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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 12, Slice 6 - "Groups, Theory of" to "Gwyniad"
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 12, Slice 6 - "Groups, Theory of" to "Gwyniad"" ***

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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
      paragraphs.

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not
      inserted.

(5) [root] stands for the root symbol; [alpha], [beta], etc. for greek
      letters and [Pd] for partial differential symbol.

(6) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    ARTICLE GUADALQUIVIR: "Here it forms two subsidiary channels, the
      western 31 m., the eastern 12 m. long, which rejoin the main stream
      on the borders of the province of Cadiz." 'm.' amended from 'M.'.

    ARTICLE GUANAJUATO: "... W. of Guanajuato in a rich mining
      district; and Acambaro (8345), a prosperous town of the plain, 76
      m. S.S.E. of Guanajuato." 'Guanajuato' amended from 'Guanaiuato'.

    ARTICLE GUARANTEE: "The Egyptian codes sanction guarantees
      expressly entered into 'in view of debtor's want of legal capacity'
      to contract a valid principal obligation (Egyptian Codes, Mixed
      Suits, 605; Native Tribunals, 496)." 'Egyptian' amended from
      'Egyptain'.

    ARTICLE GUINEA FOWL: "Allied to the genus Numida, but readily
      distinguished form among other characters by the possession of
      spurs and the absence of a helmet, are two very rare forms ..."
      'form' amended from 'thereform'.

    ARTICLE GUIPÚZCOA: "The principal industrial centres are Irun,
      Renteria, Villabona, Vergara and Azpéitia for cotton and linen
      stuffs; Zumarraga for osiers; Eibar, Plasencia and Elgoibar for
      arms and cannon and gold incrustations; ..." 'osiers' amended from
      'osies'.

    ARTICLE GUTZKOW, KARL FERDINAND: "The success of Die Ritter vom
      Geiste suggested to Gutzkow the establishment of a journal on the
      model of Dickens' Household Words, entitled Unterhaltungen am
      häuslichen Herd, which first appeared in 1852 and was continued
      till 1862." "Dickens'" amended from "Dicken's".

    ARTICLE GUY OF WARWICK: "... The Tragical History, Admirable
      Achievements and Curious Events of Guy, Earl of Warwick ..."
      'Achievements' amended from 'Atchievements'.



          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


            VOLUME XII, SLICE VI

        Groups, Theory of to Gwyniad



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


  GROUPS, THEORY OF                GUIDICCIONI, GIOVANNI
  GROUSE                           GUIDO OF AREZZO
  GROVE, SIR GEORGE                GUIDO OF SIENA
  GROVE, SIR WILLIAM ROBERT        GUIDO RENI
  GROVE                            GUIENNE
  GROZNYI                          GUIGNES, JOSEPH DE
  GRUB                             GUILBERT, YVETTE
  GRUBER, JOHANN GOTTFRIED         GUILDFORD
  GRUMBACH, WILHELM VON            GUILDHALL
  GRUMENTUM                        GUILFORD, BARONS AND EARLS OF
  GRÜN                             GUILFORD
  GRÜNBERG                         GUILLAUME, JEAN BAPTISTE CLAUDE EUGÈNE
  GRUNDTVIG, NIKOLAI SEVERIN       GUILLAUME DE LORRIS
  GRUNDY, SYDNEY                   GUILLAUME DE PALERME
  GRUNDY, MRS                      GUILLAUME D'ORANGE
  GRUNER, GOTTLIEB SIGMUND         GUILLEMOT
  GRÜNEWALD, MATHIAS               GUILLOCHE
  GRUTER, JAN                      GUILLON, MARIE NICOLAS SYLVESTRE
  GRUYÈRE                          GUILLOTINE
  GRYNAEUS, JOHANN JAKOB           GUILT
  GRYNAEUS, SIMON                  GUIMARÃES
  GRYPHIUS, ANDREAS                GUIMARD, MARIE MADELEINE
  GUACHARO                         GUIMET, JEAN BAPTISTE
  GUACO                            GUINEA (Africa)
  GUADALAJARA (city of Mexico)     GUINEA (gold coin)
  GUADALAJARA (province of Spain)  GUINEA FOWL
  GUADALAJARA (city of Spain)      GUINEA-WORM
  GUADALQUIVIR                     GÜINES
  GUADELOUPE                       GUINGAMP
  GUADET, MARGUERITE ÉLIE          GUINNESS
  GUADIANA                         GUINOBATAN
  GUADIX                           GUIPÚZCOA
  GUADUAS                          GUIRAUD, ERNEST
  GUAIACUM                         GUISBOROUGH
  GUALDO TADINO                    GUISE
  GUALEGUAY                        GUISE, HOUSE OF
  GUALEGUAYCHÚ                     GUITAR
  GUALO, CARDINAL                  GUITAR FIDDLE
  GUAM                             GUITRY, LUCIEN GERMAIN
  GUAN                             GUIZOT, FRANÇOIS PIERRE GUILLAUME
  GUANABACOA                       GUJARAT
  GUANACO                          GUJARATI and RAJASTHANI
  GUANAJAY                         GUJRANWALA
  GUANAJUATO (state of Mexico)     GUJRAT
  GUANAJUATO (city of Mexico)      GULA
  GUANCHES                         GULBARGA
  GUANIDINE                        GULF STREAM
  GUANO                            GULFWEED
  GUANTA                           GULL, SIR WILLIAM WITHEY
  GUANTÁNAMO                       GULL
  GUARANA                          GULLY, JOHN
  GUARANIS                         GULPÁÏGÁN
  GUARANTEE                        GUM
  GUARATINGUETÁ                    GÜMBEL, KARL WILHELM VON
  GUARDA                           GUMBINNEN
  GUARDI, FRANCESCO                GUMBO
  GUARDIAN                         GUMTI
  GUARDS, and HOUSEHOLD TROOPS     GUMULJINA
  GUARD-SHIP                       GUMUS
  GUÁRICO                          GÜMÜSH-KHANEH
  GUARIENTO                        GUN
  GUARINI, CAMILLO-GUARINO         GUNA
  GUARINI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA       GUNCOTTON
  GUARINO                          GUNDULICH, IVAN
  GUARINO [GUARINUS] DA VERONA     GUNG'L, JOSEF
  GUARNIERI                        GUNNER
  GUASTALLA                        GUNNING, PETER
  GUATEMALA (republic)             GUNNY
  GUATEMALA (city of Guatemala)    GUNPOWDER
  GUATOS                           GUNPOWDER PLOT
  GUATUSOS                         GUN-ROOM
  GUAVA                            GUNTER, EDMUND
  GUAYAMA                          GÜNTHER, JOHANN CHRISTIAN
  GUAYAQUIL                        GÜNTHER OF SCHWARZBURG
  GUAYAS                           GUNTRAM
  GUAYCURUS                        GUNTUR
  GUAYMAS                          GUPTA
  GUBBIO                           GURA, EUGEN
  GUBEN                            GURDASPUR
  GUBERNATIS, ANGELO DE            GURGAON
  GUDBRANDSDAL                     GURKHA
  GUDE, MARQUARD                   GURNALL, WILLIAM
  GUDEMAN, ALFRED                  GURNARD
  GUDGEON                          GURNEY
  GUDRUN                           GURNEY, EDMUND
  GUÉBRIANT, JEAN BAPTISTE BUDES   GURWOOD, JOHN
  GUELDER ROSE                     GUSLA
  GUELPH                           GUSTAVUS I. ERIKSSON
  GUELPHS AND GHIBELLINES          GUSTAVUS II. ADOLPHUS
  GUENEVERE                        GUSTAVUS III.
  GUENON                           GUSTAVUS IV.
  GUÉRET                           GUSTAVUS V.
  GUEREZA                          GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS UNION
  GUERICKE, HEINRICH FERDINAND     GÜSTROW
  GUERICKE, OTTO VON               GUTENBERG, JOHANN
  GUÉRIDON                         GÜTERSLOH
  GUÉRIN, JEAN BAPTISTE PAULIN     GUTHRIE, SIR JAMES
  GUÉRIN, PIERRE NARCISSE          GUTHRIE, THOMAS
  GUÉRIN DU CAYLA, MAURICE DE      GUTHRIE, THOMAS ANSTEY
  GUERNIERI                        GUTHRIE
  GUERNSEY                         GUTHRUM
  GUERRAZZI, FRANCESCO DOMENICO    GUTSCHMID, ALFRED
  GUERRERO                         GUTS-MUTHS, JOHANN CHRISTOPH FRIEDRICH
  GUERRILLA                        GUTTA
  GUERRINI, OLINDO                 GUTTA PERCHA
  GUESDE, JULES BASILE             GUTTER
  GUEST, EDWIN                     GUTZKOW, KARL FERDINAND
  GUEST                            GÜTZLAFF, KARL FRIEDRICH AUGUST
  GUETTARD, JEAN ÉTIENNE           GUY OF WARWICK
  GUEUX, LES                       GUY, THOMAS
  GUEVARA, ANTONIO DE              GUYON, JEANNE BOUVIER DE LA MOTHE
  GUEVARA, LUIS VELEZ DE           GUYON, RICHARD DEBAUFRE
  GUGLIELMI, PIETRO                GUYOT, ARNOLD HENRY
  GUIANA                           GUYOT, YVES
  GUIART, GUILLAUME                GUYTON DE MORVEAU, LOUIS BERNARD
  GUIBERT (of Ravenna)             GUZMICS, IZIDÓR
  GUIBERT (of Nogent)              GWADAR
  GUIBERT, JACQUES HIPPOLYTE       GWALIOR
  GUICCIARDINI, FRANCESCO          GWEEDORE
  GUICHARD, KARL GOTTLIEB          GWILT, JOSEPH
  GUICHEN, LUC URBAIN DE BOUËXIC   GWYN, NELL
  GUIDE                            GWYNIAD
  GUIDI, CARLO ALESSANDRO



GROUPS,[1] THEORY OF. The conception of an operation to be carried out
on some object or set of objects underlies all mathematical science.
Thus in elementary arithmetic there are the fundamental operations of
the addition and the multiplication of integers; in algebra a linear
transformation is an operation which may be carried out on any set of
variables; while in geometry a translation, a rotation, or a projective
transformation are operations which may be carried out on any figure.

In speaking of an operation, an object or a set of objects to which it
may be applied is postulated; and the operation may, and generally will,
have no meaning except in regard to such a set of objects. If two
operations, which can be performed on the same set of objects, are such
that, when carried out in succession on any possible object, the result,
whichever operation is performed first, is to produce no change in the
object, then each of the operations is spoken of as a _definite_
operation, and each of them is called the _inverse_ of the other. Thus
the operations which consist in replacing x by nx and by x/n
respectively, in any rational function of x, are definite inverse
operations, if n is any assigned number except zero. On the contrary,
the operation of replacing x by an assigned number in any rational
function of x is not, in the present sense, although it leads to a
unique result, a definite operation; there is in fact no unique inverse
operation corresponding to it. It is to be noticed that the question
whether an operation is a definite operation or no may depend on the
range of the objects on which it operates. For example, the operations
of squaring and extracting the square root are definite inverse
operations if the objects are restricted to be real positive numbers,
but not otherwise.

  If O, O´, O´´, ... is the totality of the objects on which a definite
  operation S and its inverse S´ may be carried out, and if the result
  of carrying out S on O is represented by O·S, then O.S.S´, O·S´.S, and
  O are the same object whatever object of the set O may be. This will
  be represented by the equations SS´ = S´S = 1. Now O·S·S´ has a
  meaning only if O·S is an object on which S´ may be performed. Hence
  whatever object of the set O may be, both O·S and O·S´ belong to the
  set. Similarly O·S·S, O·S·S·S, ... are objects of the set. These will
  be represented by O·S², O·S³, ... Suppose now that T is another
  definite operation with the same set of objects as S, and that T´ is
  its inverse operation. Then O·S·T is a definite operation of the set,
  and therefore the result of carrying out S and then T on the set of
  objects is some operation U with a unique result. Represent by U´ the
  result of carrying out T´ and then S´. Then O·UU´ = O·S·T·T´·S´ =
  O·SS´ = O, and O·U´U = O·T´·S´·S·T = O·T´T = O, whatever object O may
  be. Hence UU´ = U´U = 1; and U, U´ are definite inverse operations.

  If S, U, V are definite operations, and if S´ is the inverse of S,
  then

               SU = SV

  implies    S´SU = S´SV,

  or            U = V.

  Similarly    US = VS

  implies       U = V.


    Definition of a group.

  Let S, T, U, ... be a set of definite operations, capable of being
  carried out on a common object or set of objects, and let the set
  contain--

  (i.) the operation ST, S and T being any two operations of the set;

  (ii.) the inverse operation of S, S being any operation of the set;
  the set of operations is then called a group.

  The number of operations in a group may be either finite or infinite.
  When it is finite, the number is called the _order_ of the group, and
  the group is spoken of as a _group of finite order_. If the number of
  operations is infinite, there are three possible cases. When the group
  is represented by a set of geometrical operations, for the
  specification of an individual operation a number of measurements will
  be necessary. In more analytical language, each operation will be
  specified by the values of a set of parameters. If no one of these
  parameters is capable of continuous variation, the group is called a
  _discontinuous group_. If all the parameters are capable of continuous
  variation, the group is called a _continuous group_. If some of the
  parameters are capable of continuous variation and some are not, the
  group is called a _mixed group_.

