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Title: An Account of the Campaign in the West Indies, in the Year 1794, - Under the Command of their Excellencies Lieutenant General - Sir Charles Grey, K.B., and Vice Admiral Sir John Jervis, - K.B.
Author: Willyams, Cooper
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "An Account of the Campaign in the West Indies, in the Year 1794, - Under the Command of their Excellencies Lieutenant General - Sir Charles Grey, K.B., and Vice Admiral Sir John Jervis, - K.B." ***

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  IN THE YEAR 1794,




  _By the Rev. COOPER WILLYAMS, A. M._















  EXNING, AUGUST 10, 1796.


When an author lays his book before the public, unless it be a work of
genius, some account of his motives for so doing is generally expected.
As this is a work that pretends to nothing but authenticity, and to be a
plain relation of facts, I shall only premise, that, placed in a
situation which gave me an opportunity of being witness to most of the
principal transactions of the expedition under Sir CHARLES GREY and Sir
JOHN JERVIS in the West Indies, and having leisure and inclination to
minute down the occurrences as they presented themselves, I venture to
appear before the public with such humble pretensions alone, as the
result of that opportunity and leisure can give me.

My original intention reached no further than to publish a few views of
some interesting subjects, which abound in the Caraibean Islands; but I
selected those only which were rendered most so by particular events.
Though I pretend not to the powers of an artist (being self-taught), yet
I beg leave to urge in excuse for that want of spirit and picturesque
effect which, I fear, is but too apparent in my drawings, that they are
scrupulously exact, and accurately delineate the subjects they profess
to represent.

When I at first communicated my design of publishing a few drawings,
taken during the West India Expedition, many of my friends, and some of
the officers who served with me, knowing that I had kept a journal of
the transactions, desired me to add a short account of them to accompany
the engravings.

To those, at all conversant with writing such accounts, it will not
appear strange, that, as I proceeded to retrace those events which form
the most prominent feature of my life, I found a pleasure in recognising
many a transaction that had almost faded from my memory, and by degrees
it increased under my hand, till it became of size sufficient to form a
volume, and I was enabled to lay it before the public in a more
respectable form than I at first intended. But, that I may not
appropriate to myself merit belonging to another, I take a pleasure in
avowing, that through the kindness of an officer, who, from his rank, is
not more conspicuous than respected by the general tenor of his conduct,
I have been favoured with the assistance of a journal by an ingenious
and active officer of his division, which has greatly contributed to the
embellishment of my work, by the communication of many local
circumstances, impossible for me otherwise to have been acquainted
with. The like assistance I have also to acknowledge from a friend who
served under General Prescott during his gallant defence of Fort

By the favour and indulgence of the Commander in Chief, I have been
permitted to make extracts from the public order-book of the army; these
form a large appendix, which, I trust, will not only confirm the
accuracy of my narration, but will prove both useful and entertaining to
the army in general.

Such has been the origin and progress of this publication; to the
candour, therefore, of the public I commit myself, trusting that, as my
ambition has been humble, I shall not be exposed to the severity of
literary criticism for not having obtained that which I have never



_Expedition to the West Indies determined on ... Sir Charles Grey and
Sir John Jervis appointed Commanders in Chief ... The Boyne sails from
Spithead ... Occurrences on the voyage from thence to Carlisle Bay,


_The Commanders in Chief prepare for the expedition against Martinique
... Gun-boats constructed, and described ... A short account of
Barbadoes ... Sale of slaves ... A list of the fleet._


_The fleet sails from Barbadoes ... Anchors on the south coast of
Martinique ... Capture of a battery ... General Grey lands with his army
... Flag of truce fired on by the enemy ... The Commanders in Chief
attack the island at three different places at the same time._


_March of the Commander in Chief from Trois Rivieres to Sallée ...
Occurrences on the march ... General Whyte detached.... Takes Pigeon
Island ... The Admiral anchors off Pigeon Island ... Description of the
Bay of Fort Royal ... The third brigade lands at Cas de Navires._


_General Dundas lands on the north east side of the island ... Trinité
taken ... Colonel Cradock attacked, Captain McEwen killed ... General
Dundas forms a junction with Sir Charles Grey ... March towards St.
Pierre ... Colonel Campbell killed ... St. Pierre attacked by sea, and
taken ... Description of that town._


_The enemy retire into Fort Bourbon and Fort Louis ... The Admiral
attacks Fort Louis with the bomb-ketch and gun-boats ... Camp of seamen
formed at Point Negro ... A wharf built in the Cul de sac de Cohée;
stores and ammunition landed there ... General Bellgarde attempts to cut
off the communication between the army and navy, but is beaten, and his
camp on Sourier taken ... Head Quarters established on Sourier ...
General Rochambeau sends an aid-de-camp to the Commanders in Chief ...
The navy make a road, and drag the guns to the heights of Sourier._


Forts Bourbon and Louis closely invested ... Batteries on the first
parallel erected ... The seamen employed in getting guns to the
batteries on the west side ... A dangerous pass described ... Captain
Miln mortally wounded; he dies; his character ... Bellgarde delivers
himself and army into the hands of Sir Charles Grey ... His Royal
Highness Prince Edward arrives, and takes a command ... Batteries opened
against Fort Bourbon ... Lieutenant Bowen's spirited conduct ... Fort
Louis taken by storm ... Captain Faulknor's gallant conduct ... Fort
Bourbon surrenders._


_General Prescott is left governor of Martinique ... The Commanders in
Chief sail for St. Lucia ... General Dundas lands near Pigeon Island ...
The fleet anchors at Marigot de Rosseaux ... Prince Edward lands with
the grenadiers, and marches towards Morne Fortuné ... Colonel Coote
lands with the light infantry ... The fleet anchors in Barrington's Bay
... Colonel Coote storms a redoubt on the Morne ... General Ricard
surrenders the island ... Colonel Sir Charles Gordon left governor of
St. Lucia ... The Commanders in Chief sail to Martinique._


_Expedition against Guadaloupe ... The Isles de Saintes attacked and
taken ... The Boyne and Veteran anchor off Grozier ... The troops land
under cover of the Winchelsea frigate ... Captain Lord Garlies wounded
... Fort Fleur d'Epée taken by storm ... Fort Louis and the town of
Point à Pitre taken ... Casualties ... General description of the


_The General embarks his army, and lands on Basse Terre at Petit Bourg
... Occurrences on the march towards Palmiste ... The Admiral anchors in
Ance de Baillif ... General Dundas lands, and forms a communication with
Sir Charles Grey ... The Palmiste taken by assault ... General Collot
delivers up Fort St. Charles, and the island of Guadaloupe and its
dependencies to the Commanders in Chief._


_The charges of extorted contributions and oppressions, alledged against
the Commanders in Chief by certain interested individuals, refuted ...
The real causes of the loss of Guadaloupe._


_General Dundas dies of the yellow fever ... His character ... A French
squadron arrives in the West Indies, and takes possession of Grande
Terre ... The Commanders in Chief on receiving an account thereof return
to Guadaloupe ... General Grey lands at Grande Terre, and takes
possession of the heights of Mascot ... Several actions take place ... A
truce to bury the dead ... An unsuccessful attack on Point à Pitre._


_The Commanders in Chief sail to Martinique ... Proceedings there and at
Guadaloupe ... Camp Berville taken ... Occurrences thereupon ... General
Prescott enters Fort Matilda, which is invested by the French ... Sir
John Vaughan and Admiral Caldwell arrive in the West Indies ... Sir
Charles Grey and Sir John Jervis resign their command, and return to


_His Royal Highness Field Marshal the Duke of York._


Charles Abbott, Esq. Queen's Square, Bloomsbury.

John William Adams, Esq.

.... Armit, Esq. Army Agent, Dublin.

Colonel Harvey Aston, 12th regiment.

Lieutenant Colonel Astley, Norfolk light dragoons, Burgh Hall, Norfolk.

J. P. Allix, Esq. Swaffham Court, Cambridgeshire.

Richard Allnutt, Esq. South Park, Penthurst, Kent; two copies.

Mr. Alken, No. 2, Francis Street, Gower Street.


Right Honourable Lord Blaney, Lieutenant Colonel 66th regim.

Honourable Captain Charles Boyle, 62d regiment, Aid-de-camp to the Lord
Lieutenant of Ireland.

Colonel Brownrigg, Coldstream regiment of guards.

Lieutenant Colonel Bayley.

Thomas Barrett, Esq. Lee, near Canterbury.

I. Bargrave, Esq. Eastry Court, Kent.

S. Baker, Esq. Lynn Regis, Norfolk.

James Rickard Barker, jun. Esq. Swaffham, Cambridgeshire.

Reverend Dr. Bates, Freckingham.

Major Barnard, New Romney light dragoons.

Henry Bell, Esq. Wallington, near Downham, Norfolk.

Colonel Blackwood, 33d regiment light dragoons.

William Boys, Esq. F. R. S. and F. S. A. Sandwich, Kent.

Mr. Boys, Eastry, Kent.

Rev. Edward Tymewell Brydges, Wootton Court, Kent.

Lieutenant Colonel Brydges, New Romney light dragoons.

Samuel Egerton Brydges, Esq. F.S.A. Denton Court, Kent, Captain in the
New Romney light dragoons; two copies.

Mrs. Brydges, Precincts, Canterbury.

Mrs. Bryant, Exning, Suffolk.

Mrs. Breton, Gogmagog Hills, near Cambridge.

Lieutenant Colonel Brereton, 63d regiment.

Lieutenant Samuel Brown, New Romney light dragoons.

Major Burnet, 43d regiment.

Mr. Brome, Dublin Castle.

..... Blades, Esq.

Mr. Bensley, Bolt Court, Fleet Street.


His Grace John Lord Archbishop of Canterbury; two copies.

His Excellency Earl Camden, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.

The Right Hon. Lieutenant Colonel, Viscount Conyngham.

Colonel Lord Clements.

Colonel Sir Edward Crofton.

Honourable Lieutenant Colonel George Lowry Cole.

Right Hon. General Cuningham, Commander in Chief in Ireland.

Right Honourable William Burton Conyngham.

Brigadier General Cradock, Quarter Master General in Ireland.

Lieutenant General Crosbie.

Reverend Edward Cage, Eastlinge, Kent, Chaplain to the New Romney light

Reverend Thomas Cookes, Barbourne House, Worcestershire.

Mrs. Cookes.

Lieutenant Henry Cookes, New Romney light dragoons.

Mr. Thomas Secundus Cookes, of his Majesty's ship St. George.

Mr. Denham Cookes, Worcester college, Oxford.

Mr. Charles Cookes.

Colonel Coote, 70th regiment.

Mrs. Coote.

.... Coote, Esq.

Christopher Cooke, Esq. Beaufort Buildings, Strand.

T. Collingwood, Esq. Gray's Inn.

Rev. T. Cogan, East Deane, Surrey.

T. W. Coke, Esq. Holkham, Norfolk.

Lieutenant Colonel Crosbie, 22d regiment, and Deputy Adjutant General in

Robert Cromp, Esq. Frinsted, Kent.

Mr. John Cruikshank, Rector of the Academy in Banff.


Right Honourable Lord Delaval.

Reverend Dr. Dering, Prebendary of Canterbury.

Col. Cholmely Dering, New Romney light dragoons.

John Thurlow Dering, Esq. Crow Hall, Norfolk; two copies.

Captain Donkin, 44th regiment.

James Dallaway, M. B. F.S.A.


Right Honourable Mr. Elliott, Secretary at War, Ireland.

Edward Everard, sen. Esq. Lynn Regis, Norfolk.


Right Honourable Earl Fitzwilliam; two copies.

Honourable Edward Foley, M. P. Lower Seymour Street.

Mr. Farringdon, Foulkes Buildings, London.

Miss Farringdon, Camberwell.

Mrs. Faulknor.

Lieutenant Colonel Fisher, 9th regiment, Manchester Square.

Captain Finlay, Richmond House.

Lieutenant Foster, 38th regiment.

Reverend Dr. Frampton, D. D. Exning, Suffolk.


General Sir Charles Grey, K.B.; three copies.

Right Honourable Lord Glentworth.

Sir Henry Grey, Baronet, Howick, Northumberland.

Lady Gresley, Drakelow, Derbyshire.

Sir Robert Goodere, Cavendish Square.

Mrs. Goodere, Exning, Suffolk.

W. Gordon, Esq. Aberdour, Banff.

Charles Grey, Esq. M. P. Hertford Street, Mayfair; two copies.

Mrs. Grey, Hertford Street, Mayfair.

Lieutenant Colonel Henry Grey, 18th regiment light dragoons.

Major Thomas Grey, 39th regiment.

Captain George Grey, Commander of his Majesty's ship Victory.

Captain William Grey, 21st regiment.

Edward Gregory, Esq. Leman Street, Goodman's Fields.

J. Græme, Esq.

George Gipps, Esq. Canterbury.

Isaac Gervais, Esq. Doctors Commons.


Sir Henry Harpur, Baronet, Upper Brook-street.

Sir Benjamin Hammett, Knight, Lombard Street.

Major General Hewitt, Adjutant General of Ireland.

Mrs. Harrison, Bourne Place, Kent.

Major Hare, 12th regiment light dragoons, Aid-de-camp to the Lord
Lieutenant of Ireland.

Mr. K. S. Haggerstone, Cambridge.

Christ. Hand, Esq. Cheveley Green.

Reverend James Hand, Cheveley, Cambridgeshire.

C. J. Harford, Esq. Stapleton, Gloucestershire.

Henry Wise Harvey, Esq. Hearnden, Kent.

Captain John Harvey, of his Majesty's ship Prince of Wales.

Mr. George Gerard Haughs.

Mrs. Herring, Precincts, Canterbury.

Reverend J. Hippisley, A.M. Stow on the Wolde, Gloucestershire.

Reverend Thomas Hey, D. D. of Wickham Breux, Kent.


Admiral Sir John Jervis, K. B. Commander in Chief in the Mediterranean;
three copies.

Christopher Jefferson, Esq. Dullingham, Cambridgeshire.

Henry Jackson, Esq. 106, Fenchurch Street, London.

Major General Johnson.


Honourable George King, Colonel of the Cork regiment of militia.

George Kittoe, Esq. Ridge House, Antigua.

Sir Edward Knatchbull, Bart. M. P. Marsham Hatch, Kent.


His Grace the Duke of Leinster.

Right Honourable Lady Charlotte Lenox.

Honourable Colonel Lenox.

Sir William Lemon, Baronet, M. P. Carelew, Cornwall.

John Lagier Lamotte, Esq.

Mr. Henry Lamotte, Clapton, Middlesex.

Captain Locke, 26th regiment light dragoons.

Reverend Dr. Lynch, Archdeacon and Prebendary of Canterbury.

Rev. William Long, LL.D. Sternfield, Suffolk.

Reverend Daniel Lysons, F.R.S. and F.S.A. Putney, Surrey.

Mr. W. H. Lunn, Bookseller, Cambridge; four copies.

Rev. N. C. Lane, A. M. Christ's College, Cambridge.


Lady Mill, Arlingham, Gloucestershire.

Brigadier General Myers.

Lieutenant Colonel Manley, royal artillery.

Lieutenant Col. M'Clary, Aberlash, Carmarthenshire; two copies.

Lieut. Col. Madden, 15th regiment.

Lieutenant Colonel M'Donald.

Sir Charles Mitchell, Knt. Commander of the William Pitt East Indiaman.

Mr. James Miln, Arbroath.


Major General Needham.

Reverend James Nasmith, A.M. Leverington, Cambridgeshire.

Reverend Edward Nares, A.M. Fellow of Merton College, Oxford.

Mr. Norton, Bookseller, Bristol.


William Owen, Esq. Trinity College, Cambridge.


Right Hon. Sir John Parnell, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Ireland.

James Palmer, Esq. Dulwich, Surrey; two copies.

Reverend Dr. Pennington, D. D. Eastry, Kent.

Rev. Montagu Pennington. A. M.

Mr. Philpot, Canterbury.

George Ponsonby, Esq. Bishop's Court, near Dublin.

J. Plumptre, Esq. Fridville, Herts.

Reverend Charles Powlett, A. M. junior, Hackwood Farm, Hants.

Edward Roger Pratt, Esq. Ryston Hall, Norfolk.

Lieutenant Colonel Pratt, royal Irish artillery.

Captain D'Arcy Preston, royal navy.

George Purvis, Esq. Titchfield, Hants, Secretary to Admiral Sir John

Major Perryn, Great George Street.


Reverend Anth. Luther Richardson, LL. B. Kennet, Cambridgeshire.

Mr. James Robertson, Gellymell, near Banff.

William Rose, Esq. Mountcoffer, near Banff.

E. Rolfe, jun. Esq. Hankoe, Norfolk.


Right Hon. Lord Sondes, Rockingham Castle.

Colonel Sir James St. Clair Erskine, Bart. 12th reg. light dragoons.

Charles Henry Selwyn, Esq. Lieutenant Governor of the island of

Reverend George Selwyn, King's Road, Bedford Row.

Matthew Henry Scott, Esq. Captain in the royal navy.

W. Sharpe, Esq. Fulham, Middlesex.

Samuel Shirt, Esq. 27, Mincing Lane, London.

Rev. Stebbing Shaw, B.D. F.S.A. Fellow of Queen's College, Cambridge.

Reverend Mr. Alexander Simpson, Old Aberdeen.

Rev. Thomas Jenyns Smith, A. M. First Fellow of Dulwich College.

Mr. David Souter, Melrose, near Banff; five copies.

Mr. Stewart Souter, Duff House, Banff.

Lieutenant Colonel Stuart, 3d regiment guards.

Rev. James Symes, Hollis Street.

Powell Snell, Esq. Guiting Orange, Gloucestershire, and Captain of the
royal Gloucestershire yeomen cavalry.

Richard Sill, Esq. A. B, Clare Hall, Cambridge.


Right Honourable the Earl of Tyrconnel.

George Talbot, Esq. Temple Guiting, Gloucestershire.

T. Tyndall, Esq. Weston Lodge, Somersetshire.

Captain Thomas, 28th regiment.

Captain Herbert Taylor, 2d dragoon guards, and Aid de Camp to his Royal
Highness the Duke of York.

Captain Edward Taylor, New Romney light dragoons.

Mr. William Thompson, Mile-End Green.

Mrs. Treacher, Henley on Thames.

Reverend Stephen Tucker, A. M. Linsted, Kent.

John Townley, Esq. Clare Hall, Cambridge.

Lieutenant Colonel Thewles, 30th regiment light dragoons.


Captain George Vaughan, of the royal navy.

Mrs. Vernon, Norwich.

Captain Vaumorel, 30th regiment.


Colonel, the Earl of Westmeath.

Sir Charles Watson, Baronet, Swaffham, Cambridgeshire.

Sir Edward Winnington, Bart. M. P. Winterdyne, Worcestershire.

Major General Whyte.

Mrs. Watson, Swaffham, Cambridgeshire.

Mr. J. Webster, Merchant, Banff.

Charles Hollis Western, Esq. M. P. Felix Hall, Essex.

Edw. Weatherby, Esq. Newmarket.

Thomas M. Waller, Esq. Lieutenant royal navy.

Samuel Whitbread, sen. Esq. M. P.

Samuel Whitbread, jun. Esq. M. P. 17, Lower Grosvenor Street; two

Rev. Edward Wilson, B. D. Moulton, Suffolk.

Mrs. Willyams, Exning, Suffolk.

John Hanbury Williams, Esq. Coldbrook, Monmouthshire.

Major Wilder, Pall Mall.

Captain Isaac Wolley, royal navy.

Reverend Godfrey Wolley, Hutton Bushel, Yorkshire.

J. Whatley, Esq. Wraxall Lodge, Somersetshire, and Captain in the Royal
South Gloucestershire regiment of militia.

James Wyborn, Esq. Hull, Kent

.... Western, Esq.

Mr. Thomas Henry Wilson, No. 13, Cornhill.






In the latter end of the year 1793, his Majesty having determined to
send a formidable armament to the West Indies, to reduce the French
islands in that quarter, and to secure his own from any attack of the
enemy, Lieutenant General Sir Charles Grey, Knight of the Bath, was
promoted to the rank of General in America, and Commander in Chief in
the West Indies. Several officers of distinguished abilities were also
appointed to act under him; and Vice Admiral Sir John Jervis, Knight of
the Bath, was nominated Commander in Chief of the naval force on the
same expedition.

After much delay, occasioned by nearly half the original force being
withdrawn from the armament intended for the West Indies, and applied to
another purpose, on the 24th of November, 1793, the Boyne of 98 guns,
Captain Grey commander, having Vice Admiral Sir John Jervis's flag
flying at the fore-topmast head, made the signal for sailing to the
fleet destined with her for this expedition, and dropped down to St.
Helen's, where she lay at single anchor, waiting for those ships that
were not ready; the ordnance storeships were particularly tardy. This
morning an unfortunate accident befel Mr. Scott, second lieutenant of
the Boyne, whose arm was broken by a block giving way in the fore part
of the ship, where he was stationed; but happily, by the care and skill
of Mr. Weir the surgeon, he was nearly recovered by the time the ship
reached Barbadoes.

On Tuesday the 26th of November the Boyne weighed anchor, and with the
rest of the fleet sailed from St. Helen's with a fair wind down channel.
On the 27th we lay to off Portland Road, waiting for the Quebec frigate,
which remained at Spithead to hasten the storeships and transports (that
were not at first ready to sail with the Boyne), and to convoy them
through the Needles.

On the 28th of November, in the morning, we were off the Land's End, and
were soon afterwards becalmed for a short time. In the evening, a fresh
breeze springing up, we proceeded on our voyage. Before it was dark
eight sail were seen from the mast head.

On the 29th we passed Commodore Paisley in the Bellerophon, with several
frigates in company. The Commodore saluted the Admiral's flag with
thirteen guns, which was returned from the Boyne with eleven guns.

As it may be proper to inform the reader that, in consequence of a
particular invitation from the Admiral, the Commander in Chief and his
suite, with several of the officers on the staff under him, were
passengers in the Boyne, I shall here subjoin their names.

  His Excellency Sir Charles Grey, K. B. Commander in Chief.

  Major General Thomas Dundas.

  Lieutenant Colonel Symes, Quarter Master General.

  Major Henry Grey, Deputy Quarter Master General.

  Lieut. Col. Fisher, Secretary to the Commander in Chief.

  Major Lyon, Deputy Adjutant General.

  Captain Finch Mason,   }
  Lieut. John Cunningham,} Aid de Camps to the Commander in Chief.
  Captain Newton Ogle,   }

  Capt. Maitland, Aid de Camp to Major General Dundas.

  Dr. Wardle, Surgeon on the Staff.

  Also Chevalier Sancée, a brave and ingenious French Officer, whom
  the Commander in Chief took with him, as being acquainted with the
  island of Martinique, and the fortifications of Fort Bourbon and St.
  Louis, having served under the Marquis de Bouillé at the construction
  of the former works.

Thus, by the friendly intercourse subsisting between the two Commanders
in Chief, the time on the passage was most usefully employed in forming
plans of operation, which could not have been executed with that
promptness that distinguished the ensuing campaign, had it been

On Tuesday the 3d of December, the Rose frigate, Captain Riou, parted
company; as did, on the 7th following, Commodore Thompson and part of
the convoy, and we proceeded with the greater dispatch on our voyage.

On the 8th of December the wind proved foul, with rain and hazy weather.
At night, in the middle watch, we were attacked by a squall of wind and
rain, accompanied by a heavy sea, which struck the rudder with such
violence, that the men at the wheel losing their hold, were thrown down;
and the tiller breaking loose, stove in the gunner's cabin; at the same
time the pinnace, a six-oared boat, that was suspended over the stern,
was washed away, and totally lost.

On the 9th of December in the morning, the ship was taken aback by a
sudden squall of wind, attended with thunder and lightning, with a most
tremendous sea; we then wore ship, and stood to the south west. Those
who have never sailed in a ship of war of the first or second rate, can
form no idea of the grandeur and awfulness of the scene when so large a
body is struggling with contending elements. As the ship rolls through
the high swell her sides appear to twist and bend in a surprising
manner. The guns hanging on one side, and pressing against the other,
seem as if, at every roll, they would, by their immense weight, force
their way through; which, added to the cracking of the cordage, the
roaring of the wind, and a variety of other noises, forms a scene of
surprise and alarm to the inexperienced voyager.

This squally weather continued at intervals for four days. On the 12th
we saw some sea gulls. On the 13th two strange sail hove in sight; the
Ulysses chased one of them, and we made sail after the other, and fired
several shot at her to bring her to; but in the evening were obliged to
give up the pursuit, for fear of parting from our convoy, which however
happened in the following night, during a heavy gale of wind.

On Saturday the 14th we saw a gull, and several turtle passed near the

On the 16th land was discovered at four P. M. supposed to be the island
of Porto Santo. All this day we sailed at the rate of seven and eight
knots an hour. Tuesday the 17th of December we found that during the
night we had passed by the island of Madeira; but this morning tacked
and stood towards it, and arrived off Funchial, the capital of that
island, of which we had a delightful view. As we approached the land the
surrounding country had a very beautiful appearance, especially after a
long voyage, when the eye has been wearied by the uninteresting sameness
of an extended ocean. The town of Funchial, so named from the Portuguese
word funcho, fennel, which grows in great abundance on the neighbouring
rocks, is situated at the bottom of a bay, and is a large ill-built
town: it has many churches and convents; but as we did not go on shore,
I can give no particular description of them. Immediately behind the
town the hills rise gradually one above the other, terminating in
prodigious high mountains, which are plentifully covered almost half-way
up with plantations of vines, interspersed with churches and elegant
houses. High up in the mountains, in a valley is seen a convent, which
we were informed is dedicated to our Lady of the Mountain. All the
buildings being white, formed very conspicuous, and not unpleasing
objects in the landscape. The mountains in this island are very high.
Pico Ruevo is supposed to be from its base near a mile in perpendicular
height, much higher than any land in England or Wales. The sides of all
the hills are well covered to a certain height with vines, above which,
to a vast extent, are woods of pine, chesnut, and a variety of other
trees unknown to Europe. The principal refreshments to be procured here
are wine, water, and onions; the latter are the finest in the world, and
in great plenty.

It being the Admiral's determination to lose no time, we only lay-to off
Funchial, till the wine intended for the use of the officers and ship's
company was taken on board; and it being the birth day of the Queen of
Portugal, we saluted the fort in honour of the day with twenty-one guns,
which was returned with an equal number. In the evening we made sail for
our destination; and fortunately from this time had a fair wind till we
got into the trades. On the 24th we passed the tropic of Cancer, lat. at
noon 23. 21. N. long. 32. W. The usual ceremony was observed by the
crew (having first obtained the Captain's permission): a grotesque
Neptune and Amphitrité were drawn by their attendants on the
quarter-deck, where, after a solemn ditty chaunted by his aquatic
majesty, the usual collections were made, which, from the munificence of
the General and his friends, together with the contributions of those
officers of the ship who had never crossed the tropic before, amounted
to a sum sufficient to supply the ship's company with plenty of
vegetables on their arrival at Barbadoes.

The 25th of December, being Christmas day, divine service was performed
on the quarter-deck by the Chaplain, the crew appearing as on a Sunday,
in clean trowsers and jackets: and here I must beg leave to mention,
that I never saw more regularity and decorum in any place of worship
than is invariably observed on board of his Majesty's ships of war.

This day we passed an American brig; and the weather being fair,
Lieutenant Bowen and Captain Mason went on board her. She was from
Cadiz, and reported, that yesterday she passed a Spanish man of war
bound for Europe.

On the 26th of December we saw several albicores, dolphins, and grampus,
and shoals of flying fish; lat. at noon 22. 10. N. long. 34. 46. W.

On the 29th of December, being Sunday, and the weather fair, divine
service was performed as usual.

The heat of the climate now began to be troublesome to those who had
been unaccustomed to it.

On Monday the 6th of January, 1794, land was discovered from the
mast-head, which proved to be the island of Barbadoes; and by noon the
Boyne anchored in Carlisle Bay[1].

     [1] On our arrival we found several of the ships that had parted
     company on the voyage; and each day after brought more of them,
     till the whole were collected.



The first news we received on our arrival at Barbadoes was, that the
yellow fever had, in the course of last year, carried off fifty-eight
officers of the army in this and the neighbouring islands, and privates
in proportion. It proved fatal to great numbers of the inhabitants also
of Barbadoes; from fifteen to twenty whites died daily in the town of
Bridgetown, and about half that number of blacks and people of colour.
We were at the same time comforted with an assurance that the disease
had entirely subsided; but the reader will soon see how fallacious were
our hopes in this respect. Alas! too many families have to lament the
fatal effects of this dreadful disorder; and the kingdom at large may
attribute to it the losses we afterwards sustained, rather than to any
other cause. But of this more hereafter.

His Excellency Sir Charles Grey landed at Bridgetown on the 7th of
January, and resided at a house called the Government House, on
Constitution Hill, a healthy situation, about half a mile out of town,
where he was busily employed during his residence on the island in
concerting plans for future operations, in reviewing the troops, and
providing against those exigencies which in an enemy's country an army
must be exposed to. A report was here circulated that General Rochambeau
the commanding officer at Martinique, and Bellegarde the popular leader
of the people of colour, were at variance; but this news by no means
caused the least relaxation on the part of our commanders, who continued
their preparations with as much ardour as before; and it is well they
did so, as we afterwards found the enemy on their guard, and prepared to
resist us with their united force.

The Admiral in the mean time was equally employed in preparing every
thing in his department, and for that purpose remained on board (a
conduct he invariably followed), by which every thing was carried on
under his own inspection, and delay (the consequence of neglect) was
thus prevented.--On our voyage, whenever the weather permitted, a
certain number of seamen were exercised, and formed into companies, to
be commanded by lieutenants of the navy, with the rank of captains on
shore. While in Carlisle Bay these seamen were again exercised, and
instructed in the use of small arms and pikes. This plan of training the
seamen for more duty was highly beneficial on this expedition, as will
hereafter appear.

Every exertion was now made both by sea and land. The gun-boats, which
were constructed in England, then taken to pieces, and brought to the
West Indies in storeships, were put together with as much speed as
possible; yet, from the nature of their structure, could not be finished
until a day or two before we sailed. There were six gun-boats, each
carrying a twenty-four pounder in the bow, which moved backwards and
forwards on a groove: round the whole on the gun-whale was a moveable
barricade or breast-work, composed of several folds of bulls' hides,
nailed to some boards of an inch thick in partitions, and capable of
turning a musket ball. Each boat had two masts; the foremast inclined
forward (to give more room for the gun to recoil), and had a latine sail
and jib: the mizen was a lug-sail. Sweeps, or large oars, were also
supplied, to be used when there was no wind, or when becalmed by the
high lands near the shore. Each of these vessels was at first commanded
by a midshipman, who, as his conduct merited, was promoted to the rank
of lieutenant[2].

     [2] I have given an exact representation of one of these boats in
     the view of the town and bay of St. Pierre.

In the mean time the troops were landed from the transports, the sick
comfortably lodged in the hospitals, and every attention paid, to render
the service complete. As the major part of our army consisted of the
flank companies, great pains were taken by the commanding officers to
train them for the most active service: the light infantry were
exercised daily by Major General Dundas, who had, in America and on the
continent, distinguished himself at the head of that battalion.
Particular attention was paid to instruct the army in the absolute
necessity of strict obedience to orders; for which purpose the
Commander in Chief published in the general orders to the army such full
and comprehensive instructions, as to preclude the necessity of
multiplying them in future, and to take away the possibility of any one
pleading ignorance of them[3].

     [3] See in the Appendix, page 1.

Before we quit this island, it may be agreeable to the reader to have
some account of it, and of the general appearance of the country.
Barbadoes is situated in 13. 10. N. lat. and 59. W. long. from London.
It is called one of the British Charaibé Islands, though at present none
of those ancient inhabitants remain on it. The island has a flat
appearance; but, from the variety of plantations, the beauty and
freshness of the verdure, and the numerous houses, mills, and other
buildings, scattered in great profusion, it presents a delightful
prospect to strangers on their approach to it after a long voyage. I
shall not pretend to give an history of the island, but must refer the
reader to the elegant work of Bryan Edwards, Esq. whose account of the
British West India Islands is written with every advantage to be derived
from local residence and connections, as well as from the indefatigable
attention and abilities of the author.

During our residence at this island curiosity led me to be present at a
sale of slaves, just imported from the coast of Africa. As this horrid
traffic in human flesh has been the topic of public investigation for
some time past, and much learning and ingenuity has been displayed on
both sides of the question, I shall not give any opinion on it, but
merely state facts that came within my own knowledge. The sale is
proclaimed by beat of drum, and is held (at Barbadoes at least) not in
the open air, as I had been taught to believe, but in a commodious house
appointed for that purpose. At the time I am speaking of, there were
about forty men, women, and children, sitting on benches round a large
room, with no other covering than a cloth round their waists. Some of
them were decorated with beads, given to them by their captors, and
bracelets round their wrists and ancles, and were much tattooed on their
faces and breasts, which I understood from a seaman who came with them,
was a mark of distinction in their own country. I was also informed that
they had buried one hundred and forty-nine on the passage, having had a
very bad and protracted voyage: the crew had suffered equally, and had
buried one third of their original complement. As soon as the planter
has fixed on a slave he retires with him and the salesman to another
room, there concludes the bargain, and departs with his purchase to his
plantation, where the newcomer, being clothed in a coarse jacket, and
provided with a hat, knife, and other trifles, is placed with one of the
old negroes, by whom he is instructed in his business. In regard to the
severity exercised by the slave owners on their slaves, whatever may
have been the case, I am well assured that now there are seldom
instances of those cruelties which have been so feelingly described, at
least in the islands we visited on this expedition. At Barbadoes they
appeared to be in as comfortable a situation as the lower ranks of
society generally are; and as the climate is peculiarly favourable to
poverty (clothes and firing, the great articles of expence to the poor
in other countries, being here hardly required), I may venture to
affirm, that the slaves in the West Indies are in a better situation,
_as to the necessaries of life_, than the labouring poor in England, or
any other country in Europe. Far be it from me, however, to justify
slavery in itself; it most certainly is an evil: but when a matter of
great importance is in agitation, every information should be obtained,
and both sides of the question ought to be strictly examined. Certainly
the benevolent intentions of the friends to the abolition of slavery in
the West Indies have, by their exertions in the cause of humanity,
occasioned a more minute inquiry into the situation of the slaves than
had ever been made before; and several excellent laws to regulate the
treatment of that unfortunate class of human beings have in consequence
been passed in the different islands. It is affirmed by many very humane
people, that the entire abolition of the traffic _itself_ would not help
the cause of humanity so much as was at first contended (for I believe
the former plan of immediately emancipating those already imported, is
allowed by all to be dangerous in the extreme); and it is the opinion of
many writers, that the greater part of those Africans sold to our
plantations would remain slaves in their own country, or be put to death
by their captors. If so, surely it is better for them to be carried to a
country where they have a chance at least of better treatment, and where
many of them are instructed in their duty to their God, of which before
they had no idea.

