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Title: Business English - A Practice Book
Author: Buhlig, Rose
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Business English - A Practice Book" ***

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A Practice Book



Tilden High School, Chicago

D. C. Heath & Co., Publishers
Boston    New York    Chicago

Copyright, 1914,
By D. C. Heath & Co.


THE author of this book and the writer of this preface have never met.
Their respective fields of labor are a thousand miles apart. Yet such is
the force of ideas that many of their thoughts and sympathies are

Business English! The very name is an anomaly. From a literary point of
view there is no such thing. English is English whether it be used to
express the creations of our imagination, our aesthetic appreciations,
or our daily wants. There is no magical combination of words, phrases,
and sentences that is peculiar and distinctive to business transactions.
Business English as used in these pages means effective communication,
both oral and written. The author's aim throughout has been to teach the
art of using words in such a way as to make people think and act. To do
this she has applied the principles of literary composition to the
highly complex and ever increasing problems of our business life. She
realizes that business is vital, and that the problems of commerce are
not to be met and handled with dead forms and stereotyped expressions of
legal blanks.

To use our language effectively it is necessary to have an understanding
of its elements. Thus the author has very wisely devoted much space to
word-study and English grammar. This is a field commonly neglected in
books on the subject. The people engaged in business are, on the whole,
woefully weak in the grammar of our language. It is believed that the
treatment herein will be a great aid in correcting this deficiency. If
we have ideas, we must express them in words, and our words should be so
chosen and arranged as not to offend, but to please and interest. This
result can be secured by a systematic study of Part I.

Part II deals with oral and written composition. Here the author has
arranged her subjects in such a way as to give the whole a cumulative
effect. The method throughout is inductive, and sufficient examples are
always given to warrant the conclusions drawn. Most textbooks on
Business English neglect the subject of oral English. This book regards
the spoken word as important as the written word.

If there be any one feature in this textbook more to be commended than
another, it is the exposition in Part III. The situations arising in
many different kinds of business are here analyzed. The author believes
that the way to become a good business correspondent is, first, to learn
what the situation demands and, second, to practice meeting the demands.
We must know before we write. Given a knowledge of the subject, we must
have much practice in expressing ourselves in such a way as to make our
composition effective. The author meets this need by supplying many and
varied exercises for practice. These exercises are live, practical, and
up-to-date. The problems to be solved are real, not imaginary. Thus the
power to be gained in meeting these situations and solving these
problems will prove a real asset to those who contemplate a business
career. It is confidently hoped that both teachers and pupils will find
in this work material which will help them to prepare themselves to meet
the many problems and demands of our growing commercial needs.

                                   DANIEL B. DUNCAN

          _January, 1914._



  CHAPTER                                      PAGE

      I INTERESTING WORDS                        1
     II PRONUNCIATION                            7
    III SPELLING RULES                          18
     IV WORD ANALYSIS                           29
     VI THE NOUN AND THE PRONOUN                57
   VIII THE VERB                                83


      X ORAL ENGLISH                           127
     XI CHOOSING SUBJECTS                      146
    XII PUNCTUATION                            158
   XIII THE CLEAR SENTENCE                     199
    XIV THE PARAGRAPH                          215
     XV BUSINESS LETTERS                       229


    XVI MANUFACTURE                            270
   XVII DISTRIBUTION                           282
  XVIII ADVERTISING                            308
    XIX REAL ESTATE AND INSURANCE              321
     XX BANKING                                332
    XXI THE CORPORATION                        353

  INDEX                                        369





BUSINESS English is the expression of our commercial life in English. It
is not synonymous with letter writing. To be sure, business letters are
important, but they form only a part of one of the two large divisions
into which the subject naturally falls.

First, there is _oral expression_, important because so many of our
business transactions are conducted personally. Thousands of salesmen
daily move from place to place over the entire country, earning their
salaries by talking convincingly of the goods that they have to sell. A
still greater number of clerks, salesmen, managers, and officials orally
transact business in our shops, stores, offices, and banks. Complaints
are adjusted; difficulties are disentangled; and affairs of magnitude
are consummated in personal interviews, the matter under discussion
often being thought too important to be entrusted to correspondence. In
every business oral English is essential.

Second, there is _written expression_. This takes account of the writing
of advertisements, circulars, booklets, and prospectuses, as well as of
letters. And in the preparation of these oral English is fundamental. It
precedes and practically includes the written expression. For example,
we say colloquially that a good advertisement "talks." We mean that the
writer has so fully realized the buyer's point of view that the words of
the advertisement seem to speak directly to the reader, arousing his
interest or perhaps answering his objection. Oral English is
fundamental, too, in the writing of letters, for most letters are
dictated and not written. The correspondent dictates them to his
stenographer or to a recording machine in the same tone, probably, that
he would use if the customer were sitting before him.

But in taking this point of view, we should not minimize the importance
of written business English. In a way, it is more difficult to write
well than it is to talk well. In talking we are not troubled with the
problems of correct spelling, proper punctuation, and good paragraphing.
We may even repeat somewhat, if only we are persuasive. But in writing
we are confronted with the necessity of putting the best thoughts into
the clearest, most concise language, at the same time obeying all the
rules of spelling, punctuation, and grammar. The business man must be
sure of these details in order to know that his letters and advertising
matter are correct. The stenographer, especially, must be thoroughly
familiar with them, so that she may correctly transcribe what has been

Business English is much the same as any other English. It consists in
expression by means of words, sentences, and paragraphs. Moreover, they
are much the same kind of words, sentences, and paragraphs that appear
in any book that is written in what is commonly called the literary
style. In a business letter the words are largely those of every day
use, and but few are technical. It is the manner in which the words are
put together, the idea back of the sentence, that makes the only

We shall begin the study of business English with a study of words, for
in all expression, whether oral or written, a knowledge of words, of
their meaning and suggestive power, is fundamental. On the choice of
words depends not only the correctness but also the effectiveness of
expression--the courtesy of a letter, the appeal of an advertisement,
the persuasiveness of a salesman's talk. A mastery of words cannot be
gained at once. Every time one speaks, he must consider what words will
best convey his idea. In this chapter only the barest beginning of such
study can be made. The exercises show the value of the subject.

The study of words is interesting because words themselves are
interesting. Sometimes the interest consists in the story of the
derivation. As an example, consider the word _italic_. Many words in
this book are written in italic to draw attention to them. Literally the
word means "relating to Italy or its people." It is now applied to a
kind of type in which the letters slope toward the right. The type was
called italic because it was dedicated to the states of Italy by the
inventor, Manutius, about the year 1500. An unabridged dictionary will
tell all about the word.

The word _salary_ tells a curious story. It is derived from a Latin
word, _salarium_, meaning "salt money." It was the name of the money
that was given to the Roman soldiers for salt, which was a part of their
pay. Finally, instead of signifying only the salt money, it came to mean
the total pay.

Practically all of this information a good dictionary gives. In other
words, a dictionary is a story book containing not one, but hundreds of
thousands of stories. Whenever possible it tells what language a word
came from, how it got its different meanings, and how those meanings
have changed in the course of time. For it is natural that words should
change just as styles change, names of ancient things being lost and
names for new things being made. As the objects themselves have gone out
of use, their names have also gone. When a word has gone entirely out of
use, it is marked _obsolete_ in the dictionary. On the other hand, new
inventions must be named. Thus new words are constantly being added to
the language and the dictionary because they are needed.

There is a large class of words that we shall not have time to
consider. They are called _technical_. Every profession, business, or
trade has its distinctive words. The technical words that a printer
would use are entirely different from those which a dentist, a
bookkeeper, or a lawyer would use. You will learn the technical terms of
your business most thoroughly after you enter it and see the use for
such terms.

None of the words, therefore, that you will be asked to search out in
the dictionary are, strictly speaking, technical. It is evident that it
will do you no good to search out the words in the dictionary, unless
you learn them--unless you use them correctly in speaking and writing.
There is pleasure in thus employing new material, as everybody knows.
Use your eyes and ears. When you hear a new word, or read one, focus the
mind upon it for a moment until you can retain a mental picture of its
spelling and of its pronunciation. Then as soon as possible look it up
in the dictionary to fix its spelling, pronunciation, and definition. Do
this regularly, and you will have reason to be proud of your vocabulary.

An excellent way to increase the number of words that you know is to
read the right kind of books. The careful study of the words used in the
speeches and addresses of noted men is good practice. The conditions
that called forth the speech were probably important, and the speech
itself interesting, or it would not be preserved. When a man has an
interesting or important message to give, he usually gives it in clear,
exact, simple language. Therefore the vocabulary that he uses is worth
copying. As for stories, there is a kind that furnishes a wealth of
material that modern authors are constantly using or referring to, and
this is found in stories of the Bible, stories of Greek and Northern
gods and goddesses, stories of the _Iliad_, the _Odyssey_, the _Æneid_,
stories of chivalry--all old stories. Every one should know them well,
because they are the basis of many allusions in which a single word
oftentimes suggests a whole story. The meaning of the word _herculean_,
for instance, is missed if you do not know the story of Hercules and
know that he was famous for his strength.

=Exercise 1=

_Atlas_ is an interesting word. Originally it was the name of a Greek
god, who carried the world on his shoulders. Then it is supposed that in
the sixteenth century the famous geographer Mercator prefixed his
collection of maps with the picture of Atlas supporting the world. Thus
a collection of maps in a volume came to be called an _atlas_. Consult
an unabridged dictionary for the origin of each of the following:

    rival       fortune     cereal      boycott
    dollar      finance     china       derrick
    bankrupt    milliner    java        mercury
    cash        pullman     cashmere    colossal
    mint        grocer      macadam     turbine

=Exercise 2=

The days of the week and the months of the year are interesting in their
derivation. Monday, for example, represents the day sacred to the Moon
as a deity. Explain the origin of each of the following:

    Sunday       Saturday     May          October
    Tuesday      January      June         November
    Wednesday    February     July         December
    Thursday     March        August
    Friday       April        September

=Exercise 3=

Look up the derivation of the following:

    cancel        bead          ambition      hospital
    pecuniary     paper         influence     pavilion
    cheat         book          virtue        mackintosh
    speculation   bayonet       peevish       chapel
    phaëton       tawdry        disaster      omnibus

=Exercise 4=

Explain the origin of each of the following:

    curfew        tulip         turquoise     good-bye
    pompadour     aster         amethyst      dismal
    hyacinth      dunce         tantalize     titanic
    dandelion     humor         umbrella      volcano
    dahlia        villain       sandwich      tangle
    begonia       echo          lunatic       babble

=Exercise 5=

Name the image that each of the following suggests to you:

    howl        sputter     rasping     munch
    skim        prance      clatter     trickle
    squeal      click       wheeze      shuffle
    moan        thud        trudge      bulge
    squeak      patter      chuckle     gobble
    squawk      spatter     toddling    swish

=Exercise 6=

Bring to class a list of words which, because they are the names of
modern inventions, have come into the language in modern time.

=Exercise 7=

How many words can you name which might be called the technical terms of
school life, words which always carry with them a suggestion of the
school room? Bring in a list of twenty such words.

=Exercise 8=

How many words can you name which are used only in the business world?
Bring in a list of twenty such words.

=Exercise 9=

How many words can you name which apply particularly to money and the
payment or non-payment of money? Bring in a list of twenty or more such



WE are judged by our speech. If we clip syllables, run words together,
or pronounce them incorrectly, we shall merit the criticism of being
careless or even ignorant. Yet clear enunciation and correct
pronunciation are sometimes difficult. We learn most words by hearing
others say them, and, if we do not hear the true values given to the
different syllables, we shall find it hard to distinguish the correct
from the incorrect forms. Children whose parents speak a foreign
language usually have to watch their speech with especial care; Germans,
for example, find difficulty in saying _th_ and Irish people in saying
_oi_ as in _oil_. The exercises in this chapter are given for the
purpose of correcting such habits. The words in the exercises should be
pronounced repeatedly, until the correct forms are instinctive.

Train the ear to hear the difference between sounds, as in _just_ and in
_jest_. Don't slide over the final consonant in such words as _going_
and _reading_. Watch words containing _wh_. The dictionary tells us that
_where_ was originally written _hwar_, the _h_ coming before the _w_;
and we still pronounce it so, although we write the _w_ before the _h_.
The word _whether_ is of the same kind. The dictionary tells us that it
was first spelled _hweder_. Such words should be carefully noted and
their pronunciation practiced.

Then there is the habit of slurring syllables. We may understand what is
meant by the expression "C'm' on" or "Waja say?", but most of us would
prefer not to be included in the class of people who use either. Correct
speech cannot be mastered without an effort.

In the following exercises watch every vowel and every consonant so that
you may give each one its full value.

=Exercise 10--Diacritical Marks=

Although an _a_ is always written _a_, it is not always given the same
quality or length of sound. When we discover a new word, it is important
that we know exactly the quality to give each of the vowels in it. For
this purpose _diacritical marks_ have been invented. They are
illustrated in the following list from Webster's _International

      ā   as in āte, fāte, lāb´or
     [+a] "  "  sen´[+a]te, del´ic[+a]te, [+a]e´rial
      â   "  "  câre, shâre, pâr´ent
      ă   "  "  ăm, ădd, răn´dom
      ä   "  "  ärm, fär, fä´ther
      ȧ   "  "  ȧsk, grȧss, pȧss, dȧnce
     [a=] "  "  fi´n[a=]l, in´f[a=]nt, guid´ānce
     [a:] "  "  [a:]ll, [a:]we, sw[a:]rm, t[a:]lk
      ē   "  "  ēve, mēte, serēne´
     [+e] "  "  [+e]vent´, d[+e]pend´, soci´[+e]ty
      ĕ   "  "  ĕnd, mĕt, ĕxcuse´, ĕfface´
      ẽ   "  "  fẽrn, hẽr, ẽr´mine, ev´ẽr
     _e_  "  "  re´c_e_nt, de´c_e_ncy, pru´d_e_nce
      ī   "  "  īce, tīme, sīght, inspīre´
     [+i] "  "  [+i]dea´, tr[+i]bu´nal, b[+i]ol´ogy
      ĭ   "  "  ĭll, pĭn, pĭt´y, admĭt´
      ō   "  "  ōld, nōte, ō´ver, prōpose´
     [+o] "  "  [+o]bey´, t[+o]bac´co, sor´r[+o]w
      ô   "  "  ôrb, lôrd, ôr´der, abhôr´
      ŏ   "  "  ŏdd, nŏt, tŏr´rid, ŏccur´
      ū   "  "  ūse, pūre, dū´ty, assūme´
     [+u] "  "  [+u]nite´, ac´t[+u]ate, ed[+u]ca´tion
      ṳ   "  "  rṳde, rṳ´mor, intrṳde´
      ụ   "  "  fụll, pụt, fụlfill´
      ŭ   "  "  ŭp, tŭb, stŭd´y
      û   "  "  ûrn, fûr, concûr´
     [)y] "  "  pit´[)y], in´jur[)y], divin´it[)y]
    [=oo] "  "  f[=oo]l, f[=oo]d, m[=oo]n
    [)oo] "  "  f[)oo]t, w[)oo]l, b[)oo]k
      ou  "  "  out, thou, devour´
      oi  "  "  oil, noi´sy, avoid´

    ā is called long _a_, and is marked with the _macron_
    ă is called short _a_, and is marked with the _breve_
    â is called caret _a_, and is marked with the _caret_
    ä is called Italian _a_, and is marked with the _diaeresis_
    ȧ  is called short Italian _a_, and is marked with the _dot_
    ẽ is called tilde _e_, and is marked with the _tilde_ or _wave_

=Exercise 11--Vowels=

Of the twenty-six letters in the alphabet, how many are vowels? Name
them. What are the other letters called?

Compare the _ă_ in _hat_ and the _ā_ in _hate_. Which has more nearly
the sound of _a_ in the alphabet? This is called the natural or long
sound of the vowel. The other is called the short sound.

Drop the _e_ from _hate_. Explain the result.

Name other monosyllables ending in _e_ and containing the long _a_

Explain the difference in pronunciation between _Pete_, _pet_, _ripe_,
_rip_, _hope_, _hop_, _cube_, _cub_.

Find other monosyllables ending in _e_ and containing a long vowel that
becomes short if the _e_ is dropped.

=Monosyllables ending in silent _e_ usually contain a long vowel sound,
which becomes short when the final _e_ is dropped.=

=Exercise 12=

Pronounce carefully the following words containing the short Italian

    advȧnce      clȧss      lȧnce     plȧster
    advȧntage    contrȧst   lȧst      pȧstor
    ȧfter        enchȧnt    mȧsk      prȧnce
    bȧsket       Frȧnce     mȧster    rȧfter
    brȧnch       glȧnce     mȧstiff   shȧft
    brȧss        glȧss      pȧss      surpȧss
    chȧff        grȧss      pȧst      tȧsk

=Exercise 13=

Pronounce the following carefully, noting each _a_ that is marked:

    hälf         ideȧ         cälm        audācious
    pȧth         cȧn't        āpricot      ȧghȧst
    ȧsk          cătch        mȧdrăs       ălgebrȧ
    fäther       v[+a]cātion  ăgile       forbăde
    dȧnce        extrȧ        cȧst         trȧnce
    lȧss         cȧsket       grȧnt        āviātion

=Exercise 14=

Pronounce the vowel _o_ in the following very carefully. Don't give the
sound _feller_ or _fella_ when you mean _fellow_.

    fellow      swallow     theory      borrow
    potato      follow      position    heroism
    window      original    factory     donkey
    pillow      evaporate   ivory       memory
    chocolate   mosquito    licorice    oriental

=Exercise 15=

The vowel _u_ needs particular attention. When it is long, it is sounded
naturally, as it is in the alphabet. Do not say _redooce_ for _reduce_.

    reduce         picture        educate        figure
    produce        stupid         judicial       duty
    conducive      student        calculate      accumulate
    endure         genuine        curiosity      Tuesday
    duration       induce         regular        particular
    singular       avenue         tune           institute
    nutriment      constitution   culinary       January
    revenue        introduce      opportunity    manufacture

=Exercise 16=

Using diacritical marks indicate the value of the vowels in the
following. Try marking them without first consulting a dictionary. After
you have marked them, compare your markings with those used in a

    pupil         different     diacritical   gigantic
    alphabet      several       radiating     gymnasium
    natural       letter        Wyoming       system
    result        eraser        typical       merchant

=Exercise 17=

Pronounce carefully, noting that in each word at least one consonant is
silent, and sometimes a vowel as well. Draw an oblique line through the
silent letter or letters in each.

    through     chasten    sword       island
    although    often       fasten      daughter
    wrong       soften      calf        might
    yacht       subtle      hasten      bouquet
    gnaw        almond      naughty     honest
    psalm       glisten     thumb       palm
    whistle     salve       should      knack
    salmon      chestnut    knowledge   castle
    answer      folks       listen      thigh
    knot        right       debt        honor

=Exercise 18=

Pronounce the following, paying particular attention to the vowels.
Distinguish between the meanings of the words in each group.

    accept     bile       least      prevision
    except     boil       lest       provision

    affect     carol      eleven     poor
    effect     coral      leaven     pure

    addition   descent    neither    radish
    edition    dissent    nether     reddish

    assay      emerge     pasture    sentry
    essay      immerge    pastor     century

    baron      Francis    pillar     sit
    barren     Frances    pillow     set

    been       jest       point      wrench
    bean       just       pint       rinse

=Exercise 19=

Enunciate the consonant sounds carefully in the following. Distinguish
between the meanings of the words in each group.

    acts         close        treaties     rows
    ax           clothes      treatise     rouse

    advice       crossed      princes      rues
    advise       across       princess     ruse

    alms         formerly     prince       either
    elms         formally     prints       ether

    bodice       grays        price        running
    bodies       grace        prize        ruin

    cease        lose         recent       walking
    seize        loose        resent       walk in

    chance       plaintive    sects        weather
    chants       plaintiff    sex          whether

    does         pair         news         worst
    dose         payer        noose        worsted (yarn)

=Exercise 20=

Pronounce the following, making sure that each syllable is correct.
Guard against slurring the words in the last column.

    been       such       barrel     Did you?
    gone       put        faucet     Don't you?
    to         with       suburb     Go on.
    for        tiny       hearth     Our education
    aunt       and        nothing    You are
    far        poem       office     You're not
    our        catch      peril      We're coming
    kept       toward     forbade    They're coming
    says       donkey     spirit     What did you say?
    rid        again      semi       Where are you going?
    since      against    scared     Where have you been?
    sleek      honest     saucy      I want to go.
    creek      savage     turnip     I'm going to go.
    where      swept      roof       To-morrow morning
    boil       velvet     proof      Next month
    hoist      direct     hydrant    Last Saturday

=Exercise 21=

Enunciate carefully:

    salary        gentleman     supple        gymnasium
    because       library       subtle        perspiration
    ideal         wrestle       italic        clapboards
    suite         vessel        insect        cupboard
    thirty        friendship    orchid        archangel
    tomato        judgment      hovel         candelabra
    grimy         cowardice     several       extraordinary
    patron        miserable     pumpkin       civilization
    omelet        guarantee     accurate      horseshoe
    hundred       gelatine      guardian      laboratory
    coupon        glycerine     delinquent    tenacious
    awkward       paraffine     secretary     measure
    hurrah        portrait      audacious     February
    pigeon        mercantile    conquer       cellar
    history       juvenile      conquest      perfect
    diamond       thousand      congress      grandmother
    asylum        overalls      licorice      generally

=Exercise 22=

Be especially careful of the sounds _th_ and _wh_. Add no syllable to a
word and omit none. Consult a dictionary for any word below about which
you are not certain:

    when          length        diphthong     generally
    where         strength      diphtheria    forget
    while         height        anesthetic    recognize
    wharf         width         betrothal     hungry
    which         depth         theory        geography
    wheel         there         theme         instead
    wheeze        them          arithmetic    isolated
    why           eleventh      bathe         writing
    whiff         twelfth       lathe         kettle
    whence        thought       believe       language
    whet          throat        bronchitis    leisure
    what          wreaths       government    volume
    whale         paths         courteous     column
    wheat         months        different     always
    wheedle       mouths        engine        once
    whelp         myths         English       twice
    whimper       breadths      surprise      arctic
    whip          moths         deaf          Italian
    whit          bath          children      picture
    whither       earth         cruel         often

=Exercise 23--Homonyms=

A homonym is a word having the same sound as another but differing from
it in meaning. Use each of the following in a sentence to show its

    aloud         draft         fowl          principal
    allowed       draught       foul          principle

    ascent        faint         gate          peal
    assent        feint         gait          peel

    aught         canvas        great         quire
    ought         canvass       grate         choir

    bad           cereal        hew           seen
    bade          serial        hue           scene

    bale          cession       kernel        soul
    bail          session       colonel       sole

    berry         cite          leased        strait
    bury          site          least         straight

    boy           coarse        lesser        stair
    buoy          course        lessor        stare

    by            compliment    mite          sweet
    buy           complement    might         suite

    council       feign         miner         there
    counsel       fain          minor         their

    current       flour         need          wood
    currant       flower        knead         would

=Exercise 24=

Do the same with the following:

    aisle         clause        kill          sail
    isle          claws         kiln          sale
    awl           climb         key           ring
    all           clime         quay          wring

    base          draught       lie           serge
    bass          draft         lye           surge

    blew          dew           medal         sole
    blue          due           meddle        soul

    bough         done          peer          shone
    bow           dun           pier          shown

    bread         dual          pore          steel
    bred          duel          pour          steal

    bear          flue          profit        stationary
    bare          flew          prophet       stationery

    bridal        freeze        quarts        wade
    bridle        frieze        quartz        weighed

    capital       guilt         rest          wave
    capitol       gilt          wrest         waive

    ceiling       heard         root          wrap
    sealing       herd          route         rap

=Exercise 25--Syllabication=

What is a syllable?

Choose a word and notice that every vowel sound in it makes a syllable.
Therefore, you never have two vowels in one syllable unless the two are
pronounced as one sound.

In pronouncing notice carefully to which syllable a consonant belongs;
as in _dif-fer-ent_, _beau-ti-fy_, _dai-sy_.

Divide the following words into syllables. If you cannot decide with
which syllable a consonant belongs, consult a dictionary.

    paper      grocer     rotate     mystery
    tomato     erect      repeat     regular
    vinegar    polish     general    arithmetic

If a syllable, especially an accented syllable, ends in a vowel, what is
usually the length of the vowel?

If the syllable ends in a consonant, what is usually the length of the
vowel of the syllable?

When a consonant is doubled, the division is usually made between the
two letters; as,

    blot-ter            skip-ping           remit-tance
    neces-sary          throt-tle           span-ning

As a rule, a prefix constitutes one syllable; as,

    pro-long    pre-fer    con-stant   de-fect     ad-mit
    re-ceive    se-lect    dis-trust   e-merge     im-merse

As a rule, a suffix constitutes one syllable; as,

    labor-er          soft-ly           beauti-fy         selec-tion
    mole-cule         revolution-ist    percent-age       fanat-ic

When two or more letters together give one sound, they must not be
divided; as,

    math-ematics     ex-change        paragraph-ing    abolish-ing
    bow-ing          toil-ing         nation-al        gra-cious

Can a word of one syllable be divided?

Do not divide a syllable of one letter from the rest of the word. The
division _ever-y_ is wrong.

=Exercise 26=

Divide the following words into syllables, using the suggestions given
in the preceding exercise:

    accountant        dissatisfaction   manufacturer      reference
    advertisement     economy           material          repeatedly
    anecdote          employment        mechanical        salesman
    annually          energetic         neighborhood      security
    application       environment       occupation        separate
    automobile        especially        opportunity       signature
    beginning         establishment     organized         specification
    collection        expenditure       permanent         stenography
    comparison        factory           preparation       suburban
    competent         furniture         president         superintend
    confirmation      illustration      quotation         systematic
    consequence       impression        realize           telephone
    correspondence    improvement       receptacle        treasurer
    counterfeit       judgment          recognition       unanimous
    customer          machinist         recommend         unusual

=Exercise 27--Accent=

What is accent?

Divide into syllables, indicate the accent, and pronounce the following:

    expand        volume        defect        interesting
    mischievous   usually       incomparable  theatre
    exquisite     tedious       hospitable    generally
    column        inquiry       impious

In the following words the meaning changes with the accent. Use each
word in a sentence to show its meaning.

    ob´ject    subject    contrast   desert
    ob-ject´   insult     protest    extract
    tor´ment   essay      conflict   compact
    tor-ment´  transfer   compound   survey
    minute (notice the vowel change)
    refuse (notice the consonant change)

Bring to class a list of words that you have heard mispronounced in your
classes. Be sure that you can pronounce them correctly.

=Exercise 28=

The following words are frequently mispronounced. Divide them into
syllables, mark the accent, and pronounce carefully.

    municipal     exquisite     champion      accurately
    interesting   gondola       inquiry       Genoa
    influence     finance       inexplicable  alias
    illustrate    deficit       despicable    expert
    inventory     pretense      mischievous   impious
    alternate     dirigible     perfume       detail



=Exercise 29--Plurals of Nouns=

    (_a_) dress, dresses      (_b_) chair, chairs
    splash, splashes               wave, waves
    business, businesses           book, books
    church, churches               pencil, pencils
    fox, foxes                     paper, papers

The usual way of forming the plural of English nouns is illustrated by
the words in column (_b_) above. What is it?

If you add _s_ to the singular form _dress_, could you distinguish the
pronunciation of the plural from the pronunciation of the singular? Does
this suggest a reason for adding _es_ to form the plural?

How many syllables must you use to pronounce the plural of fox? Does
this suggest another reason for adding _es_ to form the plural?

Every word that ends in a sibilant or hissing sound (_ch_, _s_, _sh_,
_ss_, _x_, _z_) forms its plural like _fox_. Give several illustrations.

=Rule 1.--Nouns regularly form the plural by adding _s_, but those
ending in a sibilant must add_es_.=

=Exercise 30=

    (_a_) lady, ladies       (_b_) valley, valleys
    ally, allies                  alley, alleys
    soliloquy, soliloquies        journey, journeys

Name five words belonging to group (_a_) above. Does a vowel or a
consonant precede the _y_ in each case?

Name other words belonging to the group (_b_) above. Does a vowel or a
consonant precede the _y_ in each case?

=Rule 2.--Nouns ending in _y_ preceded by a consonant (and nouns ending
in _quy_) form the plural by changing _y_ to _i_ and adding _es_.=

=Exercise 31--Words ending in o=


    potato, potatoes      hero, heroes          mulatto, mulattoes
    tomato, tomatoes      buffalo, buffaloes    cargo, cargoes
    negro, negroes        echo, echoes          motto, mottoes


    solo, solos           piano, pianos         memento, mementos
    halo, halos           lasso, lassos         canto, cantos
    zero, zeros           quarto, quartos       soprano, sopranos
                          stilletto, stillettos

The older English words ending in _o_ form the plural by adding _es_, as
in potatoes; those more recently taken into the language form the plural
by adding _s_, as in quartos.

=Exercise 32--Nouns in f and fe=

    leaf, leaves      calf, calves      wife, wives
    loaf, loaves      sheaf, sheaves    shelf, shelves
    half, halves      wolf, wolves      elf, elves
    life, lives       beef, beeves      wharf, wharves (or wharfs)
    self, selves      knife, knives

With the exception of the words given above, nouns ending in an _f_
sound form the plural in the regular way; as,

    hoof, hoofs     scarf, scarfs   beliefs, beliefs
    chief, chiefs   reef, reefs     grief, griefs

=Exercise 33--Irregular Plurals=

Some nouns form their plural by a change of vowel; as,

    man     men         foot    feet
    woman   women       tooth   teeth
    goose   geese       mouse   mice

A few words retain the old time plural _en_; as,

              brother brethren
    child   children        ox      oxen

A few words are the same in both singular and plural; as,

    sheep, trout, deer

Some nouns have two plurals which differ in meaning; as,

    _Singular_                _Plural_
    brother                brothers  brethren
    penny                  pennies   pence
    pea                    peas      pease
    die                    dies      dice

Consult a dictionary for the difference in meaning between the two
plurals of each word.

=Exercise 34--Compound Nouns=

    _Singular_                _Plural_
    brother-in-law         brothers-in-law
    father-in-law          fathers-in-law
    court-martial          courts-martial
    commander-in-chief     commanders-in-chief
    man-of-war             men-of-war
    major general          major generals
    goose quill            goose quills
    bill of fare           bills of fare
    spoonful               spoonfuls
    cupful                 cupfuls

=Rule 3.--Compound nouns usually add the sign of the plural to the
fundamental part of the word.=

      NOTE.--In _spoonfuls_ the thought is of one spoon many
      times full.

=Plural of Letters and Figures=

=Rule 4.--Letters and figures form the plural by adding the apostrophe
(') and _s_; as,=

    a  a's        3  3's
    w  w's        5  5's

The same rule applies to the plural of words which ordinarily have no
plural; as,

    Don't use so many _and's_ and _if's_.

=Exercise 35--Foreign Plurals=

Some nouns derived from foreign languages retain their original plural.
The following are in common use.

Consult a dictionary for their pronunciation and definition.

    _Singular_     _Plural_     _Singular_     _Plural_

    crisis        crises        stratum       strata
    thesis        theses        radius        radii
    hypothesis    hypotheses    parenthesis   parentheses
    focus         foci          synopsis      synopses
    datum         data          basis         bases
    alumnus       alumni        automaton     automata
    alumna        alumnae       analysis      analyses
    oasis         oases         nucleus       nuclei
    axis          axes          phenomenon    phenomena
    genus         genera

Some words admit of two plurals, one the foreign plural, and one the
regular English plural; as,

    _Singular_         _Plural_

    beau          beaux       beaus
    formula       formulae    formulas
    vertex        vertices    vertexes
    index         indices     indexes
    cherub        cherubim    cherubs
    seraph        seraphim    seraphs
    bandit        banditti    bandits

Consult a dictionary to see whether there is any difference of meaning
between the two plurals of these words.

=Exercise 36--The Formation of Participles=

    _Rap_, _rapping_, _rapped_      _Reap_, _reaping_, _reaped_

_Rap_ is a monosyllable ending in a single consonant preceded by a
single vowel. The final consonant in such words is doubled before a
suffix beginning with a vowel is added.

In _reap_ the final consonant is not doubled because it is preceded by
two vowels.

Make the participles of the following verbs:

    chat    lap     suit    step
    cheat   leap    sit     steep
    rot     train   sop     trot
    root    trim    soap    treat

    _Trap_, _trapping_, _trapped_    _Track_, _tracking_, _tracked_

Why is the final consonant in _trap_ doubled before _ing_ or _ed_ is

The final consonant in _track_ is not doubled because _track_ ends with
two consonants.

    _Pin_, _pinning_        _Pine_, _pining_

_Pine_ drops the silent _e_ because the tendency in English is to drop
endings that are not needed for pronunciation before adding a suffix
beginning with a vowel.

Form the participles of the following verbs:

    knot    rob     flop
    note    robe    elope
    deal    swim    quit    (_u_ is not here a vowel)
    clap    strike  crawl   (_w_ is here a vowel)
    stop    oil     wax     (_x_ equals _cks_)
    peal    rush    bow     (_w_ is here a vowel)

=Exercise 37=

Exercise 36 applies also to words of more than one syllable accented on
the last syllable, if they retain the accent on the same syllable after
the suffix is added. Thus we have

=Rule 5.--Monosyllables or words accented on the last syllable, ending
in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, double the final
consonant before adding a suffix beginning with a vowel.=

Form participles from the following words that are accented on the last

    prefer        intervene     escape        expel
    refer         reveal        acquire       contain
    occur         repeal        secure        forbid
    permit        pursue        conceal       incur
    interfere     erase         arrange       forget
    retain        control       acquit        repel

Form participles from the following words not accented on the last

    benefit   travel    marvel    shelter
    revel     answer    exhibit   render
    quarrel   profit    shovel    limit

Words in which the accent changes do not double the final consonant
before adding a suffix beginning with a vowel; as,

    confer    conference         infer     inference
    refer     reference          prefer    preferable

Explain why the final consonant is _not_ doubled in each of the
following words:

    neglect     neglecting      lean        leaning
    prefer      preference      select      selecting
    creep       creeping        receipt     receipting
    wonder      wondering       answer      answering

=Exercise 38=

=Rule 6.--In forming the present participle of verbs ending in _y_,
retain the _y_ before adding _ing_; as,=

    study     studying          obey      obeying
    carry     carrying          convey    conveying
    pity      pitying

In forming the perfect participle, if in the present tense the _y_ is
preceded by a consonant, the _y_ is changed to _i_ and _ed_ added; if
the _y_ is preceded by a vowel, the _y_ is retained; as,

    study     studied   carry     carried   pity      pitied


    obey      obeyed    convey    conveyed

Compare with Rule 2.

=Exercise 39=

=Rule 7.--In words containing a long _e_ sound spelled either _ie_ or
_ei_, _ei_ follows _c_; _ie_ follows one of the other consonants; as,=

    _ei_                    _ie_
    deceive          relieve     siege
    perceive         believe     yield
    receive          belief      grief
    conceive         chief       field
    conceit          priest      piece
    receipt          niece       wield
                     reprieve    lien

_Exceptions._--Either, neither, weird, seize, leisure.

The following couplet may help in remembering when to write _ie_ and
when to write _ei_:

    When the letter _c_ you spy,
    Put the _e_ before the _i_.

=Exercise 40--The Pronunciation of _c_ and _g_=

The letter _c_ is pronounced sometimes like _s_ and sometimes like _k_.

What sound does _c_ have before _a_? Illustrate.

Before _e_? Illustrate.

Before _i_? Illustrate.

Before _o_? Illustrate.

Before _u_? Illustrate.

Before _y_? Illustrate.

If _c_ is pronounced like _k_, it is called hard and is marked _[\c]_.

If _c_ is pronounced like _s_, it is called soft and is marked _ç_. The
mark used to indicate the soft _c_ is called the _cedilla_.

Make a statement telling when _c_ is hard and when it is soft.

What sound does _g_ have before each of the vowels, as in _game_,
_gone_, _gymnasium_, _Gunther_, _gentle_?

=Rule 8.--_C_ and _g_ usually are soft before _e_, _i_, and _y_.=

=Exercise 41=

Words ending in silent _e_, according to Rule 5, drop the _e_ before a
suffix beginning with a vowel. Exceptions occur when the _e_ is needed
to preserve the soft sound of _c_ and _g_. Tell why _e_ is dropped in
_encouraging_ and retained in _courageous_.

In words containing _dg_, as in _judge_ and _lodge_, the _d_ gives the
_g_ the soft sound, and there is no need to retain the _e_ before adding
a suffix, as in _judgment_.

=Rule 9.--Words ending in silent _e_ usually drop the _e_ before adding
a suffix beginning with a vowel, unless the _e_ is needed to preserve
the pronunciation; as after soft _c_ and _g_, when the suffix begins
with _a_ or _o_.=

Tell why the _e_ is retained before the suffix in the following:

    noticeable     damageable     pronounceable  outrageous
    courageous     peaceable      serviceable    manageable

Tell why the _e_ is dropped before adding the suffix in the following:

    managing           curable            erasure
    besieging          admirable          realization
    receiving          obliging           precedence

The fact that _c_ has two different sounds causes a slight peculiarity
in words ending in _c_. Final _c_ has the sound of _k_. When words end
in _c_, the letter _k_ is usually added before a suffix beginning with
either _e_, _i_, or _y_, to show that _c_ is not pronounced like _s_;

    frolic         frolicked      frolicking

If the _k_ is not added, the _c_ changes its pronunciation; as,

    public                          publicity

=Exercise 42=

It follows by inference from Rule 9 that words ending in silent _e_
retain the _e_ before a suffix beginning with a consonant; as,

    move        movement          disgrace    disgraceful
    defense     defenseless       fate        fateful
    arrange     arrangement       fierce      fiercely
    noise       noiseless         manage      management
    severe      severely          rude        rudeness

_Exceptions._--Truly, duly, wisdom, awful, wholly.

Bring to class a list of twenty words that retain the final _e_ before a
suffix beginning with a consonant.

=Exercise 43=

What spelling rule does each of the following words illustrate?

    advantageous     gigantic         boxes            admittance
    mimicking        piece            libraries        occurrence
    arrangement      receipt          keys             acquittal

=Exercise 44--Abbreviations=

Write abbreviations for the months of the year. Are there any that
should not be abbreviated?

The abbreviations for the states and territories are:

    Alabama, Ala.                   Maryland, Md.
    Arizona, Ariz.                  Massachusetts, Mass.
    Arkansas, Ark.                  Michigan, Mich.
    California, Cal.                Minnesota, Minn.
    Colorado, Colo.                 Mississippi, Miss.
    Connecticut, Conn.              Missouri, Mo.
    Delaware, Del.                  Montana, Mont.
    District of Columbia, D.C.      Nebraska, Nebr.
    Florida, Fla.                   Nevada, Nev.
    Georgia, Ga.                    New Hampshire, N.H.
    Idaho, Idaho                    New Mexico, N. Mex.
    Illinois, Ill.                  New York, N.Y.
    Indiana, Ind.                   New Jersey, N.J.
    Iowa, Ia.                       North Carolina, N.C.
    Kansas, Kans.                   North Dakota, N. Dak.
    Kentucky, Ky.                   Ohio, O.
    Louisiana, La.                  Oklahoma, Okla.
    Maine, Me.                      Oregon, Ore.
    Pennsylvania, Pa.               Utah, Utah
    Philippine Islands, P.I.        Vermont, Vt.
    Porto Rico, P.R.                Virginia, Va.
    South Carolina, S.C.            Washington, Wash.
    South Dakota, S.D.              Wisconsin, Wis.
    Tennessee, Tenn.                West Virginia, W. Va.
    Texas, Tex.                     Wyoming, Wyo.

      NOTE.--It is much better to write the full name rather
      than the abbreviation whenever the former would make
      the address clearer, especially as regards similar
      abbreviations, such as Cal. and Colo.

=Exercise 45--Abbreviations of Commercial Terms=

    A 1, first class                 doz., dozen
    @, at                            E. & O.E., errors and omissions
    acct., account                   ea., each
    adv., advertisement              e.g., for example
    agt., agent                      etc., and so forth
    a.m., forenoon                   exch., exchange
    amt., amount                     ft., foot
    app., appendix                   f.o.b., free on board
    atty., attorney                  gal., gallon
    av., average                     i.e., that is
    avoir., avoirdupois              imp., imported
    bal., balance                    in., inches
    bbl., barrel                     inst., this month (instant)
    B/L, bill of lading              Jr., junior
    bldg., building                  kg., keg
    B/S, bill of sale                lb., pound
    bu., bushel                      ltd., limited
    C.B., cash book                  mdse., merchandise
    C., hundred                      mem., memorandum
    coll., collection, collector     mo., month
    Co., company                     M.S. (MSS)., manuscript
    C.O.D., cash on delivery         mtg., mortgage
    cr., creditor                    N.B., take notice
    cwt., hundredweight              no., number
    D., five hundred                 O.K., all right
    dept., department                per, by
    disc., discount                  p.m., afternoon
    do., ditto                       %, per cent
    dr., debtor, debit               St., street
    pkg., package                    str., steamer
    pp., pages                       ult., last month
    pr., pair                        U.S.M., United States Mail
    pc., piece                       viz., namely
    pk., peck                        vol., volume
    prox., next month                W/B, way bill
    pt., pint                        wt., weight
    Sr., senior



To learn English words thoroughly we must spend some thought on the way
in which they are made up, on the language from which they have been
derived, and on the changes in meaning made by adding prefixes and
suffixes. Three important influences in building the English have been
the Anglo-Saxon, the Greek, and the Latin languages. The simplest words
in the language are Anglo-Saxon. The following exercises illustrate how
words have been multiplied by Anglo-Saxon prefixes and suffixes.

=Exercise 46=

Name as many words as you can that make use of each of the following
prefixes. Give only such as are recognizable English words without the

    _a_--aboard               _mis_--misjudge
    _be_--becalm              _un_--unknown
    _fore_--foretell          _up_--uproot

Give the meaning of each of the prefixes used above.

What part of speech does each prefix make?

=Exercise 47=

Using the following Teutonic suffixes, form English words. Be careful
that the root taken alone is an English word.

    _dom_--kingdom           _ness_--goodness
    _hood_--manhood          _ship_--friendship

What does each suffix mean?

What part of speech does it make?

=Exercise 48=

As above, form words using the following suffixes:

    _en_--darken       _ful_--fearful
    _en_--golden       _ly_--smoothly
    _ish_--sweetish    _like_--childlike
    _less_--fearless   _some_--lonesome

Define each suffix.

What part of speech does it make?

=Exercise 49--Greek Roots=

Below is given a list of common Greek roots with the English meaning of
each. Form words using one or more of the roots for each word, and
define the words you make. For instance, give the meaning of
_telephone_, _telegraph_, and _monarch_.

    _Greek_ _English_           _Greek_ _English_

    _phon_--hear                _chron_--time
    _tele_--far                 _cycl_--circle
    _graph_--write              _geo_--earth
    _scop_--see                 _polit_--government
    _micro_--small              _cra_--rule
    _mono_--one                 _demo_--people
    _arch_--chief               _hydro_--water
    _metr_--measure             _poly_--many
    _baro_--pressure, weight    _pluto_--riches

How many names of modern inventions have you made?

=Exercise 50=

What words belonging to your vocabulary end in the following suffixes?
Choose only such as have an English word for the root.

Adjective Suffixes

     1. _able_, _ible_--able to be, fit to be
        _Readable_, fit to be read.

     2. _al_, _eal_, _ial_--relating to, having to do with

     3. _ant_, _ent_--being, inclined to

     4. _ate_--having the quality of, inclined to

     5. _ic_--like, relating to

     6. _ive_--relating to, of the nature of, belonging to

     7. _ory_, _ary_--relating to

     8. _ous_--full of, abounding in

Verb Suffixes

    1. _ate_--to make

    2. _fy_, _ify_--to make

    3. _ise_, _ize_--to make

Noun Suffixes

     1. _age_--condition, act, collection of

     2. _ance_, _ancy_, _ence_, _ency_--state of being

     3. _ary_, _ory_--one who, place where, that which

     4. _ant_, _ent_--one who

     5. _ist_, _ite_--one who

     6. _ion_, _sion_, _tion_--act of, state of being

     7. _ity_, _ty_--quality of being

     8. _ment_--that which, act or state of being

     9. _or_, _er_, _ar_--one who

    10. _try_--state of

    11. _tude_, _itude_--condition of being

    12. _ure_--condition of being, that which

=Exercise 51=

The following is a list of the more commonly used Latin prefixes:

     1. _a_, _ab_--away from               16. _intro_--toward the inside
     2. _ad_--toward                       17. _mono_--one
     3. _ante_--before                     18. _non_--not
     4. _anti_--against                    19. _ob_--in the way of, against
     5. _bi_--two, twice                   20. _per_--through
     6. _circum_--around                   21. _pre_--before
     7. _con_--together with, against      22. _post_--after
     8. _contra_--against                  23. _pro_--before
     9. _de_--from, apart from, down from  24. _re_--again, back
    10. _dis_--apart, not                  25. _semi_--half, partly
    11. _dia_--through                     26. _se_--away from
    12. _ex_--out of                       27. _sub_--under, below
    13. _in_, _en_--into                   28. _super_--above, more than
        _en_--to cause to be               29. _trans_--across
    14. _in_, _un_--not                    30. _uni_--one
    15. _inter_--between

=Exercise 52=

Analyze the following words, telling prefix, root, suffix, part of
speech, and meaning:

    business        package         truthfulness    unsuccessful
    useless         anteroom        workmanlike     agreement
    prefix          monotone        nervousness     uniformity
    beautify        breakage        disrespectful   misguidance
    semicircle      pleasant        perfection      crystallize
    kingship        sameness        progressive     precaution
    incase          subway          undeniable      imaginary
    enrich          disown          displeasure     supernatural
    pianist         readmit         endurance       melodious
    bicycle         adjuster        reaction        interlineal

=Exercise 53=

When the prefixes _ad_, _con_, and _in_ are used to form English words,
the final consonant of each is often changed to the initial consonant of
the root to which it is joined.

_Ad_ assumes the forms _ab_, _ac_, _af_, _ag_, _al_, _an_, _ap_, _ar_,
_as_, _at_, assimilating the _d_ with the first letter of the word to
which it is prefixed; as,

    ab-breviate     al-literation   ar-rest
    ac-cept         al-lot          as-sign
    ac-cumulate     an-nex          as-sist
    af-fect         an-nounce       at-tract
    af-flict        ap-position     at-tribute
    ag-gregate      ap-prove        at-tune

_Con_ assumes the forms _col_, _cor_, _com_, by assimilation; it takes
the form _com_ before _p_; and it drops the _n_ before a vowel; as,

    col-lateral     com-mercial     com-pose
    col-lect        cor-relate      co-operate
    com-mission     cor-respond     co-ordinate

_In_ assumes the forms _il_, _im_, _ir_, by assimilation and takes the
form of _im_ before _p_.

    il-lusion    im-migrate   ir-ruption   im-port

=Exercise 54--Peculiar Adjective Endings=

The suffixes _able_ and _ible_ are sometimes troublesome because it is
difficult to know which ending to write. As a rule, if the new word was
made from another English word, the ending is _able_, as _blamable_. The
words ending in _ible_ are derived from the Latin, and, as a rule, the
ending cannot easily be separated from the root and still leave the
latter an English word. Examples are:

    divisible     intelligible  digestible    audible
    visible       permissible   flexible      incredible
    possible      terrible      horrible      indelible

The suffixes _ant_ and _ent_ must also be carefully noted. No rule can
be given for using one rather than the other. Whenever in doubt, consult
a dictionary. Note the following:

      _ant_            _ent_
    important        independent
    pleasant         convalescent
    triumphant       competent
    luxuriant        convenient
    stagnant         confident

The endings _eous_ and _ious_, where _e_ and _i_ are often confused, are
illustrated in the following:

     _eous_            _ious_
    hideous           delirious
    miscellaneous     impious
    courteous         studious

The endings _cious_ and _tious_ are shown in the following:

     _cious_             _tious_
    conscious           fictitious
    precious            superstitious
    delicious           cautious
    gracious            ambitious
    suspicious          nutritious

The endings _gious_ and _geous_ are illustrated in the following:

     _gious_             _geous_
    religious          courageous

=Exercise 55--Peculiar Noun and Verb Endings=

Nouns in _ance_ and _ence_:

      _ance_            _ence_
    acceptance        intelligence
    appearance        reference
    annoyance         patience
    acquaintance      negligence
    remittance        diligence
    ignorance         residence

Nouns in _sion_, _cion_, and _tion_:

     _sion_        _cion_         _tion_
    exclusion     coercion      acquisition
    aversion      suspicion     precaution

Verbs in _ise_, _yze_, and _ize_:

    _ise_          _yze_         _ize_
    advise        analyze       baptize
    supervise     paralyze      recognize

Verbs in _ceed_, _sede_, and _cede_:

    _ceed_         _sede_        _cede_
    exceed        supersede     concede
    proceed                     intercede
    succeed                     precede

=Exercise 56=

What other words can you form from the following? Explain what prefixes
or suffixes you use in each case and what part of speech you form.

    success      consider     real         change
    please       doubt        publish      attend
    occur        apply        regular      satisfy
    emphasize    industry     operate      assess
    second       busy         practice     resist
    expense      distribute   organ        define
    depend       locate       work         sense
    attract      install      desire       preside
    effect       vital        count        sign

=Exercise 57=

There are many words the meanings of which are easily confused. The
spelling and the definitions of such must be mastered. Analysis in this
exercise and in the one following does not require separation into
prefix, root, and suffix, but it necessitates a careful study of the
words, first, to note the difference in spelling; second, to consult a
dictionary, if necessary, for the difference in meaning.

Define each word clearly.

Use each in a sentence to illustrate its meaning.

    accept--except             common--mutual
    add--annex                 complementary--complimentary
    advice--advise             continual--continuous
    affect--effect             contraction--abbreviation
    after--afterward           contradiction--denial
    ascend--assent             currant--current
    assure--promise            defective--deficient
    attain--obtain             deprecate--depreciate
    benefit--advantage         effective--efficient
    brief--concise             eligible--illegible
    center--middle             eminent--prominent
    claim--maintain            expect--hope
    combine--combination       intelligent--intelligible

=Exercise 58=

As above, define each word carefully and use it in a sentence to
illustrate its meaning.

    healthful--healthy         proficient--efficient
    inventory--invoice         proscribe--prescribe
    invite--invitation         purpose--propose
    last--latest               quiet--quite
    later--latter              recommend--recommendation
    liable--likely--apt        refer--allude
    loose--lose                repair--fix
    need--want                 requirement--requisite--requisition
    perspective--prospective   respectfully--respectively
    positive--definite         scarcely--hardly
    practicable--practical     stationary--stationery
    precede--proceed           therefore--accordingly


Lesson 1

    business        losing          surprising      height
    receive         loosely         Saturday        depth
    believe         across          Wednesday       eighth
    wholly          whether         excellent       daily
    obliged         describe        exercise        earnest

Lesson 2

    attached        decision        probable        seize
    attacked        buying          usable          siege
    gentlemen       studying        salable         friend
    although        relying         desirable       Messrs.
    thoroughly      occasion        honorable       nickel

Lesson 3

    disappoint      knew            acquittal       stopped
    disappear       design          occurrence      referred
    disapprove      forty           compelling      planned
    disagree        fourth          beginning       swimming
    anxious         purpose         permitted       submitted

Lesson 4

    all right       persuade        Norwegian       variety
    already         pursued         possession      prairie
    tongue          prepared        accumulate      neighbor
    separate        repaired        dissatisfy      soldier
    crystal         necessary       dissolve        shoulder

Lesson 5

    their           awkward         opportunity     scheme
    advise          mucilage        development     schedule
    advice          familiar        statistics      accurately
    laboratory      peculiar        accidental      efficient
    until           similar         competent       Spaniard

Lesson 6

    policy          patient         merchandise     conscious
    rough           ancient         mercantile      precious
    disease         partial         scarcity        suspicion
    balance         facial          indebted        physician
    decease         ambitious       estimate        caution

Lesson 7

    ascend          noticeable      vengeance       emergency
    assent          serviceable     address         compliance
    minute          manageable      salary          reference
    conceal         exchangeable    currency        apparel
    immense         advantageous    withhold        typical

Lesson 8

    edition         especially      appreciate      imitate
    addition        pamphlet        essential       initial
    identify        illustrate      eligible        official
    illegal         February        legible         curtain
    nuisance        punctual        illegible       adjacent

Lesson 9

    later           crystallize     lieutenant      lenient
    latter          neutralize      anthracite      naphtha
    weighed         conceit         bituminous      liquid
    destroy         catarrh         rheumatism      gauge
    indelible       colonel         influential     sieve

Lesson 10

    duly            interfered      analyze         attorneys
    durable         transferred     analysis        specialty
    mutual          reconcile       paralyze        sympathy
    bargain         accidental      banana          campaign
    misspell        irregular       molasses        mattress

Lesson 11

    ached           designate       vicinity        recognize
    social          available       guardian        technical
    forfeit         adequately      celebrate       hygiene
    opposite        subordinate     porcelain       angel
    parallel        sufficient      poultice        angle

Lesson 12

    society         associate       rumored         remittance
    sirloin         definitely      courtesy        remuneration
    laborer         spherical       obstinacy       restaurant
    visitor         commercial      financial       government
    souvenir        permissible     sapphire        acquaintance

Lesson 13

    quite           appropriate     convenient      knowledge
    least           distinguish     exaggerate      principal, _a_
    written         mysterious      confidential    stationary, _a_
    among           appearance      endeavoring     judgment
    psalm           conference      immediately     implement

Lesson 14

    assure          greatly         embarrassment   auxiliary
    expect          grateful        organization    conciliate
    prompt          deserve         advertisement   principle, _n_
    eliminate       bureau          assessment      stationery, _n_
    illuminate      deficient       accommodate     parenthesis

Lesson 15

    coupon          indispensable   measure         proprietor
    length          innumerable     condemn         transient
    vehicle         investigate     security        persistent
    customer        incandescent    liniment        signature
    costumer        effervescent    mosquito        mischievous

Lesson 16

    canal           company's       repetition      sulphur
    channel         real estate     abbreviated     benefited
    liquid          equivalent      unabridged      unanimous
    recent          assignment      assurance       itemize
    trough          extravagant     pneumatic       calcimine

Lesson 17

    precede         freight         authority       leisure
    proceed         achieve         mortgage        neuralgia
    procession      between         specimen        dyspepsia
    precision       imagine         solicitor       substantial
    extinguish      autumn          coöperates      passenger

Lesson 18

    merely          mechanical      preliminary     omitted
    cashier         permanent       miscellaneous   omission
    urgent          prominent       subscription    committee
    hesitate        precaution      incredible      commission
    anchored        interval        anticipation    precisely

Lesson 19

    specify         preparation     athletics       deceit
    equity          coincidence     excursion       receipt
    accrue          irresolute      suggestion      obstacle
    concrete        vaccination     courageous      promissory
    summary         glycerine       concession      compulsory

Lesson 20

    deficit         sceptical       anniversary     rhythm
    mansion         conscience      presumption     rhubarb
    mention         interruption    guaranteed      fatigue
    reckoned        approximately   prejudice       synopsis
    license         avoirdupois     privilege       emphatic

Lesson 21

    scholar         Elkhart         industrious     collision
    scissors        Memphis         hideous         delusion
    career          Niagara         artificial      oxygen
    sincere         Raleigh         cantaloupe      martyr
    chiffonier      Oregon          unscrupulous    apology

Lesson 22

    receipt         Cincinnati      sovereign       chemical
    welfare         Des Moines      committee       frontier
    feigned         Decatur         ingredients     fulfilled
    chord           Dubuque         counterfeit     facsimile
    scythe          Alleghany       responsible     identical

Lesson 23

    exceed          Paducah         foreign         Cheyenne
    succeed         Eau Claire      solemnity       metallic
    secede          Peoria          assassinate     nauseated
    immigrant       Savannah        pneumonia       invariably
    emigrant        Manila          diphtheria      injurious

Lesson 24

    adoption        Minneapolis     fraudulent      mahogany
    scientific      Indianapolis    negligence      corduroy
    guidance        Syracuse        diligence       Schenectady
    syllable        Milwaukee       ridiculous      duplicate
    Fort Wayne      Valparaiso      comparative     reënforce

Lesson 25

    Duluth          Massachusetts   preferable      periodical
    Missouri        Connecticut     preferred       insertion
    Wisconsin       enthusiastic    publicity       excursion
    luxurious       acknowledgment  prevailing      plateau
    twelfth         professional    damageable      tragedy



In the preceding chapters we have seen words as they are used singly. We
studied their pronunciation and the way in which they were formed to
express a definite meaning. In this chapter we shall begin a review of
grammar, a study of words not according to their pronunciation or their
definition, but according to their use as they are arranged with other
words to express complete ideas. The simplest group into which words are
thus arranged is the sentence, consisting of two important parts, the
subject and the predicate. The subject is the part about which something
is told, and the predicate is the part that tells about the subject; as,

    _Subject_      _Predicate_
    The sun       shines brightly

There are several different kinds of sentences, named according to the
meaning which they express. They are as follows:

    The _declarative_ sentence states a fact.
    The _interrogative_ sentence asks a question.
    The _imperative_ sentence commands or entreats.
    The _exclamatory_ sentence expresses deep feeling.


    _Declarative_: John closed the door.
    _Interrogative_: Did John close the door?
    _Imperative_: Close the door.
    _Exclamatory_: What a noise the door made!

Sentences are classified, also, according to their structure or form. If
a sentence has one subject and one predicate, it is a _simple_ sentence.
If it is made up of two independent parts, it is a _compound_ sentence.
If it has one independent part and one or more dependent parts, each of
which contains a subject and a predicate of its own, the sentence is
_complex_. The independent part of the sentence is called a _principal
clause_, and the dependent part is called a _subordinate clause_. A
_phrase_ is also a dependent part of a sentence, but it differs from a
subordinate clause in that it contains no subject or predicate. Both
phrases and subordinate clauses are used as parts of speech, as nouns,
adjectives, or adverbs. Thus we have the following definitions:

A _simple_ sentence contains one principal clause.

A _compound_ sentence contains two or more principal clauses.

A _complex_ sentence contains one principal clause and one or more
subordinate clauses.

A _phrase_ is a group of related words used as a part of speech. (See
Exercises 68 and 69.)

A _clause_ is a group of words containing a subject and a predicate. A
subordinate clause is used as a part of speech. It usually has an
introductory word to distinguish it from a principal clause. (See
Exercise 71.)


      _Simple sentence_: To-day most of the world's big
      questions are business questions.

      _Complex sentence_: The view _that_ business is only
      humdrum routine and sordid money-making needs
      revising, _since_ most of the world's big questions
      are business questions.

      _Compound sentence_: Many people still belittle
      business, calling it humdrum routine and sordid
      money-making, _but_ this view needs revising.

    _Phrase_:             (_a_) _of_ the world's big questions.
                          (_b_) _calling_ it humdrum routine and sordid

    _Subordinate clause_: (_a_) _that_ business is only humdrum routine and
                                sordid money-making.
                          (_b_) _since_ most of the world's big questions
                                are business questions.

=Exercise 59=

Write two of each of the following kinds of sentences:

_a._ Declarative, _b._ Interrogative, _c._ Imperative, _d._ Exclamatory.

Examine each of the sentences below and tell

_a._ Whether it is simple, complex, or compound.

_b._ Its subject and its predicate.

_c._ Its phrases and its subordinate clause (if there are any).

      1. Your subscription expires with this issue.

      2. This special offer will continue until the tenth of

      3. The last shipment of castings that you made to us
      is decidedly unsatisfactory.

      4. Your imitation typewritten letters have greatly
      assisted us in the sale of our property, and we thank
      you for calling our attention to them.

      5. The advertised poster was sent to you to-day in a
      special tube.

      6. Without doubt you will be interested in the booklet
      which we enclose.

      7. The machine which is standing there has just been

      8. The wheel that holds the type may be changed in an
      instant by the operator.

      9. Whenever he wishes, the operator may write in
      different sizes of type on the same sheet of paper.

      10. Many of our styles have been copied exactly from
      the best designs that have recently been displayed in
      the Parisian exhibits.

      11. Why are the department stores acquiring motor

      12. One reason is the economy of the motor wagon.

      13. Economy does not entirely explain the keenness
      which department stores are displaying in acquiring
      motor wagons.

      14. In such establishments the quick delivery of
      merchandise is a necessity.

      15. The best means of transportation must be employed,
      or a loss of trade will follow.

      16. Any one can cite examples that prove that faults
      in delivery cause a loss of trade.

      17. Machine service develops fewer errors than horse
      service (develops).

      18. The area which department stores serve is being
      greatly increased from year to year, and not even the
      establishment of the parcel post has avoided the
      necessity for sending package merchandise too far
      distant for conveyance by horses.

      19. Electric machines usually make the house-to-house
      package deliveries, and gasoline trucks, besides
      hauling furniture, transfer large loads from the store
      or warehouse to the distributing stations.

      20. In one store each transfer truck is loaded twice
      daily with fifty trunks containing parcels.

=Exercise 60--Sentence Errors=

=S. 1.= THE BABY BLUNDER.--In writing, one of the most elementary forms
of correctness is shown in the proper division into sentences. The
ability instinctively to end a sentence at the right place is called the
"sentence sense." Students who do not possess it or who have not learned
the difference between sentences, subordinate clauses, and phrases
frequently make the mistake of setting off too much or too little for
one sentence. For example, they run two sentences together as one; as,

_Wrong_: Motor wagons are economical, department stores of all large
cities are acquiring them.

The sentence, as written above, contains one form of the sentence
error--one of the worst possible mistakes in writing. It is sometimes
called the _comma fault_ or the _baby blunder_. For brevity we shall
call it _S 1_ (sentence error number one). _Motor wagons are economical_
is a principal clause. _Department stores of all large cities are
acquiring them_ is also a principal clause. Two such clauses may not
stand in the same sentence separated only by a comma. To correct,
divide into two sentences; as,

_Right_: Motor wagons are economical. Department stores of all large
cities are acquiring them.

Sometimes the thought in the two principal clauses is closely connected.
In that case they may be put into the same sentence, provided they are
properly connected or separated. Use a comma _plus_ a coördinate
conjunction (as _and_, _or_, _but_) to connect them, or a semicolon (;)
to separate them.

Be particularly careful of the conjunctive adverbs _so_, _then_,
_therefore_, _thus_, _also_, _still_, _otherwise_, _however_, _hence_,
_consequently_, _moreover_, _nevertheless_. When they are used to join
the principal clauses of a compound sentence, a comma is not sufficient
punctuation between the clauses. A semicolon or a comma and a coördinate
conjunction must be used.

_Wrong_: He had been a good customer, so they were sorry to lose his

_Right_: He had been a good customer; so they were sorry to lose his

_Right_: He had been a good customer, and so they were sorry to lose his

=S. 2.=--The first form of the sentence error (_S 1_) is made by using
too much for one sentence. The second form (_S 2_) is made by using too
little. It consists in writing a subordinate clause or a phrase as a
sentence; as,

1. _Wrong_: I told her I would attend to the matter at my earliest
convenience. _Probably on my way from work in the evening._

2. _Wrong_: His doctor advised him to go to Arizona. _Which he decided
to do._

=Exercise 61=

Each sentence should express one complete thought. Some of the following
are really two sentences (_S 1_), and some are only parts of sentences
(_S 2_). Correct each, naming the mistake.

      1. You will find the booklet interesting it is also

      2. Up to last January he was a salesman for Colgate &
      Co. since then he has opened a business of his own.

      3. I didn't know you had come, when did you arrive?

      4. Did any one take the newspaper, I left it here only
      a moment ago.

      5. I shall take my vacation in September have you had

      6. I must go now good-bye I'll see you on Saturday.

      7. The opening sentence held the man's attention, he
      read it again and again.

      8. I'll have to run to catch the train, otherwise I
      shall be late for work.

      9. The advertisement is attractive, still it has not
      paid well.

      10. We wished to reduce office drudgery therefore we
      installed adding and addressing machines.

      11. These problems all require a knowledge of square
      root for example, take the fourth.

      12. Do you expect to come home for Christmas or shall
      you stay in New York I don't remember now which you

      13. First I read a statement that recommended the
      bonds then I read an article that condemned them
      without question the result was that I didn't know
      what to do.

      14. One-half of the statements are here, the others
      are in the safe.

      15. If your name is not correct on this envelope,
      please notify us we wish to insure your receiving our
      bulletin regularly.

      16. The supply of fruit was greater than the demand,
      that is why fruit was cheap.

      17. Flies are dangerous. Especially in a sick room
      from which they carry germs to others.

      18. In the country the trees were loaded with fruit,
      their branches had to be propped so that they would
      not break.

      19. When he was twenty-three years of age, Richard T.
      Crane, the late millionaire head of the immense Crane
      Manufacturing Company, came to Chicago, he started a
      brass foundry, which grew into the present giant

      20. We spent last summer in the Bitter Root Valley we
      camped within view of Willoughby Falls.

      21. I want to congratulate you on your appointment I
      heard of it only yesterday.

      22. It surely was not I whom you saw I wonder who it
      could have been.

      23. Not one of us has a salary of three thousand
      dollars so we do not worry over the income tax.

      24. Please send me the booklet you offered in the
      Business Magazine, I'd also like particulars of your
      advertised discount sale of typewriters.

      25. Sooner or later shingles are sure to warp and
      curl, thus they pull out the nails and allow the rain
      to beat in, furthermore, shaded shingles soon rot and
      allow the water to soak through.

      26. This sealing and stamping machine is endorsed by
      business men in all our large cities nevertheless it
      is not expensive.

      27. If you wish to prove the excellence of our paper,
      just tear off a corner of this sheet then tear off a
      corner of your present letterhead with a magnifying
      glass examine both torn edges.

      28. The superior paper will show long, linen fibers
      the poorer, on the other hand, will have short, woody

      29. When a German army is on the march, it stops every
      twenty minutes for a rest. Experiments having shown
      that a soldier can cover more ground when he is given
      this period of relaxation.

      30. Two thousand convicts will be released according
      to a plan worked out by the governor; five hundred
      will be given their freedom at once, and, if the plan
      is a success one thousand five hundred others will be
      released. One-half their wages of fifty cents a day to
      go to their families and one-half to the penitentiary
      fund. If they leave the state or commit any crime
      while they are on parole, to serve the balance of
      their term and an extension of time. They will be put
      to work on roads and bridges the counties need several
      thousand such laborers but cannot pay union prices.

=Exercise 62=

Rewrite the following, dividing into sentences:


      Dear Sir:

      There is no safer way to invest money than in a good
      first mortgage on city real estate by a good mortgage
      we mean one that is properly drawn and with such
      security as absolutely insures the holder against loss
      we have made a specialty of first mortgage loans, and
      we offer investors the benefit of our wide experience
      in such matters we investigate properties frequently
      and keep investors informed on their investment we
      look after all details and collections without extra
      charge you will find it to your interest to consult

                                             Yours truly,


      Stick to your legitimate business do not go out into
      outside operations few men have brains enough for more
      than one business to dabble in stocks, to put a few
      thousand dollars into a mine, a few more into a
      manufactory, and a few more into an invention is
      enough to ruin any man be content with fair returns do
      not become greedy do not think that men are happy in
      proportion as they are rich and therefore do not aim
      too high be content with moderate wealth make friends
      a time will come when all the money in the world will
      not be worth to you as much as one staunch friend.


      Sacramento City is a great commercial center its
      wholesale and jobbing business extends hundreds of
      miles to the north, south, west, and east it is fast
      becoming a substantial manufacturing center large six
      and eight story buildings are rapidly taking the place
      of the old two story structures a new city hall has
      just been completed which cost $150,000 and a new
      court house $1,000,000 the city has recently issued
      bonds amounting to $800,000 for new schools scarcely a
      week passes without recording some new enterprise all
      the main highways are macadamized so that automobile
      travel is possible every day of the year and the
      farmer can haul his produce to market at a minimum
      cost market conditions are good and any class of
      produce finds ready sale at remunerative
      prices.--(From an advertisement.)

Classify the sentences that you have formed in the foregoing exercise:

    1. According to meaning.
    2. According to form.

=Exercise 63--Parts of Speech=

There are eight different kinds of words called parts of speech, which
are used to make sentences. They are as follows:

    _Noun_: The _horse_ is brown.
    _Pronoun_: _He_ is the best horse of all.
    _Verb_: He _galloped_ to town.
    _Adjective_: The _brown_ horse is my favorite.
    _Adverb_: He runs _swiftly_.
    _Preposition_: We shall ride _to_ town.
    _Conjunction_: The night is clear _and_ cold.
    _Interjection_: _Oh!_ My horse stumbled.

Thus a _noun_ names something. A word that stands for a noun is a
_pronoun_. Sometimes a different part of speech is used like a noun, and
for the time being it becomes a noun. The _verb_ is a very important
part of speech, since without it there can be no sentence. The verb
makes an assertion, asks a question, or gives a command. _Adjectives_
are words that belong to or describe nouns or pronouns. Adverbs go with
or modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. _Prepositions_ and
_conjunctions_ connect. Prepositions join their objects to other words
in the sentence; conjunctions join words, phrases, or clauses. An
_interjection_, such as the exclamation _oh_, is used without having
grammatical relation to any other word in the sentence. A preposition
always takes an object, the preposition and its object making a
_phrase_. Grouping this information, we have:

                  {_Nouns_ are names of persons and things.
                  {_Pronouns_ are substitutes for nouns.
                  {_Verbs_ make assertions, ask questions, or give
                  {       commands.
                  {_Adjectives_ modify nouns and pronouns.
  PARTS OF SPEECH {_Adverbs_ modify verbs, adjectives, and adverbs.
                  {  They usually answer the questions _how?_ _when?_
                  {       _where?_ _why?_ _to what degree?_
                  {_Prepositions_ join object nouns or pronouns to
                  {       other words in the sentence.
                  {_Conjunctions_ join words, phrases, and clauses.
                  {_Interjections_ are independent words used as
                  {       exclamations.

A word is not always the same part of speech. We may say, "Did you
_starch_ the clothes?" in which case _starch_ is a verb. A grocer may
say, "The _starch_ in these packages is always clean." In this sentence
_starch_ is a noun. The part of speech depends entirely on the way the
word is used.

In the following, name the part of speech of each word in italic. Judge
by the way the word is used in the sentence.

      1. The desks have _green_ pads.

      2. _Green_ is a restful color.

      3. In the valley is a _mill_, which grinds _flour_. It
      is a _flour_ mill.

      4. I saw him _stretch_ out his hand.

      5. The _stretch_ of _waste_ land amazed him.

      6. Europeans say that Americans _waste_ more than they

      7. One of our great problems is how to lessen _waste_.

      8. After the stormy _night_, the _day_ dawned bright
      and clear.

      9. He has been working _night_ and _day_.

      10. The old man went _home_ sad and weary.

      11. _Home_ is the best place in the world.

      12. We must _fine_ you for such an offense.

      13. Your _fine_ is five dollars.

      14. We use _fine_ sand in our concrete.

      15. I can talk _better_ than I can write.

      16. John wrote the _better_ circular.

      17. Talking will not _better_ the matter.

      18. Young people should learn to respect their

      19. Suddenly there was a _pause_ in the music.

      20. Did you see those men _pause_?

      21. He was our guide for he knew the _ins_ and _outs_
      of the place.

      22. Have you ever been _in_ the house?

      23. Where are you going--_in_ or _out_?

      24. _Good_ apples are expensive.

      25. The _good_ of the people is our first

      26. I shall not go _if_ it rains.

      27. What is the use of saying _if_?

      28. I _like_ to see her just _like_ this, for in
      _like_ mood I do not know her _like_.

      29. _Little_ drops of water make the mighty ocean.

      30. I can do _little_ of the work until the typewriter
      is repaired.

      31. Do not _belittle_ your work.

      32. She studies too _little_.

=Exercise 64=

Each of the following may be used as different parts of speech. Write
sentences illustrating as many uses as possible for each word.

    sound    paper    dress    ring
    light    shoe     box      dawn
    ride     long     ink      curb
    iron     warm     walk     use
    hear     cold     rule     cement

=Exercise 65=

Tell which of the words in italic are adjectives and which are adverbs.
Remember that an adjective goes with a noun or pronoun; an adverb with
another adverb, an adjective, or a verb, and usually answers the
question _how?_ _when?_ _where?_ _why?_ _how much?_ or _how long?_

      1. You are walking too _fast_.

      2. Send perishable articles by _fast_ freight.

      3. He has been a _well_ man since he has stopped working indoors.

      4. He writes very _well_.

      5. The fire is _bright_.

      6. It burns _brightly_.

      7. That is a _very poor_ reason.

      8. The berries look _good_, but they taste _sour_.

      9. They are not _good_ berries.

      10. The sun shone _brilliant_ above us. (Compare with

      11. The bookkeeper looks _angry_.

      12. He looked at us _angrily_.

      13. The flowers are _sweet_.

      14. They smell _sweet_. (May we say, _The flowers
      smell sweetly?_)

      15. Act _frankly_, speak _gently_.

      16. Let your actions be _frank_, your speech _gentle_.

      17. Laborers complain that they have to work _too

=Exercise 66=

Change the following adjectives to adverbs. In each case use both parts
of speech in sentences.

    cold      sure      polite    courteous
    smooth    exact     precise   easy
    bitter    bad       extreme   nice
    loud      general   honest    glad

=Exercise 67=

Tell which of the Words in italic are prepositions and which are
adverbs. Remember that a preposition begins a phrase. It must be
followed by an object.