  If S' is the inverse operation of S, a group which contains S must
  contain SS´, which produces no change on any possible object. This is
  called the _identical operation_, and will always be represented by I.
  Since S^pS^q = S^(p+q) when p and q are positive integers, and S^pS´ =
  S^(p-1) while no meaning at present has been attached to S^q when q is
  negative, S´ may be consistently represented by S^(-1). The set of
  operations ..., S^(-2), S(-1), 1, S, S², ... obviously constitute a
  group. Such a group is called a _cyclical_ group.


    Subgroups, conjugate operations, isomorphism, &c.

  It will be convenient, before giving some illustrations of the general
  group idea, to add a number of further definitions and explanations
  which apply to all groups alike. If from among the set of operations
  S, T, U, ... which constitute a group G, a smaller set S´, T´, U´, ...
  can be chosen which themselves constitute a group H, the group H is
  called a _subgroup_ of G. Thus, in particular, if S is an operation of
  G, the cyclical group constituted by ..., S^(-2), S^(-1), 1, S, S²,
  ... is a subgroup of G, except in the special case when it coincides
  with G itself.

  If S and T are any two operations of G, the two operations S and
  T^(-1)ST are called _conjugate_ operations, and T^(-1)ST is spoken of
  as the result of _transforming_ S by T. It is to be noted that since
  ST = T^(-1), TS, T, ST and TS are always conjugate operations in any
  group containing both S and T. If T transforms S into itself, that is,
  if S = T^(-1)ST or TS = ST, S and T are called _permutable_
  operations. A group whose operations are all permutable with each
  other is called an _Abelian_ group. If S is transformed into itself by
  every operation of G, or, in other words, if it is permutable with
  every operation of G, it is called a _self-conjugate_ operation of G.

  The conception of operations being conjugate to each other is extended
  to subgroups. If S´, T´, U´, ... are the operations of a subgroup H,
  and if R is any operation of G, then the operations R^(-1)S´R,
  R^(-1)T´R, R^(-1)U´R, ... belong to G, and constitute a subgroup of G.
  For if S´T´ = U´, then R^(-1)S´R·R^(-1)T´R = R^(-1)S´T´R = R^(-1)U´R.
  This subgroup may be identical with H. In particular, it is
  necessarily the same as H if R belongs to H. If it is not identical
  with H, it is said to be _conjugate_ to H; and it is in any case
  represented by the symbol R^(-1)HR. If H = R^(-1)HR, the operation R
  is said to be permutable with the subgroup H. (It is to be noticed
  that this does not imply that R is permutable with each operation of
  H.)

  If H = R^(-1)HR, when for R is taken in turn each of the operations of
  G, then H is called a _self-conjugate_ subgroup of G.

  A group is spoken of as _simple_ when it has no self-conjugate
  subgroup other than that constituted by the identical operation alone.
  A group which has a self-conjugate subgroup is called _composite_.

  Let G be a group constituted of the operations S, T, U, ..., and g a
  second group constituted of s, t, u, ..., and suppose that to each
  operation of G there corresponds a single operation of g in such a way
  that if ST = U, then _st_ = u, where s, t, u are the operations
  corresponding to S, T, U respectively. The groups are then said to be
  _isomorphic_, and the correspondence between their operations is
  spoken of as an _isomorphism_ between the groups. It is clear that
  there may be two distinct cases of such isomorphism. To a single
  operation of g there may correspond either a single operation of G or
  more than one. In the first case the isomorphism is spoken of as
  _simple_, in the second as _multiple_.

  Two simply isomorphic groups considered abstractly--that is to say, in
  regard only to the way in which their operations combine among
  themselves, and apart from any concrete representation of the
  operations--are clearly indistinguishable.

  If G is multiply isomorphic with g, let A, B, C, ... be the operations
  of G which correspond to the identical operation of g. Then to the
  operations A^(-1) and AB of G there corresponds the identical
  operation of g; so that A, B, C, ... constitute a subgroup H of G.
  Moreover, if R is any operation of G, the identical operation of g
  corresponds to every operation of R^(-1)HR, and therefore H is a
  self-conjugate subgroup of G. Since S corresponds to s, and every
  operation of H to the identical operation of g, therefore every
  operation of the set SA, SB, SC, ..., which is represented by SH,
  corresponds to s. Also these are the only operations that correspond
  to s. The operations of G may therefore be divided into sets, no two
  of which contain a common operation, such that the correspondence
  between the operations of G and g connects each of the sets H, SH, TH,
  UH, ... with the single operations 1, s, t, u, ... written below them.
  The sets into which the operations of G are thus divided combine among
  themselves by exactly the same laws as the operations of g. For if
  st = u, then SH·TH = UH, in the sense that any operation of the set
  SH followed by any operation of the set TH gives an operation of the
  set UH.

  The group g, abstractly considered, is therefore completely defined by
  the division of the operations of G into sets in respect of the
  self-conjugate subgroup H. From this point of view it is spoken of as
  the _factor-group_ of G in respect of H, and is represented by the
  symbol G/H. Any composite group in a similar way defines abstractly a
  factor-group in respect of each of its self-conjugate subgroups.

  It follows from the definition of a group that it must always be
  possible to choose from its operations a set such that every operation
  of the group can be obtained by combining the operations of the set
  and their inverses. If the set is such that no one of the operations
  belonging to it can be represented in terms of the others, it is
  called a set of _independent generating_ operations. Such a set of
  generating operations may be either finite or infinite in number. If
  A, B, ..., E are the generating operations of a group, the group
  generated by them is represented by the symbol {A, B, ..., E}. An
  obvious extension of this symbol is used such that {A, H} represents
  the group generated by combining an operation A with every operation
  of a group H; {H1, H2} represents the group obtained by combining in
  all possible ways the operations of the groups H1 and H2; and so on.
  The independent generating operations of a group may be subject to
  certain relations connecting them, but these must be such that it is
  impossible by combining them to obtain a relation expressing one
  operation in terms of the others. For instance, AB = BA is a relation
  conditioning the group {A, B}; it does not, however, enable A to be
  expressed in terms of B, so that A and B are independent generating
  operations.


    Transitivity and primitivity.

  Let O, O´, O´´, ... be a set of objects which are interchanged among
  themselves by the operations of a group G, so that if S is any
  operation of the group, and O any one of the objects, then O·S is an
  object occurring in the set. If it is possible to find an operation S
  of the group such that O·S is any assigned one of the set of objects,
  the group is called _transitive_ in respect of this set of objects.
  When this is not possible the group is called _intransitive_ in
  respect of the set. If it is possible to find S so that any
  arbitrarily chosen n objects of the set, O1, O2, ..., O_n are changed
  by S into O´1, O´2, ..., O´n respectively, the latter being also
  arbitrarily chosen, the group is said to be n-ply transitive.

  If O, O´, O´´, ... is a set of objects in respect of which a group G
  is transitive, it may be possible to divide the set into a number of
  subsets, no two of which contain a common object, such that every
  operation of the group either interchanges the objects of a subset
  among themselves, or changes them all into the objects of some other
  subset. When this is the case the group is called _imprimitive_ in
  respect of the set; otherwise the group is called _primitive_. A group
  which is doubly-transitive, in respect of a set of objects, obviously
  cannot be imprimitive.


    Illustrations of the group idea.

  The foregoing general definitions and explanations will now be
  illustrated by a consideration of certain particular groups. To begin
  with, as the operations involved are of the most familiar nature, the
  group of rational arithmetic may be considered. The fundamental
  operations of elementary arithmetic consist in the addition and
  subtraction of integers, and multiplication and division by integers,
  division by zero alone omitted. Multiplication by zero is not a
  definite operation, and it must therefore be omitted in dealing with
  those operations of elementary arithmetic which form a group. The
  operation that results from carrying out additions, subtractions,
  multiplications and divisions, of and by integers a finite number of
  times, is represented by the relation x´ = ax + b, where a and b are
  rational numbers of which a is not zero, x is the object of the
  operation, and x´ is the result. The totality of operations of this
  form obviously constitutes a group.

  If S and T represent respectively the operations x´ = ax + b and x´ =
  cx + d, then T^(-1)ST represents x´ = ax + d - ad + bc. When a and b
  are given rational numbers, c and d may be chosen in an infinite
  number of ways as rational numbers, so that d - ad + bc shall be any
  assigned rational number. Hence the operations given by x' = ax + b,
  where a is an assigned rational number and b is any rational number,
  are all conjugate; and no two such operations for which the a's are
  different can be conjugate. If a is unity and b zero, S is the
  identical operation which is necessarily self-conjugate. If a is unity
  and b different from zero, the operation x´ = x + b is an addition.
  The totality of additions forms, therefore, a single conjugate set of
  operations. Moreover, the totality of additions with the identical
  operation, i.e. the totality of operations of the form x´ = x + b,
  where b may be any rational number or zero, obviously constitutes a
  group. The operations of this group are interchanged among themselves
  when transformed by any operation of the original group. It is
  therefore a self-conjugate subgroup of the original group.

  The totality of multiplications, with the identical operation, i.e.
  all operations of the form x´ = ax, where a is any rational number
  other than zero, again obviously constitutes a group. This, however,
  is not a self-conjugate subgroup of the original group. In fact, if
  the operations x´ = ax are all transformed by x´ = cx + d, they give
  rise to the set x´ = ax + d(1 - a). When d is a given rational number,
  the set constitutes a subgroup which is conjugate to the group of
  multiplications. It is to be noticed that the operations of this
  latter subgroup may be written in the form x´ - d = a(x - d).

  The totality of rational numbers, including zero, forms a set of
  objects which are interchanged among themselves by all operations of
  the group.

  If x1 and x2 are any pair of distinct rational numbers, and y1 and y2
  any other pair, there is just one operation of the group which changes
  x1 and x2 into y1 and y2 respectively. For the equations y1 = ax1 + b,
  y1 = ax2 + b determine a and b uniquely. The group is therefore doubly
  transitive in respect of the set of rational numbers. If H is the
  subgroup that leaves unchanged a given rational number x1, and S an
  operation changing x1 into x2, then every operation of S^(-1)HS leaves
  x2 unchanged. The subgroups, each of which leaves a single rational
  number unchanged, therefore form a single conjugate set. The group of
  multiplications leaves zero unchanged; and, as has been seen, this is
  conjugate with the subgroup formed of all operations x´ - d = a(x -
  d), where d is a given rational number. This subgroup leaves d
  unchanged.

  The group of multiplications is clearly generated by the operations x´
  = px, where for p negative unity and each prime is taken in turn.
  Every addition is obtained on transforming x´ = x + 1 by the different
  operations of the group of multiplications. Hence x´ = x + 1, and x´ =
  px, (p = -1, 3, 5, 7, ...), form a set of independent generating
  operations of the group. It is a discontinuous group.

  As a second example the group of motions in three-dimensional space
  will be considered. The totality of motions, i.e. of space
  displacements which leave the distance of every pair of points
  unaltered, obviously constitutes a set of operations which satisfies
  the group definition. From the elements of kinematics it is known that
  every motion is either (i.) a translation which leaves no point
  unaltered, but changes each of a set of parallel lines into itself; or
  (ii.) a rotation which leaves every point of one line unaltered and
  changes every other point and line; or (iii.) a twist which leaves no
  point and only one line (its axis) unaltered, and may be regarded as a
  translation along, combined with a rotation round, the axis. Let S be
  any motion consisting of a translation l along and a rotation a round
  a line AB, and let T be any other motion. There is some line CD into
  which T changes AB; and therefore T^(-1)ST leaves CD unchanged.
  Moreover, T^(-1)ST clearly effects the same translation along and
  rotation round CD that S effects for AB. Two motions, therefore, are
  conjugate if and only if the amplitudes of their translation and
  rotation components are respectively equal. In particular, all
  translations of equal amplitude are conjugate, as also are all
  rotations of equal amplitude. Any two translations are permutable with
  each other, and give when combined another translation. The totality
  of translations constitutes, therefore, a subgroup of the general
  group of motions; and this subgroup is a self-conjugate subgroup,
  since a translation is always conjugate to a translation.

  All the points of space constitute a set of objects which are
  interchanged among themselves by all operations of the group of
  motions. So also do all the lines of space and all the planes. In
  respect of each of these sets the group is simply transitive. In fact,
  there is an infinite number of motions which change a point A to A´,
  but no motion can change A and B to A´ and B´ respectively unless the
  distance AB is equal to the distance A´B´.

  The totality of motions which leave a point A unchanged forms a
  subgroup. It is clearly constituted of all possible rotations about
  all possible axes through A, and is known as the group of rotations
  about a point. Every motion can be represented as a rotation about
  some axis through A followed by a translation. Hence if G is the group
  of motions and H the group of translations, G/H is simply isomorphic
  with the group of rotations about a point.

