirty baskets, and soon after but
twenty-five, being only one half the quantity required before; and yet
they fattened as rapidly as when eating the largest quantity.

"From these experiments, it appears that the least quantity of food,
which is required for fattening, is when animals are kept closely
confined in warm shelters; and the greatest quantity when running at
large, exposed to all weather. But, although animals will fatten faster
for a certain time without exercise than with it, if they are closely
confined for any considerable time, and are at the same time full fed,
they become, in some measure, feverish; the proportion of fat becomes
too large, and the meat is not so palatable and healthy as when they are
allowed moderate exercise, in yards or small fields.

"As to the kinds of food which may be used most advantageously in
fattening, this will generally depend upon what is raised upon the farm,
it being preferable, in most cases, to use the produce of the farm.
Sheep prefer beans to almost any other grain; but neither beans nor peas
are so fattening as some other grains, and are used most advantageously
along with them. Beans, peas, oats, barley, rye, buckwheat, &c., may be
used along with Indian corn, or oil cake, or succulent food, making
various changes and mixtures, in order to furnish the variety of food
which is so much relished by the sheep, and which should ever be
attended to by the sheep fattener. This will prevent their being cloyed,
and will hasten the fattening process. A variety of food, says Mr.
Spooner, operates like cookery in the human subject, enabling more
sustenance to be taken.

"The quantity of grain or succulent food, which it will be proper to
feed, will depend upon the size, age, and condition of the sheep; and
judgment must be used in ascertaining how much they can bear. Mr.
Childers states that sheep (New Leicester) fed with the addition of half
a pint of barley per sheep, per day, half a pound of linseed oil cake,
with hay, and a constant supply of salt, became ready for the butcher
in ten weeks; the gain of flesh and tallow, thirty-three pounds to forty
pounds per head. (One sheep gained fifty-five pounds in twelve weeks.)

"This experiment shows what is about the largest amount of grain which
it is necessary or proper to feed to New Leicester sheep, at any time
while fattening. The average weight of forty New Leicester wethers,
before fattening, was found by Mr. Childers to be one hundred and
twenty-eight pounds each. By weighing an average lot of any other kind
of sheep, which are to be fattened, and by reference to the table of
comparative nutriment of the different kinds of food, a calculation may
be readily made, as to the largest amount, which will be necessary for
them, of any article of food whatever.

"When sheep are first put up for fattening, they should be sorted, when
convenient, so as to put those of the same age, size, and condition,
each by themselves, so that each may have a fair chance to obtain its
proportion of food, and may be fed the proper length of time.

"They should be fed moderately at first, gradually increasing the
quantity to the largest amount, and making the proper changes of food,
so as not to cloy them, nor produce acute diseases of the head or
intestines, and never feeding so much as to scour them.

"Sheep, when fattening, should not be fed oftener than three times a
day, viz., morning, noon, and evening. In the intervals between feeding,
they may fill themselves well, and will have time sufficient for
rumination and digestion: these processes are interrupted by too
frequent feeding. But they should be fed with regularity, both as to the
quantity of food and the time when it is given. When convenient, they
should have access to water at all times; otherwise a full supply of it
should be furnished to them immediately after they have consumed each
foddering.

"When sheep become extremely fat, whether purposely or not, it is
generally expedient to slaughter them. Permitting animals to become
alternately very fat and lean is injurious to all stock. Therefore, if
animals are too strongly inclined to fatten at an age when wanted for
breeding, their condition as to flesh should be regulated by the
quantity and quality of their food or pasture."



IMPROVEMENT IN SHEEP.


No country in the world is better calculated for raising sheep than the
United States. The diversity of climate, together with the abundance and
variety of the products of the soil, united with the industry and
perseverance of the agriculturist, renders this country highly favorable
for breeding, maturing, and improving the different kinds of sheep. The
American people, taken as a whole, are intellectually stronger than any
other nation with the like amount of population, on the face of the
globe; consequently they are all-powerful, "for the mind is mightier
than the sword." All that we aim at, in these pages, is to turn the
current of the American mind to the important subject of improvement in
the animal kingdom; to show them the great benefits they will derive
from practical experience in the management of all classes of live
stock; and, lastly, to show them the value and importance of the
veterinary profession, when flourishing under the genial influence of a
liberal community. If we can only succeed in arresting the attention of
American stock raisers, and they, on the other hand, direct their whole
attention to the matter, then, in a few years, America will outshine her
more favored European rivals, and feel proud of her improved stock. What
the American people have done during the last half century in the
improvement of the soil, manufactures, arts, and sciences, is an earnest
of what they can do in ameliorating the condition of all classes of live
stock, provided they take hold of the subject in good earnest. Let any
one who is acquainted with the subject of degeneration, its causes and
fatal results, not only in reference to the stock itself, but as regards
the pocket of the breeder, and the health of the whole community,--let
such a one go into our slaughter-houses and markets, and if he does not
see a wide field for improvement, then we will agree to let the subject
sink into oblivion. In order to show what a whole community can
accomplish when their efforts are directed to one object, let us look on
what a single individual, by his own industry and perseverance, has
accomplished simply in improving the breed of sheep. The person referred
to is Mr. Bakewell. His breeding animals were, in the first place,
selected from different breeds. These he crossed with the best to be
had. After the cross had been carried to the desired point, he confined
his selections to his own herds or flocks. He formed in his mind a
standard of perfection for each kind of animals, and to this he
constantly endeavored to bring them. That he was eminently successful in
the attainment of his object, cannot be denied. He began his farming
operations about 1750. In 1760, his rams did not sell for more than two
or three guineas per head. From this time he gradually advanced in
terms, and in 1770 he let some for twenty-five guineas a head for the
season. Marshall states that, in 1786, Bakewell let two thirds of a ram
(reserving a third for himself) to two breeders, for a hundred guineas
each, the entire services of the ram being rated at three hundred
guineas the season. It is also stated that he made that year, by letting
rams, more than one thousand pounds.

"In 1789, he made twelve hundred guineas by three '_ram brothers_,' and
two thousand guineas from seven, and, from his whole letting, full three
thousand guineas. Six or seven other breeders made from five hundred to
a thousand guineas each by the same operation. The whole amount of
ram-letting of Bakewell's breed is said to have been not less, that
year, than ten thousand pounds, [forty-eight thousand dollars.]

"It is true that still more extraordinary prices were obtained for the
use of rams of this breed after Mr. Bakewell's death. Pitt, in his
'Survey of Leicestershire,' mentions that, in 1795, Mr. Astley gave
three hundred guineas for the use of a ram of this breed, engaging, at
the same time, that he should serve _gratis_ twenty ewes owned by the
man of whom the ram was hired; making for the entire use of the ram,
that season, four hundred and twenty guineas. In 1796, Mr. Astley gave
for the use of the same ram three hundred guineas, and took forty ewes
to be served gratis. At the price charged for the service of the ram to
each ewe, the whole value for the season was five hundred guineas. He
served one hundred ewes. In 1797, the same ram was let to another person
at three hundred guineas, and twenty ewes sent with him; the serving of
which was reckoned at a hundred guineas, and the ram was restricted to
sixty more, which brought his value for the season to four hundred
guineas. Thus the ram made, in three seasons, the enormous sum of
_thirteen hundred guineas_.

"We have nothing to do, at present, with the question whether the value
of these animals was not exaggerated. The actual superiority of the
breed over the stock of the country must have been obvious, and this
point we wish kept in mind.

"This breed of sheep is continued to the present day, and it has been
remarked by a respected writer, that they will 'remain a lasting
monument of Bakewell's skill.' As to their origin, the testimony shows
them to have been of _mixed blood_; though no breed is more distinct in
its characters, or transmits its qualities with more certainty; and if
we were without any other example of successful crossing, the advocates
of the system might still point triumphantly to the Leicester or
Bakewell sheep.

"But what are the opinions of our best modern breeders in regard to the
practicability of producing distinct breeds by crossing? Robert Smith,
of Burley, Rutlandshire, an eminent sheep-breeder, in an essay on the
'Breeding and Management of Sheep,' for which he received a prize from
the Royal Agricultural Society, (1847,) makes the following remarks:
'The crossing of pure breeds has been a subject of great interest
amongst every class of breeders. While all agree that the first cross
may be attended with good results, there exists a diversity of opinion
upon the future movements, or putting the crosses together. Having
tried experiments (and I am now pursuing them for confirmation) in every
way possible, I do not hesitate to express my opinion, that, by proper
and judicious crossing through several generations, a most valuable
breed of sheep may be raised and established; in support of which I may
mention the career of the celebrated Bakewell, who raised a _new_
variety from other long-wooled breeds by dint of perseverance and
propagation, and which have subsequently corrected all other long-wooled
breeds.'"

We have alluded to the low price of some of the mutton brought to the
Boston market. We do not wish the reader to infer that there is none
other to be had: on the contrary, we have occasionally seen as good
mutton there as in any European market. There are a number of practical
and worthy men engaged in improving the different kinds of live stock,
and preventing the degeneracy to which we refer. They have taken much
interest in that class of stock, and they have been abundantly rewarded
for their labor. But the great mass want more light on this subject, and
for this reason we endeavor to show the causes of degeneracy, to enable
them to avoid the errors of their forefathers.

Mr. Roberts, of Pennsylvania, says, "Early in my experience, I witnessed
the renovation of a flock of what we call country sheep, that had been
too long propagated in the same blood. This was about the year 1798. An
imported ram from England, with heavy horns, very much resembling the
most vigorous Spanish Merinos, was obtained. The progeny were improved
in the quality of fleece, and in the vigor of constitution. On running
this stock in the same blood for some twelve years, a great
deterioration became apparent. A male was then obtained of the large
coarse-wooled Spanish stock: improvement in the vigor of the progeny was
again most obvious. A Tunis mountain ram was then obtained, with a
result equally favorable. In this process, fineness of fleece or weight
was less the object than the carcass. In 1810, a male of not quite pure
Merino blood was placed with the same stock of ewes; and a change of the
male from year to year, for some time, produced a superior Merino
stock. Wool of a marketable quality for fine cloths was now the object;
and it was not an unprofitable husbandry, when it would sell in the
fleece, unwashed, from eighty-six cents to one dollar. The Saxon stock
then became the rage, and the introduction of a tup of that country
diminished greatly the weight of the fleece, without adequately
improving its fineness. A male of the Spanish stock would give sometimes
nine pounds; and the marsh graziers say that they went as high as
fifteen pounds. Saxon males scarcely exceed five pounds, and the ewes
two and a half pounds. By running in the same blood, and poor keeping,
the fleece may be made finer, but it will be lightened in proportion,
and of a weak and infirm texture. There are few stock-keepers who have
mixed the Spanish with the Saxon breeds but what either do or will have
cause to regret it. In this part of the country, a real Spanish Merino
is not to be obtained. Sheep-raising has ceased to be a business of any
profit nearer to the maritime coast than our extensive mountain ranges,
whether for carcass or fleece. I sold, the last season, water-washed
wool, of very fine quality, for thirty cents per pound. At such a price
for wool, land near our seaports can be turned to better account, even
in these dull times, than wool-growing. Stock sheep do best in stony and
elevated locations, where they have to use diligence to pick the scanty
blade. Sheep on the sea-board region should be kept more for carcass
than fleece; and feeding, more than breeding, ought to be the object for
some one hundred miles from tide water. It is now a well-ascertained
fact, that health and vigor can only be perpetuated by not running too
long on the same blood. The evils I have witnessed were due to a want of
care on this head more than to any endemical quality in our climate.
Sheep kept on smooth land and soft pasture are liable to the foot rot.
The hoofs of the Merino require paring occasionally, for want of a stony
mountain side to ascend. It is no longer a problem that this is to be a
great wool-growing country, as well as a wool-consuming one. There is,
in our wool-growing country, land in abundance, held at a price that
will enable the wool-grower to produce the finest qualities at thirty
cents per pound, the cloths to be manufactured in proportion, and the
market to be steady. I have seen Merino wool, since 1810, range from one
dollar per pound to eighteen and three fourths cents, though I do not
recollect selling below twenty-two cents. The best variety of sheep
stock I have seen, putting fineness of fleece aside, was the mixed
Bakewell and South Down, imported by Mr. Smith, of New Jersey. The flesh
of the Merino has been pronounced of inferior flavor. This, however,
does not agree with my experience, as I have found the lambs command a
readier sale than any other, from being preferred by consumers."



DESCRIPTION OF THE DIFFERENT BREEDS OF SHEEP.


Mr. Lawson tells us that "the variety in sheep is so great, that
scarcely any two countries produce sheep of the same kind. There is
found a manifest difference in all, either in the size, the covering,
the shape, or the horns."


TEESWATER BREED.

"This is a breed of sheep said to be the largest in England. It is at
present the most prevalent in the rich, fine, fertile, enclosed lands on
the banks of the Tees, in Yorkshire. In this breed, which is supposed to
be from the same stock as those of the Lincolns, greater attention seems
to have been paid to size than wool. It is, however, a breed only
calculated for warm, rich pastures, where they are kept in small lots,
in small enclosures, and well supported with food in severe winter
seasons. The legs are longer, finer boned, and support a thicker and
more firm and heavy carcass than the Lincolnshires; the sheep are much
wider on the backs and sides, and afford a fatter and finer-grained
mutton.


LINCOLN SHIRE BREED.

"This is a breed of sheep which is characterized by their having no
horns; white faces; long, thin, weak carcasses thick, rough, white legs;
bones large; pelts thick; slow feeding; mutton coarse grained; the wool
from ten to eighteen inches in length; and it is chiefly prevalent in
the district which gives the name, and other rich grazing ones. The new,
or improved Lincolns, have now finer bone, with broader loins and
trussed carcasses, are among the best, if not actually the best,
long-wooled stock we have.


THE DISHLEY BREED.

"This is an improved breed of sheep, which is readily distinguished from
the other long-wooled sorts; having a fulness of form and substantial
width of carcass, with peculiar plainness and meekness of countenance;
the head long, thin, and leaning backward; the nose projecting forward;
the ears somewhat long, and standing backward; great fulness of the fore
quarters; legs of moderate length, and the finest bone; tail small;
fleece well covering the body, of the shortest and finest of the combing
wools, the length of staple six or seven inches.


COTSWOLD BREED.

"This is a breed of sheep answering the following description: long,
coarse head, with a particularly blunt, wide nose; a top-knot of wool on
the forehead, running under the ears; rather long neck; great length and
breadth of back and loin; full thigh, with more substance in the hinder
than fore quarters; bone somewhat fine; legs not long; fleece soft, like
that of the Dishley, but in closeness and darkness of color bearing
more resemblance to short or carding wool. Although very fat, they have
all the appearance of sheep that are full of solid flesh, which would
come heavy to the scale. At two years and a half old, they have given
from eleven to fourteen pounds of wool each sheep; and, being fat, they
are indisputably among the larger breeds.


ROMNEY MARSH BREED.

"This is a kind which is described, by Mr. Young, as being a breed of
sheep without horns; white faces and legs; rather long in the legs; good
size; body rather long, but well barrel-shaped; bones rather large. In
respect to the wool, it is fine, long, and of a delicate white color,
when in its perfect state.


DEVONSHIRE BREED.

"This is a breed or sort of sheep which is chiefly distinguished by
having no horns; white faces and legs; thick necks; backs narrow, and
back-bones high; sides good; legs short, and bones large; and probably
without any material objection, being a variety of the common hornless
sort. Length of wool much the same as in the Romney Marsh breed. It is a
breed found to be prevalent in the district from which it has derived
its name, and is supposed to have received considerable improvement by
being crossed with the new Leicester, or Dishley.


THE DORSETSHIRE BREED.

"This breed is known by having the face, nose, and legs white, head
rather long, but broad, and the forehead woolly, as in the Spanish sort;
the horn round and bold, middle-sized, and standing from the head; the
shoulders broad at top, but lower than the hind quarters; the back
tolerably straight; carcass deep, and loins broad; legs not long, nor
very fine in the bone; the wool is fine and short. It is a breed which
has the peculiar property of producing lambs at any period of the
season, even so early as September and October, so as to suit the
purposes of the lamb-suckler.


THE WILTSHIRE BREED.

"This is a sort which has sometimes the title of _horned crocks_. The
writer on live stock distinguishes the breed as having a large head and
eyes; Roman nose; wide nostrils; horns bending down the cheeks; color
all white; wide bosom; deep, greyhound breast; back rather straight;
carcass substantial; legs short; bone coarse; fine middle wool, very
thin on the belly, which is sometimes bare. He supposes, with Culley,
that the basis of this breed is doubtless the Dorsets, enlarged by some
long-wooled cross; but how the horns came to take a direction so
contrary, is not easy, he thinks, to conjecture; he has sometimes
imagined it must be the result of some foreign, probably Tartarian
cross.


THE SOUTH DOWN BREED.

"This is a valuable sort of sheep, which Culley has distinguished by
having no horns; gray faces and legs; fine bones; long, small necks; and
by being rather low before, high on the shoulder, and light in the fore
quarter; sides good; loin tolerably broad; back-bone rather high; thigh
full; twist good; mutton fine in grain and well flavored; wool short,
very close and fine; in the length of the staple from two to three
inches. It is a breed which prevails on the dry, chalky downs in Sussex,
as well as the hills of Surrey and Kent, and which has lately been much
improved, both in carcass and wool, being much enlarged forward,
carrying a good fore flank; and for the short, less fertile, hilly
pastures is an excellent sort, as feeding close. The sheep are hardy,
and disposed to fatten quickly; and where the ewes are full kept, they
frequently produce twin lambs, nearly in proportion of one third of the
whole, which are, when dropped, well wooled.


THE HERDWICK BREED.

"This is a breed which is characterized by Mr. Culley as having no
horns, and the face and legs being speckled; the larger portion of
white, with fewer black spots, the purer the breed; legs fine, small,
clean; the lambs well covered when dropped; the wool, short, thick, and
matted in the fleece. It is a breed peculiar to the elevated,
mountainous tract of country at the head of the River Esk, and Duddon in
Cumberland, where they are let in herds, at an annual sum; whence the
name. At present, they are said to possess the property of being
extremely hardy in constitution, and capable of supporting themselves on
the rocky, bare mountains, with the trifling support of a little hay in
the winter season.


THE CHEVIOT BREED.

"This breed of sheep is known by the want of horns; by the face and legs
being mostly white; little depth in the breast; narrow there and on the
chine; clean, fine, small-boned legs, and thin pelts; the wool partly
fine and partly coarse. It is a valuable breed of mountain sheep, where
the herbage is chiefly of the natural grass kind, which is the case in
the situations where these are found the most prevalent, and from which
they have obtained their name. It is a breed which has undergone much
improvement, within these few years, in respect to its form and other
qualities, and has been lately introduced into the most northern
districts; and from its hardiness, its affording a portion of fine wool,
and being quick in fattening, it is likely to answer well in such
situations.


THE MERINO BREED

"In this breed of sheep, the males have horns, but the females are
without them. They have white faces and legs; the body not very perfect
in shape; rather long in the legs; fine in the bone; a production of
loose, pendulous skin under the neck; and the pelt fine and clear; the
wool very fine. It is a breed that is asserted by some to be tolerably
hardy, and to possess a disposition to fatten readily.


THE WELSH SHEEP.

"These, which are the most general breed in the hill districts, are
small horned, and all over of a white color. They are neat, compact
sheep. There is likewise a polled, short-wooled sort of sheep in these
parts of the country, which are esteemed by some. The genuine Welsh
mutton, from its smallness and delicate flavor, is commonly well known,
highly esteemed, and sold at a high price."

[Illustration: A Boar.

Bred and fed by Willm. Fisher Hobbs, Esq. of Marks Hall, Coggleshall,
Essex for which a Prize of £10 was awarded at the Meeting of the R.A.S
of E. at Derby 1843.]



SWINE.


PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

Swine have generally been considered "unclean," creatures of gross
habits, &c.; but these epithets are unjust: they are not, in their
nature, the unclean, gross, insensible brutes that mankind suppose them.
If they are unclean, they got their first lessons from the lords of
creation, by being confined in narrow, filthy sties--often deprived of
light, and pure air, by being shut up in dark, underground cellars, to
wallow in their own excrement; at other times, confined beneath stables,
dragging out their existence in a perfect hotbed of corruption--respiring
the emanations from the dung and urine of other animals; and often
compelled to satisfy the cravings of hunger by partaking of whatever
comes in their way. All manner of filth, including decaying and putrid
vegetable and animal substances, are considered good enough for the
hogs. And as long as they get such kind of trash, and no other, they
must eat it; the cravings of hunger must be satisfied. The Almighty has
endowed them with powerful organs of digestion; and as long as there is
any thing before them that the gastric fluids are capable of
assimilating, although it be disgusting to their very natures, rather
than suffer of hunger, they will partake of it. Much of the indigestible
food given to swine deranges the stomach, and destroys the powers of
assimilation, or, in other words, leaves it in morbid state. There is
then a constant sensation of hunger, a longing for any and every thing
within their reach. Does the reader wonder, then, at their morbid
tastes? What will man do under the same circumstances? Suppose him to be
the victim of dyspepsia or indigestion. In the early stages, he is
constantly catering to the appetite. At one time, he longs for acids; at
another, alkalies; now, he wants stimulants; then, refrigerants, &c.
Again: what will not a man do to satisfy the cravings of hunger? Will he
not eat his fellow, and drink of his blood? And all to satisfy the
craving of an empty stomach.