While we were lying in Carlisle Bay the fleet that sailed with us from
Europe, and parted company on the voyage, came in, together with the
transports, &c. from Ireland. The following is, I believe, a correct
list of the men of war that composed our fleet at the commencement of
the campaign. A few others that are hereafter mentioned joined us in the
course of it.

  Boyne         98 guns    {Vice Admiral Sir John Jervis, K. B.
                           {  Commander in Chief of the naval
                           {  force in the West Indies.
                           {Captain G. Grey.

  Vengeance     74         {Commodore C. Thompson.
                           {Captain Henry Powlett.

  Irresistible  74         John Henry.

  Veteran       64         Charles Edmund Nugent.

  Blanche       32         Christopher Parker.

  Terpsichore   32         Samson Edwards.

  Blonde        32         John Markham.

  Solebay       32         William Hancock Kelly.

  Beaulieu      40         John Salisbury.

  Quebec        32         Josias Rogers.

  Rose          23         Edward Riou.

  Vesuvius bomb            Charles Sawyer.

  Nautilus      18         James Carpenter.

  Rattlesnake   18         Matthew Henry Scott.

  Seaflower     16         William Pierrepoint.

  Zebra         18 guns    Captain Robert Faulknor.

  Experiment    44         Simon Miller.   }
  Woolwich      44         John Parker.    } armed
  Dromedary     44         Sandford Tatham.} en flute.

These ships joined us in Fort Royal bay during the siege of Forts
Bourbon and Louis.

  Asia             64 guns         Captain John Brown.

  Santa Margarita  36              Eliab Harvey.

  Assurance        44              Velters Cornwall Berkley.

  Ceres            32              Richard Incledon.

  Winchelsea       32              Lord Viscount Garlies.

  Roebuck          44 hosp. ship   Andrew Christie.

The land force employed on this expedition was as follows. A detachment
of white and a detachment of black light dragoons, three battalions of
grenadiers, three battalions of light infantry, the sixth, ninth,
fifteenth, thirty-ninth, forty-third, fifty-sixth, fifty-eighth,
sixty-fourth, sixty-fifth, and seventieth regiments, with detachments
from the second, twenty-first, and sixtieth regiments. The troops were
divided into three brigades; the first commanded by Lieutenant General
Prescott, the second by Major General Thomas Dundas, and the third by
Major General his Royal Highness Prince Edward (till whose arrival from
Canada the command of this brigade was given to Lieutenant Colonel Sir
Charles Gordon.) The total force that embarked for the attack of
Martinique was six thousand and eighty-five, two hundred and twenty-four
sick, and nine hundred and seventy-seven left sick at Barbadoes[4].

     [4] An idea was started of raising four hundred white men in the
     island of Barbadoes to augment the army; but there was not time to
     arm and discipline them; therefore it was dropped. However, a
     certain number of negroes were provided to attend the army, four
     hundred of whom were sent from Dominica for that service; some more
     were brought from St. Vincent's; and the council of Barbadoes made
     an offer of supplying a large number of them to serve on very
     liberal terms; but when the matter came to be investigated, the
     terms were found to be far from equitable, and therefore were
     rejected.--Mr. Baillie and Mr. Monro, two planters of Grenada, were
     here introduced to the Commanders in Chief, and were received on
     board the Boyne as guests, and treated with the greatest
     hospitality; they proceeded with us on the expedition. Mr. Gibbs,
     one of the council of Barbadoes, also accompanied us.



On Monday, Feb. 3, 1794, the fleet of men of war, transports,
storeships, &c. sailed from Carlisle Bay, and the next morning land was
seen, which proved to be the island of St. Lucia, bearing west several
leagues. On Wednesday, Feb. 5, we approached the island of Martinique on
the south east coast, off the bay of Maran; two forts, one at Pointe du
Jardin, the other at Pointe de la Borgnesse, which defended the entrance
to that bay, began to fire on our ships as they approached;
notwithstanding which, the Boyne and the rest of the fleet anchored by
four P.M. not far from the battery on Pointe de la Borgnesse, Lieutenant
Bowen having previously run along shore in a small schooner to sound the
depth of water. Our troops were now preparing to land, and had filled
several flat-boats which lay along-side the men of war, when the
battery opened a heavy fire on them, which was quickly answered by the
ships; the troops at the same time pushed in and landed, covered by the
gun-boats: seeing which, and alarmed by some well-directed shot from the
Boyne and Veteran, the enemy fled in disorder from the fort, which our
troops immediately entered, and having hoisted the British colours, were
saluted with three cheers from the fleet. A trench was found in the
battery, communicating with the magazine, in which a train was laid, and
a brand or match laid across it. Happily (by the exertions of the
officers and men) this dastardly plot was prevented taking effect. The
guns were immediately turned upon the enemy in their retreat, and
against the town of St. Anne; but as this was a post of no great
consequence, after they had spiked the guns and broke the carriages, the
troops reimbarked[5].

     [5] During the landing of our troops, Lieutenant Bowen, who was in
     a gun-boat, perceived a number of the enemy collecting in the woods
     near the shore, and being scarce noticed by them, was suffered to
     approach without molestation, and having loaded his gun with
     langrege, he dealt such destruction among them, that they fled in
     all directions. A shot from the battery, which stuck in the
     larboard bow of the Boyne, when cut out, proved to be a thirty-four
     pounder, and to have been heated, but not sufficiently to do any
     mischief by fire.

In the evening the enemy in the battery on Pointe du Jardin burnt the
sugar plantations near them, as we suppose, out of revenge for our
success at Pointe de la Borgnesse; from the dryness of the canes the
fire spread with great rapidity, and did much damage. Near us was the
village of St. Luce, where a two-gun battery, directed by the curé of
St. Luce, seeming disposed to trouble us, the Veteran opened her lower
deckers on it, and soon drove the enemy from thence[6].--On Thursday
morning, Feb. 6, our troops landed at Trois Rivieres, in the bay of St.
Luce, without opposition, to the number of two thousand four hundred and
eighty-four men, under the direction of Lieutenant General Prescott. Sir
Charles Grey and his suite then landed, and the whole army moved off
from the landing-place in two divisions; the first division began to
march about twelve at noon, the second division at five in the
afternoon. Lieutenant Rogers of the Boyne soon after landed at the
curé's battery at St. Luce, and found the two cannon there to be
twenty-four pounders, that had belonged to the Raisonable man of war,
wrecked some time since on this island. They destroyed these guns, and
returned on board without any loss. This evening a gun-boat and
flat-boat with seamen, under the command of Lieutenants Rutherford and
Ogle of the Boyne, and Mr. Johnson, midshipman, attempted to cut out
some vessels in the harbour near Maran, where they were much exposed
both to the great guns and musquetry of the enemy; but they succeeded so
far as to bring off two American schooners; two others saved themselves
by running ashore close under the guns of Fort St. Etienne.

     [6] The Generous Friends transport, laden with officers' baggage,
     &c. dragged her anchor on the night of the 5th, struck against a
     rock at the entrance of the bay, and was wrecked. Fortunately,
     however, the hands on board and the baggage were saved.

On Feb. 7th the Admiral sent (with a flag of truce) Lieutenant Miln of
the Boyne, accompanied by Lieutenant James of the fifteenth regiment,
and the Chaplain of the Boyne, with a letter for the municipality or
governor of Maran. As they approached the town they perceived hostile
preparations making in the fort of St. Etienne; but, in hopes of
preventing a flag of truce being insulted, Mr. Miln boarded one of the
American ships that had been run aground the day before, intending, in
case the captain of it was on board, to take him in his company. Being
now within half gun-shot of the fort, the enemy began to fire on the
boat, notwithstanding the flag of truce, and continued to do so,
although Mr. Miln endeavoured to proceed towards the shore: but the
enemy seeming determined to oppose his landing, and several of their
shot falling close by the boat, he at length judged it most prudent to
return. As he passed Pointe du Bourgnesse he perceived some negroes near
the fort, and sent the two gentlemen who accompanied him armed, to
endeavour to cut off their retreat, and to give them the papers which
were to have been delivered to the commander at Maran; but the negroes,
on perceiving them land, immediately made off towards the town: they
however found a wounded man, whose leg had been broken by a cannon ball,
with whom they left the papers, adding a note to express their surprise
and indignation at a flag of truce being fired on[7].

     [7] The French have since said that they fired on the boat because
     it had a white flag hoisted: this was a most ridiculous objection;
     for, though with them a mark of aristocracy, it has ever been
     acknowledged by all nations as a signal of peace and cessation from
     hostilities. However, we found it necessary afterwards to comply
     with their wishes; and whenever a boat was sent from either party
     on a truce, they carried the flag of the opposite party in the bow
     of the boat, and their own colours abaft.

In the afternoon Mr. Miln went with the gun-boats against Maran, to form
a diversion in favour of Lieutenants Rutherford and Rogers, who had
landed with two companies of seamen to carry fresh provisions to Sir
Charles Grey's army. This had the desired effect, as soon after a large
body of troops came down from the hills to the town and fort, which
might otherwise have fallen in with the seamen on their march.

The next day, Feb. 8, the Admiral sent another flag of truce by the same
officer to the town of St. Anne. He took with him an American captain of
a ship, in addition to his former complement; and having been so roughly
handled the day before, he also ordered a gun-boat to attend. St. Anne's
was entirely deserted. The American then proceeded a mile up the country
to the house of a planter, who had left it; but finding his mulatto
mistress there, he left the papers with her, to forward to the
commanding officer at Maran. On this estate the American told us he saw
three hundred slaves, and every thing in perfect order; from whence we
judged the owner of it had been a friend to the revolution, the houses
and plantations of the royalists being universally destroyed. The enemy
now entirely evacuated this part of the country, to throw themselves
into Fort Bourbon; and in their retreat burnt several fine plantations,
and murdered many slaves of the royalists with circumstances of the most
horrid cruelty.

I should have mentioned that, on our approach to this island, the
Commanders in Chief dispatched General Dundas with Commodore Thompson to
the attack of Trinité, and another division under the command of Colonel
Sir Charles Gordon, assisted by Captain Rogers of the Quebec, to Case de
Navirre; while Sir Charles Grey, assisted by Lieutenant General
Prescott, and under cover of the Boyne, &c. made good his landing at
Trois Rivieres: thus, by making three attacks upon distant parts of the
island at the same time, the force and attention of the enemy was
divided; and by that spirited conduct, which animated all parties, more
particularly by the unanimity which prevailed between the army and navy,
they all happily succeeded. And here I must beg leave to observe, that
where the commanders are united in friendship, and equally inspired with
an earnest desire to serve their king and country, their example will
always have such influence on the conduct of those under their command,
that the same friendly intercourse will be sure to subsist between the
subordinate ranks of the two services; and, from the Commanders in Chief
to the private soldier and sailor, they will join hand and heart, and
form a phalanx that nothing can withstand.



I have already said that his Excellency Sir Charles Grey, with
Lieutenant General Prescott, and that part of the army which landed at
Trois Rivieres, marched from thence on Feb. 6th across the country to La
Riviere Sallée, a distance of two leagues, over very mountainous roads,
and that evening they reached the town of the same name, situated on its
banks, where the troops were lodged. They met with no opposition on
their march, and lost only one man (a sergeant), who died of fatigue and
heat. On the march the Commander in Chief detached Brigadier General
Whyte, with the second battalion of light infantry commanded by
Lieutenant Colonel Close, with two amuzettes, to force the batteries of
Cape Solomon and Point a Burgos, in order to get possession of Pigeon
Island, as our shipping could not go into the bay of Fort Royal till
that was accomplished; nor indeed could our boats with provisions and
ammunition go with safety round to the army at Riviere Sallée. On Feb.
7th General Whyte took two small pieces of cannon loaded, at a village
in the bay of d'Arlet (one hundred and fifty mulattoes having fled at
his approach); and immediately marching to the attack of the two posts
above mentioned of Point Solomon and Burgos, the enemy surrendered at
discretion, their retreat being cut off. In the interim the Commander in
Chief received intelligence of a body of the enemy having crossed the
bay from Fort Royal, and landed near Morne Charlotte Pied, where they
took post to intercept the communication between General Whyte and head
quarters at Sallée: on which he instantly dispatched Adjutant-General
Colonel Dundas, with the seventieth regiment, commanded by Lieutenant
Colonel Johnson, with two howitzers, to dislodge them. This was executed
that night with great spirit, and the post taken possession of early the
next morning, the enemy being completely defeated at the first charge.
In this action Captain Nares of the seventieth regiment distinguished
himself so as to gain the notice of the Commander in Chief in public

     [8] Vide Appendix, page 14.

Brigadier General Whyte (being now reinforced with a detachment of the
royal artillery, some ordnance, mortars, &c.) Colonel Symes, with a
detachment of the fifteenth regiment and two hundred seamen from the
Admiral, armed with pikes and pistols, under the command of Lieutenants
Rogers and Rutherford, ascended the heights on the 9th instant, and got
possession of Mount Matharine, which commanded Pigeon Island, at the
distance of not more than four hundred yards, where they erected their
batteries. On this day his Excellency the Admiral sailed from Maran Bay,
and anchored in Petite Ance d'Arlet, from whence he could send succours
of men and ammunition to General Whyte; who accordingly instantly landed
two companies of seamen, with several cannon, which they in vain
attempted to drag over the hills to General Whyte's post, a distance of
four or five miles; for the steepness and ruggedness of the roads,
rendered every effort ineffectual. However he sent him a plentiful
supply of shot and other ammunition, with one howitzer; and in the
evening Lieutenant Miln was dispatched with a party, carrying provisions
and spirits for the army. We found the country on the march from Ance
d'Arlet to General Whyte's camp beautiful in a high degree, but the
roads almost impassable: a succession of steep roads, through thick
woods, at length brought us to the summit of a hill (on which our seamen
were posted), commanding a fine view of the bay of Fort Royal, with
Islet aux Ramieres, or Pigeon Island, in front; and on each side rose
hills finely clothed with wood, on one of which our little army was
posted. During the time we were there, the enemy on Pigeon Island
annoyed us with their shells and shot, by which one of our seamen was
killed, and another mortally wounded. The two five and a half inch
howitzers, brought by the seventieth regiment from head quarters, being
now placed in a battery under the direction of Captain de Rivigne of
the royal artillery, so as to take the island in reverse, and Colonel
Dornford having also joined with a company of artificers, the batteries
were completed during the night of the 10th instant, and opened on
Tuesday morning, February 11th, under the conduct of Major Manley, who
kept up so incessant and well-directed a fire upon Pigeon Island, that
in two hours the garrison struck their colours, and surrendered at
discretion, having fifteen killed and twenty-five wounded. When our
batteries opened, it consisted of two hundred and three men.

After the strong orders the Commander in Chief issued during the time he
was preparing for the commencement of the campaign at Barbadoes, in
which, among other things, he declared his determination to punish with
the utmost severity any one who should presume to maraud or plunder the
inhabitants, it is surprising that on the first day's march any soldier
should have had the temerity to offend against that order: but we had a
melancholy instance of it in William Milton of the tenth light dragoons,
and Samuel Price of the black dragoons, who were tried and convicted of
a robbery in the house of Jacques, an inhabitant of Sallée; and the
General, being determined to put an early stop to such enormities, had
the sentence put in execution, and they were both hanged in view of the
whole army on February 8th[9].

     [9] Vide Appendix, pages 10, 11, 12.

On the capture of Islet aux Ramieres, or Pigeon Island, the Admiral
sailed with the rest of his fleet from Ance d'Arlet on Wednesday, Feb.
12th, and anchored in Fort Royal Bay, off Pigeon Island, by which means
he could co-operate with his colleague, and supply the army with
ammunition and provisions at pleasure. As the ships worked into the bay,
several shells were thrown at them from Fort Louis, but happily without
doing any mischief.--It is impossible to conceive a more beautiful scene
than presented itself on our entrance into this fine bay. On the north
side we saw Fort Louis and the town of Fort Royal; and immediately
behind it, on the top of a steep hill, was the strong fortification of
Fort Bourbon, which, with the tri-coloured flag waving on its walls,
formed a conspicuous object in the landscape; the parapet being built of
white stone, strongly contrasted with the vivid glow of verdure on the
surrounding hills. To the westward rose majestically prodigious
mountains, called Les Pitons du Carbet, the hills on the side of which
were cultivated, while the mountains themselves were covered with wood
to their summits. Eastward the bay opens to several bays and harbours,
into which some noble rivers discharge themselves, and pleasant islands
of different dimensions and forms, embellish the whole. Pigeon Island,
or Islet aux Ramieres, is situated on the south side of the bay of Fort
Royal, about two hundred yards from the shore, and is a steep rock,
inaccessible except on one side by a ladder fixed against a
perpendicular wall. The summit is about thirty yards above the level of
the sea, and is three hundred paces round. It contained the following
ordnance, viz. Eleven forty-two pounders, six thirty-two pounders, four
thirteen-inch mortars, and one howitzer, with an immense quantity of
stores and ammunition, and a large stove to heat shot; it also had good
barracks. It is famous for having prevented Admiral Rodney with twelve
sail of the line from entering the bay in 1782.

On the 12th of February the fifteenth regiment, led by Major Lyon, and
commanded by Captain Paumier, surprised several hundreds of the enemy,
very strongly posted on the heights of le Grande Bouclain, killed
several of them, and took all their ammunition and arms, with their

     [10] Vide Appendix, page 16.

Sir Charles Gordon with the third brigade had landed on the 8th instant
to leeward, on the side of Cas de Navires, under cover of a division of
the fleet commanded by Captain Rogers in the Quebec[11]. The enemy being
masters of the grand road and the heights above it, he made a movement
towards the mountains, and turning them (unperceived) with part of his
force, gained the most commanding post in that part of the country. By
day-break on the 9th instant Colonel Myers, descending the heights, took
possession of la Chapelle, and a post established by the enemy above it;
and on his return to the column, Sir Charles Gordon proceeded through
most difficult ground to the heights of Berne, above Ance La Haye. The
enemy, after having abandoned the battery of Cayman, and set fire to the
village, still keeping a constant fire on him from the batteries of St.
Catharine, he took a position which gave him an easy communication with
the transports; when on the 12th he observed the battery and works at
St. Catharine, and the posts which guarded the first ravine, abandoned
by the enemy, on which he took possession of them, while Colonel Myers,
with five companies of grenadiers and the forty-third regiment, crossed
four ravines higher up, seizing all the batteries that defended them.
This movement was completely successful, the enemy flying on every side,
and our troops were soon in possession of the five batteries between Cas
de Navires and Fort Royal. They then proceeded, and occupied the posts
of Gentilly, La Coste, and La Archet, within a league of Fort Bourbon.

     [11] They met with considerable opposition in this business; and
     the boats employed in landing the troops by some mistake got close
     under the enemy's batteries, before they discovered their
     situation. Our loss however was less than might have been expected.
     The Dromedary, venturing too near the battery of Point Negro,
     received a shot between wind and water, entering under the counter,
     and a second shot went through the quarter-deck barricade, killed
     one man, and wounded four, among whom was Captain Tatham.



When Commodore Thompson with his division (having on board Major General
Dundas and the second brigade) parted from the fleet on their voyage
from Barbadoes, he proceeded with the utmost expedition to the north
east part of the island; and on Feb. 5th arrived off the bay of Gallion.
Captain Faulknor in the Zebra led in, and placed himself along-side of
the battery on Point a Chaux, from whence he soon drove the enemy. The
Beaulieu, Captain Salisbury, and the Woolwich, Captain Parker, followed;
and the troops were landed without further opposition about a league
from the town of Trinité, which was situated on the further side of the
isthmus that formed the bay of Gallion. Here General Dundas halted for
that night. Early the next morning he began his march towards Trinité.
As he moved off from the ground he had occupied during the night, the
enemy annoyed him much by a brisk fire of musketry from the cane fields,
where a large body of them were concealed; from thence however they were
soon driven by the bayonet, which (as the Commander in Chief
observed[12]) in the hands of a gallant British soldier is the first of
weapons. In this business we had one artilleryman killed, and two
officers and three privates wounded. The General then continued his
march to La Bruen, a strong post situated on an eminence immediately
over the town of Trinité. The light infantry drove the enemy from this
post after an action of about fifteen minutes. We had two men killed and
seven or eight wounded, among which were two officers. The enemy's loss
was much greater. Early on the night of the 6th our troops took
possession of Fort Louis (and changed its name to Fort Dundas), and Fort
Bellgarde, a post that commanded the harbour of Trinité. Mons.
Bellgarde, general of the army composed of people of colour, finding
that we had taken possession of the forts, made a precipitate retreat
towards the mountains, having previously set fire to the town of
Trinité, the best part of which, together with a great quantity of
stores of all kinds, was consumed; but Commodore Thompson took
possession of the vessels in the harbour and road. In all these attacks
the seamen (under command of Captain Salisbury) bore a part, and by
their intrepidity and good conduct gained the esteem as well as
applause of the army.

     [12] Vide Appendix, page 7.

On the evening of the 7th General Dundas proceeded with his brigade to
the attack of Gros Morne, where he was informed General Bellgarde was
strongly posted in considerable force; but on his arrival he found the
forts evacuated. Gros Morne is a situation of great importance, being
strongly fortified, and commanding the principal pass between the
northern and southern parts of the island, and famous for being the
rendezvous of the democrats during the revolution, previous to our
arrival. Besides the principal fort, there is a redoubt on either side,
about a mile distant, commanding the road leading to the fort. A
detachment of the queen's regiment and a party of the marines being left
to garrison Trinité, under command of Major Skerret, and the battalion
of the 64th to garrison Le Gros Morne, the remainder of the brigade
marched early in the morning of the 9th instant, and on the evening of
the same day took possession of a strong situation called Bruno, where
there had formerly been a fort, some of the guns of which were still
remaining: it lies about two leagues north east of Fort Bourbon, and
from it our army could see the enemy in their out-posts from that
fort[13]. After the troops had halted for some time, Colonel Cradock
with three companies of the second battalion of grenadiers was ordered
to advance and take possession of the post of Maltide, where a
considerable number of the enemy were assembled with their colours
flying; but on his approach they evacuated the place in haste. Of this
post our troops had the quiet possession that night, and all the next
day; but in the night between the 10th and 11th they were attacked by a
party of the enemy, commanded by Mons. Bellgarde, amounting to about
eight hundred men, who, having crept up under cover of the canes and
underwood, commenced a heavy fire on our troops, who, though rather
taken by surprise, charged the enemy in their turn with such vigour and
determined bravery, as forced them sorely to repent their temerity, and
retreat towards Fort Bourbon with considerable loss. In this action
Captain M'Ewen of the thirty-eighth regiment and seven privates were
killed, and nineteen wounded. Next day a great quantity of fire arms
were picked up, which the enemy had left behind them in their
precipitate retreat. In the evening of the 11th the post was reinforced
by three companies of grenadiers and part of the second battalion of
light infantry; but that night all was quiet. Early on the morning of
the 12th the grenadiers were ordered back to Bruno, and the battalion of
the sixth regiment, commanded by Major Scott, took their place at
Maltide, and the wounded were sent on board the hospital ship.

     [13] About this time the army had nearly experienced an irreparable
     loss. As General Dundas was writing in his tent, a notorious
     villain, of the name of Barbarose, presented himself at the door of
     the tent, demanding to speak with the General, who, to drive him
     away, called to the centinel to "bayonet the fellow;" on which, in
     his fright, he dropped a dagger well oiled; and on being seized,
     proved to have been the assassin of a French royalist.

As the bay and harbour of Fort Royal were now completely opened to our
shipping by the capture of Pigeon Island, the Commander in Chief moved
forward on the 14th from La Riviere Sallée to Bruno with the remainder
of the first brigade, a principal part of which had, under General
Prescott, reached that place the day before; having previously concerted
the attack of St. Pierré with General Dundas, that general marched on
the evening of the 13th from Bruno with the second battalion of
grenadiers, the thirty-third and fortieth light companies, and the
sixty-fifth regiment, to Gros Morne, where he halted that night, and
early on the 14th marched to Trinité; from whence he dispatched a sloop
with the packs and blankets of his army round towards la Basse Pointe,
in order to expedite his march toward St. Pierre, the capital of the
island, the capture of which was now his object. From Gros Morne General
Dundas had detached Colonel Campbell through the woods by Bois le Buc
with the second battalion of light infantry and sixty-fifth regiment to
Montigné. At five o'clock in the evening of the 14th General Dundas
marched from Trinité (being joined by a company of the second or queen's
regiment, commanded by the Honourable Captain Ramsay): after marching
all night he halted for three hours; and soon after day-break on the
morning of the 15th, having passed the river Capot, arrived at the
heights of Calbass, after a march of thirty miles over a rough
mountainous country. The fatigue of such a march in a tropical climate
can only be conceived by those who have experienced it: harassed and
worn down, it was necessary to give the troops some rest before they
attempted to ascend the steep and craggy mountain, over the top of which
was their road, commanded by a battery, where the enemy appeared in
great force, with their colours flying. The spirit of our soldiers
however overcame all difficulties, and they ascended the heights with
such alacrity, that the enemy, alarmed at their determined conduct,
evacuated the fort (fortunately for our men), without making any
resistance; as, by the time they reached the summit of the mountain,
they were so exhausted, that a steady opposition might have proved fatal
to them. From hence (the post having previously been destroyed by the
enemy, who had broken the guns and scattered the ammunition) General
Dundas proceeded about four miles further, to a place called Morne
Rouge: here he halted, and shortly after saw Colonel Campbell at Post au
Pin, half a mile short of Montigné, under a heavy fire from five or six
hundred of the enemy, strongly posted. General Dundas instantly pushed
forward his advanced guard, under command of the Hon. Captain Ramsay,
who gained the summit by extraordinary exertions, fired on the enemy, at
that time engaged with Colonel Campbell, and silenced their fire; and,
when joined by the second battalion of grenadiers, took possession of
Montigné, where he was reinforced by two companies of grenadiers. The
major general took post himself on Morne Rouge, and visiting Colonel
Campbell's column, found he had been attacked at half past nine o'clock
in the morning, and the enemy being within twenty yards of the fortieth
light company, at the head of which he was, had charged them with
bayonets, when, to the great grief of the whole army, he fell by a ball
through his head from the musket of a mulatto, who had concealed himself
behind a bush till the Colonel came close up to it. Colonel Campbell
was a man high in estimation as a military character, and no less
respected for his private worth, being sincere in his friendships and
steady in his attachments. When General Dundas arrived at Morne Rouge,
the enemy were on their march to re-attack our troops; but the
appearance of our grenadiers so near them, caused them to relinquish
their plan at that time: but in the evening of the same day the General
observed bodies of the enemy moving towards his front at Morne Rouge,
and forming under a small redoubt near that post. The thirty-third,
thirty-fourth, and forty-fourth companies of grenadiers, with a field
piece, and Captain Whitworth of the artillery (the whole under the
command of Major Forbes), were ordered to advance, when a smart
engagement commenced. The enemy were covered by a brisk fire from two
field pieces on Morne Bellvieu, a strongly situated battery immediately
in their rear. The action continued for about half an hour, when the
enemy gave way, and during the night abandoned the fort, leaving two
field pieces behind them. From the number of graves observed the
following day (corroborated by the accounts of some prisoners), their
loss must have been considerable; ours consisted of one officer
(Lieutenant Keating of the thirty-third regiment) and two privates
wounded, and one private killed.--At two o'clock the following morning
the sixteenth, thirty-fifth, and fifty-fifth companies of grenadiers
were ordered to advance and storm the battery upon Morne Bellvieu, and
were to be supported (if necessary) by the ninth and sixty-fifth
companies. All their flints were taken out, the bayonet alone to be the
soldier's defence. However, the enemy had been so roughly handled the
day before, that they thought fit to decamp during the night, and our
troops took possession of the fort without any opposition. Our army had
now arrived within two leagues of St. Pierre, from whence by day-break
the enemy sent a flag of truce, requiring three days to consider of a
capitulation; to which General Dundas returned an answer, that instead
of three days, he would allow them only three hours; and if they did not
surrender within that time, he would advance against the town. The
fifty-fifth company of grenadiers being left in possession of Bellvieu,
the remainder of the battalion moved on towards St. Pierré. In the mean
time the Admiral, Sir John Jervis, to co-operate with the land forces
under General Dundas, had ordered the following ships to sail for the
bay of St. Pierre, the Asia, Veteran, Santa Margarita, Blonde,
Rattlesnake, Zebra, and Nautilus, with the Vesuvius bomb. On board of
this fleet Colonel Symes had embarked with three light companies, and
Major Maitland with a detachment of the fiftieth regiment; Colonel Myers
with five companies of the first battalion of grenadiers, and five
companies of the third battalion of light infantry, (for the same
purpose of co-operating with General Dundas) had marched from Camp la
Coste towards Trinité.

The fleet on their arrival in the bay prepared for instant operation.
Colonel Symes, with the troops and seamen who were to land with him,
had, previous to their entering the bay, embarked on board of the Zebra
and Nautilus sloops, and some other vessels, which, being small, could
get nearer the shore, thereby rendering the debarkation of the troops
much less difficult.

In the evening of Feb. 16th they began to work towards the north part of
the bay, beyond the Jesuits' College, the other men of war standing
towards the town to cover them. About eleven o'clock the vessels with
troops and seamen on board were under a cross fire from two batteries of
red hot shot, which happily did them no damage, though they fell round
and near them. Captain Harvey in the Santa Margarita, perceiving the
troops were likely to be much annoyed, went close under the guns of the
most considerable of the two batteries, which he silenced; and about
four in the morning of the 17th the troops and seamen made good their
landing, and found that the enemy had left the other battery. During the
night the Vesuvius bomb did much execution with her shells, many of them
falling in the town, to which it set fire in some places: the fire
however was soon extinguished. The batteries in the town and on the
adjacent hills kept up a constant fire of shot and shells on the men of
war, as they advanced towards the town, which was returned with great
spirit. The Santa Margarita was struck with a shell, which fortunately
neither fired her, nor did any considerable damage. Colonel Symes on
landing advanced with the troops towards St. Pierre, which the enemy
evacuated on his approach, leaving their guns primed and loaded, and
their colours flying, which were hauled down by our people, and the
British union hoisted. About ten the whole of the troops and seamen had
marched into the town. No man was suffered to quit his ranks, nor was
the least injury done to any of the inhabitants, who, with the women and
children, sat at their doors and windows to see our army march in, the
same as when troops pass through a town in England. While our men were
drawn up in the market place, a flag of truce came in from General
Dundas, who with his army was on the hills near the town, and was on his
march to attack it. This flag was in answer to one sent by the enemy to
him, offering to capitulate. The officer who brought the flag was
agreeably surprised to find on his entering the town that it was already
in the possession of his countrymen. In the evening General Dundas with
the army marched in; and having taken possession of the
government-house, he instantly established quiet and good order in the
town. As our troops marched into St. Pierre a drummer was discovered in
the act of plundering one of the peaceable inhabitants, for which he was
instantly hung up at the gate of the Jesuits' College, by order of the
provost marshal. In the evening the seamen embarked on board their
respective ships. The men of war having anchored in the bay, were busily
employed in taking an account of and unbending the sails of the
different ships in the harbour. Unfortunately at day-break of this
morning, when the town surrendered, a schooner got out of the south side
of the bay, in which it was reported there was a considerable quantity
of money and some people of distinction. She passed within gun-shot of
the Santa Margarita, who (for some reason or other) did not fire at her
to bring her to. The next morning the Santa Margarita sailed to Fort
Royal bay with Mons. Au Cane[14], the mayor of St. Pierre, and Abbé
Maunier, the vicar general of the island, and other prisoners.

     [14] On our first arrival at the island of Martinique, the
     Commanders in Chief dispatched Captain Mason (aid de camp to the
     General) bearing a flag of truce, with a summons to the town of St.
     Pierre. Au Cane, the mayor, met him on the quay on horseback,
     attended by a numerous body of armed men, with a field piece; &c.
     and instead of reading the letter and summons, dismissed him rudely
     with threats.

St. Pierre is a long handsome town, situated on the shore of an open
bay, and flanked by a strong battery at either end; also defended by two
redoubts on the hills which overhang the town. The surrounding country
rises in a succession of hills beautifully variegated with woods and
sugar plantations; and near the town are some fine gardens, which before
the revolution had been kept up in a superior stile of elegance and
convenience. Each street of this beautiful town is watered by a clear
stream from the mountains, running rapidly down the middle, which adds
greatly to the health as well as convenience of the place. The streets
in general are narrow and rough paved, but very regular; the houses are
built of a fine stone like free-stone, the lower apartments of which
were in general handsomely, and sometimes superbly, furnished.

There are two convents of nuns, one dedicated to St. Ursuline, the other
called Les Blancs. The Ursuline convent has very beautiful gardens,
situated at the declivity of a hill, which rises immediately behind the
town: it was in a wretched state when we took it, the poor nuns having
been deprived of their revenues by the revolutionists. Near this convent
is a neat church, whose high altar, as well as pavement, is of good
marble. Not far from the church is the opera house, which, from its high
roof, is a very conspicuous object. Towards the south end of the town is
the church of Notre Dame de bon Porte du Mouillage (of which Pere
Maunier, one of the chiefs of the revolution, was curé). It is a
handsome building: round the grand altar (which is of polished and well
sculptured marble) are several tolerable paintings of saints and the
Virgin Mary, as large as life. Over the bridge, at the north end of the
town, is another large church, and several others, small and mean in
their outward appearance and inside decorations. I was informed that
most of these churches were well endowed before the revolution, and the
religious houses were amply provided for, as is the case in all parts of
the new world where the Roman Catholic religion is professed.

