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Title: English Book-Illustration of To-day - Appreciations of the Work of Living English Illustrators - With Lists of Their Books
Author: Sketchley, Rose Esther Dorothea
Language: English
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English Book-Illustration
of To-day









The four articles and bibliographies contained in this volume
originally appeared in "The Library."

In connection with the bibliographies, I desire to express cordial
thanks to the authorities and attendants of the British Museum, without
whose courtesy and aid, extending over many weeks, it would have been
impossible to bring together the particulars. Most of the artists, too,
have kindly checked and supplemented the entries relating to their
work, but even with the help given me I cannot hope to have produced
exhaustive lists. My thanks are due to the publishers with whom
arrangements have been made for the use of blocks.




NOTE                                                    v

INTRODUCTION                                           xi

I. SOME DECORATIVE ILLUSTRATORS                         1

II. SOME OPEN-AIR ILLUSTRATORS                         30

III. SOME CHARACTER ILLUSTRATORS                       56



I. SOME DECORATIVE ILLUSTRATORS                       121

II. SOME OPEN-AIR ILLUSTRATORS                        132

III. SOME CHARACTER ILLUSTRATORS                      144


INDEX OF ARTISTS                                      174


          FROM                                                    PAGE

"Les Quinze Joies de Mariage"                                      xii

The "Dialogus Creaturarum"                                        xiii

A Venetian Chapbook                                               xvii

The "Rappresentazione di un Miracolo del Corpo di Gesù"          xviii

The "Rappresentazione di S. Cristina"                              xix

"La Nencia da Barberino"                                           xxi

The "Storia di Ippolito Buondelmonti e Dianora Bardi"             xxii

Ingold's "Guldin Spiel"                                           xxiv

The Malermi Bible                                                  xxv

A French Book of Hours                                           xxvii

          FROM                                   BY

"A Farm in Fairyland."                   _Laurence Housman_        xxx

Grimm's "Household Stories."             _Walter Crane_              5

"Undine."                                _Heywood Sumner_            7

"Keats' Poems."                          _R. Anning Bell_            9

"Stories and Fairy Tales."               _A. J. Gaskin_             11

"The Field of Clover."                   _Laurence Housman_  20 and 21

"Cupide and Psyches."                    _Charles Ricketts_         22

"Daphnis and Chloe."                     _Charles Ricketts and
                                          C. H. Shannon_            23

"The Centaur."                           _T. Sturge Moore_          25

"Royal Edinburgh."                       _Sir George Reid_   facing 35

"The Warwickshire Avon."                 _Alfred Parsons_           37

"The Cinque Ports."                      _William Hyde_             42

"Italian Journeys."                      _Joseph Pennell_    facing 45

"The Holyhead Road."                     _C. G. Harper_             49

"The Formal Garden."                     _F. Inigo Thomas_          51

"The Natural History of Selborne."       _E. H. New_                53

"British Deer and their Horns."          _J. G. Millais_            55

"Death and the Ploughman's Wife."        _William Strang_           61

"The Bride of Lammermoor."               _Fred Pegram_              71

"Shirley."                               _F. H. Townsend_           73

"The Heart of Midlothian."               _Claude A. Shepperson_     75

"The School for Scandal."                _E. J. Sullivan_           78

"The Ballad of Beau Brocade."            _Hugh Thomson_             82

"The Essays of Elia."                    _C. E. Brock_              85

"The Talk of the Town."                  _Sir Harry Furniss_        89

"Hermy."                                 _Lewis Baumer_            100

"To tell the King the Sky is falling."   _Alice B. Woodward_       105

"Fairy Tales of the Brothers Grimm."     _Arthur Rackham_          109

"Indian Fairy Tales."                    _J. D. Batten_            111

"The Pink Fairy Book."                   _H. J. Ford_              113

"Fairy Tales by Q."                      _H. R. Millar_            115




SOME explanation seems needed for the intrusion of a talk about the
woodcuts of the fifteenth century into a book dealing with the work of
the illustrators of our own day, and the explanation, though no doubt
discreditable, is simple enough. It was to a mere bibliographer that
the idea occurred that lists of contemporary illustrated books, with
estimates of the work found in them, might form a useful record of the
state of English book-illustration at the end of a century in which for
the first time (if we stretch the century a little so as to include
Bewick) it had competed on equal terms with the work of foreign
artists. Fortunately the bibliographer's scanty leisure was already
heavily mortgaged, and so the idea was transferred to a special student
of the subject, much better equipped for the task. But partly for the
pleasure of keeping a finger in an interesting pie, partly because
there was a fine hobby-horse waiting to be mounted, the bibliographer
bargained that he should be allowed to write an introduction in which
his hobby should have free play, and the reader, who has got a much
better book than he was intended to have, must acquiesce in this
meddling, or resort to his natural rights and skip.



It is well to ride a hobby with at least a semblance of moderation, and
the thesis which this introduction is written to maintain does not
assert that the woodcuts of the fifteenth century are better than the
illustrations of the present day, only that our modern artists, if they
will condescend, may learn some useful lessons from them. At the outset
it may frankly be owned that the range of the earliest illustrators was
limited. They had no landscape art, no such out-of-door illustrations
as those which furnish the subject for one of Miss Sketchley's most
interesting chapters. Again, they had little humour, at least of the
voluntary kind, though this was hardly their own fault, for as the
admission is made the thought at once follows it that of all the many
deficiencies of fifteenth-century literature the lack of humour is one
of the most striking. The rough horseplay of the Life of Aesop prefixed
to editions of the Fables can hardly be counted an exception; the wit
combats of Solomon and Marcolphus produced no more than a title-cut
showing king and clown, and outside the 'Dialogus Creaturarum' I can
think of only a single valid exception, itself rather satirical than
funny, this curious picture of a family on the move from a French
treatise on the Joys of Marriage. On the 'Dialogus' itself it seems
fair to lay some stress, for surely the picture here shown of the Lion
and the Hare who applied for the post of his secretary may well
encourage us to believe that in two other departments of illustration
from which also they were shut out, those of Caricature (for which we
must go back to thirteenth-century prayer-books) and Christmas Books
for Children, the fifteenth-century artist would have made no mean
mark. It is, indeed, our Children's Gift-Books that come nearest both
to his feeling and his style.


What remains for us here to consider is the achievement of the early
designers and woodcutters in the field of Decorative and Character
Illustrations with which Miss Sketchley deals in her first and third
chapters. Here the first point to be made is that by an invention of
the last twenty years they are brought nearer to the possible work of
our own day than to that of any previous time. It has been often enough
pointed out that, not from preference, but from inability to devise any
better plan, the art of woodcut illustration began on wholly wrong
lines. Starting, as was inevitable, from the colour-work of
illuminated manuscripts, the illustrators could think of no other
means of simplification than the reduction of pictures to their
outlines. With a piece of plank cut, not across the grain of the wood,
but with it, as his material, and a sharp knife and, perhaps, a gouge
as his only tools, the woodcutter had to reproduce these outlines as
best he could, and it is little to be wondered at if his lines were
often scratchy and angular, and many a good design was deplorably ill
handled. After a time, soft metal, presumably pewter, was used as an
alternative to wood, and perhaps, though probably slower, was a little
easier to work successfully. But save in some Florentine pictures and a
few designs by Geoffroy Tory, the craftsman's work was not to cut the
lines which the artist had drawn, but to cut away everything else. This
inverted method of work continued after the invention of crosshatching
to represent shading, and was undoubtedly the cause of the rapid
supersession of woodcuts by copper engravings during the sixteenth
century, the more natural method of work compensating for the trouble
caused when the illustrations no longer stood in relief like the type,
but had to be printed as incised plates, either on separate leaves, or
by passing the sheet through a different press. The eighteenth-century
invention of wood-engraving as opposed to woodcutting once again caused
pictures and text to be printed together, and the amazing dexterity of
successive schools of wood-engravers enabled them to produce, though at
the cost of immense labour, work which seemed to compete on equal terms
with engravings on copper. At its best the wood-engraving of the
nineteenth century was almost miraculously good; at its worst, in the
wood-engravings of commerce--the wood-engravings of the weekly papers,
for which the artist's drawing might come in on a Tuesday, to be cut up
into little squares and worked on all night as well as all day, in the
engravers' shops--it was unequivocally and deplorably, but hardly
surprisingly, bad.

Upon this strange medley of the miraculously good and the excusably
horrid came the invention of the process line-block, and the problem
which had baffled so many fifteenth-century woodcutters, of how to
preserve the beauty of simple outlines was solved at a single stroke.
Have our modern artists made anything like adequate use of this
excellent invention? My own answer would be that they have used it,
skilfully enough, to save themselves trouble, but that its artistic
possibilities have been allowed to remain almost unexplored. As for the
trouble-saving--and trouble-saving is not only legitimate but
commendable--the photographer's camera is the most obliging of
craftsmen. Only leave your work fairly open and you may draw on as
large a scale and with as coarse lines as you please, and the camera
will photograph it down for you to the exact space the illustration has
to fill and will win you undeserved credit for delicacy and fineness of
touch as well. Thus to save trouble is well, but to produce beautiful
work is better, and what use has been made of the fidelity with which
beautiful and gracious line can now be reproduced? The caricaturists,
it is true, have seen their opportunity. Cleverness could hardly be
carried further than it is by Mr. Phil May, and a caricaturist of
another sort, the late Mr. Aubrey Beardsley, degenerate and despicable
as was almost every figure he drew, yet saw and used the possibilities
which artists of happier temperament have neglected. With all the
disadvantages under which they laboured in the reproduction of fine
line the craftsmen of Venice and Florence essayed and achieved more
than this. Witness the fine rendering into pure line of a picture by
Gentile Bellini of a tall preacher preceded by his little crossbearer
in the 'Doctrina' of Lorenzo Giustiniano printed at Venice in 1494, or
again the impressiveness, surviving even its little touch of the
grotesque, of this armed warrior kneeling at the feet of a pope, which
I have unearthed from a favourite volume of Venetian chapbooks at the
British Museum. A Florentine picture of Jacopone da Todi on his knees
before a vision of the Blessed Virgin (from Bonacorsi's edition of his
'Laude,' 1490) gives another instance of what can be done by simple
line in a different style. We have yet other examples in many of the
illustrations to the famous romance, the 'Hypnerotomachia Poliphili,'
printed at Venice in 1499. Of similar cuts on a much smaller scale, a
specimen will be given later. Here, lest anyone should despise these
fifteenth-century efforts, I would once more recall the fact that at
the time they were made the execution of such woodcuts required the
greatest possible dexterity, in cutting away on each side so as to
leave the line as the artist drew it with any semblance of its original
grace. In many illustrated books which have come down to us what must
have been beautiful designs have been completely spoilt, rendered even
grotesque, by the fine curves of the drawing being translated into
scratchy angularities. But draw he never so finely no artist nowadays
need fear that his work will be made scratchy or angular by
photographic process. It is only when he crowds lines together, from
inability to work simply, that the process block aggravates his

[Illustration: La Lega Facta Nouamente a Morte e Destructione de li
Franzosi & suoí Seguaci.

VENICE. C. 1500.]

GESÙ, 1572. JAC. CHITI.]


I pass on to another point as to which I think the Florentine
woodcutters have something to teach us. If we put pictures into our
books, why should not the pictures be framed? A hard single line round
the edge of a woodcut is a poor set-off to it, often conflicting with
the lines in the picture itself, and sometimes insufficiently emphatic
as a frame to make us acquiesce in what seems a mere cutting away a
portion from a larger whole. Our Florentine friends knew better. Here
(pp. xiv-xv), for instance, are two scenes, from some unidentified
romance, which in 1572 and 1555 respectively (by which time they must
have been about fifty and sixty years old) appeared in Florentine
religious chapbooks, with which they have nothing to do. The little
borders are simple enough, but they are sufficiently heavy to carry off
the blacks which the artist (according to what is the true method of
woodcutting) has left in his picture, and we are much less inclined to
grumble at the window being cut in two than we should be if the cut
were made by a simple line instead of quite firmly and with
determination by a frame.


I have given these two Florentine cuts, much the worse for wear though
they be, with peculiar pleasure, because I take them to be the exact
equivalents of the pictures in our illustrated novels of the present
day of which Miss Sketchley gives several examples in her third paper.
They are good examples of what may be called the diffused
characterization in which our modern illustrators excel. Every single
figure is good and has its own individuality, but there is no attempt
to illustrate a central character at a decisive moment. Decisive
moments, it may be objected, do not occur (except for epicures) at
polite dinner parties, or during the 'mauvais quart d'heure,' which
might very well be the subject of our first picture. But it seems to me
that modern illustrators often deliberately shun decisive moments,
preferring to illustrate their characters in more ordinary moods, and
perhaps the Florentines did this also. Where the illustrator is not a
great artist the discretion is no doubt a wise one. What for instance
could be more charming, more completely successful than this little
picture of a messenger bringing a lady a flower, no doubt with a
pleasing message with it? In our next cut the artist has been much more
ambitious. Preceded by soldiers with their long spears, followed by the
hideously masked 'Battuti' who ministered to the condemned, Ippolito is
being led to execution. As he passes her door, Dianora flings herself
on him in a last embrace. The lady's attitude is good, but the
woodcutter, alas, has made the lover look merely bored. In
book-illustration, as in life, who would avoid failure must know his


Whatever shortcomings these Florentine pictures may have in themselves,
or whatever they may lose when examined by eyes only accustomed to
modern work, I hope that it will be conceded that as
character-illustrations they are far from being despicable.
Nevertheless the true home of character-illustration in the fifteenth
century was rather in Germany than in Italy. Inferior to the Italian
craftsmen in delicacy and in producing a general impression of grace
(partly, perhaps, because their work was intended to be printed in
conjunction with far heavier type) the German artists and woodcutters
often showed extraordinary power in rendering facial expression. My
favourite example of this is a little picture from the 'De Claris
Mulieribus' of Boccaccio printed at Ulm in 1473, on one side of which
the Roman general Scipio is shown with uplifted finger bidding the
craven Massinissa put away his Carthaginian wife, while on the other
Sophonisba is watched by a horror-stricken messenger as she drains the
poison her husband sends her. But there is a naïveté about the figure
of Scipio which has frequently provoked laughter from audiences at
lantern-lectures, so my readers must look up this illustration for
themselves at the British Museum, or elsewhere. I fall back on a
picture of a card-party from a 'Guldin Spiel' printed at Augsburg in
1472, in which the hesitation of the woman whose turn it is to play,
the rather supercilious interest of her vis-à-vis, and the calm
confidence of the third hand, not only ready to play his best, but sure
that his best will be good enough, are all shown with absolute
simplicity, but in a really masterly manner. Facial expression such as
this in modern work seems entirely confined to children's books and
caricature, but one would sacrifice a good deal of our modern
prettiness for a few more touches of it.


The last point to which I would draw attention is that a good deal more
use might be made of quite small illustrations. The full-pagers are, no
doubt, impressive and dignified, but I always seem to see written on
the back of them the artist's contract to supply so many drawings of
such and such size at so many guineas apiece, and to hear him groaning
as he runs through his text trying to pick out the full complement of
subjects. The little sketch is more popular in France than in England,
and there is a suggestion of joyous freedom about it which is very
captivating. Such small pictures did not suit the rather heavy touch of
the German woodcutters; in Italy they were much more popular. At Venice
a whole series of large folio books were illustrated in this way in the
last decade of the fifteenth century, two editions of Malermi's
translation of the Bible, Lives of the Saints, an Italian Livy, the
Decamerone of Boccaccio, the Novels of Masuccio, and other works, all
in the vernacular. At Ferrara, under Venetian influence, an edition of
the Epistles of S. Jerome was printed in 1497, with upwards of one
hundred and eighty such little cuts, many of them illustrating
incidents of monastic life. Both at Venice and Ferrara the cuts are
mainly in outline, and when they are well cut and two or three come
together on a page the effect is delightful. In France the vogue of the
small cut took a very special form. By far the most famous series of
early French illustrated books is that of the Hours of the Blessed
Virgin (with which went other devotions, making fairly complete
prayer-books for lay use), which were at their best for some fifteen
years reckoning from 1488. These Hour-Books usually contained some
fifteen large illustrations, but their most notable features are to be
found in the borders which surround every page. On the outer and lower
margins these borders are as a rule about an inch broad, sometimes
more, so that they can hold four or five little pictures of about an
inch by an inch and a half on the outer margin, and one rather larger
one at the foot of the page. The variety of the pictures designed to
fill these spaces is almost endless. Figures of the Saints and their
emblems and illustrations of the games or occupations suited to each
month fill the margins of the Calendar. To surround the text of the
book there is a long series of pictures of incidents in the life of
Christ, with parallel scenes from the Old Testament, scenes from the
lives of Joseph and Job, representations of the Virtues, the Deadly
Sins being overcome by the contrary graces, the Dance of Death, and for
pleasant relief woodland and pastoral scenes and even grotesques. The
popularity of these prayer-books was enormous, new editions being
printed almost every month, with the result that the illustrations were
soon worn out and had frequently to be replaced. I have often wished,
if only for the sake of small children in sermon time, that our English
prayer-books could be similarly illustrated. An attempt to do this was
made in the middle of the last century, but it was pretentious and
unsuccessful. The great difficulty in the way of a new essay lies in
the popularity of very small prayer-books, with so little margin and
printed on such thin paper as hardly to admit of border cuts. The
difficulty is real, but should not be insuperable, and I hope that some
bold illustrator may soon try his hand afresh.



I should not be candid if I closed this paper without admitting that my
fifteenth-century friends anticipated modern publishers in one of their
worst faults, the dragging in illustrations where they are not wanted.
In the fifteenth century the same cuts were repeated over and over
again in the same book to serve for different subjects. Modern
publishers are not so simple-hearted as this, but they add to the cost
of their books by unpleasant half-tone reproductions of unnecessary
portraits and views, and I do not think that book-buyers are in the
least grateful to them. Miss Sketchley, I am glad to see, has not
concerned herself with illustrators whose designs require to be
produced by the half-tone process. To condemn this process unreservedly
would be absurd. It gives us illustrations which are really needed for
the understanding of the text when they could hardly be produced in any
other way, and while it does this it must be tolerated. But by
necessitating the use of heavily-loaded paper--unpleasant to the touch,
heavy in the hand, doomed, unless all the chemists are wrong, speedily
to rot--it is the greatest danger to the excellence of our English
book-work which has at present to be faced, while by wearying readers
with endless mechanically produced pictures it is injurious also to the
best interests of artistic illustration.





OF the famous 'Poems by Alfred Tennyson,' published in 1857 by Edward
Moxon, Mr. Gleeson White wrote in 1897: 'The whole modern school of
decorative illustrators regard it, rightly enough, as the genesis of
the modern movement.' The statement may need some modification to touch
exact truth, for the 'modern movement' is no single-file,
straightforward movement. 'Kelmscott,' 'Japan,' the 'Yellow Book,'
black-and-white art in Germany, in France, in Spain, in America, the
influence of Blake, the style of artists such as Walter Crane, have
affected the present form of decorative book-illustration. Such perfect
unanimity of opinion as is here ascribed to a large and rather
indefinitely related body of men hardly exists among even the smallest
and most derided body of artists. Still, allowing for the impossibility
of telling the whole truth about any modern and eclectic form of art in
one sentence, there is here a statement of fact. What Rossetti and
Millais and Holman Hunt achieved in the drawings to the 'Tennyson' of
1857, was a vital change in the intention of English illustrative art,
and whatever form decorative illustration may assume, their ideal is
effective while a personal interpretation of the spirit of the text is
the creative impulse. The influence of technical mastery is strong and
enduring enough. It is constantly in sight and constantly in mind. But
it is in discovering and making evident a principle in art that the
influence of spirit on spirit becomes one of the illimitable powers.

To Rossetti the illustration of literature meant giving beautiful form
to the expression of delight, of penetration, that had kindled his
imagination as he read. He illustrated the 'Palace of Art' in the
spirit that stirred him to rhythmic translation into words of the still
music in Giorgione's 'Pastoral,' or of the unpassing movement of
Mantegna's 'Parnassus.' Not the words of the text, nor those things
precisely affirmed by the writer, but the spell of significance and of
beauty that held his mind to the exclusion of other images, gave him
inspiration for his drawings. As Mr. William Michael Rossetti says: 'He
drew just what he chose, taking from his author's text nothing more
than a hint and an opportunity.' It is said, indeed, that Tennyson
could never see what the St. Cecily drawing had to do with his poem.
And that is strange enough to be true.

It is clear that such an ideal of illustration is for the attainment of
a few only. The ordinary illustrator, making drawings for cheap
reproduction in the ordinary book, can no more work in this mood than
the journalist can model his style on the prose of Milton. But
journalism is not literature, and pictured matter-of-fact is not
illustration, though it is convenient and customary to call it so.
However, here one need not consider this, for the decorative
illustrator has usually literature to illustrate, and a commission to
be beautiful and imaginative in his work. He has the opportunity of
Rossetti, the opportunity for significant art.

The 'Classics' and children's books give greatest opportunity to
decorative illustrators. Those who have illustrated children's books
chiefly, or whose best work has been for the playful classics of
literature, it is convenient to consider in a separate chapter, though
there are instances where the division is not maintainable: Walter
Crane, for example, whose influence on a school of decorative design
makes his position at the head of his following imperative.

Representing the 'architectural' sense in the decoration of books, many
years before the supreme achievements of William Morris added that
ideal to generally recognized motives of book-decoration, Walter Crane
is the precursor of a large and prolific school of decorative
illustrators. Many factors, as he himself tells, have gone to the
shaping of his art. Born in 1846 at Liverpool, he came to London in
1857, and there after two years was 'apprenticed' to Mr. W. J. Linton,
the well-known wood-engraver. His work began with 'the sixties,' in
contact with the enthusiasm and inspiration those years brought into
English art. The illustrated 'Tennyson,' and Ruskin's 'Elements of
Drawing,' were in his thoughts before he entered Mr. Linton's workshop,
and the 'Once a Week' school had a strong influence on his early
contributions to 'Good Words,' 'Once a Week,' and other famous
magazines. In 1865 Messrs. Warne published the first toy-book, and by
1869-70 the 'Walter Crane Toy-book' was a fact in art. The sight of
some Japanese colour-prints during these years suggested a finer
decorative quality to be obtained with tint and outline, and in the use
of black, as well as in a more delicate simplicity of colour, the later
toy-books show the first effect of Japanese art on the decorative art
of England. Italian art in England and Italy, the prints of Dürer, the
Parthenon sculptures, these were influences that affected him strongly.
'The Baby's Opera' (1877) and 'The Baby's Bouquet' (1879) are classics
almost impossible to criticise, classics familiar from cover to cover
before one was aware of any art but the art on their pages. So that if
these delightful designs seem less expressive of the Greece, Germany,
and Italy of the supreme artists than of the 'Crane' countries by whose
coasts ships 'from over the sea' go sailing by with strange cargoes and
strange crews, it is not in their dispraise. As a decorative
draughtsman Mr. Crane is at his best when the use of colour gives
clearness to the composition, but some of his most 'serious' work is in
the black-and-white pages of 'The Sirens Three,' of 'The Shepheardes
Calendar,' and especially of 'The Faerie Queene.' The number of books
he has illustrated--upwards of seventy--makes a detailed account
impossible. Nursery rhyme and fairy books, children's stories, Spenser,
Shakespeare, the myths of Greece, 'pageant books' such as 'Flora's
Feast' or 'Queen Summer,' or the just published 'Masque of Days,' his
own writings, serious or gay, have given him subjects, as the great art
of all times has touched the ideals of his art.



But whatever the subject, how strong soever his artistic admirations,
he is always Walter Crane, unmistakable at a glance. Knights and
ladies, fairies and fairy people, allegorical figures, nursery and
school-room children, fulfil his decorative purpose without swerving,
though not always without injury to their comfort and freedom and the
life in their limbs. An individual apprehension that sees every
situation as a conventional 'arrangement' is occasionally beside the
mark in rendering real life. But when his theme touches imagination,
and is not a supreme expression of it--for then, as in the
illustrations to 'The Faerie Queene,' an unusual sense of subservience
appears to dull his spirit--his humorous fancy knows no weariness nor
sameness of device.

The work of most of Mr. Crane's followers belongs to 'the nineties,'
when the 'Arts and Crafts' movement, the 'Century Guild,' the
Birmingham and other schools had attracted or produced artists working
according to the canons of Kelmscott. Mr. Heywood Sumner was earlier in
the field. The drawings to 'Sintram' (1883) and to 'Undine' (1888) show
his art as an illustrator. Undine--spirit of wind and water,
flower-like in gladness--seeking to win an immortal soul by submission
to the forms of life, is realized in the gracefully designed figures of
frontispiece and title-page. Where Mr. Sumner illustrates incident he
is 'factual' without being matter-of-fact. The small drawing
reproduced is hardly representative of his art, but most of his work is
adapted to a squarer page than this, and has had to be rejected on that
account. Some of the most apt decorations in 'The English Illustrated'
were by Mr. Sumner, and during the time when art was represented in the
magazine Mr. Ryland and Mr. Louis Davis were also frequent
contributors. The graceful figures of Mr. Ryland, uninterested in
activity, a garden-world set with statues around them, and the
carol-like grace of Mr. Davis's designs in that magazine, represent
them better than the one or two books they have illustrated.



Among those associated with the 'Arts and Crafts' who have given more
of their art to book-decoration, Mr. Anning Bell is first. He has
gained the approval even of the most exigent of critics as an artist
who understands drawing for process. Since 1895, when the 'Midsummer
Night's Dream' appeared, his winning art has been praised with
discrimination and without discrimination, but always praised. Trained
in an architect's office, widely known as the recreator of coloured
relief for architectural decoration, Mr. Anning Bell's illustrations
show constructive power no less than that fairy gift of seeming to
improvise without labour and without hesitancy, which is one of its
especial charms. In feeling, and in many of his decorative forms, his
drawings recall the art of Florentine bas-relief, when Agostino di
Duccio, or Rossellino or Mino da Fiesole, created shapes of delicate
sweetness, pure, graceful--so graceful that their power is hardly
realized. The fairy by-play of the 'Midsummer Night's Dream' is exactly
to Mr. Anning Bell's fancy. He knows better than to go about to expound
this dream, and it is not likely that a more delightful edition will
ever be put into the hands of children, or of anyone, than this in the
white and gold cover devised by the artist.

Of his illustrations to the 'Poems by John Keats' (1897), and to the
'English Lyrics from Spenser to Milton' of the following year--as
illustrations--not quite so much can be said, distinguished and
felicitous as many of them are. The simple profile, the demure type of
beauty that he affects, hardly suit with Isabella when she hears that
Lorenzo has gone from her, with Lamia by the clear pool

                 "Wherein she passionëd
     To see herself escaped from so sore ills,"

or with Madeline, 'St. Agnes' charmëd maid.' Mr. Anning Bell's
drawings to 'The Pilgrim's Progress' (1898) reveal him in a different
mood, as do those in 'The Christian Year' of three years earlier. His
vision is hardly energetic enough, his energy of belief sufficient, to
make him a strong illustrator of Bunyan, with his many moods, his great
mood. A little these designs suggest Howard Pyle, and Anning Bell is
better in a way of beauty not Gothic.

[Illustration: FROM MR. ANNING BELL'S 'KEATS.'


So if Mr. Anning Bell represents the 'Arts and Crafts' movement in the
variety of decorative arts he has practised, and in the architectural
sense underlying all his art, his work does not agree with the form in
which the influence of William Morris on decorative illustration has
chiefly shown itself. That form, of course, is Gothic, as the ideal of
Kelmscott was Gothic. The work of the 'Century Guild' artists as
decorative illustrators is chiefly in the pages of 'The Hobby Horse.'
Mr. Selwyn Image and Mr. Herbert Horne can hardly be included among
book illustrators, so in this connection one may not stop to consider
the decorative strength of their ideal in art. The Birmingham school
represents Gothic ideals with determination and rigidity. Morris
addressed the students of the school and prefaced the edition of 'Good
King Wenceslas,' decorated and engraved and printed by Mr. A. J. Gaskin
'at the press of the Guild of Handicraft in the City of Birmingham,'
with cordial words of appreciation for the pictures. These
illustrations are among the best Mr. Gaskin has done. The commission
for twelve full-page drawings to 'The Shepheardes Calendar' (Kelmscott
Press, 1896) marks Morris's pleasure in Mr. Gaskin's work--especially
in the illustrations to Andersen's 'Stories and Fairy Tales.' If not
quite in tune with Spenser's Elizabethan idyllism, these drawings are
distinctive of the definite convictions of the artist.



These convictions represent a splendid tradition. They are expressive,
in their regard for the unity of the page, for harmony between type and
decoration, of the universal truth in all fine bookmaking. Only at
times, Birmingham work seems rather heavy in spirit, rather too rigid
for development. Still, judging by results, a code that would appear to
be against individual expression is inspiring individual artists. Some
of these--as Mr. E. H. New--have turned their attention to
architectural and 'open-air' illustration, in which connection their
work will be considered, and many have illustrated children's books.
Their quaint and naïve fancy has there, at times, produced a portentous
embodiment of the 'old-fashioned' child of fiction. Mr. Gere, though he
has done little book-illustration, is one of the strongest artists of
the school. His original wood engravings show unmistakably his
decorative power and his craftsmanship. With Mr. K. Fairfax Muckley he
was responsible for 'The Quest' (1894-96). Mr. Fairfax Muckley has
illustrated and decorated a three-volume edition of 'The Faerie Queene'
(1897), wherein the forest branches and winding ways of woodland and of
plain are more happily conventionalized than are Spenser's figures.
Some of the headpieces are especially successful. The artist uses the
'mixed convention' of solid black and line with less confusion than
many modern draughtsmen. Once its dangers must have been evident, but
now the puzzle pattern, with solid blacks in the foreground,
background, and mid-distance--only there is no distance in these
drawings--is a common form of black and white.

Miss Celia Levetus, Mr. Henry Payne, Mr. F. Mason, and Mr. Bernard
Sleigh, are also to the credit of the school. Miss Levetus, in her
later work, shows that an inclination towards a more flexible style is
not incompatible with the training in Gothic convention. Mr. Mason's
illustrations to ancient romances of chivalry give evidence of
conscientious craftsmanship, and of a spirit sympathetic to themes such
as 'Renaud of Montauban.' Mr. Bernard Sleigh's original wood-engravings
are well known and justly appreciated. Strong in tradition and logic
as is the work of these designers, it is, for many, too consistent with
convention to be delightful. Perhaps the best result of the Birmingham
school will hardly be achieved until the formal effect of its training
is less patent.

The 'sixties' might have been void of art, so far as these designers
are concerned, save that in those days Morris and Burne-Jones and
Walter Crane, as well as Millais and Houghton and Sandys, were about
their work. Far other is the case with artists such as Mr. Byam Shaw,
or with the many draughtsmen, including Messrs. P. V. Woodroffe, Henry
Ospovat, Philip Connard, and Herbert Cole, whose art derives its form
and intention from the sixties. Differing in technical power and
fineness of invention, in all that distinguishes good from less good,
they have this in common--that the form of their art would have been
quite other if the illustrated books of that period were among things
unseen. Mr. Byam Shaw began his work as an illustrator in 1897 with a
volume of 'Browning's Poems,' edited by Dr. Garnett. He proved himself
in these drawings, as in his pictures and later illustrations, an
artist with a definite memory for the forms, and a genuine sympathy
with the aims of pre-Raphaelite art. Evidently, too, he admires the
black-and-white of Mr. Abbey. He has the gift of dramatic conception,
sees a situation at high pitch, and has a pleasant way of giving
side-lights, pictorial asides, by means of decorative head and
tailpieces. His illustrations to the little green and gold volumes of
the 'Chiswick Shakespeare' are more emphatic than his earlier work, and
in the decorations his power of summarizing the chief motive is put to
good use. There is no need of his signature to distinguish the work of
Byam Shaw, though he shows himself under the influence of various
masters. Probably he is only an illustrator of books by the way, but in
the meantime, as the 'Boccaccio,' 'Browning,' and 'Shakespeare'
drawings show, he works in black and white with vigorous intention.

Mr. Ospovat's illustrations to 'Shakespeare's Sonnets' and to 'Matthew
Arnold's Poems' are interesting, if not very markedly his own. He
illustrates the Sonnets as a celebration of a poet's passion for his
mistress. As in these, so in the Matthew Arnold drawings, he shows some
genuine creative power and an aptitude for illustrative decoration. Mr.
Philip Connard has made spirited and well-realized illustrations in
somewhat the same kind; Miss Amelia Bauerle, and Mr. Bulcock, who began
by illustrating 'The Blessed Damozel' in memory of Rossetti, have made
appearance in the 'Flowers of Parnassus' series, and Mr. Herbert Cole,
with three of these little green volumes, prepared one for more
important work in 'Gulliver's Travels' (1900).

The work of Mr. Woodroffe was, I think, first seen in the 'Quarto'--the
organ of the Slade School--where also Mr. A. Garth Jones, Mr. Cyril
Goldie, and Mr. Robert Spence, gave unmistakable evidence of
individuality. Mr. Woodroffe's wood-engravings in the 'Quarto' showed
strength, which is apparent, too, in the delicately characterized
figures to 'Songs from Shakespeare's Plays' (1898), with their borders
of lightly-strung field flowers. His drawings to 'The Confessions of
S. Augustine,' engraved by Miss Clemence Housman, are in keeping with
the text, not impertinent. Mr. A. Garth Jones in the 'Quarto' seemed
much influenced by Japanese grotesques; but in illustrations to
Milton's 'Minor Poems' (1898) he has shown development towards the
expression of beauty more austere, classical, controlled to the
presentment of Milton's high thought. His recent 'Essays of Elia'
remind one of the forcible work of Mr. E. J. Sullivan in 'Sartor
Resartus.' Mr. Sullivan's 'Sartor' and 'Dream of Fair Women' must be
mentioned. His mastery over an assertive use of line and solid black,
the unity of his effects, the humour and imagination of his decorative
designs, are not likely to be forgotten, though the balance of his work
in illustrations to Sheridan, Marryat, Sir Walter Scott, obliges one to
class him with "character" illustrators, and so to leave a blank in
this article.