We know from experience that, if young pigs are daily washed, and kept
on clean cooked food, they will not eat the common city "swill;" they
eat it only when compelled by hunger. When free from the control of man,
they show as much sagacity in the selection of their food as any other
animals; and, indeed, more than some, for they seldom get poisoned, like
the ox, in mistaking noxious for wholesome food. The Jews, as well as
our modern physiologists, consider the flesh of swine unfit for food. No
doubt some of it is, especially that reared under the unfavorable
circumstances alluded to above. But good home-fed pork, kept on good
country produce, and not too fat, is just as good food for man as the
flesh of oxen or sheep, notwithstanding the opinion of our medical
brethren to the contrary. Their flesh has long been considered as one of
the principal causes of scrofula, and other diseases too numerous to
mention: without doubt this is the case. But that good, healthy pork
should produce such results we are unwilling to admit. We force them to
load their stomachs with the rotten offal of large cities, and thus
derange their whole systems; they become loaded with fat; their systems
abound in morbific fluids; their lungs become tuberculous; their livers
enlarge; calcerous deposits or glandular disorganization sets in. Take
into consideration their inactive habits; not voluntary, for instinct
teaches them, when at liberty, to run, jump, and gambol, by which the
excess of carbon is thrown off. Depriving them of exercise may be
profitable to the breeder, but it induces a state of plethora. The
cellular structures of such an animal are distended to their utmost
capacity, preventing the full and free play of the vital machinery,
obstructing the natural outlets (excrementitious vessels) on the
external surface, and retaining in the system morbid materials that are
positively injurious. At the present time, there is on exhibition in
Boston a woman, styled the "fat girl;" she weighs four hundred and
ninety-five pounds. A casual observer could detect nothing in her
external appearance that denoted disease; yet she is liable to die at
any moment from congestion of the brain, lungs, or liver. Any one
possessing a knowledge of physiology would immediately pronounce her to
be in a pathological state. Hence, the laws of the animal economy being
uniform, we cannot arrive at any other conclusion in reference to the
same plethoric state in animals of an inferior order.

Professor Liebig tells us that excess of carbon, in the form of food,
cannot be employed to make a part of any organ; it must be deposited in
the cellular tissue in the form of tallow or oil. This is the whole
secret of fattening.

At every period of animal life, when there occurs a disproportion
between the carbon of the food and the inspired oxygen, the latter being
deficient,--which must happen beneath stables and in ill-constructed
hog-sties,--fat must be formed.

Experience teaches us that in poultry the maximum of fat is obtained by
preventing them from taking exercise, and by a medium temperature. These
animals, in such circumstances, may be compared to a plant possessing in
the highest degree the power of converting all food into parts of its
own structure. The excess of the constituents of blood forms flesh and
other organized tissues, while that of starch, sugar, &c., is converted
into fat. When animals are fed on food destitute of nitrogen, only
certain parts of their structure increase in size. Thus, in a goose
fattened in the manner alluded to, the liver becomes three or four times
larger than in the same animal when well fed, with free motion; while we
cannot say that the organized structure of the liver is thereby
increased. The liver of a goose fed in the ordinary way is firm and
elastic; that of the imprisoned animal is soft and spongy. The
difference consists in a greater or less expansion of its cells, which
are filled with fat. Hence, when fat accumulates and free motion is
prevented, the animal is in a diseased state. Now, many tons of pork are
eaten in this diseased state, and it communicates disease to the human
family: they blame the pork, when, in fact, the pork raisers are often
more to blame. The reader is probably aware that some properties of food
pass into the living organism being assimilated by the digestive organs,
and produce an abnormal state. For example, the faculty of New York
have, time and again, testified to the destructive tendency of milk
drawn from cows fed in cities, without due exercise and ordinary care in
their management, giving it as their opinion that most of the diseases
of children are brought about by its use. If proof were necessary to
establish our position, we could cite it in abundance. A single case,
which happened in our own family, will suffice. A liver, taken from an
apparently healthy sow, (yet abounding in fat, and weighing about two
hundred pounds,) was prepared in the usual manner for dinner. We
observed, however, previous to its being cooked, that it was unusually
large; yet there was no appearance of disease about it; it was quite
firm. Each one partook of it freely. Towards night, and before partaking
of any other kind of food, we were all seized with violent pains in the
head, sickness at the stomach, and delirium: this continued for several
hours, when a diarrhoea set in, through which process the offending
matter was liberated, and each one rapidly recovered; pretty well
convinced, however, that we had had a narrow escape, and that the liver
was the sole cause of our misfortune.

Hence the proper management of swine becomes a subject of great
importance; for, if more attention were paid to it, there would be less
disease in the human family. When we charge these animals with being
"unclean creatures of gross habits," let us consider whether we have
not, in some measure, contributed to make them what they are.

Again: the hog has been termed "insensible," destitute of all those
finer feelings that characterize brutes of a higher order. Yet we have
"learned pigs," &c.--a proof that they can be taught something. A
celebrated writer tells us that no animal has a greater sympathy for
those of his own kind than the hog. The moment one of them gives a
signal, all within hearing rush to his assistance. They have been known
to gather round a dog that teased them and kill him on the spot; and if
a male and female be enclosed in a sty when young, and be afterwards
separated, the female will decline from the instant her companion is
removed, and will probably die--perhaps of what would be termed, in the
human family, a broken heart!

In the Island of Minorca, hogs are converted into beasts of draught; a
cow, a sow, and two young horses, have been seen yoked together, and of
the four the sow drew the best.

A gamekeeper of Sir H. Mildmay actually broke a sow to find game, and to
back and stand.

Swine are frequently troubled with cutaneous diseases, which produce an
itching sensation; hence their desire to wallow and roll in the mire and
dirt. The lying down in wet, damp places relieves the irritation of the
external surface, and cools their bodies. This mud and filth, however,
in which they are often compelled to wallow, is by no means good or
wholesome for them.



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE HOG.


"The hog," says Professor Low, "is subject to remarkable changes of form
and characters, according to the situations in which he is placed. When
these characters assume a certain degree of permanence, a breed or
variety is formed; and there is none of the domestic animals which more
easily receives the characters we desire to impress upon it. This
arises from its rapid powers of increase, and the constancy with which
the characters of the parents are reproduced in the progeny. _There is
no kind of live stock that can be so easily improved by the breeder, and
so quickly rendered suitable for the purposes required._

"The body is large in proportion to the limbs, or, in other words, the
limbs are short in proportion to the body; the extremities are free from
coarseness; the chest is broad, and the trunk round. Possessing these
characters, the hog never fails to arrive at early maturity, and with a
smaller consumption of food than when he possesses a different
conformation.

"The wild boar, which was undoubtedly the progenitor of all the European
varieties, and of the Chinese breed, was formerly a native of the
British Islands, and very common in the forests until the time of the
civil wars in that country."

We are told, that the wild hog "is now spread over the temperate and
warmer parts of the old continent and its adjacent islands. His color
varies with age and climate, but is generally a dusky brown, with black
spots and streaks. His skin is covered with coarse hairs and bristles,
intersected with soft wool, and with coarser and longer bristles upon
the neck and spine, which he erects when in anger. He is a very bold and
powerful creature, and becomes more fierce and indocile with age. From
the form of his teeth, he is chiefly herbivorous in his habits, and
delights in roots, which his acute sense of smell and touch enables him
to discover beneath the surface. He also feeds on animal substances,
such as worms and larvæ, which he grubs up from the earth, the eggs of
birds, small reptiles, the young of animals, and occasionally carrion;
he even attacks venomous snakes with impunity. In the natural state, the
female produces a litter but once a year;[21] and in much smaller
numbers than when domesticated. She usually carries her young about four
months.

"In the wild state, the hog has been known to live more than thirty
years; but when domesticated, he is usually slaughtered before he is two
years old. When the wild hog is tamed, it undergoes the following
amongst other changes in its conformation: the ears become less movable,
not being required to collect distant sounds; the formidable tusks of
the male diminish, not being necessary for self-defence; the muscles of
the neck become less developed, from not being so much exercised as in
the natural state; the head becomes more inclined, the back and loins
are lengthened, the body rendered more capacious, the limbs shorter and
less muscular; and anatomy proves that the stomach and intestinal canals
have also become proportionately extended along with the form of the
body. The habits and instincts of the animal change; it becomes diurnal
in its habits, not choosing the night for its search of food; is more
insatiate in its appetite, and the tendency to obesity increases.

"The male, forsaking its solitary habits, becomes gregarious, and the
female produces her young more frequently, and in larger numbers. With
its diminished strength, and its want of active motion, the animal loses
its desire for liberty.

"The true hog does not appear to be indigenous to America, but was taken
over by the early voyagers from the old world, and it is now spread and
multiplied throughout the continent.

"The first settlers of North America and the United States carried with
them the swine of the parent country, and a few of the breeds still
retain traces of the old English character. From its nature and habits,
the hog was the most profitable and useful of all the animals bred by
the early settlers in the distant clearings. It was his surest resource
during the first years of toil and hardship."

Their widely-extended foreign commerce afforded the Americans
opportunity of procuring the varieties from China, Africa, and other
countries. The large consumption of pork in the United States, and the
facilities for disposing of it abroad, will probably cause more
attention to be paid to the principles of breeding, rearing, feeding,
&c. The American farmers are doing good service in this department, and
any attempt on their part to improve the quality of pork ought to meet
with a corresponding encouragement from the community. We have no doubt
that many stock-raisers find their profits increase in proportion to the
care bestowed in rearing. Here is an example: A Mr. Hallock, of the town
of Coxsackie, has a sow which raised forty pigs within a year, which
sold for $275,--none of them being kept over nine months. Mr. Little, of
Poland, Ohio, states, in the Cultivator, that he has "a barrow three
years old, a full-blood Berkshire, which will now weigh nearly 1000
pounds, live weight. He was weighed on the 3d of October, and then
brought down 880; since which he has improved rapidly, and will
doubtless reach the above figures. I have had this breed for seven years
_pure_,--descended from hogs brought from Albany and Buffalo, and a boar
imported by Mr. Fahnestock, of Pittsburg, Pa., from England, (the latter
a very large animal.) The stock have all been large and very
profitable--weighing, at seven to ten months old, from 250 to 300
pounds. Several individuals have weighed over 400, and the sire of this
present one reached 750. This is, however, much the largest I have yet
raised."

FOOTNOTE:

[21] In the domesticated state, the sow is often permitted to have two
and even three litters in a year. This custom is very pernicious; it
debilitates the mother, overworks all parts of the living machinery, and
being in direct opposition to the laws of their being, their progeny
must degenerate. Then, again, let the reader take into consideration the
fact that members of the same litter impregnate each other, in the same
ratio, and he cannot but come to a conclusion that we have long since
arrived at--that these practices are among the chief causes of
deterioration.



GENERALITIES.


Dr. Gunther observes, that "the robust constitution of the pig causes it
to be less liable to fall sick than oxen and sheep. It would be still
less liable to disease, if persons manifested more judgment in the
choice of the animals to be reared, and if more care were shown in the
matter. With reference to the latter point, it is very true that the
voracity of the pig urges it to eat every thing it meets; but to keep it
in a state of health, it is, notwithstanding, necessary to restrict its
regimen to certain rules. The animal which it is proposed to fatten
should remain under the roof, and receive good food there, whilst the
others may be sent out for the greater part of the year, care being
taken to avoid fields that are damp and marshy, and that the pigs be
preserved from the dew. It is also of importance that they should not be
driven too hard during warm days.

"There are two other points which deserve to be taken into
consideration, if we wish swine to thrive: these are, daily exercise in
the open air whenever the weather permits, and cleanliness in the sty.
Constant confinement throws them into what may be called a morbid state,
which renders their flesh less wholesome for man. The manner in which
the animal evinces its joy when set at liberty proves sufficiently how
disagreeable confinement is to it. A very general prejudice prevails,
viz., that dung and filth do not injure swine; this opinion, however, is
absurd."



GENERAL DEBILITY, OR EMACIATION.


The falling off in flesh, or wasting away, of swine is in most cases
owing to derangement in the digestive organs. The cure consists in
restoring the tone of these organs. We commence the treatment by putting
the animal on a boiled diet, consisting of bran, meal, or any wholesome
vegetable production. The following tonic and diffusible stimulant will
complete the cure:--

  Powdered golden seal, }
     "     ginger,      } equal parts.

Dose, a tea-spoonful, repeated night and morning.

When loss in condition is accompanied with cough and difficulty of
breathing, mix, in addition to the above, a few kernels of garlic with
the food. The drink should consist of pure water. Should the cough prove
troublesome, take a tea-spoonful of fir balsam, and the same quantity of
honey; to be given night and morning, either in the usual manner, or it
may be stirred into the food while hot.



EPILEPSY, OR FITS.


The symptoms are too well known to need any description. It is generally
caused by plethora, yet it may exist in an hereditary form.


_Treatment._--Feed with due care, and put the animal in a
well-ventilated and clean situation; give a bountiful supply of valerian
tea, and sprinkle a small quantity of scraped horseradish in the food;
or give

  Powdered assafoetida,    1 ounce.
     "     capsicum,       1 tea-spoonful.
  Table salt,              1 table-spoonful.

Mix. Give half a tea-spoonful daily.



RHEUMATISM.


_Causes._--Exposure, wallowing in filth, &c.


_Symptoms._--It is recognized by a muscular rigidity of the whole
system. The appetite is impaired, and the animal does not leave its sty
willingly.


_Treatment._--Keep the animal on a boiled diet, which should be given to
him warm. Remove the cause by avoiding exposure and filth, and give a
dose of the following:

  Powdered sulphur,             }
     "     sassafras,           } equal parts.
     "     cinnamon,            }

Dose, half a tea-spoonful, to be given in warm gruel. If this does not
give immediate relief, dip an old cloth in hot water, (of a proper
temperature,) and fold it round the animal's body. This may be repeated,
if necessary, until the muscular system is relaxed. The animal should be
wiped dry, and placed in a warm situation, with a good bed of straw.



MEASLES.


This disease is very common, yet is often overlooked.


_Symptoms._--It may be known by eruptions on the belly, ears, tongue, or
eyelids. Before the eruption appears, the animal is drowsy, the eyes are
dull, and there is sometimes loss of appetite, with vomiting. On the
other hand, if the disease shall have receded towards the internal
organs, its presence can only be determined by the general disturbance
of the digestive organs, and the appearance of a few eruptions beneath
the tongue.


_Treatment._--Remove the animal from its companions to a warm place, and
keep it on thin gruel. Give a tea-spoonful of sulphur daily, together
with a drink of bittersweet tea. The object is to invite action to the
surface, and maintain it there. If the eruption does not reappear on the
surface, rub it with the following liniment:--

Take one ounce of oil of cedar; dissolve in a wine-glass of alcohol;
then add half a pint of new rum and a tea-spoonful of sulphur.

Almost all the diseases of the skin may be treated in the same manner.



OPHTHALMIA.


_Causes._--Sudden changes in temperature, unclean sties, want of pure
air, and imperfect light.


_Treatment._--Keep the animal on thin gruel, and allow two tea-spoonfuls
of cream of tartar per day. Wash the eyes with an infusion of
marshmallows, until a cure is effected.



VERMIN.


Some animals are covered with vermin, which even pierce the skin, and
sometimes come out by the mouth, nose, and eyes.


_Symptoms._--The animal is continually rubbing and scratching itself, or
burrowing in the dirt and mire.


_Treatment._--First wash the body with a strong lie of wood ashes or
weak saleratus water, then with an infusion of lobelia. Mix a
tea-spoonful of sulphur, and the same quantity of powdered charcoal, in
the food daily.



RED ERUPTION.


This disease is somewhat analogous to scarlet fever. It makes its
appearance in the form of red pustules on the back and belly, which
gradually extend to the whole body. The external remedy is:--

  Powdered bloodroot,     half an ounce.
  Boiling vinegar,        1 pint.

When cool, it should be rubbed on the external surface.

The diet should consist of boiled vegetables, coarse meal, &c., with a
small dose of sulphur every night.



DROPSY.


_Symptoms._--The animal is sad and depressed, the appetite fails,
respiration is performed with difficulty, and the belly swells.

_Treatment._--Keep the animal on a light, nutritive diet, and give a
handful of juniper berries, or cedar buds, daily. If these fail, give a
table-spoonful of fir balsam daily.



CATARRH.


_Symptoms._--Occasional fits of coughing, accompanied with a mucous
discharge from the nose and mouth.


_Causes._--Exposure to cold and damp weather.


_Treatment._--Give a liberal allowance of gruel made with powdered elm
or marshmallows, and give a tea-spoonful of balsam copaiba, or fir
balsam, every night. The animal must be kept comfortably warm.



COLIC.


Spasmodic and flatulent colic requires antispasmodics and carminatives,
in the following form:--

Powdered caraway seeds,        1 tea-spoonful.
   "     assafoetida,              one third of a tea-spoonful.

To be given at a dose in warm water, and repeated at the expiration of
an hour, provided relief is not obtained.



DIARRHOEA.


For the treatment of this malady, see division SHEEP, article
_Scours_.



FRENZY.


This makes its appearance suddenly. The animal, having remained in a
passive and stupid state, suddenly appears much disturbed, to such a
degree that it makes irregular movements, strikes its head against every
thing it meets, scrapes with its feet, places itself quite erect
alongside of the sty, bites any thing in its way, and frequently whirls
itself round, after which it suddenly becomes more tranquil.


_Treatment._--Give half an ounce of Rochelle salts, in a pint of
thoroughwort tea. If the bowels are not moved in the course of twelve
hours, repeat the dose. A light diet for a few days will generally
complete the cure.



JAUNDICE.


This disease is recognised by the yellow tint of the _conjunctiva_,
(white of the eye,) loss of appetite, &c.

The remedy is,--

  Powdered golden seal,     half an ounce.
     "     sulphur,         one fourth of an ounce.
     "     blue flag,       half an ounce.
  Flaxseed,                 1 pound.

Mix, and divide into four parts, and give one every night. The food must
be boiled, and a small quantity of salt added to it.



SORENESS OF THE FEET.


This often occurs to pigs that have travelled any distance: the feet
often become tender and sore. In such cases, they should be examined,
and all extraneous matter removed from the foot. Then wash with weak
lie. If the feet discharge fetid matter, wash with the following
mixture:--

  Pyroligneous acid,        2 ounces.
  Water,                    4 ounces.

In the treatment of diseased swine, the "issues," as they are called,
ought to be examined, and be kept free. They may be found on the inside
of the legs, just above the pastern joint. They seem to serve as a
drain or outlet for the morbid fluids of the body, and whenever they are
obstructed, local or general disturbance is sure to supervene.



SPAYING.


This is the operation of removing the ovaries of sows, in order to
prevent any future conception, and promote their fattening. (See article
_Spaying Cows_, p. 201.) It is usually performed by making incision in
the middle of the flank, on the left side, in order to extirpate or cut
off the ovaries, (female _testes_,) and then stitching up the wound, and
wetting the part with Turlington's balsam. An able writer on this
subject says, "The chief reason why a practice, which is beneficial in
so many points of view to the interests and advantages of the farmer,
has been so little attended to, is the difficulty which is constantly
experienced from the want of a sufficient number of expert and proper
persons to perform the operation. Such persons are far from being common
in any, much less in every district, as some knowledge, of a nature
which is not readily acquired, and much experience in the practice of
cutting, are indispensably necessary to the success of the undertaking.
When, however, the utility and benefits of the practice become better
understood and more fully appreciated by the farmer, and the operators
more numerous, greater attention and importance will be bestowed upon
it; as it is capable of relieving him from much trouble, of greatly
promoting his profits, and of benefiting him in various ways. The facts
are since well proved and ascertained, that animals which have undergone
this operation are more disposed to take on flesh, more quiet in their
habits, and capable of being managed with much greater ease and facility
in any way whatever, than they were before the operation was performed.
It may also have advantages in other ways in different sorts of
animals; it may render the filly nearly equal to the gelded colt for
several different uses; and the heifer nearly equal to the ox for all
sorts of farm labor. The females of some other sorts of animals may
likewise, by this means, be made to nearly equal the castrated males in
usefulness for a variety of purposes and intentions, and in all cases be
rendered a good deal more valuable, or manageable, than they are at
present."



VARIOUS BREEDS OF SWINE.


BERKSHIRE BREED.

This breed is distinguished by being in general of a tawny, white, or
reddish color, spotted with black; large ears hanging over the eyes;
thick, close, and well made in the body; legs short; small in the bone;
having a disposition to fatten quickly. When well fed, the flesh is
fine. The above county has long been celebrated for its breed of swine.
The Berkshire breeders have made a very judicious use of the pug cross,
by not repeating it to the degree of taking away all shape and power of
growing flesh, in their stock. This breed is supposed by many to be the
most hardy, both in respect to their nature and the food on which they
are fed. Their powers of digestion are exceedingly energetic, and they
require constant good keep, or they will lose flesh very fast. They
thrive well in the United States, provided, however, due care is
exercised in breeding.


HAMPSHIRE BREED.

This breed is distinguished by being longer in the body and neck, but
not of so compact a form as the Berkshire. They are mostly of a white
color, or spotted, and are easily fattened. The goodness of the
Hampshire hog is proverbial, and in England they are generally fattened
for hams.


SHROPSHIRE BREED.

These are not so well formed as those of the Berkshire kind, or equal to
them in their disposition to fatten, or to be supported on such cheap
food. Their color is white or brinded. They are flat boned; deep and
flat sided; harsh, or rather wiry-haired; the ear large; head long,
sharp, and coarse; legs long; loin, although very substantial, yet not
sufficiently wide, considering the great extent of the whole frame. They
have been much improved by the Berkshire cross.

There are various other breeds, which take their name from the different
counties in the mother country. Thus we have the Herefordshire,
Wiltshire, Yorkshire, &c. Yet they are not considered equal to those
already alluded to. Many of the different English breeds might, however,
serve to improve some species of breed in this country.


CHINESE BREED.

This is of small size; the body being very close, compact, and well
formed; the legs very short; the flesh delicate and firm. The prevailing
color, in China, is white. They fatten very expeditiously on a small
quantity of food, and might be reared in the United States to good
advantage, especially for home consumption.



BOARS AND SOWS FOR BREEDING.


Mr. Lawson says, "The best stock may be expected from the boar at his
full growth, but no more than from three to five years old.[22] No sows
should be kept open for breeding unless they have large, capacious
bellies.