At the northern extremity of St. Pierre is a spacious handsome house,
with good offices, stables, and gardens, which formerly belonged to the
Jesuits, in whose district the town and surrounding country is situated.
The Capuchins and Dominicans had the two other parts of the island.--The
government-house, which on our taking it was inhabited by Au Cane, the
mayor, is conveniently situated near the centre of the town, and was
formed for the residence of the chief magistrate or governor of the
island. The rooms are large and lofty, and there is a good garden at the
back of the house, in which, amongst a variety of fruit trees, was a
fine bread-fruit tree: how it came there, I could not learn, unless
some French ships had paid a visit to the islands in the South Sea, for
the same purpose that our ships of late have made that voyage; but then
I think more of the trees would have been seen in this and the
neighbouring French islands.--Towards the southern end of the town is a
large and commodious hospital, which had good revenues attached to it,
and was well regulated and attended. This we found of infinite use for
our sick and wounded, who were far better provided for here than they
could be in the hospital ships, or with the army.



St. Pierre being now captured[15], the enemy's strength was concentrated
in one point at Forts Louis and Bourbon: the latter is a work of late
date, being built under the directions of the present Marquis de
Bouillé, and is a well planned as well as strongly situated
fortification; but in this mountainous country it is hardly possible to
find any spot that may not be commanded by some neighbouring height,
unless on the tops of the mountains, where it would be difficult to
procure water and provisions sufficient for the subsistence of an army
during a siege of any length. The town of Fort Royal is situated on a
flat and swampy ground, at the foot of the hill on which is Fort
Bourbon; and Fort Louis, the ancient strong-hold of this island, is on a
neck of land running into the sea, and forms one side of the Carénage,
an excellent harbour for shipping of all kinds.--The Admiral, from the
day he anchored in Fort Royal Bay, began a heavy cannonade on Fort
Louis. The Vesuvius bomb, commanded by Captain Sawyer, and under the
direction of Captain Suckling of the artillery, threw shells into the
fort from an eighteen-inch and twelve-inch mortar with great effect; and
as soon as the evening shut in, the gun-boats, attended by several
row-boats from the ships in the fleet (to assist in case of their being
sunk by the enemy's shot) moved towards the mouth of the Carénage, and
commenced a brisk fire on the fort, which was generally returned with
equal spirit; but, from the smallness of the object, and frequently
shifting their situation, they were less often hit than could have been
expected, considering that they constantly were within the range of
grape-shot, which fell in showers round them. Towards day-break they
returned to their respective ships.--In the night of February 15th, the
second and third companies of seamen, under the command of Lieutenants
Miln and Ogle, left the Boyne; and, with other seamen from the fleet,
the whole under command of Captain Rogers of the Quebec, landed at Cas
Navire, and (occupying the posts that the troops under Colonel Myers had
that day quitted, to assist in the attack on St. Pierre) formed a camp
near Point Negro.--Our shipping having now, by the capture of Pigeon
Island, free ingress to Fort Royal bay, most of the transports and
store-ships, under convoy of his majesty's ships Santa Margarita,
Solebay, Nautilus, &c. got up into the Cul de sac de Cohée, an harbour
at the north-east end of the bay, from whence they had a communication
with the army under Sir Charles Grey, and where they built a wharf to
land provisions and stores; and a chain of posts was established from
thence to the heights of Bruno, on which duty the fifteenth and
twentieth regiments were employed.--On February 18th in the morning,
General Bellgarde moved with nearly his whole force from his camp on the
heights of Sourier, to attack the landing-place in the Cul de sac de
Cohée, and by that means to cut off the communication between the army
and the fleet. Sir Charles Grey, with that quickness of perception that
has rendered him so often useful to his country, instantly perceived his
design, and without loss of time ordered the grenadiers, under the
command of Colonel Buckridge, and the light infantry, under that of
Colonel Coote, to advance with the utmost expedition, and attack Mons.
Bellgarde's camp at Sourier; and detached a strong corps from the
heights of Bruno to support them. They began their attack on the enemy
in the wood; and having driven them from thence, began to mount the
rugged and almost inaccessible sides of the hill on which Sourier was
situated. The troops gallantly forced their way through every
obstruction, and mounted the heights under a heavy fire from the
retreating enemy, whom they fairly drove up the precipice, and gained
the heights, where they found an excellent dinner (provided for
Bellgarde and his people) to refresh them after their fatigue. Our loss
in this affair[16] was by no means so great as might have been expected,
considering the length of ground, and the many disadvantages under which
our troops engaged. While this was doing, General Sir Charles Grey
cannonaded Bellgarde from the camp at Bruno, whose troops soon retired
in confusion to their late camp at Sourier, which they found occupied by
the British grenadiers, who turned their own guns on them (consisting of
three brass field pieces), and drove them in confusion under the walls
of Fort Bourbon. Our soldiers could not now be restrained, but with an
impetuosity that General Prescott could not for the moment prevent,
advanced so near the fort, that the enemy opening a heavy fire of grape
shot on them, obliged them at length to retire with some loss to their
new acquisition on Sourier, a post which Sir Charles Grey had intended
to have attacked the following day, as being absolutely necessary to
enable him to carry on his plan of attack against Fort Bourbon, and
which the temerity of Bellgarde had thus put into his hands a day
sooner.--The whole business of this action was conducted in such a
manner, that each individual concerned partook of the glory of it; and
when considered as to its utility, it was perhaps one of the most
fortunate, as well as the best conducted, enterprises that happened
throughout the campaign. The day after this event General Rochambeau,
who commanded in Fort Bourbon, sent an aid de camp on board the Boyne,
who went thence with Captain Grey to the Commander in Chief at head
quarters. The terms of capitulation that he brought were, that the whole
island should be delivered to the English on condition that, in case
Louis the Seventeenth should ever come to the throne, it should be
restored to him; if not, and the republic should be established, it
should be given up to that government. The Commander in Chief returned
for answer, 'that he came expressly to take this island for his
Britannic Majesty; and that he hoped to take all the French islands in
this quarter on the same account.'--The troops now pitched their tents,
and formed their camp on Sourier. General Prescott's quarters were in
this camp, where he commanded; and Sir Charles Grey established his head
quarters at a small distance in the rear.--General Dundas having
arranged every thing relative to the government of St. Pierre, left
Colonel Myers of the fifteenth regiment with the battalions of the
fifty-eighth and sixty-fifth regiments to garrison that town, and on
February 20th embarked with the grenadiers on board the Veteran for Fort
Royal Bay. The morning following they disembarked in the Cul de sac de
Cohée, and marched directly to head quarters at Sourier, where they
pitched their tents, and with regret parted from General Dundas, their
commander hitherto, who went to Camp la Coste to take the command of
the light infantry.--The artillery, artificers, and engineers, were now
busily employed in landing stores and ammunition preparatory to the
formation of the batteries necessary for the siege; in which business
they received great assistance from a body of seamen landed for that
purpose: three hundred of these brave fellows were landed at the wharf
in the Cul de sac Cohée from his majesty's ships Santa Margarita,
Captain Harvey, with his Lieutenants Woolley and Harrison; the Solebay,
Captain Kelly, with Lieutenants Carthew and Schomberg; and Nautilus
sloop, Captain Carpenter; with Lieutenant Bennet, Lieutenant Collins,
and a party of marines, from the Santa Margarita. They instantly began
to proceed with a twenty-four pounder and two six pounders[17] towards
Sourier. They halted with the twenty-four pounder that evening on the
side of the road between Fort Royal and the town of Lamantin, as they
were obliged to cut a road through a thick wood for nearly a mile. The
next day they completed the road, and also made a sort of bridge, or
rather passage, across a river, which at times was of considerable
depth, though fortunately there was now only four feet water in it. This
they effected by filling it up with large stones and branches of trees,
and then they proceeded with the twenty-four pounder and two eight-inch
howitzers, which they left that night in charge of a piquet from the
post above mentioned. On the third day they, to the astonishment of the
whole army, got a twenty-four pounder to the heights of Sourier before
the night shut in, and two howitzers within a mile of it; and to add to
the difficulty, a considerable part of that day was employed in
levelling the banks of the river that runs by Dillon's plantation, and
making it fordable, by removing immense stones and fragments of rock. On
the fourth day (notwithstanding they were obliged to employ a
considerable party in making the road more complete) they got the two
howitzers above mentioned, and two more twenty-four pounders, to the
heights of Sourier. The distance from the wharf to those heights is near
five miles; and when we consider that the road was to be formed for near
four miles of the way, one of which was through a very thick wood, and
that, as they approached the heights of Sourier, for near a mile the
road was so steep, that a loaded mule could not walk directly up it, it
seems scarce credible that so small a number as three hundred men should
be able to have undergone such severe fatigue, considering the climate
and the nature of the soil, which was a very stiff clay, intermixed with
large rock stones.--A few days after, a reinforcement of seamen was
landed from the Veteran, Captain Nugent, with Lieutenants Leaf and
Whitlock, and the Winchelsea, Lord Viscount Garlies, with his
Lieutenants Dixon and Watson; also Lieutenant Treminere of the marines,
with a sergeant's party. They took post by the side of the road leading
from Lamantin to Fort Royal, where the first twenty-four pounder was
halted.--The first party of seamen took post on the banks of the river
running past Dillon's plantation, at the foot of the heights of
Sourier. But the Veteran being wanted for other service, in the course
of the week one hundred and fifty men were reimbarked on board her, and
the Winchelsea's crew joined the former party. The compliments paid the
seamen in general orders for their spirited conduct, is a convincing
proof that they never once relaxed from their first exertions from the
beginning of the siege to the surrender of Fort Bourbon, a period of
five weeks. Indeed their astonishing exertions were almost beyond
probability: after rain (which in this climate is frequent) the steep
parts of the road were so slippery, that a man even with the greatest
care would frequently slip back ten and sometimes twenty feet at a time:
but so determined were the honest tars not to fail in what they
undertook, that when once they set out with their gun after a heavy
rain, and they found it impossible to keep their feet, they have crawled
up as they dragged the twenty-four pounder, and kept themselves from
sliding back by sticking their fingers in the ground. But among the many
compliments paid the seamen, none pleased them so much as having a
battery appointed solely for them[18], where they used to relieve one
another by turns, without even an additional allowance of grog as an
encouragement. Sir Charles Grey paid the highest compliments to the
zeal and ability with which the Admiral seconded all his plans. Indeed
there never was an instance in which two commanders carried on a
business of such importance so unalloyed by the least difference in
opinion, or jealousy of command: each strove to prove his readiness to
assist his friend and colleague; of course every thing succeeded, and
was carried on with a promptness of execution that seldom has been
equalled, never exceeded.

     [15] Information having arrived that some of the enemy had retired
     from St. Pierre to a five-gun battery on that part of the island,
     Major Manningham was dispatched with a strong detachment in
     flat-boats, under the protection of the Zebra sloop of war, and was
     completely successful in driving them from thence.

     [16] According to the best account I could collect, ten killed and
     forty-four wounded.--I must here beg the reader will pardon the
     inaccuracy of my account of the killed and wounded in this and the
     other actions that took place. Though I have made every possible
     inquiry, I have not been able to meet with the regular returns,
     which must have been given in to the adjutant general's office at

     [17] The two six-pounders were to strengthen the post that
     commanded the road to Fort Royal by Dillon's house.

     [18] One day, when the Commander in Chief met them on the road,
     they (being ignorant that a battery was appointed for them to serve
     in) surrounded the General, and offered him their services,
     swearing they thought it d----d hard to have all work and no
     fighting; and hoped his Honour would let them have some share in
     it. The General, with that kindness which won the hearts of all
     that had the happiness to serve under him, said, "Well, my lads,
     you shall have a battery to yourselves." On which, having saluted
     him with three hearty cheers, the honest fellows went readily to
     their work again.



From the 20th of February Forts Bourbon and Louis, with the town of Fort
Royal, were completely invested, and the General was busily employed in
erecting batteries on his first parallel. On the north-east side the
army under General Prescott broke ground on the 25th of February, and on
the west side towards La Coste (where Sir Charles Gordon commanded,
Prince Edward not having as yet arrived from Canada) fascine batteries
for mortars and cannon were erecting with every possible expedition. In
this business the seamen, who formed a camp at Point Negro under Captain
Josias Rogers of the Quebec, eminently distinguished themselves; and
though the roads were not quite so bad as on the Sourier side, yet they
had many severe difficulties to encounter, that rendered dragging the
mortars and heavy ordnance to the batteries fatiguing and hazardous in a
great degree. Part of the way which they were obliged to go was in sight
of Fort Bourbon; soon after which they descended into a hollow way or
ravine, where a rivulet invited them to refresh themselves, and it was
with difficulty their officers could prevent them from slaking their
thirst at this stream, which crossed them at a time when the fatigue and
heat they sustained rendered the temptation almost irresistible,
especially to men fearless of danger, and thoughtless to a proverb. No
sooner did they begin to descend into this ravine, than the enemy threw
their shells with such judgment, that they frequently fell at the moment
our people were passing the rivulet. It was in the afternoon of the 22d
of February that Lieutenant James Miln of the Boyne was proceeding with
his company of seamen to relieve those who had been the fore-part of the
day at work on one of the advanced batteries, and having been observed
on his march by the enemy in Fort Bourbon, they as usual began to fire
their mortars into the ravine; Mr. Miln, who, added to the greatest
courage, possessed much prudence, was hurrying his men through this
dangerous pass, and was in the act of calling to two men who were
drinking at the rivulet (the rest of his company having passed on), when
a shell burst near him, carried off one of his legs, and shattered the
other in a dreadful manner. At the same time one of the men, who had
loitered, lost a leg. In this dreadful situation he was carried two
miles to Sir Charles Gordon's camp, before his wounds could be bound up,
and from thence to his own quarters at Point Negro, where he suffered
amputation of one leg. The next day the surgeon general of the navy went
to him from the Boyne, and finding his situation dangerous in the
extreme, having no better place than the ground, in an open sugar-house,
part of which was the head quarters of the naval officers, and being
within range of the enemy's guns, which frequently threw their shot and
shells over him, he was conveyed to the royal hospital at St. Pierre;
but from the loss of blood he had sustained, and the nature of the
climate, he was seized with the lock jaw, of which he died on Sunday the
9th of March, and the next day was buried in the garden of the hospital
with the honours of war, together with Lieutenants Spencer and
Rosehill[19] of the Beaulieu, and Lieutenant Smith of the fifty-eighth
regiment. The burial service was performed by the Chaplain[20] of the
Boyne, and attended by Colonel Myers, commandant of St. Pierre, Captain
Salisbury of the Beaulieu, and the other naval and military officers,
and the principal English gentlemen who were in that town. The Admiral,
who always distinguished merit, and rewarded it when in his power, had
promoted Mr. Miln[21] to the command of the Avenger sloop, late
Marseillois, taken at St. Pierre.

     [19] The Admiral had lately promoted Mr. Rosehill to the rank of
     Lieutenant for his spirited behaviour at Trinité.

     [20] Who this day performed the funeral service over thirteen
     people belonging to the army and navy.

     [21] As it was my lot to be much in the society of this excellent
     young man, having from the time we arrived in the West Indies
     enjoyed his friendship, and on several occasions accompanied him on
     service, afterwards attending him from the camp at Point Negro to
     the hospital at St. Pierre, and remaining with him at intervals
     till the time of his death: these circumstances will, I trust,
     plead my excuse for detaining the reader from more important events
     of the campaign while I pay the tribute of respect to the memory of
     my gallant but ill-fated friend. Mr. James Miln was a native of
     Arbroath in Scotland, and after serving for near thirteen years
     with credit in the navy, was promoted to a lieutenancy on board the
     Blanche frigate by Admiral Sir John Laforey, and was afterwards
     taken on board the Boyne as fifth lieutenant by Sir John Jervis on
     his arrival at Barbadoes. His general good conduct as a man and
     officer soon attracted the notice of the naval Commander in Chief
     (than whom no man is more quick sighted to discern merit, and happy
     to reward it). By him no doubt he would have been much employed on
     the most active service, had not that melancholy event taken place,
     which deprived the service of a good and brave officer, and left me
     only the sad task of deploring, while I commemorate the death of a
     friend, from the excellency of whose heart and understanding I was
     in hopes of reaping future entertainment and improvement.

Bellgarde found it in vain to attempt any thing further, after his last
shameful defeat; and being with his black army shut out of Fort Bourbon
by General Rochambeau (who, when he retreated after the loss of his camp
on Sourier under cover of the fire of that fort, shut the gates against
him), he now determined to make the best bargain he could for himself;
and accordingly on the 25th of February sent a message to Sir Charles
Grey, offering to give up his army, on condition that himself, and
certain others that he named, should be permitted to go to America;
which request the Commander in Chief complied with; and on the 4th of
March, Bellgarde, with his secretary, a white man, by whose councils he
had always been guided, and eight people of colour, sailed in a
schooner for America, whither he had taken the precaution at various
times to forward a quantity of wealth against any change of
circumstances should make such a retreat desirable[22].

     [22] Since writing of this, news has arrived from the West Indies
     of the capture of a ship belonging to Victor Hughes (the present
     republican tyrant of Guadaloupe) loaded with wealth amassed by this
     plunderer to the amount of half a million sterling. Such has been
     the general conduct of the French Commanders, while ours have been
     vilified for claiming even the legal bounty for their suffering and
     exhausted followers.

On Tuesday the 4th of March his Royal Highness Prince Edward arrived at
this island, and was received with a royal salute from the fleet.
Immediately he took the command of that brigade of the army encamped on
the Cas Navire side, and at La Coste, which had hitherto been under the
direction of Sir Charles Gordon[23].--Intelligence having reached the
Commander in Chief that a number of brigands, composed of some runaways
from Bellgarde's army, and other wretches, had committed many
depredations and murders, pillaging and burning houses and villages in
several parts of the island; he dispatched a detachment of the fifteenth
regiment, commanded by Lord Sinclair, with a party of the Prince of
Wales's light dragoons, commanded by Lieut. Shadwell, and conducted by
Captain Cunningham (one of his Excellency's aid de camps), who surprised
one hundred and fifty of these people in the act of burning and
plundering the village of Francois[24]. At the first charge the enemy
were routed, thirty-six of them, with their chief (who was cut down by a
dragoon), were killed, and four taken prisoners, who were instantly hung
up, to deter others from such infamous acts as had been committed by
these miscreants.--Every preparation was now made for opening our
batteries against Fort Bourbon, which were constructed only about eight
hundred paces from the fort, and about six hundred in front of our own
lines. These batteries would have been constructed much sooner, but,
owing to the heavy rains that fell almost constantly, and which, at this
season of the year, were unusual, the works had been greatly retarded,
and the difficulties encreased. On the morning of the 6th of March,
every thing being ready for a heavy cannonade, Sir Charles Grey sent a
flag of truce with a summons to the garrison to surrender, which was
refused by General Rochambeau. Accordingly, at day-break on the 7th (the
gun-boats having as usual attacked Fort Louis during the night) mortars,
howitzers, and great guns, opened from five batteries at the same
instant, keeping up an incessant fire on the fort and advanced redoubt
the whole of that day and the night, from each of which it was returned
with equal fury. All the following day the same spirited attack and
defence was continued. On the 9th the enemy made a sortie from the fort,
and attacked the advanced picquet from the camp at La Coste, composed of
part of the third battalion of light infantry, and some sailors under
command of Captain Faulknor of the Zebra. After an engagement of some
length the enemy gave way, and were imprudently followed by our troops
under the guns of the fort; by this excess of ardour we lost some men,
while the enemy suffered but little. The gun-boats and Vesuvius now kept
up a constant fire from Fort Royal Bay: in the former two seamen were
killed by grape, and part of the head of the bomb ketch was shot away.
On the 13th a melancholy accident occurred in one of our batteries,
which was formed and manned entirely by seamen. Captain Faulknor of the
Zebra, who commanded in it, being provoked by the interference of an
officer of artillery in the works which one of the seamen of the Asia
was employed in, and the sailor not obeying him with alacrity, was
provoked to strike him with his sword, which unfortunately wounded him
mortally, and he died in a few minutes. Captain Faulknor was acquitted
by the court martial that was instantly summoned by the Admiral to
investigate the matter; and the circumstance of its happening in the
heat of action, when the least disobedience of orders involves the most
fatal consequences, as well, as that it appeared there was no
premeditated intention of killing the unfortunate man, but was a blow
given from the impulse of momentary passion; the sentence was confirmed
and approved.--From this time the siege was carried on with unremitted
exertion by night and day; shot and shells were constantly flying, and
new batteries daily constructed; so that our advanced batteries were at
length brought within five hundred yards of the fort, and not more than
two hundred from the redoubt: the latter indeed was so battered, that it
might with ease have been stormed; but the General knew that a mine
which communicated from the fort would involve in certain destruction
all who attempted so desperate an action; and therefore preferred the
more sure means of success, by regular and methodical approaches. On
Monday the 17th of March two new batteries opened on Fort Louis from
Point Carriere, a neck of land that forms the south-west side of the
Carénage, and not more than two hundred yards across the mouth of that
harbour to the walls of the fort; one of these was commanded by Captain
Riou[25] of the Rose.--The French had a fine frigate called the
Bienvenu, which was anchored in the centre of the Carénage, on board of
which it was reported a number of English prisoners were confined, and
were consequently exposed to the fire of our batteries. Lieut. Bowen of
the Boyne formed a resolution to extricate his countrymen from their
perilous situation; and having obtained the Admiral's permission, and
approbation of his plan, at noon he boldly pushed into the harbour from
Point Carriere, where he had collected his boats destined for the
enterprise, well manned by tried and determined seamen. The instant he
appeared round the point, the enemy prepared to give him a warm
reception. The walls of Fort Louis were covered in an instant with
troops, which kept up an incessant fire of musquetry on him; at the same
time the frigate endeavoured to keep him off, by plying both her great
guns and small arms; but at length, intimidated by the boldness of the
attempt, they fled from their quarters, and Mr. Bowen at the head of his
men boarded the frigate, and took the captain, officers, and crew of her
prisoners without resistance. All this time the enemy in the fort
continued to pour vollies of grape and musketry on the frigate, which
was returned with great spirit by the British seamen, who now turned
their own guns upon them, and would have brought her out of the harbour,
but the sails being all unbent, it was impossible in such a situation to
bend them: the tri-coloured flag, which was fastened to the gaff of the
mizen, they were not able to strike, though a sailor had the audacity to
go aloft for that purpose, scorning the musketry of the enemy. Mr.
Bowen, seeing no chance of getting the ship out of the harbour, and
finding that the English prisoners were in another vessel further up,
from whence it was rendered impossible to release them, contented
himself with securing the officers and crew of the frigate, whom he
brought off, in spite of every effort made by the republicans to prevent
him. As the bullets were flying thick around him, he suffered the
Frenchmen to lie down in the bottom of the boats, that they might not be
killed by their own countrymen; a very different conduct from what they
had observed to our people who were in the same situation[26]. In this
business he lost only three men killed, and four or five wounded. The
success of this enterprise gave the Commanders in Chief confidence, that
a spirited attack by land and sea on Fort Louis would succeed.
Accordingly the Admiral ordered a number of bamboos of thirty feet long
to be cut and made into scaling ladders, connected with strong line. The
gun-boats and row-boats were collected in the bay round the Point
Carriere, and the sailors' camp at Point Negro, with Prince Edward's
camp at La Coste and Cas Navire, held themselves in readiness to
co-operate in the grand attack. The navy to be employed in this business
was under the immediate direction of Commodore Thompson. On Thursday the
20th of March, before day-break, the third battalion of grenadiers,
commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Buckridge, and the first battalion of
light infantry, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Coote, marched by the
hill on which Fort Bourbon is situated from the camp on Sourier,
unperceived by the enemy, and took a position that gave them the command
of the bridge that connected the town of Fort Royal to the road leading
up to that fort, the batteries on the second parallel being ready, those
on Morne Tortenson and Point Carriere kept up a well-directed and heavy
fire on Fort Louis, and all the other batteries cannonaded Fort Bourbon
during the whole of the day and night of the 19th instant, and on the
morning also, till about ten o'clock, when the Asia of 64 guns, Captain
Browne, and the Zebra sloop of 16 guns, Captain R. Faulknor, got under
way. The Zebra led in towards the mouth of the harbour, receiving the
fire of grape and round, without returning a shot: the Asia had got
within the range of grape shot, when, to the surprise of every body, she
wore and made sail from the fort[27]. The Admiral, Sir John Jervis, had
previously made the signal for the rest of the fleet to be ready to
second the attempt of these two ships, by loosing the topsails of the
Boyne, and lying at single anchor ready to slip and run in; on
perceiving the Asia was foiled in her attempt, and supposing, as she was
under a heavy fire from the fort, that either Captain Browne was killed,
or that some other desperate accident had happened, he instantly
dispatched Captain George Grey of the Boyne to take the command of the
Asia, and if he could not get in, to run her aground under the walls of
the fort. Captain Grey soon returned, and brought the pleasing
intelligence that not a man was hurt on board of the Asia. She then
stood in again, and again put about, when near the mouth of the harbour,
and sailed from it. Captain Faulknor, seeing that he stood no chance of
being seconded by the Asia, and being all this time under a dreadful
fire from Fort Louis, boldly pushed in towards that fort, still
reserving his fire till he came close to the walls of it; and then
running his ship aground, plying his small arms and great guns, he drove
the enemy from thence, and leaping into a boat, scaled the ramparts.
Seeing the Zebra go in, all the boats with scaling ladders, attended by
the gun-boats, seemed to fly towards the scene of action. Those from
Point Carriere mounted the walls near where Captain Faulknor had so
gallantly run his ship, and seconding him, drove the enemy out of the
fort, hauled down the republican flag, and hoisted the British union in
its stead[28]. The storming party of seamen from the camp at Point
Negro, under Captain Rogers, landed at the town of Fort Royal, of which
they soon took possession, being aided by the first battalion of
grenadiers, under Lieutenant Colonel Stewart, and third light infantry,
under Lieutenant Colonel Close, from Prince Edward's camp at La
Coste.--While this was doing, Lieutenant Colonel Coote kept up a heavy
fire of musketry on the bridge and road, over which the enemy were
retreating to throw themselves into Fort Bourbon; and Captain de Revigne
covering the attack of the infantry by a well-directed fire of some
field pieces, the whole action was so eminently successful in every
part, that it is hard to say where was the greatest glory, every one
performing the service allotted to him in so excellent a manner. General
Rochambeau, seeing that all resistance would now be useless, Fort Royal,
his grand depôt of provisions and ammunition, being lost, sent a flag to
General Grey, offering terms of capitulation; and commissioners being
named, who met at the house of Madame Dillon to arrange the preliminary
articles of it, the terms were finally adjusted and agreed to on the 22d
instant; and the ratification thereof being signed by the Commanders in
Chief on both sides, on the 23d following, at four o'clock in the
afternoon, his Royal Highness Major General Prince Edward took
possession of both gates of the fort with the first and third battalions
of grenadiers, and first and third light infantry. On Tuesday the 25th
of March, 1794, the garrison marched out of Fort Bourbon, to the number
of nine hundred men; and being allowed the honours of war for their
gallant[29] defence, they marched down the hill with their colours
flying; and laying down their arms on the parade of Fort Royal, were
embarked on board of ships which took them immediately to France. Our
troops, both army and that part of the navy that had served (during the
siege) on shore, lined the road as the enemy passed; and entering the
fort, they struck the French and hoisted the British colours, changing
the name from Fort Bourbon to Fort George, in compliment to our gracious
Sovereign, which it now bears, and Fort Louis bears the name of Fort
Edward.--At the commencement of the siege the garrison of Fort Bourbon
consisted of one thousand two hundred men, which were reduced to nine
hundred at the conclusion of it. Five stands of colours laid down by the
garrison, and two colours of Fort Bourbon, were brought to England by
Major Grey, second son of his Excellency the Commander in Chief, and
presented by him (with the dispatches) to his Majesty, who ordered them
to be hung up in the Cathedral of St. Paul, as a lasting memorial of the
gallant action atchieved by Sir Charles Grey and Sir John Jervis, and
their brave forces[30]; by which one of the most valuable of the French
islands in the West Indies was added to the British dominions,
possessing (besides great revenues and prodigious sources of wealth) one
of the finest harbours in the world, in which the whole British fleet
might safely anchor.

     [23] See Appendix, page 24.

     [24] See Appendix, page 25.

     [25] The same officer who distinguished himself by his gallantry in
     saving his Majesty's ship the Guardian at the Cape of Good Hope in
     the year 1789. See Gent. Mag. vol. lx. page 465.

     [26] See Appendix, pages 26 and 27.

     [27] Monsieur de Tourelles, the ancient lieutenant of the fort,
     either through fear, ignorance, or treachery, refused to run the
     ship in under pretence of shoals.

     [28] The whole fleet, witnessing this gallant action, instantly
     saluted the British colours with three hearty cheers.

     [29] The gallant defence made by General Rochambeau and his
     garrison was strongly manifested on our entering Fort Bourbon, as
     there was scarce an inch of ground untouched by our shot or shells;
     and it is but justice to say, it did them the highest
     honour.--Among the casualties that happened during the siege, the
     following deserves notice. A party of the besieged were in one of
     the chambers of the Bomb-proof in the Traverse, when a shell from
     one of our batteries fell into the arched way, and rebounding,
     burst the door of the chamber, and killed the whole party.

     [30] It is much to the credit of the officers, who served on shore
     from the landing on the island till the reduction of Fort Bourbon,
     a period of forty-seven days, that they shared the same hardships
     as the privates without a murmur, sleeping in their clothes the
     whole time; and being so situated that they seldom could have the
     benefit of tents or any kind of hovel, they were exposed
     continually to the heavy rains and nocturnal damps which in a
     tropical climate so severely try the constitution; but, owing (as
     it was imagined) to the flannel shirts which were invariably worn
     by all ranks, they, as yet, suffered less from sickness than could
     have been expected.


     On the 21st of March, 1794, by order of their Excellencies Sir
     Charles Grey, K. B. General and Commander in Chief of his Britannic
     Majesty's forces in the West Indies, &c. &c. &c. and Vice Admiral
     Sir John Jervis, K. B. commanding his Majesty's fleet, &c. &c.
     Commodore C. Thompson, Colonel R. Symes, and Captain J. Conyngham,
     met at Dillon's house to receive proposals of capitulation for Fort
     Bourbon, from Colonel d'Aucourt, Captain Dupriret, and Gaschet
     Dumaine, jun. nominated Commissioners for that purpose by General

     _The following_ ARTICLES _were proposed, discussed, and modified,
     at a second conference held at Fort Royal on the 22d of March,

     Article I. The garrison, composed of the troops of the line,
     artillery, gunners of the marine, and national guard, shall march
     out with colours flying, thirty rounds a man, and two field pieces
     with twelve rounds.--ANSWER. The colony of Martinique, already
     reduced by the arms of his Britannic Majesty, and the forts and
     towns of St. Pierre and Fort Royal taken with sword in hand,
     General Rochambeau can only capitulate for Fort Bourbon, and what
     it contains.--Granted. But they are to lay down their arms at a
     place appointed, and not to serve against his Britannic Majesty,
     or his allies, during the present war.

     II. Three months pay to be allowed to the troops of the
     line.--ANSWER. No pay will be given. All their effects will be
     allowed them; and they will be provided with whatever may be
     necessary for their voyage to France.

     III. The thirty-seventh regiment, formerly Marshal Turenne's, shall
     keep their colours and arms.--ANSWER. Refused, being contrary to
     all customs of war. The officers may keep their swords.

     IV. They shall be furnished with ships to carry them to
     France.--ANSWER. Granted.

     V. The emigrants, who have returned to Martinique, shall not be
     present where the garrison lay down their arms or embark.--ANSWER.

     VI. Such persons of the national guard, who can give proofs of
     their property, shall be permitted to remain in the island, giving
     that property as security for their conduct.--ANSWER. Those of the
     national guard in Fort Bourbon who have affairs to settle, and
     whose sojourn may not be deemed dangerous to the colony, may remain
     according to the declaration of the General, dated January 1, 1794.

     Such as wish to go to France shall be allowed, leaving their agents
     here.--ANSWER. Granted.

     VII. Persons not included in the above article, who are compelled
     to return to France, shall be allowed a certain time to settle
     their affairs.--ANSWER. A proper time shall be allowed: fifteen
     days at least.

     VIII. Persons belonging to the garrison of Fort Convention,
     possessing no landed property, but who exercised some profession or
     trade previous to the present capitulation, shall be allowed to
     continue their trade or calling; nor sent to France, provided their
     future conduct should not make such a measure necessary.--ANSWER.
     They are regarded in the same predicament with those in Article VI.

     IX. The legal regulations of the constituted authorities shall be
     confirmed.--ANSWER. Refused.

     X. The code of civil judicature in force through the island shall
     be continued for the space of two years.--ANSWER. Granted, till his
     Britannic Majesty's pleasure be known.

     XI. The property of owners and captains of ships shall be secured
     to them on board and on shore.--ANSWER. Granted, as to their
     property in Fort Bourbon.

     XII. The inhabitants of St. Pierre, embarked on English ships,
     shall be set at liberty, and their property, under seal, secured to
     them.--ANSWER. This article cannot come within the present
     capitulation. The claimants may apply to the commanders of the
     fleet and army.

     XIII. The ordonateur and officers of administration shall have
     permission and time to regulate their accounts, and to take with
     them the papers relative to that end.--ANSWER. Granted.