      1. He is the best man _in_ the office.

      2. John was leaving as I came _in_ this evening.

      3. He did not have his coat _on_.

      4. It was hanging _over_ his arm.

      5. He stood _on_ the top step several minutes,
      wondering whether he should wear the coat.

      6. The handle fell _off_ as I took the cup _off_ the

      7. The aeroplane flies _over_ the city.

      8. I am going _over_ to the factory.

Write sentences using _above_, _across_, _down_, _up_, _underneath_ both
as adverbs and as prepositions.

=Exercise 68--Prepositional Phrases=


      _Adjective_: The opinions _of some people_ must be
      taken with caution.

      _Adverb_: We shall return _within a year_.

      _Noun_: _From New York to San Francisco_ is a long

What part of speech is each of the italicized phrases below? Remember
that an adjective modifies a noun; an adverb modifies a verb, an
adjective, or an adverb.

      1. The waves are rolling in, white _with foam_.

      2. A million dollars was invested _in the business_.

      3. I will abide _on thy right side_ and keep the
      bridge _with thee_.

      4. _In summer_ milk soon turns sour.

      5. I have come _for help_.

      6. The people _on the bridge_ cheered _for hours_.

      7. He threw up his hat _for joy_.

      8. _On the table before them_ stood a deer roasted

      9. We shall stay here _until spring_.

      10. We came _in sight of the king's palace_.

      11. We drove _to the factory_ today _with the

      12. He works _from sunrise to sunset_.

=Exercise 69=

The phrase introduced by a preposition is the most common. A list of
prepositions follows. They should be learned.

    about        before       except       toward
    above        behind       for          under
    aboard       below        from         underneath
    across       beneath      in           until
    after        beside       into         up
    against      between      of           upon
    along        betwixt      on           with
    amid         beyond       over         within
    amidst       but (except) past         without
    among        by           through      to the extent of
    around       concerning   throughout   from under
    athwart      down         till         according to
    at           during       to           except for

Write three sentences containing prepositional _adjective_ phrases.

Prepositional _adverbial_ phrases may express the following ideas:

      Time, telling _when_ something happened.

      Place, telling _where_ something happened.

      Manner, telling _how_ something happened.

      Means, telling _how_ something happened.

      Cause or purpose, telling _why_ something happened.

      Degree, telling _how long_ something lasted; _how far_
      it went; _how much_ it cost, etc.

      Agent, telling _by whom_ it was done.

      Accompaniment, telling _with whom_ it was done.

Write a sentence containing a prepositional phrase telling:

    1. when          6. how far
    2. where         7. how much
    3. why           8. by whom
    4. in what way   9. with whom
    5. how long     10. by what means

=Exercise 70=

Name all the prepositional phrases in Exercise 179, explaining whether
they are adjective or adverbial.

=Exercise 71--The Clause=

A _subordinate clause_, like a phrase, is a group of words used as a
part of speech, the chief difference being that a clause must have a
subject and a predicate. Clauses are introduced

    1. By _relative pronouns_:

                 who, whose, whom, which, what, that

    2. By _subordinate conjunctions_:

      when             because          than             unless
      where            since            provided         till
      while            if               whereas          until
      as               as soon as       wherever         before
      as if            as long as       whether          after
      though           in order that    why              for
      although         lest             that             whenever


               { A lamp that _smokes_ }
    ADJECTIVE: {                      } is a torture to a student.
               { A _smoking_ lamp     }

            { _When she was good_ }
            {                     } she was very, very good.
            {   _Sometimes_       }
    ADVERB: {                     }
            { _When she was bad_  }
            {                     } she was horrid.
            {   _Sometimes_       }

Does the clause or the simple adverb give the more definite idea?

                 { _where he lives_.
    NOUN: I know {
                 { _the house_.

Write three sentences illustrating adjective clauses, three illustrating
adverbial clauses, and three illustrating noun clauses.

=Exercise 72=

Name all the clauses in Exercises 179, 185, and 186. Explain the use of

=Exercise 73=

Write sentences using each of the following words to introduce a phrase,
and to introduce a clause.

    1. after     3. for       5. until
    2. before    4. since

Remember that just as a preposition must be followed by an _object_ to
form a phrase, a conjunction must be followed by a _subject_ to form a


                                { _Christmas_.--OBJECT.
    I have not seen him _since_ {
                                { _he_ went away.--SUBJECT.

=Exercise 74=

Name the complete subject in the following. Then name the simple
subject, explaining by what elements--words, phrases, or clauses--it is

Name the complete predicate. Then name the simple predicate, explaining
by what elements the verb is modified.

      1. Modern business cannot be carried on by
      old-fashioned methods.

      2. When a man engages in business, he buys or sells.

      3. The great routes of trade have changed from time to

      4. Your order will be filled within a few days.

      5. Both blanks were properly filled out at the time.

      6. Means of travel have developed from the slowly
      moving caravan to the palatial railway coach.

      7. Commerce originated when one human being demanded
      something which had to be supplied by some one else.

      8. The latest American and European styles will be
      displayed in our new millinery department, which will
      be formally opened on the first of March.

      9. The prosperity of nations rests very largely on the
      six inches of soil between the surface and the subsoil
      of the territory.

      10. One of the greatest losses to the Ohio farm lands
      in the floods of 1913 came about because the water
      took off the top soil from the hillside and valleys
      and carried the vegetable material with it.

      11. The conserving of the top soil is one of the
      greatest problems in national prosperity.

      12. We trust that shipment about September 8 will be
      satisfactory to you, as it is the best that we can do
      under the circumstances.



FOR the plural of nouns see Chapter III.

The classes to which nouns belong are distinguished as follows:

A _common_ noun is the name given to an object to denote the class to
which it belongs; as, _book_, _man_.

A _proper_ noun is the name given to a particular object to distinguish
it from others of the same class; as, _Mary_, _Republicans_, _England_.
Proper nouns should always be capitalized.

A _collective_ noun is a name which in the singular denotes a
collection. It is usually plural in idea but singular in use; as,
_congregation_, _crowd_.

An _abstract_ noun is the name denoting a quality of an object; as,
_power_, _purity_, _strength_.

A _verbal_ noun is the name of an action. As its name suggests, it is
made from a verb; as, _Sweeping_ is good exercise.

=Exercise 75=

In the following sentences supply necessary capital letters. Explain why
the same word in one expression needs a capital and in another does not.

      1. I have just taken out an endowment policy in the
      northwestern mutual life insurance company.

      2. There are many mutual life insurance companies in
      the country.

      3. His refusing the terms was practically a
      declaration of independence.

      4. On the fourth of July we celebrate the signing of
      the declaration of independence, the first step in the
      revolutionary war.

      5. Mexico has had many revolutionary wars.

      6. And king Arthur said, "The king who fights his
      people fights himself."

      7. When does the bank close?

      8. I have an account with the first national bank.

      9. This is the first national bank that was ever
      established in this country.

Explain to which class each noun in the foregoing sentences belongs. Be
particularly careful to distinguish between common and proper nouns.

=Exercise 76--Pronouns=

The different classes of pronouns are distinguished as follows:

The _personal_ pronoun is used in place of the name of a person or
thing. The pronoun of the _first_ person indicates the speaker, the
pronoun of the _second_ person indicates the person spoken to, and the
pronoun of the _third_ person indicates the person spoken of. They are
declined as follows:

                     _First person_
               _Singular_                   _Plural_
    _Nom._    I                            we
   _Poss._    my, mine                     our, ours
   _Obj._     me                           us

                   _Second person_
    _Nom._    you (thou)                   you (ye)
    _Poss._   your, yours (thy, thine)     your, yours
    _Obj._    you (thee)                   you

In modern usage _you_ is used for both the singular and the plural, but
the verb that goes with _you_ is always plural.

                           _Third person_
                    _Singular_                         _Plural_
              _Masc._       _Fem._       _Neut._
    _Nom._       he          she          it            they
    _Poss._      his         her, hers    its           their, theirs
    _Obj._       him         her          it            them

      NOTE.--The forms _mine_, _thine_, _yours_, _hers_,
      _ours_, _theirs_, and sometimes _his_ are possessive
      case in form, but nominative or objective case in use.
      That pencil is _mine_ really means, That pencil is
      _my_ pencil. _Mine_ is used as a substitute for a
      possessive pronoun and the noun it modifies.

The personal pronouns compounded with _self_ are of two kinds:

1. _Emphatic_ pronouns; as,

    The buyer _himself_ told me.

2. _Reflexive_ pronouns, referring back to the subject and at the same
time being in the objective case; as,

    John slipped and hurt _himself_.

The _relative_ pronoun is so called because it relates or refers to
another word, called its antecedent, to which it joins the clause that
it introduces. The relative pronouns are _who_, _which_, _what_, _that_;
and the compound relatives are _whoever_, _whosoever_, _whichever_,
_whichsoever_, _whatever_, _whatsoever_.

They are declined as follows:

             _Singular and Plural_

    _Nom._    who       which     whoever   whosoever
    _Poss._   whose     of which  whosever  whosesoever
    _Obj._    whom      which     whomever  whomsoever

_That_, _what_, _whichever_, _whichsoever_, _whatever_, and _whatsoever_
are not declined. They have the same form in the nominative and
objective cases, and are not used in the possessive case.

_What_ is peculiar in that it never has an antecedent expressed, but
itself stands for both antecedent and relative. It is called the _double
relative_. Compare the following:

      I did not hear _the words that_ he said.

      I did not hear _that which_ he said.

      I did not hear _what_ he said.

_That_ is called the restrictive relative, because it limits or
restricts its antecedent to the meaning expressed in the clause
introduced by _that_. A restrictive clause is one, therefore, that is
needed to make the meaning of the sentence clear. Compare the following:

      _Non-restrictive_: John Brown, _who_ has no disease,
      needs no physician.

      _Restrictive_: He _that_ hath no disease needs no

Notice that a restrictive, or necessary, clause is not separated from
the rest of the sentence by commas.

_Who_ and _which_ are sometimes used with restrictive force; as,

      1. Those _who_ have finished their work may leave.
      (Not everybody.)

      2. Have you read the book _which_ he recommended? (He
      recommended but one.)

_Interrogative_ pronouns are used in asking questions. They are _who_,
_which_, _what_. _Who_ refers to persons; _which_ refers to persons or
things, and is used to distinguish one object from another; _what_
refers to things. They are declined as follows:

                   _Singular and Plural_

    _Nom._    who          which        what
    _Poss._   whose        (of which)   (of what)
    _Obj._    whom         which        what

The interrogative pronouns _which_ and _what_ are frequently used as
adjectives. In this case they are called _pronominal adjectives_.

      Pronoun: _Which_ of these hats do you prefer?

      Adjective: _Which_ hat do you prefer?

The _demonstrative_ pronouns are _this_ and _that_ with their plurals
_these_ and _those_. They are always used to point out, or demonstrate,
the noun to which they refer. _This_ and _these_ are used for objects
near at hand, or recently named; _that_ and _those_ are used for objects
far away, or not recently named.

The demonstrative pronouns are frequently used as adjectives; as,

    Pronoun: _That_ is my book.
    Adjective: _That_ book is mine.

_Indefinite_ pronouns refer to objects or persons, but do not define or
limit them. The indefinite pronouns are _each_, _every_, _either_,
_neither_, _one_, _none_, _other_, _another_, _few_, _all_, _many_,
_several_, _some_, _each other_, _one another_, and the compounds _any
one_, _some one_, _every one_, _something_, _nothing_. Indefinite
pronouns are frequently used as adjectives. _Each_, _every_, _either_,
_one_, _another_, _any one_, _some one_, _every one_, whether they are
used as pronouns or as adjectives, are singular in number. If another
pronoun is used to refer to one of them, it must be in the singular

=Exercise 77--Classes of Pronouns=

In the following sentences, explain which pronouns represent the person
speaking, which represent the person spoken to, and which represent the
person spoken of. Tell which pronouns ask questions; which are used as
adjectives; which are used to connect subordinate clauses to the word
for which they stand. If the antecedent is expressed, point it out.

      1. Who is talking?

      2. The man who is speaking is the head of the credit

      3. If you are going, get ready.

      4. Which is the better piece of cloth?

      5. This is the better piece of cloth.

      6. The one who wishes to succeed must exercise great
      care in his work.

      7. He that would succeed must work.

      8. Many men fail because of laziness.

      9. What did you say?

      10. Can you guess whom I saw?

      11. He himself told us.

      12. A cousin of ours is coming to town.

      13. The man whose life is above criticism need fear no

      14. Whoever lives the truth need fear no criticism.

      15. I wish you would remove those files.

      16. Ink that is thick makes illegible writing.

      17. What paper should I destroy?

      18. I cannot understand what any one is saying.

      19. This is not my umbrella. It is yours.

      20. No friend of his would talk in that way.

      21. This is no book of theirs; it belongs to us.

      22. Whatsoever he saith unto you, do it.

      23. I shall ask whomever I see.

      24. Each of us has his work assigned.

      25. Every boy has his work assigned.

=Exercise 78=

In the following sentences _he_, _his_, _they_, _their_, _them_, _it_,
or _its_ should be inserted. Give the reason for your choice.

      1. No man is allowed to leave ---- desk untidy.

      2. Every one must put ---- tools away before leaving
      the shop.

      3. Every office worker is required to be in ---- place
      at eight-thirty every morning.

      4. In my business a person must learn to make up ----
      mind quickly.

      5. It was cold this morning. Every one wore ----

      6. Every clerk must do ---- own work.

      7. If an employee has ideas for the improvement of the
      business, ---- is requested to report ---- suggestions
      to the superintendent.

      8. The superintendent is anxious to have every workman
      feel that ---- (has, have) a definite place in the
      organization, and that if ---- (does not, don't) do
      ---- work, the business will suffer.

      9. No goods will be accepted unless ---- (are, is) in
      good condition.

      10. Every newspaper is anxious to increase ----
      classified advertising.

      11. No one cares to see ---- friends frown.

      12. Every one must agree that ---- (has, have) ----

      13. Not one of the banks had ---- deposits decreased.

      14. Will any one let me take ---- umbrella?

      15. Every one says that ---- had a delightful evening.

      16. Who was it said I had ---- book?

      17. Does each state pay over a part of ---- taxes to
      the federal government?

      18. Every one will find in the current publications a
      wealth of information applicable to ---- specific
      needs, much of which ---- will wish to file for easy
      reference, no matter in what department of the world's
      work ---- interest centers.

      19. If any one could tell beforehand when ----
      opportunities would arrive, ---- might be ready to
      grasp each as ---- came.

      20. If every one here would follow the directions that
      ----(has, have) received, ---- would make fewer
      mistakes in shipments.

      21. Any one who wishes may give ---- opinion.

      22. No one need expect to leave before ---- work is

      23. Every one in the office took ---- vacation early
      this year except me.

      24. Each of the twenty banks sent ---- representative
      to the meeting.

      25. On applying for a position, each man is given a
      blank that ---- must fill out carefully, making ----
      answers as definite as possible.

Some of the following are right, and some are wrong. Correct those that
are wrong, explaining why they are wrong.

      1. Neither one of them know what they are expected to

      2. Applicant after applicant handed in their names.

      3. If any one has a complaint to make, he should
      report it in writing to the superintendent.

      4. Have either of the stenographers finished their

      5. I wish everybody would do their own work and let me
      do mine.

      6. Each man did his work faithfully.

      7. Has neither the carpenter nor the plumber yet
      brought his tools?

      8. Every one of the clerks must hand their report to
      the head bookkeeper before five o'clock.

      9. One of them must have neglected to hand in his

      10. Man after man yesterday promised me that they'd be
      on hand to work this morning, and not one of them
      showed themselves.

=Exercise 79=

In the following exercise, tell which of the italicized pronouns
introduce restrictive, and which introduce non-restrictive clauses:

      1. This is the best bargain _that_ we have ever

      2. This is Mr. Burton, _whose_ work I recommended to

      3. The city _that_ I enjoyed most was Quebec.

      4. I enjoyed walking on the old wall _that_ still
      surrounds the town.

      5. The club to _which_ I belong will hold a meeting
      next week.

      6. The club _that_ I belong to will hold a meeting
      next Monday.

      7. All those _whose_ daily work showed an improvement
      were given an increase in salary.

      8. The horse _that_ ran away belonged to my partner.

      9. The greatest man is he _who_ feels himself the

      10. An old story tells us that when Caesar, _who_ was
      a great Roman emperor, returned from a conquest
      _which_ has ever since been famous, he brought back to
      Rome a formula _that_ has revolutionized the world. It
      was a formula for making soap, and was considered one
      of the greatest treasures _that_ was captured during
      the campaign. Caesar immediately saw the value _that_
      it would have in the eyes of the world, and he forced
      the soap-makers to reveal their secret.

      11. The garrison is a handful of invalid soldiers,
      _whose_ principal duty is to guard some of the outer

      12. This is the gentleman _whom_ we met in Boston.

      13. Mr. Carter, _who_ was a member of our Boston firm,
      will take charge of our city sales.

      14. We honestly believe that our latest Style Book,
      _which_ goes with this letter, offers you more for
      every dollar _that_ you spend than you can get

=Exercise 80--Case=

Case is that modification of a noun or a pronoun which denotes its
relation to other words in the sentence. There are three cases: the
_nominative_, the _objective_, and the _possessive_. Although nouns are
used in all three cases, no change of form occurs except in the
possessive case.

The _nominative_ case is used in the following ways:

1. The principal use of the nominative case is as _subject_ of the
sentence; as,

    _Noun_:    The _business_ is prosperous.
    _Pronoun_: _It_ has been established for five years.

2. Sometimes a noun or pronoun is used to complete the meaning of such
verbs as _be_, _become_, _seem_, _appear_, _taste_, _feel_. Such a noun
is in the nominative case, and is called a _predicate nominative_, or a
_subjective complement_; as,

    _Noun_:    Mr. Brown is the _manager_.
             He seems a _gentleman_.
    _Pronoun_: I think it is _she_.

3. A noun in _apposition_ with another noun in the nominative case is
also in the nominative case; as,

    Mr. Brown, _the manager_, is very capable.
    The man to whom you should apply is Mr. Brown, _the manager_.

4. Sometimes a noun or a pronoun is used in direct address or in an
exclamation, without having any grammatical relation to the rest of the
sentence. It is then said to be _nominative independent_; as,

    _Mr. Brown_, a gentleman wishes to speak to you.
    A _strike_! Why are they declaring a strike?
    _You!_ I thought you were in South America.

5. Sometimes a noun or pronoun is used with a participle to express an
adverbial relation. Such a noun is in the nominative case, and is called
_nominative absolute_, because it has no grammatical relation to any
other part of the sentence; as,

      _Mr. Brown_ having gone, we told the gentleman to see
      Mr. Jones.

      _He_ being the guide, we asked no questions.

It is much better to use a clause to express such an idea; as,

      As Mr. Brown had gone, we told the gentleman to see
      Mr. Jones.

Write a sentence containing a noun and one containing a pronoun in each
of the following uses of the nominative case:

    1. Subject.
    2. Predicate Nominative.

Write a sentence containing a noun used

    1. In direct address.
    2. In exclamation.
    3. In apposition with another noun in the nominative case.

=Exercise 81--The Objective Case=

A noun or a pronoun may be used in the objective case in the following

1. Direct object of a transitive verb; as,

    I have a good _position_.
    Do you know _him_?

2. Object of a preposition; as,

    I have just returned from the _library._
    Bring the book to _me_.

3. Indirect object of such verbs as _ask_, _give_, _teach_, showing the
person for whom or to whom the action is done; as,

    She brought _her mother_ some flowers.
    I gave _her_ singing lessons.

4. A noun as _second object_ after verbs of _making_, _choosing_,
_calling_, _electing_; as,

    They chose John _secretary_.

5. A noun in _apposition_ with another objective; as,

    Send your report to the secretary, _John Wilson_.

6. Adverbial modifier; as,

     We are going _home_.

Write a sentence containing a noun and one containing a pronoun in each
of the following uses of the objective case:

    1. Direct object of a transitive verb.
    2. Indirect object.
    3. Object of a preposition.

Write a sentence containing a noun used as

    1. Adverbial objective.
    2. Second object.
    3. Appositive of another noun in the objective case.

=Exercise 82--The Possessive Case=

To form the possessive case of nouns add an _apostrophe_ and _s_ to all
singular nouns, and to all plural nouns that do not end in _s_; if a
plural _noun_ ends in _s_ add only an apostrophe; as, _child's_,
_children's_, _boys'_.

      _Exception._--When, in long words, the additional _s_
      in the singular would cause a disagreeable sound, some
      writers use only the apostrophe; as,

      We awaited the _princess's_ decision. We awaited the
      _princess'_ decision.

It is often better in such cases to use a phrase; as,

    We awaited the decision _of the princess_.

Thus, an _of_ phrase may be used instead of the possessive case. In
speaking of an inanimate object one should use it instead of the
apostrophe and _s_; as, _the top of the mountain_. However, we use such
expressions as _last year's prices_.

When, as in the name of a firm, two or more nouns are taken together
with the idea of common possession, the sign of the possessive is added
to the last noun only. If separate possession is implied, the sign of
the possessive is added to each noun; as,

    Have you seen _Wilson & King's_ new building?
    This is _Mary and Helen's_ room.
    Is this _Mary's or Helen's_ coat?

A noun or pronoun is in the possessive case before a verbal noun; as,

    I prefer to have _John's_ studying done before dinner.
    I prefer to have _his_ studying done before dinner.

Write sentences expressing relation between the words in the following
pairs. Use one of them in the possessive case or use an _of_ phrase,
whichever seems better.

    the manager, desk     city, harbor
    desk, top drawer      proprietor, private office
    book, cover           typewriter, keys
    city, mayor           ledger, first page

Bring to class five incorrect possessive phrases taken from
advertisements. Explain and correct the mistakes.

=Exercise 83=

Which of the italicized words would you use? Why?

      1. Have you heard of _Mr. Bennett_, _Mr. Bennett's_
      being appointed chairman of the meeting?

      2. It will probably delay _him_, _his_ coming here.

      3. I don't understand _him_, _his_ refusing to accept
      the position.

      4. We have heard a great deal of _him_, _his_ making a
      success of photography.

      5. The man's industry has resulted in _him_, _his_
      gaining fame.

      6. Will you sign this permit for _us_, _our_ visiting
      the factory?

      7. What do you say to _us_, _our_ making some candy?

      8. I am very sorry that _me_, _my_ interrupting you
      yesterday delayed your work.

      9. The machine is in excellent condition. There is no
      reason for _it_, _its_ needing any repair.

      10. _Everybody_, _everybody's_ being on time is
      absolutely necessary.

=Exercise 84=

Each of the following sentences is incorrect because the sign of the
possessive case has been omitted. Insert the apostrophe or the
apostrophe and _s_, wherever either is needed.

      1. There is a new boys school in our town.

      2. James brother John is our new bookkeeper.

      3. For entrance to this course three years work in
      mathematics and one years work in German are

      4. This new building will be occupied by J. M. Hopkins
      mail order department.

      5. The superintendents inspection was thorough.

      6. The trouble will be in John agreeing to the

      7. All applications for help should be made to the
      Womens Committees.

      8. The employees rest rooms are on the sunny side of
      the building.

      9. Our fifteen years experience in selling bonds has
      convinced us that investments paying a low rate of
      interest are the safest.

      10. In to-days mail I received a very large order from
      Graham & Moore's successors.

      11. Jones Brothers new store is on the corner of
      Madison Street.

      12. Last month sales show an increase of two thousand

      13. Everybodys business is nobodys business.

      14. It is when to-morrows burden is added to the
      burden of to-day that the weight is more than a man
      can bear.

      15. The present governor was the peoples choice.

      16. I prefer Tennysons poems to Longfellows.

      17. I have read both Longfellow and Tennysons poems.

      18. I bought the book at Barlow and Companys new

      19. We are going to insist on Mary taking a long
      vacation this year.

      20. I have had the pleasure of staying at both your
      friends houses.

=Exercise 85--The Apostrophe=

Some of the following sentences are right, and some are wrong. Correct
those that are wrong, explaining why they are wrong.

      1. The man who's coming this way is Mr. Burton.

      2. Whose coat is that?

      3. The man who's place you are taking has been with
      this firm for twenty years.

      4. The next one whose to give a report is the

      5. The next one whose report we must hear is the

      6. Don't you think it's too early to start?

      7. He is a ladies tailor.

      8. Remember your to let us know at once who's elected.

      9. Its too late now to change its wording.

      10. Mr. Jones' house is being repaired.

      11. The Joneses' house is being repaired.

      12. There coming as fast as their horse will bring

      13. I think you're typewriter needs cleaning.

      14. Your coming too, are'nt you?

      15. Every business has it's problems.

      16. The Bon Ton has a big sale in mens' and womens'

      17. Why, it's March! No wonder their having a sale.

      18. We shall give you a special discount if you will
      send your dealer's name.

      19. Most of the dealer's advertise very little.

      20. It's just a year ago since we received your last

      21. Its not willingness we lack; it's time.

      22. If you use our safety device, you may leave you're
      window open with security, and you will arise
      refreshed, ready for a big days work.

      23. Lets take our vacation when they take their's.

      24. I think we shall have to take our's in August. Two
      of us must stay during July, for the work will not do
      it's self, you know.

      25. In any explanation it should be the writers
      purpose to so describe his good's that the reader will
      desire them. A good salesman never shows a necktie in
      a box. He takes it out and with a deft twist forms
      it's length into a four-in-hand over his finger. The
      customer then sees not only the scarf, it's color and
      its weave, but he sees it in it's relation to himself,
      as it will look when it's tied.

=Exercise 86=

Supply _who_ or _whom_:

      1. ---- did you take me for?

      2. The shipping clerk, ---- I consider responsible for
      the mistake, must go.

      3. The shipping clerk, ---- I feel certain is
      responsible for the mistake, must go.

      4. ---- is it?

      5. ---- shall I say called?

      6. ---- do you wish to see?

      7. ---- did you say was elected?

      8. He is the one ---- every one thought should be

      9. Choose the one ---- you think will give the best

      10. Choose the one ---- you think you can trust.

      11. She asked me ---- did it.

      12. ---- do you think is the best salesman in the

      13. ---- do you regard as the best salesman in the

      14. ---- was that ---- you were talking to?

      15. He is the one ---- I was speaking about.

      16. ---- do we play next week?

      17. He is a workman ---- can be trusted.

      18. He is a workman upon ---- you can depend.

      19. This letter comes from Robert, ---- we all know
      very well.

      20. This letter comes from Robert, ---- we all know
      writes good letters.

      21. ---- do you consider to be most capable? [The
      subject of the infinitive _to be_ must be in the
      objective case.]

      22. This booklet was written by the man ---- Mr.
      Bardon considers [to be] the best correspondent in our

      23. He is the one ---- every one believes to be worthy
      of the highest honors.

      24. The critic ---- every one thought gave the most
      truthful account of the performance is a man of great

Supply _whoever_ or _whomever_:

      1. Give the book to ---- needs it.

      2. Give it to ---- you think best.

      3. ---- I send can be trusted.

      4. Send me ---- is there.

      5. Send me ---- you find there.

      6. ---- reaches the line first will receive the cup.

      7. The cup will be given to ---- reaches the lines

      8. In the country lane he spoke to ---- he met.

      9. ---- you choose may compete for the prize.

      10. ---- you bring is welcome.

=Exercise 87=

Read the following sentences, using one of the forms in italic. Be able
to give a reason for your choice.

      1. _He_--_him_ and _I_--_me_ are going camping next

      2. It is a question that refers to you and _I_--_me_.

      3. It is a question between you and _I_--_me_.

      4. I am sure that it was _she_--_her_.

      5. I am sure that we saw you and _he_--_him_.

      6. _We_--_us_ boys are going camping.

      7. Will you go camping with _we_--_us_ boys?

      8. _They_--_them_ and their cousins are going camping.

      9. We bought a large piece of ground so that my
      brother and _I_--_me_ could have a garden.

      10. It was bought for _he_--_him_ and _I_--_me_.

      11. Is that _he_--_him_ entering the gate? Yes, that
      is _he_--_him_.

      12. _Who_--_whom_ should I meet at the station but old
      Mr. McGregor, _who_--_whom_ I had not seen for several

      13. If I were _he_--_him_, I should start at once.

      14. There is no need of _him_--_his_ staying any

      15. He does not work so rapidly as _I_--_me_.

      16. Mary and _she_--_her_ work in the same office.

      17. There is no danger of _me_--_my_ failing.

      18. Please let _she_--_her_ and _I_--_me_ do the work

      19. There is no use of _us_--_our_ trying any more.

      20. _Us_--_our_ giving up now will spoil everything.

      21. My mother objected to _me_--_my_ going.

      22. Why did you insist upon _us_--_our_ coming to-day?

      23. I hardly think it is _he_--_him_ _who_--_whom_ is
      to blame.

      24. I should like to be _she_--_her_.

      25. _They_--_them_ that do wrong shall be punished.

      26. _They_--_them_ that do wrong I shall punish.

      27. _He_--_him_ that is your friend you can call upon
      in your hour of need.

      28. _He_--_him_ that is your friend will respond to
      your call.

      29. The manager praised both the bookkeepers and
      _we_--_us_ girls.

      30. Was it you who called? Yes, it was _I_--_me_.

      31. It surely was not _I_--_me_ whom you saw.

      32. He reproved us both but _I_--_me_ more than

      33. Are you sure it's _I_--_me_ whom he appointed?

      34. If it's really _I_--_me_ who was appointed, I'm
      sure I should have been notified.

      35. I'm sure it can't be _I_--_me_.

=Exercise 88--_Same_ as a Pronoun=

One of the worst constructions found in business letters of today is the
use of _same_ as a pronoun. The word may be an adjective or a noun but
never a pronoun.

      _Wrong_: Will you please fill out the enclosed blank
      and return _same_ as soon as possible?

      _Right_: Will you please fill out the enclosed blank
      and return _it_ as soon as possible?

In each of the following sentences substitute a noun or a pronoun for

      1. Will you not send us a check by Friday so that we
      may use same for our pay roll on Saturday?

      2. Do you wish to bid for our cinder output this year?
      We have a sample car that we shall be glad to have you
      inspect if you think you will have any use for same.

      3. We have no use for the material this year, but we
      thank you for giving us an opportunity to bid for

      4. If you are dissatisfied with the machine, return
      same at our expense.

      5. You state that you sent us an order on June 10, but
      we cannot find any trace of same.

      6. We are in the market for two dozen Standard clothes
      wringers, and we should be glad to receive your lowest
      price on same.

      7. We have given you credit for this amount and desire
      to thank you for your promptness in sending same.

      8. We have your letter of November 6 and thank you for

      9. If you think you can use this type of machine, we
      shall be glad to send you same on ten days' trial.

      10. We have decided to use your machine if you will
      give us a satisfactory guarantee as to strength,
      efficiency, and freedom from leaks. As soon as
      possible let us hear from you in regard to same.

=Exercise 89--Nouns and Pronouns Incorrectly Used=

                 _Wrong_                                  _Right_

  1. We saw _lots_ of curious things.      We saw _a number_ of curious

  2. Do you know that _party_?             Do you know that _man_?

  3. I stayed at home the _balance_        I stayed at home the _rest_ of
        of the day.                              the day.

  4. What _business_ have you to go?       What _right_ have you to go?

  5. The dress will be done in a           The dress will be done in a
        _couple_ of days.                       _few_ days.

  6. I'll walk a _piece_ with you.         I'll walk a _short distance_
                                                 with you.
  7. Did you get a _raise_ in pay?         Did you get an _increase_ in
  8. I'll send you a _postal_.             I'll send you a _postal card_.

  9. Christmas is still a long _ways_      Christmas is still a long _way_
        off.                                     off.

 10. What _line_ of business are you       What _kind_ of business are you
        in now?                                  in now?

 11. If you expect to open a grocery,      If you expect to open a grocery,
        let me give you a little                 let me give you a little
        advice _along that line_.                advice _on the subject_.

 12. Have you anything new in the          Have you any new neckwear?
        neckwear _line_?
 13. I have a _date_ with the dentist.     I have an _appointment_ with the

 14. Have you a _date_ for this evening?   Have you an _engagement_ for
                                                this evening?

 15. He always does his work in good       He always does his work _well_.

 16. That is a good _write-up_ on the      That is a good _article_ on the
        tariff.                                 tariff.

 17. _Yourself_ and friends are invited.   _You_ and your friends are

 18. Don't _they_ have street cars in      Are there no street cars in
        your town?                              your town?

 19. _It_ said in this morning's paper     This morning's paper said that
        that the traffic men would              the traffic men would
        strike.                                 strike.

 20. The book _what_ he advised is not     The book _that_ he advised is
        fiction.                                not fiction.



AS a rule, adverbs present more difficulty than do adjectives. Careless
pupils frequently use an adjective when an adverb is necessary; as,

    _Wrong_: He solved the problem very _quick_.
    _Right_: He solved the problem very _quickly_.

    _Wrong_: This is _real_ good candy.
    _Right_: This is _really_ (or _very_) good candy.

Until the habit of correct usage is formed, every sentence must be
watched. When a word modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb,
another adverb must be used, and an adjective may not correctly be
substituted. As a rule, adverbs express the following ideas:

    _Time_: We arrived _early_.
    _Place_: We have been _here_ since January.
    _Manner_: He walked _steadily_ onward.
    _Cause_: _Why_ did you refuse the offer?
    _Degree_: I am _very much_ surprised.
    _Number_: I did it _once_ not _twice_.
    _Assertion_: }
    _Denial_:    } I do _not_ agree.

      Adverb modifying a verb: See how _slowly_ the man

      Adverb modifying an adjective: The weather has been
      _extremely_ warm.

      Adverb modifying an adverb: He dictates _very_

It must be remembered, however, that verbs of the senses--_taste_,
_feel_, _look_, _smell_, _sound_, and the like--are sometimes almost
equal in meaning to the verb _be_. In that case, they are followed by
adjectives and not by adverbs; as,

    _Adjective_: He looked _angry_.
    _Adverb_: He looked _angrily_ at us.

=Exercise 90=

Name the adjectives in the following selection, explaining with what
noun each belongs.

Name the adverbs, explaining what part of speech each modifies.

      Since 1904 the number of live cattle exported from
      this country has been steadily growing smaller.
      Exports of dressed beef have also shrunk to such
      insignificant proportions that the United States is no
      longer an important factor in the foreign markets for
      beef. Often has it been said that the competition of
      cheap Argentine beef has deprived us of foreign
      markets. It would be more nearly true to say that
      foreigners buy the inferior article only because we
      cannot supply them with all they want of the best
      grade. Take, for instance, the Englishman's
      willingness to pay considerably more for American
      corn-fed beef than for Argentine.

      The raising of cattle is important, also, from the
      standpoint of the leather business. Obviously, with a
      21 per cent increase in population in each decade,
      many more shoes are necessary. Automobile and other
      industries are making constantly increasing demands
      for leather. Shoes cannot become cheaper in the face
      of increased demand and diminished supply. Too much
      depends upon the cattle industry for us to allow it to

=Exercise 91=

Which of the italicized words should you use in the following, and why?

      1. Why do you walk so _slow_--_slowly_?

      2. Speak _louder_--_more loudly_.

      3. I cannot explain why he spoke so

      4. The automobile was going very _swift_--_swiftly_.

      5. The well has been dug very _deep_--_deeply_.

      6. He is not _near_--_nearly_ so tall as you are.

      7. Are you cutting that _even_--_evenly_?

      8. She does pen and ink sketches

      9. Why can't I grow _quicker_--_more quickly_?

      10. I feel _bad_--_badly_ this morning.

      11. Can you do all I have asked? _Easy_--_easily_.

      12. She does her work _good_--_well_.

      13. She does her work _fine_--_finely_.

      14. I am _real_--_very much_ surprised to see you.

      15. He became _real_--_very_ angry.

      16. I'm afraid it's not _near_--_nearly_ big enough.

      17. She works twice as _quick_--_quickly_ as you do.

      18. He _sure_--_surely_ is a good speaker. He seems
      _sure_--_surely_ of himself.

      19. Are you going? _Sure_--_surely_?

      20. He says he is _near_--_nearly_ starved.

      21. He worked _steady_--_steadily_ all morning. The
      others did not work _near_--_nearly_ so hard.

      22. I am speaking as _serious_--_seriously_ as I can.

      23. The orange tastes _bitter_--_bitterly_.

      24. Don't you think he has been acting

      25. The coat is finished _nice_--_nicely_.

=Exercise 92=

Explain the proper position of the italicized adverbs in the following
sentences. Remember that an adverb must stand as closely as possible to
the word that it modifies, but remember also that an infinitive,
although made up of two parts, is _one_ word and should not be split by
an adverb.

      1. I _merely_ want the Milwaukee list of customers.

      2. You _almost_ write like her.

      3. Your writing is like hers _almost_.

      4. I can _not_ find one of the papers I had on the

      5. He told me to _carefully_ add the figures in the

      6. I expect to _quickly_ finish my dictation.

      7. I don't _even_ understand the first problem in the

      8. Don't say you don't _ever_ expect to go to school

      9. All the statements are _not_ on my desk.

      10. He promised to _quickly_ settle the matter.

      11. I wish you to _clearly_ understand the situation.

      12. I _only_ have two more items to enter.

      13. I _only_ expect to take a short vacation this

      14. He _only_ spoke of two causes of the loss in

      15. I _only_ decided to take the Western instead of
      the Eastern trip at the last moment.

=Exercise 93--Comparison=

Adjectives are compared so as to express different degrees of quality.
There are three degrees of comparison, the _positive_, the
_comparative_, and the _superlative_. When the object modified or
described by the adjective is not compared with another, the first or
_positive_ degree is used. When two objects are compared, the second or
_comparative_ degree is used to denote more or less of the quality
expressed by the adjective. When several objects are compared, the
_superlative_ degree of the adjective is used to express the highest or
the lowest possible degree of the adjective.

The usual method of comparing an adjective is to add _er_ to the
positive to form the comparative, and _est_ to form the superlative.
Frequently, however, especially for an adjective of two or more
syllables, the comparative is formed by prefixing _more_ or _less_ to
the positive, and the superlative by prefixing _most_ or _least_.
Besides the adjectives in these two classes there are some which do not
follow any regular method and must, therefore, be watched a little more

The following table illustrates the different methods of comparison:

     _Positive_           _Comparative_          _Superlative_
    bright              brighter            brightest
    dangerous           more dangerous      most dangerous
    beautiful           more beautiful      most beautiful
    good                better              best
    bad                 worse               worst
    ill                 worse               worst

Be careful to avoid using a double sign for the comparative degree; as,

    _Wrong_: This writing is _more neater_ than yours.

Some adverbs are also compared; as,

     _Positive_          _Comparative_       _Superlative_
    well              better            best
    quickly           more quickly      most quickly

Some adjectives and adverbs cannot be compared because the positive
degree in itself expresses a complete or _absolute_ meaning; as,

    absolute,-ly   eternal        perfect        sufficient
    circular       extreme        perpendicular  supreme
    continual      faultless      perpetual      unanimous
    dead           full           right          unique
    decisive       impossible     round          universal
    empty          incurable      square         white

Compare those of the following adjectives that may be compared. Explain
why some do not admit of comparison.

    great      spotless   expensive  wise
    tall       dear       parallel   high
    desirable  east       old        new
    honorable  early      exclusive  blank

=Exercise 94=

In the following exercise, select the correct one of the two italicized
forms. Remember that the comparative degree is used in comparing two
objects, the superlative in comparing three or more.

      1. I had three pens. I have lost the _better_--_best_

      2. I have two clerks. John is the _older_--_oldest_.

      3. Of the two colors, I think the tan is the
      _more_--_most_ becoming to you.

      4. You are the _taller_--_tallest_ of all the boys.

      5. Of two professions, choose the _more_--_most_

      6. He is the _faster_--_fastest_ workman in the shop.

      7. Which of your hands is the _cleaner_--_cleanest_?

      8. Which do you like _better_--_best_, skating or

      9. Which of your eyes has the _better_--_best_ vision?

      10. Of all the shops, she likes Leslie's

      11. Which is _more_--_most_ durable, serge or

      12. Which tree lives _longer_--_longest_, the poplar
      or the elm?

      13. Which is the _best_--_better_ policy, honesty or

      14. He is the _wittier_--_wittiest_ one in the class.

      15. He is the _wittier_--_wittiest_ boy in the class.
      There is only one boy in the class besides him.

      16. Of our twenty salesmen, he is considered
      _better_--_best_ because he is _quicker_--_quickest_
      witted than any other.

      17. You should not mention the two men in one breath.
      The _former_--_first_ is famous and the
      _latter_--_last_ infamous.

      18. Which of you two do you think deserves
      _more_--_most_ praise?

      19. Which of you two deserves _less_--_least_ praise?

      20. Which of you two can run the _faster_--_fastest_?

=Exercise 95=

Remember that the double negative is wrong; as,

    _Wrong_: I haven't no paper.
    _Right_: I have no paper.

Correct any of the following sentences that contain this mistake:

      1. None of them didn't come.

      2. I couldn't do the problem neither.

      3. This paper isn't very good, I don't think.

      4. Couldn't you find no better pen?

      5. I didn't choose none of them.

      6. I don't see nothing to complain of.

      7. He couldn't hardly see across the street.

      8. We didn't find the paper nowhere.

      9. They can't scarcely believe the report.

      10. She couldn't stay with us only a few minutes.

=Exercise 96--Fewer, Less=

_Fewer_ refers to a smaller number by counting, _less_ refers to a
smaller quantity by measuring. Insert the correct word:

      1. You are making ---- mistakes each day.

      2. I am having ---- difficulty in writing shorthand.

      3. There are ---- houses on this street than I had

      4. The farther inland we went the ---- signs of
      habitation we saw.

      5. Each year there is ---- opportunity for an
      uneducated man to rise.

      6. Each year there are ---- opportunities for the
      uneducated man to rise.

=Most, Almost=

_Most_ refers to quantity or number; _almost_ means _not quite_. Insert
the correct word:

      7. ---- people enjoy their work.

      8. I have ---- finished the course in stenography.

      9. ---- European cities are beautiful.

      10. ---- all European cities are beautiful.

=Real, Very=

_Real_ is an adjective meaning _actual_; _very_ is an adverb of degree.
Insert the correct word:

      11. I'm ---- glad to see you.

      12. Is your comb ---- amber?

      13. The men of the Titanic were ---- heroes.

      14. He is a ---- good soloist.

      15. She is ---- entertaining in conversation; it was a
      ---- pleasure to meet her.

=Exercise 97--Adjectives and Adverbs Incorrectly Used=

                 _Wrong_                                  _Right_
   1. I don't like _those_ kind of pens.  I don't like _that_ kind of pens.

   2. What sort of _a_ course are you     What sort of course are you
         taking?                                taking?

   3. His statements made me _mad_.       His statements made me _angry_.

   4. Yours _respectively_.               Yours _respectfully_.
          (Consult a dictionary for the correct use of _respectively_)

   5. Do you want _in_?                   Do you want _to come in_?

   6. Go _some place_ with me.            Go _somewhere_ with me.

   7. My father is _some_ better.         My father is _somewhat_ better.

   8. He comes _every once in a while_.   He comes _occasionally_.

   9. Did you recognize the girl who      Did you recognize the girl who
        drove _past?_                           drove _by_?

  10. The two are _both_ alike.           The two are alike.

  11. He is _liable_ to come any          He is _likely_ to come at any
        minute.                                 minute.

  12. That ring has a _funny_ design.     That ring has an _odd_ design.

  13. I'd _sooner_ stay at home.          I'd _rather_ stay at home.

  14. Are you _most_ ready?               Are you _almost_ ready?

  15. I'm _kind of_ sleepy.               I'm _rather_ sleepy.

  16. What _size_ hat do you wear?        What _sized_ hat do you wear?

  17. _This here_ book is the one         _This_ book is the one I wish.
        I wish.

  18. He spoke _angry like_.              He spoke _angrily_.

  19. His ideas are _no_ good.            His ideas are _worthless_ (or
                                                _not good_).

  20. He _seldom ever_ makes a mistake.   He _seldom_ (_hardly ever_)
                                                makes a mistake.

  21. I didn't work _any_ last night.     I didn't work _at all_ last

  22. I walked _this_ far yesterday.      I walked _as far as this_

  23. I want to see you _badly_.          I want to see you _very much_.

  24. He sells insurance _on the side_.   _In addition to his other
                                                business_ he sells

  25. Don't talk _out loud_.              Don't talk _aloud_.

  26. She is _very_ disappointed.         She is _very much_ disappointed.
     (Before a perfect participle _too_ or _very_ may not be used without
                    the addition of the adverb _much_)

  27. She is a _cute_ (or _cunning_)      She is a _pretty_ child.
        (Look up the words _cute_ and _cunning_ in a dictionary)

  28. He was lying face _down_ on         He was lying face _downward_ on
        the grass.                              the grass.



VERBS may be _transitive_ or _intransitive_.

A verb is transitive when it needs an object to complete its meaning;
that is, when the action passes over (Latin, _transire_, to pass over)
from the subject or doer to the object or receiver; as,

    He _hit_ the ball.

A verb is intransitive when it needs no object to complete its meaning;

    The crowd _cheered_.

Some intransitive verbs require a predicate noun or pronoun in the
nominative case, or an adjective, to complete their meaning. They are
the verbs _be_, _become_, _appear_, _seem_, _feel_, _taste_, _look_,
_smell_; as,

    _Adjective_: The berries taste _sour_.
    _Noun_: John is my _brother_.
    _Pronoun_: It is _I_.

Such verbs are sometimes called _copulatives_.

=Exercise 98=

Tell whether each verb in the following sentences is transitive or
intransitive and whether it is followed by a noun or a pronoun in the
nominative or the objective case or by a complementary adjective.

      1. Primitive people have left traces of very early
      commercial relations.

      2. Explorers visited the Ohio valley and found
      articles of remote manufacture.

      3. Checks and drafts are great conveniences to the
      business man.

      4. The United States Supreme Court made a decision
      that labor unions are punishable under trust

      5. A labor union is different from a trust.

      6. This is the opinion of the labor leader.

      7. What is your opinion?

      8. The total value of merchandise sent to
      Latin-America from the United States exceeds that
      supplied by any other single country.

Write three sentences illustrating transitive verbs.

Write three sentences illustrating intransitive verbs.

Write three sentences illustrating copulative verbs.

=Exercise 99--Voice=

Voice is that property of the verb that shows whether the subject acts
or is acted upon. If the subject acts, the verb is in the _active
voice_. If the subject is acted upon, the verb is in the _passive
voice_. Every sentence containing a transitive verb must have the
following parts:

       _Agent_(doer)        _Action_       _Receiver_
    The runaway horse     injured        John.

When the sentence is in the order shown above, the subject is the agent,
and the verb expresses the action of the agent. When the sentence is
written in this order, the verb is said to be in the _active voice_.

However, without changing the meaning of the sentence, we may change the
order of the ideas; thus,

    _Receiver_     _Action_           _Agent_
      John     was injured   by the runaway horse.

The receiver of the action has become the subject, and the agent has
become part of the predicate, being expressed in the phrase _by the
runaway horse_. When the sentence is expressed in this order, the
subject receiving or "suffering" the action, the verb is said to be in
the _passive voice_. Only transitive verbs, therefore, may be changed to
the passive voice.

      NOTE.--There are certain intransitive verbs that
      sometimes have a preposition so closely connected with
      them that the two are treated almost like a transitive
      verb, and may be made passive; as,

    _Active_: The audience laughed _at_ the speaker.
    _Passive_: The speaker was laughed _at_ by the audience.

Write five sentences in the active voice.

Change them to the passive voice.

In the sentences that you have written, is the active form of the verb
or the passive form better? Which is more direct in its wording? Which,
then, is the better form to use regularly?

=Exercise 100--Number and Person=

The number of the verb is decided by the number of the subject. If the
subject is a singular noun, or a pronoun that stands for a singular
noun, it requires a singular verb; if the subject is plural, it requires
a plural verb. As a rule, there is no difference between the singular
and the plural forms of the verb except in the form for the third person
singular; as,

    I say        We say
    You say      You say
    He says      They say

But as the third person of the verb is the one most often used, it must
be carefully noted.

The following subjects of verbs are singular and require a singular verb
to accompany them:

1. A collective noun that denotes a group of objects acting as one
thing; as,

    The crowd _is_ scattering.

2. A group of words which, like a collective noun, is plural in form but
singular in meaning; as,

    Thirty dollars _is_ what I paid for the ring.

3. A singular noun modified by _every_, _each_, _one_, _no_, _many a_;
or the pronouns _each_, _everybody_, _either_, _neither_, and _none_
when it means _not one_; as,

    Each of us _has_ his lesson.
    Many an opportunity _has_ been wasted.
    Everybody _is_ here now.

4. Singular[1] nouns or pronouns joined by _or_, _either--or_,
_neither--nor_; as,

    Either John or his father _is_ coming.

5. Two nouns joined by _and_, denoting one person or thing; as,

    The bookkeeper and stenographer _is_ an expert.

      NOTE.--If two persons are meant, the article should be
      repeated before the second noun.

The following subjects of verbs are plural and require plural verbs:

1. A collective noun denoting plurality; that is, referring to the
individuals that compose the group; as,

    The class _are_ all studious.

2. A compound subject joined by _and_, when the objects joined are
different; as,

    The door and the window _are_ both open.

3. The pronoun _you_, though it may denote only one person; as,

    _Right_: You _were_ right.
    _Wrong_: You _was_ right.

=Exercise 101=

In the following sentences, decide which of the italicized forms is
correct. Give the reason for your choice.

      1. Two dollars _is_--_are_ too much for you to pay.

      2. Bread and butter _is_--_are_ what I prefer to eat.

      3. Bread and butter _is_--_are_ both sold here.

      4. His opinion and mine _is_--_are_ different.

      5. The majority of the class _is_--_are_ present.

      6. The class _is_--_are_ dismissed.

      7. The congregation _is_--_are_ asked to remain a few
      minutes after the close of the service.

      8. The community _is_--_are_ rapidly changing.

      9. A few of the books _was_--_were_ given to me.

      10. There _was_--_were_ forty people present.

      11. The secretary and treasurer _was_--_were_ asked to
      read _his_--_their_ report.

      12. One-third of the office _was_--_were_ late this
      morning because the cars were not running.

      13. He _don't_--_doesn't_ understand what I mean.

      14. If the quality and the price _is_--_are_ right,

      15. There _come_--_comes_ a crowd of people.

      16. The library with its thousands of books
      _was_--_were_ destroyed by fire.

      17. There _don't_--_doesn't_ seem to be much
      difference between the two.

      18. The whole system of filing and indexing
      _is_--_are_ wrong.

      19. Safety as well as success _is_--_are_ at stake.

      20. The state of public affairs _calls_--_call_ for
      quick action.

      21. Many a man _has_--_have_ neglected golden

      22. Many men _has_--_have_ neglected golden

      23. The committee _has_--_have_ given _its_--_their_

      24. Our team _was_--_were_ beaten.

      25. One of us surely _is_--_are_ mistaken.

      26. Every one _was_--_were_ happy when Tom was elected

      27. Tom and James _is_--_are_ going skating.

      28. Tom with his brother James _is_--_are_ going

      29. The only thing I have not prepared for dinner
      _is_--_are_ the potatoes.

      30. Fifty feet of sidewalk _was_--_were_ laid to-day.

      31. None of the boys _is_--_are_ studying stenography.

      32. Neither Tom nor his brother _is_--_are_ studying

      33. Both Tom and his brother _is_--_are_

      34. Every one _is_--_are_ interested in the cost of

In the last sentence above substitute one of the following for _every
one_, using the correct form of the verb with each:

      each of us; everybody; all of us; several people; both
      of the men; neither of the men; neither Mary nor John;
      Mary and John; our club; our class; the nation; not
      only Europe but America; Europe as well as America;
      the nation as well as several of the larger cities

=Exercise 102--Tense=

The tense of the verb indicates the time of the action. There are three
primary tenses, indicating action in the _present_, the _past_, and the
_future_. Each of these tenses has also a _perfect_ tense, which,
represents the action as being perfect or complete in the present, the
past, and the future.

The _present_ tense is the simplest form. It denotes that the action
takes place now; as,

    I write          We write
    You write        You write
    He writes        They write

To be more exact, we may indicate that the action is continuing in the
present time, and then we say,

    I am writing        We are writing
    You are writing     You are writing
    He is writing       They are writing

This is called the _present progressive_ tense.

It may be that you wish to be emphatic, and you say,

    I do write         We do write
    You do write       You do write
    He does write      They do write

This is called the _emphatic present_ tense.

The _past_ tense indicates that the action took place in past time; as,

    I wrote                We wrote
    You wrote              You wrote
    He wrote               They wrote

or, the _past progressive_; as,

    I was writing          We were writing
    You were writing       You were writing
    He was writing         They were writing

or, the _past emphatic_; as,

    I did write            We did write
    You did write          You did write
    He did write           They did write

The emphatic form is used only in the present and the past tenses.

       *       *       *       *       *

The _future_ tense denotes that the action will take place at some
future time. It is formed by using _shall_ or _will_ with the simplest
form of the verb; as,

    I shall write          We shall write
    You will write         You will write
    He will write          They will write

The progressive form is not common. It is

    I shall be writing     We shall be writing
    You will be writing    You will be writing
    He will be writing     They will be writing

The three perfect tenses are formed by using the verb _have_ with the
perfect participle of the verb.

The _present perfect_ tense denotes that the action is complete at the
present time. It is formed by the present tense of _have_ and the
perfect participle of the verb; as,

    I have written         We have written
    You have written       You have written
    He has written         They have written

The progressive form is,

    I have been writing         We have been writing
    You have been writing       You have been writing
    He has been writing         They have been writing

The _past perfect_ denotes that the action was completed in past time.
It is formed by using the past tense of _have_ and the perfect
participle of the verb; as,

    I had written               We had written
    You had written             You had written
    He had written              They had written

The progressive form is,

    I had been writing          We had been writing
    You had been writing        You had been writing
    He had been writing         They had been writing

The _future perfect_ tense denotes that the action will be completed at
some future time. It is formed by the future of _have_ and the perfect
participle of the verb; as,

    I shall have written        We shall have written
    You will have written       You will have written
    He will have written        They will have written

The progressive form is rarely used. It is

    I shall have been writing   We shall have been writing
    You will have been writing  You will have been writing
    He will have been writing   They will have been writing

Giving all forms singular and plural, first, second, and third persons
of each tense constitutes the _conjugation_ of a verb. Giving one person
in each tense constitutes the _synopsis_ of the conjugation.

The following is a synopsis of all the tenses of the active voice in the
first person singular number of the verb _write_:

                                  ACTIVE VOICE

           {           {                 {I write (simple form)
           {           {_Present_        {I am writing (progressive form)
           {           {                 {I do write (emphatic form)
           {           {
           {_Primary_  {                 {I wrote (simple)
           {           {_Past_           {I was writing (progressive)
           {           {                 {I did write (emphatic)
           {           {
           {           {                 {I shall write (simple)
           {           {_Future_         {I shall be writing (progressive)
    TENSE  {
           {           {                 {I have written (simple)
           {           {_Present Perfect_{I have been writing (progressive)
           {           {
           {_Perfect_  {                 {I had written (simple)
           {_or_       {_Past Perfect_   {I had been writing (progressive)
           {           {
           {           {                 {I shall have written (simple)
           {           {_Future Perfect_ {I shall have been writing
           {           {                 {       (progressive)

=Exercise 103=

Conjugate the following in the active voice:

      1. Simple past tense of _walk_.

      2. Present progressive tense of _walk_.

      3. Present perfect of _drive_. (See Exercise 108 for
      the principal parts.)

      4. Present perfect progressive of _drive_.

      5. Future progressive of _ride_.

      6. Past of _ride_.

      7. Present progressive of _ride_.

      8. Past emphatic of _ride_.

      9. Past perfect of _ride_.

      10. Present perfect progressive of _ride_.

Give a synopsis of the progressive tenses of _begin_, using _he_ as the

=Exercise 104--Shall and Will=

The auxiliary verbs used to form the future tenses are _shall_ and
_will_. The two must be carefully distinguished because they denote
different ideas, according to the person with which they are used. The
rule is, to express simple future time, use _shall_ in the first person,
_will_ in the second and third persons.

The future tense of the verb _walk_ is conjugated as follows:

    I shall walk      We shall walk
    You will walk     You will walk
    He will walk      They will walk

This is the form to use when you expect the action to take place

On the other hand, instead of letting things take their natural course
as they do in the simple future, you may force them to take place. You
may, for example, be determined to walk, or determined to make some one
else walk. In that case the use is reversed; as,

    I will walk        We will walk
    You shall walk     You shall walk
    He shall walk      They shall walk

This form is used whenever the speaker has authority to bring about the
action indicated by the verb.

In questions of the first person always use _shall_. In questions of the
second and third persons use the same form that you expect in the
answer; as,

      _Shall_ you be at home to-morrow? I _shall_.

In the following sentences insert _shall_ or _will_, giving the reason
for your choice:

      1. I ---- finish the work by three o'clock, I think.

      2. To-morrow he ---- feel sorry for this; I vow it.

      3. I am sorry, but I ---- not be able to finish the
      work before next week.

      4. ---- you finish your business course in February or
      in June? I ---- finish in June, I think.

      5. ---- he finish in February? No, he ---- finish in

      6. The foreman declares he ---- not have another

      7. He ---- see his mistake when it is too late.

      8. They ---- surely be at the station to meet me.

      9. I'm afraid you ---- be kicked if you go near that

      10. If he doesn't take the examination, he ---- fail.

      11. I am determined that I ---- win.

      12. I ---- sail probably on the fifteenth.

      13. He ---- be twenty-one to-morrow.

      14. I ---- go in spite of him.

      15. ---- you go by train, do you think?

      16. I ---- be greatly obliged if you ---- send the
      book at once.

      17. I promise you John ---- know his lesson to-morrow.

      18. ---- you be at home this evening?

      19. ---- the train be on time?

      20. ---- the store be open this evening?

Conjugate the future and future perfect tenses of the following verbs:

    drive    see      go       run      sweep
    ride     choose   sing     eat      sell

=Exercise 105--Should and Would=

_Should_ and _would_ are the past tenses of _shall_ and _will_ and, in
general, express the same ideas as do _shall_ and _will_, except that
_should_ sometimes means _ought_; as,

      You _should_ not speak in that way.

_Would_, also, sometimes indicates an action that occurs frequently; as,

      She _would_ often sit at the window all the morning.

The use of _should_ and _would_ in indirect statements and questions is
sometimes puzzling. First of all, decide whether _shall_ or _will_ would
be used in the direct form of the sentence. If the direct form uses
_shall_, use _should_ in the indirect; if the direct uses _will_, use
_would_ in the indirect; as,

      _Direct_: The market _will_ improve.

      _Indirect_: He said that the market _would_ improve.

In conditional clauses (_if_), use _should_ for all persons.

Insert _should_ or _would_.

      1. If I knew his address, I ---- send him a telegram.

      2. He promised that he ---- not make the mistake
      again. (The direct form would read, I will not ---- )

      3. I promised that I ---- not make the mistake again.

      4. You promised that you ---- not make the mistake

      5. Do you think that I ---- go?

      6. I ---- if I were you.

      7. I ---- think he ---- know better than to apply for
      that position.

      8. John said that, no matter what we thought, he ----
      not go.

      9. If you ---- decide to accept the offer, let me know
      at once.

      10. I am sorry he did that. He ---- not, of course.

      11. If I ---- see him, I'd let him know.

      12. If he ---- come during my absence, ask him to

      13. I ---- think you would be more careful.

      14. Let me know if you ---- not be able to come.

=Exercise 106=

Change the italicized verbs to past tense, future, present perfect, past
perfect, future perfect. Wherever necessary, add sufficient to make the
meaning of the tense clear; as,

      _Present_: The manager _is now_ in his office.

      _Past_: The manager _was_ in his office _a few minutes

      _Future_: The manager _will be_ in his office
      _to-morrow at ten o'clock_.

      _Present Perfect_: The manager _has been_ in his
      office _all the morning_. (It is still morning.)

      _Past Perfect_: The manager _had been_ in his office
      _only a few moments when the president arrived_.

      _Future Perfect_: _In about five minutes_ the manager
      _will have been_ in the president's office _exactly
      three hours_.

      1. The cashier _opens_ the safe in the morning.

      2. The mechanic _earns_ good wages.

      3. The buyer _leaves_ to-night.

      4. The bookkeeper _makes_ out the statements.

      5. The correspondent _writes_ the booklets.

      6. The advertising manager _approves_ the copy.

      7. The adding machine _is broken_.

      8. The chief clerk _attends_ to the incoming mail.

      9. The superintendent _visits_ the factory every day.

      10. The salesman _is selling_ five thousand dollars'
      worth of goods a week.

=Exercise 107=

The present tense is used to indicate general truths--things true in
past time and still true. Omit the incorrect form in the following

      1. What did you say _is_--_was_ the meaning of the
      term _bona fide_?

      2. What _was_--_is_ the name of that book that you
      enjoyed so much?

      3. Didn't you know that the lion _is_--_was_ called
      the king of beasts?

      4. They told me that the legal rate of interest at
      present _is_-_was_ six per cent.

      5. Have you ever heard him try to prove that black
      _is_--_was_ white?

      6. What _is_--_was_ the name of the banker who
      lectured to us yesterday?

      7. I never could remember what the important products
      of my county _are_--_were_.

      8. The advocate of Equal Suffrage argued that mothers
      _need_--_needed_ the ballot to protect their children.

      9. She said that a democracy _is_--_was_ a government
      of the people, by the people, and for the people, and
      that women _are_-_were_ people as well as men.

      10. The speaker asserted that this country
      _needs_--_needed_ a tariff to protect home industries.

=Exercise 108--Principal Parts=

No one can be certain of using the correct form of a verb unless he
knows the principal parts. Some verbs are regular; that is, they form
their past tense and their perfect participle by adding _ed_ to the
present tense; as,

    _Present_      _Past_     _Perfect Participle_
     walk       walked       walked

Some verbs, however, are very irregular, having a different form for
each of the principal parts. A list of such verbs follows:

    _Present_              _Past_           _Perfect Participle_
    arise               arose               arisen
    awake               awoke or awaked     awaked
    be                  was                 been
    bear (carry)        bore                borne
    beat                beat                beaten
    become              became              become
    begin               began               begun
    bid                 bade                bidden
    bite                bit                 bitten
    blow                blew                blown
    break               broke               broken
    choose              chose               chosen
    come                came                come
    do                  did                 done
    draw                drew                drawn
    drink               drank               drunk
    drive               drove               driven
    eat                 ate                 eaten
    fall                fell                fallen
    fly                 flew                flown
    forbid              forbade             forbidden
    forsake             forsook             forsaken
    freeze              froze               frozen
    give                gave                given
    go                  went                gone
    grow                grew                grown
    hide                hid                 hidden
    know                knew                known
    lie (to rest)       lay                 lain
    ride                rode                ridden
    ring                rang                rung
    rise                rose                risen
    run                 ran                 run
    see                 saw                 seen
    shake               shook               shaken
    show                showed              shown
    shrink              shrank              shrunk
    sing                sang                sung
    slay                slew                slain
    slide               slid                slidden
    sow                 sowed               sown
    speak               spoke               spoken
    spring              sprang              sprung
    steal               stole               stolen
    strive              strove              striven
    swear               swore               sworn
    swell               swelled             swelled, swollen
    swim                swam                swum
    take                took                taken
    tear                tore                torn
    throw               threw               thrown
    wear                wore                worn
    weave               wove                woven
    write               wrote               written

=Exercise 109=

Some verbs, though irregularly formed, have the past tense and perfect
participle alike. A list of such verbs follows:

    _Present_              _Past_           _Perfect Participle_
    bend                bent                bent
    behold              beheld              beheld
    beseech             besought            besought
    bind                bound               bound
    bleed               bled                bled
    bless               blessed, blest      blessed, blest
    bring               brought             brought
    build               built               built
    burn                burned, burnt       burned, burnt
    buy                 bought              bought
    catch               caught              caught
    cling               clung               clung
    clothe              clothed, clad       clothed, clad
    creep               crept               crept
    deal                dealt               dealt
    dig                 dug                 dug
    dream               dreamed, dreamt     dreamed, dreamt
    dwell               dwelt               dwelt
    flee                fled                fled
    grind               ground              ground
    hang                hung, hanged        hung, hanged
    have                had                 had
    hear                heard               heard
    hold                held                held
    kneel               knelt               knelt
    lay                 laid                laid
    lead                led                 led
    leap                leapt               leapt
    lend                lent                lent
    pay                 paid                paid
    say                 said                said
    shine               shone               shone
    sit                 sat                 sat
    sleep               slept               slept
    sling               slung               slung
    speed               sped                sped
    spin                spun                spun
    stand               stood               stood
    sting               stung               stung
    strike              struck              struck
    string              strung              strung
    sweep               swept               swept
    swing               swung               swung
    teach               taught              taught
    think               thought             thought
    weep                wept                wept
    win                 won                 won
    wind                wound               wound
    wring               wrung               wrung

=Exercise 110=

Some verbs have all three forms alike. A list of such follows:

    _Present_    _Past_        _Perfect Participle_
    bet         bet         bet
    burst       burst       burst
    cast        cast        cast
    cost        cost        cost
    cut         cut         cut
    hit         hit         hit
    hurt        hurt        hurt
    knit        knit        knit
    let         let         let
    put         put         put
    rid         rid         rid
    set         set         set
    shed        shed        shed
    spread      spread      spread
    sweat       sweat       sweat
    wet         wet         wet


[1] If one of the words so joined is plural, the verb should be plural.

=Exercise 111=

Choose the correct form of the italicized words below, and give the
reason for your choice.

      1. If it _don't_--_doesn't_ fit you, we shall alter

      2. I _knew_--_knowed_ I was right.

      3. _Aren't_--_ain't_ you glad we came?

      4. _Ain't_--_isn't_ he well?

      5. We _done_--_did_ the right thing.

      6. _Let_--_leave_ the book on the table.

      7. _Let_--_leave_ me do as I planned.

      8. Mary has _broke_--_broken_ her arm.

      9. My mother has _gone_--_went_ to Boston.

      10. Where _was_--_were_ you yesterday?

      11. When the dinner bell _rang_--_rung_, we all
      _come_--_came_ running in.

      12. He _don't_--_doesn't_ know what you said.

      13. To what hospital have they _taken_--_took_ him?

      14. I _saw_--_seen_ him a few minutes ago.

      15. I _saw_--_seen_ him yesterday.

      16. I should _have_--_of_ brought my book.

      17. My winter coat is _wore_--_worn_ out.

      18. Have you ever _rode_--_ridden_ in an aeroplane?

      19. I have _shown_--_showed_ you all the styles I

      20. _Don't_--_doesn't_ it seem odd that he
      _don't_--_doesn't_ come?

      21. She _don't_--_doesn't_ remember you.

      22. We _began_--_begun_ the work yesterday.

      23. I'm afraid my foot is _froze_--_frozen_.

      24. We _ran_--_run_ all the way.

      25. I've _shook_--_shaken_ him three times, but he
      _don't_--_doesn't_ awake.

      26. The bell _rang_--_rung_ just before you entered.

      27. She _sang_--_sung_ very well.

      28. He _swam_--_swum_ all yesterday morning.

      29. Why _don't_--_doesn't_ some one tell John that his
      coat is _tore_--_torn_?

      30. _Don't_--_doesn't_ mother know that the vase is

=Exercise 112--Troublesome Verbs=

=Lie, Lay=

_Lie_ is intransitive; _lay_ is transitive. _Lie_ signifies _to rest_;
_lay_, _to place_. Insert the correct form in the following:

      1. He told me to ---- the book on the table. It ----
      there now.

      2. I ---- all day waiting for help to arrive.

      3. Where did you ---- the purse?

      4. I ---- it on your desk.

      5. I have ---- the letters on your desk.

      6. They told me to ---- down. I ---- down for about
      two hours.

      7. As I wished to bleach the clothes, I ---- them on
      the grass.

      8. ---- the bundle down and listen to me.

      9. You will probably find your cap ----ing where it
      has ----since you dropped it.

      10. They let the field ---- fallow.

      11. How long has it ---- fallow?

      12. Yesterday he ---- on the grass almost all day.

      13. The hunter ---- still and watched.

      14. He ---- his gun beside him and waited.

      15. It will ---- undisturbed till morning.

      16. ---- down awhile before dinner.

      17. I don't know how long he has ---- here.

      18. He let his tools ---- in the rain.

=Exercise 113--Troublesome Verbs=

=Sit, Set=

_Sit_ is intransitive and signifies _to rest_. _Set_ is transitive and
means _to place_. Insert the correct form:

      1. I have ---- the ferns in the rain.

      2. ---- down for a few minutes.

      3. She drew up a chair and ---- down, while we were
      ----ting down the probable expenses of the new house.

      4. Why don't you ---- us a good example?

      5. ----ting the table is not strenuous enough for one
      who has been ----ting all day.

      6. The hen is ----ting on her eggs.

      7. The man is ----ting out trees.

      8. ---- still; I'll go.

=Fly, Flow, Flee=

Remember that birds _fly_; rivers _flow_; hunted creatures _flee_.

      9. Still the river ---- on its accustomed course.

      10. Every autumn the birds ---- south.

      11. The birds have not yet ---- away.

      12. The deer ---- before the dogs.

=Rise, Raise=

_Rise_ is intransitive; _raise_ is transitive.

      13. I have been trying all morning to ---- this

      14. I set the bread to ----.

      15. He will surely ---- in his profession.

=Teach, Learn=

      16. Will you ---- me how to play tennis?

      17. I thought you had ---- how to play tennis.

      18. I ---- (past tense) her the new system of filing.

=May, Can=

_May_ signifies permission; _can_ denotes possibility.

      19. ---- I use your book?

      20. ---- you write shorthand?

      21. ---- I go with you?

      22. My mother says that I ---- go with you.

=Might, Could=

_Might_ is the past tense of _may_, and _could_ is the past tense of

      23. He said that I ---- go.

      24. He ---- do the work if he wished.

      25. Did you say I ---- use your typewriter?

=Exercise 114--Accept, Except=

_Accept_ means _to receive_. _Except_ as a verb means _to exclude_; as a
preposition it means _with the exception of_. Insert the correct form in
the following:

      1. Did you ---- the position? Yes, no one applied for
      it ---- me.

      2. I have no other reason for not ----ing your
      invitation ---- that I shall not be in the city.

      3. ---- Mary all ----ed the invitation.

      4. He would not ---- the money ---- on one condition.

      5. Why do you ---- him from the general offer that you
      are making?

      6. I agree with you ---- on one point.

      7. He ----ed the rebuke in silence.

      8. We were forced to ---- their conditions.

      9. He said he would not ---- the money ---- that he
      knew he could return it.

      10. You have answered everything ---- what I asked

=Exercise 115--Affect, Effect=

_Affect_ means _to influence_. It is always a verb. _Effect_ as a verb
means _to bring to pass_; as a noun it means _result_. Insert the
correct form in the following sentences:

      1. His opinion does not ---- the case.

      2. How does war ---- trade?

      3. His walking has had a good ---- upon his health.

      4. The ruling did not ---- the wholesale dealers, but
      it had a big ---- upon us.

      5. What ---- did the loss have upon him?

      6. The failure of the bank ----ed the small depositors
      but had no ---- upon the big business men.

      7. The ---- of the law has been startling because of
      the number of people ----ed by it.

      8. They ----ed the consolidation, but thereby produced
      a bad ---- upon the price of their stock.

      9. The accident seriously ----ed his nervous system.
      In fact, the ---- of the fall is only gradually

      10. Did the celebrated physician really ---- a cure?

=Exercise 116--Lose, Loose=

_Lose_ is a verb, while _loose_ is usually an adjective. The two should
be carefully distinguished. Insert the correct form:

      1. I have a note book with ---- leaves.

      2. Aren't you afraid you will ---- some of the ----
      leaves of that book?

      3. Be careful that you don't ---- that ---- bolt.

      4. Do you remember that you had warned me that I'd
      ---- the ---- button on my coat? I did ---- it not
      five minutes afterward.