"It may be remarked, in respect to the period of being with young, that
in the sow it is about four months; and the usual produce is about eight
to ten or twelve pigs in the large, but more in the smaller breeds.

"In the ordinary management of swine, sows, after they have had a few
litters, may be killed; but no breeder should part with one while she
continues to bring good litters, and rear them with safety."

Pregnant sows should always be lodged separately, especially at the time
of bringing forth their young, else the pigs would most probably be
devoured as they fall. The sow should also be attended with due care
while pigging, in order to preserve the pigs. It is found that dry,
warm, comfortable lodging is of almost as much importance as food. The
pigs may be weaned in about eight weeks, after which the sow requires
less food than she does while nursing. In the management of these
animals, it is of great utility and advantage to separate the males from
the females, as it lessens their sexual desires.

FOOTNOTE:

[22] Sows are generally bred from too early--before they come to
maturity. This not only stints their own growth, but their offspring
give evidence of deterioration. A sow should never be put to the boar
until she be a year old.



REARING PIGS.


"As the breeding of pigs is a business that affords the farmer a
considerable profit and advantage in various views, it is of essential
importance that he be provided with suitable kinds of food in abundance
for their support. Upon this being properly and effectually done, his
success and advantage will in a great measure depend. The crops capable
of being cultivated with the most benefit in this intention are, beans,
peas, barley, buckwheat, Indian corn, potatoes, carrots, parsnips,
Swedish turnips, cabbages, &c.

"The sows considerably advanced in pig, and those with pigs, should be
fed in a better manner than the stone pigs. The former should be
supplied with boiled meal, potatoes, carrots, &c., so as to keep them in
good condition. The sows with pigs should be kept with the litters in
separate sties, and be still better fed than those with pig. When
dairying is practised, the wash of that kind which has been preserved
for that purpose while the dairying was profitable, must be given them,
with food of the root kind, such as carrots, parsnips, &c., in as large
proportions as they will need to keep them in condition."

Pea-soup is an admirable article when given in this intention; it is
prepared by boiling six pecks of peas in about sixty gallons of water,
till they are well broken down and diffused in the fluid: it is then put
into a tub or cistern for use. When dry food is given in combination
with this, or of itself, the above writer advises oats, as being much
better than any other sort of grain for young pigs, barley not answering
nearly so well in this application. Oats coarsely ground have been found
very useful for young hogs, both in the form of wash with water, and
when made of a somewhat thicker consistence. But in cases where the sows
and pigs can be supported with dairy-wash and roots, as above, there
will be a considerable saving made, by avoiding the use of the expensive
articles of barley-meal, peas, or bran.

Mr. Donaldson remarks, that in the usual mode, the pigs reared by the
farmer are fed, for some weeks after they are weaned, on whey or
buttermilk, or on bran or barley-meal mixed with water. They are
afterwards maintained on other food, as potatoes, carrots, the refuse of
the garden, kitchen, scullery, &c., together with such additions as they
can pick up in the farmyard. Sometimes they are sent into the fields at
the close of harvest, where they make a comfortable living for several
weeks on the gleanings of the crop; at other times, when the farm is
situated in the neighborhood of woods or forests, they are sent thither
to pick up the beech-nuts and acorns in the fall of the year; and when
they have arrived at a proper age for fattening, they are either put
into sties fitted up for the purpose, or sold to distillers,
starch-makers, dairymen, or cottagers.

Nothing tends more effectually to preserve the health and promote the
growth of young pigs than the liberal use of hay tea. The tea should be
thickened with corn meal and shorts. This, given lukewarm, twice a day,
will quicken their growth, and give the meat a rich flavor. A few
parsnips[23] or carrots (boiled) may be made use of with much success.

FOOTNOTE:

[23] The Sussex (Eng.) Express says, "At our farm we have been in the
habit of employing parsnips for this purpose for some time. Upon
reference to our books, we find that on the 11th of October, 1847, we
put up two shotes of eleven weeks old, and fed them on skim milk and
parsnips for three months, when they were killed, weighing 231 and 238
pounds. They were well fattened, firm in flesh, and the meat of
excellent flavor. The quantity of parsnips consumed by them was nine
bushels each."



FATTENING HOGS.


F. Dodge, of Danvers, Mass., states that, in the spring of 1848, he
"bought, from a drove, seven shotes, the total weight of which was 925
pounds. The price paid for them was seven cents per pound. They were fed
an average of 184 days, and their average gain was 179 pounds of net
pork. The cost of the food they consumed was as follows:--

  68 bushels corn at 53 cents,                  $36 04
  30   "       "  damaged, at 35 cents,          10 50
  50   "       "  at 65 cents,                   32 50
  8    "  meal at 65 cents,                       5 20
                                               -------
                                                $84 24
  Add first cost of pigs,                        64 75
                                               -------
  Making a total cost of                       $148 99

"The whole quantity of pork afforded by the pigs killed was 2178 pounds,
which was sold at 6-1/3 cents per pound, amounting to $141 57; leaving
a balance against the pigs of $7 42. The inference from this statement
is, that, at the above prices of grain, pork could not be profitably
produced at six and a half cents per pound. But it is suggested that
something might be saved by breeding the stock, instead of purchasing
shotes at seven cents per pound, live weight. It is thought, however,
that the manure afforded by the hogs would be of sufficient value to
more than overbalance any deficiency which might appear in the account
by only crediting the pork."

The food in the above case was too costly. One half of it, mixed with
parsnips, carrots, beets, or turnips, would have answered the purpose
better. The balance would then have been in favor of the pigs. We are
told, by an able writer on swine, that they will feed greedily, and
thrive surprisingly, on most kinds of roots and tubers, such as carrots,
beets, parsnips, potatoes, &c., particularly when prepared by boiling.
It may be taken as a general rule, that boiled or prepared food is more
nutritious and fattening than raw cold food; the additional expense and
labor will be more than compensated by the increased weight and quality.

Cornstalks might be used as food for swine by first cutting them[24] in
small pieces, and then boiling them until they are quite soft; a small
quantity of meal is then to be mixed in the fluid, and the stalks again
added, and fed to the pigs twice a day.

Mr. P. Wing, of Farmersville, C. W., gives us his experience in feeding
swine; and he requests his brother farmers to make similar experiments
with various kinds of food, and, by preparing them in various ways, to
ascertain what way it will yield the most nutriment--that is, make the
most pork. He says,--

"I now give the result of feeding 100 bushels of good peas to sixteen
hogs, of various mixed breeds, as found in this section. The peas were
boiled until fine, making what I call thick soup. After having fed the
hogs on the same kind of food for two weeks, I gave them their morning
feed, and weighed each one separately, noting the weight. Twelve of them
were about eighteen months old; one was a three year old sow, and three
pigs were seven and half months old when weighed. I found their total
weight 4267 lbs.; and after consuming the above amount, which took
forty-two days, I weighed them again, and found that they had gained
1358 lbs.; and on the supposition that as they gained in flesh they
shrunk in offal, I estimated their net gain to have been 1400 lbs. Their
drink consisted of ten pails of whey per day. It was allowed to stand
forty-eight hours, and the cream was skimmed off.

"I find that there is a great difference in breeds of hogs. The three
year old sow small framed, and pretty full-fleshed, weighing 504 lbs.
Her gain in the forty-two days was 66 lbs. The three pigs were from her,
and showed traces of three distinct breeds of hogs. Their first weight
and gain were as follows: the first weighed 253 lbs.--gain, 97 lbs.; the
second, 218 lbs.--gain, 75 lbs.; the third, 171 lbs.--gain, 46 lbs. When
butchered, the smallest one was the best pork, being the fattest. Two of
the most inferior of the hogs gained 1-1/2 lbs. per day; six, mixture of
the Berkshire, (I should think about one fourth,) gained 1-3/4 lbs. per
day; three of the common stock of our country gained 2-1/2 lbs.; and one
of a superior kind weighted 318 lbs., and in the forty-two days gained
134 lbs. They were weighed on the 20th September, the first time. They
were kept confined in a close pen, except once a week I let them out for
exercise, and to wallow, for the most pint of a day."



METHOD OF CURING SWINE'S FLESH.


"In the county of Kent, when pork is to be cured as bacon, it is the
practice to singe off the hairs by making a straw fire round the
carcass--an operation which is termed _swaling_. The skin, in this
process, should be kept perfectly free from dirt of all sorts. When the
flitches are cut out, they should be rubbed effectually with a mixture
of common salt and saltpetre, and afterwards laid in a trough, where
they are to continue three weeks or a month, according to their size,
keeping them frequently turned; and then, being taken out of the trough,
are to be dried by a slack fire, which will take up an equal portion of
time with the former; after which, they are to be hung up, or thrown
upon a rack, there to remain until wanted. But in curing bacon on the
continent, it is mostly the custom to have closets contrived in the
chimneys, for the purpose of drying and smoking by wood fires, which is
said to be more proper for the purpose. And a more usual mode of curing
this sort of meat is that of salting it down for pickled pork, which is
far more profitable than bacon.

"In the county of Westmoreland, where the curing of hams has long been
practised with much success, the usual method is for them to be at first
rubbed very hard with bay salt; by some they are covered close up; by
others they are left on a stone bench, to allow the brine and blood to
run off. At the end of five days, they are again rubbed, as hard as they
were at first, with salt of the same sort, mixed with an ounce of
saltpetre to a ham. Having lain about a week, either on a stone bench or
in hogsheads amongst the brine, they are hung up, by some in the
chimney, amidst the smoke, whether of peat or coals; by others in places
where the smoke never reaches them. If not sold sooner, they are
suffered to remain there till the weather becomes warm. They are then
packed in hogsheads with straw or oatmeal husks, and sent to the place
of sale."

A small portion of pyroligneous acid may be added to the brine. It is a
good antiseptic, and improves the flavor of ham and bacon. (See _Acid,
Pyroligneous_, in the _Materia Medica_.)



APPENDIX.


ON THE ACTION OF MEDICINES.

In reference to the action of medicines and external agents on the
animal body, we would observe, that warmth and moisture always expand
it, and bayberry bark, tannin, and gum catechu always contract it; and
that these agents have these effects at all times (provided, however,
there be sufficient vitality in the part to manifest these peculiar
changes) and under all circumstances. If a blister be applied to the
external surface of an animal, and it produces irritation, it always has
a tendency to produce that effect, whatever part of the living organism
it may be applied to. So alcohol always has a tendency to stimulate;
whether given by the mouth, or rubbed on the external surface, it will
produce an excitement of nerves, heart, and arteries, and of course the
muscles partake of the influence. Again, marshmallows, gum acacia,
slippery elm, &c., always lubricate the mucous surfaces, quiet
irritation, and relieve inflammatory symptoms.

It follows, of course, 1st. That when any other effects than those just
named are seen to follow the administration of these articles, they must
be attributed to the morbid state of the parts to which they are
applied; 2d. That a medicine which is good to promote a given effect in
one form of disease, will be equally good for the same purpose in
another form of disease in the same tissue. Thus, if an infusion of
mallows is good for inflammation of the stomach, and will lubricate the
surface, and allay irritation in that organ, then it is equally good for
the same purpose in inflammation of the bowels and bladder. What we wish
the reader to understand is this: that a medicine used for any
particular symptom in one form of disease, if it be a sanative agent, is
equally good for the same symptom in every form. Medical men range their
various remedies under different heads. Thus opium is called narcotic,
aloes purgative or cathartic, potass diuretic, &c. And because the same
results do not always follow the administration of these articles, they
are perplexed, and are compelled to try every new remedy, in hopes to
find a specific; not knowing that many of their _"best medicines"_
(opium, for example) war against the vital principle, and as soon as
they get into the system, nature sets up a strong action to counteract
their effects; in short, to get them out of the system in the quickest
possible manner: sometimes they pass through the kidneys; at other
times, the intestinal canal, the lungs, or surface, afford them egress.
And because a certain agent does not always act in their hands with
unerring certainty, they seem to suppose that the same uncertainty
attends the administration of every article in the _materia medica_. The
medicines we recommend owe their diuretic, astringent, diaphoretic, and
cathartic powers to their aromatic, relaxing, antispasmodic,
lubricating, and irritating properties; and if we give them with a view
of producing a certain result, and they do not act just as we wish, it
is no proof that they have not done good. The fact is, all our medicines
act on the parts where nature is making the greatest efforts to restore
equilibrium; hence they relieve the constitution, whatever may be the
nature of their results.

Many of the remedies recommended in this work are denounced by the
United States Dispensatory a "useless, inert," &c.; yet many of our most
celebrated physicians are in the daily habit of using them. Mr. Bracy
Clark, V. S., recommends tincture of allspice for gripes. And Mr.
Causer, an experienced veterinarian, says, "I ordered a dessert spoonful
(about two drachms) of tincture of gentian and bark to be given twice a
day in a case of gripes. Scarcely an hour after the animal had taken the
first dose, he began to eat some hay, and on the next day he ate every
thing that was offered him. After this, I ordered a quart of cold boiled
milk to be given him every morning and evening. By these means, together
with the good care of the coachman, he recovered his strength." Mr.
White, V. S., says, "I have been assured by a veterinary surgeon, that
he once cured a horse of gripes by a dose of hot water; and it is by no
means unlikely that a warm infusion of some of our medicinal herbs, such
as peppermint, pennyroyal, rosemary, &c., would be found effectual."

Mr. Gibson says, "It is a fact that cannot be too generally known, that
an infusion of garlic has, to my certain knowledge, cured several cases
of epilepsy--a dreadful disease, that seems to have baffled, in most
instances, every effort of medical skill."

An intelligent farmer assures Dr. White that he has had forty sheep at a
time hoven or blasted from feeding on vetches, and so swollen that he
hardly knew which would drop first. His usual remedy was a quart of
water for each sheep; and that generally had the desired effect, though
many died before it could be given. We might give our own experience in
favor of numberless simple agents, which we are in the constant habit of
using, were it necessary; suffice it to say, that at the present time we
use nothing else than simple means.



CLYSTERS.


_Remarks._--As the more general use of clysters is recommended by the
author, especially in acute diseases, he has thought proper to
introduce, in this part of the work, a few remarks on them, with
examples of their different forms. They serve not only to evacuate the
rectum of its contents, but assist to evacuate the intestines, and
serve also to convey nourishment into the system; as in cases of
locked-jaw, and great prostration. They soften the hardened excrement in
the rectum, and cause it to be expelled; besides, by their warm and
relaxing powers, they act as fomentations. A stimulating clyster in
congestion of the brain, or lungs, will relieve those parts by
counter-irritation. An animal that is unable to swallow may be supported
by nourishing clysters; for the lacteals, which open into the inner
cavity of the intestines, absorb, or take up, the nourishment, and
convey it into the thoracic duct, as already described. Some persons
deny the utility of injections. We are satisfied on that point, and are
able to convince any one, beyond a reasonable doubt, that fluids are
absorbed in the rectum, notwithstanding the opinion of some men to the
contrary.

In administering clysters, it ought always to be observed that the
fluids should be neither too hot nor too cold: they should be about the
temperature of the blood. The common sixteen-ounce metal syringe, with a
wooden pipe about six inches in length, and gradually tapering from base
to point, is to be preferred. It is, after being oiled, much more easily
introduced into the fundament than one that is considerably smaller;
and, having a blunt point, there is no danger of hurting the animal, or
wounding the rectum.

The following injections are suitable for all kinds of animals. The
quantity, however, should be regulated according to the size of the
patient. Thus a quart will suffice for a sheep or pig, while three or
four quarts are generally necessary in the case of horses and cattle. If
clysters are intended to have a nutritive effect, they must be
introduced in the most gentle manner, and not more than one pint should
be given at any one time, for fear of exciting the expulsive action of
the rectum. In constriction and intussusception of the intestines, and
when relaxing clysters are indicated, they should not be too long
persevered in, for falling of the rectum has been known, in many
instances, to arise from repeated injections. Efforts should be made to
relax the whole animal by warmth and moisture externally, and in the
use of antispasmodic teas, rather than to place too much dependence on
clysters.


FORMS OF CLYSTERS.

_Laxative Clyster._

  Warm water,                          3 or 4 quarts.
  Linseed oil,                         8 ounces.
  Common salt, (fine,)                 1 table-spoonful.

_Another._

  Warm water,                          4 quarts.
  Soft soap,                           1 gill.
  Fine salt,                           half a table-spoonful.

_Use._--Either of the above clysters is useful in obstinate
constipation, "stoppage," or whenever the excrement is hard and dark
colored.

_Emollient Clyster_.

  Slippery elm bark,                      2 ounces.
  Boiling water,                          2 quarts.

Let them simmer over the fire for a few minutes, then strain through a
fine sieve, and inject. The following articles may be substituted for
elm: flaxseed, lily roots, gum arabic, poplar bark, Iceland moss.

_Use._--In all cases of irritation and inflammation of the intestines
and bladder.

_Stimulating Clyster._

  Thin mucilage of slippery elm or linseed tea,   3 quarts.
  African cayenne,[25]                             1 tea-spoonful.

_Another._

  Powdered ginger,            half a table-spoonful.
  Boiling water,              3 quarts.

When cool, inject.

_Use._--In all cases, when the rectum and small intestines are inactive,
and loaded with excrement, or gas.

_Anodyne Clyster._

  Lady's slipper, (_cypripedium_,)   1 ounce.
  Camomile flowers,                       1 ounce.
  Boiling water,                          3 quarts.

Let the mixture stand a short time, then strain through a fine sieve,
when it will be fit for use.

_Use._--To relieve pain and relax spasms.

_Diuretic Clyster._

  Linseed tea,                         3 quarts.
  Oil of juniper,                      1 table-spoonful.

Or, substitute for the latter, cream of tartar, half an ounce.

_Use._--This form of clyster may be used with decided advantage in all
acute diseases of the urinary organs. This injection is useful in cases
of red water, both in cattle and sheep; and when the malady is supposed
to result from general or local debility, the addition of tonics (golden
seal or gentian[26]) will be indicated.

_Astringent Clyster_.

Take an infusion of hardhack, strain, and add a table-spoonful of
finely-pulverized charcoal to every three quarts of fluid.

_Another._

An infusion of witch hazel.

_Another._

  Powdered bayberry bark,          1 table-spoonful.
  Boiling water,                   3 quarts.

When cool, it is fit for use.

_Use._--Astringent injections are used in all cases where it is desired
to contract the living fibre, as in scouring, dysentery, scouring rot,
diarrhoea, bloody flux, falling of the womb, fundament, &c.

_Nourishing Clyster._

Nourishing clysters are composed of thin gruel made from flour, &c.

_Injection for Worms._

Make an infusion of pomegranate, (rind of the fruit,) and inject every
night for a few days. This will rid the animal of worms that infest the
rectum; but if the animal is infested with the long, round worm,
(_teres_,) then half a pint of the above infusion must be given for a
few mornings, before feeding.

_Another for Worms._

  Powdered lobelia,                1 ounce.
  Wood ashes,                      a handful.
  Boiling water,                   3 quarts.

When cool, it is fit for use.

FOOTNOTES:

[24] Messrs. Parker & White, in Boston, have shown us an excellent
machine used for the purpose of cutting cornstalks. Every farmer should
have one in his possession.

[25] A large portion of the cayenne found in the stores is adulterated
with logwood, and is positively injurious, as it would thus prove
astringent.

[26] Their active properties may be extracted by infusion.



INFUSIONS.


These are made by steeping herbs, roots, and other medicinal substances
in boiling water. No particular rules can be laid down as to the
quantity of each article required: it will, however, serve as some sort
of a guide, to inform the reader that we generally use from one to two
ounces of the aromatic herbs and roots to every quart of fluid. A bitter
infusion, such as wormwood or camomile, requires less of the herb. All
kinds of infusions can be rendered palatable by the addition of a small
quantity of honey or molasses. As a general rule, the human palate is a
good criterion; for if an infusion be too strong or unpalatable for man,
it is unfit for cattle or sheep. We do not depend so much on the
strength of our agents: the great secret is to select the one best
adapted to the case in view. If it be an agent that is capable of acting
in concert with nature, then the weaker it is, the better. In short,
nature requires but slight assistance under all ordinary circumstances,
unless the animal is evidently suffering from debility; then our efforts
must act in concert with the living powers. We must select the most
nutritious food--that which can be easily converted into blood, bones,
and muscles. If, on the other hand, we gave an abundance of provender,
and it lacked the constituents necessary for the purposes in view, or
was of such an indigestible nature that its nutritive properties could
not be extracted by the gastric fluids, this would be just as bad as
giving improper medicines, both in reference to its quantity and
quality.

An infusion of either of the following articles is valuable in colic,
both flatulent and spasmodic, in all classes of animals: caraways,
peppermint, spearmint, fennel-seed, angelica, bergamot, snakeroot,
aniseed, ginseng, &c.



ANTISPASMODICS.


By antispasmodics are meant those articles that assist, through their
physiological action, in relaxing the nervous and muscular systems.
Hence the reader will perceive, by the definition we have given of this
class of remedies, that we cannot recommend or employ the agents used by
our brethren of the allopathic school, for many of them act
pathologically. The class we use are simple, yet none the less
efficient.

Professor Curtis says, when alluding to the action of medicinal agents,
"Experiments have shown that many vegetable substances, which seem in
themselves quite bland and harmless, are antidotes to various poisons.
Thus the skullcap (_scutellaria laterifolia_) is said to be a remedy for
hydrophobia, the _alisma plantago_ and _polemonium reptans_ for the
bites of serpents, and lobelia for the sting of insects. They are good;
but why? Because they are permanently relaxing and stimulating, and
depurate the whole system."

Natural antispasmodics are warmth and moisture. The medicinal ones are
lobelia, Indian hemp, castor musk, ginseng, assafoetida, pleurisy
root, Virginia snakeroot, camomile, wormwood. The above are only
specimens. There is no limit to the number and variety of articles in
the vegetable kingdom that will act as antispasmodics or relaxants. They
may be given internally or applied externally: the effect is the same.