     XIV. There shall be an entire and absolute oblivion of the past,
     and an end to all animosities.--ANSWER. Granted, according to the

     XV. The rights of free citizens inrolled in the national guard
     shall be preserved.--ANSWER. Refused.

     XVI. The liberty of individuals composing the companies of
     l'Enclume, d'Octavius, de la Croire, and de Pontouur, shall be
     confirmed.--ANSWER. Refused. The slaves must be restored to their

     XVII. A period shall be fixed for the taking possession of the
     fort, and the necessary time allowed for the garrison to take out
     their effects.--ANSWER. The two gates of Fort Bourbon to be
     delivered up to the troops of his Britannic Majesty immediately
     after the exchange of the present articles. The garrison will march
     out at the great gate, and be conducted to the place appointed for
     each corps, by the commissioners who have managed the present
     capitulation, and will lay down their arms at the place of their
     embarkation. Three days will be allowed for the evacuation of the
     fort, and the commissaries of artillery and stores will remain in
     the forts to take inventories of all the magazines.

     XVIII. The greatest attention shall be paid to the sick and
     wounded; and they shall be furnished with ships to carry them to
     France as they recover.--ANSWER. Granted; but at the expence of the
     French government, and to be attended by their own surgeons; if not
     sufficient for the purpose, surgeons shall be furnished.

     XIX. General Rochambeau, immediately upon the surrender of the
     fort, shall be at liberty to take his measures for his return to
     France. A frigate to be furnished him, his aides de camp,
     secretaries, and suite.--ANSWER. A commodious vessel shall be
     allowed to General Rochambeau, with the necessary passports for his
     safe return to France.

     XX. The effects, trunks, chests, private papers, and all that
     General Rochambeau shall declare to belong to himself and suite,
     shall be put under the protection of an English guard, when the
     troops of that nation shall have taken possession of Fort
     Convention, and shall be embarked with him.--ANSWER. Granted.

     XXI. The civil ordonateur, or intendant of the colony, shall have
     liberty also, with the officers of administration, comptroller and
     treasurer, with those employed in the public offices at St. Pierre
     and Fort Royal, to return to France.--ANSWER. Granted.

     XXII. The same demands made by General Rochambeau in Art. XX. shall
     be granted to the intendant and those under him.--ANSWER. Granted.

     XXIII. All papers of accounts in the forts or town shall be
     carefully collected by the principals of each department to which
     they belong, and embarked in the same ship with the
     ordonateur.--ANSWER. All papers, not essential to be left in the
     colony, shall be given, and free access to take authentic copies of
     such as it may be thought necessary to retain.

     XXIV. Captains and officers of merchant ships, who have not settled
     their affairs, shall be allowed time to do so. The former the space
     of four months, the latter of two months, under the protection of
     the commander of his Britannic Majesty's forces, that they may
     recover their debts; after which they will procure the readiest
     passage to whatever place may be expedient for their affairs, with
     passports from the English commanders.--ANSWER. Granted.

     _Additional Article._ Fort Bourbon to be delivered up to his
     Britannic Majesty in its present state, with no deterioration of
     its batteries, mines, magazines of artillery or provisions, and
     every thing it contains which is not the private property of the

     Fort Royal, March 22, 1794.


     D'AUCOURT.                                       C. THOMPSON.
     GASCHET, Fils.                                   RICH. SYMES.
     DUPRIRET.                                        JOHN CONYNGHAM.

      Approved by me,                                  Approved by us,

      DTE. ROCHAMBEAU,                                 CHARLES GREY.
      Commander in Chief of the French                 JOHN JERVIS.
      West India Islands.

       *       *       *       *       *

On the 21st of March Captain Faulknor was promoted from the Zebra sloop
to the command of the Bienvenue French frigate of 40 guns, taken in the
Carénage of Fort Royal, and which was now named the Undaunted by the
Admiral, to express the greatness of that action, which finished the
capture of the whole island. At the same time Lieutenant Bowen was
promoted to the command of the Zebra sloop, for his gallant conduct on
the 17th instant, as well as at various other times.

The gun-boats, which by the French were called "Les Petit Diables," were
of infinite service, and gained the officers commanding them immortal
credit, by the steady and well-directed fire they kept up constantly,
both night and day, on Fort Louis; and though continually exposed to an
heavy fire both of grape and round shot, their loss was small, not more
than four killed and wounded, during the siege. The several ships of the
line contributed their aid, by sending row-boats armed to attend them in
case of accident.



His Excellency the Commander in Chief, having left Lieutenant General
Prescott to command at Martinique, with the fifteenth, thirty-ninth,
fifty-eighth, sixty-fourth, and seventieth regiments to garrison that
island, on the 30th of March he embarked the following troops on board
his Majesty's ships in the bay of Fort Royal, viz. the brigade of
grenadiers, commanded by his Royal Highness Prince Edward; the brigade
of light infantry, under command of Major General Dundas; and the sixth,
ninth, and forty-third regiments, commanded by Colonel Sir Charles
Gordon; with engineers under Colonel Dornford, and a detachment of Royal
artillery, with some light ordnance, under Lieutenant Colonel
Paterson.--On the 31st the Admiral made the signal for the fleet to sail
by eleven A. M. and by half past nine the next morning was off the north
part of the island of St. Lucia, where he lay to for the rest of the
fleet that had fallen to leeward. Every thing having been previously
arranged between the General and Admiral, they effected three different
landings on the island with little resistance, and no loss. By half past
one P. M. Major General Dundas's division, consisting of the third
battalion of light infantry, under Lieutenant Colonel Close, and
conducted by Captains Kelly and Lord Garlies of the navy, made good
their landing at Ance du Cap, not far from Le Gros Islet[31]; and the
second light infantry, under Lieutenant Colonel Blundell, conducted by
Commodore Thompson, at Ance du Chocque, who were ordered to join the
first column, taking the enemy's batteries in reverse, and to occupy a
position for the purpose of investing the works of Morne Fortuné on the
side of the Carénage; all which, notwithstanding a sharp fire kept up by
the enemy from several small batteries, was executed by General Dundas
with his usual spirit and abilities. As the Boyne and the rest of the
fleet passed along the coast they received the fire of many small forts
and batteries, without returning it; and though considerably within the
range of their shot, which passed over and through their sails and
rigging, not a man was hurt in any of them. At four P. M. the fleet
anchored in twenty fathom water, within a cable's length of the shore,
at Marigot de Rofeaux; at which place his Royal Highness Prince Edward
with the grenadiers landed about six o'clock in the evening, under the
immediate direction of the Admiral, and began their march soon after. At
night they halted on the heights opposite to Morne Fortuné, from which
they were separated by the Grand Cul de Sac, or Barrington's Bay. Soon
after sun-set, Lieutenant Colonel Coote, with the first battalion of
light infantry, landed from the Boyne at Ance de la Tocque, proceeded to
and took the four-gun battery of Ciceron, investing Morne Fortuné on
that side; at the same time covering Cul de Sac, or Barrington's Bay,
for the entrance of our fleet, which anchored there the next morning,
being the 2d of April. This morning early the Prince dispatched two
companies of grenadiers, with Lieutenant Smyth of the 7th regiment, his
brigade major, to attack two batteries on the coast, which they found
evacuated, with the tri-coloured flag still flying; this they brought
off with them, and spiked the guns. Sir Charles Grey, visiting the
Prince's quarters, found his men were halted in a very swampy and
unhealthy place, and ordered them to change their ground, and move on to
a house at the bottom of Morne Fortuné, which they performed that night
without any loss, though part of their road (near a mile in length) was
exposed to the fire of the fort on the Morne, as also of a little
two-gun battery on a point of land under the fort, which, as they passed
the ravine at the head of the Grand Cul de Sac, played upon them with
round shot and grape: however, the distance was too great for any
mischief to happen from the latter. In their march they had to pass a
swampy thicket of plantain trees, which concealed them from the view of
the enemy, who nevertheless kept up a constant fire of random shot; and
though the distance was now very trifling, and the cannonade extremely
heavy for a long time, not a man was killed, and a few only slightly
hurt by the splinters of stones and rock which flew in great plenty
round them.--Early in the morning of the 3d of April, Lieutenant Colonel
Coote, with four light companies, stormed a redoubt and two batteries
close to the enemy's principal work on the Morne, and killed two
officers and thirty men, made one prisoner (a surgeon), and liberated
one British seaman from captivity: he then spiked six pieces of cannon,
and fell back to Morne Ferré, where he established his quarters[32]. The
Commander in Chief now determined to carry the works on Morne Fortuné by
assault, and accordingly a plan was formed for a general attack to be
made on it the next morning by the troops which now invested it, aided
by a party of seamen under command of Lord Garlies: but General Ricard,
perceiving the determined behaviour of our troops, prevented the plan
being put in execution, by agreeing to terms of capitulation, which had
been offered by Sir Charles Grey, who had sent in Major Maitland with a
flag of truce to summon the garrison to surrender. The gates of the fort
were put into our possession the same evening by nine o'clock. On the
4th the enemy marched out of the fort, with the honours of war, to the
glacis, where they piled their arms, and were embarked on board of
transports, which conveyed them to France, under conditions that they
should not serve against his Britannic Majesty during the war[33]. When
his Royal Highness Prince Edward marched into the fort of Morne Fortuné,
and hoisted the British colours, he changed its name to Fort Charlotte,
in honour of his august parent.--Major Maitland had been dispatched to
Pigeon Island with a summons, which, by order of General Ricard, was
delivered up to his Majesty's troops on the same terms as the Morne. The
Commander in Chief left the sixth and ninth regiments, with detachments
of artillery and engineers, as a garrison for this island, under the
command of Colonel Sir Charles Gordon, who was appointed governor till
his Majesty's pleasure was known.

     [31] By us called Pigeon Island. On it is a very strong battery,
     which commands a great distance.

     [32] The conduct and abilities of Colonel Coote in this enterprise
     gained him the particular thanks of the Commander in Chief, whose
     orders he had so ably executed; and he was well supported by the
     whole of his department, particularly by Major Evatt, Captains
     Buchanan, Crosbie, Welch, Thomas Grey (one of the General's aid de
     camps), and Stovin; also by Major of Brigade Vischer, with
     Lieutenant Drozier, and the detachment of royal artillery, who
     spiked the guns.

     [33] The garrison that marched out with General Ricard, and laid
     down their arms as prisoners of war, were about three hundred men,
     troops of the line (among which one hundred and twenty-five were of
     the regiment d'Aunai), some artillery, and a few people of colour.
     General Ricard, at his own request, was sent to America, as had
     been General Rochambeau, who chose that place in preference to his
     own distracted country, where the system of blood that was then the
     order of the day under the tyranny of Robespierre, would have
     immolated even these men, who had with so much bravery defended the
     posts intrusted to them by their country.

The island of St. Lucia had its name from the day, dedicated to the
virgin martyr St. Lucia, on which it was discovered. It is about six
leagues south of Martinique, and twenty-one north-west from Barbadoes:
it is fifteen miles long, and eleven broad; is very hilly, and covered
in a great many places with thick woods, of whose timber the planters
of Martinique and the neighbouring islands build their houses and mills.
The fustic and cocoa tree is found here also in great abundance. This
island has frequently changed its masters, being alternately possessed
by the French and English: it has many good bays and harbours, and is
well watered by several fine clear rivers. Two of the mountains are said
to have been volcanos. Morne Fortuné is a high hill which overhangs
Basse Terre, the principal town of the island. On the summit of the
Morne is a fortification, as yet unfinished; by nature it is very
strong, but art has done little for it; for, when the outworks fall, the
fort is incapable of withstanding a siege. We found but little
ammunition or military stores, and one small uncovered tank was the only
reservoir for water. Here is also a Pigeon Island, which is called by
the French Gros Islet, and is so strongly fortified both by nature and
art, that if it was well supplied with provisions and stores, would be
capable of braving a very formidable attack. The bay of the Grand Cul de
Sac is a fine harbour for ships of any size to ride in, during the
hurricane months.

Lieutenant D'Arcy Preston, being promoted from a lieutenancy in the
Boyne to the command of the Rattlesnake sloop of war, sailed for England
this day, carrying Captain Mason, one of the aid de camps of the
Commander in Chief, and Captain Parker of the Blanche, with an account
of the further success of his Majesty's arms in the reduction of the
island of St. Lucia[34], happily effected without the loss of a single
man, though there had been a good deal of cannonading from the enemy's
batteries and works. The flank battalions being reimbarked on board of
their respective ships, and Sir Charles Grey with his suite being as
usual with the Admiral on board the Boyne, the whole fleet weighed and
made sail from this island by eight in the morning of the 5th of April,
and by nine at night they anchored in Fort Royal harbour, Martinique.
Thus, in the short period of something more than two months, by the
efforts of this army and navy, inconsiderable indeed in numbers, but
united in an ardent desire to prove themselves faithful to their
country, and strenuous to defend and promote her welfare, and increase
her consequence, was the British standard a second time hoisted on the
walls of a republican fortress, and another island added to the British

     [34] The General transmitted also a plan of the projected works on
     Morne Fortuné, earnestly recommending them to be finished, as it
     was a very strong post, not commanded, but commanding every other
     post around it.

To provide for the future order and good government of their conquests
was now the task of Sir Charles Grey and his friend and colleague, Sir
John Jervis; and as, in the attainment of them, their hearts and
counsels were in unison, so in this most arduous business were their
united exertions employed to establish a system of government for the
conquered islands, which might be equally serviceable to their country,
as conciliatory to the minds of the newly acquired subjects of it; but
at a moment like this, when they were pushing on from one field of
conflict and glory to another, it was impossible to render any system of
government perfect; they therefore thought that the best mode would be
to leave them a government which appeared to have been most desired by
the majority of the people, and which agreed better with our own forms
than the wild confusion of democratic and revolutionary power.
Accordingly, they for the present left them in the exercise of their
accustomed laws, such as they had been at the happiest period of their
own government, and which appeared best calculated to forward a system
of confidence among their own order, and to prepare them for that form
of government (we from experience know the blessings of, and) which
unquestionably, on the same experience, would become earnestly desired
by all ranks of people. To further also the desirable object of
conciliating the minds of the conquered by an act of moderation and
indulgence, the conduct of all civil affairs[35] was principally
entrusted to those whose influence in the colony pointed them out as
proper to be confided in; and whilst every tendency to licentiousness
would be checked by the vigorous direction of General Prescott under his
military government, the former courts, for the administration of
justice agreeable to the laws and customs before the revolution, were
allowed to go on, that the affections and gratitude of his majesty's new
subjects might in the surest manner be attached and secured. However an
arrangement of officers, guided by the constitution of the other British
colonies, was not neglected, and accordingly several nominations were
made and transmitted home for approval. St. Lucia was left in the same
state, as to its government, as Martinique.

     [35] The revenue department was however an exception to this
     arrangement of the civil departments, as the purpose of trade could
     not of course be answered through the forms of a French
     custom-house, or the revenue laws adhered to but by the
     establishment of our own people to carry on that necessary branch.
     Those places therefore in the district of the island of Martinique,
     which were immediately necessary to be filled, were attended to,
     and a list of them sent home, that when his majesty's pleasure
     should be made known with regard to the future civil government,
     they might be put in motion without any delay.



On Tuesday the 8th of April, the fleet[36], having the Commander in
Chief on board, with the remainder of the forces which were not left to
garrison the two islands of Martinique and St. Lucia, weighed anchor by
seven o'clock A. M. and sailed from the bay of Fort Royal on an
expedition against Guadaloupe (the troops having been previously shifted
from the men of war to the transports). The Admiral detached Captain
Rogers in the Quebec frigate, Captain Faulknor in the Blanche, Captain
Incledon in the Ceres, and Captain Scott in the Rose, to attack a
cluster of small islands called the Saints, lying between Dominique and
Guadaloupe, which they executed with much spirit and gallantry: having
landed a party of their seamen and marines, they carried them without
any loss on their part, on the morning of the 10th instant; and when the
fleet arrived the same morning off the islands, they had the
satisfaction of perceiving the union flag hoisted on their two
commanding batteries. These islands are valued principally on account of
a small harbour, where a few ships of war may ride in safety during the
hurricane months; and also that they overlook a good deal of the coast
of Basse Terre.--About noon on the 10th of April the Boyne and Veteran
anchored in the bay of Point à Pitre, off the village of Grozier, and
some more of the fleet in the course of the afternoon; but a fresh wind
and lee current prevented most of the transports from getting in till
the day after. Without waiting however for the arrival of all the
troops, the General determined to land those that were with him,
immediately; and accordingly the first and second battalions of
grenadiers, one company of the forty-third regiment, fifty marines, and
four hundred seamen detached by the Admiral, under the command of
Captain George Grey of the Boyne, made good their landing by one o'clock
in the morning of the 11th, under a severe fire from Fort Fleur d'Epée,
and a three-gun battery at Grozier. As it was impossible for them to
land without the latter being silenced, Lord Garlies in the Winchelsea
was ordered on that service, which he performed in a masterly manner,
laying his ship within half-musket shot of the battery, as near indeed
as the depth of water would allow him to approach; and after a smart
fire for some time on both sides, he drove them from their guns, and the
troops then effected their landing without any loss. In this business,
though every shot from the battery hit some part of the Winchelsea,
cutting the masts and rigging, Lord Garlies was the only man wounded,
receiving a bad contusion in his face. Some more of the troops having
arrived on the 11th, the General, perceiving the enemy to be in
considerable force at the strong post of Fort Fleur d'Epée, determined
to attack them without loss of time, and accordingly arranged his plans
in the following order: the first division, under command of his Royal
Highness Prince Edward, consisting of the first and second battalions of
grenadiers and one hundred of the naval battalion, was to attack the
post on Morne Mascot, an height within musket-shot of the fort; the
second division, commanded by Major General Dundas, consisting of the
first and second battalions of light infantry, and one hundred of the
naval battalion, to attack the fort of Fleur d'Epée in the rear, and to
cut off its communication with Fort Louis and Point à Pitre; and the
third division, commanded by Colonel Symes, consisting of the third
battalion of grenadiers and the third battalion of light infantry, and
the remainder of the naval battalions, to proceed by the road on the
sea-side to co-operate with Major General Dundas. The soldiers were
particularly directed not to fire, but trust solely to the bayonet; and
the seamen, who were commanded by Captain Nugent and Captain Faulknor,
to use their pikes and swords; all which was most scrupulously obeyed;
the several divisions having marched earlier, according to the distance
they had to go, that they might commence the attack at the same instant.
The signal for the attack, which was a gun from the Boyne, was given by
the Admiral at five o'clock in the morning of the 12th. The troops moved
forward with the most determined intrepidity. As they advanced to the
first picquet the alarm was given; the out-posts were driven in, or put
to death; and in an instant the sides of the hill on which the fort was
situated were covered by our people, who scrambled up, under a most
tremendous discharge of grape shot and musketry: some sailors jumped
into the embrasures, driving the enemy before: the soldiers, who had
reached the gates, at length succeeded in forcing them open, and a scene
of dreadful conflict took place: the enemy still continuing to make a
stout resistance, were put to the sword in great numbers; at length, as
many as could escape through the gates and embrasures, or by leaping
over the walls, fled with the utmost precipitation towards the town of
Point à Pitre. Our victorious troops soon followed, driving them across
the Carénage to Basse Terre, whither they and several of the inhabitants
made their escape in boats, before the Ceres and two gun-boats could get
into the Carénage to cut off their retreat, though this service was
performed by Captain Incledon with the greatest alertness. With Fleur
d'Epée fell Hog Island, and Fort Louis, an old fortification commanding
the entrance into the harbour of Point à Pitre, which town also was
taken possession of at the same time by Sir Charles Grey. Our loss in
this action was considerable, in proportion to the smallness of our
numbers, being fifty-four killed and wounded; the enemy lost in all two
hundred and fifty. Fort Fleur d'Epée is strongly situated on the summit
of a hill, two sides of which are towards the sea, from whence it has a
very formidable appearance; but being commanded by Morne Mascot, when
that falls into the power of an enemy it is of little consequence. On
the brow of the hill, a little below the fort, is an half-moon battery,
which commands a great distance along the coast. Among the many
accidents worth notice, I beg leave to mention the following, which I
hope will be a striking instance (among many of the same kind which have
happened this war) that it behoves all our people serving on shore,
whether military or naval, to be distinguished by red dresses. The
French, as well as several other continental troops, are dressed in
blue; of course, in the confusion of an assault, especially if it
happens before day-break, a seaman's blue jacket may, and I am convinced
often has, been the cause of his death by the hands of his own
countrymen. A seaman of the Boyne, belonging to the first company,
expressing a wish that he might have an opportunity of lowering the
French flag, and hoisting our own; and being a remarkably fine fellow,
was pitched upon to carry the union flag on this attack for that
purpose, in case the fort should be taken; and accordingly it was
wrapped in many folds round him, and he was to defend it as well as he
could. When he approached the fort, the first object that attracted his
notice was the flag-staff, and, regardless of every danger, he rushed
forward, pike in hand; and having once got into the fort, away he ran to
the desired spot, and had already struck the tri-coloured flag, and was
endeavouring to disengage himself from his wrapper, in order to hoist
that in its stead, when some soldiers coming suddenly round the corner
of a building, and taking him for one of the enemy, in an instant
attacked him, and he fell severely wounded before they discovered their
mistake. I am happy however to add, that the poor fellow, by the care
and skill of Mr. Weir, the surgeon-general[37] of the navy, recovered
sufficiently to shew, before the end of the campaign, that his courage
was undiminished by the accident.--Captain Faulknor, who had so
eminently distinguished himself at the capture of Fort Louis in
Martinique, had a narrow escape in this business: having led his men on
to the assault with his usual gallantry, he was encountered by a French
officer, whom he instantly struck at with his sword, which falling on
the epaulette on his shoulder, did not penetrate: the Frenchman closed
with him, and being the strongest man, threw him to the ground; and,
wresting the sword from his hand, was in the act of plunging it into his
body, when fortunately a seaman belonging to the Boyne, seeing the
danger his gallant leader was in, with his pike pinned his adversary to
the earth.--As at this time I was the only chaplain on the expedition
(Mr. Ruxton, chaplain of the fifty-sixth regiment, having died soon
after his landing in Martinique), and several of our men having fallen
in this gallant attack, I went on shore up to Fort Fleur d'Epée to pay
the last honours to our unfortunate countrymen, eighteen of whom were
killed on the spot. The scene I beheld surpassed my powers of
description. It was early in the morning, soon after the action was
over. At the foot of the hill lay several of our seamen badly wounded,
waiting to be carried on board their respective ships: a little further,
under the tall trees that grew within a few yards of the sea, several
naval officers reposing after the fatigues of the morning, and their men
not far from them. As we went up the hill we met some of the wounded
prisoners brought in by our people; and at the gates of the fort was an
heap of the slain, who had all died by the sword or bayonet. Within the
fort the destruction appeared more dreadful, being more confined; a
multitude of miserable wretches expiring of their wounds, and many of
our own people in the same situation: in the midst of this was his
Excellency writing his dispatches on a table, on which, fatigued with
the action, an artilleryman was sleeping, whom the General would by no
means have disturbed; one proof among thousands that the truest heroism
may be, and often is, united to the greatest humanity.--It would be
invidious to mention particularly, who distinguished themselves in this
business, where all seemed emulous of glory; but as the greatest
responsibility is attached to the higher ranks, it will be but justice
to say, that Prince Edward, General Dundas, Colonels Symes, Cradock,
and Coote, with the other officers of rank, as also Captains Nugent and
Faulknor, the officers commanding the naval battalions, received the
thanks of the Commander in Chief in public orders, for their excellent
conduct and resolution, displayed through the whole of the action.

     [36] Consisting of the Boyne, Irresistible, Veteran, Winchelsea,
     Solebay, Quebec, Ceres, Blanche, Rose, Woolwich, Experiment, and
     Roebuck, together with the transports with troops, and the ordnance
     and hospital ships and victuallers.

     [37] As this is an office, I believe, hitherto unknown in the navy,
     I shall explain the reason of its being now established. The
     Admiral had in a former war experienced the attention and zeal of
     Mr. Weir, and being well acquainted with the fatigue and danger
     that would unavoidably be the lot of his surgeon, if he did his
     duty, he pitched upon him for that office, and as an encouragement
     he procured permission to appoint a surgeon general to the navy,
     and his appointment did honour to his discernment. Mr. Weir was
     indefatigable in attending the wounded and sick in his own ship,
     and equally ready to visit others; and even where his duty had no
     demand on him, his humanity led him to give his advice and
     assistance. In his mode of treatment of that dreadful disease, the
     yellow fever, he was more successful than was generally the case,
     as the Boyne lost a less proportion of patients under that
     afflicting malady than any other ship on the expedition.

Point à Pitre is the capital of that part of Guadaloupe called Grand
Terre, which is separated from the other part, called Bass Terre, by a
narrow arm of the sea, in form of a river; it is called the river
Sallée. The town is neat and well built, but in an unhealthy situation,
being on the borders of a large extent of swampy land; it has a good
harbour called the Carénage, the entrance to which is guarded on one
side by an half-moon battery lately erected on Islet a Couchon, or Hog
Island, and on the other by the ancient castle of Fort Louis; it is also
defended on the land side by a hill called Morne Government, on which is
a strong battery. The country on this part of Guadaloupe is remarkably
flat, forming a strong contrast to Basse Terre, which gradually rises
from the sea-shore till it forms a chain of hills extending from one end
of that part of the island to the other.



On the 13th, the forty-third regiment being landed to garrison Fort
Prince of Wales (late Fleur d'Epée), the town of Point à Pitre, and the
other ports on Grand Terre, the General and the rest of his army
reimbarked on board of their respective ships; and in the evening the
Sea Flower brig, Captain Pierrepoint, sailed for England with
dispatches. At twelve o'clock the next day, the Quebec and the other
frigates, with the transports, sailed over to the other side of the bay;
and in the afternoon the troops, consisting of the grenadiers and light
infantry, commanded by his Royal Highness Prince Edward, landed at a
village called Petit Bourg, where many of the principal people of the
island were assembled, who received the Commander in Chief and the
Prince with the greatest demonstrations of joy. A party of sailors also,
under the command of Captain Rogers of the Quebec, landed at the same
time. That night the General returned to the Boyne; the next morning he
landed at St. Mary's, where he found Colonel Coote, with the first
battalion of light infantry, who had marched in before day-break from
Petit Bourg. The troops now marched forward, principally along shore,
without any remarkable occurrence, and halted for the night at a small
village between Cabes Terre and Petit Bourg. On the 16th the troops,
still advancing along shore, reached Trou Chien, a very strong post,
which the enemy had abandoned; and before dark the army halted on the
high ground over Les Trois Riverres, from whence they saw the enemy's
two redoubts and their strong posts on the heights of Palmiste. The
General intended to have attacked the enemy that night; but the troops
were too much fatigued from the long and difficult march they had just
finished. Here, at a beautiful plantation belonging to Monsieur
Bellisle, the Prince and several of his officers were sumptuously
entertained at supper by that gentleman, who repeated his hospitality
the next day. All this time the Admiral stood off and on near the shore,
to be ready to pour in assistance in case there should be any necessity
for it: but on the army retiring up the country towards Palmiste on the
17th instant, he came round towards the town of Basse Terre. Fort St.
Charles fired a few shot and shells at the Boyne without effect. At half
past one P. M. we were becalmed off the town, and had a beautiful view
of the country round it, which, rising gradually inland, presents a
varied amphitheatre of plantations, woods, hills, and vallies,
interspersed with elegant and well-built houses, ornamented by many fine
plantations of palms, cocoa-nut, and other tall and majestic trees. By
five P. M. we anchored in Ance de Baillif, about a mile from the town of
Basse Terre, which was hid from our view by an high point of land
forming the bay. On the 17th Major General Dundas, with the third
battalion of grenadiers, and second and third battalions of light
infantry, landed at Vieux Habitant, some miles north-west of Basse
Terre, meeting with little opposition and no loss, taking possession of
Morne Magdalene, and destroying two batteries, then detaching Lieutenant
Colonel Blundell with the second battalion of light infantry, he in the
night forced several difficult posts of the enemy. On the 17th General
Sir Charles Grey made a disposition for the attack of a redoubt called
d'Arbaud, and a battery named d'Anet, both near Grand Ance; the troops
pushed forward, and halted within a league of the village of Trois
Riviere. By day-break on the 18th Lieutenant Colonel Coote, with the
first battalion of light infantry, attacked and stormed the battery;
every man in it was either killed, wounded, or made prisoner, and not
one of our own was hurt. At the same time the grenadiers were ordered to
advance against the redoubt, which was commanded by this battery, and
which they found had been deserted by the enemy early in the night, who
burnt and destroyed every thing in and near it. On the night of the 17th
instant, the enemy in the town of Basse Terre (being divided in their
opinions, and party running very high among them) set fire to the town,
the whole of the west end of which was consumed, containing much
valuable property, and many fine houses. The motives for this mischief
we never could learn, as they were at that time in full possession of
the town; and as it was entirely commanded by Fort St. Charles, there
could be no danger of its falling into our hands until the fort was
taken. At one o'clock in the morning of the 20th, the Commander in
Chief, at the head of his troops, advanced to the attack of the
principal dependance of the enemy, which was a chain of batteries on the
heights of Palmiste, extending above a league. The grenadiers were
commanded by Prince Edward, and the light infantry by Lieutenant Colonel
Coote. At five in the morning the attack commenced by the light infantry
advancing to the assault of the highest and most formidable battery,
which, though well defended by nature and art, was soon obliged to yield
to the superior activity and bravery of our troops, who with their
bayonets forced the works, putting thirty of them to death. It is
remarkable, that in this affair the three first sentries at the advanced
batteries, on firing their muskets on the alarm, shot two advanced men
of the light infantry and their guide. The instant our men had made
themselves masters of this post, perceiving that it commanded all the
others, they with infinite spirit and address turned the guns against
them, under cover of which our troops marched up and took them all in
succession, without much further opposition, although, by every
appearance, they had determined to make a vigorous resistance, having
felled trees and laid them across the road, and at the entrance of their
batteries, and the guns being mostly loaded with grape-shot, or bags of
musket balls, it seemed as if they expected to have come to close
quarters. General Dundas had now formed a communication with Sir Charles
Grey by Morne Howell, and the Palmiste (the key of the town and Fort St.
Charles) being thus in our possession, the governor, Monsieur Collot,
sent a flag of truce to Sir Charles Grey, offering to deliver up
Guadaloupe and its dependencies on the same terms as had been granted to
General Rochambeau at Martinique, and Ricard at St. Lucia: the garrison
to march out with the honours of war, and lay down their arms, and to be
sent to France, on condition that they should not serve against the
British forces and their allies during the war; General Collot and his
suite to be allowed a certain time to settle their affairs, and to be
conveyed to North America in a frigate. Accordingly, the light infantry
being left in the batteries on the Palmiste, the remainder of the troops
marched down and took possession of the gates of both town and fort that
night. The next day the Boyne weighed anchor, and was towed by boats
round from the bay of Baillif to the road of Basse Terre, where she
anchored within a cable's length of the shore. At night a design of the
garrison, to rise upon our people and murder them, was happily made
known to General Dundas, who instantly rode down to the fort, and took
the necessary precautions to prevent the completion of this infamous
plot. At eight o'clock in the morning of Tuesday the 22d of April the
French garrison of Fort St. Charles marched out, consisting of
fifty-five regulars of the regiment of Guadaloupe, and the fourteenth
regiment of France, and eight hundred and eighteen national guards and
others; Prince Edward, with the grenadiers and light infantry, taking
possession immediately, struck the republican and hoisted the British
colours, changing the name of it to Fort Matilda. From the returns found
among General Collot's papers it appeared that the number of men capable
of bearing arms in the island of Guadaloupe was at that time five
thousand eight hundred and seventy-seven; and the number of fire-arms
actually delivered out to them was four thousand and forty-four[38]. On
the 26th Prince Edward with his suite embarked on board the Blanche
frigate, commanded by Captain Faulknor, and sailed for North America;
his regiment, the seventh or royal fuzileers, being stationed at Quebec.
The spirit and enterprise of his Royal Highness on this expedition, with
his strict attention to discipline, merits the highest applause, and
deservedly gained him the respect and esteem of all who served with him.
Before the troubles (occasioned by the revolution) commenced in these
islands, the town of Basse Terre was a place of very considerable
traffic, and much resorted to by merchants and others: it is regularly
built, well watered, and beautifully situated on the sea-shore, and
well defended by several batteries and forts, particularly to the
eastward by Fort St. Charles (now called Fort Matilda), which is a
regular fortification of great strength and extent; but being commanded
by surrounding high lands, particularly Houelmont, a steep hill, on
which is a battery that overlooks, not only the fort and town, but the
bay, and much of the country near it, it is incapable of maintaining a
long defence against a powerful attack by land, but is impregnable by
any that can be made against it from the sea only. In the centre of the
main street is a spacious walk shaded by handsome well grown trees,
which forms an agreeable relief from the heat which in this climate is
so very oppressive. Above the town is a large and commodious hospital,
which at this period we found of infinite use. The island of Guadaloupe
was discovered by Columbus, who named it after some mountains in Spain
to which it bore resemblance, but by the native Caraibs it is called
Karukera: it is situated thirty leagues N. W. from Martinique, and is
reckoned the largest and most valuable island the French held in these
parts; and, from its vicinity to Antigua and Dominica, as well as to
several of our smaller islands, is of great consequence to us. The
island is divided into two parts by a narrow channel called La Riviere
Sallée, or the Salt River: the eastern part is called Grand Terre, and
is comparatively flat; it is nineteen leagues long and nine broad: the
western part is properly called Guadaloupe, but is now known by the name
of Basse Terre, and is again subdivided (by a ridge of mountains
extending from one end to the other) into Capes Terre and Basse Terre:
this part of the island is thirteen leagues and a half in length, and
about seven at the broadest part. The islands immediately dependent on
Guadaloupe are Marigalante, Deseada, and the Saints. Marigalante is of a
round form, about forty miles to the S. E. of Guadaloupe; it is about
five leagues long and four broad, and was discovered by Columbus in
1493, who gave it the name of his own ship. Deseada, or Desirada (that
is, the Desirable Island), was the first of these islands discovered by
Columbus in his second voyage in 1493; it is about fifteen miles N. E.
of Guadaloupe, and is not very fertile. The Saints are a cluster of
islands on the S. E. side of Guadaloupe, of which the westernmost is
called Terre de Bas, or the Low Island; the easternmost the High Island:
there is a good harbour here for a few ships. These islands received the
name of Sanctos from the Spaniards, who first discovered them on All
Saints day. There is some good land in the valleys, but the hills are
covered with rocks.--Thus, in the short period of three months,
concluded a campaign, in which three valuable islands and their
dependencies were added to his majesty's dominions. To the unanimity
which subsisted between the Commanders in Chief, together with their
allowed high professional knowledge, and seconded by the spirited
conduct of all the inferior ranks, must this unlooked-for success be
attributed, as the force employed to effect it was certainly far short
of what it ought to have been for so great an enterprise. The originally
small army was now obliged to be divided, to garrison and secure our
newly-acquired possessions; the fatigue became the more burthensome,
and the troops that had gone through the campaign with unexampled
bravery and patience, at length began to feel the effects of a climate,
that even in peaceable times is often found too trying for European
constitutions; and which was at this period rendered tenfold more severe
by that dreadful malady the yellow fever, which, though it had subsided
when we first came to the West Indies, was now, as it were, awakened by
the arrival of fresh victims, and acquired more strength from the small
resistance that could be made against it by constitutions already broken
by fatigue under hardships and difficulties unparalleled.--As there were
no expectations of any reinforcements of consequence being sent till
November, the General determined to return to England, after he had made
a proper arrangement to render the conquests permanent, and secure them
against any attempt that might be made by those perturbed spirits that,
notwithstanding his utmost vigilance, might remain in the colonies; and
which he in a short time effected to his satisfaction, so far as it
related to any attempt that could be made by the enemy in these parts:
but it is not to be imagined that, with the small number of men he
originally brought out, now reduced by a variety of causes to half their
number, and daily decreasing in an alarming degree, any resistance could
be made against a strong reinforcement, if the French nation should be
able to send out one, from Europe[39]. Previous to his return, however,
he was determined to leave the islands in the best possible state of
defence; and for that purpose he, with the Admiral, visited all the
islands in this quarter, inspecting the strong posts and fortifications,
while the Admiral paid attention to the naval department in each; and in
the beginning of June, after having taken formal leave of the army in
general orders, he sailed for Europe.

