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Title: Chaitanya's Life And Teachings - From his contemporary Begali biography the Chaitanya-charit-amrita
Author: Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmi, 1496-
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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From his contemporary Bengali biography
the _Chaitanya-charit-amrita_:

Translated into English




_Revised and enlarged, with topographical notes._


Rs. 2.


M. C. Sarkar & Sons, 90/2A, Harrison Road, Calcutta.



_71/1, Mirzapur Street, Calcutta._






_10th April, 1913._



Krishna-das Kaviraj, the author of the _Chaitanya-charit-amrita_, was
born in the Vaidya caste, at Jhámatpur, a village of the Kátwá
sub-division of the Burdwan district in Bengal, (1496 A.D.) Having lost
his parents in early life, he was brought up by his late father's
sister. He read Persian at the village school, and then began to study
Sanskrit in order to qualify himself for practising Hindu medicine, the
profession of his caste. Every part of his great poem bears evidence to
his profound mastery of Sanskrit literature, particularly of the
_Bhágabat Purán_. The young orphan, while still unmarried, was
converted to Vaishnavism by Nityánanda, and begged his way on foot to
Brindában, where he spent the remainder of his long life in religious
study, meditation and worship. He was initiated as a Vaishnav monk by
Raghunath-das, who along with Swarup Damodar had been body-servants to
Chaitanya during that saint's stay at Jagannáth. From his _guru_,
Krishna-das learned the particulars of Chaitanya's life and teaching
which he has embodied in the present biography.

His first efforts at authorship were in Sanskrit and dealt with the
mysteries of _bhakti_ and the service of Krishna. The great work of his
life was the composition of his old age, and was undertaken at the
request of the faithful. Every evening the Bengali Vaishnavs of
Brindában used to gather together and hear the acts of their Master read
out from his poetical biography, the _Chaitanya Bhágbat_ composed by
Brindában-das. But this book dealt with the saint's last years in too
meagre and concise a fashion to satisfy the curiosity of his followers.
They, therefore, led by Haridas Pandit, the chief servitor of the
Govindaji temple, pressed Krishna-das to write a new and fuller life of
the Master. The poet was old and infirm, but he regarded the request as
a solemn charge which he was not free to decline. That very evening he
prayed to the image of Madanmohan, and the god's approbation was shown
by a sign,--a garland of flowers slipping down from his neck at the end
of the prayer! On the bank of the Radha-kunda tank, the aged Krishna-das
completed his _Chaitanya-charit-amrita_ in 1582 after nine years of
unremitting toil. It is divided into three Books, the _Adi Lilá_, the
_Madhya Lilá_, and the _Antya Lilá_, dealing respectively with the
three stages of Chaitanya's life, _viz._, (i) the 24 years from his
birth to the time of his entering the monastic order, (ii) the six years
of his pilgrimage, and (iii) the last eighteen years of his life, which
were spent in residence at Puri. In spite of its epic length, prolixity,
and repetitions, the _Chaitanya-charit-amrita_ is a masterpiece of
early Bengali literature, and has the further merit of making the subtle
doctrines of the Vaishnav faith intelligible to ordinary people. Indeed,
the older school of Vaishnav Fathers, as represented by Jiv Goswámi, had
at first objected to its publication, lest the merits and completeness
of this vernacular work should cause the learned Sanskrit treatises on
_bhakti_ exegetics to be neglected by the public! The author's
manuscript is still preserved in the Radha-Damodar temple of Brindában,
and worshipped as a holy relic.

The Second Book (_Madhya Lilá_), which is the longest and most detailed
of the three and the foremost authority on Chaitanya's teachings, life
and character, and contains the clearest and fullest exposition of
Vaishnav philosophy, has been here translated into English for the first
time. In the second edition, many long extracts from the Third Book
(_Antya Lilá_) have been added, to complete the story of Chaitanya's
doings and sayings at Puri till his death. Readers to whom the Bengali
tongue is unknown, will here find an unvarnished account of Chaitanya as
his contemporaries knew him, without any modern gloss, interpolation or
criticism. My version is literal; only, in certain places needless
details have been curtailed, all repetitions have been avoided, and the
texts so freely quoted by our author from the Sanskrit scriptures have
been indicated by reference to chapter and verse, instead of being done
into English. The word _Prabhu_, applied by the author to Chaitanya,
has been rendered by me as _Master_.

There are three other contemporary lives of Chaitanya in old Bengali.
The earliest of them is the _Chaitanya Bhágabat_, composed in 1535
A.D., by the Brahman Brindában-das, a sister's son of Shribas Pandit of
Navadwip. This author (b. 1507, d. 1589) was a votary of God as
incarnate in Nityánanda; to him Chaitanya was almost a secondary object
of adoration. His poem is encumbered with miracles and digressions, and
far inferior to Krishna-das's work in wealth of philosophic exposition
and description of men and events.

Trilochan-das (born 1523) wrote the _Chaitanya-Mangal_ at the age of
fourteen! It is full of marvellous incidents and should be classed with
romances rather than with sober histories. Its text is still sung by
wandering minstrels and is appreciated by the lower ranks of the
Vaishnav community.

Jayananda Mishra (b. about 1511) wrote his _Chaitanya-Mangal_ about
1568, and his poem gives us much new information about the saint and his
family. He is our only authority for the narrative of Chaitanya's death,
which I have translated at the end of this work.

* * * *

In the second edition parts of two chapters of the first edition,
_viz._, xviii. pp. 254-269 and xxii. pp. 290-303, have been omitted, as
they can be understood only by very learned Sanskrit scholars, the
remaining part of ch. xxii has been incorporated with ch. xxi, while ch.
xxiii has been renumbered as xxii. In the present edition, all the
chapters from xxiii to the end are taken from the _Antya Lilá_.

In preparing the second edition, the translation has been carefully
compared with the text and minutely revised. Many mistakes have been
detected and corrected; some of them came no doubt from the manuscript
from which the first edition was printed, but most of the others were
due to the inefficiency and carelessness of the press. In going through
the original a second time I have in a few places modified my
interpretation of the text made twelve years ago.

A long and important appendix has now been added, giving the exact
situation and some description of the various holy places visited by
Chaitanya, (with references to the best and most modern sources of
information, such as Gazetteers and maps).


Navadwip, a town in the Nadia district of Bengal, situated on the river
Ganges, 75 miles north of Calcutta, was a great trading centre and seat
of Hindu learning in the 15th century. Sanskrit logic (_nyáy_) for
which Bengal is most famous among all the provinces of India, was very
highly developed and studied here, and the fame of its scholars was
unsurpassed in the land. But, if we may believe the biographers of
Chaitanya, the atmosphere of the town was sceptical and unspiritual.
There was a lack of true religious fervour and sincere devotion. Proud
of their intellectuality, proud of the vast wealth they acquired by
gifts from rich Hindus, the local _pandits_ despised _bhakti_ or
devotion as weak and vulgar, and engaged in idle ceremonies or idler
amusements. Vedantism formed the topic of conversation of the cultured
few; wine and goat's meat were taken to kindly by the majority of the
people, and such _Shakta_ rites as were accompanied by the offering of
this drink and food to the goddess and their subsequent consumption by
her votaries, were performed with zeal and enthusiasm.

Jagannáth Mishra, surnamed Purandar, a Brahman of the Vaidik sub-caste,
had emigrated from his ancestral home in Sylhet and settled here in
order to live on the bank of the holy Ganges. His wife was Shachi, a
daughter of the scholar Nilámbar Chakravarti. One evening in February or
March, 1485 A.D., when there was a lunar eclipse at the same time as
full moon, a son was born to this couple. It was their tenth child; the
first eight, all daughters, had died in infancy, and the ninth, a lad
named Vishwarup, had abandoned the world at the age of sixteen when
pressed to marry, and had entered a monastery in the Madras presidency.

The new-born child was named Vishwambhar. But the women, seeing that his
mother had lost so many children before him, gave him the disparaging
name of Nimái or short-lived in order to propitiate Nemesis. The
neighbours called him _Gaur_ or _Gauránga_ (fair complexioned) on
account of his marvellous beauty. That the child was born amidst the
chanting of Hari's name all over Navadwip on the occasion of the
eclipse, was taken to be an omen that he would prove a teacher of
_bhakti_. Passing over the lucky signs of his horoscope, and the
miracles and Krishna-like antics with which pious imagination has
invested his boyhood, we may note that he showed great keenness and
precocity of intellect in mastering all branches of Sanskrit learning,
especially grammar and logic.

On the death of his father, Vishwambhar, while still a student, married
Lakshmi, the daughter of Vallabh Acharya, with whom he had fallen in
love at first sight. He now became a householder, and began to take
pupils like many other Brahmans of Navadwip. As a _pandit_ he surpassed
the other scholars of the place and even defeated a renowned champion of
another province, who was travelling all over India holding

On his return from a scholastic tour in East Bengal, in which he
received many gifts from pious householders, he found that his wife had
died of snake-bite during his absence. After a while the widower married
Vishnu-priya. At this time his head was turned by the pride of
scholarship, and his victories in argument made him slight other men.
During a pilgrimage to Gayá, he met Ishwar Puri, a Vaishnav monk of the
order of Mádhavácharya and a disciple of that Mádhavendra Puri who had
first introduced the cult of bhakti for Krishna among the _sannyasis_.
Vishwambhar took this Ishwar Puri as his guru or spiritual guide. A
complete change now came over his spirit. His intellectual pride was
gone; he became a _bhakta_; whatever subject he lectured on, the theme
of his discourse was love of Krishna. Indeed, he developed religious
ecstasy and for some time behaved like a mad man: he laughed, wept,
incessantly shouted Krishna's name, climbed up trees, or raved in
abstraction imagining himself to be Krishna. He now made the
acquaintance of the elderly scholar and _bhakta_ Adwaita Acharya, and
was joined by a sannyasi named Nityánanda, who became to him even more
than what Paul was to Christ.

Many people of Navadwip now believed Chaitanya to be an incarnation of
Krishna and did him worship, while Nityánanda came to be regarded as
Balaram, (the elder brother of Krishna). Religious processions were
frequently got up, in which the devout, headed by the two, went dancing
and singing through the streets or assembled in the courtyards of
houses. This was the origin of the _nam-kirtan_ ('chanting God's name')
which has ever been the most distinctive feature of this creed.
Chaitanya's greatest achievement at this time was the reclamation of two
drunken ruffians, Jagái and Mádhái, who were a terror to the city. The
apostles of _bhakti_ had also to face mockery and persecution from
scoffers and unbelievers (_páshandi_), which were overcome by
supernatural signs. We pass over the scenes of ecstasy, tireless
exertion in _kirtan_, madness and miracles, which form the extant
history of this period of Chaitanya's life. But the conversions among
the learned were few, and Chaitanya at last in despair resolved to turn
hermit for their salvation, arguing thus, "As I must deliver all these
proud scholars, I have to take to an ascetic life. They will surely bow
to me when they see me as a hermit, and thus their hearts will be
purified and filled with _bhakti_. There is no other means." So, he
induced Keshav Bhárati to initiate him as a _sannyasi_ (1509) under the
name of Krishna-Chaitanya, usually shortened into CHAITANYA, which we
have anticipated in this sketch. He was then 24 years of age. His
mother, who had often before urged him not to desert her as his elder
brother had done, was heart-broken at the loss of her sole surviving
child, but Chaitanya consoled her in every possible way, and bowed to
her wishes in many points in his after years as obediently as he had
done before renouncing the life of a householder.

The next six years were passed by him in pilgrimages to Orissa, the
Southern Land, and Brindában, and in the preaching of _bhakti_ in many
parts of India, as described in detail in the present volume.

Thereafter, at the age of 30, he settled at Puri, and spent his
remaining days in the constant adoration of Jagannáth. Disciples and
admirers from many places, chiefly Bengal and Brindában, visited him
here; and he edified them by his discourses, acts of humility, and
penances. Towards the close of his life he had repeated fits of
religious ecstasy in which he acted in utter disregard of his
life,--once leaping into the blue ocean, at another time battering his
face against the walls of his room.

At last in June-July, 1533, his physical frame broke down under such
prolonged mental convulsion and self-inflicted torments, and he passed
away under circumstances over which the piety of his biographers has
drawn the veil of mystery.

In his lifetime his disciples had organized a mission. In Bengal the new
creed was preached and spread far and wide by Nityánanda, who afterwards
came to be regarded as a god, co-ordinate with Chaitanya. Modern
Brindában, with its temples, Sanskrit seminaries and haunts for
recluses, is the creation of the Bengali Vaishnavs, and it has eclipsed
the older city of Mathura. Here the brothers Rup and Sanátan,--descended
from a Prince of Karnat who had settled in Bengal and whose descendants
had become completely Bengalized, joined Chaitanya's Church. These two
and their nephew Jiv Goswámi were great Sanskrit scholars and their
devotional works, commentaries, &c. encouraged a revival of Sanskrit
studies in general in that Muslim age. These three, with Gopal Bhatta,
nephew of the celebrated Vedantist Prakashananda who was latterly
converted to _bhakti_ by Chaitanya and changed his name into
Prabodhananda, and Raghunath Bhatta, son of an up-country Brahman
bhakta, and the last Raghunath-das, a Kayastha saint of the Saptagram
zamindar family of the Hugli district and the guru of our author, formed
the six Fathers of Chaitanya's Church. Except Rup and Sanátan, most of
the other disciples of Chaitanya adopted the Bengali tongue as their
medium, and greatly enriched it with their songs, biographies, poems,
travels, and translations of the bhakti literature from Sanskrit. The
Vaishnav Goswamis, both at Brindában and Navadwip, have kept up the
study of Sanskrit to our own day. A classified list of Chaitanya's
disciples is given in Book I. canto x and those of Nityánanda and
Adwaita's disciples in cantos xi and xii respectively.


_Abadhut_--an ascetic who has renounced the world.

_Acharya_--a family name or title of Brahmans, _lit._, teacher.

_Adwaita Acharya_--an elderly scholar of Shantipur and associate in
Chaitanya's devotions before he became a sannyasi.

_Arati_--divine service performed to a god in the early morning or
after dusk, with lamps, incense, and instrumental music, especially

_Balarám_--the elder brother of Krishna; the images of the two with
that of their sister Subhadrá between them, are worshipped in the temple
of Jagannáth.

_Baniá_--grocer, (also acts as banker).

_Bhágabat_--an adorer of Bhagabán or Vishnu as God; the Bhágabat, the
name of a Puran, regarded by the Vaishnavs as their Scripture.

_Bhakta_--a devotee, who seeks salvation through faith.

_Bhakti_--faith, devotion.

_Bhárati_--the title of an order of monks.

_Bhattáchárya_--a title of Brahmans.

_Bhog_--see _prasád_.

_Dhoti_--a sheet of cloth worn round the lower limbs by Hindu males.

_Gandharva_--a class of celestial musicians.

_Garuda_--a bird ridden by Vishnu, sacred to the Vaishnavs.

_Gaur_--(1) a city in the Malda district, the capital of Bengal during
the Pathan period; also applied to the whole country of Bengal, (Gaur).
(2) or _Gauránga_, a title of Chaitanya.

_Gauriyá_--a native of Bengal.

_Ghághar_--a musical instrument.

_Ghát_--bathing stairs in a river, usually sacred.

_Ghee_--melted butter.

_Gopis_--milk-maids of Brindában with whom Krishna disported.

_Goswámi_--a title of respect, usually given to spiritual leaders among
the Vaishnavs.

_Govardhan_--a sacred hill near Brindában.

_Guru_--spiritual preceptor, initiator into learning or a faith.

_Haridás_--a Muhammadan who had turned Vaishnav under Chaitanya's
influence. There was another Haridas, a born Hindu, among Chaitanya's

_Jagannáth_--or Lord of the Universe, name of the idol of Krishna
worshipped in the temple at Puri; also applied to the town of Puri.

_Jhárikhand_--the jungle country, Chota Nagpur and the Santhal

_Kali yug_--the present or iron age of the world.

_Katak_--the capital of Orissa and the seat of King Pratap Rudra of the
Gajapati dynasty.

_Kholan_--instrument of music, being a long earthenware drum covered at
both ends with leather; distinctive of the Bengali Vaishnavs.

_Kirtan_ or _sankirtan_, chanting God's name to the accompaniment of
dance and song.

_Kulin_--(1) a man of blue blood (kul), descended from a mythical
ancestor of high character or social position in a very far-off age. (2)
the name of a village in Bengal.

_Kunda_--a pool of water, sacred to some god or saint.

_Lilá_--the antic or sport of a god, particularly of Krishna.

_Mádhav Pun_--also Madhavendra, a monk, the spiritual guide of that
Ishwar Puri who was the guru of Chaitanya.

_Mahá-pátra_--minister of the Rajah of Orissa.

_Mahá-prasád_--food offered to Jagannáth and thereafter considered as

_Mangal-árati_--early morning worship, see _árati_.

_Mantra_--spell, sacred verse (usually in Sanskrit).

_Mahánta_--the abbot of a Hindu monastery.

_Niláchal_--the Blue Mountain. Name of the mound on which the temple of
Jagannáth at Puri is situated.

_Nimái_--a nick-name of Chaitanya.

_Nupur_--bells tied to the feet in dancing.


_Pándás_--attendants at a temple (such as Jagannáth); they act as
guides to pilgrims for a consideration.

_Pandit_--scholar, one versed in Sanskrit.

_Parichhá_--the highest servitor of the temple of Jagannáth.

_Prasád_--food dedicated to a god at his worship, and thereafter eaten
by the faithful as something holy.

_Prayág_--the town of Allahabad, at the junction of the Ganges and the

_Prem_--love, the highest form of bhakti or devotion.

_Puri_--(1) a town on the sea-coast in Orissa, containing the temple of
Jagannáth. (2) the title of an order of monks.

_Purushottam_--a title of Vishnu; usually applied to the temple of
Jagannáth at Puri.

_Rárh_--the upland of Burdwan and Birbhum districts, west of the

_Sankirtan_--see _kirtan_.

_Sannyási_--ascetic, monk, religious mendicant.

_Sárvabhauma_--i.e., "universal doctor," a man of encyclopaedic
knowledge. In the book this title is applied to a great scholar and
Vedántic philosopher of Navadwip, who had settled at Puri and was held
in high honour by the local king. His father was the scholar Visharád, a
fellow-student of Chaitanya's maternal grandfather. His sister's husband
was Gopinath Acharya, who, too, lived at Puri. Also called the
Bhattáchárya, and Bhatta; not to be confounded with the Bhattáchárya
(i.e., Balabhadra) of ch. xv-xxiii.

_Shálgrám_--a round dark pebble, worshipped as an emblem of Vishnu,
(found in the Gandak river).

_Shántipur_--a town on the Ganges, some miles below Navadwip.


_Shikdár_--the revenue collector of a district, local governor.

_Shloka_--a complete verse, couplet or quatrain.

_Shripád_--a title of respect, here applied to Nityánanda.

_Shri-Vaishnav_--one of the four main sects of the Vaishnavs; they
adore Náráyan and Lakshmi (=_Shri_), instead of Krishna and Rádhá.

_Shudra_--the lowest caste among the Hindus.

_Subhadrá_--the sister of Krishna.

_Thug_--a class of professional robbers who used to strangle or poison
their victims, after mixing with them on the way, disguised as

_Tirtha_--sacred place, usually containing a bathing place.

_Tulsi_--(1) the Indian Basil plant, sacred to Vishnu, and venerated by
the Vaishnavs as almost divine. "She is the Indian Daphne"
(_Birdwood_). (2) the name of a minister of the king of Orissa.

_Vaikuntha_--the heaven of Vishnu.

_Vaishnav_--worshipper of Vishnu, the preserver, one incarnation of
whom is Krishna. The Shaivas are the worshippers of Shiva the destroyer,
while the Shaktas are the worshippers of Shakti or energy, the wife of

_Varáha_--the "Boar," the 3rd incarnation of Vishnu.

_Vidyá-nagar_--Rajmahendri, in the Madras presidency.

_Vrihaspati_--the teacher of the gods; hence, a man versed in all the
branches of learning.

_Vishwarup_--Chaitanya's elder brother, who turned a sannyási under the
title of Shankaráyana and died in the monastery of Pandharpur in
Southern India.

_Yug_--era or cycle of time.


(From an old painting in the possession of the Zamindar of Kunjagháta)



At the House of Adwaita

Glory to Shri Chaitanya! Glory to Nityánanda, to Adwaita, and to all
followers of Gaur! In the month of Mágh when the Master completed His
twenty-fourth year, in the bright fortnight, He turned hermit. Then led
by devotion He set off for Brindában, and wandered for three days in the
Rárh country, hallowing it with His footsteps and chanting the following
verse in rapture:

_"I too shall cross the terrible and dark ocean of the world by means of
devotion to the Supreme Being, as the sages did of yore, by service at
the lotus-like feet of Mukunda."[1]_

The Master said, "True are the words of this Brahman, who chose the
service of Mukunda as his life's task. The highest robe [in which a man
can clothe himself] is devotion to the Supreme Soul, the service of
Mukunda which brings salvation. That robe he put on. Now shall I go to
Brindában and serve Krishna in solitude."

So saying the Master moved day and night, the picture of religious
ecstasy, heedless which way He walked. Nityánanda, Acharya Ratna, and
Mukunda, all three followed Him. All who saw Him, cried "Hari! Hari!" in
devotion, and forgot sorrow and loss. The cow-boys shouted Hari's name,
at the sight of the Master, who stroked their heads saying, "Go on with
your chant," and thanked them saying, "Blessed are ye! ye have
gratified me by pouring Hari's name into my ears!" Nityánanda took the
boys apart and thus tutored them, "When the Master asks you about the
road to Brindában, show Him the path leading to the Ganges." This they
did and He took that path. Nityánanda spoke to Acharya Ratna, "Hasten to
Adwaita and tell him that I shall lead the Master to his house. He
should keep a boat ready at the riverside. Thence go to Navadwip and
fetch Shachi and all the disciples."

Sending him off, Nityánanda came before the Master and showed himself.
"Whither are you going, Shripád?" the Master asked. "With thee to
Brindában" was the reply. "How far is Brindában?" "Behold, yonder is the
Jamuna!" So saying Nityánanda led the Master to the Ganges. This river
He mistook for the Jamuna. He thanked His stars that He had beheld the
Jamuna, sang its praise, and after bowing bathed in it. He had no second
clothing except His loin-cloth with Him. Just then Adwaita arrived in a
boat, with a fresh loin-cloth and upper garment, and appeared bowing
before the Master, who was puzzled to see him and asked, "You are the
Acharya Goswámi. Why have you come here? How did you know that I was at
Brindában?" The Acharya replied "It is Brindában wherever you are. It is
my good luck that you have come to the Ganges bank." The Master said,
"So, Nityánanda has played me a trick: he has led me to the Ganges and
called it the Jamuna!" The Acharya replied, "False are not the words of
Shripád. You have now indeed bathed in the Jamuna, for the Ganges and
the Jamuna flow in one channel, the eastern waters being called Ganga
and the western (in which you have bathed) Jamuna. Change your wet cloth
for a dry one. Four days have you fasted in fervour of love. Come to my
house to-day, I invite thee. I have cooked a handful of rice, with dry
coarse curry, broth and green herbs." Saying this he took the Master on
board to his house, and joyfully washed His feet. His wife had al ready
done the cooking. The Acharya himself dedicated the food to Vishnu, and
served it in three equal portions. [Description of the dinner omitted.]

The Master said, "Long have you made me dance, now leave it off. Dine
with Mukunda and Haridas." Then the Acharya broke his fast with those
two, to his heart's content. The people of Shantipur, hearing of the
Master's arrival, flocked to gaze on His feet. In joy they cried "Hari!
Hari!" and wondered at His beauty. His fair complexion, which eclipsed
the Sun in splendour, was set off by his red robe. Endless streams of
people came and went throughout the day. At dusk the Acharya began a
_sankirtan_; he danced, while the Master gazed on. Goswámi Nityánanda
danced hand in hand with the Acharya, and Haridas behind them. This song
accompanied their dance:

    _"How shall I speak of my bliss to-day?
    The Beloved (Krishna) has entered my temple for ever!"_

With perspiration, thrill, tears of joy, shout, and roar, they turned
and turned, touching the Master's feet now and then. The Acharya
embraced Him and said "Long did you wander after escaping from me. Now
that I have got you in my house, I shall hold you fast!" So the Achaiya
continued dancing and singing for three hours after nightfall. The
Master was in an attitude of longing as He had not yet gained union with
Krishna, and this separation made His love burn the more fiercely.
Impatiently He fell down on the ground, at which the Acharya stopped his
dance. Mukunda, who knew the Master's heart well, began to sing verses
apt for His passion. The Acharya raised Him to make Him dance. At the
verses, the Master could no longer be held back. He was all tears,
tremour, thrill, sweat, and broken accents,--now rising up, now falling
down, now weeping.

    The song: [Radha speaks]

    _Woe is me, dear sister, for my present state!_
    _The love of Krishna has caught my body and soul like a poison._

    _My heart burns day and night; I know no peace._
    _O that I could fly where Kanu (Krishna) is to be found!_

Sweetly did Mukunda sing the above ditty, which made the Master's heart
burst, as the emotions of penitence, melancholy, rapture,
frolicsomeness, pride, and humility struggled with it. He was stricken
down by the force of His passion, and lay down breathless on the ground.
The faithful grew alarmed, when lo! He sprang up with a shout, overcome
with ecstasy and saying "Chant, chant, [the name of Hari]." None could
under stand the strong tides of His emotion.

Nityánanda moved on holding Him, while the Acharya and Haridas danced
behind them. Three hours did He pass thus, now joy now sadness surging
in His heart. The dinner had come after five days of fasting; so the
wild dance greatly fatigued Him, but He felt it not to His ecstasy.
Nityánanda held Him back by main force; the Acharya ended the _kirtan_,
and laid the Master in His bed with every care.

In the same way ten days were passed in dinners and singing. In the
morning the Acharya brought mother Shachi in a litter followed by the
faithful. All the people of Navadwip came,--old and young, men and
women,--forming a vast crowd. The Master was dancing and singing the
Name, when Shachi arrived at Adwaita's house and He fell prone at her
feet. She took Him up into her bosom and wept, both of them being rapt
at seeing each other. Shachi was distracted at seeing His shaven crown:
she wiped His body, kissed His mouth, and gazed at Him intently; but
could not see anything as tears filled her eyes. She mourned saying, "My
darling Nimái! be not cruel to me as Vishwarup was, whom I never saw
after he had turned hermit. If _you_ too do so, it will be the death of
me." The Master replied amidst tears, "Listen, mother! This body is your
gift and not my own. My birth is from you, my body has been nursed by
you. In ten million births I cannot repay my debt to you. True, I have
become a _sannyasi_ with or without your consent, but I shall never
slight your wishes. I shall live wherever you bid me, I shall do
whatever you command." So saying He bowed to her again and again, while
she joyfully clasped Him repeatedly.

Then the Acharya led her in, and the Master made haste to receive the
faithful, welcoming them, looking into their faces and embracing them,
one after another. They grieved at the sight of His bare head, and yet
delighted at His beauty. How can I name all the devotees Shrivas, Ramai,
Vidyanidhi, Gadadhar, Gangadas, Vakreshwar, Murari, Shuklambar,
Buddhimanta Khan, Nandan, Shridhar, Vijay, Vasudev, Damodar, Mukunda and
Sanjay? Graciously He smiled on meeting the people of Navadwip. They
danced in delight singing "Hari, Hari." The Acharya's house was turned
into Vishnu's Heaven. From Navadwip and many villages men flocked to see
the Master. For many days the Acharya supplied them all with food, drink
and quarters; his store was inexhaustible, the more he spent the more
was it filled again. From that day forward Shachi herself did the
cooking, and the Master dined in the company of the faithful. In the day
they had the Acharya's love and the sight of the Master, at night His
dance and song. While He was singing all passions swept over Him, now He
stood still, now trembled, now shed tears of joy or uttered broken
words, now He fainted. At times He fell down on the ground, at which
mother Shachi wept, saying "Methinks Nimái's body has been shattered."
Then she piteously prayed to Vishnu, "Grant me this reward for my
worship of thee since my infancy, that when Nimái falls on the ground,
it may not hurt Him!" The loving mother Shachi was out of herself with
transports of delight and meekness.

Shrinivas and other Brahmans wanted to feast the Master. But Shachi
entreated them saying, "Where again shall I see Nimái? You will meet Him
elsewhere, but for me, miserable one, this is His only visit. Therefore,
so long as He lives with the Acharya, I shall feed Him. I beg this
favour of you all."

The faithful bowed in assent to the mother's wish. The Master too,
caught His mother's love-longing and said to His assembled followers: "I
had started for Brindában without your consent. So my journey was cut
short by a hindrance. True, I have embraced the monastic life all of a
sudden, yet I shall not be dead to you all. I shall not leave you in
life, nor shall I leave my mother. It does not, however, become a hermit
to live with his kindred in his birth-place. Let me not lay myself open
to this charge. Devise a means by which I can be true to both my

At these sweet words, the Acharya and others went to Shachi and told her
of His wish. Shachi, the Mother of the World, answered, "I shall be
happy if He stays here, but if He is blamed it will grieve me. This plan
strikes me as a happy solution: let Him live on the Niláchal (Puri),
which is as it were a next door house from Navadwip; men pass frequently
between the two places, and I shall always get news of Him. You all may
come and go, and He too may sometimes visit Navadwip at the Ganges bath.
I count not my own joy or sorrow. What makes Him happy is happiness to

The faithful praised her, "Mother, thy words are like an oracle of the
gods!" At their report the Master rejoiced, did reverence to the people
of Navadwip and other adorers, and said, "You are my greatest friends.
Grant this my prayer, all of you, that you may ever in your homes sing
Krishna's _sankirtan_, Krishna's name, Krishna's deeds, Krishna's
worship. Now give me leave to go to the Niláchal; I shall visit you
between whiles." Smiling He bade them farewell with due respect. But
when He wished to start, Haridas cried piteously "You are going to the
Niláchal, but what will be my salvation? I have not strength enough to
go there. How can this lowly one hold to his sinful life without getting
sight of you?" The Master answered, "Have done with thy self-abasement.
It agitates my mind. For thy sake I shall pray to Jagannáth; I shall
take thee to Purushottam". Then the Acharya meekly begged Him to stay
for a few days more, and the Master listened to him and did not go away.
So, the Acharya, Shachi, and the faithful rejoiced. Daily did the
Acharya hold the grand celebration the sweet discourse on Krishna in the
company of the devout in the day-time, and the revelry of _sankirtan_
at night. Joyfully did Shachi cook, and merrily did the Master dine with
the faithful. The service of the Master brought fulfilment to Acharya's
reverence, devotion, home, and wealth, while Shachi delighted in gazing
on her son, and feasting Him to her heart's content.

Thus did the faithful beguile some days in the Acharya's house in great
bliss. At last the Master told them, "Go you all to your own homes;
there make Krishna's _sankirtan_. We shall meet again; sometimes you
will go to Puri, at others I shall come to you at the Bathing in the
Ganges." Goswámi Nityánanda, Pandit Jagadananda, Pandit Damodar, and
Mukunda Datta, these four[2] were sent by the Acharya to bear the Master
company. Comforting His mother, He bowed at her feet, walked round her,
and then set off. The cry of lamentation rose in the Acharya's house,
but the Master quickened His pace, heedless of it. Adwaita followed Him
some distance weeping, when He turned back with clasped hands, solaced
him, and spoke these gentle words, "You should comfort my mother and
look after the congregation, for if you give way to grief they will all
die!" Embracing He turned Adwaita back, and passed on freely. To the
bank of the Ganges He went with the four, and then to Puri by way of
Chhatrabhog.[3] [_Madhya Lilá_, text, canto 3.]

[1] From the Brahman mendicant's speech reported in the _Shrimad
Bhágabat_, XI. xxiii. verse 53.

[2] The _Chaitanya Bhágabat_ mentions two others, Govinda and Gadadhar,
(III. 2).

[3] _Chhatrabhog_. A village where the Ganges divides into innumerable
branches before falling into the sea. It is famous for its submerged
Shiva styled _Ambu-linga_.



The Miracles of Madhav Puri

So the Master went to the Niláchal, with His four companions, absorbed
in the _kirtan_ (singing) of Krishna. One day He entered a village and
brought back a large quantity of rice by personally begging for alms. On
the way the ferrymen did not refuse Him a crossing. He blessed them and
came to Remuna, [1] where He devoutly visited the charming image of
Gopinath. As He bowed down at the feet of the image, the bunch of
flowers on its crown dropped upon His head. At this Master rejoiced and
danced and sang long with the faithful. The attendants of Gopinath
marvelled at His power, ardour, beauty, and accomplishments, and served
Him in many ways. There He passed the night, in desire of the _kshir
prasád_ (condensed milk) of which He had heard from Ishwar Puri before.
The god was known as the _Gopinath who stole the kshir_, because, as
the devotees told the tale, he had once stolen _kshir_ for Madhav Puri.

In days gone by Madhav Puri had wandered on to Govardhan, near
Brindában, in his ecstasy heeding not whether it was day or night, and
falling down to the ground without caring what sort of place it was.
After making a circuit of the rock, he came to the Govinda-_kunda_
(pool), bathed, and sat down under a tree in the evening. A Cow-boy came
and held a pail of milk before him, saving with a smile, "Puri! drink
this milk. Why don't you take what you have longed for? What are you
musing on?" The Child's beauty charmed the heart of the Puri, and his
sweet words took away his hunger and thirst. The Puri asked, "Who are
you and where do you live? How did you know that I was fasting?" The Boy
answered, "I am a milk-man of this village. In _my_ village none can
remain fasting. Some beg for rice, some for milk. I convey food to those
who do not beg. The women who had come to draw water saw you, and sent
me with this milk for you. I must be off now to milk my cows, but I
shall come again for my pail." Then the Boy went away and was not seen
again. Madhav Puri wondered, laid the emptied pail down, and began to
pray without sleeping. Towards the end of the night he dozed off into
unconsciousness, and dreamt that the Boy came and led him by the hand to
a bower saying "Here I dwell, suffering much from cold and rain, wind
and sun. Bring the villagers together, remove me from the bower to the
hill-top and there lodge me properly in a monastery. Bathe me profusely
in cold water. Long have I looked forward to the day when Madhav would
come to serve me. Moved by thy love I have accepted thy service, and I
shall appear in the flesh to save the world by my sight. I am Gopal, the
Uplifter of Govardhan Hill. My image was installed by King Bajra,[2] and
is the guardian deity of this place. My attendant, in fear of the
misbelievers, removed me from the hill to this grove for concealment and
then fled. Since then I have been here. It is well that you have come.
Now bring me out carefully." So saying the Boy disappeared. Madhav Puri
awoke, and judging that he had seen Shri Krishna without recognizing
him, he rolled on the ground in a transport of devotion. After some
weeping he calmed his mind and set about to carry out the Lord's
bidding. After his morning bath he went into the village, called the
people together, and said, "The Lord of your village, the Uplifter of
Govardhan, is in a grove. Let us seek him out. The grove is dense and
hard to enter. Take hatchets and spades with yourselves to make a door."
The villagers joyfully accompanied him, and cut an entrance into the
grove, where they found to their joy and wonder the image lying hidden
under earth and grass. Removing the covering they knew (the image). But
it was very heavy, so the strongest men joined together to take it up
the hill. There the idol was placed on a stone seat, with another big
stone at its back as a support. The Brahmans of the village fetched
water from the Govinda-_kunda_ in fresh pots. Nine hundred pots of
water were brought; many musical instruments were played; the women
sang. It was a great festival with dancing and singing. All the curd
milk and _ghee_ in the village were brought there with sweets, and all
other articles of offering. The image was bathed by Madhav Puri himself,
worshipped and installed there. All the food available in the village
was brought to the hill, offered to the god and an _anna-kut_ (pyramid
of consecrated food) was formed. In one day's preparation this grand
feast was accomplished. The image was laid on a bedstead, a straw thatch
built over it, with walls of straw.

The Goswámi Puri ordered the Brahmans to feast all the villagers, old
and young. They dined, the Brahmans and Brahmanis first, then the others
in due order. The people who came from other villages looked at Gopal
and got his _prasád_. Men wondered at the power of the Puri who had
produced the pyramid of rice. He brought all the Brahmans to Vaishnavism
and employed them in the various services (of the god). Again, at close
of day he roused the god, offered some light refreshments as _bhog_. It
was noised abroad that Gopal had appeared there, and people flocked from
neighbouring villages to see the god. The villagers joyfully gave feasts
in honour of him on different days, each building up a pyramid of rice.
At night the image was laid to rest; the Puri drank a little milk.

Next morning the same kind of service began. The people of a village
came with all their milk, curd, _ghee_ and rice, and offered them to
Gopal. The Brahmans cooked as before and Gopal tasted of the heap of
rice. The people of Brindaban love Gopal of themselves, and he too loves
them. They all came, partook of the holy _prasád_ and forgot their
sorrow and loss at the sight of him. From other provinces men arrived
with presents when they heard that Gopal had appeared there. The rich
men of Mathura sent costly offerings out of devotion. Gold, silver,
cloth, incense and food stuffs were daily presented in vast quantities
and swelled the store (of the temple). One very rich Kshatriya built the
temple (at his own cost), some one else the kitchen, another the walls.
The citizen of Brindában presented a cow each, and thus Gopal got a
thousand cows. Two Brahman hermits came from Bengal, and the Puri
received them with attention, made them his disciples, and entrusted to
them the service of the god. So he waited on the god for some two years,
glad to see him served right royally.

One night the Puri had a dream, in which Gopal spoke to him, "I burn, I
burn! Rub me with sandal wood from the Blue Mountain, and from nowhere
else, and then shall I be cooled. Go there quickly." The Puri, inspired
by devotion, travelled to the eastern country to do the Lord's behest,
appointing others to carry on the service. At Shantipur he visited
Adwaita Acharya, who was moved by his devotion to get himself initiated
by him and became his disciple. Thence the Puri proceeded south [i.e.,
to Orissa], and at Remuna saw the Gopinath, whose beauty threw him into
ecstasy. After singing and dancing he sat down in the vestibule and
asked the (attendant) Brahman about the different dishes served to the
god. The splendour of the service made him infer that the _bhog_ was
excellent. So he resolved to inquire into the character of the _bhog_
and appoint it for his Gopal too. The Brahman described to him how
twelve earthen pots full of _kshir_, called _amrita-keli_ (the cream
of nectar) famous and unmatched in the world, were offered to the god
every evening. Just then that _bhog_ was presented. The Puri only
thought, "If I can get a little of the _kshir prasád_ unasked, I may
learn its taste for the purpose of establishing it as my Gopa's _bhog_."
But the longing shamed him and he prayed to Vishnu.

Then the _bhog_ was removed and the _árati_ was celebrated. The Puri
bowed and went out without saying a word. He was passionless,
indifferent to the world, vowed not to ask for anything. If he got
anything unasked he ate it, otherwise he fasted; the nectar of love was
enough for him, he felt not hunger or thirst. That he had coveted the
_kshir_ struck him as a sin. So he sat down in the deserted square of
the village-market singing hymns.

In the meantime the priest laid the image to sleep, finished his duties,
and went to bed, where he had a dream. The god came and told him, "Up,
priest, and open my door. I have kept a pot of _kshir_ for the hermit.
You will find it concealed under the skirt of my lower garment. You all
did not notice it under my illusion. Take the _kshir_ quickly to Madhav
Puri who is sitting in the market place." The priest arose, bathed,
opened the shrine, and found the _kshir_ under the lappet of the god's
_dhoti_. He washed the spot and went into the village with the pot of
_kshir_ and walked through the market crying, "Take this _kshir_,
whosoever is named Madhav Puri! For your sake Gopinath had concealed
this _kshir_. Take it and eat it, Puri, thou luckiest man in the three

At this the Puri disclosed himself. The priest gave him the _kshir_,
bowed, and told the whole story, to the rapture of the Puri. The
attendant priest marvelled at his devotion and said, "It is only fitting
that Krishna should be obedient to him."

Lovingly did the Puri drink the _kshir_, then he washed the pot, broke
it, and tied the sherds in a corner of his sheet, eating one of the
broken pieces every day, at which he grew wonderfully enraptured. At the
close of the night he set off for Puri (Jagannáth), bowing to Gopinath
then and there, in fear that a crowd would gather round him next
morning, when they heard that the Lord had sent him _kshir_.

So he fared on, till he came to Puri in the Blue Mountain; the sight of
Jagannáth threw him into an ecstasy, he rose up and fell down, he
laughed, danced, and sang, in intense delight. It was noised abroad that
Madhav Puri had come to the holy place: men flocked to do him reverence.
Such is the nature of fame, it comes God-sent to those who seek it not.
In fear of public notice the Puri had fled thither, but fame clung to
this devotee of Krishna all the way. Eager as he was to escape from the
place, the need of sandal for his god held him back. He told the story
of Gopal to the attendants of Jagannáth and the _mohants_, and begged
sandal wood for him. The faithful exerted themselves for it. Those who
knew the Rajah's minister (_pátra_) begged him and thus collected the
camphor and sandal. A Brahman and a servant for carrying the sandal were
sent with the Puri, and given their travelling expenses. Royal passports
were given to the Puri by the minister, addressed to the officers of the
frontier outposts and the ferries.

So he returned to Remuna after some time, made many bows to Gopinath,
and danced and sang long in rapture. The servitors of the temple did him
reverence and fed him on the _kshir prasád_. While sleeping in the
temple, he had a dream at the close of night: Gopal came and told him,
"Hark thee, Madhav! I have got all the camphor and sandal. Rub this
sandal with camphor and anoint Gopinath with it daily. Gopinath's body
is one with mine! Lay the sandal on him and I shall feel the cooling
effect. Doubt not, hesitate not, believe and give up the sandal as I bid
you." So saying, Gopal vanished; the Goswámi awoke, called together the
servitors of Gopinath, and told them, "The Lord bids you rub all this
sandal and camphor on Gopinath's person; for thus will Gopal be cooled.
He is the Supreme Lord and his order is mighty. In summer Gopinath
should be anointed with sandal paste." The servitors rejoiced at it. The
Puri set the two men to rub the sandal into paste and hired two other
men also [for the work]. So he daily rubbed the sandal and the attending
priests laid it on gleefully. He stayed there doing this till the sandal
was all gone. At the end of summer he again went to the Niláchal and
passed there four months.

The Master told His disciples of the sweet life of Madhav Puri and
remarked, "Think of it, Nityánanda; happiest of men is the Puri. Krishna
appeared to him on the pretext of giving him milk. Thrice did he appear
to him in dream to lay his commands. His love so influenced the god that
he revealed himself, accepted the Puri's service, and saved the world.
For his sake Gopinath stole the _kshir_ and got the surname of
"_kshir_-stealer." On the god's body did he lay camphor and sandal, and
his love overflowed at it. Hard it is to carry camphor and sandal
through a Muslim country (Bengal and Upper India). Gopal knew that the
Puri would be put in distress in doing this task. So, the gracious god,
ever tender to his devotees, himself took the sandal (at Remuna) in
order that the Puri's task might be done. Think of the Puri's extreme
devotion! It transcends nature, it amazes the mind! He is silent,
passionless, indifferent to every earthly thing. He keeps with himself
no companion, lest he should have to speak on any ungodly material
subject. That such a man, on receiving Gopal's command, travelled two
thousand miles to beg for sandal! He lay fasting and yet did not ask for
food! Such a man carried the sandal one _maund_ of sandal and 20
_tolas_ of camphor, rejoicing that he would lay them on Gopal! The
frontier custom-officer of Orissa stopped him but he showed the royal
pass and was set free. He never reflected how he would carry the sandal
through the Muslim land, long distance, and countless hindrances. He had
not a shell (_kowri_) with him to pay duty at the custom barrier, and
yet in his enthusiasm he set forth to carry the sandal. Such is the
natural effect of true love,--not to think of one's own sufferings and
troubles! Gopal had bidden him bring the sandal, only to show to the
world the Puri's deep devotion. And he brought it joyfully through all
hardships to Remuna. Gopal had meant by it only to try him, and when the
trial was over the god grew gracious. We are powerless to understand the
depth of his love for Krishna and Krishna's graciousness to his

So saying the Master recited a stanza of the Puri's composition, which
has lighted the world like the moon. Discourse on the stanza only
revealed its full beauty, just as the odour of sandal wood spreads with
rubbing. I deem this stanza the rarest gem in poetry. Radha speaks it
through the mouth of Madhavendra. How did Chaitanya relish it! None
besides these three can know its full flavour. The Puri finally attained
to the supreme realization [_i.e._, death], reciting this stanza:

    The stanza [Radhika speaks]:--

    _"O Lord! Gracious to the lowly! thou art now in
    Mathura. When wilt thou come to me? Darling mine!
    my heart runs about in pain of longing to see thee.
    What shall I do?"_

On reciting the stanza the Master fell down on the ground in a trance,
senseless with the intensity of love. Nityánanda hurriedly took Him up
in his arms. Chaitanya rose weeping, and ran hither and thither in a
transport of devotion, shouting, laughing, dancing, and singing. Oft did
He repeat the first word of the stanza, His voice choked with emotion
and tears running down His cheeks. He trembled, perspired, wept with
joy, stood still, changed colour, now showing remorse, now grief, now
stupor, now pride or meekness. The stanza opened the gate of His love.
The servitors of Gopinath gazed on tke Master's outpouring of love. But
He came back to Himself on seeing a crowd gathering. The _bhog_ was
performed, then the _árati_. The priest laid the god to rest, came out of
the shrine and placed the twelve pots of _kshir_ before the Master, who
joyfully took five pots for Himself and His disciples and returned the
other seven to the priest. True, the sight of Gopinath had been food
enough for Him; but He now drank the _kshir_ as a mark of reverence.
The night was passed in singing the Name. In the morning He attended the
_mangal árati_ and then departed. [Text, canto 4.]

[1] _Remuna_, 10 miles north-west of Baleshwar in Orissa.

[2] The great-grandson of Krishna and his successor on the throne
of Mathura.


The Legend of Gopal the Witness

Glory to Chaitanya! Glory to Nityánanda! Glory to Adwaita! and Glory to
the followers of Chaitanya!

On His way the Master came to the village of Jajpur, where He bowed to
the image of Varáha. He danced and sang in love and prayed long, passing
the night in that village. To Katak[1] He went to see the Sakshi-Gopal,
whose beauty threw Him into a rapture. After dance and song He prayed to
the Gopal with abstraction. That night during His halt there with His
disciples He heard the legend of Gopal. Nityánanda in his former
pilgrimage had come to Katak, seen the Sakshi-Gopal, and heard the
legends of the god, which he now narrated to the Master. Once on a time
two Brahmans of Vidya-nagar [Rajmahendri] set out on a pilgrimage, and
after visiting Gaya, Benares, Allahabad, &c., reached Mathura. They made
a tour of the [Mahá-] ban, and beheld Govardhan and the Twelve Woods,
known as _Dwádash ban_, finally going to Brindában. In the great temple
Gopal was worshipped with great pomp. They bathed at the Keshi ghát, the
pool of Káliya, and other places, and rested in the temple of Gopal,
whose beauty ravished their hearts. There they blissfully passed a few
days. One of the Brahmans being old had been tended carefully by the
younger one. The old man, pleased with his attendance, said, "Long have
you served me, and through your help have I performed my pilgrimage.
Even a son does not serve his father so lovingly. Through your kindness
I have been saved every trouble. It will be rank ingratitude if I do not
honour you. So I shall wed my daughter to you." The youth replied,
"Listen, sir! Why talk of that which cannot be? You are a high _kulin_,
great in learning and Wealth, while I am a non-_kulin_ lacking in
scholarship and riches. I am no worthy match for your daughter. Through
love of Krishna have I served you, as he is pleased with attention to
Brahmans. What pleases the Lord increases the store of faith." The elder
answered, "Doubt not. What wonder is there in it that I should give you
my daughter?" The younger Brahman rejoined, "You have a large circle of
kindred, friends and sons, without whose consent you cannot possibly wed
your daughter to me. Witness the case of Bhishmak, the father of
Rukmini, who was opposed by his son in giving his daughter, as he
wished, to Krishna." The old man answered, "My daughter is my property.
Who can oppose me in giving away what is mine? I shall give you my
daughter in despite of all. Don't doubt it, but derive your consent."
The youth said, "If you have really decided to give me your daughter,
make a vow before Gopal." The old Brahman addressed Gopal and said,
"Know that I shall give my daughter to this man." The youth added,
"Lord, be thou my witness, and I shall summon thee to give thy testimony
if he breaks his promise."

So saying the two returned to their homes, the young man serving the
other like an elder. The old man now reflected, "I pledged my word to
this Brahman in a holy place, but how can I keep it? I must consult my
wife, sons, kindred and friends." So, one day he gathered his own folk
and told them the whole story, at which they lamented and cried "Never
utter such words again! You will lose your _kul_ if you wed your
daughter to a low-born man. You will be a laughing stock to all!" The
Brahman urged, "How can I retract a promise made in a holy place? Come
what may, I will give him my daughter." His kinsfolk threatened to
boycott him, and his wife and children to take poison. The Brahman
pleaded, "He will make a case of it by calling his witness. When he wins
my daughter by a decree, my faith will be proved worthless!" His son
answered, "Oh! the witness is an idol in a far-off land. Who will bear
testimony against you? Do not be alarmed. You need not tell the lie that
you had never made him such a promise; you will only have to pretend
forgetfulness. If you do that I shall beat the Brahman in court." At
this the Brahman, full of anxiety, prayed intently to Gopal, "Gopal, to
thee I appeal: save my faith and save my kindred, save both sides!"

One day the younger Brahman visited him, bowed reverently, and said with
folded hands, "You promised me your daughter, but are now silent on the
point! Is this your sense of justice?" The old man remained silent; but
his son ran with a stick to beat the visitor, crying, "Wretch! you want
to wed my sister! Dwarf, you wish to catch the moon!" The youth fled,
but another day he called all the villagers together, who summoned the
old man. Then the younger Brahman spoke, "This man promised his daughter
to me. Ask him why he does not give her up now." On being questioned by
the people, the elder Brahman replied, "Listen, friends, I do not
remember what I said so long ago." At this his son got the chance to put
in his words boldly, "My father had much money with him during his
pilgrimage. This villain, his only companion, coveted the money,
intoxicated him with _dhuturá_, robbed him and said that thieves had
taken away his money, and then spread the tale that he had promised his
daughter to him. Judge ye all, whether he is a worthy match for my
sister." The assembled people were filled with suspicion, as greed often
makes men commit sin. The younger Brahman pleaded, "Hear, my masters, he
is lying to win the case. His father, pleased with my attendance,
promised me his daughter voluntarily, and when I declined alleging my
unworthiness and our disparity in wealth, learning and _kul_, he
repeatedly pressed me to accept her, and at my suggestion called Gopal
to witness his promise. I conjured the god to bear testimony for me,
should this Brahman break his word. He is my witness, whose word is held
true in the three worlds." The old man replied, "This is good. If Gopal
appears here and bears testimony, I shall certainly give you my
daughter." His son agreed to it. The old man only thought, "Kind is
Krishna. Surely he will bear my word out." His son was confident that
the image would not come to act as a witness. So thinking diversely they
agreed. At the younger Brahman's request both parties signed a written
deed of agreement to abide by this test, to prevent future disputes. It
was left with an umpire. The young man continued, "Listen, all ye here!
This Brahman is pious and true of speech, never wishing to retract his
word. It is only his fear of the suicide of his kinsfolk that has made
him tell a lie. Thanks to his piety, I will bring Krishna as a witness
and enable Hm to keep his word." At this the sceptics laughed; some
said, "God is good, He may come."

Then the younger Brahman went to Brindában, prostrated himself and
prayed to the image, "God of the Brahmans! thou art ever kind. Have pity
and save the honour of two Brahmans. I mind not whether I get the girl
or not, but it would be a great pity if a Brahman's promise is broken.
For this reason, do thou bear witness, for he who will not bear
testimony to the truth that he knows, commits a sin." Krishna replied,
"Brahman! return home, assemble the public, and meditate on me. I shall
appear and give my evidence. But my image can not be taken there." The
Brahman protested, "Even if you appear in your four-armed form, none
will believe you. But if this very image goes there and speaks out of
its mouth, then all will deem it true." Krishna said, "Nobody ever heard
of an idol travelling!" The Brahman replied "Why do you speak of being
an idol? You are not a mere image but the Darling of Brindában. Do an
unprecedented act for the sake of a Brahman." Laughingly Gopal said,
"Hear, Brahman, I shall travel after you; but do not look behind, or
else I shall stop there. You will hear (on the way) only the jingling of
my _nupur_, and thus know that I am going on. Give me one _seer_ of
rice [daily], which I shall eat when accompanying you." Next day, after
taking the Lord's leave, the Brahman set out on his return, delighted to
hear the jingle of the _nupur_ behind him, and offering excellent rice
to the image. So he arrived near his village and then thought, "Now have
I come to my village and shall go home and tell the people of the
arrival of my witness. But I cannot believe if I do not see him with my
own eyes. It will be no harm if he stays here. So he looked behind him;
and Gopal stopped there, saying with a smile, "Go home; here will I stay
without going any further."

When the Brahman reported the tale, the people marvelled at it, and came
to see the witness. They bowed to Gopal, delighted with his beauty and
amazed to hear that the image had travelled thither. Then the old
Brahman in joy prostrated himself before Gopal, who gave his evidence
before the people, and the younger Brahman got his betrothed bride. The
Lord spoke to the two Brahmans, "You will be my servants birth after
birth. I am pleased with you; beg a boon." They prayed together, "Grant
us this that you remain here, so that all may know your favour to your
servants." Gopal remained there, and the two served him. The people of
the country flocked to see him. The king of the land heard the wonderful
legend and beheld the Gopal with supreme delight. He built a temple and
endowed the service of the god, who became famous under the name of
GOPAL THE WITNESS. Thus has _Sakshi-Gopal_ accepted, worship and stayed
at Vidya-nagar for long. Purushottam, the Rajah of Orissa, conquered the
country in battle and seized the many-jewelled throne named
_mánik-sinhásan_. Purushottam Dev was a great devotee and entreated
Gopal to go to his capital. Gopal, pleased with his piety, consented and
was taken to Katak, where his worship was installed. The Rajah gave the
_mánik-sinhásan_ to Jagannáth. His queen, when visiting Gopal, gave him
many ornaments in devotion. A costly pearl hung from her nose, and
wishing to give it too she reflected, "Ah, if there had been a hole in
the Lord's nose, I, his hand maid, could have made him put this pearl
on!" With this thought she bowed and returned home. At the end of the
night Gopal appeared to her in a dream and said, "In my infancy my
mother had bored my nose and very tenderly hung there a pearl. The hole
is there still. Make me wear the pearl you wished to give." The queen
spoke to her husband, and the two went to the temple with the pearl,
hung it from the hole in the nose which was found out, and a great
festival of joy was held. From that day on has Gopal stayed at Katak and
been known as _Sakshi-Gopal_.

The master with all His disciples heard the legend of Gopal from
Nityánanda and was delighted. While He stood before Gopal, the faithful
seemed to see them both as of one body, of one complexion, large-limbed,
red-robed, grave of mien, beaming with glory, lotus-eyed, moon-faced,
both of them in rapture for each other.

At the sight of both, Nityánanda in great joy winked at the faithful and
they all smiled. So the night was passed in great entertainment, and
next morning, after witnessing the matin service, they set off.
Brindában-das has described fully how He visited Bhubaneshwar on the way
(to the Blue Mountain). At Kamalpur He bathed in the Bhagi [2] river,
and gave His mendicant's stick to Nityánanda to carry. With his
disciples He went to see Kapoteshwar [Shiva]. Here Nityánanda broke the
Master's stick into three and threw it (into the river). From that Shiva
shrine the Master returned, and was thrown into ecstasy by the sight of
the spire [3] of the temple of Jagannáth. He prostrated Himself and
danced in love; the disciples too, in love, danced and sang, following
the Master on the highway. He laughed, wept, danced, roared and shouted,
and made a thousand leagues of those six miles. On reaching Athára-nála
(Eighteen Water courses) the Master came to His senses a little and
asked Nityánanda for His stick. But Nityánanda answered, "It was broken
into three bits. You fell down in a swoon of devotion, and as I caught
you, we two tumbled on the stick which was broken by our weight. I know
not where it was dropped. Through my fault was your stick broken. Punish
me as you think fit." The Master was sad and spoke a little bitterly,
"You have all done me great good, forsooth, by coming to the Blue
Mountain! You could not even preserve the stick, my only property. You
go before me to see Jagannáth or let me go there before you. But we will
not go together." Mukunda Datta said, "Master, go thou before us; we
shall arrive after and not in thy company". The Master hastened there.
None could understand the cause why one Master broke the other's stick
and why the latter suffered it to be done, or was angry at the result.
The deep mystery of the breaking of the stick can be understood only by
him who has constant faith in the two Masters. [Text, canto 5.]

