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´╗┐Title: A Select Collection of Valuable and Curious Arts and Interesting Experiments, - Which are Well Explained and Warranted Genuine and may be - Performed Easily, Safely, and at Little Expense.
Author: Unknown, Various
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A Select Collection of Valuable and Curious Arts and Interesting Experiments, - Which are Well Explained and Warranted Genuine and may be - Performed Easily, Safely, and at Little Expense." ***

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produced from images generously made available by The
Internet Archive)



Curious Arts.

[Illustration: Sketches of Landscapes.

[See page 31]]



A SELECT COLLECTION

OF VALUABLE AND CURIOUS ARTS,

AND

INTERESTING EXPERIMENTS,

WHICH ARE WELL EXPLAINED AND WARRANTED
GENUINE AND MAY BE PERFORMED EASILY,
SAFELY, AND AT LITTLE EXPENSE.


THIRD EDITION.

CONCORD:

PUBLISHED BY RUFUS PORTER.

J. B. Moore, Printer.
1826.



Transcriber's Note: Some of the articles in the Appendix do not
list a price.



DISTRICT OF NEW-HAMPSHIRE, to wit.


    _District Clerk's Office._

[Sidenote: L. S.]

Be it remembered, that on the twenty-second day of October, A.D. 1825,
and in the fiftieth year of the Independence of the United States of
America, RUFUS PORTER, of the said District, has deposited in this
Office the title of a book, the right whereof he claims as proprietor,
in the words following, to wit:--

"_A Select Collection of valuable and curious Arts and interesting
Experiments, which are well explained and warranted genuine, and may
be performed easily, safely, and at little expense._"

In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States,
entitled, "An act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the
copies of Maps, Charts and Books, to the Authors and Proprietors of
such copies, during the time therein mentioned;" and also to an act,
entitled, "An act supplementary to an act, entitled, an act for the
encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts and
Books to the Authors and Proprietors of such copies, during the times
therein mentioned, and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of
designing, engraving and etching historical and other prints."

    SAMUEL CUSHMAN,
    _Clerk of the District of New-Hampshire_.

A true copy of record:--
    Attest, SAMUEL CUSHMAN, _Clerk_.



ADVERTISEMENT.


It is not so much the object of the author, with regard to the various
arts treated of in the following pages, to convey to professed artists,
a more accurate and extensive knowledge of those arts, as to explain
some of the first lines and principles of them, for the advantage of
those, who may be induced to practice them occasionally, either for
profit or amusement. The chemical experiments are such as are calculated
to combine recreation, with improvement in useful knowledge--a knowledge
of some of the leading principles of chemistry.--The true chemical
terms, according to the new nomenclature (which, perhaps, may not be so
readily understood, by some, as the more common and familiar names, but
will be found sufficiently explained in the appendix) have, in this
work, been applied to the various articles occasionally mentioned. Very
few substances have been mentioned, which are generally considered
poisonous, or otherwise dangerous; but it may be proper, however, for
those who may attempt any of the chemical experiments, to proceed with
caution, and carefully avoid the fumes produced by chemical action,
especially in metallic solutions in nitric acid, and sublimation of
mercury. Several articles in this little collection, will probably be
found to contain some improvements, and if it prove as interesting to
others, as a similar work would formerly have been to the author, his
object will have been attained.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.


                                                                _Page._

    1. Water-proof gilding and silvering,                           9

    2. The art of burnish gilding,                                 11

    3. Ornamental bronze gilding,                                  13

    4. To enamel picture glasses with gold,                        15

    5. To wash iron or steel with gold,                            15

    6. To wash brass or copper with silver,                        16

    7. To give wood a gold, silver, or copper lustre,              17

    8. To print gold letters on morocco,                           18

    9. To dye silk a brilliant gold colour,                        18

   10. To dye silk a brilliant silver colour,                      19

   11. To silver looking glasses,                                  20

   12. To write on paper with gold or silver,                      22

   13. To make good shining black ink,                             23

   14. Blue ink,                                                   23

   15. Red ink,                                                    24

   16. Yellow ink,                                                 24

   17. Green ink,                                                  25

   18. Purple ink,        25

   19. To write in various colours with the same pen,
         ink and paper.                                            25

   20-26. Sympathetic inks for secret correspondence,              27

   27. Luminous ink that will shine in the dark,                   28

   28. To make a writing appear and disappear at pleasure,         29

   29. To make a writing vanish and another appear in its place,   29

   30. To restore old writing that is nearly defaced,              30

   31. To paint a picture that will appear and disappear
         occasionally,                                             30

   32. Landscape painting on walls of rooms,                       31

   33. To paint in figures for carpets or borders,                 34

   34. To paint in imitation of mahogany and maple,                35

   35. The art of painting on glass,                               36

   36. Best method of polishing steel,                             37

   37. To make letters of blue on polished steel,                  38

   38. To preserve the brightness of polished steel,               39

   39. To give steel a temper to cut marble,                       40

   40. To wash iron or steel with copper,                          41

   41. To give iron the whiteness of silver,                       42

   42. To wash iron with tin,                                      42

   43. To give tin the whiteness and brilliancy of silver,         44

   44. To crystallize tin,                                         44

   45. To make a gold coloured varnish for tin,                    45

   46. To make shellac varnish for japanning,                      46

   47. To make the best copal varnish,                             47

   48. To make a spirit varnish for maps,                          48

   49. To make elastic varnish for umbrellas,                      49

   50. To varnish maps and pictures,                               49

   51. To make brunswick blacking,                                 50

   52. To make a print appear on a gold ground,                    51

   53. Best method of tracing or copying a picture,                52

   54. The construction and use of a copying machine,              53

   55. To produce the exact likeness of any object instantly,      54

   56. Copper plate engraving,                                     57

   57. Etching on copper plates,                                   60

   58. Engraving and scraping in mezzotinto,                       63

   59. Etching in aqua-tinta,                                      64

   60. Copper plate printing,                                      65

   61. Etching letters and flowers on glass,                       67

   62. To print figures with a smooth stone,                       68

   63. To cut glass with a piece of iron,                          69

   64. Best cement for joining glass,                              70

   65. Best cement for joining china or crockery,                  70

   66. To make a strong water proof glue,                          71

   67. The art of moulding figures in relief,                      72

   68. To cast images in plaster,                                  73

   69. To produce embossed letters on marble,                      74

   70. To soften stone,                                            75

   71. To change wood, apparently, to stone,                       76

   72. To render wood, cloth or paper, fire proof                  77

73-75. To produce fire readily,                                    77

   76. To make super-combustible matches,                          78

   77. To make gun powder,                                         79

   78. To make the common fulminating powder,                      80

   79. To make mercurial fulminating powder,                       80

   80. To kindle a fire under water,                               82

   81. To light a candle by application of ice,                    82

   82. To form letters or flowers of real flame,                   83

   83. To produce flame of various colours,                        84

   84. To make sky rockets and fire wheels,                        85

   85. To produce detonating balloons,                             87

   86. To prepare a phial that will give light in the dark,        89

   87. To make a person's face appear luminous in the dark,        89

   88. To freeze water in warm weather,                            90

   89. To change the colours of animals,                           91

   90. To give leather a beautiful metallic lustre,                92

   91. An easy method of extracting the essence of roses,          92

   92. To prepare various kinds of essences,                       93

   93. To prepare soda water,                                      94

   94-95. To produce metallic trees,                               95

   96. To tin copper by boiling,                                   96

   97. A metal that will melt in hot water,                        96

   98. Illustration of calico printing,                            96

   99. To prepare an imitation of gold bronze,                     99

  100. To procure the exhilarating gas,                            99

  101. Construction of the galvanic pile or battery,              101

  102. Construction of the oxy-hydrogen blow-pipe,                102

  103. To make a dry phosphorescent powder,                       104

  104. Curious experiment of precipitation,                       105

  105. To make a beautiful soft glass for jewelry,                105

  106. Composition of various kinds of glass,                     106

  107. Composition of various alloys,                             107

  108. To produce various kinds of gas,                           108

  109. Various chemical tests,                                    110

  110. To produce a picture instantly,                            111

  111. A cheap imitation of silver bronze,                        112

  112. To make crayons of various colours,                        113

  113. To make hard sealing wax,                                  115

  114. The art of manufacturing paper hangings,                   116

  115. To make elastic blacking for leather,                      118

  116. Sundry experiments,                                        119



CURIOUS ARTS.


1. WATER-PROOF GILDING AND SILVERING.--This kind of gilding, usually
termed oil gilding, being the cheapest and most durable, is in general
use for gilding or silvering letters on signs, labels, &c. and may be
performed as follows:--Grind one ounce of white lead and two ounces of
litharge, very fine, in a gill of old linseed oil, and if convenient,
add nearly one-fourth of a gill of old copal varnish, and half an
ounce of stone yellow; but neither of these last, are very essential
ingredients. Expose this composition to the rays of the sun for a week
or more in a broad open vessel, observing, however, to keep it free
from dust. Then pour off the finest part, and dilute it with as much
spirits of turpentine as will make it work freely with a brush or
camel-hair pencil. (Oil that will answer exceedingly well for this
purpose, may sometimes be collected from the top of oil paints that
have been long standing, and may be used directly, without being
exposed to the sun as directed above.) Whatever letters or figures you
would gild, must be first drawn or painted with this sizing, the
ground having been previously painted and varnished; and when the
sizing is so dry as to be hard, but yet remains slightly adhesive, or
sticky, lay on gold or silver leaves smoothly over the whole, pressing
them down gently with a soft ball of cotton. The most convenient
manner of performing this, is to lay the leaves of gold or silver,
first on a piece of deer-skin or glove-leather, and cut them into
pieces of a convenient size, by drawing a smooth (not sharp) edged
knife over them. Then take a small block of wood, of a triangular
form, about half an inch thick, and two inches in diameter, and bind a
strip of fine flannel round the edges;--breathe on this, and press it
gently on a piece of the leaf, which by this may be taken from the
leather, and carried to any part of the sizing where it will best fit,
and to which it will readily adhere: thus the sizing may be readily
covered with the leaf, very little of which will be wasted. Afterward
the whole may be brushed over lightly with cotton, or a soft brush,
and the superfluous gold or silver will be brushed off, leaving the
letters or figures entire. When the work has thus remained two or
three days, it may be rubbed with a piece of silk, which will increase
its metallic lustre. _Note._--It is very essential that the varnish of
the ground should be thoroughly dry, that it may not be adhesive in
the least degree, otherwise the leaf will stick where it should not,
and materially injure the work. When plain gilding is required for
vanes, balls, &c. the leaves of gold or silver may be applied to the
work directly from the book, without cutting or dividing them.


2. THE ART OF BURNISH GILDING.--Make a sizing by boiling the skins of
beaver and musk rats, (which may be readily procured at a hat
manufactory,) in water, till it is of sufficient strength that by
cooling it will become a stiff jelly; strain the liquor while warm, and
give your work one coat of it with a brush; when this is dry, add a
little fine whiting to the sizing, and give the work one coat of this.
Then add as much whiting as will work freely under the brush, and lay
on five or six coats of this, allowing each a sufficient time to dry.
Smooth the work by wetting it, and rubbing it with a piece of pumice
stone, which should be previously cut and fitted to the moulding or
other work that is to be gilt; afterward, when the work is dry, rub it
with some fine sand paper. Then take some burnish-gold-size (which is
composed of pipe-clay, plumbago, beef tallow and castile soap, but may
be easily procured ready made,) and dilute it with water till it is of
the consistence of very soft putty, and afterward with the above
mentioned sizing till it will flow freely from a brush, and give the
work three successive coats of this; when the last is dry, dip a
camel-hair pencil in a mixture of equal quantities of rum and water,
and with it wet a small part of the work, and immediately, while it is
flowing, lay on a leaf of gold, brushing it down with a very soft, flat
camel-hair brush, with which also, the leaf is usually conveyed from
the book to the sizing; proceed thus till the whole is gilt, and let it
dry. When the work is sufficiently dry to take a fair polish by
burnishing, (which can be only ascertained by applying the burnisher to
different parts of the work occasionally while it is drying,) rub over
the whole carefully with a flint burnisher, or with the tooth of a wolf
or dog, being fixed in a convenient handle, till the whole acquires a
brilliant polish, except such parts as are required to remain in a
rough-gilt state, which parts are usually flatted by a coat of thin
sizing. Such are the principal rules of the art of burnish gilding; but
as this business requires some variation of management, according to
the state of the weather and other circumstances, it may not be
expected that any person should become very expert in the art, without
the advantage of some experience and practice.

3. ORNAMENTAL BRONZE GILDING.--This is performed by means of gold or
silver, reduced to an impalpable powder, called bronze. One method of
preparing it, is to levigate any quantity of gold or silver leaves on
a stone, with some clarified honey; dilute the honey with clear water,
that the bronze may settle; pour off the water and honey, and add
fresh water to the bronze, which, after being thus thoroughly washed,
may be dried on paper, and is ready for use. Another method of
preparing the gold bronze, is to precipitate the gold from its
solution in nitro-muriatic acid, (see 5,) by adding sulphate of iron
to the solution;--then washing it, as directed above. But in general
it will be found much cheaper to buy the bronze ready prepared. The
ground for this work must be varnished with a mixture of copal
varnish, with an equal quantity of old linseed oil; and whatever
figures are to be formed in bronzing, must be represented by holes cut
through pieces of paper. Lay these patterns on the work, when the
varnish is so dry as to be but slightly adhesive, but not press them
down any more than is requisite to keep the paper in its place. Then
take a piece of soft glove-leather, moisten it a little by breathing
on it, and dip it in some dry bronze, and apply it to the figures,
beginning at the edges;--tap the figure gently with the leather, and
the bronze will stick to the varnish according to the pattern. Thus
any figure may be produced in a variety of shades, by applying the
bronze more freely to some parts of the work than to others. If some
internal parts of the figures require to be more distinct than others,
they may be wrought by their peculiar patterns, or may be edged with
dark coloured paint. In some work it may be well to extend the varnish
no farther than the intended figures, in which case, any projecting or
branching parts of the figures, may be drawn with a camel-hair pencil,
and the patterns may in some measure be dispensed with. In either
case, the work must afterwards have one or more coats of copal or
shellac varnish.

4. TO ENAMEL PICTURE GLASSES WITH GOLD.--The glass must first be
washed perfectly clean and dried; then damp it by breathing on it, or
wet it with the tongue, and immediately lay on a leaf of gold, and
brush it down smooth. When this is dry, draw any letters or flowers
on the gold with Brunswick blacking, (see 51) and when dry, the
superfluous gold may be brushed off with cotton, leaving the figures
entire. Afterward the whole may be covered with blacking, or painted
in any colour, while the gold figures will appear to advantage on the
opposite side of the glass. This work may be elegantly shaded by
scratching through the gold with a small steel instrument, (in the end
of which many sharp points are formed,) previous to laying on the
blacking. Oil paints of any kind may be substituted in the place of
the blacking, but will not dry so quick.

5. TO WASH IRON OR STEEL WITH GOLD.--Mix together in a phial, one part
of nitric acid, with two parts of muriatic acid, and add as much fine
gold as the acid will dissolve. For this purpose gold leaf is the most
convenient, as it will be the most readily dissolved. (This solution
is called the nitro-muriate of gold.) Pour over this solution,
cautiously, about half as much sulphuric ether;--shake the mixture,
and then allow it to settle. The ether will take the gold from the
acid, and will separate itself from it also, and form an upper stratum
in the phial. Carefully pour off this auriferous ether into another
phial, and cork it close. Wash any piece of steel or iron with this
ether, and immediately plunge it in cold water, and it will have
acquired a coat of pure gold. With this also, any flowers or letters
may be drawn or written, even with a pen, and will appear perfectly
gilt. The steel or iron should afterward be heated as much as it will
bear without changing colour, and if the steel be previously polished,
the beauty of the gilding may be much increased by burnishing with a
cornelian or blood stone.