Mr. Laurence Housman stands alone among modern illustrators, though one
may, if one will, speak of him as representing the succession of the
sixties, or as connected with the group of artists whose noteworthy
development dates from the publication of 'The Dial' by Charles
Ricketts and Charles Shannon in 1889. To look at Mr. Housman's art in
either connection, or to record the effect of Dürer, of Blake, of
Edward Calvert, on his technique, is only to come back to appreciation
of all that is his own. As an illustrator he has hardly surpassed the
spirit of the 'forty-four designs, drawn and written by Laurence
Housman,' that express his idea of George Meredith's 'Jump to Glory
Jane' (1890). These designs were the result of the appreciation which
the editor, Mr. Harry Quilter, felt for Mr. Housman's drawings to 'The
Green Gaffer' in 'The Universal Review.' Jane--the village woman with
'wistful eyes in a touching but bony face,' leaping with countenance
composed, arms and feet 'like those who hang,' leaping in crude
expression of the unity of soul and body, making her converts, failing
to move the bishop, dying at last, though not ingloriously, by the
wayside--this most difficult conception has no 'burlesque outline' in
Mr. Housman's work, inexperienced and unacademic as is the drawing.

'Weird Tales from Northern Seas,' by Jonas Lie, was the next book
illustrated by Mr. Housman. Christina Rossetti's 'Goblin Market'
(1893), offered greater scope for freakish imagination than did 'Jane.'
The goblins, pale-eyed, mole and rat and weasel-faced; the sisters,
whose simple life they surround with hideous fantasy, are realized in
harmony with the unique effect of the poem--an effect of simplicity, of
naïve imagination, of power, of things stranger than are told in the
cry of the goblin merchants, as at evening time they invade quiet
places to traffic with their evil fruits for the souls of maidens. The
frail-bodied elves of 'The End of Elfin Town,' moving and sleeping
among the white mushrooms and slender stalks of field flowers, are of
another land than that of the goblin merchant-folk. Illustrations to
'The Imitation of Christ,' to 'The Sensitive Plant,' and drawings to
'The Were-Wolf,' by Miss Clemence Housman, complete the list of Mr.
Housman's illustrations to writings not his own, with the exception of
frontispiece drawings to several books.



To explain Mr. Housman's vision of 'The Sensitive Plant' would be as
superfluous as it would be ineffectual. In a note on the illustrations
he has told how the formal beauty, the exquisite ministrations, the
sounds and fragrance and sweet winds of the garden enclosed, seem to
him as 'a form of beauty that springs out of modes and fashions,' too
graceful to endure. In his pictures he has realized the perfect
ensemble of the garden, its sunny lawns and rose-trellises, its
fountains, statues, and flower-sweet ways; realized, too, the spirit of
the Sensitive Plant, the lady of the garden, and Pan, the great god who
never dies, who waits only without the garden, till in a little while
he enters, 'effacing and replacing with his own image and
superscription, the parenthetic grace ... of the garden deity.'

Of a talent that treats always of enchanted places, where 'reality' is
a long day's journey down a dusty road, it is difficult to speak
without suggesting that it is all just a charming dalliance with pretty
fancies, lacking strength. Of the strength of Mr. Housman's
imagination, however, his work speaks. His illustrations to his own
writings, fairy tales, and poems, cannot with any force be discussed by
themselves. The words belong to the pictures, the pictures to the
words. The drawings to 'The Field of Clover' are seen to full advantage
in the wood-engravings of Miss Housman. Only so, or in reproduction by
photogravure, is the full intention of Mr. Housman's pen-drawings

[Illustration: THE FIELD OF CLOVER By Laurence Housman, Engraved by
Clemence Housman



One may group the names of Charles Ricketts, C. H. Shannon, T. Sturge
Moore, Lucien Pissarro, and Reginald Savage together in memory of 'The
Dial,' where the activity of five original artists first became
evident, though, save in the case of Mr. Ricketts and Mr. Shannon, no
continuance of the classification is possible. The first number of 'The
Dial' (1889) had a cover design cut on wood by Mr. C. H.
Shannon--afterwards replaced by the design of Mr. Ricketts. Twelve
designs by Mr. Ricketts may be said to represent the transitional--or a
transitional--phase of his art, from the earlier work in magazines,
which he disregards, to the reticent expression of 'Vale Press'
illustrations. In 1891 the first book decorated by these artists
appeared, 'The House of Pomegranates,' by Oscar Wilde. There was,
however, nothing in this book to suggest the form their joint talent
was to take. Many delightful designs by Mr. Ricketts, somewhat marred
by heaviness of line, and full-page illustrations by Mr. Shannon,
printed in an almost invisible, nondescript colour, contained no
suggestion of 'Daphnis and Chloe.'

The second 'Dial'(1892) contained Mr. Ricketts' first work as his own
wood-engraver, and in the following year the result of eleven months'
joint work by Mr. Ricketts and Mr. Shannon was shown in the publication
of 'Daphnis and Chloe,' with thirty-seven woodcuts by the artists.
Fifteen of the pictures were sketched by Mr. Shannon and revised and
drawn on the wood by Mr. Ricketts, who also engraved the initials. It
is a complete achievement of individuality subordinated to an ideal.
Here and there one can affirm that Mr. Shannon drew this figure,
composed this scene, Mr. Ricketts that; but generally the hand is not
to be known. The ideal of their inspiration--the immortal
'Hypnerotomachia'--seems equally theirs, equally potent over their
individuality. Speaking with diffidence, it would seem as though Mr.
Shannon's idea of the idyll were more naïve and humorous. Incidents
beside the main theme of the pastoral loves of young Daphnis and
Chloe--the household animals, other shepherds--are touched with
humorous intent. Mr. Ricketts shows more suavity, and, as in the
charming double-page design of the marriage feast, a more lyrical
realization of delight and shepherd joys.

The 'Hero and Leander' of 1894 is a less elaborate, and, on the whole,
a finer production. I must speak of the illustrations only, lest
consideration of Vale Press publications should fill the remaining
space at my disposal. Obviously the attenuated type of these figures
shows Mr. Ricketts' ideal of the human form as a decoration for a page
of type. The severe reticence he imposes on himself is in order to
maintain the balance between illustrations and text. One has only to
turn to illustrations to Lord de Tabley's 'Poems,' published in 1893,
to see with what eager imagination he realizes a subject, how strong a
gift he has for dramatic expression. That a more persuasive beauty of
form was once his wont, much of his early and transitional work
attests. But I do not think his power to achieve beauty need be
defended. After the publication of 'Hero and Leander,' Mr. Shannon
practically ceased wood-engraving for the illustration of books,
though, as the series of roundel designs in the recent exhibition of
his work proved, he has not abandoned nor ceased to go forward in the






'The Sphinx,' a poem by Oscar Wilde, 'built, decorated and bound' by
Mr. Ricketts--but without woodcuts--was published in 1894, just after
'Hero and Leander,' and designs for a magnificent edition of 'The
King's Quhair' were begun. Some of these are in 'The Dial,' as are also
designs for William Adlington's translation of 'Cupide and Psyches' in
'The Pageant,' 'The Dial,' and 'The Magazine of Art.' The edition of
the work published by the new Vale Press in 1897, is not that projected
at this time. It contains roundel designs in place of the square
designs first intended. These roundels are, I think, the finest
achievement of Mr. Ricketts as an original wood-engraver. The engraving
reproduced shows of what quality are both line and form, how successful
is the placing of the figure within the circle. On the page they are
what the artist would have them be. With the beginning of the sequence
of later Vale Press books--books printed from founts designed by Mr.
Ricketts--a consecutive account is impossible, but the frontispiece to
the 'Milton' and the borders and initials designed by Mr. Ricketts,
must be mentioned. As a designer of book-covers only one failure is set
down to Mr. Ricketts, and that was ten years ago, in the cover to 'The
House of Pomegranates.'

Mr. Reginald Savage's illustrations to some tales from Wagner lack the
force of designs in 'The Pageant,' and of woodcuts in Essex House
publications. Of M. Lucien Pissarro, in an article overcrowded with
English illustrators, I cannot speak. His fame is in France as the
forerunner of his art, and we in England know his coloured
wood-engravings, his designs for 'The Book of Ruth and Esther' and for
'The Queen of the Fishes,' printed at his press at Epping, but included
among Vale Press books.



'The Centaur,' 'The Bacchant,' 'The Metamorphoses of Pan,'
'Siegfried'--young Siegfried, wood-nurtured, untamed, setting his lusty
strength against the strength of the brutes, hearing the bird-call
then, and following the white bird to issues remote from savage
life--these are subjects realized by the imagination of Mr. T. Sturge
Moore. There are few artists illustrating books to-day whose work is
more unified, imaginatively and technically. It is some years since
first Mr. Moore's wood-engravings attracted notice in 'The Dial' and
'The Pageant,' and the latest work from his graver--finer, more
rhythmic in composition though it be--shows no change in ideals, in the
direction of his talent. He has said, I think, that the easiest line
for the artist is the true basis of that artist's work, and it would
seem as though much deliberation in finding that line for himself had
preceded any of the work by which he is known. The wood-engraving of
Mr. Sturge Moore is of some importance. Always the true understanding
of his material, the unhesitating realization of his subject, combine
to produce the effect of inevitable line and form, of an inevitable
setting down of forms in expression of the thought within. Only that
gives the idea of formality, and Mr. Moore's art handles the strong
impulse of the wild creatures of earth, of the solitary creatures,
mighty and terrible, haunting the desert places and fearing the order
men make for safety. Designs to Wordsworth's 'Poems,' not yet
published, represent with innate perception the earth-spirit as
Wordsworth knew it, when the great mood of 'impassioned contemplation'
came upon his careful spirit, when his heart leapt up, or when,
wandering beneath the wind-driven clouds of March, at sight of
daffodils, he lost his loneliness.

'The Evergreen,' that 'Northern Seasonal,' represented the pictorial
outlook of an interesting group of artists--Robert Burns, Andrew K.
Womrath, John Duncan, and James Cadenhead, for example--and the racial
element, as well as their own individuality, distinguishes the work of
Mr. W. B. Macdougall and Mr. J. J. Guthrie of 'The Elf.' Mr. Macdougall
has been known as a book-illustrator since 1896, when 'The Book of
Ruth,' with decorated borders showing the fertility of his designing
power, and illustrations that were no less representative of a unique
use of material, appeared. The conventionalized landscape backgrounds,
the long, straightly-draped women, seemed strange enough as a reading
of the Hebrew pastoral, with its close kinship to the natural life of
the free children of earth. Their unimpassioned faces, unspontaneous
gestures, the artificiality of the whole impression, were undoubtedly a
new reading of the ancient charm of the story. Two books in 1897, and
'Isabella' and 'The Shadow of Love,' 1898, showed beyond doubt that the
manner was not assumed, that it was the expression of Mr. Macdougall's
sense of beauty. The decorations to 'Isabella' are more elaborate than
to 'Ruth,' and inventive handling of natural forms is as marked. Again,
the faces are de-characterized in accordance with the desire to make
the whole figure the symbol of passion, and that without emphasis. Mr.
J. J. Guthrie is hardly among book-illustrators, since 'Wedding Bells'
of 1895 does not represent Mr. Guthrie, nor does the child's book of
the following year, while the illustrations to Edgar Allan Poe's
'Poems' are still, I think, being issued from the Pear Tree Press in
single numbers. His treatment of landscape is inventive, his rhythmic
arrangements, his effects of white line on black, are based on a real
sense of the beauty of earth, of tall trees and wooded hills, of
mysterious moon-brightness and shade in the leafy depths of the

Mr. Granville Fell made his name known in 1896 by his illustrations to
'The Book of Job.' In careful detail, drawn with fidelity, never
obtrusive, his art is pre-Raphaelite. He touches Japanese ideals in
the rendering of flower-growth and animals, but the whole effect of his
decorative illustrations is far enough away from the art of Japan. In
the 'Book of Job' he had a subject sufficient to dwarf a very vital
imaginative sense by its grandeur. In the opinion of competent critics
Mr. Granville Fell proved more than the technical distinction of his
work by the manner in which he fulfilled his purpose. The solid black
and white, the definite line of these drawings, were laid aside for the
sympathetic medium of pencil in 'The Song of Solomon' (1897). Again,
his conception is invariably dramatic, and never crudely dramatic,
robust, with no trace of morbid or sentimental thought about it. The
garden, the wealth of vineyard and of royal pleasure ground, is used as
a background to comely and gracious figures. His other work,
illustrative of children's books and of legend, the cover and
title-page to Mr. W. B. Yeats's 'Poems,' shows the same definite yet
restrained imagination.

Mr. Patten Wilson is somewhat akin to Mr. Granville Fell in the energy
and soundness of his conceptions. Each of these artists is, as we know,
a colourist, delighting in brilliant and iridescent colour-schemes, yet
in black and white they do not seek to suggest colour. Mr. Patten
Wilson's illustrations to Coleridge's 'Poems' have the careful fulness
of drawings well thought out, and worked upon with the whole idea
realised in the imagination. He has observed life carefully for the
purposes of his art. But it is rather in rendering the circumstance of
poems, such as 'The Ancient Mariner,' or, in a Chaucer
illustration--Constance on the lonely ship--that he shows his grasp of
the subject, than by any expression of the spiritual terror or
loneliness of the one living man among the dead, the solitary woman on
strange seas.

Few decorative artists habitually use 'wash' rather than line. Among
these, however, is Mr. Weguelin, who has illustrated Anacreon in a
manner to earn the appreciation of Greek scholars, and his
illustrations to Hans Andersen have had a wider and not less
appreciative reception. His drawings have movement and atmosphere. Mr.
W. E. F. Britten also uses this medium with fluency, as is shown by his
successful illustrations to Mr. Swinburne's 'Carols of the Year' in the
'Magazine of Art' in 1892-3. Since that time his version of 'Undine,'
and illustrations to Tennyson's 'Early Poems,' have shown the same
power of graceful composition and sympathy with his subject.


OPEN-AIR illustration is less influenced by the tradition of Rossetti
and of the romanticists of 'the sixties' than any other branch of
illustrative art. The reason is obvious. Of all illustrators, the
illustrator of open-air books has least concern with the interpretation
of literature, and is most concerned with recording facts from
observation. It is true that usually he follows where a writer goes,
and studies garden, village or city, according to another man's
inclination. But the road they take, the cities and wayside places, are
as obvious to the one as to the other. The artist has not to realize
the personal significance of beauty conceived by another mind; he has
to set down in black and white the aspect of indisputable cities and
palaces and churches, of the actual highways and gardens of earth. No
fugitive light, but the light of common day shows him his subject. So,
although Stevenson's words, that reaching romantic art one becomes
conscious of the background, are completely true in application to the
drawings of Rossetti, of Millais, Sandys and Houghton, these
'backgrounds' have had no traceable effect on modern open-air
illustration. Nor are the landscape drawings in works such as 'Wayside
Poesies,' or 'Pictures of English Landscape,' at the beginning of the
style or styles--formal or picturesque--most in vogue at present.
Birket Foster has no followers; the pensive landscape is not suited to
holiday excursion books; and, though Mr. J. W. North is among artists
of to-day, as a book-illustrator he has unfortunately added little to
his fine record of landscape drawings made between 1864 and 1867. One
cannot include his work in a study of contemporary illustration, though
it is a pleasure passed over to leave unconsidered drawings that in
'colour,' in effects of winter-weather, of leaf-thrown light and shade
amid summer woods and over the green lanes of English country, are
delightfully remote from obvious and paragraphic habits of rendering

With few exceptions the open-air illustrators of to-day began their
work and took their place in public favour, and in the estimation of
critics, after 1890. Mr. Joseph Pennell, it is true, had been making
sketches in England, in France, and in Italy for some years; Mr.
Railton had made some preliminary illustrations; Mr. Alfred Parsons
illustrated 'Old Songs' with Mr. Abbey in 1889; and Mr. Fulleylove
contributed to 'The Picturesque Mediterranean,' and published his
'Oxford' drawings, in the same year. Still, with a little elasticity,
'the nineties' covers the past activity of these men. The only
important exception is Sir George Reid, President of the Royal Scottish
Academy, much of whose illustrative work belongs to the years prior to
1890. The one subject for regret in connection with Sir George Reid's
landscape illustrations is that the chapter is closed. He makes no more
drawings with pen-and-ink, and the more one is content with those he
has made, the less does the quantity seem sufficient. Those who know
only the portraits on which Sir George Reid's reputation is firmly
based will find in his landscape illustrations a new side to his art.
Here, as in portraiture, he sees distinctly and records without
prejudice the characteristics of his subject. He renders what he sees,
and he knows how to see. His conception being clear to himself, he
avoids vagueness and obscurity, finding, with apparent ease, plain
modes of expression. A straight observer of men and of the
country-side, there is this directness and perspicuity about his work,
whether he paints a portrait, or makes pen-drawings of the village
worthies of 'Pyketillim' parish, or draws Pyketillim Kirk, small and
white and plain, with the sparse trees beside it, or great river or
city of his native land.

But in these pen-stroke landscapes, while the same clear-headed survey,
the same logical record of facts, is to be observed as in his work as a
portrait painter, there is besides a charm of manner that brings the
indefinable element into one's appreciation of excellent work. Of
course this is not to estimate these drawings above the portraits of
Sir George Reid. That would be absurd. But he draws a country known to
him all his life, and unconsciously, from intimate memory, he suggests
more than actual observation would discover. This identification of
past knowledge with the special scrutiny of a subject to be rendered is
not usually possible in portraiture. The 'portrait in-time' is a
question of occasion as well as of genius.

The first book in which his inimitable pen-drawing of landscape can be
properly studied is the illustrated edition of 'Johnny Gibb of
Gushetneuk, in the Parish of Pyketillim,' published in 1880. Here the
illustrations are facsimile reproductions by Amand-Durand's
heliogravure process, and their delicacy is perfectly seen. These
drawings are of the Aberdeenshire country-folk and country, the native
land of the artist; though, as a lad in Aberdeen, practising
lithography by day, and seizing opportunities for independent art when
work was over, the affairs and doings of Gushetneuk, of Smiddyward, of
Pyketillim, or the quiet of Benachie when the snow lies untrodden on
its slopes, were things outside the city of work.

It is as difficult to praise these drawings intelligibly to those who
have not seen them, as it is unnecessary to enforce their charm on
those who have. Unfortunately, a reproduction of one of them is not
possible, and admirable as is the drawing from 'Royal Edinburgh,' it is
in subject and in treatment distinct from the 'Gushetneuk' and 'North
of Scotland' illustrations. The 'Twelve Sketches of Scenery and
Antiquities on the Great North of Scotland Railway,' issued in 1883,
were made in 1881, and have the same characteristics as the
'Gushetneuk' landscapes. The original drawings for the engraved
illustrations in 'The Life of a Scotch Naturalist,' belonging to
1876--drawings made because the artist was 'greatly interested' in the
story of Thomas Edward--must have been of the same delicate force, and
the splendid volumes of plates illustrating the 'River Clyde,' and the
'River Tweed,' issued by the Royal Association for the Promotion of the
Fine Arts in Scotland, contain more of his fine work. It was this
society, that, in the difficult days following the artist's abandonment
of Aberdeen and lithography for Edinburgh and painting, gave him the
opportunity, by the purchase of two of his early landscapes, for study
in Holland and in Paris. There is something of Bosboom in a rendering
of a church interior such as 'The West Kirk,' but of Israels, who was
his master at the Hague, there is nothing to be seen in Sir George
Reid's illustrations. They are never merely picturesque, and when too
many men are 'freakish' in their rendering of architecture, the
drawings of North of Scotland castles--well founded to endure weather
and rough times of war--seem as real and true to Scottish romance as
the "pleasant seat," the martlet-haunted masonry of Macbeth's castle
set among the brooding wildness of Inverness by the fine words of
Duncan and Banquo.

The print-black of naked boughs against pale sky, a snow-covered
country where roofs are white, and the shelter of the woods is thin
after the passing of the autumn winds--this black and white is the
black and white of most of Sir George Reid's studies of northern
landscape. To call it black and white is to stretch the octave and omit
all the notes of the scale. Pure white of plastered masonry, or of
snow-covered roof or field in the bleak winter light, pure black in
some deep-set window, in the figure of a passer-by, or in the bare
trees, are used with the finesse of a colourist. Look at the
'Pyketillim Kirk' drawing in 'Johnny Gibb.' Between the white of the
long church wall, and the black of the little groups of village folk in
the churchyard, how quiet and easy is the transition, and how true to
colour is the result. Of the Edinburgh drawings the same may be said;
but, except in facsimile reproduction, one has to know the scale of
tone used by Sir George Reid in order to see the original effect where
the printed page shows unmodified black and white. In 'Holyrood Castle'
the values are fairly well kept, and the rendering of the ancient
building in the deep snow, without false emphasis, yet losing nothing
of emphatic effect, shows the dominant intellectual quality of the
artist's work.



It does not seem as though Sir George Reid as an illustrator had any
followers. He could hardly have imitators. If a man had delicacy and
patience of observation and hand to produce drawings in this 'style,'
his style would be his own and not an imitation. The number of artists
in black and white who cannot plausibly be imitated is a small number.
Sir George Reid is one, Mr. Alfred Parsons is another. Inevitably there
are points of similarity in the work of artists, the foundation of
whose black and white is colour, and who render the country-side with
the understanding of the native, the understanding that is beyond
knowledge. The difference between them only proves the essential
similarity in the elements of their art; but that, like most
paradoxes, is a truism. Mr. Parsons is, of course, thoroughly English
in his art. He has the particularity of English nature-poets. Pastoral
country is dear to him, and homesteads and flowering orchards, or
villages with church tower half hidden by the elms, are part of his
home country, the country he draws best. It is interesting to compare
his drawings for 'The Warwickshire Avon' with the Scottish artist's
drawings of the northern rivers. The drawings of Shakespeare's river
show spring trees in a mist of green, leafy summer trees, meadowsweet
and hayfields, green earth and blue sky, and a river of pleasure
watering a pleasant country. If a man can draw English summer-time in
colour with black and white, he must rank high as a landscape
pen-draughtsman. Mr. Alfred Parsons has illustrated about a dozen
books, and his work is to be found in 'Harper's Magazine,' and 'The
English Illustrated' in early days. Two books, the 'Old Songs' and 'The
Quiet Life,' published in 1887 and 1890, were illustrated by E. A.
Abbey and Alfred Parsons. The drawings of landscape, of fruit and
flowers, by Mr. Parsons, the Chippendale people and rooms of Mr. Abbey,
fill two charming volumes with pictures whose pleasantness and happy
art accord with the dainty verses of eighteenth-century sentiment. 'The
Warwickshire Avon,' and another river book, 'The Danube from the Black
Forest to the Sea,' illustrated in collaboration with the author, Mr.
F. D. Millet, belong to 1892. The slight sketches--passing-by
sketches--in these books, are among fortunate examples of a briefness
that few men find compatible with grace and significance. Sketches,
mostly in wash, of a farther and more decorated country--'Japan, the
Far East, the Land of Flowers and of the Rising Sun, the country which
for years it had been my dream to see and paint'--illustrate the
artist's 'Notes in Japan,' 1895. In the written notes are memoranda of
actual colour, of the green harmony of the Japanese summer--harmony
culminating in the vivid tint of the rice fields--of sunset and
butterflies, of delicate masses of azalea and drifts of cherry-blossom
and wisteria, while in the drawings are all the flowers, the green
hills and gray hamlets, and the temples, shrines and bridges, that make
unspoilt Japan one of the perpetual motives of decorative art.
Illustrations to Wordsworth--to a selected Wordsworth--gave the artist
fortunate opportunities to render the England of English descriptive



It is convenient to speak first of these painter-illustrators, because,
in a sense, they stand alone among illustrative artists. Obviously,
that is not to say that their work is worth more than the work of
illustrators, who, conforming to the laws of 'process,' make their
drawings with brain and hand that know how to win profit by concession.
But popularisers of an effective topographical or architectural style
are indirectly responsible for a large amount of work besides their
own. In one sense a leader does not stand alone, and cannot be
considered alone. Before, then, passing on to a draughtsman such as Mr.
Joseph Pennell, again, to Mr. Railton, or to Mr. New, whose successful
and unforgettable works have inspired many drawings in the books
whereby authors pay for their holiday journeys, other artists, whose
style is no convenience to the industrious imitator, may be considered.
Another painter, known for his work in black and white, is Mr. John
Fulleylove, whose 'Pictures of Classic Greek Landscape,' and drawings
of 'Oxford,' show him to be one of the few men who see architecture
steadily and whole, and who draw beautiful buildings as part of the
earth which they help to beautify. Compare the Greek drawings with
ordinary archæological renderings of pillared temples, and the
difference in beauty and interest is apparent. In Mr. Fulleylove's
drawings, the relation between landscape and architecture is never
forgotten, and he draws both with the structural knowledge of a
landscape painter, who is also by training an architect. In aim, his
work is in accord with classical traditions; he discerns the classical
spirit that built temples and carved statues in the beautiful places of
the open-air, a spirit which has nothing of the museum setting about
it. The 'Oxford' drawings show that Mr. Fulleylove can draw Gothic.

Though not a painter, Mr. William Hyde works 'to colour' in his
illustrations, and is generally successful in rendering both colour and
atmosphere. He has done little with the pen, and it is in wash
drawings, reproduced by photogravure, that he is best to be studied. Of
his early training as an engraver there is little to be seen in his
work, though his appreciation of the range of tone existing between
black and white may have developed from working within restrictions of
monotone, when the colour sense was growing strong in him. At all
events he can gradate from black to white with remarkable minuteness
and ease. His earliest work of any importance after giving up
engraving, was in illustration of 'L'Allegro' and 'Il Penseroso,' 1895,
and shows his talent already well controlled. There are thirteen
illustrations, and the opportunities for rendering aspects of light,
from the moment of the lark's morning flight against the dappled skies
of dawn, to the passing of whispering night-winds over the darkened
country, given in the verse of a poet sensitive as none before him to
the gradations of lightness and dark, are realized. So are the
hawthorns in the dale, and the towered cities. But it is as an
illustrator of another towered city than that imagined by Milton, that
some of Mr. Hyde's most individual work has been produced. In the
etchings and pictures in photogravure published with Mrs. Meynell's
'London Impressions,' London beneath the strange great sky that smoke
and weather make over the gray roofs, London when the dawn is low in
the sky, or when the glow of lamps and lamp-lit windows turns the
street darkness to golden haze, is drawn by a man who has seen for
himself how beautiful the great city is in 'between lights.' His other
work is superficially in contrast with these studies of city light and
darkness; but the same love for 'big' skies, for the larger aspects of
changing lights and cloud movements, are expressed in the drawings of
the wide country that is around and beyond the Cinque Ports, and in the
illustrations to Mr. George Meredith's 'Nature Poems.' The reproduction
is from a pen drawing in Mr. Hueffer's book, 'The Cinque Ports.' There
is no pettiness about it, and the 'phrasing' of castle, trees and sky
shows the artist.




Mr. D. Y. Cameron has illustrated a book or two with etchings--notably
White's 'Selborne' 1902,--but to consider him as a book-illustrator
would be to stretch a point. A few of his etchings are to be seen in
books, and one would like to make them the text for the consideration
of other etchings by him, but it would be a digression. He is not among
painter-illustrators, but among painters who have illustrated, and that
would bring more names into this chapter than it could hold except in
catalogue arrangement.

Coming to artists who are illustrators, not on occasion but always,
there is no question with whom to begin. It is true that Mr. Pennell is
American, but he is such an important figure in English illustration
that to leave him out would be impossible. He has been illustrating
Europe for more than fifteen years, and the forcible fashion of his
work, and all that he represents, have influenced black-and-white
artists in this country, as his master Rico influenced him. In range
and facility, and in getting to the point and keeping there, there is
no open-air illustrator to put beside Mr. Pennell. Always interested
and always interesting, he is apparently never bewildered, always ready
and able to draw. Surely there was never a mind with a greater faculty
for quick study; and he can apply this power to the realization of an
architectural detail, or of a cathedral, of miles of country with
river curves and castles, trees, and hills and fields, and a stretch of
sky over all; or of a great city-street crowded with traffic, of new or
old buildings, of Tuscany or of the Stock Exchange, with equal ease. To
attempt a record of Mr. Pennell's work would leave no room for
appreciation of it. As far as the English public is concerned, it began
in 1885 with the publication of 'A Canterbury Pilgrimage,' and since
then each year has added to Mr. Pennell's notes of the world at the
rate of two or three volumes. The highways and byways of England--east,
west, south and north--France from Normandy to Provence, the cities and
spaces of Italy, the Saone and the Thames, the 'real' Alps and the New
Zealand Alps, London and Paris, the Cathedrals of Europe, the gipsy
encampment and the Ghetto, Chelsea and the Alhambra--Mr. Pennell has
been everywhere and seen most things as he went, and one can see it in
his drawings.

He draws architecture without missing anything tangible, and his
buildings belong to cities that have life--and an individual life--in
their streets. But where he is unapproachable, or at all events
unapproached among pen-draughtsmen, is in drawing a great scheme of
country from a height. If one could reproduce a drawing such as that of
the country of Le Puy in Mr. Wickham Flower's 'Aquitaine,' or, better
still, the etching of the same amazing country, one need say no more
about Mr. Pennell's art in this kind. Unluckily the page is too small.
This strange and lovely landscape, where curving road and river and
tree-bordered fields are dominated by two image-crowned rocks, built
about with close-set houses, looks like a design from a dream fantasy
worked out by a master of definite imagination. One knows it is not.
Mr. Pennell is concerned to give facts in picturesque order, and here
he has a theme that affects us poetically, however it may have affected
Mr. Pennell. His eye measures a landscape that seems outside the
measure of observation, and his ability to grasp and render the
characteristics of actuality serves him as ever. It is an unforgettable
drawing, though the skill displayed in the simplification and relation
of facts is no greater than in other drawings by the artist. That power
hardly ever fails him. The 'Devils of Notre Dame' again stands out in
memory, when one thinks generally of Mr. Pennell's drawings. And again,
though it seems as if he were working above his usual pitch of
conception, it is only that he is using his keenness of sight, his
logical grasp of form and power of expression, on matter that is
expressive of mental passion. The man who carved the devils, like those
who crowned the rocks of Le Puy with the haloed figures, created facts.
The outrageous passion that made these evil things made them in stone.
You can measure them. They are matter-of-fact. Mr. Pennell has drawn
them as they are, with so much trenchancy, such assertion of their
hideous decorativeness, their isolation over modern Paris, that no
drawings could be better, and any others would be superfluous. It is
impossible to enumerate all that Mr. Pennell has done and can do in
black-and-white. He is a master of so many methods. From the sheer
black ink and white paper of the 'Devils,' to the light broken line
that suggests Moorish fantastic architecture under a hot sun in the
'Alhambra' drawings, there is nothing he cannot do with a pen. Nor is
it only with a pen that he can do what he likes and what we must
admire. He covers the whole field of black-and-white drawing.



After Mr. Pennell comes Mr. Herbert Railton. No architectural drawings
are more popular than his, and no style is better known or more
generally 'adopted' by the illustrators of little guide-books or of
magazine articles. An architect's training and knowledge of structure
underlies the picturesque dilapidation prevalent in his version of
Anglo-gothic architecture. His first traceable book-illustrations
belong to 1888, though in 'The English Illustrated,' in 'The
Portfolio,' and elsewhere, he had begun before then to formulate the
style that has served him so admirably in later work with the pen. The
illustrations to Mr. Loftie's 'Westminster Abbey' (1890) show his
manner much as it is in his latest pen drawings. There is a lack of
repose. One would like to undecorate some of the masonry, to reveal the
austere lines under the prevalence of pattern. At the same time one
realizes that here is the style needed in illustration of picturesquely
written books about picturesque places, and that the stone tracery of
Westminster, or the old brick and tiles of the Inns of Court, are more
interesting to many people in drawings such as these than in actuality.
But Rico's 'broken line' is responsible for much, and not every
draughtsman who adopts it direct, or through a mixed tradition, has
the architectural knowledge of Mr. Railton to support his deviations
from stability. Mr. Railton is the artist of the Cathedral Guide; he
has drawn Westminster, St. Paul's, Winchester, Gloucester,
Peterborough, and many more cathedrals, inside and out, within the last
ten years. In illustrations to books where a thread of story runs
through historical fact, books such as those written by Miss Manning
concerning Mary Powell, and the household of Sir Thomas More, the
artist has collaborated with Mr. Jellicoe, who has put figures in the
streets and country lanes.

There are so many names in the list of those who, in the beginning,
profited by the initiative of Mr. Pennell or of Mr. Railton that
generally they may be set aside. Of artists who have made some position
for themselves, there are enough to fill this chapter. Mr. Holland
Tringham and Mr. Hedley Fitton were at one time unmistakable in their
Railtonism. Mr. Fitton has illustrated cathedral books, and in later
drawings by Mr. Tringham exaggeration of his copy has given place to a
more direct record of beautiful buildings. Miss Nelly Erichsen and Miss
Helen James[1] are two artists whose work is much in request for
illustrated series, such as Dent's 'Mediæval Towns.' Miss James'
drawings to 'Rambles in Dickens' Land' (1899) showed study of Mr.
Railton, which is also observable in other books, such as 'The Story of
Rouen.' At the same time, she carries out her work from individual
observation, and gets an effect that belongs to study of the subject,
whether from actuality or from photographs. Miss James and Miss
Erichsen have collaborated in certain books on Italian towns, but
architectural drawing is only part of Miss Erichsen's illustrative
work, though an important part, as the illustrations to the
recently-published 'Florentine Villas' of Mrs. Ross show. Illustrating
stories, she works with graceful distinctness, and many of the drawings
in the 'Story of Rome'--though one remembers that Rome is in Mr.
Pennell's province--show what she can do.