[1] The image of _Sakshi-Gopal_ is now installed at a village of the
same name 48 miles south of Katak town.

[2] _Indian Atlas_ (sheet 116) names the river here as _Bargovee_.

[3] The place meant is evidently Jagannáth Vallabh, six miles north of
Puri; from this place the spire of the temple of Jagannáth can be seen.
_Athára-nála_ is two miles north of Puri.


The Conversion of Sárvabhauma

The Master went in an ecstatic mood to the temple of Jagannáth, and was
beside Himself with love at the sight of the god. He rushed to embrace
the image, but fell down on the temple floor, senseless with devotion.
Happily Sárvabhauma noticed Him, and stopped the door keeper
(_Parichhá_, mace-bearer) who was about to beat the Master. Sárvabhauma
marvelled exceedingly as he gazed on the beauty of the Master and His
transport of love. The hour of _bhog_ arrived, yet the Master did not
come to His senses. Sárvabhauma then thought of a plan, and had Him
conveyed by his disciple the door-keeper to his house and laid Him down
on a clean spot. But the Master showed no respiration, no heaving of the
chest. The Bhattáchárya grew alarmed. He held a fine piece of cotton to
the Master's nose; it stirred, and he was reassured. The Bhattáchárya
sat musing thus, "This is the _sáttvika_ form of the passion for
Krishna. It is named the "bright-pure" (_sudipta sáttvika_), and is
displayed only by a devotee who has attained to constant realization
(_nitya-siddhi_). This ecstasy is possible only in one whose devotion
is extreme. I wonder to see it manifested in an [ordinary] man's

While he was pondering thus, Nityánanda and the others arrived at the
main gate, and overheard the people talking among themselves, "A
_sannyasi_ came here and swooned away at the sight of Jagannath; he is
still in a trance. Sárvabhauma has conveyed him to his own house." They
knew from this that it was the Great Master. Just then came there
Gopinath Acharya, the son-in-law of Visharad of Nadia, and a devotee and
acquaintance of the Master. He knew Mukunda from before, and was
surprised to see him there. Mukunda bowed, the Acharya embraced him and
asked him news of the Master. Mukunda replied, "The Master has come
here, and we with Him." The Acharya bowed to Nityánanda Goswámi, and
again asked them all about the Master. Mukunda said, "After taking the
monastic vow, the Master came to the Blue Mountain taking us with Him.
Leaving us behind He came to visit this temple, and we have arrived now
to seek Him. From what we have heard from others, we conclude that He is
in Sárvabhauma's house, whither He was removed on fainting at the sight
of the god. I have met you luckily, just as I was wishing for your
sight. Let us go to Sárvabhauma's house, and after seeing the Master we
shall visit the temple."

Gopinath in delight conducted them to Sárvabhauma's house, where he
beheld the Master and felt mingled joy and grief. He introduced them all
to Sárvabhauma, and took them inside. Sárvabhauma bowed to Nityánanda
Goswámi and saluted the others in the proper mode. Then he sent them all
in charge of his son Chandaneshwar, to the temple. They joyed to behold
the god. Nityánanda went out of himself in devotion, but the others
quieted him. The servitor of the shrine presented them with the garland
and _prasád_ of the god, to their great delight. Then they returned to
the Master, and chanted the divine name loud and long. In the third
quarter [of the day], Chaitanya awoke, and rose up shouting, _Hari!
Hari!_ Reverently Sárvabhauma took the dust of His feet [to place it on
his own head], and entreated Him, "Take your midday meal soon. I shall
feed you to-day with Jagannath's _mahá-prasád_." The Master quickly
came back from His bath in the sea, and feasted with His followers on
the rice, broth and other kinds of _prasád_, which Sárvabhauma served
to them from golden dishes. The Master said, "Help me with the hash of
gourd (_lau_) and other vegetables, and serve these others with cakes
and sweets." But the Bhattáchárya entreated Him with folded palms, "How
has Jagannáth himself fed? Do you too taste all of these," and so made
Him eat the cakes and sweets too. After the dinner, he helped the Master
to wash, then took leave to retire with Gopinath Acharya and eat their
own meals. When they returned, [the Acharya] bowed saying "I salute
Náráyan," and the Master responded with "Be thy mind constant in
Krishna!" At these words Sárvabhauma knew Him to be a Vaishnav hermit.
He then asked Gopinath Acharya about the worldly life of the Master. The
Acharya replied, "His home was at Navadwip; his father Jagannáth Mishra,
surnamed Purandar Mishra, gave him the name of Vishwambhar. His maternal
grandfather was Nilambar Chakravarti." Sárvabhauma added "Nilambar
Chakravarti! why, he was a fellow-student of my father Vishárad, who, I
know, had a high regard for Purandar Mishra, too. I honour both for
their connection with my father."

Delighted to hear that Chaitanya was a man of Nadia, Sárvabhauma thus
addressed Him, "You are of honourable birth, and a _sannyasi_ in
addition. Make me, therefore, your personal disciple." At this the
Master cried out, "O Vishnu! O Vishnu!" and then spoke humbly to the
Bhattáchárya, "You are the teacher of the world and the benefactor of
mankind. You teach _Vedánta_ and [thereby] benefit men of monastic
life. I am a young monk, ignorant of good and evil. I have sought refuge
with you, regarding you as my teacher. For your society have I come
here, hoping that you will train me in all ways. You saved me in my
great danger to-day." The Bhattáchárya said, "Never go to the temple
alone, but always with me or one of my men." The Master replied, "I
shall not enter the shrine, but gaze from the Garuda [pillar in the
quadrangle]." Then Sárvabhauma addressed Gopinath Acharya, "You will be
guide to this Goswami in visiting the temple. Lodge him in the house of
my mother's sister, which is a quiet place, and look to all his needs."
So he did. Next day Gopinath took the Master to the temple to show Him
Jagannáth as he rose from his bed. Mukunda Datta led Him back to
Sárvabhauma's house, who spoke thus, "This _sannyasi_ is meek in
disposition, lovely in form. I daily love Him the more. Tell me what
order He has joined and what name He has chosen." Gopinath replied, "He
has been named Shri Krishna-Chaitanya; His spiritual guide is Keshav
Bhárati, blessed man!" Sárvabhauma remarked, "His name is well-chosen,
but the Bhárati order is not ranked high [among the ten classes of

Gopinath answered, "He does not care for outward [dignity]. Hence His
indifference to the more famous orders of monks." The Bhattáchárya
joined in, "Ah, He is in the full bloom of youth. How can He keep the
monastic rules? However, I shall ceaselessly teach Him Vedánta, and lead
Him on to the rank of a recluse of the Monist school (_adwaita_). If He
then wishes it, I shall robe Him anew with the yellow robe of a yogi,
purify Him, and enter Him into one of the higher orders."

Gopinath and Mukunda grieved to hear it; and the former expostulated,
"Bhattáchárya! You know not His greatness. The signs of divinity have
reached their extreme limit in Him! Hence He is famed as the Great God.
But in a place of ignorance even the wise know nothing."

The [Sárvabhauma's] disciples asked, "What proof is there of His
divinity?" The Acharya replied, "The belief of the wise is proof of
divinity." The disciples objected, saying, "It is by inference that God
is recognized." But the Acharya answered, "No, God is not known by
inference, but only by those on whom He bestows His grace, even a
particle of it. Witness Brahma's praise of Vishnu in the _Shrimad
Bhágabat_, Book X. canto xiv. verse 28:

_"'Lord! true it is that knowledge can gain salvation, but Thy glories
can be known only by him who has been blessed even with a particle of
favour from Thy lotus-like feet. O Perfect Being! A man lacking Thy
grace, may be free from earthly lusts, may have studied the scriptures
for ages, but still he cannot know Thee fully!'_

"O Sárvabhauma, you may be the World's Teacher, a master of theology,
unrivalled in the world in scholarship. But you have not gained God's
grace, hence you cannot know God. I do not blame you, but the scripture
says clearly that the knowledge of God cannot come from mere

Sárvabhauma replied, "Weigh thy words well, Acharya! How do you prove
that you have gained God's grace?" The Acharya replied, "We know a
material thing by observing it. Our knowledge of the nature of a thing
is proved by grace. On this sannyasi's person are all the marks of
divinity. You yourself witnessed his ecstasy of spiritual love. And yet
you know not God! Such are the ways of God's illusion, materialists see
Him and yet recognize Him not!"

Smilingly spoke Sárvabhauma, "We are arguing in a friendly spirit. Don't
get warm. Blame me not, I am only arguing from the strict standpoint of
view of _Shastra_. Chaitanya Goswámi is [I admit] a great saint. But
there is no incarnation of Vishnu in the Kali era. Hence Vishnu's
epithet _Tri-yug_ or the Lord of Three. But scripture tells us that the
Kali era is without an incarnation."

Sadly did the Acharya answer, "You pride yourself on your knowledge of
scripture, but you do not mind the _Bhágabat_ and the _Mahábharat_,
which are the chief of scriptures. Both of them assert that God will
appear in the human form in the Kali era, and yet you maintain the
contrary! As God will not appear in Kali for mere earthly exploits [but
only for purifying faith], we call him _Tri-yug_. In every era Krishna
appears for the spiritual needs of the age. You are a logician, and yet
you do not perceive this!"

Texts quoted in support; _Bhágabat_, X viii. 9, XI. v. 28, 29;
_Mahabharat_, Anushasan Parva, Dan-dharma, canto 149, v. 75-92.

"I need not waste these many words on you. They will bear no more fruit
than seed sown on sterile soil. When His grace is on you, you will be
convinced. Your disciple, who is plying me with all sorts of sophistic
arguments, I blame him not; he is under illusion (_máyá_). As the
_Bhágabat_, Book VI. canto iv. verse 26, puts it:

_[The words of Daksha to God], I bow to the Omnipotent Supreme God,
whose power of illusion raises endless controversies among logicians
fond of dispute, and keeps their souls ever wrapt in delusion!_

"Again, the _Bhágabat_, XI. xxii. 3, [Krishna's words to Uddhava]."

Then Sárvabhauma said, "Go to the monk [Chaitanya] and invite him and
his followers to my house. First feed them with _prasád_, and then give
me lessons [in theology]!" The Acharya, being Sárvabhauma's sister's
husband, could [boldly] blame, praise, laugh at or school him.

Mukunda was greatly pleased with the Acharya's reasoning, as he was inly
grieved and angry at the speech of Sárvabhauma.

The Acharya came to Chaitanya's house and invited Him on behalf of the
Bhattáchárya. As he talked with Mukunda he spoke ill of Sárvabhauma in a
pained spirit. But the Master broke in with, "Say not so. The
Bhattáchárya has really favoured me; he wants to safeguard my monastic
life, and has taken pity on me out of tenderness. Why blame him for it?"

Next day, the Master visited the temple of Jagannáth in the company of
the Bhattáchárya, and then accompanied him to his house. The
Bhattáchárya seated the Master first and began to teach Him _Vedánta_.
With mingled tenderness and reverence he said, "It is a _sannyasi's_
duty to hear the Vedánta read. You should constantly attend to it." The
Master answered, "Show me thy favour. Whatever you bid me is indeed my

For seven days did the Master thus listen to the expounding of the
Vedánta, without making any comment of His own. On the eighth day,
Sárvabhauma asked Him, "For seven days have you heard me in unbroken
silence. I know not whether you follow me or not." The Master replied,
"I am ignorant, and have not studied [the subject]. I merely listen at
your bidding. I listen only because such is a sannyasi's duty. But I
cannot follow your interpretation." The Bhattáchárya retorted, "He who
is conscious of his own ignorance asks for a second explanation. But you
remain ever silent as you listen. I know not your mind's workings." The
Master replied, "I understand the verses clearly enough. But it is your
commentary that puzzles me. A commentary should elucidate the text,
whereas your exposition conceals the text! You do not expound the plain
meaning of the aphorisms, but cover them up with your fanciful
interpretation. The primary meaning is the plain sense of the terms of
the _Upanishad_, and Vyas says it in his aphorisms. You [on the other
hand] let the primary sense go, and give a conjectural secondary sense.
You reject the meanings of words as given in lexicons, and attribute to
them meanings evolved from your imagination. _Shruti_ is the chief of
proofs. The primary meaning as given by _Shruti_ can alone carry

"What are conchshells and cowdung but naturally unclean things, _viz._,
the bone and ordure of animals? And yet they are taken as very pure,
because _Shruti_ says so. Of the spiritual truth that is held forth [in
Vedánta] the meaning is plain and self-evident. Fanciful interpretation
only spoils the clear sense. The sense of Vyas's aphorisms is clear like
the sun; you are only enveloping it with the cloud of your conjectural
commentary. The _Vedas_ and the _Purans_ tell us how to discern
Brahma. That Brahma is [only another name for] God in His totality. The
Supreme Being is full of all powers, and yet you describe Him as
formless? The _Shrutis_ that speak of Him as abstract
(_nir-bishesha_), exclude the natural and set up the unnatural.

"From Brahma originates the Universe, it lives in Brahma, and it is
merged again in the same Brahma. The three attributes of God are that He
is the three cases, Ablative, Instrumental and Locative [in relation to
the Universe]. These three qualities particularize God. When He desired
to be many, He looked at [=employed] His natural powers. The physical
mind and eye could not have then existed. Therefore, the Immaterial
Brahma had an eye to see and a mind to will with. The terms Brahma means
the Perfect Supreme Being (_Bhagabán_), and the scriptures affirm that
Krishna is the Supreme Being. The meaning of the Vedas is too deep for
human understanding, the Purans make their senses clear. Witness
Brahma's address to God in the _Bhágabat_, X. xiv. 31:--

_'Blessed, blessed are Nanda the cowherd and other citizens of Mathura,
whose friend is the Beatific Perfect Eternal Brahma'._

"_Shruti_ itself denies to Brahma material hands and feet, and yet it
says that God moves swiftly and receives everything! Therefore,
_Shruti_ asserts Brahma to be particular (_sa-bishesha_). It is only a
fanciful interpretation as opposed to a direct one, that speaks of
Brahma as abstract (_nir-bishesha_). How do you call that God formless
who has the six qualities and is supremely blissful? You conclude Him to
be powerless, who has the three natural powers, as is evident from the
_Vishnu Puran_, VI. vii. 60 and 61, and I. xii. 41.

"God's nature consists of _sat_, _chit_ and _ánanda_. The _chit_
power assumes three different forms in three aspects; it becomes
_hládini_ from the _ánanda_ aspect; it becomes _sandhini_ in the
_sat_ aspect, and _sambita_ (known as knowledge of Krishna) in the
_chit_ aspect. The _chit_ power is God's very essence [or inner
nature]; the life power (_jiba-shakti_) appertains to Him only
occasionally; _máyá_ is entirely outside Him [i.e., affects creation
only]. But all these three offer devotion in the form of love. The
Lord's six powers are only manifestations of the _chit_ power. And yet
you have the presumption to deny such a power? God and creation differ
as the master and the slave of illusion respectively, and yet you affirm
that creation is identical with the Creator! In the _Gitá_ creation is
recognized as a force exerted by God, and yet you make such creation one
with God! See the _Gitá_, vii. 4, the words of Shri Krishna to Arjun:--

_Earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, sense, and self-consciousness
these eight powers (or natures) have emanated from me._

"Again, the next verse in the _Gitá_:

_Valiant hero! the eight natures_ (prakriti) _about which I have
already spoken to you, are inferior. Beyond them I have a higher or
living nature which upholds this Universe._

"God's form is composed of _sat_, _chit_ and _ananda_; and yet you
assert that form to be a corruption of the _satwa_ quality! He is a
wretch who denies form to God; touch not, behold not that slave of
Death. The Buddhists are atheists from not respecting the Vedas. Atheism
in a believer of the Vedas is a worse heresy than Buddhism. Vyas
composed his aphorisms for the salvation of men, but the interpretation
of these aphorisms by the 'school of illusion' (_máyá-vádi_) is the
cause of perdition.

"Vyas's aphorisms accept the theory of effect (_parinám_). God is an
incomprehensible power, but He is manifested as creation. The
philosopher's stone produces gold without undergoing any change in
itself, similarly God takes the form of creation without suffering any
corruption. Objecting to this aphorism as an error of Vyas, you have set
up the theory of _bivarta_ by a fanciful interpretation [of it]. Error
consists in a creature imagining I am one with the Creator. But creation
is not unreal, it is only perishable. The great word _Pranaba_ is the
image of God; from that _Pranaba_ all the Vedas have sprung in this
world. The words Thou art That (_tat-twam asi_) when applied to
creation are only fractional (_prádeshika_), but you, without minding
the _Pranaba_, call these words the supreme truth."

Thus did the Master find a hundred faults with the fanciful
interpretation [of the Vedantists]. The Bhattáchárya supported his own
position, using refutation, feint, pressure, and other logical devices.
But the Master answered them all and established His own view. The Vedas
[he maintained] assert only three things about God, _viz._, our
relation to Him, devotional exercises, and love (our need) as the fruit
of devotion. All the rest [attributed to Him] is mere conjecture. The
words of the Veda are self-evident, and should not be interpreted with
the help of conjecture. But Sárvabhauma was not to blame for it; he was
merely carrying out God's will, in expounding atheistical philosophy
based on fancy. _Vide_ the _Padma Puran_, Part II. canto 62, verse 31.

The Bhattáchárya was speechless and motionless with wonder as he heard
these words. The Master addressed him, "Marvel not, O Bhattáchárya! The
supreme manhood consists in faith in God. Even those who directly
commune with God (_átmáram_) adore Him, the Supreme Being's attributes
are so incomprehensible! Witness the _Bhágabat_, I. vii. 10, Suta's
words to Saunaka and others:

_'Such are the attributes of Hari that even mystical and passionless
recluses feel for Him unreasoning devotion.'_

The Bhattáchárya said, "Sir, I long to hear this verse interpreted." The
Master replied, "Do you first explain it, and then I shall say what I
think of it." The Bhattáchárya expounded the verse, like a logician, in
nine different ways in accordance with the scriptures. But the Master
smiled as He said, "I know, Bhattáchárya, that you are a veritable
Vrihaspati, and surpass all other men in interpreting the scriptures.
But your interpretation shows mere scholarship. The verse has yet
another sense!" Then at the Bhattáchárya's request the Master gave His
own interpretation; passing by the nine interpretations given by the
Bhattáchárya, He gave 18 other explanations of His own. First He
determined the meaning of each of the eleven words contained in the
verse, as taken separately; then He gave different explanations in
connection with _átmárám_, laying emphasis on each of the eleven words
in succession. The Lord, His powers, and His attributes, all three are
incomprehensibly, unspeakably great! These three steal the heart of the
devotee, to the neglect of all other forms of devotion. Sanak, Shukadev
and others bear witness to this. His diverse expositions filled the
Bhattáchárya with wonder, and the self-abasing belief that the Master
was Krishna indeed. "Alas!" thought he, "He is Krishna incarnate, but I
in my ignorance have grievously sinned by showing pride to Him."
Penitently he sought refuge with the Master, who graciously appeared to
him in His divine form, first as four-armed (Vishnu), then as Krishna
playing on the flute. At this vision Sárvabhauma fell prostrate on the
ground, then rose again and prayed to Him with clasped hands. The
Master's grace made spiritual knowledge illumine his heart, he now knew
the glory of God's name, faith, gift, the esoteric meanings of the
letters of the alphabet, &c. In a moment he composed a hundred verses,
such as even Vrihaspati would have failed to frame. The delighted Master
embraced him, and the Bhattáchárya fainted in an ecstasy of joy,
weeping, standing still, tumbling down at the Master's feet.

The sight delighted Gopinath Acharya. The Master's disciples smiled at
the dance of Sárvabhauma. Gopinath spoke to the Master, "You have so
transformed that Bhattáchárya!" The Master replied, "You are a devotee,
your society has so wrought on him through the great grace of
Jagannáth." Then He composed Bhattáchárya, who thereafter praised Him
long, saying, "It was a light work to Thee to save the world, in
comparison with the wonderful power Thou hast manifested in converting
me. Logic had made me hard like an ingot of iron. Thou hast, melted me.
Oh Thy wondrous might!"

The Master returned to His quarters; Sárvabhauma feasted Him by means of
Gopinath Acharya. Next day He went to Jagannáth's temple, and beheld the
god rise from his bed. The attending priest presented to the Master the
garland and offered rice of the god. The Master rejoiced at it, tied the
gifts to the hem of his garment, and hastened to Bhattáchárya's house.
It was dawn; Bhattáchárya awoke just then and cried out "O Krishna! O
Krishna!" to the delight of the Master. Coming out Bhattáchárya met the
Master, bowed at His feet in a tumult of reverence, and seated Him. The
Master untied the knot in His skirt and presented the _prasád_ to
Sarvabhaurna, who joyously ate it after reciting the following verse,
though he had not yet bathed, nor said his matin prayer, nor even
cleaned his teeth,--because Chaitanya's grace removed all stupor from
his mind.

From the _Padma Purán_, _Taste the mahá-prasád as soon as you get it,
though it may be dry, stale or brought from a distance. Wait not for a
more proper time in this case._

Then, again, Hari has said, '_In tasting the mahá-prasád no rule of time
or place should be observed; a good man should eat it as soon as he gets

At this the Master was delighted and embraced Sárvabhauma in a
transport. They both danced, Master and pupil, clasping each other,
perspiring, trembling, shedding tears in ecstasy. The Master said,
"To-day have I conquered the three worlds lightly! To-day have I
ascended Baikuntha! To-day all my wishes are realized! Because
Sárvabhauma has shown faith in the _mahá-prasád_. To-day you have taken
refuge in Krishna with all your heart. Krishna has taken pity on you
without any reserve. To-day he has removed your bondage to flesh; to-day
you have torn off the meshes of illusion. To-day your heart has been
made worthy to gain Krishna, because you have eaten the _prasád_ in
violation of Vedic ceremonies. As the _Bhágabat_, II. vii. 41, puts it:

_"Those whom the Lord favours and who take refuge at His feet with all
their heart and without reserve, can conquer illusion. Then they no
longer look ubon this fleshly body the food of dogs and jackals as 'I'
or 'mine'."_

So saying the Master returned home. Thenceforth Bhattáchárya lost his
pride (of learning). Thenceforth he knew of nothing except Chaitanya's
feet, and expounded no scripture except that of _bhakti_. At his deep
Vaishnavism, Gopinath Acharya danced, clapping his hands and crying
_Hari! Hari!_ Next day Bhattáchárya came to visit the Master, without
having first gone to Jagannáth. He lay prostrate, and thanked the Master
much, penitently recounting his own former follies. As he wished to hear
of the chief means of cultivating faith, the Master instructed him by
chanting Hari's name.

_"Hari's name, Hari's name, Hari's name alone; in the Kali era there is
no other means of salvation, no other, indeed no other!" [Vrihad Narad

In full detail did the Master hold forth on the meaning of the above
verse. Bhattáchárya was filled with wonder. Gopinath Acharya said,
"Bhattáchárya! I told you before that you would come to this!"
Bhattáchárya bowed to him thankfully and replied, "The Master has
blessed me by reason of my being related to you. You are a great
devotee, and I a blind logician. For your sake has the Master favoured
me." Pleased with his meekness, Chaitanya embraced him and then said,
"Now go and see the god". Bhattáchárya, after visiting Jagannáth, came
home with Jagadánanda and Damodar [two disciples of Chaitanya], and sent
to Chaitanya many kinds of choice _prasád_ with his own cook in their
company, and also put two verses of his own written on a palm leaf into
the hands of Jagadánanda for Chaitanya. When they arrived at the
Master's house, Mukunda Datta took the letter from his hand, and wrote
the two verses on the outer wall. Then Jagadánanda took the letter
inside to Chaitanya, who read and tore it up, but the followers learnt
the verses by rote from the wall. The verses are given in
_Chaitanya-chandrodaya_, Act VI. Sc. 32:

_I seek refuge with that unequalled supreme Man, who has become
incarnate as Shri Krishna Chaitanya, in order to teach passionlessness
(_bairágya_) and devotion through faith (_bhakti-yog_). May my mind,
like a bee, settle firmly on the lotus-feet of the Lord Shri Krishna
Chaitanya, who has appeared in order to revive his own bhakti-yog, which
had perished through the wickedness of ages._

Sárvabhauma became a disciple of the Master, attending to nothing but
His service. Ever did he meditate, pray, and recite the name 'Shri
Krishna-Chaitanya, the son of Shachi, the abode of virtues!' One day he
came to the Master, bowed, and recited Brahma's hymn to God from the
_Bhágabat_, changing two letters near its end. The _Bhágabat_, X. xiv.

_'Lord! That man alone enters into the inheritance of Thy salvation like
a true heir, who in eager longing for the day of Thy grace passes his
life worshipping Thee with all his mind body and speech and enjoying the
fruits of his actions without being attached to them.'_

The Master interrupted him saying, "The text has Thy salvation
(_muktipada_). Why do you read it as Thy faith (_bhaktipada_)?"
Bhattáchárya answered, "Salvation is not the fruit at which the faithful
fix their gaze; as for those who lack faith in the Lord, salvation
becomes a sort of punishment to them [as they are annihilated in the
Lord without being able to serve and love Him]. He who does not admit
the incarnate Krishna, and he who blames and fights against that
incarnation, both of them are punished by being merged in the Lord
(_Brahma sáyujya mukti_). The devotee does not long for emancipation.
There are five kinds of salvation, _viz._, _sálokya_ (living in the
same plane with God), _sámipya_ (nearness to God), _sárupya_ (assuming
the same form as God), _sárshti_ (equalling the glory of God) and
_sáyujya_ (absorption in the Deity). Though the first four afford means
of serving the Lord, yet true devotees seldom elect them, but they dread
and despise the _sáyujya_ emancipation, preferring hell to it.
'Absorption in the abstract God (_Brahma_)' and 'Absorption in the God
clad in attributes (_saguna ishwar_)' are two forms of the same thing,
indeed the latter is worse still. _Vide_ the _Bhágabat_ III. xxix. II,
Kapila's speech to Devahuti."

The Master objected, "The term _muktipada_ has other senses too; it
means God Himself, i.e., He whose feet are the means of salvation. It
may also mean The abode of salvation, which is the 9th object [mentioned
in the _Bhágabat_, II. x. 1]. Both etymologies yield the sense of
Krishna. Why need you change the text to _Bhaktipada_?" Bhattáchárya
replied, "No, I cannot adopt the reading. Though you interpret the term
_muktipada_ in the same sense of _bhaktipada_, yet the former is
objectionable as ambiguous. Though _mukti_ has five connotations, yet
its principal meaning is absorption in God. So, the word _mukti_ fills
me with fear and contempt, while _bhakti_ kindles delight in the
heart". At this the delighted Master smiled and clasped Bhattáchárya
firmly to His bosom. It was a pure act of grace on Chaitanya's part that
Bhattáchárya, who had been a student and teacher of the doctrine of
illusion, spoke thus. We recognize the philosopher's stone only when it
touches a piece of iron. So all men knew the Master for the veritable
Darling of Braja (Krishna) when they saw the deep the Vaishnav spirit of
[His disciple] Bhattáchárya. Then did Kashi Mishra and others of the
Blue Mountain come and seek asylum at the Master's feet. I shall first
describe how Sárvabhauma served the Master, and how carefully he fed
Him. [Text, canto 6.]


Healing the leper Vasudev

The Master renounced the world in the bright fortnight of Mágh, and came
to reside at Puri in Fálgun. At the end of the latter month He witnessed
the swinging ceremony of Jagannáth and danced and sang long in ecstasy.
In Chaitra He liberated Sárvabhauma. Early in Baishakh He wished to
travel to the South. He assembled His followers, embraced them, held
them by the hand, and spoke humbly, "I know you to be dearer than life.
Life I can part with, but not with you. You my friends have done me a
good turn by bringing me here to see Jagannáth. Now I beg one favour
from you all, give me leave to go to the South. I must set out to seek
Vishwarup [my elder brother], and I will travel alone, taking none with
me. Do you all stay at Puri till I return from Setubandha."

They all knew that Vishwarup had attained to liberation, and that the
quest of him was only a ruse of the Master for carrying salvation to
Southern India. Greatly did they grieve on hearing His words, and sat
silent with woe-begone faces. Nityánanda said, "How can that be? We
cannot let you go alone. One or two of us must bear you company, lest
mishap should befall you. Choose any two that you like. I know the roads
to the holy places of the South. Bid me, Master, go with you." The
Master replied, "I am as a dancer and you are like the manager
(_sutradhár_) of the play. I dance as you make me. On turning hermit I
set out for Brindában, but you brought me to Adwaita's house. On the way
to the Niláchal you broke my staff. Your deep love is marring my
[life's] work. Jagadánanda wants me to turn a worldling. In fear of him
I have to do whatever he bids, me. If ever I disobey him he in anger
speaks not to me for three days! Mukunda grieves at the rigours of my
monastic life: the three baths daily even in winter, the sleep on the
bare ground. He grieves inly, though he speaks not of it; but his sorrow
makes me doubly unhappy. I am a _sannyasi_, Damodar is a Brahmachari,
and yet he constantly holds the pedagogue's rod over me. I did not know
his character before. My conduct must be quite different from his.
Having gained the favour of Krishna, he cares not for the opinions of
other men; but I cannot be so regardless of the public. Do you all,
therefore, stay behind at Puri, while I make my pilgrimage alone for
some time."

Under the pretext of picking their faults the Master really pointed out
the merits which had made them win His heart. Words cannot describe
Chaitanya's love for His devotees. He himself bore the hardship of an
ascetic's life, but when one of His devotees grieved at the sight of
these hardships, the Master could not bear the sight of his grief! He
set forth on His pilgrimage as a solitary hermit. Four of them entreated
Him hard for permission to accompany Him, but He followed His own will
and did not listen to them. At last Nityánanda urged, "As you please. It
is my duty [to obey you], be the result my happiness or sorrow. But one
further request I must make: consider whether you can accept it. Your
loin-band wrapper and gourd of water, these are the only articles that
you will take with you. But your two hands are ever busy in counting
your recitation of Hari's name [on the notches of your fingers]. How,
then, will you carry your wrapper and gourd? Who will take care of these
when you fall down on the road in a trance? Keep my word: take this
honest Brahman Krishna-das with you. He will only carry your wrapper and
gourd, and never say a word, whatever you may do." The Master consented.
They took him to Sárvabhauma's house, who seated them all after
salutation. After a varied discourse on Krishna, the Master said, "I
have come to beg your permission. I must search for Vishwarup who
retired as a hermit to the South. Give me leave to go South. Your
permission will enable me to return in safety." At these words
Sárvabhauma was much grieved at heart; clasping the Master's feet he
said piteously, "Through the accumulated merit of many previous births
have I gained your society. But Fate has now parted our company. I can
bear the death of a son through a stroke of lightning, but not the pang
of separation from you! You are your own master and shall go; but stay
some days more and let me gaze on your feet." His humility relaxed the
Master's resolution and He lingered for some time longer. Eagerly did
the Bhattáchárya invite and feast Him with dishes cooked in his own
house. His wife, called Shathi's mother, cooked the meal: her history is
marvellous, and I shall narrate it in detail later on.

After a halt of five days at the Bhattáchárya's place, the Master asked
leave to start. His eagerness forced the Bhattáchárya to consent. He
went with him to the temple and sought the permission of Jagannáth. The
serving priest presented the Master with the god's garland, which He
joyously took as a symbol of permission.

The Lord Gaur started for the South in joy, after walking round
Jagannáth in the company of His disciples and the Bhattáchárya. He took
the road of Alálnáth, along the shore. Sárvabhauma sent Gopinath Acharya
to bring from his house four loin-bands and wrappers and some prasád, to
the Vipradwár gate. Then he begged the Master, "You must keep my
request. On the bank of the Godavari dwells Rámananda Ráy, governor of
Vidya-nagar.[1] Despise him not as a Shudra and worldling. See him for
my sake. He is worthy of your society. The world has not another
appreciative devotee like him. In him scholarship and faith have reached
their extreme points. When you talk with him you will know his worth. I
used to laugh at him as a Vaishnav, because I failed to understand his
superhuman words. But Thy grace has now made me know his true merit.
Conversation with him will disclose his greatness." The Master agreed,
embraced him and bade him farewell saying, "Worship Krishna at home and
bless me, so that through your favour I may return to Puri."

When the Master turned to go, Sárvabhauma fell down there in a faint,
but the Master moved on quickly, without heeding him. Who can understand
the heart and mind of the Master? The hearts of the great are at once
tender as flowers and hard as the thunderbolt. Nityánanda raised
Bhattáchárya and sent him home with his men. The faithful quickly
overtook the Master, and Gopinath also arrived with the clothes and
_prasád_. The Master went with them to Alálnáth, where He sang hymns
for a long time, dancing and singing in rapture. The persons present
flocked to gaze on the scene: they shouted _Hari! Hari!_ while the
Master danced in ecstasy in their midst. The people marvelled as they
gazed at His golden hue, His crimson robe, and His tears of delight, His
tremour and perspiration, which set off His beauty. All who came to see
it forgot their homes and stayed to join in the dance and song of Shri
Krishna Gopal; men and women, old and young, all were swept away by the
tide of spiritual love. Seeing it Nityánanda said to the faithful, "He
will dance thus at every village [on the way]." It was high time, but
the people did not leave Him; so Nityánanda contrived a plan: He took
the Master away for His noonday bath, the people rushing on all sides to
look on. After the bath he led the Master to the temple, and as soon as
his own men had entered he shut the door. He fed the Master, and they
all ate His leavings. The crowd gathered outside the gate, shouting
_'Hari! Hari!'_ Then he opened the door and the people entered joyfully
to gaze on the Master.

The stream of people thus passed and repassed till the evening. They all
became Vaishnavs and danced and sang [with the Master]. He passed the
night there with the faithful, in delightful discourses on Krishna. Next
morning after the morning bath, He bade farewell to the faithful. They
fainted, but He looked not at them. The Master wended His way grieving
at separation from them, Krishna-das following Him with the gourd. The
faithful passed the day there in a fast, and returned sorrowing to Puri
the next day. Like a raging lion the Master walked forth, chanting God's
name in a transport of love. His words were:

    _Krishna! Krishna! Krishna! Krishna! Krishna!
        Krishna! Krishna! O!_

    _Krishna! Krishna! Krishna! Krishna! Krishna!
        Krishna! Krishna!_

    _Krishna! Krishna! Krishna! Krishna!
        Krishna! Krishna! Save me!_

    _Krishna! Krishna! Krishna! Krishna!
        Krishna! Krishna! Deliver me!_

    _Ram Raghav! Ram Raghav! Ram Raghav! Save me!_

    _Krishna Keshav! Krishna Keshav! Krishna Keshav!
        Deliver me!_

As the Lord Gaur walked on reciting the above verses He met a wayfarer
and asked him to chant Hari's name. Mad with love that man cried 'Hari!
Krishna!' and followed the Master out of longing to gaze at Him. After a
long embrace the Master dismissed him, filled with spiritual power.

The man on returning home made all his village Vaishnav, talking of
Krishna, laughing, weeping, dancing incessantly, and urging all to take
Krishna's name. Chance visitors from other villages became like Him from
the sight of Him, and spread Vaishnavism in their own villages. In this
way was the whole Southern country converted to Vaishnavism. In this way
did the Master make hundreds Vaishnav by embracing them in His travels.
If He lodged and dined in anybody's house in a village, all the
villagers flocked to see Him. Through the Master's grace they became
great _bhaktas_, and acted as apostles for the deliverance of mankind.
All the way to Setubandha, He did this; connection with Him made all the
land Vaishnav. The power He had not manifested at Navadwip, He now put
forth for the salvation of the South. He who worships the Master gains
His favour and realizes the truth of these miracles. He who believes not
in supernatural miracles loses both this world and the next.

In this way the Master travelled to the shrine of the Tortoise[2] [the
Second Incarnation], saluted and praised the god, dancing, singing,
smiling and weeping in rapture, to the wonder of by-standers. Crowds
gathered to see Him; the Very sight of His marvellous beauty and
devotion made them Vaishnavs. They danced with uplifted arms chanting
Krishna's name in deep emotion. These very men converted other villages.
Thus did the nectar of Krishna's name overflow the country, Vaishnavism
spreading from man to man.

After a time the Master came back to His senses. The priest of the
Tortoise did Him great reverence. This happened everywhere that He went.
In that village a Vaidik Brahman named Kurma, very reverently invited
the Master, brought Him home, washed His feet, and with his whole family
drank the washing of His feet; then he lovingly fed the Master with many
kinds of dishes, and they all partook of the leavings. He praised the
Master thus: "Thy lotus-like feet, which Brahma himself adores, have
come to my house. O my boundless good fortune! To-day my birth, race,
and faith have been glorified. Lord, have mercy on me and take me with
Thee! I cannot bear the sorrows of this worldly life." But the Master
replied, "Say not so! Stay at home and recite Krishna's name
ceaselessly. Teach Krishna's lore to whomsoever you meet with. At my
bidding be thou an apostle and save this land! The world will never
entangle you, but you will see me here again."

Every one at whose house He dined, made this request, and received this
charge from the Master. Everywhere in His pilgrimage, till the return to
Puri, it was exactly what He did at the Tortoise temple.

The night spent there, next morning, the Master bathed and resumed His
journey; the Brahman Kurma followed Him long, but at last the Master
persuaded him to return home. A high-minded Brahman named Vasudev, was
covered with leprosy, but as the maggots dropped from his rotting limbs
he used to pick them up and restore them to their places. [3] At night
he heard of Chaitanya's arrival, and next morning went to Kurma's house
to see Him; on hearing that the Master was gone, he fell down in a
faint, and lamented in many ways. Just then the Master returned,
embraced him, and lo! his leprosy as well as grief was gone at the touch
and his body became sound and beautiful! He marvelled at the Master's
grace and clasped His feet and praised Him by repeating the verse in the
_Bhágabat_ X. lxxxi. 14, (Rukmini's message sent to Krishna by the
mouth of a Brahman).

Long did he thank the Master, saying, "Listen, Gracious One! No man has
your virtue. Even wretches fled from me at the stench of my body. But
thou, Supreme Lord, hast touched me! Better for me my former state of
misery, because henceforth my heart will swell with pride." The Master
soothed him saying, "No, you will not be puffed up. Ever take Krishna's
name and save men by teaching them about Krishna. Soon will Krishna
accept you".

So saying the Master vanished. The two Brahmans wept with joy at His
grace, clasping each other by the neck. [Text, canto 7.]

[1] _Vidya-nagar_. Evidently _Rajmahendri_, now on the left bank of
the Godavari. It was an important strategic point, being on the natural
frontier between Kalinga and the kingdoms of the Madras coast. In 1459 a
minister of the Gajapati king was ruling in this town; in 1470 it was
captured by the Muhammadan Sultan of the Bahmani dynasty. Soon after
1480 it was taken by the king of Orissa; about 1515 it was captured by
Krishna Dev, the king of Vijayanagar, but restored. In 1543 we find it
ruled by Vidyádri, a Prince of the Gajapati line, who lost it finally to
the Muhammadans in 1571. (_Godavari Gazetteer_, 244-245.)

[2] _Sri Kurmam_, 8 m.e. of Chicacole and the greatest place of
pilgrimage to the Telegus. (_Ganjam Manual_ 62).

[3] In Christian hagiology the same story is told about a saint of
Europe, who addressed the maggots, "Eat, brothers, eat!"


The Meeting with Rámánanda Ráy

Thus did the Master wend His way. On reaching the temple of the
Nrisingha (Man-lion) Incarnation at Jiyad,[1] He made His bow and
rapturously sang and danced long in honour of the god, saying, "Glory to
Nrisingha! Glory to Nrisingha! Prahlad's Lord! Glory to you, O
Lotus-lipped, O Bee on the Lotus!" [The _Bhágabat_, VII. ix. I. verse
quoted in Shridhar Goswámi's commentary].

Many such verses did the Master recite as He prayed to the god. The
serving priest presented Him with the god's garland. As before, a
Brahman invited and fed the Master, who passed the night there. Next
morning He took up His journey again, His emotion of faith making Him
heedless of outer things day and night. As before, He made the people
turn Vaishnav, and after a long time reached the bank of the Godavari,
which reminded Him of the Jamuna, while the wood on the bank suggested
Brindában. After dancing in the wood, He crossed the river and bathed
there. Sitting at the water's edge away from the _ghát_, the Master
chanted Krishna's name. Just then arrived Rámánanda Ráy in a litter,
attended by Jiyad musicians and many Vaidik Brahmans, to bathe. He
bathed and performed the rites duly. The Master at first sight knew him
for Rámánanda Ráy, and longed to meet him, but sat checking His
eagerness. Rámánanda Ráy came up to Him on seeing a _sannyási_, and
wondered as he gazed on His person beaming like a hundred suns, His robe
of the hue of the morning sun, His large vigorous frame, His eyes like
the lotus. As he prostrated himself before the Master, the latter stood
up and said, "Rise, and chant Krishna's name", and though thirsting with
desire to embrace him, He asked, "Art thou Rámánanda Ráy?" The man
answered, "Yes, I am that slave, a vile Shudra." Passionately did the
Master embrace him, and both tumbled down on the ground in excess of
devo tion, senseless with love, inert or perspiring, weeping, trembling,
with hair standing on end, pale of hue, and lisping 'Krishna! Krishna!'

The Vaidik Brahmans marvelled as they beheld it, and inly thought, "This
_sannyasi_, we see, is powerful like Brahma. Why does he weep after
embracing a Shudra? This noble is a grave and learned man; why then has
he been maddened by the touch of the _sannyasi_?" The Master checked
Himself on seeing strangers. The two composed themselves and sat down
there. Smilingly the Master began, "Sárvabhauma Bhattáchárya has spoken
to me of your merits, and pressed me to see you. For that purpose have I
come here. It is well that I have met you so easily." The Ray replied,
"Sárvabhauma knows me for his servant, and is ever on the watch to do me
good even indirectly. Through his grace have I met you, and to-day my
life has become a success. That you have graciously touched this
untouchable Shudra is the proof of your mercy and that of Sárvabhauma.
Thou art the God Náráyan himself, and I a royal servant, a worldling, a
wretch! In touching me thou didst not feel repulsion or fear of the
Vedas! The Vedas forbid you even to look at me. Thy mercy leads thee to
perform a forbidden act. Thou art God indeed; who can know thy ways? For
delivering me hast thou come here, O Fountain of Mercy! O Saviour of the
Fallen! Such is the habit of the great, to sate a wretch he goes out of
his way to pay him a visit! _Vide_ the _Bhágabat_, X. viii. 2, Nanda's
words to Garga:

_'Master, that saints travel from their own hermitages is only for doing
[spiritual] good to those householders who cannot leave their houses;
there is no other purpose in it.'_

"The thousand men, Brahmans and others, in my train, have had their
hearts melted by Thy sight. All of them are shouting _Krishna! Hari!_
All are tremulous, all are weeping in joy. Verily you have every
characteristic, internal and external, of God. No mortal can possess
such supernatural power!"

The Master replied, "You are the greatest of devotees. It is your sight
that has softened the hearts of all. Why impute it to another? I am only
a _sannyasi_ holding the theory of illusion (_máyá-vád_), but even I
have been steeped in the love of Krishna by your touch. Knowing that my
heart is hard to reform, Sárvabhauma had asked me to meet you."

Thus did the two praise each other, each delighted to see the other.
Then a Vaishnav Vaidik Brahman bowed and invited the Master, who
accepted the invitation knowing him to be a Vaishnav. Smiling, the
Master said to Rámánanda, "I wish to hear the discourse of Krishna from
your lips. I hope I shall see you again." The Ray replied, "You have
come here to save this sinner. But my wicked heart has not been cleansed
by the mere sight of you. Stay for 5 or 7 days to purge my hard heart of
its sins." Rámánanda Ray bowed and went away, though loth to part, while
the Master went to the Brahman's house to dine. Eagerly did the two look
for their meeting in the evening. As the Master was sitting after his
sunset bath, the Ráy arrived with a servant. He bowed to the Master, who
embraced him. The two conversed in a retired spot. The Master bade him
recite the verses indicating the means of gaming devotion (_sádhya_).
The Ray replied, "We acquire faith in Vishnu by doing the duties of our
rank. As the _Vishnu Puran_, III. viii. 8, says, '_Worship the Supreme
Being Vishnu by doing the prescribed duties of your caste. There is no
other means of pleasing Him._'" The Master objected, "This is only an
external means. Mention one more advanced." The Ray replied, "The
highest means of acquiring devotion is to resign to Krishna the fruits
of our acts, as the _Gitá_, IX. 27, puts it:

_'O Son of Kunti, consign to me whatever you do, be it eating,
performing the horn ceremony, alms-giving, or austerity._'"

The Master again objected, "This too is external. Go deeper into the
subject." The Ray answered, "The highest means of devotion is abandoning
one's caste-duties [out of love for Krishna], as the Lord says to Uddhav
in the _Bhágabat_, XI. xi. 32:

_'He too is the highest of holy men, who knowing well the gain and loss
of such a course, worships me by renouncing the Vedic rites and
ceremonies of his caste, though these too were ordained by me.'_

"Also, as the _Gitá_, xvvi. 66, has it:

_'Take refuge in ME alone, giving up all religions. Grieve not; I will
deliver thee from all sins.'_

But to this the Master objected, "This too is external. Tell me of a
still higher means." The Ray answered, "Faith based on knowledge is the
highest means of devotion. As Shri Krishna says to Arjun in the _Gitá_,
xviii. 54:

_'The peaceful soul that dwells on Brahma, and feels not sorrow or
desire, but is the same in all states, gains my supreme bhakti.'"_

Again the Master objected as before. The Ray answered, "Faith
independent of knowledge is the highest instrument of devotion. Witness
Brahma's words to God in the _Bhágabat_, X. xiv. 3:

_'Lord, hard as Thou art to be won in the Universe, yet they realize
Thee who reject the quest of theological knowledge but stay at home,
listening to Thy story as told by holy men and accepting it with all
their mind, body and soul.'"_

The Master remarked, "It is so; but mention a higher still." The Ray
said, "The highest devotion is _love)_ (_prem-bhakti_). Witness the
following verses of Rámánanda Ráy quoted in the _Padyávali_, cantos xi
and xii respectively:

_'We relish food and drink only so long as we have hunger and thirst.
Similarly, the devotee delights not in worshipping his heart's darling
with elaborate Preparations, but in love alone.'_

_'Get a heart inspired with love of Krishna, if ever you can get it. Its
only price is greed,--a price which we cannot acquire even by the
accumulated merits of ten millions of births.'"_

The Master remarked as before. The Ray replied, "The love of a servant
is the highest devotion. Witness the speech of Durváshá in the
_Bhágabat_, IX. v. 11:--

_'What is too hard for the Lord's servants to gain, as the very
listening to His name purifies all creatures?'"_

The Master remarked, "It is so, but give a still deeper cause." The Ray
replied, "Love as for a comrade is the highest form of devotion. Witness
Shukdev's words to Parikshit, in the _Bhágabat_, X. xii. 10:

_'God is known to the good as the consciousness of divine pleasure
(brahma-sukhánubhuti), and to His servants as the Supreme Object of
Adoration. That such a God played with the deluded cow-boys in the garb
of a human child, was due to their excessive merit.'"_

The Master said, "This too is good. Mention a higher one still." The Ray
went on, "The highest devotion is love as for a _child_. Witness the
following verses of the _Bhágabat_:

_'Shukdev! what high-class meritorious deeds did Nanda perform, and what
did the blessed Yashoda do that she suckled the Divine Being?"_ (X.
viii. 36).

_'The bliss that the cowherd's wife Yashodá derived from her Saviour-son
was never gained by Brahma, or Shiva, or even by Lakshmi though clasped
to His person.'_ (X. ix. 15.)

The Master said, "This is good, no doubt. But mention a higher still."
The Ray replied, "Passion as for a lover is the highest form of
devotion. Witness the following verses of the _Bhágabat_:

_'Verily the favour shown by the Supreme Being to the fair ones of
Brindában, when in the rasa sport He clasped them round the neck with
His arms, was not enjoyed even by Lakshmi, who is held to His heart, nor
by the heavenly nymphs though blooming and odorous like the lotus; not
to speak of other women.'_ (X. xlvii. 53)

The Ray continued, "Many are the means of attaining to Krishna, and
there are degrees of such attainment. By whichever of these means a man
is inspired, it appears as the highest to him. It is only when we judge
from a position of detachment that we can discriminate them as good,
better, and best.

"The preceding five passions are arranged in the order of their upward
development. With the increase of quality there is an increase of
deliciousness at each step. The _shánta_ passion attains its maturity
in the _dásya_, the _dásya_ in the _sákhya_, the _sákhya_ in the
_bátsalya_, and all of these four are concentrated in the _mádhura_,
just as the properties of the four elements, _viz._, sky, air, &c.
increase in an advancing order and are all united in the fifth element,
the Earth. The full attainment of Krishna results from this last passion
of conjugal love (_premá_). The _Bhágabat_ asserts that Krishna is a
slave to devotion in the form of _premá_.

"Krishna's purpose remains constant in all ages: He makes a return to
our adoration in exactly the same form in which we offer it. But He
cannot reciprocate this _prem_ adoration to the full, and so remains
our debtor, as the _Bhágabat_ affirms. (X. xxxii. 21, Krishna's words
to the milk-maids).

"True, Krishna is the highest type of beauty and grace, but even His
charm increases when He is in the company of the Lady of Braja. Witness
the _Bhágabat_, X. xxxiii. 6:

_'As the beauty of the emerald is set off when it is placed amidst
golden-coloured gems, so shines Krishna when girt round by the beaming
girls of Brindában.'"_

The Master remarked, "This is indeed the extreme point among the means
of devotion. Kindly tell me if there is anything beyond it!" The Ray
said, "I did not know before that the earth contained any man who would
inquire beyond this point! Of all kinds of conjugal passion Radha's love
is celebrated in all our Scriptures as the highest".

The Master said, "Speak on! I delight to hear. A wondrous stream of
nectar is flowing out of your lips. Show how Krishna abducted Rádhá for
fear of interruption by the other cow-herd girls; because a love that
extends to others than the beloved is not deep enough. If you can show
that for Radha's sake Krishna openly forsook the other Gopis, then I
shall know that he passionately loved her." The Ray replied, "Hear,
then, of this glorious power of love. The three worlds cannot match
Radha's love. Krishna broke away from the circle of the _rása_ dance of
the Gopis and wandered through the woods mourning for Radha. Witness the
_Git-Govinda_, canto III. verses 2 and i, and the _Ujjwala-Nilmani_,
verse 43.

Radha left the dance in anger and wounded pride. Krishna grew restless
as he lost her. His whole heart was set on the _rása_ dance, and Radha
was the chain that bound his heart to it. In her absence, the _rása_
dance palled on his taste. So he left the circle of dancers to seek her
out. As he roamed hither and thither, without finding her, he grieved,
stricken with Cupid's dart. A thousand million Gopis could not satiate
his passion. From this you may infer Radha's merit!"

The Master said, "I have now learnt those spiritual mysteries for which
I came to you. Now have I learnt how to ascertain the various methods of
adoration. But I long to hear more: tell me of Krishna's form, of
Radha's form, what mystery is _rása_, what is the essence of love
(_prem_). Be kind and tell me these mysteries; none but you can expound
them." The Ray answered, "I know nothing of these things, but only utter
what you inspire me with, as the parrot repeats what it has learnt by
rote. You are God incarnate; who can comprehend your artifice? You send
your message to my heart, and make my tongue deliver it, without my
knowing whether I am speaking well or ill!"

The Master answered, "I am merely a _sannyasi_, a slave to the theory
of illusion and ignorant of the mysteries of faith (_bhakti_). The
society of Sárvabhauma has purified my mind, and I asked him to speak on
devotion to Krishna. But he replied that he knew not Krishna's lore, and
referred me to you as a master of it. So I came to you, on hearing of
your reputation, and yet you praise me because I am a _sannyasi_! Be he
a Brahman, be he a hermit, be he even a Shudra, if he knows Krishna's
mysteries, he is a guru. Cheat me not of such knowledge for my being a
sannyasi. Fill my mind by holding forth on the mysteries of Radha and

The Ray was a great devotee and adorer of Vishnu, and his mind was proof
against Krishna's illusion. But he yielded to the Master's pressing, and
his will was shaken. So he said, "I am a dancer and you are the manager
of the theatre; I dance as you make me. My tongue is merely a harp, and
you the musician who plays on it. I utter whatever you think of in your

"Krishna is the Highest God, the Perfect Being Himself, the source of
all Incarnations, the chief of all causes. He is the source of the
eternal Heaven, the eternal Incarnation, the eternal Universe. His body
is composed of _sat_, _chit_ and _ánanda_; He is the Son of Mathura's
lord, full of all wealth, all power, all _ras_. _Vide_ the _Brahma
Samhita_ V. i.

At Brindában He appeared as the supernatural youthful Cupid, at whose
adoration the formula recited is Love, the offering presented is the
seed of Love. There He drew all hearts of men and women, of the animate
and the inanimate. He was Cupid's self, the conqueror of hearts. Witness
the _Bhágabat_, X. xxxii. 2.

"He ravished the hearts of Incarnations like Lakshmi's husband, [_Vide_
the _Bhágabat_, X. lxxxix. 32]; He drew to Himself women like Lakshmi
[_Vide_ the _Bhágabat_, X. xvi. 32.]

"His own beauty charmed His own heart, and He wished to embrace Himself
[_Vide_ the _Lalita-Mádhav_, Act viii. verse 28.]

"Such in brief is Krishna's form. Now let me tell you a little of
Radha's self. Krishna's powers are infinite, but three of them are the
chief, _viz._, the _chit_ power, the illusion power (_máyá_), and the
preservation power (_jiba_). These three I call the internal, the
external, and the marginal (or adjacent). The highest is the internal
_swarup_ power. Witness the _Vishnu Puran_, VI. vii. 60.

"Krishna's self is composed of _sat_, _chit_ and _ananda_. Therefore
His _swarup_ power must be of three kinds: in the _ánanda_ portion it
is _hládini_, in the _sat_ portion it is _sandhini_, in the _chit_
portion it is _sambita_. Witness the _Vishnu Puran_, I. xii. 48:

"What delights Krishna is named the _Ahladini_ power, by which He
enjoys delight. Krishna is Himself delight, and yet He tastes delight.
_Hladini_ has been created to give enjoyment to the faithful. The
essence of _hladini_ is named _prem_ (love). The story of _prem_ is
filled with the emotions of _ánanda_ and _chit_. The supreme emotion
(_mahábhába_), is the quintessence of _prem_. The lady Radha is the
personation of that supreme emotion. [Vide the _Brahma Samhita_, V.

* * * * *

The Master spoke, "This is the limit of the thing adored. Through your
grace I have learnt it of a verity. None can gain the Adorable without
adoration. Tell me kindly the way to gain Him."

The Ray answered, "I speak as you make me, without my knowing what I
say. Where in all the three worlds can we find the constant man who
cannot be shaken by your illusive play? You are speaking through my
mouth; yet you are my listener! Hear, then, the deep mystery of
adoration. The play of Radha with Krishna is extremely deep, and cannot
be learnt from the _dásya_, _bátsalya_ and other moods. The _sakhis_
(female associates) alone are qualified for it; from them has this play
(_lilá_) spread. This play cannot be kept up without _sakhis_; they
alone relish this _lilá_ in full. _Sakhis_ alone have a right to this
_lilá_, i.e., those who adore Krishna in the spirit of His _sakhis_.
Such votaries can practise devotion in the form of attending on Krishna
and Radha in their secret bower. There is no other means of mastering
this form of devotion. Witness the _Git-Govinda_, x. 17:

_'What man versed in the deepest mystery (ras) will not take refuge at
the feet of the sakhis, the personations of the chief power, without
whose help Radha and Krishna's pleasure-force and
pleasure-manifestation, though self-expressive, cannot for a moment
attain to fulness of development?'"_

"The character of the _sakhis_ baffles description. A _sakhi_ does not
long to play with Krishna all by herself; but she feels a keener delight
in contriving Krishna's dalliance with Radha. Radha is verily the
Wishing creeper (_Kalpalatá_) of the love of Krishna, and the _sakhis_
are the leaves, flowers, and shoots of this creeper! If the nectar of
dalliance with Krishna waters the creeper, the leaves, &c. delight in it
ten million times more than if they themselves had been watered! _Vide_
the _Git-Govinda_, x. 16.