  The totality of the motions which bring a given solid to congruence
  with itself again constitutes a subgroup of the group of motions. This
  will in general be the trivial subgroup formed of the identical
  operation above, but may in the case of a symmetrical body be more
  extensive. For a sphere or a right circular cylinder the subgroups are
  those that leave the centre and the axis respectively unaltered. For a
  solid bounded by plane faces the subgroup is clearly one of finite
  order. In particular, to each of the regular solids there corresponds
  such a group. That for the tetrahedron has 12 for its order, for the
  cube (or octahedron) 24, and for the icosahedron (or dodecahedron) 60.

  The determination of a particular operation of the group of motions
  involves six distinct measurements; namely, four to give the axis of
  the twist, one for the magnitude of the translation along the axis,
  and one for the magnitude of the rotation about it. Each of the six
  quantities involved may have any value whatever, and the group of
  motions is therefore a continuous group. On the other hand, a subgroup
  of the group of motions which leaves a line or a plane unaltered is a
  mixed group.

We shall now discuss (i.) continuous groups, (ii.) discontinuous groups
whose order is not finite, and (iii.) groups of finite order. For proofs
of the statements, and the general theorems, the reader is referred to
the bibliography.


_Continuous Groups._

The determination of a particular operation of a given continuous group
depends on assigning special values to each one of a set of parameters
which are capable of continuous variation. The first distinction regards
the number of these parameters. If this number is finite, the group is
called a _finite_ continuous group; if infinite, it is called an
_infinite_ continuous group. In the latter case arbitrary functions must
appear in the equations defining the operations of the group when these
are reduced to an analytical form. The theory of infinite continuous
groups is not yet so completely developed as that of finite continuous
groups. The latter theory will mainly occupy us here.

Sophus Lie, to whom the foundation and a great part of the development
of the theory of continuous groups are due, undoubtedly approached the
subject from a geometrical standpoint. His conception of an operation is
to regard it as a geometrical transformation, by means of which each
point of (n-dimensional) space is changed into some other definite
point.

  The representation of such a transformation in analytical form
  involves a system of equations,

    x'_s = [f]_s(x1, x2, ..., x_n), (s = 1, 2, ..., n),

  expressing x´1, x´2, ..., x´_n, the co-ordinates of the transformed
  point in terms of x1, x2, ..., x_n, the co-ordinates of the original
  point. In these equations the functions [f]_s are analytical functions
  of their arguments. Within a properly limited region they must be
  one-valued, and the equations must admit a unique solution with
  respect to x1, x2, ..., x_n, since the operation would not otherwise
  be a definite one.

  From this point of view the operations of a continuous group, which
  depends on a set of r parameters, will be defined analytically by a
  system of equations of the form

    x´_s = [f]_s(x1, x2, ..., x_n; a1, a2, ..., a_r), (s = 1, 2, ..., n),
      (i.)

  where a1, a2, ..., a_r represent the parameters. If this operation be
  represented by A, and that in which b1, b2, ..., b_r are the
  parameters by B, then the operation AB is represented by the
  elimination (assumed to be possible) of x´1, x´2, ..., x´_n between
  the equations (i.) and the equations

    x´´_s = [f]_s(x´1, x´2, ..., x´_n; b1, b2, ..., b_r),
      (s = 1, 2, ..., n).

  Since AB belongs to the group, the result of the elimination must be

    x´´_s = [f]_s(x1, x2, ..., x_n; c1, c2, ..., c_r),

  where c1, c2, ..., c_r represent another definite set of values of the
  parameters. Moreover, since A^(-1) belongs to the group, the result of
  solving equations (i.) with respect to x1, x2, ..., x_n must be

    x_s = [f]_s(x´1, x´2, ..., x´_n; d1, d2, ..., d_r),
      (s = 1, 2, ..., n).

  Conversely, if equations (i.) are such that these two conditions are
  satisfied, they do in fact define a finite continuous group.


    Infinitesimal operation of a continuous group.

  It will be assumed that the r parameters which enter in equations (i.)
  are independent, i.e. that it is impossible to choose r´ (< r)
  quantities in terms of which a1, a2, ..., a_r can be expressed. Where
  this is the case the group will be spoken of as a "group of order r."
  Lie uses the term "_r-gliedrige Gruppe_." It is to be noticed that the
  word order is used in quite a different sense from that given to it in
  connexion with groups of finite order.

  In regard to equations (i.), which define the general operation of the
  group, it is to be noticed that, since the group contains the
  identical operation, these equations must for some definite set of
  values of the parameters reduce to x´1 = x1, x´2 = x2, ..., x´_n =
  x_n. This set of values may, without loss of generality, be assumed to
  be simultaneous zero values. For if i1, i2, ..., i_r be the values of
  the parameters which give the identical operation, and if we write

    a_s = i_s + a, (s = 1, 2, ..., r),

  then zero values of the new parameters a1, a2, ..., a_r give the
  identical operation.

  To infinitesimal values of the parameters, thus chosen, will
  correspond operations which cause an infinitesimal change in each of
  the variables. These are called infinitesimal operations. The most
  general infinitesimal operation of the group is that given by the
  system

                              [Pd][f]_s             [Pd][f]_s                   [Pd][f]_s
    x´_s - x_s = [delta]x_s = --------- [delta]a1 + --------- [delta]a2 + ... + --------- [delta]a_r, (s = 1, 2, ..., n),
                               [Pd]a1                 [Pd]a2                     [Pd]a_r

  where, in [Pd][f]_s/[Pd]a_i, zero values of the parameters are to be
  taken. Since a1, a2, ..., a_r are independent, the ratios of
  [delta]a1, [delta]a2, ..., [delta]a_r are arbitrary. Hence the most
  general infinitesimal operation of the group may be written in the
  form

                  /  [Pd][f]_s     [Pd][f]_s            [Pd][f]_s\
    [delta]x_s = ( e1--------- + e2--------- + ... + e_r--------- ) [delta]t, (s = 1, 2, ..., n),
                  \   [Pd]a1         [Pd]a2              [Pd]a_r /

  where e1, e2, ..., e_r are arbitrary constants, and [delta]t is an
  infinitesimal.

  If F(x1, x2, ..., x_n) is any function of the variables, and if an
  infinitesimal operation of the group be carried out on the variables
  in F, the resulting increment of F will be

    [Pd]F             [Pd]F                    [Pd]F
    ------[delta]x1 + ------[delta]x2 + ... + -------[delta]x_n.
    [Pd]x1            [Pd]x2                  [Pd]x_n

  If the differential operator

    [Pd][f]1  [Pd]    [Pd][f]2  [Pd]          [Pd][f]_n   [Pd]
    -------- ------ + -------- ------ + ... + ---------  -------
    [Pd]a_i  [Pd]x1   [Pd]a_i  [Pd]x2          [Pd]a_i   [Pd]x_n

  be represented by X_i, (i = 1, 2, ..., r), then the increment of F is
  given by

    (e1X1 + e2X2 + ... + e_rX_r)F[delta]t.

  When the equations (i.) defining the general operation of the group
  are given, the coefficients [Pd][f]_s/[Pd]a_i, which enter in these
  differential operators are functions of the variables which can be
  directly calculated.

  The differential operator e1X1 + e2X2 + ... + e_rX_r may then be
  regarded as defining the most general infinitesimal operation of the
  group. In fact, if it be for a moment represented by X, then (1 +
  [delta]tX)F is the result of carrying out the infinitesimal operation
  on F; and by putting x1, x2, ..., x_n in turn for F, the actual
  infinitesimal operation is reproduced. By a very convenient, though
  perhaps hardly justifiable, phraseology this differential operator is
  itself spoken of as the general infinitesimal operation of the group.
  The sense in which this phraseology is to be understood will be made
  clear by the foregoing explanations.

  We suppose now that the constants e1, e2, ..., e_r have assigned
  values. Then the result of repeating the particular infinitesimal
  operation e1X1 + e2X2 + ... + e_rX_r or X an infinite number of times
  is some finite operation of the group. The effect of this finite
  operation on F may be directly calculated. In fact, if [delta]t is the
  infinitesimal already introduced, then

    dF        d²F
    -- = X·F, --- = X·X·F, ...
    dt        dt²

  Hence

              dF   t²  d²F
    F´ = F + t-- + --- --- + ...
              dt   1·2 dt²

                   t²
      = F + tX·F + --- X·X·F + ...
                   1·2

  It must, of course, be understood that in this analytical
  representation of the effect of the finite operation on F it is
  implied that t is taken sufficiently small to ensure the convergence
  of the (in general) infinite series.

  When x1, x2, ... are written in turn for F, the system of equations

                     t²
    x´_s = (1 + tX + --- X·X + ...)x_s, (s = 1, 2, ..., n) (ii.)
                     1.2

  represent the finite operation completely. If t is here regarded as a
  parameter, this set of operations must in themselves constitute a
  group, since they arise by the repetition of a single infinitesimal
  operation. That this is really the case results immediately from
  noticing that the result of eliminating F´ between

                    t²
    F´ = F + tX·F + --- X·X·F + ...
                    1.2

  and

                        t´²
    F´´ = F´ + t´X·F´ + --- X·X·F´ + ...
                        1·2

  is

                             (t + t´)²
    F´´ = F + (t + t´) X·F + --------- X·X·F + ...
                                1·2

  The group thus generated by the repetition of an infinitesimal
  operation is called a _cyclical_ group; so that a continuous group
  contains a cyclical subgroup corresponding to each of its
  infinitesimal operations.

  The system of equations (ii.) represents an operation of the group
  whatever the constants e1, e2, ..., e_r may be. Hence if e1t, e2t,
  ..., e_rt be replaced by a1, a2, ..., a_r the equations (ii.)
  represent a set of operations, depending on r parameters and belonging
  to the group. They must therefore be a form of the general equations
  for any operation of the group, and are equivalent to the equations
  (i.). The determination of the finite equations of a cyclical group,
  when the infinitesimal operation which generates it is given, will
  always depend on the integration of a set of simultaneous ordinary
  differential equations. As a very simple example we may consider the
  case in which the infinitesimal operation is given by X =
  x²[Pd]/[Pd]x, so that there is only a single variable. The relation
  between x´ and t is given by dx´/dt = x´², with the condition that x´
  = x when t = 0. This gives at once x´ = x/(1 - tx), which might also
  be obtained by the direct use of (ii.).


    Relations between the infinitesimal operations of a finite continuous
      group.

  When the finite equations (i.) of a continuous group of order r are
  known, it has now been seen that the differential operator which
  defines the most general infinitesimal operation of the group can be
  directly constructed, and that it contains r arbitrary constants. This
  is equivalent to saying that the group contains r linearly independent
  infinitesimal operations; and that the most general infinitesimal
  operation is obtained by combining these linearly with constant
  coefficients. Moreover, when any r independent infinitesimal
  operations of the group are known, it has been seen how the general
  finite operation of the group may be calculated. This obviously
  suggests that it must be possible to define the group by means of its
  infinitesimal operations alone; and it is clear that such a definition
  would lend itself more readily to some applications (for instance, to
  the theory of differential equations) than the definition by means of
  the finite equations.

  On the other hand, r arbitrarily given linear differential operators
  will not, in general, give rise to a finite continuous group of order
  r; and the question arises as to what conditions such a set of
  operators must satisfy in order that they may, in fact, be the
  independent infinitesimal operations of such a group.

  If X, Y are two linear differential operators, XY - YX is also a
  linear differential operator. It is called the "combinant" of X and Y
  (Lie uses the expression _Klammerausdruck_) and is denoted by (XY). If
  X, Y, Z are any three linear differential operators the identity
  (known as Jacobi's)

    (X(YZ)) + (Y(ZX)) + (Z(XY)) = 0

  holds between them. Now it may be shown that any continuous group of
  which X, Y are infinitesimal operations contains also (XY) among its
  infinitesimal operations. Hence if r linearly independent operations
  X1, X2, ..., X_r give rise to a finite continuous group of order r,
  the combinant of each pair must be expressible linearly in terms of
  the r operations themselves: that is, there must be a system of
  relations

                __k=r
    (X_iX_j) = \      c_(ijk)X_k,
               /__k=1

  where the c's are constants. Moreover, from Jacobi's identity and the
  identity (XY) + (YX) = 0 it follows that the c's are subject to the
  relations

    c_(ijt) + c_(jit) = 0,                                           \
                                                                     |
  and                                                                 >
                                                                     |
    [Sigma][s](c_(jks)c_(ist) + c_(kis)c_(jst) + c_(ijs)c_(kst)) = 0 /
      (iii.)

  for all values of i, j, k and t.


    Determination of the distinct types of continuous groups of a given
      order.

  The fundamental theorem of the theory of finite continuous groups is
  now that these conditions, which are necessary in order that X1, X2,
  ..., X_r may generate, as infinitesimal operations, a continuous group
  of order r, are also sufficient.

  For the proof of this fundamental theorem see Lie's works (cf.
  Lie-Engel, i. chap. 9; iii. chap. 25).

  If two continuous groups of order r are such that, for each, a set of
  linearly independent infinitesimal operations X1, X2, ..., X_r and Y1,
  Y2, ..., Y_r can be chosen, so that in the relations

    (X_iX_j) = [Sigma]c_(ijs)X_s, (Y_iY_j) = [Sigma]d_(ijs)Y_s,

  the constants c_(ijs) and d_(ijs) are the same for all values of i, j
  and s, the two groups are simply isomorphic, X_s and Y_s being
  corresponding infinitesimal operations.

