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Title: Bridge Axioms and Laws
Author: Elwell, J. B.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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BRIDGE AXIOMS AND LAWS

WITH THE CHANGE THE SUIT CALL

REVISED AND EXPLAINED

BY

J. B. ELWELL

_Author of "Elwell on Bridge," "Advanced Bridge," "Bridge Tournament
Hands," "Bridge Lessons," etc._

[Illustration: spade symbol]

NEW YORK

E. P. DUTTON & COMPANY

31 WEST TWENTY-THIRD STREET

1907

_Copyright_, 1907

BY E. P. DUTTON & CO.

_The Plimpton Press Norwood Mass. U.S.A._

[Illustration: Bridge Axioms]

We not for you our ink on axioms spend, They're but harmless barbs
directed at your friend.



BRIDGE AXIOMS


The best Bridge players are undoubtedly those who can draw inferences
quickly and correctly.

       *       *       *       *       *

Observation is an art enabling one to discover what other people's play
conceals--as well as reveals.

       *       *       *       *       *

Observation always infers, and one inference will lead to another.

       *       *       *       *       *

Each card played speaks through its silence, and its language must be
understood.

       *       *       *       *       *

To converse intelligently through the medium of the cards, each must be
seen as it falls with eyes that grasp its meaning.

       *       *       *       *       *

Failure to note the play of a card is not lack of memory, but lack of
heed.

       *       *       *       *       *

Situations are kaleidoscopic and constant, and success may only be
achieved by being perpetually alert to note them.

       *       *       *       *       *

All time at Bridge should be devoted earnestly to what confronts a
player, not to what is past.

       *       *       *       *       *

It is better not to play at all, than to play without earnestness.

       *       *       *       *       *

One careful game is worth any number of slipshod, careless efforts
which are disconcerting to your partner, and the delight of your
adversaries.

       *       *       *       *       *

Bridge abounds with situations which must be learned.

       *       *       *       *       *

Promptness in making a conclusion is a mental inspiration as well as an
aid to expeditious play.

       *       *       *       *       *

Hap-hazard play, first from one suit and then from another, will not
induce a successful campaign in Bridge.

       *       *       *       *       *

Haste and waste are anti-types in Bridge, as they are in everything.

       *       *       *       *       *

To improve your Bridge, theory and practice must go hand in hand.

Bridge is a game of which much is learned through the mistakes made and
heeded.

       *       *       *       *       *

Do not fail to profit in future games by the mistakes that you discover
in present play.

       *       *       *       *       *

When you see clever plays that are new to you, analyse the motives that
underlie them.

       *       *       *       *       *

The soundest play will sometimes lose, and the worst will sometimes win.

       *       *       *       *       *

Uniform good play, no matter what the luck may be, will ultimately
triumph over bad play.

       *       *       *       *       *

Tricks heedlessly lost mar the successful enjoyment of Bridge.

That you happily did not lose on a hand, is no palliation for the bad
play of which you may have been guilty.

       *       *       *       *       *

Do not overlook the tricks which may be gained by the use of a little
card strategy.

       *       *       *       *       *

Memory is simply a matter of observation and practice.

       *       *       *       *       *

Careful Bridge cultivates memory.

       *       *       *       *       *

What is done with a hand cannot be undone.

       *       *       *       *       *

A successful partnership game must be based on perfect faith and
confidence between partners.

Combined play in Bridge is absolutely essential to success.

       *       *       *       *       *

When you accept a partner, you accept him as he is, not as you might
wish him to be.

       *       *       *       *       *

A trust in your partner's Bridge ability will overcome many obstacles in
the way of drawing inferences.

       *       *       *       *       *

If your partner objects to moving, do not advise him to change.

       *       *       *       *       *

Do not begin by abusing your partner for the make; you practically say
your hand is weak and the situation hopeless.

       *       *       *       *       *

Your partner will play a better game if he does not fear your adverse
criticism.

       *       *       *       *       *

Do not tell your partner, after seeing all the cards, what he should
have done; but think what you would have done in your partner's place.

       *       *       *       *       *

The chronic complainant is a pessimistic partner and a peevish
adversary.

       *       *       *       *       *

One grain of encouragement is worth a pound of scolding in Bridge.

       *       *       *       *       *

If you take advantage of your partner's breach of etiquette, you lay
yourself open to adverse criticism.

The moment that you show subserviency you admit superiority.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cards do not carry with them a license to be unfair or rude.

       *       *       *       *       *

It is more important to inform your partner than to deceive your
adversary.

       *       *       *       *       *

Be generous with your praise of a well played hand.

       *       *       *       *       *

Play the weak hands as interestedly as the strong.

       *       *       *       *       *

Do not criticise at all; but--if you must--criticise fairly.

       *       *       *       *       *

Never call attention to the score after the cards have been dealt.

No matter how cleverly the cards are managed, the player who
underestimates the attention the state of the score demands will
unnecessarily lose many a rubber.

       *       *       *       *       *

The necessity for keeping the score constantly in mind grows upon all
players as their experience in Bridge increases.

       *       *       *       *       *

Know the requisite number of tricks to be taken, both to win and to save
the game.

       *       *       *       *       *

When you are a game behind, do not hesitate to gamble.

       *       *       *       *       *

When you are a game to the good, make none but a conservative and sound
declaration.

When the score is 18 to nothing against you on the first game, or when
you are a game to the good, avoid a doubtful declaration which may
enable the adversaries to win the game on your deal.

       *       *       *       *       *

When the make is passed to you at a score of 24 all on the rubber game,
declare your best suit.

       *       *       *       *       *

When the game is saved, but cannot possibly be won, the seventh trick
should be the objective point.

       *       *       *       *       *

When you cannot reach game, never hazard the odd trick in an attempt to
win two odd.

       *       *       *       *       *

Many times the game can only be won or saved in case the cards lie in a
certain position. Assume that the cards are favourably placed and play
the hand accordingly.

       *       *       *       *       *

When the game is seemingly lost, take the one chance of finding in your
partner's hand the cards that will save it.

       *       *       *       *       *

It is surprising how often a desperate expedient will overcome a
desperate situation.

       *       *       *       *       *

To force luck is to attempt to make it--a most idle task.