"The _sakhis_ do not wish for Krishna's embrace, but they exert
themselves to make Krishna embrace Radha. For this purpose they send
Krishna to her under a thousand pretexts. Thereby they gain a pleasure
ten million times sweeter than that of selfish enjoyment. The unselfish
devotion of these towards each other strengthens the deliciousness
(_ras_), and the sight of such unselfish love delights Krishna. The
love felt by the Gopis is not truly earthly lust; for the sake of
analogy we call it lust (_kám_).

"Earthly lust seeks sensual gratification for one's own self. The
passion of the Gopis, on the other hand, seeks Krishna's enjoyment,
abandoning all idea of self. They hanker not for their own pleasure, but
if they embrace Krishna it is only to please _Him_.

"He whose heart is lured by the nectar of the Gopi's passion, adores
Krishna abandoning Vedic worship. That man wins in Brindában the Darling
of Braja's lord, who adores Him by following the path of passionate love
(_rág_). He who adores Krishna in the spirit of any of the people of
Braja [contemporaneous with Krishna], is born at Braja in his next birth
in the form of that person whose passion he imitated, and thus gains
Krishna. This is proved by the _Upanishads_ and the _Shrutis_. Witness
the _Bhágabat_, X. lxxxvii. 19.

"In that verse the term _samadrisha_ indicates adoration in that
spirit, the term _samáh_ speaks of the acquisition by the gods of the
persons of the Gopis, _anghri padma sudhá_ means the delight of
Krishna's society. At Braja you will not gain Krishna by following the
path of prescribed ceremonies. _Vide_ the _Bhágabat_, X. ix. 16:

_'Ascetics proud of their conquest of the flesh, and scholars centred in
themselves, cannot gain the Supreme Lord so easily as His devotees
(_bhaktas_) can.'_

"Therefore, having taken on ourselves the attitude of the Gopis, we
daily meditate on Krishna's dalliance with Radha. In the _siddhi_ body
we meditate and serve it, and in the next birth we gain Radha-Krishna's
feet by being born as _sakhis_. You cannot gain Krishna, however much
you adore Him, if you only meditate on Him as a divinity and not serve
Him as a Gopi. See, how Lakshmi adored Him, but could not gain Him in
Braja. _Vide_ the _Bhágabat_, X. xlvii. 3."

On hearing all this the Master embraced him, and the two wept holding
each other by the neck. Thus did they pass the night in transports of
devotion, and at dawn parted, each to his own work. When taking leave,
Rámánanda Ráy clasped the Master's feet and begged him, "You have come
here out of pity for me. Stay here therefore for some ten days to reform
my sinful heart. None but you can deliver mankind; none else can impart
love for Krishna."

The Master answered, "I came here on hearing of your merits, to purify
my own mind by listening to your discourses on Krishna. You are indeed
worthy of your reputation. You are the limit of human knowledge as
regards the mystery of the love of Krishna and Radha. What of ten days?
So long as I live, I cannot part with you. Let us two dwell together at
Puri, passing our days happily in talk about Krishna." So they parted.
In the evening the Ray came again. The two sat together in seclusion and
held a delightful dialogue, the Master asking and Rámánanda answering
throughout the night.

The Master asked, "Which science is the chief of sciences?" The Ray
answered, "There is no [true] science except devotion to Krishna." "What
is the greatest glory in a creature?" "The fame of being a devotee of
Krishna's love." "What wealth is estimable among human possessions?" "He
is wealthy indeed who loves Radha and Krishna." "What is the heaviest of
sorrows?" "There is no sorrow other than lack of devotion to Krishna."
"Whom should we consider as truly liberated?" "He is the foremost of the
emancipated who loves Krishna." "What song among all songs is peculiarly
own to creatures?" "That ditty which speaks of the amorous sports of
Krishna and Radha." "What is the best of right courses?" "There is no
right course except the society of Krishna's devotees." "Whom does
creation ceaselessly remember?" "The name, virtues, and exploits of
Krishna are the chief things to be remembered." "What is the proper
subject of meditation for mankind?" "The lotus-feet of Radha and Krishna
are the chief object of meditation." "Where ought a man to live
abandoning all else?" "Brindában, the land of Braja, where the _rása_
play was performed." "What is the best thing for a creature to hear?"
"The love-dalliance of Radha and Krishna is a potent medicine to the
ear." "What is the chief object of worship?" "The highest objects of
adoration are the coupled names Radha-Krishna." "What are the respective
destinations of those who desire liberation and devotion?" "One gets an
immovable body, the other a celestial person. The foolish crow pecks at
the ash-fruit (_nimba_), while the connoisseur cuckoo feeds on the
mango-blossom of love. The luckless scholar tastes arid theological
knowledge, while the lucky [devotee] drinks the nectar of Krishna's

Thus did the two while away the night in talking of Krishna, dancing,
singing, and weeping. At dawn they returned, each to his own duties.

Next evening the Ray came again, and after discoursing on Krishna in a
loving communion for some time, he clasped the Master's feet and
implored Him, "The mysteries of Krishna, Radha, love, _rása_, and
_lilá_, are diverse. But you have made them all clear to my heart. It
has been as if Náráyan taught the Vedas to Brahma. Such are the ways of
the Searcher of Hearts; He does not outwardly tell us of a thing, but
reveals it to our hearts. _Vide_ the _Bhágabat_, I. i. I.

"There is one doubt still in my heart. Be good enough to resolve it.
When I first saw you, you looked like a _sannyasi_; but now I behold in
you Krishna, the cowherd!

"Lo, there stands before you a golden idol, the golden hue of which
envelopes all your body. That reveals the flute held to your lips and
your lotus-eyes glancing with many emotions! I marvel as I behold you in
this form. Tell me truly the cause of it." The Master replied, "Deep is
your love for Krishna. Know this to be the effect of love that when the
true devotee gazes on any object, animate or inanimate, Krishna is
manifested to him in that object. The object gazed at may be inanimate
or animate, but he sees not its natural form; his adored deity appears
in everything. _Vide_ the _Bhágabat_, XI. ii. 43, Hari's words to

_'He is the highest of devotees who beholds in every creature the God of
his adoration, and all creation in the spirit of God.'_

"Also, the _Bhágabat_, X. xxxv. 5, the speech of the Gopis to Krishna:

_'Then the fruit and flower laden branches of plants and creepers felt
as it were within themselves the God who was manifesting Himself, and
with their limbs thrilling with delight began to shed drops of honey.'_

"Deep is your love for Radha and Krishna; hence you behold Them in
everything." The Ray objected, "Master, leave thou thy tricks. Conceal
not thy true form from me. Having taken on thyself the emotion and
beauty of Radhiká, thou hast become incarnate in order to taste thy own
delight. Thy secret object is the enjoyment of love; incidentally thou
hast filled the universe with love. Thou hast come of thy own accord to
deliver me. And now thou deludest me! What sort of conduct is this?"

Then the Master smiled and manifested His true form in which were
blended Krishna, the Prince of delight (_ras_) and God, the Supreme
Emotion. In rapture Rámánanda fainted and rolled on the ground. The
Master touched his arm and brought him back to his senses. Then the Ray
beheld the Master looking like a _sannyasi_; but the latter embraced
him and soothed him thus, "Who else than you can behold this form? You
know fully my essence and mysterious exploits (_lilá_); hence have I
shown you this form. My body is not of a fair complexion, but this
complexion is due to contact with Radha's body. She touches none except
the Prince of the Cowherds. I make my own heart imagine her emotions,
and thus I taste the delicious sweetness of Krishna. My acts are not
hidden from you. Even if I were to conceal any, you would know it by the
compelling force of your love. Keep this matter a secret from the
public, lest people should laugh at my endeavours as those of a mad man.
I am a mad man, and so are you; we two are a match!"

Thus did the Master spend ten days happily in sweet discourse about
Krishna with Rámánanda Ray. Much did He discuss the secret
pleasure-sport of Brindában, but could not come to the end of the
subject. If a man discovers a mine with copper, bronze, silver, gold,
gem, and the wishing stone deposited in successive layers, he comes upon
richer and richer things as he goes on digging. Similarly did the Master
question Rámá Ráy and get his answer.

Next day He took leave of the Ray and ordered him, "Give up your earthly
concerns and go to Puri, where I shall soon return after finishing my
pilgrimage. There we shall live together passing our days happily in
talking about Krishna."

So saying He sent Rámánanda home with an embrace, and then lay down to
sleep. At dawn the Master saw a Hanuman (monkey), bowed to it, and set
out. All classes of people at Vidya-pur, on meeting with the Master,
quitted their own faiths and turned Vaishnav. Rámánanda was distracted
by the absence of the Master and ever meditated on Him, utterly
disregarding all his own affairs.

Chaitanya's character is by nature like thickened milk, Rámánanda's
character is sugar added to it, and the dalliance of Radha and Krishna
is like camphor thrown into this compound, which only the fortunate can
taste. He who once drinks it in through his ears, can never leave it for
its deliciousness. All spiritual truths are learnt if you hear it; it
creates faith and love in Radha-Krishna's feet.

Know the hidden truth of Chaitanya from this episode. Attend to it with
faith; do not reason. This supernatural deed is deeply mysterious. You
can realize it if you believe, but reasoning will only set it afar off.
This precious thing is for them only whose sole riches are the feet of
Shri Chaitanya, Nityánanda, and Adwaita! I have celebrated the Meeting
with Rámánanda on the basis of Damodar Swarup's Diary (_Karchá_).
[Text, canto 8.]

[1] Evidently Simhachalam, a hill five miles north of Vizagapatam,
containing a temple to Narasimha. This is the most famous, richest and
best sculptured shrine in Vizagapatam. An inscription shows that a queen
of Gonka III. covered the image with gold. Architecturally the temple
apparently deserves high praise. (_Vizagapatam Gazetteer_, 323-325,


The Pilgrimage to the South

The Master travelled very extensively in the South, visiting thousands
of holy places. At His touch they became the holiest of holy places.
Under the pretext of a pilgrimage He delivered the people of that
country. I shall only give a list of the places without arranging them
in the order in which they were visited.

As before, whoever met Him on the way and all the people of every
village that He lodged in, were turned into Vaishnavs and made to chant
Hari's name. _They_ in their turn converted other villages. Diverse
were the people of the South, some scholars, some ritualists, some
extreme sceptics, Lo! the marvellous effect of the sight of the Master!
all such men gave up their own creeds and turned Vaishnav. Even among
the Vaishnavs [of the South] some were worshippers of Vishnu in the
incarnation of Ram, some the followers of Madhwacharya, some of
Ramanuj's sect of Shri Vaishnavs. All of them, on meeting with the
Master, became worshippers of Vishnu in the incarnation of Krishna, and
began to chant Krishna's name.

The Master journeyed on, reciting the verse:

    _O Ram Raghav! O Ram Raghav! O Ram Raghav!
        Deliver me!_

    _O Krishna Keshav! Krishna Keshav! Krishna Keshav!
        Save me!_

He bathed in the Ganga Gotami (Godavari). At Mallikárjun He visited the
shrine of Mahesha, where He made all the people recite Krishna's name.
He beheld the Rámdás Mahádev, and also the Man-Lion at Ahobal, bowing
to and glorifying the latter. At Siddha-bat is the image of Sita's lord;
the Master bowed to the image of Ram and sang hymns to it. There He was
invited by a Brahman of the place, who incessantly took Ram's nume and
no other. After passing the day in his house as his guest, the Master
proceeded on. At Skanda-kshetra He visited Kártik, and at Tri-matha the
god Tri-vikrama, whence He returned to that Brahman's house at
Siddha-bat, but found him chanting Krishna's name! After dinner the
Master asked him, "Why, Brahman! has this change come over you? Formerly
you used to cry 'Ram, Ram' and now you chant Krishna's name!" The Brahman
replied, "This is the effect of your visit. The sight of you changed my
life-long habit. From childhood have I been chanting Ram's name; but
when I met you I once tittered the word Krishna, and since then
Krishna's name has settled on my tongue. It is Krishna's name that comes
out of my mouth, while the name of Ram has disappeared. It had been my
practice since my boyhood to collect the texts bearing on the glory of
God's names. In the _Padma Purán_, we read:

_'Yogis sport (rama) in the eternal God, whose self is composed of_
sat, chit, _and_ ananda. _Hence the term Ram means the Supreme God.'_

"Again, the _Mahábharat_, Udyog Parba, canto lxxi. 4, says _'the term
'Krishna', meaning the Supreme God, has been derived from the verb_
krish _meaning existence and the inflexion_ na _meaning cessation.'_

"So, the two names _Ram_ and _Krishna_ appeared equal, but I next
found texts making a discrimination between them. The _Padma Purán_ has

_'O perfect-featured Darling! my heart's Delight! reciting the word Ram
thrice earns as much merit as taking [God's] name a thousand times!'_

"The _Brahmánda Purán_ asserts,

_'A single utterance of the name of Krishna is as efficacious as
reciting God's thousand sacred epithets three times in succession.'_

"The last text proves the immeasurable excellence of Krishna's name. And
yet I could not repeat it, only because I found delight in the name of
_Ram_, the god of my vows (_ishtadev_), and took the latter
incessantly. When at your visit the word _Krishna_ rose [to my lips],
my heart recognized its glory. And I truly inferred that you are Krishna
himself." So saying the Brahman fell at the Master's feet, who after
bestowing His grace left him the next day.

At Vriddha Kashi the Master visited Shiva, and thence went on to another
village, where He lodged with the Brahmans. So great was His power that
countless people,--hundreds of thousand, millions even,--came to see
[Him]. Beholding the beauty and religious ecstasy of the Master they all
chanted Krishna's name, and the whole region was converted to
Vaishnavism. He refuted and proved faulty all the doctrines of the
logicians, _mimánsakas_, illusionists, with the followers of Sánkhya,
Patanjal, Smriti, Purán, and Veda, though they were strong in defending
their tenets. Everywhere the Master established the dogmas of
Vaishnavism, which none could refute. His vanquished antagonists
accepted His creed, and so He made the South Vaishnav. On hearing of His
scholarship the sceptics (_páshandi_) came to Him, boastfully bringing
their pupils with them. A very learned Buddhist professor held forth on
the nine doctrines of his church before the Master. Though the Buddhists
are unfit to be talked to or even to be looked at, yet the Master argued
with him to lower his pride. The very Buddhist philosophy of nine
tenets, though rich in logical reasoning, was torn to pieces by the
Master's argumentation. The Buddhist professor raised all his nine
questions, but only to be refuted by the Master's vigorous logic. The
great philosophers were all vanquished; the audience tittered; the
Buddhist felt shame and alarm. Knowing that the Master was a Vaishnav,
the Buddhists retired and hatched a wicked plan: They placed before the
Master a plate of unclean rice, describing it as Vishnu's _prasád_. But
just then a huge bird swooped down and carried off the plate in its
beak! The rice falling on the bodies of the Buddhists was [openly]
rendered impure; the plate fell down slanting on the Buddhist
professor's head, cutting it open, and throwing him down in a fit. His
disciples lifted up their voices in lamentation, and sought the Master's
feet imploring Him, "Thou art God incarnate! O forgive us! Out of thy
grace restore our teacher." The Master replied, "Cry out, all of you,
Krishna's name. Pour the word loudly into your teacher's ears, and he
will recover." They did it, the professor rose up and began to chant
_Hari! Hari!_ He did reverence to the Master saluting Him as Krishna,
to the wonder of all. After this playful act the Son of Shachi vanished;
none could see Him.

He arrived at Tirupati Tirumal, where He beheld the four-armed idol, and
then advanced to Venkátár. At Tirupati He beheld the image of Ram, to
which He bowed and sang hymns. The people marvelled at His powers. Then
He came to the Man-Lion of Páná, which He saluted and extolled in a
transport of love. At Shiva Kánchi he visited Shiva; His power turned
the worshippers of Shakti and Shiva into Vaishnavs. At Vishnu Kanchi he
beheld Lakshmi and Náráyan, to whom He bowed and prayed long, danced and
sang in fervour. His stay of two days bowed the hearts of men to
Krishna. Thence by way of Tirunal He went to Tri-kál-hasti, and bowed to
the image of Mahadev there. And so on to the Paksha-tirtha, the Shiva,
the Vriddhakál-tirtha (the shrine of the White Boar), Pitambar [probably
Chidambaram] (the shrine of Shiva), the Shiyáli Bhairabi Devi, the bank
of the Kaveri, Gosamáj (Shaiva holy place) and Bedáwan, (where He adored
the Amrita-linga Shiva). Everywhere the worshippers at Shiva's shrines
were turned into Vaishnavs. Thence He reached Devasthan, a Vaishnav
shrine, and there kept constant company with the Shri-Vaishnavs.
Proceeding further He visited the lake formed by Kumbhakarna's skull,
the Shiva-kshetra, Pápa-náshan (a shrine of Vishnu), and Shri-rangam,
where He bathed in the Kaveri and then adored Ranganath, bowing and
hymning to the god to His heart's satisfaction, and dancing and singing
in rapture, to the marvel of all beholders.

Here a Shri-Vaishnav named Venkata Bhatta invited the Master to his
house, reverently washed His feet and with his family drank of the
water. After feeding he besought the Master thus: "Master, the four
months of asceticism (_cháturmásya_) are at hand. I pray thee pass them
in my house, and of thy grace save me by discoursing on Krishna." At his
house the Master stayed for four months, passing the time happily in
talking about Krishna with the Bhatta. Daily He bathed in the Kaveri,
visited Shri Ranga, and danced in ecstasy. All men flocked to gaze on
His beauty and rapture of devotion, and at the sight they forgot sorrow
and misery. From all quarters flocked hundreds of thousands, and as they
beheld the Master they chanted Krishna's name and no other term. All
became worshippers of Krishna, to the marvel of mankind. The Brahmans
resident at Shri Ranga invited Him on successive days; but when the four
months were over there were some Brahmans left who had had no
opportunity to entertain Him.

In that holy place dwelt a Brahman devoted to Vishnu, who recited the
_Gitá_ in the temple. In the fervour of delight he read the 18 cantos,
making mistakes, at which some scoffed, some laughed, some chid him, but
he heeded them not and went on with his readings in a rapt mood. The
Master delighted as He beheld the reader's tears of delight, tremour,
and perspiration at his task, and asked him, "Hark you, Sir! what [deep]
meaning inspires you with such rapture?" The Brahman replied, "I am an
ignorant man, not knowing the meanings of words. The _Gitá_ I read at
my _guru's_ bidding, correctly or incorrectly as it may be. My heart is
rapt when I behold [before my mind's eye] the dark beauty of Krishna as
he sits as driver in Arjun's chariot giving moral lessons. I can never
bring myself to give up reading the _Gitá_, because I ever behold HIM
so long as I read the book." To him the Master spoke thus, "Thou alone
art truly worthy to read the _Gitá_, as thou knowest the essence of its
meaning." So saying He embraced the Brahman, who, however, clasped His
feet and prayed, "The sight of you gives me double the joy. Verily I
think you are that Krishna." He could recognize the true nature of the
Master, as the love of Krishna had purged his mind [of its grossness].
But the Master cautioned him not to tell it to any one else. The Brahman
became a devout admirer of the Master and never parted from Him in those
four months, which He spent at the Bhatta's house in blissful discourse
about Krishna. The Bhatta's household gods were Lakshmi and Náráyan. The
Master, pleased with his devotion, ever treated the Bhatta like a
friend, constantly joking with him, as is the manner of friendship. One
day He asked, "Bhatta! your Lakshmi is the type of devoted and chaste
wives. My god is Krishna, a cow-herd. How could such a chaste lady seek
this other man's society? Why did she for this object discard pleasure
and perform endless austerities? Witness the following verse of the
_Bhágabat_, X. xvi. 32:

_"Lord! Out of a longing to be worthy to touch the dust of Thy feet,
Lakshmi, though a [weak] woman, abstained from enjoyment and went
through long penances, etc."_

The Bhatta answered, "Krishna and Náráyan are essentially one; only
Krishna showed more of sportiveness and charm. Hence Lakshmi's chastity
was not marred when she, for the sake of delight, sought Krishna's
company [Quotation from the _Bhakti-rasdmrita-sindhu_]. Playful Lakshmi
desired Krishna for the sake of the greater gain and _rása_ delight
afforded by His society. What harm is there in it? Why are you joking?"
The Master rejoined, "I know there is nothing to blame in it. The
_Shastra_ asserts that Lakshmi never enjoyed the _rása_ dance with
Krishna [_Vide Bhágabat_, X. xlvii. 53]. But the Shrutis attained to
Krishna's society by their austerities. [_Ibid_, X. lxxxvii. 19]. What
was the reason of this difference?" "My mind fails to explain the
reason, as I am a petty creature with a weak understanding, while God's
acts are infinite like the deep ocean. You are Krishna's self and know
your own; exploits. Their inner meaning is known only to those on whom
you have bestowed such knowledge." The Master said, "Such is the natural
characteristic of Krishna that by His sweetness He wins all hearts. The
men of Brindában knew Him not as God, because He came to them as one of
themselves. One tied Him to the wooden pestle [_udukhal_], fancying Him
to be her son. Some mounted on His back, taking Him to be a play-fellow.
The people of Brindában knew Him as the son of Braja's chief, and not as
the Godhead. He who adores Krishna in the manner of the people of
Brindában, can alone attain to Him there. _Vide Bhágabat_, X. ix. 16.
The Shrutis imitated the milk-maids [_Gopis_] and by taking the form of
the Gopis they obtained the Son of the Queen of Mathura. They were
incarnated in the bodies of the Gopis of Braja, and so disported with
Krishna in the _rása_ play. Krishna was of the milkman caste; the Gopis
were his dear ones; so Krishna refused goddesses and other women.
Lakshmi wanted to unite with Krishna in His form of a milkman, and yet
she did not seek Him by assuming the shape of a Gopi. But in no other
form than that of a Gopi can the _rása_ pleasure be consummated, as
Vyas has said in his verses, _viz._, _Bhágabat_, X. xlvii. 53."

Before this the Bhatta used to think in his pride, "Náráyan is God
Himself, and the worship of Him is the highest stage. And therefore the
worship offered by the Shri-Vaishnavs is the highest form of adoration."
But the Master, to dash his folly down, opened all this controversy by
means of a jest. He addressed him thus, "Bhatta, doubt not, know of a
verity that Krishna is God Himself. Náráyan is only the manifestation of
the power (_vilás_) of Krishna, therefore could Krishna steal the hearts
of Lakshmi and others. (_Vide Bhágabat_ I. iii 28). Krishna surpassed
Náráyan in power. Hence did Lakshmi ever long for Krishna. The verse you
have read proves that Krishna is God incarnate. (_Vide
Bhakti-rasámrita-sindhu_, pt. I. ii. 32). Krishna stole the heart of
Lakshmi but Náráyan could not (conversely) win the love of the Gopis.
What to speak of Náráyan? Even Krishna him self, when He assumed the
form of the four-armed Náráyan to amuse the Gopis, failed to win their
love in that shape! (_Vide Lalita-Madhav_, vi. 13)." Thus did the
Master humble his pride, but then He gave a new turn to the conclusion
to soothe the Bhatta's feelings, saying, "Grieve not, Bhatta, I have
only jested. Listen to the teaching of the _Shastra_ in which Vaishnavs
believe: Just as Náráyan and Krishna are one essence, so are Lakshmi and
the Gopis identical and not diverse. Lakshmi in the garb of the Gopis
tasted Krishna's company. In theology it is a sin to recognize a
plurality of gods. The devotee meditates on one and the same God
[diversely according to his fancy]; he gives different images to the
same deity."

The Bhatta spoke, "I am a miserable creature, while thou art that
Krishna, the Incarnate God. I know nothing of the unfathomable ways of
God, but I hold as truth whatever you tell me. Fully have I been blessed
by Lakshmi-Náráyan, as His grace has enabled me to see thy feet. Thou
hast graciously spoken to me of the glory of Krishna, whose beauty,
qualities and powers are beyond human calculation. Now have I learnt
that devotion to Krishna passes all else. You have blest me by unfolding
this truth." So saying the Bhatta clasped the Master's feet, who
graciously hugged him to His bosom.

The four months came to an end. The Master took leave of the Bhatta and
from Shri-rangam set out for the South. The Bhatta wanted to leave his
home and follow Him, but with great effort the Master turned him back.
When He left, the Bhatta fainted away (in grief). Thus did Shachi's Son
disport Himself.

To the Rishava peak He went and there prayed to the deity Náráyan, and
visited Paramananda Puri, who was spending his "four months" there. The
Master bowed at the feet of the Puri, who embraced Him. For three days
they lived together in that Brahman's house, lovingly talking on
Krishna's delightful lore. The Puri said, "I am going to Jagannáth,
whence I shall proceed to Bengal to bathe in the Ganges." The Master
answered, "Go to the Niláchal, where I shall shortly join you on my
return from Setubandha. I long to keep company with you. Do kindly visit
the Niláchal." So He parted from the Puri and joyfully proceeded further
south. The Puri went to the Niláchal, while the Master visited
Shri-Shaila, where lived a Brahman named Shiva-Durga. Rejoicing to see
the Master, he feasted Him for three days, and the two dis coursed of
mysteries in secret. After friendly association with him, the Master
left him and went to the city of Kámakoshti, and thence to the Southern
Mathura [Madura], where He was invited by a Brahman, noble-minded,
detached from the world, and a worshipper of Ram. After bathing in the
Kritamala, the Master went to his house; but as the Brahman never
cooked, he could place no food before the guest. The Master asked, "Hark
you, Sir, it is noon and yet you are not cooking? Why is it?" The
Brahman replied, "Master, I live in the forest, where at present nothing
can be had for cooking. But Lakshman will bring some wild herbs, fruits,
and roots, and then will Sita cook them." The Master was pleased with
the Brahman's devotion. The host now hurriedly began cooking and the
Master was fed in the third quarter of the day. But the Brahman himself
fasted, at which the Master asked, "Why do you fast? What grieves you?
Why mourn you?" The Brahman replied, "I have no need to live; I shall
destroy myself by jumping into fire or water. The divine Sita, the
mother of the world and the emblem of Supreme Goodness, was (rudely)
touched by a demon, as I hear. So I ought not to live. This sorrow
consumes me, though my spirit does not leave the body." To him the
Master thus: "Think not so any longer. You are learned and yet you do
not judge the matter in your mind! Sita, the beloved of God, is the
embodiment of spirituality and bliss (_chit ánanda_). Physical senses
cannot see her, not to speak of touching her. Ravan abducted only an
illusive image of Sita, while the true Sita had disappeared.[1] The
Vedas and the Purans constantly teach this truth that the Material
cannot take cognisance of what is non-Material. Believe my words, and
never harbour such sad thoughts again." Reassured by the Master's words
the Brahman dined and took delight in life.

After bathing in the Kritamálá, the Master went to Durbesan, where he
saw the image of Raghunath. Thence to Mahendra hill, where He adored
Parashu Ram. At Setubandha He bathed in the Dhanu-tirtha (Bow shrine).
Visiting Rameshwar, He rested there. An assembly of Brahmans was
listening to the reading of the _Kurma Puran_, in the course of which
the episode of chaste women was reached. The narrative declared that
Ravan stole only a false phantom of Sita. At the sight of Ravan the true
Sita sought refuge with Fire, who lodged her with Parvati, while he
deluded Ravan by giving up to him a false image of Sita. After Ram had
slain Ravan, and Sita submitted to the ordeal of fire, the false Sita
vanished, while the real Sita was delivered to Ram by Fire. The Master
was delighted to hear this theory. So He borrowed from the Brahman the
leaf (containing the passage), and made a copy for being placed in the
book, while He took the old leaf for creating conviction and returned to
the Southern Mathura, where He gave the leaf to the Brahman Rámdas.

At this the Brahman was overjoyed and clasped the Master's feet weeping
and saying, "Thou art Ram incarnate, visiting me in the disguise of a
_sannyasi_, and raising me from deep sorrow. Do consent to dine at my
house to-day, because on that day I was too melancholy to entertain thee
worthily. It is my good fortune that thou hast come again!"

So saying the Brahman cooked deliciously and feasted the Master nicely.
After passing the night under his roof, the Master went to the
Támraparni in the Pandya land, where He bathed in the river and wandered
on the bank gazing at the Nine Tirupadis in wonder.

Thence He visited Chiyartálá (the shrine of Ram Lakshman), Til Kánchi
(the shrine of Shiva), Gajendra-Mokshan (where there was an image of
Vishnu), Páná-garhi (shrine of Ram), Chámtápur (Ram Lakshman), Shri
Vaikuntha (Vishnu), the Malay Mountain (Agastya), Kanyá Kumári [Cape
Comorin], Amlitalá (Ram), the Mallar land (where the Bhattamáris dwelt),
and then after seeing Tamal Kártik, He reached Betápáni (Raghunath's
shrine), where He passed the night.

The Master's companion, the Brahman Krishna-das, met a Bhattamari, who
tempted the simple Brahman by offering him a woman and money. In the
morning Krishna-das went away to the Bhattamari. Soon the Master came in
quest of him and addressed the Bhattamari tribe thus, "Why have you
detained my Brahman (follower)? I am, as you see, a _sannyasi_; and so
are you too. It is unfair of you to put me in trouble."

At this the Bhattamaris took up arms and flocked round the Master to
thrash Him. But the weapons dropped from their hands and struck their
own limbs, so that they fled away on all sides. Lamentation rose in
their houses. The Master dragged Krishna-das away by the hair, and that
day reached the Payaswini river, in which He bathed and visited the
temple of Adi Keshav, where He bowed, prayed, danced and sang for a long
while in rapture, to the amazement of the beholders. All the people
treated Him very respectfully and He joined the assembly of the very
devout there. Here He got a manuscript of the book
_Brahma-samhitádhyáya_ to His boundless delight, tremour, weeping,
thrill, perspiration, stupor, and frenzy (of joy), because the _Brahma
Samhita_ is unrivalled among works of exegetics (_siddhanta shastra_)
and it is the chief instrument for teaching the glory of Govinda, as it
expresses vast dogmas in a few words. It is the very cream of Vaishnav
sacred writings.

Very carefully did He get the book copied. Thence He went to Ananta
Padmanáv, where He spent two days, to Shri Janárdan, where also He
hymned and danced for some two days, to Payoshni, where Shankar Náráyan
is worshipped, to the monastery of Shringeri, the seat of Sankaracharya,
to _Matsya-tirtha_ (Fish shrine), to the river Tungabhadrá, and to
[Upidi], the seat of Madhwáchárya, the spokesman of spiritual truth.
Here He gazed devotedly on the Udupa-Krishna. The image of Krishna in
the form of the dancing young cowherd (_Gopal_) was very charming.
Madhwáchárya was moved by a dream to rescue this image from a cargo of
consecrated earth [_Gopichandan_] in a sunken ship, and to install it
[at Udipi], where it is worshipped to this day.

The Master was overjoyed to see the image of Krishna, and in fervour of
devotion danced and sang (before it) for many a day. The _tattwavádis_,
taking the Master for a _máyávadi_, at first slighted Him, but
afterwards they marvelled at His religious ecstasy, and venerated Him
greatly as a (true) Vaishnav. Aware of their pride in Vaishnavism, the
Master began a discourse with them. The high priest of the
_tattwavádis_ was an expert in all the holy books. The Master, assuming
the tone of a humble inquirer, put questions to him: "I do not clearly
comprehend _sádhya_ (end) and _sádhan_ (means). Do please enlighten me
on the subject." The high priest replied, "To the worshipper of Krishna
the highest _sádhan_ is to resign to Krishna the religious system
centring round caste and ashram. Translation to Vishnu's heaven, after
attaining to the fivefold salvation, is the supreme _sádhya_. Thus
speak the _Shastras_." The Master objected, "The _Shastras_ assert
that the supreme _sádhan_ of the love and service of Krishna is
listening to and singing His praise. _Vide Bhágabat_, VII. v. 18.

"From listening to and singing hymns, one comes to love Krishna. That is
the fifth human end, the limit of human attainment. _Vide Bhágabat_,
XI. ii. 38. All kinds of scripture condemn (devotion to) work and teach
us to abstain from the fruit of our works. Therefore from work cannot
spring love and devotion to Krishna. _Vide Bhágabat_, XI. xi. 32; also
_Gitá_, xviii. 66; _Bhágabat_, XI. xx. 9. Truly devoted men renounce
the fivefold salvation; in their eyes salvation is worthless, no better
than hell! _Vide Bhágabat_, III. xxix. 11; V. xiv. 43; VI. xvii. 23.

"The devout abjure salvation and work alike. And you establish these two
things as the end and means! Ah! you are only befooling me as I am a
[mere] _sannyasi_. You have not told me of the true characteristics of
end and means."

At this the high priest of the tattwa School was inly ashamed, while he
marvelled at the Vaishnav spirit of the Master. So he replied, "Your
exposition is the true one. All _Shastras_ declare this to be the
Vaishnav dogma. Yet our order holds the views laid down by
Madhwacharya." The Master rejoined, "The votary of work and the votary
of knowledge are alike lacking in faith. In your order I see signs of
these two. I see only one merit in your order: you have fixed, upon the
true God."

After thus humbling the pride of that sect the Master went to the Falgu
shrine, then to Tritakup (the shrine of Vishálá), Panchápsára, Gokarna
(where Shiva is worshipped), Dwaipáyani, Supárak, Kolhápur (where He
beheld Lakshmi and Kshir Bhagavati), Nánga-Ganesh, Chor Párvati, and
Pándupur [=Pandharpur]. Here before Vitha's image He sang and danced

A Brahman of the place invited and reverently fed the Master. Learning
the good news that Shri Ranga Puri, a disciple of Madhav Puri, was
residing in another Brahman's house in that village the Master went to
see him. As He prostrated Himself before the Puri in devotion, He wept,
trembled and was thrilled and covered all over with sweat. Shri Ranga
Puri wondered at the sight and cried out, "Rise, blessed one. Surely you
are connected with my _guru_, or you could not have displayed such
fervour of devotion". So, he raised and embraced the Master, and the two
wept clasping each other's neck. After a spell of rapture, the two came
round, and the Master said how He was related to Ishwar Puri. (At this)
their love welled out wondrously and each honoured the other. Day and
night they held forth on Krishna for a week or so.

The Puri asked about His birth-place. The Master replied Navadwip. Shri
Ranga Puri had once visited that town in the train of Madhav Puri. He
spoke how he had been feasted in the house of Jagannáth Mishra, how
delicious the hash of green banana-flower (_mochá_) had tasted, what a
chaste woman and tender to the world like a mother was Jagannáth's wife,
how she was matchless in the universe for her skill in cookery, and how
she had feasted the _sannyasis_ as lovingly as if they were her own
sons, how one of her sons had turned monk in youth with the title of
Shankaráranya and had attained to death in that very place (_viz._,
Pandupur). The Master broke in, "In his earthly life Shankar was my
brother. Jagannáth Mishra was my father." So they had a friendly
assembly, and then Shri Ranga Puri set out to visit Dwáráka. The Master
was detained for some four days by His Brahman host. He bathed in the
Bhimarathi and visited the shrine of Vithal. Then He walked by the bank
of the Krishna-binna, visiting the temples at the many holy places
there. The Brahmans of the country were Vaishnavs and studied the
_Krishna-karnamrita_, of which book the Master joyfully made a copy.
The world has nothing like the _Karnamrita_, which kindles pure
devotion to Krishna. He only knows the fulness of the beauty and
sweetness of Krishna's exploits, who ceaselessly reads the
_Karnamrita_. He carried with Himself the manuscripts of the _Brahma
Samhita_ and the _Karnamrita_ like two precious jewels.

After bathing in the Tápti, He went to the city of Maheshwati, and then
visiting many holy places on the way, reached the bank of the Narmadá.
After visiting the Shrine of the Bow (_Dhanu-tirtha_), He bathed in the
Nirbindhya, and then passed on to the Rishyamukha mountain and the
Dandaka forest, where He beheld a _saptatál_ tree, very old stout and
high. As the Master embraced the _saptatál_, the tree disappeared
bodily, at which the people marvelled and cried out, "This _sannyasi_
is an incarnation of Ram, for lo! the _tál_ tree has flown up to
Vishnu's heaven. Who but Ram can work such a miracle?"

Then the Master bathed in the lake of Pampá, and rested in the
Panchavati wood. From Násik and Trimbak He passed on to Brahma-giri, to
Kushávarta (the source of the Godavari), the seven (branches of the)
Godavari, and many other shrines, and finally returned to Vidyá-nagar.

On hearing of His arrival, Rámánanda Ráy joyfully hastened to Him and
prostrated himself; but the Master raised him and clasped him to His
bosom. Both wept in delight and their minds were unstrung by rapture.
After recovering composure they talked of many things together. The
Master gave a narrative of His pilgrimage, and showed him the
_Karnamrita_ and the _Brahma Samhita_, saying "These two books bear
out the theories of devotion (_prem_) which you had expounded to me."
The Ray in delight tasted the books in the Master's company and took
copies of them.

The whole village was agitated by the news of the _sannyasi's_ return
and all men flocked to see Him. At this Rámánanda went back to his own
house. At noon the Master rose for His meal. Rámánanda returned at night
and the two kept a vigil discoursing of Krishna. Thus five or six days
were spent blissfully, the two holding forth on Krishna day and night.
Rámánanda said, "With thy leave, Master, I petitioned my king, and he
has permitted me to visit the Nilachal. I have already begun my
preparations for departure." The Master replied, "I have come here only
to take you to the Niláchal." But the Ray objected, "Master, go you in
advance. A noisy throng of elephants, horses and soldiers surrounds me.
Let me first dispose of them, and then after ten days I shall follow
you." The Master consented and returned to the Niláchal by the route He
had previously followed, the people every where chanting Hari's name as
they saw Him. He rejoiced at it. From Alalnath he sent Krishna-das in
advance to call Nityánanda and others of His own folk. At the news,
Nityánanda went to meet the Master, his devotion knowing no bounds.
Jagadananda, Damodar, Gopinatli Acharya and Mukunda Pandit went along
dancing, unable to contain their delight. They all met the Master on the
way, and He lovingly embraced them, all weeping in delight. Sárvabhauma
Bhattáchárya joined the Master on the beach of the ocean and fell at His
feet; but the Master raised him up and held him to the bosom,
Sárvabhauma weeping in rapture. The whole party went to visit
Jagannáth's shrine, where the Master had a transport of devotion,
trembling, perspiring, weeping in delight, dancing and singing again and
again. The servitors of the temple offered Him the dedicated garlands
and food of the god, at which the Master regained composure. The
attendants of Jagannáth joyfully flocked together. Káshi Mishra (the
high priest) fell at His feet, but the Master did him honour and
embraced him. The _Parichhá_ of Jagannáth, too, did Him obeisance.

Sárvabhauma took the Master to dinner at his own house, and fed Him and
His party at noon on sumptuous dishes from the temple. Thereafter he
made the Master lie down and rubbed His feet; but the Master bade him go
and dine; and He passed the night also in Sárvabhauma's house to please
him, narrating the story of His pilgrimage all night to His followers
and host, and saying, "In all the holy places I have visited I did not
meet with a single Vaishnav who can equal you. Only Rámánanda Ráy gave
me intense delight." The Bhatta replied, "It was just for that reason
that I had asked you to see him." [Text, canto 9.]

[1] This is exactly like the version of the legend of the abduction of
Helen given by Stesichorus and accepted by Euripides in his _Helena_.


[In this connection we should bear in mind that no record of Chaitanya's
pilgrimage was kept at the time it was made. His disciples heard of it,
evidently piece-meal, from his lips long after-wards. A diary
constructed on this basis by Govinda-das has been lost. Our author,
Krishna-das Kaviraj, frankly admits (at the beginning of canto ix) that
he has not been able to name the holy places, of the South in the order
in which they were visited by the Master. We should also note that this
pilgrimage was performed between April 1510 and January 1512 and that
the great and widespread revival of temple building which resulted from
the restoration of the Vijaynagar empire under Krishna Dev just began at
the time of Chaitanya's visit, but was completed long afterwards. Hence
many of the famous shrines of the South dating from the early 16th
century were not seen by him, as they were completed after his visit].

_Ahobal.--Ahobilam_, in the Sirvel taluq of the Karnul district. The
most sacred Vishnu temple in the district, it is dedicated to Narasimha.
Together with other temples in the neighbourhood, it forms a group known
as the Nava (nine) Narasimha, represent ing nine different forms of
Vishnu. The original temple is supported by 64 pillars, each of which is
beautifully carved into several miniature pillars. In front is a fine
unfinished mantapam with large pillars of white sand-stone, about 3 feet
in diameter, elaborately sculptured. (_Kurnool Manual_, 183-184, 145).

_Ananta Padmanava_.--The famous Padmanava temple in Trivandrum.

_Betapani_.--_Bhutapandi_ in Travancore, in the Tobala taluq, n. of
Nagarcoil, with temple of Bhutanath. [R. M. Ghose.]

_Brahma-giri_.--There is a Brahmagiri near Sopara (_Bom. Gaz._ xiv.
315); but that is not the place meant in our text. The reference is to
the _Brahma mountain_, in the ridge joining which to the Trimbak
mountain the Kikvi, a larger and more distant branch of the Godavari
(than the one issuing at Trimbak) takes its rise. (_Bombay Gaz_. rvi.

_Chamtapur.--Chenganur_ in Travancore State. [R. M. G.]

_Chiyár-talá.--Shertalá_ near Nagarcoil, [according to R. M. Ghose].

_Courtallam_, 7 m. s. w. of Tenkashi in the Tinnevelly district, 450
ft. above sea-level. The falls of the Chittar (a river which joins the
Tamraparni 15 m. n. J e. of Tinnevelly) at this place are famous among
the Hindus for their virtue of cleansing from sin. [_Tinn. Man._ 96.]

_Dhanu-tirtha.--Dhanus-kodi_, terminus of the S. I. Railway, 12 m.
south-east of Rameshwaram. [R. M. G.]

_Durbesan.--Darvashayan_, on the sea-coast seven miles east of Ramnad.
[R. M. G.]

_Gajendra-mokshan_.--Probably Devendra-mokshan or Suchindram, 2 m. s.
of Nagarcoil. Here Indra was cleansed of his sin and built a temple to
Sthanu-linga Shiva. [R. M. G.]

_Ganga Gotami_.--The Godavari river. At Kobur, opposite Rajmahendri,
was the hermitage of the sage Gautama, from whom this river is named.

_Gokarna_.--On the west coast, about 20 miles s. e. of Karwar, famous
for its temple of Mahabaleshwar and a very popular place of pilgrimage.
(_Bombay Gazetteer_, Kanara, xv. pt. 2, pp. 289-301).

_Kolhapur_.--Out of about 250 temples in this city at present six are
well-known, namely, the temples of Ambábái or Mahálakshmi, Vithoba,
Temblai, Mahákali, Phirangai or Pratyangiras, and Yallamma. (_Bombay
Gaz_. xxiv. 309-311).

_Kumbha-kama.--Kumbakonam_ in the Tanjore district, 20 miles north-east
of Tanjore town. It contains 12 principal Shaiva and 4 Vaishnav temples
and one dedicated to Brahmá. (_Tanjore Gaz_. 217-219).

_Madura_--on the river Vaigai, the minor basin of which is called
_Kritimá-nadi_ (the _Krita-mala_ of our text). Its temples are
described in the _Madura Gazetteer_, 267-274.

_Mahendra hill_.--There is a peak of this name in the Travancore State,
but too far from Cape Comorin.

_Malay mountain (Agastya)_.--(i) There is a temple to the sage Agastya
in the village Agastyampalli, close to Vedaranniyam, near Point Calimere
in the Tanjore district; but it cannot be the place meant, (ii) _Palni_
in the Madura district contains a famous temple to Subrahmanya on the
top of a hill (Shivagiri) created by Agastya. But there is no temple to
Agastya here. (_Madura Gaz._ 304-306). (iii) R.M. Ghose is inclined to
identify it with _Pothia_ hill (near Cape Comorin), the reputed abode
of Agastya (K. Pillai's _Tamils 1,800 Years Ago_, 21.) (iv) The
Tamraparni rises on either side of a fine conical peak known as
_Agastiar-malai_ or Agastya's hill. (_Tinn. Man._ 91).

_Mallar land._--Malabar.

_Mallikarjun.--Shri-Shailam_, on the south bank of the Krishna, 70
miles below Karnul. In the centre of the enclosure is the temple of
Mallikarjun Shiva, the chief deity worshipped here, and considered as
one of the _jyotir-lingas_. (_Kurnool Manual_, 181-183, 144). There is
another and much less famous temple to Mallikarjun at Bezvada on the
Krishna river.

_Matsya-tirtha_.--Either (1) _Mahé_, the French possession on the
coast of the Malabar district. Or (2) _Matsya-gundam_, a curious pool
on the Macheru river, near the village of Matam, six miles north
north-west of Pacleru (in the Padwa taluq of the Vizaga-patam district).
A barrier of rocks runs right across the river there, and the stream
plunges into a great hole and vanishes beneath this, reappearing again
about a hundred yards lower down. Just where it emerges from under the
barrier it forms a pool which is crowded with _mahseer_ of all sizes.
(_Vizagapatam Gaz._ 285).

_Nine Tripadi.--Alwar Tiru-nagari_, 17 m. s. e. of Tinnevelly. Around
it are 9 temples to Vishnu (_Tirupati_), the idols of which are
assembled in this town on holy days. [R. M. G.]

_Paksha-tirtha.--Pakshi-tirtham_ or _Tiru-kadi-kundram_, 9 miles south
east of Chingleput. [R. M. G.] "The hill of the sacred kites." It is a
ridge terminating in a spiked hill, some 500 feet above sea-level, on
which stands a Shiva temple. The name of the hill is Vedagiri or
Vedachalam, and the idol is called Veda-girishwar. Every day two birds
of the kite species come to the mountain and are fed by an attendant
Brahman. The same two are believed to have come from Benares to receive
this daily dole from time immemorial. (_Chingleput Man_. 106-107).

_Pampá_.--The ancient and Puranic name of the Tungabhadra. The village
of Hampi (the site of the famous capital Vijaynagar) was originally
known as Pampa-tirtha. This name (also _Pampá-saras_) is now borne by a
tank on the Haidarabad side of the Tungabhadra near Anegundi. (_Bellary
Gazetteer_, 6, 261).

_Pána_.--Panakal Narasimha at Mangal-giri, 7 m. south of Bezvada. But
it is too far to the north. [R. M. G.] When visitors offer a draught to
Narasimha-swami, the image in the temple refuses to drink more than half
of it. (_Kistna Dist. Man._ 179).

_Páná-garhi.--Panagodi_, 30 m. s. s. w. of Tinnevelly on the road to
Trivandrum. [R. M. G.] But the temple there is to Ramlinga-swami Shiva
and not to Ram.

_Panchavati_.--Identified with Nasik in the Bombay presidency. Nasik
and Trimbak (at the source of the Godavari) are described in _Bombay
Gazetteer_, xvi.

_Pandupur.--Pandharpur_, on the Bhima river, 38 miles due west of
Sholapur; famous for its temple to Vithoba. (_Bombay Gaz_. xx.

_Papa-nashan_.--Eight miles s. w. of Kumbakonam (Tanjore Gaz. 221).
There is another city of this name 29 miles west of Palamkota, (in the
Tinnevelly district). Here near a pagoda the Tamraparni river takes its
last fall from the hills to the level country. (_Tinn. Man._ 91).

_Payaswini.--Tiru-vattar_ in the Travancore State. [R. M. G.]

_Pitambar_.--Evidently Chidambaram, 26 miles south of Cuddalore. Famous
for its great pagoda, covering 39 acres in the centre of the town, and
sourrounded on all four sides by a street 60 feet wide. It contains the
Akasa-linga. (_S. Arcot Manual_, 400-407).

_Rishava peak--Anagarh-malai_, 12 miles north of Madura. [R. M. G.]

_Rishyamukh_.--Identified with the hill on the Nizam's side of the
narrowest of the gorges in the Tungabhadra near Hampi. (_Bellary Gaz._

_Shiva image_.--Either Vedagiris at Pakshi-tirtham or the _lingam_ in
the shore temple at Mahavalipuram (Seven Pagodas).

_Shiva Kanchi_.--The modern _Conjeveram_, also called the Southern
Benares, 56 miles south-west of Madras. The Shiva temple is dedicated to
Ekambara-swami. South-east of it stands _Vishnu Kanchi_ or Little
Conjeveram, with its temple to Vishnu under the name of Varada-ráj.

_Shiva-kshetra_.--There is a Shiva-ganga tank at Tanjore. The great
Brihatishwar temple of this town seems to be meant in our text.
(_Tanjore Gaz._ 269-271).

_Shiyali_.--The head-quarters of a taluq of that name in the Tanjore
district, about 48 miles n. e. of Tanjore town. It has a famous Shiva
temple with a large tank, a shrine dedicated to the Tamil saint
Tiru-jnan Sambandhar, and some other separate shrines, and evidently an
image of Shiva's consort who is said to have given suck to this saint
when he visited this temple as a child. (_Tanjore Gaz_. 258).

_Shri Janardan_.--Near the Varkala railway station, 26 miles north of

_Shringeri_.--In the Kadur district of Mysore. Situated 13 25 N. 75 19
E., on the left bank of the Tunga, 7 miles s. of Hariharpur. Its full
name is Rishya-shringa-giri. It is the head-quarters of the Jagat-guru
or successor of Shankaracharya in the headship of the Smartas. (Rice,
_Mysore Gazetteer_, ii. 443-445).

_Shri-rangam_.--The famous Vishnu temple in an island between the
Kolerun and the Kaveri, north of Trichinopoly. (_Trichinopoly Manual_,
337-340 and _Gazetteer_, 45-51, 91-126, 319).

_Shri-Shaila_.--The most famous place of this name is the one in the
Karnul district, described above under Mallikarjun. But that place
cannot be meant in this context, which suggests some hill between
Trichinopoly and Madura, sacred to Shri or Lakshmi.

_Shri-Vaikuntha_.--_Shri Vaikuntham_, four miles n. of Alwar
Tirunagari. [R. M. G.], on the left bank of the Tamraparni and 16 m. s.
e. of Tinnevelly.

_Siddha-bat.--Sidhout_, 10 miles east of Cuddapa town. Sometimes known
as the Dakshina Kashi or the Southern Benares. The name is derived from
_Siddha-vatam_ or the hermit's banyan tree. Eight miles south of it is
Ontimetta ('the solitary hill') with a large and very holy pagoda and a
tank. The pagoda is dedicated to Kodanda-Ram-swami. (_Cuddapah Manual_,

_Suparak-Sopara_--(in the Thana district), 26 miles north of Bombay. It
was the capital of the Konkan from very ancient times to 1,300 A.D.
(_Bombay Gaz_. xiv. 314-342).

_Tamal-kartik.--Tobala_, 44 m. s. of Tinnevelly, 2 m. e. of Aramvali
pass, temple of Subrahmanya. [R. M. G.]

_Tamraparni_.--A river on the left bank of which Tinnevelly stands.

_Til Kanchi_.--Probably _Tenkashi_, 30 m. n. w. of Tinnevelly town.

_Tirupati_.--A very famous holy city in the Chandra-gin taluq of the N.
Arcot district. In Lower Tirupati, which stands in the plain, there are
15 templesf the chief of them being dedicated to Govinda-raja-swami (the
brother of Venkateshwar) and Ramswami. Upper Tirupati, usually called
_Tirumala_ (from _Tirumalai_, holy hill), stands on the top of the
range, six miles north west of Lower Tirupati. Its chief divinity is
Venkateshwar. (_North Arcot Manual_, 142-153).

_Tri-kal-hasti.--Shri Kalahasti_, popularly called _Kalahastri_, on
the right bank of the Suvarnamukhi river, 22 miles n. e. of Tirupati.
Famous for its shrine of the Vayu-linga Shiva. (_N. Arcot Man_.

_Udipi_.--36 miles north of Mangalore (in the South Kanara district),
the principal seat of the Madhavacharya priests. The temple of Krishna
is said to have been founded by Madhavacharya himself, who set up in it
an image of Krishna originally made by Arjun. There are also eight
ancient _maths_, each with a swami. (_S. Canara Manual_, ii. 263. For
a full description, see _Bombay Gazetter_, xxii. 56).

_Vedaban.--Vedáranniyam_ or the forest of the Vedas, in the south east
corner of the Tirutturaippundi taluq of the Tanjore district and five
miles north of Point Calimere. Orthodox Brahmans consider it second only
to Rameshwaram in sanctity. (_Tanjore Gaz_. 284).

_Vriddha-kal_.--Varaha-swami temple, a monolithic pagoda, n. w. of
"Arjun's Penance" and 3/4 m. s. of Valipitham, at Mahavalipuram or Seven
Pagodas; image of Vishnu with a huge boar's head, overcanopied by the
Shesha Nag.

_Vriddha-kashi.--Vriddhachalam_, on the Manimukta (an affluent of the
Vellar), in the S. Arcot district. Sometimes called Vriddha-kashi. (_S.
Arcot Manual_, 438-440). It cannot be the place meant, if the order of
holy places given in our text be correct.


The Reunion of the Vaishnavs

After the Master had set out for the South, King Pratap Rudra summoned
Sárvabhauma, seated him after due salutation, and asked him concerning
the Master, saying, "I hear that a very gracious person has come to your
house from Bengal. People say that he has shown you much kindness. Do
please help me to see him." The Bhatta replied, "True is what you have
heard. But you cannot see him; he is a _sannyasi_ withdrawn from the
world, living in seclusion, and not visiting kings even in dreams. I
could, however, have contrived somehow an interview between him and you:
but he has recently gone to the South." The king asked, "Why did he
leave Jagannáth's shrine?" The Bhatta replied, "Such is one of the deeds
of saints. They visit holy places on the plea of making pilgrimages, but
they thereby bring salvation to worldly men. _Vide Bhágabat_, I. xiii. 8.
Such is the unalterable character of a Vaishnav: he is not a man but
rather a particle of God." The Raja rejoined, "Why did you let him
depart? You ought to have clasped his feet and importuned him to stay
here." Bhattáchárya answered, "He is a god and a free being. He is
Krishna's self and not a dependent creature. Still I had tried to detain
him, but could not succeed as God is free."

The Raja said, "Bhatta! you are the chief of wise men. As you call him
Krishna, I must believe it. When he comes here again, may I see him once
and gratify my eyes?" The Bhatta replied, "He will soon return. We want
a suitable place for him to lodge in; it must be near the temple and yet
secluded. Choose such a lodging for him." The king said, "Kashi Mishra's
house is just that sort of place, close to Jagannath and yet very
retired." The king thereafter remained expectant. Bhattáchárya informed
Kashi Mishra, who said, "Blessed am I that such a holy Master will lodge
under my roof."

Thus did all the people of Puri live in ever-growing expectation of
seeing the Master, when He returned from the South. All rejoiced at the
news, and they all begged Sárvabhauma thus, "Lead us to the Master, that
through thy mediation we may reach Chaitanya's feet." Bhattáchárya
replied, "To-morrow the Master will go to Kashi Mishra's house, where I
shall introduce you to Him."

Next day the Master visited Jagannáth in company with Bhattáchárya, in
great delight. The servitors met Him with the god's food and He embraced
them all. After the visit Bhattáchárya led Him to Kashi Mishra's house.
Kashi Mishra fell at His feet, and gave up to Him not his house only but
his soul also. The Master appeared to him in the four-armed shape, and
embraced him to make him one of His own followers.

Then the Master took His seat there. Around Him sat Nityánanda and other
devotees, The Master was pleased with the arrangements of the house,
which satisfied all His needs. Then Sárvabhauma said, "Master, this
house is worthy of you. Accept it, as Kashi Mishra prays." The Master
replied, "My body is under your control. What you bid me, I must do, as
in duty bound." Then Sárvabhauma, seating himself at the right hand of
the Master, began to introduce one after another all the people of Puri,
saying, "All these men have been residing in the Niláchal in eager
longing to meet you. They have fared like the thirsty _chátak_ bird that
cries in anguish for water. All were determined [to see you]. This one
is Janárdan, a constant attendant on the person of Jagannáth. This other
is Krishna-das who holds the golden rod [in the temple]. Here is
Shikhi Mahanti, the officer in charge of the [temple] secretariate.
This, Pradyumna Mishra, is foremost among Vaishnavs, and he waits on
Jagannáth during the god's sleep. Murari Mahanti, the brother of Shikhi
Mahanti, has no refuge save your feet. [These are] Chandaneshwar,
Singheshwar, Murari Brahman, and Vishnu-das, all of whom meditate on
your feet. Here are the high-minded Praharáj Mahápátra, and his kinsman
Paramánanda Mahápátra. These Vaishnavs are the ornaments of this holy
place, and all devotedly intent on your feet." They all prostrated
themselves on the ground before the Master, who graciously held them to
His bosom.