Mr. C. G. Harper and Mr. C. R. B. Barrett are the most prominent among
those writers of travel-books who are also their own illustrators. They
belong, though with all the difference of time and development, to the
succession of Mr. Augustus Hare. Mr. Hissey also has made many books
out of his driving tours through England, and may be said to have first
specialized the subject that Mr. Harper and Mr. Barrett have made their
own. It is plain that the kind of book has nothing to do with the kind
of art that is used in its making. Mr. Hare's famous 'Walks' may be the
prototypes of later books, but each man makes what he can out of an
idea that has obvious possibilities in it. Mr. Harper has taken to the
ancient high-roads of England, and has studied their historical and
legendary, past, present, and imagined aspects. Of these he has
written; while his illustrations rank him rather among illustrators who
write than among writers who illustrate. Since 1889 he has published a
dozen books and more. In 'Royal Winchester'--the first of these--he is
illustrator only. 'The Brighton Road' of 1892 is the first of the
road-books, and the illustrations of the road as it was and is, of town
and of country, have colour and open air in their black-and-white.
Since then Mr. Harper has been from Paddington to Penzance, has
followed Dick Turpin along the Exeter road, and bygone fashion from
London to Bath, while accounts of the Dover road from Southwark Bridge
to Dover Castle, by way of Dickens' country and hop-gardens, and of the
Great North Road of which Stevenson longed to write, are written and
drawn with spirited observation. His drawing is not so picturesque as
his writing. It has reticence and justness of expression that would not
serve in relating tales of the road, but which, together with a sense
of colour and of what is pictorial, combine to form an effective and
frequently distinctive style of illustration. The drawing reproduced,
chosen by the artist, is from Mr. Harper's recent book on the Holyhead

[Illustration: DUNCHURCH. BY C. G. HARPER.



Mr. Barrett has described and illustrated the 'highways and byways and
waterways' of various English counties, as well as published a volume
on the battlefields of England, and studies of ancient buildings such
as the Tower of London. He is always well informed, and illustrates his
subject fully from pen-and-ink drawings. Mr. F. G. Kitton also writes
and illustrates, though he has written more than he has drawn. St.
Albans is his special town, and the old inns and quaint streets of the
little red city with its long cathedral, are truthfully and dexterously
given in his pen drawings and etchings. Mr. Alexander Ansted, too, as
a draughtsman of English cathedrals and of city churches, has made a
steady reputation since 1894, when his etchings and drawings of Riviera
scenery showed ambition to render tone, and as much as possible of
colour and atmosphere, with pen and ink. Since then he has simplified
his style for general purposes, though in books such as 'London
Riverside Churches' (1897), or 'The Romance of our Ancient Churches' of
two years later, many of the drawings are more elaborate than is common
in modern illustration. The names of Mr. C. E. Mallows and of Mr.
Raffles Davison must be mentioned among architectural draughtsmen,
though they are outside the scope of a study of book-illustration. Some
of Mr. Raffles Davison's work has been reprinted from the 'British
Architect,' but I do not think either of them illustrates books. An
extension of architectural art lies in the consideration of the garden
in relation to the house it surrounds, and Mr. Reginald Blomfield's
'Formal Garden' treats of the first principles of garden design as
distinct from horticulture. The drawings by Mr. Inigo Thomas, whether
one considers them as illustrating principles or gardens, are worth
looking at, as 'The Yew Walk' sufficiently shows.





The sobriety and decorum of Mr. New's architectural and landscape
drawings are the antithesis of the flagrantly picturesque. I do not
know whether Mr. Gere or Mr. New invented this order of landscape and
house drawing, but Mr. New is the chief exponent of it, and has placed
it among popular styles of to-day. It has the effect of sincerity, and
of respectful treatment of ancient buildings. Mr. New does not lapse
from the perpendicular, his hand does not tremble or break off when
house-walls or the ridge of a roof are to be drawn. His is a convention
that is frankly conventional, that confines nature within decorous
bounds, and makes formality a function of art. But though a great deal
of Mr. New's work is mechanical and done to pattern, so that sometimes
little perpendicular strokes to represent grass fill half the pictured
space, while little horizontal strokes to represent brick-work,
together with 'touches' that represent foliage, fill up the rest except
for a corner left blank for the sky; yet, at his best, he achieves an
effective and dignified way of treating landscape for the decoration of
books. Sensational skies that repeat one sensation to monotony,
scattered blacks and emphasized trivialities, are set aside by those
who follow Mr. New. When they are trivial and undiscriminating, they
are unaffectedly tedious, and that is almost pleasant after the
hackneyed sparkle of the inferior picturesque.

Mr. New's reputation as a book-illustrator was first made in 1896, when
an edition of 'The Compleat Angler' with many drawings by him appeared.
The homely architecture of Essex villages and small towns, the low
meadows and quiet streams, gave him opportunity for drawings that are
pleasant on the page. Two garden books, or strictly speaking, one--for
'In the Garden of Peace' was succeeded by 'Outside the Garden'--contain
natural history drawings similar to those of fish in 'The Compleat
Angler' and of birds in White's 'Selborne.' The illustrations to
'Oxford and its Colleges,' and 'Cambridge and its Colleges,' are less
representative of the best Mr. New can do than books where village
architecture, or the irregular house-frontage of country high-streets
are his subject. Illustrating Shakespeare's country, 'Sussex,' and
'The Wessex of Thomas Hardy,' brought him into regions of the
country-town; but the most important of his recent drawings are those
in 'The Natural History of Selborne,' published in 1900. The drawing of
'Selborne Street' is from that volume.

[Illustration: Selborne Street




With Mr. New, Mr. R. J. Williams and Mr. H. P. Clifford illustrated Mr.
Aymer Vallance's two books on William Morris. Their illustrations are
fit records of the homes and working-places of the great man who
approved their art. Mr. Frederick Griggs, who since 1900 has
illustrated three or four garden books, also follows the principles of
Mr. New, but with more variety in detail, less formality in
tree-drawing and in the rendering of paths and roads and streams and
sunshine, in short, with more of art outside the school, than Mr. New
permits himself.

The open-air covers so much that I have little room to give to another
aspect of open-air illustration--drawings of bird and animal-life. The
work of Mr. Harrison Weir, begun so many years ago, is chiefly in
children's books; but Mr. Charles Whymper, who has an old reputation
among modern reputations, has illustrated the birds and beasts and fish
of Great Britain in books well known to sportsmen and to natural
historians, as also books of travel and sport in tropical and ice-bound
lands. The work of Mr. John Guille Millais is no less well known. No
one else draws animals in action, whether British deer or African wild
beast, from more intelligent and thorough observation, and of his art
the graceful rendering of the play of deer in Cawdor Forest gives proof
that does not need words. Birds in flight, beasts in action--Mr.
Millais is undisputably master of his subject. Many drawings show the
humour which is one of the charms of his work.





[Footnote 1: Since this book was in type, I have learned with regret of
the death of Miss Helen James.]


SO far, in writing of decorative illustrators and of open-air
illustrators, the difference in scheme between a study of
book-illustration and of 'black-and-white' art has not greatly affected
the scale and order of facts. The intellectual idea of illustration, as
a personal interpretation of the spirit of the text, finds expression,
formally at least, in the drawings of most decorative black-and-white
artists. The deliberate and inventive character of their art, the fact
that such qualities are non-journalistic, and ineffective in the
treatment of 'day by day' matters, keeps the interpretative ideal,
brought into English illustration by Rossetti, and the artists whose
spirits he kindled, among working ideals for these illustrators. For
that reason, with the exception of page-decorations such as those of
Mr. Edgar Wilson, the subject of decorative illustration is almost
co-extensive with the subject of decorative black-and-white. The
open-air illustrator represents another aspect of illustration. To
interpret the spirit of the text would, frequently, allow his art no
exercise. Much of his text is itinerary. His subject is before his
eyes in actuality, or in photographs, and not in some phrase of words,
magical with suggested forms, creating by its gift of delight desire to
celebrate its beauty. Still, if the artist be independent of the
intellectual and imaginative qualities of the book, his is no
independent form of black and white. It is illustration; the author's
subject is the subject of the artist. Open-air facts, those that are
beautiful and pleasurable, are too uneventful to make 'news
illustration.' Unless as background for some event, they have, for most
people, no immediate interest. So it happens that open-air drawings are
usually illustrations of text, text of a practical guide-book
character, or of archæological interest, or of the gossiping, intimate
kind that tells of possessions, of journeys and pleasurings, or, again,
illustrations of the open-air classics in prose and verse.

But in turning to the work of those draughtsmen whose subject is the
presentment of character, of every man in his own humour, the
illustration of literature is a part only of what is noteworthy. These
artists have a subject that makes the opportunities of the
book-illustrator seem formal; a subject, charming, poignant, splendid
or atrocious, containing all the 'situations' of comedy, tragedy or
farce; the only subject at once realized by everyone, yet whose
opportunities none has ever comprehended. The writings of novelists and
dramatists--life narrowed to the perception of an individual--are
limitary notions of the matter, compared with the illimitable variety
of character and incident to be found in the world that changes from
day to day. And 'real' life, purged of monotony by the wit,
discrimination or extravagance of the artist, or--on a lower plane--by
the combination only of approved comical or sentimental or melodramatic
elements, is the most popular and marketable of all subjects. The
completeness of a work of art is to some a refuge from the
incompleteness of actuality; to others this completeness is more
incomplete than any incident of their own experience. The first bent of
mind--supposing an artist who illustrates to 'express himself'--makes
an illustrator of a draughtsman, the second makes literature seem no
more than _la reste_ to the artist as an opportunity for pictorial

Character illustration is then a subject within a subject, and if it be
impossible to consider it without overseeing the limitations, yet a
different point of view gives a different order of impressions.
Caricaturists, political cartoonists, news-illustrators and graphic
humorists, the artists who pictorialize society, the stage, the slums
or some other kind of life interesting to the spectator, are outside
the scheme of this article--unless they be illustrators also. For
instance, the illustrations of Sir Harry Furniss are only part of his
lively activities, and Mr. Bernard Partridge is the illustrator of Mr.
Austin Dobson's eighteenth-century muse as well as the 'J. B. P.' of
'socials' in 'Punch.'

An illustrator of many books, and one whose illustrations have unusual
importance, both as interpretations of literature and for their
artistic force, Mr. William Strang is yet so incongruous with
contemporary black-and-white artists of to-day that he must be
considered first and separately. For the traditions of art and of race
that find a focus in the illustrative etchings of this artist, the
creative traditions, and instinctive modes of thought that are
represented in the forms and formation of his art, are forces of
intellect and passion and insight not previously, nor now, by more than
the one artist, associated with the practice of illustration. To
consider his work in connection with modern illustration is to speak of
contrasts. It represents nothing that the gift-book picture represents,
either in technical dexterities, founded on the requirements of process
reproduction, or in its decorative ideals, or as expressive of the
pleasures of literature. One phase of Mr. Strang's illustrative art is,
indeed, distinct from the mass of his work, with which the etched
illustrations are congruous, and the line-drawings to three
masterpieces of imaginary adventure--to Lucian, to Baron Munchausen and
to Sindbad--show, perhaps, some infusion of Aubrey Beardsley's spirit
of fantasy into the convictions of which Mr. Strang's art is
compounded. But these drawings represent an excursion from the serious
purpose of the artist's work. The element in literature expressed by
that epithet 'weird'--exiled from power to common service--is lacking
in the extravagances of these _voyages imaginaires_, and, lacking the
shadows cast by the unspeakable, the intellectual _chiaroscuro_ of Mr.
Strang's imagination, loses its force. These travellers are too glib
for the artist, though his comprehension of the grotesque and
extravagant, and his humour, make the drawings expressive of the text,
if not of the complete personality of the draughtsman. The 'types,
shadows and metaphors' of 'The Pilgrim's Progress,' with its
poignancies of mental experience and conflict, its transcendent
passages, its theological and naïve moods, gave the artist an
opportunity for more realized imagination. The etchings in this volume,
published in 1894, represent little of the allegorical actualities of
the text. Not the encounters by the way, the clash of blows, the
'romancing,' but the 'man cloathed with rags and a great Burden on his
back,' or Christiana his wife, when 'her thoughts began to work in her
mind,' are the realities to the artist. The pilgrims are real and
credible, poor folk to the outward sight, worn with toil, limited,
abused in the circumstances of their lives; and these peasant figures
are to Mr. Strang, as to his master in etching, Professor Legros,
symbols of endurance, significant protagonists in the drama of man's
will and the forces that strive to subdue its strength. To both artists
the peasant confronting death is the climax of the drama. In the
etchings of Professor Legros death fells the woodman, death meets the
wayfarer on the high-road. There is no outfacing the menace of death.
But to Mr. Strang, the sublimity of Bunyan's 'poor man,' who overcomes
all influences of mortality by the strength of his faith, is a possible
fact. His ballad illustrations deal finely with various aspects of the
theme. In 'The Earth Fiend,' a ballad written and illustrated with
etchings by Mr. Strang in 1892, the peasant subdues and compels to his
service the spirit of destruction. He maintains his projects of
cultivation, conquers the adverse wildness of nature, makes its force
productive of prosperity and order; then, on a midday of harvest,
sleeps, and the 'earth fiend,' finding his tyrant defenceless, steals
on him and kills him as he lies. 'Death and the Ploughman's Wife'
(1894) has a braver ending. It interprets in an impressive series of
etchings how 'Death that conquers a'' is vanquished by the mother whose
child he has snatched from its play. The title-page etching shows a
little naked child kicking a skull into the air, while the
peasant-mother, patient, vigilant, keeps watch near by. In 'The Christ
upon the Hill' of the succeeding year, a ballad by Cosmo Monkhouse with
etchings by Mr. Strang, the artist follows, of course, the conception
of the writer; but here, too, his work is expressive of the visionary
faith that discerns death as one of those 'base things' that 'usher in
things Divine.'



The twelve etchings to 'Paradise Lost' (1896) do not, as I think,
represent Mr. Strang's imagination at its finest. It is in the
representation of rude forms of life, subjected to the immeasurable
influences of passion, love, sorrow, that the images of Mr. Strang's
art, at once vague and of intense reality, primitive and complex, have
most force. Adam and Eve driven from Paradise by the angel with the
flaming sword, are not directly created by the artist. They recall
Masaccio, and are undone by the recollection. Eve, uprising in the
darkness of the garden where Adam sleeps, the speech of the serpent
with the woman, the gathering of the fruit, are traditionary in their
pictorial forms, and the tradition is too great, it imposes itself
between the version of Mr. Strang and our admiration. But in the thirty
etchings illustrative of Mr. Kipling's works, as in the ballad
etchings, the imagination of the artist is unfettered by tradition. The
stories he pictures deal, for all their cleverness and definition, with
themes that, translated out of Mr. Kipling's words into the large
imagination of Mr. Strang, have powerful purpose. As usual, the artist
makes his picture not of matter-of-fact--and the etching called 'A
Matter of Fact' is specially remote from any such matter--but of more
purposeful, more overpowering realities than any particular instance of
life would show. He attempts to realize the value, not of an instance
of emotion or of endeavour, but of the quality itself. He sets his
mind, for example, to realize the force of western militarism in the
east, or the attitude of the impulses of life towards contemplation,
and his soldiers, his 'Purun Bhagat,' express his observations or
imaginations of these themes. Certainly 'a country's love' never went
out to this kind of Tommy Atkins, and the India of Mr. Strang is not
the India that holds the Gadsbys, or of which plain tales can be told.
But he has imagined a country that binds the contrasts of life together
in active operation on each other, and in thirty instances of these
schemed-out realities, or of dramatic events resulting from the clash
of racial and national and chronological characteristics, he has
achieved perhaps his most complete expression of insight into
essentials. Mr. Strang's etchings in the recently published edition of
'The Compleat Angler,' illustrated by him and by Mr. D. Y. Cameron,
are less successful. The charm of his subject seems not to have entered
into his imagination, whereas forms of art seem to have oppressed him.
The result is oppressive, and that is fatal to the value of his
etchings as illustrations of the book that 'it would sweeten a man's
temper at any time to read.' Intensity and large statement of dark and
light; fine dramatizations of line; an unremitting conflict with the
superfluous and inexpressive in form and in thought; an art based on
the realities of life, and without finalities of expression, inelegant,
as though grace were an affectation, an insincerity in dealing with
matters of moment: these are qualities that detach the illustrations of
Mr. Strang from the generality of illustrations. Save that Mr. Robert
Bryden, in his 'Woodcuts of men of letters' and in the portrait
illustrations to 'Poets of the younger generation,' shows traces of
studying the portrait-frontispieces of Mr. Strang, there is no relation
between his art and the traditions it represents and any other
book-illustrations of to-day.

Turning now to illustrators who are representative of the tendencies
and characteristics of modern book-illustration, and so are less
conspicuous in a general view of the subject than Mr. Strang, there is
little question with whom to begin. Mr. Abbey represents at their best
the qualities that belong to gift-book illustration. It would, perhaps,
be more correct to say that gift-book illustration represents the
qualities of Mr. Abbey's black and white with more or less fidelity, so
effective is the example of his technique on the forms of picturesque
character-illustration. It is nearly a quarter of a century since the
artist, then a young man fresh from Harper's drawing-office in New
York, came to England. That first visit, spent in studying the reality
of English pastoral life in preparation for his 'Herrick'
illustrations, lasted for two years, and after a few months' interval
in the States he returned to England. Resident here for nearly all the
years of his work, a member of the Royal Academy, his art expressive of
traditions of English literature and of the English country to which he
came as to the actuality of his imaginings, one may include Mr. Abbey
among English book-illustrators with more than a show of reason. In
1882, when the 'Selections from the Poetry of Robert Herrick' was
published, few of the men whose work is considered in this chapter had
been heard of. Chronologically, Mr. Abbey is first of contemporary
character-illustrators, and nowhere but first would he be in his proper
place, for there is no one to put beside him in his special fashion of
art, and in the effect of his illustrative work on his contemporaries.
There is inevitable ease and elegance in the pen-drawings of Mr. Abbey,
and for that reason it is easy to underestimate their intellectual
quality. He is inventive. The spirit of Herrick's muse, or of 'She
Stoops to Conquer,' or of the comedies of Shakespeare, is not a quality
for which he accepts any formula. He finds shapes for his fancies,
rejecting as alien to his purpose all that is not the clear result of
his own understanding of the poet. Accordingly there is, in all his
work, the expression of an intellectual conception. He sees, too, with
patience. If he isolates a figure, one feels that figure has stepped
forward into a clear place of his imagination as he followed its way
through the crowd. If he sets a pageant on the page, or some piece of
turbulent action, or moment of decision, the actors have their
individual value. He thinks his way through processes of gradual
realization to the final picture of the characters in the play or poem.
One writes now with special reference to the illustrations of the
comedies of Shakespeare--so far, the illustrative work most exigent to
the intellectual powers of the artist. Herrick's verse, full of sweet
sounds and suggestive of happy sights, 'She Stoops to Conquer,' where
all the mistakes are but for a night, to be laughed over in the
morning, the lilt and measure of 'Old Songs,' and of the charming
verses in 'The Quiet Life,' called for sensitive appreciation of moods,
lyrical, whimsical, humorous, idyllic, but--intellectually--for no more
than this. As to Mr. Abbey's technique, curious as he is in the uses of
antiquity as part of the pleasure of a fresh realization, clothing his
characters in textiles of the great weaving times, or of a dainty
simplicity, a student of architecture and of landscape, of household
fittings, of armoury, of every beautiful accessory to the business of
living, his clever pen rarely fails to render within the convention of
black and white the added point of interest and of charm that these
things bring into actuality. Truth of texture, of atmosphere, and of
tone, an alertness of vision most daintily expressed--these qualities
belong to all Mr. Abbey's work, and in the Shakespearean drawings he
shows with greater force than ever his 'stage-managing' power, and the
correctness and beauty of his 'mounting.' The drawings are dramatic:
the women have beauty and individuality, while the men match them, or
contrast with them as in the plays; the rogues are vagabonds in spirit,
and the wise men have weight; the world of Shakespeare has been entered
by the artist. But there are gestures in the text, moments of glad
grace, of passion, of sudden amazement before the realities of personal
experience, that make these active, dignified figures of Mr. Abbey
'merely players,' his Isabella in the extremity of the scene with
Claudio no more than an image of cloistered virtue, his Hermione
incapable of her undaunted eloquence and silence, his Perdita and
Miranda and Rosalind less than themselves.

As illustrations, the drawings of Mr. Abbey represent traditions
brought into English illustrative art by the Pre-Raphaelites, and
developed by the freer school of the sixties. But, as drawings, they
represent ideas not effective before in the practice of English
pen-draughtsmen; ideas derived from the study of the black and white of
Spain, of France, and of Munich, by American art students in days when
English illustrators were not given to look abroad. Technically he has
suggested many things, especially to costume illustrators, and many
names might follow his in representation of the place he fills in
relation to contemporary art. But to work out the effect of a man's
technique on those who are gaining power of expression is to labour in
vain. It adds nothing to the intrinsic value of an artist's work, nor
does it represent the true relationship between him and those whom he
has influenced. For if they are mere imitators they have no relation
with any form of art, while to insist upon derived qualities in work
that has the superscription of individuality is no true way of
apprehension. What a man owes to himself is the substantial fact, the
fact that relates him to other men. The value of his work, its
existence, is in the little more, or the much more, that himself adds
to the sum of his directed industries, his guided achievements. And to
estimate that, to attempt to express something of it, must be the chief
aim of a study, not of one artist and his 'times,' but of many artists
practising a popular art.

So that if, in consideration of their 'starting-point,' one may group
most character-illustrators, especially of wig-and-powder subjects, as
adherents either of Mr. Abbey and the 'American school,' or of Mr. Hugh
Thomson and the Caldecott-Greenaway tradition, such grouping is also no
more than a starting-point, and everything concerning the achievements
of the individual artist has still to be said.

Considering the intention of their technique, one may permissibly group
the names of Mr. Fred Pegram, Mr. F. H. Townsend, Mr. Shepperson, Mr.
Sydney Paget, and Mr. Stephen Reid as representing in different degrees
the effect of American black and white on English technique, though,
in the case of Mr. Paget, one alludes only to pen-drawings such as
those in 'Old Mortality,' and not to his Sherlock Holmes and Martin
Hewitt performances. The art of Mr. Pegram and of Mr. Townsend is akin.
Mr. Pegram has, perhaps, more sense of beauty, and his work suggests a
more complete vision of his subject than is realized in the drawings of
Mr. Townsend, while Mr. Townsend is at times more successful with the
activities of the story; but the differences between them seem hardly
more than the work of one hand would show. They really collaborate in
illustration, though, except in Cassell's survey of 'Living London,'
they have never, I think, made drawings for the same book.

Mr. Pegram served the usual apprenticeship to book-illustration. He was
a news-illustrator before he turned to the illustration of literature;
but he is an artist to whom the reality acquired by a subject after
study of it is more attractive than the reality of actual impressions.
Neither sensational nor society events appeal to him. The necessity to
compose some sort of an impression from the bare facts of a fact,
without time to make the best of it, was not an inspiring necessity.
That Mr. Pegram is a book-illustrator by the inclination of his art as
well as by profession, the illustrations to 'Sybil,' published in 1895,
prove. In these drawings he showed himself not only observant of facial
expression and of gesture, but also able to interpret the glances and
gestures of Disraeli's society. From the completeness of the
draughtsman's realization of his subject, illustrable situations
develop themselves with credibility, and his graceful women and
thoughtful men represent the events of the novel with distinction. With
'Sybil' may be mentioned the illustrations to 'Ormond,' wherein, five
years later, the same understanding of the ways and activities of a
bygone, yet not remote society, found equally satisfactory expression,
while the technique of the artist had gained in completeness. In 'The
Last of the Barons' (1897), Mr. Pegram had a picturesque subject with
much strange humanity in it, despite Lord Lytton's conventional
travesty of events and character. The names of Richard and Warwick, of
Hastings and Margaret of Anjou, are names that break through
conventional romance, but the illustrator has to keep up the fiction of
the author, and, except that the sham-mediævalism of the novel did not
prevent a right study of costumes and accessories in the pictures, the
artist had to be content to 'Bulwerize.' Illustrations to 'The Arabian
Nights' gave him opportunity for rendering textures and atmosphere, and
movements charming or grave, and the 'Bride of Lammermoor' drawings
show a sweet-faced Lucy Ashton, and a Ravenswood who is more than
melancholy and picturesque. Mr. Pegram's drawings are justly dramatic
within the limits prescribed by a somewhat composed ideal of bearing. A
catastrophe is outside these limits, and the discovery of Lucy after
the bridal lacks real illustration in the artist's version, skilful,
nevertheless, as are all his drawings, and expressed without
hesitation. Averse to caricature, and keeping within ideas of life that
allow of unbroken expression, the novels of Marryat, where action so
bustling that only caricatures of humanity can endure its exigencies,
and sentimental episodes of flagrant insincerity, swamp the
character-drawing, are hardly suited to the art of Mr. Pegram. Still,
he selects, and his selection is true to the time and circumstance of
Marryat's work. In itself it is always an expression of a coherent and
definite conception of the story.



Mr. Townsend has illustrated Hawthorne and Peacock, as well as
Charlotte Brontë and Scott. Hawthorne's men and women--embodiments
always of some essential quality, rather than of the combination of
qualities that make 'character'--lend themselves to fine illustration
as regards gesture, and Mr. Townsend's drawings represent, not
insensitively, the movement and suggestion of 'The Blithedale Romance'
and 'The House of the Seven Gables.' In the Peacock illustrations the
artist had to keep pace with an essentially un-English humour, an
imagination full of shapes that are opinions and theories and sarcasms
masquerading under fantastic human semblances. Mr. Townsend kept to
humanity, and found occasions for representing the eccentrics engaged
in cheerful open-air and society pursuits in the pauses of paradoxical
discussion. One realizes in the drawings the pleasant aspect of life at
Gryll Grange and at Crotchet Castle, the courtesies and amusements out
of doors and within, while the subjects of 'Maid Marian,' of 'The
Misfortunes of Elphin' and of 'Rhododaphne' declare themselves in
excellent terms of romance and adventure. Mr. Townsend has humour, and
he is in sympathy with the vigorous spirit in life; whether the vigour
is intellectual as in Jane Eyre and in Shirley Keeldar, or muscular as
in 'Rob Roy,' in drawings to a manual of fencing, and in Marryat's 'The
King's Own,' or eccentric as in the fantasies of Peacock. His work is
never languid and never formal; and if in technique he is sometimes
experimental, and frequently content with ineffectual accessories to
his figures, his conception of the situation, and of the characters
that fulfil the situation, is direct and effective enough.



As an illustrator of current fiction, Mr. Townsend has also a
considerable amount of dexterous work to his name, but a record of
drawings contributed to the illustrated journals cannot even be
attempted within present limits of space.

Mr. Shepperson in his book-illustrations generally represents affairs
with picturesqueness, and with a nervous energy that takes the least
mechanical way of expressing forms and substances. Illustrating the
modern novel of adventure, he is happy in his intrigues and
conspiracies, while in books of more weight, such as 'The Heart of
Midlothian' or 'Lavengro,' he expresses graver issues of life with
un-elaborate and suggestive effect. The energy of his line, the
dramatic quality of his imagination, render him in his element as an
illustrator of events, but the vigour that projects itself into
subjects such as the murder of Sir George Staunton, or the fight with
the Flaming Tinman, or the alarms and stratagems of Mr. Stanley Weyman,
informs also his representation of moments when there is no action.
Technically Mr. Shepperson represents very little that is traditional
in English black and white, though the tradition seems likely to be
there for future generations of English illustrators.

[Illustration: "Ye are ill, Effie," were the first words Jeanie could
utter; "ye are very ill."



In a recent work, illustrations to Leigh Hunt's 'Old Court Suburb,' Mr.
Shepperson collaborates with Mr. E. J. Sullivan and Mr. Herbert
Railton, to realize the associations, literary, historical and
gossiping, that have Kensington Palace and Holland House as their
principal centres. On the whole, of the three artists, the subject
seems least suggestive to Mr. Shepperson. Mr. Sullivan contributes
many portraits, and some subject drawings that show him in his
lightest and most dexterous vein. These drawings of _beaux_ and
_belles_ are as distinct in their happy flattery of fact from the rigid
assertion of the artist's 'Fair Women,' as they are from the
undelightful reporting style that in the beginning injured Mr.
Sullivan's illustrations. One may describe it as the 'Daily Graphic'
style, though that is to recognize only the basis of convenience on
which the training of the 'Daily Graphic' school was necessarily
founded. Mr. Sullivan's early work, the news-illustration and
illustrations to current fiction of Mr. Reginald Cleaver and of his
brother Mr. Ralph Cleaver, the black and white of Mr. A. S. Boyd and of
Mr. Crowther, show this journalistic training, and show, too, that such
a training in reporting facts directly is no hindrance to the later
achievement of an individual way of art. Mr. A. S. Hartrick must also
be mentioned as an artist whose distinctive black and white developed
from the basis of pictorial reporting, and how distinctive and
well-observed that art is, readers of the 'Pall Mall Magazine' know. As
a book-illustrator, however, his landscape drawings to Borrow's 'Wild
Wales' represent another art than that of the character-illustrator.
Nor can one pass over the drawings of Mr. Maurice Greiffenhagen, also a
contributor to the 'Pall Mall Magazine,' if better known in
illustrations to fiction in 'The Ladies' Pictorial,' though in an
article on book-illustration he has nothing like his right place. As an
admirable and original technician and draughtsman of society, swift in
sight, excellent in expression, he ranks high among black-and-white
artists, while as a painter, his reputation, if based on different
qualities, is not doubtful.



Mr. Sullivan's drawings to 'Tom Brown's Schooldays' (1896) are
mechanical and mostly without charm of handling, having an appearance
of timidity that is inexplicable when one thinks of the vigorous
news-drawings that preceded them. The wiry line of the drawings appears
in the 'Compleat Angler,' and in other books, including 'The Rivals'
and 'The School for Scandal,' 'Lavengro' and 'Newton Forster,'
illustrated by the artist in '96 and '97; but the decorative purpose of
Mr. Sullivan's later work is, in all these books, effective in
modifying its perversity. Increasing elaboration of manner within the
limits of that purpose marks the transition between the starved reality
of 'Tom Brown' and the illustrations to 'Sartor Resartus' (1898). These
emphatic decorations, and those illustrative of Tennyson's 'Dream of
Fair Women and other Poems,' published two years later, are the
drawings most representative of Mr. Sullivan's intellectual ideals.
They show him, if somewhat indifferent to charm, and capable of
out-facing beauty suggested in the words with statements of the extreme
definiteness of his own fact-conception, yet strongly appreciative of
the substance and purpose of the text. Carlyle gives him brave
opportunities, and the dogmatism of the artist's line and form, his
speculative humour, working down to a definite certainty in things,
make these drawings unusually interesting. Tennyson's 'Dream,' and his
poems to women's names, are not so fit for the exercise of Mr.
Sullivan's talent. He imposes himself with too much force on the forms
that the poet suggests. There is no delicacy about the drawings and no
mystery. They do not accord with the inspiration of Tennyson, an
inspiration that substitutes the exquisite realities of memory and of
dream for the realities of experience. Mr. Sullivan's share of the
illustrations to White's 'Selborne' and to the 'Garden Calendar,' are
technically more akin to the Carlyle and Tennyson drawings than to
other examples by him. In these volumes he makes fortunate use of the
basis of exactitude on which his work is founded, exactitude that
includes portraiture among the functions of the illustrator. No
portrait is extant of Gilbert White, but the presentment of him is
undertaken in a constructive spirit, and, as in 'The Compleat Angler'
and 'The Old Court Suburb,' portraits of those whose names and
personalities are connected with the books are redrawn by Mr. Sullivan.

Except Mr. Abbey, no character-illustrator of the modern school has so
long a record of work, and so visible an influence on English
contemporary illustration, as Mr. Hugh Thomson. In popularity he is
foremost. The slight and apparently playful fashion of his art,
deriving its intention from the irresistible gaieties of Caldecott, is
a fashion to please both those who like pretty things and those who can
appreciate the more serious qualities that are beneath. For Mr. Thomson
is a student of literature. He pauses on his subject, and though his
invention has always responded to the suggestions of the text, the
lightness of his later work is the outcome of a selecting judgment that
has learned what to omit by studying the details and facts of things.
In rendering facial expression Mr. Thomson is perhaps too much the
follower of Caldecott, but he goes much farther than his original
master in realization of the forms and manners of bygone times. Some
fashions of life, as they pass from use, are laid by in lavender. The
fashions of the eighteenth century have been so laid by, and Mr. Abbey
and Mr. Thomson are alike successful in giving a version of fact that
has the farther charm of lavender-scented antiquity.