FOMENTATIONS.


This class of remedies is usually composed of relaxants, &c., of several
kinds, combined with tonics, stimulants, and anodynes. They are very
useful to relieve pain, to remove rigidity, to restore tone, and to
stimulate the parts to which they are applied.

_Common Fomentation._

  Wormwood,                  }
  Tansy,                     } equal parts.
  Hops,                      }

Moisten them with equal parts of boiling water and vinegar, and apply
them blood warm.

_Use._--For all kinds of bruises and sprains. They should be confined to
the injured parts, and kept moist with the superabundant fluid. When it
is not practicable to confine a fomentation to the injured parts, as in
shoulder or hip lameness, constant bathing with the decoction will
answer the same purpose.

_Anodyne Fomentation._

  Hops,                            a handful.
  White poppy heads,               1 ounce.
  Water and vinegar,               equal parts.

Simmer a few minutes.

_Use._--In all painful bruises.

_Relaxing Fomentation_


  Powdered lobelia,           2 ounces.
  Boiling water,              2 quarts.

Simmer for a few minutes, and when sufficiently cool, bathe the parts
with a soft sponge.

_Use._--In all cases of stiff joints, and rigidity of the muscles.
Animals often lie down in wet pastures, from which rheumatism and
stiffness of the joints arise. In such cases, the animal must be taken
from grass for a few days, and the affected parts be faithfully bathed.

_Stimulating Fomentation._

Cedar buds, or boughs, any quantity, to which add a small quantity of
red pepper and ginger, boiling water sufficient.

_Use._--This will be found very efficacious in chronic lameness and
paralysis, for putrid sore throat, and when the glands are enlarged from
cold and catarrh.



MUCILAGES.


Mucilages are soft, bland substances, made by dissolving gum arabic in
hot water; or by boiling marshmallows, slippery elm, or lily roots,
until their mucilaginous properties are extracted. A table-spoonful of
either of the above articles, when powdered, will generally suffice for
a quart of water.

_Use._--In all cases of catarrh, diarrhoea, inflammation of the
kidneys, womb, bladder, and intestines. They shield the mucous
membranes, and defend them from the action of poisons and drastic
cathartics.



WASHES.


Washes generally contain some medicinal agent, and are principally used
externally.

_Wash for Diseases of the Feet._

  Pyroligneous acid,         4 ounces.
  Water,                     8 ounces.

_Use._--This wash excels every other in point of efficacy, and removes
rot and its kindred diseases sooner than any other.

_Cooling Wash for the Eye._

  Rain water,                     1 pint.
  Acetic acid,                    20 drops.

_Use._--In ophthalmia.

_Tonic and Antispasmodic Wash._

  Camomile flowers,                half an ounce.
  Boiling water,                   1 pint.

When cool, strain through fine linen.

_Use._--In chronic diseases of the eye, and when a weeping remains after
an acute attack.

_Wash for unhealthy (or ulcerated) Sores._

A weak solution of sal soda or wood ashes.

_Wash for Diseases of the Skin._

Take one ounce of finely-pulverized charcoal, pour on it one ounce of
pyroligneous acid, then add a pint of water. Bottle, and keep it well
corked. It may be applied to the skin by means of a sponge. It is also
an excellent remedy for ill-conditioned ulcers.



PHYSIC FOR CATTLE.


Extract of butternut, (_juglans cinerea_,) half an ounce.
Cream of tartar,                                1 tea-spoonful.
Boiling water,                                  2 quarts.

Mix. When cool, administer.

_Another._

  Extract of blackroot, (_leptandra
    virginica_,)                          half an ounce.
  Rochelle salts,                         1 ounce.
  Powdered ginger,                        1/2 tea-spoonful.

Dissolve in two quarts of warm water.

_Another._

  Powdered mandrake,             1 table-spoonful.
  Cream of tartar,               1 tea-spoonful.
  Hot water,                     2 quarts.

Here are three different forms of physic for cattle, which do not
debilitate the system, like aloes and salts, because they determine to
the surface as well as the bowels. They may be given in all cases where
purges are necessary. One third of the above forms will suffice for
sheep.


MILD PHYSIC FOR CATTLE.

  Sirup of buckthorn,          2 ounces.
  Sulphur,                     half a table-spoonful.
  Ginger,                      half a tea-spoonful.
  Hot water,                   2 quarts.

_Aperient._

  Linseed oil,            1 pint.
  Yolks of two eggs.

Mix.

_Another._

  Sweet oil,                   1 pint.
  Powdered cayenne,            half a tea-spoonful.

Mix.

A sheep will require about one half of the above.

_Stimulating Tincture._

  Boiling vinegar,         1 pint.
  Tincture of myrrh,       2 ounces.
  Powdered capsicum,       2 tea-spoonfuls.

_Use._--For external application in putrid sore throat.

_Another._

  Tincture of camphor,                   4 ounces.
  Oil of cedar,                          half an ounce.
  Tincture of capsicum, (hot drops,)     4 ounces.

To be rubbed around the throat night and morning.

_Stimulating Tincture for Chronic Rheumatism._

  Tincture of capsicum,            4 ounces.
  Oil of cedar,                    1 ounce.
  Oil of wormwood,                 1 ounce.
  Vinegar,                         half a pint.
  Goose grease,                    1 gill.

Mix. To be applied night and morning. The mixture should be kept in a
well-corked bottle, and shaken before being used.



POULTICES.


_Preliminary Remarks._--As oxen, sheep, and pigs are liable to have
accumulations of matter, in the form of abscess, resulting from injury
or from the natural termination of diseases, it becomes a matter of
importance that the farmer should rightly understand their character and
treatment. If a foreign substance enters the flesh, the formation of
matter is a part of the process by which nature rids the system of the
enemy. A poultice relaxing and lubricating will then be indicated. If,
however, the foreign body shall have entered at a point where it is
impossible to confine a poultice, then the suppurative stage may be
shortened by the application of relaxing fomentations, and lastly, by
stimulants. It is a law of the animal economy, that, unless there be
some obstacle, matter always seeks its exit by an external opening; and
it becomes part of our duty to aid nature in her efforts to accomplish
this salutary object. Nature requires aid in consequence of the
unyielding character of the hide, and the length of time it takes to
effect an opening through it. Animals are known to suffer immensely from
the pressure a large accumulation of pus makes on the surrounding
nerves, &c., and also from the reabsorption of this pus when it cannot
readily make its exit. This is not all; for, if pus accumulates, and
cannot in due time find an outlet, it produces destruction of the
blood-vessels, nerves, and surrounding tissues. These vessels are
distributed to the different surfaces; their supply of blood and nervous
energy being cut off, they decompose, and in their turn become pus, and
their open mouths allow the morbid matter to enter the circulation, and
thus poison the blood. Hence it becomes our duty, whenever matter can be
distinctly felt, to apply that sort of poultice which will be most
likely to aid nature.

There is no article in the _materia medica_ of so much value to the
farmer as marshmallows; he cannot place too much value on it. Whether he
uses it in his own family or confines it exclusively to cattle practice,
it is equally valuable. It has numerous advantages over many similar
remedies: the most important one to the farmer is, that it can be
procured in this country at a small cost. We have used it for a number
of years, and in many cases we consider it our sheet-anchor. In short,
we cannot supply its place.

Mr. Cobbett says, "I cannot help mentioning another herb, which is used
for medicinal purposes. I mean the marshmallows. It is amongst the most
valuable of plants that ever grew. Its leaves stewed, and applied wet,
will cure, and almost instantly cure, any cut, or bruise, or wound of
any sort. Poultices made of it will cure sprains; fomenting with it will
remove swellings; applications of the liquor will cure chafes made by
saddles and harness; and its operation, in all cases, is so quick that
it is hardly to be believed. Those who have this weed at hand need not
put themselves to the trouble and expense of sending to doctors and
farriers on trifling occasions. It signifies not whether the wound be
old or new. The mallows, if you have it growing near you, may be used
directly after it is gathered, merely washing off the dirt first. But
there should be some always ready in the house for use. It should be
gathered just before it blooms, and dried and preserved just in the same
manner as other herbs. It should be observed, however, that, if it
should happen not to be gathered at the best season, it may be gathered
at any time. I had two striking instances of the efficacy of mallows. A
neighboring farmer had cut his thumb in a very dangerous manner, and,
after a great deal of doctoring, it had got to such a pitch that his
hand was swelled to twice its natural size. I recommended the use of the
mallows to him, gave him a little bunch out of my store, (it being
winter time,) and his hand was well in four days. He could go out to his
work the very next day, after having applied the mallows over night. The
other instance was this. I had a valuable hog, that had been gored by a
cow. It had been in this state for two days before I knew of the
accident, and had eaten nothing. The gore was in the side, making a
large wound. I poured in the liquor in which the mallows had been
stewed, and rubbed the side well with it. The next day the hog got up
and began to eat. On examining the wound, I found it so far closed that
I did not think it right to disturb it. I bathed the side again; and in
two days the hog was turned out, and was running about along with the
rest. Now, a person must be criminally careless not to make provision of
this herb. Mine was nearly two years old when I made use of it upon the
last-mentioned occasion. If the use of this weed was generally adopted,
the art and mystery of healing wounds, and of curing sprains,
swellings, and other external maladies, would very quickly be reduced to
an unprofitable trade."

_Lubricating and healing Poultice._

  Powdered marshmallow roots,         }
  Marshmallow leaves,                 } equal parts.

Moisten with boiling water, and apply.

_Use._--In ragged cuts, wounds, and bruises.

_Stimulating Poultice._

  Indian meal,                 }
  Slippery elm,                }  equal parts.

Mix them together, and add sufficient boiling water to moisten the mass.
Spread it on a cloth, and sprinkle a small quantity of powdered cayenne
on its surface.

_Use._--To stimulate ill-conditioned ulcers to healthy action. Where
there is danger of putrescence, add a small quantity of powdered
charcoal.

_Poultice for Bruises._

Nothing makes so good a poultice for recent bruises as boiled carrots or
marshmallows.

_Poultice to promote Suppuration._

  Indian meal,        a sufficient quantity.
  Linseed,            a handful.
  Cayenne,            1 tea-spoonful.

To be moistened with boiling vinegar, and applied at the usual
temperature.



STYPTICS, TO ARREST BLEEDING.


Witch hazel, (winter bloom,) bark or leaves, 2 ounces.

Make a decoction with the smallest possible quantity of water, and if
the bleeding is from the nose, throw it up by means of a syringe; if
from the stomach, lungs, or bowels, add more water, and let the animal
drink it, and give some by injection.

_Styptic to arrest external Bleeding._

Wet a piece of lint with tincture of muriate of iron, and bind it on the
part.

There are various other styptics, such as alum water, strong tincture of
nutgalls, bloodroot, common salt, fine flour, &c.



ABSORBENTS.


_Remarks._--Absorbents are composed of materials partaking of an
alkaline character, and are used for the purpose of neutralizing acid
matter. The formation of an acid in the stomach arises from some
derangement of the digestive organs, sometimes brought on by the
improper quantity or quality of the food. It is useless, therefore, to
give absorbents, with a view of neutralizing acid, unless the former are
combined with tonics, or agents that are capable of restoring the
stomach to a healthy state. This morbid state of the stomach is
recognized in oxen by a disposition to eat all kinds of trash that comes
in their way, such as dirt, litter, &c. They are frequently licking
themselves, and often swallow a great deal of hair, which is formed into
balls in the stomach, and occasions serious irritation. Calves, when
fattening, are often fed so injudiciously, that the stomach is incapable
of reducing the food to chyme and chyle: the consequence is, that a
large amount of carbonic acid gas is evolved. Many calves and lambs die
from this cause.

A mixture of chalk, saleratus, and soda is often given by farmers; yet
they do not afford permanent relief. They do some good by correcting the
acidity of the stomach; but the animals are often affected with
diarrhoea, or costiveness, loss of appetite, colic, and convulsions.
Attention to the diet would probably do more than all the medicine in
the world. Yet if they do get sick, something must be done. The best
forms of absorbents are the following: they restore healthy action to
the lost function at the same time that they neutralize the gas.


FORMS OF ABSORBENTS.

  Powdered charcoal,           1 table-spoonful.
      "    snakeroot,          half a table-spoonful.
      "    caraways,           1 tea-spoonful.
  Hot water,                   1 quart.

Mix. To be given at one dose, for a cow; half the quantity, or indeed
one third, is sufficient for a calf, sheep, or pig.

_Another._

  Powdered charcoal,      1 table-spoonful.

To be given in thoroughwort tea, to which may be added a very small
portion of ginger.

_Another, adapted to City Use._

  Subcarbonate of soda,        1 tea-spoonful.
  Tincture of gentian,         1 ounce.
  Infusion of spearmint,       1 pint.

Mix. Give a cow the whole at a dose, and repeat daily, for a short time,
if necessary. One half the quantity will suffice for a smaller animal.

_Drink for Coughs._

  Balm of Gilead buds,        half an ounce.
  Honey,                      2 table-spoonfuls.
  Vinegar,                    1 wine-glassful.
  Water,                      1 pint.

Set the mixture on the fire, in an earthen vessel; let it simmer a few
minutes. When cool, strain, and it is fit for use. Dose, a
wine-glassful, twice a day.

_Another._

  Balsam copaiba,        1 ounce.
  Powdered licorice,     1 ounce.
  Honey,                 2 table-spoonfuls.
  Boiling water,         1 quart.

Rub the copaiba, licorice, and honey together in a mortar: after they
are well mixed, add the water. Dose, half a pint, night and morning.

_Another._

  Balsam of Tolu,                 half an ounce.
  Powdered marshmallow roots,     1 ounce.
  Honey,                          half a gill.
  Boiling water,                  2 quarts.

Min. Dose, half a pint, night and morning.

_Drink for a Cow after Calving._

  Bethwort,         1 ounce.
  Marshmallows,     1 ounce.

First make an infusion of bethwort by simmering it in a quart of water.
When cool, strain, and stir in the mallows. Dose, half a pint, every two
hours.



VETERINARY MATERIA MEDICA,

EMBRACING A LIST OF THE VARIOUS REMEDIES USED BY THE AUTHOR OF THIS WORK
IN THE PRACTICE OF MEDICINE ON CATTLE, SHEEP, AND SWINE.


ACACIA, CATECHU, or JAPAN EARTH. It is a
powerful astringent and tonic, and given, in half tea-spoonful doses, in
mucilage of slippery elm or mallows, is a valuable remedy in
diarrhoea, or excessive discharges of urine.

ACACIA GUM makes a good mucilage, and is highly recommended in
diseases of the mucous surfaces and urinary organs. It is highly
nutritious, and consequently can be given with advantage in locked-jaw.

ACETUM, (vinegar.) This is cooling, and a small portion of it,
with an equal quantity of honey, administered in thin gruel, makes an
excellent drink in fevers. Diluted with an equal quantity of water, it
is employed externally in bruises and sprains. It neutralizes
pestilential effluvia, and, combined with capsicum, makes a good
application for sore throat.

ACID, PYROLIGNEOUS. This is one of the most valuable articles
in the whole _materia medica_. Diluted with equal parts of water, it is
applied to ill-conditioned sores and ulcers; it acts as an antiseptic
and stimulant. It is obtained from wood by destructive distillation in
close vessels. This acid is advantageously applicable to the
preservation of animal food. Mr. William Ramsay (_Edinburgh
Philosophical Journal_, iii. 21) has made some interesting experiments
on its use for this purpose. Herrings and other fish, simply dipped in
the acid and afterwards dried in the shade, were effectually preserved,
and, when eaten, were found very agreeable to the taste. Herrings
slightly cured with salt, by being sprinkled with it for six hours, then
drained, next immersed in pyroligneous acid for a few seconds, and
afterwards dried in the shade for two months, were found by Mr. Ramsay
to be of fine quality and flavor. Fresh beef, dipped in the acid, in
the summer season, for the short space of a minute, was perfectly sweet
in the following spring. Professor Silliman states, that one quart of
the acid added to the common pickle for a barrel of hams, at the time
they are laid down, will impart to them the smoked flavor as perfectly
as if they had undergone the common process of smoking.

ALDER BARK, BLACK, (_prinos verticillatus_.) A strong decoction
makes an excellent wash for diseases of the skin, in all classes of
domestic animals.

ALLIUM, (garlic.) This is used chiefly as an antispasmodic. It
improves all the secretions, and promotes the function of the skin and
kidneys. It is useful also to expel wind and worms. A few kernels may be
chopped fine and mixed with the food. When used for the purpose of
expelling worms, an ounce of the root should be boiled in a pint of
milk, and given in the morning, about an hour before feeding.

ALOES. The best kind is brought from the Island of Socotra, and
is supposed to be more safe in its operation than the other kinds. In
consequence of the irritative properties of aloes, they are ill adapted
to cattle practice; and as a safer article has been recommended, (see
_Physic for Cattle_,) we have entirely dispensed with them.

ALTHEA, (marshmallows.) See _Remarks on Poultices_.

ALUM. It possesses powerful astringent properties, and, when
burnt and pulverized, is useful to remove proud flesh.

AMMONIACUM. Gum ammoniacum is useful for chronic coughs. The
dose is two drachms daily, in a quart of gruel.

ANISEED. A good carminative in flatulent colic. The dose is
about one ounce, infused in a quart of boiling water.

ANTHEMIS, (camomile.) It is used as a tonic in derangement of
the digestive organs, &c. An ounce of the flowers may be infused in a
quart of water, and given when cool. It is useful also as an external
application in bruises and sprains.

ASH BARK, WHITE. This is a useful remedy in loss of cud,
caused by disease of the liver. Dose, one ounce of the bark, infused in
boiling water. When cool, pour off the clear liquor.

ASSAFOETIDA. This article is used as an antispasmodic. The
dose is from one to two drachms, administered in thin gruel.

BALM, LEMON. See _Fever Drink_.

BALM OF GILEAD BUDS. One ounce of the buds, after being infused
in boiling water and strained, makes a good drink for chronic coughs.

BALMONY. A good tonic and vermifuge.

BALSAM, CANADA, is a diuretic, and may be given in slippery
elm, in doses of one table-spoonful for diseases of the kidneys.

BALSAM OF COPAIBA, or CAPIVI, is useful in all
diseases of the urinary organs, and, combined with powdered marshmallows
and water, makes a good cough drink. Dose, half an ounce.

BALEAM OF TOLU. Used for the same purpose as the preceding.

BARLEY. Barley water, sweetened with honey, is a useful drink
in fevers.

BAYBERRY BARK. We have frequently prescribed this article in the
preceding pages as an antiseptic and astringent for scouring and
dysentery.

BEARBERRY, (_uva ursi_.) This is a popular diuretic, and is
useful when combined with marshmallows. When the urine is thick and
deficient in quantity, or voided with difficulty, it may be given in the
following form:--

  Powdered bearberry,        1 ounce.
      "    marshmallows,     2 ounces.
  Indian meal,               2 pounds.

Mix. Dose, half a pound daily, in the cow's feed.

BITTER ROOT, (_apocynum androsæmifolium_.) Given in doses of
half an ounce of the powdered bark, it acts as an aperient, and is good
wherever an aperient is indicated.

BLACKBERRY ROOT, (_rubus trivialis_.) A valuable remedy for
scours in sheep.

BLACK ROOT, (_leptandra virginica_.) The extract is used as
physic, instead of aloes. (See _Physic for Cattle_.) A strong decoction
of the fresh roots will generally act as a cathartic on all classes of
animals.

BLOODROOT, (_sanguinaria canadensis_.) It is used in our
practice as an escharotic. It acts on fungous excrescences, and is a
good substitute for nitrate of silver in the dispersion of all morbid
growth. One ounce of the powder, infused in boiling vinegar, is a
valuable application for rot and mange.

BLUE FLAG, (_iris versicolor_.) The powdered root is a good
vermifuge.

BONESET, (_eupatorium perfoliatum_.) This is a valuable
domestic remedy. Its properties are too well known to the farming
community to need any description.

BORAX. This is a valuable remedy for eruptive diseases of the
tongue and mouth. Powdered and dissolved in water, it forms an
astringent, antiseptic wash. The usual form of prescription, in
veterinary practice, is,--

  Powdered borax,      half an ounce.
  Honey,               2 ounces.

Mix.

BUCKTHORN, (_rhamnus catharticus_.) A sirup made from this
plant is a valuable aperient in cattle practice. The dose is from half
an ounce to two ounces.

BURDOCK, (_arctium lappa_.) The leaves, steeped in vinegar,
make a good application for sore throat and enlarged glands. The seeds
are good to purify the blood, and may be given in the fodder.

BUTTERNUT BARK, (_juglans cinerea_.) Extract of butternut makes
a good cathartic, in doses of half an ounce. It is much safer than any
known cathartic, and, given in doses of two drachms, in hot water,
combined with a small quantity of ginger, it forms a useful aperient and
alterative. In a constipated habit, attended with loss of cud, it is
invaluable. During the American revolution, when medicines were scarce,
this article was brought into use by the physicians, and was esteemed by
them an excellent substitute for the ordinary cathartics.

CALAMUS, (_acorus calamus_.) A valuable remedy for loss of cud.

CAMOMILE. See _Anthemis_.

CANELLA BARK is an aromatic stimulant, and forms a good
stomachic.

CAPSICUM. A pure stimulant. Useful in impaired digestion.

CARAWAY SEED, (_carum carui_.) A pleasant carminative for
colic.

CARDAMOM SEEDS. Used for the same purpose as the preceding.

CASSIA BARK, (_laurus cinnamomum_.) Used as a diffusible
stimulant in flatulency.

CATECHU, (see ACACIA.)

CATNIP, (_nepeta cataria_.) An antispasmodic in colic.

CEDAR BUDS. An infusion of the buds makes a good vermifuge for
sheep and pigs.

CHARCOAL. This is a valuable remedy as an antiseptic for foul
ulcers, foot rot, &c.