Just then came there Bhabánanda Ray, with his four sons; and they all
fell at the Master's feet. Sárvabhauma introduced them, "This is
Bhabánanda Ray whose eldest son is Rámánanda Ray." The Master embraced
him and spoke in praise of Rámánanda adding, "One cannot adequately
describe to the world the greatness of him whose son is a jewel like
Rámánanda. Truly, you are Pandu, your wife is Kunti, and your five
high-souled sons are the five Pandav brothers." The Ray replied, "I am a
Shudra, a worldling and a wretch. That you have touched me is the only
holy thing [about me]. I lay down at your feet myself with my house,
belongings, servants, and five sons. This youth Vánináth will constantly
wait on you, to do whatever you bid him. Know me as your own, feel no
delicacy, but order whatever you desire." The Master answered, "What
delicacy can there be? You are not a stranger to me. In birth after
birth you with your family have been my servants. In some five days
Rámánanda will arrive here. His society will complete my bliss." So
saying He embraced the father, while the four sons laid their heads at
His feet. They were all sent home, only Vánináth Patta Nayak was
retained by the Master.

Bhattáchárya sent away the other people. Thereafter the Master called
for deaf Krishna-dás, and said "Listen, Bhattáchárya, to the story of
this man. He had accompanied me to the South, but left me to join the
tribe of Bhattamári. But I rescued him from their hands. Having brought
him back here I give him his discharge. Let him go wherever he likes; I
have no longer any concern with him." At this Krishna-dás set up a
lamentation. When the Master went away for His noonday worship,
Nityánanda, Jagadánanda, Mukunda, and Dámodar laid their heads together,
saying, "We have to send a messenger to Bengal to report the Master's
arrival to His mother. Adwaita, Shribas and others of the faithful will
all flock hither on hearing of His return. Let us send Krishna-dás (for
the purpose)." With this they consoled Krishna-dás.

Next day they prayed to the Master, "Allow us to send a man to Bengal,
as mother Shachi, Adwaita and other devotees have all been plunged in
concern since they heard of your setting out for the South. Let a man go
and give them the glad tidings (of your safe return)." The Master
assented, "Do as you like." So they sent Krishna-dás to Bengal, with a
present of the _mahá-prasád_ for the Vaishnavs there.

Deaf Krishna-dás reached Bengal, saw mother Shachi at Navadwip, bowed,
and gave her the _mahá-prasád_ and the news of the Master's return from the
South. The mother rejoiced at the news, and so did the faithful led by
Shribas. Then Krishna-dás went to the house of Adwaita Acharya, gave him
the _prasád_, bowed, and told him all about the Master. The Acharya in
rapture danced, sang, and shouted for a long time. How shall I name all
the flock who exulted at the news,--Haridás Thákur, Vásudev Datta, Murári
Gupta, Shivananda, Acharya Ratna, Pandit Vakreshwar, Acharya Nidhi, the
Pandits Gadadhar, Shrirám, Dámodar, Shrimán, and Rághav, Vijay,
Shridhar, and Acharya Nandan. They all went in a body to Adwaita, bowed
at his feet, and were clasped to his bosom. Two or three days were spent
by the Acharya in great rejoicing (with them), and then he confirmed the
desire to make a pilgrimage to the Niláchal. Gathering together at
Navadwip, they set off for Jagannáth with mother Shachi's leave. At the
report about the Master, Satyaráj and Rámánanda from the Kulin village
joined them, and so did Mukunda and Narahari from Raghunandan Khand.
Just then Paramánanda Puri arrived at Nadia from the South, travelling
along the banks of the Ganges. He lodged in comfort in the temple of
mother Shachi, who honourably fed him. On hearing there of the Master's
return, the Puri too wished to hasten to the Niláchal. He set off
thither with the Master's devotee, the Brahman Kamalákánta, and soon
arrived in the Master's presence, who rejoiced at the meeting and
lovingly saluted his feet, while the Puri embraced Him.

The Master said, "I long to live in thy company. Make the Niláchal thy
abode, as thou lovest me." The Puri replied, "It is because I desire
your society that I came hither from Bengal. The news of your return
from the South has gladdened the heart of Shachi. The other devotees are
coming to see you, but as they made delay I had started quickly (before
them)." The Master assigned to the Puri a retired room in Káshi Mishra's
house and an attendant.

Next day arrived Swarup Dámodar, who had touched the inmost recess of
the Master's spirit. His name in the world was Purushottam Acharya, and
he waited on the Master at Navadwip. Wild at the Master's renunciation
of the world, he went to Benares and turned monk there. His _guru_,
Chaitanyananda, bade him study the _Vedánta_ and expound it to the people.
He was totally withdrawn from the world and a deep scholar, having taken
refuge in Krishna with all his body and soul. He had turned _sannyasi_, in
a wild longing to worship Krishna in freedom from every (earthly)
thought and care. As a _sannyasi_ he cast off his sacred thread and took
the tonsure, but did not put on the yogi's dress. Swarup was the new
name given to him. With his _guru's_ permission he came to the Niláchal,
being day and night out of his senses in the bliss of loving Krishna. He
was a perfect scholar, holding converse with none, and living in
seclusion unknown to the world, He had known the mystery of the love of
Krishna; his very body was a picture of love; he seemed the exact second
self of the Master. Every book, verse, or song brought to the Master had
to be first examined by Swarup before He would hear it. The Master took
no delight in compositions that clashed with the theory of _bhakti_ and
lacked the spirit of delight (_ras_). So, Swarup Goswámi tasted books and
read to the Master only such as were correct. Vidyápati, Chandidás and
_Git-Govinda_ were the poetry that delighted the Master. Dámodar surpassed
others, as he was a veritable gandharva in musical skill and a
Vrihaspati in Shastric lore. He was a darling to Adwaita and Nityánanda,
and the very life of Shribas and other faithful ones.

Such was Dámodar who came and prostrating him self clasped the Master's
feet while he recited stanza 20 of Act VIII. of the drama

The Master raised and embraced him. The two swooned away in ecstasy.
After a while regaining composure the Master began thus: "I have dreamt
that you would come to-day. It is good (that you have come); I am like a
blind man who has got back his two eyes." Swarup answered, "Pardon my
sin, Master I erred grievously when I left you and sought another
(_guru_). I had not a particle of faith in your feet, but, sinner that I
was, I had left you to go to another country! I had no doubt left you,
but _you_ did not forsake me. Thy grace has been a chain round my neck,
dragging me to thy feet."

Then Swarup bowed at Nityánanda's feet, who lovingly embraced him. He
also did due courtesy as he met Jagadánanda, Mukunda, Shankar,
Sárvabhauma, and Paramananda Puri. The Master gave him a quiet room with
a servant to draw water and do other services.

One day the Master sat surrounded by Sárvabhauma and other faithful
ones, holding sweet discourse on Krishna, when Govinda arrived,
prostrated himself, and said, "I am Govinda, a servant of Ishwar Puri,
at whose bidding I have come to you. The Puri, when attaining to _siddhi_
(death) told me to go and serve Krishna-Chaitanya. Kashishwar will come
(here) after visiting holy places. At my Master's bidding I have
hastened to your feet." To this the Master replied, "Ishwar Puri loved
me like a son, and has sent you to me as a favour." At this Sárvabhauma
asked, "How could the Puri retain a Shudra attendant?" The Master
answered, "God is supremely independent. His mercy is not bound by (the
rules of) the Vedas. God's grace defies caste and family distinctions."
Witness how Krishna dined at the house of Bidur. Love and service are
mere instruments of Krishna's mercy. When actuated by mercy He acts
independently [of the conventions of religion]. Loving treatment is a
million times more blissful than dignity. The very hearing of it gives
intense delight."

So saying the Master embraced Govinda, who then bowed at the feet of
all. The Master spoke, "Bhattáchárya, solve this problem: the very
servant of my _guru_ is honourable to me, and it is not seemly that he
should serve me. And yet the _guru_ has commanded it. What should I do?"
The Bhatta answered, "A _guru's_ command is most strong, and the Shastras
direct us not to violate it. Witness the _Raghuvamsa_, xiv. 53, and
Valmiki's _Ramayan_, Ayodhya-kanda, xxii. 9."

Then the Master consented and permitted Govinda to serve His body. All
honoured him as the Master's favourite attendant, while Govinda made
arrangements for all the Vaishnavs. He was accompanied by the two
Haridases (who were surnamed the greater and lesser chanters), Rámái and
Nandái, in tending the Master. Govinda's good fortune baffles

One day Mukunda Datta said to the Master, "Brahmánanda Bhárati has come
to see you. Permit me to bring him hither." But He replied, "The Bhárati
is my guru. It is I who should go to him." So saying, He went to
Brahmánanda, with all His followers. At the sight of Brahmánanda clad in
deer skin, the Master grieved at heart, pretended not to have observed
him, and asked Mukunda where the Bhárati was. Mukunda replied, "Here,
before you!" But the Master objected, "You do not know. It is not he,
but somebody else whom you are ignorantly pointing out. Why should the
Bhárati Goswámi wear a skin?" At this Brahmánanda inly reflected, "He
likes not my robe of deer skin. He has spoken well. A skin is worn as a
mark of pride (of asceticism). The wearing of it cannot give me
salvation from the World. Henceforth I shall renounce this garment." The
Master learnt of his thought, and had a cloth brought, which Brahmánanda
put on after discarding the skin. Then the Master bowed at his feet, but
the Bhárati objected saying, "These your acts are for instructing the
people. Never bow down to me again, it frightens me. Here are now two
gods, _viz._, Jagannáth the stationary, and you the moving god. You are
the fair god, while Jagannáth is the dark deity. These two (between
them) have redeemed the world." The Master demurred, "The truth is that
your coming has revealed two Brahmas at Purushottam: your name is
Brahmánanda, and (you are) the fair-coloured moving Brahma, while
Jagannáth is the dark and motionless one." The Bhárati cried out, "Be
thou the judge between us, Sárvabhauma, and attend to my logical dispute
with Him. The Shastras tell us that creation is _vyápya_, while Brahma is

He has reformed me by taking away my skin robe. This shows that one is
_vyápya_ and the other is _vyápak_. _Vide Mahabharat_, Dan-parva, ch. 149,
stanza 1091. To the Master truly belong those (divine) epithets,
sandal-pasted _prasád_, _dor_, two-armed _Angad_." Bhattáchárya replied, "O
Bhárati, the victory is thine, as I see." The Master said, "Whatever you
say must be true. In a logical disputation, the disciple must always
yield to the _guru_." But the Bhárati objected, "No, no, the reason (of my
victory) is otherwise. It is thy nature to admit defeat at the hands of
thy _bhaktas_. Listen to another feat of thine. All my life I had
worshipped the formless Deity, but when I saw thee, Krishna became
manifest before my eyes. Krishna's name broke forth from my lips,
Krishna's image was stamped on my heart and eye. My soul thirsts for
thee as thou resemblest Krishna. My condition is truly like that of
Billamangal, as described in the _Bhakti-rasámrita-sindhu_."

The Master rejoined, "Deep is your love of Krishna, so that whatever
your eye glances on, you see a Krishna there." Bhattáchárya replied,
"Yes, but only after Krishna had first revealed himself in the flesh.
Love alone can enable us to see him. His favour is the (only) means of
seeing him." The Master cried out, "Holy God! Holy God! what art thou
saying, Sárvabhauma? Your praise in hyperbole is satire in disguise." So
saying He led the Bhárati to His own house and lodged him there. Rám
Bhattáchárya and Bhagabán Acharya waited on the Master, leaving all
other works.

Another day Kashishwar Goswámi arrived and was honourably lodged by the
Master with Himself. He used to escort the Master to the temple of
Jagannáth, removing the crowd from before Him. As all rivers and brooks
unite in the ocean, so did the Master's worshippers, wherever they might
have been, all come together at His feet. He graciously kept them at His
house. Thus have I described the Master's assembling of Vaishnavs.
[Text, canto 10.]


The Grand Chanting (Bera Kirtan)

One day Sárvabhauma said, "Master, may I make bold to submit a thing?"
He replied, "Say thy say without hesitation. If it is a proper request,
I shall keep it, if not, not." Sárvabhauma said, "Here is Pratap Rudra
Ray, eager to meet you." The Master clapped His hands to His ears,
murmured an appeal to God, and replied, "Why such an improper speech,
Sárvabhauma? I am a hermit withdrawn from the world. For me to meet a
king or a woman is fatal like a draught of poison."

Sárvabhauma entreated, "True are thy words. But this Raja is a votary of
Jagannáth and the chief of devotees." "Still, a king is only the deadly
snake in another form, just as the touch of even the wooden statue of a
woman causes mental perturbation. Say not so again. If you do, you will
miss me from this place." Alarmed, Sárvabhauma retired to his own house.

At this time King Pratap Rudra of the Gajapati dynasty arrived at Puri.
With him came Rámánanda Ray, who first of all interviewed the Master in
great delight. The Ray prostrated himself, the Master embraced him, and
the two shed tears of joy. At this loving intercourse, all the _bhaktas_
wondered. The Ray said, "I reported your behest to my king, who relieved
me of my office, as you wished. I told him that if he would let me I
should remain at Chaitanya's feet, as I no longer wished to manage
affairs (of state). At the mention of thy name the king in delight rose
from his throne and embraced me. On hearing thy name he was enraptured;
he held my hand and very graciously told me, 'Enjoy your salary as
before, and adore Chaitanya's feet in freedom from all cares. I,
worthless wretch, am unfit to behold Him. Blessed are they in life that
adore Him. Right gracious is He, the son of Braja's lord. In some other
birth He will certainly grant me the sight of Him.' I myself have not a
tithe of the passion of devotion which I saw in the Raja."

The Master replied, "You are the foremost of the adorers of Krishna. He
is fortunate who loves you. Krishna will accept the Raja because of the
great favour he has shown to you. _Vide Bhágabat_, XI. xix. 21, III. vii.
20, and two verses from the _Adi Puran_ and the _Padma Puran_."

The Ray bowed at the feet of the four apostles, _viz._, the Puri, the
Bhárati, Swarup and Nityánanda, and properly met Jagadananda, Mukunda,
and the other faithful ones. The Master asked, "Ray! have you visited
Jagannáth?" The Ray replied, "I am going to see the god now." At this
the Master cried out, "What hast thou done, Ray? Why did you come to me
before visiting the god?" The Ray answered, "My feet are my carriage, my
heart is the driver; wherever they take me I, as rider, must go. What
can I do? My heart brought me hither, and did not suggest the idea of
visiting Jagannáth first." The Master replied, "Hasten to see the god;
go to your kindred and home afterwards." At the Master's command the Ray
went to see the god. Who can fathom the mystery of the Ray's devotion?

On reaching Puri, the king summoned Sárvabhauma, and after bowing to him
asked, "Did you submit my prayer to the Master?" Sárvabhauma replied, "I
have entreated Him hard, but He still refuses to grant interview to
kings. If we press Him further He will go away from this place." At this
the king lamented, "His advent is for redeeming the sinful and the
lowly. He has saved Jagái and Madhái. Has He incarnated Himself with the
determination to deliver the whole world excepting Pratap Rudra, alone?
Well, He has vowed not to see me, and I now vow to give up this life if
I cannot see Him. If I am not rich in the great Master's grace, what
boots my kingdom, my body? Everything is useless to me."

Hearing this Sárvabhauma grew alarmed, and he marvelled at the ardour of
the king's devotion. So he said, "My liege! grieve not. The Master will
surely take pity on you. He can be compelled by love, and your love is
most profound; He cannot help doing you grace. Still, I suggest a device
by which you can see Him. At the Car Festival, the Master with all His
followers will dance in rapture in front of Jagannáth's car, and enter
the garden in an ecstatic mood. Just then, clad in a plain robe and
reciting the _Krishna-rása-panchádhyáyi_ all alone, you will run and clasp
the Master's feet. He will then be oblivious of the outer world, and on
hearing Krishna's name will embrace you as a Vaishnav. To-day Rámánanda
Ray has lauded your devotion to the Master, whose mind has been turned
by it."

At these words the king rejoiced and accepted this plan of meeting with
the Master. He learnt from the Bhatta that the Bathing Festival would
occur three days afterwards. Thus consoling the king, the Bhatta
returned home.

At the Bathing Festival, the Master greatly rejoiced to see the
ceremony; but when Jagannáth withdrew to retirement, He deeply mourned
for it, and in anguish of separation, like the milkmaids during
Krishna's absence, He retired to Alalnath, leaving His followers behind.
They afterwards joined Him, and reported that many of the faithful had
arrived from Bengal. Sárvabhauma brought the Master back to His quarters
in Puri, and informed the king of the fact. Just then Gopinath Acharya
arrived at the Court, blessed the king, and said, "Hark thee,
Bhattáchárya, two hundred Vaishnavs are coming from Bengal,--all of them
followers of the Master and very spiritual personages. They have
appeared in the city. Arrange for their being given lodgings and
consecrated food." The king replied, "I shall order the _Parichhá_, to
assign them lodgings &c., as they require. Show me, Bhattáchárya, the
Master's followers arrived from Bengal, one by one." The Bhatta said,
"Climb to the roof of the palace. Gopinath will point them out as he knows
them all, I know none, though I long to do so. Gopinath will introduce
each." So saying the three ascended to the roof, while the Vaishnavs came
near them. Damodar Swarup and Govinda, sent on by the Master, welcomed the
Vaishnavs on the way with the god's garlands and _prasád_. To the Rajah's
query Bhattáchárya said, "This one is Swarup Damodar, the _alter ego_ of
the Master. That is His servant Govinda. By their hands has He sent the
garlands as a mark of honour." Swarup and Govinda successively garlanded
Adwaita and bowed to him. But the Acharya knew not Govinda and asked who
he was. Damodar Swarup answered "He is Govinda, a highly meritorious
servant of Ishwar Puri, who had ordered him to tend our Master, and by
Him is Govinda now retained."

The king asked, "Who is the high spiritual chief to whom both have given
garlands?" The Acharya replied, "He is Adwaita Acharya, respected by our
Master and highly honoured by all. That one is Shribas Pandit, and those
are Vakreshwar Pandit, Vidyánidhi Acharya, Gadadhar Pandit, Acharya
Ratna, Purandar Acharya, Gangarlas Pandit, Shankar Pandit, Murari Gupta,
Nara-yan Pandit, Haridas Thakur (the purifier of the world), Hari
Bhatta, Nrisinghánanda, Vásudev Datta, Shivánanda, Govinda, Mádhav, Vásu
Ghosh (three brothers, whose chanting delights the Master), Rághav
Pandit, Acharya Nandan, Shriman Pandit, Shrikanta Náráyan, Shridhar (the
white robed), Vijay, Vallabh Sen, Sanjay, Satyaraj Khan (a resident of
Kulin village), Rámánanda, Mukunda-das, Narahari, Raghunandan, Chiranjib
(of Khanda), Sulochan, and many more. How can I name them all? They all
follow Chaitanya and hold Him as their life."

The king answered, "The sight fills me with wonder. I have never before
beheld such radiance among Vaishnavs. They are all resplendent of hue
like a million Suns. Never before have I heard such entrancing street
singing. Nowhere else have I seen such devotion, such dancing, such
shouting of Hari's name, and nowhere else have I seen or heard the like
of it."

Bhattáchárya said, "True are thy words. Chaitanya has created this
devotional procession-singing (_sankirtan_). His incarnation is for
preaching religion; in the Kali age the _sankirtan_ of Krishna's name is
the (only) religion. Wise are those who worship Krishna by means of
_sankirtan_; all other men are overpowered by the spirit of Kali. _Vide
Bhagabat_, XI. v. 29".

The king asked, "The Shastras prove that Chaitanya is Krishna
(incarnate). Why then do scholars turn away from Him?" The Bhatta
answered, "He alone whom Chaitanya favours even a bit can know Him as
Krishna. He who has not Chaitanya's grace is nowise a scholar, as he
sees and hears Chaitanya without recognizing the God in Him. _Vide
Bhágabat_, X. xiv. 28."

The king asked, "Why are they all hastening to Chaitanya's lodgings
without first visiting Jagannáth?" The Bhatta replied, "Such is the
natural consequence of devotion. Their hearts are yearning to see the
Master. They will see Him first, and then led by Him will visit
Jagannáth." The king next said, "Vánináth, the son of Bhabánanda Ray, is
conveying the _mahá-prasád_ by five or six porters to the Master's
house. Why is such a huge quantity needed?" The Bhatta answered,
"Knowing that the faithful were coming, the Master had bidden him bring
the _prasád_". The king objected, "It is the custom for pilgrims to
fast on reaching a holy place (before they see the god). But why are
these men breaking their fast?" The Bhatta answered, "What you mention
is the rule of religion. But in this path of devotion there is a subtle
inner meaning. God's indirect (or general) command is that pilgrims
should first shave their heads and fast. But the Master's direct (or
immediate) order is feasting on the _prasád_. Where the _mahá-prasád_
is not available, fasting is the rule; but it is a sin to refuse the
_prasád_ when the Master bids one eat it; especially when He is
distributing it with His own hands, who will reject such blessedness in
order to fast? Before this He had one morning offered me the _prasád_,
and I had eaten it before rising from my bed! He whose heart receives
Chaitanya's gracious call discards the Vedas and conventional religion,
and seeks refuge in Krishna alone. _Vide Bhágabat_, IV. xxix. 43."

Then the king descended from the palace terrace. He summoned Kashi
Mishra and the _Parichha_ officer and bade them, "The Master's followers
have come to Him. Give them food and board to their comfort, and make it
easy for them to see the god. Heedfully obey the Master's behests. Even
when He does not speak out, carry out His hinted purpose." So saying he
dismissed them.

Sárvabhauma then went away to visit the temple. Gopinath Acharya and
Sárvabhauma from afar beheld how the Master met the Vaishnavs. The
Vaishnavs (from Bengal) took the way to Kashi Mishra's house, leaving
Jagannáth's lion-gate on their right. Just then the Master coming with
His attendants met them on the way in great glee. Adwaita bowed at His
feet, but He embraced him. In rapture of devotion the two were greatly
excited, but in consideration of the occasion the Master composed
Himself somewhat. The new arrivals all bowed to Him, and He embraced and
addressed each of them in turn, took them inside His house (which was
filled with the throng of countless Vaishnavs), seated them by Himself,
and personally gave them garlands and sandal-paste. Then Gopinath and
Sárvabhauma arrived there and saluted all in proper terms.

Sweetly did the Master address Adwaita, "Thy coming has made me complete
to-day." But Adwaita objected, "Such is the nature of God. He is full
and the source of all power, and yet He exults in the society of the
faithful and ever disports in many ways with them."

The Master, delighted to meet Vasudev, stroked his body and said,
"Mukunda has beeh my companion from my childhood. But the sight of you
gives me even more delight." Vasudev replied, "That Mukunda has gained
your society is a second birth to him. Therefore is his rank higher than
mine, though I am his elder brother. Your grace has made him excel in
all virtues." Then the Master added, "I have brought two manuscripts
from the South for you. They are with Swarup; take copies of them."
Vasudev was pleased to get the books, and every Vaishnav (from Bengal)
took a copy of them; so that gradually the two works spread everywhere.

Lovingly did the Master address Shribas and others, "You four brothers
have bought me (with your kindness)," to which Shribas replied, "Why do
you speak just the contrary of the fact? We four are bondsmen purchased
by your grace."

Seeing Shankar, the Master spoke to Damodar [his elder brother], "My
love for you is mixed with respect, whereas towards Shankar I feel pure
affection. Therefore keep him in your company." Damodar replied,
"Shankar was born after me, but your grace has made him my elder

To Shivananda He said, "I knew before [this your first introduction to
me] that you were ardently devoted to me." At these words Shivananda was
enraptured; he prostrated himself on the ground and recited an extempore
Sanskrit stanza.

Murari Gupta, without coming to the Master at first, lay prostrate out
of doors. The Master searched for him, and many ran out to bring Murari
in. Murari presented himself before the Master holding two blades of
grass between his teeth as a mark of abject humility. As the Master
advanced to yyelcome him, Murari stepped back shouting, Touch me not,
Lord, I am a sinner, my body is unworthy of your touch." The Master
replied, "Away with your lowliness, Murari; the sight of it pierces my
heart." So saying He embraced Murari, seated him by His side and patted
him on the back.

Similarly, with words of praise and repeated embraces did the Master
receive Acharya Ratna, the Vidyanidhi, Gadadhar Pandit, Gangadas, Hari
Bhatta, and Purandar Acharya. Then He asked, "Where is Haridas?" But
Haridas lay prostrate far away on the edge of the public road, whence he
had first beheld Chaitanya. He had not resorted to the Master's
reception, but stopped at a distance. The devotees hurried there to lead
him in, but Haridas said, "I am a low person, of no caste, and debarred
from going close to the temple. If I can get a little retired space in
the garden, I shall lie there and pass my time in loneliness, so that no
servitor of Jagannáth may have anv occasion to touch me. That is my

At the report of this speech the Master was pleased. Just then Kashi
Mishra and the _Parichha_ arrived and did obeisance to the Master.
Delighted to see so many Vaishnavs, they were introduced to all with due
courtesy. Then they entreated the Master, "Permit us to make
arrangements for these Vaishnavs. We have chosen lodgings for all and
shall serve them with the _mahá-prasád_." The Master replied, "Gopinath!
take the Vaishnavs with you and bestow them in the lodgings chosen for
them. Deliver the _mahá-prasád_ to Vaninath, who will distribute it to
all. Close to my place is a very lonely house in this flower-garden. Let
me have it, as I need it for lonely meditation." Then Mishra said, "All
is thine, and this begging is needless. Take whatever houses you please.
We two are slaves waiting for your bidding. Be pleased to command us in
whatever you wish for."

The two now left with Gopinath and Vaninath; the former was shown all
the lodging-houses, and the latter was given immense quantities of the
_mahá-prasád_ (for the whole party). Thereafter Vaninath returned with the
consecrated rice and cakes, and Gopinath after cleaning the lodgings.
The Master said, "Hear, all ye Vaishnavs! Go to your respective
lodgings. After bathing in the ocean and gazing at the pinnacle of the
temple, come here for your dinner." After bowing to the Master, they
were led away to their quarters by Gopinath.

Then He came to receive Haridas, who was chanting God's name in rapture.
Haridas fell flat at the Master's feet, who clasped him to His bosom.
Both wept in fervour of love,--the Master overcome by the disciple's
merits and the disciple by the Master's. Haridas cried, "Touch me not,
Master, I am a low untouchable wretch." But the Master answered, "I
touch you to be purified myself, because I lack your pure religion.
Every moment you acquire as much piety as by bathing in all holy places,
or by performing sacrifice, austerities, and alms-giving, or by reading
the Vedas. You are holier than a Brahman or a _sannyasi_! _Vide
Bhágabat_ III. xxxiii. 7." So saying He took Haridas into the garden
and gave him a room all apart, adding, "Live here, chanting His name.
Daily will I come and join thee. Bow to the discus on the top of the
temple of Jagannáth (which you can see from here). The _prasád_ will be
sent to you here." Nityánanda, Jagadananda, Damodar, and Mukunda
rejoiced on meeting with Haridas.

After bathing in the sea the Master returned to His quarters. Adwaita
and his party also bathed in the sea, gazed (reverently) at the pinnacle
of the temple, and came to the Master's house for dinner. Chaitanya
seated them in proper order and Himself distributed the food. So lavish
was His hand that He gave two or three men's food to each. But all the
faithful held their hands back from the dinner so long as the Master
fasted. Swarup reported this to Him, saying, Unless you sit down to
meal, none else will dine. Gopinath Acharya has invited the party of
_sannyasis_ to dine with you. He has brought the _prasád_, and the
Puri and Bhárati were waiting for you. Do you sit down to dinner with
Nityánanda, while I serve the Vaishnavs." Then the Master carefully sent
the _prasád_ to Haridas by the hand of Govinda, and Himself sat at
meals with all the _sannyasis_, while the Acharya served them in
delight. Swarup Damodar and Jagadananda served the Vaishnavs, who ate
all sorts of cakes and syrups, joyously shouting Hari's name every now
and then.

After they had dined and washed their hands, the Master gave each a
garland and a sandal-paste mark. They then retired to their lodgings for
rest. In the evening they came to Him again, when Rámánanda also
arrived. The Master introduced him to all the Vaishnavs. With the whole
party He went to Jagannáth's temple, and began to chant (_kirtan_).
After the burning of evening incense He began a _sankirtan_. The
_Parichhá_ presented Him with a garland and sandal-paste.

Four parties sang on four sides, while in their midst danced Shachi's
darling. Eight _dholes_ and 32 cymbals were played on. All shouted
"Hari! Hari!" and cheered. The blissful sound of _kirtan_ penetrated
through the 14 regions to the empyrean. As the _kirtan_ began, devotion
welled out; the people of Puri ran thither and marvelled at the singing,
having never seen such transports of love before.

Next the Master went round Jagannáth's temple, dancing and singing,
while the four parties of chanters preceded and followed Him. As He was
falling down, Nityánanda held Him up. Men wondered as they beheld His
weeping, tremour, perspiration, and deep shouting. The tears ran down
His cheeks like jets from a syringe and bathed the men around. After
dancing round the temple for a long time, He performed _kirtan_ behind
it, the four parties singing in a high pitch, while Chaitanya danced
wildly in the middle. After dancing long He stopped and permitted the
four Apostles to dance with the four parties, Nityánanda, Adwaita
Acharya, Vakreshwar Pandit, and Shrinibas while the Master from the
centre gazed on. Here He manifested a miraculous power: every one who
danced around Him saw that the Master was gazing only at him! He
manifested this power only because He wished to behold the dance of the
four. Every one noticed His attentive gaze but did not know how He could
gaze on four sides! Just as at the feast on the Jamuna's bank, Krishna
in the midst of his comrades seemed to be gazing at every one of them at
the same time.

As each came up to Him dancing, the Master firmly clasped him to His
bosom. The people of Puri swam in a sea of delight as they beheld such
grand dancing, devotion, and _sankirtan_. The king himself on hearing of
the splendour of the _kirtan_, ascended to the terrace of his palace with
his Court to gaze at it. The sight increased his admiration and his
eagerness to be introduced to the Master.

After finishing the chanting and beholding the ceremony of showering
flowers on Jagannáth, the Master returned home with all the Vaishnavs.
The Parichha brought to Him plenty of prasád which He divided among all.
Then he dismissed them and retired to bed. All the time they were with
Him, they daily performed _kirtan_ in this style. [Text, canto n.]


Cleansing Jagannath's garden-house

Before this, when the Master returned from the South, King Pratap Rudra
Gajapati, eager to see Him, wrote to Sárvabhauma from Katak to get the
Master's consent to an interview. On Bhattáchárya replying that the
consent was withheld, the king wrote again, "Entreat the _bhaktas_ of
the Master to intercede with Him for me. Through their favour I may
reach His feet. I like not my kingship if I cannot gain His grace. If
Chaitanya does not take pity on me, I shall give up my throne and turn a
religious mendicant." Bhattáchárya in great alarm went to the
_bhaktas_, told them of the king's plight and showed them the letter.

They marvelled at the king's devotion to the Master and said, "He will
never receive the king. If we entreat Him, it will only grieve Him." But
Sárvabhauma said, "Let us all go to Him. We shall tell Him about the
king's conduct without pressing Him to grant an interview."

So they all repaired to the Master's presence, eager to speak and yet
silent. He asked, "What is it that you have all come to say? I see you
have of something in your minds. Why then do you not speak it out?"
Nityánanda replied, "We have a prayer to make. We cannot keep it back,
and yet we fear to speak. Proper or improper we shall report it all to
you. If you do not see him the king wishes to turn hermit." The Master's
heart was secretly softened by the speech, but with a show of harshness
He said, "I see that you all wish to take me to see the king at Katak!
Not to speak of the next world, even the people (of the earth) will
blame me. Not to speak of other people, even Damodar will condemn me. If
I ever receive the king it will be with Damodar's approval and not at
your request." Damodar said, "You are God and a free being. You know
best what is proper (for you) and what is not. How can a petty creature
like me lay down the rule to you? I shall witness your granting him an
audience of your own accord. The king loves you, love compels you,
therefore his love will make you touch him. A free God as you are, it is
your nature to be swayed by love."

Nityánanda broke in, "Where is the man that dares bid you interview the
king? But it is the nature of devoted ones that they give up their lives
if they fail to obtain the object of their adoration. Witness how the
sacrificing Brahman's wife gave up her life on failing to go out and see
Krishna [_Bhágabat_, X. xxiii]. There is one way, however, if you will
only listen to it, by which you will not meet the king and yet his life
will be saved: give him of thy grace thy wearing apparel, by getting
which he will hold to life."

The Master replied, "You are all highly learned. Do whatever you think
fit." Then Nityánanda begged from Govinda one of the _dhotis_ of the
Master, and sent it by Sárvabhauma to the king, who gleefully adored the
cloth as if it were the Master Himself.

Thereafter when Rámánanda Ray came back from the South and entreated the
king to let him stay with the Master, the king gladly consented, and
pressed him to entreat the Master, whose favourite he was, to grant him
an interview. Then the two arrived at Puri, and Rámánanda waited on the
Master and reported to Him the king's love and devotion. He repeatedly
took occasion to mention the subject, being a minister expert in
diplomacy, and succeeded in softening the Master's mind.

Pratap Rudra could not contain himself in his eagerness, and again
pressed Rámánanda, who begged the Master to show His feet only once to
the king. But the Master replied, "Judge for yourself, Rámánanda,
whether a hermit ought to receive a king. Such an interview ruins a
hermit in this world and the next, and makes him a butt of ridicule."
Rámánanda pleaded, "You are God and your own master; whom fear you? You
are subject to none!" The Master replied, "I am a _sannyasi_ living in
human habitations, and I fear worldly dealings with all my soul and
body. Even the most trifling failing of a _sannyasi_ is talked of by
all men, just as a spot of ink on a white cloth cannot be hidden." The
Ray urged, "You have saved (by your touch) many a sinner, while this
king is a devotee of God and your _bhakta_." The Master parried the
argument thus, "Just as a jar full of milk is shunned if it contains
even one drop of wine, so is Pratap Rudra, clad in all the virtues,
defiled by his title of King. Still, if you are keen about it, introduce
his son to me. The Shastras say, _the son is one's own self born
again_. My interview with the son will be equivalent to a meeting with
the father."

The Ray reported it to the king and conducted the Prince to the Master.
The royal youth was handsome and dark, clad in a yellow robe and jewels,
--so that he reminded one of Krishna. On seeing him, the Master thought of
Krishna, lovingly received him, and said, "A very pious personage is
this youth, the sight of whom makes all men remember the Darling of
Braja's lord. Blessed am I that I have seen him." So saying He
repeatedly embraced the Prince, who was transported by the touch and
began to perspire, tremble, weep, exult and stand inert, and (then)
danced and wept chanting Krishna's name. The _bhaktas_ present praised his
good fortune. Then the Master composed him and bade him come there

The Ray took the Prince away to the king who rejoiced at his son's
exploit, and in embracing his son felt the touch of the Master's person
as it were. Thenceforth the lucky Prince was numbered among the Master's

So did He pass His time blissfully in ceaseless _sankirtan_ with His
followers. He was feasted with His companions by the Acharya and others
successively. Thus some time passed and the day of the Car Festival
approached. At the outset He called for Kashi Mishra, the _Parichhá_
minister and Sárvabhauma, and smilingly said, "I beg to undertake the
service of cleansing the Gundicha temple." The _Parichhá_ replied, "We
are all your servants, bound to do whatever you wish for. On me has been
laid the special command of my king to quickly perform whatever you bid.
Cleaning the temple is not a task worthy of you; but it is one of your
playful acts; do whatever you like. But many pitchers and brooms will be
required. Permit me to bring them here to-day." So he delivered to the
Master a hundred new pitchers and brooms.

Next morning the Master rubbed His followers over with sandal-paste,
gave each a broom and went with them to the Gundicha temple to clean it.
First He swept and cleaned the inside, the roof, and the throne. The two
temples, large and small, were swept and washed, and then the
dancing-hall in front. The hundred _bhaktas_ plied their brooms, the
Master in the middle guiding them by His own manner of sweeping.
Following Him they gleefully chanted Krishna's name while at work. The
dust covered His fair form; now and then His tears washed the ground.
The god's dining-hall was swept and then the court-yard. At last all the
rooms were cleaned. He made a bundle of the collection of straw, dust
and pebbles in His outer clothing and threw them outside. So did His
followers, too. The Master said, "I shall learn the amount of the labour
done by each from the size of his bundle of sweepings." So their bundles
were heaped together, but the Master's own bundle was seen to exceed the
entire heap.

After cleansing the interior, He divided the work again among them,
telling them to make the place thoroughly tidy by removing all the fine
dust, small straws and gravel. He rejoiced to see the cleansing finished
a second time by His party of Vaishnavs. A hundred other followers had
been waiting with a hundred pitchers of water from the outset, for their
turn. As soon as the Master called for water they placed the hundred
pots before Him. He first washed the temple, top-floor, wall, and the
throne in the interior. The water was dashed in earthen cups on to the
top, and thus the upper walls were washed. He Himself washed the throne,
while the _bhaktas_ washed the inner shrine, and scrubbed it with their
own hands. Some poured water on the Master's hands, some on His feet,
and some covertly drank up the water (so consecrated). Some begged this
water from others. After the temple had been cleansed they poured water
into the drain and thus the court-yard was submerged. With His own cloth
the Master wiped the building and the throne. It took a hundred pitchers
of water to wash the temple.

The purified temple became spotless, cool and delicious, like His own
mind laid bare to view. A hundred filled their pitchers at the tank, or,
if crowded out, at the well. A hundred _bhaktas_ brought the filled
pitchers in, while another hundred ran off with the empty ones. Only
Nityánanda, Adwaita, Swarup, the Bhárati, and the Puri did not draw
water. (In their hurry) many pitchers were knocked together and broken,
but men brought hundreds of new pots to replace them. They shouted
_Krishna! Krishna!_ as they filled their pots, or broke them, delivered
the filled pitchers or begged for new ones. No other word was uttered
there; Krishna's name became a mystic word to express all their
different purposes. In ecstasy of devotion the Master chanted Krishna's
name and did alone the work of a hundred men, as if He had put forth a
hundred arms in washing and scrubbing. He also went up to each to
instruct him, praising those whose tasks were well done and gravely
chiding those who were slovenly. "You have done well, teach others to do
the like,"--at these words of His they were put on the alert and did
their work with all their heart. Then they washed the _Jagmohan_[1] the
dining room, the dancing-hall, the court-yard, the kitchen, the environs
of the temple, and all nooks and private places.

Just then an honest simple Bengali emptied his pitcher at the Master's
feet and drank the water. At this the Master turned angry and sorry. He
inly felt pleased, but for the instruction of others outwardly professed
anger, calling out to Swarup "Look at the conduct of your _Gauriyá_. He
has washed my feet in God's temple and drunk the water. From this sin
where can I hope for salvation? Your Bengal man has caused me this
misery." Then Swarup took the man by the nape of his neck, shoved him
out of the temple, and on his return entreated the Master to pardon the
man. The Master was now satisfied. He seated all in two rows and sat in
the middle, picking up straws and brambles with His own hands. "I shall
see what a heap the gleaning of each can make. He whose collection is
small must forfeit his cake and syrup to me!" Thus was the temple made
clean, cool and pure, like His own mind. The water running down the
drain looked like a new river flowing to the ocean.

He then cleansed the Man-lion temple in and out, rested a little, and
then set up dancing. And in the same manner He swept the roads in front
of the temple. The _bhaktas_ danced around, while the Master danced in
their midst like a raging lion, perspiring, trembling, turning pale,
being thrilled, and roaring. After washing His body He marched in
advance, showering down tears, while the _bhaktas_ washed themselves
clean, like unto the deluge of rain from the clouds in the month of
_Shrávan_. The loud _sankirtan_ filled the sky, the vigorous dance of
the Master shook the earth. The resonant singing of Swarup pleased the
Master, who danced wildly in delight. After dancing thus, He took rest
at the proper time.

Shri Gopal, the son of the Acharya, when allowed by the Master to dance,
was so overcome by devotion that he fell down in a fit. The father
hurriedly took him up in his arms, and was afflicted to see his
breathing stopped. Uttering with a sky-splitting roar the "spell of
Nrisingha" he dashed water on the youth's face. But the youth did not
regain consciousness, in spite of all their efforts. The Acharya wept,
the _bhaktas_ wept too. Then the Master laid His hand on the youth's
breast and cried out, "Rise Gopal!" and lo! at the cry Gopal came round.
The _bhaktas_ danced chanting Hari's name.

After a short rest, the Master disported with His followers in the tank.
On rising from the water He put on dry clothes, bowed to Nrisingha, and
went to sit in the garden, with His followers around Him. Then Vaninath,
accompanied by Kashi Mishra and Tulsi _Parichhá_, brought to Him the
_mahá-prasád_, rice, cakes, and syrup, enough to feed five hundred men.
The Master delighted at the sight. On the terrace He sat down to meal
with the Puri, Brahmánanda Bhárati, Adwaita Acharya, Nityánanda,
Acharya-Ratna, Acharya-Nidhi, Shribas, Gadadhar, Shankar Nyáyáchárya,
Raghav, Vakreshwar and Sárvabhauma. Then the _bhaktas_ sat down in the
successive terraces below them, in due order. The garden was filled with
them. The Master repeatedly called for Haridas, who from afar off
replied, "Partake of thy repast with the _bhaktas_, Master. I am all
too unworthy to sit with thee. Govinda will afterwards give me _prasád_
outside the gate." Knowing his intent, the Master did not press him
further. The food was served up by Swarup, Jagadananda, Damodar,
Kashishwar, Gopinath, Vaninath and Shankar, while the _bhaktas_ shouted
_Hari! Hari!_ at intervals. The Master remembered the picnic on the
Jamuna bank which Krishna had held of yore. He checked, as inopportune,
the rapture of devotion which seized His mind (at the thought), and
said, Serve me with sauce and fry only, and let the _bhaktas_ have the
sweets. Being omniscient He knew who liked which dish, and directed
Swarup to serve each according to his taste. Jagadananda, in the course
of his serving, dropped sweet things unawares on the Master's plate, and
though the Master angrily protested, he supplied more by force or
cunning, as such serving was his delight. As Jagadananda came there on
his rounds again and gazed at the sweets he had served before, the
Master in fear of him ate a little of them, lest Jagadananda should
himself fast! Swarup with his hands full of sweet _prasád_ stood before
the Master praying "Taste a little of this _maha-prasád_ and see what
Jagannath has eaten!" He placed them on the plate, and the Master moved
by his kindness, ate a little. Thus did these two _bhaktas_ repeatedly
show their wonderful tender regard for Him. Sárvabhauma, who sat at the
Master's side, smiled at their loving conduct. The Master ordered sweets
to be served to Sárvabhauma and repeatedly pressed him to eat. Gopinath
Acharya placed nice dishes before Sárvabhauma and said sweetly,
"Bhattáchárya! where is your former line of conduct now? Whence do you
feel such supreme bliss? Answer me that." Sárvabhauma replied, "I was a
sophistical disputant. Your grace has made me attain to this fortune.
The Master is the only Gracious One. Who else could have turned a crow
(like me) into a _garuda_ (the favourite bird of Vishnu)? Formerly I used
to howl with the sophist jackals, and now out of the same mouth I utter
Krishna's name! What was my former concourse with externalist logician
disciples, and what is this society of saints like merging in the ocean
waves!" The Master said, "Your devotion to Krishna had already matured
(before I met you). It is your society that has made us all devoted to
Krishna!" There is none like the Master, in the three worlds, to exalt
the glory of the _bhakta_ and to soothe a _bhakta's_ heart. Then the
Master sent cakes and syrup from the leavings of His plate, to each
_bhakta_ by name.

Adwaita and Nityánanda, sitting together began a mock quarrel, the
former saying, "I have dined in the same row with a hermit (_abadhut_).
Who knows what my fate will be in the next world? The Master Himself is
a _sannyasi_, and as such is above defilement from food-contact (with a
casteless man like an _abadhut_), for so the Shastras say. But I am a
Brahman householder, and therefore liable to defilement. It has been a
great sin on my part to dine in the same row with a man whose birth,
pedigree, conduct and character are unknown to me!"

Nityánanda replied, "You are Adwaita Acharya. According to the theory of
_Adwaita_ system (Monism), the duty is abstract _bhakti_. He who
accepts your theory recognizes only one principle and no second. With
such a person as you have I dined! I know not what led me to join your
company." So they wrangled, really praising one another in the garb of

After the dinner, the Vaishnavs rose up shouting _Hari_ loudly enough
to split earth and heaven. The Master gave to each of them a garland
with His own hand. Next the waiters, Swarup and the other six, sat down
to their repast within the room. Govinda laid aside the leavings of the
Master's plate, to be given to Haridas. The _bhaktas_ and even Govinda
himself took a little of this hallowed food. Various are the sports of
the free God, such as this ceremony of washing and cleaning.

For a fortnight the people had been denied sight of the god Jagannath
[while his image was being painted anew]; and their grief changed into
joy when, at the expiry of the period, the eye-painting (i.e., the last
stage) being over, they could again see him. The Master went thither
with all His followers. First marched Kashishwar, making a lane through
the crowd, next went Govinda with a bowl of water. In front of the
Master walked the Puri and the Bhárati, and by His side Swarup and
Adwaita, the other _bhaktas_ bringing up the rear. Anxiously did He go to
Jagannáth's temple and in passion of longing stepped beyond the rules,
asking to see the fair face of the god in the dining room. The thirsty
eyes of the Master ardently drank in the face of Krishna, like a pair of
bees sucking in a lotus. The god's eyes surpassed the blooming lotus in
beauty, his cheeks flashed radiance like a polished turquoise mirror,
his lower lip was sweet as the Bandhuli flower, a light smile spread a
ripple of nectar over his form. As the _bhaktas_ gazed on, the charm of
the god's countenance increased every moment; their thirst increased
with its gratification; their eyes could not move from that face. Thus
did the Master with His following gaze at the god till noon, perspiring,
trembling, weeping incessantly, and again checking these outbursts in
order to have a clearer view of the deity. At the time of _bhog_ He began
to sing _kirtan_, forgetful of everything else in the bliss of gazing.
The _bhaktas_ led Him back to His quarters at noon. The servitors offered
to the god a double quantity of prasád, knowing that the Car Festival
would take place next morning. [Text, canto 12.]

[1] A quadrangle in front of the inner shrine, where the worshippers stand
when gazing on the idol.


The Dance before Jagannáth's Car.

Next day the Master took care to bathe with His followers before it was
dawn. Pratap Rudra himself accompanied by his Court showed the Master's
_bhaktas_ the ceremony of Jagannáth leaving his throne to take his seat
in the car. Girt round by Adwaita, Nityánanda and other _bhaktas_, the
Master delightedly witnessed the scene. The stout _pándás_ [attendants
on an idol] like so many wild elephants, conveyed Jagannáth in their
arms, some holding the god's neck and some his feet. A strong thick rope
was fastened to his waist, and the _pándás_ raised the image by pulling
at the two ends of the rope. Thick and high heaps of cotton were placed
at different points, and the god was raised from one and quickly rested
on another of them; but the touch of his feet broke up the heaps and
scattered the cotton with a loud sound. (In fact) Jagannáth supports the
universe; who can move him? He moves of his own will, to disport
himself. Shouts of "Great Lord! Master! Master!" rose up, but nothing
could be heard amidst the clang of many instruments of music. Then
Pratap Rudra, with his own hands, swept the path with a golden
broom-stick, and sprinkled sandal water on the ground. He was a king
accustomed to sit on the throne, but in as much as being so high he did
such lowly services, he gained Jagannáth's grace. The Master rejoiced at
the sight, and this lowly service of the king gained for him the
Master's regard.

Men marvelled as they beheld the trappings of the car. It was covered
with fresh gold and high as the Sumeru mountain. Hundreds of
fly-whiskers and polished mirrors hung from it; above were flags and a
pure canopy. The _ghágar_ rattled, bells jingled on it. Many coloured
silk cloths covered it. Jagannáth mounted one car, Subhadra and Balaram
two others.

For fifteen days had Jagannáth remained (behind a screen), dallying in
secret with Lakshmi, and now with her leave he came out for a ride in
his car to give delight to his adorers. The fine white sand on the road
suggested a river bank, and the gardens on both sides made the place
look like Brindában. Jagannáth went along in his car, pleased with what
he saw on both sides. Bengali athletes dragged the car joyfully. It sped
at one time, slackened at another, and sometimes stopped altogether. In
fact it moved of its own will, and not under the force of men.

Then the Master with His own hands gave to the _bhaktas_ sandal paste
and garlands Then He divided the chanters (_kirtaniás_) into four
parties, consisting in all of 24 singers and eight men playing on the
_khol_, their chiefs being Swarup and Shribas. Then He bade Nityánanda,
Adwaita, Haridas, and Vakreshwar dance. In the first party Swarup was
the leading singer, while the other five were Damodar, Náráyan, Govinda
Datta, Raghav Pandit and Shri Govindananda; with them danced Adwaita. Of
the second party the spokesman was Shribas, his followers being
Gangadas, Haridas, Shriman, Shuvananda, and Shri Ram Pandit. Here danced
Nityánanda. Mukunda led the third party, consisting of Vásudev,
Gopinath, Murari, Shrikánta, and Vallabh Sen, with Haridas Thákur as the
dancer. The fourth party was composed of Haridas, Vishnudas, Raghav,
Madhav Ghosh and his brother Vásudev Ghosh, their leader being Govinda
Ghosh, and their dancer Vakreshwar Pandit. Other parties of _kirtan_
singers were formed by the pilgrims from the Kulin village, (with
Rámánanda and Satyaraj as their dancers), the Acharyas of Shantipur
(with Achyutánanda as their dancer), the men of Khand (with Narahari and
Shri Raghunandan as their dancers). In short four parties preceded the
car of Jagannáth, two walked on the flanks, and one in the rear. These
seven parties played on 14 _khols_ in all, the music of which maddened
the Vaishnavs present. The cloud of Vaishnav enthusiasm melted in
showers, their eyes dropped tears along with the nectar of _kirtan_.
The shout of _kirtan_ filled the three worlds and drowned all other
sounds. The Master visited the seven positions shouting "Hari" and
"Glory to Jagannáth!" with uplifted arms.

Another miracle did He manifest: at the same moment He was present with
all the seven parties, so that each cried out, "The Master is with us.
Out of His grace for us He has not gone elsewhere." No one can describe
the inscrutable power of the Master, only the pure-souled esoteric
_bhakta_ can know it.

Jagannáth, pleased with the _sankirtan_, stopped his car. At this
Pratap Rudra marvelled exceedingly and became overcome with excess of
devotion. He spoke of the Master's greatness to Kashi Mishra, who
replied, "You are, O King, fortunate beyond limit." The king and
Sárvabhauma exchanged glances, as none else knew the secret manipulation
of Chaitanya;--only those whom He favours can know Him; without His
grace even Brahmá cannot recognize Him. He had been delighted with the
lowly service done by the king, and for that reason had revealed His
mystery to him. True, He had shown Himself to the king only indirectly;
but who can pierce through this illusion of Chaitanya? Sárvabhauma and
Kashi Mishra were amazed at the grace shown to the king.

Thus did the Master play for some time, singing and making His followers
dance, now assuming one form, now many, ever putting forth His powers
according to the work to be done. In the ardour of play He forgot
Himself, and wished not to put a stop to it. Every moment did He do
supernatural feats, as He had in a preceding birth performed _rása_ and
other sports at Brindában.

Dancing thus, the Master swept the people away on the wave of enthusiasm
As Jagannáth was going to the Gundichá garden-house, the Master
performed _kirtan_ before the god for a long time. First He made His
_bhaktas_ dance, and then, wishing to dance Himself, united the seven
parties, placed nine men (Shribas, Rámái, Raghu, Govinda, Mukunda,
Haridas, Govindánanda, Madhav, and Govinda) under Swarup to sing and
move in the Master's company, while the other parties sang around Him.
After bowing to Jagannáth, with folded palms and uplifted face the
Master prayed:

_"Salutation to Shri Krishna! who is the divine God, the protector of
brahmans and kine, and benefactor of the universe. To Krishna, to
Govinda, I bow again and again!"_ (_Vishnu Puran_, pt. I. xix. 48.)

_"Victory attend Devaki's son, the Lamp of the Vrishni race, the lord!
Deep blue like the clouds is his colour, tender are his limbs. He is the
Redeemer of the world from its load of sin. Victory to him! Victory!"_
(_Padávali_, c. 108.) Also _Bhágabat_, X. xc. 24 and _Padávali_,
c. 63.

Reciting these verses the Master bowed low again, while the _bhaktas_
with folded palms adored God. Dancing impetuously with loud roars, He
moved in circles, like a lathe. Wherever His feet touched the ground,
the "earth with its hills and oceans trembled. He manifested stupor,
perspiration, joyous weeping, tremour, turning pale, all sorts of
helplessness, pride, exultation and humility. Stumbling He rolled on the
ground, like a golden hill thrown on the earth. Nityánanda and Adwaita
hastened to raise Him up in their arms, shouting _Hari! Hari!_ Three
circles were formed to keep the crowd back. The first was formed by
Nityánanda, the second was composed of Kashishwar, Mukunda and other
_bhaktas_ locking their hands together. Outside Pratap Rudra with his
ministers formed another ring to keep the spectators in check. The king,
with his hand resting on the shoulder of his prime-minister, was gazing
in absorption at the Master's dance. As Shrinibas, sunk in devotion, was
standing before the king, the prime-minister touched him and said "Step
aside." But Shrinibas in the ardour of his dancing was forgetful of all
else. He was pushed repeatedly and at last grew angry and slapped the
minister to stop his pushing. At this the minister in anger wanted to
rebuke him, but Pratap Rudra checked him saying, "Blessed art thou, to
be touched by him. Such happiness has not been my share!"

Not to speak of the people, even Jagannáth himself wondered at the
dancing of the Master, stopped his car, and gazed at the dance with
winkless eyes. Subhadra and Balarám smiled in delight at the sight of
the dance. A strange change came over the Master while dancing with all
His might: all the eight spiritual phases (_sátwik bháb_) manifested
themselves at the same time. His hair stood on end, with their roots in
the skin bulging out, like a _Shimul_ tree girt round with thorns. His
teeth clashed together fearfully, as if they would be dislocated. Blood
and sweat ran over His body. He lisped _ja--ja--ga--ga_ inarticulately.
His eyes poured down tears like syringes, and moistened the men around.
Fair was His complexion, at times turning into rosy, at times resembling
the _Malliká_ flower. At times He stood inert, at times He rolled on
the ground; at times motionless like a dry wood, at other times
prostrate on the ground and breathing faintly, to the alarm of His
_bhaktas_. At times water oozed out of His eyes and nostrils and foam
out of His mouth,--as the moon sheds bubbles of nectar. Shuvánanda, mad
with passion for Krishna, collected and drank up that froth; highly
fortunate was he.

After dancing violently for some time the Master wished to manifest
another mood. Leaving the dance He bade Swarup sing. Swarup, knowing His
taste, began,--

_"I have met the lord of my life, For whose sake I had been withering in
the fire of Cupid."_

Loudly did Swarup sing this burden, while the Master in delight danced
tenderly. Slowly Jagannáth's car moved on, Shachi's son dancing before
it. With eyes fixed on Jagannáth all danced and sang. (At times) the
Master walked behind the car with the party, of _kirtan_ singers,--His
arms making the action of song. When Chaitanya lagged behind, Jagannáth
stopped his car; when the Master walked ahead the god propelled his car
slowly. Thus did the two urge each other on!

In the course of dancing another change of mood came over the Master:
with uplifted arms He loudly recited the following stanza.
(_Kavya-prakash_, I. canto 4 and also _Padávali_ c. 380).

Again and again did He read the stanza, of which the meaning was known
to Swarup only. It meant in effect that as the milkmaids at Kurukshetra
were delighted to see Krishna, so was the Master gratified at the sight
of Jagannáth. Under that emotion He had the burden sung (by Swarup). At
last Radhá prays to Krishna, "You are the same [beloved] and I am the
same [lover, as during your incarnation as Krishna], and yet Brindában
steals my heart. Appear at Brindában again! Here there are crowds and
the din and bustle of elephants, horses and chariots;--there only flowery
woodlands, the bee's murmur, the cuckoo's cooing! Here you are dressed
as a King girt round by warriors, there you were a cow-boy, in the
company of flute players! Here I have not a drop of the ocean of bliss I
used to taste in thy society at Brindában. Take me with thee to dally at
Brindában again. Thus only can my heart be gratified." In the ardour of
His devotion the Master recited the stanzas of the _Bhágabat_, voicing
Radhiká's longing. But other people could not understand the verses;
Swarup alone knew their meaning but spoke not. (Afterwards) Rup Goswámi
proclaimed the sense. (_Vide Bhágabat_ X. lxxxii. 35 and 31).