  Two continuous groups of order r, whose infinitesimal operations obey
  the same system of equations (iii.), may be of very different _form_;
  for instance, the number of variables for the one may be different
  from that for the other. They are, however, said to be of the same
  _type_, in the sense that the laws according to which their operations
  combine are the same for both.

  The problem of determining all distinct types of groups of order r is
  then contained in the purely algebraical problem of finding all the
  systems of r³ quantities c_(ijs) which satisfy the relations

    c_(ijt) + c_(ijt) = 0,

    [Sigma] [c_(ijs)c_(skt) + c_(jks)c_(sit) + c_(kis)c_(sjt)] = 0.
         s

  for all values of i, j, k and t. To two distinct solutions of the
  algebraical problem, however, two distinct types of group will not
  necessarily correspond. In fact, X1, X2, ..., X_r may be replaced by
  any r independent linear functions of themselves, and the c's will
  then be transformed by a linear substitution containing r² independent
  parameters. This, however, does not alter the type of group
  considered.

  For a single parameter there is, of course, only one type of group,
  which has been called cyclical.

  For a group of order two there is a single relation

    (X1X2) = [alpha]X1 + ßX2.

  If [alpha] and ß are not both zero, let [alpha] be finite. The
  relation may then be written ([alpha]X1 + ßX2, [alpha]^(-1)X2) =
  [alpha]X1 + ßX2. Hence if [alpha]X1 + ßX2 = X´1, and [alpha]^(-1)X2 =
  X´2, then (X´1X´2) = X´1. There are, therefore, just two types of
  group of order two, the one given by the relation last written, and
  the other by (X1X2) = 0.

  Lie has determined all distinct types of continuous groups of orders
  three or four; and all types of non-integrable groups (a term which
  will be explained immediately) of orders five and six (cf. Lie-Engel,
  iii. 713-744).


    Self-conjugate subgroups. Integrable groups.

  A problem of fundamental importance in connexion with any given
  continuous group is the determination of the self-conjugate subgroups
  which it contains. If X is an infinitesimal operation of a group, and
  Y any other, the general form of the infinitesimal operations which
  are conjugate to X is

                t²
    X + t(XY) + --- ((XY)Y) + ....
                1.2

  Any subgroup which contains all the operations conjugate to X must
  therefore contain all infinitesimal operations (XY), ((XY)Y), ...,
  where for Y each infinitesimal operation of the group is taken in
  turn. Hence if X´1, X´2, ..., X´_s are s linearly independent
  operations of the group which generate a self-conjugate subgroup of
  order s, then for _every_ infinitesimal operation Y of the group
  relations of the form

               __e=1
    (X´_iY) = \      a_(ie)X'_e, (i = 1, 2, ..., s)
              /__e=s

  must be satisfied. Conversely, if such a set of relations is
  satisfied, X´1, X´2, ..., X´_s generate a subgroup of order s, which
  contains every operation conjugate to each of the infinitesimal
  generating operations, and is therefore a self-conjugate subgroup.

  A specially important self-conjugate subgroup is that generated by the
  combinants of the r infinitesimal generating operations. That these
  generate a self-conjugate subgroup follows from the relations (iii.).
  In fact,

    ((X_iX_j)X_k) = [Sigma] c_(ijs)(X_sX_k).
                         s

  Of the ½r(r - 1) combinants not more than r can be linearly
  independent. When exactly r of them are linearly independent, the
  self-conjugate group generated by them coincides with the original
  group. If the number that are linearly independent is less than r, the
  self-conjugate subgroup generated by them is actually a subgroup; i.e.
  its order is less than that of the original group. This subgroup is
  known as the derived group, and Lie has called a group _perfect_ when
  it coincides with its derived group. A simple group, since it contains
  no self-conjugate subgroup distinct from itself, is necessarily a
  perfect group.

  If G is a given continuous group, G1 the derived group of G, G2 that
  of G1, and so on, the series of groups G, G1, G2, ... will terminate
  either with the identical operation or with a perfect group; for the
  order of G_(s+1) is less than that of G_s unless G_s is a perfect
  group. When the series terminates with the identical operation, G is
  said to be an _integrable_ group; in the contrary case G is called
  _non-integrable_.

  If G is an integrable group of order r, the infinitesimal operations
  X1, X2, ..., X_r which generate the group may be chosen so that X1,
  X2, ..., X_(r1), (r1 < r) generate the first derived group, X1, X2,
  ..., X_(r2), (r2 < r1) the second derived group, and so on. When they
  are so chosen the constants c_(ijs) are clearly such that if r_p < i
  <= r_(p+1), r_q < j <= r_(q+1), p >= q, then c_(ijs) vanishes unless
  s <= r_(p+1).

  In particular the generating operations may be chosen so that c_(ijs)
  vanishes unless s is equal to or less than the smaller of the two
  numbers i, j; and conversely, if the c's satisfy these relations, the
  group is integrable.


    Simple groups.

  A simple group, as already defined, is one which has no self-conjugate
  subgroup. It is a remarkable fact that the determination of all
  distinct types of simple continuous groups has been made, for in the
  case of discontinuous groups and groups of finite order this is far
  from being the case. Lie has demonstrated the existence of four great
  classes of simple groups:--

  (i.) The groups simply isomorphic with the general projective group in
  space of n dimensions. Such a group is defined analytically as the
  totality of the transformations of the form

           a_s, _1x1 + a_s, _2x2 + ... + a_s, _nx_n + a_(s, n + 1)
    x´_s = --------------------------------------------------------, (s = 1, 2, ..., n),
           a_(n+1), _1x1 + a_(n+1), _2x2 + ... + a_(n+1), _nx_n + 1

  where the a's are parameters. The order of this group is clearly n(n +
  2).

  (ii.) The groups simply isomorphic with the totality of the projective
  transformations which transform a non-special linear complex in space
  of 2n - 1 dimensions with itself. The order of this group is n(2n +
  1).

  (iii.) and (iv.) The groups simply isomorphic with the totality of the
  projective transformations which change a quadric of non-vanishing
  discriminant into itself. These fall into two distinct classes of
  types according as n is even or odd. In either case the order is ½n(n
  + 1). The case n = 3 forms an exception in which the corresponding
  group is not simple. It is also to be noticed that a cyclical group is
  a simple group, since it has no continuous self-conjugate subgroup
  distinct from itself.

  W. K. J. Killing and E. J. Cartan have separately proved that outside
  these four great classes there exist only five distinct types of
  simple groups, whose orders are 14, 52, 78, 133 and 248; thus
  completing the enumeration of all possible types.

  To prevent any misapprehension as to the bearing of these very general
  results, it is well to point out explicitly that there are no
  limitations on the parameters of a continuous group as it has been
  defined above. They are to be regarded as taking in general complex
  values. If in the finite equations of a continuous group the imaginary
  symbol does not explicitly occur, the finite equations will usually
  define a group (in the general sense of the original definition) when
  both parameters and variables are limited to real values. Such a group
  is, in a certain sense, a continuous group; and such groups have been
  considered shortly by Lie (cf. Lie-Engel, iii. 360-392), who calls
  them _real_ continuous groups. To these real continuous groups the
  above statement as to the totality of simple groups does not apply;
  and indeed, in all probability, the number of types of _real_ simple
  continuous groups admits of no such complete enumeration. The effect
  of limitation to real transformations may be illustrated by
  considering the groups of projective transformations which change

    x² + y² + z² - 1 = 0 and x² + y² - z² - 1 = 0

  respectively into themselves. Since one of these quadrics is changed
  into the other by the imaginary transformation

    x´ = x, y´ = y, z´ = z[root](-1),

  the general continuous groups which transform the two quadrics
  respectively into themselves are simply isomorphic. This is not,
  however, the case for the _real_ continuous groups. In fact, the
  second quadric has two real sets of generators; and therefore the real
  group which transforms it into itself has two self-conjugate
  subgroups, either of which leaves unchanged each of one set of
  generators. The first quadric having imaginary generators, no such
  self-conjugate subgroups can exist for the real group which transforms
  it into itself; and this real group is in fact simple.


    The adjunct group.

  Among the groups isomorphic with a given continuous group there is one
  of special importance which is known as the _adjunct_ group. This is a
  homogeneous linear group in a number of variables equal to the order
  of the group, whose infinitesimal operations are defined by the
  relations

                            [Pd]
    X_i=[Sigma] c_(ijs)x_i -------, (j = 1, 2, ..., r),
           i, s            [Pd]x_s

  where c_(ijs) are the often-used constants, which give the combinants
  of the infinitesimal operations in terms of the infinitesimal
  operations themselves.

  That the r infinitesimal operations thus defined actually generate a
  group isomorphic with the given group is verified by forming their
  combinants. It is thus found that (X_pX_q) = [Sigma][s]c_(pqs)X_s. The
  X's, however, are not necessarily linearly independent. In fact, the
  sufficient condition that [Sigma][j]a_jX_j should be identically zero
  is that [Sigma][j]a_jc_(ijs) should vanish for all values of i and s.
  Hence if the equations [Sigma][j]a_jc_(ijs) = 0 for all values of i
  and s have r' linearly independent solutions, only r - r´ of the X's
  are linearly independent, and the isomorphism of the two groups is
  multiple. If Y1, Y2, ..., Y_r are the infinitesimal operations of the
  given group, the equations

    [Sigma] a_jc_(ijs) = 0, (s, i = 1, 2, ..., r)
          j

  express the condition that the operations of the cyclical group
  generated by [Sigma][j]a_jY_i should be permutable with every
  operation of the group; in other words, that they should be
  self-conjugate operations. In the case supposed, therefore, the given
  group contains a subgroup of order r´ each of whose operations is
  self-conjugate. The adjunct group of a given group will therefore be
  simply isomorphic with the group, unless the latter contains
  self-conjugate operations; and when this is the case the order of the
  adjunct will be less than that of the given group by the order of the
  subgroup formed of the self-conjugate operations.


    Continuous groups of the line of the plane, and of three-dimensional
      space.

  We have been thus far mainly concerned with the abstract theory of
  continuous groups, in which no distinction is made between two simply
  isomorphic groups. We proceed to discuss the classification and theory
  of groups when their form is regarded as essential; and this is a
  return to a more geometrical point of view.

  It is natural to begin with the projective groups, which are the
  simplest in form and at the same time are of supreme importance in
  geometry. The general projective group of the straight line is the
  group of order three given by

         ax + b
    x´ = -------
         cx + d´

  where the parameters are the ratios of a, b, c, d. Since

    x´3 - x´2   x´ - x´1   x3 - x2   x - x1
    --------- · -------- = ------- · ------
    x´3 - x´1   x´ - x´2   x3 - x1   x - x2

  is an operation of the above form, the group is triply transitive.
  Every subgroup of order two leaves one point unchanged, and all such
  subgroups are conjugate. A cyclical subgroup leaves either two
  distinct points or two coincident points unchanged. A subgroup which
  either leaves two points unchanged or interchanges them is an example
  of a "mixed" group.

  The analysis of the general projective group must obviously increase
  very rapidly in complexity, as the dimensions of the space to which it
  applies increase. This analysis has been completely carried out for
  the projective group of the plane, with the result of showing that
  there are thirty distinct types of subgroup. Excluding the general
  group itself, every one of these leaves either a point, a line, or a
  conic section unaltered. For space of three dimensions Lie has also
  carried out a similar investigation, but the results are extremely
  complicated. One general result of great importance at which Lie
  arrives in this connexion is that every projective group in space of
  three dimensions, other than the general group, leaves either a point,
  a curve, a surface or a linear complex unaltered.

  Returning now to the case of a single variable, it can be shown that
  any finite continuous group in one variable is either cyclical or of
  order two or three, and that by a suitable transformation any such
  group may be changed into a projective group.

  The genesis of an infinite as distinguished from a finite continuous
  group may be well illustrated by considering it in the case of a
  single variable. The infinitesimal operations of the projective group
  in one variable are d/dx, x(d/dx), x²(d/dx). If these combined with
  x³(d/dx) be taken as infinitesimal operations from which to generate
  a continuous group among the infinitesimal operations of the group,
  there must occur the combinant of x²(d/dx) and x³(d/dx). This is
  x^4(d/dx). The combinant of this and x²(d/dx) is 2x^5(d/dx) and so on.
  Hence x^_r(d/dx), where r is any positive integer, is an infinitesimal
  operation of the group. The general infinitesimal operation of the
  group is therefore [f](x)(d/dx), where [f](x) is an arbitrary integral
  function of x.

  In the classification of the groups, projective or non-projective of
  two or more variables, the distinction between primitive and
  imprimitive groups immediately presents itself. For groups of the
  plane the following question arises. Is there or is there not a
  singly-infinite family of curves [f](x, y) = C, where C is an
  arbitrary constant such that every operation of the group interchanges
  the curves of the family among themselves? In accordance with the
  previously given definition of imprimitivity, the group is called
  imprimitive or primitive according as such a set exists or not. In
  space of three dimensions there are two possibilities; namely, there
  may either be a singly infinite system of surfaces F(x, y, z) = C,
  which are interchanged among themselves by the operations of the
  group; or there may be a doubly-infinite system of curves G(x, y, z) =
  a, H(x, y, z) = b, which are so interchanged.