When 'Days with Sir Roger de Coverley,' illustrated by Hugh Thomson,
was published in 1886, the young artist was already known by his
drawings in the 'English Illustrated,' and recognized as a serious
student of history and literature, and a delightful illustrator of the
times he studied. His powers of realizing character, time, and place,
were shown in this earliest work. Sir Roger is a dignified figure; Mr.
Spectator, in the guise of Steele, has a semblance of observation; and
if Will Wimble lacks his own unique quality, he is represented as
properly engaged about his 'gentleman-like manufactures and obliging
little humours.' Mr. Thomson can draw animals, if not with the
possessive understanding of Caldecott, yet with truth to the kind,
knowledge of movement. The country-side around Sir Roger's house--as,
in a later book, that where the vicarage of Wakefield stands--is often
delightfully drawn, while the leisurely and courteous spirit of the
essays is represented, with an appreciation of its beauty. 'Coaching
Days and Coaching Ways' (1888) is a picturesque book, where types and
bustling action picturesquely treated were the subjects of the artist.
The peopling of high-road and county studies with lively figures is one
of Mr. Thomson's successful achievements, as he has shown in drawings
of the cavalier exploits of west-country history, illustrative of
'Highways and Byways of Devon and Cornwall,' and in episodes of romance
and warfare and humour in similar volumes on Donegal, North Wales, and
Yorkshire. Here the presentment of types and action, rather than of
character, is the aim, but in the drawings to 'Cranford' (1891), to
'Our Village,' and to Jane Austen's novels, behaviour rather than
action, the gentilities and proprieties of life and millinery, have to
be expressed as a part of the artistic sense of the books. That is,
perhaps, why Jane Austen is so difficult to illustrate. The illustrator
must be neither formal nor picturesque. He must understand the
'parlour' as a setting for delicate human comedy. Mr. Thomson is better
in 'Cranford,' where he has the village as the background for the two
old ladies, or in 'Our Village,' where the graceful pleasures of Miss
Mitford's prose have suggested delightful figures to the illustrator's
fancy, than in illustrating Miss Austen, whose disregard of local
colouring robs the artist of background material such as interests him.
Three books of verses by Mr. Austin Dobson, 'The Ballad of Beau
Brocade' (1892), 'The Story of Rosina,' and 'Coridon's Song' of the
following years, together with the illustrations to 'Peg Woffington,'
show, in combination, the picturesque and the intellectual interests
that Mr. Thomson finds in life. The eight pieces that form the first of
these volumes were, indeed, chosen to be reprinted because of their
congruity in time and sentiment with Mr. Thomson's art. And certainly
he works in accord with the measure of Mr. Austin Dobson's verses. Both
author and artist carry their eighteenth-century learning in as easy a
way as though experience of life had given it them without any labour
in libraries.



Mr. C. E. Brock and Mr. H. M. Brock are two artists who to some extent
may be considered as followers of Mr. Thomson's methods, though Mr. C.
E. Brock's work in 'Punch,' and humorous characterizations by Mr. H. M.
Brock in 'Living London,' show how distinct from the elegant fancy of
Mr. Thomson's art are the latest developments of their artistic
individuality. Mr. C. E. Brock's illustrations to Hood's 'Humorous
Poems' (1893) proved his indebtedness to Mr. Thomson, and his ability
to carry out Caldecott-Thomson ideas with spirit and with invention. An
active sense of fun, and facility in arranging and expressing his
subject, made him an addition to the school he represented, and, as in
later work, his own qualities and the qualities he has adopted combined
to produce spirited and graceful art. But in work preceding the
pen-drawing of 1893, and in many books illustrated since then, Mr.
Brock at times has shown himself an illustrator to whom matter rather
than a particular charm of manner seems of paramount interest. In the
illustrated Gulliver of 1894 there is little trace of the daintiness
and sprightliness of Caldecott's illustrative art. He gives many
particulars, and is never at a loss for forms and details, representing
with equal matter-of-factness the crowds, cities and fleets of
Lilliput, the large details of Brobdingnagian existence, and the
ceremonies and spectacles of Laputa. In books of more actual adventure,
such as 'Robinson Crusoe' or 'Westward Ho,' or of quiet particularity,
such as Galt's 'Annals of the Parish,' the same directness and
unmannered expression are used, a directness which has more of the
journalistic than of the playful-inventive quality. The Jane Austen
drawings, those to 'The Vicar of Wakefield,' and to a recent edition of
the 'Essays of Elia,' show the graceful eighteenth-centuryist, while,
whether he reports or adorns, whether action or behaviour, adventure or
sentiment, is his theme, Mr. Brock is always an illustrator who
realizes opportunities in the text, and works from a ready and
observant intelligence.



Mr. Henry M. Brock is also an effective illustrator, and his work
increases in individuality and in freedom of arrangement. 'Jacob
Faithful' (1895) was followed by 'Handy Andy' and Thackeray's 'Songs
and Ballads' in 1896. Less influenced by Mr. Thomson than his brother,
the lively Thackeray drawings, with their versatility and easy
invention, have nevertheless much in common with the work of Mr.
Charles Brock. On the whole, time has developed the differences rather
than the similarities in the work of these artists. In the 'Waverley'
drawings and in those of 'The Pilgrim's Progress,' Mr. H. M. Brock
represents action in a more picturesque mood than Mr. Charles Brock
usually maintains, emphasizing with more dramatic effect the action and
necessity for action.

The illustrations of Mr. William C. Cooke, especially those to 'Popular
British Ballads' (1894), and, with less value, those to 'John Halifax,
Gentleman,' may be mentioned in relation to the Caldecott tradition,
though it is rather of the art of Kate Greenaway that one is reminded
in these tinted illustrations. Mr. Cooke's wash-drawings to Jane
Austen's novels, to 'Evelina' and 'The Man of Feeling,' as well as the
pen-drawings to 'British Ballads,' have more force, and represent with
some distinction the stir of ballad romance, the finely arranged
situations of Miss Austen, and the sentiments of life, as Evelina and
Harley understood it.

In a study of English black-and-white art, not limited to
book-illustration, 'Punch' is an almost inevitable and invaluable
centre for facts. Few draughtsmen of notability are outside the scheme
of art connected with 'Punch,' and in this connection artists differing
as widely as Sir John Tenniel and Mr. Phil May, or Mr. Linley Sambourne
and Mr. Raven Hill, form a coherent group. But, in this volume, 'Punch'
itself is outside the limits of subject, and, with the exception of Mr.
Bernard Partridge in the present, and Sir Harry Furniss in the past,
the wits of the pencil who gather round the 'mahogany tree' are not
among character-illustrators of literature. Mr. Partridge has drawn for
'Punch' since 1891, and has been on the staff for nearly all that time.
His drawings of theatrical types in Mr. Jerome's 'Stage-land'
(1889)--which, according to some critics, made, by deduction, the
author's reputation as a humorist--and to a first series of Mr.
Anstey's 'Voces Populi,' as well as work in many of the illustrated
papers, were a substantial reason for 'Punch's' invitation to the
artist. From the 'Bishop and Shoeblack' cut of 1891, to the 'socials'
and cartoons of to-day, Mr. Partridge's drawings, together with those
of Mr. Phil May and of Mr. Raven Hill, have brilliantly maintained the
reputation of 'Punch' as an exponent of the forms and humours of modern
life. His actual and intimate knowledge of the stage, and his actor's
observation of significant attitudes and expressions, vivify his
interpretation of the middle-class, and of bank-holiday makers, of the
'artiste,' and of such a special type as the 'Baboo Jabberjee' of Mr.
Anstey's fluent conception. If his 'socials' have not the prestige of
Mr. Du Maurier's art, if his women lack charm and his children
delightfulness, he is, in shrewdness and range of observation, a
pictorial humorist of unusual ability. As a book-illustrator, his most
'literary' work is in the pages of Mr. Austin Dobson's 'Proverbs in
Porcelain.' Studied from the model, the draughtsmanship as able and
searching as though these figures were sketches for an 'important'
work, there is in every drawing the completeness and fortunate effect
of imagination. The ease of an actual society is in the pose and
grouping of the costumed figures, while, in the representation of their
graces and gallantries, the artist realizes _ce superflu si nécessaire_
that distinguishes dramatic action from the observed action of the
model. Problems of atmosphere, of tone, of textures, as well as the
presentment of life in character, action, and attitude, occupy Mr.
Partridge's consideration. He, like Mr. Abbey, has the colourist's
vision, and though the charm of people, of circumstance, of accessories
and of association is often less his interest than characteristic
facts, in non-conventional technique, in style that is as
un-selfconscious as it is individual, Mr. Abbey and Mr. Partridge have
many points in common.

Sir Harry Furniss, alone of caricaturists, has, in the many-sided
activity of his career, applied his powers of characterization to
characters of fiction, though he has illustrated more nonsense-books
and wonder-books than books of serious narrative. Sir John Tenniel and
Mr. Linley Sambourne among cartoonists, Sir Harry Furniss, Mr. E. T.
Reed, and Mr. Carruthers Gould among caricaturists, mark the strong
connection between politics and political individualities, and the
irresponsible developments and creatures of nonsense-adventures, as a
theme for art. To summarize Sir Harry Furniss' career would be to give
little space to his work as a character-illustrator, but his
character-illustration is so representative of the other directions of
his skill, that it merits consideration in the case of a draughtsman as
effective and ubiquitous in popular art as is 'Lika Joko.' The
pen-drawings to Mr. James Payn's 'Talk of the Town,' illustrated by Sir
Harry Furniss in 1885, have, in restrained measure, the qualities of
flexibility, of imagination so lively as to be contortionistic, of
emphasis and pugnacity of expression, of pantomimic fun and drama, that
had been signalized in his Parliamentary antics in 'Punch' for the
preceding five years. His connection with 'Punch' lasted from 1880 to
1894, and the 'Parliamentary Views,' two series of 'M.P.s in
Session,' and the 'Salisbury Parliament,' represent experience gained
as the illustrator of 'Toby M.P.' His high spirits and energy of sight
also found scope in caricaturing academic art, 'Pictures at Play'
(1888), being followed by 'Academy Antics' of no less satirical and
brilliant purpose. As caricaturist, illustrator, lecturer, journalist,
traveller, the style and idiosyncrasies of Sir Harry Furniss are so
public and familiar, and so impossible to emphasize, that a brief
mention of his insatiable energies is perhaps as adequate as would be a
more detailed account.



Other book-illustrators whose connection with 'Punch' is a fact in the
record of their work are Mr. A. S. Boyd and Mr. Arthur Hopkins. Mr.
Jalland, too, in drawings to Whyte-Melville used his sporting knowledge
on a congenial subject. Mr. A. S. Boyd's 'Daily Graphic' sketches
prepared the way for 'canny' drawings of Scottish types in Stevenson's
'Lowden Sabbath Morn,' in 'Days of Auld Lang Syne,' and in 'Horace in
Homespun,' and for other observant illustrations to books of pleasant
experiences written by Mrs. Boyd. Mr. Arthur Hopkins, and his brother
Mr. Everard Hopkins, are careful draughtsmen of some distinction.
Without much spontaneity or charm of manner, the pretty girls of Mr.
Arthur Hopkins, and his well-mannered men, fill a place in the pages of
'Punch,' while illustrations to James Payn's 'By Proxy,' as far back as
1878, show that the unelaborate style of his recent work is founded on
past practice that has the earlier and truer Du Maurier technique as
its standard of thoroughness. Mr. E. J. Wheeler, a regular contributor
to 'Punch' since 1880, has illustrated editions of Sterne and of
'Masterman Ready,' other books also containing characteristic examples
of his rather precise, but not uninteresting, work.

Save by stringing names of artists together on the thread of their
connection with some one of the illustrated papers or magazines, it
would be impossible to include in this chapter mention of the enormous
amount of capable black-and-white art produced in illustration of
'serial' fiction. Such name-stringing, on the connection--say--of 'The
Illustrated London News,' 'The Graphic,' or 'The Pall Mall Magazine,'
would fill a page or two, and represent nothing of the quality of the
work, the attainment of the artist. Neither is it practicable to
summarize the illustration of current fiction. One can only attempt to
give some account of illustrated literature, except where the current
illustrations of an artist come into the subject 'by the way.' Mr.
Frank Brangwyn may be isolated from the group of notable painters,
including Mr. Jacomb Hood, Mr. Seymour Lucas and Mr. R. W. Macbeth, who
illustrate for 'The Graphic,' by reason of his illustrations to
classics of fiction such as 'Don Quixote' and 'The Arabian Nights,' as
well as to Michael Scott's two famous sea-stories. To some extent his
illustrations are representative of the large-phrased construction of
Mr. Brangwyn's painting, especially in the drawings of the opulent
orientalism of 'The Arabian Nights,' with its thousand and one
opportunities for vivid art. Mr. Brangwyn's east is not the vague east
of the stay-at-home artist, nor of the conventional traveller; his
imagination works on facts of memory, and both memory and imagination
have strong colour and concentration in a mind bent towards adventure.
One should not, however, narrow the scope of Mr. Brangwyn's art within
the limits of his work in black and white, and what is no more than an
aside in the expression of his individuality, cannot, with justice to
the artist, be considered by itself. Other 'Graphic' illustrators--Mr.
Frank Dadd, Mr. John Charlton, Mr. William Small, and Mr. H. M. Paget,
to name a few only--represent the various qualities of their art in
black-and-white drawings of events and of fiction, and the
'Illustrated,' with artists including Mr. Caton Woodville, Mr. Seppings
Wright, Mr. S. Begg, M. Amedée Forestier and Mr. Ralph Cleaver, fills a
place in current art to which few of the more recently established
journals can pretend. Mr. Frank Dadd and Mr. H. M. Paget made drawings
for the 'Dryburgh' edition of the Waverleys. In this edition, too, is
the work of well-known artists such as Mr. William Hole, whose Scott
and Stevenson illustrations show his inbred understanding of northern
romance, and together with the character etchings to Barrie, shrewd and
valuable, represent with some justice the vigour of his art; of Mr.
Walter Paget, an excellent illustrator of 'Robinson Crusoe,' and of
many boys' books and books of adventure, of Mr. Lockhart Bogle, and of
Mr. Gordon Browne. In the same edition Mr. Paul Hardy, Mr. John
Williamson and Mr. Overend, showed the more serious purpose of black
and white that has earned the appreciation of a public critical of any
failure in vigour and in realization--the public that follows the
tremendous activity of Mr. Henty's pen, and for whom Dr. Gordon
Stables, Mr. Manville Fenn and Mr. Sydney Pickering write. Of M. Amedée
Forestier, whose illustrations are as popular with readers of the
'Illustrated' and with the larger public of novel-readers as they are
with students of technique, one cannot justly speak as an English
illustrator. He, and Mr. Robert Sauber, contributed to Ward Lock's
edition of Scott illustrated by French artists. Their work, M.
Forestier's so admirable in realization of episode and romance, Mr.
Sauber's, vivacious up to the pitch of 'The Impudent Comedian'--as his
illustrations to Mr. Frankfort Moore's version of Nell Gwynn's
fascinations showed--needs no introduction to an English public. The
black and white of Mr. Sauber and of Mr. Dudley Hardy--when Mr. Hardy
is in the vein that culminated in his theatrical posters--has many
imitators, but it is not a style that is likely to influence
illustrators of literature. Mr. Hal Hurst shows something of it, though
he, and in greater measure Mr. Max Cowper, also suggest the
unforgettable technique of Charles Dana Gibson.


LEIGH Hunt is one of many authors gratefully to praise the best-praised
publisher of any day, Mr. Newbery, who, at "The Bible and Sun" in St.
Paul's Churchyard, dispensed to long-ago children 'Goody Two Shoes,'
'Beauty and the Beast,' and other less famous little books, bound in
gilt paper and rich with many pictures. Charming memories prompt Leigh
Hunt's mention of the little penny books 'radiant with gold,' that
'never looked so well as in adorning literature,' and if the radiance
of his estimate of these nursery volumes is from an actual memory of
gilt-paper binding, his words exemplify the spirit that makes right
appreciation of the newest picture-books so difficult.

In no other part of the subject of book-illustration are the books of
yesterday fraught with charm so inimical to delight in the books of
to-day. The modern child's book--except, let us hope, to the
child-owner--is merely a book as other books are. Its qualities are as
patent as its size, or number of illustrations. The pictures are to the
credit or discredit of a known and realized artist; they are,
moreover, generally plain to see as a development of the ideas of some
'school' or 'movement.' One knows about them as examples of English
book-illustration of to-day. But the pictures between the worn-out
covers of the other child's books were known with another kind of
knowledge, discovered in a long intimacy, and related, not to any
artist, or fashion of art, but to all manner of unreasonable and
delightful things.

So it is well, perhaps, that the break between a subject of enthralling
associations and a subject whose associations are unsentimental,
should, by the ordering of facts, occur before the proper beginning of
a study of contemporary illustration in children's books. For one
reason or another, little work by artists whose reputation is of
earlier date than to-day comes within present subject-limits. Some,
like Randolph Caldecott and Kate Greenaway, are dead, some have ceased
to draw, or draw no longer for children. Happily, the witching drawings
of Arthur Hughes are still among nursery pictures, in reprints of 'At
the Back of the North Wind,' and its companions--though the illustrator
of these books, of 'The Boy in Grey,' and of 'Tom Brown's Schooldays,'
has long ceased to weave his fortunate dreams into pictures to content
a child. The drawings of Robert Barnes, of Mrs. Allingham and of Miss
M. E. Edwards--illustrators of a sound tradition--are known to the
present nursery generation; and so are the outline and tinted drawings
of 'T. Pym,' who devised, so far back as the seventies, the naïve and
sympathetic style of illustration that is pleasantly unchanged in
recent child-books, such as 'The Gentle Heritage' (1893), and 'Master
Barthemy' (1896). The later work of Walter Crane is so bent to
decorative and allegorical purpose, that the creator of the best
nursery-rhyme pictures ever printed in colours--Randolph Caldecott's
are rather ballad than nursery-rhyme pictures--is in his place among
decorative illustrators rather than in this connection. Sir John
Tenniel's neat, immortal little Alice, with her ankle-strap shoes and
pocketed apron, is still followed to Wonderland by as many children as
in 1866, when she and the splendid prototypes of the degenerate
jargon-beasts of to-day first captivated attention. The drawings of
these artists, and perhaps also of 'E. V. B.'--for 'Child's Play,'
though published in 1858, is familiar to present children in a
reprint--are mentioned because of the place they still take on nursery
book-shelves. But from such brief record of some among the books
'radiant with gold' that 'never looked so well as in adorning
literature,' one must turn to work that has no such radiance of
sentiment and association over its merits and defects.

Since the eighties Mr. Gordon Browne has been in the forefront of
illustrators popular with story-book publishers and with readers of
story-books. He is the son of Hablot Browne, but no trace of the
'caricaturizations' of 'Phiz' is in Mr. Gordon Browne's work. Probably
his earliest published work appeared in 'Aunt Judy's Magazine' some
time in the seventies. These unenlivening drawings suggest nothing of
the picturesque and unhesitating invention that has shaped his style
to its present serviceableness in the rapid production of effective
illustrations. The range and quantity of his work is best realized in
the bibliographical list, which records his illustrations to
Shakespeare and Henty, to fairy-tales and boys' stories, girls' stories
and toy-books, Gulliver, Cervantes, and Sunday-school books, at the
rate of six or seven volumes a year. In addition, one must remember
unnumbered illustrations in domestic magazines. And, on the whole, the
stories illustrated by Gordon Browne are adequately illustrated. It is
true that as a general rule he illustrates stories whose plan is within
limits of familiarity, such as those by Mrs. Ewing, Mrs. L. T. Meade,
or, in a different vein, the boys' stories of Henty, Manville Fenn, or
Ascott Hope. Romance and the clash of swords engaged the artist in the
pages of 'Sintram,' of Froissart, of Sir Walter Scott,
and--pre-eminently--in the illustrations to the 'Henry Irving
Shakespeare,' numbering nearly six hundred, and representing the work
of five years. Illustrating these subjects, though in varying degree,
the vitality and importance of an artist's conception of life and of
art is put to the test. So far as prompt and definite representation of
persons, places, and encounters, and unflagging facility in devising
effective forms of composition constitute interpretation, the artist
maintained the level of the undertaking. The illustration of stories
such as those collected by the brothers Grimm, or those Andersen
discovered in his exile of dreams among the facts of life, demands a
quality of thought differing from, yet hardly less rare than, the
thought needed to interpret Shakespeare. A fine aptitude for
discerning and rendering 'the mysterious face of common things,' a
fancy full of shapes, perception of the _rationale_ of magic, are
essential to the writer or artist who elects to send his fancy after
the elusive forms of fairyland. The recent drawings to Andersen, a
volume of tales from Grimm, published in 1894, and illustrations to
modern inventions, such as 'Down the Snow Stairs' (1886), and Mr.
Andrew Lang's 'Prince Prigio,' show that Mr. Gordon Browne's ideas of
fairyland, ancient and modern, are no less brisk and picturesque than
are his ideas of everyday and of romance. His technique is so familiar
that it is surely unnecessary to make even a brief disquisition on its
merits in expressing facts as they exist in a popular scheme of reality
and imagination. It is a healthy style, the ideals of beauty and of
strength are never coarse, wanton or listless, the humour is friendly,
and if the pathos occasionally verges on sentimentality, the writer,
perhaps, rather than the artist is responsible.

Mr. Gordon Browne draws the average child, and represents fun, fancy
and adventure as the average child understands them. His art is
unsophisticated. To him, the child is no _motif_ in a decorative
fantasy, nor a quaint diagram figuring in nursery-Gothic elements of
design, nor a bold invention among picture-book monsters. The artists
whose basis of art is the unadapted child, may, perhaps, be classed as
the 'realists' among children's illustrators. Among these realists are
the illustrators of Mrs. Molesworth--with the exception of Walter
Crane, first and chief of them.

Mr. Leslie Brooke succeeded Mr. Crane in 1891 as the illustrator of
Mrs. Molesworth's stories, and the careful un-selfconscious fashion of
his drawing, his understanding of child-life and home-life as known to
children such as those of whom and for whom Mrs. Molesworth writes,
make these pen-drawings true illustrations of the text. His drawings
are the result of individual observation and of a sense of what is fit
and pleasant, though neither in his filling of a page, nor in the
conception of beauty, is there anything definitely inventive to be
marked. On the whole, his children and young people are rather
representative of a class that maintains a standard of good looks among
other desirable things, than of a type of beauty; and if they are not
artistic types, neither are they strongly individualized. In his
'everyday' illustrations Mr. Leslie Brooke does not idealize, but that
his talent has a range of fancy is proved in illustrations to 'A School
in Fairyland' (1896), and to some imaginings by Roma White. Graceful,
regardful of an unspoilt ideal in the fairies, elves and
flower-spirits, there are also frequent hints in these drawings of the
humour that finds more complete expression in 'The Nursery Rhyme Book'
of 1897, and in the happy extravagance of 'The Jumblies' and 'The
Pelican Chorus' (1900). Outside the scope of picture-book drawings are
the dainty tinted designs to Nash's 'Spring Song,' and the skilful
pen-drawings to 'Pippa Passes.'

Mr. Lewis Baumer's drawings of children, whether in 'The Boys and I'
and other stories by Mrs. Molesworth, or in less known child-stories,
have distinction that is partly a development of an admiration for Du
Maurier, though Mr. Baumer is too quick-sighted and appreciative of
charm to remain faithful to any model in art with the model in life
before his eyes. The children of Mr. Baumer are of to-day. The effect
of the earlier 'Punch' artist on the work of the younger man is hardly
more than suggested in certain felicities of pose and expression added
to those that a delightful kind of child discovers to an observer
unusually sensitive to the vivid and engaging qualities of his subject.
These children are swift of movement and of spirit, and the _verve_ of
the artist's style is rarely forced, and still more rarely inadequate
to the occasion.



The acceptance of a formula, rather than the expression of a hitherto
unexpressed order of form, is the basis of page-decoration by members
of the Birmingham School, whose work in its wider aspect has already
been considered. Originality finds exercise in modifying details, but,
pre-eminent over differences in style, is the similarity of style that
suggests 'Birmingham' before the variations in detail suggest the work
of an individual artist. The influence of Kate Greenaway is strongly
marked in the work of many of these designers for children's books.
Indeed, Miss Winifred Green's drawings to Charles and Mary Lamb's
'Poetry for Children,' and to 'Mrs. Leicester's School,' contain
figures that, if one allows for some assertion necessary to justify
their reappearance, might have come direct from 'Under the Window.'

The typical illustrative art of Birmingham is, however, of another
kind. The quaint propriety of 'old-fashioned' childhood, which Kate
Greenaway's delicate pencil first represented at its artistic value, is
akin to the conception of the child that prevails on the pages
decorated by Mrs. Arthur Gaskin, but the work of Mrs. Gaskin shows
nothing of the Stothard-like ideal that seems to have been the
suggesting cause of 'Greenaway' play-pictures. In the arabesques of
flowers and leaves which decorate many pages designed by Mrs. Gaskin
one sees a freedom and fluency of line that are checked to quaintness
and naïve angularity when the child is the subject. Her conception of a
pictorial child is very definite, and in her later work, one must
confess, it is a conception hardly corroborated by observation of fact.
'Horn Book Jingles' and 'The Travellers' of 1897 and 1898 show the
culmination of a style that had more sympathetic charm in the tinted
pages of the 'A. B. C.' (1895), or the 'Divine and Moral Songs' of the
following year. Book-illustration is with Mrs. Gaskin, as with many
members of the school, only a part of craftsmanship.

Miss Calvert's winsome drawings in 'Baby Lays' and 'More Baby Lays' are
obviously related to the drawings of Mrs. Gaskin, though observation of
real babies seems to have come between a rigid adherence to the model.
The decorative illustrations by the Miss Holdens to 'Jack and the
Beanstalk' (1895), and to 'The Real Princess,' show evidence of fancy
that finds expression while nothing of Mr. Gaskin's teaching is

As different in spirit from the drawings of the Birmingham designers as
is the Lambs' 'Poetry for Children' from 'A Child's Garden of Verses,'
the captivating illustrations of Mr. Charles Robinson seem a direct
pictorial evocation of the mood of Stevenson's child's rhymes, or of
Eugene Field's lullabies. Familiar now, and exaggerated in imitations
and in some of the artist's later work, the children and
child-fantasies of Mr. Robinson, as they were realized in the first
unspoilt freshness of improvisation, are among the delightful surprises
of modern book-illustration. In the pages of 'A Child's Garden of
Verses' (1896), of 'The Child World,' and of Field's 'Lullaby Land,'
the frolic babes of his fancy play hide and seek wherever the text
leaves space for them, rioting, or attitudinizing with spritely
ceremony, from cover to cover. The mood of imaginative play, of
daylight make-believe with its realistic and romantic excesses, and of
the make-believe enforced by flickering fire-light, and by the shadows
in the darkened house, is expressed in Mr. Robinson's drawings. Not
children, but child's-play, and the unexplored shadows and mysteries
that lie 'up the mountain side of dreams' are the motives of the
fantasies he sets on the page beside Stevenson's rhymes of old
delights, and the rhymes of the land of counterpane, where Wynken
Blynken and Nod, the Rockaby lady from Hushaby Street, and all kind
drowsy fancies close round and shut away the crooked shadows into the
night outside the nursery.

The three books mentioned represent, as I think, the artist's work at
its truest value. There is variety of touch and of method, and the
heavier fact-enforcing line of 'Child Voices,' of 'Lilliput Lyrics,' or
of the coloured pictures to 'Jack of all Trades' is used, as well as
the fanciful line of the by-the-way drawings, and the arabesques and
delicate detail of the fantasy and dream pictures. A scheme of solid
black and white, connected and rendered fully valuable by interweaving
with line, white lines telling against black masses, and black lines
relieved against white, with pattern as a resource to fill spaces when
plain black or plain white seem uninteresting, is, of course, the
scheme of the majority of decorative illustrators. But of this scheme
Mr. Charles Robinson has made individual use. Whether his lines trace a
fairy's transparent wing on a background of night-sky, of drifting
cloud or of dream mountain-side, or make the child visible among
dream-buildings, or seated on the world of fancy in the immensity of
night, or passing in a sleep-ship through faëry seas, they have the
quality of imagination, imagination in their disposition to form a
decorative effect, and in the forms they express. The full-page
drawings to 'King Longbeard' have this quality, and hardly a drawing to
any theme of fancy, whether in old or in new fairy tales, or in verses,
but is the result of a vision of charm and distinction.

It would seem that the imagination of Mr. Charles Robinson realizes a
subject with more delight when the text is suggestive, rather than
impressive with definite conceptions. The mighty forms of 'The
Odyssey,' the chivalric symbolism of 'Sintram and Aslaugas Knight,'
even the magical particularity of Hans Andersen, are not, apparently,
supreme in his imagination, as is his vision of fairy-seeing childhood.
One is unenlightened by the graceful drawings to 'The Adventures of
Odyseus,' or the romances of De la Motte Fouqué.

That Miss Alice Woodward has, on occasion, made one of the many
illustrators who have profited by the example of Mr. Charles Robinson,
various drawings seem to show, but few of these illustrators have the
originality and purpose that allow Miss Woodward to enlarge her range
of expression without nullifying the spontaneity of her work. She has
illustrated over a dozen books, beginning with 'Banbury Cross' in 1895,
and mostly she treats her subject with humour and variety and with a
consistent idea of the pictorial aspect of things. She has quick
appreciation of unconscious humour in attitude and in expression,
though she seems at times to rely too much on memory, thereby
diminishing vividness. When most successful she can draw a pleasing
child with lines almost as few as those used by any modern artist.
Miss Gertrude Bradley is another pleasant illustrator. Her later
drawings of children are modified from the print-pinafore freshness of
those in 'Songs for Somebody' (1893), to a type that has evident
affinities with the Charles Robinson child, though in 'Just Forty
Winks' (1897) Miss Bradley proves her individual sense of humour. The
taking simplicity of Miss Marion Wallace-Dunlop's illustrations of
elf-babies in 'Fairies, Elves and Flower Babies,' and of the human
twins who adventure in 'The Magic Fruit Garden' also suggests the
influence of the fortunate inventor of an admirable child.



The greater amount of Mr. Bedford's work for children consists of
coloured illustrations to nursery-books, and, when the humour of
half-penny paper journalism is supposed to be entertainment for babies,
one may be thankful for the pleasant and peaceful drawings of this
artist. Little Miss Muffet, Wee Willie Winkie, and the activities of
town and country, are a relief from the _jeunesse dorée_, and the
lethargy of the War Office as toy-book subjects, while 'The Battle of
the Frogs and Mice'--though Miss Barlow's version of Aristophanes, with
Mr. Bedford's effective decorations, is hardly a nursery-book--is a
better child's subject than the punishable pretensions of other

In work hitherto noticed, the child may be regarded as the central
figure of the design, whether fact or fancy be set about his little
personality. Besides the illustrators whose subject is childhood in
some aspect or another, and those children's illustrators who
pictorialize the wide imaginings of the national fairy tales, there
are others in whose work the child figures incidentally, but not as the
central fact. In this connection one may consider those draughtsmen who
illustrate modern wonder-books with Zankiwanks, Krabs and Wallypugs.

Mr. Archie Macgregor should be classed, perhaps, among artists of the
child in wonderland, but the personalities of Tomakin and his sisters,
though Judge Parry sets them forth in prose and in verse with his usual
high spirits, are not the illustrator's first care. 'Katawampus,' 'The
First Book of Krab,' and 'Butterscotia,' have made Mr. Macgregor's
robust and strongly-defined drawings familiar, and, within the limits
of the author's hearty imagination, his droll and unflagging
representations of adventures, ceremonies and humours, are extremely
apt. Children, goblins, animals and queer monsters are drawn with
unhesitating spirit and humour, and with decorative invention that
would be even more successful if it were less fertile in devising
detail. More fortunate in rendering action than facial expression,
without the mystery that is the atmosphere of the magical fairy-land,
the fact and fancy of Mr. Macgregor are so admirably illustrative of
Judge Parry's text that one is almost inclined to attribute the absence
of glamour to the artist's strong conception of the function of an

Mr. Alan Wright's work, again, is inevitably associated with the
invention of an author, though Mr. Farrow's 'Wallypug' books have not
all been illustrated by one artist. Mr. Wright's drawings are proof of
an energetic and serviceable conception of all sorts of out-of-the-way
things. His humour is unelaborate, he goes straight to the fact, and,
having expressed its extraordinary and fantastic characteristics, he
does not linger to develop his drawing into a decorative scheme.
Apparently he draws 'out of his head,' whether his subject is fact or
extravagance. The three small humans who figure in 'The Little
Panjandrum's Dodo,' and the ambassador's son of 'The Mandarin's Kite,'
are as briefly sketched as the whimsicalities with whom they consort.

Mr. Arthur Rackham's illustrations to 'Two Old Ladies, Two Foolish
Fairies, and a Tom-Cat' (1897), and to 'The Zankiwank and the
Bletherwitch' show inspiriting talent for nursery extravaganza. The
children, whirled from reality into a phantasmagoria of adventure, are
deftly and happily drawn, the fairies have fairy grace, and the rout of
hobgoblins and grotesques fill their parts. Drawing real animals, Mr.
Rackham is equally quick to note what is characteristic, and his
facility in realizing fact and magic finds expression in the
illustrations to 'Grimm's Fairy Tales' (1900). This is the most
important work of Mr. Rackham as a child's illustrator, and if the
drawings are somewhat calculated to impress the horrid horror of
witches and forest enchantments on uneasy minds, the charm of
princesses and peasant maids, the sagacious humour of talking animals
and the grotesque enlivenment of cobolds and gnomes are no less vividly
represented. That Mr. Rackham admires Mr. E. J. Sullivan's scheme of
decorative black-and-white is evident in these drawings, but not to
the detriment of their inventive worth.



Mr. J. D. Batten, Mr. H. J. Ford, and Mr. H. R. Millar represent, in
various ways, the modern art of fairy-tale illustration at its best.
Mr. Batten's connection with Mr. Joseph Jacob's treasuries of
fairy-lore, Mr. Ford's long record of work in the multicoloured fairy
and true story books edited by Mr. Lang, and the drawings of Mr. Millar
in various collections of fairy tales, entitle them to a foremost place
among contemporary illustrators of the world's immortal

Mr. Batten knows the rules of chivalry, of sentiment, humour, and
horridness, as they exist in the magical convention of the real
fairy-tales, and whether their purpose be merry or sad, heroic or
grotesque, he illustrates the old tales of Celt and Saxon, of India,
Arabia and Greece with appreciation of the largeness and splendour of
their conception. One might wish for more vitality in his women, and
think that a representation of the mournful beauty of Deirdre, the
passion of Circe or of Medea, should differ from the untroubled
sweetness of the King's daughter of faery. Still one appreciates the
dignity of these smooth-browed women, and, after all, the passionate
figures of Greek and Celtic epics need translation before they can
figure in fairy-tale books. Mr. Batten's ideas are never trite and
never morbid. His giants are gigantic, his monsters of true devastating
breed, and his drawings--especially the later ones--are as able
technically as they are apt to the occasion.