      5. One of the hinges of the door has become ----.

      6. Do not ---- the ---- change in that pocket.

      7. He will ---- the parcel as the cord is ----.

      8. Did you ---- the ---- leaf journal?

      9. She may ---- the money, as the clasp of her purse
      is ----.

      10. I keep my ---- journal paper together by a rubber
      band so that there will be no chance of ----ing it.

=Exercise 117--Had ought=

    _Wrong_: We had ought to go.
    _Right_: We ought to go.
    _Wrong_: We had ought to have gone.
    _Right_: We ought to have gone.

Correct the following sentences:

      1. I had ought to have studied harder.

      2. You ought to do it, hadn't you?

      3. Hadn't you ought to have gone?

      4. Yes, I had ought to have gone yesterday.

      5. Do you think I had ought to have accepted?

      6. He had ought to come to-morrow.

      7. The tickets had ought to have come from the
      printer's yesterday.

      8. We had not ought to stay out so late.

      9. You had ought to wear your coat.

      10. He had ought to have become naturalized.

      11. You had ought to have washed the dishes before you
      went out.

      12. You had ought to take an umbrella.

      13. You had ought to have heard what she said.

      14. We hadn't ought to disagree.

      15. You ought to have invested, hadn't you?

=Exercise 118=

Conjugation of the verb _be_ in the


                 _Present Tense_

    _Singular_                     _Plural_

    I am                           We are
    You are                        You are
    He is                          They are

                  _Past Tense_

    I was                          We were
    You were                       You were
    He was                         They were

                 _Future Tense_

    I shall be                     We shall be
    You will be                    You will be
    He will be                     They will be

              _Present Perfect Tense_

    I have been                    We have been
    You have been                  You have been
    He has been                    They have been

                _Past Perfect Tense_

    I had been                     We had been
    You had been                   You had been
    He had been                    They had been

              _Future Perfect Tense_

    I shall have been              We shall have been
    You will have been             You will have been
    He will have been              They will have been

The verb _be_ is used to form the progressive tenses of the active voice
(See Exercise 102) and the simple tenses of the passive voice; as,


                 _Present Tense_

    _Singular_                     _Plural_

    I am followed                  We are followed
    You are followed               You are followed
    He is followed                 They are followed

                  _Past Tense_

    I was followed                 We were followed
    You were followed              You were followed
    He was followed                They were followed

                 _Future Tense_

    I shall be followed            We shall be followed
    You will be followed           You will be followed
    He will be followed            They will be followed

              _Present Perfect Tense_

    I have been followed           We have been followed
    You have been followed         You have been followed
    He has been followed           They have been followed

                _Past Perfect Tense_

    I had been followed            We had been followed
    You had been followed          You had been followed
    He had been followed           They had been followed

              _Future Perfect Tense_

    I shall have been followed     We shall have been followed
    You will have been followed    You will have been followed
    He will have been followed     They will have been followed

If we add the progressive form wherever it may be used, we have the
following synopsis of the indicative mood:


           {           { _Present_  I am followed (simple)
           {           {            I am being followed (progressive)
           {           {
           { _Primary_ { _Past_     I was followed (simple)
           {           {            I was being followed (progressive)
    Tenses {           {
           {           { _Future_   I shall be followed
           {           { _Present Perfect_  I have been followed
           { _Perfect_ { _Past Perfect_     I had been followed
           {           { _Future Perfect_   I shall have been followed

=Exercise 119=

Conjugate the following in the passive voice:

      1. Simple present of _pay_.

      2. Progressive past of _pay_.

      3. Present perfect of _throw_.

      4. Future of _praise_.

      5. Past perfect of _forget_.

      6. Progressive present of _choose_.

      7. Past progressive of _choose_.

      8. Future of _choose_.

      9. Future perfect of _choose._

      10. Past perfect of _choose_.

=Exercise 120=

Supply the verb forms indicated. Use the active unless the passive is
definitely called for.

      1. The vegetables (present perfect of _lie_) in water
      all the morning.

      2. Rumors (past progressive passive of _spread_) far
      and wide that Germany would fight England.

      3. I thought the gingham (past perfect passive of
      _shrink_) before the dress (past passive of _made_).

      4. I am afraid my ear (present progressive of

      5. Is it true that your ring (present perfect passive
      of _steal_)?

      6. A sudden storm (past of _arise_) yesterday
      afternoon, and a little boy (past passive of _drown_)
      in the river where he and several of his companions
      (past perfect progressive of _swim_) since noon.

      7. I (present perfect of _speak_) of the matter to no

      8. I suppose that it (present perfect passive of

      9. I must (present perfect of _show_) him twenty
      different styles, but he (past of _choose_) none of
      them, for as soon as I (past of _show_) him one, he
      (past of _shake_) his head.

      10. She (past progressive of _wring_) out the clothes
      when the door bell (past of _ring_).

      11. I am afraid my purse (present passive of _lose_).

      12. The knight (past of _say_) that he (past perfect
      of _decide_) (infinitive of _follow_) the quest.

      13. I thought I (past perfect of _bring_) you the
      morning paper.

      14. He (past of _swim_) the river twice yesterday.

      15. There he stood (present participle of _ring_) the
      dinner bell.

      16. His coat (present perfect passive of _wet_)
      through more than once.

      17. The trip (past of _cost_) him a hundred dollars.

      18. I (past of _see_) the superintendent yesterday,
      but he said that there (present of _be_) no vacancies
      at present.

      19. They (past of _lay_) the clippings on the desk,
      and then they (past of _sit_) down.

      20. As he (past of _speak_), he (past progressive of
      _shake_) from head to foot.

      21. The clouds (past of _lie_) low on the horizon.

      22. The building in which I work (present perfect
      passive of _burn_).

      23. Your employer (present perfect _deal_) fairly with

      24. I (present perfect of _have_) the same position
      for three years.

      25. I (future of _lend_) him no money.

      26. The floor (past passive of _lay_) by an expert

      27. The beads (past passive of _string_) on a waxed

      28. He (present perfect of _throw_) the whole office
      into confusion.

      29. Before he came forward, he (past of _set_) the
      child down.

      30. After the storm, leaves and twigs (past
      progressive of _lie_) thick upon the roads.

      31. He (past of _drive_) to town yesterday. He (future
      of _go_) again to-morrow.

      32. The dictionary (present progressive of _lie_) on
      the table where you (past of _lay_) it.

      33. The dog (past of _lay_) the bone down, and then he
      (past of _lie_) down.

      34. He (past of _set_) the chair by the window and
      then (past of _sit_) down.

      35. I think we (future of _see_) him as we pass, for
      he usually (present of _lie_) on a couch by the

      36. The snow (past perfect progressive of _fall_) for
      several hours and now (past of _lie_) deep on every

      37. Everything (present perfect passive of _lay_) in

      38. (Present participle of _lie_) in the hammock, he
      soon fell asleep.

      39. I saw the man (present participle of _lie_) on the

      40. After he (past perfect of _lie_) there a few
      minutes, he suddenly (past of _sit_) up.

      41. The biplane, which (past perfect progressive of
      _lie_) in the hangar since it (past perfect passive of
      _raise_) from the water in which it (past perfect of
      _lie_) for two weeks, (past of _rise_) up over the

      42. Large crowds (past progressive of _sit_) on the
      fields, (present participle of _wait_) for the
      aeroplane (infinitive of rise).

      43. Many people (past perfect of _set_) tents on the
      field during the night and now (past progressive of
      _get_) a good view of the flight.

      44. All eyes (past progressive of _turn_) toward the
      aeroplane, which (past progressive of _rise_)

      45. The biplane (past of _rise_) until it (past
      perfect of _rise_) about five hundred feet above the
      tallest building; then it (past passive of _raise_)
      about fifty feet more to get it out of an air current
      that (past progressive of _raise_) one end of it.

=Exercise 121--Infinitives and Participles=

_Infinitives_ are verb forms that are used as nouns, as adjectives, or
as adverbs. _Participles_ are verb forms that are used as adjectives.
Thus at the same time each acts as two parts of speech. As verbs both
have the meaning of the verbs from which they are made; both have tense
and voice; both may be modified by adverbial expressions; and, if they
are made from transitive verbs, both may take objects.

The Participle

The tenses and voices of the participle are as follows:



    _Simple_                    _Progressive_

    selling                        ----


    having sold               having been selling



    being sold                      ----


    having been sold                   ----

The participle frequently introduces a phrase. Usually the phrase is
used like an adjective; occasionally it is used like a noun (sometimes
called the _gerund_ phrase).

      _Adjective_: _Seeing your perplexity_, I'll offer a
      suggestion. (Notice the punctuation.)

      _Noun_(Gerund): _Playing tennis_ is good exercise.

The Infinitive

The infinitive is distinguished by the word _to_, either expressed or
understood. The tenses and voices of the infinitive are as follows:



    _Simple_                    _Progressive_

    to sell                    to be selling


    to have sold             to have been selling



    to be sold                      ----


    to have been sold                  ----

The infinitive is often used to introduce a phrase; as,

    _Noun_: _To get to the top of the hill_ was a difficult matter.
    _Adverb_: I went _to buy the sugar_.
    _Adjective_: It's a drawing _to be proud of_.

Grouping all the facts that we have thus far learned about phrases, and
expressing them in diagram form, we have the following:

Phrases may be classified:

    _According to Form_        _According to Use_

    Prepositional              Adverbial
    Participial (Gerund)       Adjective
    Infinitive                 Noun

The prepositional and infinitive phrases may have all three uses; the
participial phrase has two--adjective and noun (gerund).

Variety of Expression[2]

Phrases are important because, like clauses, they help us to vary the
form of our sentences. They help us, above all, to avoid the childish
_so_ habit. Thus, instead of _They wished to make the ice smooth so they
flooded the pond_, we may use, for example:

      _Subordinate clause_: Because (as, since) they wished
      to make the ice smooth, they flooded the pond.

      _Participial phrase_: Wishing to make the ice smooth,
      they flooded the pond.

      _Infinitive phrase_: To make the ice smooth, they
      flooded the pond.

      _Gerund phrase_: Flooding the pond made the ice

      _Prepositional phrase modifying noun subject_: The
      flooding of the pond made the ice smooth.

Recast each of the following sentences in at least two of the ways shown

      1. They wished to finish the work so they stayed till
      six o'clock.

      2. John hoped to arrive before the others so he
      started early.

      3. He saw that the cars were not running so he walked
      so he would be on time.

      4. They needed some gasoline so they had to stop at a

      5. He wished to make a tool chest so he bought some

      6. They saw that he liked to read so they gave him
      several books.

      7. She wished to make a good appearance at the party
      so she bought a new dress.

      8. He was in a hurry so he walked fast.

      9. We were afraid that we'd be late so we ran.

      10. The campers thought they'd like a fire so they
      gathered a quantity of dry leaves and wood.

      11. I was very tired when I reached home so I couldn't
      go to the lecture.

      12. The work was difficult so it took three hours to
      finish it.

      13. The clock needed repairing so he took it to a

      14. The coat did not fit so she sent it back.

      15. She didn't know where to take the train so she
      asked a policeman.

=Exercise 122--Mode=

Mode is the form of the verb that indicates the manner of expressing the
thought. The _modes_, or _moods_, that every one should be able to
distinguish are the _indicative_ and the _subjunctive_. If the verb
indicates a fact, we say it is in the indicative mode; if it expresses a
supposition, a doubt, a statement contrary to fact, or a wish, we say it
is in the subjunctive mode.

    You _are_ good.       (A fact--indicative.)

    I wish I _were_ good. (Contrary to fact, a wish--subjunctive.)

In form the indicative and the subjunctive differ in the present and the
past tenses of the verb _to be_, as follows:

                   =Indicative of _be_=

          _Present_                   _Past_
    I am          We are       I was         We were
    You are       You are      You were      You were
    He is         They are     He was        They were

                   =Subjunctive of _be_=

          _Present_                   _Past_
    If I be     If we be     If I were     If we were
    If you be   If you be    If you were   If you were
    If he be    If they be   If he were    If they were

Other verbs in the subjunctive mode do not end in _s_ in the third
person singular number, but use the same form as the other persons in
the singular number; as, _if he go_, _if she walk_.

_If_, _though_, _although_, or _lest_ usually introduce the subjunctive

In modern English, the use of the subjunctive is becoming rare except in
the past and past perfect tenses in statements contrary to fact, and in
wishes, which are really statements contrary to fact; as,

      1. If I were a king (but I'm not), I'd see that my
      laws were obeyed.

      2. I wish I were a king! (but I'm not).

      3. If I had been careful, my work would be good. (I
      was not careful.)

      4. I wish I had been careful! (I was not.)

Notice that the verb is in the past or in the past perfect tense.

There are some careful writers who still use the present subjunctive to
show a _possibility_; as,

      Lest he start too late, remind him again that he must
      meet the 4:15 train.

In the following sentences, which form is better? May any of the
sentences use either form?

      1. I wish I _was_--_were_ rich.

      2. If I _was_--_were_ you, I should go at once.

      3. If his work _was_--_were_ exact, he would have no
      trouble in holding a position.

      4. If it _was_--_were_ true, why didn't you say so?

      5. If he _was_--_were_ a millionaire, he could not
      have been more lavish.

      6. If such a thing _was_--_were_ possible, our
      government would be no government.

      7. If the election _was_--_were_ postponed, we should
      have been informed.

=Exercise 123=

Insert _was_ or _were_ in each of the following sentences, in each case
giving a reason for your choice. Remember that the indicative _was_ is
used to denote a statement of fact in the past time, and the subjunctive
_were_ (singular and plural) is used to denote a possibility, something
that is supposed to be true, or a statement entirely contrary to fact,
as in a wish.

      1. I wish I ---- going with you.

      2. As he ---- not well, he could not go.

      3. If he ---- well, he could go.

      4. If he ---- attentive in class, he would not fail.

      5. They treated me as if I ---- one of the family.

      6. When I ---- in the South I visited New Orleans.

      7. Suppose she ---- your guest, how would you
      entertain her?

      8. He would appear very tall ---- it not for the
      breadth of his shoulders.

      9. We decided that if it ---- still raining by seven
      o'clock, we should not go.

      10. If our strawberries ---- ripe, I'd give you some.

      11. If the package ---- left yesterday, as you say, it
      must have been while I ---- not at home.

      12. If he ---- late yesterday, he must start earlier

      13. If every man ---- honest, business life would be
      very pleasant.

      14. I saw that he ---- not interested.

      15. If he ---- not interested, he surely looked as if
      he ----.

      16. ---- I certain that the bonds ---- safe, I should
      invest in them.

      17. As the tablecloth ---- stained, we laid it on the
      grass to bleach it.

      18. If that stained tablecloth ---- mine, I'd try
      bleaching it.

      19. If I ---- as interested in farming as you are, I'd
      buy a farm.

      20. If her work ---- best, why didn't she get the
      higher salary?

=Exercise 124--Verbs Incorrectly Used=

            _Wrong_                              _Right_
   1. _Let_ the book on the table.        _Leave_ the book on the table.

   2. _Leave_ me go with you.             _Let_ me go with you.

   3. Don't _blame it on_ me.             Don't _accuse_ me.

   4. Do you _carry_ stationery?          Do you _sell_ stationery?

   5. The child _aggravates_ me.          The child _irritates_ me.

   6. Please _except_ my invitation.      Please _accept_ my invitation.

   7. Where have you _located_?           Where have you _settled_?
                 (_Locate_ is a transitive verb.)

   8. I _expect_ you are very busy.       I _suppose_ you are very busy.

   9. I _disremember_ seeing him.         I _don't remember_ seeing him.

  10. Do you _mind_ where you saw it?     Do you _remember_ where you saw

  11. Where are you _stopping_?           Where are you _staying_?

  12. Did you _extend an invitation_      Did you _invite_ him?
        to him?

  13. This clock needs _fixing_.          This clock needs _repairing_.

  14. I should _admire_ to go.            I should _like_ to go.

  15. I'd _love_ to go.                   I'd _like_ to go.

  16. He didn't _show up_ on time.        He didn't _appear_ on time.

  17. I _had_ a strange thing _happen_    A strange thing _happened_ to me
        to me yesterday.                        yesterday.

  18. I didn't _get to go_.               I _was unable to go_.

  19. _Loan_ me your pencil.              _Lend_ me your pencil.
    (_May I borrow your pencil?_ is correct. _Loan_ is a noun.)[3]

  20. I _can't seem_ to understand        I _seem unable_ to understand
        that problem.                           that problem.

  21. I don't _take any stock_ in         I _have no confidence_ in such
        such schemes.                           schemes.

  22. How do you _size up_ the            What _do you think_ of the
        situation?                              situation?

  23. I _beg to state_. . . .             Omit.
  (This expression has been so overdone in business letters that it
                       should be avoided)

  24. He _dove_ off the pier.             He _dived_ off the pier.

  25. He _claims_ that he was             He _asserts_ (maintains) that he
        deceived.                               was deceived.

  26. _Can_ I take your pencil?           _May_ I take your pencil?

  27. We expect to _get up_ a club.      We expect to _organize_ a club.

  28. Did you notice how that show       Did you notice how that show
        window was _got up_?                    window was _decorated_?

  29. It is _going on_ ten o'clock.      It is _almost_ ten o'clock.

  30. He said _to go_ at once.           He said _that we should go_ at

      NOTE.--The secretary's daily report will be found an
      excellent means of securing variety of expression in
      pupils' writing. A different pupil is elected each
      Monday to act as the secretary of the class for the
      ensuing week, his duty being to report each day the
      doings of the class on the preceding day. The
      conditions are that not more than one _and_ be used in
      each report and not more than one sentence begin with
      the subject.


[2] See note on page 115.

[3] _Loan_ for _lend_, though common in the United States, is not in
approved use except sometimes in financial language.--_Webster's New
International Dictionary._




IT is important in the study of prepositions to observe that there are
certain words that are followed by certain prepositions. To change the
preposition is to convey a different meaning from the one that the
speaker intended, or to convey no meaning at all. A partial list of such
words with their appropriate prepositions follows:

    accompanied   with       anything having no life
    accompanied   by         anything having life

    acquit        of

    accuse        of

    adapted       to         a thing
    adapted       for        a course, because of one's nature
    adapted       from       an author

    agree         to         a plan or proposition
    agree         with       a person
    agree         upon       something that must be decided

    angry         at         a thing
    angry         with       a person

    compare       with       to bring out similar qualities
    compare       to         without analyzing

    comply        with

    confer        on         meaning to give to
    confer        with       meaning to talk to

    confide       in         meaning to put faith in
    confide       to         meaning to commit to one's keeping

    conform       to

    correspond    to, with   a thing, denoting similarity
    correspond    with       meaning to write to

    different     from

    dependent     on         a person
    dependent     for        a thing

    independent   of

    disappointed  in

    employed      at         a certain place or salary
    employed      in         a certain kind of business
    employed      by         a certain person or company

    enter         upon       duties
    enter         at         a door

    followed      by

    influence     over, upon

    expect        of

    participate   in

    profit        by

    remonstrate   against    a thing
    remonstrate   with       a person

=Exercise 125=

Insert the correct preposition in the following:

      1. I shall comply ---- your request.

      2. The chairman came upon the platform accompanied
      ---- the speaker.

      3. He took a walk accompanied ---- his dog.

      4. The lecture will be accompanied ---- stereopticon

      5. Strikes are usually accompanied ---- riots.

      6. The years of prosperity were followed ---- years of

      7. He was accused ---- theft, but was acquitted ----
      the accusation.

      8. She is well adapted ---- the position that is open.

      9. An electric iron is especially adapted ---- summer

      10. The selection was adapted ---- Irving.

      11. This cloth is well adapted ---- summer clothing
      because it is very light in weight.

      12. I agree ---- you that the plan is impracticable.

      13. Let us agree now ---- a place to spend our summer

      14. That is not a proposition ---- which I shall

      15. It is silly to be angry ---- an inanimate object.

      16. Don't be angry ---- a person because he tells you
      your faults.

      17. His report corresponds in all respects --- yours.

      18. Mr. Giles suggested that you would be glad to have
      us correspond ---- you concerning our new bond issues.

      19. I shall confer ---- my lawyer.

      20. The public has conferred a great honor ---- him.

      21. One should always profit ---- his experiences.

      22. The new device is entirely different ---- the old.

      23. I am employed ---- a fairly large salary ---- a
      business that is growing daily.

      24. All employees must conform ---- the rules.

      25. I am confiding ---- you because I know that I can
      trust you.

      26. She confided her child ---- the care of her

      27. She is dependent ---- her brother ---- support.

      28. You can have an influence for good ---- him.

      29. I have remonstrated ---- the change several times.

      30. Perhaps he will change his plans if we remonstrate
      ---- him at once.

=Exercise 126--Prepositions Incorrectly Used=

Each of the incorrect sentences given below contains an unnecessary
preposition. When the meaning of "Where are you going?" is entirely
clear, there is nothing gained by saying "Where are you going _to_?"
Omit such superfluous prepositions.

                _Wrong_                               _Right_
   1. I took it off _of_ the shelf.       I took it off the shelf.

   2. I shall accept _of_ your            I shall accept your hospitality.
   3. Where are you _at_?                 Where are you?

   4. Where are you going _to_?           Where are you going?

   5. It is a building _of from_          It is a building twenty to thirty
        twenty to thirty stories in             stories in height.
   6. Look out _of_ the window.           Look out the window.

   7. John copies _after_ his father      John copies his father
        in everything.                          in everything.

   8. I am wondering _about_ what         I am wondering what I should do.
        I should do.

   9. I shall consult _with_ my           I shall consult my lawyer.

  10. He sat opposite _to_ me.            He sat opposite me.

  11. I shall leave later _on_.           I shall leave later.

_and_ for _to_

  12. I shall try _and_ go.               I shall try _to_ go.

_of_ for _have_

  13. I might _of_ gone.                  I might _have_ gone.

The wrong preposition

  14. He fell _in_ the water.             He fell _into_ the water.

  15. She died _with_ diphtheria.         She died _of_ diphtheria.

  16. Divide the work _between_ the       Divide the work _among_ the four
        four of us.                              of us.
   (_Between_ may be used in speaking of only two persons or things)

  17. It will be done _inside_ of an      It will be done _within_ an hour.
  18. Are you angry _at_ me?              Are you angry _with_ me?

Preposition must be used

  19. It's no use to try.                 It's _of_ no use to try.

  20. My sister stayed home.              My sister stayed _at_ home.

  21. Why do you act that way?            Why do you act _in_ that way?

  22. We left the third of June.          We left _on_ the third of June.

=Exercise 127=

The object of a preposition is always in the objective case. Some people
have great difficulty in recognizing that in such expressions as _for
you and me_, the pronoun _me_ is as much the object of the preposition
_for_ as the pronoun _you_. Both words must be in the objective case.
It is incorrect to say _for you and I_.

In the following sentences omit the incorrect italicized form:

      1. The invitation is for father and _I_--_me_.

      2. Every one has finished his work except _he_--_him_
      and _I_--_me_.

      3. It's a question that you and _I_--_me_ must decide;
      it refers to you and _I_--_me_ alone.

      4. Girls like you and _she_--_her_ should have a good
      influence over the others.

      5. All but you and _I_--_me_ have left.

      6. He did it for you and _I_--_me_.

      7. No one objected but _they_--_them_ and _we_--_us_.

      8. She sat opposite you and _I_--_me_.

      9. They were sitting near you and _I_--_me_.

      10. We expect you to return with mother and _I_--_me_.

      11. He wanted my brother and _I_--_me_ to go into
      business with his brother and _he_--_him_.

      12. Neither _she_--_her_ nor her sister have I seen
      for several months.

      13. My companion and _I_--_me_ took up the trail of
      the bear at once. For some distance it led _he_--_him_
      and _I_--_me_ over the soft, yielding carpet of moss
      and pine needles, and the footprints were quite easily
      made out.

      14. _He_--_him_ and _I_--_me_ had, of course, to keep
      a sharp lookout ahead and around for the grizzly.

      15. All are going on the excursion except _he_--_him_
      and _I_--_me_.

      16. _He_--_him_ and _I_--_me_ went fishing.

      17. The rule applies to _we_--_us_ all--the manager,
      _they_--_them_ who keep books, you, and _I_--_me_.

      18. She beckoned to my companion and _I_--_me_.

      19. The letter was to be read by the president or

      20. He did it for the sake of my father and _I_--_me_.

      21. We study Shakespeare with her sister and

      22. _She_--_her_ and her sister went to the lecture
      with my sister and _I_--_me_.

      23. They sent for _she_--_her_ and _I_--_me_, not you
      and _he_--_him_.

      24. The program was arranged by the president and

      25. They found that his father and _he_--_him_ had
      already left.

      26. Mother is going to buy a birthday present to-day
      for _she_--_her_ and _I_--_me_.

      27. The play is interesting not only to you older
      people but to _we_--_us_ younger ones also.

      28. They expected the work to be done by _she_--_her_
      and _I_--_me_.

      29. The dispute between his neighbor and _he_--_him_
      over their lot line was settled by the surveyors this

      30. He wants to speak to you and _I_--_me_.

=Exercise 128--Than, as=

_Than_ and _as_ are not prepositions but conjunctions. They are used to
introduce subordinate clauses. Usually the clause is incomplete, but the
omitted part is easily understood from the preceding clause and must be
supplied to show the case of the noun or the pronoun that is expressed;

    _Right_: She is as tall as I [am].
    _Right_: She is taller than he [is].
    _Right_: I should invite you rather than her [than I should invite

Use the correct one of the italicized pronouns in the following

      1. I'll agree that he is richer than _I_--_me_, but
      riches are not everything.

      2. I shall send her rather than _he_--_him_.

      3. No one felt sorrier than _she_--_her_.

      4. No one knows more about an automobile than

      5. You are more capable of doing the work than

      6. We were nearer the goal than you or _he_--_him_.

      7. You finished the work almost as quickly as

      8. She writes fully as well as _he_--_him_.

      9. The manager said he would rather send me than

      10. I secured a position sooner than _she_--_her_.

      11. It seems to me that they ought to go rather than

      12. I am surprised that you arrived sooner than

      13. They should have elected him rather than

      14. I am not so well-fitted as _he_--_him_ to hold the

      15. You are more popular than _he_--_him_.

=Exercise 129--Correlatives=

There are certain conjunctions, called _correlatives_, that are used in
pairs. They are

    both--and           as--as, so--as
    either--or          not only--but also
    neither--nor        whether--or
    so--that            such--as


    Both--and            He has both skill and energy.

    Either--or           I shall leave either Monday or Tuesday.

    Neither--nor         I can neither sing nor play.

    So--that             It rained so hard that we stayed at home.

    As--as               We shall come as early as we can.

    So--as               She is not so tall as you are.
                         (Used in negative expressions.)

    Not only--but also   We saw not only Mr. Brown but his wife also.

    Whether--or          Whether I return to work or stay at
                           home depends on my mother's health.

    Such--as             We shall buy only such goods as we
                           think we can sell.

      Be very careful not to use the correlative _so as_
      incorrectly for _so that_. _So as_ is used in negative
      expressions of comparison; _so that_ is used to
      express result.

    _Wrong_: We went early _so as_ we could get good seats.
    _Right_: We went early _so that_ we could get good seats.

In the illustrations given above, notice that the correlatives always
join two similar or _coördinate_ expressions. It is important that they
be placed each immediately before one of the two coördinate expressions.

    _Wrong_: I _neither_ can sing nor play.
    _Right_: I can _neither_ sing nor play.

Recast the following sentences, placing the correlative conjunctions
before coördinate expressions:

      1. Either you ordered it late or not at all.

      2. He said he neither had money nor time.

      3. We not only bought the books you wished but the
      games also.

      4. We like the place in which we live both on account
      of its quietness and its pleasant surroundings.

      5. I shall either go to Quebec or Montreal.

      6. Either he must spray his trees or expect no fruit.

      7. I neither like the appearance of the shop nor the
      attitude of the clerks.

      8. They did it both for the sake of your brother and

      9. This sample not only is much darker but heavier

      10. They are barred who neither can read nor write.

=Exercise 130--Either--or, Neither--nor=

These conjunctions are correctly used in speaking of two things only.
Care must be taken to use _or_ with _either_ and _nor_ with _neither_.
In comparing three or more things use _any of them_, _none of them_, or

In the following sentences use only the correct italicized forms:

      1. Neither effort _nor_--_or_ money was spared in the

      2. I have considered planting maple, oak, and elm
      trees, but _neither_--_none_ of them seems to grow
      well in this climate.

      3. We do not believe in _either_ enduring oppression
      _nor_--_or_ killing the oppressor. We believe in

      4. He has _no_--_neither_ time, patience, _nor_--_or_

      5. If you ask me which of the three I prefer, I'll be
      frank and tell you I like _neither_--_none_ of them.

      6. Three courses will be given in the subject this
      year; you may take _either_--_any_ one of them.

      7. I had already passed three branch roads, but
      _neither_--_none_ of them had looked familiar to me.

      8. I hardly think he accepted _any_--_either_ of the
      two offers he received.

      9. Neither the doctor _or_--_nor_ his wife was at

      10. Both the books look shop-worn. I'll take

=Exercise 131--Except, Without, Unless=

_Except_ and _without_ are prepositions, and are used, therefore, to
introduce phrases; _unless_ is a conjunction, and is used to introduce a

In the following sentences insert the correct form, giving a reason for
your choice:

      1. ---- you leave at once, you will miss your train.

      2. I cannot learn to swim, ---- some one teaches me.

      3. I cannot learn to swim ---- a teacher.

      4. No one could do the work ---- me.

      5. John expects to learn ---- studying.

      6. John will discover that he cannot win promotion
      ---- he works hard.

      7. No one can learn how to spell ---- first learning
      how to observe.

      8. No one will learn to spell ---- he learns to

      9. No one will succeed ---- he has energy and

      10. No one will succeed ---- energy and patience.

      11. You cannot succeed in any way ---- by seizing each
      opportunity as it comes.

      12. It is impossible to grow beautiful flowers ----
      the soil is good.

=Exercise 132--Like, as=

_Like_ is followed by a noun or pronoun in the objective case. _As_ is a
conjunction and introduces a clause, and is therefore followed by a
verb. _Like_ is not a conjunction and therefore may not be substituted
for _as_ or _as if_.

    _Wrong_: I wish I could play _like_ you can.
    _Right_: I wish I could play _as_ you can.

Insert the correct word in the following sentences:

      1. The picture looks just ---- you.

      2. I haven't a voice ---- my brother's.

      3. I cannot sing ---- my brother can.

      4. He walks just ---- you do.

      5. I hope you will all enjoy the trip ---- I did.

      6. For pleasure and exercise I think there is no game

      7. He said that the town looked just ---- it had when
      he was a boy.

      8. I cut the paper just ---- you said I should.

      9. He talks ---- his father.

      10. He has the same sort of drawl ---- his father

      11. She was there ---- you said she would be.

      12. They worked ---- beavers.

      13. He looked ---- a tramp.

      14. To give the stitch the proper twist throw the
      thread over the needle ---- I do.

      15. He walks ---- he were lame.

=Exercise 133--As--as, So--as=

Use _as_--_as_ in stating equality; use _so_--_as_ in negative

      1. You will find the new clerks fully ---- courteous
      as were the old.

      2. You will not find the new clerks ---- courteous as
      were the old.

      3. Elms do not grow ---- well in this climate as do

      4. We did not carry ---- much advertising this year as
      we did last year, and we find that our receipts are

      5. Under our system of individual instruction a
      student may advance ---- rapidly as his ability

      6. You are not ---- tall as your sister.

      7. I do not seem to learn languages ---- easily as

      8. This house is not ---- large as the other.

      9. He is ---- active as he was twenty years ago.

      10. He is not ---- active as he was twenty years ago.

=Exercise 134--Miscellaneous Blunders=

=To, Too, Two=

_To_ is a preposition; _too_ is an adverb, and means _excessively_ or
_also_; _two_ is a numeral adjective. Insert the correct form in each of
the following sentences:

      1. The ---- sisters discovered that it was ---- late
      for the 4:15 train.

      2. It is ---- dark in that corner; come ---- the

      3. He spends ---- much time in dreaming, ---- little
      in working.

      4. He would have done better if he had not given ----
      little heed ---- the advice of his ---- older

      5. ---- more hours were passed in the all ---- weary
      task of waiting.

      6. It was ---- cold ---- stay out more than ----

      7. You may go ----, but don't stay ---- long.

      8. ---- stay there for ---- weeks would be ----

      9. The doctor said that the ---- men were ---- sick
      ---- go home alone, and I thought so ----.

      10. About ---- hours ago I met Mary who said that she
      was going ---- the country ----.

=There, Their=

      11. ---- are seven brothers in ---- family.

      12. ---- books are ---- on the table.

      13. ---- is no doubt that ---- knowledge of
      mathematics is greater than ---- knowledge of English.

=Were, Where=

      14. ---- have you been?

      15. ---- you ever on a farm ---- alfalfa is grown?

      16. ---- ---- you when the report was read?

      17. I was just ---- you ----.

=Of, Have=

      18. You should ---- read more distinctly.

      19. I could ---- done the work if I had had more ----
      the necessary tools.

      20. If I had tried harder, I might ---- done the work




=Exercise 135=

RETELL a story that you know or one that the instructor has read to you.
See if you can tell the whole story in fairly long sentences without
using a single _and_. You will be allowed to use three _and's_. As soon
as you say the third, you must take your seat. Let the class keep count.

The story may be an anecdote, a fable, or any other short incident that
can easily be told in one or two minutes. You probably have read many
such or have heard your father and your mother tell them. A joke that
can be told in two or three sentences will not be long enough.

The excessive use of _and_ spoils the telling of many stories. It is a
mistake to think that the gap between the end of one sentence and the
beginning of the next appears as great to the listener as it does to us
as we are deliberating what to say next. To avoid the gap we bridge the
two sentences with _and_. Its use in this way is hardly ever necessary
if we think out a sentence to the end before we begin to speak it. When
we have finished the thought, we should finish the sentence without
trying to bind it artificially to the next one. The sentences will be
bound together if the thought of one grows out of the thought of the
preceding one.

If the unfolding of the idea does not seem sufficient to tie the parts,
there are better expressions to use than _and_. There are short
expressions like _in this way_, _likewise_, _moreover_, _thus_,
_therefore_, _besides_, _as might be expected_, and _too_. Another way
to avoid _and_ is to change the form of the sentence: (1) better than
the form, "I opened the window _and saw_," is, "_Opening_ the window, I
saw;" (2) better than "I am going to the store _and buy_ some sugar,"
is, "I am going to the store _to buy_ some sugar;" (3) better than
"There was a boy _and his name_ was John," is, "There was a boy _whose_
name was John;" (4) better than "I reached home _and found_ that my
cousin had arrived," is, "_When_ I reached home, I found that my cousin
had arrived." In place of _and_, therefore, we may use (1) participles,
(2) infinitives, (3) relative pronouns, and (4) subordinate

Above all, avoid _and everything_, as in, "I washed the dishes and swept
the floor and everything." To try thus to complete an idea that is
already complete shows childishness.

=Exercise 136=

Very likely in telling the story as suggested above you found yourself
frequently using the word _so_ to connect two sentences. Perhaps, too,
you used _why_ to begin sentences.

Now tell one of your own experiences, being careful not to use _and_,
_so_, or _why_. Introduce as much conversation as possible. What, if
any, is the advantage of telling a story in the first person? Why is it
good to introduce conversation?

In your conversation make use of several of the following words:

    replied        whispered      spoke          inquired
    answered       agreed         cried          explained
    asked          exclaimed      shouted        remarked
    questioned     repeated       continued      suggested
    promised       maintained     objected       rejoined
    interrupted    quoted         returned       added

=Exercise 137=

Far too many boys and girls pay but little regard to the matter of
choosing the word that will give the exact meaning that they wish to
convey. In order to lend force to their words they have formed the habit
of speaking in superlatives; like the girl who said, "We had a perfectly
grand time, but I'm so beastly tired now that I'm nearly dead," and yet
she showed no evidence of suffering.

Isn't it a pity that our beautiful English language should be so
degraded in common usage that it loses all its force and meaning?
Instead of convincing people that she really was tired, the girl quoted
above made herself ridiculous by her exaggeration. Yet isn't the
quotation a fair example of the speech of many boys and girls? Surely
everything about us is not either grand or beastly. The habit thus
formed is difficult to break, but it must be broken if we wish to speak
our language correctly.

       *       *       *       *       *

Make a list of the slang phrases that you have acquired. For each one
substitute a good English expression.

       *       *       *       *       *

The reason we must watch our oral English closely is that it is in our
conversation that our habits of speech are formed. The expressions we
use then we unconsciously employ when we are writing or talking to the
class. If we are accustomed to use considerable slang when we speak, we
shall have difficulty in eliminating it from our writing or in finding a
good word to express the idea for which we usually use slang. As a rule,
slang and extravagant expressions of all kinds are used to serve such a
variety of meanings that the use of them tends to limit the vocabulary
to these expressions. Consider slang something undesirable and stop
using it.

=Exercise 138=

Look up the words in each of the following groups. You will notice that
there is a resemblance of meaning between all the words of each group,
but that there is also a shade of difference in meaning that
distinguishes each word from its companions. Discover that shade of
difference. Use each word in a sentence.

      1. Lovely, beautiful, pretty, handsome.

      2. Awful, terrible, horrible, dreadful, fearful.

      3. Nice, pleasant, delightful, dainty, fine,

      4. Grand, imposing, splendid, impressive.

      5. Love, like, adore, admire, revere.

      6. Smart, clever, bright, quick-witted.

      7. Fierce, ferocious, wild.

      8. Guess, think, suppose, imagine.

      9. Hate, dislike, despise, abhor, detest.

      10. Scholar, student, pupil.

=Exercise 139=

Carelessness in speaking frequently results in wordiness, since the
speaker in an effort to be clear or forceful repeats the idea two or
three times. Such speech is tiresome. In each of the following sentences
there are too many words to express the idea. See how many you can omit
and yet preserve the meaning. Sometimes the sentence needs revision.

      1. I haven't got any time.

      2. Where does he live at?

      3. Don't stand up; there's a chair.

      4. The woman she had an accident.

      5. You had ought to take more exercise.

      6. I was just going to go.

      7. I excuse you because you are a new beginner.

      8. I can finish the work in three days' time.

      9. The offices are both alike in all respects.

      10. He engaged the both of us.

      11. We applied to Mr. Abbot, he being the manager.

      12. My mind often reverts back to the time when I
      began in business.

      13. That high building that is going up on Twelfth
      Street is going to be twenty stories high when it is

      14. From his appearance he looked to be in very poor

      15. He is afraid of the results that will ensue if he
      follows the course that he has planned.

      16. The present state of affairs that is now
      confronting the public has become what it now is
      because the citizens are not public spirited.

      17. The reason why I was not at work yesterday was
      because I was not feeling as well as I might.

      18. I shall never forget the terrible sights that I
      saw the time that I witnessed the street car

      19. I have been debating in my mind whether I ought to
      accept the offer.

      20. He was a mere little child when he first began to
      work in the mine.

      21. Mix together both the butter and the sugar, and
      rub the two of them to a cream.

      22. The two pieces of cloth are just exactly the same
      in every way.

      23. You will find this chair equally as comfortable as
      the other.

      24. He said that when he started in his business that
      he had almost no capital at all.

      25. It was the office of Morgan & Son where I got my

      26. China is undergoing a vast change at the present

      27. At about the age of fourteen years he left his
      home town.

      28. They did it gladly and willingly.

      29. He always shows great deference and respect when
      he speaks to those who are in authority.

      30. He is the proprietor and owner of the News.

      31. You can easily get the training that will make you
      a competent and efficient high-salaried trained man.

      32. For sale, a large, commodious house, arranged with
      every convenience to make it comfortable.

      33. We are making all the necessary improvements that
      are needed.

      34. I went to high school to take up stenography.

=Exercise 140--Making a Speech=

One of the most profitable exercises to cultivate clear thinking and
consequent clear expression is the making of speeches, usually spoken of
as oral themes. In this exercise a pupil stands before the class to talk
upon a subject about which he has thought, but upon which he has
written nothing. He has two objects in view. First, he must choose those
facts that will make his subject clear and interesting to his audience.
Second, he must deliver them well; that is, he must stand in a good
position before the class, use good grammar, no slang, and enunciate so
that every one in the room can understand him. If his speech is to be
longer than one paragraph, he should have an outline prepared, in which
each division is clearly indicated, as well as the important details
within each division.

In making a speech, the best way is to start with a clear statement of
the subject. Suppose you take (9) below. You might begin, "I am going to
talk of a street car transfer. First, I shall tell you how it looks; and
second, how it is used. Then first, a street car transfer--(describe it
fully). In the second place, it is used--(give details)." After you have
explained fully, to show that you have said all you intend to say,
finish with a sentence of conclusion. _Therefore_, _consequently_, _for
these reasons_, _thus we may see_, are instances of words which may be
used to begin a sentence of conclusion.

       *       *       *       *       *

Use each of the following questions as the subject for a speech. Answer
each question clearly and completely. Use illustrations to show exactly
what you mean.

      1. What does it mean to be a hero?

      2. What does it mean to be successful?

      3. What does it mean to be unfortunate?

      4. What does it mean to be generous?

      5. What does it mean to be lenient?

      6. What does it mean to be mercenary?

      7. What does it mean to be diffident?

      8. What does it mean to be penurious?

      9. What is a street car transfer? How does it look and
      how is it used?

      10. What occupation do you wish to follow, and why?
      What preparations are you making?

      11. Why do we have a smoke ordinance?

      12. Why must buildings have fire escapes?

      13. Why do the farmers of Kansas insure their barns
      against cyclones?

      14. What is fire insurance?

      15. Why is ventilation important?

      16. Why do so many immigrants come to this country?

      17. Why do cities grow?

      18. Why was the steam engine an important invention?

      19. Why was the telephone an important invention?

      20. What is the principle of vaccination?

      21. What is the principle of anti-toxin?

      22. Of what good is the trade union to the laborer?

      23. Why does the employer object to the union?

      24. What is a monopoly?

      25. What is meant by a corner in wheat?

=Exercise 141=

In your neighborhood you have frequently noticed a lawn and a garden
that are very poorly kept, the garden needing weeding and the lawn both
weeding and mowing. Imagine that you go to the owner to make him a
proposition. You know the man slightly, and you have heard that he has a
quick temper. Know exactly what work you will offer to do and how often
you will do it. Be careful of your first sentences. Let them be
especially courteous, so that you may not offend the gentleman by
suggesting that he does not take care of his property. Tell him frankly
that you would like to earn some money.

In this exercise the class will represent the owner. Moreover, they will
watch carefully so that they may point out to the speaker wherein his
speech was not quite courteous or not quite clear.

=Exercise 142=

From one of the newspapers cut an advertisement of a position for which
you think you can apply. Bring the advertisement with you and convince
the class that you are fitted for the position.

In this exercise you must be exact. Choose an advertisement for a kind
of work about which you know something. If you have ever had any
experience that would fit you for the position, do not fail to tell of
it, since experience counts for much in the employer's estimate of an

Let the class judge whether the speaker has been convincing and whether
he has shown the properly courteous attitude toward an employer. Let
them ask themselves such questions as: Is he alert in his manner? Does
he make one feel that he is capable? Does he stand and talk as if he has
confidence in himself? Is he too meek? Does he seem over-confident? Let
each be able to offer suggestions for improvement.

=Exercise 143=

Imagine that you are an agent. Choose an article that is especially
useful to housekeepers. Try to sell it to the class, or choose an
individual member to whom you wish to sell it. Bring a sample with you
for the purpose of demonstrating its usefulness.

As in the preceding exercise the speaker must strive to be convincing.
He must know all there is to be known about the article that he is
demonstrating. If it is at all possible, he should have used it in order
that he may explain exactly how it is operated and why it is better than
a similar article that the housekeeper probably is at present using.

=Exercise 144=

You wish to start a business and need a certain amount of money. Try to
convince the instructor or a selected pupil that you need it.

Be sure that you are able to tell definitely the kind of business for
which you wish the money, where you will start the business, why you
think that this particular location is good, when you will be able to
return the money, and what security you can give.

Don't make the mistake of choosing something too big for a boy or a girl
to carry through. Perhaps the following will be suggestive:

      1. A newspaper stand.

      2. A miniature truck farm in the empty lot next door.

      3. A pop corn wagon.

      4. A fruit cart or stand.

      5. A shoe shining stand.

      6. Raising ferns or flowers for sale.

      7. Buying vegetables from a farmer and selling them to

      8. Printing business cards and blotters on a small

      9. Making place cards.

      10. Making valentines.

      11. Painting holiday postal cards or fancy cards for
      Christmas, Easter, Thanksgiving, and the like.

      12. Printing on postal cards pretty scenes that you
      have photographed perhaps in your town or at a summer

      13. Making and selling cakes, doughnuts, and the like.

      14. Selling crocheted or embroidered articles.

=Exercise 145--Elements of Success=

Prepare a short speech on each of the following. Wherever possible make
your statements clear and forceful by using illustrations or examples.

      1. Cheerfulness helps to bring success.

      2. The habit of neatness is an asset.

      3. The habit of punctuality is a necessity.

      4. He was not promoted because he watched the clock.

      5. He was not promoted because his excuse was always,
      "I forgot."

      6. He was not promoted because he learned nothing from
      his mistakes.

      7. He was not promoted because he was always

      8. He was not promoted because he was content to be a
      second-rate man.

      9. He was not promoted because he ruined his ability
      by half-doing things.

      10. He was not promoted because he did not learn to
      act on his own judgment.

      11. One to-day is worth two to-morrows.

      12. Experience is an expensive teacher.

      13. Be not simply good--be good for something.

      14. Not failure, but low aim, is crime.

      15. To be successful one must have confidence in

=Exercise 146=

As in the preceding exercise prepare a speech on each of the following:

      1. A dishonest person cannot succeed.

      2. There is no excuse for discouragement.

      3. You may secure a position through another's
      influence, but you keep it through your own merit.

      4. There is always room at the top.

      5. There is no such thing as luck.

      6. The proper attitude toward an employer is one of

      7. A business woman should dress simply.

      8. Perseverance is the key to success.

      9. To accomplish much one must work systematically.

      10. It is possible to cultivate a good memory.

      11. The ability to converse is a business asset.

      12. The habit of exaggeration is dangerous.

=Exercise 147--Successful Men and Women=

How can one measure the success of men or women? Is it by the money they
make? the land they acquire? the fame they win? the good they do? By
what means have they won success? Was it through favorable
circumstances? strength of character? favoritism? physical strength?
mental energy? daring? doing what they thought was right in spite of
opposition? or simply doing nothing and waiting for success to come?

Study the life and character of one or more of the following. Have they
gained what you consider success? What qualities of character do you
recognize in them? Would you care to be like any of them?

Make a list of the habits that you recognize in their life and in the
way they worked.

Make a list of the characteristics of the ones that you study.

    Florence Nightingale    Frances Willard         Bismarck
    David Maydole           Ella Flagg Young        Gladstone
    R. L. Stevenson         Helen Gould Shepard     Marshall Field
    Booker T. Washington    Jane Addams             Carnegie
    Captain Scott           Napoleon                J. Pierpont Morgan
    Mary Antin              Franklin                Edison
    Daniel Boone            Lincoln                 Roosevelt
    Mary Lyon               Nathan Hale             Goethals

=Exercise 148--Debating=

A very great asset in business is the ability to see the truth or the
falsity of a statement, and to advance proofs for or against it. This
ability we shall try to acquire through the practice of debating; that
is, through the making of speeches in which students take opposite sides
of the same subject, trying by the presentation of facts and
illustrations to prove that the side which they represent is the correct
one. The statement that is thus argued is called a _proposition_.

Debating is excellent practice because it teaches not only clear-cut
reasoning, but also forceful expression. If a debater fails to make any
of his several arguments convincing, if he introduces irrelevant matter,
or, though he has prepared strong proofs, if he expresses them in
incorrect English, the result will be poor. In working out a debate,
therefore, observe the following carefully:

1. Know your subject thoroughly. If you have insufficient knowledge, you
cannot be convincing.

2. Understand your point of view exactly and explain it clearly. If you
and your opponent have different ideas of the word _trust_, for example,
you can never argue on a subject that concerns the trusts. Define your
position first of all.

3. After you have gathered your facts, study them as a whole. What three
arguments, let us say, stand out clearly in your mind as being
irrefutable because of the strong proofs you have to back them? These
are the ones that you should use; the rest will probably be of little
value. Plan to give the weakest of the three first, so that your
argument will gain force as you advance.

4. Work out the details of each argument. A mere statement of each is
not enough. It must be supported by many facts and illustrations.

5. Prepare an outline. It will show you whether your arguments follow
each other clearly, whether you have so arranged them as to secure
climax. (See Exercise 152.)

6. In talking, follow the plan explained in Exercise 140, being
especially careful in conclusion to summarize the proofs that you have

       *       *       *       *       *

The conclusions that you reach in your arguments must be based upon
statements that are true. In the following, some of the statements are
false, and therefore the conclusions based upon them are false. Point
out wherein the falsity consists. In others of the following, irrelevant
matter has been introduced. Point it out, explaining why it is

      1. We shall forget a great many facts that we learn at
      school. Therefore it is useless to learn them.

      2. Oil should be used instead of water in sprinkling
      our streets, because oil does not evaporate so quickly
      as water, and so does not allow the dust to rise.
      Moreover, as the street must be cleaned before the oil
      is laid, there is less dust to rise. When the oil lies
      on the streets, it is very sticky, and clings to
      everyone's shoes. In this way it is tracked into the
      houses and stores, making everything dirty. Therefore
      I think the streets should be oiled instead of being

      3. Half of the keys would not work on the typewriter
      that I used yesterday. This machine will work no
      better, as it is made by the same company.

      4. Last year September was very warm, and the winter
      was extreme. This year September has been very warm,
      and therefore the winter will be extreme.

      5. My cousin never went to high school, and when he
      went to work he earned eight dollars a week. I have
      gone to high school for one year. Therefore I shall
      receive more than eight dollars a week when I go to

      6. When you are working, your employer will never ask
      you the definition of a noun. Therefore it is
      unnecessary to know any grammar.

      7. Every one should be punctual in doing his work. If
      he is punctual, he will be promoted and earn a larger
      salary. Money is a very important item in this world,
      but it is not everything. A person must be satisfied
      with his work so that he can do it cheerfully;
      otherwise he will not succeed. Therefore I think every
      one ought to be on time.

      8. The day is either sunny or it is not sunny. To-day
      is not sunny; therefore it is sunny.

      9. It always rains when I wear new shoes. I am wearing
      new shoes; therefore it will rain to-day.

=Exercise 149=

Find three reasons for each of the following propositions. State them
concisely, reserving the strongest for the last.

As above, find three reasons against each of the following.

Expand one of the reasons that you advanced for one of the propositions
given below. Using your statement as the opening sentence, develop it
into a paragraph by explanations and illustrations.

      1. The high school should have the same session as the

      2. The high school session should begin at eight
      o'clock and close at one, with no recess for luncheon.

      3. Final examinations shall be abolished.

      4. Every high school should teach manual training.

      5. Every high school should offer business courses.

      6. Every high school pupil should receive a business

      7. Stenography (or bookkeeping) is a more important
      study than wood-working.

      8. If a pupil fails in the first semester of a
      subject, he should be allowed to try the second
      without repeating the first.

      9. A pupil should not be expected to learn a lesson
      that he does not enjoy.

      10. Moving picture shows do more harm than good.

=Exercise 150=

Let three or four pupils write upon the blackboard three arguments in
support of the same one of the following propositions. Then let the
class choose from all the arguments given those three or four that they
think are best, giving in each case reasons for their choice.

In the same way let them work out the negative of the same proposition.

      1. Every city should have a public park in the
      business district.

      2. The large department stores should be abolished and
      smaller stores, selling only one kind of commodity,

      3. The mail order house should be abolished.

      4. It is bad business policy to conduct cut-price

      5. The newspapers are the greatest educators of the

      6. Billboard advertisements destroy the beauty of a

      7. Women should be allowed to vote.

      8. Labor unions are a benefit to the public.

      9. All government should be conducted on the civil
      service plan.

      10. Underselling a competitor ruins trade.

=Exercise 151=

One or two weeks in advance let the class choose three members for each
side of one of the following propositions. On the day of the debate let
the rest of the class act as judges to decide which side has presented
the most convincing arguments in the best English.

      1. It is better to be a farm hand than a factory

      2. Every girl should prepare herself to earn her own

      3. Trusts should be regulated, not abolished.

      4. Strikes should be considered illegal.

      5. Advertising has increased the cost of living. (See
      Exercise 152.)

      6. Communism would lower the cost of living.

      7. The business of a city should not be centralized.

      8. Labor troubles are brought about because the poor
      ape the rich.

      9. Contentment is better than wealth.

      10. Tariff increases the cost of living.

=Exercise 152--Outline for a Debate=

Choose two or four members of the class to develop each side of the
following debate. Wherever possible, definite figures should be used.



      I. Modern advertising is world-wide in extent.
        (_a_) Practically all classes of articles are now extensively
            (1) Food stuffs; e.g., breakfast foods.
            (2) Clothing; e.g., men's suits.
            (3) Luxuries; e.g., automobiles.
            (4) Investments; e.g., real estate.
        (_b_) Every possible medium is used.
            (1) Newspapers.
            (2) Magazines.
            (3) Billboards and street cars.
            (4) Circulars and booklets.
     II. An enormous amount of money is spent in advertising.
        (_a_) The use of advertising agencies is growing more widespread.
            (1) One agency has made the statement that it has nine men
              whose salaries amount to $227,000 annually.
        (_b_) More and more companies are engaging advertising managers.
            (1) They draw large salaries.
                (_x_) In many cases, $10,000 annually.
        (_c_) Advertising rates are very high; for example,
            (1) The rate for a certain magazine is $1000 a page per issue.
            (2) Metropolitan newspapers charge as high a rate as $500
              a page per issue.
        (_d_) Many advertisers use each issue of a number of mediums,
              making the cost run to an enormous total; for example,
            (1) _Cream of Wheat_ is advertised in every issue of almost
              every magazine.
    III. The consumer pays for the advertising.
        (_a_) The price that the consumer pays for an article must cover
              the cost of production and the expense of distribution,
              leaving fair margins of profit, since
            (1) The manufacturer will no longer produce if his profit
            (2) He is not willing to take the cost of advertising from his
              profit in manufacturing.
            (3) The dealer will not take the advertising cost from his own
     IV. Advertising increases prices.
        (_a_) The cost of manufacture and the expense of distribution have
              been steadily lowered, and yet prices of articles have
              steadily advanced; therefore
            (1) The rise is not due to the cost of manufacture.
            (2) Nor to the expense of distribution.
        (_b_) Competition necessitates an increased amount of advertising.
            (1) If one firm begins to advertise, its competitors, for
              self-protection, must follow suit.
        (_c_) Competitive advertising raises expenses above the point where
              there is a fair profit at the old price.
            (1) For a given kind of goods there is usually a certain volume
              of business, which grows with population.
            (2) If all the firms competing in those goods increase their
              expenses by advertising, they must raise prices to make the
               same profit as previously.
        (_d_) Advertised articles cost more than the unadvertised.
             (1) Bulk rolled oats vs. package rolled oats.
             (2) Bulk pickles and relishes vs. advertised brands.
             (3) Bulk macaroni vs. package goods.


      I. The present increased advertising is the result of normal growth.
         (_a_) Multiplied manufactures necessarily multiply advertisements.
             (1) Every day new products are being put on the market.
             (2) No product has the chance of a sale until it is known.
             (3) In the present scope of community life the advertisement
               is the most convenient means of acquainting consumers with
               new products.
         (_b_) Any unusual increase in advertising has a reasonable
             (1) Automobile advertising has increased as the automobile
               has replaced the wagon and carriage, because of
                 (_x_) Greater convenience.
                 (_y_) Lower operating cost.
             (2) Prepared breakfast food advertising has increased
               as these foods have replaced cooked foods, because of
                 (_x_) Greater convenience.
     II. Increased advertising is done on the scale of old prices.
         (_a_) Merchants dare not raise prices to make the consumer pay
               for the advertising, since
             (1) They must compete with manufacturers who do not
               advertise and who have no overhead advertising expense.
         (_b_) The most widely advertised articles are the inexpensive
               necessary accessories.
             (1) Food products.
             (2) Soaps and soap powders.
             (3) Toilet articles.
         (_c_) They have not advanced in price.
             (1) Quaker Oats.
             (2) Ivory Soap; Sapolio.
             (3) Mennen's Talcum Powder.
    III. Widespread advertising works to the advantage, not the
           disadvantage, of the consumer.
         (_a_) It gives new opportunities
             (1) To compare values.
             (2) To buy to the best advantage; for example,
                 (_x_) In advertised bargain sales.
         (_b_) It reduces the cost of production and the selling expense,
              thus tending to lower the price.
             (1) By increasing sales, it reduces the cost per article.
                 (_x_) Maximum purchasing power means minimum cost to the
             (2) In taking the place of salesmen, it reduces expenses, thus
               lowering the price; for example,
                 (_x_) In mail order firms.
             (3) Therefore the advertising expense is unimportant in
               influencing a higher price.
     IV. The most marked price advances have been in the unadvertised
          necessaries of life.
         (_a_) In breadstuffs.
             (1) Less in quantity for higher prices than formerly.
         (_b_) In meats and poultry.
             (1) An advance of from 25 per cent to 100 per cent and more.
         (_c_) In butter and eggs.
             (1) An advance similar to that shown in meats and poultry.

=Exercise 153--Additional Subjects for Debates=

      1. The wages of women should be the same as those of
      men in the same occupation.

      2. The government should grant old age pensions.

      3. Employers should be liable for the life and health
      of employees.

      4. The boycott is a legitimate method of obtaining
      employees' demands.

      5. National expositions do not benefit the cities in
      which they are held.

      6. Railroad combination lowers rates.

      7. Piece-work should be prohibited by law.

      8. National party lines should be discarded in
      municipal elections.

      9. City governments should be allowed to decide their
      problems without intervention of the state

      10. Municipal offices should be appointive and not

      11. The commission form of government is best for
      large cities.

      12. Immigration is the cause of municipal evils.

      13. A personal property tax cannot be levied with

      14. The United States should not further extend its
      colonial dependencies.

      15. The President should be elected by a direct vote
      of the people.

      16. Ex-presidents of the United States should become
      life members of the Senate.

      17. The President and the Vice-President should be
      prohibited from taking part in political campaigns.

      18. The United States should subsidize a merchant

      19. Foreign-built ships, owned by Americans, should be
      granted the privilege of American register.

      20. The governors of states should not have the power
      to pardon.

      21. A three-fourths vote of a jury should be
      sufficient to render a verdict in criminal cases.

      22. The coast defenses of the United States should be

      23. The farmer is to blame for the high prices.

      24. The results of Arctic explorations have not
      justified the cost.



IN Chapter X definite subjects were assigned for talks. Getting a
subject for yourself sometimes seems difficult; you are likely to think
that there is no topic upon which you can say more than a few sentences.
Isn't it true that when you are talking to your friends you seldom are
at a loss for something to say? Of course, what your companion says
often suggests an idea on which you give your opinion. You speak about
things that interest you, and the words come fairly easily. Why not
apply the same principle to more formal composition, whether oral or
written? Unless a subject interests you, do not use it. But be careful
that you do not reject it as uninteresting until you have thought about
it carefully, considering it from all sides. Often one subject will
suggest another akin to it, but more interesting to you because you know
more about it. For this reason choose very simple subjects, and become
thoroughly familiar with them by thinking or reading about them, before
you attempt to explain them.

Sometimes, again, you will find that the subject you have chosen is not
good because it is not definite enough. You hardly know where or how to
begin to explain it, because it suggests no definite ideas. Perhaps, for
instance, you have decided to write on the automobile and can think of
nothing to say until you remember that you once saw an automobile race
about which you can tell several interesting details; or you have seen
an automobile accident and can write on the topic _A Runaway Electric_.
If you can speak or write on a topic taken from your own observation,
your composition will probably be good. You know the facts, you have an
interest in the subject, and you will very likely say something of
interest to others. Subjects taken from school life or neighborhood
happenings, especially such things as you yourself have seen, are
excellent. Perhaps on your way to school you noticed that several old
houses are being torn down. You remember that you heard that a candy
factory is to be erected. At once several suggestions for themes will
come to you; as, _Why the Factory is Being Erected in this
Neighborhood_, _How Neighborhoods Change in a Large City_, _The Work the
Wrecking Company Carries on_. Perhaps your father owns property in the
neighborhood, and you could write on _How Real Estate Values have
Changed in this Neighborhood_.

Next to your own experience, the best source from which to draw subjects
is your reading. This may be divided into (1) books, (2) magazines and
newspapers. Recall one of the books that you read in the grammar grades,
perhaps _The Courtship of Miles Standish_. Drawing your material from
this source, you can write _A Picture of Early Plymouth Days_, or a
sketch of Miles Standish's character, using the title _Practice What You
Preach_. But to try to tell the whole story to any one in two or three
minutes would result in failure, for it would be a subject entirely too
big to treat in so short a time. All the interesting details would have
to be omitted, and, if the details are omitted, the story loses its

It is the newspaper or the magazine, however, that offers us the most
available source of subjects. Practically all that we know of the modern
world and of the wonderful progress being made in invention and
discovery, as well as of the accidents and disasters that take place, we
have learned first from the newspaper and have verified later by the
articles in magazines. Every issue of a newspaper or of a magazine
contains suggestions for many subjects. Such magazines as _The World's
Work_, _System_, _The Outlook_, _The Technical World_, and other
magazines that deal with technical subjects in a popular way are
excellent for this work.

A third important source of subjects is the studies that you are now
pursuing. Every new study affords a new point of view, which should
suggest many topics for oral and written themes. Sometimes a good
subject is the comparison of two of your studies by which you try to
show, perhaps, how the one depends on the other.

The subject, of course, is but the beginning of the composition.
Developing the subject is fully as important as having a subject to
develop. The ability to develop a subject clearly is very important in
the business world. A business man sells his goods either by talking or
by writing; by the salesman or by the letter and the advertisement.
Unless the salesman talks in a convincing way, he probably will sell few
goods. He must know not only what to say, but how to say it.

=Exercise 154--The Subject as a Whole=

First, you must see your subject in its entirety, as one thing. Ask
yourself, "Just what does my title mean?" and if you have not as yet
selected a title, study your subject from all sides until you can see
how to narrow it to certain definite dimensions. Now you have set a sort
of fence around your subject. Nothing outside must enter, but nothing
inside must escape. The length of the composition you are to write
usually helps you decide on the limits of your subject. If you are
writing a book on Africa, you might include all that the title suggests
to you of exploration, colonization, civilization, and Christianization.
But if you are writing a very short theme--not over three pages--it is
evident that the subject must be narrowed. Would _The Transvaal_ be
good? _The Jungles of Africa?_ _Roosevelt in Africa?_ _African Mission
Stations?_ _When I think of Africa I think of Stanley?_

       *       *       *       *       *

Which of the following subjects would be good for short compositions,
either oral or written? The oral theme should occupy two or three
minutes, the written perhaps three pages. What is the objection to a one
word subject?

   1. Manufacturing.                      11. The dead letter office.
   2. Household uses of electricity.      12. The clearing house.
   3. The Constitution of the United      13. Business.
        States.                           14. Honesty in business.
   4. Why we celebrate the Fourth of      15. Physicians should
        July.                                   advertise.
   5. The destruction of our forests.     16. Paper.
   6. Europe.                             17. How an electric bell works.
   7. The westernizing of China.          18. Electrifying the railroads.
   8. How railroads build cities.         19. How to make candy.
   9. The fire drill at school.           20. Vocational education in
  10. Education.                                Germany.

=Exercise 155--The Divisions of the Subject=

After you have selected your subject, decide into what divisions it
naturally falls. If it is of the proper length, it probably will divide
itself into two or three divisions. Each of these will constitute
one-half or one-third of your composition, and within each division
illustrations, reasons, and explanatory details will appear. Arrange the
divisions in the order in which they naturally come, according to their
relative time of happening or according to their relative importance,
reserving the most important for the last.

Sometimes this sort of division is difficult to make, because a subject
can frequently be treated from different points of view, the point of
view deciding the divisions. Sometimes you will find that you have made
a number of small divisions, in each of which you can say only one or
two sentences. This will at once suggest that you have not found the
main parts of the subject, but have made unimportant divisions. Again,
it may seem that you cannot divide your subject into satisfactory parts.
In that case, you probably do not know enough about it. Think about it
again, and, if you find that you really cannot divide it, choose

       *       *       *       *       *

Choose one of the following subjects. Is the title definite and clear?
If it is not, change it so that it will be. For example, _Photography_
(5) is not a definite title. No one could attempt to explain the entire
subject of photography in a few minutes. A better title for a theme
would be one of the following: _How to Develop a Negative_; _How to
Intensify [_or_ reduce] a Negative_; _Our Camera Club_; _The Photography
Exhibit at the Art Museum_; _Kinematography_; _Flash Light Pictures
without Smoke or Odor_; _The Conditions Necessary for a Good Snap Shot
Picture_; _The Advantages of Using a Developing Machine_; _How My Camera
Helped Pay for My Vacation_. Can you suggest still others?

After having selected your title, decide into what divisions the subject
naturally falls. For example, let us take (2) below. _A Ball Game_ is
not a definite title. Instead, let us choose _Last Saturday's Football
Game_. As stated above, a subject may be treated from different points
of view, the point of view deciding the divisions. Thus, in treating
_Last Saturday's Football Game_, we may divide:



      I. The first quarter.
     II. The second quarter.
    III. The third quarter.
     IV. The fourth quarter.



      I. The excitement for a week before the game.
     II. The tension during the struggle.
    III. The celebration after the game.



      I. The long forward pass.
     II. The end run to the five-yard line.

Still other divisions may be made if we consider the subject from the
point of view of the teams or the players themselves. Can you suggest
any such divisions?

In the same way choose one of the subjects given below. Change it, if
necessary. Then write out the topic of each division in as few words as

     1. An important electrical device.
     2. A ball game.
     3. Getting dinner.
     4. The aeroplane.
     5. Photography.
     6. How styles change.
     7. The back-to-the-farm movement.
     8. Why oriental rugs are expensive.
     9. Wireless telegraphy.
    10. The business course in this school.

=Exercise 156--The Outline=

If your theme consists of more than one division, before you begin to
speak or write you should prepare a definite working plan or outline. It
should include enough to suggest the first sentence of each division and
the more important details within each. The outline will help you in
speaking or writing to arrange the topics so that they will follow one
another clearly. If you have an outline, there will be much less danger
of including details which do not belong to the subject and of omitting
details which should appear.

In the following very simple outlines notice the use of indentation:



      I. The cleaning of streets.
         (_a_) In summer.
             (1) The cost of sprinkling.
         (_b_) In winter.
             (1) The cost of removing snow.
     II. The cleaning of alleys.
         (_a_) The disposal of garbage.
    III. The smoke nuisance.
         (_a_) Smoke consumers.
         (_b_) Smoke inspection.



      I. Definition of a public gymnasium.
         (_a_) Location.
         (_b_) Equipment.
         (_c_) Management.
     II. Benefits to the public.
         (_a_) Keeps children off the streets.
             (1) Congested districts.
         (_b_) Develops them physically.
         (_c_) Affords them pleasure.
             (1) Outdoor and indoor games.
             (2) Bathing at beaches connected with gymnasiums.

One more suggestion is in place here. In writing an outline, be careful
that you express similar subdivisions of a topic by similar grammatical
elements. For example, in the first outline above, (_a_) under I is a
phrase; (_b_) under I should be a similar phrase. It would be
incorrectly worded _Winter_ or _What the winter problem is_. What is the
advantage of such similarity?

       *       *       *       *       *

Using the divisions you made for one of the subjects under Exercise 155,
develop an outline for a theme.

=Exercise 157=

Choose one of the following subjects; restrict it or expand it, if
necessary; select a proper title; write an outline; and then write or
deliver your composition, following your outline closely. Notice that
the shorter your title the more it includes, and therefore the longer
your composition must be to deal adequately with the subject.

      1. Giving talks before a class develops self-reliance.

      2. Most inventors would not have succeeded without

      3. The more training a man has, the better chance he
      has to succeed.

      4. Most rich men learned to save early.

      5. The value of courtesy in a retail business.

      6. The dangers of football.

      7. The various methods of heating a house.

      8. The sporting page often sells the newspaper.

      9. Educational features of the modern newspaper.

      10. Our national game.

      11. Baseball is a better game than football.

      12. The use of machinery has lowered the cost of
      manufactured articles.

      13. How to prevent taking colds.

      14. Athletic contests develop courage.

      15. Qualities essential to good salesmanship.

      16. Our debate with ----.

      17. The qualities of a good street car advertisement.

      18. A good cartoon.

      19. Learning to swim.

      20. The trials of washing day.

      21. Birds as money savers.

      22. Birds as destroyers.

      23. Open air as a cure for tuberculosis.

      24. Making a raft.

      25. Every one should open a savings account.

      26. Laziness.

      27. Tennis is better than baseball.

      28. Our respiratory system.

      29. The bad effects of ridicule.

      30. The good effects of ridicule.

=Exercise 158=

Recall one of the books that you have read recently. Name two subjects
that it suggests to you and that you can talk about. Write a careful
outline for each of them, and be prepared to speak on one.

=Exercise 159=

Name a subject taken from one of your studies, history for example. Let
it be definite enough so that you can tell all the details that you know
about it in a speech lasting two or three minutes. Use examples and
illustrations to make the subject interesting and clear. Prepare an

=Exercise 160=

Reproduce an article that you have read in a current magazine. Be
careful that you make the material your own before attempting to retell
it. Do not under any circumstances try to memorize the article.
Understand fully what it says, make an outline of the facts that you
wish to reproduce, and then give them as if they were your own ideas. At
the beginning of your speech tell the name and date of the magazine from
which you are taking the facts.

=Exercise 161=

As has been said, most of us get our ideas of what is taking place in
the world from the articles that we read in current newspapers and
magazines. We cannot always form our opinion from what one newspaper on
one day says of a particular event. We must read what it says on
successive days and, if possible, consult other newspapers on the same
subject, for it is well known that not all newspapers are non-partisan.
If one in the city is known to be so, that is the paper to read for the
material for this exercise. Then, if we can read what one of the
magazines says on the same subject, our knowledge will probably be more
definite and more nearly true.

Let the class be divided into different sections, representing different
kinds of news; for example, national, local, foreign, and business news.
Under national news, you can perhaps find articles on national politics,
legislative measures being discussed at Washington, rumors of war,
immigration; under local news, anything pertaining to the city or the
state in which you live; under foreign news, anything of interest to any
of the other countries of the world; under business news, the prices of
food products, strikes, panics, and their effect on business conditions.
These are but suggestions. Such topics change so rapidly that nothing
more definite can here be given.

When you have been assigned to one of these divisions, prepare a talk on
a topic that you understand thoroughly. Begin your talk with a clear
statement of your subject, as explained in Exercise 140; amplify it by
details or illustrations; and end with a sentence of conclusion,
forecasting the future of your topic or restating what you have proved.

=Exercise 162=

For a week follow the same current event as recorded in the newspaper,
taking notes as you read. Then choose from all your material only those
facts that belong strictly to one topic. Write an outline, setting forth
the facts in logical order. Deliver the speech, following your outline

=Exercise 163=

Let the class choose four or six members one week in advance, who are to
prepare a debate on a topic of current interest. Let the other members
of the class act as judges or volunteer on either side, as the
instructor may see fit. Such debates should occur as often as possible.

=Exercise 164=

About once a month devote a day to the production of a class paper. Let
the class choose a name. During the first year let the items be
developed into paragraphs. Longer compositions should be reserved for
the second year.


    1. A column of interesting business items clipped from leading papers.
    2. An important news item that would make a good "story."
    3. Original editorials on one or more of the following:
       _a._ Needs or improvements in city, school, or home.
       _b._ Recent city news.
       _c._ Business news.
       _d._ State news.
       _e._ National news.
       _f._ Foreign news.
    4. Personal experiences, amusing incidents, or anecdotes, preferably
           of the business world.
    5. For sale advertisements, or "want ads" that the class would

=Exercise 165=

Criticise the following outlines. Each topic is supposed to represent a
division in thought.



    1. A group of reapers.
    2. Their costumes.
    3. The field.
    4. Starting the harvest.
    5. Carting the sheaves to the barn.
    6. The stacks.
    7. The field after the harvest.



    1. What it is.
    2. It is a good thing.
    3. It instructs.
    4. Evils done by the tongue.
    5. Especially slander.
    6. Conclusion.



    1. The cause.
       (_a_) Strikers want higher wages.
       (_b_) Poverty of the families of the strikers.
       (_c_) Police have to protect newsboys against strikers.
    2. Disadvantages.
       (_a_) Newspapers are losing business.
       (_b_) Newsboys sympathize with strikers.
    3. Riots.
       (_a_) Newsboys hurt and newspapers burned.
       (_b_) Police cannot watch all sections of city.
    4. Conclusion.