6. TO WASH BRASS OR COPPER WITH SILVER.--To half an ounce of nitric
acid in a phial, add one ounce of water, and one fourth of an ounce of
good silver. It will soon be dissolved, and if the acid and metal are
both pure, the solution, (which is called nitrate of silver) will be
transparent and colourless. Add to this a solution of nearly two
drachms of muriate of soda, in any quantity of water; this will
precipitate the silver in a white opaque mass. Pour off the water with
the acid, and add to the silver an equal quantity of super-tartrate of
potass, thus forming a soft paste;--dip a piece of soft leather in his
paste, and rub it on the metal to be silvered; continue rubbing it
till it is nearly dry; then wash it with water, and polish by rubbing
it hard with a piece of dry leather. Another method is, to add
sub-carbonate of potass to the nitrate of silver, as long as ebulition
ensues; then the acid is poured off, and the precipitate, (which is
white at first, but becomes green when dry,) is mixed with double its
quantity of muriate of soda, and super-tartrate of potass. With this
composition, being moistened, the metal is rubbed over, &c.


7. TO GIVE WOOD A GOLD, SILVER, OR COPPER LUSTRE.--Grind about two
ounces of white beach sand in a gill of water, in which half an ounce
of gum-arabic has been dissolved, and brush over the work with it.
When this is dry, the work may be rubbed over with a piece of gold,
silver or copper, and will in a measure, assume their respective
colours and brilliancy. This work may be polished by a flint
burnisher, but should not be varnished.


8. TO PRINT GOLD LETTERS ON MOROCCO.--First wet the morocco with the
whites of eggs; when this is dry, rub the work over with a little
olive oil, and lay on gold leaves. Then take some common printing
types, and heat them to the temperature of boiling water, and impress
the letters on the gold;--rub the whole with a piece of flannel, and
the superfluous gold will come off, leaving the letters handsomely
gilt. Another method is, to strew powdered rosin over the morocco
previous to laying on the leaf; the heat of the types melts the rosin,
which occasions the gold to adhere in the impressions, while the other
may be brushed off.


9. TO DYE SILK A BRILLIANT GOLD COLOUR.--Take any quantity of
nitro-muriate of gold, (see 5) and evaporate by exposing it to a
gentle heat in a glass tumbler or phial; the gold will form itself in
crystals on the bottom and sides of the vessel; collect these crystals
and dissolve them in ten times their weight of pure water. Then put a
gill of water into a common flask, and add one ounce of granulated
zinc, and one-fourth of an ounce of sulphuric acid. Hydrogen gas will
be evolved, and rise through the neck of the flask, which must not be
stopped. Immerse a piece of white silk in the above mentioned aqueous
solution of gold, and expose it, while wet, to the current of gas as
it rises from the flask; the gold will soon be revived, and the silk
will become beautifully and permanently gilt. Any letters or flowers
may be drawn on the silk with a camel-hair pencil dipped in the
solution, and on being exposed to the action of the gas, will be
revived and shine with metallic brilliancy. _Note._--The silk must be
kept moist with water till the gold is revived. Zinc may be prepared
for the above purpose, by melting it, and stirring it continually with
a stick or iron rod while it is cooling; or it may be pulverized with
a hammer as soon as it becomes solid.


10. TO DYE SILK A BRILLIANT SILVER COLOUR.--Proceed as directed in the
last experiment, only use the nitrate of silver, (see 6) instead of
nitro-muriate of gold. The process of crystalizing, re-dissolving, &c.
is the same. But the crystals of silver differ in colour, being white,
whereas those produced from gold are yellow. If a jar, or box be
filled with hydrogen gas, and the silk suspended in it, the action of
the gas, and consequently the revivification of the metals will be
more uniform. For small figures, however, it may be as well to fix a
stopper in the flask, having a small orifice through it, that the gas
may be thrown with some force on the silk, and will have a more
certain effect. A solution of muriate of tin may be managed in a
similar manner, but none of these solutions can be thus revived on
paper.


11. TO SILVER LOOKING GLASSES.--Lay on a smooth board, a piece of soft
deer-skin leather, rather larger than the glass that is to be
silvered; and on the leather, having sprinkled a little fine whiting,
spread a piece of tin foil of the same size. Pour on a few drops of
mercury, and brush it over the tin with a smooth brush, till every
part of the tin becomes bright. Then add as much mercury as will lay
on the tin, and upon this lay the glass to be silvered: on the glass
lay another piece of leather, of the same size, and on that another
board.--Take up the boards with the glass, and pressing the boards
together, turn them with the glass, the other side up; take off the
upper board, and pass the glass with the tin and leather, between two
rollers, similar to those of a rolling press, for copper-plate
printing; thus to press out the mercury from between the tin and the
glass. Then place the glass between the boards again as before, and
place a heavy weight (which cannot be too heavy, unless it breaks the
glass) on the upper board, which must remain two or three days. The
glass may then be taken up. The practice of some is, to lay thin paper
on the mercury previous to laying on the glass; this paper, being
carefully drawn out, after the glass is laid on, serves to remove the
superfluous mercury, that the tin may come more nearly in contact with
the glass. In this case, no rollers are used. Concave or other fancy
glasses may be silvered, by making an impression with the glass, in a
kind of putty, made of fine sulphate of lime and water; and placing
the glass in the impression again with the tin foil and mercury, when
the plaster is dry, and subjecting it to pressure two or three days in
that situation. The experiment of silvering glass may be performed by
rubbing a drop of mercury on a small piece of tin foil, and pressing
it upon a piece of glass with the finger, or a piece of soft leather.
In this case, the glass will have acquired the reflective property of
a mirror; and if a similar pressure be continued a few hours, the tin
will adhere permanently.


12. TO WRITE ON PAPER WITH GOLD OR SILVER.--Make a sizing as strong as
will flow freely from the pen, by dissolving equal quantities of
gum-arabic and loaf sugar in water; write with this on paper and let
it dry; then moisten the paper by breathing on it, or by holding it
over hot water, and immediately lay pieces of gold or silver leaf on
the lines of the writing, pressing them down gently with a dry hair
pencil. Otherwise, brush gold or silver bronze lightly over the
writing; but this will not have so brilliant an appearance. Allow the
sizing to dry again, and then brush off the redundant gold or silver
with cotton. This writing, (if performed with leaf gold or silver) may
be burnished with a flint burnisher or a cornelian or blood-stone.
Gold letters may also be written or drawn with a hair pencil by means
of gold bronze, mixed with weak gum-water, to which may be added a
little solution of soap, which will make it run more freely. But no
preparation of solution of gold has yet been discovered, which may be
easily revived on paper.


13. TO MAKE GOOD SHINING BLACK INK.--Take two ounces of nut-galls in
coarse powder; one ounce of logwood in thin chips; one ounce of
sulphate of iron; three-fourths of an ounce of gum-arabic; one-fourth
of an ounce of sulphate of copper; and one-fourth of an ounce of loaf
sugar. Boil the galls and logwood together in three pints of water,
till the quantity is reduced to one half. Then the liquor must be
strained through a flannel into a proper vessel, and the remainder of
the ingredients be added to it. The mixture is then to be frequently
stirred till the whole is dissolved; after which it must be left at
rest for twenty-four hours. The ink may then be decanted from the
gross sediment, and must be preserved in a glass bottle well corked.


14. BLUE INK.--Dissolve one ounce of gum-arabic in a pint of water. In
a part of this gum-water, grind a small quantify of best prussian
blue; you may thus bring it to any depth of colour you choose. Indigo
will answer this purpose very well, but is not so fine a colour, nor
will it remain suspended so uniformly in the water.


15. RED INK.--In the above mentioned gum-water, grind very fine, three
parts of vermillion with one of lake or carmine. This is a very
perfect colour, but may require to be shaken up occasionally. To make
the common red ink, such as is used by book binders for ruling, &c.
infuse half a pound of rasped brazil-wood, for two or three days in a
pint of vinegar; then filter or strain it, and add one ounce of
gum-arabic, and one ounce of alum. It may afterward be diluted
occasionally with water.


16. YELLOW INK.--Steep one ounce of turmeric, in powder, in half a
gill of alcohol; let it rest twenty-four hours, and then add an equal
quantity of water;--throw the whole on a cloth, and express the
coloured liquor, which mix with gum-water. Rum or other spirits may be
substituted in the place of alcohol. A solution of gamboge in water,
writes a full yellow, but comes far short of turmeric in brightness.


17. GREEN INK.--To the tincture of turmeric, prepared as above, add a
little prussian blue. A variety of tints may be formed, by varying the
proportions of these two ingredients, and no artificial colour can
excel it in beauty.


18. PURPLE INK.--To the blue ink, described at 14, add some finely
ground lake; or instead of this, the expressed juice of the deepest
coloured beets may be substituted, but is more liable to fade. With
either of these a variety of tints may be formed, by varying the
proportions.


19. TO WRITE IN VARIOUS COLOURS WITH THE SAME PEN, INK AND
PAPER.--Take a sheet of white paper, and wet some parts of it with a
solution of sub-carbonate of potass, which must be diluted with water
so as not to appear on the paper when dry. Wet some other parts with
diluted muriatic acid, or with juice of lemons.--Some other parts may
be wet with a dilute solution of alum; and others with an infusion of
nut-galls (water in which bruised or pulverized nut-galls have been
steeped.) None of these preparations must be so strong as to colour
the paper any. When these are dry, take some finely powdered sulphate
of iron, and rub it lightly on some parts of the paper, that have been
wet with the sub-carbonate of potass, and infusion of galls. Then with
the juice of violets, or of the leaves of red cabbage, write on the
paper as usual with a pen. The ink is, of itself, a faint purple;
where the paper was wet with acid, the writing will be bright red; on
the sub-carbonate of potass, it will take a beautiful green; on the
alum it will be brown; on the sub-carbonate of potass that was rubbed
with powdered sulphate of iron, it will be deep yellow; and on the
infusion of galls that was rubbed with the powder, it will be
black.--The juice of violets will sometimes take a brilliant yellow on
the alkali if it be very strong. The juice of violets or red cabbage
may be kept a long time by means of the addition of a few drops of
alcohol; or the leaves may be dryed by the fire, and thus may be kept
ready for use; and it is only requisite to steep them in hot water, in
order to prepare the ink at any time. _Note._--The yellow ink,
described at 16, writes a full red where the paper has been wet with
the solution of sub-carbonate of potass; while the solution of
sulphate of iron, which has no colour of itself, writes a deep yellow
on the alkali, and black on the infusion of galls.


20. SYMPATHETIC INKS FOR SECRET CORRESPONDENCE.--_Process
1._--Dissolve muriate of ammonia in water, and write;--the writing
will be invisible. When you would make the writing appear, heat the
paper by the fire, and the writing will become black.


21. _Process 2._--Write with a solution of sulphate of iron--the
writing will be invisible. Dip a feather in an infusion of nut-galls,
and with it wet the paper, and the writing will become black.


22. _Process 3._--Write with a dilute infusion of galls,--it will be
invisible. Dip a feather in a solution of sulphate of iron, and
moisten the paper with it and the writing will become black.


23. _Process 4._--Write with a solution of sub-carbonate of potass;
wet this writing with a solution of sulphate of iron,--it will take a
deep yellow colour.


24. _Process 5._--Write with a solution of sulphate of copper,--no
writing will be visible. Wash the paper with a solution of prussiate
of potass,--the writing will then get a reddish brown colour.


25. _Process 6._--Write with a solution of super-carbonate of
soda;--moisten the paper with a solution of sulphate of copper, and
the writing will become green.


26. _Process 7._--Write with diluted nitrate of silver, and let the
writing dry in the dark--it will be invisible; but expose the paper to
the rays of the sun, and the writing will become black.


27. LUMINOUS INK THAT WILL SHINE IN THE DARK.--To half an ounce of
essential oil of cinnamon, in a phial, add half a drachm of
phosphorus. Cork the phial slightly, and set it, or suspend it near a
fire, where the heat may be nearly equal to boiling; continue the heat
four or five hours, shaking the phial frequently, but cautiously lest
any of the oil should escape, or come in contact with atmospheric air,
in which case it would take fire. The cork should be set sufficiently
tight to exclude atmospheric air, but not so as to prevent the escape
of any vapour that might be produced by excess of heat. The phial may
be afterward removed from the fire and suffered to cool. With this
phosphorised oil, any letters may be written on paper, and if carried
into a dark room, will appear very bright, resembling fire. The phial
should be kept corked close, except when used.


28. TO MAKE A WRITING APPEAR AND DISAPPEAR AT PLEASURE.--Dissolve
equal parts of sulphate of copper and muriate of ammonia in water, and
write. When you would make the writing appear, warm the paper gently
by the fire; the writing will appear in a yellow colour; but as soon
as you take the paper into the cold air, the writing will vanish. This
may be often repeated.


29. TO MAKE A WRITING VANISH AND ANOTHER APPEAR IN ITS PLACE.--Write
on paper with a solution of sub-carbonate of potass,--the writing will
be invisible. Mix together equal parts of solution of sulphate of
iron, and infusion of galls; write with this mixture (which is black)
on the same paper. Then add to the black liquor a little sulphuric
acid, sufficient to deprive it of colour. Wet the paper with this
compound; the acid will discharge the colour from the last writing,
while the alkali of the first, will precipitate the gallate of iron,
and the writing will become black.


30. TO RESTORE OLD WRITING THAT IS NEARLY DEFACED.--Boil one ounce of
powdered nut-galls, for an hour or more in a pint of white wine;
filter the liquor, and when cold, wet the paper with it, or pass it on
the lines with a camel hair pencil, and the writing will be much
revived.


31. TO PAINT A PICTURE THAT WILL APPEAR AND DISAPPEAR
OCCASIONALLY.--To half an ounce of nitric acid, add one drachm of
cobalt, one drachm of muriate of soda, and two ounces of water; set it
in a sand bath or on warm ashes, where it must remain five or six
hours. Then filter the solution, (which is nitro-muriate of cobalt,)
and with it draw the trees, and shrubbery of a designed picture. Then
with a solution of oxide of cobalt in acetic acid, draw some distant
mountains, fences, &c. and with muriate of copper, (the compound
solution described at 28,) draw some flowers, buildings, &c. These
will all be invisible when dry; but warm the paper and the picture
will appear in green, blue and yellow. It will disappear again when
the paper becomes cold.


32. LANDSCAPE PAINTING ON WALLS OF ROOMS.--Dissolve half a pound of
glue in a gallon of water, and with this sizing, mix whatever colours
may be required for the work. Strike a line round the room, nearly
breast high; this is called the horizon line: paint the walls from the
top to within six inches of the horizon line, with sky blue, (composed
of refined whiting and indigo, or slip blue,) and at the same time,
paint the space from the horizon line to the blue, with horizon red,
(whiting, coloured a little with orange lead and yellow ochre,) and
while the two colours are wet, incorporate them partially, with a
brush. Rising clouds may be represented by striking the horizon red
colour upon the blue, before it is dry, with a large brush. Change
some sky blue about two shades with slip blue and paint your design
for rivers, lakes or the ocean. Change some sky blue one shade with
forest green, (slip blue and chrome yellow,) and paint the most
distant mountains and highlands; shade them while wet, with blue, and
heighten them with white, observing always to heighten the side that
is towards the principal light of the room. The upper surface of the
ocean must be painted as high as the horizon line, and the distant
highlands must rise from ten to twenty inches above it.--Paint the
highlands, islands, &c. of the second distance, which should appear
from four to six miles distant, with mountain green, (two parts sky
blue with one of forest green,) heighten them, while wet, with sulphur
yellow, (three parts whiting with one of chrome yellow,) and shade
with blue-black, (slip blue and lamp black equal.) Paint the lands of
the first distance, such as should appear within a mile or two, with
forest green; heighten with chrome yellow and shade with black;
occasionally incorporating red ochre, french green or whiting. The
nearest part, or fore ground, however, should be painted very bold
with yellow ochre, stone brown, (red and yellow ochres and lamp black
equal,) and black. Paint the shores and rocks of the first distance
with stone brown; heighten with horizon red, shade with black. For
those of the second distance, each colour must be mixed with sky
blue.--The wood lands, hedges and trees of the second distance are
formed by striking a small flat stiff brush end-wise, (which operation
is called bushing, and is applied to the heightening and shading all
trees and shrubbery of any distance,) with mountain green, deepened a
little with slip blue; with which also the ground work for trees of
the first distance is painted; and with this colour the water may be
shaded a little under the capes and islands, thus representing the
reflection of the land in the water. Trees of the first distance are
heightened with sulphur yellow or french green; and shaded with
blue-black. Every object must be painted larger or smaller, according
to the distance at which it is represented; thus the proper height of
trees in the second distance, is from one to two inches, and other
objects in proportion. Those in the first distance from six to ten
inches generally; but those in the fore ground, which are nearest, are
frequently painted as large as the walls will admit. The colours also
for distant objects, houses, ships, &c., must be varied, being mixed
with more or less sky blue, according to the distance of the object.
By these means the view will apparently recede from the eye, and will
have a very striking effect.