  In regard to primitive groups Lie has shown that any primitive group
  of the plane can, by a suitably chosen transformation, be transformed
  into one of three definite types of projective groups; and that any
  primitive group of space of three dimensions can be transformed into
  one of eight definite types, which, however, cannot all be represented
  as projective groups in three dimensions.

  The results which have been arrived at for imprimitive groups in two
  and three variables do not admit of any such simple statement.


    Contact transformations.

  We shall now explain the conception of contact-transformations and
  groups of contact-transformations. This conception, like that of
  continuous groups, owes its origin to Lie.

  From a purely analytical point of view a contact-transformation may be
  defined as a point-transformation in 2n + 1 variables, z, x1, x2, ...,
  x_n, p1, p2, ..., p_n which leaves unaltered the equation dz - p1dx1 -
  p2dx2 - ... - p_ndx_n = 0. Such a definition as this, however, gives
  no direct clue to the geometrical properties of the transformation,
  nor does it explain the name given.

  In dealing with contact-transformations we shall restrict ourselves to
  space of two or of three dimensions; and it will be necessary to begin
  with some purely geometrical considerations. An infinitesimal
  surface-element in space of three dimensions is completely specified,
  apart from its size, by its position and orientation. If x, y, z are
  the co-ordinates of some one point of the element, and if p, q, -1
  give the ratios of the direction-cosines of its normal, x, y, z, p, q
  are five quantities which completely specify the element. There are,
  therefore, [oo]^5 surface elements in three-dimensional space. The
  surface-elements of a surface form a system of [oo]² elements, for
  there are [oo]² points on the surface, and at each a definite
  surface-element. The surface-elements of a curve form, again, a system
  of [oo]² elements, for there are [oo]¹ points on the curve, and at
  each [oo]¹ surface-elements containing the tangent to the curve at the
  point. Similarly the surface-elements which contain a given point
  clearly form a system of [oo]² elements. Now each of these systems of
  [oo]² surface-elements has the property that if (x, y, z, p, q) and (x
  + dx, y + dy, z + dz, p + dp, q + dq) are consecutive elements from
  any one of them, then dz - pdx - qdy = 0. In fact, for a system of the
  first kind dx, dy, dz are proportional to the direction-cosines of a
  tangent line at a point of the surface, and p, q, -1 are proportional
  to the direction-cosines of the normal. For a system of the second
  kind dx, dy, dz are proportional to the direction-cosines of a tangent
  to the curve, and p, q, -1 give the direction-cosines of the normal to
  a plane touching the curve; and for a system of the third kind dx, dy,
  dz are zero. Now the most general way in which a system of [oo]²
  surface-elements can be given is by three independent equations
  between x, y, z, p and q. If these equations do not contain p, q, they
  determine one or more (a finite number in any case) points in space,
  and the system of surface-elements consists of the elements containing
  these points; i.e. it consists of one or more systems of the third
  kind.

  If the equations are such that two distinct equations independent of p
  and q can be derived from them, the points of the system of
  surface-elements lie on a curve. For such a system the equation dz -
  pdx - qdy = 0 will hold for each two consecutive elements only when
  the plane of each element touches the curve at its own point.

  If the equations are such that only one equation independent of p and
  q can be derived from them, the points of the system of
  surface-elements lie on a surface. Again, for such a system the
  equation dz - pdx - qdy = 0 will hold for each two consecutive
  elements only when each element touches the surface at its own point.
  Hence, when all possible systems of [oo]² surface-elements in space
  are considered, the equation dz - pdx - qdy = 0 is characteristic of
  the three special types in which the elements belong, in the sense
  explained above, to a point or a curve or a surface.

  Let us consider now the geometrical bearing of any transformation x´ =
  [f]1(x, y, z, p, q), ..., q´ = [f]5(x, y, z, p, q), of the five
  variables. It will interchange the surface-elements of space among
  themselves, and will change any system of [oo]² elements into another
  system of [oo]² elements. A special system, i.e. a system which
  belongs to a point, curve or surface, will not, however, in general be
  changed into another special system. The necessary and sufficient
  condition that a special system should always be changed into a
  special system is that the equation dz´ - p´dx´ - q´dy´ = 0 should be
  a consequence of the equation dz - pdx - qdy = 0; or, in other words,
  that this latter equation should be invariant for the transformation.

  When this condition is satisfied the transformation is such as to
  change the surface-elements of a surface in general into
  surface-elements of a surface, though in particular cases they may
  become the surface-elements of a curve or point; and similar
  statements may be made with respect to a curve or point. The
  transformation is therefore a veritable geometrical transformation in
  space of three dimensions. Moreover, two special systems of
  surface-elements which have an element in common are transformed into
  two new special systems with an element in common. Hence two curves or
  surfaces which touch each other are transformed into two new curves or
  surfaces which touch each other. It is this property which leads to
  the transformations in question being called contact-transformations.
  It will be noticed that an ordinary point-transformation is always a
  contact-transformation, but that a contact-transformation (in space of
  n dimensions) is not in general a point-transformation (in space of n
  dimensions), though it may always be regarded as a
  point-transformation in space of 2n + 1 dimensions. In the analogous
  theory for space of two dimensions a line-element, defined by (x, y,
  p), where 1 : p gives the direction-cosines of the line, takes the
  place of the surface-element; and a transformation of x, y and p which
  leaves the equation dy - pdx = 0 unchanged transforms the [oo]¹
  line-elements, which belong to a curve, into [oo]¹ line-elements which
  again belong to a curve; while two curves which touch are transformed
  into two other curves which touch.

  One of the simplest instances of a contact-transformation that can be
  given is the transformation by reciprocal polars. By this
  transformation a point P and a plane p passing through it are changed
  into a plane p´ and a point P´ upon it; i.e. the surface-element
  defined by P, p is changed into a definite surface-element defined by
  P´, p´. The totality of surface-elements which belong to a
  (non-developable) surface is known from geometrical considerations to
  be changed into the totality which belongs to another
  (non-developable) surface. On the other hand, the totality of the
  surface-elements which belong to a curve is changed into another set
  which belong to a developable. The analytical formulae for this
  transformation, when the reciprocation is effected with respect to the
  paraboloid x² + y² - 2z = 0, are x´ = p, y´ = q, z´ = px + qy - z, p´ =
  x, q´ = y. That this is, in fact, a contact-transformation is verified
  directly by noticing that dz´ - p´dx´ - q´dy´ = -d(z - px - qy) - xdp
  - ydq = -(dz - pdx - qdy). A second simple example is that in which
  every surface-element is displaced, without change of orientation,
  normal to itself through a constant distance t. The analytical
  equations in this case are easily found in the form

                     pt                             qt
    x´ = x + -------------------, y´ = y + -------------------,
             [root](1 + p² + q²)           [root](1 + p² + q²)

                        t
      z´ = z - -------------------,
               [root](1 + p² + q²)

    p´ = q, q´ = q.

  That this is a contact-transformation is seen geometrically by
  noticing that it changes a surface into a parallel surface. Every
  point is changed by it into a sphere of radius t, and when t is
  regarded as a parameter the equations define a cyclical group of
  contact-transformations.

  The formal theory of continuous groups of contact-transformations is,
  of course, in no way distinct from the formal theory of continuous
  groups in general. On what may be called the geometrical side, the
  theory of groups of contact-transformations has been developed with
  very considerable detail in the second volume of Lie-Engel.


    Applications of the theory of continuous groups.

  To the manifold applications of the theory of continuous groups in
  various branches of pure and applied mathematics it is impossible here
  to refer in any detail. It must suffice to indicate a few of them very
  briefly. In some of the older theories a new point of view is obtained
  which presents the results in a fresh light, and suggests the natural
  generalization. As an example, the theory of the invariants of a
  binary form may be considered.

  If in the form [f] = a0x^_n + na1x^(n-1)y + ... + a_ny^n, the
  variables be subjected to a homogeneous substitution

    x´ = [alpha]x + ßy, y´ = [gamma]x + [delta]y,   (i.)

  and if the coefficients in the new form be represented by accenting
  the old coefficients, then

    a´0 = a0[alpha]^n + a1n[alpha]^(n-1)[gamma] + ... + a_n[gamma]^n,\
                                                                     |
    a´1 = a0[alpha]^(n-1)ß + a1_(n-1)[alpha]^(n-2)ß[gamma] +         |
      [alpha]^(n-1)[delta]} + ... + a_n[gamma]^(n-1)[delta],          > (ii.)
                                                                     |
    a´_n = a0ß^n + a1nß^(n-1)[delta] + ... + a_n[delta]^n;           /

  and this is a homogeneous linear substitution performed on the
  coefficients. The totality of the substitutions, (i.), for which
  [alpha][delta] - ß[gamma] = 1, constitutes a continuous group of order
  3, which is generated by the two infinitesimal transformations
  y([Pd]/[Pd]x) and x([Pd]/[Pd]y). Hence with the same limitations on
  [alpha], ß, [gamma], [delta] the totality of the substitutions (ii.)
  forms a simply isomorphic continuous group of order 3, which is
  generated by the two infinitesimal transformations

        [Pd]         [Pd]         [Pd]                    [Pd]
    a0 ------ + 2a1 ------ + 3a1 ------ + ... + na_(n-1) -------,
       [Pd]a1       [Pd]a2       [Pd]a3                  [Pd]a_n

  and

         [Pd]               [Pd]               [Pd]                 [Pd]
    na1 ------ + (n - 1)a2 ------ + (n - 2)a3 ------ + ... + a_u ----------.
        [Pd]a0             [Pd]a1             [Pd]a2             [Pd]a_(u-1)

  The invariants of the binary form, i.e. those functions of the
  coefficients which are unaltered by all homogeneous substitutions on
  x, y of determinant unity, are therefore identical with the functions
  of the coefficients which are invariant for the continuous group
  generated by the two infinitesimal operations last written. In other
  words, they are given by the common solutions of the differential
  equations

       [Pd][f]       [Pd][f]       [Pd][f]
    a0 ------- + 2a1 ------- + 3a2 ------- + ... = 0,
       [Pd]a1        [Pd]a2        [Pd]a3

        [Pd][f]             [Pd][f]             [Pd][f]
    na1 ------- + (n - 1)a2 ------- + (n - 2)a3 ------- + ... = 0.
        [Pd]a0              [Pd]a1              [Pd]a2

  Both this result and the method by which it is arrived at are well
  known, but the point of view by which we pass from the transformation
  group of the variables to the isomorphic transformation group of the
  coefficients, and regard the invariants as invariants rather of the
  group than of the forms, is a new and a fruitful one.

  The general theory of curvature of curves and surfaces may in a
  similar way be regarded as a theory of their invariants for the group
  of motions. That something more than a mere change of phraseology is
  here implied will be evident in dealing with minimum curves, i.e. with
  curves such that at every point of them dx² + dy² + dz² = 0. For such
  curves the ordinary theory of curvature has no meaning, but they
  nevertheless have invariant properties in regard to the group of
  motions.

  The curvature and torsion of a curve, which are invariant for all
  transformations by the group of motions, are special instances of what
  are known as _differential invariants_. If [xi]([Pd]/[Pd]x) +
  [eta]([Pd]/[Pd]y) is the general infinitesimal transformation of a
  group of point-transformations in the plane, and if y1, y2, ...
  represent the successive differential coefficients of y, the
  infinitesimal transformation may be written in the extended form

         [Pd]          [Pd]            [Pd]            [Pd]
    [xi] ----- + [eta] ----- + [eta]1 ------ + [eta]2 ------ + ...
         [Pd]x         [Pd]y          [Pd]y1          [Pd]y2

  where [eta]1[delta]t, [eta]2[delta]t, ... are the increments of y1,
  y2, .... By including a sufficient number of these variables the group
  must be intransitive in them, and must therefore have one or more
  invariants. Such invariants are known as differential invariants of
  the original group, being necessarily functions of the differential
  coefficients of the original variables. For groups of the plane it may
  be shown that not more than two of these differential invariants are
  independent, all others being formed from these by algebraical
  processes and differentiation. For groups of point-transformations in
  more than two variables there will be more than one set of
  differential invariants. For instance, with three variables, one may
  be regarded as independent and the other two as functions of it, or
  two as independent and the remaining one as a function. Corresponding
  to these two points of view, the differential invariants for a curve
  or for a surface will arise.

  If a differential invariant of a continuous group of the plane be
  equated to zero, the resulting differential equation remains unaltered
  when the variables undergo any transformation of the group.
  Conversely, if an ordinary, differential equation [f](x, y, y1, y2,
  ...) = 0 admits the transformations of a continuous group, i.e. if the
  equation is unaltered when x and y undergo any transformation of the
  group, then [f](x, y, y1, y2, ...) or some multiple of it must be a
  differential invariant of the group. Hence it must be possible to find
  two independent differential invariants [alpha], ß of the group, such
  that when these are taken as variables the differential equation takes
  the form F([alpha], ß, dß/d[alpha], d²ß/d[alpha]², ...) = 0. This
  equation in [alpha], ß will be of lower order than the original
  equation, and in general simpler to deal with. Supposing it solved in
  the form ß = [phi]([alpha]), where for [alpha], ß their values in
  terms of x, y, y1, y2, ... are written, this new equation, containing
  arbitrary constants, is necessarily again of lower order than the
  original equation. The integration of the original equation is thus
  divided into two steps. This will show how, in the case of an ordinary
  differential equation, the fact that the equation admits a continuous
  group of transformations may be taken advantage of for its
  integration.