WHEN we speak, we make our meaning clear by the expression that we put
into our words and sentences. Some sentences we say all in one breath
and with not much change in emphasis from one word to the next. We may
be pretty sure that such a sentence is short and simple, with all its
elements arranged in their natural order. In this respect compare the
sentences given below.

Notice that the following sentence is spoken as one word group:

      Steam and electricity are making one commercial
      community of all nations.

A part that is subordinate in idea is subordinate in tone; as,

      Steam and electricity, _which are the greatest of all
      discoveries_, are making one commercial community of
      all nations.

In the usual order of the sentence the subject comes first. Sometimes
for emphasis a participial phrase or an adverbial clause precedes the
subject. Such inversion is always indicated; as,

      _If the grape crop is large_, the price of grapes is

Sometimes a word or phrase is thrust into the sentence to give clearness
or force; as,

      If, _on the other hand_, the season is poor, the price
      of grapes is high.

      What, _then_, determines the price of grapes?

We cannot become good speakers until we learn to subordinate in tone
those groups of words that are subordinate in idea, and to bring out
clearly those groups which, for one reason or another, are emphatic. The
same thing is true in music. We cannot become good musicians until we
learn phrasing; that is, until we learn to group the notes to form
distinct musical ideas. But when we write our thoughts, we cannot
indicate the tone in which the words are spoken. We must show in some
other way which groups of words belong together, which are important,
and which are subordinate in idea. For this purpose punctuation marks
have been invented. When we write, we unconsciously speak the thoughts
to ourselves; we hear the divisions between the parts of ideas; and, if
we understand punctuation, we indicate the divisions.


1. Why in writing and printing do we separate one word from the next? In
ancient writing this was not done.

2. Why do we separate one sentence from the next?

3. We use punctuation marks for the same reason. Explain.

4. The word to keep in mind in punctuation is _separate_. If two words
belong together in idea, the two making one idea, allow them to stand
unseparated. If they give two ideas, separate them by a mark of
punctuation. What is the difference in thought in the two sentences that

    (_a_) She is a pretty, energetic girl.
    (_b_) She is a pretty energetic girl.

=Exercise 166--The Apostrophe (')=

The _apostrophe_ (') is used--

1. To show the possessive case of nouns (See Exercise 82); as,

      The _boy's_ writing is excellent.

2. To indicate the omission of one or more letters; as,

      _I'll_ attend to the matter.

3. To show the plural of letters, figures, and words that usually have
no plural; as,

      Your _3's_ are too much like your _5's_, your _a's_
      like your _u's_.

      Don't use so many _and's_.

Write sentences in each of which you use one of the following words

    you're    we're     who's     they're
    your      were      whose     there
    it's      he's      don't     their
    its       his       doesn't

Explain why the apostrophe is used in the following:

      1. I've received no reply.

      2. This month's sales exceed last month's by one
      thousand dollars.

      3. Politics doesn't affect the matter very much.

      4. The mistake was caused by his making his 7's like
      his 9's.

      5. Have you received the treasurer's report? No, I

Point out the mistakes in the following:

      1. For sale, A ladies fur coat.

      2. The boy's have gone skating.

      3. We wo'nt worry over the political situation.

      4. Lets decide now where were to spend our vacation.

      5. Dot your is and not your us.

      6. Is this book your's or her's?

=Exercise 167--Capitals=

_Capitals_ are used for--

1. The first word of every sentence.

2. The first word of every line of poetry.

3. The first word of a quotation (See Exercise 169).

4. The first word of a formal statement or resolution; as,

      Resolved, That women shall be given the right to vote.

5. The first word of every group of words paragraphed separately in an
itemized list, as in an order for merchandise.

6. The pronoun _I_ and the interjection _O_ (not _oh_).

7. The words _Bible_ and _Scripture_, the books of the Bible, all names
applied to the Deity, and all personal pronouns referring to Him.

8. All proper nouns, proper adjectives, and words that are considered
proper nouns; as,

      _a._ Names of the days of the week, holidays, and
      months of the year, but not names of the seasons.

      _b._ North, South, etc., when they refer to sections
      of the country, but not when they refer to a direction
      or a point of the compass.

      _c._ Official titles or titles of honor when they are
      used in connection with names, but not when they are
      used without names; as,

    Vice-President Roosevelt, ex-President Roosevelt.
    Nominations are now in order for vice-president.

      _d._ Names of political parties.

      _e._ Names of religious sects.

      _f._ Names of important events or documents; as,

    The Revolution, The Declaration of Independence.

      _g._ The salutation in a letter; as,

    Dear Sir, Gentlemen.

      _h._ Words indicating relationship, when they are used
      in connection with a proper name, or when used alone
      as a name, but not when used with a possessive
      pronoun; as,

    We expect Aunt Ellen at four o'clock.
    I expect my mother at four o'clock.

9. The important words in the title of a book, play, or composition.
Prepositions, articles, and conjunctions are not capitalized; as,

      The Call of the Wild.

10. Such words as _Paragraph_, _Article_, or _Section_, when accompanied
with a number; as,

      Paragraph 26, Article 3.

11. See Exercise 75.

=Exercise 168=

The _period_ (.) is used--

1. To indicate the end of a declarative sentence; as,

      The business is prosperous.

2. To indicate an abbreviation; as,

      The firm of Clark Bros. has opened a new office at 144
      Pleasant St., Erie, Pa.

The _interrogation mark_ (?) is used--

To indicate the end of a sentence that asks a question; as,

      When did you order the goods?

The _exclamation mark_ (!) is used--

To indicate the end of a sentence or other expression that shows strong
feeling; as,

      Such demands are inhuman!

Frequently, all that shows exactly how the writer wished his thought to
be understood is the punctuation. The same words may express different
ideas according to the mark of punctuation that follows them. Read the
following to show the meaning that the writer wished to convey by each.
Explain the circumstances under which each might have been spoken.

     1. The price is too high.
     2. The price is too high!
     3. The price is too high?
     4. The crop will not be good. There'll be no corn.
     5. Corn! There'll be no corn!
     6. You didn't tell him that.
     7. You didn't tell him that!
     8. You didn't tell him that?
     9. You are enjoying yourself.
    10. You are enjoying yourself?
    11. You are enjoying yourself!

=Exercise 169--Quotation Marks (" ")=

1. When a speaker's words are quoted exactly, they should be enclosed in
quotation marks. This is called a _direct quotation_.

      He said, "The business is growing."

Notice that the word _said_ is followed by a comma, and that the
quotation begins with a capital letter.

2. If the quotation itself is a question, although it forms part of a
declarative sentence, it requires an interrogation mark before the
quotation mark; as,

    Have you been waiting long?
    She opened the door and said, "Have you been waiting long?"

3. The same applies to a quotation that requires an exclamation mark;

    He cried, "Look!"

4. When the words of explanation follow the quoted words, the
punctuation is as follows:

(_a_) When the quotation is a declarative sentence, put a comma after
the quotation and begin the words of explanation with a small letter;

      "The business is growing," he said.

(_b_) When the quotation is a question, conclude it with an
interrogation mark, and begin the words of explanation with a small
letter; as,

      "Have you been waiting long?" she asked.

(_c_) When the quotation is an exclamation, conclude it with an
exclamation mark, and begin the words of explanation with a small
letter; as,

      "Look!" he cried.

5. When the author's words of explanation interrupt the speaker's words,
the punctuation is as follows:

(_a_) When the interrupted parts are not naturally separated by any
punctuation mark, the comma is used as follows:

    I do not believe that the report is true.
    "I do not believe," he said, "that the report is true."

Notice in what way the quotation marks show that the words _he said_ do
not belong to the quoted words.

(_b_) Whatever mark of punctuation would naturally appear between the
interrupted parts must be used; as,

      (1) I shall buy the Boston ferns; they seem to require
      but little care.

      "I shall buy the Boston ferns," she said; "they seem
      to require but little care."

      (2) Oh! The flames are higher!

      "Oh!" she cried. "The flames are higher!"

4. Division into sentences is made within a quotation just as elsewhere.
When the thought ends, the sentence must end. The different sentences,
however, must not be divided by quotation marks; as,

      "The train came in," said he, "half an hour ago. I do
      not see them in the waiting room. I think they did not

5. When a quotation is very long, consisting of several paragraphs,
quotation marks should be placed at the beginning of the quotation, at
the beginning of each succeeding paragraph, and at the end of the
quotation--not at the end of each paragraph.

6. When a quotation occurs within a quotation, the one within is
distinguished by single marks; as,

      John explained, "After I had told Mr. Brown how I
      thought the work could be done more easily, he said,
      'Thank you for your suggestion.'"

7. Any words quoted from a book or article, or any words quoted with a
special significance, such as slang, should be enclosed in quotation
marks; as,

      The day of the salesman who is satisfied with the
      "good old way" is fast passing.

8. A formal question, statement, or resolution for a debate is not
enclosed in quotation marks; as,

      The question we are to discuss is, Shall women vote?

=Exercise 170=

Punctuate the following, dividing into sentences wherever the sense
demands division:

      1. Thank you for your suggestion said Mr. Brown

      2. Mr. Brown said thank you for your suggestion

      3. Thank you said Mr. Brown for your suggestion

      4. If you will ask the shipping clerk I volunteered I
      think you can get definite information

      5. How can we enforce the law asked the man

      6. The law cried the man how can we enforce the law

      7. Tell me said the man how we can enforce the law

      8. Tell me this said the man how can we enforce the

      9. The question before us is how can we enforce the

      10. John whispered did you hear his mother say yes you
      may go

      11. As I was walking along the river he continued I
      heard a voice cry help

      12. Halt shouted the captain the bridge is down

      13. The captain shouted halt the bridge is down

      14. We cannot cross said the captain the bridge is

      15. The bridge is down said the captain and I fear
      there is no other way to cross

      16. Is the bridge down asked the captain does no one
      know another way to cross

      17. The captain said the bridge is down do you know
      another way to cross

      18. What shall we do asked a soldier if the bridge is

      19. Do cried the captain swim that's what we'll do

      20. As we were riding along spoke up one of the
      soldiers I heard a farmer shout you fellows better try
      the bridge lower down

=Exercise 171--Indirect Discourse=

In the preceding exercise we saw different forms of direct quotations,
or direct discourse. In each case, the speaker's words were quoted
exactly. When the substance of the thought is given in slightly
different form, we have an indirect quotation, or indirect discourse, in
which no quotation marks are used. An indirect quotation is usually a
subordinate clause depending on a word of _thinking_, _saying_,
_telling_, or the like. Indirect statements are usually introduced by
_that_, and indirect questions by _when_, _where_, _why_, _whether_,
_if_, _who_, _which_, _what_, and the like. When a sentence is changed
from direct to indirect discourse, the person and usually the tense of
the direct quotation are changed; as,

    _Direct_: He said, "I do not believe the report."
    _Indirect_: He said that he did not believe the report.

    _Direct_: He said, "Germany is over-populated."
    _Indirect_: He said that Germany is over-populated. (See Exercise 107.)

    _Direct_: She said, "I did my work before I went to school."
    _Indirect_: She said that she had done her work before she went to

    _Direct_: "I have finished my work," said the girl.
    _Indirect_: She says that she has finished her work.

    _Direct_: "Why didn't he succeed?" I asked.
    _Indirect_: I asked why he had not succeeded.

    _Direct_: "When may I go?" she inquired.
    _Indirect_: She inquired when she might go.

In the following change the italicized parts to direct quotations. Do
not change the paragraphing.



      The baby seal said _that he could not swim_.

      His mother answered _that he could try_.

      The little fellow persisted _that he could never

      His mother looked at him sternly, and said _that every
      seal must learn to swim_.

      He replied _that the water was cold and that he liked
      the sand better_, but because his mother insisted, he
      slid into the water whimpering.

      After he had gone a short distance, he turned around
      and called out _that the water was much pleasanter
      than the sand_.

      His mother said _that she knew that it would be so_.
      She said _that young people must do as they are told
      because they have not had enough experience to judge
      for themselves_.



      A certain old time king said _that he needed a servant
      who could be depended upon_. He said he knew _that
      such a man is difficult to secure, and in the hope of
      getting the right one, he would hire two_.

      When he had engaged them, he took them to a well and,
      showing them a large basket, told them _to fill it
      with water_. He said _that he would return at night to
      see what they had done_.

      The men were very much in earnest when they began the
      work, but, after pouring five or six bucketfuls of
      water into the basket, one of them stopped and said
      _that he did not see any use in doing that because, as
      soon as he poured the water in, it ran out again, and
      his time was lost_.

      His companion replied _that the kind of work that
      their master gave them was no concern of theirs; that
      they were paid to do the work; and, whether it seemed
      useful to them or not, they ought to do it_.

      The first speaker said _that the other man could do as
      he pleased, but, as for him, he did not expect to
      waste his time on such foolish work_. Throwing his
      bucket down, he walked off.

      The one that was left continued at the work until
      about sunset, when he had nearly emptied the well.
      Looking into the basket, he saw something glittering.
      Stooping to look more closely, he found in the basket
      a ring of great value which his bucket had scooped up
      from the mud at the bottom of the well. He said _that
      now he knew why the king had wanted the water poured
      into the basket_.

      Shortly afterward, when the king came up with some of
      his officers and saw the ring in the basket, he knew
      that the man had obeyed him, and he said _that he knew
      he could trust him, and as a reward for obedience he
      would make him master over other servants_.

=Exercise 172--The Paragraph in Dialogue=

In conversation the words of each speaker, together with the author's
words of explanation, form one paragraph. Whenever the speaker changes,
the paragraph changes; as,

      "Mimer," boldly said the god Odin to the gray old
      guardian of the well where wit and wisdom lie hidden,
      "Mimer, let me drink of the waters of wisdom."

      "Truly, Odin," answered Mimer, "it is a great treasure
      that you seek and one which many have sought before
      but who, when they knew the price of it, turned back."

      Then replied Odin, "I would give my right hand for
      wisdom willingly."

      "Nay," rejoined the remorseless Mimer, "it is not your
      right hand, but your right eye, you must
      give."--Keary: _The Heroes of Asgard_.

However, when one speaker talks at length, what he says is formed into
paragraphs according to the divisions into which it falls. (See Chapter

When a short quotation is simply part of a paragraph, it is punctuated
as follows:

      This, however, was of use to me, the impression
      continuing on my mind. Often when I was tempted to buy
      some unnecessary thing, I said to myself, "Don't give
      too much for the whistle," and I saved my money.

Paragraph the following:


      On the next morning we had gone but a mile or two when
      we came to an extensive belt of woods, through the
      midst of which ran a stream, wide, deep, and of an
      appearance particularly muddy and treacherous. In
      plunged the cart, but midway it stuck fast. Then
      approached the long team and heavy wagon of our
      friends, but it paused on the brink. "Now my advice
      is,--" began the captain, who had been anxiously
      contemplating the muddy gulf. "Drive on!" cried R. But
      Wright, the muleteer, apparently had not as yet
      decided the point in his own mind. He sat still in his
      seat on one of the shaft-mules, whistling in a low,
      contemplative strain to himself. "My advice is,"
      resumed the captain, "that we unload; for I'll bet any
      man five pounds that if we try to go through, we shall
      stick fast." "By the powers, we shall stick fast!"
      echoed Jack, the captain's brother, shaking his large
      head with an air of conviction. "Drive on! drive on!"
      petulantly cried R. "Well," observed the captain,
      turning to us as we sat looking on, "I can only give
      my advice; and if people won't be reasonable, why,
      they won't, that's all!"--Parkman: _The Oregon Trail_.


      Rebecca walked up the lane and went to the side door.
      There was a porch there. Seated in a rocking-chair,
      husking corn, was a good-looking young man. Rebecca
      was a trifle shy at this encounter, but there was
      nothing to do except explain her presence; so she
      asked, "Is the lady of the house at home?." "I am the
      lady of the house at present," said the stranger with
      a whimsical smile. "What can I do for you?" "Have you
      ever heard of the--would you like--er I mean, do you
      need any soap?" queried Rebecca. "Do I look as if I
      do?" he responded unexpectedly. Rebecca dimpled. "I
      didn't mean that; I have some soap to sell; I mean I
      would like to introduce to you a very remarkable soap,
      the best now on the market. It is called the--" "Oh! I
      must know that soap," said the gentleman genially.
      "Made out of pure vegetable fats, isn't it?" "The very
      purest," corroborated Rebecca. "No acid in it?" "Not
      a trace." "And yet a child could do the Monday washing
      with it and use no force?" "A babe," corrected
      Rebecca. "Oh! a babe, eh? That child grows younger
      every year, instead of older--wise child!"--Wiggin:
      _Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm_.

Change the following from indirect to direct discourse and paragraph:

      When Whittier went on his first fishing trip, it was a
      day in early summer. The long afternoon shadows lay
      cool on the grass. The boy said that the flowers
      seemed brighter and the birds merrier than ever
      before. When they came to a bend in the river, his
      uncle said that this was a good place to try. He told
      the boy to throw out his line as he had seen others do
      and move it on the surface of the water in imitation
      of the leap of a frog. The boy did as he was told, but
      he caught no fish. His uncle said that he should try
      again. Suddenly the bait sank out of sight, and the
      boy cried out that he had caught a fish at last. As he
      spoke, he pulled up a tangle of weeds. His uncle said
      that he should try again, because fishermen must have
      patience. In a moment the boy felt something tug at
      his line, and as he jerked it up, he saw a fine
      pickerel wriggling in the sun. In uncontrollable
      excitement he called out to his uncle, telling him to
      look at the big pickerel. His uncle said that the boy
      didn't have it yet, and as he spoke there was a splash
      in the water, and the boy's hook hung empty. His uncle
      assured him that there were more fish in the river,
      but the boy would not be comforted. His uncle smiled
      shrewdly and told Whittier to remember never to brag
      of catching a fish until it was on dry land. He said
      that he had seen older people doing that in more ways
      than one, and so making fools of themselves. He said
      that it was better not to boast of doing a thing until
      it was done.

=Exercise 173--The Comma (,)=

=Rule 1.--The comma is used to separate a direct quotation from the
words of explanation.=

For illustration see the foregoing exercises.

Write the following from dictation; then compare your version with the

      Literature, the ministry, medicine, the law, and other
      occupations are hindered for want of men to do the
      work. To test this statement thoroughly you need only
      hunt up a first-class editor, reporter, business
      manager, foreman of a shop, mechanic, or artist in any
      branch of industry and try to hire him. You will find
      that he is already hired. He is sober, industrious,
      capable, reliable, and always in demand. He cannot get
      a day's holiday except by courtesy of his employer, or
      of his city, or of the great general public. But if
      you need idlers, shirkers, half-instructed,
      unambitious, and comfort-seeking editors, reporters,
      lawyers, doctors, and mechanics apply anywhere.--_Mark

=Rule 2.--The comma is used to separate the members of a series.=

=Exercise 174=

Divide the following into sentences and supply the necessary commas:

      Abraham Lincoln was a tall strong powerfully built boy
      he could lift a load cut down a tree or build a fence
      more quickly than any one else in the neighborhood his
      perseverance in his boyhood helps us to appreciate the
      firm true steady hand that guided our country through
      its great crisis Lincoln unceasingly showed his wise
      brain his great courage and his kindness of heart his
      character was not made in a day nor a month nor a year
      it was built up after years of yearning years of
      striving and years of hard work.

In the above point out the instances where the comma is used--

1. When several nouns follow one another, all being in the same case.

2. When several adjectives follow one another, all modifying the same

3. When a succession of phrases modifies the same noun.

This kind of succession is called a _series_. Each new member gives a
new idea, the comma being used to help the reader to separate one from
the next with ease. Notice that the comma is used between the last two
members before the coördinate conjunction as well as between the other


      Dear Sir:[1]

      You can make no mistake in buying BCL Power Co. bonds
      now the company supplies power to mines and towns of
      Colorado Utah and Idaho it furnishes electric light
      and power to Ophir Ouray Ames Pandora and other towns
      in Colorado in Utah it supplies light to Mescal Eureka
      Provo Logan and Bingham it also furnishes power for
      the street railway systems of Salt Lake City
      Farmington and Ogden.

      The bonds offer such good security good interest and
      ready convertibility that we expect our allotment to
      be heavily oversubscribed will you therefore send us
      your order before Monday.

                                          Yours truly,


      Imagine the scene: a little hollow in the prairie
      forming a perfect amphitheater the yellow grass and
      wild oats grazed short a herd of horses staring from
      the slope I myself standing in the middle like a
      ring-master in a circus and this wonderful horse
      performing at his own free will. He trotted powerfully
      he galloped gracefully he thundered at full speed he
      lifted forelegs to welcome he flung out hind legs to
      repel he leaped as if springing over bayonets he
      pranced and curvetted as if he were the pretty
      plaything of a girl and finally he trotted up and
      snuffed about me--just out of reach.


      Dear Madam:[4]

      Our Style Book shows you the best of the season's
      styles for ladies misses and children it contains
      illustrations of the latest kinds of long coats of
      skirts in the most fashionable cuts and materials of
      hats that are new and particularly becoming and of
      dresses with the newest sleeves and collars we are
      especially sure that you will like our waists they are
      artistic in design stylish in cut and excellent in
      workmanship they are selected from the leading fashion
      centers are the creations of the best costumers and
      always have individuality twenty years of selling
      goods by mail have given us experience skill and
      knowledge that make it certain we can please you.

      The enclosed coupon is good for fifty cents on a five
      dollar order one dollar and twenty-five cents on a ten
      dollar order and two dollars on an order for fifteen
      dollars or more this offer expires September 30.

                                                 Yours truly,


      Increased wages shorter hours and perhaps lower
      efficiency for the hours worked have done more to
      raise the cost of living than almost anything else
      this higher cost of production we see on the farm in
      the factory in transportation in merchandising and
      even in domestic service we cannot double the cost of
      excavating brick-laying plumbing and decorating and
      expect not to double the rents that we must pay the
      cost of building has increased as the demands of
      laborers increased as their hours of work decreased
      and as their wages advanced the materials that go into
      a building the transportation of that material the
      labor of assembling it and the labor of fashioning it
      into a building have all advanced in price.

      Moreover, high living has a great deal to do with the
      high cost of living because it has made most of us
      think that we must have more conveniences more
      luxuries more clothes and more amusements than our
      fathers had with a return to the thrift of our fathers
      with a return to their desire for work we shall no
      longer feel the grip of the high cost of living there
      is a real danger to our nation in our extravagance in
      our indifference to cost in our sweep toward ease and
      idleness and in our growing antipathy for work.

=Exercise 175=

Write five sentences illustrating series of words; five illustrating
series of phrases; and five illustrating series of clauses.

=Exercise 176=

Write the following from dictation:



      Some of the paper money in circulation is so dirty
      that one feels the need of gloves in handling it, and
      the suspicion that it is germ laden might well be
      verified. It has often been said that money spreads
      contagious diseases, nor can such a statement be
      questioned when one remembers that money goes into
      every kind of home and is handled by many infected
      persons. The government has long felt that something
      should be done to lessen this means of spreading
      disease, and a machine has finally been invented that
      will wash and iron the dirtiest bills until they look
      almost as fresh as new ones. The entire cost of
      operating the device is hardly fifty cents for each
      thousand bills, but it is estimated that it will save
      the government as much as a million dollars a year.



      Luck is ever waiting for something to turn up; labor
      with keen eyes and strong will turns something up.
      Luck lies in bed and wishes the postman would bring
      him news of a fortune; labor turns out at six o'clock
      and with busy pen or ringing hammer lays the
      foundation of a competence. Luck whines; labor
      whistles. Luck relies on chance; labor on

The selections given above illustrate the compound sentence. Notice the
thought expressed in these sentences. There is usually an idea of
balance or contrast, and the two halves of the sentence express the two
halves of the idea. The two members are usually distinct enough to
require a comma before the conjunction. If the conjunction is omitted, a
semicolon must separate the two members, as in the second selection

      =Rule 3.--The comma is used before the coördinate
      conjunction in a compound sentence. If the conjunction
      is omitted, a semicolon must be used.=

=Exercise 177=

Separate the following into compound sentences and punctuate:


      Sawdust as a fire extinguisher sounds absurd but
      recent experiments in Boston have proved it to be
      successful in quenching fires in tanks of oil and
      other inflammable liquids the Boston experiments were
      conducted with tanks of burning varnish but the same
      principles seem to apply to tanks of burning oil the
      floating sawdust forms a blanket that shuts off the
      air from the flames and the lack of oxygen causes the
      fire to die out the experiments were tried with both
      wet and dry sawdust and the dry material seemed to
      extinguish the fire as quickly as the wet.


      Select the kind of business that suits your natural
      inclination and temperament some men are naturally
      mechanics others have a strong aversion to machinery
      because they do not understand it some men are
      imaginative others are purely practical some prefer
      active work others like sedentary employment all
      should select those occupations that suit them best.


      Certain Western railroads have long felt the need of a
      new material for sleepers and they have been
      experimenting for some time past with cocobolo or
      Japanese oak the wood is so hard that it is almost
      impossible to drive spikes into it and screwed spikes
      in bored holes are used these sleepers will cost a
      trifle more than those made from American oak but they
      are expected to last twenty-five or thirty years the
      reason for experimenting with foreign woods is that
      native oak is becoming scarce and it is deemed wise to
      search in time for a substitute.


      Dear Sir:

      We wrote you on the third but as yet no word has come
      of your decision in regard to the investment you were
      considering at 475 Second Avenue let us have your
      order and we shall at once prepare the contract of
      sale the building is an especially attractive offering
      at $9,500 and we feel sure that you will find the
      return from it unusually large.

                                        Yours very truly,

=Exercise 178=

When an adverbial clause or a participial adjective phrase is put at the
beginning of a sentence to secure emphasis, it is called an _initial_
clause or participial phrase. A comma separates it from the independent
clause to help the reader to see where the subordinate idea ends and
where the main idea begins. Rewrite the following from dictation,
noticing the punctuation of initial elements:

      If a city is to be kept in good condition, every
      citizen must pay his share of the expense. If the
      dreadful epidemics are to be exterminated, there must
      be a good board of health to see that everything is
      kept sanitary. When the health officers do their work
      well, the health of the city improves. In order that
      the decrees of the health department and of the courts
      may be enforced, there must be a good police
      department. Besides having these advantages, cities
      need good streets and good schools. Because all of
      these good things cost a great deal of money, high
      taxes must be levied to pay for them.

=Rule 4.--An initial clause or participial phrase must be set off from
the rest of the sentence by a comma.=

=Exercise 179=

Punctuate the following:


      Although cotton seed used to be considered worse than
      rubbish there now come from it every year millions of
      dollars in profit. Formerly if it was not hauled away
      to rot it was usually dumped into a neighboring stream
      and there it did much harm even if we had the space it
      would be impossible to explain all the products now
      made from the seed paper and an excellent meal for
      cattle may be made from the hulls but the most
      important products are made from the kernels besides
      making meal for cattle they are readily converted into
      crude oil according to the degree of refining that it
      receives this oil may appear as oil for miner's lamps
      lard compounds or salad oils as an illustration of the
      way in which modern manufacturers utilize former waste
      products the cotton seed is supreme.


      When you sell your old clothes to the ragman do you
      know that they come back to you as writing paper
      because the metal buttons buckles and hooks that are
      often left on the garments cannot be converted into
      paper they used to be a source of annoyance to the
      papermaker although the cloth sorters tried to remove
      them before the garments went into the pulp vats some
      were overlooked if any found their way into the pulp
      they tore holes in the paper and often damaged the
      rollers in order that such danger may be avoided the
      pulp is now passed through a series of magnetized
      rakes as the rakes are passed to and fro every bit of
      metal clings to them when a quantity of such bits of
      iron is collected it is sent to the foundry to return
      to us in many new forms.


      Dear Sir:

      Investigating your complaint of the fifth instant we
      found that the furniture which you ordered on the
      tenth of last month left our factory on the fifteenth
      if all had gone well you would have received the
      articles on or about the twentieth as you surmised the
      delay in the arrival of the goods is due to a mistake
      on the part of the railroad company although the goods
      were properly billed to you they were allowed to go on
      to Columbus if you do not receive them within ten
      days' time let us hear from you again.

                                             Yours truly,


      Dear Sir:

      Complying with your request of the 10th inst. I am
      sending you particulars of the property which I wish
      to sell as I told you when I was in your office last
      week the price at which I am holding the building is
      $20,000 if the buyer prefers not to assume the
      mortgage of $10,000 I think I can get the mortgagee to
      agree to accept present payment for the note that he
      holds against me unless the buyer agrees to pay the
      unpaid taxes for last year and the assessments levied
      for improvements already made I shall not consider a

      After all preliminary arrangements are made if you
      will prepare a contract of sale and forward it to me I
      will have the abstract brought down to date and
      secured by a guaranty policy.

      Since I presume that the prospective purchaser has
      examined the property and is satisfied to pay the
      price for it in its present condition I would suggest
      that you do nothing more toward securing bids for
      rebuilding the porches.

                                        Yours very truly,

=Exercise 180=

Write five sentences containing initial participial phrases.

Write five sentences containing initial adverbial clauses.

=Exercise 181=

The comma is used to separate the month from the year, the city from the
county or state, the company from the place in which it is operated, or
the like; as,

      In December, 1912, I wrote to you from Seattle,

This use of the comma indicates that words have been omitted, the
sentence above really meaning,

      In December of the year 1912 I wrote to you from
      Seattle in the state of Washington.

The same use is shown in such sentences as,

      Of the three stenographers Mary received fifteen
      dollars a week; Ellen, twelve; Susan, ten.

=Rule 5.--The comma is used to indicate the omission of words.=

Supply the necessary commas in the following:

      1. The bonds will be taken over on or before October 1

      2. On January 1 1913 the company had outstanding
      $4,000,000 of stock of the par value of one dollar a

      3. The offices are at Salt Lake City Utah.

      4. The transaction was officially conducted between
      the Power Bond & Share Co. New York and the Pacific
      Power Co. Tacoma Washington.

      5. A late announcement of the Census Bureau tells us
      that the center of population of the United States is
      four and one-quarter miles south of Unionville Monroe
      County Indiana.

      6. Many mechanical devices in common use may be traced
      to the patterns furnished by nature. Thus the hog
      suggests the plow; the butterfly the ordinary hinge;
      the toadstool the umbrella; the duck the ship; the
      fungus growth on trees the bracket.

      7. The per capita saving in the banks of the United
      States in 1820 was twelve cents; in 1830 fifty-four
      cents; in 1840 eighty-two cents; in 1850 $1.87; in
      1860 $4.75; in 1870 $14.26; in 1880 $16.33; in 1890
      $24.75; in 1900 $31.78; in 1910 $45.05; and it is
      still increasing.

      8. The population in 1820 was 10,000,000 and in 1910

      9. Mexico draws about 55% of her imports from the
      United States; Nicaragua about 50%; the other Central
      American states from 35 to 75%; Venezuela 31%; Cuba

      10. In one decade Germany's exports to Latin-America
      have shown an increase of 222%; those of the United
      Kingdom an increase of 115%; and those of the United
      States an increase of 130%.

Write five sentences illustrating Rule 5.

=Exercise 182--Explanatory Expressions=

There are a number of expressions--words, phrases, and clauses--which
are inserted into the sentence for clearness or emphasis. They add a bit
of explanation but are not absolutely necessary. In other words, they
might be omitted, and the sentence would still be clear. These may be of
various kinds but are all similar in use. They should be set off by
commas so that the reader will easily see that they are subordinate to
the main idea of the sentence.

A. The _appositive_ is a word or a group of words inserted lo explain
the noun that it follows. (See Exercise 80.)

Explain the use of the commas in the following sentences:

      1. William E. Curtis, _one of the world's ablest
      newspaper correspondents_, in his will expressed the
      hope that his grandson would continue his life-work,
      _a recital of the good that men had done and not of
      the crimes they had committed_.

      2. The new device, the adding machine, has greatly
      lessened office drudgery.

      3. Wall street, the great center of business life,
      fixes stock prices.

      4. The people in moderate circumstances, the excellent
      middle class of a country, suffer most from the strain
      of high prices.

      5. The Montreal Tramways Company, the first company to
      introduce pay-as-you-enter cars, started its business
      in the winter of 1861 with a very simple equipment,
      two horse-drawn sleighs.

      6. The Early Gem musk melon, one of the best shipping
      melons grown, is a cross between the Rocky Ford and
      the Emerald Green varieties.

      7. In making up our collections and bargain offers for
      this year, we have arranged to put up a "Surprise
      Box," one hundred packages of selected vegetable and
      flower seeds.

      8. The Chinese Giant, a new variety of sweet pepper,
      produces branching plants about two feet in height.

      9. Amundsen, the discoverer of the south pole, is a
      native of Norway.

=Rule 6.--The comma is used to separate an appositive from the rest of
the sentence.=

Write five sentences illustrating the use of the comma to set off an

=Exercise 183--Explanatory Expressions=

Similar in use to appositives are--

B. Words, phrases, or clauses that separate the subject from the
predicate verb, the verb from its object, or the like.

In the natural order of the sentence the verb immediately follows the
subject and the object follows the verb. When, for the purpose of
explanation, something is inserted between the two, it should be set off
from the rest of the sentence by commas. Words that are thus inserted
are called appositive or parenthetical expressions and are illustrated
in the following:

      In Ohio and Kentucky enterprising individuals,
      _evidently taking the suggestion from the popular
      rural delivery service_, have established ice cream
      routes. Ice cream wagons travel the country roads at
      stated times so that, _with no more trouble than is
      required to answer the postman's whistle_, dwellers on
      the farms can now secure the hot weather luxury at
      reasonable prices. The plan, _so far as one can tell
      from present indications_, gives promise of meeting
      with great success.

=Rule 7.--Parenthetical expressions should be set off by commas.=

Punctuate the following:


      The politics of the city as well as those of the
      nation must be kept clean. The most intelligent men of
      the community not the least intelligent should make
      our political speeches and be our political leaders.
      The very opposite we must confess is what we see too
      often. Many business men steadily pursuing their own
      ends during the day feel that they cannot devote time
      to politics. We need not search far to discover that
      too many of them even if they have the time do not
      care to give it. At election the most influential
      business and professional men either through lack of
      interest or through laziness stay at home instead of
      going to the polls. The men who are elected in nine
      cases out of ten are not fit to hold office. The blame
      belongs every one will agree to those who do not vote.


      England as most people know is becoming vastly
      interested in the production of cotton in the Soudan.
      This state of affairs for more reasons than one is a
      matter of interest to the American manufacturer as
      well as to the American cotton planter. Egyptian
      cotton ranking next to our own sea-island in length
      and strength of fiber is wanted because of the
      brilliant finish it gives. For the manufacture of fine
      goods including sateens India linens and mercerized
      goods as well as for mixing with silk it has been
      found very valuable. Cotton growers expect that the
      enlargement of the Assouan dam will eventually redeem
      about a million acres from the desert in Lower Egypt
      and although not more than half will probably be
      planted to cotton it will increase Egypt's output
      about twenty-five per cent. Our Department of
      Agriculture after having experimented for years has
      developed and acclimated in California a variety of
      Egyptian cotton superior several experts say to the
      real Egyptian. It now rests with the planters any one
      can see to decide whether American manufacturers will
      get their fine cotton at home or abroad.--_The Wall
      Street Journal._


      For several reasons some of them certainly unworthy
      people on both sides of the Atlantic are talking of
      the perils of a "yellow" invasion. It is true that in
      the past various invasions have been attended with
      evil but civilization has passed on into an age when
      migrations even the mightiest that the world has seen
      are taking place silently and steadily for the good of
      all. There is no reason to suppose that the overflow
      and interflow of nations heretofore synonymous with
      the progress of humanity should bring to us anything
      but good. Commerce is to lead the van in the new
      movement of the nations as it has in the past and the
      merchant consciously or unconsciously is going to
      anticipate and guide the statesman.--_The Commercial
      and Financial Chronicle._


      The prevailing spirit at least among a certain class
      of young business men seems to be that the saving of
      little things in the course of the day consumes time
      entirely out of proportion to the value of the things
      saved but like all general rules it is carried too far
      by young men who could hardly employ their time to
      better advantage than in saving good though minor
      materials that would otherwise be lost. The man who
      originated the idea probably found it correct for
      himself but like all principles catering to
      indifference regarding details the idea is too readily
      adopted by many young men who can ill afford its
      practice. No one wishes a man to be parsimonious but
      he should not allow anything to be wasted which can
      with a reasonable exercise of effort be saved.

=Exercise 184--Explanatory Expressions=

C. _Independent elements_ are words, phrases, or clauses that have no
direct grammatical relation with any other word in the sentence. They
are really a kind of parenthetical expression, but have less connection
with the sentence than those given under B.

The following is an argument against the trusts. The italicized
expressions are independent elements. What different kinds do you

      _Gentlemen_, the big problem before us to-day,
      _therefore_, is the trusts. Shall the people control
      the trusts, or shall the trusts control the people?
      _To state the question differently_, shall we all
      continue to keep a voice in government, or shall we
      turn our power over into the hands of a few and let
      their word be law? This centralizing of power, _by the
      way_, was the evil men tried to remedy by forming
      republics, and shall we Americans, _do you think_, be
      willing to sacrifice all that has been gained for us
      of liberty? _The answer being self-evident_, let us
      proceed. It seems that the little violator of law can
      be punished; the big violator cannot be, or, _at any
      rate_, is not punished. The trusts, _most people
      know_, are formed to destroy competition. Their reason
      for destroying competition, _evidently_, is to swell
      profits by charging all that the trade will bear. The
      trust, _finally_, is not a method of doing business,
      but a scheme for levying tribute.

=Rule 8.--Independent elements are separated from the rest of the
sentence by commas.=

Punctuate the following:


                                   NEW YORK, May 12, 19--.
    Mr. Thomas R. Stevenson,
        5010 Prospect Ave.,
              Milwaukee, Wis.

    Dear Sir:

      You are no doubt now planning your summer vacation
      before you make any new plans however consider the
      opportunity that we are offering you to see a new and
      marvelously beautiful world for little more very
      likely than the cost of an ordinary vacation at the
      summer hotel to which you usually go.

      The idea of summer travel in the Tropics it may be is
      new to you comparatively few people unfortunately have
      yet awakened to its possibilities they do not realize
      at least not fully that the climate in Jamaica Panama
      and the Central and South American countries is
      practically the same throughout the year moreover the
      transportation rates are much lower than they are in
      the North and the incidental expenses of travel such
      as carriage fare and the cost of curios are
      considerably less rough weather too is almost unknown
      in the summer.

      Possibly as you live on the shores of Lake Michigan
      you have been considering a week's cruise of the great
      lakes at an expense certainly of $40 or more and along
      coasts that you have seen doubtless many times before
      we offer a number of trips varying in length from
      twelve to twenty-four days and in cost from $50 to
      $130 to Jamaica Panama and Central and South America
      thus for ten dollars more you may sail twice as long
      pass shores much more beautiful visit cities far more
      strange and return with a new almost magical store of

      You are wondering perhaps how it is that we can offer
      these remarkably low rates the reason briefly told is
      that our ships carry an exceptionally large amount of
      freight however do not think merely because our ships
      carry freight that they are not splendidly equipped
      for passenger travel on the other hand they are so
      luxuriously furnished that they are especially fitted
      for tropical cruises you are missing an unusual
      opportunity we assure you if you do not more fully
      investigate our offer.

                                        Yours very truly,


      We are learning year by year that as a rule financial
      independence cannot be secured by most men except by
      saving the savings bank is of course the first place
      to invest savings because it will receive small sums
      and pay an interest on them when a man's savings
      however have reached $1000 for example what shall he
      do with his money he has not the time or the knowledge
      probably to watch his investments he wishes therefore
      to put his money where it will be safe where it will
      earn a fair rate of interest and if possible where he
      can on short notice convert it into cash.


      A man is an investor usually at least by virtue of his
      savings a woman on the other hand invests because she
      has received a legacy this may take the form of course
      of property securities cash or life insurance it is
      the function of sound investment most people know to
      surround funds of this nature with strong security the
      selection of conservative investments it is evident
      must be made with care those companies naturally that
      deal in conservative securities are the ones a
      prospective investor should consult.


      Not long ago the editor of a financial journal
      received a letter of inquiry from a woman she had she
      said only two thousand dollars if she invested it as
      some of her friends had advised her to do in a
      well-known security she could not live on the
      proceeds she had consequently made a connection with
      a brokerage house and was making a living by buying
      and selling speculative stocks her list by the way
      showed a profit of $500 in four months what she wanted
      to know of course was how she could make the gain a
      second time in effect she was told to take her profits
      and run as fast as she could she will not in all
      probability take the advice and in a few months
      possibly weeks she will write again for help in
      rescuing her last few hundred dollars she will have
      learned at last that the way to keep her money is to
      save it but she will not by that time in all
      likelihood have any money to save.

=Exercise 185--Explanatory Expressions=

D. The _explanatory relative clause_.

Similar to the appositive is the explanatory relative clause. Like an
appositive, it is inserted into the sentence for the purpose of
explanation and is separated from the rest of the sentence by commas.
Because of this similarity, it is sometimes called an appositive
relative clause.

Great care must be taken in punctuation to distinguish a clause that may
be omitted from the sentence without destroying the meaning from one
that may not be omitted. The appositive clause may be omitted. A
restrictive clause, because it restricts the meaning of the word it
modifies, may not be omitted. Because it is needed for the sake of
clearness, it is not separated from the rest of the sentence by commas.
To distinguish an appositive clause from a restrictive clause, the
former is called a non-restrictive clause.

Notice the difference between the following:

      1. The Commonwealth Edison Company, _which controls
      the electric light and power supply of Chicago_, was
      organized in 1907 by the consolidation of the Chicago
      Edison Company and the Commonwealth Electric Company.

The sentence makes complete sense without the relative clause.

      2. The concern _that controls the electric light and
      power supply of Chicago_ is the Commonwealth Edison

The relative clause must be used to understand the sentence.

In (1) the relative clause gives an additional idea. In (2) it limits or
restricts the meaning of _the concern_. The non-restrictive clause is
shown in (1), the restrictive clause in (2).

Dictation to illustrate non-restrictive clauses:

      It is estimated that Chicago annually uses 93,450,000
      gallons of milk, for which it pays over $28,000,000.
      To supply this amount 120,000 cows are needed, which
      are owned by 12,000 dairy farms. Health officers
      conduct a systematic dairy farm inspection, which has
      for its purpose the exclusion of diseased milk. Farm
      owners, who formerly objected to the inspection, now
      see that cleanliness is profitable. Authorities have
      discovered that milk, which easily absorbs germs, is
      dangerous except when produced under sanitary
      conditions, and now dairies are allowed to sell only
      clean, pure milk, which is milk given by a healthy

Phrases as well as clauses may be restrictive. In the following
sentences decide whether the italicized expressions are restrictive or
non-restrictive. State whether they are phrases or clauses. Do any of
the sentences need commas?

      1. The man _wearing the brown coat_ is my brother.

      2. My brother bought a new coat _which is brown_.

      3. The lesson _that I take at nine o'clock_ is

      4. In English _which I take at nine o'clock_ we are
      studying punctuation.

      5. I am going to work in every city _that I visit_.

      6. I am going to work in any city _where I can find

      7. I am going to work in Denver _where my uncle

      8. The house _on the hill_ is the oldest in town.

      9. The house _that is the oldest in town_ is used as a

      10. The Franklin Museum _which occupies the oldest
      house in town_ is a very interesting place.

      11. The town museum is the place _that I like to

      12. The chimney _that was blown down last night in the
      storm_ should have been mended long ago.

      13. The old ruined tower _which has long been a
      picturesque sight in the village_ was blown down last

      14. We counted ten chimneys _that were blown down last

      15. The stenography system _that I studied_ is

      16. I think she uses Munson's _which she considers a
      good system of stenography_.

      17. Last year I pursued a course in stenography _which
      I enjoyed very much_.

      18. The book _that we use in class_ has a brown cover.

      19. The only milk _that is fit to drink_ comes from a
      clean dairy.

      20. Systematic inspection has been carried on _which
      has resulted in securing better milk_.

=Rule 9.--A non-restrictive clause should be separated from the rest of
the sentence by commas.=

=Exercise 186=

Punctuate the following:

      1. We have an enormous crop of cotton the value of
      which is estimated at one billion dollars.

      2. "The root of the mail order evil is the idea which
      the retail mail order houses have been able somehow to
      instill into the minds of the buying public that the
      local merchants ask too much for their goods."

      3. Mr. Hilton who was sales manager at that time
      induced the company to adopt this system.

      4. The lecture will be delivered by Mr. Brenton who is
      the head of the advertising department of Whitlock &

      5. Our dog whose fur was wet by his plunge into the
      lake came running toward us.

      6. Genevieve who had always been the leader in the
      games was not present.

      7. A late product of the brain of George Westinghouse
      who was the inventor of the air brake and numerous
      electrical devices is an air spring for automobiles.
      This little article has been patented by Mr.
      Westinghouse who has the sole ownership. The spring
      which has already proved popular with automobile
      owners fits over the end of the regular spring and
      "makes good roads out of bad ones."

      8. Careful selection of investments upon which the
      safety of your money depends is often difficult.
      Careful watching of investments which is fully as
      essential is much harder. Let us tell you about our
      Investment Service which does this watching for you
      and keeps you fully protected.

      9. As a direct result of the conference between the
      railroad and steamship interests of the South-Atlantic
      and Gulf cotton ports which was held recently at Hot
      Springs Va. an organization which will be known as the
      South Atlantic and Steamship Cotton Inspection Bureau
      has been created. The bureau will have a chief
      inspector who will supervise the conduct of its
      business at all ports and will arrange for the
      employment of the inspectors. According to the rules
      and regulations copies of which have been received by
      the cotton agencies and the export departments of the
      various New Orleans firms any bale that shows external
      damage from water mud bad bagging or other causes must
      be condemned and its condition noted and reported.

      10. How would you like to wear a hat that has been
      handed down through six generations in each of which
      it was a treasured possession? The Italian peasants
      who love finery are proud to do that very thing. Very
      few of the poorer people who live in Italy own a hat.
      When you see a beautifully woven Leghorn hat which is
      also very dirty on the head of a little peasant child
      you may be pretty sure that she is celebrating her
      birthday by wearing the family heirloom. These hats
      which are sometimes willed to a favorite relative and
      which in some instances go the round of the family are
      considered almost priceless. It is a frequent sight
      along the dusty roads outside the little towns to see
      untidy old women who are sauntering along twisting
      twine as they go all vanity under the flopping brim of
      an antiquated hat. This is almost the only souvenir
      that tourists' money cannot buy.--_The Chicago

=Exercise 187--Explanatory Expressions=

E. When the subordinate element that comes at or near the close of the
sentence gives an _additional_ idea, following the more or less complete
idea in the rest of the sentence, it should be set off by a comma; as,

      A signature clerk will easily recognize any alteration
      in a signature, _although thousands of checks pass
      through his hands daily_.

      He gave a statement of the affairs of the company,
      _explaining that he wished to make a loan_.

=Rule 10.--A terminal adverbial clause or participial phrase giving an
additional idea should be set off from the rest of the sentence by a

Punctuate the following:

      1. Popular-priced goods are the safest for a retail
      stock however you consider the subject.

      2. A sheriff seldom finds large quantities of
      popular-priced goods on hand when he comes to take
      possession of any retail store although he usually
      finds expensive articles.

      3. They bring higher prices relatively than the
      heavier things even when they are disposed of under
      forced sale.

      4. The catalogue houses have little fear for
      five-and-ten-cent stores because sixty-eight per cent
      of their business is in big goods such as furniture
      vehicles sewing-machines clothing and relatively
      expensive things. They do not wish to increase the
      sale of popular-priced articles although their
      catalogue may be full of them because it costs them
      more to pack one hammer or trowel than the profits can

      5. Steel conditions remain about as they have been for
      several weeks excepting that the price of rails has
      been advancing for the last few days.

      6. Steel men are of the opinion that to increase
      prices too rapidly would spoil a good market because
      most of the mills are so filled up with orders that
      they would not be able to take advantage of increased
      quotations for some time to come.

      7. The steel business for the last three months has
      been very encouraging as it shows that railroads are
      dropping their policy of waiting until the last minute
      to buy. It will probably mean more normal operation of
      mills instead of spasmodic workings as has been the
      case for the last few years.

      8. Boraxated soap chips will benefit your tableware
      and your hands making dishwashing a pleasure instead
      of a task.

      9. The man who works to the limit of his physical
      powers is as foolish as the manufacturer who
      immediately invests all his profits in his business
      neglecting to have a reserve fund for unexpected

      10. A wide-awake manager tries plan after plan testing
      and re-testing them until he can apply them to his
      company's needs.

Write four sentences illustrating Rule 10.

=Exercise 188=

Punctuate the following letters, supplying a heading and an introduction
for each:


      Dear Madam:

      We wish to acknowledge your letter of recent date
      assuring you that we thank you for the opportunity you
      have given us of opening a monthly charge account in
      your name. We shall spare no effort to make every
      transaction as satisfactory as possible hoping thus to
      merit a liberal share of your patronage.

      Our bills are rendered on the first of each month
      being payable between that date and the fifteenth.

                                         Yours very truly,


      Dear Mr. Warner:

      In reply to your inquiry I am sending the following
      information assuring you that I am glad to be of
      service to you.

      The Lancaster Company has apparently abandoned its
      plan of erecting a new building this year difficulties
      having arisen it is said in their securing a suitable
      location. About two years ago the firm purchased a
      site on the corner of Harrison and Second streets but
      they sold it again last year taking advantage of a
      decided rise in real estate values. It is understood
      we believe that the company will build in the near
      future even now having two or three possible sites
      under consideration.

                                      Sincerely yours,


      Dear Sir:

      We offer you the benefits and privileges of our
      Special Charge Account whereby purchases may be paid
      for in weekly or monthly installments. You will find
      this a most convenient arrangement because it permits
      you to have a charge account without the usual
      hardship of payment at a fixed time. Moreover a
      Special Charge Account costs you nothing since our
      prices are the same whether you pay cash or have
      purchases charged. Please fill out the enclosed
      application blank mailing it to us to-day.

      You will no doubt enjoy reading the enclosed booklet
      as it gives much interesting information on fashion
      tendencies. The illustrations too are unusually
      attractive although they hardly do justice to the
      beautiful garments that we sell.

                                         Yours truly,

=Exercise 189=

Study the punctuation in the following selections from _The Wall Street
Journal_; then write them from dictation:



      "Strange as it now seems," said one of Carnegie's
      "young men," now the vice-president of a large and
      prosperous corporation in New York, "in the early days
      of the steel industry we had the greatest difficulty
      in the world in weaning the old manufacturers away
      from the use of wrought iron, though they admitted the
      superiority of steel. They would look at it, test it,
      and agree that it seemed to possess all the desirable
      qualities claimed for it, but it was more or less
      untried by time, and they preferred to stick to the
      old wrought iron, with which they were familiar.

      "I remember one old chap with whom I had wrestled
      long, but in vain, coming into my office and picking
      up a long, soft steel rivet, which had been bent
      double and hammered flat.

      "'How many did you break in making this?' he asked,
      picking it up and examining it curiously.

      "'That's the first one we hammered over, and, what is
      more to the point, we can do it with all steel of that
      type,' I replied.

      "The polite incredulity in his face stirred my
      professional pride, and I said, 'If I let you go to
      the mills, pick out a dozen of those rivets just as
      they come from the rolls, and hammer them with your
      own hands, will you use that steel hereafter, if it
      comes up to the test?'

      "He said he would, and the rest was easy, for it is
      much easier not to break than to break that kind of
      steel. Before long the old man came back with
      perspiration dripping from the end of his nose but
      with the light of conviction shining in his eye. The
      firm had a new customer."



      Leslie M. Shaw, former Secretary of the Treasury, was
      in New York, attending a meeting of a board of which
      he is a member. Something was said about the
      present-day discussion of money power, and Shaw said
      that it reminded him of a speech he had made in
      Seattle in the campaign of 1896.

      "I was speaking to a filled hall and had almost
      finished," said Shaw, "when a long-whiskered man arose
      about the middle of the hall and held up his hand,
      saying he wanted to ask a question.

      "'Go ahead,' I said.

      "'How, then, Mr. Speaker, do you explain the unequal
      distribution of wealth?' was his question.

      "When I answered him with, 'In the same way that I
      explain the unequal distribution of whiskers,' bedlam
      broke loose.

      "As soon as I could get quiet restored, I said: 'Now
      don't think I returned the answer I did to make fun of
      your whiskers. You will observe that I have no
      whiskers, as I dissipate them by shaving them off.
      Nature gives me abundance of whiskers, and, if I
      conserved them as you do, I also should be abundantly
      supplied. Now, it is the same way with money. The man
      who conserves his money has more than his share, as
      with whiskers; while the man who dissipates his money
      is without his allotment.'"

=Exercise 190--The Semicolon (;)=

The semicolon is used between the propositions of a compound sentence
when no coördinate conjunction is used. (See Exercise 176, 2.)

      It is not work that kills men; it is worry.
It is important not to overdo this use of the semicolon. Do
not use it unless the two principal clauses of the sentence
taken together easily form one idea.

Especial care must be taken not to confuse coördinate conjunctions and
conjunctive adverbs. The following are conjunctive adverbs: _then_,
_therefore_, _consequently_, _moreover_, _however_, _so_, _also_,
_besides_, _thus_, _still_, _otherwise_, _accordingly_. When they are
used to join principal clauses, they should be preceded by a coördinate
conjunction or a semicolon; as,

    Fruit was plentiful, and therefore the price was low.
    Fruit was plentiful; therefore the price was low.

When there is a series of phrases or clauses, each of which is long and
contains commas within itself, the sentence becomes clearer if the
members of the series are separated by semicolons instead of by commas;

      You know how prolific the American mind has been in
      invention; how much civilization has been advanced by
      the steamboat, the cotton-gin, the sewing-machine, the
      reaping-machine, the typewriter, the electric light,
      the telephone, the phonograph.

Write the following from dictation:


      No man can deny that the lines of endeavor have more
      and more narrowed and stiffened; no one who knows
      anything about the development of industry in this
      country can fail to have observed that the larger
      kinds of credit are more and more difficult to obtain,
      unless you obtain them upon the terms of uniting your
      efforts with those who already control the industries
      of the country; and nobody can fail to observe that
      any man who tries to set himself up in competition
      with any process of manufacture which has been taken
      under the control of large combinations of capital
      will presently find himself either squeezed out or
      obliged to sell and allow himself to be
      absorbed.--Woodrow Wilson: _The New Freedom._


      If the total amount of savings deposited in the
      savings banks were equally divided among the
      population of the country, the amount apportioned to
      each person in 1820 would have been twelve cents; in
      1830, fifty-four cents; in 1840, eighty-two cents; in
      1850, $1.87; in 1860, $4.75; in 1870, $14.26; in 1880,
      $16.33; in 1890, $24.75; in 1900, $31.78; in 1910,
      $45.05, and it is steadily increasing. Remember the
      fact that the population had increased from 10,000,000
      in 1820 to over 90,000,000 in 1910; the "rainy day"
      money, therefore, assumes gigantic proportions.


      In Germany, says _The Scientific American_, wood is
      too expensive to be burned, and it is made into
      artificial silk worth two dollars a pound and bristles
      worth four dollars a pound; into paper, yarn, twine,
      carpet, canvas, and cloth. Parquet flooring is made
      from sawdust; the materials may be bought by the pound
      and then mixed, so that the householder can lay his
      own hardwood floors according to his individual taste
      and ingenuity.


      The country gentlemen and country clergymen had fully
      expected that the policy of these ministers would be
      directly opposed to that which had been almost
      constantly followed by William; that the landed
      interest would be favored at the expense of trade;
      that no addition would be made to the funded debt;
      that the privileges conceded to Dissenters by the late
      king would be curtailed, if not withdrawn; that the
      war with France, if there must be such a war, would,
      on our part, be almost entirely naval; and that the
      government would avoid close connections with foreign
      powers and, above all, with Holland.--_Macaulay._

=Exercise 191--The Colon (:)=

The colon is always used to indicate that something of importance
follows, usually an enumeration or a list of some kind, or a quotation
of several sentences or paragraphs; as,

      1. Three things are necessary: intelligence,
      perseverance, and tact.

      2. The buffalo supplies them with almost all the
      necessities of life: with habitation, food, and
      clothing; with strings for their bows; with thread,
      cordage, and trail-ropes for their horses; with
      coverings for their saddles; and with the means of
      purchasing all that they desire from traders.

      3. Quoting from the current number of the _----
      Magazine_, he read: (four paragraphs).


      1. For the first fifty miles we had companions with us
      Troche a little trapper and Rouville a nondescript in
      the employ of the fur company.

      2. About a week previous four men had arrived from
      beyond the mountains Sublette Reddick and two others.

      3. Reynal was gazing intently he began to speak at
      last "Many a time when I was with the Indians I have
      been hunting gold all through the Black Hills there's
      a plenty of it here you may be certain of that I have
      dreamed about it fifty times" etc.

      4. Objects familiar from childhood surrounded me crags
      and rocks a black and sullen brook that gurgled with a
      hollow voice among the crevices a wood of mossy
      distorted trees.

=Exercise 192=

The colon is used after _thus_, _as follows_, _the following_, or
similar expressions; as,

      Name the adverbs in the following: He left hurriedly
      rather early in the morning.

The colon is not used after _namely_, _as_, _that is_, _for example, for
instance_, and the like. Such expressions are preceded by the semicolon
and followed by the comma.

Punctuate the following:

      1. The Christmas presents that he wants are the
      following a toy train a toy automobile a toy circus
      and a printing press.

      2. Do the exercise thus first lunge to the left second
      raise the arms forward and third wind the wand.

      3. We are offering for sale three residences of the
      size that you wish namely 438 Bishop Ave 1614
      Winchester St and 2015 Logan Square.

      4. The following are the two that we liked best 438
      Bishop Ave and 2015 Logan Square.

      5. One use of the comma is to set off an appositive
      for example Mr Kearne the buyer has left the city.

      6. The comma is used to set off an independent adverb
      as We have not yet decided however when we shall

      7. The plan is this I'll do the work and you pay for
      the materials.

      8. The officers are as follows Edward Lawrence for
      President John Kelly for Secretary and Fred Morrison
      for Treasurer.

=Exercise 193--The Dash(--)=

The dash is used to set off parenthetical expressions that have very
little connection with the rest of the sentence; as,

      In New York the Harlem River tunnel was comparatively
      a simple one, but the first East River tunnels--the
      two subway tubes from the Battery to
      Brooklyn--presented all the difficulties known to
      subaqueous construction.

      These tunnels extend on under the great Pennsylvania
      terminal building--another of the same decade's
      accomplishments--to East Thirty-fourth Street.

The dash is also used to indicate a sudden change or break in the
thought; as,

      1. When the millennium comes--if it ever does--all of
      our problems will be solved.

      2. "I believe--" began the lawyer.

      "Believe!" interrupted his client. "I don't want you
      to believe. I want you to know."

The dash is used before a word that summarizes the preceding part of the
sentence; as,

      He had robbed himself of the most precious thing a man
      can have in business--his friends.

After a comma the dash has the effect of lengthening the separation; as,

      One thing the Puritans desired,--freedom to worship

=Exercise 194--Parenthesis Marks ()=

Parenthesis marks are used to enclose explanatory expressions that are
not an essential part of the sentence; as,

      The United States Department of Agriculture estimates
      that the receipts of cattle at the six leading markets
      (Chicago, St. Louis, Kansas City, South Omaha, St.
      Joseph, and Sioux City) from January 1 to August 1 of
      this year are 15 per cent less than they were in the
      corresponding period of last year.

_Wrong._--Do not use parenthesis marks to cancel a word or a passage. A
line should be drawn through a word that is wrong.

Bring to class five sentences that illustrate the correct use of
parenthesis marks.

=Exercise 195--The Hyphen (-)=

The hyphen is used when a word has been divided. It is always used at
the end of the line and never at the beginning.

When several short words are taken together to form one word, they are
hyphenated; as,

      a one-hundred-pound bag of coffee

As a rule, when two words taken together are each accented, they must be
written with the hyphen. When only one is accented, no hyphen is used;

      follow-up, first-class, self-reliant, railroad,

As a rule, nouns which are compounded of a participle and a noun use the
hyphen; as,

      talking-machine, driving-wheel

When fractions are written out, the hyphen is used; as,

      one-third, three-fifths

In other numerals expressing a compound number the hyphen is also used;

      twenty-one, sixty-six

=Exercise 196=

Punctuate the following letters, supplying a heading and an introduction
for each:



      We are glad to tell you that contrary to the fears
      expressed in your last letter there are no present
      indications of sudden changes at least no indications
      of drops in prices. With the exception of two fruits
      and one vegetable grapes cantaloupes and cauliflower
      all commodities sold on the wholesale fruit and
      produce markets here were quoted yesterday at the
      prices announced last Friday.

      The change in grape prices affected the Red Peru
      variety in which the supply has almost stopped the
      price being raised from $1.05 to $1.25 a box. If one
      may trust the forecast of local merchants the price
      will probably remain at this higher point until the
      supply is exhausted. Cantaloupes seem to be a trifle
      scarce especially the pineapple variety the price of
      which was raised from $1.10 to $1.30 a crate.
      Cauliflower was raised to $1.35 a dozen heads the
      staple price probably for the rest of the season.

      Excepting these items we shall be glad to receive any
      orders at Friday's quotations.

                                           Yours truly,



      Your order of the 20th instant forwarded from our
      Trenton office came this morning. We regret to say
      however that we do not carry the Sanito brand of
      canned goods as we do not consider the grade
      first-class. If the Monsoon brand which is generally
      acknowledged to be excellent will serve your purpose
      we can fill your order at once.

      We are now in a position to supply the trade with Mrs.
      Keller's coffee of which we have fortunately secured
      several thousand packages at a very low price. If you
      wish any at $2.50 per dozen packages less than half
      the retail price you will notice let us hear from you
      at once.

                                            Yours truly,


      Dear Sir:

      We acknowledge your letter of October 5 but we regret
      that as yet we have no information in regard to the
      excess charge of $1.02 which you were obliged to pay
      on the express shipment of one piece 27 yds. of plaid
      silk chiffon. We have taken up the matter with the
      mill however and as soon as we receive their report we
      shall write you again.

      Asking your indulgence meanwhile we are

                                               Yours truly,


[4] Supply heading and introduction (see page 232).



BUSINESS men like to talk of brevity. They tell you that a talk or a
letter must be brief. What they really mean is that the talk or the
letter must be concise; that it must state the business clearly in the
fewest possible words. Don't omit any essential fact when you write, but
don't repeat. If you can express an idea in ten words, don't use twenty.
In a later exercise we shall meet the sentence, _The size of the crops
is always important, and it is especially so to the farmer, and this is
because he has to live by the crops._ The writer of that sentence was
very careless. He had a good idea and thought that, if he kept repeating
it, he would make it stronger. Just the reverse is true. The sentence
may be expressed in a very few words: _The size of the crop is vitally
important to the farmer._

If you wish to secure conciseness of expression, be especially careful
to avoid joining or completing thoughts by these expressions: _and_,
_so_, _why_, _that is why_, _this is the reason_, _and everything_.

In this chapter we shall consider some of the larger faults that should
be avoided in sentences.

=Exercise 197--Unity of the Sentence=

Give the definition of a sentence.

How many thoughts may one sentence express?

What is likely to happen when two thoughts are joined by _and_? What,
then, is the danger in using the compound sentence?

The compound sentence is good to use to express certain ideas,
especially contrast; as,

      It is not work that kills men; it is worry.

      It is not the revolution that destroys the machinery,
      but the friction [but it is the friction].

The sentences which most clearly and easily give us one thought are the
simple and the complex sentences.

Compare the following sentences. Which of them leave _one_ idea in your

      The tongue is a sharp-edged tool.

      A sharp tongue is the only edged tool that grows
      keener with constant use.

      A sharp tongue is like an edged tool, and it grows
      keener with constant use.

=Exercise 198=

The following is wordy. Rewrite it, condensing as much as possible. Use
simple and complex sentences rather than compound, expressing in each
only one thought.

      In the early summer the corn crop frequently seems to
      be very poor, and so reports begin to circulate that
      corn will be high in the autumn, but when the autumn
      really comes, Wall Street, that great center of
      business life, begins to see that the reports have
      been greatly exaggerated and that crops really will be
      very good, and so business begins to pick up. The size
      of the crop largely settles the volume of the next
      season's business, because so great a part of the
      world's business activity is made up of buying and
      selling the actual potatoes and corn and wheat and
      cattle or the products made from these, and when the
      crop is poor there are a great many people concerned,
      because they will be poor just as the crops are poor,
      and this applies to the farmer as well as to the

      The size of the crops is always important, and is
      especially so to the farmer, and this is because he
      has to live by the crops. A man may be living in the
      city and working for a salary and begin to see that
      his work is not supporting him, and if he is an
      ambitious man, he will change his occupation. This the
      farmer cannot do because he has made an enormous
      investment; in the first place, he has invested in
      his land, and then in his seed and farm implements,
      and this investment often means all the available
      money the farmer has, and often it means a mortgage on
      his farm. He puts the mortgage on his farm in hope of
      getting a good crop, and when his hope is not
      realized, he is in trouble, because he may lose his
      whole farm if he cannot pay the installments of
      interest due on his mortgage; but then, on the other
      hand, if we consider the other side of the question,
      when the crop is large, the situation is altogether
      different. Even if the farmer has put a mortgage on
      his farm, he gets enough money from his produce to pay
      the debt of that mortgage, and he need not worry how
      he is to live during the next winter.

      The town merchants depend on a good crop, because, if
      the farmer has not a good return from his fields, he
      will have almost no ready money, and so he cannot buy
      much clothing or household furnishings. In Iowa, for
      instance, there is a little town in the center of a
      corn-raising community, and it is here that the
      farmers congregate to do their buying, and in this
      town there is quite a large department store, and it
      is run by a woman. She does most of her buying in the
      autumn and she prefers to do it personally, and so she
      likes to make a trip to New York for the purpose, but
      she never sets out until she knows that the corn crop
      is good. And the reason for this is that she knows
      that it will cost her hundreds of dollars to make the
      trip East, to stay at a good hotel, and to spend the
      requisite length of time choosing her purchases at the
      different wholesale houses, and she knows that if
      there is no corn crop she will sell very few coats and
      hats and lace curtains, and it will never pay her to
      run up her expenses into the hundreds of dollars, but
      she will buy as best she can from the drummers, and
      buy only a little, and thus the size of the crop
      determines how much the farmer can buy, and,
      therefore, how much the wholesale and retail dealers
      can sell.

=Exercise 199--Subordination in the Sentence=

Sentences containing compound predicates may be made more direct in
thought if one of the verbs is changed to a participle or an infinitive,
because the predicate will then express only one action; as,

      1. The carpenter _threw_ down his hammer _and walked_
      out of the shop.

      2. _Throwing_ down his hammer, the carpenter walked
      out of the shop.

      3. I _went_ downtown _and applied_ for the position.

      4. I went downtown _to apply_ for the position.

Change the following sentences so that one action is denoted by the
predicate of each:

      1. A teamster drove out of the alley east of the
      theater and swung his horses directly in front of a
      Madison street car.

      2. The tongue struck the front of the car and bored a
      hole in the fuse box.

      3. The fire spread and burned the roof of the car.

      4. The half dozen passengers were badly frightened and
      got out quickly.

      5. Several people ran and turned in a fire alarm.

      6. In a few minutes the fire engines arrived and began
      to fight the flames.

      7. Crowds came from all directions and silently
      watched the flames.

      8. The people poured out of the theater and cheered
      the firemen.

      9. The half dozen passengers soon recovered and stood
      on the curbstone in the crowd.

      10. The firemen did their work quickly and departed
      amid the cheers of the crowd.

=Exercise 200--Combination of Short Sentences=

Sometimes short sentences are bad because two or three of them are
needed to express one complete thought. If that is the case, they should
be combined, the most important detail being put into the principal
clause, and the other details into modifiers, as in the preceding

Make use of--

    1. Adjectives.
    2. Adverbs.
    3. Participial phrases.
    4. Infinitives.
    5. Relative pronouns.
    6. Subordinate conjunctions.

Below, the first and second sentences together make one thought, which
is expressed in the third.

    John is a good reporter.
    That is why he earns a good salary.
    Because John is a good reporter, he earns a good salary.

Combine the sentences of each group below into a single sentence, either
simple or complex, omitting as many words as possible but no ideas:

      1. We stayed at home for two reasons: first of all, we
      thought Baltimore might be unpleasantly warm. Then,
      the other reason was that we thought we ought to

      2. In China the wedding takes place at the
      bridegroom's house. This has been decorated with
      strips of bright red paper, and they have the word
      "Hsi" on them. This means "Live in happiness."

      3. First in the procession come the standard bearers.
      They are hired for the occasion. These men have red
      coats put on over their dirty clothes. The men they
      hire are usually beggars.

      4. Six years ago I went sailing on Lake George with my
      father. I was ten years old at that time. Two other
      men went along with us. The boat that we went in
      belonged to my father and these men.

      5. The wind was high and it would come in gusts. This
      made it hard to sail. It shifted the sails so quickly
      that it would throw the boat over on one side.

      6. Several times the boat leaned over at an angle of
      forty degrees. This let the water come in on that
      side. When this happened, we all had to jump to the
      other side. We did this so that the boat would right

      7. The heart is the most important organ in the body.
      This is because if the heart stops beating, you cannot
      live. Besides, all the other organs are connected with
      it. It is something like the main spring in a watch.

      8. This is a good machine. And since that's the case,
      I don't see why it is that it doesn't work as it

      9. In every business there are many bad debts. Some
      can be collected and others cannot be. This is because
      the men who made them were given credit, and they
      didn't have any money.

      10. The night was dark, and there were no stars. The
      fishermen stood on the shore, and they gazed at the
      wild sea. A storm had arisen, and they could not go
      out in their boats.

=Exercise 201=

As in the preceding exercise, rewrite the following, omitting as many
words as possible, but no ideas. Use shorter, simpler expressions
wherever possible.


      Uncle Sam now has an aerial navy, but it's a small
      one, and foundations of it were recently laid. This
      was done when contracts were signed for the delivery
      of three aeroplanes and they are the first aeroplanes
      that the United States bought. These aeroplanes are of
      the latest development. They are all capable of rising
      from land or water. They are able also to land on
      water or on the deck of a ship, and they can carry at
      least one passenger and are equipped with wireless
      outfits. Two of them are Curtis machines and the third
      is a Wright, and they ranged in price from $2,700 to


      The United States produces more steel than any two
      European countries, and it is continuing to produce
      more. Moreover, it has the productive capacity to
      produce more than any other three or four countries
      put together. This capacity is being still further
      increased. At the present time, there is one very
      important steel company. It is very large, and seems
      to wish to monopolize the entire iron and steel
      industry. Even at this time it owns half the principal
      plants that are now producing steel and iron, and
      controls half the trade of the entire steel and iron
      industry, and when such a thing happens, it is a
      matter of international concern.


Condense the following into a single sentence, either simple or complex:

      The iron and steel industry is very important, and it
      includes a great deal. First, the ore has to be mined,
      and then the work includes everything up to making the
      finest wire for musical instruments. Or, to put it
      another way, you can say from smelting the ore to
      building a battle ship. This is a very interesting
      occupation and, as said before, very important. There
      is hardly anything more interesting or important
      except agriculture.

=Exercise 202--Dangling Expressions=

Sometimes a sentence is not clear because it contains a participle which
does not modify anything in the sentence. A participle is part _verb_
and part _adjective_. As a verb, it expresses the idea of the verb from
which it is derived. As an adjective, it must modify a noun or a
pronoun. The important point is that this noun or pronoun must be
expressed in the sentence and not lie in the mind of the writer, as it
does in the following:

      Riding from Saugatuck to Holland last year, the
      country showed unmistakable signs of lack of rain.

Here the writer means, _We saw that the country_, etc., but he says that
the country rode from Saugatuck to Holland.

Again, an expression may be used which is really an incomplete clause.
Do not use such a clause, unless the understood subject is the same as
the subject expressed in the independent proposition.

    _Wrong_: When almost exhausted, the camp was reached.
    _Right_: When almost exhausted, we reached the camp.