33. TO PAINT IN FIGURES FOR CARPETS OR BORDERS.--Take a sheet of
pasteboard or strong paper, and paint thereon with a pencil, any
flower or figure that would be elegant for a border or carpet figure;
then with small gouges and chisels, or a sharp pen knife, cut out the
figure completely, that it be represented by apertures cut through the
paper. Lay this pattern on the ground intended to receive the figure,
whether a floor or painted cloth, and with a stiff smooth brush, paint
with a quick vibrative motion over the whole figure.--Then take up the
paper and you will have an entire figure on the ground. _Note._--If a
floor is to be thus painted, in imitation of a carpet, the pattern
must be perfectly square, and the figure so designed, that when
several of them come together, they may completely match each other;
and when different colours are used in the same figure, they must be
kept a little separate from each other, and wrought with different
brushes.


34. TO PAINT IN IMITATION OF MAHOGANY AND MAPLE.--First give the work
one or two coats of straw coloured paint, composed of white lead and
yellow ochre, ground in linseed oil, to which may be added a little
fine litharge, that the paint may the sooner dry; when this is dry,
rub it smooth with sand-paper. Then if mahogany is to be imitated,
stain the work over with boiled linseed oil, coloured a little with
venetian red and burnt terra-de-sienna, equal quantities. This should
be applied with a short stiff brush, and spread very thin that it may
not run, or drip off. Then with terra-de-sienna, ground very thick in
oil, form the dark shades of the graining according to your design,
with a small flat brush. For this purpose a common sash-brush may be
made flat, by having a small piece of wire, or wood, bound on each
side near the handle. Some of the darker shades may be drawn with
burnt umber and black, ground together, which may be applied with a
camel hair pencil. If any part is to be made very light, the staining
may be wiped off carefully with a ball of cotton. Light stripes, or
lines may be produced by drawing a piece of cork or soft wood over the
work, thus taking off or removing the dark colours, that the original
ground may appear.--To imitate maple, the work must be stained with
yellow ochre, and burnt umber, ground together in boiled oil. Instead
of burnt umber, terra-de-sienna (unburnt) is sometimes used, but as
different kinds, or parcels of it, vary in colour, from yellow to
brown, it may not be depended on uniformly. The birds' eyes and curls
are formed by removing the staining from the ground with a piece of
stiff leather, the edges of which are cut in notches so that the
several points will touch the work at the same time.


35. THE ART OF PAINTING ON GLASS.--If the common cakes of
water-colours are to be used in this work, they should be mixed with
water in which a little muriate of soda has been dissolved. Other
paints may be ground in shellac varnish; or in linseed oil, but this
will not dry so quick. The most proper colours for this work, on
account of their transparency, are india ink, or lamp black, burnt
umber, burnt terra-de-sienna, lake and gamboge or chrome yellow. These
must be laid on very thin, that they may be the more transparent. Set
up the glass on its edge, against a window, or place a lamp on the
opposite side that the light may shine through, and with a fine hair
pencil, draw the out lines of your design on the glass with black;
afterward shade and paint it with the above mentioned colours,
observing to paint that part of the work first, which in other
painting would be done last. The shading may be performed by laying on
two or more coats of the colour, where you want it darker. If
transparency is not required, a greater variety of colours may be
used, and laid on in full heavy coats. Any writing or lettering in
this work, must be written from right to left, contrary to the usual
order. In some pieces, the body of some of the principal objects, may
be left blank, so that by placing pieces of silk or paper of different
colours, on the opposite side of the glass the picture will also
appear in different colours, and may be changed from one colour to
another at pleasure.


36. BEST METHOD OF POLISHING STEEL.--For this purpose a wheel must be
provided that is perfectly round, and the rim of it covered with
deer-skin, or buff-leather. The diameter of the wheel, for common
purposes may be about two feet; but for polishing razors, and some
other similar instruments, the wheel should not be more than five or
six inches in diameter, and two inches thick. The steel must first be
ground smooth as possible on a common, or fine grained stone; it may
then be applied to the polishing wheel, which must be turned with such
velocity that the surface, or rim, may move at the rate of from forty
to sixty feet in a second; and the leather must frequently have a
powder applied, called crocus of iron, which is prepared by calcining
sulphate of iron in a crucible till it becomes a fine red oxide
resembling rust. For ordinary work, the leather may be moistened with
olive oil, that it may the better retain the powder; but it will give
a more perfect polish if kept dry. If any perfectly plain surfaces,
such as mirrors are to be polished, they must be applied to the sides
of a wheel, and not to the edge or rim, in the manner of other work.


37. TO MAKE LETTERS OR FLOWERS OF BLUE, ON POLISHED STEEL.--Hold the
steel over a charcoal fire till it becomes blue;--let it cool. Then
with equal parts of rosin and bees wax, melted together, coloured a
little with lamp black, and diluted with spirits of turpentine, so as
to work freely with a camel hair pencil, draw any letters or figures
on the steel, while it is a little warm. When the steel has become
cold, wash it over with muriatic acid, diluted with two parts water,
to one of acid; thus take off the blue colour, and then wash it with
clear water. Afterward the varnish, being warmed a little, may be
readily washed off with spirits of turpentine, and the letters or
flowers will remain blue. _Note._--If letters are formed of polished
steel with this varnish, and the body of the metal be also covered
with it, except a small space round the letters, and then bathed with
muriatic acid, the space round the letters, will become a dull iron
colour, while the letters and the body of the steel will retain their
polished surface and brilliancy.


38. TO PRESERVE THE BRIGHTNESS OF POLISHED STEEL.--Grind an ounce of
native plumbago, (such as is used for making lead pencils,) very fine
in a gill of spirits of turpentine; then add an ounce of clean bees
wax; apply a gentle heat, till the wax is melted, and continue
stirring it till it is nearly cold. Brush over the steel with this
composition, and when the spirits have evaporated, rub the work hard
with a piece of glove leather, and wipe off nearly all the wax, that
the metal may retain its brightness. This may be applied to iron or
steel in machinery, or other work, and will be found to answer a much
better purpose than oil, as it is less liable to collect dust from the
atmosphere, and is, in general, much more durable.


39. TO GIVE STEEL A TEMPER TO CUT MARBLE.--No temper can be given to
steel, in which hardness is combined with tenacity, more than in that
given to files, at the file manufactories, which is accomplished by
the following process.--To boiling water, add about twice as much
finely ground muriate of soda, as the water will dissolve, and as much
rye flour as will, with the other, make a thick paste; lay a coat of
this paste over the steel, (which must be ground, or filed previous to
tempering,) and subject it to a full red heat, in a fire of charcoal,
mixed with about a third part of animal coal, (coal of bones, horns,
leather, &c.) and then suddenly plunge it three or four feet deep, in
exceeding cold water. By thus immersing the steel rather deep in the
water there is a double advantage; for the water which becomes heated,
by contact with the steel, will rise and its place be supplied
continually by fresh cold water; and at the same time, the pressure of
the water on the coating of paste, will make it adhere more closely to
the steel while it is cooling. The paste may then be shelled off, and
the steel will be found as bright as before, or at least, will not
have been essentially oxydized by the operation.


40. TO WASH IRON OR STEEL WITH COPPER.--Dissolve sulphate of copper in
water, in the proportion of one to three; wash the iron or steel with
it, and it will instantly be covered with reduced copper. This is best
performed by applying the solution with a brush, which must be
followed directly with a sponge of clear water. In this manner any
letters or figures may be drawn with a camel-hair pencil, or a pen,
and if it be on polished steel, the letters or flowers will assume the
brilliancy of the steel and appear like highly polished copper. It may
sometimes be requisite to cleanse the metal by washing it with diluted
muriatic acid, that the copper may adhere the more readily. If the
steel thus ornamented, be held over a charcoal fire, the copper
figures become blue first; and when the steel becomes blue, the copper
takes a gold colour; but is restored again to its original colour, by
diluted muriatic acid.


41. TO GIVE IRON THE WHITENESS OF SILVER.--To nitric acid, diluted
with an equal quantity of water, add as much mercury as the acid will
dissolve; then add to the solution, three or four times as much water,
and having given the iron a coat of copper, as directed in the last
experiment, brush it over in the same manner with the diluted nitrate
of mercury; its appearance will be equal, if not superior to that of
real silver. In this manner any common, or rough iron work, may be
apparently silvered at a most insignificant expense.


42. TO WASH IRON WITH TIN.--Small pieces of iron may be tinned, after
being filed bright, by washing them with a saturated solution of
muriate of ammonia in water and dipping them, while moist, in a vessel
of melted tin. If the iron is of such form as cannot be conveniently
filed, it may be immersed in nitric acid, diluted with as much water
as acid; when the acid begins to act sensibly on every part, it may be
washed with water, and then with the muriate of ammonia, and if a
little fine rosin be sprinkled on it previous to dipping it in the
tin, it may be an advantage. The iron must remain in the tin till it
becomes nearly as hot as the tin, otherwise it will be coated too
thick. Muriatic acid may sometimes be used, instead of muriate of
ammonia, and if the iron is not filed, it will answer a better
purpose. The inside of cast iron vessels may be tinned as follows:
Cleanse the iron by scouring or rubbing it with a sharp grained stone,
keeping the iron wet with diluted nitric acid. As the most prominent
parts of the iron will be first brightened by the stone, the acid will
also commence its action on the same parts, which will very much
facilitate the work, while the hollows, and deeper parts of the
surface, will remain untouched till the iron is nearly smooth. When
this is accomplished, wash the iron with water, and then with clear
muriatic acid; turn the vessel over to drain off the superfluous acid;
then set it upright, and fill it with melted tin, which must be poured
in cautiously, directly on the bottom of the vessel first, and the
stream of tin increased till the vessel is full; then pour out the tin
suddenly, and invert the vessel till it is cold. Sheets of iron are
tinned, in the manufactories of tin plate, by immersing the sheets,
endwise, in a pot of melted tin, the top of which is covered with
about two inches depth of tallow. This tallow answers a better
purpose, after it has become brown by use, than it does at first. The
only preparation of the iron sheets is, to scour them perfectly clean
and bright.


43. TO GIVE TIN THE WHITENESS AND BRILLIANCY OF SILVER.--To an ounce
of nitric acid, diluted with an equal quantity of water, add nearly an
ounce of mercury, or as much as the acid will dissolve. When this is
dissolved, add to the solution, gradually, half an ounce of sulphuric
acid; this will precipitate the mercury in the form of a white powder;
when this has subsided, pour off the acid and add clear water; thus
wash the powder from the acid, then pour off the water, and while the
precipitate is moist, (or if it be suffered to dry, it may be again
moistened with water,) rub it over the tin with a piece of glove
leather.--Then wash the tin with water, and when it is dry, rub it
pretty hard with a piece of fine woollen cloth; it will resemble
polished silver.


44. TO GIVE TIN A CHANGEABLE CRYSTALLINE APPEARANCE.--Cleanse the tin
by washing it with warm soap and water, and rinse it in clear water.
Then heat the tin to the temperature of bare sufferance to the hand,
and pour on it, or apply with a brush or sponge, a mixture of one
ounce of muriatic acid, with one fourth of an ounce of sulphuric acid,
and two ounces of water; then immediately wash the tin in clear water.
Another method is, to apply in the same manner a solution of two
ounces of muriate of soda, in four ounces of water, with one ounce of
nitric acid. In either case, if the crystalline figures are not bold
enough, the operation may be repeated. If a very small figure is
required, the tin may be heated nearly to flowing, and plunged into
cold water, slightly acidulated with nitric and muriatic acids. If a
little solder is drawn over the tin with a hot iron or copper, in such
manner as to form a cross, or circle, and the opposite side of the tin
be afterwards crystallized, it will have a beautiful effect.


45. TO MAKE A GOLD COLOURED VARNISH FOR TIN.--To half a pint of
alcohol, in a flask, add one ounce of gum-shellac, and half an ounce
of turmeric, both in powder; set the flask in a warm place, frequently
shaking it, for twelve hours or more; then filter or strain off the
liquor, which may be occasionally diluted with new rum.--If a colour
is required resembling dutch gold, a small quantity of dragon's blood
may be added, or substituted in the place of turmeric.--When this
varnish is used, it must be applied to the work freely and flowing,
and must not be brushed or rubbed while it is drying. One or more
coats of this varnish (or laquer as it is sometimes called) may be
laid on the work, as the colour is required to be deeper or lighter.
_Note._--To make a rose coloured varnish, proceed as above directed,
only substitute one-fourth of an ounce of the best lake, finely
ground, in the place of turmeric. A transparent blue varnish may also
be made by means of prussian blue; and purple or green, by adding a
little blue to the gold, or rose coloured varnishes. These laquers are
frequently employed for washing silver bronzed ornaments, to give them
the appearance of gold or copper.


46. TO MAKE SHELLAC VARNISH FOR JAPANNING.--To one quart of the best
alcohol, add half a pound of the thinnest and most transparent
gum-shellac; mix and shake these together, and let them stand in a
warm place for two or three days; then strain the varnish through a
fine flannel, and bottle it. Shellac varnish is used for japanning
lamps, tea trays, &c. Any of the colours commonly used for oil
painting, may be ground in this varnish and should be applied to the
work with a smooth brush, and in a warm place; and the work to be
japanned, should be perfectly dry and warm. _Note._--Most of the
writers on the subject of japanning, have recommended seed-lac
varnish; but it is a fact, though not so generally known as it ought
to be, that shellac and seed-lac are the same substance; the only
difference is, that shellac is in a more clarified and refined state,
than that which is called seed-lac.


47. TO MAKE THE BEST COPAL VARNISH.--Take one pound of gum-copal, and
melt in a flask over a brisk fire of charcoal; at the same time in
another flask, boil, or heat to the point of boiling, one pint of
linseed oil; as soon as the gum is melted, take it from the fire, and
add the hot oil in small quantities, at the same time stirring or
shaking it till they are thoroughly incorporated. Allow the mixture to
cool below the boiling point of water, and then add nearly a quart of
spirits of turpentine;--cork the flask slightly, and expose it for a
few days to the rays of the sun, which will make it work more smooth
and shining. If a larger quantity is to be made, a copper boiler, that
is small at the top will answer to melt the gum in. For ordinary or
coarse work, a larger proportion of oil and a little rosin may be
added. If oil is used in which red lead and litharge (in the
proportion of half a pound of each to a gallon of oil) have been
previously boiled, the varnish will the sooner dry.


48. TO MAKE A SPIRIT VARNISH FOR PICTURES AND FANCY BOXES.--To a pint
of alcohol, in a flask, add four ounces of gum-mastic, and one ounce
of gum-sandarac, both in powder; expose the mixture to a gentle heat,
sufficient to produce a slight ebulition for a few minutes, frequently
shaking it, and the gums will be dissolved; strain the varnish through
a fine flannel, bottle and cork it. Some recommend the addition of
venice turpentine, by means of which, a small quantity of gum-copal,
finely powdered, may also be dissolved, but as venice turpentine
contains a portion of spirits of turpentine, it renders the varnish
too penetrating for many purposes; and even the gum-sandarac may be
omitted without any essential disadvantage. This varnish should be a
little warm when used.


49. TO MAKE ELASTIC VARNISH FOR UMBRELLAS, OR HAT CASES.--To a pint of
spirits of turpentine, in a flask, add one ounce of gum-elastic, cut
into very small pieces; put in the cork slightly and set the flask in
a warm place, where the heat may not be equal to that of boiling
water, till the gum-elastic is dissolved, which may be effected in
four or five hours. Then strain the solution through a strong linen or
cotton cloth, and add half a pint of boiled linseed oil. _Note._--A
larger proportion of gum-elastic may be dissolved, and a less quantity
of oil added, by which means the varnish will be more elastic, but
will not have so smooth and permanent a gloss.