  The most important of the applications of continuous groups are to the
  theory of systems of differential equations, both ordinary and
  partial; in fact, Lie states that it was with a view to systematizing
  and advancing the general theory of differential equations that he was
  led to the development of the theory of continuous groups. It is quite
  impossible here to give any account of all that Lie and his followers
  have done in this direction. An entirely new mode of regarding the
  problem of the integration of a differential equation has been opened
  up, and in the classification that arises from it all those apparently
  isolated types of equations which in the older sense are said to be
  integrable take their proper place. It may, for instance, be mentioned
  that the question as to whether Monge's method will apply to the
  integration of a partial differential equation of the second order is
  shown to depend on whether or not a contact-transformation can be
  found which will reduce the equation to either [Pd]²z/[Pd]x² = 0 or
  [Pd]²z/[Pd]x[Pd]y = 0. It is in this direction that further advance in
  the theory of partial differential equations must be looked for.
  Lastly, it may be remarked that one of the most thorough discussions
  of the axioms of geometry hitherto undertaken is founded entirely upon
  the theory of continuous groups.


_Discontinuous Groups._

We go on now to the consideration of discontinuous groups. Although
groups of finite order are necessarily contained under this general
head, it is convenient for many reasons to deal with them separately,
and it will therefore be assumed in the present section that the number
of operations in the group is not finite. Many large classes of
discontinuous groups have formed the subject of detailed investigation,
but a general formal theory of discontinuous groups can hardly be said
to exist as yet. It will thus be obvious that in considering
discontinuous groups it is necessary to proceed on different lines from
those followed with continuous groups, and in fact to deal with the
subject almost entirely by way of example.


    Generating operations.

  The consideration of a discontinuous group as arising from a set of
  independent generating operations suggests a purely abstract point of
  view in which any two simply isomorphic groups are indistinguishable.
  The number of generating operations may be either finite or infinite,
  but the former case alone will be here considered. Suppose then that
  S1, S2, ..., S_n is a set of independent operations from which a group
  G is generated. The general operation of the group will be represented
  by the symbol S_a^[alpha]S_b^ß ... S_d^[delta], or [Sigma], where a,
  b, ..., d are chosen from 1, 2, ..., n, and [alpha], ß, ..., [delta]
  are any positive or negative integers. It may be assumed that no two
  successive suffixes in [Sigma] are the same, for if b = a, then
  S_a^[alpha]S_b^ß may be replaced by S_a^([alpha] +ß). If there are no
  relations connecting the generating operations and the identical
  operation, every distinct symbol [Sigma] represents a distinct
  operation of the group. For if [Sigma] = [Sigma]1, or S_a^[alpha]
  S_b^ß ... S_d^[delta] = S_(a1)^([alpha]1) S_(b1)^(ß1) ...
  S_(d1)^([delta]1), then S_(d1)^(-[delta]1) ... S_(b1)^(-ß1)
  S_(a1)^(-[alpha]1) S_a^[alpha] S_b^ß ... S_d^[delta] = 1; and unless a
  = a1, b = b1, ..., [alpha] = [alpha]1, ß = ß1, ..., this is a relation
  connecting the generating operations.

  Suppose now that T1, T2, ... are operations of G, and that H is that
  self-conjugate subgroup of G which is generated by T1, T2, ... and the
  operations conjugate to them. Then, of the operations that can be
  formed from S1, S2, ..., S_n, the set [Sigma]H, and no others, reduce
  to the same operation [Sigma] when the conditions T1 = 1, T2 = 1, ...
  are satisfied by the generating operations. Hence the group which is
  generated by the given operations, when subjected to the conditions
  just written, is simply isomorphic with the factor-group G/H.
  Moreover, this is obviously true even when the conditions are such
  that the generating operations are no longer independent. Hence any
  discontinuous group may be defined abstractly, that is, in regard to
  the laws of combination of its operations apart from their actual
  form, by a set of generating operations and a system of relations
  connecting them. Conversely, when such a set of operations and system
  of relations are given arbitrarily they define in abstract form a
  single discontinuous group. It may, of course, happen that the group
  so defined is a group of finite order, or that it reduces to the
  identical operation only; but in regard to the general statement these
  will be particular and exceptional cases.


    Properly and improperly discontinuous groups.

  An operation of a discontinuous group must necessarily be specified
  analytically by a system of equations of the form

    x´_s = [f]_s(x1, x2, ..., x_n; a1, a2, ..., a_r), (s = 1, 2, ..., n),

  and the different operations of the group will be given by different
  sets of values of the parameters a1, a2, ..., a_r. No one of these
  parameters is susceptible of continuous variations, but at least one
  must be capable of taking a number of values which is not finite, if
  the group is not one of finite order. Among the sets of values of the
  parameters there must be one which gives the identical transformation.
  No other transformation makes each of the differences x´1 - x1, x´2 -
  x2, ..., x´_n - x_n vanish. Let d be an arbitrary assigned positive
  quantity. Then if a transformation of the group can be found such that
  the modulus of each of these differences is less than d when the
  variables have arbitrary values within an assigned range of variation,
  however small d may be chosen, the group is said to be _improperly_
  discontinuous. In the contrary case the group is called _properly_
  discontinuous. The range within which the variables are allowed to
  vary may clearly affect the question whether a given group is properly
  or improperly discontinuous. For instance, the group defined by the
  equation x´ = ax + b, where a and b are any rational numbers, is
  improperly discontinuous; and the group defined by x´ = x + a, where a
  is an integer, is properly discontinuous, whatever the range of the
  variable. On the other hand, the group, to be later considered,
  defined by the equation x´ = (ax + b)/(cx + d), where a, b, c, d are
  integers satisfying the relation ad - bc = 1, is properly
  discontinuous when x may take any complex value, and improperly
  discontinuous when the range of x is limited to real values.


    Linear discontinuous groups.

  Among the discontinuous groups that occur in analysis, a large number
  may be regarded as arising by imposing limitations on the range of
  variation of the parameters of continuous groups. If

    x´_s = [f]_s(x1, x2, ..., x_n; a1, a2, ..., a_r), (s = 1, 2, ..., n),

  are the finite equations of a continuous group, and if C with
  parameters c1, c2, ..., c_r is the operation which results from
  carrying out A and B with corresponding parameters in succession, then
  the c's are determined uniquely by the a's and the b's. If the c's are
  rational functions of the a's and b's, and if the a's and b's are
  arbitrary rational numbers of a given corpus (see NUMBER), the c's
  will be rational numbers of the same corpus. If the c's are rational
  integral functions of the a's and b's, and the latter are arbitrarily
  chosen integers of a corpus, then the c's are integers of the same
  corpus. Hence in the first case the above equations, when the a's are
  limited to be rational numbers of a given corpus, will define a
  discontinuous group; and in the second case they will define such a
  group when the a's are further limited to be integers of the corpus. A
  most important class of discontinuous groups are those that arise in
  this way from the general linear continuous group in a given set of
  variables. For n variables the finite equations of this continuous
  group are

    x´_s = a_(s1)x1 + a_(s2)x2 + ... + a_(sn)x_n, (s = 1, 2, ..., n),

  where the determinant of the a's must not be zero. In this case the
  c's are clearly integral lineo-linear functions of the a's and b's.
  Moreover, the determinant of the c's is the product of the determinant
  of the a's and the determinant of the b's. Hence equations (ii.),
  where the parameters are restricted to be integers of a given corpus,
  define a discontinuous group; and if the determinant of the
  coefficients is limited to the value unity, they define a
  discontinuous group which is a (self-conjugate) subgroup of the
  previous one.

  The simplest case which thus presents itself is that in which there
  are two variables while the coefficients are rational integers. This
  is the group defined by the equations

    x´ = ax + by, \
                   >
    y´ = cx + dy, /

  where a, b, c, d are integers such that ad - bc = 1. To every
  operation of this group there corresponds an operation of the set
  defined by

         az + b
    z´ = ------,
         cz + d

  in such a way that to the product of two operations of the group there
  corresponds the product of the two analogous operations of the set.
  The operations of the set (iv.), where ad - bc = 1, therefore
  constitute a group which is isomorphic with the previous group. The
  isomorphism is multiple, since to a single operation of the second set
  there correspond the two operations of the first for which a, b, c, d
  and -a, -b, -c, -d are parameters. These two groups, which are of
  fundamental importance in the theory of quadratic forms and in the
  theory of modular functions, have been the object of very many
  investigations.


    Discontinuous groups arising from geometrical operations.

  Another large class of discontinuous groups, which have far-reaching
  applications in analysis, are those which arise in the first instance
  from purely geometrical considerations. By the combination and
  repetition of a finite number of geometrical operations such as
  displacements, projective transformations, inversions, &c., a
  discontinuous group of such operations will arise. Such a group, as
  regards the points of the plane (or of space), will in general be
  improperly discontinuous; but when the generating operations are
  suitably chosen, the group may be properly discontinuous. In the
  latter case the group may be represented in a graphical form by the
  division of the plane (or space) into regions such that no point of
  one region can be transformed into another point of the same region by
  any operation of the group, while any given region can be transformed
  into any other by a suitable transformation. Thus, let ABC be a
  triangle bounded by three circular arcs BC, CA, AB; and consider the
  figure produced from ABC by inversions in the three circles of which
  BC, CA, AB are part. By inversion at BC, ABC becomes an equiangular
  triangle A´BC. An inversion in AB changes ABC and A´BC into
  equiangular triangles ABC´ and A´´BC´. Successive inversions at AB and
  BC then will change ABC into a series of equiangular triangles with B
  for a common vertex. These will not overlap and will just fill in the
  space round B if the angle ABC is a submultiple of two right angles.
  If then the angles of ABC are submultiples of two right angles (or
  zero), the triangles formed by any number of inversions will never
  overlap, and to each operation consisting of a definite series of
  inversions at BC, CA and AB will correspond a distinct triangle into
  which ABC is changed by the operation. The network of triangles so
  formed gives a graphical representation of the group that arises from
  the three inversions in BC, CA, AB. The triangles may be divided into
  two sets, those, namely, like A´´BC´, which are derived from ABC by an
  even number of inversions, and those like A´BC or ABC´ produced by an
  odd number. Each set are interchanged among themselves by any even
  number of inversions. Hence the operations consisting of an even
  number of inversions form a group by themselves. For this group the
  quadrilateral formed by ABC and A´BC constitutes a region, which is
  changed by every operation of the group into a distinct region (formed
  of two adjacent triangles), and these regions clearly do not overlap.
  Their distribution presents in a graphical form the group that arises
  by pairs of inversions at BC, CA, AB; and this group is generated by
  the operation which consists of successive inversions at AB, BC and
  that which consists of successive inversions at BC, CA. The group
  defined thus geometrically may be presented in many analytical forms.
  If x, y and x´, y´ are the rectangular co-ordinates of two points
  which are inverse to each other with respect to a given circle, x´ and
  y´ are rational functions of x and y, and conversely. Thus the group
  may be presented in a form in which each operation gives a birational
  transformation of two variables. If x + iy = z, x´ + iy´ = z´, and if
  x´, y´ is the point to which x, y is transformed by any even number of
  inversions, then z´ and z are connected by a linear relation z´ =
  ([alpha]z + ß)/([gamma]z + [delta]), where [alpha], ß, [gamma],
  [delta] are constants (in general complex) depending on the circles at
  which the inversions are taken. Hence the group may be presented in
  the form of a group of linear transformations of a single variable
  generated by the two linear transformations z´ = ([alpha]1z +
  ß1)/([gamma]1z + [delta]1), z´ = ([alpha]2z + ß2)/([gamma]2z +
  [delta]2), which correspond to pairs of inversions at AB, BC and BC,
  CA respectively. In particular, if the sides of the triangle are taken
  to be x = 0, x² + y² -1 = 0, x² + y² + 2x = 0, the generating
  operations are found to be z´ = z + 1, z´ = -z^(-1); and the group is
  that consisting of all transformations of the form z´ = (az + b)/(cz +
  d), where ad - bc = 1, a, b, c, d being integers. This is the group
  already mentioned which underlies the theory of the elliptic modular
  functions; a modular function being a function of z which is invariant
  for some subgroup of finite index of the group in question.

  The triangle ABC from which the above geometrical construction started
  may be replaced by a polygon whose sides are circles. If each angle is
  a submultiple of two right angles or zero, the construction is still
  effective to give a set of non-overlapping regions, which represent
  graphically the group which arises from pairs of inversions in the
  sides of the polygon. In their analytical form, as groups of linear
  transformations of a single variable, the groups are those on which
  the theory of automorphic functions depends. A similar construction in
  space, the polygons bounded by circular arcs being replaced by
  polyhedra bounded by spherical faces, has been used by F. Klein and
  Fricke to give a geometrical representation for groups which are
  improperly discontinuous when represented as groups of the plane.