CLEAVERS, (_galium aparine_.) The expressed juice of the herb
acts on the skin and kidneys, increasing their secretions. One
tea-spoonful of the juice, given night and morning in a thin mucilage of
poplar bark, is an excellent remedy for dropsy, and diseases of the
urinary organs. An infusion of the herb, made by steeping one ounce of
the leaves and seeds in a quart of boiling water, may be substituted for
the expressed juice.

COHOSH, BLACK, (_macrotrys racemosa_.) Useful in dropsy.

COLTSFOOT, (_tussilago farfara_.) An excellent remedy for
cough.

CRANESBILL, (_geranium maculatum_.) Useful in scours,
dysentery, and diarrhoea.

DILL SEED, (_anethum graveolens_.) Its properties are the same
as caraways.

DOCK, YELLOW, (_rumex crispus_.) Good for diseases of the liver
and of the skin.

ELECAMPANE, (_inula helenium_.) An excellent remedy for cough
and asthma, and diseases of the skin.

ELDER FLOWERS, (_sambucus canadensis_.) Used as an aperient for
sheep, in constipation.

ELM BARK, (_ulmus fulva_.) This makes a good mucilage. See
Poultices.

ESSENCE OF PEPPERMINT. Used for flatulent colic. One ounce is
the usual dose for a cow. To be given in warm water.

FENNEL SEED. Useful to expel wind.

FERN, MALE, (_aspidium felix mas_.) Used as a remedy for worms.

FLAXSEED. A good lubricant, in cold and catarrh, and in
diseases of the mucous surfaces. It makes a good poultice.

FLOWER OF SULPHUR. This is used extensively, in veterinary
practice, for diseases of the skin. It is a mild laxative.

FUMIGATIONS. For foul barns and stables, take of

  Common salt,         4 ounces.
  Manganese,           1 ounce and a half.

Let these be well mixed, and placed in a shallow earthen vessel; then
pour on the mixture, gradually, sulphuric acid, four ounces. The
inhalation of the gas which arises from this mixture is highly
injurious; therefore, as soon as the acid is poured on, all persons
should leave the building, which should immediately be shut, and not
opened again for several hours. Dr. White, V. S., says, "This is the
only efficacious _fumigation_, it having been found that when glanderous
or infectious matter is exposed to it a short time, it is rendered
perfectly harmless."

GALBANUM. This gum is used for similar purposes as gum ammoniac
and assafoetida.

GALLS. They contain a large amount of tannin, and are
powerfully astringent. A strong decoction is useful to arrest
hemorrhage.

GARLIC. See _Allium_.

GENTIAN. This is a good tonic, and is often employed to remove
weakness of the stomach and indigestion.

GINGER. A pure stimulant. Ginger tea is a useful remedy for
removing colic and flatulency, and is safer and better adapted to the
animal economy, where stimulants are indicated, than alcoholic
preparations.

GINSENG, (_panax quinquefolium_.) It possesses tonic and
stimulant properties.

GOLDEN SEAL, (_hydrastis canadensis_.) A good tonic, laxative,
and alterative.

GOLDTHREAD, (_coptis trifolia_.) A strong infusion of this herb
makes a valuable application for eruptions and ulcerations of the mouth.
We use it in the following form:--

  Goldthread,            1 ounce.
  Boiling water,         1 pint.

Set the mixture aside to cool; then strain, and add a table-spoonful of
honey, and bathe the parts twice a day.

GRAINS OF PARADISE. A warming, diffusible stimulant.

HARDHACK, (_spiræa tomentosa_.) Its properties are astringent
and tonic. We have used it in cases of "scours" with great success. It
is better adapted to cattle practice in the form of extract, which is
prepared by evaporating the leaves, stems, or roots. The dose is from
one scruple to a drachm for a cow, and from ten grains to one scruple
and a half for a sheep, which may be given twice a day, in any bland
liquid.

HONEY, (_mel_.) Honey is laxative, stimulant, and nutritious.
With vinegar, squills, or garlic, it forms a good cough mixture.
Combined with tonics, it forms a valuable gargle, and a detergent for
old sores and foul ulcers.

HOPS, (_humulus_.) An infusion of hops is highly recommended in
derangement of the nervous system, and for allaying spasmodic twitchings
of the extremities. One ounce of the article may be infused in a quart
of boiling water, strained, and sweetened with honey, and given, in half
pint doses, every four hours. They are used as an external application,
in the form of fomentation, for bruises, &c.

HOREHOUND, (_marrubium_.) This is a valuable remedy for catarrh
and chronic affections of the lungs. It is generally used, in the
author's practice, in the following form: An infusion is made in the
proportion of an ounce of the herb to a quart of boiling water. A small
quantity of powdered marshmallows is then stirred in, to make it of the
consistence of thin gruel. The dose is half a pint, night and morning.
For sheep and pigs half the quantity will suffice.

HORSEMINT, (_monarda punctata_.) Like other mints, it is
antispasmodic and carminative. Useful in flatulent colic.

HORSERADISH. The root scraped and fed to animals laboring under
loss of cud, from chronic disease of the digestive organs, and general
debility, is generally attended with beneficial results. If beaten into
paste with an equal quantity of powdered bloodroot, it makes a valuable
application for foul ulcers.

HYSSOP, (_hyssopus officinalis_.) Hyssop tea, sweetened with
honey, is useful to promote perspiration in colds and catarrh.

INDIAN HEMP, (_apocynum cannabinum_.) An infusion of this herb
acts as an aperient, and promotes the secretions. It may be prepared by
infusing an ounce of the powdered or bruised root in a quart of boiling
water, which must be placed in a warm situation for a few hours: it
should then be strained, and given in half pint doses, at intervals of
six hours. A gill of this mixture will sometimes purge a sheep.

INDIGO, WILD, (_baptisia tinctoria_.) We have made some
experiments with the inner portion of the bark of this plant, and find
it to be very efficacious in the cure of eruptive diseases of the mouth
and tongue, lampas, and inflamed gums. A strong decoction (one ounce of
the bark boiled for a few minutes in a pint of water) makes a good wash
for old sores. A small quantity of powdered slippery elm, stirred into
the decoction while hot, makes a good emollient application to sore
teats and bruised udder.

JUNIPER BERRIES, (_juniperus_.) These are used in dropsical
affections, in conjunction with tonics; also in diseases of the urinary
organs.

KINO. This is a powerful astringent, and may be used in
diarrhoea, dysentery, and red water, after the inflammatory symptoms
have subsided. We occasionally use it in the following form for red
water and chronic dysentery:--

  Powdered kino,        20 grains.
  Thin flour gruel,     1 quart.

To be given at a dose, and repeated night and morning, as occasion
requires.

LADY'S SLIPPER, (_cypripedium pubescens_.) This is a valuable
nervine and antispasmodic, and has been used with great success, in my
practice, for allaying nervous irritability. It is a good substitute for
opium. It is, however, destitute of all the poisonous properties of the
latter. Dose for a cow, half a table-spoonful of the powder, night and
morning; to be given in bland fluid.

LICORICE. Used principally to alleviate coughs. The following
makes an excellent cough remedy:--

  Powdered licorice,     1 ounce.
  Balsam of Tolu,        1 tea-spoonful.
  Boiling water,         1 quart.

To be given at a dose.

LILY ROOT, (_nymphæa odorata_.) Used principally for poultices.

LIME WATER. This article is used in diarrhoea, and when the
discharge of urine is excessive. Being an antacid, it is very usefully
employed when cattle are hoven or blown. It is unsafe to administer
alone, as it often deranges the digestive organs: it is therefore very
properly combined with tonics. The following will serve as an example:--

  Lime water,                           2 ounces.
  Infusion of snakehead, (balmony,)     2 quarts.

Dose, a quart, night and morning.

LOBELIA, (herb,) (_lobelia inflata_.) This is an excellent
antispasmodic. It is used in the form of poultice for locked-jaw, and as
a relaxant in rigidity of the muscular structure.

MANDRAKE, (_podophyllum peltatum_.) Used as physic for cattle,
(which see.)

MARSHMALLOWS. See _Althea_

MEADOW CABBAGE ROOT, (_ictodes foetida_.) This plant is used
as an antispasmodic in asthma and chronic cough. Dose, a tea-spoonful of
the powder, night and morning; to be given in mucilage of slippery elm.

MOTHERWORT, (_leonurus cardiaca_.) A tea of this herb is
valuable in protracted labor.

MULLEIN, (_verbascum_.) The leaves steeped in vinegar make a
good application for sore throat.

MYRRH. The only use we make of this article, in cattle
practice, is to prepare a tincture for wounds, as follows:--

  Powdered myrrh,     2 ounces.
  Proof spirit,       1 pint.

Set it aside in a close-covered vessel for two weeks, then strain
through a fine sieve, and it is fit for use.

OAK BARK, (_quercus alba_.) A decoction of oak bark is a good
astringent, and may be given internally, and also applied externally in
falling of the womb or fundament.

OINTMENTS. We have long since discontinued the use of
ointments, from a conviction that they do not agree with the flesh of
cattle. Marshmallows, or tincture of myrrh, will heal a wound much
quicker than any greasy preparation. We have, however, often applied
fresh marshmallow ointment to chapped teats, and chafed udder, with
decided advantage. It is made as follows: Take of white wax, mutton
tallow, and linseed oil, each a pound; marshmallow leaves, two ounces.
First melt the wax and tallow, then add the oil, lastly a handful of
mallows. Simmer over a slow fire until the leaves are crisp, then strain
through a piece of flannel, and stir the mixture until cool.

OLEUM LINI, (flaxseed oil.) This is a useful aperient and
laxative in cattle practice, and may be given in all cases of
constipation, provided, however, it is not accompanied with chronic
indigestion: if such be the case, a diffusible stimulant, combined with
a bitter tonic, (golden seal,) aided by an injection, will probably do
more good, as they will arouse the digestive function. The above
aperient may then be ventured on with safety. The dose for a cow is one
pint.

OLIVE OIL. This is a useful aperient for sheep. The dose is
from half a gill to a gill.

OPODELDOC. The different preparations of this article are used
for strains and bruises, after the inflammatory action has somewhat
subsided.

_Liquid Opodeldoc._

  Soft soap,           6 ounces.
  New England rum,     1 pint and a half.
  Vinegar,             half a pint.
  Oil of lavender,     2 ounces.

The oil of lavender should first be dissolved in an equal quantity of
alcohol, and then added to the mixture.

PENNYROYAL, (_hedeoma_.) This plant, administered in warm
infusion, promotes perspiration, and is good in flatulent colic.

PEPPERMINT, (_mentha piperita_.) An ounce of the herb infused
in a quart of boiling water relieved spasmodic pains of the stomach and
bowels, and is a good carminative, (to expel wind,) provided the
alimentary canal is free from obstruction.

PLANTAIN LEAVES, (_plantago major_.) This article is held in
high repute for the cure of hydrophobia and bites from poisonous
reptiles. The bruised leaves are applied to the parts; the powdered herb
and roots to be given internally at discretion.

PLEURISY ROOT, (_asclepias tuberosa_.) We have given this
article a fair trial in cattle practice, and find it to be invaluable in
the treatment of catarrh, bronchitis, pleurisy, pneumonia, and
consumption. The form in which we generally prescribe it is,--

  Powdered pleurisy root,         half a table-spoonful.
      "    marshmallow roots,     1 ounce.

Boiling water sufficient to make a thin mucilage. The addition of a
small quantity of honey increases its diaphoretic properties.

POMEGRANATE, (_punica granatum_.) The rind of this article is a
powerful astringent, and is occasionally used to expel worms. A strong
decoction makes a useful wash for falling of the womb, or fundament.
Given as an infusion, in the proportion of half an ounce of the rind to
a quart of water, it will arrest diarrhoea.

POPLAR, (_populus tremuloides_.) It possesses tonic, demulcent,
and alterative properties. It is often employed, in our practice, as a
local application, in the form of poultice. The infusion is a valuable
remedy in general debility, and in cases of diseased urinary organs.

PRINCE'S PINE, (_chimaphila_.) This plant is a valuable remedy
in dropsy. It possesses diuretic and tonic properties. It does not
produce the same prostration that usually attends the administration of
diuretics, for its tonic property invigorates the kidneys, while, at the
same time, it increases the secretion of urine. The best way of
administering it is by decoction. It is made by boiling four ounces of
the fresh-bruised leaves in two quarts of water. After straining, a
table-spoonful of powdered marshmallows may be added, to be given in
pint doses, night and morning.

PYROLIGNEOUS ACID. See _Acid_.

RASPBERRY LEAVES, (_rubus strigosus_.) An infusion of this
plant may be employed with great advantage in cases of diarrhoea.

ROMAN WORMWOOD, (_ambrosia artemisifolia_.) This plant is a
very bitter tonic, and vermifuge. An infusion may be advantageously
given in cases of general debility and loss of cud. A strong decoction
may be given to sheep and pigs that are infested with worms. If given
early in the morning, and before the animals are fed, it will generally
have the desired effect.

ROSE, RED, (_rosa gallica_.) We have occasionally used the
infusion, and find it of great value as a wash for chronic ophthalmia.
The infusion is made by pouring a pint of boiling water on a quarter of
an ounce of the flowers. It is then strained through fine linen, when it
is fit for use.

SASSAFRAS, (_laurus sassafras_.) The bark of sassafras root is
stimulant, and possesses alterative properties. We have used it
extensively, in connection with sulphur, for eruptive diseases, and for
measles in swine, in the following proportions:--

  Powdered sassafras,     1 ounce.
      "    sulphur,       half a table-spoonful.

Mix, and divide into four parts, one of which may be given, night and
morning, in a hot mash.

The pith of sassafras makes a valuable soothing and mucilaginous wash
for inflamed eyes.

SENNA A safe and efficient aperient for cattle may be made by
infusing an ounce of senna in a quart of boiling water. When cool,
strain, then add, manna one ounce, powdered golden seal one
tea-spoonful. The whole to be given at a dose.

SKULLCAP, (_scutellaria lateriflora_.) This is an excellent
nervine and antispasmodic. It is admirably adapted to the treatment of
locked-jaw, and derangement of the nervous system. An ounce of the
leaves may be infused in two quarts of boiling water. After straining, a
little honey may be added, and then administered, in pint doses, every
four hours.

SNAKEROOT, VIRGINIA, (_aristolochia serpentaria_.) This
article, given by infusion in the proportion of half an ounce of the
root to a pint of water, acts as a stimulant and alterative. It is
admirably adapted to the treatment of chronic indigestion.

SOAP. This article acts on all classes of animals, as a
laxative and antacid. It is useful in obstinate constipation of the
bowels, in diseases of the liver, and for softening hardened excrement
in the rectum. By combining castile soap with butternut, blackroot,
golden seal, or balmony, a good aperient is produced, which will
generally operate on the bowels in a few hours.

SQUILL, (_scilla maritima_.) A tea-spoonful of the dried root,
given in a thin mucilage of marshmallows, is an excellent remedy for
cough, depending on an irritability of the lungs and mucous surfaces.

SULPHUR. This is one of the most valuable articles in the
veterinary _materia medica_. It possesses laxative, diaphoretic and
alterative properties, and is extensively employed, both internally and
externally, for diseases of the skin. The dose for a cow is a
tea-spoonful daily. Its alterative effect may be increased by combining
it with sassafras, (which see.)

SUNFLOWER, WILD, (_helianthus divaricatus_.) The seeds of this
plant, when bruised and given it any bland fluid, act as a diuretic and
antispasmodic. Half a table-spoonful of the seeds may be given at a
dose, and repeated as occasion requires.

TOLU, BALSAM OF. This balsam is procured by making incisions
into the trunk of a tree which flourishes in Tolu and Peru. It has a
peculiar tendency to the mucous surfaces, and therefore is very properly
prescribed for epizoötic diseases of catarrhal nature. The dose is half
a table-spoonful every night, to be administered in a mucilage of
marshmallows. One half the quantity is sufficient for a sheep.

VINEGAR. See _Acetum_.

WITCH HAZEL BARK, (_hamamelis virginica_.) A decoction of this
bark is a valuable application for falling of the fundament, or womb.
Being a good astringent, an infusion of the leaves is good for scouring
in sheep.

WORMSEED, (_chenopodium anthelminticum_.) A tea-spoonful of the
powdered seeds, given in a tea of snakeroot, is a good vermifuge: it
will, however, require repeated doses, and they should be given at least
an hour before the morning meal.



GENERAL REMARKS ON MEDICINES.


Here, reader, is our _materia medica_; wherein you will find a number of
harmless, yet efficient agents, that will, in the treatment of disease,
fulfil any and every indication to your entire satisfaction. They act
efficiently in the restoration of the diseased system to a healthy
state, without producing the slightest injury to the animal economy. The
Almighty has furnished us, if we did but know it, a healing balm for
every malady to which man and the lower animals are subject. Yet how
many of these precious gifts are disregarded for the more popular ones
of the chemist! Dr. Brown, professor of botany in the Ohio College,
says, "Of the twenty or more thousand species of plants recognized and
described by botanists, probably not more than one thousand have ever
been used in the art of healing; and not more than one fourth of that
number even have a place in our _materia medica_ at present. The
glorious results, however, attending the researches of those who have
preceded us, should inspire us with that confidence and spirit of
investigation which will ultimately result in the selection,
preparation, and systematic arrangement, of a full, convenient, and
efficient _materia medica_." Unfortunately, the medical fraternity, as
well as the farmers, have been accustomed to judge of the power of the
remedy by its effects, and not in proportion to its ultimate good. Thus,
if a pound of salts be given to a cow, and they produce liquid
stools,--in short, "operate well,"--they are styled a good medicine,
although they leave the mucous surface of the alimentary canal in a
weak, debilitated state, and otherwise impair the health; yet this is a
secondary consideration. For, if the symptoms of the present malady, for
which the salts were given, shall disappear, nothing is thought of the
after consequences. The cow may be constipated for several succeeding
days, and finally refuse her food; but who suspects that the salts were
the cause of it? Who believes that the abstraction of ninety ounces of
blood cut short the life of our beloved Washington? We do, and so do
others. We are told, in reference to the treatment of a given case, that
"the patient will grow worse before he can get better." What makes him
worse? The medicine, surely, and nothing else. Now, if ever symptoms are
altered, they should be for the better; and if the medicines recommended
in this work (provided, however, they are given with ordinary prudence)
ever make an animal worse, then we beg of the reader to avoid them as he
would a pest-house. This is not all. If any article in this _materia
medica_, when given, in the manner we recommend, to an animal in perfect
health, shall operate so as to derange such animal's health,--in short,
act pathologically,--then it does not deserve a place here, and should
not be depended on. But such will not be the result. We recommend
farmers to select and preserve a few of these herbs for family use; for
they are efficient in the cure of many diseases. And as the services of
a physician are not always to be had in small country towns, a little
experience in the use and application of simple articles to various
diseases seems to be absolutely necessary. It was by the aid of a few of
these and similar simple remedies, that we were enabled to preserve the
health of the passengers of that ill-fated ship, the Anglo-Saxon. The
following testimony has never, until the present time, been made public,
and we would not now make use of it, were it not that we wish to show
that there are men, and women too, that can appreciate our labors:--

     "The undersigned, passengers in the Anglo-Saxon from Boston,
     feeling it a duty they owe to Dr. G. H. Dadd, surgeon of the ship,
     would here bear testimony to the valuable medical services and
     advice rendered by him to us, whilst on shipboard; believing his
     attendance has been conducive of the greatest benefit; at times
     almost indispensable, not only during the short passage, but also
     through the trying period subsequent to the wreck through all of
     which, the coolness and devotion to the best interests of his
     employers and of the passengers, exhibited by him, deserve at our
     hands the highest terms of commendation.

        ROBERT EARLE,
        S. C. AMES,
        BENJAMIN CHAMPNEY,
        LEWIS JONES,
        HAMILTON G. WILD,
        W. A. BARNES,
        GIDEON D. SCULL,
        W. ALLAN GAY,
        ISAAC JENKINS,
        PRESCOTT BIGELOW,
        A. M. EARLE,
        ROSALIE PELBY,
        OPHELIA ANDERSON,
        HELEN C. DOVE,
        ELEANOR TERESA MCHUGH,
        JOHN HILLS,
        FRANCES BLENKAM,
        HARRIET PHILLIPS,
        LOUISA A. BIGELOW,

     EASTPORT, May 9, 1847."

Notwithstanding this disaster, Enoch Train, Esq., of Boston, with a
liberality which does him credit, appointed us surgeon of the ship Mary
Ann, commanded by Captain Albert Brown; thus giving us a second
opportunity of proving what we had asserted, viz., _that the emigrants
might be brought to the United States in better condition, and with less
deaths, than had heretofore been done_. It must be remembered that about
this time the typhus, or ship fever, was making sad havoc amongst all
classes of men, and many talented professional men fell victims to the
dire malady. We left Liverpool at a sickly season, having on board two
hundred persons, and were fortunate enough to land them in this city,
all in good health. Several ships which sailed at the same time, bound
also to different ports in the United States, lost, on the passage, from
ten to twenty persons, although each ship was furnished with a medical
attendant. Here, then, is a proof that our agents cure while others
fail.



PROPERTIES OF PLANTS.


Professor Curtis tells us that "herbs, during their growth, preserve
their medicinal properties, commencing at the root, and continuing
upward, through the stem and leaves, to the flowers and seeds, until
fully grown. When the root begins to die, the properties ascend from it
towards the seed, where, at last, they are the strongest. Even the
virtues of the leaves, after they get their full growth, often go into
the seed, which will not be so well developed if the leaves are plucked
off early; as corn fills and ripens best when the leaves are left on the
stalks till they die. In the annual and biennial plants, the root is
worthless after the seed is ripe, and the stem also is of very little
value; what virtue there is residing in the bark and leaves also lose
their properties as fast as they lose their freshness. All leaves and
stems that have lost their color, or become shrivelled, while the roots
are in the earth, have lost much of their medicinal power, and should be
rejected from medicine." Seeds and fruit should be gathered when ripe or
fully matured.