In Swarup's company had the Master day and night enjoyed the sense of
these verses in His house. During His dance the same emotion overcame
Him; so He recited the stanzas and danced gazing at Jagannáth.
Swarup,--fortunate beyond expression in being absorbed body and soul in
the Master,--sang, while the Master drank in his music in abstraction.
Under passion's sway the Master sat down and with bowed head traced
letters on the ground with His finger. Lest His finger should be hurt,
Swarup prevented Him. Swarup's song was in exact accord with the
Master's emotion; he gave a vocal shape to every mood of the Master's

As He gazed at Jagannáth's lotus-like face, flashing in the sunlight,
his beautiful eyes, his perfumes, robes, garlands and ornaments, the
ocean of joy surged up in the Master's heart, a wild storm swept through
Him; rapture and wildness raised a tumult, the different emotions fought
in Him like hostile armies. A passion rose, a passion subsided, it came
to terms with another, and at last His normal mood of spirituality
(_sátwik_) asserted itself. The Master's body was a pure hill of gold;
His emotion a tree with every flower in bloom. The sight drew the hearts
of all; with the nectar of love He moistened their minds. All the
servitors of Jagannáth, all the courtiers of the king, the pilgrims, and
the residents of Puri,--all marvelled at the Master's dance and rapture,
and all felt devotion to Krishna. In enthusiasm they danced, sang, and
set up a din. The pilgrims by joining the dance increased the happiness
fourfold. Jagannáth hiniself moved on slowly to witness the Master's

Thus dancing, the Master advanced to where Pratap Rudra stood, and was
about to fall down when the king held Him up. On seeing him the Master
recovered composure and cried shame on Himself for having touched a
King, a worldling, adding, "In his rapture Nityánanda has ceased to be
heedful [of me]. Kashishwar, Govinda and others, too, are at a
distance." True, the Master had been pleased to see Pratap Rudra numbly
serving Jagannáth as a sweeper, and had meant to meet the king, yet He
professed anger in order to warn His followers against consorting with
worldly-minded men. The king grieved at the Master's speech, but
Sárvabhauma told him not to lose heart, "The Master is pleased with you;
He is only instructing His followers by means of you. I shall seize a
proper time for entreating Him. You will then go and meet Him."

Then the Master walked round the car, and standing behind it pushed it
with His head. At His push the car ran on with a clatter; the people
around shouted _Hari! Hari!_ Next the Master led His followers away to
dance before the cars of Subhadrá and Balarám, and when that was done He
returned to dance before Jagannáth's car. So the cars reached Balgandi,
where they stopped, and Jagannáth looked on both sides: on the left were
the abodes of Brahmans in cocoanut groves, on the right a flower garden
resembling Brindában. It is the rule that Jagannáth breakfasts here on
ten million dishes. Every devotee of Jagannáth, whatever his position,
offers his best food to the god. The king, his wives, ministers and
courtiers, all citizens of Puri, great and small, the pilgrims from
various lands, the people of the province, all offered him their
respective _bhog_. No order was observed, each deposited his offering
of food in front, behind, on the two sides of the god, or in the garden,
wherever he could find a spot. The crowd grew immense at the time of the
_bhog_, and so the Master stopped dancing and entered the garden, where
He lay prostrate on the veranda of the garden house, overcome with love;
the exertion of dancing made Him perspire copiously and He enjoyed the
fragrant cool wind. All the _bhaktas_ who had been singing _kirtan_
came and rested under the trees. [Text, canto 13.]


The Hora-Panchami Procession of Lakshmi

As the Master lay thus in the trance of love, Pratap Rudra entered the
garden alone, casting off his royal robes and dressed as a [common]
Vaishnav, according to the advice of Sárvabhauma. With folded hands he
took permission of every bhakta and then mustered enough courage to fall
down clasping the Master's feet. The Master lay on the ground, His eyes
closed in love; the king eagerly nursed His feet. Pratap Rudra recited
the stanzas of the Rasa dance, (_Bhágabat_, X. xxxi. i). Infinite was
the Master's delight as He heard the verses, and He repeatedly cried "Go
on." When the king proceeded to the stanza beginning with _"The
nectar-like discourse of thee"_, the Master in devotion rose up and
embraced the king, saying "You have given me many priceless gems. I have
nothing to give in return, save this embrace." So saying He read the
verses over and over again, both quivering and showering tears.

_"The nectar-like discourse of thee, O darling! is life to the afflicted,
the theme of praise to sages, and the antidote to sin. The hearing of it
does good and gives peace. Blessed are they who spread it far and wide
on earth, for they are truly givers of much alms."_ (_Bhágabat_, X.
xxxi. 9).

Crying the 'giver of much alms', the Master embraced the king, not
knowing now who he was. The king's lowly service had won for him the
Master's pity, who now made him a gift of His grace without any inquiry.
Lo! the power of Chaitanya's grace, which bears fruit without
questioning. The Master asked, "Who art thou, my benefactor, that hast
poured by surprise into my ears the nectar of Krishna's deeds?" The king
replied, "I am the slave of thy slaves. My only desire is that you may
make me the servant of your servants." Then the Master revealed His
godhead to the king, forbidding him to tell it to anybody. Though
knowing everything at heart, He outwardly showed as if He did not know
that the visitor was a king. The _bhaktas_ extolled the king for his
good fortune. Pratap Rudra took leave after prostrating him self, and
then with folded palms bowed to all the _bhaktas_, and went away. At
noon the Master with His followers breakfasted on the plentiful prasád
sent by the king by the hands of Vaninath, Sárvabhauma and Rámánanda.
The prasád from the Balgandi _bhog_ was excellent and of infinite
variety, but none of them was cooked food. [Details of the dishes.]
. . .

Knowing the fatigue of the _kirtan_ singers, Chaitanya resolved to
feast them. He seated them in rows and began to serve the food Himself.
Each man was given one leaf and ten cups of _Keyá_ leaves. Swarup
informed Him that as none would dine before the Master, He ought to sit
down to meal. Then the Master sat down with His circle and fed all to
their fill. The excess of _prasád_ that was left over sufficed to feed
a thousand men. Govinda, at the Master's bidding, brought in beggars to
eat this food. At the sight of the beggars feast the Master taught them
to chant Hari's name, and they were carried away on the stream of love
as they shouted _Hari-bol_.

Now came the time for dragging the car of Jagannáth. The Bengal athletes
pulled at the rope, but the car did not move. So they gave up the work
in despair. The king and his Court hastened thither in alarm. He set the
wrestlers to draw the car and applied his own hand to it; but still the
car did not move. Then powerful elephants were harnessed to the car, but
it did not advance a step in spite of their utmost efforts. Hearing this
the Master arrived with His followers and gazed at the furious elephants
pulling at the car. The elephants shrieked at the blows of the goad, but
the car stirred not, and the people lamented.

Then the Master took away the elephants, gave the ropes to His
followers, and Himself pushed the car from behind with His head. The car
sped along rattling. The _bhaktas_ merely held the ropes; they had not
really to pull, as the car advanced of itself. In delight the people
shouted "Glory! Glory to Jagannáth!" No other sound was heard. In a
twinkle the car reached the gate of the Gundicha garden, the people
marvelling at the power of Chaitanya. They set up a roar of "Glory to
Gaurchandra! Glory to Krishna-Chaitanya!" At the sight of the Master's
might, Pratap Rudra and his courtiers swelled with enthusiasm. Then the
servitors performed the ceremony of dismounting Jagannáth from his car
and conveying him to the Gundicha people. The three images were placed
on their thrones, and the ceremony of the gods bath and dinner
commenced. The Master began a joyous dance and _kirtan_ in the
courtyard in delight. His love welled out in blissfulness, and the sight
of it swept away the beholders in a torrent of love. In the evening He
witnessed the adoration with lamps, and came to the _Ai-totá_ garden
for reposing. Adwaita and eight other leading followers invited Him for
nine days. Among the rest as many got a chance of entertaining Him as
there were days in the "four months," while the rank and file of His
followers had a day free for each individually; so two or three of them
combined to give Him a joint entertainment on one day.

Thus did the Master play at dining out. After His morning bath He
visited Jagannáth, where He danced and sang with His followers, now
bidding Adwaita dance, now Nityánanda, Haridas, Achyutánanda, Vakreshwar
or some other bhakta. Thrice in the day did He sing _kirtan_ in the
Gundicha garden, imagining that Krishna had come to Brindában and that
the period of separation was over. Cherishing in His heart the idea that
Krishna was then dallying with Radha there, He remained absorbed in that
emotion (of gratification), acting in many gardens the feats of Krishna
at Brindában, disporting in the tank of Indradyumna, splashing His
_bhaktas_ with water, while they splashed Him from all sides, now
forming one circle, now many, and clapping their hands while croaking
like frogs. Sometimes a pair of them wrestled in the water, the Master
looking on to see who would win. Adwaita and Nityánanda tried to
overwhelm each other with water; the former was beaten and vented his
feelings in abuse. Vidyanidhi struggled with Swarup, Shribas with
Gadadhar, Raghav Pandit with Vakreshwar, Sárvabhauma with Rámánanda Ray.
The gravity of the last two disappeared and they became boys again!
Seeing their excitement the Master smiled and said to Gopinath Acharya,
"Both are grave scholars and venerable men, but they are acting like
wild boys. Stop them." Gopinath replied, "When the ocean of your grace
surges up, a single drop of it can easily drown tall mountains like Meru
and Mandár, what to speak of these two small stones? It is thy grace
only that has given the nectar of _lilá_ to one whose life was formerly
spent in chewing the dry husks of logical disputation." Laughing, the
Master brought Adwaita there and made him lie on his back on the water
like the _Shesha_ serpent, while He Himself reclined on him (like
Vishnu). Thus did He act the _lilá_ of Vishnu reposing on the serpent.
Adwaita, putting forth his strength, began to float on the water bearing
the Master.

After disporting in the water for some time He returned with His
followers to the _Ai-totá_. At the Acharya's house He dined with His
leading followers. The _prasád_ brought by Vaninath served to feed the
other followers. In the evening He visited the god and danced before
him, and at night returned to the garden to sleep.

In the garden, in company with His _bhaktas_ He sported as at
Brindában. The trees and creepers blossomed at His sight, the bee and
the black-bird sang, the zephyr blew. Under each tree He danced, Vasudev
Datta alone singing. Each (_bhakta_) sang under a different tree;
Chaitanya alone danced in supreme rapture. Then He bade Vakreshwar
dance, while He sang. Swarup and other _kirtaniás_ joined the Master in
singing, forgetful of all else in the vehemence of their love.

After performing this woodland sport, He went to the Narendra tank for
water-sport. Then He returned to the garden and dined out with His
_bhaktas_. For the nine days that Jagannáth remained at Gundichá, such
was the Master's life. He lodged in the large flower garden named

When the time came for the ceremony of _Horá-Panchami_, the king spoke
earnestly to Kashi Mishra, "To-morrow is Horá-Panchami, the day of
Lakshmi's triumph. Let the celebration be of unprecedented splendour, so
that the Master may be filled with wonder. Let extraordinary
arrangements be made for the ceremony. Let coloured cloths, bells,
fly-whiskers and umbrellas be brought out of my wardrobe as well as
Jagannáth's, and let the flagstaff, flag, bell, &c. be decorated. Let
(Lakshmi's) litter be set forth with varied music and dance. The
expenditure should be double (the ordinary), so that the ceremony may
eclipse the Car festival. Act so that the Master may be drawn to come
out with His followers to behold it."

Next morning the Master with His party visited Jagannáth at Gundichá,
and then returned to the temple eager to behold the Horá-Panchami
festival. Kashi Mishra with great honour seated the Master and His party
in a good position. Chaitanya wished to hear about a particular emotion
and smilingly asked Swarup, "Though Jagannáth lives at Dwaraka,
manifesting his natural be-pretext of a ride in his car. From the temple
he goes to visit Brindában. The parks here resemble Brindában; he longs
to see them therefore, and leaves his temple on the pretext of a ride in
his car. From the temple he goes to Gundichá and there disports day and
night in the many gardens. But why does he not take Lakshmi with him?"
Swarup answered, "Listen, Master, to the reason. Lakshmi has no access
to Brindában, as Krishna's playmates there are milk-maids. So none but
the latter can ravish Krishna's heart." The Master continued, "Krishna
sets out on the plea of a ride. Subhadra and Baladev accompany him. His
dalliance with the milk-maids is done in secret in the parks, unknown to
others. Krishna does not overt offence. Why then does Lakshmi fly into a
rage at his journey to Gundichá?" Swarup replied, "Such is the nature of
a loving mistress. Indifference on the part of her sweetheart rouses her

Just then Lakshmi arrived in an angry mood at the Lion Gate, riding a
golden litter set with many gems, and accompanied by rows of men bearing
flags, fly-whiskers, umbrellas and standards, with many musicians, and
preceded by the dedicated dancing-girls (_devdási_). A hundred richly
dressed hand-maids bearing betel-leaf caskets, goglets of water, fans
and fly-whiskers, and much display of wealth and retinue came in her
train. Her maids chained the chief servitors of Jagannáth and dragged
them to her feet, punishing them like thieves and fining them heavily.
She beat them till they almost fainted, and abused them in feigned
anger. The Master's followers laughed hiding their faces with their
hands as they beheld the forwardness of Lakshmi and her maids. [Swarup
gave a long explanation of Lakshmi's mood, with illustrative quotations
from Sanskrit treatises on love].

At his words Shribas laughed and said "Hark you, Dámodar! behold the
vast wealth of my Lakshmi. Brindában can boast of only flowers, leaves,
hills, peacock plumes, and the _Gunchhá_ fruit. And yet Jagannáth has
gone to visit Brindában! Lakshmi might naturally suspect Krishna's
motive in leaving such wealth for poor Brindában." As he was laughing
Lakshmi turned to chastise him, saying "Behold, your god has left such
splendour and gone to the Gundichá garden for the sake of flowers,
leaves and fruits! Why does the chief of the wise act thus? Bring your
lord before Lakshmi!" So saying, Lakshmi's handmaids brought the
Master's attendants tied with their waist-bands, made them bow at her
mercy. They beat (Jagannáth's) car with their sticks, and treated
Jagannáth's officers like thieves, until they cried with folded hands,
"To-morrow shall we produce Jagannáth before you." Then Lakshmi was
pacified and returned to her abode. . . [Swarup again shows Lakshmi's
conduct as natural in a true lover].

The Master listened with absorption to his exposition of the pure
emotion of Radha, and began to dance in rapture while Swarup sang. "Sing
on! Sing on!" He cried with ears on the alert. His enthusiasm welled
forth on hearing the song of the love-making at Brindában, and He
flooded the village of Puri with devotion. Lakshmi went back to her own
place in time, but the Master danced on till the third quarter of the
day. The four parties grew tired with singing, but His ardour became
doubly intense. Under the influence of Radha's love He became an image
of the passion. Nityánanda seeing Him from afar prayed to Him, but came
not near in consideration of His ecstasy. None but Nityánanda could hold
the Master [and force Him to stop dancing]. His ecstasy did not cease,
and the _kirtan_ therefore had to continue. So, Swarup by gesture
informed Him how the party was exhausted. At this the Master came to
Himself, and returned to the garden. After taking rest He had His midday
bath and dined pleasantly with His party on the many dishes sent from
Jagannáth's and Lakshmi's prasád. In the evening He bathed again and
visited Jagannáth, dancing and singing before the god.

He sported in the Narendra tank with His _bhaktas_, and held a picnic
in the garden. Thus He spent eight days, after which came the return
journey of Jagannáth in his car to his temple, at which the Master in
supreme delight danced and sang as during the outward ride.

When Jagannáth again occupied his throne, the Master returned with His
followers to His quarters. [Text, canto 14.]


The Dinner at Sárvabhauma's House

Thus did the Master live at the Niláchal with His followers, engaged in
dancing, singing, and delight. In the first year (of His stay) He used
to visit Jagannáth to whom He bowed, hymned, danced and sang. When the
god's _Upala-bhog_ was offered, He issued from the temple and took
Haridas home with Himself, and there chanted Hari's name.

Adwaita arriving there adored the Master, washed His feet with perfumed
water, rubbed Him all over with fragrant sandal-paste, placed a garland
round His neck and the tufted _Tulsi_ flower on His head, prostrated
himself at the Master's feet, and adored Him with folded palms. The
Master adored the Acharya with the flowers and Tulsi leaves left over on
the ritual tray, and recited the verse "I bow to thee, that art what
thou art!" Then He made a playful sound with His lips and had a laugh at
the Acharya. Thus did the two honour each other. The Acharya repeatedly
asked the Master to dinner. . . The Master with His party dined at the
houses of the different _bhaktas_ on successive days. Thus did they
spend four months in His company, witnessing all the festivals of

On Krishna's Nativity Day took place the ceremony of Nanda's grand
festival, at which the Master with His _bhaktas_ personated the
cowherds [of Mathura]. On His own shoulders did He carry the loads of
milk and curds to the place of the ceremony, shouting Hari's name. Kánái
Khuntiá played the _róle_ of Nanda and Jagannáth Mahanti that of the
queen of Braja. With Pratap Rudra himself, Kashi Mishra, Sarvabhaunia,
and the _Parichhá_ (minister) Tulsi, the Master danced and sported,
spattering all their bodies with milk, curds and yellow liquid. Adwaita
said, "Bear with me when I tell the truth. I shall know you for a
cowherd only if you can brandish a staff!" At this the Master began to
play with the staff. He tossed it in the air and caught it repeatedly as
it fell. He swung it round His head, behind, before, on the two sides,
and between the legs, spectators laughing. The stick circled round and
round like a lathe, all men wondering at the sight. Similarly Nityánanda
too played with his staff. Who can fathom the deep cowherd mood of these
two? At the king's command, Tulsi Parichha brought out a costly cloth,
once worn by Jagannáth, and tied it round the Master's head. [Other
clothes] were presented to the Acharya and other followers of the
Master. Kanai Khuntia and Jagannáth Mahanti, in their enthusiasm, gave
away all the wealth of their houses. At this the Master was greatly
delighted, and bowed to them as his parents (_i.e._, as Nanda and his
wife, the foster-parents of Krishna). In deep spiritual exaltation did
He return to His quarters. Thus did Chaitanya play.

On the _Bijaya-dashami_, the day of the storming of Lanka, the Master
with His followers played the part of the monkey army [of Ram].
Transported by the spirit of Hanuman, He seized a branch and broke it
off as if it were the citadel of Lanka, shouting in a rage, "Where art
thou, Ravan! Thou hast kidnapped the Mother of the World. Wretch! I
shall destroy thee with thy kith and kin." The people marvelled at His
passion and exclaimed "Glory! glory!" So, too, did He witness the
celebration of _Rása-yátrá_, _Dipávali_ and _Utthán-dwádashi_. One
day He and Nityánanda formed a plan in secret, the nature of which His
followers afterwards guessed only from the result. Calling all His
_bhaktas_ together, He said, "Return ye all to Bengal. Come here every
year and visit the Gundichá garden with me." On Adwaita Acharya he
honourably laid His command, "Teach the lesson of faith in Krishna to
all men, down to the Chandals." Nityánanda was bidden, "Go to Bengal.
Freely proclaim the gospel of devotion and love. Ramdas, Gadadhar and
some others will assist you. Now and then I shall be with you, and
standing unseen shall witness your dancing." Embracing Shribas Pandit,
He clung to his neck and said tenderly, "In the _kirtan_ at your house
I shall always dance. You alone of all men will be able to see me. Give
my mother this cloth and all this _prasád_ bow to her and beg her
pardon for all my faults. I have turned a monk leaving her service; this
has been an act of irreligion and not of religion on my part. I am bound
by her love; service to her is my religion. It has been madness on my
part to quit it. Tell her to have pity on me, as No mother finds fault
with a crazy child. What need have I of monachism? Love is wealth to me;
I must have gone out of my mind when I turned _sannyasi_. At her
command I am staying at the Niláchal. I shall occasionally go home to
see her. Daily do I go and behold her feet; she feels a delighted
sensation but does not admit it as true. One day [for instance] she
cooked rice, five or six vegetable soups, _sák_, _mochághanta_, fried
_patal_, _nim_ leaves, lemon, bits of ginger, curds, milk, and sugar
and cream, and offered these many dishes to _Saligrám_. Taking up the
_prasád_ she lamented, All these were Nimái's favourite dishes. He is
not here. So I went there quickly and ate up every thing. On seeing the
empty dish she wiped her tears and asked, Who has eaten the rice and
soups? Why is the dish empty? Has the young Gopal (idol) eaten them up?
Or has an illusion seized my mind? Has some animal came in and devoured
them? Or did I by mistake serve no food on the plate at all? So thinking
she looked again at the cooking-pots and found them full, to her wonder
and suspicion [of defilement by some beast or demon]. She then called
Ishan, had the place cleaned, and offered rice to the god Gopal afresh.
Thus, whenever she cooks nice dishes, she weeps in eager desire to feed
me on them. Her affection compels me to eat (the food there); and she is
pleased at heart, though outwardly she is disconsolate. This happened on
the last _Bijayá-dashami_ day. Say unto her and make her believe."
Though overcome in making this speech, the Master composed Himself in
order to bid farewell to the _bhaktas_.

To Raghav Pandit He spoke feelingly, "Your pure devotion has made me
your servant. Hear, all ye, the story of his serving Krishna in the most
pious and excellent manner. Let me speak of one thing only, namely his
offering of cocoanut as _bhog_. In his place cocoanut sells at five
_gandás_ [i.e., quarter anna each]. Though his orchards have hundreds
of cocoanut palms yielding _lakhs_ of fruits, yet wherever he hears of
very sweet cocoanuts, he procures them at the price of four annas for
one, even from 20 miles distance. Every day he strips the fibre off five
or six fruits and cools them in water. Then at _bhog_ he smoothes them
and making small holes at the top offers the fruits to Krishna, who
drinks the milk within, and leaves the fruits empty or full of liquid at
different times. When the fruit is empty of milk, the Pandit rejoices,
cracks the nut and spreading the kernel on a hundred dishes, offers them
to Krishna, while he meditates outside (the god's dining room). Krishna
eats the offering, and leaves the dishes bare, or fills them again with
the kernel. At this the Pandit's devotion grows and he swims in the
ocean of love.

"One day his servant brought ten cleaned cocoanuts to be offered to the
god; but while waiting outside the door he happened to touch the wall
above with his hand and then placed the same hand on the fruits. On
seeing this the Pandit threw away the fruits as defiled and unworthy of
offering to the god, because the dust raised by the feet of people
entering at the door sticks to the wall above. By such pure loving
service he has surpassed the world . . . Similarly whenever he hears of
any good fruit like plantain, mango, or jack, in far off villages, he
carefully buys them dear, washes, cleans, and offers them to the god.
So, too, vegetables, roots, fruits, _chirá_, _hurum_, confects, cakes,
sweet drinks, condensed milk, _káshandi_, pickles, scents, cloth,
ornaments, and the pick of all things he offers cleanly to the god. His
loving service is unmatched and soothes the eyes of all who behold it."

So saying the Master embraced Raghav, and showed due respect to the
other _bhaktas_. To Shivananda Sen he spoke in terms of honour, "Do you
look after Vasudev Datta, who is so charitable that every day he spends
all his day's earnings, saving nothing. But he is a householder and
ought to save, for without saving a man cannot support his kinsmen. You
have the charge of the income and expenditure of his house. In your
capacity as head man arrange (his affairs properly). Come every year
with all the _bhaktas_ to the Gundichá garden, taking care of them."

To the pilgrims from the Kulin village He said, "Come here every year
with striped silk cloth (for Jagannáth). Gunaraj Khan wrote the _Shri
Krishna Vijay_, one devotional sentence of which, 'Nanda's darling
Krishna is the lord of my life', has made me the bondsman of his line.
Not to speak of you, even a dog of your village is dear to me, above all

At this Satyaraj Khan and Rámánanda too entreated the Master, "I am a
worldly man; how can I practise devotion? I beg thee to lay commands on
me." The Master replied, "Ever serve Krishna, ever serve Vaishnavs, ever
sing Krishna's name." Satyaraj asked, "How shall I know a Vaishnav? Tell
me of his general characteristics." The Master answered, "Whosoever
utters Krishna's name even once is to be honoured above all other men.
Krishna's name alone washes away all sins and kindles many forms of
faith. It does not make a man wait for religious initiation or priestly
ministration, but as soon as the word is formed on the tongue, it
redeems all men down to the Chandál caste. Along with that, Krishna's
name destroys our bondage to the world and draws the heart to the love
of Krishna. _Vide_ Shridhar Swami's stanza in the _Padávali_, xviii.
Therefore, he who utters Krishna's name alone is truly a Vaishnav.
Honour him as such."

Of the pilgrims from Khanda the leaders were Mukunda-das, Raghunandan,
and Narahari. To the first, Shachi's son spoke thus, "Tell me truly
whether you are the father and Raghunandan your son, or the converse?
Dispel my doubt." Mukunda replied, "I verily believe that Raghunandan is
my father and I his son, because our devotion to Krishna has been
imbibed from him." The delighted Master broke out, "True are thy words.
He who gives us faith in Krishna is our _guru_." Bliss it is to the
Master to unfold the greatness of _bhaktas_, and He holds forth on the
subject through five mouths as it were. Turning to His followers He
said, "Hark ye about Mukunda's faith. It is a pure and deep love, like
unalloyed gold. Outwardly he is a physician royal and serves his master.
But who can fathom his heart's devotion? One day the Musalman king was
talking with him about medicine, on a high dais, when a servant held a
peacock-feather fan over the Nawab's head. At the sight (of Krishna's
crest), Mukunda in a rapture of devotion tumbled down from the height.
The Nawab, thinking that he was overcome by death, dismounted, restored
him to his senses, and asked where he had been hurt. Mukunda replied
that he did not feel much pain. Then to the Nawab's query about the
cause of his fall, he replied that he was subject to epilepsy. The Nawab
was very wise, he discerned the real reason and thenceforth regarded
Mukunda as a great devotee."

Raghunandan served at Krishna's temple, in front of which there was a
tank with a _Kadamba_ tree blooming all the year round on its _ghát_.
Daily two flowers blossomed there (as if) derived from Krishna. The
Master continued, turning to Mukunda, "Your business is to earn money,
Raghunandan's to serve Krishna. His heart has no other desire. Let
Narahari remain with my _bhaktas_. Do you three ever perform these
duties respectively."

Graciously He addressed the two brothers, Sárvabhauma and
Vidyá-váchaspati, "Krishna is at present manifest in the form of wood
and water, the sight and ablution of which saves mankind. As the wooden
god he lives at Puri, while the deity as water is the river Bhagirathi.
Let Sárvabhauma worship the wooden god and Vachaspati the water-deity".

Embracing Murari Gupta, the Master extolled his sincere devotion thus,
"Listen, O ye _bhaktas_! I had formerly often tempted him saying,
'Passing sweet is the lad of Braja's lord, O Gupta! Krishna is God
himself, in all His fulness, the refuge of all. Love is pure, clean, the
source of all passions (_ras_), the ocean in which all virtues are
stored like gems. He is wise, expert, sedate, the chief of the masters
of emotions. Sweet is his character, sweet is his fascination; his
sports are marked by cleverness and skill. Worship that Krishna, seek
refuge in him. The heart cannot accept any other object of adoration'.
His respect for me somewhat influenced him and he replied that he was my
servant, ready to do my bidding, without free will. Going home, he was
restless at the thought of giving up his idol Raghunath, and cried, 'How
can I quit the feet of Raghunath? Kill me to-night, O Lord! So he spent
the whole night watching and weeping, sore at heart. In the morning he
returned, clasped my feet and cried, I have sold my head at Raghunath's
feet, and cannot draw it away now, so great would be the pain of it. I
cannot leave Raghunath's feet, and on the other hand thy command will be
disobeyed. I have no help for it. Take pity, therefore, on me, O Kind
One; and let me die before thee, so that the conflict within me may be
ended'. At these words I rejoiced exceedingly, raised and embraced him,
saying, 'Excellent! Excellent! firm is your devotion, O Gupta, as my
words have not shaken your purpose. It is the devotion of servants of
this kind that ought to be offered at the Lord's feet,--when the Lord
draws away His feet the devotee does not let go his grasp. That I urged
you repeatedly was only to test this your earnest faith. You are Hanuman
himself, the servant of Ram. Why then should you leave his lotus feet?
This is that Murari Gupta [addressing the other _bhaktas_], the very
life of me. My heart breaks to see his meekness of spirit."

Then He embraced Vasudev, and dwelt on his merits with a thousand
tongues. The Datta, blushing to hear his own praise, begged at the
Master's feet, "Thou hast come down to deliver the world. Grant one
prayer of mine. It can be easily granted, if thou willest, O Gracious
One! My heart breaks to see the sorrows of mankind. Lay thou the sins of
the rest of mankind on my head; let me suffer in hell under the load of
their sins, so that, Master, thou mayest remove the earthly pangs
[_i.e._, birth on earth] of all other beings." These words melted the
Master's heart. Trembling and weeping He answered in broken accents,
"This request is no surprise, coming from you who are a Prahlád. Full is
Krishna's grace on you. Krishna brings to fruition whatever his servants
ask for; he has no other work than to gratify his servants wishes. You
have prayed for the salvation of all the creatures of the universe. (I
say) they will all be delivered, without suffering for their sins. The
task is not too much for Krishna, who is omnipotent. Why should he make
you (alone) undergo the due chastisement for (their) sins? Those whose
good you desire are Vaishnavs, all of whose sins are removed by Krishna.
Witness the _Brahma Samhitá_, v. 60.

"At your mere wishing, the universe will be redeemed. It is no labour
for Krishna to deliver all men. Ten million figs (_dumbur_) can grow on
one tree; similarly ten million universes float in the water of the
Pure. The tree knows not the loss, if a fruit drops and perishes. So,
too, if one universe is set free [from re-birth], Krishna does not
regard it even as a trifling loss. Endless are Krishna's possessions.
Vaikuntha and other places belong to him. They are girt round by the
ocean of the Cause of Creation. Countless illusive universes float in
that ocean, just as a pot of oil-seeds may float in the ditch round a
city. The loss of one seed-grain out of it matters nothing. So, too,
Krishna does not feel the loss if one universe is gone. Even if illusion
and all the universes subject to it perish, Krishna does not mind the
loss. The illusion [-created world] is no more to Krishna than a
she-goat is to the owner of ten millions of cows giving inexhaustible
milk. _Vide Bhágabat_, X. lxxxvii, 10."

In such terms did the Master speak of the different merits of all His
followers, embrace and give them leave. They wept at parting from Him,
while His mind, too, was saddened. Gadadhar Pandit stayed with Him and
was settled by Him at Jaleswar [in Jagannáth-Puri]. The Puri,
Jagadánanda, Swarup Damodar, Damodar Pandit, Govinda, and Kashishwar,--
these lived with the Master at Puri. He visited Jagannáth every morning.

One day Sárvabhauma solicited Him with folded palms thus, "Now that all
the Vaishnavs have returned to Bengal, I have got an opportunity of
entertaining you. Be pleased to be a guest at my house for a month." The
Master replied, "It is opposed to my rules of duty. I can't do it."
Sárvabhauma persisted, "Let it be for twenty days only." But the Master
objected, No, that too is opposed to the rules of a _sannyasi_."
Sárvabhauma came down to fifteen days, but the Master insisted on dining
with him for one day only. Then Sárvabhauma, clasping His feet, begged
for ten days out of which the Master gradually reduced five, and
accepted the invitation for five days only. Then Sárvabhauma made
another prayer, saying, "There are ten monks with you, out of whom the
Puri will dine with me for five days, as I told you before. Damodar
Swarup, my friend, will go to my house with you and at times alone. The
other eight will be my guests dining singly for two days each. Thus a
month is filled up with engagements. I fear lest I should fail to show
due hospitality if so many monks come to me together. You, too, will
visit my house with your shadow, and sometimes in the company of Swarup
Damodar." Glad of the Master's nod [of assent] he invited Him that very
day. The Bhattáchárya's wife was called Shathi's mother; she was greatly
devoted to the Master and a very mother in tenderness. [The cooking, the
courses, and the dinner described in great detail].

The Master said, "It is impossible to eat so much rice" [_viz._, three
maunds]. The Bhatta replied, "I know what is a sufficient quantity for
you. At Puri you [as Jagannáth] eat _bhog_ 52 times a day, and the
quantity for each time is hundreds of loads. At Dwaraka you [as King
Krishna dine daily] at the houses of your 16,000 queens, 108 mothers,
and the Yádav clan. At Brindában you dine twice daily at the houses of
your kinsmen and cowherd comrades. At the Govardhan sacrifice heaps of
rice were brought for you, in comparison with which my dishes form less
than a mouthful. You are God indeed. I am a wretched little creature.
Consent to take only a little mouthful of food at my house." Smiling,
the Master sat down, the Bhatta serving Him with the _prasád_ of
Jagannath. Just then there came Amogh, the son-in-law of Bhattáchárya
and the husband of Shathi. He was a _Kulin_ and a fault-finder. He
wished to see the feeding, but could not come, as Bhattáchárya kept
watch at the door stick in hand! When Bhattáchárya was busy serving the
_prasád_, Amogh came in and looking at the rice began to criticise,
"What! a single monk is eating this rice, on which ten or twelve others
can feed to their fill!" Hearing these words Bhattáchárya looked over
his shoulders, and Amogh fled away. . . . His father-in-law cursed him
and his mother-in-law prayed for her daughter's widowhood.

That night Amogh spent in hiding, and next morning he was seized with
cholera. At the news that he was dying, Bhattáchárya exclaimed, "The
gods are on my side, and are doing my work. A sin against God bears
immediate fruit. Witness the _Mahabharat_, Bana-parva, ccxli. 17, and
_Bhágabat_, X.iv.3i."

When Gopinath Acharya went to see the Master, in answer to a question
about Bhattáchárya, he said, "The couple had fasted at night. Amogh is
dying of cholera." At this the merciful Master hastened there, laid His
hand on Amogh's breast and said, "Pure by nature is this Brahman's
heart,--a fit place for Krishna to sit on. Why have you seated the
Chandál Envy here, and thus defiled a very holy spot? Your sins are
ended by the society of Sárvabhauma. When sin is gone, men recite
Krishna's name. Rise, thou, Amogh! chant Krishna's name. Soon will God
have mercy on you." At these words, Amogh rose up with the cry of
_Krishna! Krishna!_ and began to dance in an ecstasy, of devotion,
weeping, trembling, standing stockstill, perspiring, lisping. The Master
smiled at seeing the surging up of his love. But he begged the Master,
holding His feet, "Gracious Master! forgive my fault." With this he
slapped his own cheeks till they were swollen. Gopinath Acharya held his
hand to stop him, and the Master stroked his body to console him saying,
"You are an object of affection to me, being related to Sárvabhauma.
Even the very servants and dogs of his house are dear to me above all
others. Thou hast not offended. Chant Krishna's name."

So saying the Master came to Sárvabhauma's house, who clasped His feet,
but the Master embraced him, took His seat and began, "Amogh is a child.
He cannot offend. Why are you fasting, why are you angry with him? Up,
bathe, visit Jagannáth, and break your fast soon, if you want to please
me. I shall wait here so long as you do not return with the _prasád_
(for your dinner)." Clasping His feet Sárvabhauma asked "Amogh was
dying. Why did you revive him?" The Master replied, "Amogh is your
child. The father, especially if he is the nourisher, does not take note
of the offence of his boy. He has now turned Vaishnav; his sin is gone;
do you then look kindly on him." The Bhatta said, "Go, Master, to see
the god. I Shall quickly join you there after taking my bath." But He
replied, "Gopinath! stay here. When the _prasád_ comes to him, inform
me of it." Then He went to see the god, while the Bhatta bathed, prayed,
and dined.

This Amogh became extremely devoted to the Master. A very sedate man, he
incessantly recited Krishna's name. [Text, canto 15.]


The Return to Bengal

Pratap Rudra grew sad when he heard that the Master wished to visit
Brindában; calling Sárvabhauma and Rámánanda, the king entreated them,
"The Master's mind is inclined to go away from Puri. Try to keep Him
here. Without Him this kingdom is of no delight to me. Try every means
to detain the hermit." When the Master was taking counsel with the two
about making a pilgrimage to Brindában, they said, "Wait to see the Car
Festival, and set out in the month of Kártik." In Kártik they urged, "It
is mid-winter now. Better set out after witnessing the Swinging
Festival." So they plied all arts to put off His departure; and gave not
their consent in fear of parting with His company. True, the Master was
a free agent, under nobody's control. Yet He did not depart against the
wishes of His followers.

In the third year of His stay, the Bengal followers wished to go to
Puri. So, they all resorted to Adwaita Acharya, who set out joyfully to
see the Master. Nityánanda, though charged by Him to stay in Bengal and
preach the faith of love, nevertheless went to see Him. Who can
understand the display of Nityánanda's love? Who can number the _bhaktas_
that started? Acharya Ratna, Vidyanidhi, Shribas, Ramai, Vasudev,
Madhav, and Govinda (the three brothers), Raghav Pandit with his casket
fitted up, the residents of the Kulin village with their striped silk
cloth (for Jagannáth), Narahari and Raghunandan of Khanda, in short all
of the _bhaktas_ went; who can count them? Shivananda Sen made
arrangements about the stages of the road, and guided the whole party in
comfort, supplying all their needs and securing lodgings, as he knew all
about the road to Orissa.

That year the ladies too set out to visit the Master: With the Acharya
went Achyuta's mother, Malini with Shribas Pandit, with Shivananda his
wife and son named Chaitanya-das, with Acharya Ratna his wife. All the
ladies took from their houses all kinds of choice things formerly dear
to Him, to feed the Master with. Shivananda looked after their needs,
provided them with lodgings by winning over the officers of the halting
stations (_ghátiál_), and everywhere nourished them with provisions.

At Remuná they saw Gopinath (idol), at whose temple the Acharya danced
and sang. Nityánanda knew all the servitors of the god; so they highly
honoured the party. The night was passed there; Nityánanda distributed
among them the twelve pots of condensed milk (_bhog_) presented by the
servitors. Then Nityánanda told them the whole story of Madhav Puri, the
installation of the Gopal, the begging of sandal by Gopal, the stealing
of _kshir_ by Gopinath for the Puri,--as he had heard it from the
Master. The Vaishnavs rejoiced.

So they wended their way to Katak. After visiting the Witness Gopal they
spent the night there. Nityánanda told the legend of the god, to the
increased delight of the Vaishnavs, who pushed on to Puri, eager at
heart to meet the Master. When they reached Athára-nálá (Bridge of 18
spans), Govinda, sent by the Master with two garlands to welcome them,
met the party and placed the garlands on the necks of Adwaita and
Abadhut Goswámi, to their intense bliss. There the two began the
_sankirtan_ of Krishna and advanced dancing. Next Swarup and other
followers, sent by the Master, received them with garlands at the
Narendra Tank. When they reached the Lion Gate, Chaitanya Himself came
out to meet them all. He took them to see Jagannáth, and then led them
to His own lodgings. With His own hands He served them the _prasád_
brought by Vaninath and Kashi Mishra. They were then sent to take rest
in the houses respectively occupied by them in the previous year.

Thus the _bhaktas_ spent four months at Puri, joining in His _kirtan_.
When the season of the Car Festival arrived, He took them, as on the
last occasion, to wash the Gundichá temple, presented to Jagannáth the
striped silk brought by the people of the Kulin village, danced long
before the car, and then returned to the garden. While He was reposing
on the bank of the tank, Krishna-das, a Brahman of West Bengal (Rárh)
and a disciple of Nityánanda, was so fortunate as to pour on the
Master's head a pot of water, to His great relief.

The Master dined with all His followers on the numerous dishes of
_Balgandi bhog_ sent to Him. As before, they witnessed the Car
procession and the _Horá-Panchami_ procession with Him. The Master was
invited to dinner by Acharya Goswámi, at which a rain storm burst. Then
Shribas invited Him, and the Master's favourite dishes were cooked by
Malini, who was His handmaid in devotion, but a mother in tenderness.
Acharya Ratna and other leading disciples gave dinners to the Master at
intervals. When the four months were over He again took counsel in
secret with Nityánanda. The Acharya whispered to the Master mystic
hints; he seemed to be muttering and none could know his meaning.
Chaitanya laughed at seeing the gestures of his face. This the Acharya
took to be a mark of assent, and he began to dance in delight; none knew
what the request and the consent were. But the Master embraced and
dismissed him.

Then He addressed Nityánanda, "Listen, Shripad! I pray thee grant this
request of mine. Don't come to Puri every year, but stay in Bengal to
carry out my will, for I see none else who can do the work. You alone
can accomplish my hard undertaking." Nityánanda replied, "I am but the
body; you are the life of it. It is admitted that the body cannot live
apart from life; yet you, by your incomprehensible power, are performing
such an impossibility. Well, I shall do whatever you make me. I am not
subject to any [other] law." The Master embraced and gave him leave, and
so to the other _bhaktas_ too.

The pilgrims from the Kulin village begged, as before, "Master, appoint
us our duty," to which He replied, "Serve Vaishnavs, chant Krishna's
name. These two will lead you soon to Krishna's feet." The men asked,
"By what signs can a Vaishnav be known?" The Master knew their real
thoughts, smiled, and answered, "He is the true Vaishnav, who has
Krishna's name ever on his lips. Adore his feet." Next year they put the
very same question, and the Master by His answer taught them the
gradations of Vaishnavs: "Know him to be the besf of Vaishnavs, the
sight of whom brings Krishna's name on your tongue." Thus did He
describe in succession the three grades of Vaishnavs: good, better, and

All the Vaishnavs returned to Bengal. Vidyanidhi alone stayed at Puri
that year. He formed a close friendship with Swarup, and the two lived
together engaged in discourse on Krishna. He gave _mantra_ anew to
Gadadhar Pandit. On the day of _Orani Shashthi_ he witnessed the
procession, and felt contempt at beholding Jagannáth wearing a cloth
with the size not washed out of it. That very night Jagannáth and
Balaram visited him [in his sleep] and laughingly slapped his cheeks.
Vidyanidhi was inly glad at finding his cheeks swollen. . . .

Thus did the _bhaktas_ of Bengal come every year and witness the god's
procession in the Master's company. I shall describe only the years in
which something special happened. Four years did the Master pass in this
way: two years [after He took the monastic vow] were taken up by the
pilgrimage to the South and the return; the next two years He [stayed at
Puri] wishing to go to Brindában, but unable to stir at Rámánanda's
opposition. In the fifth year the Bengal pilgrims returned home
immediately after witnessing the Car Festival without staying [for four

Then the Master embraced Sárvabhauma and Rámánanda and said, "Very eager
am I to visit Brindában. At your objection I have not set out these two
years. I _must_ go now. Do you both consent, for I have no other refuge
save you. In Bengal my two refuges are my mother and the river Ganges,
both gracious ones. On my way I shall see them. Permit me freely to

At these words they reflected, "It is not good to oppose Him too much,"
and then told Him, "It is now the rainy season, which makes travel
impossible. You will certainly depart on the _Vijayá-dashami_."

On that day the Master set out, taking with Himself all the _prasád_ of
Jagannáth that had been given Him, and also the sandal wood and coloured
threads. Taking leave of Jagannáth, He started in the morning, and sent
back the Oriya disciples who were following Him. With His men He reached
Bhabánipur, Rámánanda Ray coming behind in his litter. They spent the
night there, feeding on the copious _prasád_ sent by Vaninath. Next day
the Master reached Bhubaneshwar. At Katak He saw the [Sakshi-] Gopal
image. Here a Brahman named Swapneshwar bade Him to dinner, while
Rámánanda Ray invited His followers. The Master lodged in the outer
garden, and after dinner reposed under the _Bakul_ tree.

Rámánanda Ray went to inform King Pratap Rudra, who hastened thither in
joy and repeatedly prostrated himself at the Master's feet in ecstasy,
and prayed to Him with tremour and tears. The Master, pleased with his
faith, rose up and embraced him. The king hymned and bowed to Him again,
his body bathed with the tears of the Master's grace. Rámánanda composed
and seated the king, and the Master showed His favour to him in body
mind and speech. So great was the favour shown that He became famous in
the world under the name of "the Saviour of Pratap Rudra." The royal
ministers adored the Master, who then dismissed the king. Coming out
Pratap Rudra sent letters to all officers in his kingdom, bidding them,
"Build new houses in different villages [on the route]; fill six or
seven such rooms with provisions. There lodge the Master and wait on Him
day and night with your rods [of authority] in hand." His ministers
Harichandan and Mangraj he ordered, "Conduct all this business. Bring a
new boat to the river [Mahanadi] bank. When the Master after bathing
crosses the river, plant a staff there to mark the spot as a holy
_tirtha_. I shall daily bathe there. May I die there. Hang out fine new
cloths at the four gates. Rámánanda, go you back to the Master." The
king heard that the Master would resume His journey in the evening. So
he transported his wives in covered litters on the backs of elephants,
which were drawn up in a line along the route. In the evening the Master
proceeded with His followers and bathed at the _ghát_ of the
Chitrotpala [Mahanadi] river. The queens bowed when they saw Him, and at
the sight of Him they were filled with devotion, chanting Krishna's name
with tears in their eyes. In the three worlds has not been heard of such
another gracious saint, whose very view from a distance inspires love of

Then He crossed over in a boat, and in the moonlit night reached "the
four gates" (_chatur dwár_). Here He passed the night, and next morning
bathed and ate the _mahá-prasád_ of Jagannáth, which the Parichhá used
to send Him daily in huge quantities at the king's command by means of a
host of servants.

Then the Master wended His way, served by Rámánanda, Mangraj, and Hari
Chandan, the three [officers of the king]. He was accompanied by the
Puri Goswámi, Swarup Damodar, Jagadananda, Mukunda, Govinda, Kashishwar,
Haridas Thakur, Vakreshwar Pandit, Gopinath Acharya, Damodar Pandit,
Ramái, Nandái and many other _bhaktas_, of whom I have named the chief
only, for who can count them all? When Gadadhar Pandit followed Him, the
Master forbade him to quit the seat of his monastic devotions. The
Pandit pleaded, "Where you are, there is my Puri. Let my seat of
monachism go to wrack and ruin." The Master said, "Stay here,
worshipping Gopinath;" but the Pandit insisted, "The sight of thy feet
is worth ten million worship of gods." The Master argued, "If you give
up the worship, mine will be the sin. Stay here and worship, if you want
to please me." The Pandit answered, "Let the entire sin rest on me. I
shall go alone, and not in your company. I am going [to Nadiá] to see
the Mother, and not to bear you company. I am ready to bear the sin of
quitting the worship I had vowed to perform." So saying the Pandit
proceeded alone. At Katak the Master called him. The Pandit's devotion
to Chaitanya passes comprehension: he gave up the vowed worship of
Krishna as lightly as a straw. The Master was inly pleased at his
conduct, but in loving anger He told him, holding his hand, "Your object
of quitting your promised worship has been fulfilled, as you have
already arrived far [from the temple of your god at Puri]. By wishing to
stay with me, you are seeking your (selfish) pleasure. I grieve to see
you losing both your _dharmas_ (duties). If you wish to make me happy,
return to Puri. I shall swear an oath, if you insist any further." So
saying the Master embarked, while the Pandit swooned away on the bank.
He bade Sárvabhauma lead the Pandit away. Sárvabhauma said, "Get up!
such is the Master's play. You know how Krishna broke his own vow to
keep the vow of his adorer Bhishma. _Vide Bhágabat_, I. ix. 34.
Similarly the Master has endured separation from you in order to keep
your vow sacred." So saying he consoled Gadadhar, and the two returned
full of grief to Puri. For His sake His _bhaktas_ renounced their
religious and earthly duties, but the Master could not bear that they
should sin thus.

At Jájpur He dismissed the two royal ministers who had been escorting
Him, after talking day and night about Krishna. At every village (on the
way) the royal officers, under orders, entertained the Master with
various things in the newly built houses. So faring forth He reached
Remuna [1], where He dismissed Rámánanda Ray. The Ray fell down on the
ground in a dead faint; the Master took him up in His arms and wept.

Then He reached the boundary of the Odhra country, where the royal
officer met Him, tended Him for three or four days, and told Him about
the path in front. "Before you lies the land of a wine-bibing Muslim
king, through fear of whom none can travel on the road. His territory
extends to Pichhaldá. None dares cross the river in awe of him. Stay
here for some days, while we negotiate with him to secure a safe voyage
for you." Just then an Oriya servant of the Muslim had visited Katak in
disguise. This Hindu spy, witnessing the wonderful deeds of the Master,
reported to his king, "A monk has come from Jagannáth, with many pious
persons in his train. They sing of Krishna incessantly, laughing,
dancing, singing, weeping. The people flocked in _lakhs_ to see Him,
but after once seeing Him they could not return home, as they became
almost mad, chanting Krishna's name, dancing, weeping and rolling on the
ground. He cannot be described in words, but has to be seen, to be
understood fully. His power shows that He is God." So saying the spy
chanted _Hari! Krishna!_ laughing, weeping, and dancing like mad. This
turned the Muslim king's mind. He sent his own confidential Hindu
minister to the Oriya king's [frontier] officer. The man bowed to the
Master and became overwhelmed with love as he cried _Krishna! Krishna!_
Then he composed himself and spoke to the Oriya king's officer, "The
Muslim governor has sent me to you to seek your permission for him to
come here and meet the Master. He is very anxious to do it, and entreats
you. Fear not any attack, it will be a peaceful journey." At this the
frontier-officer cried out in wonder, "A Muslim's heart! Who could have
done this to it? Surely the Master Himself turned his heart, as the
sight and (even) thought of Him saves the world. Then he turned to the
confidential minister and said, "He is lucky. Let him come here to see
the Master, unarmed and with only six or seven attendants, if I am to
trust in him."

On hearing this, the Muhammadan governor arrived in a Hindu dress, and
prostrated himself with tears of joy on seeing the Master from afar. The
frontier-officer led him forward with due honour, and the governor with
folded palms stood before the Master reciting Krishna's name and saying,
"Why have I been born in a low Muhammadan family? Why did not Fate send
me to earth as one of the Hindu race, for then I could have come near
thy feet? My life is useless. Let me die!" The frontier-officer, moved
by these words, praised the Master after clasping His feet, "This man
has got a view of thee, whose very name when heard purifies a Chandál.
What wonder that he will be saved? Such is the efficacy of looking at
thee!" Witness the _Bhágabat_, III. xxxiii 6.

Then the Master looked benignly at the Muslim and in soothing terms told
him to repeat Krishna's name. The governor replied, "As I have found
acceptance with thee, bid me serve thee. Let me earn deliverance from
the sin of hurting Brahmans, cows and Vaishnavs, of which I have been
too often guilty." Then Mukunda Datta broke in, "Listen, Sir, our Master
wishes to reach the bank of the Ganges. Help Him to go there. It is a
great command and a good service."

The Muslim bowed to the Master and His party and set off gleefully. The
frontier-officer embraced him, formed a friendship with him, and gave
him many presents. Next morning the Muslim governor sent out many
decorated boats with his Hindu minister to escort the Master. The Oriya
frontier-officer, too, accompanied Him. The Master placed His men in the
cabin of a new boat, and dismissed the frontier-officer, who stood on
the bank gazing at the voyagers with tears in his eyes. The governor
after bowing at the Master's feet, started the flotilla, with ten
boat-loads of soldiers as a defence against pirates. He crossed the
terrible river Mantreshwar, and proceeded to Pichhaldá, at which
(frontier) village the Master sent him back. The new disciple's
expressions of devotion on the occasion were indescribable.

In that boat the Master reached Pániháti, and robed the captain in the
robe of His favour. The report of His coming created a sensation: men
crowded together on land and water. Raghav Pandit came and led the
Master to his house, making their way through the press of men with
great difficulty. The Master halted there one day. Next morning He
reached Kumárhati, where Shribas dwelt. Thenoe He proceeded to the
houses of Shivananda and Vasudev. When lodging with the Váchaspati, He
one night fled to the Kulia village shrinking from the crowd. Here in
the house of Madhav-das millions had a view of Him, and here He stayed a
week saving all the sinners. Thence He went to the Acharya's house at
Shantipur, where He met mother Shachi for soothing her grief. Thence He
visited Rámkeli and the dancing-hall, returning to Shantipur for a ten
days halt. Here Raghunath-das met Him. There were two brothers, Hiranya
and Govardhan-das, the owners of Sapta-grám and twelve _lakhs_ of
Rupees. Both were very charitable and rich Brahmans, well-behaved,
high-born, and foremost in piety, the support of the Brahmans of
Navadwip, whom they helped with land and money. Their guru was Nilambar
Chakravarti, who treated them like his brothers. As they had formerly
served Purandar Mishra, they were well-known to the Master.
Raghunath-das was the son of this Govardhan, and averse to the world
from his childhood.

On the Master's coming to Shantipur after turning hermit, Raghunath had
come and fallen down at His feet in a rapture of love. The Master had
graciously touched him with His toe. Raghunath's father always did good
turns to the Acharya who did Raghunath a favour, helping him to eat the
leavings of the Master's dinner. After staying at the Master's feet for
a week, he had been sent away by the Master when He went to Puri.
Raghunath returned home, turned mad with love, and repeatedly ran away
from his father's house to go to Puri. But his father seized him on the
way and kept him tied up, with five watchmen to guard him day and night
and four servants and two cooks, in all eleven guards.

Raghunath was brooding over his failure to go to Puri, when he heard of
the Master's present visit to Shantipur and begged his father thus: "Let
me go and see the Master's feet, or my soul will quit my body." His
father then sent him with many men and things and an order to return
soon. Raghunath spent a week at Shantipur in the Master's company, ever
pondering on his heart's wish, "How shall I escape from my guards? How
shall I go to Puri with the Master?" The omniscient Chaitanya, knowing
his mind, told him soothingly by way of instruction, "Peace! go home.
Turn not wild. It is only gradually that men reach the shore of the
world-ocean. Don't ape renunciation of the world, in order to make a
show before the people. Enjoy your worldly possessions duly, without
setting your heart on them. Cherish piety in your heart, while outwardly
you discharge your temporal affairs. Soon will Krishna deliver you. When
I return here from Brindában on my way to Puri, come to me by some
device. Krishna will at that time inspire you with the device. Who can
hold back one whom Krishna favours?"

Raghunath returned home, followed the Master's advice, outwardly gave up
his mania and other-worldliness, and did his proper work without being
absorbed in it. His parents were pleased at the change and relaxed their

Here at Shantipur, the Master embraced Adwaita and other _bhaktas_ one
by one and said, "Permit me, ye all, to go to Puri. As I have met you
all here, you need not go to Puri this year. From this place I will
proceed to Brindában. Grant your permission, so that my journey may be
safe." Holding His mother's feet He long entreated her and got her
consent to visit Brindában, and then sent her back to Navadwip.