There can hardly be an existent fairy-story among the hundreds told
before the making of books that Mr. Ford has not illustrated in one
version or another. The telling-house of every nation has yielded
stories for Mr. Lang's annual volumes; and since the appearance of 'The
Blue Fairy Book' in 1888, Mr. Ford, alone or in collaboration with Mr.
Jacomb Hood, Mr. Lancelot Speed and other well-known artists, has
illustrated the stories Mr. Lang has gathered. Moreover, in addition to
seven volumes of fairy tales, and many true story and animal story
books, Mr. Ford has made drawings for Æsop, for the 'Arabian Nights,'
and for 'Early Italian Love Stories.' His decorative and illustrative
ideal has never lacked distinction, and his recent work is the coherent
development of that of fourteen years ago, though he has gained in
freedom and variety of conception and in quality of expression. Mr.
Ford's art is obviously founded on that of Walter Crane, but he looks
at a subject with greater interest in its dramatic possibilities, and
in the facts of place and time than the later 'Crane' convention
admits. An abundant fancy, familiarity with the facts of legendary,
romantic and animal life, over a wide tract of country and through long
ages of time, fill the decorative pages of the artist with a plentitude
of graceful, vigorous and persuasive forms. The well-devised pages of
Miss Emily J. Harding's 'Fairy Tales of the Slav Peasants and
Herdsmen,' are akin in form to the drawings of Mr. Batten and of Mr.
Ford, though regard for the national tone of the stories gives these
illustrations individuality and interest.



The principles of art represented by the drawings of Mr. Ford have
little in common with those which determine the scheme of Mr. Millar's
many illustrations. Vierge, and Gigoux, the master of Vierge, are the
indubitable suggesters of his style, and the antitheses of sheer black
and white, the audacities, evasions and accentuations of these jugglers
with line and form, are dexterously handled by Mr. Millar. He has not
invented his convention, he has accepted it, and begun original work
within accepted limits. A less original artist would thereby have
doomed himself to extinction, but Mr. Millar has a lively apprehension
of romance, especially in an oriental setting, and interest in
subject is incompatible with merely imitative work. Illustrations to
'Hajji Baba' (1895), and to 'Eothen,' show how dramatic and true to
picturesque notions of the East are the conceptions, and the same
vigour projects itself into themes of western adventure in 'Frank
Mildmay' and 'Snarleyow.' But his right to be considered here is
determined by the rapid visions of fairy romance realized in the pages
of 'Fairy Tales by Q.' (1895), of 'The Golden Fairy Book' with its
companions, and on the more concrete but not less sufficient drawings
to 'The Book of Dragons,' and 'Nine Unlikely Tales for Children.'



The pen-drawings of Mr. T. H. Robinson in the "Andersen" illustrated by
the brother artists, show ability to realize not only the incidents and
ideas of the stories, but also something of the national inspiration
that is an element in all _märchen_. At times determinedly decorative,
his work is generally in closer alliance with actuality than is the
typical work of Mr. Charles or of Mr. W. H. Robinson. Character,
action, costume, picturesque facts of life and scenery are suggested,
and suggested with interest in the actual geographical and
chronological circumstances of the stories, whether a poet's Denmark,
the Arabia of Scheherazade, the Greece of Kingsley's 'The Heroes,' or
the rivers and mountains of Carmen Sylva's stories determine the
fact-scheme for his decorative invention. In addition to these vigorous
and generally harmonious illustrations, the artist's drawings to
'Cranford,' 'The Scarlet Letter,' 'Lichtenstein,' 'The Sentimental
Journey,' and 'Esmond,' prove his interest and inventive sense to be
effective in realizing actual historical and local conditions. If Mr.
W. H. Robinson is also an apt illustrator of legends and of folk-tales,
whose setting demands attention to the facts of life as they were to
story-tellers in far countries of once-upon-a-time, the more individual
side of his talent is discovered in work of wilder and more intense
fancy. Andersen's 'Marsh King's Daughter,' the Snow Queen with her
frozen eyes, the picaresque mood of Little Claus, or the doom of proud
Inger, are to his mind, and in illustrations to 'Don Quixote' (1897),
to 'The Pilgrim's Progress,' and especially in the fully decorated
volume of Poe's 'Poems,' the forcible conceptions of the text find
pictorial expression.

Mr. A. G. Walker, though a sculptor by profession, claims notice as an
illustrator of various children's books, notably 'The Lost Princess'
(1895), 'Stories from the Faerie Queene' (1897), and 'The Book of King
Arthur.' His pen-drawings are expressive of a thoughtful realization of
the subject in its actual and moral beauty. The nobility of Spenser's
conceptions, the remote beauty of the Arthurian legend, appeal to him,
and the careful rendering of costume, landscape and the aspect of
things, is only part of a scheme of execution that has as its complete
intention the rendering of the 'mood' of the narrative. These drawings
are realizations rather than illuminations of the text, and one
appreciates their thoroughness, clearness, and dignity.

Miss Helen Stratton published some pleasant but not very vigorous
drawings of children in 'Songs for Little People' (1896), and
illustrations to a selection from Andersen suggested the later
direction of her ability. This, as the copiously illustrated 'Fairy
Tales from Hans Christian Andersen' (1899), and the large number of
drawings contributed to Messrs. Newnes' edition of 'The Arabian
Nights,' show, is in realizing themes less actual than those of Nursery
Lyrics. A sense of drama in the pose and grouping of the multitudes of
figures on the pages of the Danish and Arabian stories, and a
sufficient care for the background, as the poet's eyes might have seen
it behind the dream-figures that passed between him and reality, are
qualities that give Miss Stratton's competent work imaginative value.

The work of Miss R. M. M. Pitman comes within the subject in her
illustrations to Lady Jersey's fairy tale, 'Maurice and the Red Jar,'
and to 'The Magic Nuts' of Mrs. Molesworth. But though their decorative
intention and technique represent the forms of the artist's work, the
spirit of fantasy that informs her illustrations to 'Undine' finds only
modified expression. The symbolism of 'Undine' is wrought into
decorations of inventive elaborateness. The technical ideal of Miss
Pitman suggests study of Dürer's pen-drawing, and though at times there
is too much sweetness and luxury in her representation of beauty, at
her best she expresses free fancy with distinction not common in modern

Brief allusion only--where drawings of more definitely illustrative
purpose over-crowd the available space--can be made to the numerous
animal books, serious and comic. Mr. Percy J. Billinghurst's full-page
designs to 'A Hundred Fables of Æsop,' 'A Hundred Fables of La
Fontaine,' and 'A Hundred Anecdotes of Animals' deserve more than
passing mention for their decorative and observant qualities and their
enlivening humour. Another decorative draughtsman of animals for
children's books is Mr. Carton Moore Park, who, since 1899, when the
'Alphabet of Animals' and 'The Book of Birds' appeared, has published
seven or eight volumes of his strongly devised designs. One can hardly
conclude without reference to Mr. Louis Wain, the cats' artist of
twenty years' standing, and to Mr. J. A. Shepherd, chief caricaturist
of animals; but while toy-book artists such as Mrs. Percy Dearmer, Mrs.
Farmiloe, Miss Rosamond Praeger, Mr. Aldin, and Mr. Hassall (whose
subject--the child--takes precedence of Zoological subjects) must be
left unconsidered, the humourists of the Zoo can hardly be included.



(_To September, 1901._)



     _Happy-go-Lucky._ Ismay Thorn. 8º. (Innes, 1894.) 3 f. p.

     _A Mere Pug._ Nemo. 8º. (Long, 1897.) 6 f. p.

     _Allegories._ Frederic W. Farrar. 8º. (Longmans, 1898.) 20 f. p.

     _Sir Constant._ W. E. Cule. 8º. (Melrose, 1899.) 6 f. p.

     _Glimpses from Wonderland._ 8º. J. Ingold. (Long, 1900.) 6 f. p.

     _The Day-Dream._ Alfred Tennyson. 8º. (Lane, 1901. 'Flowers of
     Parnassus.') 7 illust. (5 f. p.)


     _Jack the Giant-Killer_ and _Beauty and the Beast_. Edited
     by Grace Rhys. 32º. (Dent, 1894. Banbury Cross Series.) 35
     illust. (13 f. p.)

     _The Sleeping Beauty_ and _Dick Whittington and his Cat_. Edited
     by Grace Rhys. 32º. (Dent, 1894. Banbury Cross Series.) 35
     illust. (13 f. p.)

     _The Christian Year._ 8º. (Methuen, 1895.) 5 f. p.

     _A Midsummer Night's Dream._ 4º. (Dent, 1895.) 59 illust. and
     decorations. (15 f. p.)

     _The Riddle._ Walter Raleigh. 4º. (Privately printed, 1895.)
     2 illust. (1 f. p.)

     _An Altar Book._ Fol. (Merrymount Press, U.S.A., 1896.) 7 f. p.

     _Keats' Poems._ Edited by Walter Raleigh. 8º. (Bell, 1897.
     Endymion Series.) 65 illust. and decorations. (23 f. p.)

     _The Milan._ Walter Raleigh. 4º. (Privately printed, 1898.)
     1 f. p.

     _English Lyrics from Spenser to Milton._ 8º. (Bell, 1898.
     Endymion Series.) 57 illust. and decorations. (20 f. p.)

     _Pilgrim's Progress._ 8º. (Methuen, 1898.) 39 illust. (26 f. p.)

     _Lamb's Tales from Shakespeare._ 8º. (Fremantle, 1899.) 15 f. p.


     _The Elf-Errant._ Moira O'Neill. 8º. (Lawrence and Bullen,
     1895.) 7 f. p.

     _Undine._ Translated from the German of Baron de la Motte Fouqué
     by Edmund Gosse. 4º. (Lawrence and Bullen, 1896.) 10 f. p.,

     _The Early Poems of Alfred Lord Tennyson._ Edited by John
     Churton-Collins. 8º. (Methuen, 1901.) 10 f. p., photogravure.


     _The Blessed Damozel._ Dante Gabriel Rossetti. 8º. (Lane,
     1900. 'Flowers of Parnassus.') 8 illust. (6 f. p.)


     _Gulliver's Travels._ J. Swift. 8º. (Lane, 1900.) 114 illust.
     (20 f. p.)

     _The Rubaiyat._ 8º. (Lane, 1901. 'Flowers of Parnassus.') 9
     illust. (6 f. p.)

     _The Nut-Brown Maid._ A new version by F. B. Money-Coutts. 8º.
     (Lane, 1901. 'F. of P.') 9 illust. (6 f. p.)

     _A Ballade upon a Wedding._ Sir John Suckling. 8º. (Lane, 1901.
     'F. of P.') 9 illust. (6 f. p.)

     _The Rime of the Ancient Mariner._ S. T. Coleridge. 8º. (Gay and
     Bird, 1900.) 6 f. p.


     _The Statue and the Bust._ Robert Browning. 8º. (Lane, 1900.
     'Flowers of Parnassus.') 9 illust. (6 f. p.)

     _Marpessa._ Stephen Phillips. 8º. (Lane, 1900. 'F. of P.')
     7 illust. (5 f. p.)


     _The New Forest._ J. R. Wise. 4º. (Smith, Elder, 1863.) 63
     illust. engraved by W. J. Linton. (A new edition, published
     by Henry Sotheran, 1883, with the original illust. and 12
     etchings by Heywood Sumner.)

     _Stories from Memel._ Mrs. De Haviland. 12º. (William Hunt,
     1864.) 6 f. p.

     _Walter Crane's Toy-Books._ Issued in single numbers, from

     ---- _Collected Editions_, all published in 4º, by George
     Routledge, and printed throughout in colours.

          _Walter Crane's Picture Book._ (1874.) 64 pp.

          _The Marquis of Carabas' Picture Book._ (1874.) 64 pp.

          _The Blue Beard Picture Book._ (1876.) 32 pp.

          _Song of Sixpence Toy-Book._ (1876.) 32 pp.

          _Chattering Jack's Picture Book._ (1876.) 32 pp.

          _The Three Bears Picture Book._ (1876.) 32 pp.

          _Aladdin's Picture Book._ (1876.) 24 pp.

     _The Magic of Kindness._ H. and A. Mayhew. 8º. (Cassell,
     Petter and Galpin, 1869.) 8 f. p.

     _Sunny Days, or a Month at the Great Stowe._ Author of 'Our White
     Violet.' 8º. (Griffith and Farran, 1871.) 4 f. p., in colours.

     _Our Old Uncle's Home._ 'Mother Carey.' 8º. (Griffith and Farran,
     1871.) 4 f. p.

     _The Head of the Family._ Mrs. Craik. 8º. (Macmillan, 1875.)
     6 f. p.

     _Agatha's Husband._ Mrs. Craik. 8º. (Macmillan, 1875.) 6 f. p.

     _Tell me a Story._ Mrs. Molesworth. 8º. (Macmillan, 1875.)
     8 illust. (7 f. p.)

     _The Quiver of Love._ A Collection of Valentines, Ancient and
     Modern. 4º. (Marcus Ward, 1876.) With Kate Greenaway. 8 f. p. in

     _Carrots._ Mrs. Molesworth. 8º. (Macmillan, 1876.) 8 illust.
     (7 f. p.)

     _Songs of Many Seasons._ Jemmett Browne. 4º. (Simpkin, Marshall,
     1876.) With others. 1 f. p. by Walter Crane.

     _The Baby's Opera._ 4º. (Routledge, 1877.) 55 pictured pages in
     colours. (11 f. p.)

     _The Cuckoo Clock._ Mrs. Molesworth. 8º. (Macmillan, 1877.)
     8 illust. (7 f. p.)

     _Grandmother Dear._ Mrs. Molesworth. 8º. (Macmillan, 1878.)
     8 illust. (7 f. p.)

     _The Tapestry Room._ Mrs. Molesworth. 8º. (Macmillan, 1879.)
     8 illust. (7 f. p.)

     _The Baby's Bouquet._ 4º. (Routledge, 1879.) 53 pictured pages,
     in colours. (11 f. p.)

     _A Christmas Child._ Mrs. Molesworth. 8º. (Macmillan, 1880.)
     8 illust. (7 f. p.)

     _The Necklace of Princess Fiorimonde._ Mrs. De Morgan. 8º.
     (Macmillan, 1880.) 25 illust.

     _Herr Baby._ Mrs. Molesworth. 8º. (Macmillan, 1881.) 8 illust.
     (7 f. p.)

     _The First of May._ A Fairy Masque. J. R. Wise. Fol. (Henry
     Sotheran, 1881.) 56 decorated pages. (1 f. p.)

     _Household Stories._ Translated from the German of the Brothers
     Grimm by Lucy Crane. 8º. (Macmillan, 1882.) 120 illust. (11 f. p.)

     _Rosy._ Mrs. Molesworth. 8º. (Macmillan, 1882.) 8 illust.
     (7 f. p.)

     _Pan-Pipes._ A Book of Old Songs. Theo. Marzials. Oblong folio.
     (Routledge, 1883.) 52 pictured pages, in colours.

     _Christmas Tree Land._ Mrs. Molesworth. 8º. (Macmillan, 1884.)
     8 illust. (7 f. p.)

     _Walter Crane's New Series of Picture Books._ 4º. (Marcus Ward,

          _Slate and Pencilvania._--_Little Queen Anne._--_Pothooks
          and Perseverance._ 24 pages each, in colours.

     _The Golden Primer._ J. M. D. Meiklejohn. 8º. (Blackwood, 1885.)
     Part I. and Part II. 14 decorated pages in colours in each part.

     _Folk and Fairy Tales._ C. C. Harrison. 8º. (Ward and Downey,
     1885.) 24 f. p.

     _"Us."_ Mrs. Molesworth. 8º. (Macmillan, 1885.) 8 illust.
     (7 f. p.)

     _The Sirens Three._ Walter Crane. 4º. (Macmillan, 1886.) 41
     pictured pages.

     _The Baby's Own Æsop._ 4º. (Routledge, 1886.) 56 pictured pages,
     in colours.

     _Echoes of Hellas._ The Tale of Troy and the Story of Orestes
     from Homer and Aeschylus. With introductory essay and sonnets
     by Prof. George C. Warr. Fol. (Marcus Ward, 1887.) 82 decorated

     _Four Winds Farm._ Mrs. Molesworth. 8º. (Macmillan, 1887.)
     8 illust. (7 f. p.)

     _Legends for Lionel._ 4º. (Cassell, 1887.) 40 pictured pages,
     in colours.

     _A Christmas Posy._ Mrs. Molesworth. 8º. (Macmillan, 1888.)
     8 illust. (7 f. p.)

     _The Happy Prince, and other tales._ Oscar Wilde. 4º. (Nutt,
     1888.) 14 illust. and decorations with G. P. Jacomb-Hood. 3 f. p.
     by Walter Crane.

     _The Book of Wedding Days._ Quotations for every day in the
     year, compiled by K. E. J. Reid, etc. 4º. (Longmans, 1889.)
     100 pictured pages.

     _The Rectory Children._ Mrs. Molesworth. 8º. (Macmillan, 1889.)
     8 illust. (7 f. p.)

     _Flora's Feast._ A Masque of Flowers. Walter Crane. 4º. (Cassell,
     1889.) 40 pictured pages, in colours.

     _The Turtle Dove's Nest._ 8º. (Routledge, 1890.) 87 illust.
     (8 f. p.) With others.

     _Chambers Twain._ Ernest Radford. 4º. (Elkin Matthews, 1890.)
     1 f. p.

     _A Sicilian Idyll._ Dr. Todhunter. 4º. (Elkin Matthews, 1890.)
     1 f. p.

     _Renascence._ A Book of Verse. Walter Crane. Including 'The
     Sirens Three' and 'Flora's Feast.' 4º. (Elkin Mathews, 1891.)
     39 illust. and decorations, some engraved on wood by Arthur

     _A Wonder Book for Girls and Boys._ Nathaniel Hawthorne. (Osgood,
     1892.) 60 illust. and decorations in colours. (19 f. p.)

     _Queen Summer, or the Tourney of the Lily and the Rose._ Walter
     Crane. 4º. (Cassell, 1892.) 40 pictured pages in colours.

     _The Tempest._ 8 illust. to Shakespeare's 'Tempest.' Engraved
     and printed by Duncan C. Dallas. (Dent, 1893.)

     _Under the Hawthorn._ Augusta de Gruchy. 8º. (Mathews and Lane,
     1803.) 1 f. p.

     _The Old Garden._ Margaret Deland. 8º. (Osgood, 1893.) 96
     decorated pages.

     _The Two Gentlemen of Verona._ 8 illust. to Shakespeare's
     'Two Gentlemen of Verona.' Engraved and printed by Duncan C.
     Dallas. (Dent, 1894.)

     _The Story of the Glittering Plain._ William Morris. 4º.
     (Kelmscott Press. 1894.) 23 illust. Borders, titles and initials
     by William Morris.

     _The History of Reynard the Fox._ English Verse by F. S. Ellis.
     4º. (David Nutt, 1894.) 53 illust. and decorations. (1 f. p.)

     _The Merry Wives of Windsor._ 8 illust. to Shakespeare's 'Merry
     Wives of Windsor.' Engraved and printed by Duncan C. Dallas. 4º.
     (George Allen, 1894.)

     _The Vision of Dante._ Miss Harrison. 8º. 1894. 4 f. p.

     _The Faerie Queene._ Edited by Thomas J. Wise. 3 vols. 4º.
     (George Allen, 1895.) 231 illust. and decorations. (98 f. p.)

     _A Book of Christmas Verse._ Selected by H. C. Beeching. 8º.
     (Methuen, 1895.) 10 illust. (5 f. p.)

     _The Shepheard's Calendar._ Edmund Spenser. 4º. (Harper, 1898.)
     16 illust. and decorations. (12 f. p.)

     _The Walter Crane Readers._ Nelle Dale. 3 vols. 8º. (Dent, 1898.)
     109 pictured pages, in colours. (8 f. p.)

     _A Floral Fantasy in an Old English Garden._ Walter Crane. 8º.
     (Harper, 1899.) 40 pictured pages, in colours.


     _Our Lady's Tumbler._ A Twelfth Century legend transcribed
     for Lady Day, 1894. 4º. (Dent, 1894.) 4 f. p.

     _Wagner's Heroes._ Constance Maud. 8º. (Arnold, 1895.) 8 f. p.

     _Cinderella_ and _Jack and the Beanstalk_. 32º. (Dent, 1895.
     Banbury Cross Series.) 38 illust. (14 f. p.)

     _Ali Baba_ and _The Forty Thieves_. 32º. (Dent, 1895. Banbury
     Cross Series.) 38 illust. (11 f. p.)

     _The Fairy Gifts_ and _Tom Hickathrift_. 32º. (Dent, 1895.
     Banbury Cross Series.) 38 illust. (16 f. p.)

     _The Book of Job._ 4º. (Dent, 1896.) 43 illust. and decorations.
     (24 f. p., 3 double pages.)

     _The Song of Solomon._ 4º. (Chapman and Hall, 1897.) 29 illust.
     and decorations. (12 f. p.)

     _Wonder Stories from Herodotus._ Re-told by C. H. Boden and
     W. Barrington D'Almeida. 8º. (Harper, 1900.) 19 illust. in
     colours. (12 f. p.)


     _A Book of Pictured Carols._ Designed by members of the
     Birmingham Art School under the direction of A. J. Gaskin. 4º.
     (George Allen, 1893.) 13 illust. and decorations with C. M. Gere,
     Henry Payne, Bernard Sleigh, Fred. Mason, and others. (1 f. p. by
     A. J. Gaskin.)

     _Stories and Fairy Tales._ Hans Andersen. 8º. (George Allen.
     1893.) 100 illust. (11 f. p.)

     _A Book of Fairy Tales._ Re-told by S. Baring Gould. 8º.
     (Methuen, 1894.) 20 illust. (5 f. p.)

     _Good King Wenceslas._ Dr. Neale. 4º. (Cornish Brothers,
     Birmingham, 1895.) 6 f. p.

     _The Shepheard's Calendar._ E. Spenser. 8º. (Kelmscott Press,
     1896.) 12 f. p.


     _Russian Fairy Tales._ R. Nisbet Bain. 8º. (Lawrence and
     Bullen, 1893.) 6 f. p.

     _News from Nowhere._ William Morris. 8º. (Kelmscott Press,
     1893.) 1 f. p.

     _The Imitation of Christ._ Thomas à Kempis. Introduction by
     F. W. Farrar. 8º. (Methuen, 1894.) 5 f. p.

     _A Book of Pictured Carols._ See _A. J. Gaskin_.


     _Wedding Bells._ A new old Nursery Rhyme by A. F. S. and E.
     de Passemore. 4º. (Simpkin, Marshall, 1895.) 7 decorated pages.

     _The Little Men in Scarlet._ Frances H. Low. (Jarrold, 1896.)
     42 illust. (8 f. p.)

     _The Garden of Time._ Mrs. Davidson. 8º. (Jarrold, 1896.)
     40 illust. (8 f. p.)

     _An Album of Drawings._ Fol. (The White Cottage, Shorne, Kent,
     1900.) 24 f. p. from various magazines.


     _Jump-to-Glory Jane._ George Meredith. 8º. (Swan, Sonnenschein,
     1892.) 44 illust. (8 f. p.)

     _Goblin Market._ Christina Rossetti. 8º. (Macmillan, 1893.)
     42 illust. and decorations. (12 f. p.)

     _Weird Tales from Northern Seas._ From the Danish of Jonas
     Lie. 8º. (Kegan Paul, 1893.) 12 f. p.

     _The End of Elfin-town._ Jane Barlow. 8º. (Macmillan, 1894.)
     15 illust. and decorations. (8 f. p.)

     _A Farm in Fairyland._ Laurence Housman. 8º. (Kegan Paul, 1894.)
     14 f. p.

     _The House of Joy._ Laurence Housman. 8º. (Kegan Paul, 1895.)
     10 f. p.

     _Poems._ Francis Thompson. 8º. (Mathews and Lane, 1895.) 1 f. p.

     _Sister Songs._ Francis Thompson. 8º. (Lane, 1895.) 1 f. p.

     _Green Arras._ Laurence Housman. 8º. (Lane, 1896.) 6 f. p.

     _All-Fellows._ Laurence Housman. 8º. (Kegan Paul, 1896.) 7 f. p.

     _The Were-Wolf._ Clemence Housman. 8º. (Lane, 1896.) 6 f. p.

     _The Sensitive Plant._ P. B. Shelley. 4º. (Aldine House, 1898.)
     12 f. p. photogravure.

     _The Field of Clover._ Laurence Housman. 8º. (Kegan Paul, 1898.)
     12 f. p., engraved by Clemence Housman.

     _The Little Flowers of Saint Francis._ Translated by T. W.
     Arnold. 12º. (Dent, 1898, Temple Classics.) 1 f. p.

     _Of the Imitation of Christ._ Thomas à Kempis. 8º. (Kegan Paul,
     1898.) 5 f. p.

     _The Little Land._ Laurence Housman. 8º. (Grant Richards, 1899.)
     4 f. p.

     _At the Back of the North Wind._ G. Macdonald. 8º. (Blackie,
     1900.) 1 f. p.

     _The Princess and the Goblin._ G. Macdonald. 8º. (Blackie, 1900.)
     1 f. p.


     _The Tournament of Love._ W. T. Peters. 8º. (Brentano, 1894.)
     3 illust. (2 f. p.)

     _The Minor Poems of John Milton._ 8º. (Bell, 1898. Endymion
     Series.) 46 illust., and decorations. (28 f. p.)

     _Contes de Haute-Lisse._ Jérome Doucet. (Bernoux and Cumin,
     1899.) 56 illust. and decorations.

     _Contes de la Fileuse._ Jérome Doucet. (Tallandier, 1900.)
     163 illust. and decorations.


     _Turkish Fairy Tales._ Trans. by R. Nisbet Bain. 8º.
     (Lawrence and Bullen, 1896.) 10 illust. (9 f. p.)

     _Verse Fancies._ Edward L. Levetus. 8º. (Chapman and Hall,
     1898.) 8 illust. (7 f. p.)

     _Songs of Innocence._ William Blake. 32º. (Wells, Gardner,
     and Darton, 1899.) 25 illust. (14 f. p.)


     _Chronicles of Strathearn._ 8º. (David Philips, 1896.) 15 f. p.

     _The Fall of the Nibelungs._ In Two Books. Translated by
     Margaret Armour. 8º. (Dent, 1897.) 8 f. p. in each book.

     _Thames Sonnets and Semblances._ Margaret Armour. 8º.
     (Elkin Mathews, 1897.) 12 f. p.

     _The Book of Ruth._ Introduction by Ernest Rhys. 4º. (Dent,
     1896.) 8 f. p.

     _Isabella, or the Pot of Basil._ John Keats. 4º. (Kegan Paul,
     1898.) 8 f. p.

     _The Shadow of Love and other Poems._ Margaret Armour. 8º.
     (Duckworth, 1898.) 2 f. p.


     _A Book of Pictured Carols._ See _A. J. Gaskin_.

     _The Story of Alexander._ Robert Steele. 4º. (David Nutt, 1894.)
     27 illust. (5 f. p.)

     _Huon of Bordeaux._ Robert Steele. 8º. (George Allen, 1895.)
     22 illust. (6 f. p.)

     _Renaud of Montauban._ Robert Steele. 8º. (George Allen, 1897.)
     12 f. p.


     _The Centaur._ _The Bacchant._ Translated from the French of
     Maurice de Guérin by T. Sturge Moore. (Vale Press, 1899.) 4º.
     5 wood engravings.

     _Some Fruits of Solitude._ William Penn. 8º. (Essex House
     Press, 1901.) Wood engraving on title-page.


     _The Faerie Queene._ E. Spenser. Introduction by Prof. Hales.
     3 vols. 4º. (Dent, 1897.) 42 illust. and decorations. (24 f. p.,
     10 double page.)

     _Fringilla._ R. D. Blackmore. 8º. (Elkin Mathews, 1895.) 21
     illust. and decorations. (11 f. p.) 3 by James Linton.


     _Shakespeare's Sonnets._ 8º. (Lane, 1899.) 14 illust. (10 f. p.)

     _Poems._ Matthew Arnold. 8º. Edited by A. C. Benson. (Lane,
     1900.) 65 illust. and decorations. (16 f. p.)


     _A House of Pomegranates._ Oscar Wilde. 4º. (Osgood, 1891.)
     17 illust. with C. H. Shannon. 13 by C. Ricketts.

     _Poems, Dramatic and Lyrical._ Lord de Tabley. 8º. (Mathews
     and Lane, 1893.) 5 f. p., photogravure.

     _Daphnis and Chloe._ Longus. Translated by Geo. Thornley.
     4º. (Mathews and Lane, 1893.) 37 illust. drawn on the wood
     by Charles Ricketts from the designs of Charles Ricketts and
     Charles Shannon. Engraved by both artists.

     _The Sphinx._ Oscar Wilde. 4º. (Ballantyne Press, 1894.) 10
     illust. (9 f. p.)

     _Hero and Leander._ Christopher Marlowe and George Chapman.
     8º. (Vale Press, 1894.) 7 illust., border and initials,
     drawn on the wood, engraved by Charles Ricketts and Charles

     _Nymphidia and the Muses Elizium._ Michael Drayton. 8º. (Vale
     Press, 1896.) Frontispiece, border and initials, engraved on

     _Spiritual Poems._ T. Gray. 8º. (Vale Press, 1896.) Frontispiece
     and border, engraved on wood.

     _Milton's Early Poems._ 8º. (Vale Press, 1896.) Frontispiece,
     border and initials, engraved on wood.

     _Songs of Innocence._ W. Blake. 8º. (Vale Press, 1897.)
     Frontispiece, border and initials, engraved on wood.

     _Sacred Poems of Henry Vaughan._ 8º. (Vale Press, 1897.)
     Frontispiece and border, engraved on wood.

     _The Excellent Narration of the Marriage of Cupide and Psyches._
     Translated from the Latin of Lucius Apuleius, by William
     Adlington. 8º. (Vale Press, 1897.) 5 illust. engraved on wood.

     _The Book of Thel_, _Songs of Innocence_ and _Songs of
     Experience_. William Blake. 4º. (Vale Press, 1897.) Frontispiece,
     initials and border, engraved on wood.

     _Blake's Poetical Sketches._ 4º. (Vale Press, 1899.) Frontispiece
     and initials, engraved on wood.


     _Der Ring des Nibelungen._ Described by R. Farquharson Sharp. 4º.
     (Marshall, Russell, 1898.) 5 f. p.

     ESSEX HOUSE PRESS. _The Pilgrim's Progress._ _Venus and Adonis._
     _The Eve of St. Agnes._ _The Journal of John Woolman._
     _Epithalamium._ (1900-1.) Frontispiece engraved on wood to each


     See _Charles Ricketts_.

     'House of Pomegranates,' 'Hero and Leander,' 'Daphnis and Chloe.'


     _Poems by Robert Browning._ 8º. (Bell, 1897. Endymion Series.)
     67 illust. (22 f. p.)

     _Tales from Boccaccio._ Joseph Jacobs. 4º. (George Allen, 1899.)
     20 f. p.

     _The Chiswick Shakespeare._ 8º. (Bell, 1899, etc.) 11 illust. and
     decorations (6 f. p.), in each volume.


     _The Sea-King's Daughter, and other Poems._ Amy Mark. Printed
     at the Press of the Birmingham Guild of Handicraft. (G. Napier,
     Birmingham, 1895.) 39 decorated pages (4 f. p.), engraved with
     L. A. Talbot.

     _A Book of Pictured Carols._ See _A. J. Gaskin_. 2 f. p., by
     Bernard Sleigh.


     _The Itchen Valley._ Fol. (Seeley, Jackson and Halliday, 1881.)

     _The Avon from Naxby to Tewkesbury._ Fol. (Seeley, Jackson and
     Halliday, 1882.) 21 etchings.

     _Cinderella:_ A Fairy Opera. John Farmer and Henry Leigh. 4º.
     (Novello, Ewer, 1882.) 17 illust.

     _Epping Forest._ E. M. Buxton. 8º. (Stamford, 1884.) 36 illust.
     (5 f. p.)

     _Sintram and his Companions._ Translated from the German of
     De la Motte Fouqué. 4º. (Seeley, Jackson and Halliday, 1883.)
     22 illust. (1 f. p.)

     _The New Forest._ J. R. Wise. See _Walter Crane_.

     _Undine._ 4º. (Chapman and Hall, 1888.) 16 illust. (2 f. p.)

     _The Besom Maker, and other country Folk Songs._ Collected by
     Heywood Sumner. 4º. (Longmans, 1888.) 26 decorated pages. 1 f. p.

     _Jacob and the Raven._ Frances M. Peard. 8º. (George Allen,
     1896.) 40 illust. and decorations. (9 f. p.)


     _Lays of Ancient Rome._ Lord Macaulay. 8º. (Longmans, 1881.)
     41 illust. (7 f. p.)

     _The Cat of Bubastes._ G. A. Henty. 8º. (Blackie, 1889.) 8 f. p.

     _Anacreon: with Thomas Stanley's translation._ Edited by A. H.
     Bullen. 8º. (Lawrence and Bullen, 1892.) 11 f. p.

     _The Little Mermaid and other Stories._ Hans Andersen. Translated
     by R. Nisbet Bain. 4º. (Lawrence and Bullen, 1893.) 61 illus.
     (36 f. p.)

     _Catullus: with the Pervigilium Veneris._ Edited by S. G. Owen.
     8º. (Lawrence and Bullen, 1893.) 8 f. p.

     _The Wooing of Malkatoon_; _Commodus_. Lewis Wallace. 8º.
     (Harper, 1898.) 12 f. p. with Du Mond. 6 by J. R. Weguelin.