       *       *       *       *       *

Human nature tempts mortals to lose more than they can win, sometimes
more than they can afford.

Press good fortune while it lasts and do not linger when it refuses to
smile.

       *       *       *       *       *

If you win with invincible cards, your victory is cheap.

       *       *       *       *       *

Do not ascribe to bad luck the result of bad play.

       *       *       *       *       *

Whoever is favoured by luck may usually take all manner of chances and
succeed.

       *       *       *       *       *

More rubbers are lost by bad makes than by bad plays.

       *       *       *       *       *

Often the result of one hand, which proves nothing, will encourage the
tendency toward unsound makes.

The question "What will be the probable make if I pass?" is of great
assistance in determining the declaration.

       *       *       *       *       *

It is remarkable how many passed "no-trumpers" go astray; and the number
proves the necessity for more cautious passed makes.

       *       *       *       *       *

A good player can take more chances with the make because of his ability
to play the cards properly.

       *       *       *       *       *

No-trump play is an effort to establish and bring in small cards of a
long suit.

       *       *       *       *       *

Many a hand is ruined by careless and hasty play at the first trick.

       *       *       *       *       *

Do not play your adversary's game for him, lend him no aid in
establishing his suit.

       *       *       *       *       *

Take all your finesses against the player who holds an established suit.

       *       *       *       *       *

If, as dealer, you wish to make four tricks in a suit with but three in
sight, give the adversaries a chance to discard.

       *       *       *       *       *

When there are tricks that the adversaries must win, try to make this
necessity a benefit to your hand.

       *       *       *       *       *

Rid yourself of any high card which may interrupt the continuation of
your partner's suit.

       *       *       *       *       *

The dealer's main plan of a trump hand should be to exhaust trumps and
bring in a suit.

       *       *       *       *       *

Be cognisant of what you should accomplish and then decide how best to
do it.

       *       *       *       *       *

Pitfalls in the form of false leads, false cards and clever under-play
should be dug for your adversaries at every opportunity.

       *       *       *       *       *

Too much haste in showing ability to ruff in the weak trump hand
frequently brings disaster.

       *       *       *       *       *

When you are reasonably assured of every trick but one, lead your
remaining trump.

       *       *       *       *       *

As a rule avoid an inclination to ruff in the strong trump hand.

       *       *       *       *       *

Remember that the partner who doubles usually has trump strength, and do
not strew his pathway with obstructions by forcing him.

       *       *       *       *       *

It is unusually bad play to double when you need only an odd trick to
win the game.

       *       *       *       *       *

The card led by your partner is a message of his holding in that suit.

       *       *       *       *       *

Many a rubber is lost which the prompt lead of a high card might have
saved.

It is too late to force when the adversaries hold the remaining trumps
and an established suit.

       *       *       *       *       *

Ruffing with a commanding trump rarely loses a trick and often gains
one.

       *       *       *       *       *

The temptation to over-trump should frequently be resisted.

       *       *       *       *       *

Clear your long suit before you part with your card of re-entry.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cultivate uniformity in your style of play, let there be no remarkable
haste or hesitation in making or passing, and look as cheerful as
possible.

       *       *       *       *       *

Hesitation and mannerisms in Bridge should be carefully avoided.

Emphasise no play of your own, and show no pleasure or displeasure at
any play.

       *       *       *       *       *

Superiority of skill is shown by the play of the cards, not by
mannerisms.

       *       *       *       *       *

Continued hesitancy and nervous indecision are serious faults in Bridge.

       *       *       *       *       *

Make up your mind to do your best with the cards that have been dealt
you.

       *       *       *       *       *

The occupant of the "high-chair" usually has a monopoly for giving
advice.

       *       *       *       *       *

Let your manner be uniformly such that no one can tell from it whether
you are winning or losing.

       *       *       *       *       *

Play Bridge with an eloquent silence; it will command both respect and
admiration.

       *       *       *       *       *

An occasional mistake is preferable to an irritating delay.

       *       *       *       *       *

Slow play is, more or less, a habit. Its effect amounts to a fault.

       *       *       *       *       *

When there is an unusual distribution of the cards, remarks are
superfluous.

       *       *       *       *       *

Indecision may tell your adversaries exactly what they are most eager to
know.

Deliberation at the beginning of a hand is permissible and should be
encouraged.

       *       *       *       *       *

The player who interrupts the game to discuss the play should be
ostracised from the card room.

       *       *       *       *       *

Make no overt remarks during the play which may tend to give the
adversaries information.

       *       *       *       *       *

It is usually the inexperienced player who offers an astonishing amount
of gratuitous and un-sought-for advice.

       *       *       *       *       *

It is often difficult to refrain from showing pleasure at the
accomplishment of a desired purpose, but consider that undue elation is
most aggravating to the adversaries.

       *       *       *       *       *

Post-mortems have their interest and, as a rule, are unmistakably
convincing.

       *       *       *       *       *

Do not venture upon a post-mortem unless you are certain of what the
scalpel is going to reveal.

       *       *       *       *       *

Do not continue to talk of harassing details when another hand is
awaiting play.

       *       *       *       *       *

General rules are formulated as an assistance to intelligent play.

       *       *       *       *       *

Many brilliant plays are made in contravention to rules.

       *       *       *       *       *

Certain laws that govern the technicalities are absolute, but rules in
general are not the masters of Bridge.

       *       *       *       *       *

Rules should be considered second to circumstances and to the fall of
the cards.

       *       *       *       *       *

There are hands in Bridge which may be said to play themselves.

       *       *       *       *       *

All Bridge penalties should be strictly enforced.

       *       *       *       *       *

You gather the cards when your partner takes the first trick.

       *       *       *       *       *

Do not ask to have the cards placed unless it is solely for your own
information.

A player has not the right to have the cards placed after they have been
touched for the purpose of gathering them.

       *       *       *       *       *

It is unfair to revoke purposely, or to make a second revoke in order to
conceal the first.

       *       *       *       *       *

The revoking side cannot win the game on that hand, nor score more than
28 points.

       *       *       *       *       *

Clubs is a safer declaration, holding four with two honours, than
spades, when but one or two are held without an honour.