50. TO VARNISH MAPS AND PICTURES.--Take a piece of linen, or cotton
cambric, rather larger than the map or picture to be varnished, and
draw it straight upon a frame of convenient size, and confine it at
the edges by small tacks or nails. Lay a thin coat of fine rye flour
paste on this, and on the back of the paper that is to be varnished;
lay the paper on the cambric and press them together till the paper
adheres firmly in every part. When this is dry, give the face of the
print two or three coats of a strong solution of gum-arabic in water,
allowing each sufficient time to become perfectly dry. This sizing
must be applied with a large smooth brush, and must be spread over the
work very quickly, and with as little brushing as possible.
Afterwards, give the work one or more coats of the varnish described
at 48. _Note._--Very small prints may not require to be pasted on
cambric; and if the paper be very thick, the varnish may be applied
without the previous sizing. Ising-glass, (which may be readily
dissolved in boiling water) is sometimes added to the gum-arabic, and
increases the strength of the sizing, but is somewhat less transparent
than pure gum-arabic. A more simple method of varnishing prints, is to
size them with a solution of loaf sugar, and finish with a solution of
rosin in spirits of turpentine.


51. TO MAKE BRUNSWICK BLACKING FOR PICTURE GLASSES.--Take one pound of
gum-asphaltum and melt it over a slow fire; then take it from the fire
and add spirits of turpentine in small quantities, stirring it briskly
till it is of the consistence of varnish. As there is some danger of
its taking fire when the spirits of turpentine is added, it may be
well to be provided with a piece of wet flannel, to throw over it if
that should happen. When it is nearly cold, strain it through a
flannel, and bottle it for use. This blacking is used for bordering
picture glasses, and is probably the most perfect black in nature. It
is water proof and dries very quick.


52. TO MAKE A PRINT APPEAR ON A GOLD GROUND.--Dilute venice turpentine
with spirits of turpentine till it works freely with a camel-hair
pencil; lay a coat of this varnish on any part of a print or picture,
observing to keep the pencil within the lines, that the varnish may
not spread beyond. Then lay a coat of the varnish on the same part of
the back of the paper and lay on a leaf of gold over the varnished
part; press down the gold very gently with cotton, and the varnish
having rendered the paper transparent, the face of the picture will
appear as if those parts were printed in gold. By this varnish (which
is less liable to spread in the paper than oil) pictures may be so
prepared, that the colours of various parts of them, may be varied and
changed at pleasure, by placing pieces of silk or paper of different
colours on the back of them.


53. BEST METHOD OF TRACING OR COPYING A PICTURE.--Perhaps the most
simple method of copying the outlines of a picture, is to place the
picture against a window, with the paper over it, on which the copy is
to be drawn; the principal lines of the picture will be seen through
the other paper, and may readily be traced with a lead pencil. But the
usual manner of copying, in landscape painting, and which will answer
for pictures of any size, is to rub over the back of the picture with
plumbago, or red ochre; then lay the picture on the ground that is to
receive the copy, and trace the lines with a smooth pointed steel, or
piece of hard wood. The ground will thus be very accurately and
distinctly marked, by the plumbago or ochre adhering to the ground in
the lines that are traced. When several copies are to be taken from
the same pattern, (which frequently occurs in ornamental painting,)
the outlines of the first copy may be perforated with some pointed
instrument, so that being laid on the other grounds that are to
receive the copies, and brushed over with a little fine dry whiting,
or red ochre, (as the case may require) the whiting or ochre will
penetrate the perforated lines of the pattern, and thus mark the
ground on which it is laid.


54. THE CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF A COPYING MACHINE.--Take two strips of
wood, which may be about three feet long, one inch wide, and
one-fourth of an inch thick; lay them on a table, parallel to each
other, and eighteen inches apart. Across these, lay three other
strips, which must be eighteen inches long, that each end of each
piece may rest on one of the longer strips. Two of these must lie
across the opposite ends of the longer pieces, and the other across
the centre, thus forming two squares. Drive a pin through the ends of
the short pieces, or confine them by rivets to the others, but not so
as to prevent their playing circularly on the rivets. Then drive a pin
or pivot through the centre of the middle cross-bar into the table, or
board on which the work lies. In one end of one of the long strips
(which may project a little over the cross-bar) fix a lead pencil,
with the point downward, so that it may bear lightly on the board; and
under this pencil, place the paper that is to receive the copy. And in
the opposite end of the other piece, fix a smooth iron point, in a
manner similar to that of the pencil, and under this point place the
picture that is to be copied. Then with the iron point, carefully
trace the lines of the picture, and the pencil in the opposite corner
will move in a transverse direction, and draw the same picture very
accurately on the other paper. If you fix the pencil half way between
its former place and the middle cross-bar, and remove the pivot to a
point that is directly in a line with the pencil and the iron point,
it will give a copy in exact proportion, but only one fourth part as
large as the picture that is copied. Thus the copy may be decreased or
increased to any size, and still retain its regular proportions. In
this manner, painting on wood or canvas may be copied, which could not
readily be done in any other way.


55. TO PRODUCE THE EXACT LIKENESS OF ANY OBJECT, INSTANTLY ON
PAPER.--This may be readily effected by laying the paper on a table,
and holding a double convex lens (a common sun-glass) over it, and
then placing a mirror over the lens, in an oblique position so as to
face partly downward, and partly towards the object that is to be
represented. The rays of light passing from the object to the mirror,
will be reflected downward through the lens, and produce the likeness
of the object in full colours on the paper. This experiment may be
easily made in the evening, by reflecting the flame of a candle in
this manner, which will appear very brilliant on the paper. But in
order to render the reflection of an object distinctly visible by day
light, it may be requisite to exclude nearly all the light from the
paper, except what falls through the lens. In all cases, the lens must
be placed at a distance above the paper, according to its focus, or
the distance at which it would contract the rays of the sun to the
smallest point. A very convenient camera obscura, for drawing
landscapes, or even portraits may be constructed as follows: Make a
box of boards, in the form of a regular cube, being one foot in
length, breadth and height; bore a hole of one inch diameter, through
the centre of the top; and on this, fix a double convex lens, the
focus of which must reach the bottom of the box. Make an aperture of
about six inches in length, and one in breadth, through one side of
the box at the top, by shaving off, or hollowing the edge in such
manner that when you put your face to the aperture to look into the
box, it will exclude all the light except what falls through the lens.
Make a hole through each end of the box, near the bottom, large enough
to put in the hands, with paper and pencil. On the top of the box, on
the right and left sides of the lens, fix two pieces of boards, which
may be about four inches high, eight inches long, and three inches
distant from each other. Between these boards, fix a piece of looking
glass, three inches square, and facing from you; the lower edge of the
glass, being near the lens, on the side towards you; and the upper
edge inclining towards you about thirty degrees from a perpendicular.
Directly over, and nearly four inches above the lens, place another
mirror, the centre of which must face directly towards the lower edge
of the first. Cover the glass-box so as to exclude all the light from
the glasses except what falls on them horizontally from objects
directly in front of you, and place a sheet of paper on the bottom of
the box inside. The rays of light, passing from objects in front, will
be reflected from the first mirror to the second, and from the second,
through the lens to the paper, where you will have a perfect
similitude of the objects in view, in full colours, and true
perspective, and may trace them on the paper, with a pencil or pen.


56. COPPER-PLATE ENGRAVING.--For this purpose, provide a plate of
copper, rather larger than the design that is to be engraved, and may
be about one sixteenth of an inch thick; planish by rubbing it, first,
directly length-wise, and afterwards breadth-wise with a piece of
pumice-stone, which may be dipped occasionally in a mixture of one
part nitric acid, with six or seven parts water.--Then wash the copper
with clear water, and rub it with an oil stone that has a plane
surface; and then polish it with a piece of charcoal, that has been
ignited to redness and quenched in cold water. Afterwards burnish the
copper by rubbing it with polished steel. Lay a piece of transparent
paper on the design that is to be engraved, and trace the principal
lines with a lead pencil;--then brush over the copy or tracing with
dry red ochre, and having rubbed the copper plate with a piece of
bees-wax, lay the red side of the tracing on the plate; then with a
smooth iron point, trace the same lines again, that they may thus be
transferred to the plate by means of the red ochre and wax. Take up
the paper and trace the lines on the plate with a needle, thus scoring
the lines slightly on the copper. Then warm the plate and wipe off the
wax, or wash it off with spirits of turpentine, and rub the plate with
fine dry whiting. The next instrument to proceed with is the graver;
consisting of a blade of steel about three inches long, which is fixed
in a convenient handle like an awl. The form of the graver should be
triangular, or between a triangle and lozenge, having two sides plane
and the other round or swelled; and should taper regularly from the
handle to the point, or nearly so, but the point must be ground off
obliquely so that the edge may extend a little farther than the back;
and the edge should rise a little rounding towards the point. It is
very essential that the edge and point of the graver should be kept
very sharp. The manner of holding the graver, is to take the handle
into the hollow of the hand, pressing it with three fingers, on one
side, and the thumb on the other, and extend the fore finger on the
back of the blade towards the point.--The edge of the graver must rest
on the plate, and its motion when cutting must be endwise in all
cases; though there evidently might be a graver constructed, which
might, in some cases, be handled in a manner more similar to that of a
pen or pencil. A graver of a square form may also be requisite, for
cutting large and broad lines occasionally. In proceeding to engrave
the plate, begin with the outlines, observing to press harder or
lighter on the graver, as the lines require to be larger or smaller,
and finish each line with the same motion if possible, without taking
the graver off the plate. Having cut the outlines, proceed to fill up,
and shade the work discretionally, according to the design. It may be
requisite, after part of the work is engraved, to scrape it lightly
with the edge of the graver, to take off any roughness, that may have
been formed on the part engraved. If after finishing the design, any
part appears to have been improperly executed, such parts may be
erased by the burnisher, and may be re-engraved with the requisite
amendments.


57. ETCHING ON COPPER PLATES.--Melt together two ounces of bees-wax,
and one ounce of venice turpentine, and when the wax is melted and
boils, add by small quantities, two ounces of gum-asphaltum, stirring
the mixture briskly at the same time; and when the mixture is well
incorporated, take it from the fire, let it cool a little, and then
pour it into warm water, and by working it with the hands, form it
into balls of about an inch in diameter, and wrap each of them in a
piece of taffety, or thin silk. Then, having prepared and polished a
plate of copper, as directed for copper-plate engraving, warm the
plate sufficiently to melt the balls of wax varnish, and rub one of
them over it, till every part of the polished side is covered with the
varnish; then with a ball of cotton, wrapped or tied up in taffety,
beat every part of the varnished plate gently, while the varnish is
yet flowing, that it may spread the more even and uniformly. Then hold
the plate in a horizontal position, with the varnished side down, and
hold the flame of a wax candle under it, or a small roll of paper that
has been dipped in melted wax, and thus blacken the varnish while the
plate is yet warm enough to keep it in a melted state. When the
varnish has become sufficiently and uniformly black, let the plate
cool, and having drawn the design on transparent paper, rub over the
face of it with chalk; then wipe off most of the chalk with a piece of
flannel, lay the chalked side on the varnish, and trace the lines,
somewhat minutely, with a smooth round pointed needle. Then take up
the paper, and proceed to scoring the lines in the varnish. For this
purpose you must be provided with several needles of different sizes,
and fixed in handles, which may be about four inches long, and nearly
half an inch in diameter, and the needle may project three fourths of
an inch from the handle. Some of these may be ground a little flat on
one side, and others may be round, but taper more abruptly at the
point. These needles may be held, and managed much the same as a pen.
Begin scoring with the out lines, observing to cut completely through
the varnish, but it is not requisite to scratch the copper, except in
making very heavy lines, when it cannot well be avoided. Having
finished scoring the varnish according to the design, fix a border of
wax (composed of two parts bees-wax and one of venice turpentine)
round the work, on the margin of the plate. This border may be about
half an inch high, and must be fixed to the plate while warm. Then
pour on as much nitric acid, diluted with an equal quantity of water,
as the plate with the border will contain. In about fifteen minutes
pour off the acid, and examine whether it has sufficiently corroded
any part of the work; if so, lay a mixture of warm tallow and linseed
oil over such parts with a hair pencil, and again pour on the acid. In
half an hour more the acid may be poured off, and the plate being
warmed, the border may be removed, and the varnish may be wiped off
with a piece of linen cloth;--the plate may then be washed with olive
oil, and cleansed as before with dry fine whiting. _Note_--Different
artists use a variety of different preparations of varnish for the
purpose of etching. In some old recipes, virgin wax, calcined
asphaltum, gum mastic, amber, colophony, greek pitch, burgundy pitch,
black pitch, resin, shoe makers' wax, &c. &c. are mentioned. But it is
believed that the above described varnish, while it is much more
simple, will answer equally as well for young practitioners; and it is
not expected that any will attempt very nice work, without further
information than they could expect to obtain from the sketches in this
little collection.


58. ENGRAVING AND SCRAPING IN MEZZOTINTO.--Having prepared a plate of
copper, proceed to score it so full of lines, cross-lines and diagonal
lines, that when they are filled with ink, the plate may appear quite
black. For this purpose an instrument will be requisite that is
fashioned similar to a chisel, the round or sloping side being scored
or filed near the point, with lines or notches very near to each
other, so as to form a set of sharp uniform teeth at the edge; this
instrument is called a cradle, and should be a little round at the
corners. This cradle must be moved over the plate, in the manner of a
graver, scoring the plate uniformly in various directions. When the
scoring is finished, take a scraper, which may be similar to a knife,
having two edges, and sloping on each side towards the point; with
this, scrape off the roughness of the plate, in such places as is
required to be the lightest in the print; such parts as require to be
shaded partially, may not be scraped so deep, while the points that
are to be the brightest may be burnished quite smooth with the
polished end of a piece of steel, about the size of a large nail, and
some of the heaviest out-lines may be cut with a graver. Thus any
portraits or other figures may be formed on the plate, with due
proportion of light and shade, and will, if properly-managed, give an
impression on paper, equal in elegance to any that might be produced
by other means.


59. ETCHING IN AQUA-TINTA.--Polish the plate of copper, the same as
for engraving; moisten the plate with water and sift on finely
powdered rosin and gum-asphaltum, so as to nearly cover the plate;
then warm the plate sufficient to make the powder adhere, but not to
melt it entirely. Transfer the design to the plate, and cover such
parts as are intended to remain white, with a varnish composed of bees
wax and linseed oil, which may be coloured a very little with black,
and must be applied to the work, while warm, with a camel hair pencil.
Then fix a border of wax round the plate, and pour on diluted nitric
acid. In about one minute, pour off the acid, and wash the plate with
clear water, but without effecting the varnish;--dry the plate, and
apply the varnish to such parts of the design as are intended to have
but a faint shade; then apply the acid for a minute or two longer.
Thus proceed biting in, and stopping out alternately, till every part
of the design has acquired its proper shade. But if any part requires
a darker shade than the ground, the powdered rosin may be removed from
such parts with a scraper. When the plate has become sufficiently
corroded, the varnish may be washed off with oil, or spirits of
turpentine, and the plate may be cleansed with whiting.


60. COPPER-PLATE PRINTING.--The paper on which impressions from a
copper-plate are to be taken, should be moistened, or wet down two or
three days previous to printing; this is performed by dipping the
sheets in water severally, and then laying them all together under a
heavy weight till they are used. When the paper is ready, the
copper-plate may be warmed over a chafing dish of coals, and the
engraved side completely covered and all the lines filled with common
printing ink, or ink made of Frankfort black, finely ground in old
linseed oil. This may be done by means of a printing ball, or the ink
may be spread on the plate with a smooth stiff brush. The plate may
then be wiped with a piece of linen or cotton cloth, and afterward
with the hand, being passed slowly but hardly over the plate to take
off all the ink except what remains in the lines of the engraving; to
accomplish which more effectually, the hand may be rubbed occasionally
with dry whiting. When the plate is thoroughly cleaned of the
redundant ink, it may be laid on the table of a rolling press, and
having a sheet of the moistened paper laid upon the face of it, and a
piece of fine broad-cloth over the paper, the whole may be passed
through the press. Then on taking up the paper, it will be found to
have received a black impression from the plate, according to the
engraving or etching, and the plate may be again carried to the fire,
to be blacked again as before. This is the usual manner of printing;
but when a rolling press is not at hand, the plate and moistened paper
may by other means, be pressed hard and firmly together, and the paper
will have received the impression equally as fair. Any of the colours,
commonly used in oil painting, being ground very thick in oil may be
substituted for ink in copper-plate printing. The plate, after being
used, should be wiped clean with a piece of flannel, moistened with
olive oil.