Flowers should be gathered just at the time they come into bloom.

Leaves should be gathered when they have arrived at their full growth,
are green, and full of the juices of the plant. Barks should be gathered
as early in the spring as they will peel.

Roots should be gathered in the fall, after they have perfectly matured,
or early in the spring, before they commence germinating and growing.



POTATO.


Boiled potatoes, mixed up with steamed cornstalks, shorts, &c., make an
excellent compound for fattening cattle; yet, at the present time, they
are too expensive for general use. We hope, however, that ere long our
farmers will take hold of this subject in good earnest,--we allude to
the causes of potato rot,--and restore this valuable article of food to
its original worth. A few remarks on this subject seem to be called for.


_Remarks on the Potato Rot._

Where are the fine, mealy, substantial "apples of the earth" gone?--and
Echo answers, "Where?" They are not to be found at the present day. The
farmers have suffered great losses, in some instances by a partial, and
in others by a total, failure of their crops. Numberless experiments
have been tried to prevent this great national calamity, yet they have
all proved abortive, for the simple reason that we have been only
treating the symptoms, while the disease has taken a firmer hold, and
hurried our subjects to a premature decay. Different theories have been
suggested with a view of explaining the causes of the potato rot, none
of which are satisfactory. We have the "fungous theory," "insect
theory," "moisture theory," "theory of _degeneration_," and "the
chemical theory of defective elements." In relation to the "fungous
theory" we observe that fungi inhabit decaying organic bodies. They are
considered to be a common pest to all kinds of plants, like parasites,
living at the expense of those plants. We do not expect to find fungi in
good healthy vegetables, at least while they possess a high grade of
vital action. It is only when morbid deposits and chemical agencies
overcome the integrity or vital affinity of the vegetable that fungous
growth commences.

In the fungous development, the living parts of the vegetable are not
always destroyed; yet these fungi obstruct vital action by their
deposits or accumulations; hence the small vessels that lead from centre
to surface are partly paralyzed, and the power peculiar to all
vegetables of throwing off useless or excrementitious matter is
intercepted. This is not all. The process of imperceptible elimination,
which might restore the balance of power in any thing like a vigorous
plant, is thus impaired.

Now, it is evident that the fungi are not the cause of the potato rot;
they are only the mere effects, the symptoms: preceding these were other
manifestations of disorder, and these manifestations, in their different
grades, might with equal propriety be charged as causes of the potato
rot. The deterioration of the potato has been going on in a gradual
manner for a long time. A mild form of disease has existed for a number
of years, making such imperceptible change that it has escaped the
observation of many until late years, when the article became so
unpalatable that our attention has been called to it in good earnest;
and by the aid of the microscope we have discovered the fungi. Has this
discovery benefited the agriculturist? Not a particle.

The theory of degeneration, without doubt, will assist us to explain the
why and wherefore of the potato rot. But this is not all; the community
want to know the cause of this degeneracy. We have spent some time in
the investigation of this subject, and now give the public, in a
condensed form, our opinion of this matter. We may err, but our progress
is towards the full discovery of the _direct cause_, and the ways and
means best adapted to prevent this sad calamity. The potato came into
existence at a certain period in the history of the world. After its
discovery, it was taken from the mother soil, the land of its nativity,
planted in different parts of the world, and grew to apparent
perfection. Our opinion is, that the transplanting was one of the causes
of this degeneracy. It is generally known that indigenous plants do not
thrive so well on foreign soil as in their native; for example, the
plants of the sunny south cannot be made to flourish here in the same
degree of perfection as at the south; they require the genial warmth of
the sun's rays, which our northern climates lack. The soil, too, mast be
adapted to each particular plant. It is true we do cultivate them by
ingenuity and chemical agency; yet they seldom equal the original. Need
we ask the farmer if he can, from the soil of New England, produce a St.
Michael orange equal to one grown on its native soil? or if a squash
will grow in the deserts of Arabia? All vegetables, as well as animals,
possess a certain amount of vital power, which enables them to resist,
to a certain degree, all encroachments on their healthy operations. The
potato, having been deprived, in some measure, of its essential element,
lost its reciprocal equilibrium, and has ever since been a prey to
whatever destructive agents may be present, whether they exist in the
soil or atmosphere. Yet we conceive that its total destruction is
dependent on another cause, which has been entirely overlooked; for, in
spite of the gradual deterioration alluded to, the potato will, for a
number of years, continue to keep up a low form of vitality, and result
in something like a potato. In order to comprehend the subject, let us,
for a moment, consider the conditions necessary for the germination and
perfection of vegetable bodies. We shall then be able to decide as to
whether or not we have complied with such conditions. The first
condition is, we must have _a perfect germ_; secondly, _a ripe seed_;
and lastly, _nutrimental agents in the sail, composed of carbon,
hydrogen, and oxygen_.

The potato requires but a small quantity of moisture to develop the
germinating principle; for we have every day evidences of its ability to
send forth its fibres, even in the open air. Now, the premature
development of these fibrous radicles, or roots, debilitates the tuber;
in short, we have a sick potato. Is the potato, under such
circumstances, a perfect germ? No. If you examine the potato, with its
roots and stem, you will find the cutis, or skin, and mucous membrane.
This external skin, _including that of plant, stalk, leaf, and ball_, is
to the potato what the skin and lungs are to animals; they, each of
them, absorb atmospheric food, and throw off excrementitious matter; the
roots and fibres are to the vegetable what the alimentary canal is to
the animal. A large portion of the food of vegetables is found in the
soil, and enters the vegetable system, through its capillary
circulation, by the process of imperceptible elimination and absorption.
Now, you must bear in mind that the fibres, stem, and leaves are
delicate and tender organs; they are studded with millions of little
pores, covered with a membrane of delicate texture, easily lacerated.
When these delicate organs are rudely torn off or lacerated, the potato
immediately gives evidence of the encroachments of disease; it shrinks,
withers, and, although the soil abounds in all that is necessary for its
growth and future development, it is not in a fit state to carry on the
chemico-vital process. We often take the potato from the soil with a
view of preserving it for seed, without any definite knowledge of the
exact time of its maturity; as the season arrives for again replanting,
the fibres are torn off, and the potato itself is often cut up into two
or three pieces; sometimes, however, the smaller potatoes are used for
seed. Both practices are open to strong objection. Oftentimes the cut
surfaces of the potato are exposed to atmospheric air; evaporation
commences, they lose their firm texture, and are more fit for swine than
for planting.

The cause of the total destruction may exist in a loss of polarity! We
know that all organic and inorganic bodies are subject to the laws of
electricity--each has its polarity. Men who are engaged in mining can
testify that the stratification of the earth is alternately negative and
positive. The hemispheres of the earth are also governed by the same
law; for, if you take a magnetic needle and toss it up in this
hemisphere, which is negative, the positive end will come to the ground
first; but if you pass the magnetic equator, which crosses the common
equator in 23° 28', and then toss the needle up, its negative end will
fall downwards. Hence we infer that the potato has a polarity, just as
man has; and this is the reason of their definite character. Take a
bean, and destroy its polarity by cutting it into several pieces, as you
do the potato, and all the men on earth cannot make it germinate and
grow to perfection. It will die just as a man will, if you destroy the
polarity of his brain by wounding it.

Take an egg, and destroy its polarity by making a small puncture through
it, and you can never get a chicken from it. A man or an animal will die
of locked-jaw, caused by a splinter entering the living organism; and
why? Because their electrical equilibrium, or their polarity is
destroyed. Some of our readers may desire to know how we can prove that
electricity plays a part in the germination and growth of animals and
vegetables. In verification of it, we will give a few examples. A dish
of salad may, by the aid of electricity, be raised in an hour. Hens'
eggs can be hatched by a similar process in a few hours, which would
require many days by animal heat. By the aid of electricity, water,
which consists of oxygen and hydrogen, may be decomposed, and its
elements set free. The poles of a galvanic battery may be applied to a
dead body, and that body made to imitate the functions of life.

And lastly, it is through the medium of electrical attraction which
bodies have for each other, that all the chemical compositions and
decompositions depend. Bodies must be in opposite states of electricity
in order to produce a result. Now, if the polarity of the potato is
destroyed in the manner we have just alluded to, or should it be
destroyed by coming in contact with the blade of a knife, _the latter
conducting off the electrical current_, or by any other means, it must
deteriorate. We are told that "the potato has several germinating
points, and that a part will grow just as well as the whole." Such
reasoning will not stand the test of common experience.

For example: the Almighty has endowed man with various faculties, and
the perfection of his organism depends on these faculties, as a whole.
Now, he may lose a leg, and yet be capable of performing the ordinary
duties of life; but this does not prove that he might not perform them
much better with both legs. So in reference to the potato. The fact of
its ability to reproduce its kind from a small portion of the whole--a
mere bud--should not satisfy us that a perfect germ is unnecessary. Then
the question arises, How shall we restore the original identity of this
valuable article of food?

We have, in the early part of this work, recommended the farmers to
study the laws of vegetable physiology. This will furnish them with the
right kind of information. We would, however, suggest to those who are
desirous of making experiments, to comply with the conditions already
alluded to, viz., plant a perfect germ, by which means the potato may be
improved. Yet, in order to restore its identity, we must commence by
germinating from the seed, and plant that on soil abounding in the
constituents necessary for its development. Elevated land abounding in
small stones, and hill sides facing the south, are the best situations.
Potatoes should never be cultivated on the same spot for two successive
years.

In relation to the insect theory, we would observe, that it throws no
light on the cause of the potato rot; for, in its gradual decay, that
vegetable undergoes various changes; the particles of which it is
composed assume new forms, and enter into new combinations; its
elementary substances are separated, giving birth to new compounds, some
of which result in an insect. We all know that animal and vegetable
bodies may remain in a state of putrefaction in water, and be dissolved
in the dust; yet some of their original atoms appear in a new system.
Hence the insect theory has no more to do with the cause of the potato
rot than the fungus.



TREATMENT OF DISEASE IN DOGS.

PRELIMINARY REMARKS.


A good watch dog is of inestimable value to the farmer; and as very
little is at present understood of the nature and treatment of their
maladies, we have thought that a few general directions would be
acceptable, not only to the farmer, but to every man who loves a dog. We
have paid considerable attention to the treatment of disease in this
class of animals, and have generally found that must of their maladies
will yield very readily to our sanative agents. Most of the remedies
recommended by _allopathic_ writers for dogs, like those recommended for
horses and cattle, would at any time destroy the animal; consequently,
if it ever recovers, it does so in spite of the violence done to the
constitution. We hope to rescue the dog, as well as other classes of
domestic animals, from a cruel system of medication; for this we labor,
and to this work our life is devoted. We ask the reader to take into
consideration the destructive nature of the articles used on these
faithful animals. Some of them are the most destructive poisons that can
be found in the whole world. For example, several authors recommend, in
the treatment of disease in the canine race, the following:--

_Tartar emetic_, a very few grains of which will kill a man--yet
recommended for dogs.

_Calomel_, a very fashionable remedy, used for producing ulcerated gums
and for rotting the teeth of thousands of the human family, as the
dentists can testify. Not fit for a dog, yet prescribed by most dog
fanciers.

_Lunar caustic_, recommended by Mr. Lawson for fits; to be given
internally with cobwebs!! Our opinion is, that it would be likely to
give any four-footed creature "_fits_" that took it.

Cowhage, corrosive sublimate, tin-filings, sugar of lead, white
precipitate, oil of turpentine, opium nitre--these, together with aloes,
jalap, tobacco, hellebore, and a very small proportion of sanative
agents, make up the list. In view of the great destruction that is
likely to attend the administration of these and kindred articles, we
have substituted others, which may be given with safety. Why should the
poor dog be compelled to swallow down such powerful and destructive
agents? He is entitled to better treatment, and we flatter ourselves
that wherever these pages shall be read, he will receive it. In
reference to the value of dogs, Mr. Lawson says, "Independent of his
beauty, vivacity, strength, and swiftness, he has the interior qualities
that must attract the attention and esteem of mankind. Intelligent,
humble, and sincere, the sole happiness of his life seems to be to
execute his master's commands. Obedient to his owner, and kind to all
his friends, to the rest he is indifferent. He knows a stranger by his
clothes, his voice, or his gestures, and generally forbids his approach
with marks of indignation. At night, when the guard of the house is
committed to his care, he seems proud of the charge; he continues a
watchful sentinel, goes his rounds, scents strangers at a distance, and
by barking gives them notice that he is on duty; if they attempt to
break in, he becomes fiercer, threatens, flies at them, and either
conquers alone, or alarms those who have more interest in coming to his
assistance. The flock and herd are even more obedient to the dog than to
the shepherd: he conducts them, guards them, and keeps them from
capriciously seeking danger; and their enemies he considers as his
own."



DISTEMPER.


_Symptoms._--If the animal is a watch dog, (such are usually confined in
the daytime,) the person who is in the daily habit of feeding him will
first observe a loss of appetite; the animal will appear dull and lazy;
shortly after, there is a watery discharge from the eyes and nose,
resembling that which accompanies catarrh. As the disease advances,
general debility supervenes, accompanied with a weakness of the hind
extremities. The secretions are morbid; for example, some are
constipated, and pass high-colored urine; others are suddenly attacked
with diarrhoea, scanty urine, and vomiting. Fits are not uncommon
during the progress of the disease.

_Treatment._--If the animal is supposed to have eaten any improper food,
we commence the treatment by giving an emetic.

_Emetic for Dogs._

  Powdered lobelia, (herb,)      1 tea-spoonful.
  Warm water,                    1 wine-glass.

Mix, and administer at a dose.

(A table-spoonful of common salt and water will generally vomit a dog.)

If this dose does not provoke emesis, it should not be repeated, for it
may act as a relaxant, and carry the morbid accumulations off by the
alimentary canal. If the bowels are constipated, use injections of
soap-suds. If the symptoms are complicated, the following medicine must
be prepared:--

  Powdered mandrake,          1 table-spoonful.
     "     sulphur,           1 tea-spoonful.
     "     charcoal,          2 tea-spoonfuls.
     "     marshmallows,      1 table-spoonful.

Mix. Divide the mass into six parts, and administer one in honey, night
and morning, for the first day; after which, a single powder, daily,
will suffice. The diet to consist of mush, together with a drink of thin
arrowroot. If, however, the animal be in a state of plethora, very
little food should be given him.

If the strength fails, support it with beef tea. Should a diarrhoea
attend the malady, give an occasional drink of hardhack tea.



FITS.


Dogs are subject to epileptic fits, which are often attended with
convulsions. They attack dogs of all ages, and under every variety of
management. Dogs that are apparently healthy are often suddenly
attacked. The nervous system of the dog is very susceptible to external
agents; hence whatever raises any strong passion in them often produces
fits. Pointers and setters have often been known to suffer an attack
during the excitement of the chase. Fear will also produce fits; and
bitches, while suckling, if burdened with a number of pups, and not
having a sufficiency of nutriment to support the lacteal secretion,
often die in convulsive fits. Young puppies, while teething, are subject
to fits: simply scarifying their gums will generally give temporary
relief. Lastly, fits may be hereditary, or they may be caused by
derangement of the stomach. In all cases of fits, it is very necessary,
in order to treat them with success, that we endeavor, as far as
possible, to ascertain the causes, and remove them as far as lies in our
power: this accomplished, the cure is much easier.

_Treatment._--Whenever the attack is sudden and violent, and the animal
is in good flesh, plunge him into a tub of warm water, and give an
injection of the same, to which a tea-spoonful of salt may be added. It
is very difficult, in fact improper, to give medicine during the fit;
but as soon as it is over, give

  Manna,            1 tea-spoonful.
  Common salt,      half a tea-spoonful.

Add a small quantity of water, and give it at a dose.

_Another._

Make an infusion of mullein leaves, and give to the amount of a
wine-glass every four hours. With a view of preventing a recurrence of
fits, keep the animal on a vegetable diet. If the bowels are
constipated, give thirty grains of extract of butternut, or, if that
cannot be readily procured, substitute an infusion of senna and manna,
to which a few caraways may be added.

If the nervous system is deranged, which may be known by the
irritability attending it, then give a tea-spoonful of the powdered
nervine, (lady's slipper.) The diet must consist of boiled articles, and
the animal must be allowed to take exercise.



WORMS.


Worms may proceed from various causes; but they are seldom found in
healthy dogs. One of the principal causes is debility in the digestive
organs.

_Indications of Cure._--To tone up the stomach and other organs,--by
which means the food is prevented from running into fermentation,--and
administer vermifuges. The following are good examples:--

  Oil of wormseed,              1 tea-spoonful.
  Powdered assafoetida,        30 grains.

To be given every morning, fasting. Two doses will generally suffice.

_Another._

  Powdered mandrake,                half a table-spoonful.
     "     Virginia snakeroot,      1 tea-spoonful.

Divide into four doses, and give one every night, in honey.

_Another._

Make an infusion of the sweet fern, (_comptonea asplenifolia_,) and give
an occasional drink, followed by an injection of the same.

_Another._

  Powdered golden seal,      half a table-spoonful.
  Common brown soap,         1 ounce.

Rub them well together in a mortar, and form the mass into pills about
the size of a hazel-nut, and give one every night.



MANGE.


This disease is too well known to need any description. The following
are deemed the best cures:--

_External Application for Mange._

  Powdered charcoal,     half a table-spoonful.
     "     sulphur,      1 ounce.
  Soft soap sufficient to form an ointment.

To be applied externally for three successive days; at the end of which
time, the animal is to be washed with castile soap and warm water, and
afterwards wiped dry.

The internal remedies consist of equal parts of sulphur and cream of
tartar, half a tea-spoonful of which may be given daily, in honey.

When the disease becomes obstinate, and large, scabby eruptions appear
on various parts of the body, take

  Pyroligneous acid,      2 ounces.
  Water,                  1 pint.

Wash the parts daily, and keep the animal on a light diet.



INTERNAL ABSCESS OF THE EAR.


In this complaint, the affected side is generally turned downwards, and
the dog is continually shaking his head.

_Treatment._--In the early stages, foment the part twice a day with an
infusion of marshmallows. As soon as the abscess breaks, wash with an
infusion of raspberry leaves, and if a watery discharge continues, wash
with an infusion of white oak bark.



ULCERATION OF THE EAR.


External ulcerations should be washed twice a day with

  Pyroligneous acid,      2 ounces.
  Water,                  8 ounces.

Mix.

As soon as the ulcerations assume a healthy appearance, touch them with
Turlington's balsam or tincture of gum catechu.



INFLAMMATION OF THE BOWELS.


Whenever inflammation of the bowels makes its appearance, it is a sure
sign that there is a loss of equilibrium in the circulation; and this
disturbance may arise from a collapse of the external surface, or from
irritation produced by hardened excrement on the mucous membrane of the
intestines. An attack is recognized by acute pain in the abdominal
region. The dog gives signs of suffering when moved, and the bowels are
generally constipated.

_Treatment._--Endeavor to equalize the circulation by putting the animal
into a warm bath, where he should remain about five minutes. When taken
out, the surface must be rubbed dry. Then give the following
injection:--

  Linseed oil,      4 ounces.
  Warm water,       1 gill.

Mix.

To allay the irritation of the bowels, give the following:--

  Powdered pleurisy root,         1 tea-spoonful.
     "     marshmallow root,      1 table-spoonful.

Mix, and divide into three parts; one to be given every four hours.

Should vomiting be a predominant symptom, a small quantity of saleratus,
dissolved in spearmint tea, may be given.

Should not this treatment give relief, make a fomentation of hops, and
apply it to the belly; and give half an ounce of manna. The only
articles of food and drink should consist of barley gruel and mush. If,
however, the dog betrays great heat, thirst, panting, and restlessness,
a small quantity of cream of tartar may be added to the barley gruel.
The bath and clysters may be repeated, if necessary.



INFLAMMATION OF THE BLADDER.


This requires the same treatment as the preceding malady.



ASTHMA.


Dogs that are shut up in damp cellars, and deprived of pure air and
exercise, are frequently attacked with asthma. Old dogs are more liable
to asthma than young ones.

_Treatment._--Endeavor to ascertain the cause, and remove it. Let the
animal take exercise in the open air. The diet to consist of cooked
vegetables; a small quantity of boiled meat may be allowed; raw meat
should not be given.

_Compound for Asthma._

  Powdered bloodroot,         }
     "     lobelia,           } of each, 1 tea-spoonful.
     "     marshmallows,      }
     "     licorice,          }

Mix. Divide into twelve parts, and give one night and morning. If they
produce retching, reduce the quantity of lobelia. The object is not to
vomit, but to induce a state of nausea or relaxation.



PILES.


Piles are generally brought on by confinement, over-feeding, &c., and
show themselves by a red, sore, and protruded rectum. Dogs subject to
constipation are most likely to be attacked.

_Treatment._--Give the animal half a tea-spoonful of sulphur for two or
three mornings, and wash the parts with an infusion of white oak bark.
If they are very painful, wash two or three times a day with an infusion
of hops, and keep the animal on a light diet.



DROPSY.


Dropsy is generally preceded by loss of appetite, cough, diminution of
natural discharge of urine, and costiveness. The abdomen shortly
afterwards begins to enlarge.

_Treatment._--It is sometimes necessary to evacuate the fluid by
puncturing the abdomen; but this will seldom avail much unless the
general health is improved, and the suppressed secretions restored. The
following is the best remedy we know of:--

  Powdered flagroot,       } of each a quarter of
      "    male fern,      }      an ounce.
  Scraped horseradish,            a tea-spoonful.

Mix. Divide into eight parts, and give one night and morning. Good
nutritious diet must be allowed.



SORE THROAT.


A strong decoction of mullein leaves applied to a sore throat will
seldom fail in curing it.



SORE EARS.


A dog's ears may become sore and scabby from being torn, or otherwise
injured. In such cases, they should be anointed with marshmallow
ointment.



SORE FEET.