    Group of a linear differential equation.

  The special classes of discontinuous groups that have been dealt with
  in the previous paragraphs arise directly from geometrical
  considerations. As a final example we shall refer briefly to a class
  of groups whose origin is essentially analytical. Let

    d^_ny      d^(n-1)y                 dy
    ----- + P1 -------- + ... + P_(n-1) -- + P_ny = 0
    dx^_n      dx^(n-1)                 dx

  be a linear differential equation, the coefficients in which are
  rational functions of x, and let y1, y2, ..., y_n be a linearly
  independent set of integrals of the equation. In the neighbourhood of
  a finite value x0 of x, which is not a singularity of any of the
  coefficients in the equation, these integrals are ordinary
  power-series in x - x0. If the analytical continuations of y1, y2,
  ..., y_n be formed for any closed path starting from and returning to
  x0, the final values arrived at when x0 is again reached will be
  another set of linearly independent integrals. When the closed path
  contains no singular point of the coefficients of the differential
  equation, the new set of integrals is identical with the original set.
  If, however, the closed path encloses one or more singular points,
  this will not in general be the case. Let y´1, y´2, ..., y´_n be the
  new integrals arrived at. Since in the neighbourhood of x0 every
  integral can be represented linearly in terms of y1, y2, ..., y_n,
  there must be a system of equations

    y´1 = a11y1 + a12y2 + ... + a_(1n)y_n,

    y´2 = a21y1 + a22y2 + ... + a_(2n)y_n,

     .       .       .       .       .

    y´_n = a_(n1)y1 + a_(n2)y2 + ... + a_(nn)y_n,

  where the a's are constants, expressing the new integrals in terms of
  the original ones. To each closed path described by x0 there therefore
  corresponds a definite linear substitution performed on the y's.
  Further, if S1 and S2 are the substitutions that correspond to two
  closed paths L1 and L2, then to any closed path which can be
  continuously deformed, without crossing a singular point, into L1
  followed by L2, there corresponds the substitution S1S2. Let L1, L2,
  ..., L_r be arbitrarily chosen closed paths starting from and
  returning to the same point, and each of them enclosing a single one
  of the (r) finite singular points of the equation. Every closed path
  in the plane can be formed by combinations of these r paths taken
  either in the positive or in the negative direction. Also a closed
  path which does not cut itself, and encloses all the r singular points
  within it, is equivalent to a path enclosing the point at infinity and
  no finite singular point. If S1, S2, S3, ..., S_r are the linear
  substitutions that correspond to these r paths, then the substitution
  corresponding to every possible path can be obtained by combination
  and repetition of these r substitutions, and they therefore generate a
  discontinuous group each of whose operations corresponds to a definite
  closed path. The group thus arrived at is called the group of the
  equation. For a given equation it is unique in type. In fact, the only
  effect of starting from another set of independent integrals is to
  transform every operation of the group by an arbitrary substitution,
  while choosing a different set of paths is equivalent to taking a new
  set of generating operations. The great importance of the group of the
  equation in connexion with the nature of its integrals cannot here be
  dealt with, but it may be pointed out that if all the integrals of the
  equation are algebraic functions, the group must be a group of finite
  order, since the set of quantities y1, y2 ..., y_n can then only take
  a finite number of distinct values.


_Groups of Finite Order._

We shall now pass on to groups of finite order. It is clear that here we
must have to do with many properties which have no direct analogues in
the theory of continuous groups or in that of discontinuous groups in
general; those properties, namely, which depend on the fact that the
number of distinct operations in the group is finite.

  Let S1, S2, S3, ..., S_N denote the operations of a group G of finite
  order N, S1 being the identical operation. The tableau

    S1,    S2,    S3,    ..., S_N,
    S1S2,  S2S2,  S3S3,  ..., S_NS2,
    S1S3,  S2S3,  S3S3,  ..., S_NS3,
    .      .      .      .      .
    S1S_N, S2S_N, S3S_N, ..., S_NS_N,

  when in it each compound symbol S_pS_q is replaced by the single
  symbol S_r that is equivalent to it, is called the multiplication
  table of the group. It indicates directly the result of multiplying
  together in an assigned sequence any number of operations of the
  group. In each line (and in each column) of the tableau every
  operation of the group occurs just once. If the letters in the tableau
  are regarded as mere symbols, the operation of replacing each symbol
  in the first line by the symbol which stands under it in the pth line
  is a permutation performed on the set of N symbols. Thus to the N
  lines of the tableau there corresponds a set of N permutations
  performed on the N symbols, which includes the identical permutation
  that leaves each unchanged. Moreover, if S_pS_q = S_r, then the result
  of carrying out in succession the permutations which correspond to the
  pth and qth lines gives the permutation which corresponds to the rth
  line. Hence the set of permutations constitutes a group which is
  simply isomorphic with the given group.

  Every group of finite order N can therefore be represented in concrete
  form as a transitive group of permutations on N symbols.


    Properties of a group which depend on the order.

  The order of any subgroup or operation of G is necessarily finite. If
  T1(= S1), T2, ..., T_n are the operations of a subgroup H of G, and if
  [Sigma] is any operation of G which is not contained in H, the set of
  operations [Sigma]T1, [Sigma]T2, ..., [Sigma]T_n, or [Sigma]H, are all
  distinct from each other and from the operations of H. If the sets H
  and [Sigma]H do not exhaust the operations of G, and if [Sigma]´ is an
  operation not belonging to them, then the operations of the set
  [Sigma]´H are distinct from each other and from those of H and
  [Sigma]H. This process may be continued till the operations of G are
  exhausted. The order n of H must therefore be a factor of the order N
  of G. The ratio N/n is called the index of the subgroup H. By taking
  for H the cyclical subgroup generated by any operation S of G, it
  follows that the order of S must be a factor of the order of G.

  Every operation S is permutable with its own powers. Hence there must
  be some subgroup H of G of greatest possible order, such that every
  operation of H is permutable with S. Every operation of H transforms S
  into itself, and every operation of the set H[Sigma] transforms S into
  the same operation. Hence, when S is transformed by every operation of
  G, just N/n distinct operations arise if n is the order of H. These
  operations, and no others, are conjugate to S within G; they are said
  to form a set of conjugate operations. The number of operations in
  every conjugate set is therefore a factor of the order of G. In the
  same way it may be shown that the number of subgroups which are
  conjugate to a given subgroup is a factor of the order of G. An
  operation which is permutable with every operation of the group is
  called a _self-conjugate_ operation. The totality of the
  self-conjugate operations of a group forms a self-conjugate Abelian
  subgroup, each of whose operations is permutable with every operation
  of the group.


    Sylow's theorem.

  An Abelian group contains subgroups whose orders are any given factors
  of the order of the group. In fact, since every subgroup H of an
  Abelian group G and the corresponding factor groups G/H are Abelian,
  this result follows immediately by an induction from the case in which
  the order contains n prime factors to that in which it contains n + 1.
  For a group which is not Abelian no general law can be stated as to
  the existence or non-existence of a subgroup whose order is an
  arbitrarily assigned factor of the order of the group. In this
  connexion the most important general result, which is independent of
  any supposition as to the order of the group, is known as Sylow's
  theorem, which states that if p^a is the highest power of a prime p
  which divides the order of a group G, then G contains a single
  conjugate set of subgroups of order p^a, the number in the set being
  of the form 1 + kp. Sylow's theorem may be extended to show that if
  p^a´ is a factor of the order of a group, the number of subgroups of
  order p^a´ is of the form 1 + kp. If, however, p^a´ is not the highest
  power of p which divides the order, these groups do not in general
  form a single conjugate set.

  The importance of Sylow's theorem in discussing the structure of a
  group of given order need hardly be insisted on. Thus, as a very
  simple instance, a group whose order is the product p1p2 of two primes
  (p1 < p2) must have a self-conjugate subgroup of order p2, since the
  order of the group contains no factor, other than unity, of the form 1
  + kp2. The same again is true for a group of order p1²p2, unless p1 =
  2, and p2 = 3.

  There is one other numerical property of a group connected with its
  order which is quite general. If N is the order of G, and n a factor
  of N, the number of operations of G, whose orders are equal to or are
  factors of n, is a multiple of n.


    Composition-series of a group.

  As already defined, a composite group is a group which contains one or
  more self-conjugate subgroups, whose orders are greater than unity. If
  H is a self-conjugate subgroup of G, the factor-group G/H may be
  either simple or composite. In the former case G can contain no
  self-conjugate subgroup K, which itself contains H; for if it did K/H
  would be a self-conjugate subgroup of G/H. When G/H is simple, H is
  said to be a maximum self-conjugate subgroup of G. Suppose now that G
  being a given composite group, G, G1, G2, ..., G_n, 1 is a series of
  subgroups of G, such that each is a maximum self-conjugate subgroup of
  the preceding; the last term of the series consisting of the identical
  operation only. Such a series is called a _composition-series_ of G.
  In general it is not unique, since a group may have two or more
  maximum self-conjugate subgroups. A composition-series of a group,
  however it may be chosen, has the property that the number of terms of
  which it consists is always the same, while the factor-groups G/G1,
  G1/G2, ..., G_n differ only in the sequence in which they occur. It
  should be noticed that though a group defines uniquely the set of
  factor-groups that occur in its composition-series, the set of
  factor-groups do not conversely in general define a single type of
  group. When the orders of all the factor-groups are primes the group
  is said to be _soluble_.

  If the series of subgroups G, H, K, ..., L, 1 is chosen so that each
  is the greatest self-conjugate subgroup of G contained in the previous
  one, the series is called a chief composition-series of G. All such
  series derived from a given group may be shown to consist of the same
  number of terms, and to give rise to the same set of factor-groups,
  except as regards sequence. The factor-groups of such a series will
  not, however, necessarily be simple groups. From any chief
  composition-series a composition-series may be formed by interpolating
  between any two terms H and K of the series for which H/K is not a
  simple group, a number of terms h1, h2, ..., h_r; and it may be shown
  that the factor-groups H/h1, h1/h2, ..., h_r/K are all simply
  isomorphic with each other.


    Isomorphism of a group with itself.

  A group may be represented as isomorphic with itself by transforming
  all its operations by any one of them. In fact, if S_pS_q = S_r, then
  S^(-1)S_pS · S^(-1)S_qS = S^(-1)S_rS. An isomorphism of the group with
  itself, established in this way, is called an inner isomorphism. It
  may be regarded as an operation carried out on the symbols of the
  operations, being indeed a permutation performed on these symbols. The
  totality of these operations clearly constitutes a group isomorphic
  with the given group, and this group is called the group of inner
  isomorphisms. A group is simply or multiply isomorphic with its group
  of inner isomorphisms according as it does not or does contain
  self-conjugate operations other than identity. It may be possible to
  establish a correspondence between the operations of a group other
  than those given by the inner isomorphisms, such that if S´ is the
  operation corresponding to S, then S´_pS´_q = S´_r is a consequence of
  S_pS_q = S_r. The substitution on the symbols of the operations of a
  group resulting from such a correspondence is called an outer
  isomorphism. The totality of the isomorphisms of both kinds
  constitutes the group of isomorphisms of the given group, and within
  this the group of inner isomorphisms is a self-conjugate subgroup.
  Every set of conjugate operations of a group is necessarily
  transformed into itself by an inner isomorphism, but two or more sets
  may be interchanged by an outer isomorphism.

  A subgroup of a group G, which is transformed into itself by every
  isomorphism of G, is called a _characteristic_ subgroup. A series of
  groups G, G1, G2, ..., 1, such that each is a maximum characteristic
  subgroup of G contained in the preceding, may be shown to have the
  same invariant properties as the subgroups of a composition series. A
  group which has no characteristic subgroup must be either a simple
  group or the direct product of a number of simply isomorphic simple
  groups.


    Permutation-groups.

  It has been seen that every group of finite order can be represented
  as a group of permutations performed on a set of symbols whose number
  is equal to the order of the group. In general such a representation
  is possible with a smaller number of symbols. Let H be a subgroup of
  G, and let the operations of G be divided, in respect of H, into the
  sets H, S2H, S3H, ..., S_mH. If S is any operation of G, the sets SH,
  SS2H, SS3H, ..., SS_mH differ from the previous sets only in the
  sequence in which they occur. In fact, if SS_p belong to the set S_qH,
  then since H is a group, the set SS_pH is identical with the set S_qH.
  Hence, to each operation S of the group will correspond a permutation
  performed on the symbols of the m sets, and to the product of two
  operations corresponds the product of the two analogous permutations.
  The set of permutations, therefore, forms a group isomorphic with the
  given group. Moreover, the isomorphism is simple unless for one or
  more operations, other than identity, the sets all remain unaltered.
  This can only be the case for S, when every operation conjugate to S
  belongs to H. In this case H would contain a self-conjugate subgroup,
  and the isomorphism is multiple.