He then set out for Puri with His followers, being served on the way by
the same men as before. On His arrival at Puri there was a bustle in
that village: His joyful _bhaktas_ came and were all embraced by
Him,--Kashi Mishra, Rámánanda, Pradyumna, Sarvabhanma, Vaninath, Shikhi,
Gadadhar Pandit and others. To them He said, "I wanted to go to
Brindában by way of Bengal, after seeing my mother and the Ganges. When
I arrived in Bengal a thousand followers gathered round me; myriads of
people flocked there to see the fun. The crowd blocked the roads.
Wherever I put up, the houses and walls were broken down by their
pressure. Wherever the eye rested there was a sea of heads. With great
difficulty I reached the Rámkeli village, where two brothers Rup and
Sanátan came to me. They were foremost of devotees, winners of Krishna's
grace, outwardly royal ministers and governors, old in knowledge faith
and wisdom, and yet behaving as meeker than grass. Their humility could
have pierced a stony (heart). Highly pleased I gave them leave saying,
'It is good to be lowly and curb one's own pride. Soon will Krishna
deliver you.' When going away Sanátan spoke a riddle: 'To be followed by
a million men is not the right manner of visiting Brindában.' At that
time I did not mind the saying, and next morning reached a village named
Kanai's Dancing-hall. Here at night I pondered over Sanátan's dark
saying and it struck me, 'He has spoken well. With so many men following
me, people will point at me as parading saint-ship. Lonely is that
Brindában, hard to win, difficult of access. I must go there alone or
with only one companion.' Madhavendra Puri had gone there all alone, and
(hence) had Krishna appeared to him on the pretext of serving him with
milk. And I,--I am going there like a travelling showman. It is not fit
to visit Brindában with a host. A pilgrimage thither accords only with
solitary travelling. Instead of my going there alone (as is proper), an
army is accompanying me beating drums! O Shame on me! O Shame on me! So
saying I became unsettled, gave up the journey and returned to thfe
Ganges. Leaving my _bhaktas_ at different places I have arrived here
with only five or six. Favour me and give me your counsel how I may
peacefully go to Brindában. I have failed to reach Brindában because I
left Gadadhar behind here and thus pained him!" At this Gadadhar in
rapture seized the Master's feet and spoke meekly, "Wherever you are,
there is Brindában, there Jamuna, Ganges and all holy places. You are
going to Brindában only to give an object-lesson to men. You will do
what your heart likes. The rainy season is coming. Spend these four
months at Puri. Thereafter do as you list. Go or stay as you like. Who
can prevent you?" The other _bhaktas_ joined in and said, "Gadadhar has
voiced our thoughts." Yielding to their wishes, the Master stayed there
four months. Pratap Rudra was glad to hear of it. That day Gadadhar
feasted the Master and His _bhaktas_. [Text, canto 16.]

[1] The author, however, tells us in canto 1 that Rámánanda Ray
accompanied the Master to Bhadrak. Remuna is 5 miles west and Bhadrak 28
miles south of Baleshwar.


The Pilgrimage to Brindában

With the coming of early autumn the Master's mind turned to His
pilgrimage. He secretly took counsel with Rámánanda and Swarup, saying,
"If you two help me, I can visit Brindában. At night I shall quit my bed
and escape by the forest path without taking a single attendant. If any
one afterwards seeks to follow me, do you detain him, letting none
depart. Mind not the sorrow. Be of good cheer and give me leave. If I
leave you pleased, my way-faring will be happy."

The two replied, "You are God and a free agent; you act your will,
subject to none. But listen to one request of ours. You have just now
said that our happiness would make you happy. Well, then, Sir, grant
this our prayer. You must take a good Brahman with you. He will cook
your food and carry your pots. In the forest path you will not meet with
any Brahman whose cooking is fit to be eaten. Give us leave to send a
Brahman along with you."

The Master replied, "No, I shall take none of my own comrades with me.
If I take one, the others will be grieved. Some sweet-souled stranger
may be my companion. I can take one such if I can get him." Swarup
suggested, "Here is Balabhadra Bhattáchárya, tender to you, a scholar, a
pious man and a gentleman. He had come from Bengal with you during your
first advent. He wishes to visit all the _tirthas_. He has a Brahman
servant; he will do your cooking on the way. We shall all be happy if
you take him with you, as then you will feel no hardship in making your
way through the forest. The Brahman servant will carry your cloth,
water, and pots, while Bhattáchárya will cook your food." The Master
agreed to it and took Balabhadra Bhattáchárya with Him.

The night before, He visited Jagannáth and took the god's leave, and
before sunrise He slipped away unperceived. In the morning the
_bhaktas_ missed Him and ran about anxiously seeking Him. Swarup
stopped them, and they stayed, knowing such to be the Master's wish.
Leaving the beaten track the Master took to by-paths, and passing by the
left of Katak entered the jungle. In the lonely forest He fared forth,
chanting Krishna's name,--elephants and tigers moved away from the path
at the sight of Him. In an ecstatic mood He passed through herds of
tigers, elephants, rhinoceroses and boars. Bhattáchárya shrank in
terror, but they stepped aside cowed by the Master's power.

One day a tiger was lying across the path. The Master in abstraction
trod on it and cried, "Speak Krishna's name!" And lo! the tiger stood up
and began to dance, while chanting _Krishna! Krishna!_ Another day He
was bathing in the river, when a herd of wild elephants came there to
drink. They arrived before Him as He was offering the oblation of
water. Bidding them repeat Krishna's name He rushed sprinkling the water
on them. Every elephant touched by that water shouted _Krishna_ and
danced and ran about in love. Some rolled on the ground, some bellowed,
to the marvel of Bhattáchárya.

On the way the Master sang _kirtan_ aloud. The deer flocked thither,
drawn by His sweet voice, and marched with Him on two sides, while He
patted their backs and playfully recited the verses, _Bhágabat_, X. xxi.
11. Just then six or seven tigers came up and joined the deer in
accompanying the Master. The sight reminded the Master of Brindában and
He recited the verses descriptive of the virtues of Brindában.
_Bhágabat_, X. xiii. 55.

When the Master shouted "Chant Krishna's name," the deer and the tigers
danced together (peacefully) shout ing Krishna! Krishna! a wonderful
sight to Balabhadra Bhattáchárya. The tigers and deer embraced and
kissed each other, the Master smiling at the fun of it. Leaving them
there He went on. The peacock and other birds, on seeing Him, proceeded
in His company singing _Krishna!_ and dancing like mad. The Master
shouted, 'Say _Hari_!' Trees and creepers rejoiced at the sound. To all
the animate and inanimate things in the jungle of Chota Nagpur
(_Jhárikhand_) He communicated the name of Krishna and maddened them
with love. In every village that He passed through or halted in, all the
men were filled with devotion. If one heard the name of Krishna from His
lips, he spread it to a second, the second to a third, and so on. All
chanted Krishna-Hari's name, danced, wept, and laughed; from one to
another the whole land became Vaishnav. Though for fear of drawing a
crowd the Master concealed His devotion and gave no outward exhibition
of it, yet the very sight of Him, the hearing of His words, and His
power made all the people Vaishnpv. Travelling in Central Bengal, East
Bengal, West Bengal, and Orissa, He had delivered the people there. Now,
on the pretext of a pilgrimage to Mathura, He came to Jharikhand and
saved the ruffianly bearish people by teaching them the faith that
springs from Krishna's name. The wood suggested Brindában, every hill
looked like Govardhan, every river seemed to Him a Jamuna. There He
danced in ecstasy, and fell down weeping.

Bhattáchárya gathered all green leaves, roots and fruits wherever he
found them on the way. When they halted at a village, six or seven
Brahmans would invite Him; one supplied Bhattáchárya with rice, another
with milk, curds, _ghee_, or sugar. Where there was no Brahman
inhabitant, all the Shudra merchants invited Bhattáchárya. He cooked the
wild vegetables, which delighted the Master. He kept a store of rice to
last for three or four days. In the lonely parts of the jungle, where
there was no human habitation, Bhattáchárya cooked that rice with soup
of wild vegetables. The picnic delighted the Master exceedingly and the
solitude gratified Him. Bhattáchárya served Him as tenderly as a slave,
his Brahman carrying the water-pot and clothing. Thrice daily He bathed
in the hot springs, twice He warmed Himself by the fire, as fuel was
abundant; ever did He move in solitude rapt in love. Feeling the bliss
(of such a life) He said, "Much have I travelled, but nowhere have I
found any trace of the (alleged) hardships of journeying in forests.
Passing gracious has Krishna been to me: He has directed me to this
forest path to give me varied delight. Previously when I had resolved to
visit Brindában after seeing my mother, the Ganges and my _bhaktas_,
and taking a party of my followers faith me, and with that aim went to
Bengal, and after delighting myself with the sight of those dear ones, I
set out joyfully with my followers, a million people joined me. Then
Krishna instructed me through the mouth of Sanátan; He hindered that
journey and brought me to this forest path. O Ocean of Mercy! gracious
unto this humble wretch! There can be no pleasure without thy grace!"
Then embracing Bhattáchárya He said, "All this pleasure have I through
thy help." But Bhattáchárya replied, "You are Krishna, you are the
gracious one! I am a despicable being; you have taken pity on me; you
have (deigned to) take me with you, and to eat food cooked by me. I am a
wretch. But you have ennobled this crow to the rank of _Garuda_. You
are God Himself, a free being!"

Thus did Balabhadra hymn the Master and please His mind by his loving
service. Thus enjoying much bliss He reached Benares and bathed at noon
at the Mani-Karnika ghát. Tapan Mishra was then bathing there, and felt
some surprise on seeing the Master, as he had previously (only) heard of
Chaitanya having turned hermit. When the recognition became certain, he
was filled with rapture, and wept clasping the Master's feet, but He
raised and embraced him. The Mishra guided the Master to the temple of
Vishweshwar and Bindu Madhav, and at last brought Him to his own house,
where he served Him, danced (in ecstasy) with his garment fluttering,
drank with his whole family the washings of the Master's feet, fed Him,
honoured Balabhadra Bhattáchárya, and arranged for his cooking.

After taking His meal the Master lay down, the Mishra's son, Raghu,
shampooing His feet. The Mishra family ate the leavings of the Master's
plate. Chandra-Shekhar, a scribe of the Vaidya caste, resident in
Benares, a friend of the Mishra and a devotee of the Master, came there
on hearing of His arrival. As he wept at His feet, Chaitanya lifted up
and graciously embraced him. Chandra-Shekhar said, "Great is thy grace,
Master that thou hast appeared to thy servant! At my first coming to
Benares I used to hear nothing but the words 'illusion' (_máyá_) and
Brahma. Here nothing was preached except expositions of the six systems
of philosophy. Then the Mishra kindly told me of Krishna, and we two
meditated ceaselessly on thy feet. Omniscient God! thou hast appeared to
us. Let us both serve thee for some days before thou goest to Brindában,
as we hear." The Mishra added, "Master, during your stay at Kashi do not
consent to dine anywhere except in my house." Thus the Master, compelled
by His two devotees, stayed there for some ten days against His will. A
Maratha Brahman came to see Him, marvelled at His beauty and devotion,
and invited Him, but He declined saying that He was already engaged for
the day. With the same plea He put him off day after day in fear of some
_sannyasis_ joining His company.

Prakashánanda used to deliver public lectures on Vedánta to his many
pupils. The Maratha Brahman, after having viewed the Master, described
Him to Prakashánanda thus, "A _sannyasi_ has come here from Jagannáth,
whose glory and power I cannot adequately describe. Big of limbs, fair
as the purest gold, long-armed, lotus-eyed, clad in all the marks of
God-head, as one can see. O, marvel! The sight of Him convinces one that
He is Náráyan. Whosoever beholds Him chants Krishna's _sankirtan_. All
the marks of a great _bhágabat_ as described in the _Bhágabat_ are
evident in Him. Ever does His tongue sing Krishna's name, His eyes run
tears like the Ganges stream. Now He dances, now laughs, now sings and
now weeps, or at times roars like the lion. The world's benefactor is
He, named Krishna-Chaitanya. His name, appearance, and virtues, all are
matchless. To see Him is to know Him as fashioned in God's mould.
Hearing will not make one credit this marvellous tale."

The philosopher laughed much and scoffed at the Brahman, saying, "I have
heard that there is a _sannyasi_ in Bengal, an emotionalist, a disciple
of Keshav Bhárati and a fraud on the public. He is named Chaitanya, and
with his emotional band he roams over the country dancing. Everyone who
sees him calls him God. Such is his spell, all beholders are bewitched.
I hear that the great scholar Sárvabhauma Bhattáchárya has turned mad in
this Chaitanya's company. He is a _sannyasi_ in name only, but really a
great wizard. But his stock in trade of sentimentality will not sell at
Kashi! Attend to Vedánta; do not resort to him! The companionship of the
wild man will ruin you in life and death." Grieved at these words, the
Maratha Brahman left the place appealing to Krishna. His mind having
been purged by the Master's sight, he came to Him and unfolded the tale
of his sorrow. The Master smiled. The Brahman continued, "When I first
mentioned you to him, he said that he knew you. When he uttered your
name in the course of his abuse of you, he thrice used the form
_Chaitanya_ without adding Krishna! It grieved me to hear him speak
your name in such a contemptuous manner. Tell me the reason of his
conduct, for my lips uttered Krishna's name as soon as I saw you." The
Master replied, "The philosophers who hold the doctrine of illusion sin
against Krishna. They constantly prate about _Brahma_, _Atma_ and
_Chaitanya_, and cannot utter the name of Krishna, because that is
equivalent to Krishna's self. The name, the image, and the self of a god
are all one; there is no distinction between them; the three are of the
form of soul's bliss (_chidánanda_). Between Krishna's body and
personality, between his name and Krishna himself there is no
difference. In the case of creatures, no doubt, name, body, and
personality are different from one another. _Vide Hari-bhakti-vilas_
xi. 269.

"Therefore Krishna's name, body, and action (_vilás_) cannot be
comprehended by the natural senses; they manifest themselves. His name,
qualities, and antics are the soul's bliss (_chidánanda_) like
Krishna's own form. From delight in God comes the fuller pleasure of
appreciating Krishna's actions (_lilá_), which attract and conquer the
spiritual man. _Vide Bhágabat_, XII. xii. 52.

"From delight in God comes the fuller pleasure (of relishing) Krishna's
merits, which attract the inmost spirit of the soul. _Vide Bhágabat_, I.
vi. 10. Not to speak of Krishna's feet, even the odour of the _Tulsi_
plant captivates the inmost sense of the soul. _Vide Bhágabat_, III.,
xv. 43.

"Therefore does Krishna's name fail to rise to his lips; the
Illusionists are mere Phenomenalists. He has said that I have come to
Kashi with a parcel of sentiments for which there is no customer here,
and I must take it all back! Well, how shall I carry away this heavy
load? I will sell it here even for a trifle!" So saying and making that
Brahman His own, next morning He set out for Mathura. The three followed
Him, but He sent them home from a distance. In His absence they used to
meet together and sing His praise, mad with love. At Allahabad He bathed
in the Triveni, and danced and sang in devotion before the image of
Madhav. In rapture at the sight of the Jamuna, He jumped into it, but
was hurriedly dragged out by Bhattáchárya. Three days He spent thus at
Allahabad saving men by imparting to them the love and name of Krishna.
On the way to Mathura wherever He halted, He made the people dance to
Krishna's loved name. He now made the people of the West Vaishnavs, as
He had formerly done those of the South. Wherever He came to the Jamuna
on the way, He leapt into it, senseless with love.

On approaching Mathura, He prostrated Himself in an ecstasy of devotion
at the sight of the city. Here He bathed in the Vishram ghát, and bowed
to Kesav's image at the place of his nativity. He danced, sang, and
shouted in rapture,--men marvelling at his fervour. One Brahman clasped
His feet and then began to dance with Him over come with love. Both
danced in rapture, embraced each other, and cried _Hari! Krishna!_ with
uplifted arms. The spectators shouted _Hari! Hari!_--there was a tumult;
the attendant of the image garlanded the Master. Marvelling at the sight
of the Master, the people said, "Such beauty and such devotion can never
be human. Verily, He is the incarnation of Krishna, come to Mathura to
save mankind, because at the sight of Him men are intoxicated with love
and laugh weep dance and sing Krishna's name!"

Then the Master took the Brahman apart and asked him secretly, "You are
a Brahman, noble-minded, simple and old. Whence did you acquire such
wealth of love?" The man replied, "When Madhavendra Puri came here on
his travels, he was pleased to be my guest; he made me his disciple and
ate of my cooking. That great soul revealed the (concealed) Gopal, who
is worshipped at Govardhan to this day." At this the Master touched his
feet, but the Brahman in alarm fell down at the Master's feet. The
Master explained, "You are my _guru_, and I am almost a disciple to you.
The _guru_ should not bow to the disciple." The Brahman in fear and
surprise asked, "Why do you, a _sannyasi_, use such language? But stay!
Your fervour makes me infer that you are connected with Madhavendra Puri
[by the tie of initiation]. He was filled with love of Krishna: nowhere
do we find even the savour of such love except jmong those connected
with him." Then Bhattáchárya explained the Master's relation to the
Puri, at which the Brahman began to dance in rapture. He conducted the
Master to his own house, and of his own will served Him in many ways. He
made Bhattáchárya cook the Master's meal, but He smilingly said, "The
Puri has dined with you. Do thou feed me. This is an instruction for me.
_Vide Gitá_, iii. 21."

Though the Brahman was a _Sanoria_, at whose house _sannyasis_ do not
dine, yet the Puri, drawn by his truly Vaishnav behaviour, had initiated
and dined with him. Now that the Master begged to eat of his cooking,
the Brahman humbly said, "Great is my fortune that I shall feast you.
You are God, unfettered by rule and practice. But the ignorant will
blame you, which I cannot bear to hear." The Master answered, "The
_Shruti_, the _Smriti_ and all the sages are not of one opinion, but
at variance with one another. The actions of good men are for confirming
religion. The Puri's action is the essence of that religion. _Vide
Ekádashi-tattwa_, Vyas's words:

_'Logical reasoning cannot establish our duty. The Shrutis are
conflicting. Not a rishi whose views do not differ from those of others.
The truth of religion is hidden in a cave. Follow therefore the path
trodden by good men.'"_

Then the Brahman feasted the Master, to see whom the citizens of Mathura
came in _lakhs_. The Master appeared to them outside the house, and with
uplifted arms cried "Chant _Hari! Hari!_" The men raised a shout of
_Hari!_ and danced mad with love. He bathed at the 24 gháts of the
Jamuna, and was shown by that Brahman all the holy sites: Swayambhu,
Vishram, Dirgha-Vishnu, Bhuteshwar, Mahavidya, Gokarna, &c.

Wishing to see the woods, He took the Brahman with Him and visited the
Madhu-ban, the Tál-ban, Kumud and Bahulá, in all of which He sang in a
fervour of love. The cows grazing by the way surrounded the Master with
loud bellowings, but grew still at the sight of His over flowing
devotion, and licked His limbs tenderly. When He became quiet, He rubbed
their backs, and they would not leave Him as He advanced. The cowherds
stopped them with great difficulty.

His voice drew to Him herds of deer, which gazed at His face, licked His
body, and followed Him on the way without fear. The black-bird and the
bee sang sweetly on seeing Him; the peacocks strutted dancing before
Him. At His coming the trees and creepers of Brindában put forth sprouts
(as if they were thrilled) and shed honey like tears. Branches laden
with flowers and fruits, bowed to His feet, as friend hastens to greet
friend with a present. At the sight of Him, the animate and inanimate
things of Brindában rejoiced, as on meeting with their friend. Seeing
their affection the rapt Master played with them all, over come by their
influence. Each tree and creeper He embraced; in thought He offered
every flower and fruit to Krishna. Weeping, trembling, shaken with love,
He shouted, 'Say _Krishna! Krishna!_' The living and the inert shouted
_Krishna_ as if echoing His deep voice. Clasping the necks of the deer
He wept, while the deer trembled and shed tears. The green parrot with
its mate appeared on the branches, and on His wishing to hear their
speech they flew on to His hand and recited verses in praise of Krishna.
_Vide Govinda-lilámrita_, xiii. 29 &c.

Wonder and enthusiasm seized the Master at these words, and the birds
flew back to the branch. Delighted He gazed at the dance of the
peacocks, the neck of the bird reminding Him of Krishna, and He swooned
away in rapture. The (local) Brahman and Bhattáchárya nursed Him,
sprinkled Him with water and fanned Him with His cloth. Loudly they
poured Krishna's name into His ears, (at which) He awoke and rolled on
the ground. The brambles of the rough jungle path scratched His limbs,
but Bhattáchárya took Him in his lap to soothe Him. Krishna's love had
filled His mind, so He sprang up with the cry of "Chant! Chant!" and
began to dance. Bhattáchárya and the (Mathura) Brahman sang Krishna's
name, while the Master wended His way dancing. The Brahman marvelled at
the fervour of His love and grew concerned about His safety. His passion
of devotion on the way to Brindában grew tenfold of what it had been at
Puri; it increased a thousandfold on seeing Mathura, and a hundred
thousand times when He roamed the woods of Brindában. When He was in
other lands the mention of Brindában had caused His love to well out;
and now He had actually come to that Brindában! His soul was steeped in
love day and night, and He bathed and dined (unconsciously) as a matter
of habit. [Text, canto 17.]


The Master's doings at Brindában

Dancing thus the Master reached the village of Arith, where He suddenly
recovered His senses. He asked the people about the Rádhá pool
(_kunda_); but they knew it not, nor did the Brahman guide. But the
omniscient discovered the hidden _tirthas_ and bathed in shallow pools
in two rice-fields. The villagers wondered at the spectacle. The Master
began to praise the Radha pool in love: "Radha is dearest to Krishna
among all the milk-maids. So is the Radha-_kunda_ dear (to him) as the
bathing-place of his darling. In this pool Krishna ever sported in the
water with Radha and on the bank he dallied in the _rása_ dance.
Whosoever bathes once here gets from Krishna a love rivalling that of
Radha. The pool is charming like Radha's self; its glory is great like

Recollecting Krishna's acts in the pool, He danced in rapture on the
bank, and painted His forehead with its mud. Bhattáchárya took a little
of the mud. Next, the Master went to the Suman tank. At the sight of the
Govardhan hill He was affected, prostrated Himself before it, and madly
embraced a rock. In a frenzy of devotion He proceeded to the village of
Govardhan, where he bowed to the god Hari-dev, the first incarnation of
Náráyan, who dwelt on the western edge of Mathura. Before the god He
danced in rapture, the people at the wondrous news flocking to see Him,
and admiring His beauty and devotion. The attendant of the image
entertained Him. Bhattacharya cooked in the Brahma-_kunda_ and the
Master bathed, dined, and passed the night in the temple. At night He
cogitated, "No, I must not ascend Govardhan. How then can I get the
sight of Gopal?" He remained silent over the matter, but Gopal knowing
His mind, played a trick. The god Gopal was installed at Anna-kut, a
village of the Rajputs. Some one informed the headman at night that the
Turks were arming to sack the village, and so they should all flee at
night with their god. The villagers in alarm first transferred Gopal to
the Ganthuli village, where the god was worshipped in secret in a
Brahman's house. Then they all fled, leaving the village empty. Thus did
Gopal migrate repeatedly in fear of the Muslims, being removed from
temple to bower or to another village.

In the morning the Master after bathing in the Mánas Gangá, set out to
walk round Govardhan. Moved to rapture at the sight of the hill, He
advanced dancing and chanting the verses, _Bhágabat_, X. xxi. 18.

Bathing at the Govinda-kunda and other holy spots, He learnt that Gopal
had gone to Ganthuli, whither He proceeded to see the god, before whom
He danced and sang in a transport of devotion. Moved by Gopal's beauty
He recited a _shloka_ and danced till the close of the day.

For three days did He view Gopal; on the fourth day Gopal came away with
Him, as He walked singing and dancing, and went back to his former
temple [on the hill], while the Master stayed at the foot of it. The
people in delight cheered aloud _Hari! Hari!_ Thus does the tender
Gopal descend from the hill on some pretext, in order to show himself to
the devotee who passionately longs to see him and yet declines to set
foot upon Govardhan. Thus did he appear to Rup and Sanátan. When Rup was
too old to walk and yet longed to see Gopal's charms, the god took
refuge for a month in the Vithaleshwar temple at Mathura in fear of the
Muslims. Then Rup with his disciples saw him there for a month. [Rup's
disciples named]. After a month Gopal went back to his temple, while Rup
returned to Brindában.

Then the Master visited the Kámya forest, and all other places in
Brindában in the manner described before. Thence to Nandishwar, at the
sight of whom He fell into an ecstasy. After bathing in the Pában and
other pools, He climbed the hill and asked if there was any temple on
the top. Being directed by the local people, He entered the cave and
there beheld the image of the fair dancing Child between his robust
parents. He bowed at the feet of Nanda and Yashodá, and in rapture
touched all the limbs of the child Krishna. After dancing and singing
there all day, He visited the Khadir wood, the Vishnu reposing on the
Sesha Snake, Khelá-_tirtha_, the Bhándir wood, the Bhadra wood (across
the Jamuna), the Shri-ban, the Ivauha-ban, the Mahá-ban, (the
birth-place of Radha), where He beheld the site of the killing of
Yamalárjun, to the over flowing of His love. After visiting Gokul He
returned to Mathura. Here He stayed at that Brahman's house, visiting
Krishna's birth-shrine; but He left Mathura on account of its press of
people and dwelt in seclusion at Akrur-_tirtha_.

Another day He visited Brindában, bathed in the Kaliya lake and
Praskandan. From the Twelve Suns (_Dwádash Aditya_) He went to the
Kashi _tirtha_. At the place of _rása_ He fainted away in love, and on
recovering rolled on the ground, laughed, wept, danced, recited verses,
and sang. In such deeds was the day spent there, in the evening He
returned to Akrur for breakfast.

Next morning He bathed at the Chiraghát of Brindában, and rested under a
very ancient tamarind tree of the age of Krishna's exploits, with a
smooth platform built round its trunk. Close by flowed the Jamuna; cool
breezes blew; the water of the Jamuna gazed at the beauty of Brindában.
After singing the holy names under the tamarind tree, the Master
performed His noonday prayer and breakfasted at Akrur. The people of the
village crowded in such numbers to see Him that He could not dance
freely. So He came back to Brindában, and sitting apart sang the holy
names till noon. In the third quarter of the day He appeared to the
people and advised them all to make _sankirtan_ of Krishna's name.

Then arrived a Vaishnav, of the Rajput race, named Krishna-das, a
householder living in a village on the other side of the Jamuna. After
bathing in the Keshighát he was going to the Kali lake when he suddenly
beheld a holy man sitting under the tamarind tree. Admiring the beauty
and fervour of the Master, he bowed to Him in devotion. To the Master's
query as to who he was, he replied, "I am a miserable householder, a
Rajput from across the river. I long to be servant to a Vaishnav. Last
night in sleep I saw a vision which exactly agrees with you." As the
Master graciously embraced him, the Rajput mad with love danced crying
_Hari! Hari!_ He followed the Master at noon to the Akrur-_tirtha_ and
ate His leavings. Next morning he bore the Master's water-pot [to
Brindában] and kept His company, leaving his wife, children and home.

Everywhere men began to say that Krishna had again appeared at
Brindában. One morning the citizens of Mathura were returning from
Brindában with a great noise, when the Master met them and asked them
whence they were coming. They replied, "Krishna has appeared in the
water of the Káli-daha lake. He is dancing on the hood of the snake
Káliya, whose jewel is flashing in the water. We have seen it with our
own eyes. It is beyond doubt." The Master smiled and remarked, "It is
all very true." Thus for three nights people flocked there, all saying
on their return that they had beheld Krishna. When they said in the
Master's presence that they had seen Krishna, Saraswati indeed moved
them to speak the truth, for in seeing _Him_ they were beholding the true
Krishna; while they were neglecting the real before their eyes in order
to behold the unreal [apparition of Krishna in the lake]. When
Bhattáchárya begged leave to behold Krishna there, the Master slapped
him and said, "You are a learned man, and yet you have turned a fool,
believing the story of fools! Why should Krishna appear in that lake?
Fools in their delusion are making a fuss [about nothing]. Don't lose
your senses. Stay at home. To-morrow at night go and see Krishna."

In the morning a quiet man came to the Master, and He asked him if he
had seen Krishna. The man replied, "A fisherman was catching fish in the
lake with a lamp in his boat. People seeing him from a distance mistook
him for Krishna dancing on the snake; the boat was regarded as the
snake's hood, and the lamp as its crown-jewel! True, Krishna _has_ come
to Brindában, but it is not true that the people have seen him. Far from
seeing him they are holding a false notion, just as an imbecile
[_sthánu_] man takes things in a contrary light." The Master asked,
"Where have you seen Krishna?" The man replied, "You are a _sannyasi_ a
walking Náráyan. You have come to Brindában, as the incarnation of
Krishna, to deliver all men by your appearance." The Master invoked God
in horror and cried, "Say not so! Never regard this, the humblest of
creatures, as Krishna. A _sannyasi_ is a particle of _chit_, a
creature is like a single ray of light; but Krishna, full of all the six
powers, is like the Sun. A creature and the Creator can never be equal,
any more than a blazing fire and a solitary spark can be. The fool who
speaks of a creature as equal to God is a sinner, destined to be
punished by Yama."

The man replied, "You have not the human mind. Your appearance and
character are like Krishna's. In form you resemble the Son of Braja's
lord; your bright complexion eclipses your yellow robe. The musk's
fragrance cannot be concealed even if it is tied up in a cloth; so too
your Godly nature cannot be kept hidden. Supernatural is your character,
your wisdom unfathomable, the sight of you has driven the world mad with
the love of Krishna. Woman, child, old man, a Chandál, or even a
Muslim,--whosoever once beholds you, dances madly, chanting Krishna's
name. He becomes a teacher unto others and converts the world. Not to
speak of seeing you, the mere hearing of your name throws a man into a
frenzy of devotion to Krishna and makes him a spiritual deliverer to all
others. Your name sanctifies even Chandáls. Super human are your
powers,--beyond description. _Vide Bhágabat_, III. xxxiii. 6. Such is
your glory, you have the attributes of detachment. Your form and
attributes prove you to be Krishna!"

The Master favoured these men, and they returned home wild with love.
Thus did He stay a few days at Akrur, saving men by imparting to them
the love of Krishna's name. That disciple of Madhav Puri invited every
householder in Mathura. The people of Mathura, Brahmans and good men, in
parties of ten or twenty every day invited Bhattáchárya, who could
accept only one of the invitations. The people, getting no opportunity
of giving dinners, pressed that Brahman to accept their hospitality.
Kanauji, Deccani, and Vaidik Brahmans all humbly asked the Master to
dinner. They came to Akrur in the morning, cooked, offered the food to
the _Shálgrám_, and fed the Master on it. One day, sitting on the Akrur
ghát, the Master reflected, "Here did Aknir see Vaikuntha, and the
people of Brindában got a view of heaven. So saying He jumped into the
water; Krishna-das set up a loud lamentation; Bhattáchárya hurried there
and dragged the Master out. Then he took secret counsel with the (local)
Brahman, saying, "The Master was rescued only because I was at hand. But
if He is drowned at Brindában who will save Him? Here we have crowds of
visitors and the plague of invitation every day. It is not good for Him
to be constantly in an ecstasy. The best plan would be to remove Him
from Brindában." The Brahman (host) replied, "Let us take Him to Prayág;
we shall enjoy the journey along the bank of the Ganges. You should ask
His consent to bathe in the Ganges at Soron and then start with Him by
the same route. It is now the month of Mágh; if we start now, we shall
reach Prayág in time for bathing during Capricorn. After saying
something of your own sorrows, broach to him the request to lead you to
Prayág during Capricorn. Tell Him also of the joy of following the bank
of the Ganges."

Then Bhattacharva besought the Master thus "I cannot bear this
disturbance by the people. They worry me to accept their invitations.
When people come in the morning and fail to find you, they plague me to
death. I shall be happy if I follow the bank of the Ganges, and starting
now reach Prayág in time for bathing in Capricorn. My mind is restless.
I cannot bear [our life here]. I submit to whatever the Master may be
pleased to command." Though unwilling to leave Brindában, the Master, to
gratify His _bhakta_, said sweetly, "Never shall I be able to repay my
debt to you for your having escorted me to Brindában. I shall do your
wish. Take me wherever you desire."

In the morninq-He bathed and became overcome with devotion at the
thought of leaving Brindában. Unconscious of the things outside, He fell
into a trance of love. Bhattáchárya took Him in a boat across the river
to Mahá-ban. The devoted Krishna-das and that Brahman knew the route
along the Ganges. On the way He sat down under a tree with His party, in
order to refresh them from fatigue. Many cows were grazing there, and
the sight filled Him with delight. Suddenly a cowherd played on his
flute, and at once rapture seized the Master; He fell down in a swoon,
foaming at the mouth and His breathing stopped.

Just then ten Pathan cavalrymen arrived there, dismounted, and gazing at
the Master jumped to the conclusion that His five companions were
sharpers who had poisoned Him with _dhuturá_ in order to rob Him of His
gold. So they tied up the five and threatened to behead them. The
Bengalis began to tremble; only the Rajput Krishna-das was fearless and
that Brahman bold of speech. The Brahman cried out, Tathan! I appeal to
your Padshah! Take me with you to the _shikdar_. This hermit is my
_guru_; I am a Brahman of Mathura. I have a hundred acquaintances at
the royal Court. This hermit has a disease which makes Him fall down in
a fit. He will soon recover consciousness. Wait a little here. Keep us
tied up. After inquiring of Him, slay us if we deserve. The Pathan
replied, "You two are up-country men; here are three Bengali _thugs_
quaking in fear." Krishna-das said, "I live in this village, with 100
troopers and 200 bowmen under me. If I raise a shout they will come
here, kill you, and take away your horses and accoutrement. The Bengalis
are not sharpers. You are rogues, as you want to rob pilgrims and to
kill them!" At this the Pathan hesitated. Just then the Master came to
His senses, rose up with a shout of _Hari! Hari!_ and danced in rapture
with uplifted arms.

His devotional cry pierced the heart of the Muslim, who in fear released
the five, so that the Master saw not the captivity of His followers.
Bhattáchárya held and seated the Master, who became aware of the things
around Him when He saw the Muslims. The Pathans bowed at His feat and
charged the five with having poisoned Him with _dhuturá_. But He
replied, "They are not _thugs_, but my companions. I am a begging
hermit, with no wealth to be robbed. Occasionally I fall into epileptic
fits, when these five kindly nurse me." One of the Muslims, a grave man
clad in black and called a Pin, was melted at heart on seeing the
Master. He propounded monotheism and one common God, on the basis of his
holy book (_viz._, the _Quran_). But the Master refuted all his
propositions by arguments based on the Muslim scripture, till the man
was silenced. The Master continued, "Your scripture establishes one
common God [in the beginning] and refuting that theory sets up in the
end a particular God, who is full of all powers, dark of hue, the
embodiment of _sat_, _chit_ and _ananda_, the perfect Spirit, the soul
of all, all-pervading, eternal, the self of every thing, the source of
creation life and destruction, the refuge of all universes whether gross
or fine, the most excellent, adorable by all, the first cause of
everything. Men are saved by faith in Him,, and freed from the bondage
of the world only by serving Him. Delight in Him is the supreme human
attainment, while salvation can give only a particle of that bliss. The
highest beatitude comes only from serving His feet. After first
insisting on work, knowledge and mental abstraction, these are then set
aside and the service of God is laid down as the final duty. Your
theologians have no knowledge of their own scriptures; they forget that
where there are two injunctions, the latter is sronger. Decide after
studying your own holy books, and see what is laid down as the final

The Muslim replied, "True are your words. Men cannot realize God as
described in the scriptures. They discourse on the abstract God
(_Gosáin_); nobody thinks of adoring the incarnate God. You are such,
God's own self. Have mercy on me, unworthy sinner! Much have I read, but
cannot ascertain the _sádhya_ and _sádhan_ from the Muslim scriptures.
At the sight of you my tongue utters Krishna's name, and I have been
cured of my proud confidence in my own knowledge. Tell me graciously
what are _sádhya_ and _sádhan_." So saying he fell at the Master's
feet, who said, "Rise! In repeating Krishna's name you have been washed
pure from the sins of million births. Say _Krishna! Krishna!_" They
chanted the name and were filled with rapture. The Master renamed him

There was another Pathan named Bijuli Khan, a young Prince and the
master of Rámdás and other Pathan troopers. He too fell down at the
Master's feet, with the cry of Krishna! The Master touched his head with
His toe, and went on His way. All the Pathans turned _bairágis_ and
were famous as "Pathan Vaishnavs." They roamed everywhere singing the
Master's praise. The Bijuli Khan became a very spiritual person honoured
in every _tirtha_.

At Soron He bathed in the Ganges and walked along the river bank to
Prayág. When He dismissed the Mathura Brahman and Krishna-das, they
begged with folded palms, "Let us follow you to Prayág. Where again
shall we see your feet? It is a Muslim country, you may be oppressed
anywhere. Your companion, Bhattáchárya, is a mere pandit and does not
know how to address people." The Master smilingly consented and they
followed Him. Everyone who beheld Him turned frantic with love and sang
_sankirtan_ aloud. They communicated their faith to others, and these
to others again, so that the whole land became Vaishnav, just as the
Master had previously converted the South during His pilgrimage.

So walking He reached Prayág, where He bathed for ten days at the
junction of the three rivers during the sun's progress through
Capricorn. [Text, canto 18.]


How the Master favoured Rup

Rup and Sanátan, after meeting the Master at the village of Rámkeli,
went back to their own quarters. The two brothers devised how to get rid
of their worldly ties. They secured two priests with costly gifts, and
performed two ceremonies preparatory to a journey (_purashcharan_) in
the mantra of Krishna, hoping thereby to attain speedily to Chaitanya's
feet. Then Rup came to his own house by boat with much wealth, of which
he distributed one half to Brahmans and Vaishnavs, one quarter to his
kinsmen for their support, and laid by the other quarter for paying the
fine. The money was lodged with good Brahmans, and ten thousand Rupees
were deposited with a grocer at Gaur, subject to expenditure by Sanátan.
When Rup heard of the Master's journey to Puri and of His intention to
go to Brindában by the forest route, he sent two agents to Puri to bring
quickly word about the date of the Master's starting for Brindában, as
he wanted to shape his own course accordingly.

At Gaur Sanátan thought within himself, "The Sultan's love for me is a
tie (keeping me here). If he were only to turn angry, it will be my
deliverance." On the plea of illness he stayed at home, gave up his
official work, and discontinued his visits to the Court. The greedy
writers (_Káyastha_) transacted the business of state (in his absence),
while he at home discussed the _Shástras_. With twenty or thirty
Bhattáchárya pandits he discussed the _Bhágabat_ in assembly. One day
the Sultan with only one attendant suddenly entered Sanátan's meeting.
At the sight of the king, all hurriedly stood up, and seated him with
due honour. The Sultan said, "I sent a physician to you, who reported
that you were in perfect health. All my affairs depend on you, and yet
you are staying at home neglecting them! You have ruined all my
business. Tell me what you really mean by it?" Sanátan replied, "I am
unable to do the work. Get some one else for the purpose." The Sultan in
anger cried out again and again, "Your elder brother is acting like a
robber. He has desolated the districts (_chákla_) under him by killing
men and cattle. And here you are ruining all my affairs!" Sanátan
pleaded, "You are the free king of Bengal; punish all offenders."

At this the Sultan returned to his palace and imprisoned Sanátan lest he
should escape. When the king set out to invade Orissa, he asked Sanátan
to accompany him. The minister replied, "I cannot bear you company, as
you are going to molest my gods." Then the Sultan set out, leaving
Sanátan in prison.

When the Master set out for Brindában, the two messengers brought news
of it to Rup. At this Rup wrote to Sanátan, "Chaitanya has started for
Brindában. We two brothers are going to join him. Do you run away from
Gaur by hook or crook. I have left ten thousand Rupees with a grocer
there. Spend it to secure your release soon, and fly to Brindában by any
way that you can find." Then Rup went to Prayág with his youngest
brother, Anupam Mallik (surnamed?) Shri-Vallabh, devout Vaishnav.

The Master delighted at the news. As He was going to visit Bindu Madhav,
_lakhs_ of men came to meet Him, some weeping, some laughing, some
singing and dancing, others rolling on the ground while shouting
_Krishna! Krishna!_ The Master drowned Prayág in the flood of Krishna's
love, while the Ganges and the Jamuna between them had failed to
submerge the land! Seeing the crowd, Rup and his brother stood apart.
The Master was thrown into ecstasy when beholding Madhav, and danced
with uplifted arms shouting 'Say _Hari! Hari!_' Men marvelled at His
greatness. His feats at Prayág baffle description. A Deccani Brahman who
knew Him, took Him to his house, where the Master was sitting down in
seclusion when Rup and Vallakh came to Him. With two blades of grass
between their teeth, they fell down prone on seeing Him from afar. Again
and again they rose up and fell down, reciting many verses, overcome
with love at the sight of Him. Graciously did the Master speak, "Rise,
rise! Rup, come to me! Krishna's grace passes all speech: He has plucked
you from the well of worldliness in which you were sunk. Witness the
_Hari-bhakti-vilas_, x. 91; the words of God:

_'It is not by studying the four Vedas that one can become my bhakta.
Even low-caste Chandals can win my love by their faith. To such bhaktas
I grant my love and accept their love, and they are worthy of adoration
like myself'."_

Repeating the above verse He embraced both and placed His feet on their
heads as a favour. At this they praised Him humbly with folded palms.

Then the Master seated them by Himself and asked for the news of
Sanátan. Rup answered, "He is in the king's prison. If you save him then
only can he be released. The Master said, "Sanátan has been set free and
will soon join us all. The Brahman invited the Master to dinner. Rup
passed the day there. Balabhadra Bhattáchárya bade both the brothers to
dinner, and the two ate the leavings of the Master's plate. The Master
lodged in a house on the junction of the rivers; Rup and Vallabh took a
house near it.

There was then one Vallabh Bhatta[1] at the village of Ambuli. He came on
hearing of the Master's arrival, bowed to Him, received His embrace, and
the two discoursed long on Krishna, at which the Master's devotion
surged up, but He checked Himself in the presence of the Bhatta, who
detected the uncontrollable fervour within Him and marvelled
exceedingly. Then the Bhatta invited the Master, who introduced to him
the two brothers. They very humbly bowed to the Bhatta from a distance,
and as he ran to meet them they receded further crying, "Touch not
untouchable sinners like us!" The Bhatta marvelled; the Master was
delighted and told their story to the Bhatta, adding, "Touch not these;
they are of a low caste, while you are a Vaidic sacrificial Brahman, old
and a _kulin_." Hearing Krishna's name incessantly on their lips, the
Bhatta, taking hint from the Master's winking, remarked, "Krishna's name
is dancing on their tongue. They cannot be low; they are the best of
men. Witness the _Bhágabat_ III. xxxiii. 7."

The Master, pleased to hear it, praised him much and in rapture recited
these verses:

_"Wise men will honour even a Chandál who has been purified in
consequence of the sins of his low birth having been burnt away by the
blazing fire of pure faith; while an atheist is not to be honoured even
though learned in the Vedas. Vain are high pedigree, scholarship,
repetition of the holy name, and austerities, in a man who lacks faith
in God. As a lifeless doll is dressed up only for show to people, so are
the virtues of a faithless man futile._ (_Hari-bhakti-sudhodaya_, iii.
12 and 11.)"

The Bhatta wondered as he gazed at the Master's passion of devotion,
power, true faith, and beauty. He took Him with His followers in a boat
to his own house for dinner. Beholding the sparkling blue waters of the
Jamuna, the Master was overcome by love, and leaped into the river with
a roar. They were all seized with concern at it and hurriedly pulled Him
out of the water. He began to dance on the boat, which rolled right and
left under His weight and shipped a good deal of water, being ready to
sink. His love was uncontrollable; still in the presence of the Bhatta
the Master checked Himself, as His transport was inopportune, and
disembarked at the Ambuli ghát. The anxious Bhatta, after keeping His
company at bath, brought Him to his own house, gave Him a fine garment,
washed His feet and poured the water on the heads of himself and his
family. He clothed the Master in a new waist-band and _dhuti_, and
adored Him with scents, flowers, incense and lights. Bhattáchárya cooked
and the Master dined; so did Rup and his brother; Rup and Krishna-das
were given the leavings of His dinner. After chewing spices the Master
lay down to repose, the Bhatta rubbing His feet. Sent away by the
Master, the Bhatta despatched his own dinner and came back to His feet.

Now came there Raghupati Upádhyáya, a great scholar and Vaishnav of
north Bihar (Tirhut). As he bowed, the Master greeted him with "Be thy
mind fixed on Krishna,"--to the great delight of the Upádhyáya. At the
Master's request he recited verses of his own composition describing
Krishna's deeds. [Verses.]

The Master had a transport of love as He listened and urged the poet to
proceed further. The Upádhyáya marvelled at such fervour, and knew Him
to be Krishna himself and not a mortal. The Master asked, "Upádhyáya!
what do you consider most excellent?" The poet replied, "Black is the
best of colours." "Where is the best abode of the black complexion?" The
poet answered, "Mathura is the best of cities." "Which is the best
age--boyhood, maturity, or adolescence?" The Upadhyaya replied,
"Adolescence is the only age fit for our meditation." "Which do you
think is the best among emotions?" "Love is the highest of all emotions
(_ras_)." The Master remarked, "Thou hast taught me the true lore", and
then in a tremulous voice recited Madhavendra Puri's verses (embodying
the above answers). In rapture He embraced the Upádhyáya, who began to
dance in a frenzy of love.

Vallabh Bhatta marvelled at the sight. With his two sons he fell down at
the Master's feet. The villagers flocked thither to see Him, and at His
sight became worshippers of Krishna. Vallabh Bhatta stopped the Brahmans
who were inviting the Master, saying, "This holy man jumped into
mid-Jamuna in ecstasy. I must not detain Him here, but convey Him back
to Prayág. Invite Him there, if you list." So saying he carried the
Master across in the boat.

Avoiding the press of the people, the Master went to the Dashashwamedh
ghát and there taught Rup about Krishna's essence, the path of
_bhakti_, the lore of emotions, the conclusions of the _Bhágabat_. He
imparted to Rup all the doctrines He had learnt from Rámánanda, and
infused (His own) force into Rup's heart, in order to make him a perfect
doctor of Vaishnav theology. (Verses quoted from the

Thanks to the Master's grace on them, Rup and Sanátan became objects of
favour and pride to all His leading devotees and associates. Chaitanya's
attendants used to ask every one who returned to Bengal from Brindában,
"Tell us how Rup and Sanátan are living there. Tell us of their
asceticism, their meals, their adoration of Krishna all day." Then
praising the two, the returned pilgrims would answer, "The two are
living homeless, sleeping every night under a different tree. In the
Brahman houses they get coarse food, in contrast with the sweetmeats
they formerly fed upon. They chew dry bread or gram, leaving all
enjoyments. In their hands is the beggar's gourd, they are wrapped in
tattered quilts; they speak of Krishna, chant his name, dance, and
exult. Throughout the day and night they recite Krishna's praise, and
sleep for two hours, and sometimes, absorbed in the passion of chanting
the name, they deny themselves even that short sleep. At times they
compose works on _bhakti_, hear discourses about Chaitanya, and
meditate on Him." These words greatly pleased the Fathers of the Church.
What wonder [that such should be their life], when Chaitanya's grace was
on them?

Thus passing ten days at Prayág, the Master taught Rup and inspired him
with strength, adding, "Listen, Rup! to the signs of a _bhakta_, which
I shall describe in brief sentences, without going into detail. I speak
to you only of one drop of the shoreless profound ocean of _bhakti_, in
order to give you a smack of it. Behold in the universe countless beings
that pass through 84 lakhs of births. The nature of a creature is as
minute as a hundredth part of a hundredth part of the point of a hair.
[Verses from the _Shruti-byákhyá_, and the _Panchadashi_, 83.]

_'O, immutable God! if we admit that bodied beings are limitless,
eternal and omnipresent, then we cannot maintain the law that they are
subject to you. Then the creatures, though subject to birth, will be
law-givers unto themselves, even though they have not risen above their
mortal nature. Those who say that God and beings are equal, know not thy
true nature and their doctrines are false._ (_Bhágabat_, X. lxxxvii.

"Among creatures we must distinguish between the animate and the
inanimate. Among the animate are many classes, such as sky-dwellers,
land animals, water animals &c., men being only a minority of them.
[Eliminate from] men the Mlechchhas, Pulindas, Bauddhas, and Shabars;
and from the followers of the Vedas one-half who follow the Vedas in
lips only, doing sins condemned by the Vedas and disregarding piety.
Among religious people many are devoted to work [as the means of
salvation]. For ten million men devoted to work we have one devoted to
knowledge, and therefore superior to the former. Among ten million men
devoted to knowledge we have only one liberated soul. And among ten
million liberated souls hardly one devotee of Krishna is found. The
_bhakta_ of Krishna is passionless and tranquil, while those who covet
enjoyment, salvation or _siddhi_ are perturbed. Witness the
_Bhágabat_, VI. xiv 4.

"In roving through the universe, lucky is the man who gets the seed of
the creeper of faith (_bhakti_) through the grace of his _guru_ and
Krishna. He sows the seed like a gardener, waters it with hearing and
chanting [the holy name]. As the creeper grows it pierces through the
universe, passes beyond the _Birajá Brahma_ world to the _Para-byom_,
and above that to the heavenly Brindában, where it creeps up the
wishing-tree of Krishna's feet, spreads and bears fruit in the form of
love (_prem_). If any sin against Vaishnavism is done, it uproots or
tears the creeper like a wild elephant, its leaves wither. Then the
gardener on earth carefully covers it, to save it from the elephant of
sin. But if parasites, like love of enjoyment or salvation and countless
other things,--or forbidden practices like rubbish,--slaughter of living
beings,--thirst of gain or fame, adhere to the creeper, then these
parasites flourish from the watering, while the main creeper's growth is
arrested. Cut off the parasites first; then will the main branch reach
the heavenly Brindában. When the mature fruit of love drops down, the
gardener tastes it, and proceeding up the creeper he reaches the
wishing-tree. There (in Vishnu's heaven) he tends the wishing-tree, and
blissfully tastes the juice of the fruit of love. That is the highest
fruit, the supreme human bliss, in comparison with which the four human
attainments are as straw. From pure faith is born love. Therefore I tell
you of the signs of pure faith: Leaving desire for others, worship of
others, knowledge and work, devote all your senses to the cultivation of
Krishna. This is pure faith, the source of love. Its signs are described
in the _Narada-pancha-ratra_ and the _Bhágabat_, III. xxix. 10--12 &c.

"If one desires enjoyment, salvation, &c., he cannot kindle love, even
by means of devotion (_sádhan_). From the culture of _bhakti_ ardour
is born; when ardour deepens it is called love (_prem_). As love grows
it is successively called _sneha_, _mán_, _pranaya_, _rág_,
_anurág_, _bháb_, _mahá-bháb_, just as we have successively
cane-seed, sugarcane juice, molasses, sugar, and fine sugarcandy. All
these are the enduring forms of _bhakti_ in Krishna, if they are joined
by provocation and addiction of mind. When the spiritual (_sátwik_) and
extensive (_byabhichári_) emotions mingle together, _bhakti_ in
Krishna becomes a veritable nectar in taste, just as curd, when mixed
with sugar, ghee, pepper, and camphor, becomes deliciously sweet. In
different _bhaktas_ the inclination (_rati_) assumes different forms,
_viz._, the _shánta_, the _dásya_, the _sakhya_, the _bátsalya_,
and the _madhur_. From these differences in the nature of the passion,
the mood (_ras_) of Krishna's love assumes five forms of the same name,
which are called the chief _rasas_, while there are seven minor
_rasas_, _viz._, the comic, the grotesque, the heroic, the pathetic,
the rude, the horrible, and the timid. The five former moods permanently
occupy the minds of _bhaktas_; while the seven minor moods rise
fitfully when they get a favourable occasion. The nine sages [who
instructed king Nimi] and Sanak and others are examples of _bhaktas_ of
the _shánta_ mood. Countless are the _bhaktas_ everywhere who
illustrate the _dásya_ mood. The _sakhya_ mood is typified in Shridám
and other [cow-boys] and in Bhim and Arjun of Hastinapur. The _bhaktas_
of the _bátsalya_ mood are father, mother and other elders. Of the
_madhur_ mood of _bhakti_, the examples are chiefly the milkmaids of
Brindában, Krishna's queens, Lakshmi and countless others.

"Again, ardour (_rati_) for Krishna is of two kinds: (1) accompanied by
a sense of his Godhead, and (2) pure and simple. At Gokul the latter was
displayed, free from any consciousness of his Godhead, while at Mathura,
Dwaraka, Vaikuntha and other places the former prevailed. Where the
sense of his Godhead is predominant, love [for him] is contracted;
whereas the way of pure ardour is to disregard his Godhead even when it
is openly shown. In the _shánta_ and _dásya_ emotions this
consciousness of His Godhead is a little kindled, but in the
_batsalya_, _sakhya_ and _madhur_ it is shrunk up. When Krishna bowed
at the feet of Vasudev and Devaki, they were frightened by the sense of
his Godhead. Witness the _Bhágabat_, X. xliv. 35.

"Arjun was awe-struck at beholding the vision of Krishna as God, and
begged his pardon for having treated him familiarly under the notion of
a friend. Vide the _Gitá_, xi. 41. When Krishna jested with Rukmini,
she became mortally afraid lest he should quit her. _Vide_ the
_Bhágabat_, X. Ix. 23.

"The pure love called _kebalá_ (unmixed) ignores his divinity, and in
case it does recognize him as God, it disavows its loving connection
with him. _Vide_ the _Bhágabat_, X. viii. 35, ix. 12, xviii. 14, xxx.
32, xxxi. 16.

"The _shánta ras_ consists in recognizing the true nature of Krishna
and fixing the mind on him only. Krishna has himself said, 'Devoting the
mind exclusively to me is the virtue of _shama_'. _Vide_ the
_Bhágabat_, XI. xix. 33:

_'Shama consists in fixing the mind on me; dama is control of the organs
of the senses; titikshá is endurance of sorrow; and dhriti is checking
what rises on the tongue.'_

"It is the duty of a _shánta_ votary to give up thirst for everything
except Krishna; hence a _shánta_ and a _bhakta_ of Krishna are
identical terms. Krishna's devotee regards heaven and even salvation as
no better than hell. _Vide_ the _Bhágabat_, VI. xvii. 23.

"Devotion to Krishna and conquest of desire are the two marks of a
_shánta bhakta_. All the five kinds of _bhaktas_ are necessarily
marked by these qualities, just as sound, the attribute of the sky, is
possessed by the other four elements also. A _shánta_ votary's
attachment to Krishna is like an odourless flower; he has _only_
acquired a true sense of God's nature, as the supreme spirit and
divinity. The _dásya_ mood better develops the cognition of Krishna as
the Lord of full powers. A _dás bhakta_ constantly gratifies Krishna by
serving him with a sense of his divinity, honour, and great
glorification; _dásya ras_ has the merit of the _shánta ras_ plus
service, _i.e._, it has two merits. The _sakhya ras_ possesses these
two merits [plus absolute trust in Krishna]. In _dásya_ Krishna's
service is marked by honour and glorification; in _sakhya_ by reliance.

"A _sakhá bhakta_ sits on Krishna's back, or carries him on his shoulders,
or has a mock fight with him; he serves Krishna and at times makes
Krishna serve him! The chief characteristic of the _sakhya ras_ is free
comradery, without any feeling of respect or awe. So this _ras_ has _three_
qualities; in it Krishna is loved more ardently, as he is held equal to
the _bhakta's_ self; hence this _ras_ captivates the good. In the _batsalya
ras_ there are the above three qualities, plus tenderness, which in its
excess leads to chiding and chastisement. Such a devotee regards himself
as the patron and Krishna as the _protégé_; his service takes the form of
paternal care. This _ras_, therefore has _four_ qualities, and is like

"In the _madhur ras_ all the above four qualities are present in a
heightened form, and in addition to them the votary serves Krishna as a
lover offering him his or her own person. Here _five_ qualities are
present. All the [four] emotions find their synthesis in the _madhur_,
just as in the case of the five elements (sky, air, light, water and
earth) the attributes of the first four are all united in the fifth.
Hence is the _madhur ras_ of wondrous deliciousness. This emotion has
been fully described. Reflect how to spread it. While meditating,
Krishna will illuminate your heart. Through Krishna's grace, even an
ignorant man reaches the farthest shore of the emotions."

So saying the Master embraced Rup and started for Benares next morning.
Rup begged leave to accompany Him as he could not bear the pang of
parting. But the Master objected, "Let me lay down your duty. You are
now within easy reach of Brindában; go there. Thence return to Bengal
and join me at Puri." After giving him a (parting) embrace the Master
embarked. Rup fell down there in a swoon. The Deccani Brahman took him
to his house.

Then Rup and his brother went to Brindában. When the Master reached
Benares, Chandra Sekhar met Him outside the village, as he had dreamt
the previous night that the Master had come to his house and so he had
come out of the village to wait for Him. Delighted to see the Master, he
bowed at His feet and took Him home with him. At the news, Tapan Mishra
came to the Master; forming a select assembly he invited Him and made
Him dine at his house. Chundra Shekhar invited Bhattáchárya. After the
feast Tapan Mishra begged Him, "Grant me kindly one favour that I beg of
thee. So long as thou stayest at Kashi do not dine anywhere except in my
house." The Master accepted his invitation as He knew that He would stay
for a week only and would not dine with hermits. He lodged with Chandra
Shekhar. The Maratha Brahman and many good men of the Brahman and
Kshatriya castes visited the Master. [Text, canto 19.]