     [38] Lieutenant George Vaughan of the Boyne was this day promoted
     to the command of the Zebra sloop, and the Chaplain of the Boyne
     was appointed to the chaplaincy of the garrison of Guadaloupe,
     there being no other chaplain on the expedition; but government at
     home did not think fit to confirm the appointment. Lieutenant
     Davers of the Boyne was promoted to be acting commander of the
     Inspector, from whence he was promoted to the command of the Bull
     Dog sloop. Lieutenant Ogle was also appointed acting commander of
     the Assurance.

     [39] After the islands were captured, a small reinforcement
     arrived, which was to be retained by Sir Charles Grey, if he
     thought fit; but as he knew it was much wanted to carry on the war
     at St. Domingo, and as it was insufficient to enable him to
     undertake an expedition against Cayenne, which he at first
     intended, he sent it on to Jamaica, under the command of Brigadier
     General Whyte; and Lieutenant Colonel Lennox, who came out soon
     after, he dispatched thither also.



After having given an account of the glorious success which had crowned
the exertions of our gallant commanders and their forces, I now enter
upon a less pleasant task, the loss of Guadaloupe, since followed by the
capture of some other islands: but I do it the more willingly, because
in the simple facts it will be my duty to detail, the real cause of
those misfortunes will appear, and a clear refutation ensue of those
gross calumnies, originally propagated by avarice, fraud, and falsehood,
and repeated by ignorance and malice, which have endeavoured to fix a
stigma on two commanders, whose integrity of heart and openness of
conduct are as demonstrable, as their bravery is acknowledged.

The accusation of plunder, confiscation, and _extorted contribution_, is
founded on a tale, of which half only has been told, and that half with
intentional inaccuracy.

It has always been understood that property found in any place taken by
storm or assault became the legal prize or booty of the captors;
consequently the Commanders in Chief found no hesitation or difficulty
in considering the produce, merchandise, &c. afloat and on shore at St.
Pierre and Fort Royal (both which were literally so taken) as justly
liable to forfeit and confiscation. The estates of the emigrant
royalists had been sequestered, and the produce of them sold by the
agents of the republic; consequently all manufactured or collected
produce on them became in like manner, by his majesty's gracious bounty,
the right of the captors.

If what is found in places or vessels taken by assault be not considered
as legal prize, what is? Is no booty, no prize money, to be the reward
of successful heroism, after the dreadful fatigues, diseases, and
dangers of war? Where then will be the spur to noble actions? Where the
spirit that impels the soldier and the sailor to brave the horrors of
arms and elements, of raging sickness, of excruciating death?

All the produce and merchandise found in the town of Fort Royal and on
board the vessels in the Carénage, and the same in the town and bay of
St. Pierre and in Trinité in the island of Martinique, and at Basse
Terre and Point à Pitre in Guadaloupe, were disposed of by public
auction for the benefit of the captors: but those on the estates,
manufactured and packed ready to be brought down to the ports for
embarkation, were not sold at this time, because persons came forward on
the part of the inhabitants themselves, and proposed a contribution, in
lieu of that part of the property, as falling more easy on them, and
consequently being preferable to confiscation; though they did not at
that time pretend to dispute the legality of the forfeiture. The
Commanders in Chief acceded to this _their own proposal_, through a pure
wish of accommodation. The exorbitant and unprecedented contribution,
therefore, levied on an unwilling people, turns out to be an _offered
compromise for an undisputed prize, received by a merciful and tender
conqueror out of kindness to the conquered_.

How well bestowed this kindness was, how deserved the confidence placed
in the honour of these people, will appear by the sequel! They received
back the forfeitures, and then endeavoured to get rid of paying the
compromise (themselves had offered) by infamous misrepresentations of
the conduct of those Commanders, of whose generosity they made use, to
defame, and then to rob them! For no sooner had they shipped off the
property, and got it safe away from the power of the Commanders, than
they began to demur at paying the stipulated sum, particularly at St.
Lucia, which island had agreed to pay one hundred and fifty thousand

Situated as I was, and having an opportunity of drawing my conclusions
on the spot, I venture, with a very strong confidence of its truth, to
relate the following as the secret history of this business. An agent
for the prizes at St. Lucia, joining one of the agents who had already
been employed in the sale of the vendible property at Martinique
(possibly piqued by some diminution of confidence which the Commanders
in Chief from good reason had betrayed towards them), no sooner met the
inhabitants of St. Lucia, whom he had convened on the subject of raising
the stipulated compromise for the plunder, than he offered, with an
unparalleled duplicity, while confessing himself sent on the part of the
captors, to suggest a mode by which the payment of this debt of honour
might be evaded. "Send," said he, "an immediate deputation to the
English government, anticipate the story of the Commanders, and a
prohibition will instantly issue." The deputation was sent without loss
of time: they relied on securing a large body of English merchants,
particularly those in the West Indies, on their side; and their reliance
was well placed, for they relied on that which they could easily prove
to be their interest. The truth is, that many of these West India
traders[40] had carried on an illicit traffic to the French islands
before they were captured; and in consequence of it had at the time of
the capture immense sums still due to them. Apprehending, therefore,
that the payment of this contribution might retard, or even endanger,
the discharge of their own debts, they joined heartily in every scheme
for defeating this just and prior claim. They encouraged the French in
their opposition; they misrepresented the facts to England; they
attempted to blast the laurels of the Commanders; and became clamorous
against the cruelty of plunder, and illegality and impolicy of
confiscation, that they might enjoy the rewards of their own treason.
While this plot was secretly carrying on, and a heavy storm brooding
over their heads, the General and Admiral were proceeding in their
expedition against Guadaloupe, little suspicious, till the dispatches
from England discovered the success with which the artful stories of
this party had been attended.

     [40] Admiral Rodney used to say of these people, that "they were
     smugglers in peace, and traitors in war;" an opinion, I believe,
     confirmed by repeated experience.

Thus was the unparalleled good order and discipline with which the army
and navy had abstained from plundering the towns of St. Pierre, Fort
Royal, and Trinité, &c. rewarded! This was the recompence of the ruinous
and expensive service in which the officers had engaged; of the
unexampled sufferings and dangers which they and their brave men had
undergone. Is not contribution in lieu of booty, the custom of war? Was
it not the case with Prince Ferdinand in a former war, through every
town and village of Germany[41]? Did not the Marquis de Bouillé levy a
heavy contribution on the island of St. Christopher's, when taken by the
French in 1782? Where then could contribution ever be proper if not
here? Here was no capitulation; but, though the islands fell by storm,
the Commanders, acting on the purest principles, to save the persons and
property of the inhabitants from the plunder[42] of an enraged soldiery,
agreed to accept as a recompence due to the forbearance and good conduct
of that body, a composition the most easy to the conquered; and yet
their fame has been vilified, and the hard-earned pittance of booty
snatched away! for none of the contributions were ever paid, except a
part at St. Lucia, _which was afterwards refunded_. Surely this is small
encouragement for such a desperate service! If such be the future
prospects of our army and navy, their spirits will droop, and half that
ardour that generates success subside!

     [41] Of this General Sir Charles Grey himself shared.

     [42] During the time that Fort Bourbon was besieging we sent a
     summons to the town of St. Pierre, which was rejected with an
     uncommon degree of insolence, and Captain Mason (the General's aid
     de camp, who went with the flag of truce) was insulted. About a
     fortnight afterwards the place was taken by storm, without any
     capitulation, consequently subject to plunder by the custom of war;
     but so far from any irregularity being suffered, a drummer was
     hanged by order of General Dundas for attempting it; and such exact
     discipline and quiet behaviour was maintained among the troops,
     that the shops were opened the day after the capture. From the time
     of the refusal of the summons to the final capture, the republicans
     continued to load all the property and produce on board vessels
     under American colours, which they did constantly, in order to
     deprive the captors of their just rights, in case the place should
     be taken.--Interested American merchants were continually
     endeavouring to wrest the hard-earned prize money from the army and
     navy, while they were supplying the enemy with provisions and other

I shall now mention the real cause of the loss of Guadaloupe, which,
with that of some other islands that have since fallen, has been
maliciously attributed to the oppression and peculations of Sir Charles
Grey and Sir John Jervis; for this purpose I must refer back to the time
when the expedition was first planned by our government, and the command
given to those officers. As the capture of the French possessions in the
West Indies was rightly judged to be of the greatest consequence both in
a political and mercantile view, a very formidable armament was
prepared, and Martinique was pitched on as the first object for attack;
and, since the capture of that island had been attempted the year
preceding, and failed, it was of course expected to be put on its guard,
and rendered thereby more difficult. But at this period (unfortunately
for this expedition) another object diverted the attention of
government, and eight regiments[43], with a great part of the artillery,
which were embarked and ready to sail, were taken from that force, which
combined would in all probability have secured to us our conquests in
the West Indies, and enabled us to extend them to St. Domingo, and all
the other French islands in that quarter. Government was well aware, and
acknowledged, that this diminution of force must so cripple the
expedition, that it would render the prospect of any success doubtful;
and no idea was entertained that the conquest of Martinique would even
have been attempted, Fort Bourbon alone seeming too formidable for an
attack by such an inconsiderable body: however, when Sir Charles Grey
and Sir John Jervis arrived at Barbadoes, and had arranged every thing
for an active campaign, they determined to begin with the strongest
island, being confident that, when that was gained, the smaller places
would soon fall; whereas, by attacking the lesser islands first, they
must necessarily diminish their small armament, and render the capture
of so well defended and strong a place as Martinique, with the
formidable fortress of Fort Bourbon, totally impossible. The event
justified their determination. But when this great object was gained,
and St. Lucia and Guadaloupe taken, the army (originally too small) was
divided into three parts to garrison the conquered places; and by that
dreadful scourge, the yellow fever, which now began its ravages,
together with the loss sustained in the several actions of the campaign,
not one of the islands, nor indeed a single post on each, could be
called properly defended, in case the French should send out an armament
to the West Indies. If, as soon as the news of the capture of the first
island had reached England, a strong reinforcement could have been sent
out, and repeated on the conquest of each succeeding place, the small
body of the enemy (who made their attack on Guadaloupe, and stole in at
a moment when the gallant governor, General Dundas, was breathing his
last, and when every post was reduced to extremity by sickness) would
with ease have been repelled, or perhaps their whole party taken.--In
the succeeding part of this work it will be my business to detail the
events that gradually led to the evacuation of this island, and gave the
enemy such advantage as enabled them since to extend their conquests to
some other inferior places.

     [43] Consisting of four thousand six hundred and forty-two men.



On the evening of the 3d of June, Major General Thomas Dundas, the
governor of Guadaloupe, became the victim of that dreadful fever, which
once more began to desolate these islands. He was ill only three days.
By his death the army in the West Indies suffered an irreparable loss,
and the service in general one of its brightest ornaments. Amiable both
in public and private life, brave and generous, possessed of that true
courage which never exceeds the bounds of humanity, he justly gained the
love of the army, and fell lamented by all that knew him[44]. At this
inauspicious moment an armament arrived from France, under the
direction of two commissioners from the national assembly. It consisted
of two frigates, one corvette, two forty-fours armed en flute, and two
other ships, with about one thousand five hundred land forces on board
of them[45]. They instantly made good their landing on Grand Terre; and,
after two unsuccessful efforts, at last succeeded in their attack on
Fort Fleur d'Epée, which they carried by storm[46].--As soon as this
news reached Colonel Blundell, he instantly dispatched a schooner to St.
Christopher's, with an account of it to the Commanders in Chief, which
fortunately found them there, the Boyne being off Old Road taking in
water for her voyage to England. Sir Charles Grey was busy in inspecting
the works on Brimstone Hill. The Commanders in Chief instantly
determined to return to Guadaloupe, and accordingly pushed, under a
press of sail, for Basse Terre, where they arrived in the afternoon of
the 7th of June, and were joined by the Resource, Captain Ross, and the
Winchelsea, Captain Lord Garlies; on board of which ships General Grey
and his suite embarked to be landed at Basse Terre, in order to visit
the ports in that quarter, and to give the necessary instructions for
future operations. The Admiral ordered the Nautilus, Captain Bayntun, to
proceed to Martinique, with orders from Sir Charles Grey for a
reinforcement from thence, and himself proceeded in the Boyne to the Bay
of Point à Pitre. On his passage he met Commodore Thompson with his
squadron from Martinique, coming round the point of Vieux Port. On their
joining, he ordered the Solebay and Avenger into Basse Terre Road, to
carry the General's further orders into execution, touching
reinforcements from the different islands.

     [44] He was interred on the 4th of June, with all military honours,
     on one of the highest batteries in Fort Matilda, which, from that
     circumstance, was called Dundas's battery, and a stone with a
     suitable inscription was placed over his remains. The command of
     the forces, and the government of Guadaloupe, now devolved on
     Lieutenant Colonel Blundell of the forty-fourth regiment.

     [45] This armament appears to have sailed from Rochfort about the
     25th of April, and to have been forty-one days on the passage.

     [46] Their success appears to have been greatly accelerated by the
     treachery or cowardice of several French royalists then in the
     fort, who offered their services to sally on the besiegers.
     Accordingly they marched out; but, on approaching the enemy, they
     were panic struck and fled, and few of them returned to Fleur
     d'Epée. The British merchants and sailors from the town of Point à
     Pitre had thrown themselves into this fort to assist the garrison,
     which was greatly reduced by sickness and death. This little band,
     under command of Lieutenant Colonel Drummond of the forty-third
     regiment, did all that gallant men could do; twice they repulsed
     the assailants; but at length, overpowered by numbers, and the
     royalists having demanded that the gates should be thrown open, and
     the enemy now pouring in from all sides, the few remaining troops
     were obliged to make the best retreat they could to Point à Pitre,
     which, not being tenable after the loss of Fleur d'Epée, was
     abandoned by them, and they crossed over to Basse Terre. In this
     affair, besides the loss of many others, Captain Suckling of the
     artillery was wounded at his gun by a bayonet, and left behind at
     Point à Pitre.--There were in Guadaloupe when taken by the French a
     larger proportion of troops than in either of the other conquered

At noon of the 8th of June, the Boyne and the rest of the fleet anchored
off Grozier, and saw the union jack displayed on Fort Fleur d'Epée as a
decoy to British vessels, which we found had been successful in several
instances; from hence, too, we had a view of the French fleet lying in
the harbour of Point à Pitre. The Admiral, without delay, arranged every
thing in his department to prevent a surprise from any future
reinforcements of the enemy which might arrive. At day-break of the 9th,
the enemy in Fort Fleur d'Epée, on hoisting their colours, opened an
heavy fire of round and grape-shot on the Boyne, as did the two-gun
battery at Grozier on the rest of the fleet, but happily without any
material damage to them. This morning the London transport, having
troops on board, got on shore on the Basse Terre side of the bay.
Lieutenant Thompson of the Boyne, was sent with the launch to take the
men out of her; in doing which he was exposed to a severe fire from a
battery on Islet a Couchon, or Hog Island; but he succeeded in removing
them without any loss. In the evening Sir Charles Grey and his suite
came on board the Boyne,[47] from whence he could for the present with
greater ease arrange his troops, and communicate with them at their
different posts. This day also Lord Viscount Garlies in the Winchelsea
frigate attacked the two-gun battery at Grozier, where he had
distinguished himself in the last campaign, and once more drove the
enemy from their guns: but very few troops having yet arrived, no
attempt could be made to land there, as before. The Boyne having been
much annoyed by the fire of Fort Fleur d'Epée and Grozier battery, was
now warped a cable's length further from the shore. On the 11th, in the
morning, several boats full of men, attended by a gun-boat, were
discovered making towards our post at Petit Bourg, from the harbour of
Point à Pitre: their intention seemed to be to attack a transport and
sloop of ours. The Winchelsea frigate was ordered towards them, and
receiving the fire of the battery on Hog island, and another near Fort
Louis, she obliged them to return into the harbour. The enemy had
crossed the river Sallée to Basse Terre, and had taken post at Berville,
a fine plantation belonging to a gentleman of that name. They instantly
set fire to the house, and destroyed all the mills, sugar-works, and
store-houses, belonging to it, to a very large amount; they then
encamped at the post of St. Jean, or Gabbare, a point of land opposite
to the harbour of Point à Pitre. General Grey thought this a favourable
moment to attack them, which was accordingly done at eleven o'clock at
night on the 13th, under the command of Brigadier General Dundas, who
with the 1st light infantry led by Brevet Major Ross, with the 39th
regiment under Major Magan, and a detachment of artillery and two
field-pieces, attacked the enemy with such determined bravery, that
after a severe conflict they fled in the utmost disorder, precipitating
themselves into the sea in order to swim across the harbour to Point à
Pitre; but few succeeded in the desperate attempt, many being drowned,
and more shot by our light infantry, who followed close at their heels:
they left one hundred and seventy-nine dead on the field; our loss was
trifling, seven men killed and twelve wounded. The enemy's camp,
colours, baggage, and ammunition, with one piece of cannon, fell into
our hands.[48] The light infantry and the 39th regiment remained at
Berville, having for their advanced post Savonge, and St. Jean on the
banks of the river Sallée. On this point of land, which runs into the
harbour of Point à Pitre, Captain Pratt, commanding a detachment of
artillery, was ordered to erect a battery of two twenty-four pounders
and two howitzers, which he effected with such dispatch, that by the
next morning it was completed, and opened with a most tremendous fire on
the republican frigate La Pique, lying within gunshot of the shore, to
the no small surprise and astonishment of the commodore, who was then on
board. The frigate retaliated, and a brisk fire was kept up for some
time, when she thought it advisable to weigh anchor, and take shelter
under the guns of her own batteries, after having lost between forty and
fifty of her crew in killed and wounded, and being much damaged in her
hull and rigging. On the 14th the Roebuck, Captain Christie, arrived
with troops (draughted from several regiments), and two gun-boats also
came very seasonably; one of which, under command of Lieutenant Wolley
of the Boyne, attacked the battery at Grozier, and again made the enemy
retire from their guns.[49]

     [47] Accompanied also by the Honourable Captain Stewart, brother to
     Lord Garlies; who having received permission to return to England,
     handsomely came forward at this time to offer himself as a

     In this second campaign (see Appendix, page 37) Colonel Symes,
     Colonel Francis Dundas, and Colonel Sir Charles Gordon, were
     promoted to the rank of brigadier general.

     [48] See the Appendix, page 32.

     [49] On the 18th of June, Lieutenant Colonels Coote and Cradock
     arrived from St. Christopher's, where they had been detained by the
     yellow fever, which they had caught on board a transport in which
     they were proceeding to England on leave of absence, and though not
     recovered from the baneful effects of that disease, they now came
     forward to offer their services to the Commanders in Chief, which
     were accepted in a manner highly honourable to both parties.

On Thursday the 19th of June, General Grey once more made good his
landing on Grand Terre, about six miles to windward of Grozier, under
cover of the Vanguard, Veteran, Vengeance, Solebay, and Winchelsea, and
immediately moved on to Grozier, from whence he drove the enemy, who
retreated towards Fort Fleur d'Epée, burning the houses and sugar-works
that lay in their road.[50] About this time Lieutenant Macnamara, of
the marines, was sent to Deseada to secure that island against any
attempt of the enemy. On his landing he was attacked by a party of the
inhabitants, who had formerly surrendered the island to us, aided by
some brigands and a mixed rabble. In a short time, however, he drove
them to the mountains, having killed twelve, and hung up six, as an
example to deter others from similar acts of rebellion. On the 20th the
enemy sunk one of our gun-boats by the fire of their battery on Hog
Island, but none were killed in her. On the 21st they set fire to, and
burnt a fine house on the heights of Mascot, near Fleur d'Epée, leaving
the foundation walls only standing. Our troops now encamped at Grozier
were employed in erecting batteries against Fort Fleur d'Epée, as the
enemy were in too great force for our reduced numbers to attempt an
assault on their principal work. On the 22d the Honourable Captain
Stewart, commanding the 9th grenadiers, and a party of seamen under
Lieutenant Wolley,[51] marched from Grozier to attack St. Ann's Fort, a
strong post about twelve or fourteen miles to windward. After a most
fatiguing march, during which some heavy showers of rain rendered the
roads hardly passable, they reached the foot of the hill on which the
fort was situated; up which our people scrambled so leisurely, and such
a profound silence reigned among them, that they approached within
fifteen or twenty paces of the centinel before he perceived them, though
he was apparently alert on his post. Our French guide was now so
terrified that he fired his pistol at the centinel, which gave the
alarm; instantly our troops turned forward, and with three cheers began
to storm the works. The enemy were completely surprised, and not more
than two of them escaped. During this the French emigrants who had
accompanied our people, had marched into the town, where they began the
most brutal excesses; but the humane exertions of our officers soon put
a stop to their mischievous proceedings. In this attack near four
hundred of the enemy were killed, and one prisoner taken: on our part
one only was wounded. Several sloops and schooners were found in the
bay, all in ballast and their sails unbent, except one of them, in which
Lieutenant Thomson was sent with an account of their success to the
Commanders in Chief. It being impossible to keep possession of this
post, from the small number of our troops, and intelligence being
brought that a large detachment of the enemy were on their march to cut
off the retreat of this party, it was determined to return to the camp
without loss of time, all the ammunition having been previously
destroyed, and the guns of the fort dismounted.--The day proving
unusually hot, and the roads being deep and slippery from the incessant
rains that had fallen during the preceding night, the troops were not
able to reach the camp without halting; in consequence of which they
took post at a planter's house on an eminence, where they were received
with great hospitality. By three in the afternoon the men who had
dropped down by the way from fatigue, were brought in (except two who
reached the camp next morning), and the party proceeded to their
different stations without further accidents.[52]

     [50] In the afternoon one hundred and eighty seamen from the Boyne,
     Commanded by Lieutenants Wolley, Thomson, and Maitland, landed
     under the Salines to windward of Grozier, and took post on the
     heights near that place; other parties of seamen also were landed
     at Grozier, forming altogether a strong reinforcement for the army.

     [51] With whom on this occasion Lieutenant Thomson served as a

     [52] In this business Lieutenant Wolley had some narrow escapes.
     The commanding officer of the fort rushed out of the guard-room on
     the alarm, with a lighted match in his hand. He first fired an
     amuzet, luckily pointed in an opposite direction; he then three
     times attempted to fire a twenty-four pounder as Mr. Wolley and his
     men were advancing to the muzzle of it; but fortunately, either
     from the dampness of the powder, or trepidation of the man, it
     missed taking effect; on which he flung down his match, and
     retreated to the further end of the fort, whither Mr. Wolley
     followed; but, from the darkness of the night, he soon lost sight
     of him. As he returned he was met by his own men, who, taking him
     for an enemy, were about to put him to death, when his voice
     discovered their mistake. Had the cannon in the first instance gone
     off, it must have made considerable havock among our men, as it was
     loaded with a bag of musket balls.--This day Captain Armstrong of
     the 8th regiment, was killed by a cannon ball at the landing-place
     at Grozier, while giving directions to a serjeant about some
     ordnance which was to be landed there. He was on horseback, and had
     just remarked, that there could be no danger from the fire at Fleur
     d'Epée at that place; a shot, however, from the fort dipped over
     the point of land which seemed to shelter the landing-place, and
     cut him asunder. He has often been heard to say that he thought
     that a man must be truly unfortunate who fell by a single cannon

On Tuesday the 24th of June, General Grey opened his batteries, which he
had erected near Grozier, against Fleur d'Epée; at the same time
Brigadier General Dundas kept up a smart fire on Point à Pitre, where
the enemy seemed to be making preparations against the hurricane months,
now approaching, by stripping the ships in the harbour of their sails
and rigging. On the 26th, early in the morning, the enemy, to the number
of three hundred, made a sortie from Fleur d'Epée, on our advanced post,
consisting of one hundred men, but were soon obliged to retreat; we lost
one man killed and eight wounded: at the same time our batteries and
gun-boats cannonaded the fort; in the latter two seamen were wounded.
On the 27th, the batteries at Grozier having opened as usual on Fleur
d'Epée, a detachment of our troops under Brigadier General Fisher
marched forward to attack a piquet of the enemy posted on Morne Mascot,
from whence they drove them after a sharp contest, and established
themselves, as our advanced post, within musket shot of the fort.[53]
During the preceding night the light infantry at camp Berville were sent
by Brigadier General Dundas, under command of Major Ross of the 25th
regiment, to Petit Bourg, where they embarked, and joined the army at
Grozier. This movement, by which the main body was much strengthened,
was effected unperceived by the enemy, and the 39th and 43d regiments
only left at Berville.

     [53] In this affair Captain Morrison of the 58th regiment was
     killed by a musket ball through his head as he was leading his men
     on to the attack; he fell regretted by all who knew him, being an
     accomplished, amiable, and brave man: I too felt severely on this
     occasion, having enjoyed much of his society and friendship. The
     Commander in Chief, who knew his worth, paid the tribute of
     applause to his memory; and the Admiral, when he heard of his fall,
     exclaimed, "He has left few equals behind him."

Several skirmishes now daily took place, and many fell on both sides;
though, from want of steadiness at the last, the enemy were always
greater losers than ourselves. On the morning of the 29th of June, a
large body of the enemy, to the number of one thousand, marched out of
Fort Fleur d'Epée, and seemed to meditate an attack on a detachment of
light infantry under Colonel Gomm, posted to the right of the grenadiers
who were on Morne Mascot, under Brigadier General Fisher. By this false
movement, they hoped that a detachment of the grenadiers would be sent
to reinforce the light infantry, and thereby weaken the force on Morne
Mascot, which was their real object of attack. In a short time, however,
they were perceived mounting the side of Mascot heights, with colours
flying and singing the national songs, covered by a heavy fire of round
and grape-shot from Fleur d'Epée, which prevented our grenadiers from
shewing themselves till the enemy were close to them; on which General
Fisher made them prostrate themselves on the ground, and wait the
approach of the enemy in that posture. The instant the republicans came
within a few yards of them they started up, and an obstinate engagement
commenced, which terminated at length by the grenadiers advancing to the
charge; on which the enemy fled, and were pursued down the hill with
great slaughter. Our loss amounted to thirty killed and wounded: among
the former was Lieutenant Toosey of the 65th regiment; of the latter,
Captain De Rivigne of the artillery, received a ball in the side of his
neck. Brigadier General Fisher was hit three times by grape-shot, which
caused contusions only, and his horse was killed under him. In the
evening the enemy sent in a flag of truce, requesting permission to bury
their dead and carry off their wounded, which was granted them;[54] yet
they left a number of both, on the side of the hill, to the great
annoyance of our piquet, which during the following night was disturbed
by the groans of the dying and wounded. The day following the enemy
again made an attempt, in equal force, against our post on Mascot, and
was again repulsed with great loss. The rainy season being already set
in, and the hurricane months now approaching, determined the Commander
in Chief to make an effort to finish the campaign at once. From his
success in the two last engagements, and the excellent manner in which
he had planned the attack, it would no doubt have succeeded, had his
orders been punctually obeyed. The plan he had laid down was, for a
large body of troops under General Symes, to march during the night, and
make themselves masters of Morne Government, and the other commanding
heights round the town of Point à Pitre, whilst himself, at the head of
the rest of his army, was in readiness on the heights of Mascot to storm
Fort Fleur d'Epée, on receiving a signal from General Symes; but, from
some unfortunate misapprehension, the whole of General Grey's
well-concerted plan was rendered abortive, and the almost total
destruction of our exhausted forces ensued: but it is my business to
detail the events of this unfortunate affair as accurately as the
confused accounts I have received will permit. Brigadier General Symes,
having under his command the first battalion of grenadiers, commanded
by Brigadier General Fisher, and the first and second light infantry,
led by Colonel Gomm, with a detachment of seamen from the Boyne[55] and
Veteran, commanded by Captain Robertson of the Veteran, marched from the
heights of Mascot at about nine o'clock at night, on the 1st of July.
They first descended into a deep ravine thick planted with coffee
bushes, through which there was no road, the seamen bringing up the
rear. The night was uncommonly dark, which rendered their march both
dangerous and fatiguing. After proceeding about a mile they halted on a
road, and were joined by two small field-pieces, which were put under
the charge of Lieutenants Thomson and Maitland, to be dragged by their
seamen. During the halt some people, who were heard to speak French,
were seen near the rear; Lieutenant Wolley endeavoured to secure them,
but they escaped through the bushes, and no further notice was taken of
this. The army moved forward about two miles further, on a road leading
through deep ravines, and made a second halt for about an hour; the
march was then re-commenced, but no orders ever passed during the time:
they now proceeded for some miles without meeting with any obstruction,
when an order came for the seamen in the rear to advance to the attack,
which they did by running as fast as they could for upwards of a mile.
The parties they passed were not in the best order, owing to the
quickness of the march, until they came to the grenadiers, who were
drawn up as a corps de reserve. About this time the bugle horn sounded
to advance, and soon after a heavy firing of round and grape-shot from
Morne Government, and also from several other batteries of the enemy,
commenced, as also from some twelve-pounders landed from the shipping in
the harbour, which were placed in tiers, and entirely enfiladed the road
along which the troops were advancing. After passing the grenadiers, the
seamen were halted for a few minutes to form, they being perfectly out
of order from running; but scarce thirty of them were got together, when
Lieutenant Wolley was ordered to advance with them, and Captain
Robertson remained to form and bring up the rest. The cannonading from
the enemy's guns was the most severe the oldest soldier ever witnessed,
especially from the guns which were on the road; two or three tiers of
which were planted behind each other, from which the enemy were driven
by the bayonets of our gallant fellows, who no sooner had taken one
battery, but another opened on them from behind. The whole now became a
scene of confusion impossible to describe. Instead of any of the heights
being attempted, the greater part of the troops and the seamen were got
into the town, where they were mowed down by the grape-shot, which
played upon them in every direction,[56] as well as musketry from the
windows of the houses. Where-ever our men perceived this, they broke
open the doors, putting all they found in them to death; and those who
could not stand the bayonet were shot as they leaped from the windows.
General Symes was by this time badly wounded,[57] and his horse killed
under him. Colonel Gomm (who led the light infantry), with several other
officers, was killed, and a great many more desperately wounded;[58] and
Captain Robertson, who commanded the seamen, was blown up. At length
General Fisher (the second in command, who, as well as every other
officer on this service, was ignorant of General Symes's plans) sounded
a retreat, and the miserable remains of this gallant party marched off,
the enemy harassing them in their retreat, though kept at bay by the
gallant exertions of the Honourable Captain Stewart with a party of
grenadiers, assisted by Lieutenant Wolley and the seamen of the Boyne,
who covered the retreat; till at length the latter fell by a musket-ball
through his leg, and was brought off by his men. When the remains of
this unfortunate detachment got back to Mascot,[59] General Grey found
it in vain to attempt any thing against Fleur d'Epée, being obliged to
detach the second battalion of grenadiers to cover the retreat, and his
troops being all so much reduced and exhausted, yet from the effect of
the batteries he had erected to cover his attack of Fleur d'Epée, which
opened on that fort in the evening, there could have been no doubt of
success had not the above-related misfortune taken place.[60] It being
totally impossible to attempt any thing further at this season, the
General that night began to reimbark his cannon and mortars, and in two
days had got off the whole of his troops without loss; he then
strengthened the posts on Basse Terre, and having made the best
arrangements possible to maintain them, and to enable him to renew his
attacks on Point à Pitre and Fleur d'Epée after the hurricane months, in
case any reinforcements should arrive (without which it would be totally
impossible), he embarked on board the Boyne, leaving Brigadier General
Colin Graham to command on Basse Terre, and then repaired to St. Pierre
in the island of Martinique, where he established his head-quarters. The
Boyne proceeded to Fort Royal Bay, where she was laid up for the
hurricane months in a snug harbour, called Trois Islet Bay, and the sick
and wounded were landed for the benefit of fresh air, and every
attention paid to them that could alleviate their sufferings.