     _Miracle Plays. Our Lord's Coming and Childhood._ Katherine
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     _A Houseful of Rebels._ Walter C. Rhoades. 8º. (Archibald
     Constable, 1897.) 10 f. p.

     _Selections from Coleridge._ Andrew Lang. 8º. (Longmans, 1898.)
     18 f. p.

     _King John._ Edited by J. W. Young. 8º. (Longmans, 1899.
     Swan Shakespeare.) 9 f. p.


     _Shakespeare's Songs._ Edited by E. Rhys. 4º. (Dent, 1898.)
     12 f. p.

     _The Little Flowers of St. Francis._ 8º. (Kegan Paul, 1899.)
     8 f. p.

     _The Confessions of St. Augustine._ 8º. (Kegan Paul, 1900.)
     4 f. p. Title-page by Laurence Housman.

     _The Little Flowers of St. Benet._ 8º. (Kegan Paul, 1901.)
     8 f. p.



     _The Rivers of Devon._ J. L. Warden-Page. 8º. (Seeley, 1893.)
     17 illust. (4 etched plates.)

     _The Riviera._ Notes by the artist. Fol. (Seeley, 1894.) 64
     illust. (20 etched plates.)

     _The Coasts of Devon._ J. L. Warden-Page. 8º. (H. Cox, 1895.)
     21 illust.

     _Episcopal Palaces of England._ Canon Venables and others. 4º.
     (Isbister, 1895.) Etched frontispiece and 104 illust. (7 f. p.)

     _The Master of the Musicians._ Emma Marshall. 8º. (Seeley, 1896.)
     8 f. p.

     _London Riverside Churches._ A. E. Daniell. 8º. (Constable,
     1897.) 84 illust. (27 f. p.)

     ENGLISH CATHEDRAL SERIES. 8º. (Isbister, 1897-8.)

          _Salisbury Cathedral._ The Very Rev. Dean Boyle. 15 illust.
          (10 f. p.)

          _York Minster._ The Very Rev. Dean Purey-Cust. 14 illust.
          (11 f. p.)

          _Norwich Cathedral._ The Very Rev. Dean Lefroy. 9 f. p.

          _Ely Cathedral._ The Rev. Canon Dickson. 10 f. p.

          _Carlisle Cathedral._ Chancellor R. S. Ferguson. 11 f. p.

     _The Romance of our Ancient Churches._ Sarah Wilson. 8º.
     (Constable, 1899.) 180 illust. (15 f. p.)

     _Boswell's Life of Johnson._ Edited by Augustine Birrell.
     (Constable, 1899.) 6 vols. Frontispiece to each vol.


     _The Tower._ C. R. B. Barrett. Fol. (Catty and Dobson, 1889.)
     26 illust. (13 etched plates.)

     _Essex: Highways, Byways and Waterways._ C. R. B. Barrett.
     8º. (Lawrence and Bullen, 1892-3.) Series I. 99 illust. (13
     etched plates.) Series II. 128 illust. (13 etched plates.)

     _The Trinity House of Deptford Strond._ C. R. B. Barrett.
     4º. (Lawrence and Bullen, 1893.) 18 illust. (1 etched plate.)

     _Barrett's Illustrated Guides._ 8º. (Lawrence and Bullen,
     1892-3.) 9 numbers.

     _Somersetshire: Highways, Byways and Waterways._ C. R. B.
     Barrett. 4º. (Bliss, Sands and Foster, 1894.) 167 illust.
     (6 etched plates.)

     _Shelley's Visit to France._ Charles J. Elton. 8º. (Bliss,
     Sands, 1894.) 16 illus. (2 etched plates.)

     _Charterhouse, in Pen and Ink._ By C. R. B. Barrett. Preface
     by George E. Smythe. 4º. (Bliss, Sands and Foster, 1895.)
     43 illust. (1 f. p.)

     _Surrey: Highways, Byways and Waterways._ C. R. B. Barrett. 4º.
     (Bliss, Sands and Foster, 1895.) 140 illust. (5 etched plates.)

     _Battles and Battlefields of England._ C. R. B. Barrett. 8º.
     (Innes, 1896.) 102 illust. (2 f. p.)


     _Charterhouse, Old and New._ E. P. Eardley-Wilmot and E. C.
     Streatfield. 4º. (Nimmo, 1895.) 4 etchings.

     _Scholar Gipsies._ John Buchan. 8º. (Lane, 1896. The Arcady
     Library.) 7 etchings.


     _The Novels of Susan Edmonstone Ferrier._ Introduction by R.
     Brimley Johnson. 8º. (Dent, 1894.) 6 vols. 17 f. p.

     _The Promised Land._ Translated from the Danish of Henrik
     Pontoppidan by Mrs. Edgar Lucas. 8º. (Dent, 1896.) 29 illust.
     (14 f. p.)

     _Emanuel, or Children of the Soil._ Translated from the Danish
     of Henrik Pontoppidan by Mrs. Edgar Lucas. 8º. (Dent, 1896.)
     29 illust. (17 f. p.)

     Mediæval Towns. 8º. (Dent, 1898-1901.)

          _The Story of Assisi._ Lina Duff Gordon. 50 illust., with
          others. 25 (3 f. p.) by Nelly Erichsen.

          _The Story of Rome._ Norwood Young. 48 illust., with others.
          (10 f. p.) by Nelly Erichsen.

          _The Story of Florence._ Edmund G. Gardner. 45 illust., with
          others. 20 f. p. by Nelly Erichsen.


     English Cathedral Series. 8º. (Isbister, 1899-1901.)

          _Worcester Cathedral._ The Rev. Canon Teignmouth Shore.
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          _Rochester Cathedral._ The Rev. Canon Benham. 11 illust.
          (10 f. p.)

          _Hereford Cathedral._ The Very Rev. Dean Leigh. 11 illust.
          (10 f. p.)

     _Æschylos._ Translated by G. H. Plumtre. 2 vols. 8º. (Isbister,
     1901.) 1 f. p.


     _Henry Irving._ Austin Brereton. 8º. (Bogue, 1883.) 17 f. p.
     With others.

     _The Picturesque Mediterranean._ 4º. (Cassell, 1899.) With
     others. 68 illust. by John Fulleylove.

     _Oxford._ With notes by T. Humphry Ward. Fol. (Fine Art Society,
     1889.) 40 illust. (30 plates.)

     _In the Footprints of Charles Lamb._ See _Herbert Railton_.

     _Pictures of Classic Greek Landscape and Architecture._ With text
     in explanation by Henry W. Nevinson. 4º. (Dent, 1897.) 40 plates.

     _The Stones of Paris._ B. E. and C. M. Martin. 2 vols. 8º.
     (Smith, Elder, 1900.) 62 illust. 40 (16 f. p.) by J. Fulleylove.


     _Seven Gardens and a Palace._ E. V. B. 8º. (Lane, 1900.) 9
     illust. with Arthur Gordon. 5 by Frederick L. Griggs.

     _Stray Leaves from a Border Garden._ Mary Pamela Milne-Home.
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     _The Chronicle of a Cornish Garden._ Harry Roberts. 8º. (Lane,
     1901.) 7 f. p.


     _Royal Winchester._ Rev. A. G. L'Estrange. 8º. (Spencer, 1889.)
     37 illust. (22 f. p.)

     _The Brighton Road._ C. G. Harper. 8º. (Chatto and Windus,
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     _From Paddington to Penzance._ C. G. Harper. 8º. (Chatto and
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     _The Marches of Wales._ C. G. Harper. 8º. (Chapman and Hall,
     1894.) 114 illust. 95 (24 f. p.) by C. G. Harper.

     _The Dover Road._ C. G. Harper. 8º. (Chapman and Hall, 1895.)
     57 illust. 48 (12 f. p.) by C. G. Harper.

     _The Portsmouth Road._ C. G. Harper. 8º. (Chapman and Hall,
     1895.) 77 illust. 44 (12 f. p.) by C. G. Harper.

     _Some English Sketching Grounds._ C. G. Harper. 8º.
     (Reeves, 1897.) 44 illust. (18 f. p.)

     _Stories of the Streets of London._ H. Barton Baker. 8º. (Chapman
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     _The Exeter Road._ C. G. Harper. 8º. (Chapman and Hall, 1899.)
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     _The Bath Road._ C. G. Harper. 8º. (Chapman and Hall, 1899.)
     75 illust. 64 (19 f. p.) by C. G. Harper.

     _The Great North Road._ C. G. Harper. 2 vols. 8º. (Chapman and
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     _An Imaged World._ Edward Garnett. 8º. (Dent, 1894.) 5 f. p.

     _Milton's L'Allegro and Il Penseroso._ 8º. (Dent, 1896.) 13 f. p.

     _London Impressions._ Alice Meynell. Fol. (Constable, 1898.)
     3 etchings, 23 photogravures. (13 f. p.)

     _The Nature Poems of George Meredith._ 4º. (Constable, 1898.)
     Etched frontispiece and 20 photogravures.

     _The Cinque Ports._ Ford Madox Hueffer. 4º. (Blackwood, 1900.)
     33 illust. (20 f. p., 14 in photogravure.)

     _The Victoria History of the Counties of England. Hampshire;
     Norfolk._ 8º. (Constable, 1901.) 1 f. p.


     _Charles Dickens and the Stage._ T. Edgar Pemberton. 8º.
     (Redway, 1888.) 3 f. p., photogravure.

     _Charles Dickens by Pen and Pencil._ F. G. Kitton. 4º. (Sabini
     and Dexter, 1889-90.) With others. 15 by F. G. Kitton.

     _In Tennyson Land._ J. Cuming Walters. 8º. (Redway, 1890.)
     12 f. p.

     _A Week's Tramp in Dickens' Land._ Wm. R. Hughes. 8º. (Chapman
     and Hall, 1891.) 100 illust., chiefly by F. G. Kitton. (12 f. p.)

     _Hertfordshire County Homes._ (Published by subscription, 1892.)
     40 f. p.

     _St. Albans, Historical and Picturesque._ C. H. Ashdown. 4º.
     (Elliot Stock, 1893.) 70 illust., chiefly by F. G. Kitton (15
     f. p.)

     _St. Albans Abbey._ The Rev. Canon Liddell. 8º. (Isbister,
     1897. English Cathedral Series.) 9 illust. (7 f. p.)

     _The Romany Rye._ George Borrow. (Murray, 1900.) 8 f. p.


     _A Fauna of Sutherland, Caithness and West Cromarty._ J. Harvie
     Brown and T. E. Buckley. 8º. (Douglas, 1887.) 12 illust., with
     others. 2 (1 f. p.) by J. G. Millais.

     _Shooting._ Lord Walsingham and Sir R. Payne Gallwey. (Badminton
     Library.) 8º. (Longmans, 1887.) With others. 3 illust. (1 f. p.)
     by J. G. Millais.

     _A Monograph of the Charadriidae._ Henry Seebohm. 4º. (Sotheran,
     1888.) 28 illust.

     _A Fauna of the Outer Hebrides._ J. Harvie Brown and T. E.
     Buckley. 8º. (Douglas, 1888.) 12 illust., with others. 1 by
     J. G. Millais.

     _A Fauna of the Orkney Islands._ J. Harvie Brown and T. E.
     Buckley. 8º. (Douglas, 1891.) 13 illust., with others. 3 f. p.
     photogravures by J. G. Millais.

     _A Fauna of Argyll and the Inner Hebrides._ J. Harvie Brown and
     T. E. Buckley. 8º. (Douglas, 1892.) 9 illust., with others. 1
     photogravure by J. G. Millais.

     _Game-Birds and Shooting Sketches._ J. G. Millais. 4º.
     (Sotheran, 1892.) 64 illust., 33 plates.

     _A Breath from the Veldt._ J. G. Millais. 4º. (Sotheran,
     1895.) 149 illust. (24 plates.)

     _Letters to Young Shooters._ 3rd series. Sir R. Payne Gallwey.
     (Longmans, 1896.) 46 illust.

     _Elephant Hunting in East Equatorial Africa._ Arthur Newmann.
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     _British Deer and their Horns._ J. G. Millais. 4º. (Sotheran,
     1897.) 185 illust., mostly by the author. (20 plates.)

     _Pheasants._ W. B. Tegetmeier. 8º. (Cox, 1897.) 16 illust.
     (1 f. p. by J. G. Millais.) With others.

     _Encyclopaedia of Sport._ Edited by the Earl of Berkshire.
     (Lawrence and Bullen, 1898.) 31 illust. (2 f. p. in photogravure.)

     _The Wildfowler in Scotland._ J. G. Millais. 4º. (Longmans, 1901.)
     60 illust., 10 plates. (13 f. p.)


     _The Compleat Angler._ Izaak Walton and Charles Cotton. Edited
     by Richard Le Gallienne. 4º. (Lane, 1896.) 200 illust. (47 f. p.)

     _In the Garden of Peace._ Helen Milman. 8º. (Lane, 1896. The
     Arcady Library.) 24 illust.

     _Oxford and its Colleges._ J. Wells. 8º. (Methuen, 1897.) 27
     drawings from photographs.

     _Cambridge and its Colleges._ A. Hamilton Thompson. 8º. (Methuen,
      1898.) 23 drawings from photographs.

     _The Life of William Morris._ J. W. Mackail. 2 vols. 8º.
     (Longmans, 1899.) 15 illus. (14 f. p.)

     _Shakespeare's Country._ Bertram C. A. Windle. 8º. (Methuen,
     1899.) 14 f. p. Drawings from photographs.

     _The Natural History of Selborne._ Gilbert White. Edited by
     Grant Allen. 4º. (Lane, 1900.) 178 illust. (43 f. p.)

     _Outside the Garden._ Helen Milman. 8º. (Lane, 1900.) 30 illust.
     and decorations.

     _Sussex._ F. G. Brabant. 8º. (Methuen, 1900.) 12 f. p. Drawings
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     _The Malvern Country._ Bertram C. A. Windle. 8º. (Methuen,
     1901.) 11 f. p. Drawings from photographs.


     _God's Acre Beautiful._ W. Robinson. 8º. ("Garden" Office, 1880.)
     8 f. p.

     _Selections from the Poetry of Robert Herrick._ 4º. (Sampson
     Low, 1882.) 59 illust. (2 f. p.) With E. A. Abbey.

     _Springhaven._ R. D. Blackmore. 8º. (Sampson Low, 1888.) 64
     illust. (35 f. p.) With F. Barnard.

     _Old Songs._ 4º. (Macmillan, 1889.) 102 illust. With E. A. Abbey.

     _The Quiet Life._ Certain Verses by various hands: Prologue and
     Epilogue by Austin Dobson. 4º. (Sampson Low, 1890.) 82 illust.
     With E. A. Abbey. 42 by Alfred Parsons. (9 f. p.)

     _A Selection from the Sonnets of William Wordsworth._ 8º.
     (Osgood, 1891.) 55 illust. and decorations. (24 f. p.)

     _The Warwickshire Avon._ Notes by A. T. Quiller-Couch. 8º.
     (Osgood, 1892.) 96 illust. (25 f. p.)

     _The Danube from the Black Forest to the Sea._ F. D. Millet. 8º.
     (Osgood, 1892.) 133 illust. With F. D. Millet. 61 by Alfred
     Parsons. (41 f. p.)

     _The Wild Garden._ W. Robinson. 8º. (Murray, 1895.) 90
     wood-engravings. (14 f. p.)

     _The Bamboo Garden._ A. B. Freeman-Mitford. 8º. (Macmillan,
     1896.) 11 illust. and decorations. (7 f. p.)

     _Notes in Japan._ Alfred Parsons. 8º. (Osgood, 1896.) 119
     illust. (36 f. p.)

     _Wordsworth._ Andrew Lang. 8º. (Longmans, 1897. Selections from
     the Poets.) 17 illust., and initials to each poem. (9 f. p.)


     _A Canterbury Pilgrimage._ Elizabeth Robins Pennell. 8º.
     (Seeley, 1885.) 30 illust. (7 f. p.)

     _Tuscan Cities._ W. D. Howells. 4º. (Ticknor, Boston, 1886.)
     67 illust., chiefly by Joseph Pennell. (11 f. p.)

     _The Saone._ P. G. Hamerton. 4º. (Seeley, 1887.) 148 illust.
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     _An Italian Pilgrimage._ Elizabeth Robins Pennell. 8º. (Seeley,
     1887.) 30 f. p.

     _Our Sentimental Journey through France and Italy._ Elizabeth
     Robins Pennell. 8º. (Longmans, 1888.) 122 illust. (21 f. p.)

     _Old Chelsea._ Benjamin Ellis Martin. 8º. (Fisher Unwin, 1889.)
     23 illust. (20 f. p.)

     _Our Journey to the Hebrides._ Elizabeth Robins Pennell. 8º.
     (Fisher Unwin, 1889.) 43 illust. (29 f. p.)

     _Personally Conducted._ F. R. Stockton. 4º. (Sampson Low,
     1889.) 48 illust. With others.

     _Charing Cross to St. Paul's._ Justin McCarthy. Fol. (Seeley,
     1891.) 36 illust. (12 f. p.)

     _The Stream of Pleasure._ Joseph and Elizabeth Robins Pennell.
     With a practical chapter by J. G. Legge. 4º. (Fisher Unwin,
     1891.) 90 illust. (16 f. p.)

     _Play in Provence._ Joseph and Elizabeth Robins Pennell. 8º.
     (Fisher Unwin, 1892.) 92 illust. (29 f. p.)

     _The Jew at Home._ Joseph Pennell. 8º. (Heinemann, 1892.)
     27 illust. (15 f. p.)

     _English Cathedrals._ Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer. 8º.
     (Fisher Unwin, 1892.) 154 illust. (18 f. p.) With others.

     _To Gipsyland._ Elizabeth Robins Pennell. 8º. (Fisher Unwin,
     1893.) 82 illust. (35 f. p.)

     _The Devils of Notre Dame._ 18 illust., with descriptive
     text by R. A. M. Stevenson. Fol. ('Pall Mall Gazette,' 1894.)

     _Cycling._ The Earl of Albemarle and G. Lacy Hillier. 4º.
     (Longmans, 1894. The Badminton Library.) 49 illust. With the
     Earl of Albemarle, and George Moore. 21 by Joseph Pennell.
     (12 f. p.)

     _Tantallon Castle._ Elizabeth Robins Pennell. 8º. (Constable,
     1895.) 33 illust. (7 f. p.) With others. 24 by Joseph Pennell.

     _The Makers of Modern Rome._ Mrs. Oliphant. 8º. (Macmillan,
     1895.) 71 illust. With Henry P. Riviere, and from old engravings.
     53 by Joseph Pennell. (7 f. p.)

     _The Alhambra._ Washington Irving. Introduction by Elizabeth
     Robins Pennell. 8º. (Macmillan, 1896.) 288 illust. (24 f. p.)

     _On the Broads._ Anna Bowman Dodd. 8º. (Macmillan, 1896.)
     29 illust. (24 f. p.)

     _Climbs in the New Zealand Alps._ E. A. Fitzgerald. 8º. (Fisher
     Unwin, 1896.) 25 illust. With others. (8 f. p. by Joseph Pennell
     from paintings).

     _Highways and Byways in Devon and Cornwall._ Arthur H. Norway.
     8º. (Macmillan, 1897.) 66 illust. (18 f. p.) With Hugh Thomson.
     58 by Joseph Pennell.

     _Aquitaine, a Traveller's Tales._ Wickham Flower. 4º. (Chapman
     and Hall, 1897.) 24 illust. (22 f. p.)

     _Over the Alps on a Bicycle._ Elizabeth Robins Pennell. 8º.
     (Fisher Unwin, 1898.) 34 illust. (18 f. p.)

     _Highways and Byways in North Wales._ A. G. Bradley. 8º.
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     _Highways and Byways in Normandy._ Percy Dearmer. 8º. (Macmillan,
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     _A little Tour in France._ Henry James. 8º. (Heinemann, 1900.)
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     _Highways and Byways in the Lake District._ A. G. Bradley. 8º.
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     _Highways and Byways in East Anglia._ William A. Dutt. 8º.
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     _Italian Journeys._ W. D. Howells. 8º. (Heinemann, 1901.)
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     _Coaching Days and Coaching Ways._ 4º. (Macmillan, 1888.)
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     _The Essays of Elia._ Charles Lamb. Edited by Augustine
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     _Select Essays of Dr. Johnson._ Edited by George Birkbeck
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     _The Poems and Plays of Oliver Goldsmith._ Edited by Austin
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     _Pericles and Aspasia._ W. S. Landor. 8º. (Dent, 1890. The Temple
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     _Westminster Abbey._ W. J. Loftie. Fol. (Seeley, 1890.) 75 illust.

     _The Citizen of the World._ Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Austin
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     _The Poetical Works of Thomas Lovell Beddoes._ Edited, with a
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     _In the Footsteps of Charles Lamb._ Benjamin Ellis Martin. 8º.
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     _The Collected Works of Thomas Love Peacock._ Edited by Richard
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     _Essays and Poems of Leigh Hunt._ Selected and edited by R.
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     _Dreamland in History._ The Very Rev. Dean Spence. 8º.
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     _The Inns of Court and Chancery._ W. J. Loftie. Fol. (Seeley,
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     _The Household of Sir Thomas More._ Anne Manning. 8º. (Nimmo,
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     _The Haunted House._ Thomas Hood. Introduction by Austin Dobson.
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     _Cherry and Violet._ Anne Manning. 8º. (Nimmo, 1897.) 26 illust.
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     _The Maiden and Married Life of Mary Powell and Deborah's Diary._
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     _The Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne_ and _A
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     _Boswell's Life of Johnson._ Edited by A. Glover. Introduction
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     _The Selected Writings of John Ramsay._ Alexander Walker. 8º.
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     _Life of a Scotch Naturalist._ Samuel Smiles. 8º. (Murray,
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     _George Jamesone, the Scottish Van Dyck._ John Bulloch. 4º.
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     _Salmon Fishing on the Ristigouche._ Dean Sage. 4º. (Douglas,
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     _Familiar Letters of Sir Walter Scott._ Edited by D. Douglas.
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     _A Highland Gathering._ E. Lennox Peel. 8º. (Longmans, 1885.)
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     _A Highland Gathering._ E. Lennox Peel. 8º. (Longmans, 1885.)
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     _Our Rarer Birds._ Charles Dixon. 8º. (Bentley, 1888.) 20
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     _Story of the Rear-Guard of Emin Relief Expedition._ J. S.
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     _Travel and Adventure in South Africa._ F. C. Selous. 8º. (Ward,
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     _Birds of the Wave and Moorland._ P. Robinson. 8º. (Isbister,
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     _Sporting Days in Southern India._ Lieut.-Colonel Pollock. 8º.
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     _Big Game Shooting._ Clive Phillipps-Wolley and other writers.
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     _The Pilgrim Fathers of New England and their Puritan Successors._
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     _Icebound on Kolguev._ A. Trevor-Battye. 8º. (Constable, 1895.)
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     _On the World's Roof._ J. Macdonald Oxley. 8º. (Nisbet, 1896.)
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     _In Haunts of Wild Game._ Frederick Vaughan Kirby. 8º.
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     _In and Beyond the Himalayas._ S. J. Stone. 8º. (Arnold, 1896.)
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     _Sunshine and Storm in Rhodesia._ F. C. Selous. 8º. (Ward, 1896.)
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     _Letters to Young Shooters._ Sir R. Payne Gallwey. (Longmans,
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     _The Art of Wildfowling._ Abel Chapman. 8º. (Cox, 1896.) 39
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     _Wild Norway._ Abel Chapman. 8º. (Arnold, 1897.) 63 illust.
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     _Travel and Big Game._ Percy Selous and H. A. Bryden. 8º.
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     _Lost and Vanishing Birds._ Charles Dixon. 8º. (John Macqueen,
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     _Off to Klondyke._ Gordon Stables. 8º. (Nisbet, 1898.) 8 f. p.

     _The Rabbit._ James Edmund Harting. 8º. (Longmans, 1898. Fur,
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     _Exploration and Hunting in Central Africa._ A. St. H. Gibbons.
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     _The Salmon._ Hon. A. E. Gathorne Hardy. 8º. (Longmans, 1898.
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     _Homes and Haunts of the Pilgrim Fathers._ Alexander Mackennal.
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     _Bird Life in a Southern County._ Charles Dixon. (Scott, 1899.)
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     _The Cruise of the Marchesa to Kamschatka and New Guinea._
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     _Among the Birds in Northern Shires._ Charles Dixon. 8º.
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     _Shooting._ Lord Walsingham and Sir Ralph Payne-Gallwey. 8º.
     (Longmans, 1900. The Badminton Library.) 103 illust. With others.
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     _Selections from the Poetry of Robert Herrick._ 4º. (Sampson
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     _The Rivals and the School for Scandal._ R. B. Sheridan.
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     _Sketching Rambles in Holland._ George H. Boughton. 8º.
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     _Old Songs._ 4º. (Macmillan, 1889.) 102 illust. (32 f. p.)
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     _The Comedies of Shakespeare._ 4 vols. 8º. (Harper, 1896.)
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     _She Stoops to Conquer._ Oliver Goldsmith. 8º. (Harper, 1901.)
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     _Peter Stonnor._ Charles Blatherwick. 8º. (Chapman, 1884.)
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     _The Birthday Book of Solomon Grundy._ Will Roberts. 12º.
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     _Novel Notes._ J. K. Jerome. 8º. (Leadenhall Press, 1893.)
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     _At the Rising of the Moon._ Frank Mathew. 8º. (McClure,
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     _Ghetto Tragedies._ I. Zangwill. 12º. (McClure, 1894.) 3 f. p.

     _A Protègèe of Jack Hamlin's._ Bret Harte. 8º. (Chatto, 1894.)
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     _The Bell-Ringer of Angel's._ Bret Harte. 8º. (Chatto, 1894.)
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     _John Ingerfield._ Jerome K. Jerome. 12º. (McClure, 1894.)
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     _The Sketch-Book of the North._ George Eyre Todd. 8º. (Morrison,
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     _Pictures from Punch._ Vol. VI. 4º. (Bradbury, Agnew, 1896.)
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     _Rabbi Saunderson._ Ian Maclaren. 12º. (Hodder, 1898.) 12 f. p.

     _A Lowden Sabbath Morn._ R. L. Stevenson. 8º. (Chatto and
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     _The Days of Auld Lang Syne._ Ian Maclaren. 8º. (Hodder and
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     _Horace in Homespun._ Hugh Haliburton. 8º. (Blackwood, 1900.)
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     _Our Stolen Summer._ Mary Stuart Boyd. 8º. (Blackwood, 1900.)
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     _A Versailles Christmas-Tide._ M. S. Boyd. 8º. (Chatto and
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     _Collingwood._ W. Clark Russell. 8º. (Methuen, 1891.) 12 illust.
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     _The Captured Cruiser._ C. J. Hyne. 8º. (Blackie, 1893.) 6 f. p.

     _Tales of our Coast._ S. R. Crockett, etc. 8º. (Chatto and
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     _The Arabian Nights._ 8º. (Gibbings, 1897.) 36 f. p.

     _The History of Don Quixote._ Translated by Thomas Shelton.
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     _Tom Cringle's Log._ Michael Scott. 8º. (Gibbings, 1898.) 2 vols.

     _The Cruise of the Midge._ Michael Scott. 8º. (Gibbings, 1898.)
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     _A Spliced Yarn._ G. Cupples. 8º. (Gibbings, 1899.) 5 f. p.

     _Naval Yarns._ Collected and edited by W. H. Long. 8º.
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     _The Parachute and other Bad Shots._ J. R. Johnson. 4º.
     (Routledge, 1891.) 44 illust. (4 f. p.)

     _Hood's Humorous Poems._ Preface by Alfred Ainger. 8º.
     (Macmillan, 1893.) 130 illust. (3 f. p.)

     _Scenes in Fairyland._ Canon Atkinson. 8º. (Macmillan,
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     _The Humour of America._ Edited by J. Barr. 8º. (Scott,
     1893.) 78 illust. (32 f. p.)

     _The Humour of Germany._ Edited by Hans Mueller-Casenov.
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     _English Fairy and Folk Tales._ Edited by E. S. Hartland.
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     _Gulliver's Travels._ Preface by Henry Craik. 8º. (Macmillan,
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     _History Readers._ Book II. 8º. (Macmillan, 1894.) 20 illust.
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     _Nema and other Stories._ Hedley Peek. 8º. (Chapman and Hall,
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     _Annals of the Parish and The Ayrshire Legatees._ John Galt.
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     _W. V. Her Book and Various Verses._ William Canton. 8º.
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     _Westward Ho!_ Charles Kingsley. 2 vols. 8º. (Macmillan, 1896.)
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     _The Poetry of Sport._ Edited by Hedley Peek. 8º. (Longman,
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     _Pride and Prejudice._ Jane Austen. 8º. (Macmillan, 1896.
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     _Ivanhoe._ Sir Walter Scott. 8º. (Service and Paton, 1897.
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     _The Invisible Playmate and W. V. Her Book._ William Canton.
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     _The Lady of the Lake._ Sir Walter Scott. 8º. (Service and
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     _Robinson Crusoe._ Daniel Defoe. 8º. (Service and Paton,
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     _Dent's Second French Book._ 8º. (Dent, 1898.) 3 f. p.

     _The Novels of Jane Austen._ Edited by R. Brimley Johnson.
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     _The Vicar of Wakefield._ Oliver Goldsmith. 8º. (Service
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     _John Gilpin._ William Cowper. 4º. (Dent, 1898. Illustrated
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     _The Bravest of them All._ Mrs. Edwin Hohler. 8º. (Macmillan,
     1899.) 8 f. p.

     _M. or N._ G. J. Whyte-Melville. 8º. (Thacker, 1899.) 14 f. p.
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     _The Works of Jane Austen._ 8º. (Dent, 1899. Temple Library.)
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     _Ivanhoe._ Sir Walter Scott. 8º. (Dent, 1899.) 12 f. p., in

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     _The Path Finder._ _The Prairie._ Fenimore Cooper. 2 vols. 8º.
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     _Penelope's English Experiences._ Kate Douglas Wiggin. 8º.
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     _Penelope's Experiences in Scotland._ Kate Douglas Wiggin.
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     _Ivanhoe._ Sir W. Scott. 8º. (Dent, 1900. Temple Classics
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     _The Essays and Last Essays of Elia._ Edited by Augustine
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     _The Holly Tree Inn_ and _The Seven Poor Travellers_.
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     _Macmillan's History Readers._ See _C. E. Brock_.

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     _Tales of the Covenanters._ Robert Pollok. 8º. (Oliphant
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     _Racing and Chasing._ A. G. T. Watson. 8º. Longmans, 1867.
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     _Scenes of Child Life._ Mrs. J. G. Fraser. 8º. (Macmillan,
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     _Scenes of Familiar Life._ Mrs. J. G. Fraser. 8º. (Macmillan,
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     _Uncle John._ G. J. Whyte-Melville. 8º. (Thacker, 1898.) 14
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     _Song and Verses._ G. J. Whyte-Melville. 8º. (Thacker, 1899.)
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     _The Little Browns._ Mabel E. Wotton. 4º. (Blackie, 1900.)
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     _Asinette._ Mrs. J. G. Frazer. 8º. (Dent, 1900.) 208 illust.
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     By Fenimore Cooper. 8º. (Macmillan, 1900. Illustrated Standard
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     _Japhet in Search of a Father._ Captain Marryat. 8º. (Macmillan,
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     _Handy Andy._ Samuel Lover. 8º. (Macmillan, 1896. Ill. Stan.
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     _Ballads and Songs._ W. M. Thackeray. 8º. (Cassell, 1896.)
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     _Cranford._ Mrs. Gaskell. 8º. (Service and Paton, 1898.
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     _The Novels of Jane Austen._ 1898. See _C. E. Brock_.

     _Waverley._ Sir Walter Scott. 8º. (Service and Paton, 1899.
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     _The Works of Jane Austen._ 1899. See _C. E. Brock_.

     _Black but Comely._ G. J. Whyte-Melville. 8º. (Thacker,
     1899.) 10 f. p.

     _The Drummer's Coat._ Hon. J. W. Fortescue. 4º. (Macmillan,
     1899.) 4 f. p.

     _King Richard II._ Edited by W. J. Abel. 8º. (Longmans, 1899.
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     _Ivanhoe._ 1900. See _C. E. Brock_.

     _The Pilgrim's Progress._ John Bunyan. 8º. (Pearson, 1900.)
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     _Evelina._ Frances Burney. 2 vols. 8º. (Dent, 1893.) 6
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     _Cecilia._ 3 vols. Uniform with above. 9 f. p.

     _The Man of Feeling._ Henry Mackenzie. 8º. (Dent, 1893.) 3
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     _Reveries of a Bachelor._ D. G. Mitchell. 8º. (Dent, 1894.)

     _The Master Beggars._ Cope Cornford. 8º. (Dent, 1897.) 8 f. p.

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     _Tristram Shandy._ Laurence Sterne. 8º. (Nimmo, 1883.) 8
     etchings from drawings by Harry Furniss.

     _A River Holiday._ 8º. (Fisher Unwin, 1883.) 15 illust. (3 f. p.)

     _The Talk of the Town._ James Payn. 2 vols. 8º. (Smith, Elder,
     1884.) 14 f. p.

     _All in a Garden Fair._ Walter Besant. 8º. (Chatto and Windus,
     1884.) 6 f. p.

     _Romps at the Sea-side_ and _Romps in Town_. Verses by Horace
     Leonard. 4º. (Routledge, 1885.) 28 pictured pages in colours.

     _Parliamentary Views._ 4º. (Bradbury, Agnew, 1885.) 28 f. p.

     _Hugh's Sacrifice._ C. M. Norris. 8º. (Griffith, Farran, 1886.)
     4 f. p.

     _More Romps._ Verses by E. J. Milliken. 4º. (Routledge, 1886.)
     52 pictured pages in colours.