61. ETCHING LETTERS OR FLOWERS ON GLASS.--Select a piece of glass that
is thick and straight, and lay a coat of melted bees-wax on the
fairest side; then with a needle, pen-knife, or any other convenient
pointed instrument, trace any design, or picture, which being placed
under the glass, may be seen through the wax; or form any letters or
figures on the glass, carefully cutting or scoring quite through the
wax, and making the lines large or small as occasion may require. Then
warm a piece of the wax, so as to form it into a roll, about one
fourth of an inch in diameter; lay this roll round the work upon the
glass, and press it down so as to make it adhere to the glass, thus
forming a border. Then take some finely powdered fluate of lime, and
strew it evenly over the glass, on the waxed side, that it may fill
all the lines in the wax; and then gently pour upon it, so as not to
displace the powder, as much sulphuric acid, diluted with thrice its
weight of water, as is sufficient to cover the powdered fluate of
lime. Let every thing remain in this state for three hours; then pour
off the mixture, and clean the glass by washing it with spirits of
turpentine. The figures which were scored in the wax, will be found
engraven on the glass; while the parts which the wax covered, will be
uncorroded.--This glass plate may be charged with ink, (or any thick
oil paint) and impressions may be taken from it on paper, the same as
from copper plates, only caution is requisite, that the glass be not
broken by the pressure. _Note._--The fluoric acid, which is partly
absorbed by the water, in the above process, being very corrosive,
should not be suffered to touch the hands, nor any valuable vessel
whatever.


62. TO PRINT FIGURES WITH A SMOOTH STONE.--Take a piece of marble or
slate, and form a smooth plane surface on one side, and on this, paint
any letters or figures with common oil paint of any colour. When this
is dry, wet the stone with water, which will not adhere to the painted
figures, especially if the paints were mixed with old linseed oil,
that will produce a sharp gloss. Then apply a printer's ink-ball to
the plane surface, by which means the dry painted figures will be
covered with the ink, while the bare surface of the stone, being wet,
will not be blackened or affected by it. Press the figured surface
upon some moistened paper, and it will give a fair impression of the
painted figures, on the paper. The block of stone must be then dipped
in the water, and again inked as before, Thus many impressions may be
taken with a tolerable degree of accuracy.


63. TO CUT GLASS WITH A PIECE OF IRON.--Draw with a pencil on paper,
any pattern to which you would have the glass conform; place the
pattern under the glass, holding both together in the left hand, (for
the glass must not rest on any plane surface;) then take a common
spike or some similar piece of iron,--heat the point of it to redness,
and apply it to the edge of the glass; draw the iron slowly forward,
and the edge of the glass will immediately crack; continue moving the
iron slowly over the glass, tracing the pattern, and the chink in the
glass will follow at the distance of about half an inch, in every
direction according to the motion of the iron. It may sometimes be
found requisite, however, especially in forming corners, to apply a
wet finger to the opposite side of the glass. Tumblers and other
glasses may be cut or divided very fancifully by similar means. The
iron must be reheated as often as the crevice in the glass ceases to
follow.


64. BEST CEMENT FOR JOINING GLASS.--If the glass is not likely to be
exposed to moisture, the pieces may be joined by a solution of equal
parts of gum-arabic and loaf sugar in water; or if these are not at
hand, the white of an egg may answer nearly as well. But a strong
water proof cement that is equally transparent, may be made by
digesting finely powdered gum-copal, in thrice its weight of sulphuric
ether till it is dissolved. This solution may be applied to the edges
of the broken glass, with a camel hair pencil, and the pieces must be
put together immediately and pressed close till they adhere.


65. BEST CEMENT FOR JOINING CHINA OR CROCKERY.--Heat a piece of chalk
to a full red heat in a fire; and while this is heating, take the
white of an egg, and mix and beat together with it, one fourth of its
weight of pondered or scraped cheese, (such as is most void of cream,
or oily matter is preferable) or the curd that is formed by adding
vinegar to skimmed milk;--take the chalk from the fire, and before it
is cold, reduce it to powder, and add as much of it to the mixture as
will form a thick paste, and beat them anew all together, and use the
composition immediately. When this is dry, it will resist, in a great
measure, either heat or moisture. A semi-transparent cement, suitable
for china ware, may be made by gently boiling the flour of rice with
water.


66. TO MAKE A STRONG WATER PROOF GLUE.--Dissolve common glue in water
in the usual way, and dip into it some clean paper, sufficient to take
up an ounce or more of the glue. When the paper is nearly dry, roll it
up, or cut it into strips and put them into a wide mouthed phial or
flask, with about four ounces of alcohol; suspend this over a fire so
as to boil it gently for an hour, having the cork set in slightly to
prevent its taking fire, but not so as to prevent the vapour entirely.
Then take out the paper (the only use of which is to give the glue
more surface for the action of the alcohol) and add one ounce of
gum-shellac in powder; continue the heat, often shaking the mixture
till the shellac is dissolved. Then evaporate it to the proper
consistence for use. _Note._--Many experiments have been made, in
order to discover some aqueous size, that when dry, would resist
moisture: and some have recommended skimmed milk, and others vinegar
as a menstruum for the glue. But it does not appear from trial, that
either of these are but very little better for this purpose than
water; nor is it probable that any similar composition of size will
resist moisture much better than common glue, especially if it be
mixed with sulphate of lime, or some similar substance by way of
support.


67. THE ART OF MOULDING FIGURES IN RELIEF.--Mix together and temper
with a solution of gum-arabic in water, one part of clean, sifted
wood-ashes, and two parts of fine sulphate of lime. Knead this
composition on a board, till it has the consistence of putty. Press a
ball of this putty on any medal, coin or carved work in relief, (which
must be previously oiled) and let it dry; then take off the mould thus
formed, and oil the part that has received the impression of the
figure, with olive oil;--make a small orifice through the mould, from
the centre, or deepest part of the impression; also, pare off the
border of the mould, to within half an inch of the impressed figure.
Then lay a small piece of the putty on the board and press the mould
down hard upon it, that it may not only fill the mould, but that the
redundant part may be pressed out beyond the border of the mould:
raise the mould a little and blow through the orifice, to detach the
new moulded figure from the mould. Thus any number of figures may be
readily produced, suitable for ornamenting chimney pieces, or
mouldings, and which will be very hard when dry, and may be painted
with any coloured oil paints, which will also preserve them from
moisture.


68. TO CAST IMAGES IN PLASTER.--For this purpose a model of the figure
that is to be cast, must be provided, and suspended by a rod or staff,
one inch in diameter, and fixed in the top of the head. This model may
be made of wood, chalk, or any other substance that is smooth, and
sufficiently cohesive to support itself. This being prepared, mix fine
sulphate of lime with water, to the consistence of soft putty, and
having brushed some olive oil over the model, cover it completely with
the plaster, which must be applied, and spread over it with the hands,
to the depth of two inches or more. When the plaster is nearly dry,
divide it into several parts with a thin blade, so as to take it off
from the model without breaking any part. When the several parts of
the mould are dry, oil them inside and put them together as before,
and bind them with pieces of tape or twine; set the mould upright, and
fill it with a fresh mixture of sulphate of lime and water, of as much
consistence as may be poured in through the aperture at the head. This
plaster should be poured into the mould as quick as possible after
being mixed; otherwise it would become too stiff, and be spoiled. The
plaster in the mould will soon cohere, so that the mould may be taken
off, and the figures may be set up to dry; and the mould being oiled
and put together again, is ready for another cast.


69. TO PRODUCE EMBOSSED LETTERS, OR FIGURES ON MARBLE.--Take some of
the coloured varnish described at 37, and with a hair pencil, draw the
letters, &c. on the marble, (which should be previously well
polished,) and also cover with the varnish, every part of the face of
the marble that is to remain plain. Lay the marble in a horizontal
position and make a border of oil putty round it, and pour on muriatic
acid to the depth of half an inch on the marble. When ebulition
ceases, the acid may be drained off, and the work examined; and if the
letters are not sufficiently prominent, a fresh quantity of the acid
may be added. When the work has been thus corroded to the depth
required, the varnish may be washed off with spirits of turpentine.
The acid that has been thus employed need not be lost, for a muriate
of lime being thus formed, may be crystallized by a slight
evaporation, and preserved for other purposes; or by the addition of a
small quantity of sulphuric acid a sulphate of lime is precipitated,
and the muriatic may be poured off and be used again for the same or a
similar purpose.


70. TO SOFTEN STONE.--Marble or granite may be deprived in some
measure, of the property of cohesion by being heated red hot and then
quenched in oil. In this case, the carbonic acid which constitutes the
cohesive property of the stone, is expelled by the heat; and the
vacuum thus produced in its pores, are in some measure, filled by the
oil by the pressure of the atmosphere; by which means the stone
acquires a texture quite different from what it had previously. This
however, is not often applied to any valuable purpose.


71. TO CHANGE WOOD APPARENTLY, TO STONE.--Provide a block, or plank of
soft wood, of the dimensions required, and give it two or three coats
of linseed oil, allowing each to dry. Then having prepared some pieces
of marble or granite as directed in the last experiment, pulverize
them to a gross powder; brush over the wood with a heavy coat of copal
varnish (see 47) mixed with an equal quantity of venice turpentine;
let this rest about an hour, and then strew the stone powder over
every part of it, so as to cover the surface completely. If marble is
to be imitated, the powder of different colours, especially the white
and blue, may be prepared separately, and may be strewed on the work
in such shades as will appear the most natural. Granite may also be
crossed or striped occasionally with streaks of a coarser grain, which
will give it a very deceptive effect. When the varnish is thus covered
with stone, a heavy roller, or round log of wood, having a blanket
folded and wrapped round it, should be rolled over the work, that the
larger grains, (which of course will be the most exposed,) may the
more firmly adhere. In this manner, a very perfect imitation of stone
may be given, and the wood thus prepared will be exceedingly durable,
and will answer for many purposes, as well as real stone.


72. TO RENDER WOOD, CLOTH OR PAPER FIRE-PROOF.--Dissolve one ounce of
alum, half an ounce of sub-borate of soda and half an ounce of cherry
tree gum, in half a pint of vinegar. Dip any cloth or pieces of paper,
or wood, in this mixture and let them dry;--they cannot afterwards be
ignited so as to blaze, but may be considered safe with regard to
their taking fire by accident. _Note._--Though this composition is a
very powerful preventive against fire, it is too complex for common
use, and has too much colour for white cloths or papers; but a
solution of one ounce of sub-borate of soda in a pint of water is very
transparent and harmless, and will answer in most cases nearly as
well.


73. TO PRODUCE FIRE READILY.--_Process 1._ Mix together gently but
intimately, two or three grains of chlorate of potass, and an equal
quantity of loaf sugar, both previously reduced to fine powder:--dip
the end of a strip of glass, or a straw in sulphuric acid, and with it
gently touch the powder,--it will instantly burst into flame.


74. _Process 2._--Upon one drachm of spirits of turpentine, in a
glass, pour an equal quantity of a mixture of three parts of nitric,
with one of sulphuric acid. Instantaneous inflammation, accompanied by
the production of a large quantity of black smoke, will be the result.


75. PROCESS 3.--Take a piece of phosphorus of the size of a pin's
head, and wrap it in a piece of dry brown paper: rub the paper with a
piece of wood, or any hard body, and it will instantly inflame.
_Note._--In handling phosphorus, it is proper to have a piece of paper
or cloth intervene between the stick of phosphorus and the fingers;
and the phosphorus should be kept under water except when wanted for
use.


76. TO MAKE SUPER-COMBUSTIBLE MATCHES.--Prepare any number of small
strips or splinters of pine or other light wood, which may be about
two inches in length and one twelfth of an inch in diameter; dip one
end of each in melted sulphur to the depth of one fourth of an inch.
When they are cold, scrape off most of the sulphur, and dip the ends
of them slightly in a paste made of ten parts of chlorate of potass,
five parts of loaf sugar and one part of red lead, mixed and ground
together in alcohol. Afterwards they may be readily ignited or kindled
at any time by application of the smallest quantity of sulphuric acid.
For this purpose, the ends of them may be dipped or rather barely
touched to the acid in a phial, or, which is a better way, a strip of
glass, or even wood may be dipped in the acid and applied to the
match.


77. TO MAKE GUN POWDER.--Pulverize separately, five drachms of nitrate
of potass, one of sulphur, and one of newly burnt charcoal. Mix them
together with a little water, so as to make the compound into a dough;
form this dough into rolls of the size of a small wire, which may be
done by rolling small quantities between two boards. Lay a few of
these rolls together, and cut them into very small grains, and place
them on a sheet of paper, in a warm place, to dry. The dough may be
prevented sticking to the board while rolling it, by rubbing on the
board, a little of the dry compound powder. When the grains are
thoroughly dry, they are ready for use or experiment. On the same
principle, gun powder is manufactured on the large scale, but then the
several parts of the operation, are performed by machinery, otherwise
it would be a very expensive commodity.


78. TO MAKE THE COMMON FULMINATING POWDERS.--Grind and mix intimately,
three parts of nitrate of potass, with two of sub-carbonate of potass,
and one of sulphur. If half a drachm of this compound be placed on a
shovel, and held over a gentle fire, it will soon explode with a loud
report. It is not, however, attended with any danger. If two grains of
chlorate of potass in powder and one of sulphur be mixed together, and
wrapped in a piece of strong paper, and the paper be then struck with
a hammer, it will also explode with detonation. This experiment may
require some caution. _Note._--The percussion powder, such as is used
for priming the patent percussion rifles, is composed of chlorate of
potass, and flour of sulphur, with a trifling proportion of charcoal
and loaf sugar, being made into a paste or dough with alcohol,--then
grained and dried.


79. TO MAKE THE MERCURIAL FULMINATING POWDER.--Dissolve half an ounce
of mercury in three ounces of nitric acid, assisting the solution by a
gentle heat. When the solution is cold, pour it upon an equal quantity
of strong alcohol previously introduced into a flask, and apply a
moderate heat till effervescence is excited. (Do not forget that the
mercurial solution must be poured upon the alcohol, and not the
alcohol upon the solution.) A white fume will soon begin to undulate
on the surface of the liquor, and flow through the neck of the flask,
and a white powder will be gradually precipitated. As soon as any
precipitate ceases to fall, quickly pour the contents of the flask on
a filter; wash the powder with pure water, and cautiously dry it by a
heat not exceeding that of boiling water. The immediate washing the
powder is material, because it is liable to the re-action of the
nitric acid; and while any of that acid adheres to it, it is very
subject to be decomposed by the action of light. This powder, if very
pure and nicely made, explodes by percussion, or a moderate degree of
heat. _Experiment._--Place one-fourth of a grain of this powder,
between the ends of two slips of paste-board, and paste, or bind them
firmly together;--hold the ends of the slips over the flame of a
candle, and as soon as it becomes warm, it will explode with a loud
report. This composition is less dangerous than the fulminating
compounds of gold or silver, as it never explodes spontaneously; but
yet it cannot be handled with too much caution. _Note._--The silver
powder, or fulminating silver, with which torpedoes and waterloo
crackers are charged, is prepared in a similar manner; pure silver
being dissolved instead of mercury, but it is too dangerous to be
trifled with.


80. TO KINDLE A FIRE UNDER WATER.--Put into a deep wine-glass, that is
small at the bottom, three or four bits of phosphorus, about the size
of flax seeds, and two or three times the quantity of chlorate of
potass, in grains or crystals, and fill the glass nearly full of
water. Then place the end of a tobacco-pipe stem directly on, or over
the chlorate and phosphorus, and pour nearly a tea-spoon full of
sulphuric acid into the bowl of the pipe, that it may fall directly on
the phosphorus; a violent action will ensue, and the phosphorus will
burn vividly, with a very curious light under the water.