     [54] A young officer, formerly of Walsh's regiment, took this
     opportunity of escaping to us. His name was Clarke, his family of
     Martinique, where his father was a counsellor at law. He had been
     imprisoned three months at Bourdeaux, on his endeavouring to avoid
     joining the armies on the frontiers, and was released to embark on
     this expedition, as the only chance of rejoining his friends. He
     reported, that one Fremont, a daring fellow, who, though not first
     in command, had great influence, was killed this morning on the
     walls of Fleur d'Epée, by a musket-ball from one of our people. The
     enemy lost in this action upwards of three hundred men. On the
     29th, the Commander in Chief sustained a heavy loss in the death of
     Captain Newton Ogle, of the 70th regiment, one of his excellency's
     aid-de-camps; he was a young man of an excellent understanding, and
     had distinguished himself on all occasions where his exertions had
     been called forth.

     [55] Lieutenant Wolley of the Boyne, was appointed acting major of
     brigade; and Lieutenants Thomson and Maitland, and Mr. Oswald,
     commanded the three companies of seamen.

     [56] One of the frigates in the harbour did great execution; by a
     single discharge of grape-shot, killing three officers and
     thirty-six privates of the light infantry, who were unfortunately
     drawn up in a street effectually commanded by her guns.

     [57] General Symes died soon after of his wound.

     [58] Captain Burnet of the 43d regiment, who had led his company of
     grenadiers into the town, was blown up at the time Captain
     Robertson was killed. His clothes being on fire, were pulled off by
     his brother officers. His face and hands were rendered entirely
     black by the explosion. In this situation he first received a
     musket-ball which broke his arm, and was then met by his own
     grenadiers, who, taking him for one of the French blacks, attacked
     him with charged bayonets, and wounded him in three places before
     he could make himself known to them. The instant they discovered
     their mistake they expressed the utmost horror and contrition, and
     brought off this excellent officer in their arms; who, I am happy
     to be enabled to add, survived, notwithstanding the dreadful
     situation he was in. Lieutenant Conway of the 60th regiment, was
     also blown up, and in that condition continued to lead on his men
     and encourage them, till unfortunately he fell by a musket-ball
     through his body.

     [59] General Grey was waiting on Morne Mascot for Brigadier General
     Symes's signal of his having succeeded in taking the heights near
     Point à Pitre; having the second battalion of grenadiers, the 65th
     regiment, and six companies of Grand Terre, and second battalion of
     seamen commanded by Captain Sawyer, ready to attack Fort Fleur
     d'Epée by storm.

     [60] Our loss in killed, wounded, and missing, amounted to
     thirty-eight officers, forty-three serjeants, and six hundred and
     eleven privates.

     I must here beg leave to add an extract from Admiral Sir J.
     Jervis's public letters to the Lords of the Admiralty on this
     subject. "The fate of Captain Lewis Robertson, who had
     distinguished himself highly, fills my mind with the deepest
     regret; he had long been a child of misfortune, although he
     possessed talents to merit every success and prosperity; and, as I
     am informed, has left a widow and infant family unprovided for. I
     beg leave to recommend them to the protection and good offices of
     their lordships, to obtain a suitable provision, which will be a
     great encouragement to officers in similar circumstances, to
     emulate so great an example."

                         *       *       *       *       *

     The celebrated Brigadier General Arnold, being on business of a
     mercantile nature at Point à Pitre, was captured at the time the
     place fell into the hands of the republicans, and, being
     apprehensive of ill treatment, changed his name to Anderson. He was
     put on board a prison-ship in the harbour, and had considerable
     property in cash with him, of which, it is supposed, Fremont and
     Victor Hughes were informed, as he received an intimation from one
     of the French sentries, that he was known, and would soon be
     guillotined. On this alarming intelligence he determined to attempt
     an escape, which he effected in the following masterly manner. At
     night he lowered into the sea a cask containing clothes and
     valuables, with a direction on it, that if it floated to the shore
     of our camp at Berville, it might be known, and restored to him; he
     then lowered down his cloak bag to a small raft which he had
     prepared, on which also he got himself, and proceeded to a small
     canoe, in which he pushed for the British fleet, directed by the
     Admiral's lights. On his making towards the mouth of the harbour he
     was challenged by the French row guard, but by the darkness of the
     night escaped from them, and arrived on board the Boyne by four
     o'clock on Monday morning, the 30th of June.

     During the whole time of this latter campaign the fever, which had
     been so destructive the preceding year, continued to rage in our
     army and navy with unabated violence. General Grey lost all the
     servants he brought from England by it, including two who had lived
     with him for many years. It first broke out with violence when the
     former campaign ended.



Sir Charles Grey, after giving the necessary orders for erecting
batteries to protect and secure the camp on Basse Terre, sailed with the
Admiral to Martinique, and established his head-quarters at St.
Pierre;[61] having previously distributed the troops (which were not
left under General Graham on Basse Terre) throughout the islands, where
the Brigands began to be very troublesome; and even at Martinique, where
the Commander in Chief resided, they had the audacity to shew
themselves, encouraged by the sickness which raged in all quarters, and
daily weakened our posts. At Grande Rivere and Calabass they appeared in
some force; on which the Commander in Chief detached Captain Hare, at
the head of a detachment of the Prince of Wales's light[62] dragoons,
with Lieutenant Colonel De Soter and the island rangers, who attacked
and routed them, taking three of their leaders prisoners, and dispersing
the rest. At Guadaloupe no time was lost by Brigadier General Graham in
preparing both for attack and defence; he erected gun and mortar
batteries upon the banks of the river Sallée, in the different
situations where it was most likely the enemy might attempt to cross it
from Grande Terre; namely, at the gabarre or ferry, which heretofore was
the point of communication between the two parts of the island; at Morne
Savon and at St. Jean, both commanding the town of Point à Pitre and
Morne Government. By these precautions the Commander in Chief hoped to
prevent the enemy from crossing into Basse Terre till he could get a
reinforcement from England, which he had expected for some time, and had
now dispatched Brigadier General Francis Dundas to explain to government
the absolute necessity there was for a supply of troops in the conquered
islands. The head-quarters of the army in Guadaloupe were at Camp
Berville, a very commanding ground, flanked by the sea on one side, and
on the other by an impassable swamp and wood; about a league in front
was the river Sallée, on the opposite banks of which stood the town of
Point à Pitre; and at the rear, about a mile from the camp, was a narrow
pass, by which alone it could be approached. The batteries under the
direction of Captain De Rivigne, destroyed a great part of the town, so
that the inhabitants were obliged to evacuate it, and encamp on the
adjacent hills. The baneful effects of the climate, together with the
neighbouring swamps, began now to be severely felt by our army, the
officers and men died daily in numbers, and by the middle of August the
list of sick and convalescents composed by far the majority in the camp.
Two frigates and two sloops of war were ordered by the Admiral to cruize
off the harbour of Point à Pitre, to prevent supplies being carried to
the enemy; notwithstanding which many American and other vessels from
the neighbouring disaffected islands, contrived to elude their
vigilance. Victor Hughes, the commissioner from the French convention,
and now commander in chief of their troops in this island (the
commanders of the army and navy that came out with him being dead), was
indefatigable in gaining over the blacks and mulattoes to his interest;
and, in consequence of his late success, they flocked in great numbers
to his standard. As they came in he formed them into different corps,
and had them instructed in the use of arms. The remains of the second
battalion of grenadiers[63] were ordered about the latter end of August
to Guadaloupe, to relieve the flank companies of the 15th and 64th
regiments: they embarked at Fort Royal on board the Dictator, and landed
at Petit Bourg, from whence they marched directly to the camp. During
the month of September the troops in the different camps were, from
sickness, inadequate to furnish guards for the different batteries.
Several companies could not produce a single man fit for duty; the 43d
could not afford a corporal and three men at night, for the protection
of their own camp, much less give their complement for the batteries.
The greater part of the town of Petit Bourg was converted into hospitals
for our sick, besides great numbers ill in the camps; the officers were
equal sufferers with the men, so much so, that field officers were
obliged to mount captain's guard. The different islands were drained of
their troops, in order to keep up some appearance in front of the enemy;
and the royalists had taken the duty of the Gabarre for some time past,
where they conducted themselves with much spirit in several attacks made
upon them by the enemy from the opposite side of the river. The
grenadiers that arrived last, were now reduced, in less than three
weeks, to twenty men; and from the situation of the several camps on the
verge of the swamps, a ground they were obliged to occupy, was truly
deplorable. About this time General Prescott arrived at the town of
Basse Terre, where he took the command, and no appearance of any
reinforcement from England as yet cheered our drooping spirits. On
Saturday, the 26th of September, the enemy from Point à Pitre and Fort
Louis embarked a large body of troops in small vessels, and passing our
ships of war unperceived, under cover of the dark night, effected two
different landings on Basse Terre; the one at Goyave, to the eastward of
Petit Bourg, and the other at Lamantin, near Bay Mahault. As soon as it
was known that this landing was effected, most of our sick were carried
from Petit Bourg on board the ships that lay near that place, and when
the news was received at head-quarters, General Graham ordered all the
troops from the different camps to join at Berville, as the strongest
situation. Every exertion was made to fortify this post in the best
manner possible: across the narrow pass by which alone it could be
approached by land, a strong breast-work was thrown up, with embrasures
for six field-pieces; on the flanks, and immediately in the rear of
this, another was thrown up; and in front of both, on the brow of the
hill, a strong abbatis was formed. The enemy that landed at Bay Mahault
soon possessed themselves of that place; they then marched on to the
Gabarre, where they had nearly surrounded the royalists before they were
able to make their retreat to the camp. The possession of the Gabarre
afforded them an easy conveyance for guns, ammunition, cattle, &c. from
Grande Terre, and they now made their appearance in sight of our camp.
The enemy, who had landed on the opposite part of the island, as soon as
day broke upon them, began their march to Petit Bourg. Lieutenant
Colonel Drummond of the 43d regiment, with some convalescents from the
hospital, and a party of royalists, advanced to meet them; but
perceiving their great superiority of numbers, found it advisable to
retreat through Petit Bourg, and took post at a battery upon the shore
called Point Bacchus, between that village and Camp Berville. The enemy,
on taking possession of Petit Bourg, exercised the most unheard of
cruelties on the unfortunate sick in the hospitals, putting all they
found to death; some of them were fortunate enough to be taken off by
the boats belonging to the men of war lying there. Too much praise
cannot be given to Captain Boyer[64] of the Assurance, for his humane
exertions on this occasion. From the hospitals to the wharf was a
continued scene of misery and horror, being strewed with the bodies of
the sick, who were barbarously put to death as they were crawling to the
shore, in hopes of being taken off by our boats. The next movement of
the enemy was to Point Bacchus, where Colonel Drummond and his party,
being surrounded, were made prisoners. The enemy keeping possession of
this post, entirely cut off all communication between the camp and our
shipping. They then proceeded to possess themselves of the surrounding
heights, and formed a junction with the other party which landed at Bay
Mahault; by which Camp Berville was completely surrounded on the land
side. The utmost strength of Berville camp was now about two hundred and
fifty regular troops, and three hundred royalists; but none of these
could be called effective, being reduced to extremity by sickness and
fatigue. The enemy instantly began to form batteries, one of which, on
an eminence, in some measure commanded our camp. On the 29th of
September, in the morning, the enemy in a large body attacked our
advanced work; our field-pieces and musketry opened a heavy fire upon
them, and an engagement ensued, which continued with equal fury for
three hours; when, after having been charged the third time by our
troops, the enemy retreated, leaving on the field in killed and wounded
seven hundred men, our loss amounting to about twenty. In the forenoon
of this day, the enemy had sent a number of gun-boats from Point à
Pitre, some of which anchored off the shore at Berville, and others
under Point Bacchus, with a view to stop the communication between our
camp and shipping, and force the latter out of the harbour of Petit
Bourg. Each of their schemes succeeded, so that now the camp (ill
supplied with provisions and stores, which were left chiefly at Petit
Bourg) saw no possibility of getting a further supply. This morning
Major Irvine was killed by a twenty-four pounder from the enemy's
gun-boat, as he was sitting in the cabin of the Assurance; in which he
and a number of others had embarked. As soon as the news of these
disasters reached the Commanders in Chief, the Boyne was got out of
Trois Islet Bay, without loss of time; and, although the hurricane
season was not entirely past, the Admiral embarked, and sailed on
Tuesday, the 30th of September, from Martinique, and anchored off
Grozier, in the bay of Point à Pitre, by 10 A.M. On Thursday, the 2d of
October, the two-gun battery there, opened upon us with red-hot shot,
and continued to fire for a considerable time, but without effect. This
night the Admiral endeavoured to open a communication with Camp
Berville, but was prevented by the vigilance of the enemy, who now
occupied every avenue to it. On the morning of the 30th, the enemy
renewed their attacks on General Graham's camp at Berville, and again on
the 4th of October, still bringing (hydra like) greater numbers to the
charge; their success, however, was the same as on the first attack,
having lost during the three attacks, on a moderate computation, two
thousand men. In the second attack General Graham was wounded by a
musket-ball in the leg, and several of his officers fell.[65] After the
third action the enemy sent in a flag of truce, offering terms of
capitulation, which General Graham in a spirited manner refused; the
officers, however, waited on the General, and stated, that the troops,
reduced by sickness and fatigue, were no longer able to undergo the
duty, which now pressed heavy on them, and were so harassed as to be
incapable of withstanding another attack, which the enemy promised to
make on them the following morning. General Graham therefore,
reconsidering the matter, consented to send a flag to the enemy, and,
after some time, the terms of capitulation were agreed to; but, alas!
the unfortunate royalists were not included, though the General
endeavoured all he could to make terms for them: he succeeded however
thus far, to have permission to send a covered boat to the Boyne, in
which he embarked twenty-five officers of the royalists; their
unfortunate brethren, to the number of three hundred, who had defended
their posts to the last, with the most determined resolution, were
doomed to suffer death by the hands of their republican countrymen in
cold blood, in a manner hitherto, I believe, unheard of, at least
unrecorded in the annals of the most savage and abandoned people.[66]
Humanity must shudder at the idea; the republicans erected a guillotine,
with which they struck off the heads of fifty of them. Thinking,
however, this mode of proceeding too tedious, they invented a more
summary plan; they tied the remainder of these unhappy men fast
together, and placed them on the brink of the trenches which they had so
gallantly defended; they then drew up some of their undisciplined
recruits in front, who firing an irregular volley at their miserable
victims, killed some, wounded others, and some, in all probability, were
untouched; the weight however of the former dragged the rest into the
ditch, where the living, the wounded, and the dead, shared the same
grave, the soil being instantly thrown upon them. The English troops
were to be allowed to march out with the honours of war, and to be
embarked on board French ships, which were to sail for England within
twenty-one days after the surrender,[67] on condition that they would
not serve against the French during the war. A great quantity of arms
and ammunition fell into the hands of the enemy at this camp, and at
Petit Bourg. Immediately after the surrender of Berville, Victor Hughes
moved towards the town of Basse Terre, now our last stake on this
island, laying waste the plantations, and burning the beautiful seats of
the royalists as he passed along. Sir John Jervis, who had made every
attempt to succour General Graham's camp at Berville, and had been an
unwilling spectator from the fleet, of the surrender of that camp to the
enemy, now made sail for Basse Terre, to render every assistance in his
power to General Prescott;[68] and on the 9th of October, anchored
within half a cable's length of the town. General Prescott instantly
came on board to consult with the Admiral on the best mode of procedure
in this critical state of affairs; and it was determined that the whole
force which the General could collect, should go into the fort, and the
Admiral, in the Boyne, would render every assistance in his power to the
garrison; a promise he performed in a manner that drew the warmest
thanks and approbation of General Prescott and his officers. At this
time the French royalists had entirely abandoned us, and the militia,
who had demanded arms, positively refused to enter the fort, and soon
after deserted to the enemy: a party in the town seemed also ready to
rise upon our people; but by the vigilance and activity of General
Prescott they were overawed, and he continued to ride into the town
unattended as usual. The fort was in a miserable state, nothing having
been done to it since the peace of 1783; and Clairfontaine,[69] a
royalist, who had been appointed administrateur general, wanting either
influence or ability to procure negroes for the purpose, the fort was
no way better than when it fell into our hands, except being cleaner,
and supplied with provisions. On the 12th of October, a schooner bearing
a flag of truce, arrived from Victor Hughes; in it came Captain Eiston,
of the 35th regiment,[70] for a supply of money and baggage for our
captured countrymen, with which he returned in two days to Point à
Pitre. General Prescott had taken the precaution to order all the
batteries along the coast, as well as those on the passes of the
Palmiste, to be destroyed, their guns spiked, and magazines blown up;
but, owing to the shortness of the time allowed for it, and the weakness
of the force employed, the enemy soon got them repaired to use against
us. Captain Bowen, in the Terpsichore, was dispatched to Trois Riviere,
to destroy a battery there,[71] where he saw and fired on the enemy, who
were marching in great force towards the heights of Palmiste. On which
he returned, and informed the Admiral of this, by whom the intelligence
was instantly forwarded to General Prescott, who had sent Captain Thomas
of the 28th regiment (his aid-de-camp) to request some seamen to
reinforce his garrison, which were most readily granted by the Admiral.
While Captain Thomas was on board the Boyne, the enemy, to his great
astonishment, were seen on the heights of Palmiste. As there were a few
royalists about the General, some of whose slaves were with the enemy,
of course he ought to have received earlier information of their
approach; but this shews how all intelligence was withheld from us. For
ten days after the General had withdrawn the whole of his force into the
fort, he occasionally sent parties into the town, as the Boyne still
kept the enemy quiet there; but in a short time they got some guns up to
an eminence, named by us the White-house Battery, that obliged the
Admiral to weigh anchor: but he still continued to hover about the
coast, occasionally sending reinforcements and provisions, and keeping
up a constant intercourse with General Prescott in the fort. In the
course of this business the Boyne was frequently engaged with the
different batteries, and was exposed to great danger from the mortars,
which the enemy began to play upon us with much judgment. On the 20th of
October, the battery on Houelmont opened on the Terpsichore, but without
effect. Our garrison in the fort threw some shells which drove them from
thence; they, however, soon returned again to their guns. The next day
they again attacked the frigate, and hit her; which obliged Captain
Bowen to get near the land, out of the direction of their guns. On the
23d, the White-house Battery, having several heavy guns mounted, began a
smart fire on the Boyne, which was returned from her lower deckers;
afterwards we engaged a battery, into which the enemy had just come, at
the N. W. end of the town, from whence we drove them; but being obliged
to haul off shore occasionally, they at length completed their purpose,
but not so as to be able to hinder us from approaching the land to keep
up an intercourse with the garrison. On this service (as on every other)
Captain Bowen eminently distinguished himself, having anchored the
Terpsichore, within a short distance of the fort, in a bay under
Houelmont. On the 25th the Quebec, Captain Rogers, Beaulieu, Captain
Riou, and Zebra, Captain Vaughan, arrived from a cruise. The enemy now
increased their forces daily in this part of the island, pressing into
their service all the negroes who were on the different estates; and if
from timidity or any other cause they demurred, they were instantly
shot: from the ship we saw them firing on some negroes of their own,
who, from fear, were endeavouring to get off. On the night of the 26th,
Lieutenant James, with a party of seamen, marched out of the fort to the
military hospital, which he set on fire, being a place that the enemy
would soon have made a considerable post against us. On the 29th, the
Boyne, as usual sailing towards the fort, was becalmed by the high land
of Houelmont, and being within a short distance, was cannonaded from
that battery for several hours. From the height of its situation none of
our guns could be brought to bear against it; however, after
considerable danger, the ship got out of the bay without any damage. On
the 5th of November, the enemy opened ten batteries against the fort at
the same instant, and a party of them, with a field-piece, under cover
of the night, had taken post on the brow of the hill under which the
Terpsichore and Experiment were anchored. As soon as the seamen were
arranged at day-break, to wash the decks as usual, they were surprised
by a heavy shower of musketry from over their heads. The Experiment
endeavoured to get away, but being totally becalmed, it was some time
before she could accomplish it. (Captain Miller had gone on board the
Vanguard, and Captain Skynner was then in the Boyne, receiving his
commission.[72]) Captain Bowen, with a presence of mind that never
forsook him, ordered up all the muskets that could be procured, and,
encouraging his men with great spirit and some effect, returned the fire
of the enemy, who now brought their field-piece to bear on the ship; he
was therefore obliged to weigh anchor, and get out of the bay as well as
he could, his great guns being totally useless from the elevated
situation of the enemy: two or three only of our people were wounded,
though the deck was studded with musket-balls. The fort[73] was now
closely invested by land; by the sea a communication was continued the
whole siege, Captain Bowen, in the Terpsichore, never relaxing for a
moment in his exertions to serve and assist the garrison. The water in
the tank being bad (the enemy having cut off the aqueduct that supplied
it), General Prescott ordered an armed party every morning and evening
to the river Galion, to protect those sent thither for water. This was
continued during the whole siege; cohorns and grape-shot being fired
into the ravines and woods beyond the river, and other precautions
taken, these parties met with little molestation. All the buildings in
the fort being destroyed by the fire of the enemy, the garrison was
obliged to take shelter in the Bomb-proof, a close and unwholesome
confinement in this climate. On the 6th of November, Victor Hughes sent
an insolent summons to General Prescott, to surrender the fort in two
hours, which if not complied with, no further terms would be offered,
and the whole garrison would be put to the sword. To this the General
made a short answer, "that he would defend it as a soldier to the last
extremity." The instant the hour was expired that the General allowed
the French officer to return to Victor Hughes, he opened a heavy fire
from all his batteries against the republicans, and continued it through
the day without any return from them. Some stores and provisions were
about this period sent to the garrison from Dominica, and the merchants
of St. Pierre also made a welcome present of refreshments; the enemy at
the same time began to supply their advanced batteries with necessaries
by sea in small boats, that, keeping close in shore, evaded our
cruisers, and landed at the town of Basse Terre. On the 12th of
November, the Boyne was exposed for some time to a heavy fire from
several batteries; one shell burst immediately over her, but without
doing any mischief. At nine A. M. on the 14th of November, the Beaulieu,
being then off Vieu Fort, made a signal to the Admiral, of an enemy of
superior force being in sight. Immediately all hands were ordered to
quarters, and every preparation made to give them a warm reception; at
length three line-of-battle ships hove in sight, which, to our great
joy, proved to be a reinforcement from England; the Majestic, Captain
Westcott, with Vice Admiral Caldwell's flag on board; the Theseus,
Captain Calder; and Bellona, Captain Wilson: by them we were informed
that Sir John Vaughan had arrived at St. Pierre, and Sir Charles Grey
had given up the command to him. Sir John Jervis, worn down by long and
severe exertions, the fatigues of which were augmented by his anxiety
for the welfare of the service, that not all his exertions could promote
without the arrival of a strong reinforcement, together with the
unhealthiness of the climate, found himself no longer able to continue
on this station, and therefore, to the great grief of General Prescott,
was obliged to give up his command to Admiral Caldwell, and embarking
his seamen (under Lieutenant James) from Fort Matilda, sailed for St.
Pierre; when, every thing being arranged and settled between the several
commanders, Sir Charles Grey and his suite embarked once more with Sir
John Jervis on board the Boyne; on the 27th of November they sailed for
England, and after a tedious voyage (being for near a month tossed about
in the Channel by contrary winds) arrived at Spithead the 21st of
January 1795.

     [61] Among the many causes of uneasiness that now bore hard upon
     the Commanders in Chief (by the failure of their well-concerted
     plans, the dreadful mortality among their troops, and the despair
     of reinforcements arriving from Europe) the misconduct of one high
     in estimation as an officer, and hitherto looked upon as a man of
     strict integrity, was not the least galling. The case was this: At
     the taking of St. Lucia, Colonel Sir Charles Gordon, who had
     repeatedly distinguished himself by his gallant conduct, was
     appointed governor of that island, and in the last promotion was
     advanced to the rank of brigadier general; soon after which some
     very unpleasant reports prevailed, of extortions and peculations by
     him, and taking bribes of the inhabitants, who were supposed to be
     disaffected, in order to suffer them to remain on the island, and
     then breaking his word with them. At length a regular complaint was
     laid before the Commander in Chief, who instantly ordered a court
     martial to be summoned, and sent an officer to St. Lucia to arrest
     Sir Charles Gordon, and convey him to Martinique, in order for
     trial. At this time the fever raged so violently that the two first
     courts-martial that met on this business, were dissolved by the
     death of a majority of the members. At length, in order to prevent
     the like accident from again interrupting the course of justice,
     the General appointed a greater number of officers than usual to
     attend, and the trial proceeded; the event of which was, that the
     prisoner was found guilty of the crimes laid to his charge, and was
     sentenced to refund the money he had extorted, and to be rendered
     incapable of serving his majesty again: but, in consequence of some
     favourable circumstances that came out on the trial, he was allowed
     to sell his commission. See Appendix, pages 42, 43, 48.

     [62] The horses that were sent from America for the purpose of
     mounting the light dragoons, were so bad, that only three out of
     forty were sound, or fit for service, insomuch that Captain Hare
     was obliged to present a memorial to the Commander in Chief on the

     [63] Consisting of seventy rank and file only.

     [64] I am sorry to add, that this officer soon afterwards fell a
     victim to the yellow fever.

     [65] In one of these attacks Monsieur Vermont was shot through the
     body, his lieutenant, Monsieur De Lisle, was shot through his
     breast, and another of his officers killed; in this situation he
     beat off the enemy. This gallant, but unfortunate officer, was, at
     the beginning of the revolution, possessed of a good estate near
     Trois Riviere on Basse Terre, which soon made him an object of
     republican vengeance; his house was attacked, but he escaped into
     the woods, supposing that his amiable wife would be safe from their
     fury, being far advanced in her pregnancy; but the monsters, not
     regarding her situation, put her to death with circumstances of
     barbarity too dreadful to relate, and such as would fill, I trust,
     every Briton's breast with the utmost horror; his aged mother too,
     and beautiful sister, shared the same fate. He was taken and thrown
     into prison at Fort Matilda, to reserve him for a public spectacle
     on the guillotine, when we arrived, and released him from thence by
     the capture of the island.

     [66] Their conduct prior to, and since the enemy had attacked the
     camp, deserved a far better fate: finding themselves excluded from
     terms of capitulation, they wished permission to cut their way
     through the enemy's army, by which a few of them, at least, might
     escape, and the rest meet an honourable death; but this request, it
     is said, was refused; perhaps it was believed that on their capture
     the enemy would relent, and not put their sanguinary threats into
     execution. Two of these unfortunate men hastened to the shore, in
     hopes of getting on board the covered boat; but being disappointed,
     and aware of the fate that awaited them, they instantly shot
     themselves on the beach. On hearing of this melancholy business,
     General Grey published an order that did equal honour to his
     feelings and his mind. See Appendix, page 53.

     [67] This part of the agreement, however, was not complied with, as
     they remained prisoners for more than a year afterwards, during
     which time many of them died.

     [68] General Prescott had so small a force in that quarter, that he
     could not possibly afford any material assistance to General
     Graham; but he had made an effort by sending a detachment from the
     35th regiment to support some royalists at St. Marié, which however
     proved ineffectual; and the numbers at Martinique being now too
     small for the defence of it, General Grey was unable to afford any
     assistance from thence; however he ordered the flank companies of
     the 4th battalion, of the 60th regiment from St. Vincent's, and
     part of the 21st from St. Christopher's, to reinforce Brigadier
     General Graham. Fortunately, however, they arrived too late, as
     their numbers were inadequate to save it, and they afterwards made
     part of the garrison at Fort Matilda.

     [69] This gentleman, after having enjoyed a lucrative post, was
     unwilling to lose the fruits of it, and, instead of rendering any
     assistance to General Prescott, he took French leave, not
     forgetting to carry with him a chest well lined, in order to render
     his residence at Antigua comfortable.

     [70] The republican officer who came with him informed us that he
     saw the execution of the unfortunate royalists, and that
     twenty-seven heads were struck off in seven minutes and a half!

     [71] On the 19th of October the Admiral sent Lieutenant Skynner
     with a party of seamen to a battery at the N. W. end of the town,
     from whence he brought off some cannon and mortars.

     [72] On the 2d of November, Captain Miller was promoted to the
     command of the Vanguard, Captain Sawyer being removed to the
     Assurance, vice Captain Bryer, deceased; and Lieutenant Launcelot
     Skynner of the Boyne, was appointed commander of the Experiment,
     vice Captain Miller.

     [73] Fort Matilda, formerly Fort Charles, was at first a battery
     only, erected to command the road; afterwards it was enclosed as a
     depot for arms and ammunition in case of insurrection among the
     slaves; and during the last war the French added to its outworks,
     which were now totally in ruins, but served the enemy, particularly
     those on the opposite side of the Galion river, as trenches, and
     effectually covered their musketry that commanded the principal
     works of the besieged: in short, the fort was completely commanded
     on the three sides by land, so that not a man in it could move
     without being seen by the enemy.

                      *       *       *       *       *

As we left General Prescott in a perilous situation, it may be proper to
give an account of the conclusion of the siege, though it comes not
within the original plan of my work, which professed only to relate the
events that took place under the immediate command of Sir Charles Grey
and Sir John Jervis. This I am enabled to do from the communication of a
brave and intelligent friend who was there during the whole siege. On
the 29th of November, Captain Cockburne, aid-de-camp of General Sir John
Vaughan, was sent by his Excellency to Fort Matilda, with the unwelcome
news that no more men could be sent thither. On the 5th of December,
General Prescott dispatched Captain Thomas, his aid-de-camp, to the
Commander in Chief, with an account of the fort being almost in ruins;
this officer returned thither on the 7th, and found that the bastion
towards the river Galion was totally silenced, and so completely
commanded by the enemy's musketry, that not a man could approach it; the
adjoining curtain was much in the same state; the bastion towards the
town was giving way, and expected to tumble into the ditch every moment.
General Prescott no longer thought of defence, but to secure his small
garrison, now highly necessary for the defence of the other islands, the
unparalleled mortality having left them almost without troops. The
pestilential fever had been, in proportion, more fatal to the officers
than the men; in the garrison, for instance, there was no officer of
intermediate rank between the General and his aid-de-camp Captain
Thomas, who was second in command. On the 9th of December, this officer
was dispatched to Admiral Thompson, and after the plan of embarkation
was settled, he returned to the fort, and the evacuation commenced at
nine o'clock on the 10th of December, and was conducted with so much
skill, that not a man was lost. In the morning two of the garrison
deserted to the enemy; but the General had concealed his intentions so
well, that not the least intelligence of it seems to have been given by
them. There was no interruption to the retreat except a few musket-shots
on the beach, from one of which that active officer Captain Bowen was
badly wounded in the face. The enemy, unconscious of this movement,
cannonaded and bombarded the fort as usual, until two o'clock the next
morning, though the embarkation had been completed by eleven the
preceding night. The whole force that marched out of Fort Matilda, was
between four and five hundred: some of them were sent to the Isle de
Saintes and Antigua, and the remainder to Martinique. Thus concluded a
siege of eight weeks and two days, during the whole of which General
Prescott evinced the most perfect coolness and true soldierly
resolution, neither appalled by the tremendous and well-directed fire
constantly, both night and day, kept up against the fort, nor by the
insolent and threatening summonses of Victor Hughes.[74] In the
handsomest manner he bore testimony to the zeal and activity of Sir John
Jervis, who relaxed not in his attention to the wants of the garrison,
till he was obliged to quit the station; leaving however, in Captain
Bowen, a man whose existence seemed to be preserved, amidst the greatest
dangers, for the service of his country. Admiral Thompson had his share
of praise too for the manner in which he had conducted the embarkation.
During the siege seventeen were killed, and seventy-nine were wounded.
General Prescott immediately repaired to Saint Pierre, at Martinique,
where he received the well-earned thanks and congratulations of all
ranks, for his spirited and gallant defence of Fort Matilda. Victor
Hughes,[75] on taking possession of the fort, ordered the monument that
had been erected over General Dundas, to be destroyed, and his remains
thrown into the river Galion; a conduct as mean and brutal, as it was
undeserved. I cannot conclude without mentioning the death of that
gallant officer, Captain Faulknor, commanding the Blanche frigate of
thirty-two guns, who, on the 5th of January, fell in with the republican
frigate, La Pique of thirty-eight guns, off the harbour of Point à
Pitre; the action was maintained with the greatest fury and obstinacy
for five hours, during which Captain Faulknor fell by a musket-ball as
he was a second time lashing the bowsprit of La Pique to the capstern of
his own ship. The loss of this brave man must be deplored by every
friend to the service; his courage and determined bravery had been often
tried, and always with success, as in the course of this work I have
frequently had occasion to mention. On his death the command devolved on
the first lieutenant, Mr. Watkins, who continued the action in a manner
that did him immortal honour. The French ship having lost her main and
mizen sails, the Blanche took her in tow, still continuing the
engagement, when the stern ports not being large enough, they blew the
upper transom beam away, and fired into her bows for three hours. The
marines under Lieutenant Richardson, kept so well directed a fire, that
not a man could appear on her forecastle until she struck; sixty-seven
of her crew were dead on the decks; many had been thrown overboard; one
hundred and ten wounded were landed at the Saintes; and one hundred and
seventy-four were taken to Martinique. The Blanche had ten killed,
including the Captain, and twenty-four wounded. Captain Faulknor's
exertions in forwarding the service on every occasion, both during, and
since the campaign, were unremitting. Indeed the English cause in the
West Indies, at this instant, could hardly have received a deeper wound
than it did by the death of this brave and zealous man.

     [74] During the siege a cannon ball took off the fore part of the
     General's hat. He coolly observed, "that a miss was as good as a

     [75] So much having been said of this man, it may be agreeable to
     the reader to be informed of his origin, and pursuits in the former
     part of his life.--Victor Hughes was originally a petty inn-keeper
     at Basse Terre, Guadaloupe; from whence he was driven for some
     misdemeanor, and became master of a small trading vessel at St.
     Domingo; then a lieutenant in the French navy; and afterwards a
     deputy in the national assembly: from whence he came out to the
     West Indies as commissioner, with controlling powers over the
     commanders of the army and navy. His abilities were certainly good,
     his courage and perseverance undoubted; but, from the ferocity of
     his character, he was both feared and hated. Colonel Drummond, who
     with his small party was taken at Point Bacchus, relates that the
     republicans put to death all the sick they found in the hospital at
     Petit Bourg, many of the women, and some children, cutting off
     heads, and otherwise mutilating the bodies; that, as the men who
     surrendered with him at Point Bacchus, fainted in their march, they
     were instantly bayonetted; the Colonel himself was, by particular
     directions from Victor Hughes, ordered to clean the prison ship in
     turn with the others; but from this disgrace he was relieved by the
     dutiful attachment of his men, who would not permit it: his food
     and lodging were the same as the rest, no attention being paid to
     his rank; but from the respect and good behaviour of his men, not
     one of whom would desert from him. A great number of people of all
     ages, sexes, and conditions, were condemned to the guillotine by
     this inexorable tyrant, all of whom were conducted in boats round
     the prison ship, in order to distress and intimidate the British


  _Head Quarters, Barbadoes, Wednesday, Jan. 22, 1794._

  Parole, ST. DOMINGO.          C. S. WILLIAMSON.