     _The Comic Blackstone._ Arthur W. A'Beckett. 8º. (Bradbury,
     Agnew, 1886.) 9 parts. 28 illust. (10 f. p. in colours.)

     _Travels in the Interior._ L. T. Courtenay. 8º. (Ward and
     Downey, 1887.) 17 illust. (3 f. p.)

     _The Incompleat Angler._ F. C. Burnand. 8º. (Bradbury, Agnew,
     1887.) 29 illust. (6 f. p.)

     _How he did it._ Harry Furniss. 8º. (Bradbury, Agnew, 1887.)
     50 illust. (4 f. p.)

     _The Moderate Man and other Verses._ Edwin Hamilton. 4º.
     (Ward and Downey, 1888.) 12 f. p.

     _Pictures at Play._ 8º. (Bradbury, Agnew, 1888.) 18 illust.
     (5 f. p.)

     _Sylvie and Bruno._ Lewis Carroll. 8º. (Macmillan, 1889.)
     46 illust. (9 f. p.)

     _Perfervid._ John Davidson. 8º. (Ward and Downey, 1890.) 23
     illust. (5 f. p.)

     _M.P.s in Session._ Obl. 4º. (Bradbury, Agnew, 1890.) 500 illust.

     _Wanted a King._ Maggie Browne. 8º. (Cassell, 1890.) 76 illust.
     (8 f. p.)

     _Brayhard._ F. M. Allen. 8º. (Ward and Downey, 1890.) 37 illust.
     (7 f. p.)

     _Academy Antics._ 8º. (Bradbury, Agnew, 1890.) 60 illust.

     _Flying Visits._ H. Furniss. 8º. (Simpkin, 1892.) 192 illust.
     (6 f. p.)

     _Olga's Dream._ Norley Chester. 8º. (Skeffington, 1892.) 24
     illust. (4 f. p.) With Irving Montague. 6 by H. Furniss.

     _A Diary of the Salisbury Parliament._ Henry W. Lucy. 8º.
     (Cassell, 1892.) 89 illust. (1 f. p.)

     _Sylvie and Bruno concluded._ Lewis Carroll. 8º. (Macmillan,
     1893.) 46 illust. (9 f. p.)

     _The Grand Old Mystery unravelled._ 8º. (Simpkin, 1894.) 20
     illust. (12 f. p.)

     _The Wallypug of Why._ G. E. Farrow. 8º. (Hutchinson, 1895.)
     62 illust. With Dorothy Furniss. 20 by H. Furniss. (17 f. p.)

     _Golf._ Horace G. Hutchinson. 8º. (Longmans, 1895. Badminton
     Library.) 87 illust. With others. 9 f. p. by H. Furniss.

     _The Missing Prince._ G. E. Farrow. 8º. (Hutchinson, 1896.)
     51 illust. With D. Furniss. 13 f. p. by H. Furniss.

     _Cricket Sketches._ E. B. V. Christian. 8º. (Simpkin, 1896.)
     100 illust.

     _Pen and Pencil in Parliament._ Harry Furniss. 8º. (Sampson
     Low, 1897.) 173 illust. (50 f. p.)

     _Miss Secretary Ethel._ Elinor D. Adams. 8º. (Hurst and Blackett,
     1898.) 6 illust. (5 f. p.)

     _Australian Sketches._ Harry Furniss. 8º. (Ward, Lock, 1899.)
     86 illust. (1 f. p.)


     _The Master of Ballantrae._ R. L. Stevenson. 8º. (Cassell,
     1891.) 10 f. p.

     _A Window in Thrums._ J. M. Barrie. 8º. (Hodder and Stoughton,
     1892.) 14 etchings. (13 f. p.)

     _The Heart of Midlothian._ Sir Walter Scott. 8º. (Black, 1893.
     Dryburgh edition.) 10 woodcuts. (9 f. p.)

     _The Little Minister._ J. M. Barrie. 8º. (Cassell, 1893.) 9 f. p.

     _Auld Licht Idylls._ J. M. Barrie. 8º. (Hodder and Stoughton,
     1895.) 13 etchings. (12 f. p.)

     _Catriona._ R. L. Stevenson. 8º. (Cassell, 1895.) 16 woodcuts.

     _Kidnapped._ R. L. Stevenson. 8º. (Cassell, 1895.) 16 woodcuts.

     _Beside the Bonnie Brier Bush._ Ian Maclaren. 8º. (Hodder and
     Stoughton, 1896.) 12 etchings.

     _The Century Edition of the Poetry of Robert Burns._ 4 vols.
     4º. (Jack, 1896.) 20 f. p. etchings.


     _Kenilworth._ Sir Walter Scott. 8º. (Black, 1893. Dryburgh
     edition.) 10 woodcuts. (9 f. p.)

     _Quentin Durward._ Sir Walter Scott. 8º. (Black, 1894.
     Dryburgh edition.) 10 woodcuts. (9 f. p.)

     _Pictures from Dickens._ 4º. (Nister, 1895.) 12 coloured
     illust. with others.

     _Annals of Westminster Abbey._ E. T. Bradley. 4º. (Cassell,
     1895.) 163 illust. With others.

     _The Vicar of Wakefield._ Oliver Goldsmith. 8º. (Nister,
     1898.) 25 illust. (12 f. p. 5 heliogravure plates.)

     Also illustrations to boys' books by G. A. Henty, etc.


     _Adventures of Sherlock Holmes._ Conan Doyle. 8º. (Newnes,
     1892.) 104 illust.

     _Rodney Stone._ Conan Doyle. 8º. (Smith Elder, 1896.) 8 f. p.

     _The Tragedy of the Korosko._ Conan Doyle. 8º. (Smith Elder,
     1898.) 40 f. p.

     _Old Mortality._ Sir Walter Scott. 8º. (Service and Paton,
     1898. Illustrated English Library.) 16 f. p.

     _Terence._ B. M. Croker. 8º. (Chatto and Windus, 1899.) 6 f. p.

     _The Sanctuary Club._ L. T. Meade and Robert Eustace. 8º.
     (Ward, Lock, 1900.) 6 f. p.


     _The Black Dwarf._ Sir Walter Scott. 8º. (Black, 1893.
     Dryburgh edition). 4 f. p.

     _Castle Dangerous._ Sir Walter Scott. 8º. (Black, 1894.
     Dryburgh edition.) 6 illust. (5 f. p.)

     _The Talisman._ Sir Walter Scott. 8º. (Ward, Lock, 1895.)
     68 illust. With others.

     _A Legend of Montrose._ Sir Walter Scott. 8º. (Ward, Lock,
     1895.) 76 illust. With A. de Parys.

     _Robinson Crusoe._ Daniel Defoe. 8º. (Cassell, 1896.) 120
     illust. (13 f. p.)

     _Treasure Island._ R. L. Stevenson. 8º. (Cassell, 1899.) 46
     illust. (15 f. p.)

     _Tales from Shakespeare._ Charles and Mary Lamb. 4º.
     (Nister, 1901.) 76 illust. (18 f. p. 6 printed in colours.)


     _Stage-land._ Jerome K. Jerome. 8º. (Chatto and Windus,
     1889.) 63 illust. (14 f. p.)

     _Voces Populi._ F. Anstey. 8º. (Longmans, 1890.) 20 illust.
     (9 f. p.)

     _Voces Populi._ Second Series. 1892. 25 illust. (17 f. p.)

     _My Flirtations._ Margaret Wynman. 8º. (Chatto and Windus,
     1892.) 13 illust. (11 f. p.)

     _The Travelling Companions._ F. Anstey. 8º. (Longmans, 1892.)
     26 illust. (1 f. p.)

     _Mr. Punch's Pocket Ibsen._ F. Anstey. 8º. (Heinemann, 1893.)
     14 f. p.

     _The Man from Blankley's._ F. Anstey. 4º. (Longmans, 1893.)
     25 illust. (9 f. p.)

     _When a Man's Single._ _A Window in Thrums._ _The Little
     Minister._ _My Lady Nicotine._ J. M. Barrie. 8º. Scribner,
     1896. 1 f. p. each.

     _Tommy and Grizel._ J. M. Barrie. 8º. (Copp, Torontono, 1901.)
     11 f. p.

     _Proverbs in Porcelain._ Austin Dobson. 8º. (Kegan Paul, 1893.)
     25 f. p.

     _Under the Rose._ F. Anstey. 8º. (Bradbury, Agnew, 1894.) 15 f. p.

     _Lyre and Lancet._ F. Anstey. 8º. (Smith, Elder, 1895.) 24 f. p.

     _Puppets at Large._ F. Anstey. 8º. (Bradbury, Agnew, 1897).
     16 f. p.

     _Baboo Jabberjee, B.A._ F. Anstey. 8º. (Dent, 1897.) 29 f. p.

     _The Tinted Venus._ F. Anstey. 8º. (Harper, 1898.) 15 f. p.

     _Wee Folk; good Folk._ L. Allen Harker. 8º. (Duckworth, 1899.)
     5 f. p.


     _At the Rising of the Moon._ See _A. S. Boyd_.

     _Mr. Midshipman Easy._ Captain Marryat. Introduction by David
     Hannay. 8º. (Macmillan, 1896. Illustrated Standard Novels.)
     38 f. p.

     _Sybil or the Two Nations._ Benjamin Disraeli. Introduction by
     H. D. Traill. 8º. (Macmillan, 1895. Ill. Stan. Nov.) 40 illust.
     (29 f. p.)

     _The Last of the Barons._ Lord Lytton. 8º. (Service and Paton,
     1897. Illustrated English Library.) 16 f. p.

     _Masterman Ready._ Captain Marryat. Introduction by David
     Hannay. 8º. (Macmillan, 1897. Ill. Stan. Nov.) 40 illust.
     (39 f. p.)

     _Poor Jack._ Captain Marryat. Introduction by David Hannay.
     8º. (Macmillan, 1897. Ill. Stan. Nov.) 40 illust. (39 f. p.)

     _The Arabian Nights Entertainments._ 8º. (Service and Paton,
     1898. Ill. Eng. Lib.) 16 f. p.

     _The Bride of Lammermoor._ Sir Walter Scott. 8º. (Service
     and Paton, 1898. Ill. Eng. Lib.) 16 f. p.

     _The Orange Girl._ Walter Besant. 8º. (Chatto and Windus,
     1899.) 8 f. p.

     _Ormond._ Maria Edgeworth. Introduction by Austin H. Johnson.
     8º. (Gresham Publishing Company, 1900.) 6 f. p.

     _Concerning Isabel Carnaby._ E. Thorneycroft Fowler. 8º.
     (Hodder and Stoughton, 1900.) 8 f. p.

     _The Wide Wide World._ Miss Wetherell. 8º. (Pearson.) 8 f. p.

     _Martin Chuzzlewit._ 8º. C. Dickens. (Blackie.) 10 f. p.


     _Shrewsbury._ Stanley J. Weyman. 8º. (Longmans, 1898.) 24 illust.
     (14 f. p.)

     _The Merchant of Venice._ Edited by John Bidgood. 8º. (Longmans,
     1899. Swan edition.) 10 f. p.

     _The Heart of Mid-Lothian._ Sir Walter Scott. Introduction by
     William Keith Leask. 8º. (Gresham Publishing Company, 1900.)
     6 f. p.

     _Lavengro._ George Borrow. Introduction by Charles E. Beckett.
     8º. (Gresham Publishing Company, 1900.) 6 f. p.

     _Coningsby._ Benjamin Disraeli. Introduction by William Keith
     Leask. 8º. (Gresham Publishing Company, 1900.) 6 f. p.

     _As You Like It._ Edited by W. Dyche. 8º. (Longmans, 1900.
     Swan edition.) 10 f. p.


     _The Earth Fiend._ William Strang. 4º. (Elkin Mathews and
     John Lane, 1892.) 11 etchings.

     _Lucian's True History._ Translated by Francis Hickes. 8º.
     (Privately printed, 1894.) 16 illust. With others. 7 f. p.
     by William Strang.

     _Death and the Ploughman's Wife._ A Ballad by William
     Strang. Fol. (Lawrence and Bullen, 1894.) 12 etchings.

     _Nathan the Wise._ G. E. Lessing. Translated by William
     Jacks. 8º. (Maclehose, 1894.) 8 etchings.

     _The Pilgrim's Progress._ John Bunyan. 8º. (Nimmo, 1895.)
     14 etchings.

     _The Christ upon the Hill._ Cosmo Monkhouse. Fol. (Smith,
     Elder, 1895.) 9 etchings.

     _The Surprising Adventures of Baron Munchausen._ Introduction by
     Thomas Seccombe. 8º. (Lawrence and Bullen, 1895.) 50 illust.
     (15 f. p.) With J. B. Clark. 25 by William Strang.

     _Paradise Lost._ John Milton. Fol. (Nimmo, 1896.) 12 etchings.

     _Sindbad the Sailor_, _Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves_. 8º.
     (Lawrence and Bullen, 1896.) 50 illust. (15 f. p.) With J. B.
     Clark. 25 by William Strang.

     _A Book of Ballads._ Alice Sargant. 4º. (Elkin Mathews, 1898.)
     5 etchings.

     _A Book of Giants._ William Strang. 4º. (Unicorn Press, 1898.
     Unicorn Quartos.) 12 f. p. woodcuts in colours.

     _Western Flanders._ Laurence Binyon. Fol. (Unicorn Press, 1899.)
     10 etchings.

     _A Series of Thirty Etchings illustrating subjects from the
     Writings of Rudyard Kipling._ Fol. (Macmillan, 1901.)

     _The Praise of Folie._ Erasmus. Translated by Sir Thomas
     Chaloner. Edited by Janet E. Ashbee. (Arnold, 1901.) 8 woodcuts,
     drawn by William Strang and cut by Bernard Sleigh.


     _The Rivals_ and _The School for Scandal_. R. B. Sheridan.
     Introduction by Augustine Birrell. 8º. (Macmillan, 1896.)
     50 f. p.

     _Lavengro._ George Borrow. Introduction by Augustine Birrell.
     8º. (Macmillan, 1896. Illustrated Standard Novels.) 45 illust.
     (37 f. p.)

     _The Compleat Angler._ Izaak Walton. Edited by Andrew Lang.
     8º. (Dent, 1896.) 89 illust. (42 f. p.)

     _Tom Brown's School-Days._ 8º. (Macmillan, 1896.) 79 illust.
     (20 f. p.)

     _The Pirate_ and _The Three Cutters_. Captain Marryat. 8º.
     (Macmillan, 1897. Ill. Stan. Nov.) 40 f. p.

     _Newton Forster._ Captain Marryat. 8º. (Macmillan, 1897.
     Ill. Stan. Nov.) 40 f. p.

     _Sartor Resartus._ Thomas Carlyle. 8º. (Bell, 1898.) 77 illust.
     (12 f. p.)

     _The Pirate._ Sir Walter Scott. 8º. (Service and Paton, 1898.
     Illustrated English Library.) 16 f. p.

     _The Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne_ and _A Garden
     Kalendar_. Gilbert White. 8º. (Freemantle, 1900.) 2 vols. 176
     illust. (20 f. p.) With others. 45 by E. J. Sullivan.

     _A Dream of Fair Women._ Lord Tennyson. 4º. (Grant Richards,
     1900.) 40 f. p. 4 photogravure plates.


     _Days with Sir Roger de Coverley._ 4º. (Macmillan, 1886.)
     51 illust. (1 f. p.)

     _Coaching Days and Coaching Ways._ W. Outram Tristram. 4º.
     (Macmillan, 1888.) 213 illust. With Herbert Railton. 73 by
     Hugh Thomson.

     _Cranford._ Mrs. Gaskell. Preface by Anne Thackeray Ritchie.
     8º. (Macmillan, 1891.) 111 illust.

     _The Vicar of Wakefield._ Oliver Goldsmith. Preface by Austin
     Dobson. 8º. (Macmillan, 1891.) 182 illust. (1 f. p.)

     _The Ballad of Beau Brocade._ Austin Dobson. 8º. (Kegan Paul,
     1892.) 50 illust. (27 f. p.)

     _Our Village._ Mary Russell Mitford. Introduction by Anne
     Thackeray Ritchie. 8º. (Macmillan, 1893.) 100 illust.

     _The Piper of Hamelin. A Fantastic Opera._ Robert Buchanan.
     8º. (Heinemann, 1893.) 12 plates.

     _St. Ronan's Well._ Sir Walter Scott. 8º. (Black, 1894.
     Dryburgh edition.) 10 woodcuts. (9 f. p.)

     _Pride and Prejudice._ Jane Austen. Preface by George
     Saintsbury. 8º. (Allen, 1894.) 101 illust. (1 f. p.)

     _Coridon's Song and other Verses._ Austin Dobson. 8º. (Macmillan,
     1894.) 76 f. p.

     _The Story of Rosina and other Verses._ Austin Dobson. 8º.
     (Kegan Paul, 1895.) 49 illust. (32 f. p.)

     _Sense and Sensibility._ Jane Austen. Introduction by Austin
     Dobson. 8º. (Macmillan, 1896. Illustrated Standard Novels.)
     40 f. p.

     _Emma._ Jane Austen. Introduction by Austin Dobson. 8º.
     (Macmillan, 1896. Ill. Stan. Nov.) 40 f. p.

     _The Chace._ William Somerville. 8º. (George Redway, 1896.)
     9 f. p.

     _The Poor in Great Cities._ Robert A. Woods and others. 8º.
     (Kegan Paul, 1896.) 105 illust. (8 f. p.) With others. 21 by
     Hugh Thomson.

     _Highways and Byways in Devon and Cornwall._ Arthur H. Norway.
     8º. (Macmillan, 1897.) 66 illust. With Joseph Pennell. 8 f. p.
     by Hugh Thomson.

     _Mansfield Park._ Jane Austen. Introduction by Austin Dobson. 8º.
     (Macmillan, 1897. Ill. Stan. Nov.) 40 illust. (38 f. p.)

     _Northanger Abbey and Persuasion._ Jane Austen. Introduction by
     Austin Dobson. 8º. (Macmillan, 1897. Ill. Stan. Nov.) 40 illust.
     (38 f. p.)

     _Cranford._ Mrs. Gaskell. Preface by Anne Thackeray Ritchie.
     8º. (Macmillan, 1898.) 100 illust. 40 in colours.

     _Riding Recollections._ G. J. Whyte-Melville. (Thacker, 1898.)
     12 f. p. Coloured frontispiece.

     _Highways and Byways in North Wales._ Arthur G. Bradley. 8º.
     (Macmillan, 1898.) 66 illust. with Joseph Pennell. 9 f. p. by
     Hugh Thomson.

     _Highways and Byways in Donegal and Antrim._ Stephen Gwynn.
     8º. (Macmillan, 1899.) 87 illust. (20 f. p.)

     _Highways and Byways in Yorkshire._ Arthur H. Norway. 8º.
     (Macmillan, 1899.) 96 illust. With Joseph Pennell. 8 f. p.
     by Hugh Thomson.

     _Peg Woffington._ Charles Reade. Introduction by Austin Dobson.
     8º. (Allen, 1899.) 75 illust. (30 f. p.)

     _This and That._ Mrs. Molesworth. 8º. (Macmillan, 1899.) 8 f. p.

     _Ray Farley._ John Moffat and Ernest Druce. 8º. (Fisher Unwin,
     1901.) 6 f. p.

     _A Kentucky Cardinal_ and _Aftermath_. James Lane Allen. 8º.
     (Macmillan, 1901.) 48 illust. and decorations. (34 f. p.)


     _A Social Departure._ Sara Jeannette Duncan. 8º. (Chatto and
     Windus, 1890.) 111 illust. (12 f. p.)

     _An American Girl in London._ Sara Jeannette Duncan. 8º.
     (Chatto and Windus, 1891.) 80 illust. (19 f. p.)

     _The Simple Adventures of a Memsahib._ Sara Jeannette Duncan.
     8º. (Chatto and Windus, 1893.) 37 illust. (12 f. p.)

     Illustrated Standard Novels. 8º. (Macmillan, 1895-7.)

          The Novels of Thomas Love Peacock. Edited by George

          _Maid Marian and Crotchet Castle._ 40 illust. (37 f. p.)

          _Gryll Grange._ 40 f. p.

          _Melincourt._ 40 illust. (39 f. p.)

          _The Misfortunes of Elphin and Rhododaphne._ 40 illust.
          (39 f. p.)

          _The King's Own._ Captain Marryat. Introduction by David
          Hannay. 8º. 40 illust. (38 f. p.)

     Illustrated English Library. 8º. (Service and Paton, 1897-8.)

          _Jane Eyre._ Charlotte Brontë. 16 f. p.

          _Shirley._ Charlotte Brontë. 16 f. p.

          _Rob Roy._ Sir Walter Scott. 16 f. p.

     _Bladys of the Stewponey._ S. Baring Gould. 8º. (Methuen, 1897.)
     5 illust. with B. Munns. 3 f. p. by F. H. Townsend.

     The Works of Nathaniel Hawthorne. Edited by Moncure D. Conway.
     8º. (Service and Paton, 1897-9.)

          _The Scarlet Letter._ 8 f. p.

          _The House of the Seven Gables._ 8 f. p.

          _The Blithedale Romance._ 8 f. p.

     _The Path of a Star._ Sara Jeannette Duncan. 8º. (Methuen, 1899.)
     12 f. p.



     _Oedipus the Wreck; or, 'To Trace the Knave.'_ Owen Seaman.
     8º. (F. Johnson, Cambridge, 1888.) 18 illust. (5 f. p.) With
     Lancelot Speed.

     _English Fairy Tales._ Collected by Joseph Jacobs. 8º. (Nutt,
     1890.) 60 illust. and decorations. 2 by Henry Ryland. (8 f. p.)

     _Celtic Fairy Tales._ Selected and edited by Joseph Jacobs.
     8º. (Nutt, 1892.) 70 illust. and decorations. (8 f. p.)

     _Indian Fairy Tales._ Selected and edited by Joseph Jacobs.
     8º. (Nutt, 1892.) 65 illust. and decorations. (9 f. p.)

     _Fairy Tales from the Arabian Nights._ Edited and arranged
     by E. Dixon. 8º. (Dent, 1893.) 50 illust. and decorations.
     (5 f. p. in photogravure.)

     _More English Fairy Tales._ Collected and edited by Joseph
     Jacobs. 8º. (Nutt, 1894.) 50 illust. and decorations. (8 f. p.)

     _More Celtic Fairy Tales._ Selected and edited by Joseph
     Jacobs. 8º. (Nutt, 1894.) 67 illust. and decorations. (8 f. p.)

     _More Fairy Tales from the Arabian Nights._ Edited and arranged
     by E. Dixon. 8º. (Dent, 1895.) 40 illust. and decorations.
     (5 f. p. in photogravure.)

     _A Masque of Dead Florentines._ Maurice Hewlett. Obl. fol.
     (Dent, 1895.) 15 illust. (4 f. p.)

     _The Book of Wonder Voyages._ Edited by Joseph Jacobs. 8º.
     (Nutt, 1896.) 26 illust. (7 f. p. in photogravure.)

     _The Saga of the Sea-Swallow and Greenfeather the Changeling._
     8º. (Innes, 1896.) 33 illust. and decorations. (4 f. p.) With
     Hilda Fairbairn.


     _Jumbles._ Lewis Baumer. 8º. (Pearson, 1897.) 50 pictured pages.
     (24 f. p., in colours.)

     _Hoodie._ Mrs. Molesworth. 8º. (Chambers, 1897.) 17 illust.
     (8 f. p.)

     _Elsie's Magician._ Fred Whishaw. 8º. (Chambers, 1897) 10 illust.
     (5 f. p.)

     _The Baby Philosopher._ Ruth Berridge. 8º. (Jarrold, 1898.)
     13 illust. (4 f. p.)

     _The Story of the Treasure Seekers._ E. Nesbit. 8º. (Fisher
     Unwin, 1899.) 17 f. p.; 15 by Gordon Browne.

     By Mrs. Molesworth. 8º. (Chambers, 1898-1900.) _Hermy._ _The
     Boys and I._ _The Three Witches._ 17 illust. (12 f. p.) in each.


     _Old Country Life._ S. Baring-Gould. 4º. (Methuen, 1890.)
     37 illust. and decorations.

     _The Deserts of Southern France._ S. Baring-Gould. 2 vols.
     4º. Methuen, 1894. 144 illust. and diagrams; 37 by F. D. Bedford.
     (14 f. p.)

     _The Battle of the Frogs and Mice._ Rendered into English by
     Jane Barlow. (Methuen, 1894.) 147 pictured pages. (5 f. p.)

     _Old English Fairy Tales._ S. Baring-Gould. 8º. (Methuen, 1895.)
     19 illust.

     _A Book of Nursery Rhymes._ 8º. (Methuen, 1897.) 66 pictured
     pages. (21 f. p. in colours.)

     _The Vicar of Wakefield._ O. Goldsmith. 8º. (Dent, 1898.)
     12 f. p. in colours.

     _The History of Henry Esmond._ W. M. Thackeray. 8º. (Dent,
     1898.) 12 f. p., in colours.

     _The Book of Shops._ E. V. Lucas. Obl. 4º. (Grant Richards,
     1899.) 28 illust. and decorations. (26 f. p. in colours.)

     _Four and Twenty Toilers._ E. V. Lucas. Obl. 4º. (Grant Richards,
     1900.) 28 illust. and decorations. (26 f. p. in colours.)

     _Westminster Abbey._ G. E. Troutbeck. 8º. Methuen, 1900. 28
     illust. (13 f. p.)


     _A Hundred Fables of Æsop._ From the English Version of Sir
     Roger L'Estrange. Introduction by Kenneth Grahame. 8º.
     (Lane, 1899.) 101 f. p.

     _A Hundred Fables of La Fontaine._ 8º. (Lane, 1900.) 101 f. p.

     _A Hundred Anecdotes of Animals._ 8º. (Lane, 1901.) 101 f. p.


     _Songs for Somebody._ Dollie Radford. 8º. (Nutt, 1893.) 33
     pictured pages. (7 f. p.)

     _The Red Hen and other Fairy Tales._ Agatha F. 8º. (Wilson,
     Dublin, 1893.) 4 f. p.

     _New Pictures in Old Frames._ Gertrude M. Bradley and Amy Mark.
     4º. (Mark and Moody, Stourbridge, 1894.) 37 pictured pages.
     (6 f. p.)

     _Just Forty Winks._ Hamish Hendry. 8º. (Blackie, 1897.) 80
     illust. and decorations. (11 f. p.)

     _Tom, Unlimited._ M. L. Warborough. 8º. (Grant Richards, 1897.)
     56 illust. (1 f. p.)

     _Nursery Rhymes._ 8º. (Review of Reviews, 1899.) 95 pictured
     pages. With Brinsley Le Fanu. (1 f. p. in colours.)

     _Puff-Puff._ Gertrude Bradley. Obl. fol. (Sands, 1899.) 18 f. p.
     in colours.

     _Pillow Stories._ S. L. Howard and Gertrude M. Bradley.
     (Grant-Richards, 1901). 41 illust.


     _Miriam's Ambition._ Evelyn Everett-Green. 8º. (Blackie, 1889.)
     4 f. p.

     _Thorndyke Manor._ Mary C. Rowsell. 8º. (Blackie, 1890.) 6 f. p.

     _The Secret of the Old House._ Evelyn Everett-Green. 8º.
     (Blackie, 1890.) 6 f. p.

     _The Light Princess._ George Macdonald. 8º. (Blackie, 1890.)
     3 f. p.

     _Brownies and Rose Leaves._ Roma White. 8º. (Innes, 1892.)
     19 illust. (9 f. p.)

     _Bab._ Ismay Thorn. 8º. (Blackie, 1892.) 3 f. p.

     _Marian._ Annie E. Armstrong. 8º. (Blackie, 1892.) 4 f. p.

     _A Hit and a Miss._ Hon. Eva Knatchbull-Hugessen. 8º. (Innes,
     1893. Dainty Books.) 10 illust. (5 f. p.)

     _Moonbeams and Brownies._ Roma White. 8º. (Innes, 1894.
     Dainty Books.) 12 illust. (5 f. p.)

     _Penelope and the Others._ Amy Walton. 8º. (Blackie, 1896.)
     2 f. p.

     _School in Fairy Land._ E. H. Strain. 8º. (Fisher Unwin, 1896.)
     7 f. p.

     _The Nursery Rhyme Book._ Edited by Andrew Lang. 8º. (Warne,
     1897.) 109 illust. and decorations. (9 f. p.)

     _A Spring Song._ T. Nash. 8º. (Dent, 1898.) 16 pictured pages,
     in colours.

     _Pippa Passes._ Robert Browning. 8º. (Duckworth, 1898.) 7 f. p.

     _The Pelican Chorus and other Nonsense Verses._ Edward Lear. 4º.
     (Warne, 1900.) 38 illust. and decorations. (8 f. p., in colours.)

     _The Jumblies and other Nonsense Verses._ Edward Lear. 4º.
     (Warne, 1900.) 36 illust. and decorations. (14 f. p., in colours.)

     By Mrs. Molesworth. 8º. (Macmillan, 1891-7.) _Nurse Heatherdale's
     Story._ _The Girls and I._ _Mary._ _My New Home._ _Sheila's
     Mystery._ _The Carved Lions._ _The Oriel Window._ _Miss Mouse and
     her Boys._ 8 illust. (7 f. p.) in each.


     _Stories of Old Renown._ Ascott R. Hope. 8º. (Blackie, 1883.)
     96 illust. (8 f. p.)

     _A Waif of the Sea._ Kate Wood. 8º. (Blackie, 1884.) 4 f. p.

     _Miss Fenwick's Failures._ Esme Stuart. 8º. (Blackie, 1885.)
     4 f. p.

     _Thrown on the World._ Edwin Hodder. 8º. (Hodder, 1885.) 8 f. p.

     _Winnie's Secret._ Kate Wood. 8º. (Blackie, 1885.) 4 f. p.

     _Robinson Crusoe._ Daniel Defoe. 8º. (Blackie, 1885.) 103
     illust. (8 f. p.)

     _Kirke's Mill._ Mrs. Robert O'Reilly. 8º. (Hatchards, 1885.)
     3 f. p.

     _The Champion of Odin._ J. F. Hodgetts. 8º. (Cassell, 1885.)
     8 f. p.

     _'That Child.'_ By the author of 'L'Atelier du Lys.' 8º.
     (Hatchards, 1885.) 2 f. p.

     _Christmas Angel._ B. L. Farjeon. 8º. (Ward, 1885.) 22 illust.

     _The Legend of Sir Juvenis._ George Halse. Obl. 8º. (Hamilton,
     1886.) 6 f. p.

     _Mary's Meadow._ Juliana Horatia Ewing. 8º. (S.P.C.K., 1886.)
     23 illust.

     _Fritz and Eric._ John C. Hutcheson. 8º. (Hodder, 1886.) 8 f. p.

     _Melchior's Dream._ Juliana Horatia Ewing. 8º. (Bell, 1886.)
     8 f. p.

     _The Hermit's Apprentice._ Ascott R. Hope. 8º. (Nimmo, 1886.)
     4 illust. (3 f. p.)

     _Gulliver's Travels._ Jonathan Swift. 8º. (Blackie, 1886.)
     101 illust. (8 f. p.)

     _Rip van Winkle._ Washington Irving. 8º. (Blackie, 1887.)
     46 illust. (42 f. p.)

     _Devon Boys._ Geo. Manville Fenn. 8º. (Blackie, 1887.) 12 f. p.

     _The Log of the 'Flying Fish.'_ Harry Collingwood. 8º. (Blackie,
     1887.) 12 f. p.

     _Down the Snow-stairs._ Alice Corkran. 8º. (Blackie, 1887.)
     60 illust. (5 f. p.)

     _Dandelion Clocks._ Juliana Horatia Ewing. 4º. (S.P.C.K., 1887.)
     13 illust. by Gordon Browne, etc. (4 f. p.)

     _The Peace-Egg._ Juliana Horatia Ewing. 4º. (S.P.C.K., 1887.)
     13 illust. (4 f. p.)

     _The Seven Wise Scholars._ Ascott R. Hope. 8º. (Blackie, 1887.)
     93 illust. (4 f. p.)

     _Chirp and Chatter._ Alice Banks. 8º. (Blackie, 1888.) 54 illust.
     (4 f. p.)

     _The Henry Irving Shakespeare. The Works of William Shakespeare._
     Edited by Henry Irving and Frank A. Marshall. 4º. (Blackie, 1888,
     etc.) 8 vols. 642 illust. by Gordon Browne, W. H. Margetson and
     Maynard Brown. (37 f. p. etchings.) 552 by Gordon Browne. (32

     _Snap-dragons._ Juliana Horatia Ewing. 8º. (S.P.C.K., 1888.)
     14 illust. (4 f. p.)

     _A Golden Age._ Ismay Thorn. 8º. (Hatchards, 1888.) 6 f. p.

     _Fairy Tales by the Countess d'Aulnoy._ Translated by J. R.
     Planché. 8º. (Routledge, 1888.) 60 illust. (11 f. p.)

     _Harold the Boy-Earl._ J. F. Hodgetts. 8º. (Religious Tract
     Society, 1888.) 11 f. p. With Alfred Pearse.

     _Bunty and the Boys._ Helen Atteridge. 8º. (Cassell, 1888.)
     4 f. p.

     _Tom's Nugget._ J. F. Hodgetts. 8º. (Sunday School Union, 1888.)
     13 illust. (6 f. p.)

     _Claimed at Last._ Sibella B. Edgcumb. 8º. (Cassell, 1888.)
     4 f. p.

     _Great-Uncle Hoot-Toot._ Mrs. Molesworth. 4º. (S.P.C.K., 1889.)
     24 illust. (4 f. p.)

     _My Friend Smith._ Talbot Baines Reed. 8º. (Religious Tract
     Society, 1889.) 16 illust. (6 f. p.)

     _The Origin of Plum Pudding._ Frank Hudson. 8º. (Ward, 1889.)
     9 illust. (4 f. p., in colours.)