[1] The celebrated Vallabh-acharya (born in 1479), the founder of the
Pushtimarga school of Vaishnavism. _Ambuli_ is evidently _Arail_, a
village on the Jamuna opposite Allahabad, which contains a temple of the
Vallabh-acharya sect.


Sanátan meets the Master and is taught of God's forms

At Gaur, Sanátan lay in prison, when to his delight he received Rup's
letter. Then he spoke to his Muslim jailor: "You are a living saint, a
very pious man, well-read in the _Quran_. [There it is written that] if
a man ransoms a captive with his wealth, God gives him salvation.
Formerly I had done you good turns; now show your gratitude by reliasing
me. I offer you five thousand Rupees. Accept the sum, and by setting me
free gain both money and religious merit."

The Muslim replied, "Hark you, Sir, I can let you off, but I fear the
Sultan." Sanátan rejoined, "Fear not the Sultan. He has gone to Orissa.
If he comes back, tell him that when Sanátan was sent to the bank of the
Ganges to ease himself, he jumped into the river, sank down with his
fetters, and could not be traced after much search. Fear not, I shall
not live in this country, but turn _darvesh_ and go to Mecca." The
Muhammadan was still reluctant. So Sanátan heaped up seven thousand
Rupees before him, at the sight of which his greed was roused. At night
he sent Sanátan across the river after filing off his fetters. Sanátan
avoided the road by Telia Garhi, the gate of Bengal, and travelling day
and night entered the Pátrá hills. There he besought a rustic land owner
to guide him over the hill. A palmist present with the landowner
whispered to him that Sanátan had eight gold coins with himself. At this
the man gladly promised to convey Sanátan over the hill by his own
servants at night and asked to prepare his meal in the meantime. With
marks of honour he gave him rice. Sanátan bathed in the river, broke his
two days fast, and reflected, "Why does this land-owner show respect to
me?" Then he asked [his attendant] Ishán if he had any property with
himself. Ishan replied, "Seven gold coins." At this Sanátan rebuked him
saying, "Why have you brought this deadly thing with yourself?" Then he
gave the seven pieces to the land-owner and sweetly said, "Take these
from me and honestly conduct me over the hill. I am a run-away from the
king's prison and cannot take the Telia Garhi road. You will acquire
merit if you help me to cross the hill." The land-owner replied, "I knew
before that your servant had eight gold pieces with him, and I had
determined to murder you at night for the money. It is well that you
have told me of the money, and so I have been saved from the sin of
murder. I am so pleased that I shall not take the coins, but guide you
gratis for the sake of merit."

But Sanátan urged, "Some one else will murder me for the money. Accept
it and save my life." Then the land-owner sent four footmen of his own,
who led Sanátan across the hill by the forest paths at night. Emerging
from the hill Sanátan asked Ishan, "I know you have still something
left." "Yes, one gold coin," answered Ishán. Sanátan said, "Return home
with it." So, leaving him, the holy man set out alone, a bowl in his
hand, a tattered quilt on his back, and (therefore) fearless (of
robbers). In course of time he reached Hajipur,[1] and in the evening sat
down in a garden. His brother-in-law, Shrikánta, a royal officer, lived
here, entrusted by the Sultan with three _lakhs_ of Rupees to buy and
despatch horses. From a height he discerned Sanátan, and at night came
to him with only one attendant. The two had a friendly meeting, and
Sanátan told the tale of his escape. Shrikanta said, "Stay here a day
or two. Put on decent robes and cast off your rags." Sanátan replied,
"No, I shall not linger a minute here. Help me to cross the Ganges, I
shall go away at once." Shrikánta with care gave him a Bhutia blanket
and ferried him over.

Sanátan in time reached Benares, where he was glad to hear of the
Master's arrival. Going to Chandra Shekhar's house, he sat down at the
gate. The Master, knowing it, told Chandra Shekhar, "There is a Vaishnav
at the gate. Bring him in." Chandra Shekhar reported to the Master that
there was no Vaishnav but only a _darvesh_ at the gate. The Master
replied, "Well, bring him in." Glad to be called, Sanátan entered. When
he was in the court-yard, the Master rushed out and embraced him in
rapture. At His touch Sanátan was overcome by love and cried out in a
faltering voice, "Touch me not! touch me not!" The two wept ceaselessly,
clasping each other's necks, to the wonder of Chandra Shekhar. Then the
Master took him by the hand and seated him by His side on the _veranda_
of the house, stroking Sanátan's body with His own hands. Sanátan cried,
"Touch me not, Master!" but the Master answered, "I touch you to purify
myself. Through the strength of your faith you can cleanse the whole
universe. Witness the _Bhágabat_, I. xiii. 8, VII. ix. 9. By seeing,
touching, and praising a _bhakta_ like you, all my senses are
gratified, as the scripture asserts. _Vide_ the
_Hari-bhakti-sudhodaya_, xiii. 2."

The Master continued, "Listen, Sanátan! Krishna is very kind, the
saviour of the fallen. He has delivered you from the worst hell
(_rauraba_). Limitless and profound is the ocean of his mercy." Sanátan
objected, "I know not Krishna. I recognize your grace as having effected
my deliverance." Then at the Master's request he told the whole story of
his flight. The Master told him, "I met both your brothers, Rup and
Anupam, at Prayág. They have gone to Brindában." Then He introduced
Sanátan to Tapan Mishra and Chandra Shekhar. Tapan Mishra invited him,
the Master adding, "Go, Sanátan, shave yourself," and telling Chandra
Shekhar to take away the rags of Sanátan. They made him bathe in the
Ganges, and Chandra Shekhar gave him a new garment, which he refused to
accept. At this the Master was delighted exceedingly.

After His noon-day prayer, the Master went with Sanátan to dine at Tapan
Mishra's house. As He sat down to His meal He ordered the Mishra to
serve Sanátan also, but he replied, "Sanátan has some rites to perform.
You dine first. I shall give him your _prasád_." After dinner the
Master rested. The Mishra gave Sanátan His leavings and offered him a
new cloth, which Sanátan declined to accept, asking instead for one of
the Mishra's old clothes. So the Mishra gave him an old cloth, which he
cut into a waist-band and wrapper.

Sanátan was introduced by the Master to the Maratha Brahman, who gave
him a general invitation to dinner during the whole of his stay at
Kashi. But Sanátan declined saying, "I shall rove (begging alms) like
the bee. Why should I procure all my food from one Brahman's house."

Exceedingly pleased was the Master at Sanátan's detachment from the
world, and He often cast glances at the Bhutia blanket, from which
Sanátan guessed that He disapproved of it. So Sanátan planned to get rid
of the blanket. When he went to the Ganges to perform his noon-day
rites, he met a Bengali drying his quilt, and asked him to exchange it
for his blanket, as a favour. The man retorted, "Why are you, a
venerable man, mocking me? Why should you exchange your costly blanket
for a quilt?" Sanátan replied, "I am not joking but am in earnest. Do
make the exchange." So saying he gave up the blanket, placed the quilt
on his shoulders and came to Chaitanya. At the Master's query he told
the whole tale. The Master remarked, "I have thought of it. Krishna, who
has delivered you from attachment to earthly goods, cannot have left a
remnant of that attachment in you. No good physician leaves even a trace
of the disease unremoved. You were living on alms from door to door, and
yet there was a three Rupee blanket on your back! It spoiled your virtue
and made you a mock unto the beholders." Sanátan replied, "He who has
released me from worldly ties has also cured this last remnant of
worldliness in me."

The pleased Master showed grace to him, and thus emboldened him to put
questions. Formerly the Master had put questions to Rámánanda Ray, which
the latter had answered under His inspiration. So, now, inspired by the
Master, Sanátan put questions, while He established spiritual truths.

Then Sanátan, biting a blade of grass as a token of abjectness, clasped
the Master's feet; and said, "Low-born, with low comrades, a fallen
wretch, I have wasted my life, plunged in the well of vile worldliness.
I know nothing of my own good or evil, but I have held as truth whatever
was approved in vulgar practice. As you have graciously saved me, tell
me of your grace what my duties are. Who am I? Why are the three
afflictions (_tápa_) oppressing me? I know not what will do me good. I
know not even how to ask about the truth of _sádhya_ and _sádhan_. Do
you of your own accord, unfold all these truths to me." The Master
replied, "Full is Krishna's grace to you. You know all the truths and
are not subject to the three afflictions. You are strong in Krishna's
strength, you know the truths already. It is the nature of _sádhus_ to
inquire about what they know, only to confirm it.

"You are a proper agent for preaching _bhakti_. Listen to all the
truths as I tell them in due order:

"The soul of man is the eternal servant of Krishna. The _tatasthá_
power of Krishna manifests differences [between the Creator and His
creatures], just as a ray of the sun transforms itself into a flame of
fire. Krishna has by nature three powers:-_viz._, the _chit_, the
life, and the illusion powers. _Vide_ the _Vishnu Puran_ I. xxix. 50,
VI. vii. 60 and 61, I. iii. 2, the _Gitá_ vii. 5 and 14, and the
_Bhágabat_, XI. ii. 35.

"When a creature forgets Krishna, his face is ever turned to external
things, and therefore under the influence of illusion he undergoes the
misery of being born in the world, now rising to heaven, now sinking to
hell, just as a criminal is ducked in water by royal command.

"If under the teaching of true scripture, a man turns to Krishna, he is
saved, he gets rid of illusion. A creature labouring under illusion
remembers not Krishna. So Krishna kindly created the Vedas and Purans.
He makes himself known through scripture, _guru_, and the soul; and man
comes to realize 'Krishna is my lord and saviour'. The Vedas treat of
Relation, Epithet, and Needs; that Relation is the attaining of Krishna,
faith is the means of this attainment, the epithets are his names; love
is the (supreme) need, the most precious treasure and the highest
achievement of humanity. _Madhur_ service is the means of gaining
Krishna. By serving him we can enjoy the relish of him. The following
parable will illustrate it: An all-knowing seer visited a poor man and
seeing his misery said, 'Why are you so poor? Your father has left you a
large legacy. He died elsewhere and therefore could not inform you of
it.' At these words the man began to hunt for his treasure. In the same
manner the _Vedas_ and _Purans_ instruct men about Krishna. The
counsel of the seer is the source, the treasure is the consequence. By
his own knowledge the man could not attain to his father's treasure the
seer had to tell him the method of discovering it: 'Here lies the
treasure. If you dig in the south, hornets will rise and not money. If
you dig west a gnome will show itself and hinder you. In the north your
diggings will discover a dark serpent, which will swallow you up. But by
digging a little on the east side you will get the pots of treasure.'
Similarly the _Shastras_ assert that leaving work, knowledge and
abstraction (_yog_), one can influence Krishna by faith alone. _Vide_
the _Bhágabat_, XI. xiv. 19 & 20.

"Therefore is faith the only means of gaining Krishna, and it is
described in all _Shastras_ as _abhidheya_. As wealth gives pleasure
and drives away sorrow of itself, so _bhakti_ kindles love of Krishna,
and when love is turned to Krishna man is freed from bondage to the
world. The fruit of love is not riches or the cessation of re-birth, but
its chief object is the enjoyment of the beatitude of loving."

[A long discourse on Krishna's forms, omitted in the second edition.]
[Text, canto 20.]

[1] The town of Hajipur on the north bank of the Ganges, opposite Patna,
was the seat of the governor of Bihar on behalf of the Sultans of
Bengal. (_Riyaz-us-salatin_, Eng. tr. 134 _n_.)


On the sweetness of Krishna's attributes

[The Master continued His teaching of Sanátan thus:]

"God in His all-embracing form dwells in the highest Space
(_para-byom_). The diverse Vaikunthas are beyond count. The extent of
each Vaikuntha is millions and millions of miles. _Ananda_ inspired by
_chit_ fills all the Vaikunthas. All of [His] attendants are filled
with the six attributes (_aishwaryya_). The endless Vaikunthas and
Space are His retinue; above all of them is Krishna's Heaven, like the
seed-pod of the lotus. Thus, [Krishna's] six attributes are [only]
places of [His] incarnation. Even Brahma and Shiva cannot count them,
what to speak of men? _Vide_ the _Bhágabat_, X. xiv. 21, Brahma's hymn
to Krishna.

"Thus Krishna's celestial attributes are endless; Brahma, Shiva, Sanak
and others cannot see their end. _Vide_ the _Bhágabat_, X. xiv. 7.

"Not to speak of Brahma and others, even Ananta with his thousand
tongues, is eternally singing [of His attributes] without being able to
finish them. Vide Bhágabat, II. ii. 40.

"Even Krishna, the omniscient and supreme being, cannot find the end of
His own attributes, but remains eagerly longing [to know of them]. _Vide
Bhágabat_, X. lxxxvii. 37.

"The mind fails to comprehend His exploits, even of the time when He
incarnated himself in Brindában. At one and the same time He created the
natural and the supernatural groups of cow-herds and kine, as described
in _Bhágabat_, [X. xiii and xiv], countless Vaikuntha-born embryos, with
their respective Lords. Such a marvel is heard of no other [god]. The
hearing of it makes the heart overcome [with rapture]. In that miracle
of His every one of the millions and millions of calves, cowboys, their
rods, pipes, horns, clothes and ornamems, all assumed the form of the
four-armed Lord of Vaikuntha, each with a separate universe, and Brahma
adored him. From the body of one Krishna all these appeared! And after a
moment they all disappeared in that body! The sight amazed and
fascinated Brahma, and after hymning [to Krishna], he declared this, Let
him who says that he knows the full extent of Krishna's power, know it.
But as for me, I admit with all my body and mind that not a drop of this
endless ocean of your power is cognizable by my speech or intellect!
_Vide Bhágabat_, X. xiv. 36.

"Many are the glories of Krishna; who can know them? Think of the
wondrous quality of the place Brindában: the _Shastras_ speak of it as
32 miles in extent, and yet in one corner of it the embryos of the
universe floated! Krishna's divine power is boundless beyond

The Master, Himself the ocean of divine attributes, was seized with
ecstasy in speaking of Krishna's divine attributes; His mind became
absorbed in the subject and He lost consciousness. He (then) recited
_Bhágabat_, III. ii. 21, and expounded it, relishing with delight its
sense. "Krishna is the Supreme Deity, God Himself. None else is greater
than He or even equal to Him. _Vide Brahma Samhita_, V. I. Brahma,
Vishnu, and Shiva, the lords of creation, [preservation, and
destruction], all obey Krishna; He is their suzerain. _Vide Bhágabat_,
II. vi. 30.

"Hear the meaning of the phrase _unequalled Supreme Lord_: Three
_purush_ incarnations are the causes of the universe, _viz._,
Mahá-Vishnu, Padmanava, Kshirodak Swámi. These three occupy the souls of
everything, gross or subtle. These three are the refuge of all, and the
lords of the universe. And yet they are mere particles of Krishna, who
is supreme [over them]. _Vide Brahma Samhita_, v. 54.

"This interpretation is only external. Listen to the esoteric sense. The
_Shastras_ speak of three abodes of Krishna, _viz._, Antahpur, Golok,
and Brindában, in which [last] ever dwell [His] parents and friends;
where He manifested His sweet attributes, tenderness, mercy, &c.; where
the illusion of _yog_ was His bondmaid, and where _rása_ and other
exploits took place.

"Below it the Supreme Space named Vishnu's Heaven, where dwell Náráyan
and other eternal forms of Him, is situated. The middle abode of Krishna
is the store-house of the six attributes, where He dwells in His eternal
form (_ananta_). The Vaikunthas are endless, and there the rooms and
attendants (even) are full of the six attributes. _Vide Brahma
Samhita_, v. 49, [and other Sanskrit verses].

"Below it is His external abode, beyond the _Birajá_, where the
universes are endless, and the rooms are illimitable. It is named
Devidhám, where creatures dwell. The Lakshmi of the Universe nourishes
it; illusion dwells there as His slave.

"In these three places does Krishna dwell as the Supreme Lord, _viz._,
Golok, the Supreme Space, and Nature. The region where He manifests His
_chit_ power is called the Three-fold Divinity (_tripád aishivaryya_),
whereas the places of the display of His power of illusion are called
One-fold (_ekapád_).

"The Three-fold Divinity of Krishna is beyond speech. Hear, therefore,
of the One-fold Divinity. All the Brahmas and Shivas of the eternal
universe are embraced by the term 'eternal rulers of spheres'
(_chira-loka-pála_). One day Brahma came to Dwaraka to see Krishna; the
porter took the message to Krishna, who asked 'Which Brahma? What is his
name?' The porter returned and asked Brahma, who replied in amazement,
'Go, tell him, it is the four-headed father of Sanak.' After taking
Krishna's permission, the porter introduced him. Brahma prostrated
himself at Krishna's feet, who showed him honour and reverence and asked
for the reason of his visit. Brahma replied, 'I shall tell you of that
afterwards. First solve one problem of my mind. What did you mean by
asking 'Which Brahma?' What Brahma other than I can there be in the
universe?' At this Krishna smiled and plunged into meditation, and
immediately innumerable troops of Brahmas came there, some with ten
heads, some with twenty, hundred, thousand, million, even a milliard,
beyond the power of counting. Rudras came with millions of millions of
heads. Indras appeared with millions of eyes. At the sight the
four-headed Brahma became senseless, like a hare surrounded by a herd of
elephants. All these Brahmas prostrated themselves before Krishna's
seat, which was touched by their crowns. None can [adequately] describe
the unimaginable power of Krishna. In one body there were as many images
as there were Brahmás. His seat, struck with the crowns of the Brahmas,
set up a sound, as if the crowns recited praises of His seat! With
folded palms, Brahma Rudra and other deities hymned Krishna thus: 'Lord!
Great is thy mercy to us, as thou hast shown us thy feet. Oh our good
fortune! thou hast called and accepted us as thy slaves. Bid us, and we
shall place thy behest on our heads.' Krishna replied, 'I longed to see
you, and so called you all together. Be ye all happy! Have you any thing
to fear from the demons?' They said, 'Thanks to thy grace, we are
everywhere triumphant. Latterly thou hast, by incarnating thyself,
destroyed the load of sins which used to weigh the Earth down.' This
proves the divine nature of Dwaraka and other [spheres], each of which
imagines 'Krishna dwells in _my_ region.' The presence of Krishna made
Dwaraka feel glory (_baibhaba_); they had all met together, and yet
none could see the others. Then Krishna gave leave to all the Brahmás,
and they returned home after bowing to Him. The four-headed Brahma was
amazed at the sight, and again bowed at Krishna's feet, saying, 'I have
to-day witnessed an example of what I had previously known for certain
in my mind.' _Vide Bhágabat_, X. xiv. 36.

"Krishna replied, 'This universe, though 500 million leagues in extent,
is very small; hence you have four heads only. Other universes are a
thousand million, a _lakh kror_, or even a _kror kror_ leagues in
extent, and their Brahmas have heads proportioned to these sizes. Thus
do I uphold the whole system of universes. Even my one fold divinity
cannot be measured. Who will measure my three-fold divinity?' So saying
Krishna dismissed Brahma. The divine form of Krishna cannot be
explained. The phrase _Supreme Lord_ has another deep meaning: the term
_tri_ means the three regions of Krishna, _viz._, Gokul (named Golok),
Mathura, and Dwáráka. In these three He always dwells naturally. These
three places are full of His inner complete divinity. Of these three
Krishna Himself is the lord. The guardians of directions in all the
aforesaid universes, and the eternal guardians of creation in _Ananta_
and Vaikuntha, all bow to Krishna's seat, touching it with the jewel of
their crowns. In His own _chit_ power Krishna dwells ever. This
property of _chit_-power is called the six divine attributes; it is
also styled Lakshmi in the form of supreme bliss. Hence, the Vedas
declare Krishna to be God Himself. I cannot plunge in the boundless
nectar-oceah of Krishna's divine power, but have touched only a drop of
it". The Master paused for a while, and after composing Himself
continued to teach Sanátan. [Text, canto 21.]


Discourse on Devotion as the Aim

[The Master continued His address to Sanátan thus]:

"The Vedas teach that Krishna is the sole Essence. Now let me speak of
the signs of the aim (_abhidheya_), from which one can get Krishna and the
treasure of Krishna's love. All the _Shastras_ speak of faith in Krishna
as the aim. Hence the sages declare,

_'We know for certain that thou, O Lord, art our refuge, because the mode
of thy worship that Mother Shruti lays down in answer to our questions,
is also indicated by Sister Smritis and Brother Purans'._

"This truth is taught by the Monist school that Krishna is God Himself;
He dwells in the form of the _Swarup_ power; spreading out in the forms
of _swámsha_ and _bibhinnámsha_, He disports Himself in Ananta,
_Vaikuntha_, and Brahmanda. The four-sided incarnations are His
_swámsha_ extension. The created world is the example of His
_bibhinnámsha_ power. Such creatures are of two classes, _viz._, one
ever liberated, the other ever fettered to the world. The ever liberated
are ever eager for Krishna's feet; they are named Krishna's followers
and they enjoy the bliss of serving Him. The ever fettered are ever
excluded from Krishna, and ever feel the sufferings of Hell; the Fury,
Illusion, ever torments them for that reason; the three internal agonies
scourge them; they are kicked at by Lust, Anger [and other deadly sins]
whose slaves they are. If in the course of their life's wanderings they
meet with a saint as their healer, his teaching like a charm exorcizes
the demon (Illusion) out of them; then they feel _bhakti_ for Krishna
and come to Him. Faith in Krishna is the supreme end (_abhidheya_).
Worthless are the fruits of other kinds of devotion, such as work,
_yog_, and knowledge,--in comparison with the bliss of _bhakti_; the
former cannot give us Krishna unless we have _bhakti_ in Him. _Vide
Bhágabat_ I. v. 12 and II. iv. 16. Knowledge dissociated from _bhakti_
cannot give salvation; but a man devoted to Krishna can gain salvation
without knowledge. _Vide Bhágabat_, X. xiv. 4 and the _Gitá_, vii. 14.

"Creation, the eternal slave of Krishna, forgot this fact; hence
Illusion tied a rope round its neck. If a creature adores Krishna and
serves his _guru_, he is released from the meshes of Illusion and
attains to Krishna's feet. If, while observing the rules of his caste, a
man does not adore Krishna, he will be plunged in hell in spite of his
doing his caste-duties. _Vide Bhágabat_, XI. v. 2 & 3. The votary of
knowledge imagines that he has attained to the condition of one
liberated even in earthly life; but in truth his mind cannot be purified
without faith in Krishna. _Vide Bhágabat_, X. ii. 26. Krishna is like
the Sun, while Illusion is as darkness; hence Illusion has no power to
remain where Krishna is. _Vide Bhágabat_, II. v. 13. Even if a man
prays once saying Krishna I am thine, he is saved by Krishna from the
bonds of Illusion. If the seeker after enjoyment, salvation and
attainment (_siddhi_), is wise, he adores Krishna with deep _bhakti_.
_Vide Bhágabat_, II. iii. 10. If a man adores Krishna in longing for
other [material] gains, He gives the votary His own feet unasked,
arguing, 'In adoring me he is soliciting for material joys. What a great
fool is he, in thus begging for poison instead of nectar! I am wiser,
why then should I grant this fool [his coveted] earthly pleasures? Let
me give him the nectar of my feet, so that he may forget earthly joys'.
_Vide Bhágabat_, V. xix. 28. If a man adores Krishna even for fleshly
lusts, he [soon] longs to abandon his desires and become a slave of
Krishna. In going through this worldly life, some are fortunate enough
to gain salvation; just as a log of wood drifting down the current now
and then lands on the bank. _Vide Bhágabat_, X. xxxviii. 4. By good
luck some men's bondage to the world is about to be severed, [when] they
are emancipated by the society of holy men, and are inspired with
devotion to Krishna. _Vide Bhágabat_ X. ii. 35. If Krishna favours any
blessed man, He teaches him as his _guru_ seated in the heart. _Vide
Bhágabat_, XI. xxix. 6. If in the company of holy men a man feels
inclined towards _bhakti_ in Krishna, he gets love, the fruit of
_bhakti_, and is freed from the world. _Vide Bhágabat_, XI. xx. 8.
Save through the favour of the noble a man cannot feel _bhakti_ in
anything; not to speak of his gaining devotion to Krishna, he is not
even freed from bondage to the world. _Vide Bhágabat_, V. xx. 12 and
VII. v. 25. All _Shastras_ recommend the companionship of the holy. As
soon as such society is resorted to, it gives success in everything.
_Vide Bhágabat_, I. xvii. 13. The gracious Krishna, in addressing Arjun
[in the _Gitá_], has laid down instructions for the salvation of
mankind. Vide the _Gitá_, xviii. 64 and 65.

"God had first commanded the Vedic religion, work, _yog_, and
knowledge. After these had been observed, He finally commanded
_bhakti_, which must, therefore, be superior [to the former]. If, in
accordance with this [latest] dispensation, a devotee feels _shraddhá_,
he leaves all works and adores Krishna. _Vide Bhágabat_, XI. xx. 9. The
term _shraddhá_ means firm and unquestioning faith. If one adores
Krishna, it is equivalent to his doing all the prescribed ceremonies [of
religion]. _Vide Bhágabat_, IV. xxxi. 12.

"Men who have _shraddhá_ are qualified for bhakti, and are ranked as
superior, average, and inferior, according to the quality of their
_shraddhá_. He whose _shraddhá_ is confirmed by listening to the
reasoning contained in the _Shástras_ is a superior 'entitled to
_bhakti_', and he is liberated from the world. He whose _shraddhá_ is
strong in spite of his ignorance of _shástric_ arguments, is an average
'entitled to _bhakti_'; he, too, is very fortunate. He whose
_shraddhá_ requires a visible object [of adoration] is an inferior
'entitled to _bhakti_'; in time he will advance to the stage of a
superior _bhakta_. There are different grades of _bhakti_, according
to differences of ardour and passion, as has been described in the
eleventh _skanda_ of the _Bhágabat_, (XI. ii. 43-45).

"All the high attributes are found in the person of a Vaishnav, because
Krishna's attributes spread to His _bhaktas_. (_Ibid_, V. xviii. 12).
The following qualities mark a Vaishnav; they cannot be exhaustively
named, I only take a rapid view: he is compassionate, spiteless,
essentially true, saintly, innocent, charitable, gentle, pure, humble, a
universal benefactor, tranquil, solely dependent on Krishna, free from
desire, quiet, equable, a victor over the six passions (_sharguna_),
temperate in diet, self-controlled, honouring others and yet not proud
himself, grave, tender, friendly, learned, skilful and silent. _Vide
Bhágabat_, III. xxv. 20, V. v. 2. The society of holy men is the root
of the birth of devotion to Krishna (_Bhágabat_, X. li. 35, XI. ii. 28,
xxv. 22). The principal limb that springs up from it is love of Krishna.
It is proper conduct for a Vaishnav to abjure the society of the wicked.
The man who consorts with women is one kind of sinner, while the man
lacking in faith in Krishna belongs to another kind. (_Bhágabat_ III.
xxxi. 35, 33 & 34). Leaving these [temptations] and the religious system
based on caste, [the true Vaishnav] helplessly takes refuge with
Krishna. _Vide_ the _Gitá_, xviii. 66; _Bhágabat_, X. xlviii.

"If a learned man happens to sing Krishna's praise, he adores Krishna to
the exclusion of all other deities, as is proved by the case of Uddhav.
_Vide Bhágabat_, III. ii. The helpless and the refugee [among devotees]
have the same characteristics. Then comes resignation in. After taking
refuge in Krishna, the votary gives himself entirely up to Krishna, who
then elevates him to His own nature. _Vide Hari-bhakti-vilas_, xi. 417
& 418; _Bhágabat_, XI. xxix. 32."

"Give ear, O Sanátan, while I turn to speak of the attainment
(_sádhan_) of _bhakti_, which gives us the rich treasure of love for
Krishna. Hearing [chant] and other acts [of the physical organs] are the
_swarup_ signs of it; while in the _tatastha_ sign love is born. Love
for Krishna is ever an end (_siddha_); it is never a means (_sádhya_).
It is kindled in a pure heart by listening [to Krishna's praise], and
other acts of the organs. The _sádhan_ of _bhakti_ is of two kinds:
one following the ordinances of religion, the other following the
[heart's] inclination. The man without a natural desire [for Krishna]
adores Him in obedience to the bidding of the _Shastras_; such
_bhakti_ is called regular (_baidhi_).

_'King! It is the duty of the men who seeks liberation to hear, to
praise, and to meditate about God, the universal Soul, the supremely
Beautiful, and the Liberator from bondage.'_ (_Bhágabat_, II. i. 5.
and also XI. v. 2.)

"The modes of cultivating _bhakti_ are many; I shall only tell you
briefly of the chief of them: [they are] taking refuge at the feet of
the _guru_, initiation, service of the _guru_, inquiry into the true
religion, following the path of saints, renunciation of enjoyment out of
love for Krishna, residence at holy places associated with Krishna,
accepting alms no further than suffices [for one's sustenance], fasting
on the tenth day of the moon, reverence to foster-mothers, fig trees,
kine, Brahmans and Vaishnavs, shunning from a distance all offences
against adoration and the holy name, abjuring the company of
non-Vaishnavs, taking only a few disciples, avoiding the study and
exposition of too many books and arts, looking at loss and gain as
alike, control of grief and other passions, abstention from abusing
other gods and scriptures, never listening to scandal about Vishnu or
Vaishnavs nor to village gossip, giving no shock by thought or speech to
any creature that lives, listening [to chant], hymn-singing, keeping God
in remembrance, worship, adoration [in words], attendance [on idols],
assuming the attitudes of servant and comrade [to Krishna], dedication
of one's own self [to God], dancing, singing, petitioning and
prostration before [Krishna's image], rising to welcome [His image], and
following it as a mark of respect, visiting shrines at _tirthas_,
walking round shrines, hymning, reading scriptures, reciting the holy
name, _sankirtan_, enjoying incense garlands perfumed essence and the
_mahá-prasád_, witnessing the grand celebration of _árati_ and the
divine image, giving up whatever is dear to one's own self, meditation,
and serving Him.

"The service of the following four is approved by Krishna:--the _Tulsi_
plant, Vaishnavs, Mathura, and the book _Bhágabat_.

"Direct all your efforts to [the service of] Krishna, witness His
mercies, celebrate His Nativity and other days in the company of
_bhaktas_. Ever fly to him for refuge, celebrate Kártik and other

"These are the sixty-four modes of cultivating bhakti. The five chief of
them are (1) the society of holy men, (2) _kirtan_ of Krishna's name, (3)
listening to the reading of the _Bhágabat_, (4) dwelling at Mathura, and
(5) reverential service of His image. Even a little of these five
creates love for Krishna.

"Some _bhaktas_ pursue only one of these modes, some many. When the
mind has become steady, the wave of love surges up [in it]. Many
_bhaktas_ have attained to success by following one mode only.
Ambarisha and other _bhaktas_ cultivated many modes. (_Vide Bhágabat_,
IX. iv. 15-17)-The man who by renouncing desire adores Krishna in
obedience to the injunctions of the _Shastras_, is not indebted to the
gods the _Rishis_ or the manes of his ancestors. (_Bhágabat_, XI. v.
37). He who adores Krishna's feet rejecting _shastric_ rites, feels
nevertheless no temptation for forbidden sins. Even if he commits a sin
unwittingly, Krishna purifies him and he need not practise penance for
it. (_Bhágabat_, XL v. 38). Theological knowledge and monachism are not
at all necessary means of cultivating bhakti; Krishna's society gives
inoffensiveness and discipline. _Vide Bhágabat_, XI. xx. 31.

"Hitherto I have held forth on the cultivation of _bhakti_ in
accordance with the shastric teaching. Now, let me tell you, Sanátan,
about _bhakti_ in compliance with natural inclination. This latter kind
of _bhakti_ is chiefly found in the people of Brindában, and those who
cultivate it are called _rágánuga_ ('inclination-led'). A passionate
longing for the object of desire is the _swarup_ characteristic of
inclination (_rág_); absorption in the object of desire is its
_tatastha feature_. The nature of an 'inclination-led' _bhakta_ pays
no heed to _shastric_ reasoning.

"Its two types are _external_ and _internal_. In the external, the
devotee through his physical organs performs listening (to chant) and
chanting, while in his mind he imagines himself to be identical with his
ideal [such as any _sakhi_ or cowherd mate of Krishna], and thus [in
fancy] serves Krishna at Brindában day and night. With drawing himself
into his own mind, such a votary ever remains close to his object, the
dearest Krishna, and thus serves Him incessantly. In the path of
inclination (_rág_), he takes Krishna as the object of his chief
emotion, _viz._, as master, comrade, child or sweetheart. (_Bhágabat_,
III. xxv. 35)

"From the sprout of love (_prem_) issue two things, _rati_ (addiction)
and _bháb_ (emotion). These two conquer the Lord for us. Thus have I
expounded _ebhidheya_, from which we gain the treasure of love for
Krishna." [Text, canto, 22.]


On Love, the fruit of Devotion

[The Master continued]--"Listen now, Sanátan, to love, the fruit of
_bhakti_, the hearing of which gives knowledge of the spirit of
_bhakti_. When passion (_rati_) in Krishna is deepened it is called
_prem_ (love), the permanent form of _bhakti_ in Krishna. It also has
two aspects, _viz._, _swarup_ and _tatastha_. If any man has the
grace to feel _shraddhá_, he consort with pious men, from which
companionship result the hearing and chanting of Krishna's name. From
the attainment of _bhakti_, all his troubles are removed, and as a
consequence of the latter, his faith becomes constant, which gives him a
taste for the listening and [hymning of Krishna's name]. From taste
(_ruchi_) comes strong inclination (_ásakti_), which gives birth to
the sprout of passion for Krishna in the soul. When this emotion is
deepened, it takes the name of love (_prem_). That love is the
(ultimate) fruit, the source of every bliss. _Vide Bhágabat_, III. xxv.
22. The man in whose heart this emotion sprouts up is marked by the many
qualities named in the _Shastras_. (_Bhakti-ras-amrita-sindhu_, I.
Rati-bhakti, verse 11, _Bhágabat_ I. xix. 13). No earthly affliction
can disturb his mind. Such a man never wastes his time without communing
with Krishna. He never fears [attack by] enjoyment, material success, or
the objects of sensual gratification. (_Bhágabat_, V. xiv. 42). Even
the noblest _bhakta_ considers himself as lowly, and firmly believes
that Krishna will take pity on him. He is ever expectant, ever
passionately longing [for union with Krishna]. Ever does he relish the
work of singing Krishna's names, and ever engages in it. At all times is
he addicted to holding forth on Krishna's charms. Ever does he reside at
the scenes of Krishna's exploits.

"So far I have described the marks of _rati_ for Krishna. Now let me
describe the characteristics of love for Krishna. Even the wise fail to
comprehend the speech, acts and gestures of the man whose heart is full
of love for Krishna. (_Bhágabat_, XI. ii. 38). As love develops, it
takes the forms of _sneha_, _mán_, _pranaya_, _rág_, _anurág_,
_bháb_, and _mahábhab_, just as, from the same source of sugar-juice
we have molasses, _gur_ (_khanda_), black sugar, [yellow] sugar-candy,
and white sugar-candy. As these grow successively purer and more
delicious, so too do the above stages in the development of love. In
relation to its subject, _rati_ is of five kinds _viz._, _shánta_,
_dásya_, _sakhya_, _bátsalya_, and _madhur_. These five permanent
emotions (_bháb_) have five different flavours, which delight the
_bhakta_ and over-power Krishna. The permanent emotions of love etc.,
on meeting with the proper ingredient, mature in the form of
Krishna-_bhakti ras_. The permanent emotion (_bháb_) on being mingled
with _ras_ is changed into these four,--_bibhába_, _anubhába_,
_sátivika_, _byabhichári_;--just as curd, on being mixed with _gur_,
black pepper, and camphor, becomes a thing of matchless deliciousness
named _rasál_. _Bibhába_ is of two kinds, (i) _álamban_, which is
kindled by Krishna, etc., and (ii) _uddipan_, by the notes of His
flute, etc. _Anubhába_ is stimulated by smile, dance and song. Stupor
and other sensations are included in _sátwika anubhába_. _Byabhichári_
is of 33 kinds, such as delight, rapture, &c.

"_Ras_ is of five kinds,--_shánta_, _dásya_, _sakhya_, _bátsalya_,
and _madhur_. In the _shánta ras_, _rati_ advances to the stage of
_prem_; in the _dásya_ to _rág_, _sakhya_ and _bátsalya_ attain to
the limit of _anurág_ (as was the case with Subal and others love for

"Krishna, the darling of Braja's lord, is the chief of lovers, while the
lady Radha is at the head of mistresses. Krishna's qualities are
endless, even a single one of them when unfolded can soothe the ears of
a _bhakta_.

"Countless are Radhiká's qualities, of which 25 are the principal ones,
which have conquered Krishna.

"The lover and his mistress are the themes of two _rasas_, and the
foremost of the class are Radha and Krishna. Similarly, in the _dásya
ras_, the subject is a servant, in the _sakhya_ a comrade, in the
_bátsalya_ the parents.

"This _ras_ is tasted only by Krishna's _bhaktas_; those who are not
devoted to Him have not the lot to enjoy it. Before this, at Allahabad I
discoursed on _ras_ and inspired with my power your brother Rup
Goswámi. Do you preach the lore of _bhakti_; do you discover the lost
shrines of Mathura. At Brindában teach the adoration of Krishna, the
proper conduct of Vaishnavs, and the scriptures of the creed of

Thus did the Master teach Sanátan all about the temperate conquest of
passions (_bairágya_) and condemned arid _bairágya_ which consists of
(mere) knowledge. _Vide_ the _Gitá_, xii. 13 _et seq_ and
_Bhágabat_, II. ii. 5.

Then Sanátan asked about the metaphorical interpretations (_siddhánta_)
of all the acts of Krishna's life and the Master clearly explained them.
At last Sanátan clasped His feet and biting a wisp of grass in sign of
abjectness prayed to Him thus: "I am a wretch, of low caste, and the
servant of the unclean. And yet thou hast taught me theological
expositions which even Brahmá knows not! My despicable mind cannot
contain even a single drop of this ocean of exposition that thou hast
poured into it. Thou canst make even the lame dance, if so thou wishest.
Lay thy feet on my head and pronounce on me the blessing that all that
thou hast taught me may become bright within me. May I derive power from
thy power!" And the Master blessed him accordingly. [Text, canto 23.]

Again did Sanátan clasp the Master's feet and ask Him, "I have heard
that you explained to Sárvabhauma in eighteen different ways the
following couplet of the _Bhágabat_, I. vii. 10:--

[Sanskrit words]

"My mind, on hearing of it, has been seized with wonder and curiosity.
If thou tellest it [again] graciously, my ears will be charmed." The
Master answered, "I am a mad man; Sárvabhauma took my mad words for
truth. I do not remember what ravings I uttered in his house. But should
your company inspire me I may possibly recollect a little of it. My mind
is not naturally enlightened as to the sense of the verses; what I shall
say is only the outcome of the influence of your company."

[His 61 subtle interpretations of the above stanza and the rules of
Sanskrit grammar lexicography and logic appealed to by the Master in
support of them, are omitted here in the 2nd edition.]

Listening to these [sixty-one diverse] explanations, Sanátan was filled
with wonder, and praised the Great Master, clinging to His feet, "Thou
art God incarnate, the darling of Braja's lord. Thy breath called into
being all the Vedas. Thou art the speaker in the _Bhágabat_, and thou
knowest its meaning, which none else can under stand!" The Master
objected, "Why praise me? Why not consider the nature of the
_Bhágabat_, which is like Krishna, all-embracing, the refuge of all.
Every couplet, nay every letter of it breathes a variety of senses. By
means of a dialogue this fact has been established in the _Bhágabat_
itself. (I. i. 23 and iii. 42). These my interpretations of the
_shloka_ are like the ravings of a mad man. Who will accept them? If
any one be mad like me, he will understand the meaning of the
_Bhágabat_ from this [specimen]."

Again did Sanátan with folded palms entreat Him, "Master, thou has
bidden me write the sacred code (_smriti_) of Vaishnavs. I am a man of
low caste, ignorant of ceremonial cleanness (_áchár_). How can
_smriti_ be taught by me? If you teach me an outline of it in the form
of _sutras_ (aphorisms), if you yourself enter my heart, then the
sketch will inspire the mind of a low man like me. Thou art God;
whatever thou makest me speak will prove true". The Master replied,
"Whatever you wish to do, Krishna will inspire your mind with [knowledge
of it]. I, however, give you a rapid survey of the different points
[which you should deal with in compiling the Vaishnav sacred code] (_A
long list, not translated here_). In every case quote as your authority
the sayings of the Puráns. When you will write, Krishna will inspire
you." [text, canto 24.]


The Master converts the people of Benares and returns to Jagannáth

Thus did the Master in two months instruct Sanátan in the entire lore of
the philosophy of faith. Chandra Shekhar's comrade, Paramánanda
Kirtaniá, an expert artist, performed _kirtan_ before the Master.

As the Master had slighted the _sannyasis_ they everywhere spoke ill of
Him. At this the Maratha [Brahman] sadly reflected, Whosoever has a
close view of the Master's character feels Him to be God indeed, and
admits Him as such. If I can bring them and Him together, they will
perceive this [quality] and become His followers. I have always to dwell
in Káshi, and if I do not effect this, it will be a matter of
everlasting regret to me."

So, he invited all the _sannyasis_, and himself went on a visit to the
Master. Chandra Shekhar and Tapan Mishra, grieved to hear Him defamed,
were humbly entreating Him, and His mind, too, was thinking of the
conversion of the _sannyasis_, in order to remove the grief of His
_bhaktas_. Just then the Maratha Brahman arrived and clasping the
Master's feet by much entreaty induced Him to accept his invitation. At
noon He went to His host's house, and bestowed salvation on the
_sannyasis_ in the manner described in Part I. of this book.

From the day on which He blessed the _sannyasis_, a sensation was
created in the village; crowds flocked to behold the Master; scholars of
various schools came to discuss theology with Him, but He refuted all
their philosophies and established faith as the final truth. By His
reasoned speech he turned the minds of them all, and they followed His
instruction and began to chant Krishna's name. All men laughed, sang,
and danced. The _sannyasis_ submitted to Him; quitting their studies
they formed assemblies of their own [to discourse on faith].

A disciple of Prakáshananda, equal to him in attainments, spoke
reverently of the Master in open meeting thus, "Chaitanya is Náráyan
himself. He explains the aphorisms of Vyás most charmingly. His
exposition of the root meaning of the _Upanishads_ gratifies the
hearing and mind of scholars even. Our teacher [Prakáshánanda] gives a
fanciful explanation of the aphorisms of the _Upanishads_ leaving their
essential meaning out. On hearing his fanciful explanations scholars
pretend to approve, but are not inwardly convinced, whereas Chaitanya's
words feel to be truth indeed. In the Kali Yug, one cannot vanquish the
World by asceticism; the highest conclusion and true source of bliss is
contained in the exposition which He gave of the verses '_Hari's name
alone &c_'. The _Bhágabat_ asserts that there cannot be salvation
without faith, and that rapture in the name [of Hari] can give an easy
deliverance in the Kali Yug. (_Bhágabat_, X. xiv. 4 and ii. 26).

"The term _Brahma_ connotes God full of the six divine attributes. To
describe Him as abstract is to impair His fulness. The _Shruti Purans_
deal with the manifestations of Krishna's _chit_ power. Philosophers
laugh at it irreverently. They look upon Krishna's _chidánanda_ images
as a mere piece of illusion. In this they sin grievously. Chaitanya's
view is the true one. (_Bhágabat_, III. ix. 3 and 4; _Gitá_, ix. n and
xvi. 19). The aphorisms [of Vedánta] teach the theory of _parinám_
(result), but our teacher disregards it, calls Vyás ignorant, and
asserts the theory of _bivarta_. This fanciful interpretation does not
satisfy the mind. Fancies at variance with scripture prove a man a
wretch. Engaged in vain disputation, I have hitherto forgotten to know
the Supreme Essence. Oh! how shall I merit Krishna's grace? Our teacher
has obscured the meaning of Vyás's aphorisms, whereas Chaitanya has
revealed it. True are His words; all other theories are false and

So saying he began to sing Krishna's _sankirtan_. At this Parkashananda
remarked, "The Acharya was eager to establish Monism, and he had
therefore to twist the sense of the aphorisms. If you admit God's
_bhagawánship_, you cannot establish Monism. So the Acharya had to refute
all the _Shástras_. No author who wishes to set up his own theory can give
the plain meaning of the scriptures. A philosopher of the _Mimánsa_ school
speaks of God as a part and parcel of [His] work; the _Sánkhya_ speaks of
Him as the cause of Nature all over the universe. The _Nyáya_ asserts that
the world was composed out of atoms; the Illusionist speaks of the
abstract Brahma as the Cause. Patanjal (alone) tells us of the true
nature of Krishna; so He is the true God, according to the _Vedas_. None
recognizes God as the Supreme Cause, each school of philosophy only
sets up its own theory by refuting the views of its rivals. Thus from
the six schools of philosophy we cannot know the [spiritual] truth. Only
the words of great men are reliable. Chaitanya's words are a stream of
nectar. What He says is the essence of spiritual truth. Hearing all
this, the Maratha Brahman in delight went to report it to the Master,
whom he met going to visit Bindu Madhav after His bath in the five
streams. At the Brahman's narration He was pleased. Beholding the beauty
of Bindu Madhav Hewas enraptured and danced in the courtyard [of the
temple] in love, while Chandra Shekhar, Paramananda, Tapan and Sanátan
joined in a _sankirtan_ chanting,--

_"Hail to Hari and Hara! to Krishna the Yadav, to Gopál, Govinda, Ram
and Madhusudan."_

_Lakhs_ of men surrounded them shouting _Hari! Hari!_ The blessed cry
filled earth and heaven. Hearing it near him, Prakashananda came there
with his pupils, moved by curiosity. Beholding the Master's charm of
person and dancing, he with his disciples joined the cry of _Hari!
Hari!_ The Master trembled, spoke in a choking voice, perspired,
changed colour, or at times stood rigidly inert, bathing the bystanders
with His tears, His body thrilled with ecstasy like the _Kadamba_ tree.
He displayed every passion, exultation, abjectness, lightness &c., to
the marvel of the people of Benares.

On seeing the crowd, the Master recovered His senses, and stopped His
dance before the _sannyasis_. He bowed very low to Prakashananda, who,
however clasped His feet. The Master cried out, "You are the instructor
of the world, and beloved [of all], while I am not worthy to be your
pupil's pupil. Why should a high one like you bow to a low one like me?
As you are God-like, by so doing you are destroying me [in sin]. Though
everything becomes you, as it becomes God, yet, for the sake of holding
up a lesson before the people, you should cease acting thus [humbly]."
Prakashananda replied, "By touching your feet I have washed away all the
sin of my former abuse of you!" (_Bhágabat_, I. v. 12, Chakravarti's
commentary, quotation from the appendix cited in the _Básaná-váshya_,
also X. xxxiv. 7).

The Master cried out, "O God! O God! I am a despicable creature. It is a
sin to regard any creature as Vishnu. Even if a God-like person holds a
creature to be Vishnu, then God will rank him among the infidels.
(_Hari-bhakti-vilás_, i. 71)."

Prakashananda replied, "You are God himself. But even if you insist on
being regarded as God's slave, you tire still worthy of being honoured
above us. That I once abused you will be the cause of my ruin.
(_Bhágabat_ VI. xvi. 4, X. iv. 31, and VII. v. 25). I now bow at your
feet, that I may kindle faith in them."

So saying he sat down there with the Master, and asked Him, "The errors
you have pointed out in the theory of illusion, are, I know, the
fanciful interpretations of Shankar Acharya. Your exposition of the
essential meaning of the aphorisms has charmed the minds of all. You are
God and can do everything. Tell me then briefly, I long to hear [your
interpretation of Vyás's aphorisms]. The Master protested, "I am a
creature insignificant in knowledge. Vyás was God's self and his
aphorisms have a deep meaning, which no creature can know. Hence he has
himself explained his aphorisms. When the writer is his own commentator,
men can understand his meaning. The meaning of _pranaba_ in the
_Gáyatri mantra_ is explained at length in the four verses of the
_Bhágabat_, II. ix. 30-33. First God imparted these four verses to
Brahmá, who taught them to Nárad, and the latter to Vyás, who reflected,
"I shall make the _Bhágabat_ itself a commentary on any aphorisms." So
he accumulated the teaching of the four _Vedas_ and the _Upanishads_.
Every _rik_ which is the subject matter of a particular aphorism, is
formed into a separate verse in the _Bhágabat_. The _Bhágabat_ and the
_Upanishads_, therefore, speak with one voice; the former is nothing
more than a commentary on the latter. _Bhágabat_, VIII. i. 8, says,

_"'Everything that exists in the world is the abode of God. Therefore
enjoy what God has given you, and covet not another's possessions.'_

"The above verse takes a bird's-eye view of the whole subject. Similarly
every verse of the _Bhágabat_ is like a rik. In the 'four verses' the
_Bhágabat_ has unfolded the characteristics of Connection, Means
(_abhidheya_), and Need. Connection with 'I' is the truth; perception
of 'I' is the highest knowledge, the devotion and faith necessary to
attain to 'I' is called the Means. The fruit of devotion is love, which
is the radical Need. That love enables a man to enjoy 'I'. _Vide_ the
_Bhágabat_, II. ix. 30, God's words to Brahmá:

_'The knowledge of me is deeply mysterious. Accept as spoken by me
whatever is united to supreme knowledge (bijnán), attended by mystery,
and a part of tat.' Or in other words, God says here, 'These three
truths have I explained to you, because being a creature you could not
have understood them, viz., my nature, my dwelling (sthiti), and
my attributes, works, and six powers. My grace will inspire you with all
these.'_ So saying God imparted the three truths to Brahmá: (i)
_Bhágabat_ II. ix. 31,--

_'May you, through my grace, at once attain to true knowledge about the
nature of my form (swarup), my component element (sattwa), and my
attributes and acts.'_ (God's speech to Brahma).

"Or in other words, God says 'Before creation, being myself endowed with
the six divine powers, and drawing into myself _Prapancha_-Nature, I
create while dwelling within it. The _Prapancha_ that men beholds is no
other than me. In destruction my remaining attributes manifest
themselves, completing me and so _Prapancha_-nature finds absorption in

"(2) Again, _Bhágabat_, II. ix. 32, God speaks to Brahmá:--

_'This I alone existed before creation, and none else. Nature, the cause
of the gross and subtle universes, did not then exist. This I alone
exist even after creation; this universe is indeed myself. Whatever will
survive the destruction (pralaya) of the world will also be this I.'_

"In this verse the phrase 'This I' occurs thrice and determines the
dwelling of the full-power divine incarnation (_vigraha_). He has
(clearly) pronounced on this point in order to rebuke those
(philosophers) who do not admit incarnations (_vigraha_). The term
'_this_' indicates _jnán_, _vijnán_, and _vivek_. Illusion is God's
work, therefore God's self ('_I_') is different from illusion, just as
a faint glow shines in the sky where the Sun was, but it cannot appear
of itself without aid of the Sun. It is only by going beyond illusion
that we can perceive. Here the truth of Connection [with God] has been

"(3) Next in _Bhágabat_, II. ix. 33, God tells Brahmá,--

_'Know that to be my illusion which being unreal appears to the (human)
mind as real, or being real is not recognized by the mind; just as the
reflection in the water of the moon of the sky, though unreal, seems to
be a second moon indeed; or as the Rahu of darkness, though real,
escapes man's perception.'_

"Listen to an exposition of faith as a means of devotion. In religious
rites we have to observe distinctions according to person, locality,
time and condition. But in the practice of _bhakti_ no such difference
has to be made; it is the duty of all in every place, condition and
time. Ask a _guru_ about faith, and learn its nature from him.
(_Bhágabat_, II. ix. 35).

_'The man who seeks spiritual truth will admit that that substance alone
is the Soul (átmá) which dwells at all times and within everything by
acting as the anwaya (necessary) and byatireka (non-necessary) causes
[of things].'_

"Attachment to '_I_' is love, the Needful thing. I shall describe its
marks by means of actions. As the five spirits (_pancha-bhut_) dwell
within and without all creation, similarly I inspire my _bhaktas_
within and without. (_Bhágabat_, II. ix. 34),--

_'As the Great Spirits (mahá-bhutáni) enter material objects after their
creation, but remained outside them as causes before their creation, so
I too remain at once within and without all created things.'_

'My _bhakta_ has confined me to his lotus-like heart. Wherever he
glances he beholds me.' (_Bhágabat_, XI. ii. 50 and 43, X. xxx. 4).

"Thus does the _Bhágabat_ explain three things, Connection, Means, and
Need. (_Bhágabat_, I. ii. 1).

"Now listen to the _abhidheya_ faith, which inspires every line of the
_Bhágabat_ (XI. xiv. 20).

"Now hear about love, the radical Need, whose marks are joyous tears,
dance and song. (XI. iii. 32 and ii. 38).

"Therefore is the _Bhágabat_ that author's own commentary on the
_Brahma Sutra_; it settles the meaning of the _[Mahá] Bhárat_,
explains the _Gáyatri_, and amplifies by gloss the meaning of the
_Vedas_, as is said in the _Garuda Purán_. _Vide_ also the two verses
from the same Purán quoted by Shridhar Swami in his commentary on the
_Bhágabat_, I. 1, also _Bhágabat_, I. i. 1-3 and 19, the _Gitá_,
xviii. 54, _Bhágabat_, II. i. 9, III. xv. 43, I. vii. 10."

Then the Maratha Brahman told the assembled people how the Master had
explained the last mentioned verse in sixty-one different ways. The men
wondered and pressed the Master, who gave His interpretations again.
They marvelled exceedingly and concluded that Chaitanya was Krishna

This said, the Master left the place. Men bowed to Him and shouted
_Hari! Hari!_ All the people of Benares began to make _sankirtan_ of
Krishna's name, laughing, dancing and singing in love. The _sannyasi_
philosophers took to the study of the _Bhágabat_. (In short) the Master
saved the city of Benares, which became a second Navadwip [in fervour].

Returning to His quarters with His attendants, the Master said
jestingly, "I had come to Benares to sell my sentimental stuff, for
which there was no purchaser here. I could not carry my merchandise back
to my country, as you would have been grieved to see me carrying the
load! So, to please you all, I have distributed my goods freely!"

They all replied, "You have come to deliver mankind. Before this you had
carried salvation to the South and the West. Benares alone was adverse
to you, and now you have redeemed it, to our delight."

The sensation at Benares spread. Millions of country people began to
come to the city. They could not see the Master at the place of
_sankirtan_, but formed lines on both sides of the road to watch Him
going to bathe or visit Vishweshwar. With uplifted arms He ordered them
to chant Hari's name; they prostrated themselves and shouted _Hari!

Five days were thus passed in delivering the people, and then the Master
grew anxious. When He started walking away at night, His five _bhaktas_
followed Him,--_viz._, Tapan Mishra, Raghunath, the Maratha Brahman,
Chandra Shekhar, and the singer Paramananda,--all wishing to accompany
Him to Puri. But the Master sent them back gently, giving them leave to
come afterwards, as He was returning alone by the Jhárikhand route. To
Sanátan He said, "Go to Brindában, to your two brothers. If my _bhakta_
beggars, clad in quilt and bowl in hand, go there, cherish them." So
saying He embraced and left them, while they all fell down fainting.
Recovering they sadly took the way back to home.

When Rup reached Mathura, at the Dhruba ghát he met Subuddhi Ray, who
had once been governor of Gaur with Sayyid Husain Khan as his servant.
Husain was ordered to dig a tank, and on his committing some fault, his
master, the Ray, flogged him. When, afterwards, Husain Shah became
Sultan of Bengal, he greatly promoted Subuddhi Ray.

But the Sultana, noticing the scar of the lash on Husain's back, pressed
him to murder the Ray. The Sultan declined saying that the Ray was his
former patron, a father unto him. But the queen urged him to destroy the
Ray's caste while sparing his life. Husain answered that Subuddhi would
not survive the loss of his caste. The king was hard pressed by the
queen, and at last forced water from his own goglet into the Ray's
mouth. At this the Ray left all his possessions, fled to Bewares, and
asked the _pandits_ there about the proper penance. Thev replied, "Give
up your life by drinking steaming _ghee_. This is not a venial sin!"
The Ray remained perplexed, but when the Master arrived there, he told
Him all. Chaitanya advised him to go to Brindában and ceaselessly chant
Krishna's name, as one utterance of the name would wash away all his
sins and a repetition of it would gain him Krishna's feet.