The Commander in Chief, having nearly finished all his arrangements to
open the campaign with vigour, thinks it necessary, during the few days
the troops remain at Barbadoes, to give out the orders proper for the
regulation and conduct of the troops; and he anxiously calls upon every
commanding officer of brigades, regiments, and corps, to support him in
the due and strict observance thereof. The object of the campaign is to
complete the conquest of the French West India Islands. Great
sufficiency of provisions and a numerous train of artillery are
provided. The General is so thoroughly convinced of the zeal and
intelligence of the officers and soldiers under his command, that he
knows many orders upon the present occasion are unnecessary; yet, to
shorten orders in future, it may not be improper to explain to the
soldiers the fatal consequences of straggling ever so little away from
camp in quest of plunder; it is next to a certainty they will fall
ignobly by the hands of the country people: or if they should escape,
they may depend upon suffering the severe punishment due to disobeying
military orders; as the General will never allow (while he has the
honour to command such troops) practices of that nature to gain ground,
as that alone, in time, will defeat the bravest army in the world, and
render all their efforts useless. The British soldiers cannot be
ignorant of the high reputation they have always acquired for obedience,
attention, and expertness, in arms; and consequently they must be
sensible how much their king and country expect from them: and the
General is impressed with every assurance, that the troops will not
disappoint them upon this occasion. The General takes the liberty to
assure them, that they are able to fight any troops upon earth; and he
will be answerable that it would not be a contest of ten minutes between
this army and the best troops of France, whether the affair was to be
decided by fire or bayonet. This last method is always to be preferred,
but much more so when acting against such bad troops as the army we are
now to be opposed to, the enemy being made up chiefly of negroes and
mulattoes, with a very small proportion of regular troops; to be beat by
whom would be so disgraceful, that he cannot entertain the most distant
thought of it. The present distracted state of France makes it
impossible to support them, therefore it only requires the usual
perseverance and gallantry of British soldiers to conquer the first
island that an attack is made upon, which will certainly decide the fate
of the whole, shorten the campaign, and put an honourable end to the
labour and exertion of the troops. The General thinks it a duty
incumbent on him, and which he doubts not will be taken well, to point
out further what he thinks necessary, either for their own particular
good, or that more noble object, the good of their king and country. The
General desires the soldiers will consider what hardships must attend
their profession; that there is as much true honour in bearing them with
manly fortitude, as in forcing the cannon of an enemy; patience under
difficulties being one of the first virtues in a military character, and
without which no man, however brave, will ever be a soldier. In times
like the present some sacrifice of convenience must always be made to
necessity; at the same time the soldiers may be assured that every
attention will be paid by the Commander in Chief, and every other
officer, to have them well supplied with every article that the nature
of the service will admit. On the other hand, he hopes the soldiers will
be so thoroughly convinced of this, that not one of them will be so lost
to honour and virtue, and the service of their country, as not readily
and most cheerfully to put up with every inconvenience, and even to the
scarcity of provisions, if it should so happen. The General means to
carry the business through with as little loss as possible, and with the
strictest attention to the preservation of the troops: to this end he
expects that every duty required will be carried forward by the troops
without the least unsoldier-like behaviour or complaint, and that all
orders will be strictly obeyed. The army is sent to carry on honourable
war against the French colonies, and by their conduct, in preserving
the persons and properties of the peaceable inhabitants, to conciliate
the minds of the people to the British government; therefore the General
determinately assures the troops, that he will allow of no drunkenness
or licentious behaviour, no burning of churches, houses, or edifices of
any description, without orders, or plundering in any shape whatever.
All persons that with their property remain in their habitations, shall
be treated with humanity. No violence to be offered, particularly to
women, on any pretence whatever. The strictest subordination and
discipline to be preserved throughout the whole army; and the commanding
officer of brigades, regiments, and corps, must be responsible
accordingly to the Commander in Chief.--The commanding officer will be
careful that these orders, and every other that comes out, are
distinctly read to their men by an officer, and be clearly understood by
both officers and soldiers.--However it may hurt the General's feelings,
he is determined to make immediate examples of all those who shall
presume to disobey his orders; more particularly that part of them
relative to plundering, ill treatment of peaceable inhabitants, or
firing of houses, &c. And Captain Vipond, provost marshal, has his
orders to execute upon the spot every offender caught in such horrid
acts, without trial.--It may be necessary here to acquaint all officers'
servants (not soldiers), and followers of the army of every description,
that they are subject to military law, and liable in like manner with
the troops to the punishment of death, or corporal punishment, according
to the nature of the offence. Each regiment and corps will apprize them
of this, that ignorance may not be pleaded as an excuse. The success of
this army totally depends upon a proper and strict degree of order and
discipline being maintained; the General therefore again calls upon
officers of every rank to assist him in enforcing it; for the whole are
not to suffer by a disorderly few, who, if allowed to go on, would be
the destruction of the whole army.

The provost marshal's guard to mount to-morrow morning at six o'clock,
consisting of one sergeant, two corporals, twelve privates; and Captain
Vipond will direct patroles to go out as he judges necessary, for the
purpose of preserving order and regularity.--William Allen, sergeant
major, of the forty-eighth regiment, is appointed deputy to the provost
marshal; Captain Scott, of the sixth regiment, to act as major to that
regiment; and Quarter Master William Haugh to do the duty of adjutant
till further orders.--Carpenters are much wanted to expedite the
equipment of hospital ships, and other necessary work on board the
fleet; returns to be given in by each corps to-morrow of the number of
carpenters they have, and such as they can furnish; to be supplied on
the application of Captain Armstrong, assistant to the quarter master
general, who will receive and take care to return them on board their
respective transports. Working parties from the troops afloat are
necessary for the same purpose, and will be supplied in rotation, by
corps, with a proper proportion of non-commissioned officers, on the
application of Captain Armstrong to the officers commanding regiments
or battalions. The sixth regiment, and such of the flank companies not
yet completed with camp equipage, will receive it on board the Sincerity
brig to-morrow morning at six o'clock. The quarter masters of the
respective battalions will attend to receive it.--Lieutenant Geyer of
the sixty-seventh regiment to do duty with the sixth
regiment.--Provost's guard, first battalion grenadiers. One sergeant,
nine privates of the ninth regiment on board the army brig to be landed
this evening, and to march to St. Ann's, where they are to remain till
further orders. The light companies at St. Ann's Castle will fire ball
this evening, &c. &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

Lieut. Colonel Gomm was left to command at Barbadoes.


  ORDERS.            _Barbadoes, January 24, 1794._


The safety of an army depending in a great measure upon the guards and
out-posts, they cannot be too vigilant; therefore the Commander in Chief
expects, that whatever post or guard an officer is ordered to take, he
will first visit his situation and ground around it, and post his
centinels so as to render it out of the power of the enemy to surprise
him. It is the greatest disgrace that can possibly befall an officer;
and so much so in the General's opinion, that any officer, or
non-commissioned officer, who shall suffer himself to be surprised, must
not expect to be forgiven.--All out-posts to fortify themselves as well
as they can, to prevent any insult from parties of the enemy. The troops
always to form two deep; and, the roads being so narrow in the island,
it will be necessary for them to march by files: if there is room to do
otherwise, the commanding officer will be the best judge.--The soldiers
will bear in mind the use of the bayonet, which in possession of, they
can have no excuse for retreating for want of ammunition, the bayonet
being the best and most effectual weapon in the hands of a gallant
British soldier; in which mode of attack (the General assures them) no
troops upon earth are equal to them. In case of a night attack,
ammunition and firing are totally out of the question, and the bayonet
is ever to be preferred and made use of. Every reason is in favour of
this system; amongst many others the following, viz. It conceals you and
your numbers from the enemy; the enemy direct their fire wherever they
see or hear fire, consequently fire upon each other, whilst you are
concealed, and they fall an easy prey. The General assures the troops of
this from his own repeated experience; and the soldiers may rely in
confidence upon him, that if it is strictly adhered to, it will seldom,
if ever, fail of success.--As it may be necessary at particular times to
order the grenadiers, light infantry, and advanced corps, to retire, in
order more effectually to secure the defeat of the enemy, the Commander
in Chief thinks it necessary to apprize the army of this, to prevent any
alarm such an appearance might otherwise occasion amongst the
soldiers.--Weak and sickly men are not to embark with their regiments or
corps; proper measures will be taken to get those men to their regiments
as soon as they are in a state fit for duty. No women to come on shore
till particularly ordered, &c.

The undernamed are the officers of Royal Engineers to serve the army on
the expedition.

  Colonels        Elias Durnford, Chief Engineer.
                  John Chillcotts.
                  Robert Douglas.

  Captains        William Johnston.
                  James Gieddes.
                  Lewis Hay.

  1st Lieutenants Richard Downe.
                  Douglas Lawson.
                  Richard Fletcher.

  2d Lieutenant   Elias Walker Durnford.

No emigrants allowed to go as servants or otherwise from Barbadoes with
the expedition, without particular leave from the Commander in Chief;
nor any negroes to be hired by the officers, without the consent of
their owners.

  _Head Quarters, Riviere Sallée, Feb. 6, 1794._


  Parole, MARTINICO.     C. S. MORNE.

  Field Officer for the day, Lieut. Colonel Buckridge.

  The army will halt to-day.

The Commander in Chief cannot but express the highest sense he
entertains of the exertion of the officers and soldiers in a long
fatiguing march yesterday, and the orderly behaviour of the men during
the whole march, and which must at all times demand his utmost
attention; and he assures them the same conduct will (and speedily) put
an end to the campaign.--The Commander in Chief is pleased to order an
extra day of fresh provisions and rum to be issued out to the men this
day as soon as possible.--The regiments which loaded yesterday on their
march will draw their pieces immediately; and no regiment to load in
future without orders, except the advanced guard.--A general court
martial to be convened immediately for the trial of William Milton, of
the English light dragoons, and Samuel Price, of the black dragoons, for
robbery; and all such prisoners as shall be brought before them. Capt.
Cunningham, and Jacques and Falice, to appear as witnesses.

  Lieutenant Colonel Blundell,  President.

  Lieutenant Colonel Johnston.

  Major Watson.

  Major Ross.

  Major Baillie.

  Third battalion grenadiers    2 Captains.

  Second light infantry         1 Ditto.

  Third ditto                   1 Ditto.

  Third brigade                 4 Ditto.

Names of the members, and dates of their commissions, to be given in
immediately to Major Lyon, deputy quarter master general, acting judge
advocate. List of the evidence for and against to be given in at the
same time. The quarter masters of the different regiments at head
quarters to give in to the quarter master general a return of the
effective strength immediately.

AFTER ORDERS. _Feb. 7, 1794._

William Milton, private in the detachment of British light dragoons, and
Samuel Price, a negro, attached to the dragoons, tried by a general
court martial, of which Lieutenant Colonel Bryan Blundell was president,
for having entered the house of Jacques, an inhabitant of this place,
and robbing him of a sum of money, are both found guilty of the crime
laid to their charge; and, by virtue of the power and authority vested
in the court by the fourth article of the twenty-third section of the
articles of war, the said prisoners, William Milton and Samuel Price,
are adjudged to suffer death; which is approved of by the Commander in
Chief, and the general court martial is dissolved.

The Commander in Chief feels most sensibly, and laments the necessity of
making examples so immediately after landing, notwithstanding the
strongest and most pointed orders given by him so recently against every
kind of irregularity and improper behaviour in soldiers on service, but
particularly against this very crime committed by the prisoners.
Determined, however, to have his orders obeyed, to preserve discipline
in the army, which is so essential to its success, and to prevent a
repetition of crimes so base, disgraceful, and detestable, the
prisoners, William Milton and Samuel Price, are ordered to be executed
at eight o'clock to-morrow morning. The troops to parade at seven
o'clock to-morrow morning, in readiness to attend the execution. The
ninth and fifteenth regiments to send four men each in augmentation of
the castle guard in the rear of the head quarters. Six mules will be
delivered to each of the flank battalions, and four to each regiment, at
nine o'clock to-morrow morning, at the quarter master general's.

  _Head Quarters, Riviere Sallée, Feb. 8, 1794._

  Parole, WHYTE.  C. S. BATTERIES.

  Field Officer of the day, Major Watson.

The Commander in Chief hopes the awful scene of this morning will have
its proper effect, and not lay him again under the most feeling and
painful necessity of repeating it, but which must certainly be the
unhappy case in the persons of future offenders. The General could not
be justified in the eyes of his king and country, and this army he has
the honour to command, in acting otherwise, their existence and success
depending (of which every good thinking soldier must be sensible) upon a
proper degree of discipline and subordination, with the most minute and
strictest obedience to orders, &c.

The General has the pleasure to announce to the army the complete
success of Brigadier General Whyte, at the head of the third light
infantry, in gallantly storming and taking the batteries of Cape Solomon
and Bourgis. In Cape Solomon were four thirty-six pounders and two
twenty-four pounders; in Bourgis three twenty-four pounders, all in
perfect order to turn against the enemy; with powder and shot in
abundance. This success opens a near communication with the fleet, by
enabling them to come into Ance d'Arlet Bay, with every supply the army
may be in want of; and what still renders it more valuable, carried with
the loss only of one man.

  _Head Quarters, Riviere Sallée, Feb. 9, 1794._

  Parole, DUNDAS.  C. S. GROS MORNE.

  Field Officer of the day, Major Baillie.

The Commander in Chief has again the pleasure to announce to the troops
the further success of his majesty's arms towards the conquest of the
island of Martinico, by the able conduct of Major General Dundas, and
the gallantry and spirit of the troops under his command, in attacking
the enemy's troops under the command of Mons. Bellgarde at Trinité with
bayonets, and putting them totally to the rout with great slaughter, he
narrowly escaping with a few followers into Fort Royal. The Major
General with great spirit followed up the blow, and took possession of
the very strong fort of the Gros Morne, where the English colours are
now flying.

He has also the pleasure to add the gallantry of the seventieth
regiment, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Johnston, and led by Colonel
Dundas, who with so much spirit and promptitude attacked the enemy
posted upon Morne Charlotte Pied, and put them totally to flight, taking
possession of that important commanding ground looking down upon Pigeon
Island, which, when, attacked (in conjunction with Brigadier General
Whyte) and taken, will enable the English fleet to come up into Fort
Royal Harbour, in full view of the enemy's Forts of Bourbon and Royal.

The Commander in Chief is happy in the opportunity of making honourable
mention of Captain Nares of the seventieth regiment, who led the
advanced guard with so much true courage and judgment in the above
attack, as reported to him in the strongest manner by Colonel Dundas.

  _Head Quarters, Riviere Sallée, Feb. 11, 1794._


The Commander in Chief is happy again to assure the army of the progress
of our arms towards the reduction of Martinico. Colonel Sir Charles
Gordon, and Captain Rogers commanding a squadron of his Majesty's ships,
by their good conduct, activity, and spirit, have made a landing good at
Cape Pilote, and taken all the batteries upon the coast from Cape Pilote
to Cape Navirre. The gallantry of the troops, in charging and putting to
flight the enemy wherever they dared to appear, was never more

  _Head Quarters, Riviere Sallée, Feb. 12, 1794._


  Field Officer of the day, Major Baillie.

It is with the utmost satisfaction the Commander in Chief announces to
the army the capture of Pigeon Island, which surrendered yesterday
morning about eleven o'clock, being a post of great strength, and of the
utmost importance towards the success of our future operations. The
Commander in Chief gives his thanks to Brigadier General Whyte, who
commanded and conducted this service with such spirit and ability as to
do him honour. Likewise to Colonel Symes, quarter master general, for
his able assistance and zeal upon the occasion.--The Commander in Chief
returns his thanks to Lieutenant Colonel Close, who commanded the third
battalion of light infantry; and to Major Manningham, for his
conspicuous exertions. Likewise to Lieutenant Colonel Paterson and Major
Manly, who commanded the royal artillery, which was well and ably
served; and to Colonel Durnford of the engineers.

The Commander in Chief gives his thanks to all the officers and soldiers
employed on that difficult and particular service, whose courage and
exertions (so eminently manifested) merit the greatest praise.

The Commander in Chief also has to offer his warmest acknowledgments and
obligations to Lieutenants Rogers and Rutherford, commanding the seamen,
and to all the other officers and seamen of his Majesty's navy; whose
perseverance, able assistance, and good conduct, contributed much to the
capture of the island.

  _Head Quarters, Riviere Sallée, Feb. 13, 1794._


  Parole, YORK.  C. S. GLOUCESTER.

The Commander in Chief is happy in the opportunity of expressing the
pleasure he received from the report of Major Lyon, deputy adjutant
general, of the spirited conduct of the fifteenth regiment, commanded by
Captain Pomier, in the attack of a very strong post of the enemy at
eleven o'clock last night, in which attack two hundred of the enemy were
surprised, and totally routed, with some loss, and all their cattle,
provisions, arms, &c. and some prisoners taken, with the loss of one man
only of the fifteenth regiment killed, and two wounded.

The fifteenth regiment, at the same time that they accept the Commander
in Chief's acknowledgments for their spirited conduct, will allow him
to say, that if they had not fired, the surprise might have been more
complete; and firing, he trusts, they will in future, in all night
attacks, on all occasions, avoid, and which, they well know, how very
strongly he recommended previous to the opening of the campaign; and he
desires the commanding officers will turn back to their orders, and read
them to the officers and men.

The Commander in Chief desires that the warm sense he entertains of the
spirited service of Captain de Rivigne (who commanded the howitzers in
the siege and capture of Pigeon Island, as reported by Brigadier General
Whyte) may be made known to the army, &c.

  _Head Quarters, Heights of Brunot, Feb. 17, 1794._

  Parole, CONQUEST.  C. S. ST. PIERRE.

  Field Officer, Major Campbell.

The Commander in Chief hopes that every care is taken of, and humanity
shewn to, the negroes attached to the regiments, and to all those
employed with the army; and that they are victualled, attended to, and
encouraged. This the commanding officers of regiments and corps, and
every officer in all departments, will attend to, and inquire into: as
many have fled from the camp, which must be owing to their having been
neglected, or ill used by some of the men, such treatment must be
prevented in future, otherwise the army will suffer every inconvenience.

  _Head Quarters, Brunot, Feb. 19, 1794._

  Parole, ST. PIERRE.  C. S. DUNDAS.

  Field Officer, Colonel Coote.

The Commander in Chief has the pleasure to announce to the army the
complete capture of St. Pierre, the most considerable town in this
island, which contains the greatest part of its wealth, its roads
crowded with ships and merchandise, now the prizes of the army and navy.

The Commander in Chief holds himself highly obliged to the troops for
their spirited and cool conduct in the course of the attack yesterday;
and congratulates them upon so easy an acquisition of the strong ground
hitherto occupied by the enemy, owing to the prompt and spirited
movement of Lieutenant Colonel Buckridge, and the support of the light
infantry under Lieutenant Colonel Coote and Lieutenant Colonel Blundell:
this being the very ground intended to be occupied, and essential for
the impending siege. The sixth, ninth, and second light infantry, with
all the artillery of the camp at Brunot, to march and form the line of
the new camp at Sourier at day-break. The seventieth and fifteenth
regiments to remain at the port of Matilda, and the covering of the
landing place, till further orders.

The commissary to order the provisions, &c. of the army to be escorted
to the most convenient and contiguous situation for the supply of the
army in their new position; which, from their present landing place,
will be nearer than their former encampment. The cavalry, provost's, and
every other department attendant on the army, to move to-morrow morning.
The post of Colomb, occupied by Lieutenant Colonel Coote, to be retained
by two companies, and that of Lieutenant Colonel Buckridge by one

No bullocks for draught, which are necessary for agriculture to the
inhabitants, or milch cows, to be slaughtered by the army.

  _Head Quarters, Heights of Sourier, Feb. 22, 1794._

  Parole, NAVY.  C. S. ANIMATION.

  Field Officer, Major Campbell.

The Commander in Chief saw with pleasure and surprise this morning the
great progress that has been made in forming an excellent road for the
battering train through so difficult a country, and the fair prospect of
the artillery shortly arriving at the destined ground. Nothing can
exceed the order and indefatigability of the British sailors, and the
zeal and pleasure with which they appear animated in the most laborious
exertions; he has remarked this with the utmost satisfaction.

He begs Captains Hervey, Kelly, and Carpenter, with the officers and men
under their command, will accept his best thanks and acknowledgments of
how much he owes them. When the two services thus combine and
co-operate, the greatest obstacles may be surmounted, and every
difficulty vanish. The Commander in Chief has given orders to the
commissary that the seamen shall be amply supplied with provisions and

  _Head Quarters, Camp at Sourier, Feb. 24, 1794._

  Parole, GREAT GUN.  C. S. MORTAR.

Not that the Commander in Chief has any reason whatever to suspect the
advanced posts and guard of the camp are not alert, but, on the
contrary, their steadiness and attention give him true satisfaction:
nevertheless he thinks it right to warn them, that the enemy, in their
present hopeless situation, may be desperate, and attempt to insult some
of the posts: more they cannot do; but the slightest advantage gained,
their expiring cause may for a moment be spirited up to hold out a
little longer, and cause the loss of a few brave men; this the Commander
in Chief wishes to avoid, and to make the conquest of this valuable
island of Martinico with the least loss possible, he being ever
attentive and watchful of their preservation. He particularly desires
the advanced posts will, if possible, increase their vigilance, and in
case of an insult, to meet it coolly, not risking themselves by darting
forward (this not being the time for such exertion), but to check their
ardour, and content themselves by standing on the defensive, and
repulsing the enemy, covering steadily the bringing up the battering
train to their destined ground, which will very soon be completed, and
the batteries ready to open powerfully upon the enemy from three points
at one and the same time; which done, the Commander in Chief assures
the army that he has every reason to believe they will be in possession
of the enemy's last stake in a little time, and honourably put an end to
their labours.

The Commander in Chief again repeats his orders for all the out-posts
that are the least exposed to the enemy's fire, to fortify and shelter
themselves, throwing up blinds at certain distances to run behind when a
shell falls, and which will effectually secure them.--In the trench of
Lieutenant Colonel Coote's post three or four cross blinds should be
made; and the engineer is immediately to order it. The advanced guns
also to be guarded, to prevent a shot damaging a wheel or carriage;
which Lieutenant Colonel Paterson will order to be done.

  _Head Quarters, Camp, Heights of Sourier, Feb. 28, 1794._

  Parole, PUSH.  C. S. FORWARD.

  Field Officer, Lieutenant Colonel Craddock.

Alexander Ross, second gunner, royal artillery, and Edward Brookes, of
the royal Irish artillery, tried by the general court martial, of which
Lieutenant Colonel Buckridge was president, for absenting themselves
five hours from the post of Gros Morne; and on suspicion of having
robbed Madame Lamalle of a gold watch and chain, with various other
articles, viz. six silver spoons, six forks, and a large soup spoon. The
prisoners are further accused of robbing a washerwoman of some wearing
apparel belonging to Adjutant Wilkinson, of the sixty-fourth regiment.
The court, having maturely considered the evidence in support of the
charge against the prisoners, together with what they had to advance in
their defence, acquit the prisoners, Alexander Ross, second gunner of
royal artillery, and Edward Brookes, of the royal Irish artillery, of
the charge against them of having robbed Madame Lamalle and the
washerwoman: but the prisoners, Alexander Ross, of the royal artillery,
and Edward Brookes, of the royal Irish artillery, are both found guilty
of absenting themselves from the post of Gros Morne without leave, in
breach of the fourteenth section of articles of war, and are therefore
adjudged to receive four hundred lashes each on their bare backs.--The
Commander in Chief approves of the above sentence, and directs, that the
punishment of four hundred lashes each be inflicted on the prisoners
to-morrow morning at seven o'clock, at the head of the English and royal
Irish artillery.--The Commander in Chief is clearly of opinion that the
prisoners, Alexander Ross and Edward Brookes, were also guilty of the
charge of robbery advanced against them; but the evidence not being of
that force to justify the court martial in finding them guilty, they are
fortunate in escaping, and he thinks it will make a lasting impression
on their minds; for the Commander in Chief assures them, had they been
found guilty (however painful to him), they should have suffered the
last punishment, death, at the head of the army.

The prisoner Phelps, soldier in the fortieth regiment of foot, tried by
the same general court martial for desertion, is found guilty, in breach
of the first article of the sixth section of the articles of war, and
sentenced to receive eight hundred lashes on his bare back, in the usual
manner. The Commander in Chief approves of the above sentence; but, in
consideration of the great length of time the prisoner, John Phelps, has
been confined, he is pleased to pardon him; and hopes this instance of
lenity will make a deep and lasting impression on his mind, and induce
him to behave like a good and faithful British soldier to his king and
country in future.

  _Head Quarters, Camp, Sourier, March 5, 1794._

  Parole, AIM.  C. S. WELL.


His Royal Highness Prince Edward, major general, to take the command of
his Majesty's troops forming the investment of Fort Bourbon, on the Cape
Navirre side, and the camp at La Coste, with all the posts depending.

The Commander in Chief observes the soldiers do not dig a trench round
their tents to carry off the wet: the commanding officers of regiments
and corps to order it to be done immediately, and to send for the
hammocks belonging to the round tents, to make the men as comfortable as

Captain J. A. Wetheral, and Lieutenant J. Vesey, of the eleventh foot,
are appointed aid de camps to his Royal Highness Prince Edward, major
general, and to be obeyed as such.--The Commander in Chief has the
pleasure to announce, that a detachment of the fifteenth regiment,
commanded by Lord Sinclair, and a detachment of light dragoons,
commanded by Lieutenant Shadwell, and conducted by Captain Cunningham
(his aid de camp), surprised at ten o'clock this morning a strong corps
of the enemy near Francois, which they had set on fire. The enemy were
completely surprised, who had been burning, plundering, and murdering,
wherever they went; thirty-six were killed, with their chief, who was
cut down by a light dragoon. Four prisoners were taken, who were hung up
as an example to such rascals in future; which method the General is
determined uniformly to pursue with all such taken in arms.--The
Commander in Chief returns his best thanks to Lord Sinclair, Captain
Cunningham, and Lieutenant Shadwell, for their zeal and exertion on this
occasion; and to all the officers and men employed. The fire of Francois
was extinguished, and only four houses burnt. Our loss only two men

  _Head Quarters, Camp at Sourier, March 9, 1794._

  Parole, ADVANCE.  C. S. NEARER.

  Field Officer, Major Baillie.

Lieutenant General Prescot will advance, and post the seventieth
regiment to cover the new batteries; which done, the captain and sixty
men, and subaltern and thirty, posted at and near M. Ragout's house, to
be withdrawn, excepting a serjeant and twelve men posted on the height
in the rear of that post, which must be continued until further orders.
Surgeon's mate William Wood, of the seventieth regiment, is appointed
surgeon's mate to the general hospital in the West Indies. The following
gentlemen are appointed to act as assistant engineers: Mr. Thomas Hall,
Lieutenant Fenton, forty-third regiment, Ensign Snell, fifteenth
regiment, Ensign Garroway, king's Carolina regiment, and M. la Granche.

  _Head Quarters, Camp at Sourier, before Fort Bourbon, March 18, 1794._

The gallant attack of the seamen, headed by Lieutenant Bowen of the
Boyne, in boarding the Gabarre, in the carinage of Fort Royal, in open
boats, at noon day yesterday, under a shower of grape shot and musquetry
from the garrison, taking the captain, lieutenant, and twelve men
prisoners, being all there were on board, and even firing some of the
guns of the Gabarre against the fort, merits the highest praise and
admiration. This gallant transaction the Commander in Chief was a
witness of, and takes this opportunity of repeating how perfectly
sensible he is of their meritorious services, with those of the navy in
general, and of their unwearied exertion in forwarding his majesty's
service in every way, and on this critical occasion; and begs they will
accept of his best thanks. Lieutenant Robertson to do duty as major of
brigade, in the room of M. B. Forbes, till further orders.

  _Head Quarters, Camp at Sourier, before Fort Bourbon, Friday, March
  21, 1794._

  Parole, FORT.  C. S. ROYAL.

  Field Officer, Major Baillie.

During the present truce no relaxation of duty, vigilance, or
preparation for a continuance of the siege, to take place; on the
contrary, every exertion to be used for opening again with more vigour
than ever, should the present conference break of, by not agreeing on
terms; which may be the case.

The Commander in Chief has great satisfaction in congratulating the army
on the most important capture of Fort Royal, effected with so much good
conduct and gallantry, which he trusts must lead to a speedy surrender
of Fort Bourbon.--The first battalion of grenadiers, commanded by
Lieutenant Colonel Stewart, and third battalion of light infantry,
commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Close, from camp la Coste, with the
third battalion of grenadiers, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel
Buckridge, and first light infantry, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel
Coote, from the camp of Sourier, behaved with their usual spirit on the
occasion, and such as must always command success. Captain de Rivigne,
of the royal artillery, has done his duty in so excellent a manner,
shewing superior judgment in conducting the fire of the field pieces on
the left, and so effectually covering the approach of the troops, as has
done him the greatest honour, and proves him to be a most valuable

The Commander in Chief acknowledges great obligations to the navy, on
their gallant escalade of Fort Royal, under the able conduct of
Commodore Thompson, with the assistance of the Asia, Captain Brown; but
particularly to Captain Faulkner of the Zebra, whose gallantry and
judgment have justly gained him the admiration of the whole
army.--Commodore Thompson's judicious arrangement of the gun-boats and
flat-boats, with the assistance of Captain Rogers, who landed and
entered the town of Fort Royal from the side of Tortenson, contributed
most essentially to the success of the enterprise, in which the zealous
assistance and activity of Captain Sancée of the Guides, was highly
meritorious and useful. The Commander in Chief's thanks are justly due
to every person employed on that service, which he gives with infinite
pleasure and satisfaction.

  _Head Quarters, Fort Royal, March 25, 1794._


  Field Officer, Colonel Coote.

The Commander in Chief orders Fort Bourbon now to bear the name of Fort
George, and Fort Louis to bear the name of Fort Edward; and to be called
so in future.--The Commander in Chief, with heartfelt satisfaction,
congratulates the army on the complete conquest of the island of
Martinico, a most important acquisition to his majesty's crown. He begs
permission to return the army in general his warmest thanks for their
zeal, perseverance, gallantry, and spirit, so eminently distinguished,
and never before exceeded, by every rank, from the general to the
soldier, throughout this service; and this justice he cannot fail to do
them in the strongest language to his majesty.--The works of the
trenches to be levelled, and every preparation made by all departments
for embarkation on another expedition. The transports are ordered round
to Fort Royal; and the cannon, ordnance stores, and every thing
belonging to the engineer and military departments, to be conveyed down,
ready to be embarked on board their respective ships, regularly, and
with such method, that no sort of confusion or retardment may happen
upon a second disembarkation. The artillery will always be the first
called for.--All officers of the army and navy to have permission to go
into Fort George.


  _Head Quarters, Boyne, off Guadaloupe, June 4, 1794._

Colonel Richard Symes is appointed brigadier general from the 25th of
May, 1794, in the West Indies; and also governor of Guadaloupe, until
his majesty's pleasure is known.

  GENERAL ORDERS.  _Guadaloupe, June 8, 1794._

Colonel Francis Dundas is appointed Brigadier General from the 26th of
May, 1794, in the West Indies. Surgeon Thomas Wright, from the garrison
of Guadaloupe, to be purveyor of the general hospital, vice Dundon,
deceased. The Honourable Captain Stewart, of the twenty-second regiment,
to be extra aid de camp to the Commander in Chief.

  GENERAL ORDERS.  _Guadaloupe, June 10, 1794._

Captain Donkin, of the forty-fourth regiment, to do duty as major of

  GENERAL ORDERS.  _Boyne, off Pointe a Pitre, June 13, 1794._

The Commander in Chief feels great satisfaction in acquainting the army
with his majesty's entire approbation of their gallant exertions and
bravery during this campaign, to the time of the capture of Fort Bourbon
(now Fort George), and the complete conquest of the island of
Martinique; which is communicated to him in a letter from the secretary
of state, bearing date the 22d of April, 1794, of which the following is
an extract. "I am therefore to signify to you his majesty's most perfect
and entire approbation of your conduct, and of the gallant behaviour of
all the officers and soldiers under your command; and to desire that you
will convey to them the just sense his majesty entertains of the honour
they have done themselves, and of the services which they have rendered
to their country."--The Commander in Chief has also the pleasure of
notifying to the army, that having made application for exempting it
from paying postage, his majesty has been graciously pleased to comply
therewith; which is communicated to him in a letter from the secretary
of state of the same date, the following being an extract. "His majesty
is most graciously pleased to comply with your request that the army
under your command whilst on service may be exempted from paying postage
for their letters; and I shall immediately signify the same to the post
master general."

  GENERAL ORDERS.  _Boyne, off Pointe a Pitre, June 14, 1794._

  Parole, LIGHT INFANTRY.  C. S. ----

The Commander in Chief thanks Brigadier General Dundas, and the first
light infantry, under the command of Major Ross, supported by the
thirty-ninth regiment, under Major Magan, for the usual spirit with
which they attacked the French camp at Point Gabbare, and congratulates
them on the complete success of it.--The able and gallant conduct of
Major Ross, in leading the light infantry so handsomely to the charge,
as reported by Brigadier General Dundas, demands the Commander in
Chief's particular acknowledgments; and which he will not fail to report
to the ministry, to lay before his majesty.