     _Prince Prigio._ Andrew Lang. 8º. (Arrowsmith, Bristol, 1889.)
     24 illust. (9 f. p.)

     _A Flock of Four._ Ismay Thorn. 8º. (Wells, Gardner, 1889.)
     7 f. p.

     _A Apple Pie._ 8º. (Evans, 1890.) 12 pictured pages.

     _Syd Belton._ G. Manville Fenn. 8º. (Methuen, 1891.) 6 f. p.

     _Great-Grandmamma._ Georgina M. Synge. 8º. (Cassell, 1891.)
     19 illust. (3 f. p.)

     _Master Rockafellar's Voyage._ W. Clarke Russell. 8º.
     (Methuen, 1891.) 27 illust. (6 f. p.)

     _The Red Grange._ Mrs. Molesworth. 8º. (Methuen, 1891.) 6 f. p.

     _A Pinch of Experience._ L. B. Walford. 8º. (Methuen, 1892.)
     6 f. p.

     _The Doctor of the 'Juliet.'_ H. Collingwood. 8º. (Methuen,
     1892.) 6 f. p.

     _A Young Mutineer._ L. T. Meade. 8º. (Wells, Gardner, 1893.)
     3 f. p.

     _Graeme and Cyril._ Barry Pain. 8º. (Hodder, 1893.) 19 f. p.

     _The Two Dorothys._ Mrs. Herbert Martin. 8º. (Blackie, 1893.)
     4 f. p.

     _One in Charity._ Silas K. Hocking. 8º. (Warne, 1893.) 4 f. p.

     _The Book of Good Counsels._ Hitopadesa. Translated by Sir Edwin
     Arnold. 8º. (W. H. Allen, 1893.) 20 illust. and decorations.
    (7 f. p.)

     _Beryl._ Georgina M. Synge. 8º. (Skeffington, 1894.) 3 f. p.

     _Fairy Tales from Grimm._ With introduction by S. Baring Gould.
     8º. (Wells, Gardner, 1895.) 169 illust. and decorations.
     (16 f. p.)

     _Prince Boohoo and Little Smuts._ Harry Jones. 8º. (Gardner,
     Darton, 1896.) 93 illust. and decorations. (27 f. p.)

     _Sintram and his Companions_ and _Undine_. Baron de la Motte
     Fouqué. 8º. (Gardner, Darton, 1896.) 80 illust. (12 f. p.)

     _The Surprising Adventures of Sir Toady Lion._ S. R. Crockett.
     8º. (Gardner, Darton, 1897.) 127 illust. and decorations.
     (18 f. p.)

     _An African Millionaire._ Grant Allen. 8º. (Grant Richards,
     1897.) 66 illust.

     _Butterfly Ballads and Stories in Rhyme._ Helen Atteridge. 8º.
     (Milne, 1898.) 63 illust. (4 f. p.) With Louis Wain and others.
     32 by Gordon Browne.

     _Paleface and Redskin and other Stories._ F. Anstey. 8º.
     (Grant Richards, 1898.) 73 illust. and decorations. (10 f. p.)

     _Dr. Jollyboy's A. B. C._ 4º. (Wells, Gardner, 1898.) 43 pictured
     pages. (21 f. p.)

     _Paul Carah Cornishman._ Charles Lee. 8º. (Bowden, 1898.) 4 f. p.

     _Macbeth._ Wm. Shakespeare. 8º. (Longmans, 1899. Swan edition.)
     10 f. p.

     _Miss Cayley's Adventures._ Grant Allen. 8º. (Grant Richards,
     1899.) 79 illus. (2 f. p.)

     _The Story of the Treasure Seekers._ (See _Baumer_.)

     _Stories from Froissart._ Henry Newbolt. 8º. (Wells, Gardner,
     1899.) 32 illust. (17 f. p.)

     _Eric, or Little by Little._ F. W. Farrar. 8º. (Black, 1899.)
     78 illust.

     _Hilda Wade._ Grant Allen. 8º. (Grant Richards, 1900.) 98 illust.
     (1 f. p.)

     _St. Winifred's._ F. W. Farrar. 8º. (Black, 1900.) 152 illust.

     _Daddy's Girl._ L. T. Meade. 8º. (Newnes, 1901.) 37 illust.
     (2 f. p.)

     _Gordon Browne's Series of Old Fairy Tales._ 4º. (Blackie,

          _Hop o' my Thumb._ 28 pictured pages. (4 f. p.)

          _Beauty and the Beast._ 34 pictured pages. (4 f. p.)

     _Ivanhoe._ _Guy Mannering._ _Count Robert of Paris._ Walter
     Scott. 8º. (Black. Dryburgh Edition.) 10 Woodcuts from drawings
     by Gordon Browne.

     By G. A. Henty. 8º. (Blackie, 1887, etc.)

          _Bonnie Prince Charlie._ _With Wolfe in Canada._ _True to
          the Old Flag._ _In Freedom's Cause._ _With Clive in India._
          _Under Drake's Flag._ 12 f. p. in each vol.

          _With Lee in Virginia._ _The Lion of St. Mark._ 10 f. p. in
          each vol.

          _Orange and Green._ _For Home and Fame._ _St. George for
          England._ _Hold fast for England._ _Facing Death._ 8 f. p.
          in each vol.


     _Baby Lays._ A. Stow. 8º. (Elkin Matthews, 1897.) 16 illust.
     (15 f. p.)

     _More Baby Lays._ A Stow. 8º. (Elkin Matthews, 1898.) 14 illust.
     (13 f. p.)


     _Fairies, Elves and Flower Babies._ M. Rivett-Carnac. Obl.
     8º. (Duckworth, 1899.) 55 pictured pages. (4 f. p.)

     _The Magic Fruit Garden._ Marion Wallace-Dunlop. 8º. (Nister,
     1899.) 48 illust. (5 f. p.)


     _Æsop's Fables._ Arthur Brookfield. 4º. (Fisher Unwin, 1888.)
     29 illust.

     _The Blue Fairy Book._ Edited by Andrew Lang. 8º. (Longmans,
     1899.) 137 illust. (8 f. p.) With G. P. Jacomb Hood.

     _The Red Fairy Book._ Edited by Andrew Lang. 8º. (Longmans,
     1890.) 99 illust. (4 f. p.) With Lancelot Speed.

     _When Mother was little._ S. P. Yorke. 8º. (Fisher Unwin,
     1890.) 13 f. p.

     _A Lost God._ Francis W. Bourdillon. 8º. (Elkin Matthews,
     1891.) 3 Photogravures.

     _The Blue Poetry Book._ Edited by Andrew Lang. 8º. (Longmans,
     1891.) 98 illust. (12 f. p.) With Lancelot Speed.

     _The Green Fairy Book._ Edited by Andrew Lang. 8º. (Longmans,
     1892.) 101 illust. (12 f. p.)

     _The True Story Book._ Edited by Andrew Lang. 8º. (Longmans,
     1893.) 64 illust. (8 f. p.) With L. Bogle, etc.

     _The Yellow Fairy Book._ Edited by Andrew Lang. 8º. (Longmans,
     1894.) 104 illust. (22 f. p.)

     _The Animal Story Book._ Edited by Andrew Lang. 8º. (Longmans,
     1896.) 66 illust. (29 f. p.)

     _The Blue True Story Book._ Edited by Andrew Lang. 8º.
     (Longmans, 1896.) 22 illust. (8 f. p.) With Lucien Davis,
     etc. Some from _The True Story Book_.

     _The Red True Story Book._ Edited by Andrew Lang. 8º.
     (Longmans, 1897.) 41 illust. (10 f. p.)

     _The Pink Fairy Book._ Edited by Andrew Lang. 8º. (Longmans,
     1897.) 68 illust. (33 f. p.)

     _The Arabian Nights' Entertainment._ Selected and Edited by
     Andrew Lang. 8º. (Longmans, 1898.) 66 illust. (33 f. p.)

     _Early Italian Love Stories._ Taken from the original by Una
     Taylor. 4º. (Longmans, 1899.) 12 illust. and photogravure

     _The Red Book of Animal Stories._ Selected and edited by
     Andrew Lang. 8º. (Longmans, 1899.) 67 illust. (32 f. p.)

     _The Grey Fairy Book._ Edited by Andrew Lang. 8º. (Longmans,
     1900.) 59 illust. (32 f. p.)

     _The Violet Fairy Book._ Edited by Andrew Lang. 8º. (Longmans,
     1901.) 66 illust. (33 f. p., 8 in colours.)


     _A. B. C._ Mrs. Arthur Gaskin. 8º. (Elkin Matthews, 1896.)
     56 pictured pages.

     _Divine and Moral Songs for Children._ Isaac Watts. 8º.
     (Elkin Matthews, 1896.) 14 illust. (13 f. p.) In colours.

     _Horn-book Jingles._ Mrs. Arthur Gaskin. 8º. (Leadenhall
     Press, 1896-7.) 70 pictured pages.

     _Little Girls and Little Boys._ Mrs. Arthur Gaskin. 12º.
     (Dent, 1898.) 27 pictured pages, in colours.

     _The Travellers and other Stories._ Mrs. Arthur Gaskin. 8º.
     (Bowden, 1898.) 61 pictured pages, in colours.


     _Poetry for Children._ Charles and Mary Lamb. Prefatory note
     by Israel Gollancz. 8º. (Dent, 1898.) 56 illust. and decorations.
     (30 f. p., in colours.)

     _Mrs. Leicester's School._ Charles and Mary Lamb. Obl. 8º.
     (Dent, 1899.) 41 illust. and decorations. (13 f. p., in colours.)


     _An Affair of Honour._ Alice Weber. 4º. (Farran, 1892.) 19
     illust. (6 f. p.)

     _The Disagreeable Duke._ Ellinor Davenport Adams. 8º. (Geo.
     Allen, 1894.) 8 f. p.

     _Fairy Tales of the Slav Peasants and Herdsmen._ From the
     French of Alex. Chodsko. Translated by Emily J. Harding.
     (Allen, 1896.) 56 illust. (33 f. p.)

     _Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity._ (See _T. H.


     _The Real Princess._ Blanche Atkinson. 8º. (Innes, 1894.)
     19 illust. (5 f. p.)

     _The House that Jack Built._ 32º. (Dent, 1895. Banbury
     Cross Series.) 39 illust. and decorations. (14 f. p.)


     _Katawampus: Its Treatment and Cure._ Judge Parry. 8º.
     (Nutt, 1895.) 31 illust. and decorations. (7 f. p.)

     _Butterscotia, or A Cheap Trip to Fairyland._ Judge Parry.
     8º. (Nutt, 1896.) 35 illust. (5 f. p.)

     _The First Book of Krab._ Judge Parry. 8º. (Nutt, 1897.) 25
     illust. and decorations. (3 f. p.)

     _The World Wonderful._ Charles Squire. 8º. (Nutt, 1898.) 35
     illust. and decorations. (10 f. p.)


     _The Humour of Spain._ Selected with an introduction and notes
     by Susan M. Taylor. 8º. (Scott, 1894.) 52 illust. (39 f. p.)

     _The Golden Fairy Book._ George Sand, etc. (Hutchinson, 1894.)
     110 illust. (11 f. p.)

     _Fairy Tales Far and Near._ 8º. (Cassell, 1895.) 28 illust.
     (7 f. p.)

     _The Adventures of Hajji Baba of Ispahan._ James Morier.
     8º. (Macmillan, 1895.) 40 illust. (25 f. p.)

     _The Silver Fairy Book._ Sarah Bernhardt, etc. 8º. (Hutchinson,
     1895.) 84 illust. (7 f. p.)

     _The Phantom Ship._ Captain Marryat. 8º. (Macmillan, 1896.
     Illustrated Standard Novels.) 40 f. p.

     _Headlong Hall, and Nightmare Abbey._ T. Love Peacock. With
     introduction by George Saintsbury. 8º. (Macmillan, 1896.)
     40 f. p.

     _Frank Mildmay._ Captain Marryat. Introduction by David
     Hannay. 8º. (Macmillan, 1897. Illustrated Standard Novels.)
     40 illust. (27 f. p.)

     _Snarleyyow._ Captain Marryat. Introduction by David Hannay.
     8º. (Macmillan, 1897. Illustrated Standard Novels.) 40
     illust. (33 f. p.)

     _The Diamond Fairy Book._ Isabel Bellerby, etc. 8º. (Hutchinson,
     1897.) 83 illust. (12 f. p.)

     _Untold Tales of the Past._ Beatrice Harraden. 8º. (Blackwood,
     1897.) 39 illust. (31 f. p.)

     _Eothen._ A. W. Kinglake. 8º. (Newnes, 1898.) 40 illust.
     (17 f. p.)

     _Phroso._ Anthony Hope. 8º. (Methuen, 1897.) 8 f. p.

     _The Book of Dragons._ E. Nesbit. 8º. (Harper, 1900.) 15 f. p.
     Decorations by H. Granville Fell.

     _Nine Unlikely Tales for Children._ E. Nesbit. 8º. (Fisher
     Unwin, 1901.) 27 f. p.

     _Booklets by Count Tolstoi._ 8º. (Walter Scott, 1895-7.) 2 f. p.
     in each vol.

          _Master and Man._ _Ivan the Fool._ _What Men Live By._
          _Where Love is there God is also._ _The Two Pilgrims._


     _An Alphabet of Animals._ Carton Moore Park. 4º. (Blackie,
     1899.) 52 pictured pages. (26 f. p.)

     _A Book of Birds._ Carton Moore Park. Fol. (Blackie, 1900.)
     27 f. p.

     _A Child's London._ Hamish Hendry. 4º. (Sands, 1900.) 46 illust.
     and decorations. (14 f. p.)

     _The Confessions of Harry Lorrequer._ Charles Lever. With
     introduction by W. K. Leask. 8º. (Gresham Publishing Co.,
     1900.) 6 f. p.

     _A Book of Elfin Rhymes._ Norman. 4º. (Gay and Bird, 1900.)
     40 illust., in colours.

     _The Child's Pictorial Natural History._ 4º. (S.P.C.K., 1901.)
     12 illust. (9 f. p.)


     _Maurice, or the Red Jar._ The Countess of Jersey. 8º.
     (Macmillan, 1894.) 9 f. p.

     _Undine._ Baron de la Motte Fouqué. 8º. (Macmillan, 1897.)
     63 illust. and decorations. (32 f. p.)

     _The Magic Nuts._ Mrs. Molesworth. 8º. (Macmillan, 1898.) 8
     illust. (7 f. p.)


     _The Dolly Dialogues._ Anthony Hope. 8º. ('Westminster
     Gazette,' 1894.) 4 f. p.

     _Sunrise-Land._ Mrs. Alfred Berlyn. 8º. (Jarrold, 1894.)
     136 illust. (2 f. p.)

     _Tales of a Traveller._ Washington Irving. 2 vols. 4º.
     (Putman, 1895. Buckthorne edition.) 25 illust., with
     borders and initials. 5 photogravures by Arthur Rackham.

     _The Sketch Book._ Washington Irving. 2 vols. 4º. (Putman,
     1895. Van Tassel edition.) 32 illust., with others. Borders.
     4 photogravures by Arthur Rackham.

     _The Money Spinner and other Character Notes._ Henry Seton
     Merriman and S. G. Tallintyre. 8º. (Smith, Elder, 1896.) 12 f. p.

     _The Zankiwank and the Bletherwitch._ S. J. Adair Fitzgerald.
     8º. (Dent, 1896.) 41 illust. (17 f. p.)

     _Two Old Ladies, Two Foolish Fairies and a Tom Cat._ Maggie
     Browne. 8º. (Cassell, 1897.) 23 illust. (14 f. p., 4 in colours.)

     _Charles O'Malley._ Charles Lever. 8º. (Service and Paton,
     1897.) 16 f. p.

     _The Grey Lady._ Henry Seton Merriman. 8º. (Smith, Elder,
     1897.) 12 f. p.

     _Evelina._ Frances Burney. 8º. (Newnes, 1898.) 16 f. p.

     _The Ingoldsby Legends._ H. R. Barham. 8º. (Dent, 1898.)
     102 illust. (40 f. p.) 12 printed in colours.

     _Feats on the Fjords._ Harriet Martineau. 8º. (Dent, 1899.
     Temple Classics for Young People.) 12 f. p.

     _Tales from Shakespeare._ Charles and Mary Lamb. 8º. (Dent,
     1899. Temple Classics for Young People.) 12 f. p.

     _Fairy Tales of the Brothers Grimm._ Translated by Mrs.
     Edgar Lucas. 8º. (Freemantle, 1900.) 102 illust. (32 f. p.,
     in colours.)


     _Æsop's Fables._ 32º. (Dent, 1895. Banbury Cross Series.)
     45 illust. and decorations. (15 f. p.)

     _Animals in the Wrong Places._ Edith Carrington. 16º. (Bell,
     1896.) 14 illust. (11 f. p.)

     _The Child World._ Gabriel Setoun. 8º. (Lane, 1896.) 104 illust.
     and decorations. (11 f. p.)

     _Make-believe._ H. D. Lowry. 8º. (Lane, 1896.) 53 illust. and
     decorations. (4 f. p.)

     _A Child's Garden of Verses._ Robert Louis Stevenson. 8º.
     (Lane, 1896.) 173 illust. and decorations. (14 f. p.)

     _Dobbie's Little Master._ Mrs. Arthur Bell. (Bell, 1897.) 8
     illust. (3 f. p.)

     _King Longbeard, or Annals of the Golden Dreamland._
     Barrington MacGregor. 8º. (Lane, 1898.) 116 illust. and
     decorations. (12 f. p.)

     _Lullaby Land._ Eugene Field. Selected by Kenneth Grahame.
     8º. (Lane, 1898.) 204 illust. and decorations. (14 f. p.)

     _Lilliput Lyrics._ W. B. Rand. Edited by R. Brimley Johnson.
     8º. (Lane, 1899.) 113 illust. and decorations. (9 f. p., 1 in

     _Fairy Tales from Hans Christian Andersen._ Translated by
     Mrs. E. Lucas. 8º. (Dent, 1899.) 107 illust. and decorations.
     (40 f. p., 1 in colours.) With Messrs. T. H. and W. H. Robinson.

     _Pierrette._ Henry de Vere Stacpoole. 8º. (Lane, 1900.) 21
     illust. and decorations. (14 f. p.)

     _Child Voices._ W. E. Cule. 8º. (Melrose, 1900.) 17 illust.
     and decorations. (13 f. p.)

     _The Little Lives of the Saints._ Rev. Percy Dearmer. 8º.
     (Wells, Gardner, 1900.) 64 illust. and decorations. (13 f. p.)

     _The Adventures of Odysseus._ Retold in English by F. S.
     Marion, R. J. G. Mayor, and F. M. Stawell. 8º. (Dent,
     1900.) 28 illust. and decorations. (14 f. p., 1 in colours.)

     _The True Annals of Fairy Land. The Reign of King Herla._
     Edited by William Canton. 8º. (Dent, 1900.) 185 illust. and
     decorations. (22 f. p., 1 in colours.)

     _Sintram and his Companions_ and _Aslauga's Knight_. Baron
     de la Motte Fouqué. 8º. (Dent, 1900. Temple Classics for
     Young People.) 12 f. p., 1 in colours.

     _The Master Mosaic-Workers._ George Sand. Translated by
     Charlotte C. Johnston. 8º. (Dent, 1900. Temp. Class. for
     Young People.) 12 f. p., 1 in colours.

     _The Suitors of Aprille._ Norman Garstin. 8º. (Lane, 1900.)
     18 illust. and decorations. (15 f. p.)

     _Jack of all Trades._ J. J. Bell. 4º. (Lane, 1900.) 32 f. p.,
     in colours.


     _Old World Japan._ Frank Rinder. 8º. (Allen, 1895.) 34 illust.
     (14 f. p.)

     _Cranford._ Mrs. Gaskell. 8º. (Bliss, Sands, 1896.) 17 illust.
     (16 f. p.)

     _Legends from River and Mountain._ Carmen Sylva and Alma
     Strettell. 8º. (Allen, 1896.) 41 illust. (10 f. p.)

     _The History of Henry Esmond._ W. M. Thackeray. 8º. (Allen,
     1896.) 72 illust. and decorations, (1 f. p.)

     _The Scarlet Letter._ Nathaniel Hawthorne. 8º. (Bliss, Sands,
     1897.) 8 f. p.

     _A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy._ Laurence
     Sterne. 8º. (Bliss, Sands, 1897.) 89 illust. and decorations.
     (13 f. p.)

     _Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity._ John Milton.
     8º. (Allen, 1897.) 15 f. p. With Emily J. Harding.

     _A Child's Book of Saints._ W. Canton. 8º. (Dent, 1898.) 19 f. p.
     (1 in colours.)

     _The Heroes, or Greek Fairy Tales for my Children._ Chas.
     Kingsley. 8º. (Dent, 1899. Temple Classics for Young People.)
     12 f. p., 1 in colours.

     _Fairy Tales from the Arabian Nights._ 11 f. p., 1 in colours.

     _Fairy Tales from Hans Christian Andersen._ 8º. (Dent, 1899.)
     (See _C. H. Robinson_.)

     _A Book of French Songs for the Young._ Bernard Minssen.
     8º. (Dent, 1899.) 55 illust. and decorations. (9 f. p.)

     _Lichtenstein._ Adapted from the German of Wilhelm Hauff by
     L. L. Weedon. 8º. (Nister, 1900.) 20 illust. and decorations.
     (8 f. p.)

     _The Scottish Chiefs._ Jane Porter. 8º. (Dent, 1900.) 65 illust.
     (19 f. p.)


     _Don Quixote._ Translated by Charles Jarvis. 8º. (Bliss, Sands,
     1897.) 16 f. p.

     _The Pilgrim's Progress._ John Bunyan. Edited by George Offer.
     8º. (Bliss, Sands, 1897.) 24 f. p.

     _The Giant Crab and Other Tales from Old India._ Retold by
     W. H. D. Rouse. 8º. (Nutt, 1897.) 52 illust. and decorations.
     (7 f. p.)

     _Danish Fairy Tales and Legends._ Hans Christian Andersen.
     8º. (Bliss, Sands, 1897.) 16 f. p.

     _The Arabian Nights' Entertainments._ 4º. (Newnes, by arrangement
     with Messrs. Constable, 1899.) 546 illust. With Helen Stratton,
     A. D. McCormick, A. L. Davis and A. P. Norbury. (38 f. p.)

     _The Talking Thrush and other Tales from India._ Collected by
     W. Cooke. Retold by W. H. D. Rouse. 8º. (Dent, 1899.) 84 illust.
     and decorations. (8 f. p.)

     _Fairy Tales from Hans Christian Andersen._ (See _Charles

     _The Poems of Edgar Allan Poe._ Introduction by H. Noel Williams.
     8º. (Bell, 1900. The Endymion Series.) 103 illust. and
     decorations. (2 double-page, 26 f. p.)

     _Tales for Toby._ Ascott R. Hope. 8º. (Dent, 1900.) 29 illust.
     and decorations. (5 f. p.) With S. Jacobs.


     _Songs for Little People._ Norman Gale. 8º. (Constable, 1896.)
     119 illust. and decorations. (8 f. p.)

     _Tales from Hans Andersen._ 8º. (Constable, 1896.) 58 illust.
     and decorations. (6 f. p.)

     _Beyond the Border._ Walter Douglas Campbell. 8º. (Constable,
     1898.) 167 illust. (40 f. p.)

     _The Fairy Tales of Hans Christian Andersen._ 4º. (Newnes,
     by arrangement with Messrs. Constable, 1899.) 424 illust.
     Some reprinted from _Tales from Hans Andersen_.

     _The Arabian Nights' Entertainments._ (See _W. H. Robinson_.)


     _The Lost Princess, or the Wise Woman._ George Macdonald.
     8º. (Wells, Gardner, 1895.) 22 illus. (6 f. p.)

     _Stories from the Faerie Queene._ Mary Macleod. With introduction
     by J. W. Hales. 8º. (Gardner, Darton, 1897.) 86 illust. (40 f. p.)

     _The Book of King Arthur and his Noble Knights._ Stories from
     Sir Thomas Malory's _Morte D'Arthur_. Mary Macleod. 8º. (Wells,
     Gardner, 1900.) 72 illust. (35 f. p.)


     _Eric, Prince of Lorlonia._ Countess of Jersey. 8º.
     (Macmillan, 1895.) 8 f. p.

     _Banbury Cross and other Nursery Rhymes._ 32º. (Dent, 1895.
     Banbury Cross Series.) 62 pictured pages. (23 f. p.)

     _To Tell the King the Sky is Falling._ Sheila E. Braine.
     8º. (Blackie, 1896.) 85 illust. and decorations. (8 f. p.)

     _Bon-Mots of the Eighteenth Century._ 16º. (Dent, 1897.) 64
     grotesques. (7 f. p.)

     _Bon-Mots of the Nineteenth Century._ 16º. (Dent, 1897.) 64
     grotesques. (9 f. p.)

     _Brownie._ Alice Sargant. Music by Lilian Mackenzie. Obl.
     folio. (Dent, 1897.) 44 pictured pages, in colours.

     _Red Apple and Silver Bells._ Hamish Hendry. 8º. (Blackie,
     1897.) 152 pictured pages. (21 f. p., in colours.)

     _Adventures in Toyland._ Edith Hall King. 4º. (Blackie,
     1897.) 78 illust. and decorations. (8 f. p., in colours.)

     _The Troubles of Tatters and other Stories._ Alice Talwin Morris.
     8º. (Blackie, 1898.) 62 illust. and decorations. (8 f. p.)

     _The Princess of Hearts._ Sheila E. Braine. 4º. (Blackie,
     1899.) 69 illust. and decorations. (4 f. p., in colours.)

     _The Cat and the Mouse._ Obl. 4º. (Blackie, 1899.) 24 pictured
     pages. (6 f. p., in colours.)

     _The Elephant's Apology._ Alice Talwin Morris. 8º. (Blackie,
     1899.) 35 illust.

     _The Golden Ship and other Tales._ Translated from the Swahili.
     8º. (Universities' Mission, 1900.) 36 illust. and decorations,
     with Lilian Bell. (19 f. p., 4 by A. B. Woodward.)

     _The House that Grew._ Mrs. Molesworth. 8º. (Macmillan, 1900.)
     8 illust. (7 f. p.)


     _Queen Victoria's Dolls._ Frances H. Low. 4º. (Newnes, 1894.)
     73 illust. and decorations. (36 f. p., 34 in colours.)

     _The Wallypug in London._ G. E. Farrow. 8º. (Methuen, 1898.)
     56 illust. (13 f. p.)

     _Adventures in Wallypug Land._ G. E. Farrow. 8º. (Methuen,
     1898.) 55 illust. (18 f. p.)

     _The Little Panjandrum's Dodo._ G. E. Farrow. 8º. (Skeffington,
     1899.) 72 illust. (4 f. p.)

     _The Mandarin's Kite._ G. E. Farrow. 8º. (Skeffington, 1900.)
     57 illust.


Abbey, E. A., 36, 64, 87, 144.

Allingham, Mrs., 95.

Ansted, Alexander, 50, 132.

Barnes, Robert, 95.

Barrett, C. R. B., 47, 48, 132.

Batten, J. D., 109, 110, 158.

Bauerle, Amelia, 14, 121.

Baumer, Lewis, 99, 159.

Bedford, F. D., 106, 159.

Bell, R. Anning, 7, 121.

Billinghurst, P. J., 117, 160.

Boyd, A. S., 76, 90, 145.

Bradley, Gertrude M., 106, 160.

Brangwyn, Frank, 91, 146.

Britten, W. E. F., 29, 122.

Brock, C. E., 83, 146.

Brock, H. M., 83, 84, 148.

Brooke, L. Leslie, 99, 160.

Browne, Gordon, 96, 161.

Bryden, Robert, 64.

Bulcock, Percy, 14, 122.

Burns, Robert, 26.

Cadenhead, James, 26.

Calvert, Edith, 102, 165.

Cameron, D. Y., 41, 64, 133.

Cleaver, Ralph, 76.

Cleaver, Reginald, 76.

Clifford, H. P., 53.

Cole, Herbert, 13, 14, 122.

Connard, Philip, 13, 14, 122.

Cooke, W. Cubitt, 84, 149.

Cowper, Max, 93.

Crane, Walter, 3, 96, 98, 122.

Dadd, Frank, 92.

Davis, Louis, 7.

Davison, Raffles, 50.

Duncan, John, 26.

Dunlop, Marion Wallace, 106, 165.

Edwards, M. E., 95.

Erichsen, Nelly, 46, 133.

Fell, H. Granville, 27, 126.

Fitton, Hedley, 46, 133.

Ford, H. J., 109, 110, 165.

Forestier, Amedée, 92, 93.

Fulleylove, J., 31, 39, 134.

Furniss, Sir Harry, 58, 86, 88, 150.

Gaskin, A. J., 10, 126.

Gaskin, Mrs. Arthur, 101, 166.

Gere, C. M., 12, 50, 126.

Goldie, Cyril, 14.

Gould, F. Carruthers, 88.

Green, Winifred, 101, 166.

Greiffenhagen, Maurice, 76.

Griggs, F. L., 54, 134.

Guthrie, J. J., 26, 27, 127.

Harding, Emily J., 112, 166.

Hardy, Dudley, 93.

Hardy, Paul, 92.

Hare, Augustus, 47.

Hartrick, A. S., 76.

Harper, C. G., 47, 134.

Hill, L. Raven, 86, 87.

Holden, Violet M. and E., 102, 167.

Hole, William B., 92, 151.

Hood, G. P. Jacomb, 91.

Hopkins, Arthur, 90.

Hopkins, Edward, 90.

Horne, Herbert, 10.

Housman, Laurence, 15, 127.

Hughes, Arthur, 95.

Hurst, Hal, 93.

Hyde, William, 39, 135.

Image, Selwyn, 10.

Jalland, G. P., 90.

James, Helen, 46.

Jones, A. Garth, 14, 15, 128.

Kitton, F. G., 48, 135.

Levetus, Celia, 12, 128.

Macdougall, W. B., 26, 128.

MacGregor, Archie, 107, 167.

Mallows, C. E., 50.

Mason, Fred, 12, 128.

May, Phil, 86, 87.

Millais, J. G., 54, 135.

Millar, H. R., 109, 112, 167.

Millet, F. D., 36.

Moore, T. Sturge, 18, 24, 129.

Muckley, L. Fairfax, 12, 129.

New, E. H., 10, 38, 50, 136.

North, J. W., 31.

Ospovat, Henry, 13, 14, 129.

Paget, H. M., 92, 152.

Paget, Sidney, 68, 152.

Paget, Walter, 92, 152.

Park, Carton Moore, 118, 168.

Parsons, Alfred, 31, 35, 137.

Partridge, J. Bernard, 58, 86, 153.

Payne, Henry, 12.

Pegram, Fred, 68, 69, 153.

Pennell, Joseph, 31, 38, 41, 137.

Pissarro, Lucien, 18, 24.

Pitman, Rosie M. M., 117, 168.

"Pym, T.," 95.

Rackham, Arthur, 108, 168.

Railton, Herbert, 31, 38, 45, 74, 139

Reed, E. T., 88.

Reid, Sir George, 31, 141.

Reid, Stephen, 68.

Ricketts, Charles, 18, 129.

Robinson, Charles, 102, 114, 169.

Robinson, T. H., 114, 170.

Robinson, W. H., 114, 116, 171.

Ryland, Henry, 7.

Sambourne, Linley, 86, 88.

Sauber, Robert, 93.

Savage, Reginald, 18, 24, 130.

Shannon, C. H., 18, 130.

Shaw, Byam, 13, 130.

Shepherd, J. A., 118.

Shepperson, C. A., 68, 74, 154.

Sleigh, Bernard, 12, 130.

Speed, Lancelot, 110.

Spence, Robert, 14.

Strang, William, 58, 154.

Stratton, Helen, 116, 172.

Sullivan, E. J., 15, 74, 77, 155.

Sumner, Heywood, 6, 130.

Tenniel, Sir John, 86, 88, 96.

Thomas, F. Inigo, 50, 142.

Thomson, Hugh, 68, 79, 156.

Townsend, F. H., 68, 69, 72, 157.

Tringham, Holland, 46.

Wain, Louis, 118.

Walker, A. G., 116, 172.

Weguelin, J. R., 29, 131.

Weir, Harrison, 54.

Wheeler, E. J., 91.

Whymper, Charles, 54, 142.

Williams, R. J., 53.

Wilson, Edgar, 56.

Wilson, Patten, 28, 131.

Woodroffe, P. V., 13, 14, 131.

Woodward, Alice B., 104, 172.

Wright, Alan, 107, 173.



       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes

Italicized text is shown within _underscores_. Quarto, (normally 4to),
is shown as 4º, and octavo, (normally 8vo), is shown as 8º.

Illustrations were moved outside of paragraphs and closer to their
pertinent paragraphs. Although the List of Illustrations displays the
original page number, the html version of this book links the page
numbers to the illustrations.

Made minor punctuation corrections and the following changes:

Page vii: Contents, Bibliographies: Changed "Book" to "Books" and
"Illustrations" to "Illustrators".
  Orig.: Some Children's-Book Illustrations.

Page 55: Illustration: Changed "HOMES" to "HORNS".

Page 130: Indented Essex House Press under author Reginald Savage.
Changed "Woolam" to "Woolman".
  Orig.: Essex House Press ... The Journal of John Woolam.

Page 141: Changed "Tho" to "The".
  Orig.: Ripon Cathedral. Tho Ven. Archdeacon Danks.

Page 170: Changed "Ohe" to "The", and "Hesla" to "Herla".
  Orig.: The True Annals of Fairy Land. Ohe Reign of King Hesla.

Note: The remainder of this text matches the original publication,
which might contain additional title, author, or spelling errors.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "English Book-Illustration of To-day - Appreciations of the Work of Living English Illustrators - With Lists of Their Books" ***

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