Recast the following sentences, correcting the dangling expressions:

      1. You should not stop studying your lessons until
      thoroughly prepared.

      2. In talking to the postman yesterday, he said that
      his route had been changed.

      3. Owing two months' rent, the foreman laid me off.

      4. Before becoming a physician, the law sets a very
      severe examination.

      5. Having eaten our luncheon very hastily, the
      typewriters were soon clicking merrily again.

      6. The difficulty could easily be settled, going about
      it in the right way.

      7. Although determined to get my money, the task was
      harder than I had expected.

      8. Having installed an adding machine, our office work
      could be done in half the time.

      9. On entering the car, the first thing that caught my
      attention was the sign at the end.

      10. Silk should be washed with warm water and a mild
      soap, being careful not to rub it.

      11. The house was redecorated, making it clean and

      12. The book should be carefully studied, reviewing
      each chapter after it is read.

      13. Going to work this morning, an accident happened.

      14. Having entered college, Mr. Brown watched his
      son's progress with pride.

      15. Soon after abandoning the boat, it sank.

      16. They say he will be lame, caused by a fall on the
      ice while skating.

      17. While trying to break the half mile record, his
      back was injured.

      18. Many people object to football, because in
      tackling the boys' hearts are weakened.

      19. He did not wish to take up an extra study, thus
      lessening his chance of being eligible for athletics.

      20. While a child, my father often told me stories of
      Indian days.

      21. Absorbed all day in superintending his work, in
      the evening the newspaper brought him political news
      enough to fill the hours between dinner and bed-time.

      22. Discussing the happenings in the ward with an old
      crony, his daughter would often sit near him

      23. He is failing in his work, caused by his laziness.

      24. Although a good tonic, I did not gain weight while
      taking it.

      25. In the new telephone, upon lifting the receiver, a
      ticking sound is heard.

      26. Leaving the window open when she went to lunch, of
      course the papers were disarranged on her return.

      27. Dictionaries must be returned to the desk after

=Exercise 203--Pronouns with Uncertain Antecedents=

Sometimes the meaning of a sentence is not clear because the pronouns
have uncertain antecedents.

1. Sometimes a pronoun may refer to either of two antecedents; as,

    _Wrong_: He gave his brother John the umbrella and then _he_ left.
    _Right_: He gave the umbrella to his brother John, who then left.

2. Sometimes the sentence must be entirely recast and a direct quotation
used before the pronouns can be made clear; as,

    _Wrong_: Tom told his father that _his_ suit case was lost.
    _Right_: _a._ Tom said, "Father, your suit case is lost."
             _b._ Tom said, "Father, my suit case is lost."

3. Sometimes the pronoun refers to a word that has not been expressed or
to an _idea_. In that case, the antecedent must be supplied; as,

    _Wrong_: If any one wishes to contribute to the cause, let him send
      _it_ in the enclosed envelope.
    _Right_: If any one wishes to contribute to the cause, let him send
      _his contribution_ in the enclosed envelope.

    _Wrong_: I wouldn't wear mittens. Nobody does _that_ nowadays.
    _Right_: I wouldn't wear mittens. Nobody wears _them_ nowadays.

4. A sentence containing an indefinite _they_ or _it_ is corrected thus:

    _Wrong_: Don't _they_ have street cars where you live?
    _Right_: Are there _no_ street cars where you live?

Recast the following:

      1. She asked her mother if she could go, and she said
      she thought she ought to stay at home.

      2. John told James he was sure he did not know the
      office that he meant.

      3. George told his father his watch had stopped.

      4. The manager asked the clerk to bring his book.

      5. A light touch is important in a typewriter, because
      it makes it easy to write upon it.

      6. The size of the crops is important to the farmers,
      because they have to live by them.

      7. They decided to reorganize the company, which is
      always a difficult task.

      8. They went into the hands of a receiver, which is an
      indication that the affairs of the company had been
      poorly managed.

      9. There is a boat on the lake over which there is a
      pleasant view, in which there is a club for working

      10. He stole some money which brought about an

      11. She asked her aunt how old she was.

      12. John is famous for telling anecdotes, and he got
      it by remembering every story he reads.

      13. The sleighing party last night was a success,
      which is not always the case.

      14. He told a lie, which is a bad thing to do.

      15. They engaged a gardener, which doubled their
      monthly expenses.

      16. Why don't you get some of that new fur trimming
      for your blue dress?

      17. They had an accident on the street car this

      18. In the newspaper it said that the lecture would
      begin at 8:15.

      19. They don't find iron in Illinois, do they?

      20. Do they have the original paintings in our art

      21. It says "Closed" on that door.

      22. It doesn't mention a bank draft in this book.

      23. They have a great many foreigners in New York

      24. John accompanied his brother to the city where he
      bought a typewriter.

      25. I had expected to take the 9:30 train, but I
      couldn't do it.

      26. Going up to the horse he put a lump of sugar into
      his mouth.

      27. In letter writing one should always be exact and
      arrange them in the customary form.

      28. Those hooks are not rust-proof because the back of
      my dress is stained with it.

      29. The telephone is a great convenience to all. They
      are now used in almost every house.

      30. As we came down the road, it sounded like a train,
      which, as we approached, grew louder and louder.

=Exercise 204--Misplaced Modifiers=

Sometimes a sentence is not clear because a modifier does not stand
close to the word it modifies.

    _Wrong_: I can't _even_ do the first problem.
    _Right_: I can't do _even_ the first problem.

Change the order of words in the following sentences, placing each
modifier as closely as possible to the word which it modifies. Some of
the sentences are incorrect because they contain split infinitives. (See
Exercise 92.)

      1. I only waited for him about ten minutes.

      2. She stood at the window, trying to close it with a
      troubled face.

      3. The city is supplied with water from cold springs
      which flow nearly a hundred million gallons of the
      purest liquid that ever burst from the earth, daily.

      4. The famous S. F. ice cream is made in this factory
      containing fifty per cent pure cream.

      5. A man should not be allowed to cast a vote, who
      cannot read and write.

      6. After taking the medicine for a short time, the
      appetite is improved, and a desire is created for
      food, that has not existed before.

      7. In real value, this magazine towers head and
      shoulders over all others to the woman who is in
      charge of her home.

      8. There are pages of fashion news and embroidery
      hints and news articles of the day that will appeal to
      the husband and father as the others do to the wife
      and daughter as well as departments for the children.

      9. The number of the sewing machine is 37A with a drop

      10. They neither are gentle nor well-mannered.

      11. I only heard about the trouble yesterday.

      12. He left the same station at which, thirty years
      before, he had arrived very humbly, in his own special

      13. He urged his brother to buy a home in his letter.

      14. The lighting system has been developed to a really
      remarkable degree of perfection for the trains.

      15. The dynamo is so arranged that when the train is
      standing still or only traveling twenty miles an hour,
      the lamps are lighted from a storage battery.

      16. The batteries must be large enough during the run
      to carry the entire lighting load.

      17. Please send me 6 Dining Tables No. 46 that extend
      to ten feet as soon as possible.

      18. Large trees grow on each side of the house which
      is a rambling affair shutting out the light.

      19. They decided to give a bonus to the one doing the
      best work, amounting to fifty dollars.

      20. We had almost got to the corner before we saw the

      21. I don't ever remember having seen so big a fire.

      22. Remember to thoroughly oil the machine.

      23. Do you need to in any way alter the machine?

      24. If we expect to completely fill the order to-day,
      we need more help.

=Exercise 205--Omission of Necessary Words=

Sometimes a sentence is not clear because a word has been omitted that
is necessary to the sense; as,

_Wrong_: The two officers that they elected are the president and

_Right_: The two officers that they elected are the president and _the_

_Wrong_: His writing is as good or better than yours.

_Right_: His writing is as good _as_ or better than yours.

_Wrong_: The library is where we go to read.

_Right_: The library is _the place_ where we go to read.

State the difference between the following typewriter ribbons:

    1. A red and blue and black ribbon.
    2. A red and a blue and black ribbon.
    3. A red and blue and a black ribbon.
    4. A red and a blue and a black ribbon.

Supply the omitted part in each of the following:

      1. I always have and I'm sure I always shall be
      considerate of others' feelings.

      2. They have a stenographer and bookkeeper, who are
      kept busy all day.

      3. I believe he has already or will soon begin the

      4. The cushions of the rocker are much softer than the

      5. The arrangement of your flat is much more
      convenient than our house.

      6. The number of shelves in your sideboard is just the
      same as our china closet.

      7. I think the articles you ordered will arrive as
      soon or sooner than you expect.

      8. She is as tall or taller than you.

      9. When your message arrived, I had already or at
      least had decided to begin cutting the goods.

      10. It may not be better but it is fully as good as
      the other article.

      11. I think you cook fully as well if not better than
      your sister.

      12. His poems hold a place in our hearts second only
      to the Bible.

      13. Your idea is as good if not better than mine.

      14. We decided to make the change both for the sake of
      health and economy.

      15. You will find the armchair fully as comfortable,
      if not more so, than the rocker.

      16. The river is where we had the most fun.

      17. I know you better than Mary.

      18. She went to the park but I didn't care to.

      19. We didn't object to the scheme as much as you.

      20. A conservatory is where there are all kinds of

=Exercise 206--Shift in Construction=

Sometimes the meaning of the sentence is obscure because there has been
a shift in construction. Do not change subject, person, tense, or any
grammatical form without a good reason. Remember that _and_ is a
coördinate conjunction. If there is an adjective before _and_, there
must be an adjective after it. If a clause precedes, a clause must
follow. In other words, _and_ joins two members of exactly the same
structure. _And_ may not join one word and a phrase, nor may it join a
prepositional and a participial phrase. Both members must be alike. In
the following extract, parallel constructions are used correctly. Be
able to tell what kinds of elements are used and how they are parallel.

      To eat your cake and keep it too; to wear a gown with
      the air of originality and distinction, and keep a
      full purse; to have your house display taste and
      refinement, and be praised as an economical housewife;
      to dress your children daintily, and save money for
      their education--use ABC transfer patterns. By their
      aid you can make an inexpensive waist look like a
      French blouse, have table linen of unrivaled elegance,
      and dress your babies in the most approved style.
      These patterns cost,--some ten, some fifteen cents.
      They cover the entire field of dress,--waists, tunics,
      panels, infants' clothes, underwear, men's apparel,
      and neckwear; and of household articles,--towels,
      table-linen, and pillow tops.

Recast the following sentences, correcting the shift of construction in

      1. In the large department stores every clerk is to
      report on her way to lunch and coming back.

      2. When one hears a cry of "Fire," your first thought
      is to run.

      3. He seemed fond of his work and to have skill in
      doing it quickly.

      4. I decided on taking the trip and to keep my
      expenses within fifty dollars if possible.

      5. X Y Z Cleaner is good for softening water and other
      household uses.

      6. Because of the rise in the price of meats and owing
      to the fact that grocers charge more for butter and
      eggs, people find it hard to live.

      7. The office is well-heated and with plenty of light.

      8. The crowds began to watch the fire and cheering

      9. I heard the opera last year and have gone again
      this year.

      10. It was wonderful to see how fast they worked and
      their accuracy.

      11. I can't decide whether to take up stenography or
      if bookkeeping is better.

      12. He taught us the principles of letter writing, and
      somewhat of advertising was taken up.

      13. Hoping that the work progressed, and unless a
      landslide occurred, the Americans expected to remove
      5,000,000 cubic yards each year.

      14. The study of the earth has always been stimulated
      by two fundamental passions of humanity--a desire for
      wealth and because of their curiosity.

      15. He insists on our taking the trip and to go
      without further delay.

      16. In reviewing, it is well to go over each part of
      the course carefully, and you should make a note of
      every point which you do not understand, and let each
      ask those questions which he himself cannot answer.

      17. Mr. Fitzmorris is a man of great technical skill
      and who has handled the situation capably.

      18. It will cost her hundreds of dollars to make the
      trip East and spending the requisite length of time
      choosing her purchases at the different wholesale

      19. He had assumed control of the office, planned the
      advertising, and the finances were also directed by

      20. We have decided to go on the excursion to the
      Capitol and at the same time visiting Uncle John.

=Exercise 207=

What prevents clearness in the following?

      1. The Federal Government began an investigation into
      fire conditions in Europe in 1907, through our

      2. It cost $2.39 a year for fire in the United States
      between 1901 and 1910, for every man, woman, and
      child, and Germany does not even pay nineteen cents.

      3. The number of our fires is increasing, which is

      4. In ten years our population has increased 73 per
      cent and 134 per cent is the increase in fires.

      5. Having considered the details, the conclusion is
      easily drawn that fire is a disgrace.

      6. He only gets to the office at ten o'clock.

      7. Having settled the plan of attack, the rest was

      8. The manager warned him not to make the mistake
      again and adding that mistakes are costly.

      9. To keep flannels from shrinking, wash in the
      following way, and you will find it very satisfactory.

      10. To open a fruit jar run a knife under the edge and
      it comes off easily.

      11. I didn't even finish half the questions.

      12. Electric lights are economical, clean, and give
      more light than gas.

      13. You should buy your suit now, both for the sake of
      economy and style.

      14. If in doubt as to the best word, a book of
      synonyms should be consulted.

      15. The comma fault is where, two principal clauses
      are run together without a coördinate conjunction.

Rewrite the following so that it will be correct, concise, and clear:

      The Europeans were anxious for trade with the East,
      for they were dependent upon them for spices and
      luxuries. The three routes were through the
      Mediterranean Sea, over the Suez Peninsula, down the
      Red Sea, and across to India. Another was through the
      Mediterranean and then through Arabia. The other was
      from the Mediterranean and then through the Black Sea
      and then by land to India. It became necessary to seek
      a new route because the Turks held Constantinople, and
      all vessels had to pass through the Mediterranean, and
      the Turks held this by pirates. The first explorers
      were working under the leadership of the King of
      Portugal, and they solved the problem by going around
      Africa and then to the Indies, but this was too long,
      and so explorers tried other ways, and the result was
      the discovery of America.



The sentences developing each of the divisions of a composition make one
_paragraph_. A paragraph, therefore, is the treatment of one of the
natural divisions of a subject. The length depends on the topic to be
treated. Two cautions may be given:

1. Do not write paragraphs containing only one sentence. Such paragraphs
do not represent divisions of the subject. They are simply statements
which have not been expanded as they deserve, or they are sentences that
should be placed with the preceding or succeeding sentences in order to
make a good paragraph. Some business men in their letters and
advertisements use the one-sentence paragraph too frequently to
concentrate the attention of the reader. A writer divides his
composition into paragraphs in order to aid the reader to follow the
thoughts he is presenting. When the reader sees the indentation that
indicates a new paragraph, he thinks that the writer has said all that
he intends to say on the topic in hand and now intends to open a new
topic. It is confusing to find that the new paragraph is simply another
sentence on the same topic as the preceding paragraph. Notice the jerky
effect of the following extract from a letter:

      We are sending you a copy of our latest catalogue,
      which gives illustrations and prices of all our stock.

      The illustrations are all made from actual photographs
      and are faithful in representing the shoe described.

      Bear Brand Shoes are shipped in special fiber cases,
      thus lessening freight bills and eliminating the
      annoyance of shortage claims because they cannot be
      opened without immediate detection.

      Errors of any kind should be reported without delay.

      Imperfect or damaged goods must be returned for our
      inspection; otherwise no allowance will be made.

2. Do not go to the other extreme, writing paragraphs of great length.
Much depends, of course, on the matter to be treated, but, as a rule, in
a student's theme a paragraph should be not longer than one page. If one
of the divisions of your subject is necessarily long, subdivide it,
allowing a paragraph to treat each of the subdivisions.

Whether it is to be long or short, a paragraph must treat but one topic;
from the first sentence to the last, it should be the development of one
idea. Moreover, this topic must be revealed to the reader in no
unmistakable way. Sometimes the subject is so simple that the topic may
easily be gathered from the details given, but usually it is well to
have one sentence that in a brief or general way states the topic. This
is called the _topic sentence_. It may be at or near the beginning; in
this case the rest of the paragraph defines or illustrates what it
states. It may, however, be found at almost any point in the paragraph,
not infrequently acting as a sentence of conclusion, summing up the
details that have been presented.

A paragraph that begins with a topic sentence sometimes ends with a
sentence of conclusion. The first sentence states the topic, the
following sentences explain or illustrate it, and the last sentence
summarizes or otherwise indicates that the topic has been completed.
This form has been called the _hammock_ paragraph, because it has a
solid "post" at each end with a mass of details "swinging" between. It
is a good form to use in writing paragraphs on given subjects, when each
paragraph is to stand alone, complete in itself, not forming part of a
longer composition. The practice of writing such paragraphs induces
clear, forceful thinking.

=Exercise 208=

Study the following paragraphs for--

    1. Topic sentence, if there is one.
    2. Development of the topic.
    3. Sentence of conclusion, if there is one.


      The problem in many large firms is how to develop
      office efficiency to the highest possible degree. In
      this respect the monthly examination scheme has been
      found a great success. The examination consists of a
      list of questions about merchandise and business
      procedure. The questions are given out on the last
      Saturday of the month, and the answers are returned
      for criticism on the following Wednesday. The
      employees are told that they may consult as many
      authorities as they wish, but each man must write his
      own paper. A poor percentage in three of these tests
      usually means dismissal. Thus the inefficient are
      dropped, and the ambitious who have studied are
      recognized. The vice-president of one concern that
      uses this system says that it is a strong reminder to
      his men that they must make themselves worthy of the
      organization. Besides maintaining an even standard of
      efficiency, the plan has resulted in developing a
      number of valuable executives, whose latent powers
      were brought out by the rigidness of the tests.


      Every month the department head in one big eastern
      concern, watch in hand, times a large force of typists
      individually, testing how rapidly they can write a
      letter of 200 words from their shorthand notes.
      Rapidity, punctuation, spelling, and neatness are
      carefully recorded. This plan has had a desirable
      influence in bringing stenographers up to grade in
      their daily work, because a good examination mark is
      reduced one-half by careless daily work, and a poor
      examination mark correspondingly raised by excellent
      daily work. When both examination average and daily
      average are excellent, the stenographer's salary is
      increased; when both are below good, the stenographer
      is dismissed. In this way the standard of stenographic
      work is kept high.


      In his effort to succeed many a young business man
      overlooks the detail of business courtesy. He does not
      realize the value that a buyer places upon that
      commodity. The more experienced man, however, knows
      that courtesy does more to hold a buyer than do
      bargain sales. In our large cities merchants have
      incurred great expense to fit up rest rooms where
      customers may spend an idle hour, write letters on
      stationery that is provided, and read the latest
      magazines. In the rural districts, where such luxuries
      are often impossible, the merchant provides chairs for
      his customers and a place for stationing their teams.
      The country merchant, however, can often accomplish
      his object more quickly than the city dealer by
      spending an hour gossiping with his customers. He
      recognizes the fact that buyers are flattered when the
      proprietor himself takes the time to say a few words
      to them. He knows just as well as his city competitor
      does, that if a buyer feels at home in his store,
      sales are practically guaranteed.


      The rural landscape of Norway, on the long easterly
      slope that leads up to the watershed among the
      mountains on the western coast, is not unlike that of
      Vermont or New Hampshire. The railway from Christiania
      to the Randsfjord carried us through a hilly country
      of scattered farms and villages. Wood played a
      prominent part in the scenery. There were dark
      stretches of forest on the hilltops and in the
      valleys; rivers filled with floating logs; sawmills
      beside the waterfalls; wooden farmhouses painted
      white; and rail-fences around the fields. The people
      seemed sturdy, prosperous, independent. They had the
      familiar habit of coming down to the station to see
      the train arrive and depart. We might have fancied
      ourselves on a journey through the Connecticut valley
      if it had not been for the soft sing-song of the
      Norwegian speech and the uniform politeness of the
      railway officials.

                            --Van Dyke: _Fisherman's Luck._


      The plan of the _Spectator_ must be allowed to be both
      original and eminently happy. Every valuable essay in
      the series may be read with pleasure separately; yet
      the five or six hundred essays form a whole, and a
      whole which has the interest of a novel. It must be
      remembered, too, that at that time no novel, giving a
      lively and powerful picture of the common life and
      manners of England, had appeared. Richardson was
      working as a compositor. Fielding was robbing birds'
      nests. Smollett was not yet born. The narrative,
      therefore, which connects together the Spectator's
      essays gave to our ancestors their first taste of an
      exquisite and untried pleasure. That narrative was,
      indeed, constructed with no art or labor. The events
      were such events as occur every day. Sir Roger comes
      up to town to see Eugenio, as the worthy baronet
      always calls Prince Eugene, goes with the Spectator on
      the water to Spring Gardens, walks among the tombs in
      the Abbey, and is frightened by the Mohawks, but
      conquers his apprehension so far as to go to the
      theater when the "Distressed Mother" is acted. The
      Spectator pays a visit in the summer to Coverley Hall,
      is charmed with the old house, the old butler, and the
      old chaplain, eats a jack caught by Will Wimble, rides
      to the assizes, and hears a point of law discussed by
      Tom Touchy. At last a letter from the honest butler
      brings to the club the news that Sir Roger is dead.
      Will Honeycomb marries and reforms at sixty. The club
      breaks up, and the Spectator resigns his functions.
      Such events can hardly be said to form a plot; yet
      they are related with such truth, such grace, such
      wit, such humor, such pathos, such knowledge of the
      human heart, such knowledge of the ways of the world
      that they charm us on the hundredth perusal. We have
      not the least doubt that if Addison had written a
      novel on an extensive plan, it would have been
      superior to any that we possess. As it is, he is
      entitled to be considered not only as the greatest of
      the English essayists, but as the forerunner of the
      great English novelists.

                          --Macaulay: _Essay on Addison._

=Exercise 209=

Prepare a paragraph developing each of the following topic sentences:

      1. The kitchen was a cheerful place. (Tell all the
      details that will explain the word _cheerful_.)

      2. In the kitchen the preparations for the feast went
      on merrily. (Give the details that will help one get
      the picture.)

      3. Examinations are helpful to the student. (In what
      ways are they helpful? If possible, use examples to
      illustrate the point.)

      4. Winter is more enjoyable than summer. (Contrast the
      pleasures of the one with those of the other, showing
      that those of winter are more enjoyable.)

      5. Riding a motorcycle is apt to make a boy reckless.
      (Develop by using examples.)

      6. A man must like his work if he is to succeed in it.

      7. Farm lands vary in price.

      8. The farmer feeds the world.

      9. Every department store should have regular fire

      10. Every sale ought to be an advertisement.

=Exercise 210=

Paragraph the following so that the paragraphs will represent the
divisions in thought. If there are any topic sentences, underline them.


      I have often noticed that every one has his own
      individual small economies, careful habits of saving
      fractions of pennies in some one peculiar direction,
      any disturbance of which annoys him more than spending
      shillings or pounds on some real extravagance. An old
      gentleman of my acquaintance, who took the
      intelligence of the failure of a Joint Stock Bank, in
      which some of his money was invested, with a stoical
      mildness, worried his family all through a long
      summer's day because one of them had torn (instead of
      cutting) out the written leaves of his now useless
      bankbook. Of course, the corresponding pages at the
      other end came out as well, and this little
      unnecessary waste of paper (his private economy)
      chafed him more than all the loss of his money.
      Envelopes fretted his soul terribly when they came in.
      The only way in which he could reconcile himself to
      such a waste of his cherished article was by patiently
      turning inside out all that were sent to him, and so
      making them serve again. Even now, though tamed by
      age, I see him casting wistful glances at his
      daughters when they send a whole inside of a
      half-sheet of note paper, with the three lines of
      acceptance to an invitation written on only one of the
      sides. I am not above owning that I have this human
      weakness myself. String is my foible. My pockets get
      full of little hanks of it, picked up and twisted
      together, ready for uses that never come. I am
      seriously annoyed if any one cuts a string of a parcel
      instead of patiently and faithfully undoing it fold by
      fold. How people can bring themselves to use
      India-rubber bands, which are a sort of deification of
      string, as lightly as they do I cannot imagine. To me
      an India-rubber band is a precious treasure. I have
      one which is not new--one that I picked up off the
      floor nearly five years ago. I have really tried to
      use it, but my heart failed me, and I could not commit
      the extravagance. Small pieces of butter grieve
      others. They cannot attend to conversation because of
      the annoyance occasioned by the habit which some
      people have of invariably taking more butter than they
      want. Have you ever seen the anxious look (almost
      mesmeric) which such persons fix on the article? They
      would feel it a relief if they might bury it out of
      their sight by popping it into their own mouths and
      swallowing it down; and they are really made happy if
      the person on whose plate it lies unused suddenly
      breaks off a piece of toast (which he does not want at
      all) and eats up his butter. They think that this is
      not waste. Now, Miss Matty Jenkins was chary of
      candles: We had many devices to use as few as
      possible. In the winter afternoons she would sit
      knitting for two or three hours--she could do this in
      the dark or by firelight--and when I asked if I might
      not ring for candles to finish stitching my
      wristbands, she told me to "keep blind man's holiday."
      They were usually brought in with tea, but we burnt
      only one at a time. As we lived in constant
      preparation for a friend who might come in any evening
      (but who never did), it required some contrivance to
      keep our two candles of the same length, ready to be
      lighted, and to look as if we burnt two always. The
      candles took it in turns; and then, whatever we might
      be talking of or doing, Miss Matty kept her eyes
      habitually fixed upon the candle, ready to jump up and
      extinguish it and light the other before they had
      become too uneven in length to be restored to equality
      in the course of the evening.

                    --Adapted from Mrs. Gaskell's _Cranford_.


      Dear Madam:

      We are sorry to say that we have no more house coats
      No. SP62 in size 38 at $4.50. As we advertised, SP62
      is not a regular stock number, but represents a
      collection of $5, $6, and $7.50 coats remaining after
      the holiday sales and reduced to insure their being
      sold before spring. At the opening of the sale there
      were only a few coats in size 38, and they were sold
      almost at once. In our catalogue, pages 68 to 71
      inclusive, you will find descriptions of all our stock
      house coats. On page 68 you will see No. 450HC, our
      regular $4.50 coat. If you would like us to send you
      one of these in size 38, we shall forward it to you at
      once. However, if you would like a $5, $6, or $7.50
      coat, you will, no doubt, send us the difference in
      price on receipt of this letter. Of course, the more
      expensive garments are made of better materials, but
      all our coats show the same excellent workmanship. The
      best way for you to get the exact shade of trimming
      that you wish is to send us a sample of the goods that
      you would like to match. We assure you that we shall
      take all possible care to send you the proper color.

                                          Yours truly,

=Exercise 211=

Paragraphs may be developed in different ways. For example, if you were
going to write on the process of making a layer cake, you would explain
in detail the different ingredients in the mixture, the proportion of
each, and the steps in the process before the product could be sold as a
layer cake.

By the use of explanatory details develop the following:

     1. Making a kite.
     2. Making a baseball.
     3. Making fudge.
     4. How to play checkers.
     5. The manufacture of soap (or any article in a grocery).
     6. The manufacture of a tin can.
     7. The manufacture of pins.
     8. Every man must have an ambition.
     9. Why I intend to enter business.
    10. The greatest modern invention.

By the use of examples to illustrate your point develop the following:

    1. Electricity is making housework easy and pleasant.
    2. Many sons of poor parents have won great wealth.
    3. The wireless apparatus has saved many lives.
    4. A boy can show that he is a good citizen.
    5. Young Americans have little respect for authority.

By the use of comparison and contrast develop the following:

    1. Improvements in modern lighting systems.
    2. Improvements in modern heating systems.
    3. Improvements in modern means of locomotion.
    4. Two kinds of work, pleasure, or study.
    5. Why I intend to have a business of my own.
    6. The study that I like best.

By explaining cause and effect develop the following:

    1. The advantages of public gymnasiums.
    2. The success of loose leaf devices.
    3. The objections to football.

=Exercise 212=

Develop the following into paragraphs; in each case be able to show what
method or methods you have employed:

      1. A man who cannot read and write English should not
      be allowed to vote.

      2. Postal savings banks inspire the savings habit.

      3. Women--the mothers of children--should vote.

      4. Women should not vote because they do not read the

      5. The effect of school slang is bad.

      6. I wish I had seen the coronation of George V. Every
      fairy story I had ever read would suddenly have become

      7. Canada would gain by reciprocity with the United

      8. The United States would gain by reciprocity with

      9. Our forests should be preserved.

      10. The waste of lumber by forest fires results from

      11. The waste of lumber in cutting railroad ties is
      too great.

      12. The rotation of crops enriches the soil.

      13. Apples are more easily gathered than cherries.

      14. Efforts should be made to keep the birds in our
      city parks.

      15. Every boy should learn a trade.

      16. Peddlers should not be allowed to call their

      17. Great crowds gathered in the city during aviation
      week (or any celebration).

      18. The electric toaster is good for hurry-up

      19. Ironing with an electric iron is more convenient
      than with the old-fashioned kind.

      20. The wireless apparatus makes sea voyages safer
      than before.

      21. A mixed diet is best.

      22. Cats should be exterminated because they spread

      23. The parcel post will decrease the profits of the
      express companies.

      24. A good book is opened with expectation and closed
      with profit.

      25. Merchants should charge for delivering purchases.

      26. The object of the Child Welfare Exhibit is to
      promote the best interests of children.

      27. One of the best enactments of our time is the
      Child Labor Law.

=Exercise 213--Smooth Connection=

We may as well confess at the beginning that smooth connection between
sentences and paragraphs is a hard thing to learn. Primarily, it depends
on clear thinking. In Exercise 135 we saw that the idea of one sentence
must grow out of the idea of the preceding one. It is the same with
paragraphs. The thought must develop gradually from one to the next.
Each paragraph, we know, represents a unit within the larger unit of the
composition; each represents a division of thought. Not infrequently the
thought of one division differs considerably from the thought of the
next. The tying together of such units is sometimes hard. It may be done
in one of the following ways:

1. By repeating at the beginning of the new paragraph or sentence part
of the preceding paragraph or sentence.

2. By using pronouns to refer to what has gone before.

3. By using connecting links, sometimes called _transition words_
because they indicate the transition from one division to the next.
Besides those mentioned in Exercise 135, we may use a numeral
connection, as, _in the first place_, _in the second place_; or an
expression much like a numeral, as, _furthermore_, _in the next place_;
or an expression showing that an adverse idea is to be presented, as,
_on the other hand_, _however_, _in spite of this_, _nevertheless_. But
whatever you do, choose the right link, especially if you use such a one
as _possibly_, _probably_, _perhaps_, _certainly_, _surely_. Use the one
that expresses your idea exactly. Have none rather than the wrong one.

In the following the first and second paragraphs are connected according
to (1) above; the second and third are connected according to (3) above.

      There comes to every prosperous man a time when he
      wishes to know the best way of securing a steady
      income from his accumulated savings without the burden
      of responsibility of managing some property in order
      to gain his income. The merchant may not wish to put
      back into the business all the earnings he gets from
      it, and yet he wishes to prepare for his old age. The
      farmer may wish to give up active work, but he
      realizes how soon his broad acres may deteriorate
      through soil-robbery when he rents his property "on
      shares." With such a problem before him the thoughtful
      man makes an effort to _learn_ how to act to secure a
      good _income_ all his life.

      One of the first things he _learns_, if he studies the
      situation carefully, is that there is a wide
      difference between an _income_ derived from one's
      business ability, such as the profit secured from
      running a store, factory, jobbing house, or farm, and
      the income which is derived as the result of money
      "working" by itself. In the first case, a man must of
      necessity keep up his business responsibilities; in
      the other, once he has selected a safe investment,
      practically all he has to do is to collect his income
      from time to time as it falls due. There is in the
      latter no depreciation of land, buildings, machinery,
      or the like; no insurance payments to worry about; no
      crop failures to consider.

      _It is evident, then_, that if one wishes to put
      surplus money away--say the proceeds from the sale of
      a business or a farm--and get a steady income from it
      without bother or worry, the most important thing to
      consider is how to go about it to select something
      which, once purchased, will turn out to be a safe

=Exercise 214=

In the following paragraphs taken from Robert Louis Stevenson's _The
Philosophy of Nomenclature_, point out all the transition words that
join (1) sentence to sentence, and (2) paragraph to paragraph:

      To begin, then: the influence of our name makes itself
      felt from the very cradle. As a schoolboy I remember
      the pride with which I hailed Robin Hood, Robert
      Bruce, and Robert le Diable as my name-fellows; and
      the feeling of sore disappointment that fell on my
      heart when I found a freebooter or a general who did
      not share with me a single one of my numerous
      _praenomina_. Look at the delight with which two
      children find they have the same name. They are
      friends from that moment forth; they have a bond of
      union stronger than exchange of nuts and sweetmeats.
      This feeling, I own, wears off in later life. Our
      names lose their freshness and interest, become trite
      and indifferent. But this, dear reader, is merely one
      of the sad effects of those "shades of the prison
      house" which come gradually betwixt us and nature with
      advancing years; it affords no weapon against the
      philosophy of names.

      In after life, although we fail to trace its working,
      that name which careless godfathers lightly applied to
      your unconscious infancy will have been moulding your
      character and influencing with irresistible power the
      whole course of your earthly fortunes. But the last
      name is no whit less important as a condition of
      success. Family names, we must recollect, are but
      inherited nicknames; and if the _sobriquet_ were
      applicable to the ancestor, it is most likely
      applicable to the descendant also. You would not
      expect to find Mr. M'Phun acting as a mute or Mr.
      M'Lumpha excelling as a professor of dancing.
      Therefore, in what follows, we shall consider names,
      independent of whether they are first or last. And to
      begin with, look what a pull _Cromwell_ had over
      _Pym_--the one name full of a resonant imperialism,
      the other mean, pettifogging, and unheroic to a
      degree. Who would expect eloquence from _Pym_--who
      would read poems by _Pym_--who would bow to the
      opinions of _Pym_? He might have been a dentist, but
      he should never have aspired to be a statesman. I can
      only wonder that he succeeded as he did. Pym and
      Habakkuk stand first upon the roll of men who have
      triumphed, by sheer force of genius, over the most
      unfavorable appellations. But even these have
      suffered; and, had they been more fitly named, the one
      might have been Lord Protector and the other have
      shared the laurels with Isaiah. In this matter we must
      not forget that all our great poets have borne great
      names. Chaucer, Spenser, Shakespeare, Milton, Pope,
      Wordsworth, Shelley--what a constellation of lordly
      words! Not a single commonplace name among them--not a
      Brown, not a Jones, not a Robinson; they are all names
      that one would stop and look at on a door-plate. Now,
      imagine if _Pepys_ had tried to clamber somehow into
      the enclosure of poetry, what a blot would that name
      have made upon the list! The thing is impossible. In
      the first place, a certain natural consciousness that
      men have would have held him down to the level of his
      name, would have prevented him from rising above the
      Pepsine standard, and so haply withheld him altogether
      from attempting verse. Next, the booksellers would
      refuse to publish, and the world to read them, on the
      mere evidence of the fatal appellation. And now,
      before I close this section, I must say one word as to
      _punnable_ names, names that stand alone, that have a
      significance and life apart from him that bears them.
      These are the bitterest of all. One friend of mine
      goes bowed and humbled through life under the weight
      of this misfortune; for it is an awful thing when a
      man's name is a joke, when he cannot be mentioned
      without exciting merriment, and when even the
      intimation of his death bids fair to carry laughter
      into many a home.

      So much for people who are badly named. Now for people
      who are _too_ well named, who go topheavy from the
      font, who are baptized into a false position, and who
      find themselves beginning life eclipsed under the fame
      of some of the great ones of the past. A man, for
      instance, called William Shakespeare could never dare
      to write plays. He is thrown into too humbling an
      apposition with the author of _Hamlet_. His own name
      coming after is such an anti-climax. "The plays of
      William Shakespeare?" says the reader--"O no! The
      plays of William Shakespeare Cockerill," and he throws
      the book aside. In wise pursuance of such views, Mr.
      John Milton Hengler, who not long since delighted us
      in this favored town, has never attempted to write an
      epic, but has chosen a new path and has excelled upon
      the tight-rope. A marked example of triumph over this
      is the case of Mr. Dante Gabriel Rosetti. On the face
      of the matter, I should have advised him to imitate
      the pleasing modesty of the last-named gentleman, and
      confine his ambition to the sawdust. But Mr. Rosetti
      has triumphed. He has even dared to translate from his
      mighty name-father; and the voice of fame supports him
      in his boldness.

=Exercise 215=

Turn back to Exercise 210, 1. How are the different paragraphs that you
have made connected?



NOT long ago the head of one of the biggest mail order firms in this
country said: "Business needs the boys and the girls. Do not let them
think they can be but cogs in the great system of wheels. More to-day
than at any previous time the world needs men and women who can speak
and write _themselves_ into English. Four hundred million dollars is
wasted every year in unprofitable advertising alone, and as much more in
bad handling of good prospects and loss of customers through inefficient
letters. We look to the future generation to conserve a part of this
enormous loss. If a single page advertisement in a single issue costs
$7500, what you say on that page is important. Look into any current
magazine, and you will be tremendously impressed with the importance of
English in this branch alone, not to mention its importance in letter

There is no greater power in business to-day than the ability to use
convincing English in correspondence and in advertising. Any one who can
write good letters, letters that the reader feels he must answer, has
success ahead of him, because the market of a good letter is practically
unrestricted. Wherever a letter can penetrate, it may create desire for
an article and make sales.

But what is a good letter? Nothing more than a bit of good English. Can
you write clear, direct, crisp, yet fluent English? Then you can write
good letters--but not till then.

In modern business the letter has become the advertiser, the salesman,
the collector, and the adjuster of claims. An advertisement must be
attractive; it must arouse the interest of the one who sees it. A
salesman must understand human nature; he must forestall objections by
showing the customer how he will gain by buying. The collector and the
adjuster of claims must be courteous and at the same time shrewd. If a
letter is to meet all of these requirements it cannot be dashed off at a
moment's notice. It must be thought out in detail and written carefully
to include all that should be expressed. This means, especially in a
sales letter:

1. An unusually worded opening that puts the writer's affairs in the
background and the reader's gain in the foreground. Begin with _you_,
not _we_. The reader is interested in himself, his own progress, his own
troubles, and not in the possessions of the writer, except as the writer
can show that those possessions affect him.

3. A clear, simply worded explanation of the purpose of the letter.

3. Proof of advantages to the reader.

4. Persuasion or inducement to act now.

5. Conclusion, making this action easy.

Above all, if a letter is to be good, it must not be too short. In the
pursuit of brevity too many pupils in business English make the mistake
of writing altogether too little to get the reader's attention; and if
his attention is not aroused, the letter fails. The letter should be
long enough to suggest interest in the welfare of the reader and
enthusiasm for the subject under discussion.

Enthusiasm in business involves knowledge both of your project and of
your customer. You cannot attempt to write a letter of any kind unless
you know the facts that require it. Perhaps it is a complaint that you
must try to settle. Without a knowledge of the facts, of the truth or
the untruth of the claim, how can you write the letter? Sometimes it
requires both time and study to gather the necessary details, but they
must be gathered.

When you have your details and begin writing, be sincere. You must be so
absolutely in earnest that the reader will at once feel and begin to
share your enthusiasm.

Knowledge of the person to whom you are writing is fully as important as
knowledge of your subject. You must get his point of view, understand
his character, and appeal to the qualities that you recognize in it, to
the desires or ambitions, that it shows. To a certain extent all of us
are alike. There are certain fundamental interests that we all possess;
these may safely be appealed to at almost all times. But our employment,
our habits of life, our ways of thinking make us different. The same
argument, probably, will not always bring satisfactory replies from a
manufacturer, a farmer, a judge, a minister or priest, a carpenter, and
a woman. Some people like to receive a long letter that goes carefully
into detail; others will not take the time to read such a letter. Each
customer must be studied. This is so difficult a matter that no one can
expect to learn it all at once.

Finally, from the first word to the last be courteous. No matter how
righteous your indignation, be courteous. You cannot afford to lose your
temper. Courtesy does not imply flattery nor a lack of truth. Your
letter can be strong and yet polite in tone. Lose your temper, and your
letter will probably fail. Keep your temper, show thoughtfulness for the
reader's interest, and your letter will more likely fulfill its purpose.

=Exercise 216--The Form of the Letter=

Before we look at some actual letters to judge of their effectiveness,
we must learn the conventional form of a letter, the parts which many
years of use have shown to be necessary. There are six parts to a formal
or business letter:

      1. The heading, which includes the writer's address
      and the date.

      2. The introduction, which includes the name and the
      address of the one to whom you are writing.

      3. The salutation; for example, Dear Sir:

      4. The body of the letter, the important part.

      5. The courteous close; for example, Yours truly,

      6. The signature.

Each part ends with a period except the salutation, which ends with a
colon, and the courteous close, which ends with a comma. The various
groups of words within the heading and the introduction are separated by

Why does the salutation end with a colon?

Why does the courteous close end with a comma?

The Arrangement

In the following, notice the spacing. If the heading is short, it is put
on one line; as,

    _Heading_                        Hilliard, Fla., June 30, 1914.

    _Introduction_        Mr. Thomas Barrett,
                            Boston, Mass.

    _Salutation_          Dear Sir:

    _Body_                     ....................................

    _Courteous close_                        Yours truly,

    _Signature_                                  Samuel Garth

If the heading is long, arrange it in one of the following ways:


                                       334 Lexington Ave., Chicago,
                                                      May 19, 1915.

    Mr. Thomas Barrett,
        Boston, Mass.
    Dear Sir:


    334 Lexington Ave.,
        Chicago, Ill., May 19, 1915.


             334 Lexington Ave.,
    Chicago, Ill., May 19, 1915.


    334 Lexington Ave.,
       Chicago, Ill.,
          May 19, 1915.

The superscription on the envelope is arranged and punctuated like the
introduction in the letter, except that the punctuation may be omitted
from the end of lines.

There is a growing tendency to "block" the different parts of a letter;
that is, to begin each item of each part directly below the first, with
no indentation.

There is also a tendency to use no abbreviations (except for titles like
_Mr._), the name of the month and of the state and the word _street_,
_avenue_, or _building_ being spelled out.

      NOTE.--The punctuation as shown in the examples given
      above is that in more prevalent use. Certain writers,
      however, advocate the omission from the formal parts
      of the letter of commas at the end of lines and of
      periods (except to show abbreviations).

Arrange the following headings, supplying capitals and punctuation

      1. 55 water st mobile ala june 16 19--

      2. calmar iowa september 1 19--

      3. 453 marquette building chicago ill jan 5 19--

      4. 123 salem st springfield mass june 23 19--

      5. highland park grand haven mich may 3 19--

      6. 220 broadway new york n y february 15 19--

      7. 78 main street portland oregon december 10 19--

      8. 32 lincoln st kansas city mo oct 2 19--

      9. room 15 1321 pennsylvania ave washington d c sept 2

      10. 25 chestnut st philadelphia pa april 14 19--

      11. 212 tribune building new york n y march 2 19--

      12. 98 dorchester ave boston mass feb 12 19--

      13. 24 milk st boston mass June 14 19--

      14. 231 west 39th st new york city march 4 19--

      15. 345 newark ave jersey city n j (supply date)

      16. 44 fifth ave detroit mich sept 1 19--

      17. 102 west 42d st denver colorado (date)

      18. Explain the difference between (16) and (17).
      Notice that the name of the street in each case is a
      numeral. Why is it spelled out in (16) and not in

=Exercise 217=

Supplying the name of the firm and the business engaged in, write letter
heads using the items given in Exercise 216. For example:

          55 Water Street

                           Decorah, Iowa, -- 19

When may & be used?

What is the advantage of using a letter head?

In making letter heads, imagine you are a printer. Arrange the items so
that they may show to the best advantage. Let your lines of printing or
writing be of different lengths. Add any details that you wish, such as
trade-mark designs or the names of officers.

Arrange and punctuate:

      1. citronelle business mens association citronelle
      alabama may 2 19-- mr john harvey 19 e monroe st
      rochester n y dear sir

      2. 173 broadway new york June 10 19-- mr walter thomas
      191 e main st waltham mass dear sir

      3. 25 broad st maplewood n h messrs hausen & ottman 18
      la salle station chicago ill gentlemen (supply date)

      4. john randolph & co druggist 14 jefferson st
      charleston s c jan 8 19-- gerhard mennen & co newark n
      j gentlemen (letter head)

      5. 43 south 5th ave madison wis aug 8 19-- the white
      mountain freezer co nashua n h gentlemen

Address an envelope for each of the above, using the following as a

    |                                          |
    |                                          |
    |                                          |
    |                                          |
    |           Barrett, Brown & Co.,          |
    |                     55 Water Street,     |
    |                         Decorah, Iowa.   |
    |                                          |

=Exercise 218--Cautions=

_The Heading_

Always date your letters.

Give your full address, even if you are certain that the one to whom you
are writing knows it.

_The Introduction_

The person addressed must always be given a title. If you address one
man, use _Mr._; if a firm, use _Messrs._; if a woman, _Miss_ or _Mrs._
If a man has a title like _Professor_ or _Doctor_, it should be used,
and _Mr._, of course, omitted.

_Hon._ (Honorable) is used for a person who holds, or who has held, a
public office. It is a very formal title.

_Esq._(Esquire) is a legal form used by some correspondents in
addressing any man. It is an English usage. It always follows the name,
and, if it is used, _Mr._ is omitted. In this country _Mr._ is

In writing to a man in his official capacity, the following form is
correct when there is no street number or when the title is short.
Notice that _Mr._ is omitted.

    G. N. Fratt, Cashier,
      First National Bank,
        Racine, Wis.

The following is correct when the title is long:

    Mr. John Frederick Pierce,
      Ass't. Engineer of Bridges and Buildings,
        607 White Building, Seattle, Wash.

Notice that in the last example, the city and the state are put on the
same line as the street in order to make the three lines of about the
same length. Four lines might have been used.

_The Salutation_

If you address one man, the salutation is _Dear Sir_; as,

    Mr. John Pierce,
        Seattle, Wash.

    Dear Sir:

If you address a firm, the salutation is _Gentlemen_; as,

    Messrs. Brownleigh & King,
        Portland, Oregon.


If you address a woman, married or single, the salutation in business
letters is _Dear Madam_; as,


    Mrs. John Pierce,
        Seattle, Wash.

    Dear Madam:


    Miss Florence Pierce,
        Seattle, Wash.

    Dear Madam:

A more familiar form of salutation is either of the following:


    Miss Florence Pierce,
        Seattle, Wash.
    My dear Miss Pierce:


    Miss Florence Pierce,
        Seattle, Wash.
    Dear Miss Pierce:

In using _Hon._, the salutation is usually _Sir_.

_The Courteous Close_

The courteous close corresponds in tone to the salutation. If the
salutation is _Dear Sir_, _Gentlemen_, or _Dear Madam_, the courteous
close should be one of the following:

    Yours truly,
    Yours very truly,
    Very truly yours,
    Respectfully yours,
    Yours respectfully,
    Sincerely yours,
    Very sincerely yours,

If the salutation is _Sir_, the courteous close should be _Respectfully
yours_ or _Yours respectfully_.

If the body of the letter and the courteous close do not agree in tone,
the effect is often ridiculous. Suppose, for instance, that the
courteous close of (2) under Exercise 220 were _Yours respectfully_.
What would be the effect?

_The Signature_

If an unmarried woman is signing a business letter, she should avoid
confusion by prefixing (Miss) to her name.

A married woman should sign her own name, as, _Alice Pierce_; she should
indicate her title, as _Mrs. John F. Pierce_, either below the other or
at one side.

No other title should be prefixed to a signature.

If a letter is signed by the name of a firm, the signature of the one
who dictated the letter is usually added; as,

    Yours very truly,
        Smith Lumber Co.
            by ----

This sort of signature gives a letter the "personal touch." Explain.

Folding a Letter

Business letter paper is about eight by ten inches. In folding a letter
sheet, (1) turn the lower edge up to about one-eighth of an inch from
the top; press the fold firmly, keeping the edges even; (2) turn the
paper so that the folded edge is at your _left_ hand; (3) fold _from_
you a little less than one-third the width of the sheet; (4) fold the
upper edge _down_ toward you so that it projects a trifle beyond the
folded edge. Without turning it over, pick it up and insert it in the
envelope, putting in _first_ the edge that was folded last.

Write the address and the salutation for:

      1. A business house in your town.

      2. Mr. John R. Tobin, president of the Detroit State
      Bank, Detroit, Mich.

      3. Miss Mabel Gunther, Shullsburg, Wis.

      4. Professor C. M. Watson, Harvard College, Cambridge,

      5. John F. Campbell, Manager Bond Department, First
      Trust and Savings Bank, Boston, Mass.

      6. Taylor and Critchfield, Chicago, Ill.

      7. Mrs. Thomas D. MacDonald, 126 E. Second Street,
      Washington, Ia.

Write the courteous close and the signature for:

      1. A letter from a business house in your town signed
      by F. R. Wilson.

      2. A letter from Miss Mabel Gunther (2 above).

      3. A letter from Professor C. M. Watson (4 above).

      4. A letter signed by John F. Campbell (5 above).

      5. A letter from Taylor and Critchfield signed by you

      6. A letter from Mrs. Thomas D. MacDonald (7 above).

=Exercise 219--Ordering Goods=

If an order includes a number of separate items, it is usually written
on a separate sheet of paper. Firms often supply blanks for this
purpose. If the order is short, it forms part of the letter. In any
case, each item is placed on a separate line, so that the items may be
checked as the order is filled. In the following, notice the arrangement
and the punctuation:

                         Hamilton, Montana, Feb. 16, 1914.

    Messrs. MacBride & Dickens,
        New York, N. Y.


      At your earliest convenience please ship me the
      following via the Northern Express Co. from St. Paul:

    6 doz. A 68 assorted sizes Men's Black Caps @ 1.50  9.00
    5 doz. D 71 Men's Cotton Handkerchiefs      @  .60  3.00
    5 doz. X 30 Men's Linen Handkerchiefs       @ 2.00 10.00

      Enclosed find a draft on New York for twenty-two

                                       Yours truly,
                                              S. D. Jensen

Write the letters outlined below:

      1. Order fifty copies of the Business Arithmetic that
      you are using. How shall you pay for them?

      2. Clip from a newspaper an advertisement of
      groceries. Imagine that you are a housekeeper, and
      spend ten dollars to the best advantage, ordering
      several articles.

      3. Bring in an advertisement of household
      necessities--linens, tinware, etc. Spend five dollars,
      buying several articles.

      4. Bring in an advertisement of furniture. Write a
      letter ordering enough to furnish a parlor or a dining
      room. Have the amount charged to your account.

      5. A magazine offers one of several books as a premium
      with a year's subscription. Answer the advertisement.

=Exercise 220--The Tone of the Letter=

Undue familiarity or an evidence of loss of temper will at once
frustrate the object of a letter. A dignified letter never shows either.
Just what constitutes a dignified letter is hard to define but fairly
easy to feel. This much is certain: it must be simple in structure,
direct in its wording, and so sincere in feeling that no one will doubt
its truth. Any extravagance of language, therefore, has no place in a
dignified letter.

Study the following to see whether they show dignity:


                               Tuesday, 5 P.M.

    Miss Sarah Howard,
        Denver, Colorado.

    Dear Madam:

      I have a great piece of CONFIDENTIAL news for you.

      Take advantage of the remarkable offer our company is
      making to you, and it will mean thousands of DOLLARS
      in your pocket. Understand that this offer is not open
      to every one. You have been especially selected. You
      are the only one in your town who will hear of this
      remarkable offer.


    Elsworth, Brown & Co.,
        120 Jefferson Ave.,
            Detroit, Mich.


      What is the matter with our last order? Have you
      people gone out of business, or are you asleep? If we
      don't get that order by the third, you'll never hear
      from us again.


A letter to Mrs. Bixby, written Nov. 21, 1864.

      Dear Madam:

      I have been shown in the file of the War Department a
      statement of the Adjutant General of Massachusetts
      that you are the mother of five sons who have died
      gloriously on the field of battle. I feel how weak and
      fruitless must be any words of mine which should
      beguile you from the grief of a loss so overwhelming.
      But I cannot refrain from tendering to you the
      consolation that may be found in the thanks of the
      republic they died to save. I pray that our Heavenly
      Father may assuage the anguish of your bereavement,
      and leave you only the cherished memory of the loved
      and lost and the solemn pride that must be yours to
      have laid so costly a sacrifice upon the altar of

                Yours very sincerely and respectfully,
                                       Abraham Lincoln

=Exercise 221=

In writing the following letters, be definite and courteous:

      1. You have advertised your eight-room, furnace-heated
      house for sale for $3,500. A letter of inquiry desires
      particulars. Answer it.

      2. You live on a side street, which for the last week
      has not been lighted. Write to the editor of the
      paper, or to a town official, whichever you think
      would remedy the matter. Be courteous. A letter to an
      editor is begun: To the Editor of ----.

      3. The cars on which you ride every day are very
      dirty. Write to the mayor. He is addressed: Hon. ----.

      4. You wish to have a telephone installed. Make

      5. Two weeks ago you wrote (4). Still you have no
      telephone. Write again, stating the substance of (4)
      and asking the reason for the delay.

      6. Write the telephone company's reply. Be very
      courteous. What good reason could you give for the

      7. You understand that your Congressman has the
      privilege of recommending a young man for the entrance
      examinations of your state university. Write to him,
      asking that he recommend you. Remember that he is a
      stranger to you. What should you tell him?

=Exercise 222.--Mistaken Ideas in Letter Writing=

It is too bad that, to a number of people, the term _business letter_
conveys the idea of a colorless, stilted composition full of trite and
almost meaningless business formulas. No one reads such a letter unless
he has to, and surely that is not the kind one should practice writing.
Below are given a few of the expressions that should be avoided.

I. Sometimes a writer tries to impress a reader with the volume of
business he is doing by showing haste in his correspondence; as, in

1. Omitting the subject; as,

    _Wrong_: In reply to your question will say ----
    _Right_: In reply to your question I will say ----

2. Omitting articles and prepositions; as,

    _Wrong_: Direct package care Western Canning Co.
    _Right_: Direct the package in care of the Western Canning Co.

3. Using abbreviations

      _a._ Of the introduction. Write out the introduction
      in detail, both name and address. Abbreviating this
      part of the letter is highly discourteous.

      _b._ In the body of the letter; as,

    _Wrong_: The Co. sent a no. of large orders last year.

      _c._ Of the courteous close; as,

    _Wrong_: Yours etc.
    _Wrong_: Yours resp'y.

4. Using a phrase as a sentence; as,

      _Wrong_: Yours of the 6th at hand and contents noted.

It is much better to refer indirectly to the receipt of a letter; as,

      In the order you sent us on Aug. 5  ----

The same sort of mistake is seen in the all too frequent closing:

    _Wrong_: Hoping that we hear from you soon,
                                               Yours truly,
    _Right_: Hoping that we hear from you soon, we are
                                               Yours truly,

Why use such an expression at all? Avoid _hoping_, _trusting_,
_awaiting_, or any other artificial closing.

II. Sometimes a writer makes an effort to be extremely courteous, but
fails because he uses hackneyed wording; as,

      1. _Kindly._--A good word in itself but greatly

      2. _We beg to state._--Never use _beg_ in this sense.
      You have no right to beg attention; earn it.

      3. _Your favor_, _your esteemed favor_, _your valued
      favor_.--Say, _Your letter_.

      4. _Will you be so good as to._--Belongs in the class
      with _beg to state_. Make your requests courteously,
      but directly.

      5. _Would say._--Avoid this expression.

III. Sometimes in an effort to be clear a writer uses _same_ as a
pronoun; as,

      _Wrong_: If the books are not satisfactory, return

This is one of the worst of the distinctly business blunders. _Same_ is
never a pronoun. Write to a man as you talk to him and you will not use
_same_ in this way. (See Exercise 88.)

IV. Sometimes in order to get attention a writer will use a liberal
sprinkling of dashes and capitals, probably in imitation of advertising
copy. Better than such artificial means is the attraction of a well
worded letter.

       *       *       *       *       *

Criticise the following letters, pointing out all the expressions that
should be improved. Rewrite the letters.



      We beg to acknowledge your esteemed favor of Apr. 6.
      In regard to shoes received by you in poor shape as
      per complaint, would say that on receipt of same will
      try to locate cause of trouble. If due to defect in
      manufacture, will credit you with value of same.

      Hoping this is satisfactory to you,

                                     Yours truly,


      Dear Sir:

      Yours of March 18 at hand. Referring to matter of
      short weight, I beg to call your attention to C & A
      car 87324, which you loaded for us March 7 at your
      Auburn mine, gross weight 121,400 lbs. This car was
      check weighed at Peoria March 11 on your company's
      scales and showed gross weight 113,200 lbs. or
      shortage 8,200 lbs. Having investigated car, I find
      same was in good order and no indication of leakage,
      and it would appear to be a case of carelessness at
      time of loading. Therefore will request you to kindly
      send me cr. memo, on 8,200 lbs.

                                          Yours truly,

=Exercise 223--The Sales Letter=

The object of the sales letter is to make the reader buy. How can you do
it? To begin with, get his point of view--that of the user. Then imagine
that he is present and talk to him on paper. Get his interest with your
opening sentence. Explain what you have to sell. Show him that he needs
it. Whet his desire to possess it, and, finally, make it easy and
imperative for him to order today.

The opening paragraph is all-important. It may make or mar a letter. If
it is stilted or lacks directness, if it hasn't the personal, natural
tone that makes the reader feel you are talking to him, or if it is
stereotyped in its wording, the letter will probably go to the

Contrast the two letters that follow. Both were written to accompany a
catalogue. Notice that the first begins and ends in a stereotyped way;
has too few details to arouse interest; asks for an order but has no
inducement to give one now; and, throughout, lacks the personal,
convincing tone that makes the second a good selling letter. Notice that
the second begins with _you_, not with _we_, and keeps the same _you_
attitude to the end.

Turn back to the five essentials of a letter given on page 230. See if
you can differentiate the five in the second letter.


      Dear Sir:

      In compliance with your request of recent date we are
      sending you our latest general catalogue, inasmuch as
      we do not know which department catalogue you wish. We
      also have specialized books for jewelry, furniture,
      hardware, and drygoods. On request we shall be glad to
      send any one of these also.

      We carry the biggest line of Variety Store Leaders in
      the country, and our goods are always of the best. We
      take particular pains to acquaint our customers with
      the latest thing in the trade, and to give
      business-getting suggestions. Our Co-operative Bureau
      cheerfully answers all inquiries.

      Trusting we shall hear from you with an order, we are

                                       Yours truly,


      Dear Sir:

      Under separate cover you will receive a copy of our
      latest general catalogue, published especially for
      owners of Variety Stores. We are sending you the
      general catalogue because we do not know whether you
      are interested in a particular department. However, if
      your business specializes in any one class of
      goods--such as jewelry, furniture, hardware, or
      drygoods--we shall be glad to supply you with the
      departmental book you need. On the enclosed postal
      card simply check the one you wish, and mail the card
      to-day. We shall forward the catalogue at once.

      You may know that we always have on hand between two
      hundred and two hundred and fifty different Variety
      Store Leaders, affording you a wide selection of
      high-class goods of the finest materials, the neatest
      workmanship, and the latest styles at very low prices.
      After glancing over the catalogue you will agree with
      us that in every department of our huge business a
      dollar has full purchasing power.

      A unique feature of our business, moreover, is the
      Co-operative Bureau, which you will find a decided
      help in building up your business. Each week the
      Bureau sends out a Bulletin, acquainting our customers
      with important business events in the larger trade
      centers, with suggestions for new advertising and
      selling methods, with notices of new stock additions
      that make especially good leaders, and with advice how
      best to display them. The Bureau invites
      correspondence and sends customers, absolutely free
      of charge, advice on new store arrangements, window
      decorations, and advertising plans.

      Your first order makes you a co-operating member and
      entitles you to all the privileges of the Bureau and
      the services of an institution with wide experience
      and with a recognized reputation for square-dealing.
      Fill out the enclosed order blank, mail it to-day, and
      receive this week's Bulletin by return mail. It
      contains several splendid suggestions for novel,
      inexpensive advertising.

                                      Yours truly,

The letter given above is personal and yet dignified. Usually that is
the best style to use, and the one that we wish to practice writing.
Sometimes, however, results can best be obtained by using the colloquial
or even jocular tone illustrated in the following letter sent to a
retailer in Ottumwa, Iowa:

      Dear Sir:

      We sell cheese, a new brand, the finest kind you ever
      tasted, put up in the most attractive package, to sell
      at the most attractive price. Called Par Excellence
      Creme, wrapped in silver foil with a gold label, it
      sells for fifteen cents and costs you ten. Ever hear a
      better proposition?

      Better buy now before your rival gets ahead of you.
      Everybody's calling for it. Why? Because we're
      advertising everywhere. It has been out only one
      month, and yet sales have trebled our highest
      expectations. Half the sales of a new cheese depend on
      the package and the price; the other half depend on
      the quality. All three are right in Par Excellence

      Mr. S. R. King, our Iowa representative, tried to see
      you last week, but, unfortunately, he was unable to
      find you in. Now, he carries a full line of our
      samples, and it's worth the time it takes just to see
      how good they look, even if you don't care to buy. How
      about it? Don't you want to see them? Mr. King will be
      in Ottumwa next Wednesday.

                                           Yours truly,

This style is commonly called "snappy." It has its advantage, but should
be used only rarely. Above all, if you do use it, avoid the dash. Notice
how the dash spoils the following:

      Dear Sir:

      Have you ever eaten that king of nuts--the budded or
      grafted paper shell pecan--the nut whose kernel is as
      nutritious as beef and as sweet and delicious as
      honey--the nut that is so delightfully palatable and
      so wholesome, the discriminating epicures of two
      continents have set their seal of approval on
      it--creating a demand that literally cannot be
      supplied--even at prices ranging as high as a dollar a

To use the dash in this way seems to imply that you do not understand
punctuation or sentence structure. If the paragraph is rewritten,
removing the dashes and dividing into sentences, we get a much stronger
appeal. The dash makes for weakness rather than for strength because it
suggests hysterics.

      Dear Sir:

      Have you ever eaten the king of nuts, the budded or
      grafted paper shell pecan? The kernel is as nutritious
      as beef and as sweet as honey. It is so wholesome and
      so delicious that discriminating epicures of two
      continents have set their approval on it, creating a
      demand that literally cannot be supplied, even at
      prices ranging as high as a dollar a pound.

A very good way to open a sales letter is to get the attention by a bit
of narration containing direct quotations, as shown in the following:

      Dear Sir:

      "It saves seven per cent."

      So said Mr. John H. Samuels, a manufacturer of
      Birmingham, Ala.

      He had watched his bookkeepers at their work, and it
      seemed to him that their main business was turning and
      flattening the springy pages of the bulgy ledger. Ten
      seconds were wasted, he said, every time a page was
      turned--almost every time an entry was made--and
      hardly more than two minutes were needed to make the
      entry. That was enough. Each of his twenty men was
      wasting seven per cent of his time.

      "Try hinged paper," suggested the head bookkeeper.

      Accordingly, Mr. Samuels tried several kinds of hinged
      paper, only to find that the hinged section tore,
      broke, or cracked. The time that the clerks now saved
      in flattening the leaves they wasted in rewriting the
      pages that had torn out.

      He had no more faith in hinged papers by the time that
      he saw the advertisement of the Benton hinge. "As
      strong as the rest of the paper!" he scoffed. "We'll
      see about this!"

      "Send me a sample," he wrote us. "If your ad tells the
      truth, you get my order."

      We sent it. He tested it. He pulled it, crumpled it,
      ruled on it, erased it on both sides, and even creased
      it. But it did not break.

      Very cautiously and doubtingly he tried the paper in
      one ledger for one month. He found that the book
      rolled flat whenever it was opened, that no hinge
      tore, and that every page could be used from binder to
      outer edge.

      "It does the work," he told our salesman at the end of
      the month. "It saves seven per cent. Send me a

      If you, too, are paying seven per cent of your
      bookkeepers' salaries for waste motion, let us send
      you a sample. It will cut down your expenses as it cut
      down Mr. Samuels'.

      Remember that you put yourself under no obligation to
      us. You take no risks. Simply promise to use the paper
      if we send it free.

                                         Yours truly,

=Exercise 224=

Study the following letters and letter openings for good and bad


      Dear Sir:

      People who have not had much of what the world calls
      "good luck" find it hard to believe an opportunity
      when it comes--they don't feel sure about it--on the
      other hand, people who have had many opportunities
      have a natural confidence that every opening presented
      is intended for them and they grasp it with an
      assurance that begets success.

      You may be one of those who have not had many chances
      to do what you would like to do and therefore not sure
      that my offer is an opportunity. For that reason let
      us again go over the points of advantage....


      Dear Sir:

      I am taking the liberty of writing you again because I
      fear you do not fully realize the value of the
      proposition I am offering you. Why, man, it's the
      opportunity of a life-time!... (extended for three


      Dear Sir:

      If we wanted to know just what kind of person you are,
      do you know where we'd go to find out? We'd ask your
      old friends and neighbors, who know all about you from
      close association.

      If you want to find out about us--what we are doing
      and what improvements we are making in southern
      Florida--the best place to get this information is
      from the people of Florida, who know the facts from
      first-hand observation. The enclosed clipping is an
      editorial expression--not a paid advertisement--from
      the Ft. Meyers Press. The editor is under no
      obligation to us and is merely expressing the opinion
      of the people here. . . .


                                     New York, Right Now.

                       A DEAL OF IMPORTANCE

      It affects YOU! It is so important I must forego the
      pleasure of a personal letter in order to write 5,000
      people to-day--500 of whom--the wide-awake ones who
      read this letter through--will be able to coin it into
      dollars--real money--money you can spend.

      What we now offer you has never before been offered by
      any body in the world. It is a combination we are
      fortunate enough, just at this time, to be able to
      offer you, because of an important deal we have just
      closed--a deal that may easily spell dollars to you.
      Read every word of this letter--it may be--possibly
      is--the only thing to make you a successful and
      wealthy man. . . .


                                   R F D 4 Logansport, Ind.

      Mr. M. H. Smith, etc.
      Dear Sir:

      I acknowledge getting your telegram over the telephone
      yesterday, and if I had been in funds would have
      answered by return telegram, but such is life. I
      accommodated a friend by loaning him $750, which will
      probably be paid the last week of never. I thank you
      for the offer, and when I am in funds will call on you
      either personally or by letter.

                                     Very truly yours,

=Exercise 225--Opening an Account=

Imagine that you are manager of a wholesale dry goods house. You have
received an order from P. H. Powley, 23 Water street, Franklin, Mich. As
you do not know Mr. Powley, write him, stating in as courteous a way as
possible that, since this is his first order, he must either furnish
references or send a remittance. Make your letter direct and personal.
Include some good selling talk.

The exercise above illustrates the method that might be adopted in case
of a small order. If Mr. Powley had sent a large order, the wholesale
house would no doubt consult a financial agency to discover his
financial condition; his _rating_, it is called. If his name were not
found in the book of the agency, the wholesale house would require Mr.
Powley to send a correct account of his financial standing; that is, a
list of his assets and liabilities. If he refused, they would not do
business with him. Why? The principal financial agencies are Bradstreet
and Dun. Besides these, there are many mercantile agencies. They give
any information that is required concerning a business man. All such
information is confidential.

In connection with this exercise study the letters that follow:

                  REQUEST TO OPEN AN ACCOUNT

                               Madison, Wis., Sept. 16, 1915.

      Wilson, Brighton, & Co.,
        68 Broadway, New York.


      Until recently I was in the employ of Samuel Stratton
      & Co. of Milwaukee, but I have now started a business
      of my own, for which I should like to open an account
      with your house. As to my business ability and
      financial standing, I refer you to my late employers,
      Samuel Stratton & Co. of Milwaukee, and to the Madison
      State Bank of this city.

      If on investigation you decide to accept me as a
      customer, will you please send the goods on the
      enclosed order, deducting your usual discount for
      cash? Upon receipt of the goods and of the invoice, I
      shall at once forward a sight draft on the Broadway
      National Bank of your city.

                               Respectfully yours,
                                      George R. Scott


      Dear Sir:

      In seeking information through the usual outside
      channels for basing credit for you, we find our
      reports have not been sufficient in detail to permit
      us to arrange this matter satisfactorily. These
      reports all speak very highly of you in a personal
      way, but do not give us the required information

      We assume you want our goods for your Christmas trade.
      It is imperative, therefore, that we ship immediately.
      We suggest that on this order you send us a draft, in
      consideration of which we shall be pleased to allow
      you a special discount of 4%. Understand that we
      suggest these terms on this first order only, as we
      feel confident that we can easily arrange a credit
      basis for future shipments. We sincerely trust you
      will take no offense at the above suggestion, as we
      have made it in your interest.

                               Yours very truly,


      Dear Sir:

      Thank you for the order you sent us yesterday. Its
      size confirms the belief we have always held that
      D---- is a rapidly growing business center, the right
      place for a retailer to settle and prosper.

      After careful consideration of your letter, however,
      we have decided to hold back your order for a short
      time. You cannot regret this more than we do. We do
      not like to lose your account, and yet, under the
      circumstances, we feel we cannot send you the order.
      We hope you can sell the property you mentioned in
      your letter and thus clear up the balances against
      you. Then we shall gladly open an account for you.

      We are especially sorry we cannot send the order at
      once, as you no doubt need your fall stock now. Don't
      you think it would be the best solution if you would
      send us your remittance for $250 now, so that we may
      send the goods? We know what it means to buy in the
      open market so late in the season. We assure you that
      on receipt of a remittance the order will go through

                                      Yours truly,

=Exercise 226=

      1. Order from the Grand Rapids Furniture Co., Grand
      Rapids, Mich., 5 mahogany rockers, 1 Turkish rocker, 2
      brass beds, 12 dining room chairs, 2 dining room
      tables. Supply catalogue numbers and give shipping

      2. The Grand Rapids Furniture Co. replies,
      acknowledging the receipt of the above order (give
      date) but stating that you did not mention how you
      would pay for the goods. On receipt of a certified
      check to cover the amount, or of the names of two
      reliable references, they will be pleased to send you
      the order. Make this a good sales letter.

=Exercise 227=

      1. You are a florist of Rockford, Ill. Write to S. M.
      Porter & Son, 155 S. State Street, Chicago, saying
      that this fall you are opening a new department of
      Landscape Gardening. Judging by advance orders, you
      will need approximately 200 shade trees, maples and
      poplars; 200 fruit trees of various kinds; and several
      hundred flowering shrubs. You will probably duplicate
      the order in the spring. Ask for terms, saying that
      you would like to open an account. Give two

      2. S. M. Porter & Son reply, acknowledging your order,
      and saying that they will be pleased to do business
      with you on sixty days' credit, terms 50 and 5%. If
      this is satisfactory, they will add your name to their
      books. Make it a sales letter.

=Exercise 228=

      1. Samuel Radford of Douglas, Mich., wishes to buy a
      motor boat. He orders of the Modern Steel Boat Co.,
      manufacturers of high grade motor boats, Detroit,
      Mich., boat No. 172. page 425, catalogue No. 10. The
      price as listed is $192. He accepts the offer they
      made him ---- (date), of ---- (terms) and encloses a
      certified check for the amount. He gives full shipping
      directions. (Be sure you can do this.) He asks how
      cheaply he can obtain cushions for the boat.

      2. The company reply: They have shipped the boat. (Is
      this sufficiently detailed?) A set of new cushions to
      fit the boat costs $25. They have a set of secondhand
      cushions in excellent condition for $15. If Radford
      desires either of these, he should wire at once at
      their expense.

      3. Telegraph his decision.

=Exercise 229=

      1. Messrs. Lee and Watkins, druggists of Gallon, Ohio,
      wish to open an account with Pierce, King & Co., 17 S.
      Albany St., Baltimore, Md., for the purchase of large
      orders on ninety days' credit. They say they do a very
      large business as they have the only drug store within
      a radius of several miles. They give several names as
      references. Write the letter.

      2. You are a traveling salesman for Pierce, King & Co.
      They write you at the Union Hotel, Columbus, telling
      you of the foregoing letter, a copy of which they
      enclose, and asking you to investigate the standing of
      Messrs. Lee and Watkins.

      Reply that you visited the drug store in question on a
      Tuesday (give date), because in your experience the
      early part of the week is very quiet in the business
      of small towns. Say that two clerks were kept busy
      constantly and that several people spoke of the
      enormous business done on Saturdays and market days.
      The firm has good credit in the town. You are
      satisfied that the gentlemen in question are reliable.

      3. Write from Pierce, King & Co. to Messrs. Lee and
      Watkins, acknowledging the receipt of their letter
      ---- (date) and expressing pleasure in being able to
      enter their name on the firm's books. Write as
      courteous a letter as you can.

      4. Imagine that the salesman's reply (2) had been
      unfavorable. Write to Messrs. Lee and Watkins,
      refusing them credit but trying to get their cash

=Exercise 230--Letters Requesting Payment=

It is better not to make threats in a collection letter except as a last
resort, and then the threat should be carried out. It is advisable in a
first letter of the kind to take for granted that a customer is honest
and that the failure to pay is an oversight. If some inducement for
further purchases is included in the letter in the form of good selling
talk, a remittance will probably be sent, and perhaps another order as

If the customer, however, takes no notice of the first letter, a second,
making the request for payment more urgent, may follow. The tone of the
second letter and subsequent letters will depend on the value that you
put on the customer's trade. Finally, if he ignores all of these
letters, dally no longer. Say that if payment is not made by a certain
date, you will draw on him at sight. If he does not honor the draft, put
the matter in the hands of your attorney.