       *       *       *       *       *

Luck is a false friend and only stays with you until you are in
trouble.

A poor player is most a poor player when he knows not that he is a poor
player.

       *       *       *       *       *

Lost tricks yield a crop of experience attained at the expense of
rubbers.

       *       *       *       *       *

Inattention is a companion that will never travel alone.

       *       *       *       *       *

People who find it easy to decide for friends find it hard to decide for
themselves.

       *       *       *       *       *

People who have lots of advice to give dislike to take any.

       *       *       *       *       *

The man who plays Bridge when he is angry is sure to make a mistake.

There is some hope for the player who discovers he can be mistaken.

       *       *       *       *       *

Improvement comes from avoiding other people's mistakes.

       *       *       *       *       *

He who plays the best talks the least of what he is doing.

       *       *       *       *       *

Don't spend time grieving over a lost rubber that should be used in
playing the next.

       *       *       *       *       *

Sometimes one hasty play will overthrow the results of a carefully
planned game.

       *       *       *       *       *

Discouragement should make the player more resolute.

       *       *       *       *       *

Preserve us from the bore who insists on turning conversation into
argument.

       *       *       *       *       *

It is the critical who are most sensitive to criticism.

       *       *       *       *       *

The best way to deal with bad luck is to bear it gracefully.

       *       *       *       *       *

The best players are always patient with the novice.

       *       *       *       *       *

There are those who teach one Bridge because they play so badly.

       *       *       *       *       *

Many people are so busy playing that they don't pause to think how they
are playing.

       *       *       *       *       *

Many call "bad luck" that which is only neglect to improve opportunity.

He who is too busy to consider his faults will never take time to mend
them.

       *       *       *       *       *

Those who think the least have the most time to criticise.

       *       *       *       *       *

The expertness of the player who is at the pains to announce it may be
doubted.

       *       *       *       *       *

Some people ask for criticism but grow angry if it is adverse.

       *       *       *       *       *

It is not so much your Bridge knowledge, but the use you make of it,
that counts.

       *       *       *       *       *

The novice plays before he thinks, the expert thinks before he plays.

The silent player, like the dog that bites without growling, gets the
best hold on the game.

       *       *       *       *       *

There are people so absorbed in their own Bridge perfection that it is
impossible for them to see merit in anyone else.

       *       *       *       *       *

A good way to succeed in Bridge is to observe what is most successful
with others.

[Illustration:

    If perchance a friend you crush 'neath the arrow's weight,
    Then swiftly to the author blame your undeservèd fate.
]



THE LAWS OF BRIDGE

_Revised_ 1907


THE RUBBER

The partners first winning two games win the rubber. If the first two
games be won by the same partners, the third game is not played.

       *       *       *       *       *


SCORING

A game consists of thirty points obtained by tricks alone, exclusive of
any points counted for honours, Chicane, or Slam.

       *       *       *       *       *

Every hand is played out, and any points in excess of thirty points
necessary for the game are counted.

       *       *       *       *       *

Each trick above six counts two points when spades are trumps, four
points when clubs are trumps, six points when diamonds are trumps, eight
points when hearts are trumps, and twelve points when there are no
trumps.

       *       *       *       *       *

Honours are ace, king, queen, knave, and ten of the trump suit; or the
aces when no-trump is declared.

       *       *       *       *       *

Honours are credited to the original holders and are valued as follows:

        +----------------------------------------------+--------+
        |Declaration                   |[S]|[C]|[D]|[H]| No     |
        |                                              | Trumps |
        +------------------------------+---+---+---+---+--------+
        |         Each Trick above Six |  2|  4|  6|  8|     12 |
        |        {3 Honours......      |  4|  8| 12| 16|     30 |
        |        {4 "      ......      |  8| 16| 24| 32|     40 |
        |HONOURS {4 " (All in one hand)| 16| 32| 48| 64|    100 |
        |        {5 "      ......      | 10| 20| 30| 40|     -- |
        |        {5 " (4 in one hand)  | 18| 36| 54| 72|     -- |
        |        {5 " (All in one hand)| 20| 40| 60| 80|     -- |
        |           Chicane.....       |  4|  8| 12| 16|     -- |
        +------------------------------+---+---+---+---+--------|
        | Rubber 100, Grand Slam 40, Little Slam 20,            |
        +-------------------------------------------------------+

         ([S]=spades/[C]=clubs/[D]=diamonds/[H]=hearts.
              Note of etext transcriber.)

       *       *       *       *       *

If a player and his partner make thirteen tricks, independently of any
tricks gained by the revoke penalty, they score Grand Slam and add forty
points to their honour count.

       *       *       *       *       *

Little Slam is twelve tricks similarly scored, and adds twenty points to
the honour count.

Chicane (one hand void of trumps) is equal in value to three honours,
_i.e._, if partner of player having Chicane scores honours he adds the
value of three honours to his honour score, while, if the adversaries
score honours, it deducts an equal value from their honour score. Double
Chicane (a player and his partner both void of trumps) is equal in value
to four honours, and the value thereof may be deducted from the total
honour score of the adversaries.

       *       *       *       *       *

The value of honours, Slam, Little Slam, or Chicane, is in no wise
affected by doubling or re-doubling.

       *       *       *       *       *

At the conclusion of a rubber the scores for tricks, honours, Chicane,
and Slam, obtained by each side, are added, and one hundred points are
added to the score of the winners of the rubber. The difference between
the completed scores is the number of points won or lost by the winners
of the rubber.

       *       *       *       *       *

If an erroneous score affecting tricks be proven, such mistake must be
corrected prior to the conclusion of the game in which it has occurred,
and such game shall not be considered as concluded until the following
deal has been completed and the trump declared, unless it be that the
game is the last one of the rubber,--then the score is subject to
inquiry until an agreement between the sides (as to the value of the
rubber) shall have been reached.

       *       *       *       *       *

If an erroneous score affecting honours, Chicane, or Slam be proven,
such mistake may be corrected at any time before the score of the rubber
has been made up and agreed upon.

       *       *       *       *       *


CUTTING

In cutting, the ace is the lowest card and, as between cards of
otherwise equal value, the lowest is the heart, next the diamond, next
the club, and highest the spade.