81. TO LIGHT A CANDLE BY APPLICATION OF ICE.--Attach to the wick of a
candle, a small piece, or globule of potassium (the metallic base of
potass) of the size of a small shot. Apply an icicle or point of ice
to the metal, and it will instantly inflame. _Note._--This curious
substance, which has the peculiar property of being ignited by coming
in contact with ice or water, has been lately discovered by Sir
Humphrey Davy. It is produced by making pure potass a part of the
circuit of a powerful Voltaic battery. It cannot be preserved but by
being kept immersed in naptha, a kind of oil of which oxygen is not a
constituent.


82. TO FORM LETTERS OR FLOWERS OF REAL FLAME.--Provide a tin chest of
about eighteen inches in length, equal in height and one inch in
breadth. Chalk any design, of letters or flowers on the face of this
chest, and pierce each line with rows of small holes, which should be
about half an inch distant from each other.--Make an aperture at the
top, through which pour about a pint of a mixture of rum and spirits
of turpentine. Place two or three lamps under the bottom of the chest
(which must be raised a little from the floor for that purpose) to
warm the spirits, but not so as to cause them to boil. Stop the
aperture at the top and after eight or ten minutes (which time should
be allowed for the vapour to expel the atmospheric air, which
otherwise would cause an explosion) apply the flame of a lamp to the
pierced lines;--in an instant, all the lines will be covered with
flame, which will continue till the spirits are exhausted.


83. TO PRODUCE FLAME OF VARIOUS COLOURS.--This may be effected by
mixing certain substances with burning alcohol, or by applying them
with the point of a pen-knife, to the wick of a burning lamp or
candle. Thus a beautiful rose or carmine coloured flame may be
produced by muriate of strontia: this is prepared by dissolving
carbonate of strontia in muriatic acid, and evaporating it to dryness.
The preparation for an orange colour, is muriate of lime; (a solution
of marble in muriatic acid, evaporated to crystallization) which
should be exposed to a moderate heat till it is deprived of its water
of crystallization and falls to powder. A fine green tinge is produced
by acetate of copper, or boracic acid; which last is procured by
adding sulphuric acid to a solution of borate of soda (in hot water)
till it has a sensibly acid taste; as it cools, the boracic acid is
deposited in crystals on the sides of the vessel. Camphor gives to
flame a blue colour; and nitrate of strontia (prepared the same as the
muriate) a purple. A brilliant yellow may also be produced by muriate
of soda. Any of these preparations being reduced to powder, may be
ignited with three or four times their weight of alcohol, which should
be previously warmed; and if the vessel that contains it be kept
heated also, the combustion will be the more brilliant.


84. TO MAKE SKY-ROCKETS AND FIRE WHEELS.--Grind and mix together,
(dry) one pound of gun powder, two ounces of sulphur, two ounces of
nitrate of potass, and four ounces of newly burnt charcoal. Then make
several strong paper cases or cartridges, by wrapping some strong
paper (being moistened with paste,) fifteen or twenty times round a
mould made of wood, which may be one inch in diameter, and ten inches
in length. One end of this mould must be made smaller, being only one
fourth of an inch in diameter for the space of an inch of its length.
The paper must be drawn up close round this neck, and strongly bound
with twine, being thus brought to a shape similar to the neck of a
phial. This neck is called the choke of the cartridge. Take the paper
from the mould, and proceed in the same manner with another. When a
sufficient number of cartridges are thus made and dry, place one of
them in a socket which it will fill up closely, and then fill the
cartridge with the above described compound powder, which must be
thrown into the cartridge in small quantities, and each several
quantity must be rammed or beat down very hard, with a suitable sized
rammer and mallet. In filling the cartridge, small quantities of any
of the flame-colouring preparations, described in the preceding
article, may be added occasionally. When the cartridge is nearly full,
some small balls of cotton, dipped in spirits of turpentine, may be
added, to produce the appearance called stars.--These also, may have
some muriate of strontia, or boracic acid strewed on them. Then place
a circular piece of thick paste board on the materials in the
cartridge, having a small hole through it, communicating with the
powder below; lay upon this, half an ounce of fine gun powder, and
fold the paper down upon it from all sides, cementing the folds firmly
with glue, thus giving the end of the cartridge a conical form. Then
bore a hole about two thirds of the length of the cartridge from the
choke with a gimblet or bit. Fill this hole (which must be as large as
the choke, but tapering towards the other end) with fine gun powder, to
the choke, and fill the choke with the compound, the outside of which
may be moistened a little, the better to keep it in its place. Finish
the others in the same manner, and keep them in a warm dry place till
used. They are then to be lashed firmly to the end of a light pine
rod, with the choke towards the opposite end. The length of the rod,
should be about nine times that of the cartridge. The rocket then
being elevated by the rod, and being ignited at the choke, the
compound inside burning intensely, acts upon the air, and causes it to
ascend. The cartridges for fire wheels, are prepared in the same
manner, but are generally smaller; and instead of being lashed to a
rod, they are lashed to the arms of a wheel, in such manner, that a
violent rotary motion is produced by their combustion.


85. TO PRODUCE DETONATING BALLOONS.--Moisten and compress a bladder
till no air remains in it, and tie the neck of it upon a perforated
cork; set the cork in a flask containing the materials for producing
hydrogen gas (see 9.) Thus convey into the bladder a quantity of the
gas, and then remove the cork to another flask, containing two or
three ounces of black oxide of manganese, moistened with sulphuric
acid, sufficient to form with it a soft paste; apply the heat of a
lamp, and oxygen gas will be evolved, and will also rise through the
neck of the flask; in this manner, convey into the bladder, nearly
half as much oxygen gas, as it previously contained of hydrogen. Then
tie the stem of a tobacco-pipe in the neck of the bladder, and dip the
bowl of the pipe in a solution of soap in water, (soap-suds) and
compress the bladder a little, so as to swell a bubble from the bowl
of the pipe;--shake off the bubble, which being lighter than
atmospheric air will naturally rise, or float horizontally in the air.
If the flame of a candle be brought in contact with one of these
balloons, or floating bubbles, it will explode with a violent
detonation, resembling the report of a pistol. If this compound gas be
forced into the water, so as to form several bubbles on the surface,
and flame be then applied to them, a volley of explosions will be the
result. Caution is requisite in these experiments, that the fire be
not communicated to the bladder, as such an explosion might not be
safe.


86. TO PREPARE A PHIAL THAT WILL GIVE LIGHT IN THE DARK.--Fill a small
phial about one third full of olive oil; add to this a piece of
phosphorus equal to one tenth of the weight of the oil. Cork the phial
and wrap it in paper to exclude the light, and set it, or suspend it
in a warm place, but where the heat may not be equal to that of
boiling water, till the phosphorus appears to be dissolved. This phial
may be carried in the pocket, and whenever the cork is started in the
night, the phial will evolve light enough to show the hour on a watch.


87. TO MAKE A PERSON'S FACE APPEAR LUMINOUS IN THE DARK.--Prepare some
phosphorized oil, (as directed 27,) and rub it over the face. This
oil, though it appears luminous in the dark has not power to burn any
thing, so that it may be rubbed on the face or hands without danger;
and the appearance thereby produced, is most hideously frightful. All
the parts of the face that have been rubbed, appear to be covered with
a luminous bluish flame, and the mouth and eyes appear as black
spots.--The luminous appearance may also be repeatedly heightened, by
the friction of a handkerchief, being rubbed over the luminous part.


88. TO FREEZE WATER IN WARM WEATHER.--Draw a thread through a small
glass tube; close one end and then fill the tube with water. Mix
together equal parts of nitrate of ammonia and water, and immerse the
tube in this mixture. The water in the tube will be frozen
immediately, and may be drawn out by the thread. The same effect may
be produced by a mixture of one part muriate of ammonia, one part
nitrate of potass, and three parts of water. For these experiments,
the above mentioned salts should be fresh, dry and finely pulverized
previous to mixing; the mixture should be made in a tin vessel that is
coated inside with bees-wax, and has a flannel wrapper round the
outside, and the tube should be immersed quickly, as soon as the
ingredients are mixed. To produce a greater, or intense degree of
cold, a small vessel of water is first set in one of those freezing
mixtures till it becomes very cold, and then the due proportion of the
salts are added to that, and the tube, &c. immersed in it. The water
in the tube may also be frozen, by continually bathing the outside of
it with sulphuric ether: the evaporation of the ether, carries off the
caloric of fluidity, and the water congeals.


89. TO CHANGE THE COLOURS OF ANIMALS.--Any black, or dark coloured
spots on some animals, especially horses, may be effectually changed
to white, by means of any substance that will chafe or blister the
skin; thus a white spot of any shape may be produced on a black horse,
by shaving off the hair from the part that is to be thus marked, and
applying a plaster of spanish flies, or of quick lime moistened with
vinegar; this plaster must be cut to the size and form required for
the mark, and must be kept bound on, till the skin is blistered, or
nearly so. The next coat of hair will infallibly be white. White spots
can be changed to black or brown, only by means of oils or grease.
Bacon fat has been recommended for this purpose, but if the oil or fat
of a bear can be procured, it will prove more efficacious, as this fat
is well known to have a remarkable tendency to darken the colour of
animals and even complexions. But either of these, and in fact, many
other kinds, will answer this purpose if properly applied, and
frequently repeated.


90. TO GIVE LEATHER A BEAUTIFUL METALLIC LUSTRE.--Levigate one ounce
of soft lead-coloured plumbago, and an equal quantity (in bulk) of
lamp-black, in a gill of alcohol; then add half an ounce of loaf
sugar, moistened with water and grind all together. The leather must
first be brushed over smoothly with this composition, and when dry, it
must be brushed hard and quickly with a dry smooth brush; or may be
rubbed with a piece of woollen cloth. This blacking will be found
useful for some ornamental purposes, but may be rather too brilliant
for boots and shoes. This composition, however, may be mixed
occasionally with other kinds of blacking, and will tend to increase
their brightness.


91. AN EASY METHOD OF EXTRACTING THE ESSENCE OF ROSES.--Take the
leaves of roses, and pound or bruise them: then stratify them with an
equal weight of muriate of soda, in a glazed earthern vessel:--when
thus filled to the top, cover it well, and set it in the cellar, and
let it remain at rest a month or more. Afterwards, strain off the
essence therefrom, through a strong cloth by pressure. The essence
thus procured, is quite equal if not superior for culinary purposes,
to that which is procured by distillation.


92. TO PREPARE VARIOUS KINDS OF ESSENCES.--The manner of extracting
the essential oils, being attended with considerable expense of
preparations, of stills, &c. a particular description of the process,
would not, it is presumed, be sufficiently interesting to warrant its
insertion. But the manner of reducing the oils to the state in which
they are more generally sold, and is distinguished by the term
"essences" is as follows. To half a pint of alcohol, add one ounce of
any of the essential oils, (lemon, cinnamon, foxberry, peppermint,
&c.) and shake them together; set the mixture in a warm place for a
few minutes, and if then any opaque or milky appearance remains, a
little more alcohol must be added. When this has become clear, it may
be diluted occasionally with new rum. The essences of foxberry and
cinnamon are coloured with a few drops of tincture of red saunders;
and the essence of lemon, with tincture of turmeric.


93. TO PREPARE SODA WATER.--Only two articles are requisite for this
preparation; one of which is super-carbonate of soda, or of potass
(sal eratus,) and the other is citric or tartaric acid. The
super-carbonates are formed by passing a stream of carbonic acid gas
(which is produced by adding muriatic acid to pulverized marble)
through a solution of soda or potass in water;--then evaporating till
it crystallizes. Citric acid is prepared from the juice of lemons; and
tartaric acid (which is more generally employed) is procured from
super-tartrate of potass. But these being common articles of commerce,
a more minute description of the process of preparing them, may not,
in this place, be expedient. The compound called soda powders,
consists of about ten grains of either of the super-carbonates, with
an equal quantity of either of the acids, in each paper; this compound
being dissolved in a glass of water, produces violent effervescence,
and if drank off at the time, gives the water a smart and agreeable
acid taste. The salt and acid, if mixed in powder, must be kept
perfectly dry; otherwise, they would act on each other, and soon be
spoiled. On this account, they are frequently prepared in separate
papers, and sold by sets. Soda water is similarly prepared on the
larger scale; the salts and acid being put into a cask of water, which
is so confined, that the carbonic acid can have no other vent than by
forcing out the water through a pipe fixed for the purpose with a
tube, &c.


94. TO PRODUCE METALLIC TREES. _Process 1._--Mix one part of a
saturated solution of nitrate of silver, with twenty parts of pure
water, and pour the mixture upon two parts of mercury in a phial.
After some time (the mercury being left standing quietly,) the
branches and the figure of a tree, formed of brilliant silver, will
appear to grow from the mercury in a very beautiful manner. The silver
in solution being thus robbed of its oxygen by the metallic mercury,
and consequently precipitated.

95. _Process 2._--Dissolve two drachms of acetate of lead, in six
ounces of water; filter the solution, and pour it into a clean wide
phial. Then suspend a granule of zinc, by a thread or wire fastened to
the cork of the phial, in the middle of the solution, and place the
phial where it will not be disturbed. After a few hours the lead,
being de-oxydized by the zinc, will be precipitated on the zinc, in
the shape of leaves, which will have a very brilliant appearance.


96. TO TIN COPPER BY BOILING.--Boil half a pound of granulated tin,
and six ounces of super tartrate of potass in three pints of water;
when they have boiled half an hour, put in any piece of copper ware,
and continue the boiling fifteen minutes longer. The copper may then
be taken out, and will have been handsomely coated with tin.


97. A METAL THAT WILL MELT IN HOT WATER.--Melt together eight parts of
bismuth, five of lead and three of tin. This alloy, though hard and
brilliant, when cold, is so easily fusible that it may be melted on a
paper, being held over the flame of a candle. Tea spoons may be made
of this compound metal, which may be melted by putting them in a cup
of hot tea.


98. ILLUSTRATION OF CALICO PRINTING.--It frequently occurs, that
substances of different colours, or even without colour, by coming in
contact, produce colours very different from that of either of the
ingredients when separate; thus, if a sheet of paper be striped in one
direction with a hair pencil dipped in a solution of sub-carbonate of
potass; and then crossed with a solution of sulphuric acid, diluted
with five times as much water, it will be colourless; but dip it in a
mixture of a weak solution of sulphate of iron, and infusion of nut
galls, and it will instantly become a beautiful plaid; the ground
being purple, striped one way with black and crossed with white. If a
similar paper be striped with sub-carbonate of potass, and crossed
with infusion of galls, and afterward dipped in a solution of sulphate
of iron, it will become purple, yellow, black and white. Dip a piece
of white calico in a cold solution of sulphate of iron and let it dry.
Then imprint any figures upon it with a strong solution of colourless
citric acid, and let this dry also. If the piece be then well washed
in warm water, and afterwards boiled in a decoction of log-wood, the
ground will be dyed either a slate or a black colour, according to the
strength of the metallic solution, while the printed figures will
remain beautifully white. Stain some parts of a sheet of paper a
purple brown, with a mixture of infusion of galls and sulphate of
iron; stain other parts green with a mixture of tinctures of turmeric
and litmus; stain other parts purple with juice of red cabbage; other
parts red with tincture of litmus and muriatic acid; other parts
yellow with tincture of turmeric; wash the remainder of the sheet with
a solution of sulphate of iron, which will remain white. Then print,
or draw with a camel-hair pencil, any figure or figures on every part
of the paper, with a solution of sub-carbonate of potass. On the
purple brown, the figure will be black; on the green it will be
purple; on the purple it will be green; on the red it will be blue; on
the yellow, red; and on the white, it will take a yellow colour. Thus
the figure will appear in colors different from the ground in every
part. Immerse a piece of white cotton in a solution of sulphate of
iron--it will remain white; dip another piece in tincture of turmeric,
it will take a yellow; wet another piece with juice of red cabbage,
containing also, a few drops of muriatic acid,--it will be red; dye
another piece green, by immersing it in a mixture of tincture of
turmeric and litmus; and another, purple by a mixture of infusion of
galls and sulphate of iron. Let them dry; then immerse them all
together in a solution of sub-carbonate of potass. The white will be
changed to a yellow; the yellow to a red; the red to green; the green
to purple; and the purple to black; and it is not improbable that some
black might be materially changed or bleached by the same simple
solution.