If the feet become sore from any disease between the claws, apply a
poultice composed of equal parts of marshmallows and charcoal; after
which the following wash will complete the cure:--

  Pyroligneous acid,      1 ounce.
  Water,                  6 ounces.

Mix, and wash with a sponge twice a day.



WOUNDS.


Turlington's Balsam is the best application for wounds. Should a dog be
bitten by one that is mad, give him a tea-spoonful of lobelia in water,
and bind some of the same article on the wound.



SPRAINS.


For sprains of any part of the muscular structure, use one of the
following prescriptions:--

  Oil of wormwood,          1 ounce.
  Tincture of lobelia,      2 ounces.
  Infusion of hops,         1 quart.

Mix. Bathe the part twice a day.

_Another._

  Wormwood,             } of each a handful.
  Thoroughwort,         }
  New England rum,               1 pint.

Set them in a warm place for a few hours, then bathe the part with the
liquid; and bind some of the herb on the part, if practicable.



SCALDS.


If a dog be accidentally scalded, apply, with as little delay as
possible,--

  Lime water,       } equal parts.
  Linseed oil,      }



OPHTHALMIA.


Ophthalmia is supposed to be contagious; yet a mild form may result from
external injury, as blows, bruises, or extraneous bodies introduced
under the eyelid. The eye is such a delicate and tender organ, that the
smallest particle of any foreign body lodging on its surface will cause
great pain and swelling.

_Treatment._--Take a tea-spoonful of finely-pulverized marshmallow root,
add sufficient hot water to make a thin mucilage, and with this wash the
eye frequently. Keep the animal in a dark place, on a light diet; and if
the eyes are very red and tender, give a pill composed of twenty-nine
grains extract of butternut and ten grains cream of tartar.

If purulent discharge sets in, bathe the eye with infusion of camomile
or red rose leaves, and give the following:--

  Powdered pleurisy root,      }
     "     bloodroot,          } equal parts.
     "     sulphur,            }

Dose, half a table-spoonful daily. To be given in honey. When the
eyelids adhere together, wash with warm milk.



WEAK EYES.


It often happens that, after an acute attack, the eyes are left in a
weak state, when there is a copious secretion of fluid continually
running from them. In such cases, the eyes may be washed, night and
morning, with pure cold water, and the general health must be improved:
for the latter purpose, the following preparation is recommended:--

  Manna,                  1 ounce.
  Powdered gentian,       1 tea-spoonful.
     "     mandrake,      half a tea-spoonful.

Rub them together in a mortar, and give a pill, about the size of a
hazel-nut, every night. If the manna is dry, a little honey will be
necessary to amalgamate the mass.



FLEAS AND VERMIN.


Fleas and vermin are very troublesome to dogs; yet they may easily be
got rid of by bathing the dog with an infusion of lobelia for two
successive mornings, and afterwards washing with water and castile soap.



HYDROPHOBIA.


Whenever one dog is bitten by another, and the latter is supposed to
labor under this dreadful malady, immediate steps should be taken to
arrest it; for a dog once bitten by another, whatever may be the stage
or intensity of the disease, is never safe. The disease may appear in a
few days; in some instances, it is prolonged for eight months.

_Symptoms._--Mr. Lawson tells us that "the first symptom appears to be a
slight failure of the appetite, and a disposition to quarrel with other
dogs. A total loss of appetite generally succeeds. A mad dog will not
cry out on being struck, or show any sign of fear on being threatened.
In the height of the disorder, he will bite all other dogs, animals, or
men. When not provoked, he usually attacks only such as come in his way;
but, having no fear, it is very dangerous to strike or provoke him. The
eyes of mad dogs do not look red or fierce, but dull, and have a
peculiar appearance, not easy to be described. Mad dogs seldom bark, but
occasionally utter a most dismal and plaintive howl, expressive of
extreme distress, and which they who have once heard can never forget.
They do not froth at the mouth; but their lips and tongue appear dry and
foul, or slimy. They cannot swallow water." Mr. Lawson, and indeed many
veterinary practitioners, have come to the conclusion that all remedies
are fallacious![27]

_Remarks._--In White's Dictionary we are informed that the tops of
yellow broom have been used for hydrophobia in the human subject with
great success; and we do not hesitate to say that they might be used
with equal success on beasts. Dr. Muller, of Vienna, has lately
published, in the _Gazette de Santé_, some facts which go to show that
the yellow broom is invaluable in the treatment of this malady. Dr.
White tells us that "M. Marochetti gave a decoction of yellow broom to
twenty-six persons who had been bitten by a mad dog, viz., nine men,
eleven women, and six children. Upon an examination of their tongues, he
discovered pimples in five men, three children, and in all the women.
The seven that were free from pimples took the decoction of broom six
weeks and recovered."

The same author informs us that "M. Marochetti, during his residence at
Ukraine, in the year 1813, attended fifteen persons who had been bitten
by a mad dog. While he was making preparations for cauterizing the
wounds, some old men requested him to treat the unfortunate people
according to the directions of a peasant in the neighborhood, who had
obtained great reputation for the cure of hydrophobia. The peasant gave
to fourteen persons, placed under his care, a strong decoction of the
yellow broom; he examined, twice a day, the under part of the tongue,
where he had generally discovered little pimples, containing, as he
supposed, the hydrophobic poison. These pimples at length appeared, and
were observed by M. Marochetti himself. As they formed, the peasant
opened them, and cauterized the parts with a red-hot needle; after which
the patients gargled with the same decoction. The result of this
treatment was, that the fourteen patients returned cured, having drank
the decoction six weeks." The following case will prove the value of the
plantain, (_plantago major_.) We were called upon, October 25, 1850, to
see a dog, the property of Messrs. Stewart & Forbes, of Boston. From the
symptoms, we were led to suppose that the animal was in the incipient
stage of canine madness. We directed him to be securely fastened, kept
on a light diet, &c. The next day, a young Newfoundland pup was placed
in the cellar with the patient, who seized the little fellow, and
crushed his face and nose in a most shocking manner, both eyes being
almost obliterated. The poor pup lingered in excruciating torment until
the owner, considering it an act of charity, had it killed. This act of
ferocity on the part of the patient confirmed our suspicions as to the
nature of the malady. We commenced the treatment by giving him
tea-spoonful doses of powdered plantain, (_plantago major_,) night and
morning, in the food, and in the course of a fortnight, the eye (which,
during the early stage of the malady, had an unhealthy appearance)
assumed its natural state, and the appetite returned; in short, the dog
got rapidly well. We feel confident that, if this case had been
neglected, it might have terminated in canine madness.

We are satisfied that the plantain possesses valuable antiseptic and
detergent properties. Dr. Beach tells us that "a negro at the south
obtained his freedom by disclosing a nostrum for the bites of snakes,
the basis of which was the plantain." A writer states that a toad, in
fighting with a spider, as often as it was bitten, retired a few steps,
ate of the plantain, and then renewed the attack. The person deprived it
of the plant, and it soon died.

_Treatment._--Let the suspected dog be confined by himself, so that he
cannot do injury. Then take two ounces of lobelia, and one ounce of
sulphur, place them in a common wash tub, and add several gallons of
boiling water. As soon as it is sufficiently cool, plunge the dog into
it, and let him remain in it several minutes. Then give an infusion of
either of the following articles: yellow broom, plantain, or Greek
valerian, one ounce of the herb to a pint of water. An occasional
tea-spoonful of the powdered plantain may be allowed with the food,
which must be entirely vegetable. If the dog has been bitten, wash the
part with a strong infusion of lobelia, and bind some of the herb on the
part. The treatment should be continued for several days, or until the
animal recovers, and all danger is past.

(For information on the causes of madness, the reader is referred to my
work on the Horse, p. 108.)

FOOTNOTE:

[27] They probably only allude to cauterization, cutting out the bitten
part, and the use of poisons. It cannot be expected that such processes
and agents should ever cure the disease. Let them try our agents before
they pronounce "all remedies fallacious." Let them try the _alisma
plantago_, (plantain,) yellow broom tops, _scutellaria_, (skullcap,)
lobelia, Greek valerian, &c.



MALIGNANT MILK SICKNESS OF THE WESTERN STATES, OR CONTAGIOUS TYPHUS.


This name applies to a disease said to be very fatal in the Western
States, attacking certain kinds of live stock, and also persons who make
use of the meat and dairy products of such cattle.

The cause, nature, and treatment of this disease is so little understood
among medical men, and such an alarming mortality attends their
practice, that many of the inhabitants of the west and south-west depend
entirely on their domestic remedies. "It is in that country emphatically
one of the _opprobria medicorum_." Nor are the mineralites any more
successful in the treatment of other diseases incidental to the Great
West. Their Peruvian bark, _quinine_, and calomel, immense quantities of
which are used without any definite knowledge of their _modus operandi_,
fail in a great majority of cases. If they were only to substitute
powdered charcoal and sulphur for calomel, both in view of prevention
and cure, aided by good nursing, then the mortality would be materially
diminished. The success attending the treatment of upwards of sixty
cases of yellow fever, by Mrs. Shall, the proprietress of the City
Hotel, New Orleans, only one of which proved fatal, is attributed to
good nursing. She knew nothing of blood-letting, calomelizing,
narcotizing. The same success attended the practice of Dr. A. Hunn, of
Kentucky, in the treatment of typhus fever, (which resembles milk
sickness,) who cured every case by plunging his patients immediately
into a hot bath.

"The whole indication of cure in this disease is to bring on reaction,
to recall the poison which is mixed with the blood and thrown to the
centre, which can only be done by inducing a copious perspiration in the
most prompt and energetic manner. If I mistake not, where sweating was
produced in this complaint, recovery invariably followed, while
bleeding, mercury, &c., only aggravated it."

From such facts as these, as well as from numerous others, we may learn,
that disease is not under the control of the boasted science of
medicine, as practised by our allopathic brethren. Many millions of
animals, as well as members of the human family, have died from a
misapplication of medicine, and officious meddling.

The destruction that in former years attended milk sickness may be
learned from the fact, that in the western settlements, its prevalence
often served as a cause to disband a community, and compel the
inhabitants to seek a location which enjoyed immunity from its
occurrence. The legislatures of several of the Western States have
offered rewards for the discovery of the origin of the milk sickness. No
one that we know of has ever yet claimed the reward. In view of the
great lack of information on this subject, we freely contribute our
mite, which may serve, in some degree, to dispel the impenetrable
mystery by which it is surrounded.

We shall first show that it is not produced by the atmosphere alone,
which by some is supposed to be the cause.

"It is often found to occupy an isolated spot, comprehending an area of
one hundred acres, whilst for a considerable distance around it is not
produced."

If the disease had its sole origin in the atmosphere, it would not be
thus confirmed to a certain location; for every one knows, that the
gentlest zephyr would waft the enemy into the surrounding localities,
and there the work of destruction would commence. The reader is probably
aware that bodies whose specific gravity exceeds that of air, such as
grass, seeds, &c., are conveyed through that medium from one field to
another. The miasma of epidemics is said to be conveyed from one
district to another "on the wings of the wind." Hence, if milk sickness
was of atmospheric or even epidemic origin, it would prevail in
adjoining states. This is not the case; for we are told that "this fatal
disease seldom, if ever, prevails westward of the Alleghany Mountains or
in the bordering states."

The atmosphere which surrounds this globe was intended by the divine
Artist for the purpose of respiration, and it is well adapted to that
purpose: it cannot be considered a pathological agent, or a cause of
disease. In crowded assemblies, and in close barns and stables, it may
hold in solution noxious gases, which, as we have already stated in
different parts of this work, are injurious to the lungs; but as regards
the atmosphere itself, in an uncontaminated state, it is a physiological
agent. It always preserves its identity, and is always represented by
the same equivalents of oxygen, nitrogen, and carbonic acid gas. Liebig
says, "One hundred volumes of air have been found, at every period and
in every climate, to contain twenty-one volumes of oxygen."

Thus oxygen and nitrogen unite in certain equivalents: the result is
atmospheric air; and they cannot be made to unite in any other
proportions. Suppose the oxygen to be in excess, what would be the
result? A universal conflagration would commence; the hardest rocks, and
even the diamond, (considered almost indestructible,) would melt with
"fervent heat." If, on the other hand, nitrogen was in excess, then
every living thing, including both animal and vegetable, would instantly
die. Hence we infer that the atmosphere cannot be considered as the
cause of this disease.

_Causes._--A creeping vine has been supposed to occasion the disease.
This cannot be the case, for it occurs very frequently when the ground
is covered with snow. We are satisfied, although we may not succeed in
satisfying the reader, that no one cause alone can produce the disease:
there must be a diminution of vital energy, and this diminution may
result, first, from poor diet. Dr. Graff tells us that the general
appearance of these infected districts is somewhat peculiar. The quality
of the soil is, in general, of an inferior description. The growth of
timber is not observed to be so luxuriant as in situations otherwise
similar, but is scrubby, and stunted in its perfect development, in many
instances simulating what in the west is denominated '_barrens_.' We can
easily conceive that these barrens do not furnish the proper amount of
carbon (in the form of food) for the metamorphosis of the tissues; and
if we take into consideration that the animal receives, during the day,
while in search of this food, a large supply of oxygen, and at the same
time the waste of the body is increased by the extra labor required to
select sufficient nutriment,--it being scanty in such situations,--then
it follows that this disproportion between the quantity of carbon in the
food, and that of oxygen absorbed by the skin and lungs, must induce a
diseased or abnormal condition. The animal is sometimes fat, at others
lean. Some of the cows attacked with this disease were fat, and in
apparent health, and nothing peculiar was observed until immediately
preceding the outbreak of the fatal symptoms. The presence of fat is
generally proof positive of an abnormal state; and in such cases the
liver is often diseased; the blood then becomes loaded with fat and oil,
and is finally deposited in the cellular tissues. The reader will now
understand how an animal accumulates fat, notwithstanding it be
furnished with insufficient diet. All that we wish to contend for is,
that in such cases vital resistance is compromised. We have observed
that, in the situation alluded to, vegetation was stunted, &c., and
knowing that vegetables are composed of nearly the same materials which
constitute animal organization,--the carbon or fat of the former being
deposited in the seeds and fruits, and that of the latter in the
cellular structure,--then we can arrive at but one conclusion, viz.,
that any location unfavorable to vegetation is likewise ill adapted to
preserve the integrity of animal life.

In connection with this, it must be remembered that during the night the
soil emits excrementitious vapors which are taken into the animal system
by the process of respiration. In the act of rumination, vapor is also
enclosed in the globules of saliva, and thus reach the stomach. Many
plants which during the day may be eaten with impunity by cattle,
actually become poisonous during the night! This, we are aware, will
meet with some opposition; to meet which we quote from Liebig:--

"How powerful, indeed, must the resistance appear which the vital force
supplies to leaves charged with oil of turpentine or tannic acid, when
we consider the affinity of oxygen for these compounds!

"This intensity of action, or of resistance, the plant obtains by means
of the sun's light; the effect of which in chemical actions may be, and
is, compared to that of a very high temperature, (moderate red heat.)

"During the night, an opposite process goes on in the plant; we see then
that the constituents of the leaves and green parts combine with the
oxygen of the air--a property which in daylight they did not possess.

"From these facts we can draw no other conclusion but this: that the
intensity of the vital force diminishes with the abstraction of light;
that, with the approach of night, a state of equilibrium is established;
and that, in complete darkness, all those constituents of plants which,
during the day, possessed the power of separating oxygen from chemical
combinations, and of resisting its action, lose their power completely.

"A precisely similar phenomenon is observed in animals.

"The living animal body exhibits its peculiar manifestations of vitality
only at certain temperatures. When exposed to a certain degree of cold,
these vital phenomena entirely cease.

"The abstraction of heat must, therefore, be viewed as quite equivalent
to a diminution of the vital energy; the resistance opposed by the vital
force to external causes of disturbance must diminish, in certain
temperatures, in the same ratio in which the tendency of the elements of
the body to combine with the oxygen of the air increases."

_Secondly._ In the situations alluded to, we generally find poisonous
and noxious plants, with an abundance of decayed vegetable matter. An
English writer has said, "The farmers of England might advantageously
employ a million at least of additional laborers in clearing their wide
domains of noxious plants,[28] which would amply repay them in the
superior quality of their produce. They would then feel the truth of
that axiom in philosophy, "that he who can contrive to make two blades
of grass, or wholesome grain, grow where one poisonous plant grew
before, is a greater benefactor to the human race than all the
conquerors or heroes who have ever lived." The noxious plants found in
such abundance in the Western States are among the principal causes,
either directly or indirectly, of the great mortality among men, horses,
cattle, and sheep. The hay would be just as destructive as when in its
green state, were it not that, in the process of drying, the volatile
and poisonous properties of the buttercup, dandelion, poppy, and
hundreds of similar destructive plants found in the hay, evaporate. It
is evident that if animals have partaken of such plants, although death
in all cases do not immediately follow, there must be a deficiency of
vital resistance, or loss of equilibrium, and the animal is in a
negative state. It is consequently obvious that when in such a state it
is more liable to receive impressions from external agents--in short, is
more subject to disease, and this disease may assume a definite form,
regulated by location.

_Thirdly._ A loss of vital resistance may result from drinking impure
water. (See _Watering_, p. 15.) Dr. Graff tells us that "another
peculiar appearance, which serves to distinguish these infected spots,
is the breaking forth of numerous feeble springs, called oozes,
furnishing but a trifling supply of water." Such water is generally
considered unwholesome, and will, of course, deprive the system of its
vital resistance, if partaken of.

_Fourthly._ A loss of vital resistance may result from exposure; for it
is well known that cattle which have been regularly housed every night
have escaped the attacks of this malady, and that when suffered to
remain at large, they were frequently seized with it.

_Lastly._ The indirect causes of milk fever exist in any thing that can
for a time prevent the free and full play of any part of the animal
functions. The direct causes of death are chemical action, resulting
from decomposition, which overcomes the vital principle.

Professor Liebig tells us, that "chemical action is opposed by the vital
principle. The results produced depend upon the strength of their
respective actions; either an equilibrium of both powers is attained, or
the acting body yields to the superior force. If chemical action obtains
the ascendency, it acts as a poison."

_Remarks._--Let us suppose that one, or a combination of the preceding
causes, has operated so as to produce an abnormal state in the system of
a cow. She is then suffered to remain in the unhealthy district during
the night: while there, exposed to the emanations from the soil, she
requires the whole force of her vital energies to ward off chemical
decompositions, and prevent encroachment on the various functions. A
contest commences between the vital force and chemical action, and,
after a hard conflict in their incessant endeavors to overcome each
other, the chemical agency obtains the ascendency, and disease of a
putrid type (milk fever) is the result. The disease may not immediately
be recognized, for the process of decomposition may be insidious; yet
the milk and flesh of such an animal may communicate the disease to man
and other animals. It is well known that almost any part of animal
bodies in a state of putrefaction, such as milk, cheese, muscle, pus,
&c., communicate their own state of decomposition to other bodies. Many
eminent medical men have lost their lives while dissecting, simply by
putrefactive matter coming in contact with a slight wound or puncture.
Dr. Graff made numerous experiments on dogs with the flesh, &c., of
animals having died of milk sickness. He says, "My trials with the
poisoned flesh were, for the most part, made on dogs, which I confined;
and I often watched the effect of the poison when administered at
regular intervals. In the space of forty-eight hours from the
commencement of the administration of either the butter, cheese, or
flesh, I have observed unequivocal appearances of their peculiar action,
while the appetite remains unimpaired until the expiration of the fourth
or fifth day." From the foregoing remarks, the reader will agree with
us, that the disease is of a putrid type, and has a definite character.
What is the reason of this definite character? All diseases are under
the control of the immutable laws of nature. They preserve their
identity in the same manner that races of men preserve theirs. Milk
sickness of the malignant type luxuriates in the locations referred to,
for the same reasons that yellow fever is peculiar to warm climates, and
consumption to cold ones; and that different localities have distinct
diseases; for example, ship fever, jail fever, &c.

Before disease can attack, and develop itself in the bodies of men or
animals, the existing equilibrium of the vital powers must be disturbed;
and the most common causes of this disturbance we have already alluded
to. In reference to the milk, butter, cheese, &c., of infected animals,
and their adaptation to develop disease in man, and in other locations
than those referred to, we observe, that when a quantity, however small,
of contagious matter is introduced into the stomach, if its antiseptic
properties are the least deranged, the original disease (milk sickness)
is produced, just as a small quantity of yeast will ferment a whole
loaf. The transformation takes place through the medium of the blood,
and produces a body identical with, or similar to, the exciting or
contagious matter. The quantity of the latter must constantly augment;
for the state of change or decomposition which affects one particle of
the blood is imparted to others. The time necessary to accomplish it,
however, depends on the amount of vital resistance, and of course varies
in different animals. In process of time, the whole body becomes
affected, and in like manner it is communicated to other individuals;
and this may take place by simply respiring the carbonic acid gas, or
morbific materials from the lungs, of diseased animals in the infected
districts.

We are told that the latent condition of the disease may be discovered
by subjecting the suspected animal to a violent degree of exercise. This
is a precaution practised by butchers before slaughtering animals in any
wise suspected of the poisonous contamination;[29] for according to the
intensity of the existing cause, or its dominion over the vital power,
it will be seized with tremors, spasms, convulsions, or even death. The
reader is, probably, aware that an excess of motion will sometimes
cause instant death; for both men and animals, supposed to be in
excellent health, are known to die suddenly from excessive labor. In
some cases of excess of muscular exertion, the active force in living
parts may be entirely destroyed in producing these violent mechanical
results: hence we have a loss of equilibrium between voluntary and
involuntary motion, and there is not sufficient vitality left to carry
on the latter. Professor Liebig says, "A stag may be hunted to death.
The condition of metamorphosis into which it has been brought by an
enormous consumption both of force and of oxygen continues when all
phenomena of motion have ceased, and the flesh becomes uneatable." A
perfect equilibrium, therefore, between the consumption of vital force
for the supply of waste, protecting the system from encroachments, and
for mechanical effects, must exist; the animal is then in health: the
contrary is obvious.