       *       *       *       *       *

In all cases every player must cut from the same pack.

Should a player expose more than one card, he must cut again.

       *       *       *       *       *


FORMING TABLES

The prior right of playing is with those first in the room. If there are
more than four candidates for seats at a table, the privilege of playing
is decided by cutting. The four who cut the lowest cards play first.

       *       *       *       *       *

After the table is formed, the players cut to decide on partners; the
two lowest play against the two highest. The lowest is the dealer, who
has choice of cards and seats, and who, having once made his selection,
must abide by it.

Six players constitute a full table, and no player shall have a right to
cut into a game which is complete.

       *       *       *       *       *

When there are more than six candidates, the right to succeed any player
who may retire is acquired by announcing the desire to do so, and such
announcement shall constitute a prior right to the first vacancy.

       *       *       *       *       *


CUTTING OUT

At the end of a rubber, should admission be claimed by one or two
candidates, the player or players having played a greater number of
consecutive rubbers shall withdraw; but when all have played the same
number, they must cut to decide upon the outgoers; the highest are out.

       *       *       *       *       *


RIGHTS OF ENTRY

A candidate desiring to enter a table must declare such wish before any
player at the table cuts a card, either for the purpose of beginning a
new rubber or of cutting out.

       *       *       *       *       *

In the formation of new tables, those candidates who have neither
belonged to nor played at any other table have the prior right of entry.
Those who have already played decide their right of admission by
cutting.

       *       *       *       *       *

A player who cuts into one table while belonging to another shall
forfeit his prior right of re-entry into the latter, unless by doing so
he enables three candidates to form a fresh table. In this event he may
signify his intention of returning to his original table, and his place
at the new one can be filled.

       *       *       *       *       *

Should any player quit the table during the progress of a rubber, he
may, with the consent of the other three players, appoint a substitute
during his absence; but such appointment shall become void with the
conclusion of the rubber, and shall not in any way affect the
substitute's rights.

       *       *       *       *       *

If anyone break up a table, the remaining players have a prior right to
play at other tables.


SHUFFLING

The pack must neither be shuffled below the table nor so the face of any
card be seen.

       *       *       *       *       *

The dealer's partner must collect the cards for the ensuing deal and he
has the first right to shuffle the cards. Each player has the right to
shuffle subsequently. The dealer has the right to shuffle last, but
should a card or cards be seen during his shuffling, or whilst giving
the pack to be cut, he must re-shuffle.

       *       *       *       *       *

Each player, after shuffling, must place the cards properly collected
and face downward to the left of the player next to deal.


THE DEAL

Each player deals in his turn; the order of dealing goes to the left.

       *       *       *       *       *

The player on the dealer's right cuts the pack, and in dividing it he
must not leave fewer than four cards in either packet; if in cutting or
in replacing one of the two packets a card be exposed, or if there be
any confusion of the cards or a doubt as to the exact place in which the
pack was divided, there must be a fresh cut.

       *       *       *       *       *

When the player whose duty it is to cut has once separated the pack he
can neither re-shuffle nor re-cut the cards.

Should the dealer shuffle the cards, after the pack is cut, the pack
must be cut again.

       *       *       *       *       *

The fifty-two cards shall be dealt face downward. The deal is not
completed until the last card has been dealt face downward.

       *       *       *       *       *

THERE IS NO MISDEAL.

       *       *       *       *       *

A NEW DEAL

There must be a new deal--

     a If the cards be not dealt into four packets, one at a time, and
     in regular rotation, beginning at the dealer's left.

     b If, during a deal, or during the play of a hand, the pack be
     proven incorrect or imperfect.

     c If any card be faced in the pack.

     d If any player have dealt to him a greater number of cards than
     thirteen.

     e If the dealer deal two cards at once and then deal a third before
     correcting the error.

     f If the dealer omit to have the pack cut and the adversaries call
     attention to the fact prior to the conclusion of the deal and
     before looking at their cards.

     g If the last card do not come in its regular order to the dealer.

       *       *       *       *       *

There may be a new deal--

     a If the dealer or his partner expose a card. The eldest hand may
     claim a new deal.

     b If either adversary expose a card. The dealer or his partner may
     claim a new deal.

     c If, before fifty-one cards are dealt, the dealer should look at
     any card. His adversaries have the right to see it, and the eldest
     hand may exact a new deal.

     d If, in dealing, one of the last cards be exposed by the dealer or
     his partner, and the deal is completed before there is reasonable
     time for the eldest hand to decide as to a new deal. But in all
     other cases such penalties must be claimed prior to the completion
     of the deal.

       *       *       *       *       *

The claim for a new deal by reason of a card exposed during the deal may
not be made by a player who has looked at any of his cards. If a new
deal does not take place, the card exposed during the deal cannot be
called.

       *       *       *       *       *

Should three players have their right number of cards, and should the
fourth, not being dummy, have less than thirteen and not discover such
deficiency until he has played any of his cards, the deal stands good;
should he have played, he is answerable for any revoke he may have made
as if the missing card or cards had been in his hand. The other pack
may be searched for the missing card or cards.

       *       *       *       *       *

If during the play of a deal a pack be proven incorrect or imperfect,
such proof renders only the current deal void, and does not affect any
prior score. The dealer must deal again.

       *       *       *       *       *

Any one dealing with the adversaries' cards must be corrected before the
play of the first card, otherwise the deal stands good. If any one deals
when it is the turn of an adversary, such error must be corrected before
the cards are dealt for the following deal.

A player can neither shuffle, cut, nor deal for his partner without the
permission of his adversaries.

       *       *       *       *       *


DECLARING TRUMPS

The trump is declared. No card is turned.

     a The dealer may either make the trump or pass the declaration to
     his partner.

     b If the declaration be passed to partner, he must make the trump.

       *       *       *       *       *

Should the dealer's partner make the trump without receiving permission
from the dealer, the eldest hand may demand,

     1st. That the trump shall stand, or 2d. That there shall be a new
     deal.

       *       *       *       *       *

But if any declaration as to doubling, or not doubling, shall have been
made, or if a new deal be not claimed, the declaration wrongly made
shall stand. The eldest hand is the player on the left of the dealer.