       *       *       *       *       *

Study the following letters. Select from them those that you think would
make a good series:


      Dear Sir:

      Ten days ago we mailed you a statement of your
      account, which was due at that time. As we have heard
      nothing from you, we have concluded that the letter
      must have miscarried. We are, therefore, enclosing a
      duplicate of the former statement. We trust that it
      will reach you safely and have your prompt attention.

                                       Yours very truly,


      Dear Sir:

      Evidently you, too, are experiencing the increase in
      business that our customers in general are reporting.
      In the rush of orders you probably have overlooked the
      fact that your account with us is three weeks
      over-due. Your remittances hitherto have been very
      prompt, and we trust that this reminder will be
      treated equally promptly.

      By the way, have you found that the Holeless Socks are
      coming up to our guarantee? From all parts of the
      country we are getting flattering reports in the form
      of big orders. We feel that they merit their
      popularity, and with the extensive advertising
      campaign that we have inaugurated they are bound to
      continue in favor.

      We are especially prepared at present to give you an
      attractive price, enabling you to realize large
      profits on these socks. If you need more of them, we
      can make shipment at once.

                                   Yours very truly,


      Dear Sir:

      In looking over our accounts, we find that your
      purchases have lately been increasing considerably and
      that your payments have been few and unimportant.
      Statements have been sent regularly, we believe, but
      have probably been overlooked because of the stress of
      your other affairs. Such things, of course, can happen
      with any of us, especially when we have many other
      matters to look after.

      We have always valued your account, and we greatly
      desire our pleasant relations to continue. As the
      amount that you owe us is now long over-due, we would
      appreciate your returning the enclosed bill to be
      receipted during the next few days.

                                      Yours very truly,


      Dear Sir:

      Your attention has twice been called to your account
      for $----, but for some reason you do not reply to our

      Our terms, as you know, are thirty days, and we cannot
      allow a longer extension except by special
      arrangement. We have borne the matter very patiently,
      realizing that unusual conditions sometimes prevent
      one's doing as he desires. At the same time, it is
      entirely out of reason that your account should still
      be owing at this time. May we not expect your
      remittance by return mail?

      Should we not hear from you by the 15th, we shall draw
      on you, and, if you have not remitted in the meantime,
      please provide for our draft upon its arrival.

                                            Yours truly,


      Dear Sir:

      On March 15 we drew on you for $250. Our draft has
      been returned to us by the Blank Bank, unpaid.

      Your account is long past due, and, although we are
      willing to do almost anything to accommodate our
      customers, we feel that in your case the time for
      concessions has passed. We desire your check at once
      for the balance due us.

      You are credited with using considerable money in your
      business, and it would seem that you should without
      difficulty be able to take care of amounts such as you
      owe us. If we do not hear from you by April 1, we
      shall send a second draft. If you permit this to be
      returned unpaid, we shall be compelled to take action
      to force collection. We wish to express the hope,
      however, that you will not allow this to be done.

                                       Yours truly,

=Exercise 231=

Letter (2) above is written primarily to get a check for the over-due
account and incidentally to get another order. Suppose that the customer
sends an order and no money. You do not wish to extend further credit
until the old balance is paid. Write a tactful letter, saying that you
will hold back the order until you receive a check to pay the over-due

=Exercise 232=

Write the letters in the following transaction:

      1. J. F. Brookmeyer, Peru, Ind., is a dealer in shoes.
      He opened an account with you a month ago. He has
      purchased shoes to the amount of $250. You rendered an
      account on the first of the month, two weeks ago.
      Write a letter saying that you do not carry over
      accounts from month to month, as your small margin of
      profit makes it impossible for you to carry an
      irregular account. Make it a courteous sales letter as
      well as a collection letter.

      2. J. H. Brookmeyer sends a certified check for the
      full amount, apologizing for the delay.

=Exercise 233=

      1. John R. Phillips, 32 New York Building, Seattle,
      Washington, owes you $470. Write him, saying that you
      need the money. Give a good reason. Make it a
      courteous, friendly letter.

      2. Mr. Phillips has not answered (1). Write him again,
      saying that if you do not get a remittance by ----,
      you will draw on him at sight.

      3. Your bank notifies you that your draft has been
      returned unpaid. Write Phillips, asking for an
      explanation. Say that unless you hear by ----, you
      will bring suit.

      4. Phillips writes an apologetic letter, giving
      illness as the reason for his non-payment. He says he
      was in the hospital and did not receive letters (1)
      and (2). He encloses fifty dollars and promises to pay
      at least half the balance next month, the full amount
      within sixty days. Write his letter.

      5. Accept this offer.

=Exercise 234--Answering Complaints=

      1. A mail order house discovered that its files
      contained the names of 10,000 people who had once been
      customers but who had not bought anything for the last
      two or three years. Write a letter in the name of the
      manager frankly asking why the customer has stopped
      buying. Advertise the stock.

      2. One correspondent in reply demands a return of $16,
      which he had paid for a coat that was "not worth a
      cent." How would you reply to this letter so that the
      one making the complaint would send in an order? Write
      the letter.

In connection with this exercise study the following letter:

      Dear Sir:

      We wish to acknowledge your letter of April 16, in
      which you say that on April 14 you received a bill for
      five S & Q Railway bonds, which Mr. Wensley had sold
      you on the 11th at 100 and interest; that you sent us
      your check for the amount on the same day; and that on
      the 16th, two days afterward, you received a letter
      from us, offering a new block of these bonds at 99 and

      This complication was brought about through a peculiar
      chain of circumstances, an explanation of which, we
      feel, is only just both to you and to us. When Mr.
      Wensley came to the office on Saturday, the 12th, he
      told us that he had your order for five of these bonds
      at 100¼ and interest. The market price was then 100
      and interest, and we were very glad to give you the
      benefit of the more favorable price. At that time we
      had no intimation that more of these bonds were
      coming on the market. Quite unexpectedly on Monday we
      received notice from our Boston office that they had
      in view a new block of the bonds. Even at that time we
      did not know definitely that we would get them. On
      Tuesday, again quite unexpectedly, we were instructed
      by our Boston office that the bonds had been secured
      and were to be offered immediately at 99 and interest.
      So suddenly did the entire transaction take place that
      we were unable to prepare a new circular, and on
      Tuesday night we merely sent out a letter, telling our
      customers that we had an additional block of these
      bonds. In fact, the new circular will not be ready
      until about noon of to-morrow.

      We realize that you should have been informed of the
      new price. The bonds, however, came on the market so
      quickly and in taking care of the details of the
      offering we were so busy that the matter,
      unfortunately, was overlooked. We are glad, therefore,
      to make adjustment of the price now by having our
      banking department send you our check for $50.

      It is unnecessary for us to say, we presume, that we
      regret this occurrence and to assure you that had we
      known of the new bonds on Saturday we would have
      advised you to hold off your purchase until the
      offering was ready. We feel that you know us and the
      policy of our house well enough to be sure that we
      would not willfully take advantage of you in this way.
      We trust that the arrangement that we have made
      satisfactorily straightens out the matter.

                                  Yours very truly,

=Exercise 235=

1. What is the advantage of the policy shown in the following suggestion
from _System_?

      The manager of a retail establishment says: "We never
      refuse to refund money. If a dissatisfied customer
      returns a purchase, before we ask what the trouble is
      we refund his money gladly. When he is free to walk
      out of the store with his money, we try to find the
      source of the trouble. Generally we can adjust the
      difficulty and make a sale."

2. State the advantage in the policy of a large clothing concern which
follows the sale of every suit or overcoat with a letter to the
customer, asking him whether the purchase is proving satisfactory.

3. Write such a letter.

=Exercise 236=

      1. Conrad H. Harwood of 122 Winter Street, Vandalia,
      Ill., writes to Wilson, Black & Co., manufacturers of
      shoes, 100 Second Street, Lynn, Mass., asking why they
      are not sending his order of ---- (the goods ordered)
      of ---- (date). He is losing sales because of the
      delay. If the goods are not received before ----,
      Harwood will cancel the order.

      2. Wilson, Black & Co. acknowledge the receipt of
      Harwood's letter and say that this is the first notice
      they have received of such an order. The first letter
      must have miscarried. They have shipped the goods. Be
      very courteous.

=Exercise 237=

      1. C. F. Gardner, a merchant of 432 Puyallup Ave.,
      Tacoma, Wash., has received notice from the C.M. &
      P.S.R.R. freight office that a box of goods has
      arrived from Messrs. Fiske & Jones, Detroit, Mich.
      Gardner ordered the goods a month ago. He writes
      Messrs. Fiske & Jones that he refuses to accept the
      goods because of the delay. He has bought elsewhere in
      the meantime.

      2. Fiske & Jones apologize for the delay and explain
      that it was due to the unreliability of one of their
      shipping clerks, who has since been discharged. They
      had known nothing of the matter until Gardner's letter
      of complaint arrived. They assure him that he will
      never suffer another such inconvenience.

      3. Fiske & Jones telegraph the C.M. & P.S.R.R. to
      return the goods at Fiske & Jones's expense. Write the

=Exercise 238--Letters of Application=

A letter of application usually has three parts. In writing such a
letter, first, tell where you saw the advertisement and apply for the
position; second, tell your qualifications and give your references;
third, end the letter appropriately, possibly asking for an interview.

This is a difficult kind of letter to write. Not only should it be neat
in appearance and clearly written, but it should also be so carefully
worded that it will show enough of the writer's individuality to
distinguish it from a form. Be neither hesitant nor bold, but tell your
qualifications in a simple, straightforward way.

Study the following letters. Are they convincing? Do they show the
personality of the writers, or are they mere forms?



      Your advertisement in to-day's Record for a salesman
      who knows the tea and coffee business interests me. I
      should like you to consider my application for the

      Since my graduation from the Blank High School, four
      years ago, I have been employed as salesman for the
      Economy Wholesale Coffee Co., a firm doing business in
      this city and its outlying districts. During these
      four years I have gathered a wide knowledge of the
      principles of the buying and selling of coffees and
      teas and of the grades and blends of both, just the
      training, it seems to me, that you wish to secure.

      You may depend upon my taking an active interest in
      your business, because I have an intense desire to
      advance. I myself vouch for my honesty and
      earnestness, and Mr. Robert Brown of the firm
      mentioned above has assured me that he will supply you
      with any information that you may wish as to my
      character or ability. He endorses my desire to secure
      a broader opportunity.

      If the position that you have to offer is one in which
      there is a real future for an energetic, capable man,
      I should like to have an interview with you.

                                Yours very respectfully,


    Dear Sir:

      I am answering your advertisement in to-day's Record
      for a clerk because I wish to get started in the
      wholesale dry goods business, my idea being to work
      into the sales department. If the position that you
      advertise affords such an opportunity, I wish to apply
      for it.

      I have had a little experience in the retail dry goods
      business, having worked as clerk for Mr. Amos Jones of
      this city during the past two summers. What I have
      seen and learned of the business makes me feel that I
      have ability as a dry goods salesman. I shall be glad
      to work hard in a clerical position if only I get a
      chance to learn and to advance.

      I am eighteen years of age and have just graduated
      from the Blank High School, where I took the four-year
      commercial course. This, as you know, includes
      business arithmetic, bookkeeping, and some business
      practice. During the last two years I was business
      manager of the high school paper. This position gave
      me considerable experience in handling details rapidly
      and in soliciting advertising. It is this latter
      experience that makes me feel that I would have
      success in selling.

      I am confident that I can please you, and I should be
      grateful if you will grant me an interview. Mr. Amos
      Jones, 815 E. 47th St., will be glad to give you any
      information that you may wish as to my work, and if
      you desire I can furnish other references.

                                  Yours respectfully,

=Exercise 239=

Apply for the following positions:

      1. OFFICE MAN--who can handle correspondence and
      general office work for growing North side
      manufacturing company. Good opportunity for the right
      man. State experience and salary expected. Address A.
      H. Stanton, 17 Elm St.

      2. MAIL ORDER MAN--up-to-date, experienced; must have
      ability and be capable of handling a large volume of
      correspondence; must also be a pusher and
      systematizer. In reply give references, age, and
      detailed experience. Address X. W. 291 News.

      3. AMBITIOUS YOUNG MEN--who are willing to start at
      the bottom to learn steel and iron business; must be
      high school or college graduates, or have equivalent
      education, and furnish exceptional references; very
      good opportunity for the future. Address A. F. 361

      4. BRIGHT YOUNG MAN--for office work in large
      manufacturing plant, Northwest side; must be neat,
      quick, and accurate at figures. State age, experience,
      and salary expected. Address J. F. Holtz & Co., 320 W.
      Exchange St.

      5. OFFICE CLERK--a girl who can write a plain, rapid,
      legible hand; desirable, permanent position, and
      excellent chance for advancement. Give age,
      experience, if any, and where formerly employed.
      Salary $6.00 to start. Address T. P. 514 Chronicle.

      6. HELP WANTED--salesman having established trade on
      rubber or leather footwear in Michigan, northern
      Indiana, northwest Ohio, or eastern Wisconsin. Good
      chance to become connected with live middle-western
      jobbing house. Give late experience. Address G724 Boot
      and Shoe Recorder, Boston, Mass.

=Exercise 240--Contract for Painting Iron Work=

      1. James W. Walker & Co., 325 Second St., Pittsburgh,
      are receiving bids for painting the iron work of the
      bridge to be constructed over the Cheesequake Creek at
      Morgan Station, New Brunswick, N. J. The Barnard
      Emerson Co., of Harrisburg, Pa., write saying they
      would like to figure on the work. They ask James W.
      Walker & Co; to send plans and specifications. Write
      the letter sent by the Barnard Emerson Co.

      2. James W. Walker & Co. reply that they are sending
      plans and specifications. They say that bids must be
      in by March 10. Write the letter.

      3. The Barnard Emerson Co. write that page two, line
      four, of the specifications for the bridge to be
      constructed (state in detail) reads "and paint all
      beams underneath two coats of dark green," and page
      four, line ten, reads "all upright beams above and
      underneath to be painted two coats of light green
      between shades three and four." They ask which is
      correct. Write the letter. Be exact.

      4. James W. Walker & Co. reply that page two, line
      four, is correct. Explain in detail.

      5. The Barnard Emerson Co. agree to do the work on
      (repeat exactly what bridge you mean) for three
      thousand dollars. They guarantee to finish the work by
      April 30, according to the specifications. They will
      forfeit fifty dollars for every day after that date
      until the bridge is finished. Write the proposal or

      6. James W. Walker & Co. write, saying that they
      accept the bid above and that they enclose duplicate
      contracts, one of which they have signed and which the
      Barnard Emerson Co. is to keep. The other the Barnard
      Emerson Co. is to sign and return to James W. Walker &

=Exercise 241--Contract for the Delivery of Property=

      1. The Arlington Coal Company, Old Colony Building,
      Chicago, Ill., write to the Red Rock Coal Company,
      Auburn, Ill., saying that they need several cars of
      egg coal per week throughout the year. They ask if the
      Red Rock Coal Co. wish to offer some on contract. If
      so, they must state how the coal is screened, and give
      their lowest price. Write the letter.

      2. The Red Rock Coal Co. reply that they will offer
      egg coal for shipment at the rate of two cars per week
      throughout the year, at $1.15 per net ton, cars f.o.b.
      mines. If a contract were drawn up for three or more
      cars per week, they would give the coal for $1.12½ per
      net ton. They say their egg is an excellent steam
      producing coal and gives general satisfaction. It is
      shipped from the Red Rock mine via the Chicago & Alton
      Railroad, freight rate being 82¢ per ton. Write the

      3. The Arlington Coal Co. write that the Red Rock Coal
      Co. may send a one year contract drawn in triplicate
      for three cars of egg coal per week at $1.12½ per net
      ton, cars f.o.b. mines. Of course it is understood
      that the usual clauses regarding accidents or other
      unavoidable happenings on either side will be
      inserted. Write the letter.

=Exercise 242--Contract for Construction=

      NEWS ITEM.--Bids will be received until Dec. 12 by the
      Chairman of the Board of Public Works, North Bend,
      Washington, for the construction of a solid concrete
      bridge over the Snoqualmie River at North Bend; double
      arch, with one pier in the river; span of arch 92
      feet; width of bridge 50 feet. Plans may be had by
      addressing the Chairman.

The McClaine Construction Co., of Spokane, Wash., send in a bid for
$25,000, guaranteeing to use Atlas Portland cement, crushed rock for the
coarse aggregate, and torpedo sand for the fine aggregate, the concrete
to be reinforced with the Kahn system of reinforcement as set forth in
the specifications. The company specify, further, that they shall be
paid extra for excavation, on the scale of 25¢ a yard for earth, 75¢ a
yard for loose rock and hard pan, and $1.00 a yard for solid rock. Write
the letter that they send.

=Exercise 243--Form Letters=

It frequently happens in business that you receive a number of letters
requiring practically the same answer. In such cases, the best plan is
to have one letter that is as good a letter of its kind as you can
write. Use that as an answer to all those to which it can be made to
apply. You may have to add a bit of information or change a word here
and there, but, practically, you are using the same form for all the
letters. When you have mastered the form, the answering of letters of
this class will be a simple matter. The letter accompanying a catalogue
may easily be a form. (See the second letter in Exercise 223.)

The danger, however, is that the use of form letters tends to make work
mechanical. When letters are different, they must receive different
replies. A form letter should never be used just because it is easy to
use when it does not really apply.

Mandel Bros., Chicago, Ill., announce their annual sale of silk
remnants. Make this a good advertisement that will reach several classes
of customers. Have in it as one item white wash silk of heavy quality,
36 inches wide, at 47 cents a yard.

      1. Make out a sales letter for the above.

      2. Several mail orders have been received in excess of
      the supply. Make out a form letter that could be sent
      when the money is returned. What is the advantage of a
      form letter in this case?

=Exercise 244--Circular and Follow-up Letters=

There is a class of letters that usually originates in the advertising
department of a firm. They are not sent out to answer inquiries, but to
solicit new customers and to keep old ones. Such letters are printed in
large numbers in imitation of typewriting, and the introduction and the
salutation are afterward carefully filled in on the typewriter. The
intention, of course, is to make the recipient feel that he has received
a personal letter. Firms are generally careful to fill in the signature
in pen and ink. These are called _circular_ letters. (See the last
letter in Exercise 223.)

These letters are very important and each year more numerous. Frequently
a series of them is written, each one expanding one argument in a series
of arguments. If all the letters are read, one after the other, you have
a complete list of reasons why you should buy the particular article
which the letters advertise. These letters are sent out regularly, so
that the effect of one may not quite wear off before the next arrives.
It is frequently the case that not until the third or fourth letter is
sent out does any reply come. Such letters should be definitely planned
in order to present arguments that are true and attractive. They must be
simply and clearly written. They are called _follow-up_ letters.

The following series of follow-up letters was intended to be sent to
women who keep no maids. The series was planned to contain five letters.
Write two more, using different appeals from those in the letters here


      Dear Madam:

      Do you remember the fairy tale of Little Two-Eyes?

      A fairy, out of pity for the child's hunger, spread a
      table before her each day as she was watching the goat
      in the field, and when her appetite was satisfied all
      the child had to say was, "Table clear yourself," and
      the dishes magically disappeared.

      "This is a beautiful way to keep house," was Two-Eyes'
      verdict, and every woman, thinking of her own distaste
      of dirty dishes, will agree.

      "How I hate dishwashing!" You have said it hundreds of
      times--after every meal, probably.

      "I like to cook and bake," you declare. "They are
      really interesting. There is fun in trying new
      recipes--but the dishes!"

      You enjoy giving luncheon and dinner parties. It is a
      delightful way of meeting one's friends. Moreover, you
      are justly proud of your skill in cooking, and you
      like to show your beautiful china. But what a damper
      it is on your spirit of good-fellowship, after the
      guests are gone, to have to spend an hour or more
      washing the dishes. Then you would like to say, with
      the child in the story, "Dishes wash yourselves!"
      Wouldn't you?

      Well, you may. For thirty days--ninety meals--we will
      put the Fairy Dishwasher in your home, without
      charging you a penny.

      The machine is simplicity itself. Wheel the cabinet
      into your dining room, alongside your serving table,
      and, as a course is finished, without rising from your
      place, stack the dishes into the washer. When you have
      finished the meal, wheel the cabinet into your
      kitchen, make the connection, and turn the switch. In
      a few minutes the dishes are washed and dried. Having
      friends in to dinner is fun when the Fairy washes the

      Let the Fairy do yours. Simply return this letter to
      us in the enclosed envelope, making sure that your
      name and address are correct, and we'll send you the
      Fairy. Use it three times a day for thirty days. Then
      if you think you can get along as well without the
      machine, all that you need to do is to send us a
      postal card, telling us so. We'll take back the Fairy
      and ask no questions.

      But send to-day.

                                  Yours very truly,


      Dear Madam:

      Did you ever envy another woman's smooth, white hands?
      You looked at hers, and then you looked at yours; you
      sighed and thought, "It's dishwashing."

      But what can you do? Haven't you tried everything to
      make dishwashing less drudgery? Haven't you tried
      patent soaps and tepid water, only to find that the
      dishes were not clean? Haven't you tried dish mops,
      scrapers, and rubber gloves, only to find that the mop
      and the scraper saved but one hand? As for rubber
      gloves, as likely as not, the first time you used them
      they were caught on the prong of a fork and were
      thereafter useless. Yes, you've tried everything;
      haven't you?

      No, you haven't. You have not tried the only sure help
      that there is. Stop your drudgery and let the Fairy
      wash your dishes.

      For thirty days--ninety trials--we will put the Fairy
      Dishwasher in your home, absolutely free of charge,
      guaranteed to wash and sterilize your dishes in
      boiling water, without a touch of your hand.

      Do your manicuring while the Fairy does the dishes.

      Pay no money, but send the enclosed postal card
      to-day. It will bring the Fairy at once.

                                      Very truly yours,


      Dear Madam:

      An extra hour of leisure every day! What is it worth
      to you?

      Think what you could do if some one would give you an
      extra hour of leisure every day. There's the book you
      would like to read, the call you ought to make, the
      embroidery you wish you could finish. There are the
      thousand and one things that a housekeeper continually
      wishes she could do--but where can she get the time?

      And yet you waste at least an hour each day washing
      dishes when the Fairy Dishwasher will not only save
      you the time but rid you of a distasteful task. You
      pay 16-2/3 cents a day for five months and the Fairy
      does your dishes every day; you buy yourself an extra
      hour every day,--you are an hour ahead every day for
      the rest of your life.

      Is it worth the price?

      Remember that we allow you to use the Fairy for thirty
      days--ninety meals--before you pay a penny. Then for
      five months you send us five dollars a month, and we
      guarantee that you will declare it the best
      twenty-five dollars that you ever spent.

      Send the enclosed postal card to-day. It will bring
      the Fairy and a booklet of full directions.

                                   Very truly yours,

=Exercise 245=

You have bought a big tract of land in Alabama. You wish to sell a part
uncleared, to set out a part in pecan trees, and to devote a part to
truck farms. Write three letters to the same man, making each one
stronger than the one before. Keep in mind the five essentials of a good
letter. (See page 230.)

      1. Offer the uncleared land at a very low price. Offer
      as many inducements as you can, such as desirability
      of location, fertility of the soil, and comparison in
      price with other land in the same neighborhood.

      2. You received no response from (1). Try to sell the
      section in which you are planting pecan trees. What
      inducements could you offer that might reach a man who
      was not affected by (1)?

      3. You received no response from (1) or (2). Try to
      sell a truck farm. What inducements could you offer
      that might lead a man to buy a truck farm when he had
      no interest in either uncleared land or pecan trees?

=Exercise 246=

      1. The _Modern Magazine_ offers a set of Mark Twain's
      complete works absolutely free if you subscribe for
      one year for the _Modern Magazine_ and the _Household
      Magazine_ at the regular price of $2 for the _Modern
      Magazine_ and $1.50 for the _Household Magazine_. This
      offer expires ---- (date). Write the letter.

      2. You have not responded. The _Modern Magazine_ feels
      that you could not have understood its offer. These
      are no cheap books. To prove this, the firm is willing
      to send you the books to allow you to examine them
      before you send any money. If you accept them, pay the
      express agent; if not, return the books at the expense
      of the _Modern Magazine_. Remember that this offer
      expires ---- (date).

      3. You have not responded. The magazine extends the
      time. Give a reason for the extension of the time.

What criticism can you make on (3)?

=Exercise 247=

A druggist was obliged to move from his corner store four doors east on
a side street. He decided to advertise by sending a series of follow-up
letters embodying the following ideas:

      1. Change of location because ----.

      2. Stick to your druggist because he holds the key to
      your health.

      3. What is the reason that my trade is staying with
      me? (Prizes for the best answer.)

      4. The reasons why trade stays with me--what my
      patrons say.

      5. The pure food question--why we must handle only
      fresh drugs.

      6. We are registered pharmacists--what this means to

      7. Why our sales expense is smaller now than
      formerly--how you profit.

=Exercise 248=

A furniture house selling goods on monthly payments decides to advertise
by sending a series of follow-up letters, using the following reasons
why you should buy, one in each letter:

      1. Variety of stock; assurance that they can please,
      no matter what you wish. Amplify.

      2. Reliability of the firm.

      3. The small profit on which they run their business
      gives you an excellent opportunity of buying good
      values at low prices.

      4. Buying on the "easy payment" plan enables you to
      have the use of your furniture while you are still
      paying for it.

Why is (4) a poor argument?

=Exercise 249=

Write a series of letters to sell an electric washing machine, using the
following items:

      1. The machine is ball bearing; therefore very easy to
      work. You can sit down while you do your week's
      washing. The only work required is hanging the clothes
      out of doors.

      2. It saves laundry bills.

      3. Summary of (1) and (2). The investment required is
      not large. Special plans for payment.

      4. The machine is durable.

      5. Summary of the above. The following figures show
      that during the time that has elapsed since (1) was
      received the machine might have been paid for out of
      the money spent for laundry bills.




THE following chapters will furnish exercises in composition, both oral
and written, based upon the various phases of business. They are
intended to show the application of the principles underlying
manufacturing, buying, and selling. Of course, we cannot expect to go
into great detail in any one of the divisions. That must be reserved for
future study, perhaps reserved until the time that you enter a
particular business. We must remember that our first consideration is
the study of English, the problem of clear-cut expression. Underlying
clear-cut expression is clear-cut thinking. It cannot be repeated too
often that without a definite thought there can be no definite wording
of the thought. To say, "I know, but I don't know how to tell it," shows
a lazy brain. Learn to exercise your thinking powers so that you can
force them to stay upon a subject until you have thought it out
carefully and can express it. All of the oral exercises in the following
chapters require careful preparation. This does not mean that they
should be written out before the recitation, but it does mean that they
must be carefully thought out. The preparation need not take a
particular form. The main thing is that you know exactly the points that
you wish to make before you begin to speak. If the exercise calls for a
paragraph, have clearly in mind the plan by which you expect to expand
your thought. Perhaps you expect to begin with, or to lead up to, a
topic sentence. Remember that this may be done in several ways. Choose
whichever plan seems best. If the exercise does not call for a
particular form, such as a paragraph or a debate, you are left free to
develop your thought in the way that you think fits your subject best
and to the length which you think it demands.

There are many different kinds of businesses. We shall not attempt to
consider any except the most common and fundamental. Some, like farming
or mining, consist in bringing forth certain products from the ground.
Such products are called raw materials, of which an example is wheat.
Some raw materials are sold and used unchanged, but most of them go
through the process of manufacture in order to be directly usable. The
miller is an example of a manufacturer, because from wheat he makes
flour. In this chapter we shall study the principles underlying

The exercises do not by any means exhaust the subject. Each one is to be
considered as a nucleus about which others are to be grouped. If you
live in a manufacturing district, other subjects will easily suggest
themselves. If you have studied Industrial History or Commercial
Geography, you probably have in mind a number of topics for discussion.
If you know but little about raw materials, read some of the books
suggested in Exercise 257. At all events let your work be definite.
Whatever statements you make be able to substantiate by an illustration
of something that you have seen or heard or read.

=Exercise 250--Manufacture=

Almost all the things we eat, wear, and use every day are manufactured
articles. Each one of them requires its own particular process in the
making, involving the necessity in most cases of complex and expensive
machinery, of expert workmen, and of still more expert management. Take,
for example, the shoes we wear, in the manufacture of which an amazing
number of complicated machines and of expert workmen is necessary.
According to the United States Department of Labor, men's rough shoes go
through eighty-four distinct processes performed by skilled workmen and
automatic machines. No less amazing is the amount of work turned out by
these machines. It has been estimated that the McKay machine, which
attaches the soles to the uppers, sews up in about one hour and a half
one hundred pairs, an amount which it would take ninety-eight hours, or
about eleven whole working days, to sew by hand.

Each manufacturing business has peculiarities, machinery, methods, and
even a language of its own; sometimes men must spend years in the study
of the technicalities of certain manufacturing businesses before they
become expert in them. It is evident that we cannot take up any one of
them here except in so far as the principles of one apply to all, and
these can be set down only very briefly.

The first essential to successful manufacturing is correct buying. In
fact, in some businesses this is so essential that the buyer gets a
larger salary than the manager himself. We can see the reason for this
when we consider that a good buyer must understand not only the
materials that he buys, but also the manufacturing processes, so that,
knowing the process through which the raw materials will go in his
particular business, he will buy those materials that will make the most
profitable manufactured articles.

The next essential, and in most cases the most important one from the
manufacturing standpoint, is a management capable of producing the best
product at the least cost. The managers decide what shall be produced
and how; they hire the workmen and decide what each shall do; they
decide what shall be done by hand and what by machinery; and they choose
the machines. Sometimes they go even so far as to determine exactly the
method in which each task shall be done, and whenever they see that it
would be advantageous to install a machine, they do so. Pursuing this
policy, a Chicago yeast concern not long ago put in three machines for
wrapping the small yeast cakes, eliminating the services of 140 girls
and cutting the cost of wrapping to three-fifths of what it had been. In
the steel business the early success of Andrew Carnegie and the famous
Bill Jones was largely due to the fact that on several occasions they
did not hesitate to break up half a million dollars' worth of machinery
and replace it with newer and more efficient kinds.

The third essential to manufacturing success is aggressive marketing of
the product. From the standpoint of money success this is probably the
most important consideration; so important is it, in fact, that it will
be more fully discussed in the chapter following.

=Exercise 251--Manufactured Articles=


      1. Define the word _industry_. When is a business
      called an industry? (Consult an unabridged

      2. _a._ Name several raw materials.

      _b._ Name some industries whose business it is to
      produce raw materials.

      3. Name some companies or industries whose business it
      is, or whose principal function it is, to manufacture
      from raw materials.

      4. Name some companies or groups of companies that
      make articles more useful by transporting them to
      places where they are needed.

      5. Name some wholesale houses. In what does their
      business consist?

      6. Name several kinds of retail businesses. In what
      does their business consist?

      7. Name some companies that manufacture only one

      8. Name some companies that manufacture more than one
      article, but all of the same class. This is the
      largest group.

      9. Name some companies that manufacture several
      different kinds of articles.

      10. Name some companies which, in manufacturing one
      product, make a secondary or by-product.

      11. Name a number of by-products and what they are
      by-products of.

_Oral or Written_

In each of the following emphasize the labor involved, not the machinery
used; prepare outlines:

      1. Select any manufactured article that you have seen
      on a grocer's shelves, and trace it through (2), (3),
      (4), (5), and (6) above, from the raw material until
      the product is in the housekeeper's hands. If possible
      make your information exact by visiting a factory in
      which the article is made. The information contained
      in advertisements of well-known articles may help you.

      2. Trace the labor that is necessary to put a loaf of
      bread on the table.

      3. Trace the changes that the mineral undergoes to be
      suitable for the making of edged tools, such as knives
      or axes.

      4. Trace the changes that cotton must undergo before
      it is suitable for wearing as a dress or a pair of

      5. Trace the changes that wool undergoes before it can
      be worn as a sweater or a winter coat.

      6. Trace the changes that the skins of animals undergo
      before they can be worn as a muff.

      7. Trace the changes that silk undergoes before it can
      be worn as a neck-tie.

      8. Trace the changes that hemp undergoes before it can
      be used as a rope.

      9. Trace the changes that hides undergo before they
      can be worn as shoes.

      10. Trace wood from the tree to a piece of fine
      furniture or to the case of a musical instrument.

      11. Trace the steps in the process of making maple

      12. Trace the steps in making a piece of glazed

      13. Trace clay to bricks.

      14. Trace flax to a tablecloth.

      15. Trace the steps necessary to make a five dollar
      gold piece.

=Exercise 252=

Subjects for Themes, Oral or Written

The following are suggestions for theme subjects on manufacture. Develop
one or more as the teacher directs.

     1. Household uses for asbestos.
     2. Making turpentine from wood.
     3. A convenient electrical device.
     4. The advantages of the fireless cooker.
     5. The advantages of concrete as a building material.
     6. The way to make a plaster cast.
     7. How iron castings are made.
     8. Artificial flowers from feathers, paper, or cloth.
     9. How a suction sweeper works.
    10. The safety match.
    11. The uses of wood pulp.
    12. Patent roofing.
    13. The manufacture of plate glass.
    14. Utilizing cotton seed.
    15. The advantages and the disadvantages of using baking powder.

=Exercise 253=

Suggestions for Debates

      1. The average young man has a better chance to
      succeed in business than in a profession.

      2. A manufacturing business offers a better
      opportunity for a young man at the present time than a
      mercantile business.

      3. Manufacturing industries would suffer if
      immigration were restricted.

      4. The labor union should be abolished.

      5. The labor union has no right to restrict the number
      of apprentices.

      6. The profit-sharing plan produces greater efficiency
      in the working-force.

=Exercise 254=

Imagine that you are Stanley M. Benner, 171 South St., Buffalo, N. Y.,
proprietor of a factory making men's shirts and collars.

      1. Write an order to The American Printing Mill, 1038
      Canal St., Passaic, N. J., for several bolts each of
      percale, madras, corded madras, and silk striped
      madras. Use catalogue numbers.

      2. Write another order to The Trescott Silk Mill, 976
      River St., Paterson, N. J., for several bolts each of
      No. 62, No. 14, and No. 20 shirting silks, No. 62
      being a striped silk and the others figured. Be
      definite in ordering the colors that you wish.

      3. You have received an order from Spencer & Mitchell,
      1925 Pearl St., Albany, N. Y. Write a letter, thanking
      them for the order and explaining when and how the
      goods will be sent.

      4. You have received an order from William F. Atwood,
      590 Jackson St., Wilmington, Del., for a certain style
      of collar on which there has been a run. Write a
      letter, explaining that it will take about three weeks
      to fill the orders that you now have for this collar
      and that you therefore cannot send Mr. Atwood's goods
      before the end of the month.

      5. The goods have arrived from The Trescott Silk Mill.
      You find, however, that two bolts of No. 14 are badly
      soiled. Write a letter, saying that you are returning
      the bolts and asking to have the matter adjusted.

      6. A. W. Trescott, President of The Trescott Silk
      Mill, replies, expressing regret that the goods were
      soiled and saying that two clean bolts of No. 14 are
      being sent at once. Write his letter.

      7. You have on hand about 50 gross men's striped
      madras collars, for which there is no longer a call.
      Write to Markham Bros., wholesale jobbers, 1765
      Greenwich St., New York City, asking what price they
      will offer for the lot.

      8. Accept their offer of $1.50 a gross for the

      9. A customer sends a cash order for goods at last
      year's prices, 10% below present prices. Write a
      politic reply.

      10. Owing to the mildness of the winter, you fear that
      you will not sell your stock of men's flannel shirts.
      Write a circular letter, offering the shirts in lots
      of 25 dozen each, assorted sizes and colors, at a 35%
      reduction in price. Address one letter to. Frederick
      H. Howard, a dealer at 775 Cedar St., Harrisburg, Pa.

      11. A teamsters' strike has delayed your shipments.
      You have received so many complaints of the
      non-arrival of goods that you decide to prepare a form
      letter that will answer all the complaints. Address
      one letter to William A. Spaulding, 2937 Waterman St.,
      Providence, R. I.

      12. Miss Sarah MacComb has a small dry goods store in
      Norwich, Conn. She has owed you $125 for six months.
      You have been lenient with Miss MacComb because you
      know that she has had difficulty in meeting her bills.
      However, you feel that she should pay at least a part
      of her indebtedness to you. Write a courteous letter,
      longer and more persuasive than if it were to go to a
      man, demanding payment but retaining the customer's
      good will. This is a difficult letter to write.
      Prepare it carefully.

=Exercise 255=

      1. You have been manager of the Forsyth Furniture Co.,
      Grand Rapids, Mich. You have financial backing for
      $25,000 and are looking for a location for a factory
      of your own. Write the same letter to the Secretary of
      the Chamber of Commerce of Great Falls, Mont.;
      Memphis, Tenn.; Houston, Texas; Indianapolis, Ind. Ask
      the Secretary to tell you the prospects for such a
      factory in his city, and what inducements the city
      will offer you. (By writing to different cities, the
      teacher can obtain their booklets and their special
      offers to manufacturers.)

      2. Investigate the conditions in one of the cities
      mentioned above and reproduce the letter that the
      Secretary wrote.

      3. Of the four cities, Great Falls appeals to you as
      the best location for your factory. Write again,
      asking the Secretary especially about the water power
      facilities offered and the rates charged for
      electrical power.

      4. He replies that Great Falls has the most extensive
      power in the United States, the hydro-electric power
      being ready for delivery in any quantity at
      exceptionally low rates. He tells of the many
      factories that are already located in Great Falls
      because of its water power facilities.

      5. Great Falls is your choice. After your factory is
      built and your machinery installed, write to the
      Secretary of the Sand Point Lumber Co., Sand Point,
      Idaho, asking him to submit figures for a contract for
      supplying all your fir lumber. Tell him you think you
      will use about a million board feet a year.

      6. The Secretary replies, offering you a contract on
      the following terms: For all amounts under 250,000
      feet a year, a rate of 12 cents a foot; under 500,000,
      11 cents; over 500,000, 10 cents. All goods are to be
      billed at the highest rate and rebates made at the end
      of the year, terms of payment being 90 days, 5% for 30

      7. Write to the Central American Supply Co.,
      Tehuantepec, Mexico, ordering 50,000 feet No. 1
      Mahogany Veneer. Have it charged to your account,
      which you have previously opened.

      8. Write to Gregory Bros., wholesale dry goods
      merchants, 12141 Nicollet Ave., Minneapolis, Minn.,
      ordering 15 bolts No. 7 Green Denim; 10 bolts No. 09
      Green Panne Velvet; 50 yds. No. 216 Tapestry; 50 yds.
      No. 16 Tapestry; 100 bolts Green and 100 bolts Brown
      No. 5 Guimpe. Instruct them to ship the goods at once
      and draw on you at sight through the First National
      Bank of Great Falls. (See page 344.)

      9. Write to the Excelsior Varnish Co., Merchants'
      National Bank Building, St. Paul, Minn., ordering
      articles such as varnish, stains, oils, enamels, and
      finishing wax.

      10. Write an order to a St. Louis firm for leather.

      11. Write an order to a Spokane firm for springs.

      12. Find out where a Great Falls merchant would buy
      oak and birch, and write an order for each.

      13. Write to the Hanover National Bank of New York
      City (because you happen to know the cashier of that
      bank), explaining that you are having a very decided
      increase in your business and that, in order to take
      care of the demand, you require a loan of $10,000.
      Explain further that the rates are too high in Great
      Falls for you to take a loan there. Say that you are
      enclosing a statement of your assets and liabilities.

      14. A dealer in Portland, Ore., writes, complaining
      that he has not yet received the goods that he ordered
      ten days ago. Write an appropriate reply.

      15. You receive an order, one item of which is 3 doz.
      oil mops, which you do not carry. Reply that you have
      referred the matter to ---- a firm which you can
      recommend highly.

=Exercise 256=

Topics for Investigation and Discussion

Principles involved in manufacture:

1. The location of a factory.

    _a._ Where necessary raw materials can be obtained easily and cheaply.
    _b._ Where land is not expensive.
    _c._ Where the coal or water supply will make power inexpensive.
    _d._ Where transportation facilities are good.

2. The advantages of using machinery in manufacture.

    _a._ Relative amount of work turned out.
    _b._ Relative cost of work turned out.
    _c._ Relative cleanliness of work turned out.
    _d._ Relative uniformity of work turned out.

3. The number of working hours.

      Some factories have made the experiment of reducing
      the number of working hours from ten to eight without
      reducing the wages of the workers. They have found
      that the quantity of work turned out is increased and
      the quality improved. Can you explain why?

4. The advantages of the profit-sharing plan, both for employer and for

      This is a plan by which a certain per cent of the
      profits of the business is divided annually among the
      employees. (See a very interesting article in _System_
      for March, 1911, or read _Profit-sharing between
      Employer and Employee_ by N. P. Gilman.)

5. Specialized labor.

      There was a time when a man made all the parts of a
      pair of shoes. Why in modern factories does he make
      only one part? Which system tends to make shoes of
      uniform workmanship? Is uniformity a good quality in
      manufacture? This principle applies to any kind of

6. Special products.

      Suppose that you manufactured a large number of styles
      of millinery, or novelty, footwear. Would you expect
      your profits on these to be larger or smaller than on
      your staple styles? Give reasons and illustrations.

7. Why is there a struggle between labor and capital?

8. What is the cause of strikes?

9. Are strikes a good thing for manufacture?

10. A visit to a shoe factory (or any other factory).

=Exercise 257=

Books that will Suggest Topics for Talks

If you have access to a public library, you can probably obtain some of
the following books. They are all simple and interesting, and any of
them will suggest several topics for talks.

      ALLEN, N. B., Industrial Studies.

      BAKER, R. S., Boys' Books of Inventions.

      BARNARD, CHARLES, Tools and Machines.

      CARPENTER, F. G., How the World is Fed; How the World
      is Clothed; How the World is Housed; Geographical

      CHAMBERLAIN, J. F., How We are Fed; How We are

      CHASE, A. and CLOW, E., Stories of Industries (two

      COCHRANE, C. H., The Wonders of Modern Mechanism.

      COCHRANE, ROBERT, Romance of Industry and Invention.

      DOUBLEDAY, RUSSELL, Stories of Invention.

      FORMAN, S. E., Useful Inventions.

      GIBSON, C. R., The Romance of Modern Manufacture.

      LANE, M. A. L., Industries of To-day.

      LITTLE CHRONICLE CO., Industries of a Great City.

      MOWRY, W. A. and MOWRY, A. M., Inventions and

      PARTON, J., Captains of Industry (two series).

      ROCHELEAU, W. F., Products of the Soil; Minerals;

      TOWLE, G. M., Heroes and Martyrs of Invention.

      WILLIAMS, A., How it is Made.

=Exercise 258=

Study the punctuation of the following; then write from dictation:


      It is stated that practical experience with gas
      mantles made of artificial silk--that is, silk made
      from wood pulp--has proved them to be far superior to
      those made of cotton, especially where the mantles are
      exposed to excessive vibration. Several German towns
      are said to be obtaining exceptionally good results
      from these new mantles used in conjunction with
      pressure gas, and it is asserted that the mantles are
      in good condition after being used for seven or eight
      weeks. Artificial silk, according to reports, has also
      been used experimentally by several manufacturers of
      incandescent gas mantles in the United Kingdom. The
      reports are all very encouraging, except that there
      seems to be one difficulty that is purely
      mechanical--the knitting of the artificial silk. The
      knots and other imperfections in the yarn cause a
      considerable amount of waste. However, the
      knitting-machine makers are experimenting to overcome
      it.--_Daily Consular and Trade Report._


      As the production of wool in this country, although
      approximating 320,000,000 pounds a year, does not
      begin to meet the demands for the raw material, there
      is a yearly importation of from 156,000,000 to over
      300,000,000 pounds. When each new census reveals the
      fact that there are fewer sheep of shearing age in the
      country than there were ten years before, the question
      of wool production becomes one of still greater
      importance. A solution may be found in a Peruvian
      product. A variety of cotton grows in Peru whose long,
      rough, crinkly fiber mixes so readily with wool that
      manufacturers use it in connection with wool in
      manufacturing "all wool" goods. It grows on a small
      tree that yields two or three crops a year for seven
      or eight years. The area, however, in which it is
      being successfully cultivated in Peru is so limited
      that the annual output is only about 16,000,000
      pounds, of which the United States takes approximately
      5,500,000 pounds. As the region in which it thrives is
      practically rainless, perhaps a way may be found to
      persuade the rough Peruvian to make a home for itself
      in the hot and arid regions of our Southwest. It would
      be a triumph of agriculture, certainly, to raise
      vegetable wool in regions not fitted for real
      sheep.--_The Wall Street Journal._



      As is well known, some metals are unsuitable for
      casting, while others, like iron, can readily be cast
      into any desired shape. The property of casting well,
      it is said, depends upon whether the metal contracts
      or expands in solidifying from the liquid form. Iron,
      like water, expands in solidifying, and hence the
      solid metal may be seen floating in the liquid iron
      about it. The expansion causes it to fill the die into
      which it is poured, and so it can be cast easily. Gold
      and silver contract in cooling, and are, therefore,
      not suitable for casting.--_Harper's Weekly._



CORRECT buying and the most efficient methods of manufacture play a
large part in the successful carrying on of a business, but the most
important consideration is the successful marketing or distributing of
the product after it has been manufactured or bought. Very few products
are so superior in quality that they sell themselves purely on merit.
Competition in business to-day is so keen that, in order to find a
market for his product, a merchant must create a demand for it. Thus at
its very foundation, distribution is merely a process of creating a
demand and then filling that demand. For instance, the retail merchant
is concerned with bringing the customers to his store rather than to his
competitor's across the street. The wholesale merchant is concerned with
having the retailers handle his goods rather than those of another firm.
The mail order merchant is concerned with getting the farmer's business
before some other dealer gets it. The salesman is concerned with writing
the order before a rival from another house writes it.

In the first place, the merchant must handle those things that his
customers consider necessary or desirable. Overcoats cannot be sold in
August, ashsifters on the equator, nor electric fans in Iceland.
Different peoples, different times, and different conditions create
different demands, and it is the merchant's business to study those
demands and to fill them. In the second place, he must leave no stone
unturned in endeavoring to make his product more desirable than that of
his competitors. This may mean extensive advertising campaigns,
expensive displays, outlay for costly catalogues and booklets, the
expenditure of money for inducements to bring customers, or the hiring
of expert salesmen. In fact, thousands of plans are carried out every
year in this endeavor to increase trade.

The getting of new and additional business, however, is only one of the
important considerations that the merchant must always have in mind. He
must also keep what business he already has by maintaining the standard
of his goods and by giving his customers satisfactory service. One of
the first essentials in this question of service is promptness and
exactness of delivery. In this the merchant must depend very largely on
the transportation companies, and therefore a brief study of these
facilities will be especially in place at this point.


Transportation is an essential item in the problem of distribution. If
you wished to drink a cup of coffee and found that none could be had
except in Brazil, you would begin to realize how much the steamship
company and the railroad company have done in transporting and hauling
it where you might buy it. The same is true of our oranges from
California and Florida, our apples from Washington and Oregon, and our
grain from the Middle States. In fact, in the case of many products the
most important item is not growing them, but bringing them to market,
since the transportation charges are often much greater than the actual
cost of producing. Thousands of barrels of apples rot on the ground
every year because their quality does not warrant the high
transportation charges, the lack of transportation rendering them
useless. In a smaller measure, the delivery wagons in our cities and
towns are essential to us because they save us the trouble of carrying
our purchases about. Thus, the element of transportation enters into our
lives every day, saving us inconvenience, bringing to us necessities
that we demand and luxuries that we like, and, at the same time,
increasing the price of commodities.

Common carriers, as transportation companies are called, are of two
general classes:

    1. Those operating on water--the steamship companies.
    2. Those operating on land--the railroad companies.


Steamship companies operate three general kinds of lines: (1) lines
consisting of the largest and fastest steamers which carry only
passengers, mail, and valuable parcels; (2) lines using slower steamers
which carry both passengers and freight; and (3) lines employing
vessels--steamers, sailing vessels, and barges--which carry only
freight. The cost of hauling cargoes by water is in every case less per
mile than that of carrying the same quantity of goods on land. It costs,
for example, over four times as much to carry a bushel of wheat from
Chicago to New York by rail as it does to carry it across the Atlantic.
It is for this very reason that the traffic on our navigable rivers, the
Ohio and the Mississippi, and on the Great Lakes is so heavy. Whenever a
cargo can be shipped as well by water as by rail and there is no hurry
for delivery, it is shipped by water. However, because so much of our
freight must be rushed from place to place, the railroads get the bulk
of the inland traffic.


The services of the railroad company embrace the hauling of freight, the
carrying of passengers, and the transporting of express and of mail. The
hauling of freight is the most important item in the railroad business,
about three-quarters of the total income being derived from this source.
Each year over one billion tons of freight are turned over by shippers
to the railroads, who use almost two and one-half million freight cars
to carry it. About one-half of this tonnage is minerals, mainly ore and
coal; about one-seventh consists of manufactured articles; and
one-twelfth of agricultural products. Commodities are grouped into from
ten to fourteen classes, on each one of which the freight rate is
different from that of the others. By freight rate is meant the cost of
shipping a certain unit, usually 100 pounds or a ton, from one place to
another; it is dependent on the distance. There are certain bulky
commodities like coal, livestock, lumber, grain, and cement, which are
almost always handled in carload lots. They are not included in the
freight classification, but have a special ex-class freight rate.
Freight rates depend also on whether the goods are shipped by slow or
_local_ freight or by fast or _through_ freight.

There are a hundred different kinds of papers used in carrying on the
railroad freight business. Only four of the most important will be
considered here. When a shipper turns over his goods to the railroad
company at its freight depot, he gets from the agent a _receipt for
freight_, which is merely a receipt for the goods he has turned over. In
the ordinary course of business these receipts are exchanged at the
company's office for a _bill of lading_ in triplicate. The original and
one copy are given to the shipper. The second copy is kept by the
railroad. This bill of lading may be of two kinds, _straight_ or
_order_. If a straight bill of lading is given, the original is sent to
the person to whom the goods are shipped, who is called the _consignee_,
who on the presentation of the bill of lading is entitled to the goods
after paying the charges. An order bill of lading is much like a check,
in that it can be assigned to another person. Like the straight bill it
states the name of the consignee or the person for whom the goods are
intended and his address, but the consignee cannot get possession of the
goods until he has paid for them. To collect payment, the shipper
attaches to the order bill of lading a draft for the amount of the
goods and the freight, and through his bank and the bank of the
consignee the amount is collected. The consignee then gets possession of
the order bill of lading, which entitles him to possession of the goods.
This is more fully explained on page 344. The railroad's most important
paper is the _way bill_, which shows the conductor or the agent of the
company just what articles are included in the shipment, so that it can
be checked when unloaded. When the goods arrive at their destination,
the consignee is notified and is sent a _freight bill_ showing the
freight charges. When he presents his bill of lading and pays the
charges, the _freight bill_ is receipted and the goods are his.

In quoting prices on goods, manufacturers and distributors usually
designate whether they will pay the freight or whether it is to be paid
by the consignee. In the latter case the price is quoted f. o. b. at the
place from which the goods are shipped, which means freight on board at
that point. That is to say, if a distributor located at Detroit quotes
his automobiles f. o. b. Detroit, he means that he will see that the
goods get into the railroad company's hands at Detroit, but that the
consignee pays the freight from Detroit to the destination. The latter
is the common practice in shipping.

In the following exercises we shall treat the subject of distribution
under four heads:

      I. The Retail Merchant.
     II. The Wholesale Merchant.
    III. The Mail Order Merchant.
     IV. The Salesman.


=Exercise 259=


You are opening a grocery store. Remember that your object is to sell
the largest possible amount of goods. Develop each of the following

      1. What kind of location would you desire?

      2. How would you have the front of your store painted?
      Would you try to make it stand out from the rest?

      3. Do you think it would pay you to have the interior
      newly and brightly redecorated? To put in the best and
      brightest lights?

      4. What quality of stock would you select? The same
      for all neighborhoods? Give your reasons. Would
      advertised brands bring you more trade?

      5. Do you think window display would pay? Would you
      recommend freak or ordinary displays? Price-marked or
      non-price-marked? Give your reasons.

      6. Does the delivery wagon pay? Would it be advisable
      to buy a new wagon and a good horse? What other
      considerations would enter?

      7. Would you sometimes cut the price of some necessity
      to draw people? Give reasons for your answer.

      8. Is it a good thing to have a general cut-price-sale
      to bring customers to your store? Even if you lose
      money by it?

      9. Would you give credit? Would the class of people
      you served come into consideration?

      10. Is the use of trading stamps and premiums good

      11. Why do you often find a meat market in connection
      with a grocery?

      12. There are two kinds of retail meat markets: (1)
      the one that sells goods which can be retailed at a
      low price, and (2) the one that sells superior goods
      at a higher price. Which policy would you follow and

      13. Could a retailer combine the two spoken of in
      (12)? Consider cost, space, satisfaction of the

      14. Would you advertise by means of handbills? By
      circular letters?

      15. What would you do if another grocery opened across
      the street from yours?

=Exercise 260=


      1. You have bought Burton & Sanders' grocery at Fort
      Wayne, Indiana. Send out a circular letter advertising
      the new White Front Grocery and telling what the
      policy of the new management will be. Explain that the
      opening sale will begin next Monday and that a
      special feature of the sale will, be twenty pounds of
      granulated sugar for eighty cents with a two dollar

      2. At the same time have an article appear in a local
      newspaper, telling that Burton & Sanders have sold
      their store to you and that you are making extensive
      improvements, especially in sanitary means of handling
      provisions. In addition, let the article give an
      account of your business career in another town. Would
      such an article be of value to you? Write it.

      3. Write to Peabody, Harper & Co., Rush Street Bridge,
      Chicago, Ill., saying that you would like to open an
      account with them. Give as references a bank in your
      town and one in Logansport, where you used to live.
      Ask Peabody, Harper & Co. what terms they can offer

      4. You have decided to advertise in a local paper.
      Write to the advertising manager, asking him for
      yearly rates for a half-column every evening and a
      quarter-page every Friday.

      5. Find out what are the advertising rates of a paper
      in your town and answer (4).

      6. Reproduce a letter that a woman living in town
      sends, ordering two dollars' worth of groceries and
      requesting that you send, in addition, the twenty
      pounds of sugar you advertise in (1). She encloses a
      check for $2.80.

      7. You are in receipt of a letter from Peabody, Harper
      & Co., answering your inquiry in (3) and offering you
      sixty days' credit and 2% discount for payment within
      ten days. Write the letter.

      8. Send an order to Peabody, Harper & Co. for $200
      worth of groceries. Among the items let there be 6
      cases of canned tomatoes, first quality, at $1.75 a
      case. Ask them to send the goods by the Pennsylvania
      R. R.

      9. Your business is increasing and you need another
      clerk, (a) Write an advertisement for one. _(b_) Apply
      for the position.

      10. Write a short circular advertising an inexpensive
      novelty that a grocer might sell. These circulars are
      to be wrapped with purchases.

      11. Peabody, Harper & Co. write, confirming your order
      in (8) and enclosing a straight bill of lading.

      12. When the goods arrive, you find no tomatoes among
      them. Write a complaint to the wholesale house.

      13. Peabody, Harper & Co. reply to your letter in
      (12), apologizing for the mistake, explaining how it
      occurred (supply an explanation), and telling you that
      they have sent one case by express at their expense.
      The rest will follow by freight.

      14. The tomatoes sent by freight do not arrive. Write
      to the grocery company, asking the latter to send out
      a "tracer"; that is, to request the railroad company
      to trace the goods on its lines.

      15. The grocery company telephones the railroad
      company, requesting the latter to trace the goods and
      to report. The grocery company also writes a letter
      confirming its request. Write the letter.

      16. (_a_) The railroad company reports that by mistake
      the goods were carried through to Lima, but that they
      are being returned to Fort Wayne. (_b_) The grocery
      company informs you of the developments and hopes that
      the delay has caused you no great inconvenience. Write
      both letters.

=Exercise 261=

      1. You wish to get a partner to open a meat market in
      connection with your grocery. Write to a friend in
      Lafayette, Ind., who you think will be interested,
      proposing the plan. Tell him of the opportunities, as
      you see them, of business in Fort Wayne and the
      surrounding country. Tell him that with $4,000
      additional capital you and he could set up a much
      larger establishment, invest in a motor wagon, and
      thus secure the trade of the outlying districts.

      2. Your friend replies that the proposal appeals
      strongly to him, but that he has only $2,000 in cash.
      However, he holds a mortgage for $2,000 on ---- (state
      the location of the house) in Lafayette, and, if he
      can sell the mortgage, he will be glad to avail
      himself of the offer.

      3. After the partnership is formed, your partner
      writes to Orr & Locket, 14 W. Randolph St., Chicago,
      Ill., ordering the following to be shipped by
      Pennsylvania R.R.: 1 Refrigerator No. 361; 2 Meat
      Blocks No. 3; 1 Scale No. M. 30; 1/6 doz. Saws No. 33
      (16 in.); 1/6 doz. Saws No. 33 (22 in.); 1/4 doz.
      Knives No. 955; 1/4 doz. Knives No. 490; 1/6 doz.
      Steels No. 82; 1/6 doz. Cleavers No. 09; 1/4 doz.
      Block Scrapers. He explains that he is the same man
      who formerly had a meat market in Lafayette.

      4. Orr & Locket acknowledge the receipt of the order,
      enclose the invoice, and offer him 5% discount for
      payment within 30 days. Write the letter.

      5. A Detroit manufacturer sends you f.o.b. prices on
      his motor wagons. Investigate the prices and write the

      6. Order one of them. (Remember the f.o.b. item.)

      7. He writes confirming your order, saying that the
      car is now in the shipper's hands and that his bank
      has sent the order bill of lading with draft attached
      to the First National Bank of your city. Write the
      letter. (See page 344.)

      8. At the same time the shipper's bank sends a letter
      to the First National Bank of your city enclosing the
      order bill of lading with draft drawn on you for
      collection. A copy of this letter is also mailed to
      you. Write it.

      9. You telephone your bank to draw on your account for
      the amount of the draft and to send you the bill of
      lading. You confirm this understanding by a letter.
      Write it.

      10. Your bank writes, confirming the telephone
      conversation and enclosing the bill of lading and a
      receipt for the correct amount. You present your bill
      of lading, pay the freight charges, and get your motor
      wagon. Write the letter the bank sends.

      11. The automobile manufacturer has meanwhile received
      through his bank a credit for the amount you paid for
      the car and writes acknowledging its receipt. Write
      the letter.

=Exercise 262=

Choose four or six members of the class, one-half of whom are to argue
in favor of the policy indicated in the plan outlined below and one-half
of whom are to argue against it.

A certain grocer opened a store with the determination of doing a
strictly cash business, and of making no deliveries unless the purchaser
paid for the delivery. This was his plan as suggested by _System_:

      1. To those who would carry their own purchases he
      sold everything for cash much lower than any other
      grocer in town sold it.

      2. If the customer bought very bulky goods, or if he
      did not wish to be his own delivery man, the grocer
      charged him for delivery a certain percentage of the
      total of his cash purchases. Yet the customer bought
      more cheaply than he could buy in any other grocery in

      3. Those who wished to pay once a month instead of at
      every visit he advised to deposit a certain sum of
      money with him as banker and to buy against that,
      paying cash prices and receiving 3% interest on the
      amount left on deposit.


=Exercise 263=


Each of the following should be developed into a paragraph:

      1. You are a manufacturer and wholesale distributor
      with a factory on the outskirts of a town; would you
      have a warehouse in the center of the town? Give
      reasons for your answer.

      2. What would be the advantage of having your
      warehouse near the railroad freight depots? Near the

      3. What would be the advantage of being located in a
      large city with many railroads and with water
      transportation facilities--Chicago, for example?

      4. Speed gets orders. With this in view, what would
      you recommend with respect to the equipment for
      handling? What would you suggest about the number of
      people through whose hands the order would have to go
      before being shipped?

      5. If you were looking for big trade in a big city,
      what kind of stock would you carry? Musical
      instruments? Clothing?

      6. Would it be a good plan to make a specialty of
      certain brands for leaders and to quote a special
      price on them?

      7. If you were just starting a wholesale hardware or
      grocery business, state which you think would be the
      better policy: (1) to concentrate on one kind of goods
      in one territory and to take on other kinds and
      territories later, or (2) to work all kinds of goods
      as widely as possible from the very beginning. Explain

      8. Would you bear part of the expense of retailers'
      advertising, especially of window displays, provided
      they handled your goods?

      9. Would it be good business for the salesmen of the
      firm to suggest selling methods to retailers and to
      plan window displays for them? Give your reasons.

      10. Do you think it would increase sales to offer a
      money prize to the retailer selling the largest amount
      of a certain kind of your goods, the sale of which you
      wished materially to increase?

      11. Tell which you think would be the better policy:
      (1) to undersell your competitors for a time and then,
      when you had the trade, to raise your prices, or (2)
      to set one price and maintain it from the beginning.
      Give your reasons.

      12. If you were getting out a new brand of carpenters'
      tools, where would you advertise? Would you conduct an
      extensive national campaign?

      13. If you were bringing out a new soap or washing
      powder, where would you advertise? Would you conduct
      an extensive national advertising campaign? What would
      your answer be if you were introducing a new brand of

      14. Would bringing out novelties from time to time
      help the sale of your staple articles? Explain.

      15. Do you think it would pay to send circulars to the
      housewives of a certain locality to get the local
      grocers' trade? After you had the local grocers'

=Exercise 264=


      1. You are Thos. H. Peabody of Peabody, Harper & Co.'s
      wholesale grocery. Prepare a circular letter,
      announcing your removal to a new building. The letter
      will be printed in imitation of typewriting and the
      introduction filled in later on the typewriter.
      Remember you are seeking patronage. Address one letter
      to Walter T. Barth, 350 E. Water St., Milwaukee, Wis.

      2. Write an advertisement to appear in the January
      number of _The Grocer and Country Merchant_, a
      grocers' trade journal. It will announce your change
      of location.

      3. You receive an order from a retailer in which he
      asks for a certain brand of coffee that you do not
      carry. Write a letter telling him you do not handle
      that brand and offering him another. Make the letter
      as courteous as possible.

      4. Write an advertisement for (1) a bookkeeper; (2) a

      5. Answer (1) or (2) above.

      6. Write an advertisement for a traveling salesman.

      7. Answer (6) telling why you think you could sell
      groceries although you have had no experience.

      8. Write a circular letter to send to the trade
      setting forth the merits of a new brand of canned
      fruit. Say that you are offering the brand at a very
      attractive price in the expectation that retailers
      will make it a leader. Write to Mr. Barth (1).

      9. You have made a contract with the manufacturers of
      the canned fruit mentioned in (8), by which you secure
      the exclusive sale but take the responsibility of
      advertising. Write to an advertising agency, saying
      that you are considering a three months' advertising
      campaign. Explain that you do not wish the expense to
      exceed five thousand dollars.

      10. The advertising agency replies that, as five
      thousand dollars is a comparatively small sum for a
      campaign, it would suggest that the advertising be
      confined to one class: street car, billboard,
      newspaper, or magazine. Write the letter.

      11. Notify the agency of your choice, giving your

      12. Write a series of three letters to send to
      housewives, advertising the canned fruit, with the
      purpose of having them ask for this brand at their
      grocers': (1) Telling the name of the canned fruit,
      its excellence, its price, and where it may be bought;
      (2) Asking if the housewife has as yet bought any, and
      if she has not, telling her she can get a sample at
      her grocer's on presentation of this letter; (3)
      Asking how she liked the fruit and quoting a letter of
      recommendation received from Mrs. A., who lives in the
      neighborhood. Urge her to buy, but not too abruptly. A
      letter to a woman should be fairly long. (See page

=Exercise 265=

      1. For two months you have been without a credit man.
      You wish to be very careful in your choice because of
      the importance of the position. J. B. Wright of 439
      Russell Ave., Indianapolis, is a personal friend of
      yours. He has heard that you need a credit man and he
      recommends Joseph Haddon, who worked for him three
      years in that capacity until a year ago when he went
      to Colorado because of the ill-health of his wife.
      Meanwhile, Mr. Wright's son has been acting as his
      credit man. Mrs. Haddon has now recovered, and her
      husband is anxious to get another position. Reproduce
      Mr. Wright's letter.

      2. Write the letter Mr. Wright sends Mr. Haddon in
      Colorado, suggesting that the latter apply for the

      3. At the same time Joseph Haddon writes, applying for
      the position. Write the letter of application.

      4. Write Mr. Haddon's letter thanking Mr. Wright for
      his interest. Remember that the two men know each

      5. Joseph Haddon, whom you have engaged, is proving to
      be a very alert credit man. He has made a study of
      your credit files and has discovered that you have a
      great many accounts of long standing that ought to be
      collected. He prepares a courteous letter to send to
      the debtors, telling them that he has just been made
      credit man and that he personally would like to get
      into closer touch with their particular situation to
      find out how soon he might expect a remittance from
      them, so that he could plan the future of his
      department. Write the letter. (See page 254.)

      6. A number of retailers remit the amount that they
      owe. Some explain their situation in detail, but a
      great many do not respond to (5). Write another
      letter, still courteous, but more emphatic than (5),
      to those who did not respond. (See page 255.)

      7. Still a number do not respond. Write a third
      letter, saying that you will place the matter in the
      hands of your attorney unless you receive a remittance
      within ten days.

      8. Mr. Haddon discovers that there are about a hundred
      retailers who used to be customers, but who have
      bought nothing for about two years. He reports this to
      the sales manager, Mr. James Woodworth, who writes a
      letter to the retailers to induce them to send another
      order, using the canned fruit spoken of in (8) of
      Exercise 264 as a means of interesting them.

      9. Nathaniel Sears, a dealer in general merchandise at
      Joplin, Mo., writes to you asking for an open account.
      He says that he did a $10,000 business last year and
      that, apparently, sales this year will be larger. He
      gives no references. You refer the matter to Mr.
      Haddon, who looks up Mr. Sears in Bradstreet and then
      writes to one of your salesmen at St. Louis, asking
      him to investigate the financial standing of Mr.
      Sears. Write to the salesman.

      10. After three days the salesman reports that Mr.
      Sears seems to be doing a good business, but he thinks
      the dealer is living beyond his means. He owes two
      wholesale houses $500 and $850 respectively; his
      property in Joplin is heavily mortgaged, and yet he is
      making extensive improvements on his residence; his
      son and his daughter are at expensive boarding
      schools. Write the letter. Be exact in your

      11. As Mr. Woodworth, write Mr. Sears a courteous
      letter, refusing him credit but attempting to secure
      his cash business.

      12. Charles Freeman, 141 Park Place, Newark, Ohio,
      writes in answer to (5) saying that he is unable to
      pay his account of $500. After the harvest his
      outstanding bills will be paid by the farmers, and
      then he can remit. He says he is willing to give his
      90 day note for the amount he owes.

      13. Mr. Haddon writes, accepting the note.


=Exercise 266=


      1. Suppose you were starting a mail order business.
      Would it make any difference in possible profits if
      your center of operations were in a large or a small
      city? Give your reasons.

      2. Would you try to be near good transportation?

      3. What kind of stock would you advertise principally:
      bulky articles or those easily handled? expensive
      goods or those of more moderate price?

      4. Your catalogue is your salesman. What would this
      statement suggest about the cost of running your
      business as compared with that of Peabody, Harper &
      Co., who employ five salesmen?

      5. How would you bring special attention to your
      leaders in your catalogue?

      6. Why is it advisable not to give your catalogue away
      free, but to charge a nominal sum for it?

      7. Would you sell as cheaply as you could or would you
      try to sell for as high a price as possible even if
      you sold less?

      8. Is it profitable for a mail order merchant to sell
      one spool of thread or one pocket-knife? Consider the
      handling and the packing.

      9. Why can the mail order merchant sell more cheaply
      than the country dealer?

    10. _a._ How is the parcel post favorable to the mail order dealer?
        _b._ Why did the country merchant object so strenuously to the
              passage of the parcel post law?

      11. Some distributors who handle only one kind of
      article sometimes pay the freight. Would this plan be
      advisable for a mail order house to adopt?

      12. Since the purchaser pays the freight, is it
      advisable for him to buy a large or a small order at
      one time?

=Exercise 267=


      1. A customer who wishes to buy some furniture
      complains that he can purchase what he wishes from
      another firm that will pay the freight. Write a letter
      meeting his objection.

      2. You have just added a new clothing department and
      have published a special clothing catalogue, which you
      will be glad to send to your customers free of charge.
      Write a letter telling of the new department and
      drawing special attention to your three-piece serge
      suit for $15. Enclose a sample of the cloth.

      3. Write, especially to farmers, saying that with the
      facilities now offered by the parcel post you are able
      to supply their wants quickly; as, for example, for a
      broken part of a piece of farm machinery. Write a
      fairly long letter in a friendly tone.

      4. In the fall write a letter, addressing the farmers'
      wives, saying that, as winter is at hand, it would be
      well for them to put in a supply of groceries when
      prices are reasonable. Enclose a folder giving some
      attractive bargains. Write the folder.

      5. Write a letter, saying that you have just put up a
      new building. Invite your customer to come to see it.
      Explain that every afternoon from 2 to 4 o'clock there
      will be a band concert in your large visitors' hall.

=Exercise 268=

1. Let one pupil be chosen to dictate to the class each of the letters
outlined below. He is to use no notes. The class will represent

2. Discuss and improve the letters that have been dictated.

      1. Borroughs & Brown, a mail order firm at N. 11th and
      Callowhill Streets, Philadelphia, send you their
      catalogue and an advertising letter. Write the letter.

      2. Write, stating that in their catalogue No. 6, page
      673, Borroughs & Brown list a washing machine such as
      you wish, called the "Pride Swing" washing machine,
      No. 4-A-459. The measurements as listed are: depth 13
      inches, diameter 21 inches. The price is $5.25. This
      is too small for your purpose. Ask if they can supply
      you with the same style 30 inches in diameter. Ask the

      3. Borroughs & Brown write that they have no such
      machine in stock, but, since there have been many
      requests lately for a larger machine, they have
      decided to consult the factory, and if it is
      advisable, they will reproduce the "Pride Swing"
      machine in larger size. (Letter head.)

      4. Borroughs & Brown, Dept. 18, House Furnishings,
      write to the W. F. Wiggins Mfg. Co., Saginaw, Mich.,
      stating that they have had several orders for a larger
      "Pride Swing" washing machine which the Wiggins
      Company manufacture. Burroughs & Brown ask concerning
      a 30-inch machine. Write the letter.

      5. The W. F. Wiggins Mfg. Co. telegraph Borroughs &
      Brown that before they can state a price on a 30-inch
      "Pride Swing" machine, they must make samples,
      calculating cost of materials and workmanship. Write
      the telegram. Confirm by letter. Write the letter.

      6. Borroughs & Brown write you, giving the information
      contained in (5) above.

      7. The W. F. Wiggins Mfg. Co. write Borroughs & Brown,
      stating that after several experiments they find that
      the coil springs by which the "Pride Swing" machine is
      operated are too weak for the larger sized tub. The
      manufacture of suitable springs will cause some delay
      in their final report.

      8. Ten days later. Telegram. The W. F. Wiggins Mfg.
      Co. to Borroughs & Brown, stating that they have now
      perfected a "Pride Swing Special" machine; width 30
      inches, depth 18 inches; price $8, with a discount of

      9. Borroughs & Brown write you that they have
      perfected a "Pride Swing Special" washing machine, No.
      4-B-459, 30 inches in diameter, 18 inches in depth,
      price $7. Add a courteous close.

      10. Order five machines. Give full shipping
      directions. Say that you will pay according to the
      offer made on page 25, catalogue No. 6; viz., $20 upon
      receipt of the goods and $5 per month until they are
      paid for. Give two references.

      11. Borroughs & Brown telegraph the W. F. Wiggins Mfg.
      Co. ordering 100 machines, five of which are to be
      sent directly to you. Write, confirming the telegram.

      12. Two weeks later than letter (10) write again,
      explaining that you have not received the machines you
      ordered. Ask the reason for the delay.

      13. Two weeks later than (11) write a telegram from
      Borroughs & Brown to the W. F. Wiggins Mfg. Co.,
      asking why the machines have not been sent.

      14. Send a telegram from the W. F. Wiggins Mfg. Co. to
      Borroughs & Brown, saying that, owing to a teamsters'
      and shipping clerks' strike, they have not been able
      to fill any of their orders for the last two weeks.
      The machines have been sent. (State how and when.)
      Write a letter, confirming the telegram.

      15. Borroughs & Brown write to inform you that the
      strike was the cause of the delay in the shipment of
      the machines you ordered ----. The machines were
      shipped ----. Add a courteous close.

=Exercise 269=

Conduct a transaction of your own, using the above as a model, except in
the method of payment.