99. TO PREPARE AN IMITATION OF GOLD BRONZE.--Melt two ounces of tin,
and mix with it one ounce of mercury; when this is cold pulverize it
and add one ounce of muriate of ammonia, and one ounce of sulphur, and
grind them all together. Put the compound in a flask and heat it in a
clear fire (carefully avoiding the fumes) till the mercury sublimes,
and rises in vapour. When the vapour ceases to rise, take the glass
from the fire. A flaky gold colored powder will remain in the flask,
which may be applied to ornamental work in the manner of gold bronze,
of which it is a tolerable imitation.


100. TO PROCURE THE EXHILARATING GAS.--Put a quantity of nitrate of
ammonia into a flask, and apply the heat of a lamp, which must be
gentle, and well regulated. The salt will in a short time liquify, and
must then be kept quietly simmering, avoiding violent ebullition. The
gas will be evolved, and rise through the neck of the flask, and may
be collected in a bladder containing a small quantity of water, and
should be allowed to stand a few hours, and shifted into another
bladder, or silk varnished bag before it is used. Though this gas is
not fitted to support life, yet it may be respired for a short time,
and the effects produced by it upon the animal frame, are its most
extraordinary properties. The effects of this gas, are in general,
highly pleasurable, and resemble those attendant on the agreeable
period of intoxication. Exquisite sensations of pleasure; an
irresistible propensity to laughter; a rapid flow of vivid ideas; a
strong incitement to muscular motion, are the ordinary feelings
produced by it. And what is exceedingly remarkable, is, that the
intoxication thus produced, instead of being succeeded by the debility
subsequent to intoxication by ardent spirits, does, on the contrary,
generally render the person who takes it, cheerful and high spirited
for the remainder of the day.


101. CONSTRUCTION OF A GALVANIC PILE OR BATTERY.--Procure fifty or
more thin plates of copper, and the same number of plates of zinc, all
of which may be about the size of a dollar, but not so thick. The
copper and zinc plates, may be either cast in moulds, or may be cut
out of rolled plates of the metals. In addition to the plates of
copper and zinc, it is necessary to be provided with an equal number
of pieces of woollen cloth, rather smaller than the metallick plates
in size. Let these be soaked in a solution of muriate of soda, till
they have thoroughly imbibed it; then take them out of the solution,
and squeeze them gently, to force out the superabundant water. Then,
having provided a circular piece of wood, rather larger than the
plates, cover it with tin foil, and on this lay a plate of zinc, upon
that a plate of copper, and then a piece of moistened cloth; next a
plate of zinc, &c. Continue this arrangement of zinc, copper and
cloth, till all the pieces that have been provided are laid on. As the
pile began with zinc, it must be concluded with copper. This pile may
be braced occasionally with strips of glass to prevent its being
overthrown, Fix the end of a piece of metallic wire, in contact with
the base, and lay the end of another piece upon the top of the pile;
if thus, the opposite ends of the wire be brought in contact with each
other, or if they are connected by any conducting body, so as to form
a circuit of conductors, the pile will afford a constant and powerful
current of the galvanic fluid through them for many hours. If the
hands be moistened, and one of them applied to each of the wires, a
shock will be received. Gold and other metals have been melted, and
even burnt; and potass, soda and lime have been reduced to their
respective metallic states, by being made to form part of a galvanic
circuit. When the pile is not in use, it should be taken down, which
will preserve it from wear, and the plates will require to be cleansed
occasionally, which may be easily done by diluted muriatic acid.


102. CONSTRUCTION OF THE OXY-HYDROGEN BLOW-PIPE.--This useful
instrument consists of a cubical vessel, made of tin plate, being from
ten to twenty inches in length, breadth and height. The inside is
divided into four equal apartments, by two partitions, crossing each
other in the centre. The two front apartments are covered at the top,
and each of them have a tube fixed in the front side, near the top,
with a stopcock. The other apartments are open at the top, and
communicate with those in front, by a small aperture near the bottom
of each. These apartments being all filled with water, those in front
are filled, the one with oxygen, and the other with hydrogen gas,
which is done by forcing the gases into them through the tubes in
front, which causes the water to recede through the aperture at the
bottom, and consequently, part of the water is forced over the top of
the other apartments; or rather, may run off through small tubes,
fixed for the purpose, near the top, similar to those in front. When
the front apartments are filled with the gases, (which may be known by
the bubbling in the others) the tubes are stopped, and two leaden
pipes are fixed in them, the opposite ends of which, are so placed,
that the two streams of gas, when expelled from the gas holders, may
come in contact very near the ends of the pipes. When the tubes are
open, the pressure of the water will expel the gases, and will
consequently settle, and must be replenished, so as to keep the
apartments nearly full. When the two streams of gas are ignited at the
point of contact, a flame is produced of sufficient intensity to burn
gold, silver, copper or tin, with a very brilliant combustion.


103. TO MAKE A DRY PHOSPHORESCENT POWDER.--Take some thick oyster
shells, wash them, and calcine by keeping them red hot in an open fire
for half an hour: then, select the clearest and whitest parts, and
reduce them to powder. Mix three parts of this powder, with one of the
flour of sulphur; fill a crucible with this compound, pressing or
beating it down as hard and solid as may be, without breaking the
crucible. Set the crucible in the fire, and heat it moderately at
first, but increase the heat gradually for an hour, in which time it
must approach nearly to a white heat. Then let it cool, and again
select from the mass, the whitest and purest parts, which must be
preserved in a phial with a glass stopper. This powder has the
peculiar property of imbibing the rays of the sun in the day time, and
emitting them again in the night; or if the phial containing it, be
exposed for a few minutes to the direct rays of the sun and then
carried into a dark room, light enough will be evolved to render it
distinctly visible.


104. CURIOUS EXPERIMENT OF PRECIPITATION.--Set five glasses on the
table, and nearly fill one of them with a solution of sulphate of
iron; and another with a solution of sulphate of copper; a third with
a solution of nitrate of bismuth; pour into the fourth, a solution of
nitro-muriate of cobalt, and into the fifth a solution of acetate of
lead, or sulphate of zinc. These liquid solutions may all be diluted
so as to be colourless. Then pour into each glass, a few drops of a
colourless solution of prussiate of potass. The contents of the first
glass will be instantly changed to a full blue colour; those of the
second to a reddish brown; those of the third, to a yellow; the fourth
to a green, and the fifth to a white. Thus five distinct colours will
be given, by the addition of one colourless solution.


105. TO MAKE A BEAUTIFUL SOFT GLASS FOR JEWELRY.--Take six ounces of
clean fine white sand, three ounces of red lead, three ounces of pure
sub-carbonate of potass, one ounce of nitrate of potass, half an ounce
of borate of soda, and two drachms of arsenic; mix and pound them all
together. Put the compound in a crucible, and set it in a common fire,
often stirring it with an iron rod, till it is well melted, and
becomes transparent. This compound will liquify very easily without
any great heat, if the sand is fine, (which sometimes requires to be
ground or pounded in a glass or flint mortar,) and if it be kept
melted awhile, will become beautifully transparent, and may be cast or
blown in the manner of other glass. This glass may be changed to a red
or ruby colour, by adding and fusing together with it, a small
quantity of finely powdered precipitate of gold, (gold precipitated
from solution in nitro-muriatic acid by the addition of tin.) It may
be also changed to blue by the addition of zaffre, (an ore of cobalt,)
and magnesia: a green colour may be given by a precipitate of copper;
and yellow by calcined iron, and white by calcined bones. This subject
is treated of largely in the _Handmaid of the Arts_, to which, for
further information on the subject, the reader is referred.


106. COMPOSITION OF VARIOUS KINDS OF GLASS.--The best flint glass is
composed of 129 lbs. of white sand, 50 lbs. of red lead, 40 lbs. of
sub-carbonate of potass, 20 lbs. of nitrate of potass, and 5 oz. of
magnesia. The best crown glass is composed of 60 lbs. of white sand,
30 lbs. of sub-carbonate of potass, 15 lbs. of nitrate of potass, 1
lb. of borate of soda and 1/2 lb. of arsenic. The composition of
common green window glass, is 120 lbs. of white sand, 30 lbs. of
sub-carbonate of potass, 60 lbs. of wood ashes, 20 lbs. of muriate of
soda and 5 lbs. of arsenic. The composition for looking glass plates,
is 60 lbs. of clean white sand, 25 lbs. of purified sub-carbonate of
potass, 15 lbs. of nitrate of potass, and 7 lbs. of borate of soda.
Common green bottle glass is made from 200 lbs. of wood ashes, and 100
lbs. of sand. The materials for making glass, is first reduced to
powder; then mixed and exposed to a strong heat, in suitable pots and
furnaces, till the whole mass liquifies and becomes thoroughly
commixed and transparent.


107. COMPOSITION OF VARIOUS ALLOYS.--Brass is composed of two parts of
copper to one of zinc; or copper and calamine, (an ore of zinc,) equal
quantities. Pinchbeck consists of from five to ten parts copper, and
one of zinc. Bell metal is composed of three parts copper and one of
tin. Gun metal, nine parts copper and one of tin. Tombac, sixteen
parts copper, one part zinc and one of tin. The composition of pewter
is seven pounds of tin, one of lead, four ounces of copper and two of
zinc. That of type-metal is nine parts lead, two parts antimony and
one of bismuth. Solder, two parts of lead with one of tin. Queen's
metal, nine parts of tin, one of bismuth, one of antimony and one of
lead. Jewel gold is composed of twenty-five parts gold, four parts
silver, and seven parts fine copper. In forming metallic compounds or
alloys, it is proper to melt such of the ingredients as are the least
fusible first, and afterwards add the others, stirring them briskly
till they are thoroughly commixed.


108. TO PRODUCE VARIOUS KINDS OF GAS.--To three or four ounces of
pulverized chalk or marble, moistened in a flask, with an equal
quantity of water, add one ounce of sulphuric acid;--carbonic acid gas
will be evolved in abundance, and will rise through the neck of the
flask, and may be conducted by pipes, to any proper receiver. Instead
of the marble or chalk, substitute granulated zinc;--in this case
hydrogen gas will be evolved; but this may require a larger proportion
of water. Pour sulphuric acid upon a similar quantity of dry muriate
of soda;--muriatic acid gas will be rapidly evolved. Proceed in the
same manner with a similar quantity of black oxide of manganese,--apply
the heat of a lamp, and oxygen gas will be produced. Put into the
flask, two or three ounces of lean beef, cut into small pieces; pour
over them one ounce of nitric acid diluted with three ounces of water;
apply the heat of a lamp, and nitrogen gas will be liberated. Powder
separately, equal quantities of muriate of ammonia and newly burnt
lime; put them together into a flask and apply gentle heat; ammoniacal
gas will be evolved. Pour an ounce of nitric acid, diluted with five
times its weight of water, upon one ounce of shreds or turnings of
copper; nitrous gas will be rapidly evolved. Grind three parts of
muriate of soda with two parts of black oxide of manganese; introduce
this mixture into the flask, and add two parts of sulphuric acid,
diluted with an equal quantity of water; apply a gentle heat and
chlorine gas will be evolved. _Note._--When either of the last
mentioned gases are produced, great caution is requisite that they
do not escape into the room, in any considerable quantity, as their
action on the lungs is exceedingly injurious.


109. VARIOUS CHEMICAL TESTS.--When water is suspected to hold any
foreign substance in solution, various means may be used to detect and
ascertain the quality of the substances combined; thus, acids may be
detected by immersing in the water, a slip of litmus colored paper,
which, if acid be present, will be changed to red. In the same manner,
alkalies may be detected by a strip of turmeric yellow paper, which
will be also changed to red by alkalies. These tests are sensible to
the presence of an acid or alkali in the proportion of one to ten
thousand. Iron may be detected by a drop of infusion of galls, which
will give to the water (if iron be present) a brown tinge. A drop of
sulphuric acid, precipitates barites in the form of a white powder.
Clear transparent lime-water (water in which lime has been slaked and
then suffered to settle) will indicate the presence of carbonic acid
by a milky whiteness. On the same principle, a solution of
super-carbonate of potass will detect lime. A few drops of nitrate of
silver will instantly discover muriatic acid, by a white flaky
precipitate. Muriatic acid, consequently, is a good test for silver.
Acetate of lead, in solution, is a test for sulphureted hydrogen,
which occasions a precipitate of a black colour. Nitrate of mercury is
an excellent test for ammonia, one part of which, with 30,000 parts of
water is indicated by a blackish yellow tinge on adding the test.
Liquid ammonia is a very sensible test for copper, with which it
strikes a fine blue colour. Nitro-muriate of gold will discover the
presence of tin, by a beautiful purple precipitate. Nitro-muriate of
tin is, on the same principle, an excellent test for gold.


110. TO PRODUCE A PICTURE INSTANTLY, IN A VARIETY OF COLOURS.--Paint
any picture on paper in the usual way, only instead of colours, use
the following substitutes: for green, use a solution of nitro-muriate
of cobalt, for blue, a solution of sulphate of iron--for yellow, a
solution of nitrate of bismuth--and for a brown, a solution of
sulphate of copper. Any of these solutions may be more or less
diluted, as the respective parts of the picture are to be light or
dark, but none of them must be strong enough to colour the paper. This
pictture is invisible: but when it is required to appear, the paper
may be tacked up on the wall, and having a glass of the transparent
solution of prussiate of potass (which by sight cannot be
distinguished from clear water) dashed suddenly upon it, the picture
will instantly appear in its full colours. A similar effect may be
produced, by drawing the picture with infusion of galls, and
sub-carbonate of potass; this is revived by a solution of sulphate of
iron, and appears in a yellow and a brown colour.


111. A CHEAP IMITATION OF SILVER BRONZE.--Put into a crucible, an
ounce of pure tin, and set it on a fire to melt; when it begins to
melt, add to it an equal quantity of bismuth, and stir the mixture
with an iron rod till the whole is entirely melted and incorporated.
Take the crucible then from the fire, and after the melted composition
has become a little cooler, but while it is yet in a fluid state, pour
into it gradually, an ounce of mercury, stirring it at the same time,
that the mercury may be thoroughly conjoined with the other
ingredients. When the whole is thus commixed, pour the mass out of the
crucible on a stone, where, as it cools, it will take the form of an
amalgam, or metallic paste; which will be easily bruised into a flaky
powder, and may then be applied to sized figures in the manner of gold
or silver bronze, or may be tempered with gum-water, and applied to
the work with a brush or camel-hair pencil; and if properly secured
with varnish or laquers will be even more durable than either silver
leaf or silver bronze.


112. TO MAKE CRAYONS OF VARIOUS COLOURS.--Crayons or pastils consist
of various coloured pigments or paints, formed into sticks or rolls
for the purpose of drawing and shading with them in the manner of lead
pencils. But that they may be of uniform texture or hardness,
different ingredients and materials require some variation in the
management. To make white crayons, nothing more is requisite than to
mix superfine or refined whiting with alcohol, to the consistence of
soft putty; form it into rolls of a convenient length and size and let
them dry: or the whiting may be mixed with water and a sufficient
quantity of burnt or calcined sulphate of lime to give the crayons a
sufficient degree of hardness when dry. A great variety of elegant
light colours may be formed by adding to the whiting prepared as
above, small quantities of any of the coloured pigments. The most
proper colors for crayons are lamp-black, prussian blue, burnt umber,
burnt terra-de-sienna, red ochre, vermilion, lake, rose-pink, chrome
yellow, yellow ochre and mineral green. Many other handsome greens are
formed by mixing chrome yellow with prussian blue, varying the
proportions; and purples are produced by mixing rose pink or lake with
blue. Prussian blue and lake being each naturally of a binding nature,
require only to be ground in water; but red ochre and vermilion should
be ground in alcohol, or may have some quantity of the sulphate of
lime mixed with them. Any of these colours may be mixed in any
proportion with whiting or with each other, each compound having a
sufficient proportion of the sulphate of lime, to give it a proper
degree of hardness and strength when dry. The proper length for
crayons is from two to three inches, and the size about the same as
that of a tobacco-pipe stem. It is customary in making crayons, to
have at hand a large piece of chalk with a plane surface, on which to
lay the crayons as soon as they are rolled; the chalk absorbs a part
of the moisture, which makes them dry the sooner and without cracking.