       *       *       *       *       *

Should the dealer's partner pass the declaration to the dealer, it shall
be the right of the eldest hand to claim a new deal or to compel the
offending player to declare the trump; provided, that no declaration as
to doubling has been made.

       *       *       *       *       *

If either of the dealer's adversaries make or pass the declaration, the
dealer may, after looking at his hand, either claim a new deal or
proceed as if no declaration had been made.

A declaration once made cannot be altered.

       *       *       *       *       *


DOUBLING, RE-DOUBLING, ETC.

The effect of doubling, re-doubling, and so on, is that the value of
each trick above six is doubled, quadrupled, and so on.

       *       *       *       *       *

After the trump declaration has been made by the dealer or his partner,
their adversaries have the right to double. The eldest hand has the
first right. If he does not wish to double, he may ask his partner, "May
I lead?" His partner shall answer, "Yes," or "I double."

       *       *       *       *       *

If either of their adversaries elect to double, the dealer and his
partner have the right to re-double. The player who has declared the
trump shall have the first right. He may say, "I re-double" or
"Satisfied." Should he say the latter, his partner may re-double.

       *       *       *       *       *

If the dealer or his partner elect to re-double, their adversaries shall
have the right to again double. The original doubler has the first
right.

       *       *       *       *       *

If the right-hand adversary of the dealer double before his partner has
asked "May I lead?" the declarer of the trump shall have the right to
say whether or not the double shall stand. If he decide that the double
shall stand, the process of re-doubling may continue as described
above.

       *       *       *       *       *

The process of re-doubling may be continued indefinitely.[A] The first
right to continue the re-doubling on behalf of a partnership belongs to
that player who has last re-doubled. Should he, however, express himself
satisfied, the right to continue the re-doubling passes to his partner.
Should any player re-double out of turn, the adversary who last doubled
shall decide whether or not such double shall stand. If it is decided
that the re-double shall stand, the process of re-doubling may continue
as described in this and foregoing laws. If any double or re-double out
of turn be not accepted, there shall be no further doubling in that
hand. Any consultation between partners as to doubling or re-doubling
will entitle the maker of the trump or the eldest hand, without
consultation, to a new deal.

    [A] In some clubs, doubling ceases whenever the value of the
        odd trick exceeds one hundred points; in other clubs the
        limit is placed at two hundred points.

       *       *       *       *       *

If the eldest hand lead before the doubling be completed, his partner
may re-double only with the consent of the adversary who last doubled;
but such lead shall not affect the right of either adversary to double.

       *       *       *       *       *

When the question, "May I lead?" has been answered in the affirmative,
or when the player who has the last right to continue the doubling
expresses himself satisfied, the play shall begin.

       *       *       *       *       *

Should the eldest hand lead without asking permission, his partner may
double, but only if the maker of the trump consent.

       *       *       *       *       *

Should the right-hand adversary of the dealer ask permission to lead,
the eldest hand does not thereby lose his right to double. Should the
right-hand adversary of the dealer double before his partner has asked
"May I lead?" the maker of the trump shall have the right to say whether
or not the double shall stand. If he decide that the double shall
stand, the process of re-doubling may continue.

       *       *       *       *       *

If the right-hand adversary of the dealer lead out of turn, the maker of
the trump may call a suit from the eldest hand, who may only double if
the maker of the trump consent.

       *       *       *       *       *

A declaration as to doubling or re-doubling once made cannot be altered.


DUMMY

As soon as the eldest hand has led, the dealer's partner shall place his
cards face upward on the table, and the duty of playing the cards from
that hand shall devolve upon the dealer, unassisted by his partner.

Before exposing his cards, the dealer's partner has all the rights of a
player, but after his cards have been shown the dealer's partner takes
no part whatever in the play, except that he has the right----

     a To ask the dealer whether he has none of the suit in which he may
     have renounced.

     b To ask the dealer when called upon to play his highest or lowest
     card whether he has conformed to the penalty.

     c To call the dealer's attention to the fact that a trick has not
     been completed.

     d To correct the claim of either adversary to a penalty to which
     the latter is not entitled.

     e To call attention to the fact that a trick has been erroneously
     taken by either side.

     f To participate in the discussion of any disputed question of fact
     which may arise between the dealer and either adversary.

     g To correct an erroneous score.

       *       *       *       *       *

Should the dealer's partner call attention to any other incident of the
play, in consequence of which any penalty might be exacted, the fact of
his so doing precludes the dealer exacting such penalty.

       *       *       *       *       *

If the dealer's partner, by touching a card or otherwise, suggest the
play of a card from dummy, either of the adversaries may, but without
consultation, call upon the dealer to play or not to play the card
suggested.

       *       *       *       *       *

Dummy is not liable to the penalty for a revoke; and if he should
revoke and the error be not discovered until the trick is turned and
quitted, the trick stands good.

       *       *       *       *       *

A card from the dealer's hand is not played until actually quitted; but
should the dealer name or touch a card from the dummy hand, such card is
considered as played, unless the dealer in touching the card or cards
says, "I arrange," or words to that effect.

       *       *       *       *       *


CARDS EXPOSED BEFORE PLAY

If, after the deal has been completed and before the trump declaration
has been made, either the dealer or his partner expose a card from his
hand, the eldest hand may, without consulting with his partner, claim a
new deal.

If, after the deal has been completed and before a card is led, any
player shall expose a card, his partner shall forfeit any right to
double or re-double which he otherwise would have been entitled to
exercise; and in case of a card being so exposed by the leader's
partner, the dealer may either call the card or require the leader not
to lead the suit of the exposed card.

       *       *       *       *       *


CARDS EXPOSED DURING PLAY

All cards exposed by the dealer's adversaries are liable to be called,
and such cards must be left face upward on the table.

       *       *       *       *       *

The following are exposed cards:

     1st. Two or more cards played at once.

     2d. Any card dropped with its face upward, or in any way exposed on
     or above the table, even though snatched up so quickly that no one
     can name it.

     3d. Every card so held by a player that his partner can see any
     portion of its face.

       *       *       *       *       *

A card dropped on the floor or elsewhere below the table is not an
exposed card.