  _Boyne, off Pointe a Pitre, Guadaloupe, June 15, 1794._

  Parole, BOYNE.  C. S. ----

The grenadier companies of the sixth, ninth, fifteenth, twenty-first,
fifty-sixth, fifty-eighth, sixtieth, fourth battalion of the
sixty-fourth, sixty-fifth, and three companies from the Irish regiments,
to be formed into a battalion under the command of Lieutenant Colonel
Fisher, of the sixtieth regiment. The light companies of the sixth,
ninth, fifteenth, twenty-first, fifty-sixth, fifty-eighth, sixtieth,
fourth battalion of the sixty-fourth, sixty-fifth, and three companies
from the Irish regiments, to be formed into a battalion under the
command of Lieutenant Colonel Gomm.

  GENERAL ORDERS.  _Boyne, off Pointe a Pitre, June 18, 1794._

  Parole, ----  C. S. ----

The Commander in Chief feels with great concern the necessity of again
assembling part of the troops to dislodge an enemy who have stolen into
Pointe a Pitre, and the posts in its neighbourhood, at the moment when
the gallant General Dundas was expiring. He had hoped that the troops,
whose meritorious services had acquired so much glory during a most
successful campaign, would have found rest and comfort during the
remainder of this year at least. Relying however on the cheerful and
utmost exertions of the gallant troops he has the happiness to command,
he cannot entertain a doubt of finishing the service speedily and
gloriously, to enable the troops to return very soon to the quarters
from whence they are now called forth to service.

The Commander in Chief assures the troops that their situation on this
extra service shall be made as comfortable and agreeable to them as it
is in his power to render it; and that no time shall be lost in
advancing against the enemy, consistent with the attention he always
pays to the preservation of his soldiers, not wantonly or prematurely
exposing them to danger.

The same conduct, good behaviour, and cool bravery, which gained such
rapid and complete success hitherto, will insure it on the present
occasion, against about five hundred regular troops, joined by a
despicable and motley crew of mulattoes and negroes, with some seamen,
the whole a forlorn hope, who put in here for the want of provisions,
and at a time the forty-third regiment was weakened by sickness.

The troops to be ready to get into the flat boats to-morrow morning at
three o'clock. The boats, when the men are embarked, are to assemble
astern of the Assurance forty-four gun ship, there waiting for orders to
proceed on shore. The troops to carry on shore with them three days
provisions dressed, one day's grog, and rum in kegs for another day:
also to land with their tent blankets, camp kettles, water kegs,
canteens, and hand hatchets; the sailors to land with ditto and

The light infantry to be first to land with two amuzettes, supported by
the battalion of grenadiers with two three-pounders.

The sixty-fifth regiment then to land with two six-pounders; Captain de
Rivignes commanding the artillery. After the troops are landed, and have
got the heights opposite, the spare artillery, howitzers, stores, &c.
are to be landed at Grozier. The commanding engineer will land at the
same time all the artificers, and every thing belonging to his
department, that no time whatsoever may be lost in forwarding the
enterprise. The first troops that land will immediately take advantage
of the strongest ground, houses, &c. there posting themselves; not
advancing until the whole are landed. Brigadier General Symes will
direct the landing, and is to command the troops on shore. The Commander
in Chief has been pleased to appoint Captain John Cunnyngham, of the
forty-third regiment, to be deputy adjutant general, vice Lyon,

  GENERAL ORDERS.  _Head Quarters, Grozier, Guadaloupe,
                                       June 20, 1794._

The Commander in Chief is much surprised to find, from the report of
Brigadier General Symes, that the seamen and soldiers straggle from camp
in search of water, which, when found in the neighbourhood, is not fit
for drinking, though it may answer for cooking. The Commander in Chief
forbids any officer from quitting the post of his company, except on
duty; and directs that the rolls be called every two hours. If any
soldier or seaman be found marauding or straggling from camp, he will be
punished in the most severe manner. The officers commanding corps to see
their battalions fall in, and the rolls called, from which no officer is
to be absent, as the enemy are lurking about the posts.

The piquets are not to suffer any person to pass them, without a pass in
writing from the brigadier general.

Each corps will send an officer for orders to head quarters every day at
ten o'clock, and an orderly serjeant from each corps to attend
constantly. All applications for provisions to be made to Mr. Johnstone,
the quarter master of the sixtieth regiment. These orders, as well as
all others, to be read to the men by an officer of each company.
Captain Robins, of the sixtieth regiment, to do duty with the
sixty-fifth regiment; and Lieutenant Milnes, of the forty-ninth, with
the ninth light infantry.

The Honourable Captain Stewart, of the twenty-second regiment, having
offered his services to the Commander in Chief on this present occasion,
they are accepted; and he is ordered to do duty with the ninth grenadier

  GENERAL ORDERS.  _Head Quarters, Grozier Camp,
                                 June 21, 1794._


On account of the brilliant success of his majesty's arms, and his
allies, in France, by the complete victory gained by the Duke of York at
the head of the British, and also by the Austrians, on the 26th of April
last, in which the French General Chapuey was made prisoner, with
fifty-seven pieces of their cannon taken, and a great slaughter of their
troops, with a very inconsiderable loss of the British troops and their
allies, the Commander in Chief orders a _feu de joie_ on the occasion at
six o'clock this evening; for which purpose all the troops will be under
arms and assemble with the naval battalion at five o'clock, and are to
be marched to a conspicuous situation, in view of the enemy, to give
three rounds of running fire. The whole of our artillery, drawn up in
front of the line, are to fire three rounds. Each round of artillery to
precede a round of small arms: running fire beginning at the right of
the line; and to conclude with three hearty cheers.--Brigadier General
Symes, who commands the line, will be so good as to place and arrange
the troops on this occasion, pointing out the ground they are to
assemble upon. The whole navy will fire a _feu de joie_, and the troops
under the command of Brigadier General Dundas at the camp at Berville,
at the same time.

The Commander in Chief desires that his long, spirited, and determined
orders, given out when the army sailed from Barbadoes on the expedition
to Martinico, dated the 22d of January, may be read to the troops,
particularly to the seamen, many of whom have not served on shore. This
the commanding officers of corps and naval battalions will be answerable
to the Commander in Chief is done; and at the same time to assure their
men, that however it may hurt his feelings, he will put the said orders
in full force upon any and every offender in future; for without strict
discipline and good order, no good service can possibly be effected: and
he again calls upon every officer in the army to assist him in this
necessary work. The troops to receive one day's fresh meat, and two days
salt provision and rum, to-morrow morning at day-break. Returns to be
sent to the commissary general this evening.


Cattle of every description to be brought to head quarters, or delivered
to persons ordered to receive them; and no person whatever to kill any
beast without orders. It is strictly forbid that any officer, soldier,
or seaman, shall presume to take any negroes, except those delivered to
them by the quarter master general's department. The marauding which has
taken place obliges the General to remind the commanding officers of
corps to refer to orders already given out on that head. It will give
him extreme concern to be obliged to punish with severity such crimes;
but as the existence of the army depends on its discipline, it must be
maintained. The first man caught in the act of plundering, to be hung on
the spot. The provost is ordered to visit the environs of the
encampment, and to execute this order with the utmost vigilance. Piquet
to parade at six in the evening.

  _Head Quarters, Grozier, June 24, 1794._

  Parole, CAMBRAY.  C. S. YORK.

  Field Officer for the day, Major Crosbie.

The two divisions of marines are to do duty with the battalion of
grenadiers under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Fisher. The troops
will be particularly careful of their camp kettles, canteens, and
haversacks, as no more can be procured for them.

Only two quarts of water per man can be issued for the troops, and that
early in the morning, from the men of war. Four days provision to be
issued to the troops to-morrow morning.

  GENERAL ORDERS.                 _July 6, 1794._

The Commander in Chief has just received another letter from the
secretary of state on the subject of postage of letters to this army, of
which the following is a copy.

     "SIR,                          _Whitehall, May 8, 1794._

     "As I find the post master general is restrained by law from
     discharging any letters from the payment of postage, I have, in
     order that the officers and soldiers under your command may receive
     their letters free of expence, notified to the different army
     agents, that all letters for the said officers and soldiers, if
     sent to this office, will be forwarded to them. I have accordingly
     directed that such letters shall be put in a separate packet or
     bag, and addressed to yourself, and transmitted by each mail.

         (Signed)                             "HENRY DUNDAS."

_Extract from another Letter from Mr._ DUNDAS _to Sir_ CHARLES GREY, _K.
B. May 21, 1794._

     "It is peculiarly grateful to his Majesty in directing me to
     signify to you his most entire and perfect approbation of your
     conduct, and of the gallant behaviour of all the officers and
     soldiers who served upon this occasion; and which you will convey
     to them in the most particular manner, and that such important
     conquests have been attained with so little loss on the part of his
     majesty. I take this opportunity of inclosing you the votes of
     thanks to you and Sir John Jervis, which I moved yesterday, with
     the unanimous concurrence of the House. You will observe they are
     to be officially communicated to you by the speaker. Similar votes
     were unanimously passed by the Lords."

_Extracts from the Votes of the House of Commons._

     "Resolved, nemine contradicente, That the thanks of this House be
     given to Sir Charles Grey, Knight of the most honourable order of
     the Bath, for his late able, gallant, and meritorious conduct in
     the West Indies."

     "Resolved, nemine contradicente, That the thanks of this House be
     given to Lieutenant General Prescott, his Royal Highness Major
     General Prince Edward, and Major General Thomas Dundas, and to the
     several officers of the army under the command of Sir Charles
     Grey, for their late gallant conduct and meritorious exertions in
     the West Indies."

     "Resolved, nem. con. That this House doth highly approve and
     acknowledge the services of the non-commissioned officers and
     private soldiers in the army serving under Sir Charles Grey in the
     West Indies; and that the same be signified to them by the
     commanders of the several corps, who are desired to thank them for
     their gallant behaviour."

     "Ordered, That the speaker do signify the said resolutions to Sir
     Charles Grey and Sir John Jervis."

Colonel Colin Graham, of the twenty-first regiment, is appointed
brigadier general from the 26th of May, 1794.

  _Head Quarters, Martinique, July 13, 1794._

  Parole, NORTHAMPTON.       C. S. BURFIELD.

A General court martial to assemble at St. Pierre's, Martinico, on
Friday next, the 25th instant, at eight o'clock, for the trial of
Brigadier General Sir Charles Gordon, lieutenant colonel of the
forty-first regiment of foot, and such other matters as shall be
brought before them. The witnesses, both on the part of the prisoner and
prosecution, to attend; lists whereof to be sent to Major of Brigade
Lorraine, at St. Pierre's, immediately. The above general court martial
to consist as follows.

Lieutenant General Prescott, president.

And such other members as shall be hereafter ordered.

  _Boyne, off Pointe a Pitre, July 20, 1794_.

  Parole, BRITAIN.                C. S. ----

The Commander in Chief orders a _feu de joie_ to be fired this evening
at six o'clock, to celebrate the most signal victory that ever was
gained over the French fleet, on the 1st of June last, by Earl Howe, in
the English channel. The French fleet consisted of twenty-six ships of
the line, the English fleet of twenty-five. Of the French seven sail of
ships of the line were taken, one sunk, and many of them dismasted and
crippled; so that most probably many more would fall into the hands of
the English. In short, the General has the satisfaction to announce to
the army the total ruin of the French fleet.

  _Head Quarters, St. Pierre, July 28, 1794_.

  Parole, JERVIS.           C. S. ----

The Right Honourable Lord Loughborough having transmitted to the
Commander in Chief the votes of thanks passed by the House of Lords to
himself, Lieutenant General Prescott, his Royal Highness Prince Edward,
and Major General Thomas Dundas, and all the other officers of this
army; the Commander in Chief loses no time in giving out the following
copies of those votes in general orders.

                                                      "_Die Mercurii_.

     "Ordered, nemine dissentiente, by the Lords spiritual and temporal,
     in parliament assembled, That the thanks of this House be given to
     Sir Charles Grey, Knight of the most honourable order of the Bath,
     for his late able, gallant, and meritorious conduct in the West

         Signed,                       G. ROSE, Clerk of Parliament.

                                                       "_Die Mercurii_.

     "Ordered, nemine dissentiente, by the Lords spiritual and temporal,
     in parliament assembled, That the thanks of this House be given to
     Lieutenant General Prescott, his Royal Highness Prince Edward,
     Major General Thomas Dundas, and to the several officers of the
     army under the command of Sir Charles Grey, for their late able,
     gallant, and meritorious conduct in the West Indies."

         Signed,                        G. ROSE, Clerk of Parliament.

                                                        _May 21, 1794_.

     "Ordered, nemine dissentiente, by the Lords spiritual and temporal,
     in parliament assembled, That this House doth highly approve and
     acknowledge the services of the non-commissioned officers and
     private men in the army serving under Sir Charles Grey in the West
     Indies; and that the same be signified to them by the commanding
     officers of the several corps, who are desired to thank them for
     their gallant behaviour."

         Signed,                        G. ROSE, Clerk of Parliament.

The Right Honourable the Lord Mayor of London having transmitted to the
Commander in Chief the unanimous vote of thanks of the Common Council of
the city to this army, he takes the earliest opportunity of
communicating the following extract thereof in general orders.

     "At a common council holden in the chamber of the Guildhall of the
     city of London, on Tuesday, May 27, 1794, Le Mesurier,
     Mayor,--Resolved unanimously, That the thanks of this Court be
     given to Sir Charles Grey, Knight of the Bath, and the officers and
     soldiers serving under his command, for the signal services they
     have rendered to their country by their able, gallant, and
     meritorious conduct in the West Indies."

          Signed,                                         RIX.

  _Head Quarters, St. Pierre, Martinique, August 1, 1794_.

  Parole, MATILDA.              C. S. ----

One serjeant, one corporal, and twelve privates, from each regiment, to
parade every morning at six o'clock, and evening at five, and to be
instructed in the exercise of the artillery; and when perfected, the
commanding officer of artillery will report to the general or commanding
officer on the spot, that they may be relieved by an equal number, to be
taught in the same manner, that there may be no want of artillerymen to
man and fight the guns on the batteries, in case of an attack.

  _Head Quarters, St. Pierre, Martinique, August 3, 1794_.

  Parole, SPITHEAD.           C. S. ----

It is the Commander in Chief's orders, that all negroes belonging to the
islands, who still continue with the army, or are known of, shall be
sent to St. Pierre or Fort Royal immediately, in order to their being
sent home, and a final settlement made of their accounts.

  _Head Quarters, St. Pierre, August 4, 1794_.

  Parole, HURRICANE.  C. S. ----

His Majesty having been pleased to appoint John Jeoffray, Esq.
commissary general of stores and provisions, and Valentine Jones, Esq.
to be commissary of accounts, for the Leeward and Windward Islands, all
accounts in the commissary general's department, for which warrants have
not been already granted, as well as those of the assistants stationed
in the different islands, as those of the moving army, are to be settled
with him, and to be examined and certified by the commissary of
accounts, previous to their being brought to the secretary's office, as
no warrants for money can be granted on them until that shall have been
done. Warrants for the subsistence of the army, and for the pay of the
officers employed on the staff, will be granted in the usual manner, on
application at the secretary's office.

  AFTER ORDERS.  _August 4, 1794_.

The proceedings of the present general court martial being impeded by
the sickness of some of the members, makes it necessary to add more
members to the strength of it, that, the business may go forward
without interruption in future. The Commander in Chief therefore orders
a general court martial to assemble at nine o'clock on Friday morning
the 8th instant, at the same place, and to begin the trial again of
Brigadier General Sir Charles Gordon; and which general court martial is
to be composed of a president and eighteen members. All evidences to
attend; and a list of them to be given to the deputy judge advocate as
soon as possible. The corps of island rangers, commanded by Lieutenant
Colonel Toler, to be augmented twenty men a company, making them seventy
instead of fifty.

Members of the General Court Martial.

  General Prescott                President.
  Lieutenant Colonel Johnstone    seventieth regiment.
  Lieutenant Colonel Stewart      fifty-eighth.  _Dead_.
  Captain Whitworth               royal artillery.
  Captain Flood                   fifty-eighth.
  Captain Taggart                 fifty-fifth.
  Captain Ingram                  fifty-fifth.   _Dead_.
  Captain Forbes                  thirty-fourth.
  Captain Pomiere                 fifteenth.
  Captain Dunbar                  seventieth.
  Captain Sharpe                  sixth.
  Captain Harvey                  thirty-third.  _Dead_.
  Captain Gillespei               thirty-first.
  Captain Blacker                 sixty-fifth regiment.
  Captain Lorrain                 ninth.
  Captain Hindson                 fifteenth.
  Captain Macdonald               fifteenth.

  _St. Pierre, August 5, 1794._

  Parole, ANTIGUA.             C. S. ----

The officers of the army will understand, that should the order of the
3d instant (respecting the negroes being returned), not be strictly
complied with, that for every negro kept back, the officers to whom they
belong, and who detained them, will certainly have to pay, not only the
full price of such negroes, but their hire during the time of
service.--On account of the indisposition of Lieutenant Colonel Stewart,
fifty-eighth regiment, he is not to be a member of the general court
martial ordered for the 8th instant. Captain Rose, seventieth regiment,
is to be a member thereof, in the room of Lieutenant Colonel Stewart.

  _Head Quarters, St. Pierre, Martinique, August 9, 1794._

  Parole, ANTIGUA.                 C. S. ----

The British inhabitants of the town of St. Pierre are to be embodied,
and to form a corps under the command of Captain Bontein, who is
appointed lieutenant colonel commandant thereof, to be called the Royal
Martinico Volunteers. The following gentlemen are to be the officers.

  Lieutenant Colonel      ---- Bontein.

  Captains                James Clifton.
                          Andrew Smith.

  First Lieutenants       William Moore.
                          Cayley Johnstone.

  Second Lieutenants      ---- Popham.
                          ----  Heyland.

  Adjutant                Mr. Randal Ripton.

The above corps is to parade at the Pere Blancs, which is to be their
alarm post.

All British born subjects, resident in or near the town of St. Pierre,
are required forthwith to give in their names to Lieutenant Colonel
Bontein, of the royal Martinico volunteers, at the custom house; and
every person of the above description meaning to leave the island, is
required to make known his intention to Lieutenant Colonel Bontein: they
are likewise required to give in their names upon their arrival. The
Commander in Chief has no doubt, from the voluntary and handsome offer
of the English in the town of St. Pierre, that all who are able will
willingly join the corps of the royal Martinico volunteers, under the
orders of Lieutenant Colonel Bontein, to preserve good order, and defend
their properties.

F. MAITLAND, deputy adjutant general.

  _Head Quarters, St. Pierre, Martinique, August 11, 1794._


In consequence of the death of Captain Blacker, sixty-fifth, and the
illness of Captain Ingram, fifty-eighth, Captain Lee of forty-fourth
grenadiers, and Captain Holland of sixtieth regiment, are to replace
those officers as members of the general court martial ordered to meet
this day.

  GENERAL ORDERS.  _Head Quarters, St. Pierre, Martinico,
                                        August 31, 1794._

The appointment of Captain Hare, of the light dragoons, to be aid de
camp to the Commander in Chief, is not to interfere with or prevent his
having the entire command of the detachment of British light dragoons,
which he retains as if no such appointment had been made.


The general court martial, of which Lieutenant General Prescott is
president, is hereby dissolved; and all officers are to repair to their
posts, where they are so much wanted.

F. MAITLAND, deputy adjutant general.

  _Head Quarters, St. Pierre, Martinique, Nov. 7, 1794._

  Parole, UNANIMITY.

The recent act of inhumanity and barbarity committed at Guadaloupe by
the enemy (by whom a considerable number of royalists were murdered in
cold blood, after having fallen into their hands at Berville camp as
prisoners of war, and who had become subjects of Great Britain, by
taking the oath of allegiance to the British government, after the
conquest of that island), calls aloud for the following order and
declaration of the Commander in Chief: That all persons residing in the
conquered islands of Martinico, Guadaloupe, and St. Lucia, and their
dependencies, whether French or of any other nation, having taken the
oath of allegiance to the government of Great Britain, and who demean
and conduct themselves accordingly, shall receive every protection that
the other subjects of Great Britain do in these islands: and should such
cases of extremity happen as may render a capitulation necessary, no
terms are to be proposed or accepted, which do not give equal security,
safety, and protection, to them as to the other subjects of Great
Britain, as well those with arms as those without; consequently, no
place is to be surrendered before this is expressly and explicitly
acknowledged and subscribed to by the enemy, that in any extremity we
may stand or fall together: and the Commander in Chief earnestly
recommends a continuance and confirmation of this order to his
successors in command, as a measure of justice, dictated by honour and

The Commander in Chief hopes that this explicit order and declaration,
giving such ample security to the royalists on his part, will ease their
minds; and, confidence being restored, that it will produce a becoming
zeal and exertion to unite for the public interest heart and hand, in
contributing to good order and tranquillity; and that he may expect
there will not be any further emigration on the bare report of an
enemy's approach, or even on being actually landed; as every
apprehension of danger must be dispelled when all are heartily united
for the common safety and defence.

The Commander in Chief, hoping therefore for this effect and conduct
from the people in general, does in a more particular manner recommend
to persons of consequence to set a laudable example of fortitude on
every occasion, and to assemble and embody under proper leaders, to act
in conjunction with his majesty's regular troops, for the protection of
their honour, families, and fortunes, which must be dearer to them than

The King having been pleased to order that the colours taken at
Martinique by the forces under Sir Charles Grey, K. B. and Sir John
Jervis, K. B. which were brought to the palace at St. James's, should be
deposited in the Cathedral of St. Paul, on Saturday, May 17, 1795,
detachments of horse and foot guards were ordered to parade at St.
James's at ten o'clock, and marched before his Majesty, who was pleased
to see them pass by in the following order:

  A Captain and forty life guards,
  A serjeant and twelve grenadiers,
  Music of the first regiment of guards,
  Twenty-nine serjeants with the FRENCH COLOURS,
  A Field Officer and one hundred life guards.

In this manner they proceeded to the west gate of St. Paul's, where the
colours were received by the Dean and Chapter, attended by the choir,
about which time the guns at the Tower and Park were fired.

The colours are since put up in the said cathedral church as a lasting
memorial of the success of his Majesty's arms in the reduction of the
important island of Martinique.


  Vol. xxxviiii. p. 329.


  "_Tuesday, May 20, 1794._

"The following resolutions were severally put, and passed nem. con.

"That the thanks of this House be given to Sir Charles Grey, Knight of
the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, for his late able, gallant, and
meritorious conduct in the West Indies.

"That the thanks of this House be given to Sir John Jervis, Knight of
the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, for his late able, gallant, and
meritorious conduct in the West Indies.

"That the thanks of this House be given to Lieutenant General Prescott,
his Royal Highness Major General Prince Edward, and Major General Thomas
Dundas, and to the several Officers of the army under the command of Sir
Charles Grey, for their late gallant and meritorious exertions in the
West Indies.

"That the thanks of this House be given to Rear Admiral Thompson, and to
the several Captains and Officers of the fleet under the command of Sir
John Jervis, for their late gallant conduct and meritorious exertions in
the West Indies.

"That this House doth highly approve and acknowledge the services of the
Non-commissioned Officers and Soldiers in the army serving under Sir
Charles Grey in the West Indies; and that the same be signified to them
by the commanders of the several corps, who are desired to thank them
for their late gallant behaviour.

"That this House doth highly approve and acknowledge the services of the
Sailors and Marines serving on board the fleet under command of Sir John
Jervis in the West Indies; and that the same be signified to them by the
captains of the several ships, who are desired to thank them for their
gallant behaviour."

Mr. Dundas then moved, "That Mr. Speaker do signify the said resolutions
to Sir Charles Grey and Sir John Jervis."--Passed nem. con.


_Who died or were killed during the Campaign in the West Indies, under
Lieutenant General Sir_ CHARLES GREY, _K. B. and Vice Admiral Sir_ JOHN
JERVIS, _K. B. in the year 1794._

_Killed, or died of their Wounds._

                                              Where killed or wounded.

  Brigadier General Symes Quarter Master Gen. Point à Pitre.
  Lieut. Colonel Campbell 9th regiment        Martinique.
  Lieut. Colonel Gomm     55th regiment       Point à Pitre.
  Major Irving            70th regiment       On board the Assurance.
  Captain Armstrong       8th regiment        Fleur d'Epée.
  ... Combe               15th regiment       Point à Pitre.
  ... M'Donald            21st regiment       Fleur d'Epée.
  ... Grove               35th regiment       Point à Pitre.
  ... M'Ewan              38th regiment       Martinique.
  ... Fenton              43d regiment        Point à Pitre.
  ... Morrison            58th regiment       Fleur d'Epée.
  ... Forbes              34th regiment       Berville.
  Lieut. Thong            6th regiment        Fleur d'Epée.
  ... Booth               8th regiment        Ditto.
  ... Newport             12th regiment       Point à Pitre.
  ... Lyster              12th regiment       Ditto.
  ... Croker              15th regiment       Ditto.
  ... Knollis             21st regiment       Ditto.
  ... Price               21st regiment       Fleur d'Epée.
  ... Cockrane            39th regiment
  ... Manson              40th regiment       Point à Pitre.
  ... Crofton             43d regiment        Ditto.
  ... Hennis              58th regiment       Ditto.
  ... Conway              60th regiment       Ditto.
  ... Toosey              65th regiment       Fleur d'Epée.
  ... Auchmuty            17th regiment       Point à Pitre.
  ... Mercer              Marines             Ditto.

_Died of the Fever or other Disorders._

  Major General Thomas Dundas.

  Captain Dally          }
  Lieutenant Gale        } 6th regim.
  Surgeon Barton         }

  Captain Saumarez       }
  Ensign Armstrong       } 8th regim.
  Ensign Caulfield.      }

  Captain Campbell         9th regim.

  Captain Twedie         }
  Lieut. Perryn          }
  ...   Wallace          } 12th regim.
  ...   Wright           }
  ...   Miller           }

  Captain Combe          }
  Lieut. James           } 15th regim.
  ...   Napier           }

  ... Cane               } 17th regim.
  ...  Ritchie           }

  Major Rowley           }
  Lieut. Mewt            } 21st regim.
  ...  Stornton          }

  Lieut. M'Donald        } 22d regim.

  Lieut. Garnons         } 23d regim.
  ...  Polhill           }

  Lieut. Tilth             29th regim.

  Lieut. Davis           }
  ...  M'Kenzie          } 31st regim.
  ...  Williams          }

  Captain Wallace        }
  Lieut. Morndrew        } 32d regim.
  Surgeon Taylor         }

  Captain Harvey         } 33d regim.
  Lieut. Beaty           }

  Captain Roache         }
  Lieut. Innes           }
  ...  Forrester         } 34th regim.
  ...  Wattle            }
  ...  Nash              }

  Captain Johnson        }
  ...   Graves           }
  Lieut. Mukins          }
  ... Fitzgerald         }  35th regim.
  ...  Phaire            }
  ...   Sands            }
  ...   Barry            }

  Captain Douglas        }
  Lieut. Mytton          }
  ...  Clarke            } 38th regim.
  ...  Brown             }
  ... Bawer              }

  Lieut. Col. Freemantle }
  Captain Johnston       }
  ...  Shaw              }
  ...  Purdie            }
  Lieut. Burslen         }
  ... Atherton           } 39th regim.
  ...  Reynell           }
  ...  Scanlan           }
  ... M'Rea              }
  Ensign Tidsley         }
  ...  Hutchinson        }
  ...   Atkins           }
  Adjutant Simpson       }
  ... M'Kenzie           } 39th regim.
  Surgeon Campbell       }

  Captain Head             40th regim.

  Captain Vignoles       }
  ... Bayard             }
  ... Affleck            }
  ...  Spencer           }
  ...  M'Dowal           }
  Capt. Lieut. Jones     }
  Lieut. Butler          }
  ...  Graham            } 43d regim.
  ...  Dennison          }
  Ensign Daniel          }
  ...  Kirwan            }
  Qr. Mast. Burnett      }
  ...  Bruce             }
  Surgeon Hodskinson     }
  Lieut. Phipps          } 44th regim.
  ... Davis              }

  Lieutenant Moe           45th regim.

  Major Lyon, Deputy
     Adj. General        }
  Captain Taggart        }
  Lieut. Main            } 55th regim.
  ... M'Kenzie           }
  ... Taylor             }

  Captain White          }
  ...  Cuthbert          }
  ...  Fancourt          }
  Lieut. Perry           } 56th regim.
  ... Hague              }
  ...  Stowell           }
  ... Warren             }
  ...  O'Hara            }
  ... Taylor             }
  Chaplain Ruxton        }

  Lieut. Col. Stewart    }
  Captain Ingram         }
  ... Hood               }
  Lieut. Maudsley        }
  ... Hamilton           }
  ... Berford            } 58th regim.
  ... Murray             }
  ... E. Smith           }
  ...  Bouchier          }
  ...  Tonson            }

  Lieut. Cunningham      }
  ... Sneider            }
  ... Cook               } 60th regim.
  ... Montmallin         }
  ... Belt               }

  Lieut. Col. Buckridge  }
  Major Compton          }
  Lieut. Usher           }
  ...  Thornhill         }
  ... M'Guire            }
  ...  Wilson            } 64th regim.
  ...  Strafford         }
  ... Knight             }
  Adjutant Wilkinson     }
  Quart. Mast. Molloy    }
  Surgeon Wingate        }

  Lieut. Col. Close      }
  Major Dalrymple        }
  Captain M'Gregor       }
  ... Blacker            }
  ...  Oliver            }
  Lieut. Brimlow         } 65th regim.
  ...  Kennedy           }
  ...  Adams             }
  ...  Milward           }
  Surgeon Brown          }

  Captain Nares          }
  ...  Eiston            }
  ...  Ogle              }
  ...  Atkinson          }
  ...  Bruce             } 70th regim.
  Lieut. Cox             }
  ...  Floyer            }
  ...  Gifford           }
  Surgeon Raye           }

  Captain Shadwell         10th lt. dra.

  Lieut. Col. Dornford   }
  Captain Chilcot        } engineers.
  ...  Lawson            }
  ...  Dawse             }

  Major Shewbridge       }
  Captain Tygrell        }
  Captain Harris         }
  ... Smith              }
  ...  George            }
  ...  Nugent            }
  ...  Thornhill         } artillery.
  ...  Coulston          }
  ...  Malony            }
  ...  Jones             }
  ...  Dawson            }

  Doctor Dundon          }
  ...  Brown             }
  ...  Wright            }
  Apoth. Vanderguest     }
  ...  Carnigue          }
  Mate Mallet            }  hospital.
  ... Green              }
  ... Harris             }
  ... Cooper             }
  ... Turnbull           }
  ... Hennings           }

         27 killed or died of their wounds.
        170 died of the yellow fever, and other diseases incidental
        ---    to the climate.
  Total 197

I was informed by Captain Shank of the royal navy, the agent for
transports, that during the expedition 46 masters of transports, and
1100 of their men, died of the yellow fever. The returns of the masters
were given in, of the men a rough calculation to the above amount was
made. On board the Broderic transport the fever raged with such
violence, that the mate, the only survivor, was obliged to scull his
boat on shore to fetch off negroes to throw the dead overboard, and
himself died soon after.

Of the royal navy the loss was considerable; but it has not been in my
power to procure a list of the officers who died or were killed on this

LIST _of the_ OFFICERS _Prisoners to_ VICTOR HUGHES, _who were living at
Point à Pitre the first of January, 1795._

  Brigadier General Colin Graham

  Lieut. Ekins, since       }
    dead of his wounds      } 6th regim.

  Capt. Lieut. Smith          9th regim.

  Lieutenant Hurst            15th regim.

  Captain Stovin              17th regim.

  Lieutenant Keating          33d regim.

  Captain Eiston            }
  Lieutenant Strickland     } 35th regim.
  Ensign Holmes             }

  Ensign Barclay              38th regim.

  Lieut. Col. Magan         }
  Lieut. Horsburg           }
  ... Dale                  } 39th regim.
  Ensign Divignes           }
  Quar. Mast. Clements      }
  Surgeon Ormsby            }

  Captain Dansey            } 40th regim.
  Lieutenant Holwell        }

  Lt. Col. Drummond         }
  Captain Thomson           }
  ... Cameron               }
  ... Thorley               }
  Lieut. Hull               }
  Lieut. Cameron            } 43d regim.
  ... Tidey                 }
  ... De Yonge              }
  Ensign Deshon             }
  ... Delisle               }
  Surgeon Salmon            }

  Lieut. Philips            } 44th regim.
  ... Miller                }

  Lieut. Hamilton           } 55th regim.
  ... Dixon                 }

  Captain Owen              }
  Lieut. Barclay            }
  ... Johnson               } 56th regim.
  ... M'Causland            }
  Mate Bell                 }

  Ensign Richardson           58th regim.

  Lieut. Cudmore              64th regim.

  Cornet Garside              10th lt. dra.

  Captain Suckling          } artillery.
  Lieut. Stackpole          }

  Lieut. Dornford             engineers.

  Mate Ramage               } hospital.
  ... Anderson              }


  |                                                              |
  | Transcriber's Note                                           |
  |                                                              |
  | Words with variable hyphenation and accents have been        |
  | preserved as in the original. A few obvious punctuation      |
  | errors have been corrected silently. The following           |
  | typographical errors have been corrected.                    |
  |                                                              |
  | +----+------------+------------+---------------------------+ |
  | |Page|  Original  |Corrected to|          Context          | |
  | +----+------------+------------+---------------------------+ |
  | |  ii|to          |too         |too apparent in my drawings| |
  | |  xi|Surry       |Surrey      |East Deane, Surrey         | |
  | | xiv|Surry       |Surrey      |Dulwich, Surrey            | |
  | |  62|fron        |from        |from the fort              | |
  | |  84|the the     |the         |the purpose of trade       | |
  | | 103|apppear     |appear      |misfortunes will appear    | |
  | | 115|dedetachment|detachment  |a detachment of artillery  | |
  | | A13|prompitude  |promptitude |spirit and promptitude     | |
  | | A14|Case Pilote |Cape Pilote |                           | |
  | | A14|Case Navirre|Cape Navirre|                           | |
  | | A24|Case Navire |Cape Navirre|                           | |
  | +----+------------+------------+---------------------------+ |

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