113. TO MAKE HARD SEALING WAX, OF VARIOUS COLOURS.--Take of
gum-shellac and rosin each two ounces; and of gum-mastic one ounce;
reduce them to powder and mix and melt them together over a gentle
fire. Then if a red colour is required, add to the mixture one ounce
of fine vermilion; for a black colour, add half an ounce of a mixture
of lamp black with rum; for a blue, half an ounce of white lead with
one fourth of an ounce of prussian blue; which should be previously
ground together dry. To give a green colour, add finely ground
verdegris; a yellow is produced by chrome yellow or gamboge; and
white, by adding pure white lead to the mixture. When the desired
colour is formed by the mixture and incorporation of any of the above
mentioned colouring ingredients, take out a part of the mixture,
sufficient to form a stick or roll of the usual size, and roll it
between two smooth metallic plates, which should also be previously
warmed to prevent the wax from becoming too hard. When the stick is
reduced to a proper size, flatten it a little and let it cool. Proceed
in the same manner with the rest of the composition; afterward hold
each stick severally over a fire of charcoal, turning it quickly till
the surface of the wax is completely melted, by which means the sticks
will have acquired a very smooth and shining polish at the surface,
which they will retain when cold again. If a softer wax is required, a
small quantity of bees-wax and of linseed oil may be added to the
above composition, or may be substituted in the place of the
gum-mastic.


114. THE ART OF MANUFACTURING PAPER HANGINGS.--This business, which
has been usually, though improperly termed paper staining, consists
principally in stamping or painting various figures in water colours
on paper. The paper for this purpose is formed into long strips or
rolls, by pasting the edges of several sheets together. The edges of
the sheets should not lap on each other more than half an inch, and
the usual length of a roll is about nine yards. These rolls are first
painted plain with a large brush; the paint is composed of refined
whiting with some colouring ingredient, being ground in water and
tempered with a sufficient quantity of glue to prevent it from rubbing
off; when a new design or figure is to be introduced, several colours
are prepared, i.e. as many as are required in such design, and with
these the design is painted on a sheet of paper. The paper is then
laid on a smooth birch or maple board, and such parts of the paper as
contain the colour that was last applied in the drawing (which is
usually the white) are completely cut out, with a sharp pen-knife, and
the parts thus cut out, are pasted down upon the board, immediately,
in the places and positions they occupied in the design. The sheet is
then removed to another board, and another colour is cut out in the
same manner; thus the several colours are distributed in their proper
arrangements on as many different boards. Each board is then cut away
with chisels and gouges, to the depth of a fourth, or an eighth of an
inch, in every part except where the pieces of paper are fixed. These
boards or prints are supported by other thin pieces, which are fixed
firmly on the backs of them by screws, in such manner that the grain
of one, crosses that of the other, and thus prevents their warping.
They have also cleats or pins attached to them which serve as handles.
A trough is provided, a little larger than the prints, of one inch in
depth, and having a smooth bottom, on which is laid three or four
pieces of fine flannel or cassimere, each of which is at least as
large as the prints. Then some of the colour with which the first part
of the design was painted, is spread upon the cloth with a brush; and
upon this, the print containing the corresponding parts of the figure,
is pressed, (the pieces of paper having been previously scraped off;)
the print being thus charged with the colour, is placed upon one end
of a roll of the prepared paper, which is laid on a table for that
purpose, and is pressed down hard by a lever or screw. It is then
returned to the trough, and again charged with the colour, and again
impressed on the paper at a proper distance above the other
impression. In this manner several rolls are printed with one colour.
Then the next colour in the design is applied to the paper in the same
manner by another print;--a third colour by a third print and so on
till the paper is completely printed with every colour in the design,
each in its proper place. These prints should be washed and kept dry
for future use. A variety of figures may be produced with the same
print, by varying the colours.


115. TO MAKE ELASTIC BLACKING FOR LEATHER.--Dilute one ounce of
gum-asphaltum with a pint of spirits of turpentine, in the manner
described at 51;--put this into a flask, and add one ounce of
gum-elastic cut into very small pieces, and half an ounce of
gum-shellac previously reduced to powder. Suspend the flask unstopped
over a fire of charcoal, or set it in a sand bath where it may boil
gently till the quantity is reduced to a gill; then strain it through
a flannel, and when nearly cold, bottle and cork it. The leather
should be thoroughly blackened with some liquid blacking and waxed
over slightly with bees-wax before the elastic blacking is applied. If
the blacking should be too thick, it may again be diluted with spirits
of turpentine. It should be warmed when applied, and the work may
require several coats, and a considerable time for each to dry. Any of
the above mentioned gums may also be dissolved in sulphuric ether, and
thus produce a fine drying varnish, but the preparation is much more
difficult as the volatile nature of the ether will not admit of much
heat, whereby to facilitate the solution.


116. SUNDRY EXPERIMENTS.--Rub together a little dry powdered alum, and
acetate of lead; both will become fluid. To a saturated solution of
muriate of lime, add a saturated solution of sub-carbonate of potass,
(both transparent liquids,) the mixture will be nearly solid. Rub
together a little pure white calomel (sublimed mercury) and pure white
ammonia (being moistened;) both will become intensely black. Fill a
flask nearly half full of water, and apply heat till it boils; take it
from the fire and (when it has done boiling) cork it; pour cold water
upon the flask, and the water inside will re-commence boiling. Fill a
glass with water, and lay a piece of paper upon the top of it; place
your hand upon the paper, and invert the glass; the hand may be
removed and the glass may be suspended in that position by a thread,
and the water will not be spilled. Expose a piece of ice to the action
of (cold) muriatic gas; the ice will be instantly melted. Drop a piece
of phosphuret of lime, into a glass of water; bubbles will soon rise,
and on reaching the surface of the water will spontaneously explode.
Apply the end of a roll of brimstone to a hot bar of iron; a part of
the iron will be instantly melted, and will fall. Write with diluted
sulphuric acid, on paper that has been coloured brown by a mixture of
sulphate of iron, and infusion of galls; the writing will be white.
Moisten the under lip, and lay upon it a piece of silver money, (not
less than a twenty cent piece) with the edge of it beneath the tongue;
lay a piece of zinc, of nearly an equal size, upon the tongue, and
bring the edges of the pieces of metal into contact; you will
instantly drop the money.



_Appendix._


A catalogue of the various articles mentioned in the preceding pages,
with the prices, explanations, &c.

--> The articles which have this mark * prefixed may be procured at
135, Washington-street, Boston.

  ACETATE OF COBALT, produced by digesting the oxide of
  cobalt in strong vinegar,                                      _Cts._

  * ACETATE OF LEAD, (sugar of lead) procured by
  dissolving white lead in vinegar, and evaporating,        _oz._   6

  * ACETIC ACID, vinegar concentrated by distillation,      _pt._  25

  * ALCOHOL, rectified spirit of wine,                      _pt._  25

  * ALUM, sulphate of alumine and potass,                   _oz._   3

  * AMMONIA, (hartshorn) a volatile alkali,                 _oz._  12

  * ANTIMONY, a dark porous metal,                          _oz._   6

  * BEES WAX, a yellowish resinous substance procured
  from honey, or honey combs,                               _oz._   6

  * BISMUTH, (tin glass) a reddish white metal,             _oz._  12

  * BORACIC ACID, procured by adding sulphuric acid to
  a hot  solution of borax; the acid crystallizes,          _oz._ 100

  * BRAZIL-WOOD, (red-wood,)                                _lb._   6

  * BORATE OF SODA, OR SUB-BORATE OF SODA, (borax) is
   brought from the East-Indies in an impure state
  called tincal,                                            _oz._   6

  BURNISH GOLD-SIZE, and BURNISHERS, may be had of Bittle
  and Cooper, Pemberton's-hill, Boston, prices various,

  * CAMPHOR, obtained from a species of laurel tree,        _oz._  12

  * CARBONATE OF COPPER, (French green) produced by
  adding a solution of super-carbonate of soda, to
  a hot solution of sulphate of copper,                     _lb._  50

  * CARBONATE OF LEAD, (white lead) is formed by
  exposing  thin sheets of lead to the vapour of
  vinegar, after which   they abstract the carbonic
  acid from the atmosphere,                                 _lb._  16

  * CARBONATE OF STRONTIA, a native mineral,                _oz._  50

  CARBONATE OF LIME, (marble, chalk) a native earth,

  * CHLORATE OF POTASS, procured by passing a current
  of chlorine gas through a solution of pearl-ash,          _oz._ 100

  * CHROME YELLOW, a pigment, is formed by the combination
  of a metallic substance with the chromic acid,            _oz._  12

  * COBALT, (Zaffre) a metal of a reddish grey colour;
  when exposed to a gentle heat, it becomes oxidized and
  takes the form of a black powder,                         _oz._  50

  * CITRIC ACID, procured from lemons, limes, &c.,          _oz._  75

  * CALOMEL, white sublimate of mercury,                    _oz._  20

  * DRAGON'S BLOOD, a red mucilage extracted from
  a plant,                                                  _oz._  10

  * FLUATE OF LIME, (fluor spar) is found in abundance in
  Derbyshire, England, its acid constituent has the peculiar
  property of dissolving glass,                             _lb._  50

  * FRANKFORT BLACK, which takes its name from Frankfort, in
  Germany, is manufactured from the lees of wine,           _oz._  12

  * GAMBOGE, a yellow opaque gum, or mucilage,              _oz._  16

  * GLUE, (gelatine) a jelly procured from skins of
  animals,                                                  _lb._  25

  * GOLD BRONZE, gold in fine powder,                      _pwt._  75

  * GOLD LEAF, thin laminas of gold,                       _book_  45

  * GUM-ARABIC, a mucilaginous substance that exudes from
  certain trees in Arabia,                                  _oz._   6

  * GUM-ASPHALTUM, a bitumen, or mineral pitch,             _oz._   8

  * GUM-COPAL, a hard transparent resin,                    _lb._  40

  * GUM-ELASTIC, (indian rubber, caoutchouc) exudes
  from trees in the West-Indies,                            _oz._   8

  * GUM-SANDARAC, a resin, similar to rosin but much
  harder,                                                   _lb._ 100

  * GUM-SHELLAC, a compound, resinous substance, procured
  from the nests, or cells of an insect,                    _oz._   6

  * GUM-MASTIC, a hard, transparent resin,                  _lb._ 100

  * ISING-GLASS, a kind of transparent glue procured
  from various kinds of fish,                               _oz._  25

  * LAKE, (drop lake) a rose coloured pigment, prepared
  from brazil wood,                                         _oz._ 200

  * LEAD, a brown heavy metal,                              _lb._  12

  LIME, an oxide of calcium, is procured by calcining
  lime stone, marble or chalk,

  * LINSEED OIL, is expressed from ground flaxseed,         _pt._  15

  * LITHARGE, (gold litharge) an oxide of lead,             _oz._   4

  * LITMUS, a blue colouring vegetable,                     _oz._  10

  * MERCURY, (quick silver) a metal that remains fluid
  in the common temperature of the atmosphere,              _oz._   8

  * MURIATE OF AMMONIA, (sal ammoniac) is formed by adding
  muriatic acid to liquid ammonia, evaporating, &c.,        _oz._   6

  MURIATE OF SODA, (culinary salt) is procured by
  evaporating the water of the ocean,

  * MURIATE OF STRONTIA, procured by dissolving native
  carbonate of strontia, in muriatic acid, and
  evaporating,                                              _oz._  75

  MURIATE OF LIME, formed by evaporating a solution of
  marble in muriatic acid,

  * MURIATIC ACID, (marine acid, spirit of salt) is
  extracted from sea-salt,                                  _oz._  12

  * NITRATE OF AMMONIA, procured by dissolving carbonate
  of ammonia (common smelling salts) in nitric acid,        _oz._  20

  * NITRATE OF POTASS, (nitre, salt-petre) may be procured
  by adding nitric acid to a solution of sub-carbonate of
  potass, and crystallizing by evaporation,                 _oz._   3

  * NITRATE OF STRONTIA, procured the same as the muriate,  _oz._  75

  * NITRIC ACID, (aquafortis) is obtained by distilling
  two parts of sulphuric acid, together with one part of
  salt-petre,                                               _oz._  12

  * NUT GALLS, are formed on the leaves of a species
  of oak,                                                   _oz._   6

  * OLIVE OIL, (sweet oil,)                                 _oz._   3

  * OIL OF CINNAMON, extracted from cinnamon by
  distillation,                                             _oz._  75

  * OIL OF ROSEMARY, procured also by distillation,         _oz._  25

  * ORANGE LEAD, a scarlet pigment similar to red lead,     _oz._   3

  * OXIDE OF MANGANESE, a black powder consisting of a
  metal combined with oxygen,                               _oz._  10

  * PHOSPHORUS, a simple substance procured from
  bones; its greatest peculiarity is extraordinary
  combustibility,                                           _oz._ 200

  * PHOSPHURET OF LIME, a combination of lime and
  phosphorus,                                               _oz._ 200

  * PLUMBAGO, (black lead) a carburet of iron,              _lb._  16

  * POTASSIUM, the metallic base of potass, may be readily
  obtained from pearl ash by any one who has a galvanic
  apparatus,

  * PRUSSIATE OF IRON, (prussian blue) may be formed by
  adding prussiate of potass, to a solution of copperas,    _oz._  25

  * PRUSSIATE OF POTASS, a combination of potass and
  prussic acid,                                             _oz._  50

  * PUMICE STONE,                                           _lb._  12

  * RED LEAD, (minium) is obtained by melting lead in an
  open vessel, and exposing it in that state to the action
  of the atmospheric air,                                   _oz._   3

  * RED OCHRE, (spanish brown) a native oxide of iron,      _lb._   6

  * ROSIN, the resinous part of turpentine,                 _lb._   6

  * SILVER BRONZE,                                         _pwt._  50

  * SILVER LEAF,                                          _book_   30

  * SLIP BLUE, (wet blue) an aqueous preparation of
  prussian blue,                                            _lb._  30

  * SPIRITS OF TURPENTINE, (oil of turpentine) is
  procured by distilling common or crude turpentine;
  the residuum is rosin,                                    _pt._  12

  * SUB-ACETATE OF COPPER, (verdigris,)                     _oz._   3

  * SUB-CARBONATE OF POTASS, (pearlash) potass refined
  by calcination,                                           _lb._  12

  * SULPHATE OF COPPER, (blue vitriol, roman
  vitriol,)                                                 _oz._   3

  * SULPHATE OF IRON, (copperas, green vitriol,)            _oz._   6

  SULPHATE OF LIME, (plaister of paris, alabaster, gypsum,)

  * SULPHATE OF ZINC, (white vitriol,)                      _oz._   3

  * SULPHUR (brimstone) is generally found combined with
  ores of metals,                                           _oz._   3

  * SULPHURIC ACID, (oil of vitriol) the condensed vapour
  of  burning sulphur,                                      _oz._  16

  * SULPHURIC ETHER, procured by distilling alcohol with
  sulphuric acid,                                           _oz._  25

  * SUPER CARBONATE OF POTASS (sal eratus) is formed by
  passing a current of carbonic acid gas, through a
  solution of pearl ash,                                    _oz._   3

  * SUPER CARBONATE OF SODA, may be prepared in the same
  manner from the sub-carbonate,                            _oz._  12

  * SUPER TARTRATE OF POTASS (cream of tartar) is found
  encrusted on the sides of casks in which wine has
  been kept,                                                _oz._   4

  * TARTARIC ACID, procured from cream of tartar,           _oz._  12

  * TERRA-DE-SIENNA, an oxide of iron that becomes dark
  red by burning,                                           _oz._   6

  * TIN, (grain, or granulated tin,)                        _oz._  12

  * TIN FOIL, metallic tin rolled to thin laminas or
  sheets like paper,                                        _oz._  12

  * TURMERIC, the root of a vegetable,                      _oz._   3

  * UMBER, a brown earth that becomes nearly black by
  burning,                                                  _oz._   3

  * VENICE TURPENTINE,                                      _oz._   6

  * VERMILION, a sulphuret of mercury, is sometimes
  found native, but may be procured by grinding sulphur
  and mercury together, and heating them, first in an open
  vessel, till the mixture takes a violet colour; and
  afterward in a flask  or matrass,                         _oz._  12

  * WHITING, (Spanish white) refined,                       _lb._  12

  * YELLOW OCHRE, (spruce yellow) an oxide of iron,         _lb._  12

  * ZINC (spelter) a metal of which, with copper, brass
  is made,                                                  _oz._   3





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