       *       *       *       *       *

If two or more cards be played at once, by either of the dealer's
adversaries, the dealer shall have the right to call which one he
pleases to the current trick, and the other card or cards shall remain
face upward on the table and may be called at any time.

       *       *       *       *       *

If, without waiting for his partner to play, either of the dealer's
adversaries should play on the table the best card, or lead one which is
a winning card, as against the dealer and dummy, or should continue
(without waiting for his partner to play) to lead several such cards,
the dealer may demand that the partner of the player in fault win, if he
can, the first, or any other of these tricks, and the other cards thus
improperly played are exposed cards.

       *       *       *       *       *

If either or both of the dealer's adversaries throw his or their cards
on the table face upwards, such cards are exposed and are liable to be
called; but if either adversary retain his hand he cannot be forced to
abandon it. If, however, the dealer should say, "I have the rest," or
any other words indicating that the remaining tricks are his, the
adversaries of the dealer are not liable to have any of their cards
called should they expose them, believing the dealer's claim to be true,
should it subsequently prove false.

       *       *       *       *       *

If a player who has rendered himself liable to have the highest or
lowest of a suit called fail to play as directed, or if, when called on
to lead one suit, lead another, having in his hand one or more cards of
the suit demanded, or, if called upon to win or lose a trick, fail to do
so when he can, he is liable to the penalty for revoke, unless such
play be corrected before the trick is turned and quitted.

       *       *       *       *       *


LEADS OUT OF TURN

If either of the dealer's adversaries lead out of turn, the dealer may
call the card erroneously led, or may call a suit when it is the turn of
either adversary to lead.

       *       *       *       *       *

If the dealer lead out of turn, either from his own hand or dummy, he
incurs no penalty; but he may not rectify the error after the second
hand has played.

       *       *       *       *       *

If any player lead out of turn and the other three follow him, the trick
is complete and the error cannot be rectified; but if only the second,
or second and third, play to the false lead, their cards may be taken
back; there is no penalty against anyone except the original offender,
who, if he be one of the dealer's adversaries, may be penalised as
provided above.

       *       *       *       *       *

In no case can a player be compelled to play a card which would oblige
him to revoke.

       *       *       *       *       *

The call of an exposed card may be repeated at every trick until such
card has been played.

       *       *       *       *       *

If a player called on to lead a suit have none of it, the penalty is
paid.


CARDS PLAYED IN ERROR

Should the third hand not have played and the fourth play before his
partner, the latter (not being dummy or dealer) may be called upon to
play his highest or lowest card of the suit played, or to win or lose
the trick.

       *       *       *       *       *

If anyone, not being dummy, omit playing to a former trick and such
error be not corrected until he has played to the next, the adversaries
may claim a new deal; should they decide that the deal stands good, the
surplus card at the end of the hand is considered to have been played to
the imperfect trick, but does not constitute a revoke therein.

If anyone (except dummy) play two cards to the same trick, or mix a card
with a trick to which it does not belong, and the mistake be not
discovered until the hand is played out, he is answerable for any
consequent revokes he may have made. If during the play of the hand the
error be detected, the tricks may be counted face downward, in order to
ascertain whether there be among them a card too many; should this be
the case, the trick which contains a surplus card may be examined and
the card restored to its original holder, who (not being dummy) shall be
liable for any revoke he may meanwhile have made.


THE REVOKE

A revoke occurs when a player (other than dummy), holding one or more
cards of the suit led, plays a card of a different suit. The penalty for
a revoke takes precedence of all other counts.

       *       *       *       *       *

A revoke is established if the trick in which it occurs be turned and
quitted, _i.e._, the hand removed from the trick after it has been
gathered and placed face downward on the table; or if either the
revoking player or his partner, whether in his right turn or otherwise,
have led or played to the following trick.

       *       *       *       *       *

The penalty for a revoke is three tricks taken from the revoking player
and added to those of the adversaries.

       *       *       *       *       *

The penalty is applicable only to the score of the game in which it
occurs.

       *       *       *       *       *

Under no circumstances can the revoking side score game, in that hand.
Whatever their previous score may have been, the side revoking cannot
attain a higher score toward game than twenty-eight.

       *       *       *       *       *

A player may ask his partner whether he has not a card of the suit which
he has renounced; should the question be asked before the trick is
turned and quitted, subsequent turning and quitting does not establish
a revoke, and the error may be corrected unless the question be answered
in the negative or unless the revoking player or his partner has led or
played to the following trick.

       *       *       *       *       *

If a player correct his mistake in time to save a revoke, any player or
players who have followed him may withdraw their cards and substitute
others, and the cards so withdrawn are not exposed cards. If the player
in fault be one of the dealer's adversaries, the card played in error is
an exposed card, and the dealer can call it whenever he pleases; or he
may require the offender to play his highest or lowest card of the suit
to the trick in which he has renounced.

If the player in fault be the dealer, the eldest hand may require him to
play the highest or lowest card of the suit in which he has renounced,
provided both adversaries of the dealer have played to the current
trick; but this penalty cannot be exacted against the dealer when he is
fourth in hand, nor can it be enforced at all from dummy.

       *       *       *       *       *

At the end of a hand the claimants of a revoke may search all the
tricks. If the cards have been mixed the claim may be urged and proved
if possible; but no proof is necessary, and the revoke is established
if, after it has been claimed, the accused player or his partner mix the
cards before they have been sufficiently examined by the adversaries.

       *       *       *       *       *

A revoke must be claimed before the cards have been cut for the
following deal.

       *       *       *       *       *

Should the players on both sides subject themselves to the revoke
penalty neither can win the game by that hand.

       *       *       *       *       *

The revoke penalty may be claimed for as many revokes as occur during a
hand; but the accumulated penalty shall in no event exceed thirteen
tricks.

       *       *       *       *       *


GENERAL RULES

There should not be any consultation between partners as to the
enforcement of penalties. If they do so consult, the penalty is paid.

       *       *       *       *       *

Once a trick is complete, turned, and quitted, it must not be looked at
until the end of the hand.

       *       *       *       *       *

Any player during the play of a trick, or after the four cards are
played and before they are touched for the purpose of gathering them
together, may demand that the cards be placed before their respective
players.