Salesmanship is a branch of distribution about which many volumes have
been written. We cannot consider it minutely from the personal view of
the salesman, but can only touch upon it from the point of view of
distribution. The salesman is merely a force in distribution like
correspondence, circulars, and advertising. But the salesman has the
advantage over these in that he is able to bring his personality to bear
in the problem of getting business. It is by means of his personality
that the salesman gets the attention and confidence of the customer,--a
thing which is extremely hard to do in a letter, a circular, or an
advertisement. Securing a buyer's confidence is very important, because
no suspicious customer has ever yet bought anything.

In addition to a pleasing personality a good salesman must have a wide
and thorough knowledge of his wares. If he does not know his goods, the
sale drags; whereas, if he knows everything good there is to be known
about them, his enthusiasm instills enthusiasm into the customer.

After bringing his knowledge and his enthusiasm into play, he must next
call on his perseverance and his tact; perseverance to keep at the
customer until he gets the order, and tact to know in each case just how
to go about getting the order and just when to stop. Many salesmen talk
too much; many more do not talk enough.

=Exercise 270=


In talking on any of the following subjects be sure you know just what
you are going to say before you begin, and then say it clearly and
convincingly. Don't say too much and don't say too little. Just exactly
how much you should say no one can tell you. You must watch your
audience. If they look puzzled, give more details; if they look bored,
try shorter, more concise sentences, or bring your talk to a close.
After you have explained all your points, sum them up briefly at the
end. Remember that your talk must, first, attract attention; second,
hold the interest; and third, create enthusiasm and desire to buy.

To supplement what facts you get from observation, study advertisements
and catalogues to get material for (9) to (20) below:

      1. Get up a talk to persuade a freshman or a group of
      freshmen to subscribe to the school paper.

      2. To persuade girls to contribute to a fund to be
      used to buy suits for the football team.

      3. To induce particularly uninterested freshmen to buy
      tickets for a school activity; for example, a debate.

      4. As a real estate agent induce a classmate to
      establish a home in your neighborhood.

      5. Try to sell the manager of the baseball team a new
      line of athletic goods.

      6. Try to sell a set of Dickens' (or any other
      author's) works to a boy who is not fond of reading.
      You must enjoy the books that you recommend.

      7. Try to sell the class or the teacher a new kind of
      loose leaf note book for science or English work.

      8. As an agent for the publishers try to sell this
      text book to your English class or to your English

      9. You are trying to sell an automobile to a farmer.
      By means of concrete examples develop the following
      items into a talk:

    _a._ The business opportunities to be gained.
    _b._ The social opportunities to be gained.

      10. Get up a talk to sell a runabout to a physician
      who has a small practice. Suppose that he owns a horse
      and a buggy. Be tactful.

      11. You are a salesman for an automobile house and are
      trying to sell a gasoline car to a man who is partial
      to an electric car. Meet the objections to the
      gasoline car and put forward its advantages.

      12. You are trying to sell an electric runabout to a
      woman. Develop the following into a talk:

    _a._ Ease of operation.
    _b._ Noiselessness and comfort.
    _c._ Elegant appearance.

      13. You are trying to sell the manager of a local
      express company a motor truck. Gather all the data you
      can and present it in a talk on why he should replace
      his horses and wagons with motor trucks. Be as
      specific as possible.

      14. Get up a talk showing why a man with considerable
      means should trade his two year old car as part
      payment for the latest model.

      15. Get up a talk to sell a phonograph.

      16. To sell an electric washing machine.

      17. To sell a piano.

      18. To sell a vacuum cleaner.

      19. To sell a subscription to a magazine.

      20. To obtain an order for groceries or teas and
      coffees. The offer of premiums might add to the
      effectiveness of your talk.

=Exercise 271=

The following paragraph was adapted from William C. Freeman's
_Advertising Talks_.

      George Washington's Cherry Tree Story has served a
      good purpose through all of these years. "I cannot
      tell a lie" is a phrase that has been used in every
      schoolroom in America to impress upon young minds the
      importance of truth telling. The phrase is also
      serving its purpose outside the schoolroom. In all
      professions and in all kinds of business, men know
      that in order to make good they must tell the truth.
      There never was, in all the history of the country, a
      greater movement than now toward universal truth
      telling. There is not even that winking at "white"
      lies that used to prevail. The man who does not make a
      direct statement, who does not earn a reputation for
      being honest, has no chance of succeeding. Time was
      when the trickster was regarded as shrewd and was
      accepted in the community as being right both socially
      and commercially. To-day the man who has money without
      a reputation for integrity is a bankrupt, as far as
      real friends and public opinion are concerned. The
      expression "I cannot tell a lie" has been changed
      to-day to "I will not tell a lie even if the lie seems
      more expedient than the blunt truth." So George
      Washington's Cherry Tree Story is as good to-day as it
      ever was.

Prepare paragraphs on the following suggestions, expanding each by

     1. As a salesman, be honest with your customers.
     2. Cultivate tact.
     3. Cultivate a conscience.
     4. Learn to avoid friction.
     5. Acknowledge your mistakes.
     6. Don't criticise.
     7. Don't procrastinate.
     8. Don't boast.
     9. Don't buy your clothes on time.
    10. Don't borrow from fellow clerks.
    11. Don't think your employer can't see whether you are working.
    12. Don't sell a merchant a larger order than he can move.
    13. Study the duties of the man ahead of you.
    14. New ideas count with your employer.
    15. He can who thinks he can.

=Exercise 272=


      1. A request has come in from your territory for your
      automobile catalogue. Write a letter to accompany the
      catalogue, inviting the inspection of your cars. Make
      it as personal as possible.

      2. You have just been talking with a prospective
      buyer. Drive home some of the strong points of your
      car in a letter exploiting strength, reliability, and
      speed. Use the following as a basis of your letter:
      The Up-to-the-minute car breaks the record from New
      York to San Francisco, making the trip in ten days,
      fifteen hours, and thirteen seconds.

      3. You have just shown your motor truck to a business
      man. Strengthen the impression you made on him by
      writing him a letter summing up the important
      advantages of the motor truck. Use the following
      extract from a letter:

      "It has not missed a single trip since I have had it,
      and it takes the place of three wagons and twelve
      horses. My route from Waltham is so long that a pair
      of horses going over it one day has to be laid off the

      "This truck makes three trips each day. I have had it
      on the road nearly four months and have covered over
      four thousand (4,000) miles with no expense for

      4. A prospective customer has lost interest. Try to
      arouse him once more by telling him of a particularly
      good sale recently made, or of a new model just
      received, or of a new device lately perfected. Your
      object is to get him to inspect your cars again.

      5. Write a letter to a wealthy man who bought one of
      your cars two years ago, offering him half of what he
      paid for the car in exchange for a new model. Make him
      see that it would be to his advantage to accept the

      6. Write an advertisement to appear in a local
      newspaper asking for an automobile salesman.

      7. Answer the advertisement, telling why you think you
      could sell cars, although you have had no experience.

      8. Write a letter to a friend telling him you have
      been offered the agency for the Up-to-the-minute car.
      Ask him to be your partner, and try to show him why
      you will succeed. He will be expected to bear half the
      office expenses, and he will get half the commissions.

=Exercise 273--Suggestions for Debates=

      1. The mail order house ruins the trade of the country

      2. The giving of free samples does not attract
      desirable purchasers.

      3. The use of trading stamps should be abolished.

      4. The motor wagon is more advantageous for the
      average grocer than the horse and wagon.

      5. All manufactured food products should be sold in
      sanitary, sealed packages.

=Exercise 274=

_Oral or Written_

Prepare paragraphs on the following:

      1. A merchant must know his neighborhood before he
      buys his stock.

      2. Selling by weight rather than by measure benefits
      dealer and consumer.

      3. Giving short weights does not prove profitable.

      4. The price of a certain kind of goods, or of an
      article, that is going out of style should be reduced
      to move it quickly.

      5. If merchants did not deliver purchases, goods would
      be cheaper.

      6. Hard work and patience spell the merchant's

      7. The middle man gets the bulk of the profit.

      8. The telegraph is a great aid to the business man.

      9. There is a difference between day and night
      telegraphic rates.

      10. Money may be sent by telegraph.

      11. The night letter is very useful to the merchant.

      12. The parcel post is a great help to the farmer.

      13. The parcel post tends to increase the business of
      the mail order firms.

      14. The object of an automobile exhibit is to sell

      15. The five-and-ten-cent stores have succeeded
      because ----.

=Exercise 275=

Prepare paragraphs on the following:

   1. The importance of transportation facilities to the farmer.
   2. The importance of transportation facilities to the manufacturer.
   3. The steamship in international trade.
   4. Transportation before the days of the railroad.
   5. The influence of the railroad in the advance of civilization.
   6. Electrifying the railroads.
   7. Speed, the cause of railroad accidents.
   8. The observation car.
   9. The care of food in the refrigerator car.
  10. The work of the railroad repair-shop.
  11. The advantage of railroad transportation over water transportation.
  12. The advantage of water transportation over railroad transportation.
  13. Why the larger railroads in our country run east and west.
  14. The advantages of the pay-as-you-enter car.
  15. The importance of the interurban electric railroads in country trade.
  16. The disadvantages of the elevated system in large cities.
  17. Congestion in the business district of a large city.
  18. The underground system as a solution for congested traffic.
  19. The work of a transfer company.
  20. The motor truck decreases the business of the express companies.
  21. The automobile decreases railroad suburban business.

=Exercise 276=

Topics for Investigation and Discussion

    1. The work of the Interstate Commerce Commission.

    2. How railroads control other railroads.

    3. Railroad earnings.

    4. Different kinds of railroad traffic.

    5. The relation between the express companies and the

    6. Railroad rates and rebates.

    7. Government ownership of railroads.

    8. The influence of the Panama canal in the growth of
    business in the southern states.

    9. The influence of the canal in the growth of
    business in the central West.

    10. The influence of the canal in the growth of
    business in South America.

    11. The deep water way.

    12. The parcel post zones.

=Exercise 277=

=Books that will Suggest Topics for Talks=

      BOLTON, S. K., Successful Women.

      CHAMBERLAIN, J. F., How We Travel.

      DRYSDALE, W., Helps for Ambitious Boys; Helps for
      Ambitious Girls.

      FOWLER, N. C., Practical Salesmanship; Starting in

      HALE, E. E., What Career?

      HIGINBOTHAM, H. N., The Making of a Merchant.

      LASELLE, M. A. and WILEY, K. E., Vocations for Girls.

      LUNDGREN, CHARLES, The New Salesmanship.

      LYDE, L. W., Man and his Markets.

      MALLON, I. A. S., The Business Girl.

      MANSON, G. J., Ready for Business.

      MARSDEN, O. S., The Secret of Achievement; The Young
      Man Entering Business.

      MITTEN, G. E., The Book of the Railway.

      MOODY, W. D., Men Who Sell Things.

      REED, _et al._, Careers for the Coming Men.

      ROCHELEAU, W. F., Transportation.

      ROLLINS, F. W., What can a Young Man do?

      STOCKWELL, H. G., Essential Elements of Business

      STODDARD, W. O., Men of Business.

      THE VOCATION BUREAU, Boston, Vocations for Boys.
      (Pamphlets on _The Grocer_, _The Machinist_, _The
      Architect_, _etc._)

      WHITE, S. J., Business Openings for Girls.

=Exercise 278=

Write the following from dictation:


      Transportation is a great business as well as
      manufacturing or farming. History tells us that very
      early people did not have a settled home, but, when
      the grass began to give out in one part of the
      country, several members of the community, perhaps
      whole tribes, took their belongings on their backs and
      sought for a new place to settle. It is reasonable to
      suppose that they wished to keep up some sort of
      intercourse with their friends. At once difficulties
      arose, since hostile tribes lived between them and
      their old home. It was a brave man, indeed, who
      ventured to encounter the dangers of the trip between
      the settlements. Such a set of men arose in the
      peddlers, who set out alone or in caravans with
      articles of produce or manufacture and braved the
      dangers even of a desert to exchange what they carried
      for the produce of the old home. This is the earliest
      form of transportation. Compare this simple form with
      the modern railroad, steamship, and express service.



      No empty iteration of the Monroe doctrine, no
      reservation of canal privileges, will capture the
      trade of Latin America. This will be accomplished only
      by efforts to produce and to sell those countries the
      kind of goods that they want; measured, labeled, and
      packed their way; offered in the language that they
      understand; and, moreover, sold at attractive prices.
      Our consuls abroad report that in all these essentials
      American dealers are deficient and that British,
      French, and German manufacturers fill the South
      American markets.

      To these rivals must be added another, for, in spite
      of old South American prejudices against Spain and
      Spanish goods, the Spaniards are quietly regaining
      their footing in those republics of whose trade a
      century ago the home country enjoyed the monopoly. Her
      advantages, we know, are a common language and
      familiarity with the ways of life and the tastes of
      the buyers. Spain produces just the kind of wine,
      olive oil, and canned goods that South America wants;
      she turns out the kind of paper, the patterns of
      cotton goods, the styles of tools and implements, the
      clothing, shoes, and weapons used in Latin America;
      and the result is that she gets the trade. One-sixth,
      at least, of her entire exports goes to her former


      South Africa has been successfully operating an
      agricultural parcel post. By its instrumentality gold,
      diamonds, minerals, wool, feathers, saddlery, boots
      and shoes, confectionery, fruit, plants, seed, butter
      and eggs suitably packed, and other farm products are
      transported, and the producer and consumer have been
      brought together. From the report of the Department of
      Posts and Telegraphs we learn that the scheme has
      worked well, is a recognized and popular feature of
      the postal system, and is entirely feasible. The
      sparse settlements and widely scattered population
      have not operated to bar its success, as was feared at
      the time of its introduction.


      The duty of applying the remedy for wrecks rests,
      primarily, with the railroad managers. And what is the
      remedy, and how is it to be applied? It would seem
      that there can be but one answer: there must be stern
      discipline for taking risks. There must be thorough
      instruction as to what risks are and how to avoid
      them, just such instruction as the "safety first"
      movement is leading up to, but extended to every man
      in every department of every road. In addition, the
      promise that no engineman will be censured for losing
      or not making up time or for not running fast when it
      is not considered safe to do so must be changed to the
      positive, unequivocal statement that there will be a
      substantial penalty for every case of running fast
      when it is not safe to do so.--_Railway Age Gazette._


      More and more attention, each year, is being given by
      the railroad managers to the locating of new kinds of
      industry along their lines. The roads in the West and
      the South nearly all have efficient industrial
      departments, land departments, or immigration
      departments. Their men seek out new industries, meet
      the steamers to tempt immigrants into their region,
      arrange for the purchase or rental of lands, and get
      together reports of the soil, the products, and the
      advantages of any desired location. Perhaps the
      greatest effort, however, is bent upon the location of
      new factories along the route. In one year one
      southern railroad induced more than seven hundred men
      to establish industries along its lines, after the
      railroads had made complete and painstaking
      investigation of all the conditions that would
      confront the prospective manufacturers.



ADVERTISING is one of the most vital forces in the problem of
distribution. Every advertisement is a salesman and is written and sent
out with the idea of doing the work of one. It may bring in actual
orders or it may merely do "missionary work"; that is, it may introduce
a certain article or product and educate the people to see its
advantages so that when next they desire that particular sort of
article, they will order the one that they have seen advertised.

Many an article that has had practically no sale has by means of an
effective advertising campaign been brought to a point of wide
distribution and ready sale. How many safety razors would the
manufacturers sell if they had never advertised their product? Very few.
But when day after day, everywhere a man looks--in street cars,
newspapers, magazines, and on billboards--he sees staring at him a
reason why he should use a safety razor, he soon comes to feel that he
needs one. It is just the same as though the country were covered with
salesmen who were constantly after every one to get him to see the
advantage of the safety razor. The advertised articles may in themselves
be no better than the unadvertised brands, but advertising has created a
demand for the one over the other. The secret of selling success is
creating a demand.

The importance of advertising is demonstrated by an experience which the
city of Chicago had on Wednesday, March 2, 1911. On the afternoon
before, a dispute arose between two newspapers and their printers,
ending in a temporary strike of the printers. As a result, all papers
published on March 2 contained only four pages each, in contrast to the
usual twenty-four, because they contained not a single advertisement.
Fortunately, the strike lasted only one day, as the local printers were
at once reprimanded by the International Typographical Union. But the
losses that newspapers and retail business men suffered on this one day
convinced them of the power of advertising. Street cars, downtown
streets, and department stores were almost empty. To be sure, billboards
still proclaimed their wares, but, as soon as newspaper advertising
ceased, the great mass of shopping stopped.

=Exercise 279=


      1. What are some of the advertising methods used in a
      retail business?

      2. What are some of the advertising methods used in a
      wholesale business? Where are the advertisements

      3. What is the principal advertising medium of the
      mail order house? Explain why it is effective.

      4. What is classified advertising? Why are newspapers
      anxious to increase it? Name several reasons.

      5. What is "display" advertising as distinguished from
      classified? What is the principal medium of this kind
      of advertising?

      6. Give several instances of advertising by means of
      the distribution of "novelties," such as calendars. Is
      such advertising effective?

      7. Is the distribution of samples good advertising? Be
      specific in your answer.

      8. Is it a good thing to have a trade-mark? Name some
      trade-marks that you think are good advertising.

      9. Is a bargain table good advertising? What is its
      advantage in a retail store?

      10. What class of advertising is done in the
      classified columns of a newspaper?

      11. What class of articles and products is advertised
      in the street cars and trains? Expensive or
      inexpensive? Things you use every day or not?

      12. Are articles advertised by billboards usually
      widely advertised articles or not?

      13. What kind of articles would you advertise in:

    1. The newspaper rather than the magazine?
    2. The magazine rather than the newspaper?
    3. The street car rather than on the billboard?
    4. The trade papers rather than the newspapers?

      14. Suppose you were bringing out a new soap and you
      could use only one of the following mediums: (1)
      newspapers; (2) local and trade magazines; (3) street
      cars; (4) billboards and posters. Which would you
      choose and why? Would your answer be the same if you
      had real estate to sell? A new machine? If you were
      producing a new play?

      15. NEWS ITEM.--The University of Wisconsin has issued
      a bulletin, stating that of all the money spent for
      food, shelter, and clothing 90% is spent by women.
      Would the following be good advertising for a
      magazine: "The women of the country read this paper"?
      Give reasons for your answer.

      16. Do handbills suggest cheapness to you?

=Exercise 280=


Discuss the value of each of the following as forms of advertising:

    1. Location.
    2. Furnishings of the office or the store.
    3. Letter headings.
    4. Window displays.
    5. Electric (or other) signs.
    6. Moving electric signs.
    7. Colors (especially reds, greens, and yellows) as against black and
    8. White lettering on a black background.

=Exercise 281=

Fundamentally, the same principles apply to the advertisement as apply
to the sales letter (See page 230). First of all, you must look at your
goods from the standpoint of the user; see his gain in buying rather
than your profit in selling. Your products, then, will probably fall
into one of the following general classes:

      1. Something entirely new for which you must create a
      demand by showing its advantage to the buyer, arousing
      his sense of need and, consequently, his desire to

      2. Something new but filling a long-felt need--"Just
      what you've been looking for"--the value of which will
      appeal to the buyer almost as soon as the product is
      explained. Comparison with the article that now
      imperfectly fills the want suggests itself.

      3. A new brand of an old staple, like crackers, of
      which the superiority must be dwelt upon to induce
      buyers to ask for it. Even after the article is
      selling well, continuous advertising is necessary to
      keep the name before the public.

A paying advertisement appeals to a large class of people or, better
still, to several classes. For a moment let us analyze a few of the
appeals to which almost every one responds; let us consider the reasons
back of our purchases. Why do we buy one article and not another? We buy
it first, perhaps, because we need it or think we need it; second,
because we think it will taste good or be comfortable or good-looking or
because it will afford us amusement; third, because we think it is
better, though possibly more expensive, than any other brand on the
market, and our pride or our desire to emulate responds to it; fourth,
because we think it is good for our health or our safety; and, fifth,
because we shall save money or make money thereby. Summing up, we may
say that the motives to which appeals may safely be made are:

    1. Need, conscious or unconscious (usefulness, quality, or durability).
    2. Comfort, amusement, or appetite.
    3. Pride, desire to emulate, or vanity.
    4. Safety (of health or personal possessions).
    5. Economy or gain.

Clip from magazines and bring to class good advertisements that appeal
to the motives named above. Try to find those advertisements that make
an appeal to only one motive in one advertisement.

=Exercise 282=

The following catch phrases have been taken from advertisements in
various places. Tell (1) whether their appeal is general; (2) whether
they induce one to buy; and (3) if they do, which of the motives given
above have been used by the advertiser. Frequently more than one motive
is used in one advertisement.

      1. For a delicatessen store: Good things to eat.

      2. For a chewing gum: The taste lasts.

      3. For a motor washer: Two cents a week pays your
      washing bill.

      4. For a refrigerator: Are you poisoning your family?

      5. For a summer drink: It's wet.

      6. For stockings: Wear like 60, look like 50, cost but

      7. For a shaving soap: Comfort for your face, economy
      for your purse.

      8. For a liniment: Don't rub--it penetrates.

      9. For a hair tonic: What does your mirror say?

      10. For a clothing store: Exclusive styles for
      exclusive women.

      11. For an inexpensive scouring powder: Why pour money
      down the sink?

      12. For canned goods: When company comes.

      13. For a varnish: Water won't hurt it.

      14. For bread: The human hand never touches it.

      15. For a fountain pen: It can't leak.

=Exercise 283=

Bring to class two advertisements containing catch phrases that you
think are good. To which of the motives given above does each appeal?

=Exercise 284=

Bring in two advertisements of articles that have suggestive names. What
is the value of a suggestive name?

=Exercise 285--Good and Bad Headlines=

A good headline has the following qualities:

First, it should be short. Professor Walter Dill Scott determined by
experiments that the average person can ordinarily attend to only about
four visual objects at the same time--four letters, four words, four
simple pictures, or four geometrical figures. As the headline of an
advertisement is intended to be taken in at one glance, it should,
therefore, be not longer than four words--preferably less, provided the
interest of the phrase is the same. Short words, too, can be taken in
more readily than long words.

Second, the best headline is a command. People instinctively obey a
command, unless it is so worded that they rebel against the manner of

Third, a good headline is suggestive. It touches upon the things that
the reader is thinking about. It shows that the article that is offered
for sale has a close connection with the interests that absorb the
reader's mind. It is a direct answer to his thoughts, feelings, hopes,
or worries.

The following headlines were taken from the advertisements in one issue
of a magazine. Judge of their effectiveness, using the three principles
given above as a basis for your decision:

     1. Get That Job!
     2. Foot Comfort.
     3. Ventilate, but Don't Catch Cold!
     4. A New Filing Cabinet.
     5. Are You Open to Conviction?
     6. Low Priced Envelope Sealer.
     7. Shave for 1c Without Stropping.
     8. What a Wonderful Trip!
     9. Save 30% on Your Furniture.
    10. You Have a Right to Independence.
    11. Just Out!
    12. Get the Dust Out of Your Home--It's Dangerous.
    13. The Easiest Riding Car in the World.
    14. Our Seeds Grow.
    15. That Raise! (Sub-heading in smaller type: What Would a Raise
          in Salary Mean to You?)

=Exercise 286=

Some advertisers choose headlines merely for the purpose of attracting
attention, forgetting that the headline should suggest what the
following illustration and text explain. A few years ago a well-known
automobile company ran an advertisement with the headline _$1000 Worth
of Folly_. The headline was followed by a picture of the automobile. The
advertisement was intended to convey the idea that, as this car might be
bought for $3000, any one paying $4000 for an automobile was foolishly
squandering $1000. As a matter of fact, the only suggestion that the
reader got from the advertisement was that any one who paid $1000 for
the illustrated car would be a fool.

      1. Bring to class an advertisement in which the
      headline has no connection with the rest of the
      advertisement, being used merely to catch the

      2. Find an advertisement in which the headline
      suggests the opposite of what the advertisement is
      intended to convey.

      3. How might either advertisement be improved?

=Exercise 287=

Still-life advertisements are not interesting. The picture of a furnace,
or a typewriter, or a house attracts less attention than the same
objects with human beings represented moving in the picture.

Bring to class two advertisements of the same kind of article, in one of
which a still-life illustration is used and in the other of which human
beings are used to center the attention upon the article that is offered
for sale.

=Exercise 288=

Bring to class (1) an advertisement that is not good because it contains
too much--lacks a center upon which the attention naturally focuses; and
(2) an advertisement that is good because it has a definitely defined
center of attraction.

=Exercise 289=

Bring to class an advertisement in which the principle of balance is
used to advantage, two illustrations, one on each side of the text,
being used to convey one impression.

=Exercise 290=

In writing the following, try to embody the principles that have been
brought out in previous exercises:

      1. An entertainment is to be given in the school hall.
      Write an advertisement to appear in the school paper.

      2. Write an announcement of the same entertainment--to
      be posted on the bulletin board.

      3. Write an advertisement for a debate.

      4. For a football, baseball, or basket-ball game.

      5. For an inter-class contest.

      6. You have permission to secure advertisements to be
      printed in the program of the entertainment spoken of
      above. Suppose that you are to write the copy for the
      different advertisements. Use one-eighth, one-quarter,
      one-half, or one page, as you wish.

      Advertise a grocery.

      7. A meat market.

      8. A dry goods store.

      9. A candy store.

      10. A bakery.

      11. A bank.

      12. A tailor's shop.

      13. A photographer's studio.

      14. A barber shop.

      15. A drug store.

=Exercise 291=

      1. Write a handbill announcing a 20% discount sale to
      run three days in your dry goods store.

      2. Describe a chair, table, or other article of
      furniture in your own home. The description is to form
      part of an advertisement to appear in a mail order

      3. You are advertising a new brand of coffee in the
      street car. Write the card. Would you use an
      illustration? If so, of what kind?

      4. As in (3) advertise a new brand of pork and beans.

      5. As in (3) advertise a shoe sale.

      6. Advertise a well-known brand of soap in a magazine.
      Use your own idea. Would you use an illustration?

      7. How would you advertise an automobile which has
      proved its merits? Remember, your object is to keep
      the name before the public. How would you advertise a
      new make of automobile? How much space would you use
      in either case? Write both advertisements.

      8. A half-page advertisement by the Hudson Cereal
      Company, 110 Hudson St., New York, of their
      Nervo-Cereal Coffee contains the item: "Can you thread
      a needle, holding the thread one inch from the end? If
      you cannot, you are nervous. Is coffee to blame?"
      Exploit the aroma and flavor of the cereal coffee.

      9. The Central Packing Company is running a series of
      advertisements of their Premium Extract of Beef. This
      one is to appear just before Thanksgiving. Entitle it
      "Four Delicious Dishes for the Thanksgiving Dinner,"
      and then in as attractive a form as possible give four
      recipes, making a point of the necessity of using
      Premium Extract for the right flavor. At the end sum
      up the merits of Premium Extract and mention the
      silver premiums given with the certificates under the
      metal caps.

      10. The Bay City Mill Co., Bay City, Mich., sells fine
      finished lumber suitable for making furniture at home.
      Prepare an advertisement to show how simple it is to
      make tables and chairs at home with their plans and
      their specially cut lumber. Illustrate by giving the
      plans and working directions for making a useful
      table, showing how easy it is with their specially cut
      lumber. Set an attractive price on the lumber
      necessary to make this table. Sum up by exploiting a
      book of plans, which may be had for the asking.

=Exercise 292=

The following paragraph is taken from Professor Scott's _Theory of
Advertising_. What is the subject of the paragraph? Is there a topic
sentence? By what plan is the paragraph developed?

      Many of those who use illustrations for their
      advertisements follow the philosophy of the Irish boy
      who said that he liked to stub his toe because it felt
      so good when it stopped hurting. Many of us are unable
      to see how the boy had made any gain after it was all
      over, but he was satisfied, and that was sufficient.
      The philosophic disciples of the Irish boy are found
      in advertisers who have certain things to dispose of
      which will not do certain harmful things. First they
      choose an illustration which will make you believe
      that what they have to sell is just what you do not
      want, and then in the text they try to overcome this
      false impression and to show you that what they have
      to offer is not so bad after all. Most of us are
      unable to see how the advertiser has gained, even if
      he has succeeded in giving us logical proof that his
      goods are not so bad as we were at first led to think.
      We are not logically inclined, and we take the
      illustration and the text, and we combine the two. The
      best that the text can do is to destroy the evil
      effect of the illustration. Of course, when we read in
      the text that the illustration does not correctly
      represent the goods, we ought to discard the
      illustration entirely and think only of the text, but,
      unfortunately, we are not constructed in that way. The
      impression made by the illustration and that made by
      the text fuse and form a whole which is the result
      formed by these two elements.

Write paragraphs on each of the following:

      1. Advertising is essential in modern business.

      2. Advertising helps the housewife economize.

      3. The study of advertisements saves the shopper's
      time and strength.

      4. Advertised goods cost more than the unadvertised
      brands. (Give the reasons.)

      5. Trade-marked and advertised goods have increased
      the cost of living.

      6. Increased advertising causes the styles to change

      7. Every advertisement must catch and hold the
      attention. Some accomplish this object by causing a
      laugh. (Describe one such.)

      8. Some advertisements hold the attention because they
      appeal to our love of the mysterious. One such is ----
      (describe it).

      9. Some advertisements succeed because of their clever
      color scheme. One such is ----.

      10. Every successful advertisement contains a
      convincing argument.

      11. Mouth to mouth advertising is the best and the

      12. Advertised goods are better because they have to

      13. The consumer pays for all the advertising.

      14. The cost of advertising is paid by the competitors
      who do not advertise.

      15. Advertising tends to create uniform prices.

      16. The advertising expert is a student of men.

=Exercise 293=

Give your opinion as to the effectiveness of the following


      A department store that was anxious to increase its
      trade on Mondays and Wednesdays included the following
      coupons in its circular advertisement one week:

    THIS COUPON AND 19c               THIS COUPON AND 50c
    Monday only                       Wednesday only
    good for                          good for
    _6 Spools J. & P. Coats'_    _Misses' or Children's_
    _Best 6 Cord Machine_        _White Canvas Pumps_
    _Thread_                     2 strap model, heavy or light soles,
    Regular 30c value                 trimmed with dainty bow on
                                      vamp. All sizes up to 2.
                                      $1.50 value



      We ask our customers to decide by their votes the 250
      institutions that shall receive this amount. Each ten
      cents' worth purchased entitles the purchaser to one


      The following appeared in the center of a page
      otherwise blank. On the opposite page appeared the
      advertisement of a well-known article.

      The announcement on the following page is so important
      that we have decided to leave this page blank.


      The following was part of a circular:

      Following our annual custom we will again this year
      give away absolutely free a beautiful silk flag to
      every customer making a purchase of $1 or over,
      Tuesday and Wednesday, July 2 and 3.


      The following appeared in a newspaper:


      We have now been in our new location somewhat over a
      month. Our business has been all that we expected; in
      some departments, indeed, there is an increase,
      notably in the neckwear, ready-to-wear clothes, hats,
      and tailoring departments.

      Naturally, we had an abundance of faith in our new
      location; nevertheless, we must confess that there
      were times when we had anxious moments. We discovered,
      however, that our moving was at the "psychological
      moment"; we soon learned that in the minds of the
      people there was but one thought--success for Michigan

      We have always felt that there was a closer bond of
      sympathy between our customers and us than is usually
      the case between buyer and seller. The unusual
      interest taken in our new store and in our success has
      more than confirmed us in this impression. Our
      experience during the last forty days has really made
      life worth living.

      The minds of hundreds of our customers have reverted
      to the beginning of our business in our old Dearborn
      Street store, twenty years ago, and they have made
      comparisons between that and the wonderful
      establishment we now possess; they have done it in a
      way that would almost suggest that it was their
      business that they were talking of rather than ours.
      It made us feel that, although we have made our
      mistakes, nevertheless we must have served the public
      well, and we insert this article in the hope that a
      few of our well-wishers may read it and understand
      that we appreciate and are grateful.

=Exercise 294=

Books that will Suggest Topics for Talks

  BALMER, EDWIN, The Science of Advertising.
  BELLAMY, FRANCIS (ed), Effective Magazine Advertising.
  BRIDGEWATER, HOWARD, Advertising, or The Art of Making Known.
  CALKINS, E. E. and HOLDEN, R., Modern Advertising.
  CHERINGTON, PAUL T., Advertising as a Business Force.
  DELAND, L. F., Imagination in Business.
  DE WEESE, TRUMAN A., Advertising (The Business Man's Library, Vol. vii).
  EDGAR, ALBERT E., How to Advertise a Retail Store.
  FOWLER, N. C., Building Business.
  SCOTT, W. D., The Theory of Advertising.



Lands, buildings, and houses are called real property or real estate,
and the business pertaining to them, the real estate business. Every one
of us has more or less to do with this business. If we do not own
property, we pay _rent_. Rent is the money paid for the use of a piece
of land, or a building, or part of a building, and is usually paid at
certain stated intervals of time--monthly, for example. The owner of the
building is called the _landlord_; the one who rents, the _tenant_.
Sometimes there is no condition as to how long a tenant shall remain in
one place and pay rent, but, as a rule, the landlord requires the tenant
to sign a _lease_. This is a contract between the landlord and the
tenant, stating that in consideration of the landlord's furnishing the
tenant a place in which to live with certain conveniences--such as heat,
hot water, and other services--the tenant agrees to pay rent for a
certain length of time, usually a year or more. If the tenant moves out
before his lease expires and refuses to pay the rent, he breaks the
contract and, as is usually the case when a contract is broken, a
lawsuit may follow. In large cities where land is in some places very
valuable, owners may not care to sell the property on which others wish
to build, but lease it to the builders for a certain term of years,
usually ninety-nine years.

Suppose you no longer wish to pay rent, but to own the house in which
you live. If you buy a piece of property from John Smith and pay him
your money for it, you wish to be assured that after a few months John
Smith will not come to you and claim the property as his. To protect
you John Smith gives you a _deed_ to the property. A deed is a contract
between the buyer and the seller of the property. It states that, in
consideration of the buyer's paying a certain stipulated sum of money,
the seller releases and conveys the property to the buyer. This deed
shows that you now own the property. At the same time you should receive
a _clear title_ to the property; that is, you wish to be sure that no
one else has a claim on the property. If John Smith guarantees that the
title is clear, he gives you a _warranty deed_ for the property, in
which he will "warrant and defend the same against all lawful claims
whatsoever." If, however, he simply turns over the property to you as it
stands, he gives you a _quitclaim deed_, in which he relinquishes or
quits all his interest in it. If you have no debts on the property, you
own it in _fee simple_.

Very often in buying property, the purchaser pays only a part of the
purchase price himself, paying for the balance by borrowing the
necessary amount from a third party. For example, if the house you
bought from John Smith cost $6,000 and you had only $4,000, you would be
forced to borrow the other $2,000 to pay John Smith. You would then go
to your bank or to some person who had money to invest and would borrow
the required amount, and to guarantee that you would pay the money back,
you would give a _mortgage_ on the property. A mortgage is a contract
which states that, in consideration of one party's giving the second
party a certain sum of money, the second party agrees to pay interest on
that money at a stipulated rate, and at the end of a certain length of
time agrees to pay the money back; and that, in case the second party
does not pay back the amount at the end of the time, the first party is
empowered to take possession of the property, to sell it, and to get the
amount due him. This last procedure is called _foreclosing the
mortgage_. It is a common practice to mortgage property; almost all the
property in a city is mortgaged.

Some men and firms make a special business of transferring property,
buying and selling it for others, making leases, and collecting rents.
They are called real estate agents, and for their services get a
_commission_, which is a certain percentage of the purchase or the
selling price and a certain percentage of the amount of rent collected.
This percentage varies according to whether the amount of money involved
is large or small, the percentage being larger when small sums of money
are involved than when large sums are involved.

=Exercise 295=


      1. What is a lease?

      2. Explain why owners of valuable property lease it.

      3. What is a deed? Explain the two kinds.

      4. What is meant by a clear title?

      5. What is meant by fee simple?

      6. Why is it important to be careful about the title?

      7. What is a mortgage?

      8. Explain why property is often mortgaged. Does the
      mortgage benefit the owner? Explain.

      9. What is meant by foreclosing?

      10. What is an agent? How is he usually paid?

      11. Why do people employ real estate agents to take
      care of renting? To sell their property?

      12. Why is property near a railroad valuable? For

      13. Why is a corner lot worth more than an inside lot?

      14. Why is property on a car line more valuable than
      on a side street?

      15. What effect would the building of a new street car
      line have on the value of adjacent property? Why?

=Exercise 296=


      1. Suppose that you are a landlord and that in your
      lease no mention is made of giving your tenants
      janitor service, but you yourself take care of the
      furnace. Other landlords in the block supply janitor
      service. After one of your tenants has moved in, he
      demands that the back porch be scrubbed once a week
      and the garbage emptied daily. What would you do?
      Consider the points for and against.

      2. Suppose some boys playing ball on the street break
      a plate glass window in the store you own. Would you
      expect your tenant to pay for repairs?


      3. Write to Francis L. Russell, a real estate agent,
      asking his terms for collecting the rent of ---- (tell
      the location of the house, the number of the tenants,
      and the rent you receive).

      4. As if you were Francis L. Russell write a reply,
      saying that you will undertake the collection for a
      commission of 5%.

      5. Imagine you are a tenant in the same building. The
      kitchen sink cannot be used in your flat because of a
      stoppage in the plumbing. You have told the agent
      once. Write him (see 3) again, stating that unless he
      sends a plumber you will not pay your next month's
      rent. (Is there any reason for writing this, rather
      than telephoning it?)

      6. The plumber has submitted a bill of $5.98 for the
      repairs suggested in (5). The agent writes to the
      landlord, enclosing a check for the rent that he has
      collected, less the amount of the plumber's bill and
      his commission.

      7. You are a lawyer. Write to the landlord, informing
      him that the mortgage which your client holds against
      the landlord's property expires in thirty days. Ask
      the landlord whether he expects to pay the money or
      whether he wishes a renewal of the loan for three
      years. Your client is willing to give such a renewal.

      8. The landlord replies that he is enclosing $100 to
      pay the interest due on the mortgage and that he
      desires a renewal of the loan. If the lawyer will
      prepare the papers, he will come to sign them at the
      specified time. Write the letter.

      9. You are an insurance agent. Write to the landlord
      that the fire insurance on his property expires in
      sixty days. Ask him to allow you to write a new
      policy. Inform him that the rate now will be 3-3/4%
      instead of if 1-3/4% as it was formerly, because a
      garage has been erected one door north of his
      property. (Why should the rate be higher?)

      10. One of the tenants has paid no rent for two
      months. You decide that he never will be able to pay.
      As landlord you make out and deliver to him a _Five
      days' notice of removal_. At the same time, you write
      a letter to your lawyer, explaining the state of
      affairs and asking him to take charge of enforcing the
      notice. (This means that if the tenant does not move,
      the case must come up in court. If it is decided in
      the landlord's favor, the tenant must move. If he
      refuses, the lawyer engages a constable to eject him.)
      Write the letter.

      11. Francis L. Russell writes three short
      advertisements, offering for sale (1) a large 12 room
      residence, mortgage $6,000, price $15,000; (2) a 3
      apartment building, clear, price $16,000; (3) a large
      12 apartment building, mortgage $25,000, price
      $41,000, terms to suit. Where would you advertise?
      Write the advertisements.

      12. You get inquiries about all of the above. Write
      answers describing the buildings more fully, and make
      appointments with the writers to inspect the property.

      13. A man is interested in the 12 flat building, but
      he has only $10,000. Offer him the property for
      $40,000 on these terms: $10,000 down, a first mortgage
      for $20,000 to run 10 years at 5%, and a second
      mortgage for $10,000 to run 5 years at 5½%, $2,000 to
      be paid each year with interest. Make it as attractive
      as possible. Tell him you will arrange for the

      14. (_a_) Write to your bank, the First National, and
      explain that, although the first mortgage on the 12
      flat building for $25,000 still has 3 years to run,
      you would like to arrange for a 10 year mortgage for
      $20,000, if your prospective buyer takes the property.
      (_b_) Write to George R. Scott, who owns the building,
      offering him the second mortgage. Explain that
      although it is a second mortgage the fact that $2,000
      of the principal is paid each year makes it
      attractive. (How would the owner benefit if the buyer
      failed to make his payments after 2 years?) Sign
      yourself Francis L. Russell.

      15. You have put through the deal. Write to the new
      owner, offering to take care of the renting for a
      commission equal to 2½% of the amount collected.

=Exercise 297--Farm Lands=

1. You own a large tract of land in the South, West, or Southwest.
Choose your own locality. Prepare a pamphlet setting forth the
advantages of this particular spot in a series of paragraphs: (1)
scenery, (2) climate and healthfulness, (3) crops, (4) profits from the
crops, (5) price of labor, (6) chances for pleasure, e.g., hunting,
fishing, etc., (7) transportation facilities, (8) price of the land. Use
a firm name and address.

2. Arrange and punctuate:

      Nov. 1, 19-- [For the introduction supply the same
      firm name used in (1)]. Gentlemen I have just returned
      from an extended trip through (the district spoken of
      above) with reference to the forty acres I purchased
      from you I desire to say that I am convinced that it
      will prove a paying investment I am so pleased that I
      shall certainly try to induce several of my friends to
      purchase near my site while on the property I
      carefully inspected the farm worked by Mr S R Jackson
      I must say what he is accomplishing the immense crop
      of vegetables and fruit he is marketing amazed me no
      doubt what he is doing I may do for I made sure by
      careful examination that the soil on my land is
      exactly like his you may depend upon it that within
      the next two months I shall move my family upon the
      land for I am eager to develop it sincerely yours F W

What advantage would there be in including such a letter as (2) in the
booklet spoken of in (1)?

3. To prove the possibilities of the land spoken of in (1), you intend
to start a model farm. Advertise for a farmer. Your plan is to give him
60 acres to develop for himself, in return for which he shall
demonstrate the possibilities of the land.

4. Write a letter applying for the position. You must have farming
experience, some money, a knowledge of crops, and a good deal of

5. Write an advertisement of your land for a big newspaper. Exploit its
most striking features, especially the price. Study such advertisements
before you write yours.

6. Reproduce a letter you received in answer to (5), asking for more
information concerning the lands.

7. Write the reply to (6). Say you are enclosing the booklet spoken of
in (1); tell of the model farm being established (3); and induce the
inquirer to become a purchaser.

8. Prepare a series of three follow-up letters to be sent out to
prospective purchasers who write as in (6) but who do not answer your
letter in (7). Make each letter set forth one of the following
advantages of buying a piece of your land: (1) The profits from the
crops are large; (2) The conditions are ideal--mention climate, water,
neighbors, transportation; (3) It is a good investment, since the land
will certainly rise in value--tell of other land in the neighborhood
that has risen in value within the last year. Arrange the letters in the
order that you think will be most effective.

=Exercise 298=

Topics for Investigation and Discussion

      1. The cause of changes in city real estate values.

      2. The price of downtown property in your town.

      3. The rise in property values in the last few years.

      4. The causes of the rise.

      5. Stove heated or steam heated property--which is the
      better income producer?

      6. The Mortgage.--(_a_) Why people mortgage their
      property; (_b_) Why people loan money on mortgages.

      7. The increase in the total value of farm lands
      during the last ten years.

      8. The decrease in the value of farm lands in the

      9. The reasons for the growth of the West.

      10. Will the South be a new West?

      11. The reclamation of swamp lands.

      12. The success of irrigation.

=Exercise 299--Insurance=

An exposition of the subject of insurance is hardly in place here,
especially as every one, to a certain extent at least, is acquainted
with the fundamental reasons why insurance is purchased. The questions
below should be used as a rudimentary review that will prepare for the
letters that follow.


      1. What is the object of insurance?

      2. What is meant by a policy?

      3. By the premium?

      4. By the beneficiary?

      5. By life insurance?

      6. By fire insurance?

      7. By accident insurance?

      8. By marine insurance?

      9. What is the difference between a straight life and
      a 20 year endowment policy?

      10. Between the above and a 20 year pay policy?

      11. Between the above and a term policy?

      12. Why is it that the mortgagee, and not the owner,
      holds the fire insurance policy? Why must the amount
      of insurance equal or exceed the amount of the


      1. You are an insurance agent. A man came to your
      office to-day to inquire about a life insurance
      policy. Write him a letter, repeating what you told
      him, advocating his taking out a straight life policy.

      2. A new building has just been erected in your
      neighborhood. Write to the owner, soliciting him to
      let you write the fire insurance policy.

      3. Write to a man who rides downtown on the train
      every day. Convince him that he needs to take out an
      accident insurance policy. Point out that the premium
      is only $25 a year. If the man is injured he will
      receive $25 weekly; if he is killed by accident, his
      beneficiary will receive $5,000; if he is killed on a
      train or in an elevator, $10,000.

      4. Write to one of your clients, informing him that
      the premium on his life insurance policy falls due in
      ten days.

      5. Write to another of your clients, informing him
      that the insurance on his property runs out in ten
      days. Inform him that, if he wishes the policy
      renewed, he should let you know at once and remit the

      6. From the client mentioned in (5) you receive a
      letter in which he explains that the paint store which
      formerly adjoined his property has been replaced by a
      grocery. He would like a new policy at a lower rate.
      Reproduce the letter. A paint store is insured at the
      highest, or hazard, rate. The rate on property
      adjoining a paint store would also be very high.

      7. You investigate the matter and find that the facts
      are as stated in (6). Write your client, offering him
      a rate of 1½% and enclosing a bill for $45.

      8. He replies that, since the risk of fire is now so
      much less, he wishes to take only $2,000 worth of
      insurance. He asks you to write such a policy, and he
      encloses his check for $30. Write the letter.

      9. A man writes to you, saying that he wishes to take
      out an endowment policy for his fifteen year old
      daughter, who has already been examined. He wishes to
      give the insurance to her as a birthday present. He
      encloses a check for the premium and asks you to send
      the contract to her on her birthday (Name the date).
      Write the father's letter.

      10. Write a letter to accompany the birthday present.
      Remember you do not know the daughter.

=Exercise 300=

Write the following from dictation:



      The average yield of wheat in the United States for
      the five years ending in 1910 was eight-tenths of a
      bushel per acre more than in the five years ending in
      1905, but it was less than four-tenths of a bushel
      more than for the ten ending in 1900. The average corn
      product for the ten years ending in 1910 was a little
      less than for the ten years ending in 1875.
      Thirty-five years had not advanced us a step. European
      countries--Great Britain, France, Germany--with
      inferior soils and less favorable climate produce
      crops practically double our own. In our studies of
      conservation we find no waste comparable, either in
      magnitude or importance, to this. The farm will fail,
      and the foundations of our prosperity be undermined,
      unless agriculture is reformed. The percentage of our
      people actively engaged in farming had fallen from
      47.36 in 1870 to an estimated 32 in 1910. Every man on
      the farm to-day must produce food for two mouths
      against one forty years ago.

      --_J. J. Hill._



      One of the latest and most successful activities of
      the railroads is the practice of carrying knowledge of
      the best farming methods to the farmers by means of
      special trains equipped like agricultural colleges.
      These trains, bearing experts and all the equipment
      for exhibiting the new methods of agriculture, bring
      the knowledge to the farmers free, and the railroads
      are glad to give it, for every bit of knowledge comes
      back to them in a hundred fold profit in freight. In
      the summer eager audiences all over the country listen
      to the preaching of better methods and larger crops.
      Dozens of special trains travel through the
      agricultural regions disseminating information. The
      "Breakfast Bacon Special" has been run to encourage
      Iowa farmers to raise more hogs to take advantage of
      the high price of bacon. The Cotton Belt Route
      southwest of St. Louis runs the "Squealer Special" to
      prove to the Arkansas and Panhandle farmers the
      money-making advantages of blooded hogs over the
      razor-back variety. Down the Mississippi Valley the
      Illinois Central sends the "Boll Weevil Special" to
      conduct a campaign against that pest. The Harriman
      lines have six trains operating in California every
      year. In one year they visited more than seventy-five
      thousand people. Better farming specials run in
      practically every state south of the Ohio and Potomac
      and west of the Mississippi. The New York Central also
      has two trains in operation in New York.--_The
      Business Almanac._


      A large proportion of farmers give little or no
      attention to the selection of seed; yet it has been
      demonstrated that a careful selection would add
      hundreds of millions of dollars to the total value of
      the crops. If, for example, a variety of wheat were
      developed capable of producing one more kernel to the
      head, it would mean an addition, so Burbank says, of
      15,000,000 bushels to our average wheat crop. It is
      possible, however, to do even more than this. At the
      Minnesota station a variety, selected for ten years
      according to a definite principle, yielded twenty-five
      per cent more than the parent variety. Applied to our
      average crop, that increase would amount to
      185,000,000 bushels, worth about $140,000,000. As for
      corn, it has been officially stated that our average
      yield could easily be doubled. After exhaustive
      experiments the Department of Agriculture says that by
      merely testing individual ears of seed corn and
      rejecting those of low vitality an average yield of
      nearly fourteen per cent could be secured, adding
      about $200,000,000 to the value of the crop. Does
      scientific seed selection seem worth while?--_The Wall
      Street Journal._



IMAGINE that you are a druggist in a small town. Suppose that a woman
comes in to buy two ounces of camphor and in exchange gives you three
eggs. In a few moments, perhaps, a man enters to buy a safety razor and
brings with him wheat enough to pay the bill. Another, again, wishes to
trade a turkey for a fountain pen. You can readily see the inconvenience
to which you would be put in such exchange of actual commodities; yet
this was the method used in primitive times, a method called _barter_.

To overcome the inconvenience of barter, as civilization advanced, it
became necessary to establish a common medium of exchange, which could
be accepted for anything one had to sell and with which one could buy
anything he wished. This is what we call _money_. To meet the
requirements, money must not be bulky, must be durable, and must not
readily change in value. In civilized countries gold and silver are the
bases of exchange.

But gold and silver are heavy and inconvenient to carry about in large,
or for that matter in small, quantities, and for convenience the
following kinds of paper money have been established:

1. _Gold Certificates_ are issued with the government's guarantee that
there is gold deposited in the Treasury equal to the amount of the face
of the bill. At any time the one holding such a bill may demand of the
Treasury that he receive gold for it.

2. _Silver Certificates_ are similar to gold certificates, except that
silver is deposited in the Treasury instead of gold.

3. _United States Treasury Notes_ are promissory notes of the government
to pay the sum indicated. They are not payable on demand.

4. _National Bank Notes_ are promissory notes issued by the national
banks and are payable on demand of the bearer. Before a national bank
may issue such notes, it must own United States government bonds of at
least the amount for which it issues notes. These bonds are held by the
Treasurer of the United States as security that the bank will pay its
notes. According to the Owen Glass Bill, passed in December of 1913,
national bank notes may at the option of the banks be gradually
withdrawn from circulation.


_Credit_ is a promise to pay at some future time for a thing which you
receive now. Its use is probably as old as the practice of exchange and
quite as important. The simplest and most extensive form of credit is
"book" credit, such as you get at the grocer's or butcher's or at the
department store. To explain a little more complex kind of credit:
Suppose you owe Smith one hundred dollars. At the same time Smith owes
Jones one hundred dollars. Because you owe Smith, he may give Jones an
order to collect the money from you. With this order Jones may pay his
lawyer, let us say. Perhaps the lawyer has bought a bill of goods from
you. He pays you with the same order. You destroy the "note," and thus
four actual transactions have been taken care of without the use of any
money. The business institution which deals especially with credits is
the bank.


A bank which fulfills every banking function must have these three
departments: (1) the commercial department, (2) the savings department,
(3) the trust department. Some institutions specialize in one department
more than in either of the others, and thus, taking the name from their
principal function, banks are known as follows: (i) commercial banks or
banks of deposit, (2) savings banks, (3) trust companies.

Banks of Deposit


Banks of deposit or commercial banks are business men's banks. Their two
principal functions are (1) receiving money for safe-keeping on deposit,
and (2) loaning money to business men at interest. The deposit function
is based on confidence and credit. The business man takes his money to
the bank not only because it is convenient for him to do so, but also
because he has confidence that the money will be more carefully
protected than if he kept it in his own possession. In depositing his
money in the bank, the business man uses a _deposit slip_ such as the
one illustrated here. The teller puts down the amount in the _bank book_
of the depositor, who is credited with that amount on the bank's books.
He is entitled to draw just that much actual cash or that much credit in
the form of _checks_. (See page 339.) Most firms do not deposit a sum of
money and then promptly draw it out again in the form of checks to pay
current liabilities, but maintain a fairly steady balance in the bank.
On large average monthly balances most banks allow interest, varying
from one per cent on balances of one thousand dollars to three per cent
on balances of ten thousand dollars or more.


Because a large bank has many depositors, the aggregate of all the
balances makes a considerable sum of money. Bankers have learned by
experience just what proportion of their deposits they can depend on to
remain steadily on deposit as a balance, and thus they know what
proportion of their deposits it is safe to use for the purpose of
_discount_. The simplest case of the discount function is the discount
of a promissory note. In the note shown in the illustration after ninety
days John H. Blodgett will receive from Lucius Thomas five hundred
dollars with interest. But perhaps Blodgett cannot wait ninety days for
his money. In this case, he takes the note to his banker, who will pay
him the five hundred dollars less a certain percentage or discount,
which is the bank's profit on the transaction. The bank then collects
the note when it becomes due.

[Illustration: PROMISSORY NOTE]


Instead of cashing a note held by one of its customers, the bank may
itself loan money at interest for a short period of thirty, sixty, or
ninety days, taking the note of the business man to whom the money is
loaned. In most cases, however, unless the bank knows the business man
well, a certain amount of _collateral_ is demanded as an assurance that
the borrower will pay the loan when it becomes due. The amount of
collateral deposited with the bank is usually 10% to 25% in excess of
the amount loaned, and it may take the form of stocks or bonds;
mortgages on real estate; liens on stock, fixtures, or personal
property; or warehouse receipts. When the amount borrowed is paid, the
collateral is returned; if it is not paid within a reasonable time, the
collateral is sold, and the amount loaned, with interest to date, is
taken from the proceeds.

There are, of course, other functions of banks of deposit practised
quite generally by all banks, and these will be explained later. The
functions just described, however, distinguish banks of deposit in a
general way from the other two classes.

Savings Banks

A savings bank accepts from its depositors small amounts of money which
are not subject to withdrawal by check, but on which it pays a low rate
of interest. As a general rule, an account may be opened with one
dollar; and when the initial deposit is made, the depositor is furnished
with a pass book, similar to the bank book, in which further deposits,
interest credits, and withdrawals are recorded. Interest is compounded
every four or six months, and money must, as a general rule, remain on
deposit until an interest payment date before the depositor receives any
interest on it. The usual rate of interest is three per cent, although
four is often paid. Frequently, before banks allow deposits to be
withdrawn, they demand a certain number of days' notice, usually thirty.
It is well to investigate the conditions under which the depositor
places his money in the safe-keeping of the bank, because the withdrawal
requirements are often stringent. Because of the stability of this
class of deposit, banks are always anxious to increase their savings
accounts, as a large proportion of the funds may be used for loans.

A form of the savings bank established in the United States in 1911 is
the postal savings bank, in which the post-office is made the depository
for savings. The post-office in the town deposits its funds in the local
national or state bank, which, as security for safe-keeping, must
deposit with the Treasurer of the United States bonds at least equal in
value to the amount of savings deposited in the bank. Postal savings
banks are practically absolutely safe, because, if the bank which takes
care of the funds should fail, the bonds may be sold, so that the savers
will receive their money. From deposits made in the postal savings bank,
the return to the depositor is only two per cent, whereas the return
from deposits made in the bank's own savings department is three, three
and a half, and sometimes four per cent.

Trust Companies

_The Richards' Baby Stocking Fund_

      A miner named Richards was killed in an accident in an
      Alaska mine. Among his possessions were found a number
      of letters and a baby stocking containing a little
      gold dust. The letters told that Richards had a little
      six-year-old daughter, who was now left destitute. The
      rough miners made up a fund of $2,500 in gold dust,
      depositing it with the United States Commissioner of
      the Territory of Alaska, to be held by him until the
      proper disposition of it could be made. A committee
      was appointed, who agreed that one hundred dollars a
      year for ten years should be used to give the child a
      common school education, and then five hundred dollars
      each year to give her a college education. A legal
      guardian was appointed, and the Kansas City Trust
      Company asked to act as co-guardian to invest the
      money and make the required remittances. The funds
      were first deposited by the commissioner in a bank in
      Portland, which sent them to the Kansas City Trust
      Company. Correspondence was of course carried on at
      the same time, the Kansas City Trust Company agreeing
      to accept the trust without remuneration. They have
      invested the money in five per cent bonds, thus
      increasing the fund yearly.

This is called a _trust_ because the money is entrusted for safe-keeping
and investment to the bank, which is called the _trustee_. A bank may
also become the trustee for property left at the death of a person, both
when there is a will and when there is none. When there is no will and
the bank takes charge of the affairs of the deceased, the bank is called
the _administrator_; when there is a will, the _executor_. Another
important function of the trust company is acting as _receiver_ for a
company which has failed; that is, adjusting the company's affairs in
the way fairest both to the stockholders and to the company's creditors.
The trust company often acts, also, as _agent_ for its clients'
property, performing the same duties as a real estate agent.

Form of Remittance

Banks as a class are distinguished one from the other according as they
specialize in one or more of the functions described above. However,
there are certain services that all banks perform and certain facilities
that they all offer in connection with the payment of money from one
person to another. These concern the forms of remittance.

If you have studied business arithmetic or bookkeeping, you very likely
know the definite forms that are used. At all events, you know that
currency should never go through the mails. The following is a brief
review of the more important forms that may be used. Study the
illustrations carefully, noticing particularly the similarity of form in
all. Uniformity in such matters is desirable because it saves time as
well as misunderstandings. The forms we shall consider are:

    1. The check
        _a._ Personal
        _b._ Certified
    2. The money order
        _a._ Express
        _b._ Postal
    3. The bank draft
    4. The time draft
    5. The sight draft

_Check._--A check is a written order on a bank, signed by a depositor,
directing the bank to pay a certain person a certain sum of money. When
the bank pays the order, it deducts the amount from the depositor's
account. The one who signs the check is called the _drawer_ or maker;
the person to whom or to whose order a check is made payable is called
the _payee_; the bank on which a check is drawn is called the _drawee_.

[Illustration: CHECK AND STUB]

Of course, before you could write a check for one hundred dollars, you
must have deposited at least one hundred dollars in the bank on which
the check is drawn. The bank supplies you with a check book, consisting
of blank checks, each attached to a stub. When you write a check, you
put the same information on the stub to be kept for reference. Then you
tear off the check through the perforated line, using it to pay for
whatever you may have purchased.

_Certified Check._--Suppose, however, that you are writing this check to
pay a debt to a stranger who lives in another city. He may hesitate to
accept it as money. That he may have no cause to doubt your ability to
pay the check, you take it to your bank to have the cashier investigate
your account. If he finds that you have sufficient funds, he writes or
stamps _Accepted_ or _Certified_ on the check and signs his name. At the
same time the amount of the check is deducted from your account. Such a
check is accepted without question when the holder is properly

_Endorsement._--If A gives you his check for twenty-five dollars, you
could not receive the money until you had endorsed the check; that is,
put your name on the back, which is, in effect, giving a receipt for the
money. You may do this in various ways. You may endorse:

      1. In blank; that is, merely write your name across
      the back.

      2. In full, by saying, "Pay to the order of ----" and
      signing your name.

      3. By restricting the payment to a particular person;
      as, "Pay to ----" This check cannot now be cashed by
      anyone except the one named in the endorsement.


_Express Money Order._--An express money order is much like a check,
except that it is drawn on an express company instead of on a bank and
reads, for example: Continental Express Company agrees to transmit and
pay to the order of ---- (the one to whom you are sending the money)
---- (the amount). The order is signed by the treasurer of the company
and countersigned by the agent who sells it. You can buy such an order
at any express office. It may be endorsed like a check.

[Illustration: POSTAL MONEY ORDER]

_Postal Money Order._--The other form of money order, the postal, is an
agreement signed by the postmaster of one city that the postmaster of
another city will pay the amount of money named in the order to the
person named in the order.

_Bank Draft._--A bank draft is very much like a check, except that
instead of two individuals dealing with each other two banks conduct the
transaction, their places of business being in different cities or
villages. A bank draft is sometimes called a bank check, because in the
case of both a draft and a check one party draws upon another with whom
the first has funds deposited. As a general rule, banks and business
houses require that remittances be sent to them by drafts drawn on New
York or Chicago banks, as there is a charge called _exchange_ made in
the collection of checks drawn on local banks.

In the draft that follows, the State Bank of Utah, of which Henry T.
McEwan is Assistant Cashier, makes out the draft. The bank which is
ordered to pay the money is the National Park Bank of New York. The
money is to be paid to Henry L. Fowler. The State Bank of Utah is called
the drawer; the National Park Bank of New York, on whom the draft is
drawn, is the drawee; Henry L. Fowler is the payee.

[Illustration: BANK DRAFT]

[Illustration: ENDORSEMENT]

The payment indicated above was probably made without actually sending
the money from Salt Lake City to New York. It was done in this way:

Henry L. Fowler of Salt Lake City owes one hundred dollars to a man
living in an Eastern city, let us say Charles Emery of Rochester, N. Y.
Mr. Fowler goes to the State Bank of Utah in Salt Lake City and "buys a
draft on New York," made payable to himself. The bank makes out the
above, charging Mr. Fowler one hundred dollars plus a fraction of one
per cent for its trouble. Mr. Fowler endorses it in full to Mr. Emery of
Rochester and sends the draft to the latter. He has the draft made
payable to himself so that the endorsement will constitute a full
record of the transaction. Mr. Emery takes the draft to his own bank in
Rochester, endorses it in blank, and receives the one hundred dollars.
Thus Mr. Fowler has paid out the money and Mr. Emery has received it.

The way the banks conduct the transaction is as follows: There are
certain big money centers in the country; e.g., New York, Chicago, St.
Louis, San Francisco. Important banks in other places have money on
deposit in at least one bank in each of these centers. The banks which
thus deal with one another are called _correspondents_. The National
Park Bank is the correspondent of the State Bank of Utah. When Mr. Emery
cashes the draft at his Rochester bank, the latter sends it to its New
York correspondent, and at the same time charges the correspondent one
hundred dollars. The correspondent presents the draft to the National
Park Bank, which pays the money and charges the same amount to the State
Bank of Utah. Explain how this settles the transaction.

_Time Draft._--A time draft is much like a bank draft, in that two banks
conduct the principal part of the transaction for two individuals, but
no money is actually paid at the time the draft is drawn. The details of
a transaction of this kind are explained on the following page.

[Illustration: TIME DRAFT]

Horace Prang of 1008 Elm Street, Columbus, Ohio, owes Loetzer & Co. five
hundred dollars, due August 27, 1915. Loetzer & Co. make out the draft
above and deposit it in the Bank of Buffalo. The latter sends the draft
to its correspondent in Columbus, which presents the draft to Horace
Prang. If he is willing to pay the note when it falls due, he writes
across the face of it, "_Accepted_" adds the date, and signs his name.
It is now returned to the Bank of Buffalo. The Bank of Buffalo will then
discount the draft for Loetzer & Co.

_Sight Draft._--A sight draft is much like a time draft, except that the
amount is paid by the person on whom it is drawn as soon as it is
presented, instead of after a stipulated length of time.

[Illustration: SIGHT DRAFT]

Suppose the Empire Elevator Co. of Buffalo has sold $420 worth of grain
to the Smith Milling Co. of Springfield, Mass. When the grain is loaded
on the cars, the railroad company gives the Empire Elevator Co. a bill
of lading. Now, the Smith Milling Co. must possess this bill of lading
before it can take the grain from the cars at Springfield. The Empire
Elevator Co. deposits the bill of lading with the above draft in the
Marine National Bank of Buffalo. This bank sends both to its
correspondent in Springfield. The Springfield bank presents the draft to
the Smith Milling Co., who may take the grain from the cars on payment
of the draft. In case of non-payment, both draft and bill of lading are
returned to the Marine National Bank of Buffalo, and the Empire Elevator
Co. must make arrangements for the return or the disposal of the grain.

=Exercise 301=

      1. F. R. Thompson, sales manager of the New York Trust
      and Savings Bank, sends a circular letter to a number
      of banks, saying that he is enclosing a booklet that
      describes a number of bonds suitable for the security
      of postal savings deposits, the legality of which has
      been carefully investigated. In his letter he mentions
      especially Omaha, Nebraska, School 4½% bonds, price to
      net 4.40%; Seattle, Washington, Harbor 5% bonds, price
      to net 4½%; and Hoquiam, Washington, Bridge 5½% bonds,
      price to net 5%. Reproduce the letter, addressing it
      to W. W. Fallows, Cashier of the Mercantile National
      Bank of Pueblo, Colorado.

      2. Mr. Fallows answers, saying that his knowledge of
      the postal savings law is vague and that he would be
      glad if Mr. Thompson would give him definite
      information on the subject.

      3. Mr. Thompson replies that he is enclosing a copy of
      the postal savings law. He assures Mr. Fallows that he
      can serve the latter both in buying the proper
      securities and in depositing them with the Treasurer
      of the United States. Application for such deposits
      must be made by the bank itself. Mr. Thompson will
      gladly inform him if Mr. Fallows does not know the
      steps to be taken or the report to be submitted.

      4. Punctuate, using a letterhead:

      Mercantile Trust Company New York City Dec 2 19--
      manager the bank of Scotland 3c bishop E C London
      England dear sir we are sending you herewith advice of
      the issuance of our circular letter of credit No. 262
      in favor of Miss Helen Jackson for 300 pounds sterling
      Miss Jackson is at present in Paris France and the
      letter of credit has been forwarded to Messrs Thomas
      Cooke and Son 1 Place de l'Opera Paris we have
      requested Messrs Thomas Cooke and Son to forward to
      you two specimens of Miss Jacksons signature which we
      have signed and forwarded to Messrs Thomas Cooke and
      Son for that purpose so that you may have these
      signatures before any drafts against the letter of
      credit are presented to you yours very truly James R
      Hudson treasurer.

      What is a letter of credit? How did Miss Jackson get

      The Bank of Scotland is the correspondent of the
      Mercantile Trust Company. Explain.

      Why should the New York bank forward Miss Jackson's

      5. Write the letter that the Mercantile Trust Company
      sends to Messrs. Thomas Cooke and Son.

      6. Write the letter that Messrs. Thomas Cooke and Son
      send to the Bank of Scotland.

      7. W. T. Randall, cashier of the Milwaukee Trust and
      Savings Bank, Milwaukee, Wis., writes a letter, the
      purpose of which is to secure savings accounts. A club
      of 500 members is to be formed. Each member is to buy
      a share by paying one dollar and to pay one dollar per
      week per share, the amount to draw interest at 3%.
      After forty-eight weeks he gets credit for fifty
      dollars per share, thus securing over 5% interest on
      his money. Make the offer attractive.

      8. Some time ago a bank in your city discounted a note
      held by George Carpenter, signed by Martin Kugerman.
      The note falls due in ten days. As cashier write to
      Mr. Kugerman, telling him that you hold the note and
      that you hope he will be able to remit on the day of

      9. Your bank loaned Clarence Wentworth $500 for ninety
      days, taking as security $700 worth of collateral. The
      note falls due in a week. Write to Mr. Wentworth,
      reminding him that the note falls due and asking him
      whether he wishes to pay it off or whether he wishes
      it extended.

      10. John Elsworth, who has an account with you,
      writes, saying that by registered mail he is sending
      you certificates of 20 shares Union Pacific common
      stock, 50 shares National Biscuit Co. preferred stock,
      5 (bonds) American Telephone and Telegraph convertible
      4½'s, 3 (bonds) New York and East River Gas Co. first
      mortgage 5's. He asks you to take care of them and
      collect dividends and interest when they are due,
      crediting them to his account.

      11. Your correspondent, the First National Bank of
      Janesville, Wis., writes, asking you to forward by
      registered mail $5,000 in currency.

=Exercise 302=

      1. Mr. Henry Carroll of Wausau, Wis., writes to Mr.
      Randall (Exercise 301, 7), asking him to buy 10 shares
      of C. & N. W. R. R. preferred stock at 134 or better.
      When they are bought, he adds, they can be sent through
      any bank in Wausau.

      2. Mr. Randall replies by sending the 10 shares of
      stock to the bank's correspondent in Wausau, the First
      National Bank, telling the latter to deliver them to
      Mr. Henry Carroll on payment of the enclosed draft for
      $1340 with exchange. Write the letter.

      3. A dressmaker in South Bend, Ind., has applied to
      Marshall Field & Co., Retail, State and Washington
      Streets, Chicago, for a charge account. The department
      store makes inquiries concerning her at her bank, the
      Commercial and Savings Bank of South Bend. Write the

      4. The bank replies that she has maintained a small
      but steady balance, that she has never overdrawn her
      account, and that in their opinion her credit would be
      good up to $100 monthly. Write the letter.

      5. Theodore Buchanan of St. Louis sends Philip Newborg
      of your city a check for $100 with which he pays a
      debt to Charles Springer of Minneapolis. Springer
      endorses it and deposits it in the Security National
      Bank. The check is returned marked N.S.F., and the
      Security National Bank notifies Springer of the
      situation and of the fact that his account has been
      charged with $104, the amount of the draft plus

      6. One of the depositors of the Milwaukee Trust and
      Savings Bank brings to the Cashier a note which is
      about due, and asks the bank to collect it. The maker
      of the note is William T. Adams of Seattle. The
      Cashier writes to the bank's correspondent in Seattle,
      the Scandinavian American Bank, asking the latter to
      collect. Write the letter. (See Exercise 301, 7.)

      7. The Scandinavian American bank writes to William T.
      Adams, telling him that it holds a note signed by him,
      due ----, and asking him to make prompt payment. Write
      the letter.

      8. Mr. Adams pays the note. The Seattle Bank notifies
      the Milwaukee Bank, enclosing a draft for the amount.
      Write the letter.

      9. See Exercise 301, 10. As John Elsworth's banker
      send the coupons for the American Telephone and
      Telegraph bonds to your correspondent in New York, the
      National City Bank, because the interest is payable in
      New York. Ask the bank to make the collection. Write
      the letter.

      10. The National City Bank makes the collection and
      informs you by means of a printed form that it has
      credited you with the amount, $112.50. The form is
      just like a letter except that it is already printed
      with blanks left for the name and the address and for
      itemizing the coupons collected. Write such a form.

      11. One of your depositors has overdrawn his account.
      Notify him of the fact. Do this courteously so that
      the depositor may have no reason to withdraw his

      12. In your city there is a real estate dealer who
      often has large sums of money idle for a short time
      because, when he sells one piece of property, he does
      not always have another immediately in view. He is not
      a depositor in your bank. Write to him, inducing him
      to take out a Certificate of Deposit at such times and
      telling him that the advantages of such a certificate
      are that he will get 3% interest on the money
      deposited and that he may draw out the money at any

      13. One of your depositors has written to you, asking
      for a loan of $5,000 for nine months. Write to him,
      saying that it is not your practice to make time loans
      for definite periods longer than six months, as it is
      not a good plan thus to tie up your deposits. Explain
      that as most of a bank's deposits are payable on
      demand, you would suggest his taking out a demand loan
      for $5,000, payable on the demand of the bank. Under
      ordinary business conditions such a loan might easily
      run for nine months.

      14. R. F. Marsden, President of the Truesdale Cotton
      Mill, Birmingham, Ala., has written to you, asking
      whether he can secure a loan next fall on the cotton
      in the mill as collateral. Reply that you feel certain
      that satisfactory arrangements could be made if the
      cotton were stored in an accredited warehouse, so that
      you could accept the warehouse receipt as collateral.

=Exercise 303=

Punctuate and paragraph the following letter, which explains one
function of a trust company:

      Dear sir as you are one of our clients you are
      familiar with the reputation of this bank for sound
      banking and conservative investments you may not
      however be aware that we have a fully equipped trust
      department prepared to act in any of the numerous
      capacities in which the services of trust companies
      have proved of special value at this time we wish to
      call your particular attention to the service which
      this department is prepared to render as trustee under
      agreement it is natural that one who has accumulated
      property should desire to superintend or direct its
      disposition formerly this was done by will now however
      as the complex laws of the various states frequently
      necessitate the payment of double or triple
      inheritance taxes it is becoming a more and more
      common practice for a man during his lifetime to
      administer his own estate so to speak this may be
      accomplished through the establishment of a trust with
      respect to either a part or all of one's property it
      can be accomplished not only with absolute safety to
      the donor but with entire secrecy as well the terms of
      the trust being regarded as absolutely confidential
      furthermore the donor has the satisfaction of
      disposing of his property during his lifetime in
      accordance with his desires the life of a trust
      company unlike that of any individual is of perpetual
      duration death does not interfere with its management
      of the trust estate its financial responsibility and
      the safeguards thrown around trust estates by the
      state laws insure the safety of a trust fund if you
      are interested in this subject let us discuss it with
      you either in person or by correspondence when this
      bank is named in a trust capacity no charge is made
      for service or advice in connection with the drafting
      of the trust instruments yours truly

Before writing the following, re-read The Richards' Baby Stocking Fund,
page 337.