The Ray reached Mathura by way of Prayág, Ayodhyá, and the Naimish
forest (where he lingered some days). In the meantime the Master
returned from Brindában to Prayág, and Subuddhi on reaching Mathura
grieved to miss Him. The Ray sold dry faggots at Mathura, at five or six
piece per bundle. He lived by chewing one pice worth of gram and lodged
the rest of his earnings with a _baniá_. Whenever he met a poor
Vaishnav, he fed him, and to Bengali pilgrims he gave curd, rice and oil
for anointing the body. Rup greatly favoured him, and took him through
the "Twelve Woods" in his own company.

After a month at Brindában, Rup hurriedly left to search Sanátan out.
Hearing that the Master had taken the Ganges route to Prayág, Rup and
his brother Anupam followed that path. But Sanátan from Prayág went to
Mathura by the king's highway, and so missed Rup, who had taken a
different route, as Subuddhi Ray told Sanátan on his arrival at Mathura.
Tenderly did the Ray treat Sanátan, who cared not for tender treatment;
being very averse to the world, he roamed through the woods, passing a
day and night under each tree and grove. Securing a copy of the holy
book named _Mathurá Mahátmya_, he searched the forests to discover the
forgotten shrines.

Rup with his youngest brother came to Kashi and there met the Maratha
Brahman, Chandra Shekhar, and Tapan Mishra. He lived with Chandra
Shekhar, dined with the Mishra, and heard from the latter how the Master
had taught Sanátan. Delighted was he to hear from them about the
Master's doings at Kashi and His grace to the _sannyasis_, and to see
the devotion of the people to him, and hear them chanting _kirtan_.
After a ten days stay there, Rup left for Bengal.

The Master wended His way to Puri, feeling intense bliss in the lonely
jungle path. Balabhadra accompanied Him, and He sported with the deer
and other animals as during His first journey. Reaching Athára-nálá He
sent Bhattáchárya in advance to summon His followers. At the news of His
return, they got a new life as it were, ran to Him in rapture and met
Him at the Narendra tank. The Master touched the feet of the Puri and
the Bhárati, who embraced Him lovingly. Damodar Swarup, Gadadhar Pandit,
Jagadananda, Kashishwar, Govinda, Vakreshwar, Kashi Mishra, Pradyumna
Mishra, Damodar Pandit, Haridas Thakur, Shankar Pandit, and all other
_bhaktas_ fell down at His feet. He embraced each and was over come
with love. The faithful swam in the ocean of bliss. With them He went to
visit Jagannáth, before whom He with His party danced and sang long in
rapture. The servitor of the god presented Him with a garland and
_prasád_, while Tulsi Parichha bowed at His feet.

The Master's arrival was [soon] noised abroad in the village.
Sárvabhauma, Rámánanda, and Vánináth joined Him. With them all He
repaired to Kashi Mishra's house. Sárvabhauma bade Him to dinner, but He
declined, and ordering some _mahá-prasád_ to be brought, feasted there
with all His followers. [Text, canto 25.]


The Master teaches His disciples at Puri; the meeting with Sanátan

_Author's words in commencing the Last Acts (Antya Lila)_:--"I bow to
the Lord God Krishna-Chaitanya, whose grace enables a cripple to cross
mountains and a dumb man to recite the scriptures. I am blind; this path
is difficult, and I am again and again stumbling on it. May the saints
be my support by lending me the staff of their compassion!

"I adore the feel of my six _gurus_,--Rup, Sanátan, Raghunath Bhatta,
Jiv, Gopal Bhatta, and Raghunath-das,--who will remove evil (from my
path) and fulfil my desire. In the _Madhya Lila_ I have given a brief
outline of the _Antya Lila_. I am now stricken with the decrepitude of
age, and know death to be near. Therefore, I write in detail such acts
of the _Antya Lila_ as have not been described before."

When the Master returned from Brindában to Niláchal, Swarup Goswámi sent
word of it to Bengal. Shachi rejoiced to hear of it; all the _bhaktas_
rejoiced. They all set off for Niláchal. The men of Kulin village and
the men of Khand all joined Acharya Shivananda. Shivananda Sen undertook
to pass them through the police out posts (_gháti_) of the road, looked
after them, and secured lodgings for them. When they arrived at
Niláchal, they all met the Master, as in past years. At the end of four
months, the Master sent the _bhaktas_ back to Bengal.

Every year the Bengali adorers used to come, meet the Master, and then
return home. From other provinces, too, people used to come to
Jagannáth-Puri and attain the bliss of gazing at the feet of
Chaitanya. But there were many householders who could not come. For
their salvation the Master inspired worthy disciples in those countries
with His own force, and thus all countries were made Vaishnav.

Bhagabán Acharya, a great Vaishnav, very learned and high-born (_árya_),
lived at Jagannáth-Puri, seeking the Master's company, as the cow-boys
[of Mathura did Krishna's]. He was a comrade of Swarup Goswámi, and took
absolute refuge at the feet of Chaitanya. At times he used to invite the
Master and made Him dine alone in his house.

One day, when the Acharya had bidden the Master to dinner at his house,
he called the Master's chanter, the Lesser Haridas, and told him to
bring on his behalf a _maund_ of white rice from the sister of Shikhi
Mahiti. She was named Madhavi Devi, an old anchorite and devout
Vaishnav. At his meal the Master praised the rice and learnt that it had
been supplied by Madhavi through the Lesser Haridas. When He returned to
His lodgings, he ordered Govinda to exclude Haridas from the place from
that day onwards.

Haridas grieved at the Master's doors being closed to him. For three
days he fasted. None knew the reason of his exclusion. Then Swarup and
others asked the Master, who replied, "I cannot look at the face of a
bairagi who speaks to a woman. Our passions are hard to control and take
hold of their natural objects of gratification. Even the wooden statue
of a woman can steal the heart of an ascetic." (They prayed for His
pardon, but in vain. When even Puri Goswámi interceded for Haridas, the
Master in anger threatened to leave His disciples there and migrate
alone to Alalnath). At the sight of Haridas's punishment, terror seized
all the _bhaktas_. They gave up conversing with women even in dreams.

Thus did Haridas pass a year, and yet the Master did not feel any grace
for him. So, one night Haridas bowed to the Master [from a distance] and
went away to Allahabad without telling anybody. He concentrated his mind
on attaining to the Master's feet [in the next life] and gave up his
life by plunging into the junction of the three rivers, (_Triveni_ at

An Oriya Brahman boy, handsome, gentle of manner, but fatherless, used
to visit the Master at Puri daily, bow to Him and hold converse with
Him. The Master was as life unto him, and he enjoyed the Master's
favour. Damodar could not bear to see this attachment, and again and
again forbade the boy [to come]. But he could not live without seeing
the Master; he came daily and the Master showed him great love; it is
natural for a boy to come where he meets with love.

The sight grieved Damodar, but he could not say any thing as the boy
heeded not his prohibition. One day the boy visited the Master, who
lovingly inquired after his [health]. After a time the boy left. Damodar
could not contain himself any longer, but burst out with, "In other
connections you are called a _Goswámi_. We shall soon know what sort of
_Goswámi_ you are! All men will soon sing the praise of our _Goswámi!_
His reputation will be now established at Puri!"

The Master, hearing it, asked, "What is this that you are talking,
Damodar?" The man replied, "You are a free God. You act as you please.
Who can forbid you? But who can shut the mouth of the garrulous world?
You are a wise man. Why then do you not reflect deeply? Why do you love
a widow's son? True, she is chaste and an ascetic; but she has the
faults of being beautiful and young. You too are youthful and extremely
handsome. This will give an opportunity to scandal-mongers to whisper."

Damodar ceased speaking. The Master, pleased at heart, smiled and
reflected, thinking "This is a current of the purest love. I have no
well-wisher like Damodar."

Another day, the Master took Damodar aside and said, "Damodar, go to
Navadwip, and stay there with my mother. I do not see any other guardian
for her than you. You have warned me even! I have no candid friend like
you among my followers. Unless a man is candid (_lit._, impartial),
virtue cannot be guarded. You have done something which even I cannot
do. You have reprimanded me, what shall we say of others? Go to my
mother's house and remain at her feet. In your presence nobody can act
freely. Come here occasionally to see me, and then return there quickly.
Convey to mother my millions of salutation. Make her happy with the news
of my happiness. Say that I have sent you to her to tell her constantly
of me. So saying delight her heart."

(The miracles of the Vaishnav saint Haridas Thakur, _not translated_).

When Rup Goswámi, after visiting the Master at Puri, went to Bengal for
returning to Brindában, his brother Sanátan came from Mathura to
Niláchal. He travelled by the Jharikhand jungles (Santal parganas), now
fasting, now chewing [dry grains]. Scabs broke out on his skin from the
bad water of Jharikhand and the irregularity of diet, and exudations ran
down his body.

On the way he sadly reflected, "I belong to a low caste. My body is
vile. I shall fail to see the Master when I go to Puri. He lives, I
hear, near the temple. But I dare not go near it, as the servitors of
Jagannáth are constantly passing there on business and it will be a sin
if I [accidentally] touch them. Therefore, I shall renounce my body by
throwing myself under the wheels of Jagannáth's car when the god is
taken out in the car procession; thus shall I attain at a holy place
relief from my pangs and the salvation of my soul."

So resolving, he came to Niláchal and alighted at Haridas's place. He
bowed at the feet of Haridas, who learning his name embraced him. His
heart yearned for the sight of the Master. Haridas assured him that He
would soon come.

The Master, after witnessing the _Upala-bhog_ of Jagannáth, came there
with His disciples to meet Haridas. The two prostrated themselves at His
feet. The Master raised Haridas and embraced him. Haridas said, "Here is
Sanátan, bowing to you." The Master looked at Sanátan with interest and
advanced to embrace him, while Sanátan ran backwards shouting, "Touch me
not, Master, I beseech Thee. I am of low caste, and in addition my skin
is running with exudations." But the Master embraced him by force, and
His fair body was stained with Sanátan's sores. He introduced all His
disciples to Sanátan, who bowed at their feet. With them all the Master
sat down on the raised terrace, while Haridas and Sanátan sat below. He
inquired after Sanátan's health, who replied "My supreme bliss is that I
have gazed on Thy feet." The Master then asked about the Vaishnavs of
Mathura, and Sanátan reported that they were well.

The Master said, "Rup [your brother] was here for ten months, and he
left for Bengal only ten days ago. Your [youngest] brother Anupam has
died on the bank of the Ganges. He was a staunch devotee of Ram."
Sanátan replied, "I have been born in a low family; All sorts of
wickedness and wrongdoing were my hereditary burden. Such a family thou
hast accepted, without scorning it! My whole family has been blessed by
thy grace. This Anupam was devoted to Ram-worship from his childhood.
Day and night he used to meditate on the name of Ram, hear the
_Ramayan_ read, and chant it. He used to live with Rup and myself
constantly and listen with us to Krishna's deeds and the _Bhágabat_. We
one day tested him saying, Listen, dear, Krishna is very delicious; he
abounds in beauty, sweetness, love, and grace. Do you, therefore, adore
Krishna in our company. We three brothers shall dwell together in the
delights of discourses on Krishna. So we two urged him again and again.
Our influence turned his mind a little and he responded, How long can I
resist your command? Initiate me in the mantra and I shall adore Krishna
[in future]. So saying, he paced up and down all the night, waking and
crying how he could leave Ram's feet. Next morning he told us, I have
sold my head to the feet of Ram, and it pains me excessively to draw my
head away thence, Have mercy on me and permit me to worship Ram's feet
birth after birth. Then we two embraced him and praised him saying noble
is the firmness of thy faith. Master, when you bless a family, it enjoys
every good, and all its troubles, disappear."

The Master replied, "Just in the same way did I test Murari Gupta
before. That _bhakta_ is noble who does not leave his Lord's feet. That
Master is blessed who does not abandon his own devotee. It is well that
you have come here. Dwell in the same house with Haridas."

One day the Master came there, as was his daily wont, to meet the two,
and began abruptly to speak, "Sanátan! If giving up life could have made
one gain Krishna, I could have sacrificed my life a million times over
in a moment. It is not by courting death but by adoration that we can
gain Krishna. There is no other way of gaining him than _bhakti_.
Suicide and the like are a low dark (_támas_) kind of _dharma_. But
the _támas_ and _rajas_ kinds of _dharma_ cannot give us the essence
of Krishna. Without _bhakti_ there cannot be love, and without love
Krishna cannot be attained.

"Suicide and the like are a _támas dharma_, and the cause of sin;
through them a devotee cannot attain to Krishna's feet. The loving
_bhakta_ wishes to quit his body when separated from his Lord; but when
love has brought Krishna to him, he cannot think of death.

"Give up your evil intention and listen to the _kirtan_, and soon will
you get the treasure of love for Krishna. Even a low-caste man is not
unfit to adore Krishna. Even a well-born Brahman is not, [merely by
reason of his birth] worthy to adore him. He who adores is great; the
man wanting in devotion is low and despicable. In the worship of Krishna
there is no distinction of caste or pedigree. The Lord is more gracious
to the lowly, while the high-born, the learned, and the rich are too
proud [in His eyes]. "Among the methods of adoration the chief are the
nine kinds of _bhakti_, which is most potent in giving us, Krishna's
love, even Krishna himself. The highest of these is _nám-sankirtan_,
chanting the Name. Chant the Name with a pure soul and you will win the
treasure of divine love!"

Sanátan marvelled when he heard all this, thinking "The Master is
omniscient. He has divined my plan of suicide and forbidden it." Then he
clasped the Master's feet, crying, "You are omniscient, gracious, free,
and God. I move like a wooden machine as you turn my handle. I am lowly,
a wretch, and wicked of disposition. What would you gain by keeping me

The Master replied, "Your body is my property. You have given yourself
up to me. How dare you think of destroying what is another's property?
Cannot you distinguish between a crime and a just deed? Your body is my
chief instrument; with it I shall carry out many purposes. The
exposition of the nature of devotion, the devotee and Krishna-_prem_,
the duties and daily practices of Vaishnavs, the establishing of
devotion to Krishna, love for Krishna and service, the restoration of
forgotten holy places, the teaching of asceticism, the preaching of this
faith at Mathura and Brindában which are my favourite places, all these
I wish for. But by my mother's command I live at Niláchal, and therefore
I cannot preach the religion at Mathura in person. The body by means of
which I want to do all these works, you want to give up. How can I allow

At this Sanátan said, "I bow to thee. Who can fathom the depths of thy
heart? As the juggler makes the wooden puppet dance, while it knows not
what it plays or what it sings, so, too, does the man whom you inspire,
dance with out knowing why he is dancing or through whom."

Thereafter the Master embraced the two and left for His home to do His
noontide devotions.

Haridas mourned to Sanátan, "None can be compared with you in good
fortune. The Master has declared your body to be His own property. He
will do through you at Mathura the work that He cannot do in His own
person. Through you He will compose the exegetics of _bhakti_, and lay
down its scriptures and practices. [Alas!] my body has been of no
service to the Master. My body, though born in the [holy] land of
Bhárat, has become futile."

But Sanátan consoled him saying, "Who else is your equal? Among the
Master's followers you are the most fortunate. The work of His
incarnation is the preaching of the Name, and that work He does through
you. Daily do you chant the Name three hundred thousand times. Before
all do you hold forth on the glory of the Name."

The Bengal _bhaktas_ came on pilgrimage, as before, on the occasion of
the Car festival, and stayed with the Master for the four months of the
monsoon. The Master introduced to them Sanátan who bowed at their feet
and they favoured him. His excellent character and [deep] scholarship
endeared Sanátan to all.

In the month of Jyaishtha the Master went to Yameshwar Tota (garden) to
dine at the entreaty of His _bhaktas_. At noon He called for Sanátan,
who delighted to hear of it, and went to Him by way of the sea-beach. He
reached the Master with his two feet blistered [by the hot sand].

The Master asked "By what route have you come, Sanátan?" He replied, "By
the sea-side." Then the Master said, "Why did you come over the hot
sand? Why did you not take the cool path before the Lion Gate
(_singhá-dwár_)? The hot sand has blistered your feet. You cannot walk;
how could you bear the journey?"

Sanátan replied, "It was no great hardship. I did not feel that my feet
were being blistered. I am not entitled to pass by the _singhá-dwár_
road, especially, as the servitors of the god Jagannáth frequently pass
along it and it would be a disaster if I touch any of them."

The Master's heart was pleased to hear of it, and He began to tell
Sanátan, "Though you are the saviour of the world and your touch can
purify even the gods and sages, yet it is the sign of a [true] _bhakta_
to respect the dignity [of rank or caste]. It is an ornament to a
_sadhu's_ character to observe distinctions (_maryádá_) of rank. Not
to do so is to court public ridicule and to destroy one's own earthly
life and spiritual welfare as well."

Sanátan's body was covered with running eruptions. The Master embraced
him in spite of prohibition, and His body was stained with the
exudation, at which Sanátan grieved.

But the Master said, "The body of a Vaishnav is not material. It is
supra-physical and full of the _chit_ and _ánanda_ of _bhakti_. At
the time of his initiation the _bhakta_ surrenders himself to Krishna,
who then renders him equal to his own self, and fills the body with his
own _chit_ and _ánanda_. The Lord Krishna has visited Sanátan's body
with sores only to test me. If I had in disgust refused to embrace him,
I should have been guilty in the eyes of Krishna."

So saying, He embraced Sanátan again, and lo! the sores disappeared and
his body assumed a golden hue!

After the _dol-yatrá_ he was given leave to depart to Brindában with
minute instructions as to what he should do there to propagate the
faith. [A long list of the Vaishnav literature produced by Rup, Sanátan,
and their nephew Jiv, the son of their youngest brother Vallabh
Anupam,--_not translated here_].

[1] Chapters XXIII-XXVII are taken from the _Antya Lila_ or Third Book
of the text.


Meeting with Vallabh Bhatta; the Master stints His food

Thus did the luminous Gaur (Chaitanya) perform many feats in many a
playful way with His _bhaktas_ at Niláchal. Though His heart was inly
pierced with the pang of separation from Krishna, yet He did not express
it outwardly lest His disciples should grieve. When, however, His
intense love-sickness [for Krishna] did break forth, His agony baffled
description. The Krishna-talk of Rámánanda and the [sacred] singing of
Swarup saved the Master's life amidst the pain of separation from
Krishna. In the day time His mind was diverted by the diverse company
that He met, but in [the solitude of] night His love-sickness waxed
strong. To please Him these two always kept Him company and consoled Him
with verses and songs about Krishna.

[Account of how Raghunath-das, the son of a very rich revenue-farmer,
escaped from his home at Saptagram in Bengal, joined the Master at Puri
and lived in utter lowliness by begging.]

One year Vallabh Bhatta came and met the Master, bowing at His feet. The
Master embraced him as an adorer of Vishnu (_bhágabat_) and with honour
made him sit close to Himself.

Meekly did the Bhatta address the Master, "Long have I desired to see
you and to-day Jagannáth has gratified that wish. Lucky is he who can
behold you, for you are as it were God in a visible form. Even to
remember you [from a distance] hallows a man. No wonder, then, that the
sight of you makes one blessed. (_Bhágabat_, I. xix. 30.) The
distinctive religion of the modern age is the _kirtan_ of Krishna's
name, and this religion cannot be established without Krishna's own
power. That you have founded this faith proves that you are inspired
with Krishna's divine force. Whosoever beholds you, swims in the stream
of the love of Krishna. Only Krishna's spirit can call forth this love,
as the scriptures say that Krishna is the sole inspirer of _prem_

The Master replied, "Listen, great-minded Bhatta! I was a _sannyasi_
following the theory of illusion (_máyá-vád_); I knew not _bhakti_ for
Krishna. The Goswámi Adwaita Acharya is God incarnate; _his_ society
has cleansed my mind. He has no peer in the knowledge of all the
Shastras and in devotion to Krishna, and therefore he has been rightly
named _A-dwaita_ without a second. Nityánanda, Sárvabhauma
Bhattáchárya, Rámánanda Ray, Damodar Swarup, Haridas Thakur, Acharya
Ratna and many other _bhaktas_ have all taught me Krishna-love and true
_bhakti_, and have preached to the world love for the Krishna-name."

So spoke the Master artfully, as he knew the Bhatta to be very proud of
his learning, and to have long cherished the conceit that he knew all
the _bhakti_-theology of the Vaishnavs and could expound the _Shrimad
Bhágabat_ best. The Master's words curbed this pride of the Bhatta, and
he longed to know the many disciples whose Vaishnav character the Master
had just extolled. He asked, "Where do these Vaishnavs live? How can I
meet them?" The Master replied, "Some live here, some on the bank of the
Ganges (_i.e._, at Navadwip, Panihati etc.). These latter have all come
here for the Car festival, and have taken up lodgings in this place.
Here will you meet all of them."

Next day when all the Vaishnavs came to the Master's place, He
introduced them to the Bhatta. Their Vaishnav-splendour filled the
Bhatta with amazement and he looked like a firefly in their company.
Then he feasted the Master and His disciples on huge quantities of
_mahá-prasád_. The _sannyasis_ sat down with Paramananda Puri on one
side. The Master sat down between Adwaita and Nityánanda, while His
disciples sat before and behind. The _bhaktas_ from Bengal were
countless; they filled the yard row on row. Vallabh Bhatta marvelled at
the sight of them and bowed at the feet of each. He himself served the
_mahá-prasád_ to the Master and the _sannyasis_. They shouted _Hari!
Hari!_ on receiving the _prasád_. The roar of Hari's name filled the
universe. The Bhatta gave away garlands, sandal-paste, betel-leaf and
nuts and delighted all with his reverence.

On the day of the Car procession, the Master began _kirtan_. As before,
He formed seven distinct groups of singers, under Adwaita, Nityánanda,
Haridas, Vakreshwar, Shribas, Raghav Pandit, and Gadadhar, who sang at
different places. The Master roamed about shouting _Hari_, while
fourteen drums (_mádal_) lifted up the din of the _sankirtan_. The
sight filled Vallabh Bhatta with marvel; he flew into a transport of
delight and could not control himself. Then the Master stopped the dance
of the others and began to dance Himself. As he gazed on the Master's
beauty and the exuberance of His _prem_, the Bhatta believed that the
Master was Krishna himself!

After the festival the Bhatta begged the Master, saying, "I have written
a commentary on the _Bhágabat_ and want to read it to you." The Master
replied, "I do not understand the meaning of the _Bhágabat_ and am not
qualified to hear [and judge] any interpretation of it. I only sit down
and recite Krishna's name, and even then fail to complete the promised
number of recitations in twenty-four hours." The Bhatta rejoined, "I
have made an exposition of the meaning of Krishna's name in my
commentary. Listen to it." But the Master objected, "I do not pay any
regard to the many senses of Krishna's name; I only know that he is
Yashoda's darling son and darkly beautiful [like the _Tamál_ leaves].
This only I know for truth, and I have not arrived at any other meaning
of the name." At the Master's slight, the Bhatta went back to his
quarters, downcast in mind. (He took his commentary to the chief
disciples, and even read out parts of his own motion, but they slighted
it and he was abashed).

Daily did Vallabh Bhatta go to the Master's place and dispute with
[Adwaita] Acharya and other disciples. Whenever he established a
proposition, the Acharya used immediately to refute it. Before them
Vallabh Bhatta appeared like a crane in the company of majestic swans.

One day the Bhatta asked the Acharya, "Mankind is feminine, and Krishna
is their husband, so you hold. No devoted wife utters her husband's
name. And yet you repeat Krishna's name. What sort of _dharma_ is
this?" The Acharya replied, "_Dharma_ in the flesh is sitting before
you. Ask Him, and He will justify it."

Then the Master broke in, "You do not know the essence of _dharma_. It
is the _dharma_ of a true wife to obey her husband's commands. Our
husband has commanded us to chant his name ceaselessly. No true wife can
disobey his command, and so we chant his name and derive from it the
fruit of the birth of love for Krishna's feet." This silenced Vallabh
Bhatta and he went home sorrowing at his public humiliation.

Another day he came to the Master's assembly and said rather boastfully,
"I have refuted [Shridhar] Swami's commentary on the _Bhágabat_. I
cannot accept his interpretation Where his view differs from mine, I do
not follow the Swami." The Master smiled and remarked,. "One who does
not follow (her) _swami_ (=husband) is ranked among harlots!"

Chaitanya had come to earth as an _avatár_ for the good of mankind; by
various humiliations He purified the proud heart of the Bhatta. At night
Vallabh Bhatta began to reflect in his own house, "Formerly the Master
favoured me greatly at Allahabad, when He accepted my invitation to
dinner in the company of His disciples. Why then is His heart turned
away from me now? Let my heart be free from the pride of gaining
victories in debate. The God-souled does good to all. I am filled with
the pride of asserting myself, and He humiliates me in order to cure me
of this pride."

So thinking, next morning he came to the Master and meekly praising Him
took refuge at His feet, saying, "I am ignorant and have foolishly
displayed my learning before you. You are God and out of your natural
grace you have removed my pride by means of disgrace. The blindness of
pride has been removed from my eyes through the collyrium of your grace
now, and true knowledge has dawned on me. I have sinned. Forgive me;
take refuge with thee; lay thy feet on my head."

The Master checked him saying, "You are a scholar and a devotee at the
same time. Where these two qualities are present, there pride cannot
exist. You have written a commentary on the _Bhágabat_ in scorn of
Shridhar Swami! I understand the _Bhágabat_ through the grace of
Shridhar Swami; he is the world's _guru_, my _guru_. What you write
contrary to Shridhar is labour lost; no one will accept it. Therefore,
write your commentary on the _Bhágabat_ in the footsteps of Shridhar.
Leave off your pride and adore the Lord Krishna. Give up your failings
and join the _kirtan_ of Krishna, and you will soon attain to Krishna's

Then the Master agreed to dine at Vallabh Bhatta's house once again. The
Bhatta used to meditate on God as the child Gopal. But the society of
Gadadhar Pandit turned his mind, and he longed to adore the youthful
Gopal. He begged the Pandit to teach him the _mantra_ and ceremonial of
this kind of adoration, but Gadadhar declined to act without the
Master's permission ... Another day Gadadhar Pandit invited the Master,
who agreed and at the dinner permitted Vallabh Bhatta to be initiated by


Ramchandra Puri Goswámi came to Niláchal and there met the Master and
Paramananda Puri Jagadananda Pandit invited Ramchandra Puri and fed him
on the _prasád_ of Jagannáth. After the meal the Puri asked Jagadananda
to feed on the food left over, and serving the _prasád_ repeatedly made
him eat much. And thereafter, washing his hands and mouth, Ramchandra
Puri began to cavil, "I had heard that Chaitanya's _bhaktas_ were great
gluttons. Now I see it with my own eyes to be true. By gorging
_sannyasis_ with so much food, their piety is destroyed. You are
_bairagis_ and yet you are such huge eaters! Your _bairagya_ is not

Ramchandra Puri was notorious as the universal fault finder, having been
cursed for it by his own religious preceptor, Madhavendra Puri. He now
dwelt at Niláchal, detached by nature, staying at one place for some
time, taking his meal at some [other] place without having been bidden,
and taking note of what others ate.

The Master was daily fed at different houses, at a cost of four _pan_
of _cowries_ [_i.e._, one anna] for the three of them,--the Master,
Kashishwar, and Govinda (His body-servant.) Ramchandra Puri closely
inquired into the Master's abode, manners, food, bed and travels. He
could not reach the Master's merits, but roaming in search of His
defects, could not find any. Then he began to slander the Master to all
the people, saying, "He is a _sannyasi_ and yet eats sweetmeats. How
can such luxury enable him to control the lusts of the flesh?"

He daily came to visit the Master, but only to pry into His
shortcomings,--for that was the only work of the Puri,--while the Master
did him reverence as His _guru_. He knew of the slanders spoken by the
Puri [against Him], but welcomed and honoured him greatly. One day the
Puri came to the Master's house in the morning, and noticing some ants
on the floor, delivered this covert attack, "Verily sweetmeats were
brought here last night, for ants are running about. A wonder
_sannyasis_ dead to the world have such gluttonous cravings!" And then
he left in a hurry.

The Master now saw with His own eyes what He had only heard before,
[about the slander spread against Him]. He called Govinda and told him,
"From to-day my meal will be one packet of rice and curry of the
_pinda-bhog_ worth 20 cowries [i.e., one quarter-anna]. Don't accept
any food above this for me. If you bring more, you will not see me

Half of this the Master ate and the other half He left for Govinda, and
both remained famished. Then He commanded Govinda and Kashishwar to beg
their food elsewhere. Thus some days passed in great hardship. Hearing
of it, Ramchandra Puri came to the Master and smiling told Him, "It is
not a sannyasi's _dharma_ to gratify his appetite. He eats just enough
to fill his stomach anyhow. I find you lean and hear that you eat only
half your fill. This drying _bairagya_ is not a sannyasi's _dharma_. A
sannyasi performs true _jnan-yog_ when he fills his stomach as far as
is necessary but does not enjoy his food. (_Gitá_, vi. 16-17.)"

The Master replied, "I am an ignorant child and your pupil. It is my
good fortune that you are teaching me." Ramchandra Puri then left.

Next day the _bhaktas_ headed by Paramananda Puri complained to the
Master against Ramchandra as a universal fault-finder and instigator of
gluttony, which he afterwards censured. They urged Him not to listen to
Ramchandra and famish Himself, but to return to His old diet and accept
invitations. But the Master replied, "Why do you blame Ramchandra Puri?
He expounds the natural _dharma_, and has done no wrong. It is very
wrong for a sannyasi to have a lustful palate. It is a sannyasi's duty
to eat just as little as will keep body and soul together." They all
pressed Him hard, and yielding to their entreaty He fixed His rations at
one-half of its former cost, _viz._ at two pan of _cowries_ [_i.e._,
half anna], which was shared by two, sometimes three persons. If a
Brahman whose cooking He could not eat, invited Him, He took only
_prasád_ worth two _pan_ of _cowries_. If it was a Brahman whose
cooking He could eat, He took a little of _prasád_ [purchased with
money] and a little of the meal cooked in His host's house. But at the
houses of Pandit Goswámi, Adwaita Acharya, and Sárvabhauma, He ate
whatever they asked Him, for there He had no independence; He had come
down to earth to render His devotees happy.

After a time Ramchandra Ptiri left Niláchal on a pilgrimage, to the
intense delight of the Vaishnavs, who felt that a heavy stone had been
lifted from their heads! They now freely invited the Master to _kirtan_
and dance, and all freely partook of the _prasád_.


The love of the pilgrims from Bengal

The Bengal _bhaktas_ came to Niláchal [carrying loving presents,--food
and preserves, for the Master]. It was the day of Jagannáth's sporting
in the water of the Narendra tank. The Master came there with His
followers to see the water-sport and there the Bengal pilgrims met Him.
The Bengal musical parties were singing the _kirtan_; on meeting the
Master they began to weep in love. The water-sport, instrumental music,
song, dance and _kirtan_ created a tumult on the bank, while the boats
plied merrily on the water. The mingled din of the _kirtan_ and weeping
of the Bengalis filled the universe. Then the Master entered the water
with His disciples and sported gleefully with them all. These
water-sports have been described in detail by Brindában-das in his
_Chaitanya-mangal_. I shall not repeat them here.

Another day the Master went with His party to behold Jagannáth at his
rising from bed. There He began the _berá kirtan_. Seven parties began
to sing, and seven chiefs danced in them, Adwaita Acharya, Nityánanda,
Vakreshwar, Atrhyutananda, Shribas Pandit, Satyaraja Khan and
Narahari-das. The Master visited all the seven groups, each thinking
that He was with it only! The roar of the _kirtan_ filled the earth;
all the citizens came out to see it; the king came with his Court and
gazed from a distance, the queens beheld the scene from the roofs of
houses. The earth trembled under the influence of the _kirtan_. Men
shouted _Hari!_ thus adding to the din. After a while, the Master was
inclined to dance Himself. Around Him the seven parties sang and beat
their instruments; in the centre He danced in supreme transport of love.
He recollected the Oriya verse, _Jagamohan parimundá jáun!_ 'Charmer of
the universe! I abase myself before Thee', and bade Swarup sing it. To
this air He danced in ecstasy, while all the men around swam in tears of
love. With uplifted arms He cried, "Chant! chant!" and they in delight
shouted _Hari! Hari!_ At times He fell down in a trance and ceased to
breathe, then suddenly started up with a roar. Frequent tremour burst
over His body, making it look like the _shimul_ tree, now it was
quivering and now it stiffened. The sweat burst through every pore in
His skin. With faltering speech he muttered _ja ja, ga ga, pari
pari_,--every tooth in his mouth shaking as if about to be loosened.
Even in the third quarter of the day His dance did not cease. All the
people in ecstasy forgot [fatigue of] body and [the distinction of] self
and others. Then Nityánanda resorted to a device; he silenced the
_kirtan_-singers gradually, and only the leaders of the seven groups
continued singing with Swarup, but in a low tone. At the cessation of
noise, the Master came to Himself somewhat. Then Nityánanda told Him how
fatigued all were. The Master at this put an end to the _kirtan_ and
went to bathe in the sea with them all.

Then with all His _bhaktas_ He partook of the _prasád_, dismissed
them, and retired to sleep at the door of the _gambhira_ (room).
Govinda came to rub His feet, as was the usual practice, before going to
feed on His leavings The Master had stretched Himself at full length
across the doorway; Govinda could not enter the room and begged Him to
move aside a little, but He declined saying that He was too weak lo stir
His limbs, and told Govinda to do whatever he liked. Then Govinda threw
his sheet over the Master's body and entered the room leaping over Him.
His shampooing threw the Master into a sweet a sleep and relieved Him of
His fatigue. After two _dandas_ (48 minutes) He woke, and seeing
Govinda there, asked in anger, "Why are you here still, _Adi-basyá?_
Why did you not go away for your meal when I fell asleep?" Govinda
replied, "You lay blocking the doorway, and I found no path for going
out of the room." But the Master rejoined, "How, then, could you come
in? Why did you not go out in the same way that you entered?

Govinda returned no answer, but reasoned within him self, "I must do my
appointed work, even if I have to commit any fault or go to hell for so
doing. For the sake of doing my duty I do not hesitate to commit a
million sins, but I fear even the touch of sin for my own personal

This year the Bengal pilgrims came in large numbers,--two to three
hundred of them, including many women. Shivananda Sen acted as their
guide and caretaker on the way.

They came to Puri and met the Master, the women gazing at Him from a
distance. They were all given lodging-houses and invited by the Master
to eat the _mahá-prasád_. The entire family of Shivananda enjoyed His
grace. After the meal He told Govinda to give the leavings on His plate
to Shivananda's wife and sons so long as they stayed there. A
sweetmeat-seller (_modak_) of Nadia, named Parameshwar, had his shop
close to the Master's paternal house. In His boyhood He used to visit
this man's shop and the man used to treat Him to confects made with
milk. He loved the Master from His infancy, and this year came to see
Him. He prostrated himself before the Master saying, "I am Parameshwar."
In delight at seeing him the Master asked, "Parameshwar! are you well?
It is a happy thing that you have come." The man added "Mukunda's mother
has come", [meaning his own wife]. The Master was shocked to hear the
name of a woman, but out of love for Parameshwar said nothing. The
loving simple-minded grocer did not know the ways of the learned; these
qualities inly delighted the Master.

Four months passed away in the usual way, and then He permitted the
pilgrims to return to Bengal. They invited Him to dinner and He lovingly
spoke to them all, "Every year you come here to see me, undergoing many
hardships on the two journeys. For this reason I feel inclined to forbid
your coming, but the pleasure of your society tempts my heart. I had
commanded Nityánanda to live in Bengal. He has come here in defiance of
my order; what can I say to him? The [old] Adwaita Acharya, leaving his
wife, children and home behind, performs a long and difficult journey to
meet me. How can I repay the debt of his love? I merely sit here at
Niláchal without having to do any exertion for your sake. I am a
_sannyasi_, without wealth. With what shall I repay my debt to you? My
only property is my body, and this I give up to you. Sell it, if you

The Master's speech melted their hearts; tears ran down their cheeks
without ceasing. He, too, wept clasping their necks, and weeping
embraced them. So, they could not set out on their journey home that
day, but passed five or seven days more at Puri in the same way.

At last the Master consoled them and gave them leave to depart with
composure of mind. The _bhaktas_ left the city weeping. The Master
remained there in sadness of heart.

Last year Jagadananda, the Master's companion, had by His leave gone to
Nadia to see mother Shachi. She in delight listened day and night to his
discourse on the Master and His doings. All the _bhaktas_ of Nadia met
him and entertained him in their houses, listening in rapture to his
talk about the Master's inmost things. At the house of Shivananda he
prepared a pot of medicated oil, scented with sandal-wood, and taking it
to Niláchal asked Govinda to rub it on the Master's head, to cure Him of
bile, wind and other sickly humours. Govinda reported it, but the Master
replied, "A _sannyasi_ is forbidden to rub oil, especially scented oil.
Present it to the temple of Jagannáth, where it will be used in lighting
lamps, and his labour will be supremely rewarded."

Some ten days afterwards, Govinda repeated Jagadananda's request that He
should accept the oil. The Master burst forth in anger, "Very well,
engage a servant to rub me with the oil! Is it for such pleasures that I
have turned _sannyasi_? What is ruin to me is a sport to you! Every one
who will smell the fragrant oil on my person in the streets, will call
me a carnal _sannyasi_!" Govinda remained silent on hearing this.

Next morning, when Jagadananda came to the Master, He said, "Pandit! you
have brought for me oil from Bengal. But I am a _sannyasi_ and cannot
accept it. Present it to Jagannáth to light the lamps of the temple.
That will be the reward of your labour." The Pandit replied, "Who has
told you this piece of falsehood? I never brought any oil from Bengal."
So saying, he brought out of the room the pot of oil and broke it on the
floor of the yard in the Master's sight. Then he ran back to his own
house, bolted the door of his bed-room from within, and shut himself up
there [without taking any food]. On the third day the Master went to his
door and cried out, "Rise, Pandit! you must feed me to-day on your own
cooking. I shall come back at noon. I am now off to see Jagannáth." So
saying, He left the house. The Pandit rose from his bed, bathed, cooked,
and at noon, when the Master returned, placed the dishes before Him on
the leaves and bark of the plantain-tree. The Master said, "You must
dine with me. Serve your meal, on another leaf." But the Pandit
entreated Him to eat first and let him sit down to his meal after his
guest. The vegetable soup was delicious and the Master cried out, "When
one cooks in anger, it tastes so sweet! This is a proof of Krishna's
grace on you."

The Pandit served and the Master ate, willing but unable to rise from
the feast, and eating ten times His usual food, in fear lest the Pandit
should fly into a rage again and fast himself! After the dinner, the
Master went back to His lodgings, leaving Govinda there to see that the
Pandit broke his fast. Jagadananda sent Govinda back to rub the Master's
feet, and put Him to sleep. But He again bade Govinda go and see that
the Pandit was really eating! When Govinda reported the fact, then the
Master lay down in bed in peace of mind.


The Master's love-sickness for Krishna; His visions and transports of

The Master felt his separation from Krishna just as the milk-maids did
after Krishna had left Brinidabán for Mathura. Gradually He began to
break out in wild lamentations, even as Rádhá had talked in delirium on
meeting with Uddhav. Ever did the Master consider Himself as Radha, and
felt [and acted] like her. No wonder, for such is the course of
_divya-unmád_ (spiritual ecstasy).

One night when He was sleeping, He dreamt of Krishna in the _rása_
dance; the god was bending his body gracefully and playing on the flute,
wearing a yellow garment and garlands of flowers, and looking like the
picture of Love; the milkmaids were dancing in a circle, joining their
hands together, while in the centre Krishna frolicked with Radha. The
sight inspired the Master with the same mood; He felt that He was at
Brindában and had gained Krishna's company.

As He was late in rising, Govinda wakened Him; but He saddened when He
became conscious of the real world. After performing the necessary acts
of the morning He went to behold Jagannáth. He stood close to the image
of Garuda, while hundreds of thousands of worshippers thronged in front
of Him. An Oriya woman, unable to see the god on account of the crowd,
climbed upon the Garuda and rested one foot on the Master's shoulder.

Govinda saw it and hurriedly pushed her a way, but the Master forbade
him to make her dismount from His shoulder, saying, "Don't remove her.
Let her gaze at Jagannáth to her heart's content". The woman, however,
quickly got down on seeing the Master and fell at His feet. The Master
remarked, "Jagannáth has not inspired _me_ with this woman's passionate
longing for him. Her body mind and soul are so absorbed in the God that
she did not notice that she was treading on my shoulder! She is blessed.
Let me worship her feet that I too may have her intensity of devotion."

Sadly did the Master return home, and sitting down on the ground began
to draw lines on the floor with His finger-nails. Tears streamed from
His eyes and blinded His vision. "Alas!" He cried, "after gaining
Krishna, I have lost him. Who has taken away my Krishna? Where have I
come?" In His trances He quivered with delight; but when He regained
consciousness, He felt that He had lost His treasure, and sang and
danced like mad, though He went through His bath, dinner etc. by
mechanical habit.

The ten forms of love-sickness possessed Him day and night, never giving
Him rest. Rámánanda Ray by reciting verses [from Vidyápati, Chandidás
and _Git-Govinda_] and Swarup by singing songs on Krishna's acts,
brought the Master somewhat back to His senses. At midnight they laid
Him to bed in the inner room, and Rámánanda returned to his own house,
while Swarup and Govinda slept at the door. It was the Master's wont to
wake all night, loudly chanting Krishna's name. [To-night] noticing the
silence within, Swarup pushed the door open. He found the other three
doors [also] closed from within, but the Master was not in the room.
They became alarmed at His absence, lighted their lanterns, and went out
in search of Him.

They found the Master lying on an open space a little north of the
Lion-gate of the temple. His body was 5 or 6 cubits long; He was
unconscious and His breathing had ceased! Each arm and leg was three
cubits long and consisted only of bones and skin. His hands feet neck
and waist were disjointed from the trunk by half a cubit and the places
of junction were covered with the bare skin. He was foaming at the mouth
and His eyes were fixed in a deadly stare.

This sight of Him made the _bhaktas_ very life go out of their bodies.
Then Swarup with all the disciples loudly dinned the name of Krishna
into the Master's ears. After a long while the name entered His heart,
and He shouted _Hari-bol!_ He became conscious and His limbs were
joined to His trunk again, as before. This miracle of the Master has
been reported by Raghunath-das in his _Chaitanya-staba-kalpa-briksha_.
As Raghunath-das always lived with the Master, I accept as true and
write here what I have heard from him.

One day the Master, on the way to the sea, suddenly looked at the Chatak
hillock, and taking it to be the Govardhan hill, He ran towards it in
rapture with the speed of the wind. Govinda could not overtake Him.

A hue and cry was raised and there was a great bustle. Everyone ran up
from where he was,--Swarup, Jagadananda, Gadadhar, Rámái, Nandái, Nilái
Pandit, Shankar Puri, Bhárati Goswámi, all went to the sea-shore. The
lame Bhagabán Achárya hobbled slowly behind.

After running at first like the wind, the Master suddenly became stiff
on the way, unable to move further. Every pore of His skin swelled like
a boil, the hair stood on end on them like the _kadamba_ flower. Blood
ran out of His pores like sweat. His throat gurgled, not a syllable
could He utter. Ceaseless tears ran down both His cheeks He lost colour
and became death-pale like a conch-shell. Then a quivering burst over
His frame like a tempest on the bosom of the sea. Trembling, He fell
down on the ground, and then Govinda came up with Him, sprinkled Him
with water from the flask, and fanned Him with his sheet. Swarup and the
rest now arrived and all began to weep at the Master's plight. They
loudly sang the _kirtan_ in His hearing and sprinkled Him with cold
water. After they had done so many times, He rose up with the cry of
_Hari-bol!_ The Vaishnavs in delight shouted _Hari! Hari!_ The sound
of joy rose up from all sides. Half-conscious again, the Master
addressed Swarup, "You have brought me back from Govardhan to here. You
have snatched me away from viewing Krishna's lilá among the herds of
cows and calves, Radha and her handmaids, on Govardhan hill Why have you
brought me away thence, only to cause me grief?" So saying, He wept, and
the Vaishnavs wept at His plight.

Thus did the Master live at Niláchal, plunging day and night in the
ocean of grief at separation from Krishna. In the early autumn nights
radiant with the moon in a cloudless sky, He roamed up and down with His
disciples, visiting garden after garden in delight and reciting or
listening to the songs of _rása lilá_. At times, overcome with love, He
danced and sang; at other times He imitated the _rása lilá_ in that
mood; at times in a transport of passion He ran hither and thither, at
others He rolled on the ground in a faint. As soon as He recollected a
verse of the _rása lilá_ He expounded it.

I cannot describe all the acts He performed from day to day in these
twelve years [of residence at Puri], lest it should make my poem too

While rambling thus, the Master one night suddenly caught a sight of the
sea from _Ai-tota_. The moonlight silvered the heaving billows they
sparkled like the water of the Jamuna. Unseen by others, the Master went
to the sea and leaped into it. He fainted and knew not what He was
doing;--the waves now sank Him, now floated Him; on the waves He was
carried about like a dry tree-trunk. On the waves He drifted towards
Konárak, now under water, now above it,--and he dreamt all the time of
Krishna sporting in the Jamuna with the milkmaids.

In the meantime, Swarup and other followers were startled when they
missed Him. Uncertain whither He had gone, to the Jagannáth or any other
temple, to some other garden, the _Gundichá_ house or the Narendra
tank, to the Chatak hill or to Konárak,--they searched for Him
everywhere. A party of them came to the beach and there walked, looking
out for Him, till near daybreak, when they concluded that He had
disappeared from the earth. They all thought that the worst had

They took counsel on the beach, and some of them went towards the
Chiráyu hill, while Swarup moved east wards with a party searching for
the Master in the sea-water. Overwhelmed with sorrow, almost out of
their senses, they still walked on searching for Him in their love.

They met a fisherman coming towards them with his net on his shoulders,
laughing weeping dancing and singing "Hari! Hari!" Swarup questioned him
in surprise, "Tell us, fisherman, have you met a man on this side? Why
are you in this mood?" The fisherman answered, "I have not seen any man
here. But a dead body was caught in my net, and I carefully dragged it
ashore, thinking it to be a big fish. The sight of a corpse frightened
me, and when I was clearing my net I happened to touch it. At once the
spirit of the dead entered my body, striking me with tremor, weeping,
choking of voice, and bristling up of hair. It lay stiff as a corpse,
with a fixed stare in the eyes, but at times it groaned, at others
remained inert. If I die of the possession of this ghost, how will my
wife and children live? If I can find an exorcist, he will expel the
evil spirit from me. I work at my trade of catching fish alone at night,
but no ghost can seize me as I remember the god Nrisingha. This ghost,
however, holds me with a double grip when I repeat Nrisingha's name.
Don't go there, I advise you, lest this ghost should possess you, too."

From these words, Swarup understood it all, and told the fisherman
gently, "I am a great ghost-doctor, and I know how to lay spirits." He
uttered some verses, laid his hand on the fisherman's head, gave him
three slaps, and cried out "The evil spirit has left you. Fear no more."
The man now became a little composed. Swarup reassured him, "He whom you
have taken for an evil spirit, is no ghost, but the Lord Sri
Krishna-Chaitanya. In a transport of love He had jumped into the sea.
Him have you raised in your net. His touch has thrilled you with
Krishna's love, which you have mistaken for the possession of a ghost.
Now that your fear is gone and your mind has been calmed, show me where
you have landed Him."

The fisherman said, "I have often beheld the Master. It cannot be He; it
is more than man's size."

The fisherman led them all to the place. They beheld Him lying on the
ground, huge-bodied, pale-skinned from immersion in water, coated with
sea-sand. His limbs were abnormally long, loose and with the skin
flapping. Over such a long path they could not carry Him home; so they
removed His wet loin-cloth and put a dry one on Him, and laid Him down
on a sheet of cloth after brushing away the sand. Then they lifted up
the chant of Krishna's _kirtan_ and poured it into His ears. After a
time the word entered His brain and He leaped up with a roar; His limbs
were rejoined and returned to their proper places. Half-unconscious
still, He looked hither and thither [in perplexity]. He spoke, as if
from the sky, "Beholding the Jamuna [in the ocean] I went to Brindában,
and there found Braja's darling sporting in the water; with Radha and
the other milkmaids. I stood on the bank gazing on the scene, while one
of the _sakhis_ (female comrades of Radha) pointed out the mysteries to
me. [A long but highly poetical description, _not translated_.]
Krishna, Radha, and their companions rose from the water, dressed
themselves, partook of a rich picnic, and all retired to sleep. My heart
was filled with bliss at the sight. Just then you caught hold of me, and
with a great noise brought me here. Ah! where is the Jamuna, where
Brindában, where Krishna, and where the milkmaids? You have destroyed
that bliss!"

Then Swarup made Him bathe [in the sea] and brought Him home, to the
delight of all.


The Master's last year on earth

Thus did the Master in love-madness for Krishna lament night and day.
Jagadananda Pandit was very dear unto Him, and was every year sent by
Him to Nadia to console his forlorn mother Shachi. "Go to Nadia", so the
Master charged Jagadananda, "convey my salutation to mother, touch her
feet on my behalf. Tell her to remember that I go there daily (in the
spirit) to bow to her. That I have taken the _sannyasi's_ vow leaving
her service only shows that I am mad and have really undone all
_dharma_. Mother! pardon this fault of mine. I am obedient to thee, I
am thy son. It is at thy bidding that I am living at Niláchal. I cannot
leave thee while life remains to me." The Master presented to His mother
(at the Puri's suggestion) the consecrated cloth that He had received at
the _Gopa-lilá_ with choice _prasád_ of Jagannáth. He was the crowning
example of filial piety, for even though a _sannyasi_ He served His

After receiving an enigmatic message in verse from the Acharya Goswámi
(of Shantipur) through Jagadananda when he returned to Puri, the Master
plunged into a deeper trance. His ecstasy at Krishna-separation was
doubled. He raved frantically day and night, identifying Himself with
Radha. Suddenly imagining that Krishna was leaving Brindában for
Mathura, He (in the character of Radha) was seized with dizziness and
developed madness, mourning deliriously while clasping the neck of
Rámánanda and addressing Swarup as one of the _sakhis_ (i.e., Radha's
companions). He repeated the verse which Radha had spoken to Vishákhá
(her handmaid) and held forth on it.

Thus did Gauránga weep, saying, "Alas! alas for Krishna! where hast thou
gone?" Swarup and Rámánanda consoled Him in many ways, singing joyous
songs, which calmed Him a little.

These lamentations were carried on to midnight. Then Swarup laid the
Master to bed in His room. Rámánanda left for his home, and Govinda lay
down at the door of the room. Love for Krishna was thrilling the
Master's heart; He awoke and began to sing the Name; the pang of
separation convulsed His heart, and He began to rub His face against the
wall; His face, cheeks, nose were all lacerated, but in the vehemence of
ecstasy He knew not of the blood streaming down.

All night He battered His face thus. Swarup, noticing the groaning
sound, lighted a lamp, entered the room and saw His face. In intense
grief the two brought Him back to His bed and soothed Him. Swarup asked,
"Why didst thou do this?" The Master answered, "I could not contain
myself in the room in my [love] anxiety. I rushed in search of the door
in order to go out very soon. I could not find the door and only knocked
my face against the four walls. It was torn, it bled, but still I could
not go out."

Then, Swarup in anxiety took counsel of the other _bhaktas_ next day
and made Shankar Pandit sleep in the Master's room, nursing His feet. In
fear of Shankar He could not leave the room nor knock His face against
the walls. These feats Raghunath-das has described in his

One _Baishakh_ night, when it was full moon, the Master went with His
_bhaktas_ to visit the great Jagannáth-vallabh park. The trees and
creepers were in full bloom as at Brindában, the green parrots, bees and
cuckoos were discoursing [love]. The Zephyr was blowing laden the scent
of flowers, and freshening made the tree-tops dance. Under the bright
moonlight the plants and creepers blazed in a silvery sheen. Spring
pervaded the atmosphere. The sight threw the Master into a rapture. He
bade the stanza _Lalita labanga latá_ [of the _Git-Govinda_, canto ix.
verse 6] be sung, and moved up and down dancing with His followers.
Passing thus from tree to tree, He came under an _Ashoka_ tree and lo!
he beheld Krishna standing there. He rushed to meet Krishna, who
disappeared laughing. The Master, losing Krishna after having caught
sight of him, fell down in a faint. The odour of Krishna's person filled
the garden; it took away the Master's senses, it maddened Him, and He
began to sing and hold forth on the verses that Radha, enamoured of the
scent of Krishna's body, had addressed to her _sakhi_.

Swarup and Rámánanda sang, the Master danced in rapture, and thus the
night wore on to dawn.


Thrilled with delight, the Master spoke, "Listen, Swarup and Rámánanda
Ray! the supreme healer in this iron age is _sankirtan of the Name_. It
is [equivalent to] the Vedic sacrifice, and the true sacrificer in it is
rewarded with Krishna's feet. Sankirtan enables us to conquer sin and
the world; it creates purity of soul, all kinds of _bhakti_ and
devotional practice. Chant the Name at meals, in bed, here there and
every where. It is not restricted to a particular place or time, it
works everywhere. It bears the name of _sarva-shakti_ (omnipotent).

"Listen, Rámánanda, to the way in which the Name should be recited in
order to conceive a passion for it. The devotee, if high of rank, should
regard himself as lowly like the grass. He should learn patience from
the tree, which does not cry out even when it is cut down and which does
not beg for water even when it is perishing of drought, but on the other
hand gives away its possessions to all who ask of it, bears sun and rain
itself but protects others from them. The Vaishnav, however high, should
be free from pride; he should venerate all forms of life as animated by
Krishna. Take Krishna's Name thus, and you will be inspired with

As He spoke He was filled with growing meekness of spirit and began to
beg for pure _bhakti_ at Krishna's hands. The true devotee, as is the
law of love, holds that he has not even a particle of faith in Krishna!
_"Lord! I ask not for wealth or followers or the gift of poesy. Give me
in birth after birth only unreasoning instinctive devotion to God."_

In utter lowliness of spirit He proclaimed Himself a worldly-minded
creature and prayed to be inspired with a slave's devotion (_dásya
bhakti_). _"O Nanda's son! Have pity on this thy servant sunk in the
dread ocean (of the World)! Look on me as a particle of dust on thy
lotus-feet!"_ Next, He was seized with the anxiety of humility and
begged of Krishna, "Without the wealth of thy love my life is poor and
futile. Make me thy slave and give me the treasure of thy love as my

Then came the mood of melancholy-humility: _"My eyes are running with
tears like the rainy sky. A moment is as long to me as an aeon. The
absence of Govinda (Krishna) has made the universe empty to me!"_

In this way He recited His own eight Sanskrit verses on the different
moods of _bhakti_ and expounded them all. For twelve years He thus
tasted the sweets of Krishna-love day and night with His two friends.
These acts of His are endless, even a thousand narratives cannot arrive
at their end. Therefore, I bow my head and conclude His _lilás_ here. I
bow at the feet of all my Vaishnav hearers and end my history of
Chaitanya's acts.

The last scene (translated from the _Chaitanya-mangal_ of Jayananda, p.

When dancing at the Bijayá of the Car festival in the month of Ashárh,
His left toe was suddenly pierced by a brick [lying on the road]. When
Adwaita left for Bengal, the Master secretly told him [of His coming
disappearance]. With all His followers He sported in the water of the
Narendra tank [for the last time]. On the sixth day of the moon, the
pain in His toe grew severer, and He was forced to take to His bed in
the garden. Here He told the Pandit Goswámi that He would leave the
earth next night at 10 o clock. Celestial garlands of many-coloured
flowers were thrown on Him from the unseen. Celestial singers
(_vidyádhar_) began to dance on the highway. The gods began to cry out,
"Bring the heavenly chariot!" The Master mounted into Vishnu's car with
the figure of Garuda on its spire. His material body lay behind on the
earth, while He went to Vaikuntha (Vishnu's heaven). Many of His
servants killed themselves by serpent-bite. Meteors and thunderbolts
fell on the earth. At the news Nityánanda and Adwaita Acharya,
Vishnupriya and Shachi swooned away. Purushottam and other servitors of
the Master grew speechless at His departure.

Nityánanda consoled the disciples and vowed before them, "We will keep
the Name alive. We will make all men down to the Chandáls, Vaishnavs. We
will not differentiate [low] castes like the Chandáls or Muslims, but
will give them all love and _bhakti_ and make them all dance [with us]
at _kirtan_. We will make the realms of Bengal and Orissa blessed." The
Vaishnavs shouted applause at his words.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Chaitanya's Life And Teachings - From his contemporary Begali biography the Chaitanya-charit-amrita" ***

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