       *       *       *       *       *

If either of the dealer's adversaries, prior to his partner's playing,
should call attention to the trick, either by saying it is his, or,
without being requested so to do, by naming his card or drawing it
toward him, the dealer may require that opponent's partner to play his
highest or lowest card of the suit led, or to win or lose the trick.

       *       *       *       *       *

Either of the dealer's adversaries may call his partner's attention to
the fact that he is about to lead out of turn, but if he make any
unauthorised reference to any incident of the play the dealer may call a
suit from the adversary whose turn it is next to lead.

       *       *       *       *       *

In all cases where a penalty has been incurred, the offender is bound to
give reasonable time for the decision of his adversaries; but if a
wrong penalty be demanded none can be enforced.

       *       *       *       *       *

The partner of the eldest hand may inform him that their adversaries
have incurred a penalty, but may not give any further information.
Should he suggest the penalty, or demand the enforcement of it, such
action shall be deemed a consultation, and no penalty can be enforced.

       *       *       *       *       *


NEW CARDS

Unless a pack be imperfect, no player shall have the right to call for
one new pack. If fresh cards are demanded, two packs must be furnished
and paid for by the player who has demanded them. If they are furnished
during a rubber, the adversaries shall have their choice of new cards.
If it is the beginning of a new rubber, the dealer, whether he or one of
his adversaries be the party calling for the new cards, shall have the
choice. New cards must be called for before the pack is cut for a new
deal.

       *       *       *       *       *

A card or cards torn or marked must be replaced by agreement or new
cards furnished.

       *       *       *       *       *


BYSTANDERS

While a bystander, by agreement among the players, may decide any
question, yet he must on no account say anything unless appealed to; and
if he make any remark which calls attention to an oversight affecting
the score, or to the exaction of a penalty, he is liable to be called on
by the players to pay the stakes on that rubber.


SPADE CONVENTION

I.--Where players agree "not to play spades" the rule is, that if the
spade make is not doubled, the hand shall be played where either side is
20 or over.

II.--If the third hand player ask, "Shall I play?" or should he lead out
of turn, or should the eldest hand lead without asking permission to
play, the spade maker may take two on the score or may call a lead and
require the hand to be played out.

III.--Should the third hand player double before his partner asks
permission to play, the spade maker may decide whether the double shall
stand or not; but the hand must be played out.


ETIQUETTE

It has been truthfully said that there is no game in which slight
intimations can convey so much information as that of Bridge. In justice
to those who, by their manner, give information, it may be stated that
most of the apparent unfairness at the Bridge table is unintentional.
Hesitation and mannerisms, however, cannot be too carefully avoided;
such a breach of etiquette is an offence for which the adversaries have
no redress except perhaps a refusal to continue the play.

       *       *       *       *       *

It is obviously a greater fault to take advantage of information thus
given. A play in your judgment may be perfectly sound, but you leave
yourself open to criticism if it is in any way contingent on information
obtained from your partner's manner.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cultivate uniformity in your style of play; let there be no remarkable
haste or hesitation in making or passing; try always to use the same
formula of words, and do not call attention to the score after the cards
have been dealt.

       *       *       *       *       *

Remember that any undue hesitancy in regard to doubling will deprive a
fair-minded partner of the privilege of so doing. Such delays are too
frequent at spade declarations.

Emphasise no play of your own and show no pleasure or displeasure at any
other play.

       *       *       *       *       *

Do not ask to have the cards placed unless it is solely for your own
information.

       *       *       *       *       *

It is an offence either to revoke purposely or to make a second revoke
in order to conceal the first.

       *       *       *       *       *

The dealer's partner should not call attention to the score nor to any
card or cards that he or the other players hold, and neither should he
leave his seat for the purpose of watching his partner's play.


                       THE DECLARATION

    +--------------------------------+-------------------+
    | HOLDING                        |                   |
    +--------------------------------+-------------------+
    | Four Aces                      |                   |
    | Three Aces                     |                   |
    | Two Aces and a Guarded         |                   |
    |   King or Queen                |                   |
    | One Ace and a Guarded King     |                   |
    |   or Queen in three other      |                   |
    |   suits.                       | Declare No-Trump. |
    | One Established Black Suit     |                   |
    |   (Ace King Queen X X X)       |                   |
    |   and one other Ace            |                   |
    | With a hand protected in three |                   |
    |   suits, provided it is a King |                   |
    |   or an Ace stronger than an   |                   |
    |   average hand.                |                   |
    +--------------------------------+-------------------+
    | HOLDING                        |                   |
    +--------------------------------+-------------------+
    |Holding six cards with an       |                   |
    |  honour                        | Usually declare   |
    |Holding five cards with two     | a Red             |
    |  honours                       | Trump             |
    |Holding four cards with three   |                   |
    |  good honours                  |                   |
    +--------------------------------+-------------------+

Avoid a weak diamond make at a love score or when behind on the game.

       *       *       *       *       *

Declare clubs at a score of 18 or more when reasonably assured of the
game.

       *       *       *       *       *

Declare spades at a score of 24 or more when reasonably assured of the
game.

       *       *       *       *       *


PASSED MAKES

Be cautious about declaring no-trumps when weak in the red suits.

       *       *       *       *       *

Avoid all weak red makes on partner's pass.

Declare clubs instead of spades when you hold but one or two spades and
a club suit of four or more cards including two honours.

       *       *       *       *       *

Declare your best suit at a score of 24 all on the rubber game.


          ORIGINAL LEADS AGAINST A DECLARED TRUMP

    +-----------------+-----------------------------+
    | LEAD            |   FROM                      |
    +-----------------+-----------------------------+
    | Ace             |     Ace and others          |
    |                 |     Ace, King only          |
    +-----------------+-----------------------------+
    | King            |     Ace, King, Queen        |
    |                 |     Ace, King X             |
    +-----------------+-----------------------------+
    | Queen           |     Queen, Jack, ten        |
    |                 |     Queen, Jack, nine       |
    +-----------------+-----------------------------+
    | Jack            |     Jack, ten X             |
    |                 |     Jack X                  |
    +-----------------+-----------------------------+
    | Ten             |     King, Jack, ten         |
    |                 |     Ten X                   |
    +-----------------+-----------------------------+
    | Nine            |     Nine X                  |
    +-----------------+-----------------------------+
    | Top Card        |     All short suits except  |
    |                 |     King X X or Queen X X   |
    +-----------------+-----------------------------+
    | 4th Best        |     All other combinations  |
    +-----------------+-----------------------------+
     X indicates others.