      1. Suppose that you were a newspaper correspondent in
      Alaska at the time Richards was killed. For your home
      paper write an account of the finding of the baby
      stocking. In what ways would this account differ from
      a magazine article on the same subject?

      2. As if you were the United States Commissioner of
      the Territory of Alaska, write to a Portland bank
      saying that you are sending the $2,500 to them, and
      asking them to put the funds in the care of a reliable
      trust company.

      3. The Portland bank writes to the Kansas City Trust
      Company, asking if the latter will accept the trust.
      Write the letter.

      4. The Kansas City Trust Company replies that it will
      accept the trust without remuneration. Write the

      5. The Portland bank informs the United States
      Commissioner of the Territory of Alaska of the
      disposition of the funds. Write the letter.

=Exercise 304=

=Topics for Investigation and Discussion=

     1. The panic of 1907 and some of its lessons.
     2. Future banking reform.
     3. Government supervision of banks.
     4. Unscrupulous banking companies.
     5. Clearing house certificates.
     6. Postal savings banks.
     7. The work of the clearing house.
     8. The need of banks in a community.
     9. The development of real estate firms into banks.
    10. The Owen Glass Currency Bill.

=Exercise 305=

Books that will Suggest Topics for Talks

    CROCKER, U. H., The Cause of Hard Times.
    FONDA, ARTHUR J., Honest Money.
    GIBBS, H. C., A Bimetallic Primer.
    MCADAMS, GRAHAM, An Alphabet in Finance.
    NEWCOMB, SIMON, The A B C of Finance.
    NORTON, S. F., Ten Men of Money Island, or The Primer of Finance.
    REEVES, JOHN, The Rothschilds: The Financial Rulers of Nations.
    WHITE, HORACE, Money and Banking.

=Exercise 306=

Write the following from dictation:



      Each bank sends two clerks to the Clearing House: a
      delivering clerk and a settling clerk. There are three
      rows of seats running through the clearing room
      lengthwise, one in the center and one on each side
      parallel with it. The settling clerks occupy these
      seats and each one has a sufficient amount of desk
      room in front of him to do his work on, his space
      being separated from his neighbors' by a wire screen.
      The delivery clerks, with their packages of checks in
      separate envelopes, stand in the open space in front
      of the settling clerks. At two minutes before 10
      o'clock the manager, whose station is an elevated open
      space at the extreme end of the room, strikes a bell.

      The movement has all the precision of a military
      drill. When the second bell sounds, at exactly 10
      o'clock, each delivery clerk takes one step forward,
      hands the proper package to the settling clerk of the
      bank next to him, drops the accompanying ticket
      showing the amount into an aperture like a letter box,
      and places before the settling clerk his schedule, on
      which the latter places his initials. Thus the
      procession moves uninterruptedly until each delivery
      clerk has presented to each settling clerk the proper
      package and ticket. Usually this part of the operation
      is completed in ten minutes. Meanwhile the proof
      clerk, who occupies a desk near the manager, has
      entered the claims of each bank under the head "Bank
      Cr." on a broad sheet of paper.

      Inasmuch as the amount of each bank's claim against
      the Clearing House (entered under the head "Banks
      Cr.") is the sum of all the tickets which its delivery
      clerk has pushed into the letter boxes of the other
      banks, it follows that all the tickets of all the
      banks should equal all the entries under that head.
      The next step in the operation is for each settling
      clerk to arrange the amounts of all the tickets in his
      letter box in a column, add it up, and send the amount
      to the proof clerk, who transcribes and arranges it
      according to the bank's number under the head "Banks
      Dr.," so that the debit of Bank A shall be on the same
      line with its credit.

      Then the difference between the two will show how much
      the bank owes the Clearing House or how much the
      Clearing House owes the bank. The time occupied by the
      settling clerks in arranging their tickets and adding
      up the columns is about half an hour. As fast as these
      footings are completed, they are sent to the proof
      clerk, who puts them in the debit column opposite the
      credits of the banks, respectively. When all are
      completed, if no error has been made, the footings of
      the credit and debit columns must be exactly equal and
      the footings of the two other columns, which show the
      differences, must be exactly equal. Then these
      differences are read off slowly and in a distinct tone
      by the manager, so that each settling clerk can write
      down the sum that his bank has to pay or to receive.
      As time is money at the Clearing House, a fine is
      exacted for every error and every delay in making
      footings, for every disobedience of the orders of the
      manager, or for every instance of disorderly
      conduct.--Horace White: _Money and Banking_.


      The Treasury, in connection with its money washing,
      has asked national banks to exercise more care in
      sending in money for redemption. Banks frequently put
      into the same bundle, good notes, bad notes, and notes
      of different denominations. When they are mixed in
      this way, it requires a good deal of work to separate
      the money. The Treasury thinks that the banks could do
      this work, so that, when the money reaches Washington,
      it could easily be separated by packages instead of
      each package having to be separated first. The
      Assistant Secretary says he believes that, when he
      gets the subject worked out in detail, new washed
      money will be returned to the bank in any denomination
      desired on the same day that it is received; that
      money unfit for laundering will be destroyed and new
      money issued. This expeditious handling of money sent
      in for redemption cannot, however, be attained, he
      admits, without the co-operation of the banks. In a
      short time, he believes, all banks will see that it is
      to their benefit to do this.



THE study that we have thus far made of the various kinds of businesses
would be incomplete did we not briefly outline the different types of
organization by which modern business is conducted. This will naturally
lead us to a discussion of stocks and bonds, which are of great
importance in every big business and of interest to individuals as means
of investment. However, as the subjects are probably outside the
experience of most students, we shall treat them as simply as possible,
letting the chapter stand rather for the information it contains than
for its application to the study of English expression.

Business to-day is carried on in three different ways; viz., by
individuals, by partnerships, and by corporations. The grocer, the
butcher, the baker, or any one man who carries on a business is an
example of the first. If, however, the grocer and the butcher, or the
grocer and the baker, combine their businesses for the good of both,
they form a partnership. When the amount of capital necessary for
carrying on the business becomes so large that the money of many people
is needed, a _corporation_ is formed. The amount of money which any one
individual invests in the company is represented by a certain number of
shares of the _capital stock_ of the company, entitling him to his
portion of the dividends, or interest on the money he has invested.
These shares of the capital stock are transferable and can be bought and
sold like an automobile or a house. Since there is no time limit as to
how long a corporation may do business, a change in the ownership of
part of the stock, or the death of a stockholder, is not accompanied by
the same result as in a partnership, where the death of one of the
partners sometimes breaks up the business. Furthermore, in a partnership
each one of the partners is personally liable for any debts made by any
of the partners in behalf of the business, whereas the personal
possessions of a stockholder in a corporation cannot be held as security
for any debts incurred by the corporation. These are two of the more
important advantages of corporate organization over partnership.

The Finances of a Corporation

It has been estimated that if one were to count money, dollar by dollar,
one dollar every second for eight hours six days a week, it would take
him six weeks to count one million dollars, and over one hundred years
to count a billion dollars. This may help us to appreciate the sums of
money spoken of in the following: In 1914 the market value of the
Commonwealth Edison Company of Chicago was over $83,000,000. The
valuation placed on the properties of the Chicago Railways Company in
1914 exceeded $79,000,000. The Union Pacific Railroad Company had
invested in its properties in 1914 approximately $500,000,000. The
capital obligations of the United States Steel Corporation in 1914 were
over $1,500,000,000. There are hundreds of such organizations in our
country, the investments in which run to and beyond $50,000,000 each. It
must be plain that, except in a very few cases, these vast amounts of
money do not represent the investment of one, or of a few, but of many
persons. In uniting their capital, these persons decrease the cost of
making or distributing the product and so increase their profits.


When a large company of this kind is organized, a certain amount of
money is agreed upon to be the capital of the company, and it is
divided into small portions, ordinarily $100 each, called _shares_. The
total of the shares is called the _authorized capital stock_. These
shares are sold, the purchasers of the shares being called
_shareholders_, or _stockholders,_ of the company. The number of shares
a person holds determines what part of the profits he is entitled to.
For example, if a company is organized for 1000 shares of $100 each, or
a capital stock of $100,000, and you owned 100 shares, you would be
entitled to one-tenth of the divided profits of the company. Such
profits of the company, divided proportionately among the stockholders,
constitute the _dividends_.

Often the capital stock is of two kinds, _preferred_ and _common_, as in
the case of the Union Pacific R. R., which has $200,000,000 of
authorized preferred stock and $296,178,700 of authorized common stock.
As the names signify, preferred stock is ordinarily better than common
stock, the dividends on preferred stock being paid before any dividends
are paid on common stock and usually at a stated rate of interest; as,
4, 5, or 6 per cent. In the case of the Union Pacific, this rate is 4
per cent. If the company earns only enough profits to pay the dividends
on the preferred stock, the common gets no dividends. On the other hand,
if the profits are enormous, the common occasionally gets more than the

Par and Market Value

The _par value_ of a stock is the face value of one share of stock,
indicated on the face of the certificate. This may be $10 or $50 or
$100, whatever the amount agreed upon for one share when the company is
organized. The amount most commonly used as par is $100. The _market
value_ of the stock, however, need not be this amount, but may be
greater or less, dependent on how successful the company is and what
rate of dividends it pays. If a company's standing is very good and the
dividends are high (over 6 per cent), the stock will probably sell on
the market above par. If the company's finances are in a doubtful
condition and there are evidences that the company will pay small
dividends, if any at all, the market price of the stock will fall below
par. For example, in January, 1914, Union Pacific R. R. common stock
sold for about $158 per share, because the finances of the company were
in good condition and the company had paid 10 per cent dividends
steadily each year since July 1, 1907. If, however, any occasion should
arise to make the public doubt the payment of future dividends at the
same rate, the stock would probably decline. To go to the other extreme,
in the same month Wabash R. R. common stock sold as low as $8½ per
share, although the par is $100. This was because for some years the
company had paid no dividends and was then in the hands of receivers. To
take a middle case in the same month and year, Erie R. R. first
preferred stock sold at about $45 per share, notwithstanding the fact
that since 1907 no dividends had been paid. The reason for this
seemingly high price was that the company had for some time been
reconstructing its property, had gradually increased its business, had
earned a $9,000,000 surplus in 1913, and had a good outlook to a
dividend in the near future.

These are not the only influences that affect the price of stocks. The
old factor of supply and demand has a great influence on price. If, for
example, a financier decides to buy a large "block" of some stock, the
market will almost immediately be affected, and that stock will go up.
One example will suffice. In 1901 E. H. Harriman set out to buy
$155,000,000 worth of Northern Pacific stock in the open market to gain
control of the Northern Pacific railroad. Of course, the market felt the
demand, and the price of the stock rose from a little above par until it
touched $1,000 a share before it started back to normal. When Mr.
Harriman unloaded that same stock in 1906, because he failed to gain
control, the market went down so considerably that he lost $10,000,000
and almost caused a panic.

Often the stocks of a company sell below par because the stock is
watered; that is, the company has issued more stock than there is value
invested in the property. Many of our railroads, for example, were built
on borrowed money--that is, from the proceeds of the sale of bonds--and,
to make the bonds sell more readily, stocks were given away with them.
This, of course, increased the capitalization greatly without increasing
the value. The temptation in forming new companies, especially in mining
schemes and wildcat ventures, is to water the stock heavily by voting a
large block of stock gratis to the organizers. Before one invests in any
of these companies, he should thoroughly investigate them. Sometimes
companies water their stocks when their dividends have become very large
and they wish to bring the rate down to that commonly paid. The Wells
Fargo Express Company did this in 1910, presenting their stockholders
with $16,000,000 worth of new stock without any new investment in the


Suppose that A owns a house with a store in it, and in the store he
carries on a grocery business. Suppose that by enlarging his store and
putting in a bigger stock of goods he can make more money. The
improvements will cost $1,000, but he hasn't the money. He goes to B to
ask B to lend him $1,000 for five years, offering B the house as
security. B gives A the $1,000 and in return gets a certain amount of
interest each year and A's mortgage note against the property. This
means that, if at the end of five years A cannot pay the $1,000, B has
the right to sell A's house and collect the money due him.

When a corporation borrows money to extend its properties, plants, or
rights, the transaction is really the same, although the form is
somewhat different. Just as all the capital stock of a corporation is
divided into shares owned by a number of people, so, when the
corporation borrows money, the amount borrowed is divided into smaller
parts of $500 or $1,000 each, called _bonds_, which the corporation
sells through its bankers to people who have idle money to invest. Twice
each year, as stated in the bond, the corporation pays interest on the
borrowed money at the rate, probably, of 4, 4½, 5, or 6 per cent. After
a definite number of years, as stated in the bond, the corporation is
obliged to pay back the amount of money that it borrowed. This is called
_redeeming_ the bonds. To show that it intends to pay back the amount
borrowed at the end of the time stated, or redeem the bonds when they
become due, the corporation puts a mortgage on its real estate,
buildings, machinery, and equipment. When the bonds become due--or
_mature_, as it is called--if the corporation does not pay back the
amount borrowed, the holders of the bonds may take possession of the
company's real estate, buildings, machinery, and equipment on which the
company has placed the mortgage and may sell them to recover the money
they have loaned. Thus, while the stockholders of a corporation have no
assurance that they will ever get their money back or will ever get any
interest on it, the holders of carefully selected bonds are reasonably
sure of getting a certain amount of interest each year and of getting
their money back when the bonds mature. Shares of stock represent the
investment made by the stockholders who own the company, whereas bonds
represent the investment of those who loan money to the company. We can
readily see, then, that the stockholders take the greater risk. For this
reason it is expected that stocks should yield a higher profit than
bonds, and this is usually the case.

The greater portion of the bonds that are issued by corporations run for
long periods--twenty, forty, fifty, and even one hundred years. At
times when money rates are high, corporations that need funds are
reluctant to pay a high rate for so many years, and so they issue _short
time bonds_ to run from two to five years, in the hope that at the end
of the time money rates will be lower and more favorable to their
issuing long time bonds. Many companies, especially industrial
corporations and railroads, have issued obligations to pay, _notes_
running from six months to five years. They are not usually secured by a
mortgage on the property but are merely the company's promise to pay,
the interest and the principal taking precedence over the dividends on
the preferred and the common stocks.

Corporate Organization

Before a corporation can carry on its business, it must obtain a charter
from one of the states of the United States, whose laws it must obey.
The laws of some states are more lenient than those of others, allowing
the corporations more privileges. New Jersey is thus lenient;
consequently we find many large corporations--such as the United States
Steel Corporation, the American Sugar Refining Company, and
others--organized under the laws of New Jersey. After the charter is
granted and the stock bought by the stockholders, the latter have a
meeting, at which they elect a small number of men to be _directors_,
who, as the name signifies, conduct the business of the company for the
stockholders. They choose a president, one or more vice-presidents, a
treasurer, a secretary, and any other officers necessary to carry on the
business under the control of the directors. The term of office of the
directors is usually so fixed that the term of a part of them expires
each year, so that each year the stockholders have an annual meeting at
which they elect new directors or re-elect the old ones whose term has

The Railroad

Corporations divide themselves into three large groups; viz., railroad
companies, public utility corporations, and industrial corporations. Of
these, the group composed of the largest and most powerful corporations
is the railroad group.

Railroads have two general sources of income, the larger being the
revenue received from operating trains, both freight and passenger; and
the smaller being the return from investments in other companies, from
real estate, and from the rental of lines, terminals, stations, and cars
to other railroads. To carry on the second or smaller part of its
business, the company needs an organization much like any other
business, but to conduct the first part it requires a special
organization. This divides itself into four departments, usually with a
vice-president at the head of each: (1) the traffic department, (2) the
operating department, (3) the finance and accounting department, and (4)
the legal department.

It is the duty of the traffic department to get the business for the
company and adjust all traffic claims. In short, it does everything to
increase the business and the earnings. This department naturally
divides into the freight traffic and passenger traffic departments, with
a superintendent or manager at the head of each.

After the traffic department has solicited the business for the company,
it is the duty of the operating department to render the services
required by the traffic department. The work is done by four large
divisions: (1) the engineering or construction department, whose duty it
is to build the roads over which the company may operate; (2) the
maintenance-of-way department, whose duty it is to see that the roadbed
and rails are kept in good order and repair; (3) the equipment
department, whose duty it is to see that the company is supplied with
proper locomotives and cars and to see that such equipment is kept in
repair; and (4) the transportation department, which has to do with the
operating of the trains.

The financial policy of a railroad is usually in charge of one of the
vice-presidents, who must be a man of experience in financial matters
and who acts with the approval of the directors. The accounting
department is more important than may appear at first sight. Railroads
are now under the supervision and regulation of the government, and one
of the rights that the government has is to examine the books of the
company at any time and to require all companies to submit a monthly
report to the government.

The legal department of a railroad is especially important for two
reasons: (1) In performing its services, the company has business
dealings with a large number of persons, and in the adjustment of claims
against the railroad, expert legal advice is constantly necessary. (2)
The railroad, as stated above, is under the regulation and control of
the state and the national governments, and the enforcement of this
regulation makes the railroad a party to numerous proceedings in the
courts and before the Interstate Commerce Commission. The large
railroads operate in from ten to twenty states. It can thus easily be
seen that the legal department has a great deal more to do than if the
railroad operated under but one political power.

Public Utility Corporations

Public utility corporations supply services without which the people of
to-day could not very well live. They are those supplying water, light,
heat, power, telephones, local transportation, gas, etc. They may
properly be called public necessity corporations. The nature of these
businesses practically gives them a monopoly in their locality; this is
the reason that they have grown so enormously during the last thirty
years. The Commonwealth Edison Company, which supplies a large part of
Chicago with light and power, began in 1887 with a capital of $500,000
and in 1914 its capital obligations had a market value of over
$83,000,000. The American Telephone and Telegraph Company began in 1885
with $12,000,000 of capital stock and in 1914 had practically
$340,000,000. The other public service corporations have kept pace,
according to the growth of the locality they serve. In the depression of
1907 this class of corporation kept steadily increasing the volume of
its business when all others went back a step. Since these corporations
are dependent on the local community for their business, if the
community grows the company must grow, and usually faster than the
community. For this reason the stocks and bonds of these companies are
usually a good investment.

It is a common practice for municipalities to demand a share of the
profits of the company, by way of a fixed sum, a certain percentage of
the gross profits, or a share of the net profits. For example the city
of Chicago receives, from the Commonwealth Edison Company each year 3
per cent of its gross receipts from the sale of current and 10 per cent
of its gross receipts from the rental of conduit space, amounting in
1913 to more than $300,000, quite a considerable sum. The Chicago
Railways Company and the Chicago City Railway Company, the two large
street car companies of Chicago, after deductions for expenses and
charges and 5 per cent on the amount invested are made from the gross
income, pay to the city 55 per cent of the surplus earnings, keeping for
themselves 45 per cent. Whenever these companies pay part of their
earnings to the municipality, they are really under municipal
supervision, and their books and accounts are open to examination by
the city at any time. These companies are called quasi-municipal

Industrial Corporations

As the name indicates, industrial corporations are those that carry on
our industries. They are by far the largest class of corporations and
have among their number some very powerful companies, whose assets run
up toward the billions. This class of corporations has not had the
gradual, steady growth of the public utility corporations, but in the
case of the most successful, the growth has been amazing. The Standard
Oil Company for many years prior to its dissolution had paid dividends
on its capital stock of about $100,000,000 at the rate of 40 per cent a
year. The Steel Corporation is said to have produced a thousand
millionaires and is still producing them. This class of corporations has
not been so closely under the supervision of the federal and municipal
authorities as the railroads and public utility corporations, and their
financing has been carried on in a looser fashion than that of the other
two classes. For this reason the securities of these corporations are
not generally regarded as highly as those of the other two. However, the
federal government has taken and is taking steps to regulate these
corporations, and this will tend to bring them eventually to the
standards of the railroad and public utility corporations.

=Exercise 307=


Explain carefully:

      1. What is a corporation?

      2. What is a share of stock?

      3. What is a bond? a security?

      4. Explain the difference between par and market

      5. Why do stocks and bonds vary in value?

      6. What is the difference between preferred and common

      7. What are dividends?

      8. What is meant by watered stock?

      9. What are the advantages of a corporation over a

      10. The following was copied from a morning paper.
      Explain it.

      "The Canadian Westinghouse Company, Ltd., declared its
      regular quarterly dividend of 1½% and an extra
      dividend of 1% on its stock, both payable Jan. 10."

      11. Explain the following bond quotations:


    _Security_                     _Maturity_      _Yield per cent about_

    Albany, Ga., 5's              Nov. 1, 1941          4.75
    King Co., Wash., 4½'s         Nov. 1, 1931          4.50


    Atchison, Topeka, & Santa Fé, general    Oct. 1, 1995      4.20
       mortgage, 4's
    Louisville and Nashville, unified        Feb. 1, 1946      4.35
       mortgage, 4's


    New York Telephone Co., 4's   Nov. 1, 1939          4.75
    Chicago Railways, first
      mortgage, 5's                 Feb. 1, 1927          4.99

      12. Why are the bonds of successful public utility
      corporations a good investment?

      13. Which company do you think would grow faster, a
      light and power company or a gas company? What effect
      would the growth or the failure to grow have on the
      price of the stocks of each?

      14. Should a street car company pay part of its
      earnings to the city?

      15. If the population of a city doubled, what effect
      would there be on the price of public utility stocks?

=Exercise 308=

Topics for Investigation and Discussion

      1. Harnessing our streams to secure electric power.

      2. The growth of the Interurban.

      3. In your own town:

      _a._ Have gas rates increased or decreased? Can you
      explain the change?

      _b._ Have electric light rates increased or decreased?
      Can you explain the change?

4. Street railway, electric light, and gas company franchises.

5. The earnings of the street car company in your city.

6. Municipal ownership of public utility corporations.

7. The effect of mergers and consolidations of big corporations.

8. The effect of a trust on competition.

9. Trusts and prices.

10. Government suits against trusts.

11. The tariff and the steel industry, the wool industry, and the sugar

12. Railroad rate increases.

=Exercise 309=

Write the following from dictation:


      In New London, Connecticut, stands the oldest grist
      mill in the country. It is a picturesque building,
      having a water wheel like the one that it originally
      used when New London was first settled. The town was
      in the center of an agricultural community, and a mill
      to grind corn was a need that soon manifested itself
      to the settlers. Accordingly, in 1650 at a town
      meeting, six men were chosen to build a mill. John
      Winthrop and his heirs were granted the right to carry
      on the grist mill as long as they maintained the
      building placed in their charge. This is one of the
      first monopolies recorded in New England history.


      The same standards by which a farming or a
      manufacturing investment may be judged are not
      applicable to a mining investment. A farmer may earn
      eight per cent on his capital, and with care his
      investment may increase in value. A manufacturer may
      earn eight per cent on his investment, and, if he
      keeps up his machinery, his business may be as
      valuable ten years, or even twenty years, hence; but a
      mine, after each dividend is paid, is that much nearer
      its end. Now, it is well known among mining men that
      the average life of a gold or silver mine is under,
      rather than over, ten years. There are exceptions to
      this rule, of course, but, granting that the life of a
      certain gold or silver mine is to be ten years, then,
      in order to pay back both principal and interest,
      dividends of at least sixteen per cent should be
      distributed. Copper mining, of which the statistics
      have been most accurately kept in New York and Boston,
      offers many inducements to the investor; but too much
      care cannot be taken in the matter of selection, for
      copper stocks, in not a few instances, have been
      boosted out of all reason. As with gold and silver
      mines, so it is with copper mines. They have so much
      ore to begin with, and after each dividend are that
      much nearer to the day when they will close down. For
      such mines, provided they have a good lease of life,
      eight per cent or even ten per cent may be regarded as
      only moderate returns. These are merely samples of
      some general principles to be followed.--_Roger W.


      Dear Sir:

      At the close of a year which has presented many
      perplexing problems, not only to investors and dealers
      in bonds, but also to borrowing municipalities and
      corporations, there are several factors in the
      situation which in our opinion offer strong
      encouragement to every one in any way interested in
      bond investments.

      Of special significance is the marked change in
      sentiment which has recently taken place. There is
      every indication that this country enters the new year
      with an unusually substantial feeling of confidence.
      While a notable increase in the demand for bonds would
      undoubtedly bring out a large amount of new financing,
      on the other hand, there has been an accumulation of
      funds during the period of depressed markets, and it
      is generally understood that investment dealers are
      carrying comparatively small amounts of bonds.

      January has an almost unbroken record of higher
      average bond prices than the average prices in
      December. It is not our intention to predict an
      advance this January, although there are
      unquestionably many reasons for anticipating at least
      a moderate improvement; but, viewing the question in
      its broader aspects, we find many convincing arguments
      in favor of the purchase of bonds at this time. It is
      recognized that the decline in prices has been due to
      a variety of causes, which, except in a few individual
      cases, are not the result of any depreciation in real
      values. Basic conditions are admittedly sound. We,
      accordingly, not only recommend the judicious purchase
      of bonds for the investment of surplus funds, but also
      suggest consideration of the advisability in some
      cases of converting short time securities into long
      time bonds.

      What conditions could be more favorable from the
      standpoint of the purchaser of bonds than an extremely
      low level of prices; a wide-spread belief that
      fundamental conditions are sound; a general feeling of
      confidence that the problems which have tended to
      disturb business during the past year have been, or
      are being, solved; and a conviction that we are
      entering upon a period of probable ease in money

    Very truly yours,



  _A_, Italian, 9.

  Abbreviation, objectionable, of the introduction of a letter, 242;
    of the courteous close, 242.

  Abbreviations, of states, 26-27;
    of commercial terms, 27-28;
    of titles in letters, 235;
    objectionable in the body of the letter, 242.

  _Able_ and _ible_, 33.

  Absolute use of the nominative case, 65.

  Abstract noun, defined, 57.

  Accent, indication of, 17;
    words changing meaning with change of, 17.

  _Accept_ and _except_, 102.

  Account, opening an, 250;
    letters for opening an, 250 ff.

  Accounting department of a railroad, work of the, 360-361.

  Active voice of verbs, defined, 84;
    conjugation of, 88 ff.

  _Ad_, prefix, 32.

  Adjective, the, defined, 49;
    and the adverb, 75 ff.;
    following verbs of the senses, 75;
    clause, 54;
    comparison of, 78.

  Adjective endings, peculiar, 33 ff.

  Adjective modifiers, 49.

  Adjective pronouns, use of, 61.

  Adjectives and adverbs, confused, 51;
    incorrectly used, 81-82;
    _real_ and _very_, 81;
    _most_ and _almost_, 81.

  Adjectives, punctuation of series of, 171 ff.

  Adjectives to be distinguished, 80-81;
    _fewer_ and _less_, 80;
    _almost_ and _most_, 81.

  Adverb modifiers, 49.

  Adverb, the, defined, 49;
    and the adjective, 75 ff.

  Adverbial, clause, 54;
    modifier, case of, 66.

  Adverbs, conjunctive, 45;
    and adjectives confused, 51;
    and prepositions confused, 52;
    ideas denoted by, 75;
    modifying different parts of speech, 75;
    correct position of, 77;
    absolute use of, 79;
    incorrectly used, 81-82.

  Advertised articles, classes of, 311.

  Advertisements, motives appealed to in, 311;
    catch phrases used in, 312;
    suggestive names used in, 313;
    good and bad headlines for, 313;
    of still-life, 314;
    without a definite center, 315;
    illustrating the principle of balance, 315;
    exercises to write, 315 ff.;
    paragraph topics dealing with, 317 ff.;
    some examples of, 318 ff.

  Advertising, 308 ff.;
    importance of, 308;
    different forms of, 309-310;
    fundamentals of, 310-311;
    outline for debate on, 141 ff.;
    bibliography for, 320.

  _Affect_ and _effect_, 102-103.

  Affirmative of debate on advertising, 141 ff.

  _After_, as preposition and conjunction, 55.

  Agent, 134, 299-300;
    commission of, 323.

  Agreement, grammatical, 71-72, 85 ff.

  Amusement, motive appealed to in advertising, 311.

  Analysis, word, 29 ff.

  _Ance_ and _ence_, 34.

  _And_, in compound sentence, 45, 173 ff.;
   in series, punctuation with, 171 ff.;
   used in joining parallel expressions, 211 ff.;
   for _to_, 119;
   excessive use of, 127-128.

  Anglo-Saxon prefixes and suffixes, 29 ff.

  Answering complaints, letters to be used in, 257 ff.

  _Ant_ and _ent_, 33.

  Antecedents, uncertain, 207 ff.

  Apostrophe, the, used to form the possessive case, 67, 69, 159;
    used to indicate the omission of letters, 160;
    to show plural of letters and figures, 160.

  Appeals made in advertisements, 311-312.

  Application, letters of, 259 ff.

  Appositives, case of, 65, 66;
    punctuation with, 179-180.

  Article, incorrect omission of in business letters, 242.

  _As_, case following, 121;
    a conjunction, 124;
    followed by an understood verb, 124;
    punctuation with, 195.

  _As_--_as_, used in expressions stating equality, 125.

  _As follows_, punctuation with, 195.

  _Atlas_, story of the derivation of, 5.

  Authorized capital stock, 355.

  Baby blunder, 44.

  Balance, principle of, used in advertisements, 315.

  Bank draft, 341-343.

    inconvenience of barter, 332;
    kinds of paper money, 332-333;
    credit, 333;
    discount, 335;
    collateral, 335;
    promissory note, 336;
    forms of remittance, 338 ff.;
    letters pertaining to, 345 ff.;
    topics for investigation and discussion, 349-350;
    bibliography for, 350;
    dictation exercises on, 350 ff.

  Banks, departments of, 333;
    of deposit, 334 ff.;
    savings, 334, 336 ff.;
    trust companies, 334, 337 ff.

  _Be_, conjugation, indicative, 104;
    subjunctive, 112;
    used to form progressive tenses, 88 ff., 105;
    used to form passive voice, 105 ff.

  _Before_, used as preposition and conjunction, 55.

  _Beg to state_, 243.

  Bibliography, on manufacture, 280;
    on distribution, 304-305;
    on advertising, 320;
    on banking, 350.

  _Bill of lading_, 285;
    _straight_ or _order,_ 285.

  Blunder, baby, 44.

  Body of the letter, 232.

  Bonds, 357 ff.;
    redemption of, 358;
    maturity of, 358;
    long period, 358;
    short time, 358.

  Breve, 9.

  Brevity in business letters, mistaken for conciseness, 199.

  Business letters, 229 ff.;
    essentials of, 230;
    the form of, 231;
    the arrangement of, 232;
    cautions in writing, 235 ff.;
    directions for folding, 238;
    to order goods, 239;
    the tone of, 240;
    mistaken ideas in writing, 241 ff.;
    to make sales, 244;
    to accompany a catalogue, 245 ff.;
    to open an account, 250;
    to make collections, 253 ff.;
    to answer complaints, 257 ff.;
    applying for positions, 259 ff.;
    form, 264;
    circular and follow-up, 264 ff.

  Business news, to suggest topics for talks, 155.

  Business thinking, importance of, 2.

  _c_ and _g_, pronunciation of, 24.

  _Can_ and _may_, 102.

  Capital stock, explained, 353;
    preferred, 355;
    common, 355;
    par and market values of, 355 ff.

  Capitals, use of, 160 ff.

  Caret, the, 9.

  Carriers, common, 284.

  Case, defined, 64;
    nominative, 64 ff.;
    objective, 64, 66;
    possessive, 64, 67;
    exercise in, 70 ff.;
    following prepositions, 66, 119.

  Cause and effect, paragraphs developed by, 223.

  Caution, its appeal in advertising, 311-312.

  Cautions in writing business letters, 235 ff.

  _Cede_, _ceed_, _sede_, 34.

  Certificate, the gold, 332;
    the silver, 332.

  Certified check, the, 339-340.

  Check, the, 338 ff.;
    personal, 339;
    certified, 339-340.

  Choosing subjects, suggestions for, 146 ff.

  _Cion_, _sion_, _tion_, 34.

  _Cious_, _tious_, 33.

  Circular letters, 264 ff.

  Class paper, suggestions for a, 156.

  Classes of advertisements, 311.

  Clause, the, defined, 42;
    principal, 42;
    subordinate, 42;
    incorrectly used as a sentence, 45;
    introductory words for, 54;
    adjective, 54;
    adverb, 54;
    noun, 54;
    modifiers, 54;
    introduced by _than_ or _as_, 121;
    initial, punctuation of, 176;
    restrictive and non-restrictive, 59-60;
    punctuation of relative, 185 ff.;
    coming at the end of the sentence, punctuation of, 188-189;
    incomplete, 205-206;
    misplaced, 209 ff.

  Clauses, punctuation of series of, 171 ff.

  Clear title to property, explained, 322.

  Clearing house, daily routine of, 350-351.

  Clearness of the sentence, mistakes that prevent:
    dangling expressions, 205 ff.;
    pronouns with uncertain antecedents, 207 ff.;
    misplaced modifiers, 209-210;
    omission of necessary words, 210-211;
    shift of construction, 211 ff.

  Close, courteous, of business letters, 232, 237.

  Coherence between sentences, 127-128; 224 ff.;
    between paragraphs, 224 ff.

  Collateral, 335-336.

  Collection letters, 253 ff.

  Collective noun, defined, 57.

  Colon, use of the, 194.

  Colonization, 307.

  Combination of short sentences to secure unity, 202 ff.

  Comfort, its appeal in advertising, 311-312.

  Comma fault, the, 44 ff.

  Comma, use of the, in direct quotations, 163 ff.;
    in series, 171 ff.;
    in compound sentences, 45, 173 ff.;
    to set off initial clauses or participial phrases, 175 ff.;
    to separate the month from the year, etc., 178;
    to indicate the omission of words, 178;
    to set off appositives, 179 ff.;
    to set off parenthetical expressions, 180 ff.;
    to set off independent elements, 182 ff.;
    to set off non-restrictive clauses, 185 ff.;
    to set off modifiers coming at the end of the sentence, 188 ff.

  Command used in good headlines of advertisements, 313.

  Commercial department of a bank, 333.

  Commercial terms, abbreviations of, 27-28.

  Commission, agent's, 323.

  Common carriers, 284.

  Common noun, defined, 57.

  Common stock, 355.

  Companies, kinds of, 273.

  Company, the steamship, 284;
    the railroad, 284 ff.
    (See _Corporation_, 353 ff.)

  Comparative degree, of adjectives, 78;
    of adverbs, 79.

  Comparison and contrast, paragraphs developed by, 223.

  Comparison, of adjectives, 78;
    of adverbs, 79;
    negative, 125.

  Complaint, letters answering, 257 ff.

  Complement, subjective, 65.

  Complex sentence, defined, 42.

  Composition, oral and written, 127 ff.

  Compound nouns, plural of, 20.

  Compound relatives, 59.

  Compound sentence, defined, 42;
    punctuation of, 45, 173 ff.

  _Con_, prefix, 32.

  Conciseness of expression, 199.

  Condensation to secure clearness, 200.

  Conjugation, of _write_, active voice, 88 ff.;
    of _be_, 104 ff.;
    of _follow_, passive voice, 105 ff.

  Conjunction, and the preposition, 116 ff.

    Coördinate, 45;
      punctuation with, 45, 173 ff.;
      distinguished from conjunctive adverbs, 45.
    Subordinate, list of, 54;
      _than_ and _as_, 121.
    Correlative, 122.

  Conjunctive adverbs, 45;
    distinguished from coördinate conjunctions, 45;
    punctuation with, 45.

  Connection, smooth, 127-128, 224 ff.;
    methods of securing, 224 ff.

  Conservation, 191-192.

  Consignee, 285.

  Consonant, final, doubling of, 22;
    silent, words containing, 11.

  Construction, letters dealing with contract for, 263;
    shift of, 211.

  Contract, letters dealing with, for painting iron-work, 262;
    for the delivery of property, 263;
    for construction, 263.

  Contraction, apostrophe used with, 160.

  Coördinate conjunctions, 45;
    punctuation with, 45, 173 ff.

  Coördinate expressions, 122 ff.

  Copulative verbs, defined, 83.

  Corporate organization, 359.

  Corporation, the, 353 ff.;
    finances of, 354;
    capital stock of, 354 ff.;
    dividends of, 355;
    stockholders of, 355;
    bonds of, 357 ff.;
    organization of, 359;
    directors of, 359;
    railroad, 360-361;
    public utility, 361-362;
    industrial, 363;
    topics for investigation and discussion on, 365;
    dictation exercises on, 365 ff.

  Correlatives, defined, 122;
    correct position of with coördinate expressions, 122-123;
    _either--or_ and _neither--nor_, 123.

  Cost of living, paragraph on, 173.

  Cotton seed, paragraph on, 176.

  Cotton in the Soudan, paragraph, 181.

  _Could_ and _might_, 102.

  Courteous close, in business letters, 232, 237.

  Courtesy in business letters, 231, 240.

  Credit, 333.

  Credit letters, 250 ff.

  Currency, bill, 333;
    legislation, 333, 349.

  Current events, to suggest subjects for talks, 155.

  Dangling expressions, 205 ff.

  Dash, use of, 195 ff.;
    too free use of in business letters, 243, 247.

  Dead letter sale, 190.

  Debate, outline for a, 141 ff.;
    subjects for, 139 ff., 144;
    on manufacture, suggestions for, 275;
    on distribution, 290, 302.

  Debating, 137 ff.;
    proposition for, 137;
    six rules for, 137 ff.;
    false conclusions in, 138;
    irrelevant matter in, 138.

  Declarative sentence, defined, 41.

  Declension of pronouns, personal, 58;
    relative, 59;
    interrogative, 60.

  Deed, 322.

  Degrees of comparison, 78-79.

  Demonstrative pronouns, 60.

  Departments, of banks, 333;
    of railroads, 360.

  Deposit, banks of, 334;
    slip, 334.

  Details, explanatory, necessary to secure interest, 147;
    paragraphs developed by, 222.

  Development of paragraphs, methods of, 222-223.

  _dg_, words containing, 25.

  Diacritical marks, 8, 10.

  Diaeresis, 9.

  Dialogue, paragraphing in, 168 ff.

  Dictation exercises, for series, 171;
    for compound sentences, 173-174;
    for initial clauses or participial phrases, 176;
    for parenthetical expressions, 180-181;
    for independent elements, 182-183;
    for non-restrictive relative clauses, 186;
    for the semicolon, 193-194;
    on manufacture, 280-281;
    on distribution, 305 ff.;
    on real estate, 329 ff.;
    on banking, 350 ff.;
    on corporations, 365 ff.

  Direct discourse, 163 ff.;
    use of comma in, 170.

  Directors of corporations, 359.

  Discount, 335.

  Discourse, direct, 163 ff.;
    indirect, 166 ff.

  Discussion and investigation topics, on manufacture, 278-279;
    on distribution, 304;
    on real estate, 327;
    on banking, 349-350;
    on the corporation, 365.

  Dishwasher, letters to sell a, 265 ff.

    Transportation an essential element, 283 ff.;
    the steamship company, 284;
    the railroad company, 284 ff.;
    the retail merchant, 286 ff.;
    the wholesale merchant, 291 ff.;
    the mail order merchant, 295 ff.;
    the salesman, 298 ff.;
    suggestions for debates, 302;
    subjects for paragraphs, 303 ff.;
    topics for investigation and discussion, 304;
    bibliography, 304 ff.;
    dictation exercises, 305 ff.

  Dividends, 355.

  Dividing a subject into its natural divisions, 149 ff.

  Dot, 9.

  Double relative, 59.

  Doubling final consonants, rule for, 22.

  Draft, bank, 341 ff.;
    time, 343-344;
    sight, 344-345.

  Dropping of final _e_, 22, 25.

  Druggist, outline of advertising letters sent by, 268-269.

  Durability, its appeal in advertising, 311-312.

  _E_, final, retained, 25.

  _Each_, _every_, 62, 86 (3)

  Economy, its appeal in advertising, 311-312.

  _Effect_ and _affect_, 102.

  Efficiency, office, 217;
    stenographic, 217.

  _ei_ or _ie_, 24.

  _Either--or_, 123.

  Electric washing machine, outline of letters to sell, 269.

  Elements, independent, case of, 65;
    punctuation of, 182.

  Emphatic pronouns, 59.

  Emulation, its appeal in advertising, 311-312.

  _ence_ and _ance_, 34.

  Endings, peculiar adjective, 33;
    peculiar noun and verb, 34.

  Endorsing a check, methods of, 340.

  English, oral, 1, 127 ff.;
    written, 1.
    (See _Punctuation_, _The Clear Sentence_, _Business Letters_.)

  _ent_, 33.

  Enthusiasm in business, 230.

  _eous_, 33.

  Essentials, of a sales letter, 230;
    in manufacture, 272-273;
    of an advertisement, 310-311.

  _Every_, number of, 86.

  Examples and illustrations, paragraphs developed by, 222.

  Examples of advertisements, 318 ff.

  _Except_, a preposition, 124;
    incorrectly used as a conjunction, 124.

  _Except_ and _accept_, 102.

  Exclamation mark, use of, 162.

  Exclamatory sentence, defined, 41.

  Explanatory details, paragraphs developed by, 222.

  Explanatory expressions, punctuation of, 179 ff.
    Appositives, 179;
    parenthetical expressions, 180;
    independent elements, 182;
    explanatory relative clauses, punctuation of, 185;
    subordinate elements coming at the end of the sentence, 188.

  Exports in cattle, paragraph on, 76.

  Express money order, 340-341.

  Expression, conciseness of, 199;
    variety of, 111.

  _f_, and _fe_, plurals of nouns ending in, 19.

  False conclusions in debating, 137-138.

  Farm lands, 325 ff.;
    outline of letters to sell, 267-268;
    letters pertaining to, 325 ff.;
    topics for investigation and discussion on, 327;
    dictation exercises on, 329 ff.

  Farm reform, 329.

  Farming specials, 330.

  _Favor, your esteemed_, and similar expressions, to avoid, 243.

  Fee simple, 322.

  _Fewer_ and _less_, 80.

  Figures, plural of, 20, 160.

  Final consonant, rule for doubling, 22.

  Final _e_, dropped, 22, 25;
    retained, 25-26.

  Finance department of a railroad, 360-361.

  Finances of a corporation, 354.

  _Fly_, _flow_, _flee_, 101.

  Folding a letter, directions for, 238.

  _Follow_, conjugation of in the passive voice, 105 ff.;
    synopsis of, passive, 106.

  _Following, the_, punctuation after, 195.

  Follow-up letter, the, 264 ff.

  _For_, as preposition and conjunction, 55.

  Foreclosing a mortgage, 322.

  Foreign plurals, 21.

  Foreign news, to suggest subjects for talks, 155.

  _For example_, punctuation with, 195.

  _For instance_, punctuation with, 195.

  Form letter, the, 264.

  Form of the business letter, 231.

  Formation, of participles, 21 ff.;
    of possessive case, 67;
    of infinitives, 110.

  Freight bill, 286.

  Freight, receipt for, 285.

  Furniture, outline of letters to sell, 269.

  Future tense, 88 ff.;
    progressive, 89;
    perfect, 90.

  _G_, pronunciation of, 24.

  Gas mantles, paragraph on, 280-281.

  Gold certificates, 332.

  Good and bad headlines in advertisements, 313-314.

  Government's Laundry, the, 173-174.

  Greek roots, 30.

  _Had ought_, 103.

  "Hammock" paragraph, 216.

  _Have_ and _of_, 119.

  Heading of the business letter, 232, 235.

  Headlines of advertisements, good and bad, 313-314.

  Health, its appeal in advertising, 311-312.

  _Herculean_, 5.

  Homonyms, 14-15.

  How to advance, paragraph on, 177.

  _Hoping_ and similar expressions, to avoid, 242-243.

  Hyphen, use of, 196.

  _Ible_, 33.

  Ideas, mistaken, in letter writing, 241 ff.

  _ie_ or _ei_, 24.

  Illustrations and examples, paragraphs developed by, 222.

  Imperative sentence, defined, 41.

  _In_, prefix, 33.

  Income of railroads, 360.

  Incorrectly used, nouns and pronouns, 73-74;
    adjectives and adverbs, 81-82;
    verbs, 114-115;
    prepositions, 118-119.

  Indefinite _it_ or _they_, 207 ff.

  Indefinite pronouns, 61;
    used as adjectives, 61.

  Independent elements, case of, 65;
    punctuation of, 182.

  Indicative mode, defined, 112;
    of _be,_ 112.

  Indirect discourse, 166 ff.

  Indirect object, 66.

  Industrial corporations, 363.

  Industry, 273.

  Infinitive, defined, 109;
    tenses and voices of, 110;
    split, 77, 209.

  Initial clause or participial phrase, punctuation of, 176.

  Insurance, 327 ff.;
    letters pertaining to, 328 ff.

  Insurance and real estate, 321 ff.

  Interesting words, 1 ff.

  Interjection, 49;
    _O_, 161.

  Interrogation mark, use of, 162;
    position of with quotation marks, 163 ff.

  Interrogative pronouns, declined, 60.

  Interrogative sentence, 41.

  Intransitive verb, 83.

  Introduction of the letter, 232, 235-236.

  Investigation and discussion, topics for, on manufacture, 278-279;
    on distribution, 304;
    on real estate, 327;
    on banking, 349-350;
    on the corporation, 365.

  Investments, mining, 365-366.

  Investors, 184, 185.

  _ious_, 33.

  Irregular plurals of nouns, 19.

  Irregular verbs, principal parts of, 95 ff.

  _ise_, _ize_, _yze_, 34.

  _It_ used indefinitely, 207 ff.

  _Italic_, derivation of, 3.

  Italian _a_, 9.

  _Its_ and _it's_, 160 ff.

  _k_, insertion of, 25.

  _Kindly_, abuse of, 243.

  Labor, 274.

  Local news, to suggest subjects for talks, 155.

  Land business, the, 325 ff.

  Latin-American trade, the, 306.

  Latin prefixes and suffixes, 31.

  _Lay_ and _lie_, 100-101.

  _Learn_ and _teach_, 101.

  Lease, 321.

  _Least_, used in the superlative degree, 78.

  Legal department of a railroad, 360-361.

  Length of good headlines in advertisements, 313.

  _Less_ and _fewer_, 80.

  Letter beginnings, 240, 247, 248-249.

  Letter, to investors, 47;
    to accompany a style book, 172;
    to sell a trip on the water, 183-184;
    to sell a house coat, 221-222;
    ordering goods, 239;
    from A. Lincoln to Mrs. Bixby, 240-241;
    to accompany a catalogue, 245 ff.;
    to sell cheese, 246;
    to sell hinged paper, 247-248;
    to open an account, 250-251;
    credit, 251-252;
    requesting payment, 254 ff.;
    answering a complaint, 257-258;
    of application, 260-261;
    follow-up, 265 ff.;
    from a bank, soliciting a trust (to be punctuated), 348-349;
    market, 366.

  Letters, plurals of, 20.

  Letters, business, in the manufacturing business, 276 ff.;
    in the retail business, 287 ff.;
    in the wholesale business, 292 ff.;
    in the mail order business, 295 ff.;
    to help the salesman, 301;
    pertaining to banking, 345 ff.
    (See _Business letters_, _Letter_.)

  _Lie_ and _lay_, 100-101.

  _Like_, followed by the objective case, 124.

  _Loose_ and _lose_, 103.

  _Lose_ and _loose_, 103.

  Luck and labor, paragraph on, 174.

  Macron, the, 9.

  Magazine advertising, 311 ff.

  Mail order business, the, 295 ff..

  Manufacture, 270 ff.;
    essentials in, 272-273;
    subjects for themes on, 275;
    suggestions for debates on, 275;
    letters in, 276 ff.;
    topics for investigation and discussions on, 278 ff.;
    bibliography for, 280;
    dictation exercises in, 280 ff.

  Market letter, 366.

  Market value, 355 ff.

  Marks, diacritical, 7;
    question, 162;
    quotation, 163 ff.

  Materials, raw, 274.

  Maturity of bonds, 358, 364.

  _May_ and _can_, 102.

  Merchant, the retail, 286 ff.;
    the wholesale, 291 ff.;
    the mail order, 295 ff.

  Methods of endorsing a check, 340.

  _Might_ and _could_, 102.

  Mining investment, principles of, 365.

  Misplaced modifiers, 209-210.

  Mispronounced, words commonly, 13, 17.

  Mistaken ideas in letter writing, 241 ff.

  Mode, defined, 112;
    indicative and subjunctive of _be_, 112;
    subjunctive denoting possibility, 113.

  Model letters. (See _Letter_.)

  Modern business done by letter, 229 ff.

  Modifiers, adjective and adverb, word, 49;
    phrase, 52 ff.;
    clause, 54-55;
    used to secure unity, 202;
    misplaced, 209-210.

  Money, 332;
    kinds of paper, 332 ff.;
    its appeal in advertising, 311-312.

  Money order, express, 340-341;
    postal, 341.

  Monosyllables ending in silent _e_, 9.

  Month from year, comma used to separate, 178.

  _More_ or _less_, used in the comparative degree, 78.

  Mortgage, 322, 357 ff.;
    foreclosing a, 322.

  _Most_ or _least_, used in the superlative degree, 78.

  Motives to which advertisements appeal, 311.

  _Namely_, punctuation with, 195.

  Names, suggestive, in advertising, 313.

  National bank notes, 333.

  National news, to suggest subjects for talks, 155.

  Necessary words, omission of, 210-211.

  Need, its appeal in advertising, 311-312.

  Negative comparison, 125.

  Negative, outline for a debate on advertising, 143 ff.

  _Neither--nor_, 123.

  News, to suggest topics for talks, 155.

  Nominative absolute, 65.

  Nominative case, 64 ff.;
    as subject, 64;
    as subjective complement (predicate nominative), 65;
    as appositive, 65;
    independent, 65;
    absolute, 65.

  _Nor_, 123.

  Notes, 359;
    promissory, 336.

  Noun, defined, 49;
    clause, 54;
    and the pronoun, 57 ff.;
    common, 57;
    proper, 57;
    collective, 57;
    abstract, 57;
    verbal, 57;
    modified by _every_ and similar words, 86;
    collective, number of, 86.

  Nouns, rules for plurals of, regular, 18;
    ending in _y_, 19;
    ending in _o_, 19;
    ending in _f_ and _fe_, 19;
    irregular, 19-20;
    compound, 20;
    foreign, 21;
    possessive case of, 67;
    incorrectly used, 73-74;
    joined by _or_, 86;
    punctuation of series of, 171 ff.

  Number of verb, 86.

  _O_, capitalization of, 161.

  _o_, plural of nouns ending in, 19.

  Object, of a preposition, 55, 66;
    of a transitive verb, 66;
    indirect, 66;
    second, 66.

  Objective case, 64, 66;
    as direct object of a transitive verb, 66;
    as object of a preposition, 66, 119;
    as indirect object, 66;
    as second object, 66;
    as appositive, 66;
    as adverbial modifier, 66;
    following _like_, 124.

  Observation, subjects taken from, 146 ff.

  Obsolete words, 3.

  _Of_ and _have_, 119.

  _Of_ phrase substituted for the possessive case, 67.

  _Oh_, 161.

  Omission, of letters, 160;
    of necessary words, 210 ff.;
    of subject in business letters, 242.

  Opening an account, letters for, 240 ff.

  Operating department of a railroad, 360.

  Oral English, exercises in, 127 ff.

  Oral expression, 127 ff.;
    variety of, 111.

  Oral reproduction, from magazines, 147;
    from newspapers, 154 ff.

  Oral exercises, in general, 127 ff.;
    on manufacture, 273 ff.;
    in the retail trade, 286;
    in the wholesale trade, 290 ff.;
    in the mail order business, 295;
    in connection with the salesman, 299 ff.

  Order bill of lading, 285.

  Ordering goods, letter for, 239.

  Order, express money, 340-341;
    postal money, 341.

  Organization, corporate, 359;
    of a railroad, 360.

  Outline, for a debate, 141 ff.;
    how to make an, 151 ff.

  Paper money, kinds of, 332 ff.

  Paragraph, the, 215 ff.;
    in dialogue, 168 ff.;
    proper length of, 215-216;
    topic sentence in, 216 ff.;
    "hammock," 216;
    how developed, 222-223.

  Paragraphs on, Sacramento City, 48;
    exports in cattle, 76;
    cost of living, 173;
    the government's laundry, 173-174;
    luck and labor, 174;
    sawdust, 174-175;
    a new kind of wood, 175;
    hogs as mortgage lifters, 175;
    cotton seed, 176;
    making paper, 176-177;
    how to advance, 177;
    bubonic plague, 177;
    politics of a city, 181;
    cotton in the Soudan, 181;
    the "yellow" invasion, 182;
    saving, 182, 184, 193;
    investors, 184, 185;
    Chicago's milk supply, 186;
    the dead letter sale, 190;
    industries, controlled, 193;
    the secret blotter, 197;
    a mummy's doll, 198;
    office efficiency, 217;
    stenographic efficiency, 217;
    business courtesy, 218;
    the rural landscape of Norway, 218;
    the _Spectator_, 218-219;
    income, 225;
    gas mantles, 280-281;
    production of wool, 281;
    casting metals, 281;
    transportation, 305;
    the Latin-American trade, 306;
    the parcel post in Africa, 306;
    the remedy for wrecks, 306-307;
    colonization, 307;
    farm reform, 329;
    farming specials, 330;
    selection of seed, 330-331;
    the clearing house, 350-351;
    washed money, 351-352;
    an early monopoly, 365;
    mining investments, 365-366.

  Paragraphs, subjects for. See _Subjects_.

  Parenthesis marks, use of, 196;
    wrongly used to cancel expressions, 196.

  Parenthetical expressions, punctuation of, 180 ff.

  Participle, defined, 109;
    tenses and voices of, 109;
    the dangling, 205-206.

  Participles, formation of, 21;
    of verbs in _y_, 23.

  Participial phrases, punctuation of, 176 ff.;
    188 ff.

  Parts of speech:
    The noun and the pronoun, 49, 57 ff.;
    the adjective and the adverb, 49, 75, ff.;
    the verb, 49, 83 ff.;
    the preposition and the conjunction, 49, 116 ff.;
    the interjection, 49.

  Parts, principal, of irregular verbs, 95 ff.

  Par value, 355.

  Passive voice, defined, 84;
    conjugation of _follow_, in the, 105 ff.;
    synopsis of _follow_ in the, 106.

  Past tense, 88;
    progressive form of, 89;
    emphatic form of, 89;
    perfect, 90.

  Payment, letters requesting, 253 ff.

  Perfect tenses, 89 ff.

  Period, use of, 162.

  Personal pronouns declined, 58.

  Personality essential in a salesman, 298.

  Persons of the pronouns, 58.

  Phrase modifiers, 52 ff.

  Phrases, prepositional, 52 ff.;
    adverbial, 52-53;
    adjective, 52-53;
    classification of, 110;
    punctuation of series of, 171 ff.;
    initial participial, punctuation of, 176;
    incorrectly used as a sentence, 45, 242.

  Plurals, of nouns, 18 ff.;
    of letters and figures, 20, 160;
    of foreign nouns, 21.

  Positive degree, 78, 79.

  Possessive case, 64, 67;
    rules for forming, 67;
    separate possession, in the, 67;
    with verbal nouns, 67 ff.;
    _of_ phrase substituted for, 67;
    use of the apostrophe in the, 159.

  Possibility, use of the subjunctive mode to show, 113 ff.

  Postal money order, 341.

  Predicate, of the sentence, 41;
    nominative, 65.

  Preferred stock, 355.

  Prefix, usually constituting a syllable, 16;
    Anglo-Saxon, 29;
    Latin, 31;
    _ad_, _con_, and _in_, 32-33.

  Present tense, 88;
    progressive, 88;
    emphatic, 88;
    perfect, 89.

  Preposition, defined, 49;
    phrase introduced by, 52;
    followed by the objective case, 66, 119;
    and the conjunction, 116 ff.;
    the wrong, 119;
    necessary, 119.

  Prepositional phrases, 52-53.

  Prepositions, and adverbs confused, 52;
    list of, 53;
    used with certain verbs, 116-117;
    incorrectly used, 118-119.

  Pride, its appeal in advertising, 311-312.

  Principal clauses, 42.

  Principal parts of irregular verbs, 95 ff.

  Progressive tenses, 88 ff.; 105.

  Promissory note, 335.

  Pronominal adjectives, 60.

  Pronoun, defined, 49;
    and the noun, 57 ff.;
    incorrect use of _same_ as a pronoun, 72-73.

  Pronouns, 58 ff.;
    personal, declined, 58;
    emphatic, 59;
    reflexive, 59;
    list of relative, 54;
    declension of relative, 59;
    compound relative, 59;
    double relative, 59;
    restrictive relative, 59 ff.;
    interrogative declined, 60;
    demonstrative, 60;
    indefinite, 61;
    adjective, 61;
    possessive in form, not in use, 59 (note);
    incorrectly used, 73 ff.;
    joined by _or_, 86.

  Pronunciation, 7 ff.;
    slurring syllables in, 7;
    of _c_ and _g_, 24.

  Proper noun, defined, 57;
    capitalization of, 57, 161.

  Proposition for debate, 137.

  Public utility corporations, 361 ff.

  Punctuation, 158 ff.;
    apostrophe, 159 ff.;
    capitals, 160 ff.;
    period, 162;
    interrogation mark, 162;
    exclamation mark, 162;
    quotation marks, 163 ff.;
    comma, 170 ff.;
    semicolon, 192 ff.;
    colon, 194 ff.;
    dash, 195 ff.;
    parenthesis marks, 196;
    hyphen, 196 ff.;
    of series, 170 ff.;
    of compound sentences, 45, 173 ff.;
    of initial clause or participial phrase, 175 ff.;
    of explanatory expressions, 179 ff.;
    after _as follows_, etc., 195;
    after _namely_, etc., 195.

  Quality, its appeal in advertising, 311-312.

  Questions for discussion on, manufacture, 273-274;
    the retail merchant, 286-287;
    the wholesale merchant, 291-292;
    the mail order merchant, 295;
    advertising, 309-310;
    real estate, 323;
    the corporation, 363-364.

  Quitclaim deed, 322.

  Quotation marks, use of, 163 ff.

  Quotations, use of comma in, 170 ff.

  Railroad, the, 360;
    sources of income of, 360;
    organization of, 360;
    departments of, 360 ff.

  Railroad company, the, 284, 360.

  _Raise_ and _rise_, 101.

  Raw materials, 274.

  Reading, subjects taken from, 147 ff.

  _Real_ and _very_, 81.

  Real estate and insurance, 321.

  Real estate business, 321 ff.
    Rent, 321;
    lease, 321;
    warranty deed, 322;
    quitclaim deed, 322;
    clear title, 322;
    fee simple, 322;
    mortgage, 322;
    foreclosing a mortgage, 322;
    agent and commission, 323;
    letters in, 324 ff.;
    topics for investigation and discussion, 327.

  Receipt for freight, 285.

  Redemption of bonds, 358.

  Reflexive pronouns, 59.

  Reform, farm, 329.

  Relative pronouns, list of, 54, 59;
    declined, 59;
    double, 59;
    restrictive, 59 ff.;
    compound, 59.

  Relative value of different forms of advertising, 310.

  Remedy for wrecks, 306-307.

  Remittance, forms of, 338 ff.
    Check, 339;
    certified check, 339 ff.;
    endorsement, methods of, 340;
    express money order, 340;
    postal money order, 341;
    bank draft, 341 ff.;
    time draft, 343 ff.;
    sight draft, 344 ff.

  Rent, 321.

  Reproduction, oral, from magazines, 147 ff.;
    from newspapers, 154 ff.

  Requesting payment, letters, 253 ff.

  Restricting the subject, 150.

  Restrictive relative pronouns, 59 ff.

  Retail merchant, the, 286 ff.

  Richards' baby stocking fund, 337.

  _Rise_ and _raise_, 101.

  Roots, Greek, 30.

    For spelling:
      regular plurals in _s_ and _es_, 18;
      changing final _y_ to _i_, 19;
      nouns in _o_, 19;
      nouns in _f_ and _fe_, 19;
      plural by change of vowel, 19;
      by adding _en_, 19;
      no change for the plural, 20;
      two plurals, 20;
      compound nouns, 20;
      plurals of letters and figures, 20;
      foreign plurals, 21;
      doubling final consonant, 21-22;
      retaining _y_ before _ing_, 23;
      _ie_ or _ei_, 24;
      soft _c_ and _g_, 24;
      dropping final silent _e_, 25;
      retaining final _e_, 25-26.
    For punctuation:
      the apostrophe, to show the possessive case of nouns, 159;
      to show omission of letters, 160;
      to show plurals of letters, figures, and words not
            regularly nouns, 160;
      capitals, 160 ff.;
      the period, 162;
      the interrogation mark, 162;
      the exclamation mark, 162;
      quotation marks, 163 ff.;
      comma in direct quotations, 170;
      comma in series, 171 ff.;
      comma in compound sentence, 173 ff.;
      comma after initial clause or participial phrase, 175 ff.;
      comma to separate month from year, etc., 178;
      comma to show omission of words, 178;
      comma to set off appositive, 179 ff.;
      comma to set off parenthetical expressions, 180 ff.;
      comma to set off independent elements, 182 ff.;
      comma to set off non-restrictive relative clause, 185 ff.;
      comma to set off subordinate element at the end of the sentence,
            188 ff.;
      the semicolon, 192 ff.;
      the colon, 194 ff.;
      the dash, 195 ff.;
      parenthesis marks, 196;
      the hyphen, 196.

  _S 1_, comma fault, 44.

  _S 2_, use of phrase or clause as sentence, 45.

  Sacramento City, paragraph on, 48.

  _Salary_, 3.

  Sales letter, the, 244 ff.

  Salesman, the, 298 ff.;
    letters to help the, 301-302.

  Salutation, the, of business letters, 232, 236-237.

  _Same_, not a pronoun, 72-73;
    distinctly business blunder, 243.

  Saving, paragraphs on, 182, 184, 193.

  Savings banks, 334, 336; postal, 337.

  Savings department of bank, 332.

  _Saw_ and _seen_, 99-100.

  Sawdust, paragraph on, 174.

  Second object, 66.

  Secretary's report, the, 115 (note).

  _Sede_, _cede_, _ceed_, 34.

  Selection of seed, 330-331.

  Semicolon, uses of, 45, 174, 192 ff.

  Sentence, the, and its elements, 41 ff.;
    subject of, 41;
    simple, 42;
    complex, 42;
    compound, 42;
    compound, punctuation of, 45, 174;
    predicate of, 41;
    declarative, defined, 41;
    interrogative, defined, 41;
    imperative, defined, 41;
    exclamatory, defined, 41;
    simple, defined, 42;
    compound, defined, 42;
    complex, defined, 42;
    errors, 44.

  Separation, the keynote of punctuation, 159.

  Series, punctuation of, 171 ff.

  _Set_, and _sit_, 101.

  _Shall_ and _will_, 89, 92.

  Shareholders, 355.

  Shares, of capital stock, 355.

  Shift in construction, 211 ff.

  Short sentences, combination of, 202 ff.

  _Should_ and _would_, 93-94.

  Sight draft, 344-345.

  Signature, the, in business letters, 232, 237-238.

  Silent consonant, words containing, 11.

  Silent vowels, 11.

  Silver certificates, 332.

  Simple sentence, defined, 42.

  _Since_, as preposition and conjunction, 55.

  _sion_, _tion_, _cion_, 34.

  _Sit_ and _set_, 101.

  Slang, 129.

  Slurring of syllables, 7.

  Smooth connection, 127-128, 224;
    methods of securing, 224.

  Snappy style, in letter writing, 246.

  _So--as_, in negative comparisons, 125.

  _So_ habit, to avoid the, 111, 128.

  Soudan, cotton in the, 181.

  South Africa, parcel post in, 306.

  Specials, railroad farming, 330.

  _Spectator, The_, paragraph from Macaulay, 218-219.

  Speech, parts of, 48 ff.

  Speech, plan in making, 131 ff.;
    outline for, 151 ff.

  Spelling, rules, 18 ff.;
    500 words for, 36 ff.

  Split infinitive, 77, 209.

  States, abbreviation of names of, 26-27.

  Steamship company, the, 284.

  Steel, trouble in introducing, 191.

  Stenographic efficiency, 217.

  Still-life advertisements, 314.

  Stock, capital, common and preferred, 353, 355;
    authorized capital, 355.

  Stockholders, 355.

  Stocks, of a corporation, 354 ff.

  Straight bill of lading, 285.

  Style, in letter writing, 244 ff.

  Subject, as a whole, 148;
    divisions of, 149 ff.;
    making outline of, 151 ff.;
    restricting the, 150, 153;
    of the sentence, 41, 65;
    simple, 55;
    complete, 55;
    of subordinate clause, 55;
    compound, number of, 86;
    incorrect omission of, in business letters, 242.

  Subjective complement, 65.

  Subjects, how to choose, 146 ff.;
    for debates, 141, 144, 275, 290, 302;
    for compositions on manufacture, 274, 275, 278-279;
    on distribution, 299, 301, 303, 304;
    on advertising, 317, 318;
    suggested by personal experience, 147;
    suggested by reading, 147, 154.

  Subjunctive mode, defined, 112;
    of _be_, 112;
    used to denote possibility, 113.

  Subordinate clauses, adjective, adverb, noun, 54;
    subject of, 55.

  Subordinate conjunctions, list of, 54.

  Subordination, in the sentence, 201 ff.

  Subscription, outline of letters to sell, 268.

  Success, elements of, 135.

  Successful men and women, 136.

  Suffix, usually constituting a syllable, 16;
    Anglo-Saxon, 29;
    adjective, 30;
    verb, 31;
    noun, 31;
   _able_ and _ible_, 33;
   _ant_ and _ent_, 33.

  Suggestions for debates, 139 ff., 144;
    on manufacture, 275;
    on distribution, 290, 302.

  Suggestive names in advertisements, 313;
    headlines, 313-314.

  Superlative degree, of adjectives, 78;
    of adverbs, 79.

  Superlatives, to be avoided, 129.

  Syllabication, 15.

  Syllables, slurred, 7;
    division of words into, 15 ff.

  Synopsis of _write_, active voice, 91.

  _Teach_ and _learn_, 101.

  Technical words, 4.

  Tense, defined, 88;
    of participle, 109;
    of infinitive, 110.

  Tenses, distinguished, 88 ff.
    (See _Present tense_, _Past tense_, _Perfect tenses_.)

  _Than_ and _as_, case following, 121.

  _That_, restrictive relative, 59 ff.

  _That is_, punctuation with, 195.

  _The following_, punctuation with, 195.

  Themes, oral, 127 ff.
    (See _Oral themes_.)

  _There_, _their_, 126.

  Thinking, business, 2.

  _Thus_, punctuation with, 195.

  Tilde, 9.

  Time draft, 343-344.

  _Tion_, _sion_, _cion_, 34.

  _Tious_, troublesome ending, 33.

  Title, clear, to property, 322.

  Titles, 150;
    of officials and of honor, 161;
    of books and plays, 162.

  _To_, _too_, _two_, distinguished, 125-126.

  Tone, of the letter, 240.

  Topic sentence, in the paragraph, 216 ff.

  Topics for investigation and discussion, on manufacture, 278-279;
    on distribution, 304;
    on real estate, 327;
    on banking, 349-350;
    on the corporation, 365.

  Trade, Latin-American, 306.

  Traffic department of railroad, 359.

  Transitive verb, followed by objective case, 66;
    defined, 83.

  Transportation, 283.

  Troublesome verbs, 100 ff.;
    _lie_ and _lay_, 100 ff.;
    _sit_, _set_, 101;
    _fly_, _flow_, _flee_, 101;
    _rise_, _raise_, 101;
    _teach_, _learn_, 101;
    _may_, _can_, 102;
    _might_, _could_, 102;
    _accept_, _except_, 102;
    _affect_, _effect_, 102 ff.;
    _lose_, _loose_, 103.

  Trust companies, 334, 337.

  Trust department of a bank, 332.

  Uncertain antecedents, pronouns with, 207 ff.

  United States treasury notes, 333.

  Unity, in the sentence, 199;
    in the paragraph, 216.

  Unless, a conjunction, 124.

  Until, as preposition and conjunction, 55.

  Usefulness, its appeal in advertising, 311.

  Utility corporations, public, 36 ff.

  Value, par of stock, 355 ff.;
    market, 355 ff.

  Vanity, its appeal in advertising, 311.

  Variety of expression, 111.

  Verb, the, 83 ff.;
    defined, 49;
    transitive, 66, 83;
    intransitive, 83;
    copulative, 83;
    active voice of, 84;
    passive voice of, 84;
    number of, 85;
    person of, 85;
    singular with certain words, 85 ff.;
    plural with certain subjects, 86;
    tense of, 88 ff.;
    _shall_ and _will_, 92;
    _should_ and _would_, 93;
    conjugation of _be_, 104 ff.;
    _be_ used to make progressive tenses, 105;
    _be_ used to make passive voice, 105 ff.;
    the participle, 109;
    the infinitive, 110;
    mode, 112 ff.;
    conjugation of _write_, active voice, 88 ff.;
    _follow_, passive voice, 105 ff.;
    synopsis of _write_, active voice, 91;
    synopsis of _follow_, passive voice, 106.

  Verbal noun, defined, 57;
    possessive case with, 67 ff.

  Verbs, incorrectly used, 114;
    participles of verbs in _y_, 23;
    taking two objects, 66;
    taking indirect and direct objects, 66;
    principal parts of irregular, 95 ff.;
    troublesome, 100 ff.;
    _lie_, _lay_, distinguished, 100;
    _sit_ and _set_, distinguished, 101;
    _fly_, _flow_, _flee_, distinguished, 101;
    _rise_ and _raise_, distinguished, 101;
    _teach_ and _learn_, distinguished, 101;
    _may_ and _can_, distinguished, 102;
    _might_ and _could_, distinguished, 102;
    _accept_ and _except_, distinguished, 102;
    _affect_ and _effect_, distinguished, 102;
    _lose_ and _loose_, distinguished, 103;
    _had ought_, incorrectly used, 103;
    certain prepositions used with, 116 ff.

  _Very_ and _real_, distinguished, 81

  Voice, active and passive, defined, 84;
    of the participle, 109;
    of the infinitive, 110.

  Vowels, pronunciation of, 9;
    length of, in monosyllables ending in _e_, 9;
    words containing silent, 11.

  Warranty deed, 322.

  Washed money, 351-352.

  Washing machine, letters to sell, outline, 269.

  Watered stock, 357.

  Way-bill, railroad, 286.

  _Were_, _where_, distinguished, 126.

  _What_, double relative, 59.

  _Who_, and _which_, used restrictively, 60.

  _Who_ and _whom_, 70 ff.

  _Whoever_ and _whomever_, 71.

  Wholesale merchant, the, 291 ff.

  _Why_, childish use of, 128.

  _Will_ and _shall_, 89, 92 ff.

  _Will you be so good as to_, 243.

  Wish, subjunctive to express, 113.

  _Without_, a preposition, 124;
    incorrectly used as conjunction, 124.

  Word analysis, 29 ff.

  Words, interesting, 1 ff.;
    obsolete, 3;
    technical, 4;
    similarly pronounced 14, 15;
    frequently mispronounced, 13, 17;
    containing _dg_, 25;
    ending in silent _e_, retain or drop _e_, 25;
    analysis of, 32;
    easily confused, list of, 35 ff.;
    500 for spelling, 36 ff.;
    used as different parts of speech, 51;
    omission of, punctuation to show, 178.

  Wordiness, 130 ff, 200-201.

  _Would_ and _should_, 93 ff.

  _Would say_, to be avoided, 243.

  _Write_, conjugation of, active voice, 88 ff.;
    synopsis of, passive voice, 91.

  Writing advertisements, exercises in, 315-316.

  Written composition, 1, 127 ff.

  Written expression, 1, 127 ff.

  _Y_, nouns ending in, plural of, 19.

  "Yellow" invasion, paragraph on the, 182.

  _You_ attitude, the, in letter writing, 244.

  _Yze_, _ize_, _ise_, 34.

  *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's note:

Text uses both "to-day" and "today."

Obvious punctuation errors were corrected.

Pages 116-117, entry for "confide" was originally placed after
"correspond." It was relocated to be in the correct alphabetical order.

Pages 171-172, the examples were placed out of order. The section
beginning "reporter, business manager" to the end of the paragraph was
originally located after a space following the Abraham Lincoln
paragraph. The first part of the Abraham Lincoln paragraph originally
ended with "nor a year it". The rest of that paragraph was originally
located at the top of the next page. These paragraphs have been adjusted
to read correctly. Copies of the original pages may be seen in the
trascriber's notes for the HTML version of this text.

Page 245, "foward" changed to "forward" (We shall forward)

Page 337, "committe" changed to "committee" (A committee was appointed)

Page 359, "natually" changed to "naturally" (will naturally lead us)

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