_Treatment._--The greatest care must be taken to secure the patient good
nutritious food, pure air, and water. The food should consist of a
mixture of two or more of the following articles, which must be cooked:
linseed, parsnips, shorts, carrots, meal, apples, barley, oats, turnips,
slippery elm, oil cake, &c. We again remind the reader that no single or
compound medicine can be procured that will be suitable for every stage
of the disease; it must be treated according to its indications. Yet the
following compound, aided by warmth, moisture, and friction, externally,
will be found better than any medicine yet known. It consists of

  Powdered charcoal,                       8 ounces.
     "     sulphur,                        2 ounces.
  Fine salt,                               3 ounces.
  Oatmeal,                                 2 pounds.
  Mandrake, (_podophyllum peltatum_,)      1 ounce.

After the ingredients are well mixed, divide the mass into fourteen
parts, and give one night and morning.

_Special Treatment with reference to the Symptoms._--Suppose the animal
to be "off her feed," and the bowels are constipated; then give an
aperient composed of

  Extract of butternut,      2 drachms.
  Powdered capsicum,         one third of a tea-spoonful.
  Thoroughwort tea,          2 quarts.

To be given at a dose, taking care to pour it down the throat in a
gradual manner; for, if poured down too quick, it will fall into the
paunch. If the rectum is suspected to be loaded with excrement, make use
of the common soap-suds injection.

If the animal appears to walk about without any apparent object in view,
there is reason to suppose that the brain is congested. This may be
verified if the _sclerotica_ (white of the eye) is of a deep red color.
The following will be indicated:--

  Mandrake, (_podophyllum peltatum_,)      1 table-spoonful.
  Sulphur,                                 1 tea-spoonful.
  Cream of tartar,                         1 tea-spoonful.
  Hot water,                               2 quarts.

To be given at a dose. At the same time apply cold water to the head,
and rub the spine and legs (below the knees) with the following
counter-irritant:--

  Powdered bloodroot or cayenne,      1 ounce.
     "     black pepper,              half an ounce.
  Boiling vinegar,                    1 quart.

Rub the mixture in while hot, with a piece of flannel.

If a trembling of the muscular system is observed, then give

  Powdered ginger,           }
     "     cinnamon,         } of each half
     "     golden seal,      } a tea-spoonful.

To be given at a dose, in half a gallon of catnip tea. Aid the vital
powers in producing a crisis by the warmth and moisture, as directed in
the treatment of colds, &c.

It is necessary to keep the rectum empty by means of injections, forms
of which will be found in this work.

The remedies we here recommend can be safely and successfully used by
those unskilled in medicine; and, when aided by proper attention to the
diet, ventilation, and comfort of the patient, we do not hesitate to say
(provided, however, they are resorted to in the early stages) they will
cure forty-nine cases out of fifty, without the advice of a physician.

FOOTNOTES:

[28] The American farmers are just beginning to wake up on this subject,
and before long we hope to see our pasture lands free from all poisonous
plants. Dr. Whitlaw says, "A friend of mine had two fields cleared of
buttercups, dandelion, ox-eye, daisy, sorrel, hawk-weed, thistles,
mullein, and a variety of other poisonous or noxious plants: they were
dried, burnt, and their ashes strewed over the fields. He had them sown
as usual, and found that the crops of hay and pasturage were more than
double what they had been before. I was furnished with butter for two
successive summers during the months of July and August of 1827. The
butter kept for thirty days, and proved, at the end of that time, better
than that fresh churned and brought to the Brighton or Margate markets.
It would bear salting at that season of the year."

[29] Unfortunately, they do not all practise it. Dr. Graff says, "There
is a murderous practice now carried on in certain districts, in which
the inhabitants will not themselves consume the butter and cheese
manufactured; but, with little solicitude for the lives or health of
others, they send it, in large quantities, to be sold in the cities of
the west, particularly Louisville, Kentucky, and St. Louis, Missouri. Of
the truth of this I am well apprised by actual observation; and I am as
certain that it has often caused death in those cities, when the medical
attendants viewed it as some anomalous form of disease, not suspecting
the means by which poison had been conveyed among them. Physicians of
the latter city, having been questioned particularly on this subject,
have mentioned to me a singular and often fatal disease, which appeared
in certain families, the cases occurring simultaneously, and all traces
of it disappearing suddenly, and which I cannot doubt were the result of
poisoned butter or cheese. This recklessness of human life it should be
our endeavor to prevent; and the heartless wretches who practise it
should be brought to suffer a punishment commensurate with the enormity
of their crime. From the wide extent of the country in which it is
carried on, we readily perceive the difficulties to be encountered in
the effort to put a stop to the practice. This being the case, our next
proper aim should be to investigate the nature of the cause, and
establish a more proper plan of treatment, by which it may be robbed of
its terrors, and the present large proportionate mortality diminished."



BONE DISORDER IN COWS.


We have frequently seen accounts, in various papers, of "bone disorder
in milch cows." The bony structure of animals is composed of vital
solids studded with crystallizations of saline carbonates and
phosphates, and is liable to take on morbid action similar to other
textures. Disease of the bones may originate constitutionally, or from
derangement of the digestive organs. We have, for example, _mollities
ossium_, (softening of the bones;) the disease, however, is very rare.
It may be known by the substance of the bones being soft and yielding,
liable to bend with small force.

We have also _fragilitas ossium_, (brittleness of bones.) This is
characterized by the bony system being of a friable nature, and liable
to be fractured by slight force. We have in our possession the fragments
of the small pastern of a horse, the bone having been broken into
seventeen pieces, by a slight concussion, without any apparent injury to
the skin and cellular substance; not the slightest external injury could
be perceived.

There are several other diseases of the bones, which, we presume, our
readers are acquainted with; such as _exostosis_, _caries_, &c., neither
of which apply to the malady under consideration. We merely mention
these for the purpose of showing that the bones are not exempt from
disease, any more than other structures; yet it does not always follow
that a lack of the phosphate of lime in cow's milk is a sure sign of
diseased bones.

Reader, we do not like the term "_bone disorder_:" it does not throw the
least light on the nature of the malady; it savors too much of "_horn
ail_," "_tail ail_"--terms which only apply to symptoms. We are told
also that, in this disease, "_the bones threaten to cave in--have wasted
away_." If they do threaten to cave in, the best way we know of to give
them an outward direction is, to promote the healthy secretions and
excretions by a well-regulated diet, and to stimulate the digestive
organs to healthy action. If the bones "have wasted away," we should
like to have a few of them in our collection of morbid anatomy. That the
bones should waste away, and be capable of assuming their original shape
simply by feeding bone meal, is something never dreamt of in our
philosophy.[30] Besides, if the cows get well, (we are told they do,)
then we must infer that the bones possess the properties of sudden
expansion and contraction, similar to those of the muscles. It may be
well for us to observe, that not only the bones, but all parts of animal
organization, expand and contract in an imperceptible manner. Thus, up
to the period of puberty, all parts expand: old age comes on, and with
it a gradual wasting and collapse. This is a natural result--one of the
uncompromising laws of nature, over which human agency (bone meal
included) has not the least control. If the bones are diseased, it
results either from impaired digestion or a disproportion between the
carbon of the food and the oxygen respired; hence the "bone disorder,"
not being persistent, is only a result--a symptom; and as such we view
it. As far as we have been able to ascertain the nature of the malady,
as manifested by the symptoms, (_caving in_, _wasting_, _absence of
phosphate of lime in the milk_, &c.,) we give it as our opinion,--and we
think our medical brethren will agree with us, (although we do not often
agree,)--that "bone disorder" is a symptom of a disease very prostrating
in its character, originating in the digestive organs; hence not
confined to the bones, but affecting all parts of the animal more or
less. And the only true plan of treatment consists in restoring healthy
action to the whole animal system. The ways and means of accomplishing
this object are various. If it is clearly ascertained that the animal
system is deficient in phosphate of lime, we see no good reason why bone
meal should not be included among our remedial agents; yet, as corn meal
and linseed contain a large amount of phosphate, we should prefer them
to bone dust, although we do not seriously object to its use.

The value of food or remedial agents consists in their adaptation to
assimilation; in other words, an absence of chemical properties. These
may be very complex; yet, if they are only held together by a weak
chemical action, they readily yield to the vital principle, and are
transformed. Atoms of bones are held together by a strong chemical
affinity; and the vital principle, in order to convert bone dust into
component parts of the organism, must employ more force to transform
them than it would require for the same purpose when corn meal or
linseed were used, their chemical affinity being weaker than that of
bones.

In the treatment of any disease, we always endeavor to ascertain its
causes, and, if possible, remove them; and whatever may be indicated we
endeavor to supply to the system. Thus, if phosphates were indicated, we
should use them. In cases of general debility, however, we should prefer
linseed or corn meal, aided by stimulants, to bone dust. Why not use the
bone dust for manure? The animal would then have the benefit of it in
its fodder.

In reference to a deficiency of phosphate of lime in the milk, we would
observe, that it may result either from impaired digestion, (in such
cases, a large amount of that article may be expelled from the system in
the form of excrements,) or the food may lack it. We then have a sick
plant, for we believe that the phosphate of lime is as necessary for the
growth of the plant as it seems to be for animal development. If the
plant lacks this important constituent, then its vitality, as a whole,
will be impaired. This is all we desire to contend for in the animal,
viz., that the disease is general, and cannot be considered or treated
as a local affection.

It has been observed that successive cultivation exhausts the soil, and
deprives it of the constituents necessary for vegetable development. If
so, it follows that there will be a deficiency of silecia, carbonate of
lime,--in short, a loss of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen, not
of phosphate of lime alone.

The fields might be made to produce the requisite amount of nutriment by
replacing every year, in the form of animal excrement, straw,
wood-ashes, and charcoal, as much as we remove from them in the form of
produce. An increase of crop can only be obtained when we add more to
the soil than we take away from it.

"In Flanders, the yearly loss of the necessary matters in the soil is
completely restored by covering the fields with ashes of wood or bones,
which may, or may not, have been lixiviated. The great importance of
manuring with ashes has been long recognized by agriculturists as the
result of experience. So great a value, indeed, is attached to this
material in the vicinity of Marburg, and in the Wetterau,--two
well-known agricultural districts,--that it is transported, as a manure,
from the distance of eighteen or twenty-four miles. Its use will be at
once perceived, when it is considered that the ashes, after being washed
with water, contain silicate of potass exactly in the same proportion as
in the straw, and that their only other constituents are salts of
phosphoric acid."

It is well known that phosphate of lime, potass, silecia, carbonate of
lime, magnesia, and soda are discharged in the excrement and urine of
the cow; and this happens when they are not adapted to assimilation as
well as when present in excess. If it is clearly proved that the bones
of a cow are weak, then we should be inclined to prescribe phosphates;
if they are brittle, we should prescribe gelatinous preparations; but
not in the form of bone dust: we should use linseed, which is known to
be rich in phosphates. At the same time, the general health must be
improved.

It is well known that some cows cannot be fattened, although they have
an abundance of the best kind of fodder. In such cases, we find the
digestive organs deranged, which disturbs the equilibrium of the whole
animal economy. The food may then be said to be a direct cause of
disease.

The effects of insufficient food are well known; debility includes them
all. If there is not sufficient carbon in the food, the animal is
deprived of the power of reproducing itself, and the cure consists in
supplying the deficiency. At the same time, every condition of nutrition
should be considered; and if the function of digestion is impaired, we
must look to those of absorption, circulation, and secretion also, for
they will be more or less involved. If the appetite is impaired,
accompanied by a loss of cud, it shows that the stomach is overloaded,
or that its function is suspended: stimulants and tonics are then
indicated. A voracious appetite indicates the presence of morbid
accumulations in the stomach and bowels, and they should be cleansed by
aperients; after which, a change of diet will generally effect a cure.
When gas accumulates in the intestines, we have evidence of a loss of
vital power in the digestive organs; fermentation takes place before the
food can be digested.

The cure consists in restoring the lost function. Diarrhoea is
generally caused by exposure, (taking cold,) or by eating poisons and
irritating substances; the cure may be accomplished by removing the
cold, and cleansing the system of the irritants. Costiveness often
arises from the absorption of the fluids from the solids in their slow
progress through the intestines; exercise will then be indicated. An
occasional injection, however, may be given, if necessary. General
debility, we have said, may arise from insufficient food; to which we
may add the popular practice of milking the cow while pregnant, much of
which milk is yielded at the hazard of her own health and that of her
foetus. Whatever is taken away from the cow in the form of milk ought
to be replaced by the food. Proper attention, however, must be paid to
the state of the digestive organs: they must not be overtaxed with
indigestible substances. With this object in view, we recommend a mixed
diet; for no animal can subsist on a single article of food. Dogs die,
although fed on jelly; they cannot live upon white bread, sugar, or
starch, if these are given as food, to the exclusion of all other
substances. Neither can a horse or cow live on hay alone: they will,
sooner or later, give evidences of disease. They require stimulants.
Common salt is a good stimulant. This explains why salt hay should be
occasionally fed to milch cows; it not only acts as a stimulant, but is
also an antiseptic, preventing putrefaction, &c.

A knowledge of the constituents of milk may aid the farmer in selecting
the substances proper for the nourishment of animals, and promotive of
the lacteal secretion; for much of the food contains those materials
united, though not always in the same form. "The constituents of milk
are cheese, or caseine--a compound containing nitrogen in large
proportion; butter, in which hydrogen abounds; and sugar of milk, a
substance with a large quantity of hydrogen and oxygen in the same
proportions as in water. It also contains, in solution, lactate of soda,
phosphate of lime, (the latter in very small quantities,) and common
salt; and a peculiar aromatic product exists in the butter, called
butyric acid."--_Liebig._

It is very difficult to explain the changes which the food undergoes in
the animal laboratory, (the stomach,) because that organ is under the
dominion of the vital force--an immaterial agency which the chemist
cannot control. Yet we are justified in furnishing the animal with the
elements of its own organization; for although they may not be deposited
in the different structures in their original atoms, they may be changed
into other compounds, somewhat similar. Liebig tells us that whether the
elements of non-azotized food take an immediate share in the act of
transformation of tissues, or whether their share in that process be an
indirect one, is a question probably capable of being resolved by
careful and cautious experiment and observation. It is possible that
these constituents of food, after undergoing some change, are carried
from the intestinal canal directly to the liver, and that there they are
converted into bile, where they meet with the products of the
metamorphosed tissues, and subsequently complete their course through
the circulation.

This opinion appears more probable, when we reflect that as yet no trace
of starch or sugar has been detected in arterial blood, not even in
animals that have been fed exclusively with these substances.

The following tables, from Liebig's Chemistry, will give the reader the
difference between what is taken into the system and what passes out.

FOOD CONSUMED BY A COW IN TWENTY-FOUR HOURS.

  ------------+------+------+-------+---------+-------+---------+--------
              |Weight|Weight|       |         |       |         | Salts
  Articles    |in the|in the|Carbon.|Hydrogen.|Oxygen.|Nitrogen.|  and
  of food.    |fresh | dry  |       |         |       |         |earthly
              |state.|state.|       |         |       |         |matters.
  ------------+------+------+-------+---------+-------+---------+--------
  Potatoes,   | 15000|  4170| 1839.0|  241.9  | 1830.6|   50.0  | 208.5
  After grass,|  7500|  6315| 2974.4|  353.6  | 2204.0|  151.5  | 631.5
  Water,      | 60000|   -- |   --  |    --   |   --  |    --   |  50.0
  ------------+-------------+-------+---------+-------+---------+--------
  Total,      | 82500| 10485| 4813.4|  595.5  | 4034.6|  201.5  | 889.0
  ------------+------+------+-------+---------+-------+---------+--------

EXCRETIONS OF A COW IN TWENTY-FOUR HOURS.

  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
             |Weight|Weight |       |         |       |         | Salts
  Excretions.|in the|in the |Carbon.|Hydrogen.|Oxygen.|Nitrogen.|  and
             |fresh | dry   |       |         |       |         |earthly
             |state.|state. |       |         |       |         |matters.
  -----------+------+-------+-------+---------+-------+---------+--------
  Excrements,| 28413| 4000.0| 1712.0|  208.0  | 1508.0|   92.0  | 480.0
  Urine,     |  8200|  960.8|  261.4|   25.0  |  253.7|   36.5  | 384.2
  Milk,      |  8539| 1150.6|  628.2|   99.0  |  321.0|   46.0  |  56.4
  -----------+------+-------+-------+---------+-------+---------+--------
    Total,   | 45152| 6111.4| 2601.6|  332.0  | 2082.7|  174.5  | 920.6
  -----------+------+-------+-------+---------+-------+---------+--------
  Total of   |      |       |       |         |       |         |
  first part | 82500|10485.0| 4813.4|  595.5  | 4034.6|  201.5  | 889.0
  of this    |      |       |       |         |       |         |
  table,     |      |       |       |         |       |         |
  -----------+------+-------+-------+---------+-------+---------+--------
  Difference,| 37348| 4374.6| 2211.8|  263.5  | 1951.9|   27.0  |  31.6
  -----------+------+-------+-------+---------+-------+---------+--------

FOOD CONSUMED BY A HORSE IN TWENTY-FOUR HOURS.

  --------+------+------+-------+---------+-------+---------+---------
  Articles|Weight|Weight|       |         |       |         | Salts
  of food.|in the|in the|Carbon.|Hydrogen.|Oxygen.|Nitrogen.|  and
          |fresh | dry  |       |         |       |         | earthy
          |state.|state.|       |         |       |         |matters.
  --------+------+------+-------+---------+-------+---------+---------
  Hay,    |  7500| 6465 | 2961.0|  323.2  | 2502.0|   97.0  | 581.8
  Oats,   |  2270| 1927 |  977.0|  123.3  |  707.2|   42.4  |  77.1
  Water,  | 16000|  --  |   --  |   --    |   --  |    --   |  13.3
  --------+------+------+-------+---------+-------+---------+---------
    Total,| 25770| 8392 | 3938.0|  446.5  | 3209.2|  139.4  | 672.2
  --------+------+------+-------+---------+-------+---------+---------

EXCRETIONS OF A HORSE IN TWENTY-FOUR HOURS.

  --------------+------+------+-------+---------+-------+---------+--------
                |Weight|Weight|       |         |       |         | Salts
  Excretions.   |in the|in the|Carbon.|Hydrogen.|Oxygen.|Nitrogen.|  and
                |fresh | dry  |       |         |       |         | earthy
                |state.|state.|       |         |       |         |matters.
  --------------+------+------+-------+---------+-------+---------+--------
  Urine,        |  1330|  302 |  108.7|   11.5  |  34.1 |   37.8  | 109.9
  Excrements,   | 14250| 3525 | 1364.4|  179.8  |1328.9 |   77.6  | 574.6
                |      |      |       |         |       |         |
  --------------+------+------+-------+---------+-------+---------+--------
    Total,      | 15580| 3827 | 1472.9|  191.3  |1363.0 |  115.4  | 684.5
  --------------+------+------+-------+---------+-------+---------+--------
  Total of first|      |      |       |         |       |         |
    part of this| 25770| 8392 | 3938.0|  446.5  |3209.2 |  139.4  | 672.2
      table,    |      |      |       |         |       |         |
  --------------+------+------+-------+---------+-------+---------+--------
  Difference,   | 10190| 4565 | 2465.1|  255.2  |1846.2 |   24.0  |  12.3
  --------------+------+------+-------+---------+-------+---------+--------

     The weights in these tables are given in grammes. 1 gramme is equal
     to 15.44 grains Troy, very nearly.

It will be seen from these tables that a large proportion of carbon,
hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and earthy matters are again returned to the
soil. From this we infer that more of these matters being present in the
food than were requisite for the purpose of assimilation, they were
removed from the system in the form of excrement. Two suggestions here
present themselves for the consideration of the farmer, viz., that the
manure increases in value in proportion to the richness of food, and
that more of the latter is often given to a cow than is necessary for
the manufacture of healthy chyle.

In view, then, of preventing "bone disorder," which we have termed
_indigestion_, we should endeavor to ascertain what articles are best
for food, and learn, from the experience of others, what have been
universally esteemed as such, and, by trying them on our own animals,
prove whether we actually find them so. Scalded or boiled food is
better adapted to the stomach of animals than food otherwise prepared,
and is so much less injurious. The agents that act on the internal
system are those which, in quantities sufficient for an ordinary meal,
supply the animal system with stimulus and nutriment just enough for its
wants, and contain nothing in their nature inimical to the vital
operations. All such articles are properly termed food. (For treatment,
see _Hide-bound_, p. 196.)

FOOTNOTE:

[30] Whenever there is a deficiency of carbon, bone meal may assist to
support combustion in the lungs, and by that means restore healthy
action of the different functions, provided, however, the digestive
organs, aided by the vital power, can overcome the chemical action by
which the atoms of bone meal are held together.


    +-----------------------------------------------+
    |             Transcriber's Note:               |
    |                                               |
    | Inconsistent hyphenation and spelling in the  |
    | original document have been preserved.        |
    |                                               |
    | Typographical errors corrected in the text:   |
    |                                               |
    | Page  36  selecter changed to selector        |
    | Page  48  relaxents changed to relaxants      |
    | Page  54  bronchea changed to bronchi         |
    | Page  85  relaxents changed to relaxants      |
    | Page 112  relaxent changed to relaxant        |
    | Page 135  antispetics changed to antiseptics  |
    | Page 162  BLAINE changed to BLAIN             |
    | Page 181  crums changed to crumbs             |
    | Page 186  puarts changed to quarts            |
    | Page 236  Marshallow changed to Marshmallow   |
    | Page 247  Merinoes changed to Merinos         |
    | Page 307  cypripedum changed to cypripedium   |
    | Page 312  duretic changed to diuretic         |
    | Page 316  peal changed to peel                |
    | Page 341  similating changed to simulating    |
    +-----------------------------------------------+





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