               THE ORIGINAL LEAD AT NO-TRUMP

    +---------------+-------------------------------------+
    | LEAD          |             HOLDING                 |
    +---------------+-------------------------------------+
    | Ace           |  Ace, Queen, Jack, and others, with |
    |               |    a re-entry card.                 |
    |               |  Ace, with 7 or more others.        |
    |               |  Ace, Queen, with 5 others.         |
    |               |  Ace, Jack, with 5 others.          |
    +---------------+-------------------------------------+
    | King          |  Ace, King, Queen, and others.      |
    |               |  Ace, King, Jack, and others.       |
    |               |  Ace, King, ten, and 3 others, with |
    |               |    a re-entry card.                 |
    |               |  Ace, King, and 5 or more others.   |
    |               |  King, Queen, Jack, and others.     |
    |               |  King, Queen, ten, and others.      |
    |               |  King, Queen, and 5 others.         |
    +---------------+-------------------------------------+
    | Queen         |  Queen, Jack, ten, and others.      |
    |               |  Queen, Jack, nine, and others.     |
    |               |  Ace, Queen, Jack, and others. No   |
    |               |    card of re-entry.                |
    +---------------+-------------------------------------+
    | Jack          |  Jack, ten, nine, and others.       |
    +---------------+-------------------------------------+
    | Ten           |  King, Jack, ten, and others.       |
    +---------------+-------------------------------------+
    | Highest or    |  A weak long suit containing no     |
    | Second        |  honour higher than ten.            |
    | Best          |                                     |
    +---------------+-------------------------------------+
    | 4th Best      |  Form other combinations.           |
    +---------------+-------------------------------------+


                  UNBLOCKING AT NO-TRUMP

    +----------------+-----------------+-------------+
    |    HOLDING     |  ON PARTNER'S   |   PLAY      |
    |                |     LEAD OF     |             |
    +----------------+-----------------+-------------+
    |King X          |Ace              |King         |
    +----------------+-----------------+-------------+
    |Ace X           |King             |Ace          |
    +----------------+-----------------+-------------+
    |King X          |Queen            |King         |
    +----------------+-----------------+-------------+
    |Queen X X       |King and Ace     |Queen on Ace |
    +----------------+-----------------+-------------+
    |King, Queen X   |Ace              |Queen        |
    +----------------+-----------------+-------------+
    |Queen, Jack X   |Ace              |Jack         |
    +----------------+-----------------+-------------+
    |Queen, Jack X   |King             |Jack         |
    +----------------+-----------------+-------------+
    |King, Queen X   |Jack             |Queen        |
    +----------------+-----------------+-------------+
    |Jack, six, five,|King             |Five         |
    |  two           |                 |             |
    +----------------+-----------------+-------------+
    |Queen, nine,    |King             |Seven        |
    |  seven, three, |                 |             |
    |  two           |                 |             |
    +----------------+-----------------+-------------+


THE CHANGE THE SUIT CALL


"What is new in the game of Bridge?" is a reiterated question of the
day, and the invariable answer is "Nothing, nor does the lack of
innovation tend to simplify the play."

       *       *       *       *       *

All Bridge players have experienced the agony of being forced to discard
a great suit, thoroughly established, on the dealer's lead, owing to the
fact that the partner has made two efforts to establish the suit he
originally opened.

       *       *       *       *       *

Many times this continuation is sound: the leader holds a re-entry
card, and he has secured no information as to his partner's strength
from the early development of the game.

       *       *       *       *       *

It is essential to good play that the dealer's adversaries should each
gain definite knowledge of the others' holding. Any information that a
play can convey is of inestimable help to them and of little or no
benefit to the dealer, who is the master of his own two hands.

       *       *       *       *       *

We all sympathise with that constantly uttered regret, "Oh, partner, if
I had only known that you had that suit," and Bridge players the world
over have felt the need of some conventional play that would indicate
to the original leader an adequate reason for a change of suit.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Change the Suit Call is a new convention designed to overcome this
difficulty, one that will save countless tricks and rubbers, and one
that will tend to minimise the dealer's acknowledged advantage in
playing the two hands.

       *       *       *       *       *

The convention is as follows: _When the original leader's partner has a
great suit, one that is established or one that may be established by a
single lead through the dummy hand, an echo should be made in the suit
led by the dealer._ In other words, an echo in the adversary's suit is a
command to the original leader to abandon his own unestablished suit
and to switch to his partner's declared strength.

       *       *       *       *       *

The idea is of course based on the call for trumps in Whist, in which
game an echo in any plain suit is a command to the partner to lead
trumps. In Bridge it is used principally at no-trump and its application
is limited to an echo on the _dealer's_ lead.

       *       *       *       *       *

The reader will naturally ask, "How, when but two suits have been led,
can I determine which of the two remaining to choose?" The cards in the
leader's hand combined with those in the dummy will usually simplify the
selection. Should the leader hold a re-entry in one of the remaining
suits it is obvious that he has been asked to lead the other. When it
happens that both the leader and the dummy are weak in both suits, the
preference should usually be given to the one in which the combined
hands contain the fewer number of cards.

       *       *       *       *       *

This convention may, moreover, be used to great advantage by the
original leader. How frequently he finds his suit hopelessly against
him. Perhaps he holds no re-entry and the dealer in winning the first
trick false cards. It is then that the original leader can use this echo
to effect, to suggest that his suit should not be returned.

"The Change the Suit Call" may also be employed to some advantage on the
dealer's trump or plain suit lead, to show great strength in one of the
remaining suits, or by the original leader to indicate that the suit
first led is not to be returned; but its main importance is in the
no-trump application.

       *       *       *       *       *

"The Change the Suit Call" is an absolutely sound trick-gaining
proposition, and the successful results obtained from its use must
rapidly establish it as a recognised convention of the game.





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