  The fact that every group of finite order can be represented,
  generally in several ways, as a group of permutations, gives special
  importance to such groups. The number of symbols involved in such a
  representation is called the _degree_ of the group. In accordance with
  the general definitions already given, a permutation-group is called
  transitive or intransitive according as it does or does not contain
  permutations changing any one of the symbols into any other. It is
  called imprimitive or primitive according as the symbols can or cannot
  be arranged in sets, such that every permutation of the group changes
  the symbols of any one set either among themselves or into the symbols
  of another set. When a group is imprimitive the number of symbols in
  each set must clearly be the same.

  The total number of permutations that can be performed on n symbols is
  n!, and these necessarily constitute a group. It is known as the
  _symmetric_ group of degree n, the only rational functions of the
  symbols which are unaltered by all possible permutations being the
  symmetric functions. When any permutation is carried out on the
  product of the n(n - 1)/2, differences of the n symbols, it must
  either remain unaltered or its sign must be changed. Those
  permutations which leave the product unaltered constitute a group of
  order n!/2, which is called the _alternating_ group of degree n; it is
  a self-conjugate subgroup of the symmetric group. Except when n = 4
  the alternating group is a simple group. A group of degree n, which is
  not contained in the alternating group, must necessarily have a
  self-conjugate subgroup of index 2, consisting of those of its
  permutations which belong to the alternating group.


    Groups of linear substitutions.

  Among the various concrete forms in which a group of finite order can
  be presented the most important is that of a group of linear
  substitutions. Such groups have already been referred to in connexion
  with discontinuous groups. Here the number of distinct substitutions
  is necessarily finite; and to each operation S of a group G of finite
  order there will correspond a linear substitution s, viz.

           __j=m
    x_i = \      s_(ij)x_j(i, j = 1, 2, ..., m),
          /__j=1

  on a set of m variables, such that if ST = U, then st = u. The linear
  substitutions s, t, u, ... then constitute a group g with which G is
  isomorphic; and whether the isomorphism is simple or multiple g is
  said to give a "representation" of G as a group of linear
  substitutions. If all the substitutions of g are transformed by the
  same substitution on the m variables, the (in general) new group of
  linear substitutions so constituted is said to be "equivalent" with g
  as a representation of G; and two representations are called
  "non-equivalent," or "distinct," when one is not capable of being
  transformed into the other.

  A group of linear substitutions on m variables is said to be
  "reducible" when it is possible to choose m´(< m) linear functions of
  the variables which are transformed among themselves by every
  substitution of the group. When this cannot be done the group is
  called "irreducible." It can be shown that a group of linear
  substitutions, of finite order, is always either irreducible, or such
  that the variables, when suitably chosen, may be divided into sets,
  each set being irreducibly transformed among themselves. This being
  so, it is clear that when the irreducible representations of a group
  of finite order are known, all representations may be built up.

  It has been seen at the beginning of this section that every group of
  finite order N can be presented as a group of permutations (i.e.
  linear substitutions in a limited sense) on N symbols. This group is
  obviously reducible; in fact, the sum of the symbols remain unaltered
  by every substitution of the group. The fundamental theorem in
  connexion with the representations, as an irreducible group of linear
  substitutions, of a group of finite order N is the following.

  If r is the number of different sets of conjugate operations in the
  group, then, when the group of N permutations is completely reduced,

  (i.) just r distinct irreducible representations occur:

  (ii.) each of these occurs a number of times equal to the number of
  symbols on which it operates:

  (iii.) these irreducible representations exhaust all the distinct
  irreducible representations of the group.

  Among these representations what is called the "identical"
  representation necessarily occurs, i.e. that in which each operation
  of the group corresponds to leaving a single symbol unchanged. If
  these representations are denoted by [Gamma]1, [Gamma]2, ...,
  [Gamma]_r, then any representation of the group as a group of linear
  substitutions, or in particular as a group of permutations, may be
  uniquely represented by a symbol [Sigma][alpha]_i[Gamma]_i, in the
  sense that the representation when completely reduced will contain the
  representation [Gamma]_i just [alpha]_i times for each suffix i.


    Group characteristics.

  A representation of a group of finite order as an irreducible group of
  linear substitutions may be presented in an infinite number of
  equivalent forms. If

    x´_i = [Sigma] s_(ij)x_j (i, j = 1, 2, ..., m),

  is the linear substitution which, in a given irreducible
  representation of a group of finite order G, corresponds to the
  operation S, the determinant

    | s11 - [lambda] s12          ... s_(1m)            |
    | s21            s22-[lambda] ... s_(2m)            |
    |   .             .           ...   .               |
    |   .             .           ...   .               |
    |   .             .           ...   .               |
    | s_m1           s_2m         ... s_(mm) - [lambda] |

  is invariant for all equivalent representations, when written as a
  polynomial in [lambda]. Moreover, it has the same value for S and S´,
  if these are two conjugate operations in G. Of the various invariants
  that thus arise the most important is s11 + s22 + ... + s_(mm), which
  is called the "characteristic" of S. If S is an operation of order p,
  its characteristic is the sum of m pth roots of unity; and in
  particular, if S is the identical operation its characteristic is m.
  If r is the number of sets of conjugate operations in G, there is, for
  each representation of G as an irreducible group, a set of r
  characteristics: X1, X2, ... X_r, one corresponding to each conjugate
  set; so that for the r irreducible representations just r such sets of
  characteristics arise. These are distinct, in the sense that if
  [Psi]1, [Psi]2, ..., [Psi]_r are the characteristics for a distinct
  representation from the above, then X_i and [Psi]_i are not equal for
  all values of the suffix i. It may be the case that the r
  characteristics for a given representation are all real. If this is so
  the representation is said to be self-inverse. In the contrary case
  there is always another representation, called the "inverse"
  representation, for which each characteristic is the conjugate
  imaginary of the corresponding one in the original representation. The
  characteristics are subject to certain remarkable relations. If h_p
  denotes the number of operations in the pth conjugate set, while
  X^_i{p}, and X^j{p} are the characteristics of the pth conjugate set
  in [Gamma]_i and [Gamma]_j, then

     __p=r
    \      h_p X_p^i X^_p^j = 0 or n,
    /__p=1

  according to [Gamma]_i and [Gamma]_j are not or are inverse
  representations, n being the order of G.

  Again

     __i=r
    \      X_p^i X^_q^i = 0 or n/h_p
    /__i=1

  according as the pth and qth conjugate sets are not or are inverse;
  the qth set being called the inverse of the pth if it consists of the
  inverses of the operations constituting the pth.


    Linear homogeneous groups.

  Another form in which every group of finite order can be represented
  is that known as a linear homogeneous group. If in the equations

    x´_r = a_(r1)x1 + a_(r2)x2 + ... +a_(rm)x_m, (r = 1, 2, ..., m),

  which define a linear homogeneous substitution, the coefficients are
  integers, and if the equations are replaced by congruences to a finite
  modulus n, the system of congruences will give a definite operation,
  provided that the determinant of the coefficients is relatively prime
  to n. The product of two such operations is another operation of the
  same kind; and the total number of distinct operations is finite,
  since there is only a limited number of choices for the coefficients.
  The totality of these operations, therefore, constitutes a group of
  finite order; and such a group is known as a _linear homogeneous_
  group. If n is a prime the order of the group is

    (n^m - 1)(n^m - n) ... (n^m - n^(m-1)).

  The totality of the operations of the linear homogeneous group for
  which the determinant of the coefficients is congruent to unity forms
  a subgroup. Other subgroups arise by considering those operations
  which leave a function of the variables unchanged (mod. n). All such
  subgroups are known as linear homogeneous groups.

  When the ratios only of the variables are considered, there arises a
  _linear fractional_ group, with which the corresponding linear
  homogeneous group is isomorphic. Thus, if p is a prime the totality of
  the congruences

               az + b
    z´ [equiv] ------, ad - bc [/=] 0, (mod. p)
               cz + d

  constitutes a group of order p(p² - 1). This class of groups for
  various values of p is almost the only one which has been as yet
  exhaustively analysed. For all values of p except 3 it contains a
  simple self-conjugate subgroup of index 2.

  A great extension of the theory of linear homogeneous groups has been
  made in recent years by considering systems of congruences of the form

    x´_r [equiv] a_(r1)x1 + a_(r2)x2 + ... + a_(rm)x_m,
      (r = 1, 2, ..., m),

  in which the coefficients a_(rs), are integral functions with real
  integral coefficients of a root of an irreducible congruence to a
  prime modulus. Such a system of congruences is obviously limited in
  numbers and defines a group which contains as a subgroup the group
  defined by the same congruences with ordinary integral coefficients.


    Applications.

  The chief application of the theory of groups of finite order is to
  the theory of algebraic equations. The analogy of equations of the
  second, third and fourth degrees would give rise to the expectation
  that a root of an equation of any finite degree could be expressed in
  terms of the coefficients by a finite number of the operations of
  addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and the extraction of
  roots; in other words, that the equation could be solved by radicals.
  This, however, as proved by Abel and Galois, is not the case: an
  equation of a higher degree than the fourth in general defines an
  algebraic irrationality which cannot be expressed by means of
  radicals, and the cases in which such an equation can be solved by
  radicals must be regarded as exceptional. The theory of groups gives
  the means of determining whether an equation comes under this
  exceptional case, and of solving the equation when it does. When it
  does not, the theory provides the means of reducing the problem
  presented by the equation to a normal form. From this point of view
  the theory of equations of the fifth degree has been exhaustively
  treated, and the problems presented by certain equations of the sixth
  and seventh degrees have actually been reduced to normal form.

  Galois (see EQUATION) showed that, corresponding to every irreducible
  equation of the nth degree, there exists a transitive
  substitution-group of degree n, such that every function of the roots,
  the numerical value of which is unaltered by all the substitutions of
  the group can be expressed rationally in terms of the coefficients,
  while conversely every function of the roots which is expressible
  rationally in terms of the coefficients is unaltered by the
  substitutions of the group. This group is called the group of the
  equation. In general, if the equation is given arbitrarily, the group
  will be the symmetric group. The necessary and sufficient condition
  that the equation may be soluble by radicals is that its group should
  be a soluble group. When the coefficients in an equation are rational
  integers, the determination of its group may be made by a finite
  number of processes each of which involves only rational arithmetical
  operations. These processes consist in forming resolvents of the
  equation corresponding to each distinct type of subgroup of the
  symmetric group whose degree is that of the equation. Each of the
  resolvents so formed is then examined to find whether it has rational
  roots. The group corresponding to any resolvent which has a rational
  root contains the group of the equation; and the least of the groups
  so found is the group of the equation. Thus, for an equation of the
  fifth degree the various transitive subgroups of the symmetric group
  of degree five have to be considered. These are (i.) the alternating
  group; (ii.) a soluble group of order 20; (iii.) a group of order 10,
  self-conjugate in the preceding; (iv.) a cyclical group of order 5,
  self-conjugate in both the preceding. If x0, x1, x2, x3, x4 are the
  roots of the equation, the corresponding resolvents may be taken to be
  those which have for roots (i.) the square root of the discriminant;
  (ii.) the function (x0x1 + x1x2 + x2x3 + x3x4 + x4x0)(x0x2 + x2x4 +
  x4x1 + x1x3 + x3x0); (iii.) the function x0x1 + x1x2+ x2x3 + x3x4 +
  x4x0; and (iv.) the function x0²x1 + x1²x2 + x2²x3 + x3²x4 + x4²x0.
  Since the groups for which (iii.) and (iv.) are invariant are
  contained in that for which (ii.) is invariant, and since these are
  the only soluble groups of the set, the equation will be soluble by
  radicals only when the function (ii.) can be expressed rationally in
  terms of the coefficients. If

    (x0x1 + x1x2 + x2x3 + x3x4 + x4x0)(x0x2 + x2x4 + x4x1 + x1x3 + x3x0)

  is known, then clearly x0x1 + x1x2 + x2x3 + x3x4 + x4x0 can be
  determined by the solution of a quadratic equation. Moreover, the sum
  and product (x0 + [epsilon]x1 + [epsilon]²x2 + [epsilon]³x3 +
  [epsilon]^4x4)^5 and (x0 + [epsilon]^4x1+[epsilon]^3x2 + [epsilon]²x3
  + [epsilon]x4)^5 can be expressed rationally in terms of x0x1 + x1x2 +
  x2x3 + x3x4 + x4x0, [epsilon], and the symmetric functions; [epsilon]
  being a fifth root of unity. Hence (x0 + [epsilon]x1 + [epsilon]²x2 +
  [epsilon]³x3 + [epsilon]^4X4)^5 can be determined by the solution of a
  quadratic equation. The roots of the original equation are then
  finally determined by the extraction of a fifth root. The problem of
  reducing an equation of the fifth degree, when not soluble by
  radicals, to a normal form, forms the subject of Klein's _Vorlesungen
  über das Ikosaeder_. Another application of groups of finite order is
  to the theory of linear differential equations whose integrals are
  algebraic functions. It has been already seen, in the discussion of
  discontinuous groups in general, that the groups of such equations
  must be groups of finite order. To every group of finite order which
  can be represented as an irreducible group of linear substitutions on
  n variables will correspond a class of irreducible linear differential
  equations of the nth order whose integrals are algebraic. The complete
  determination of the class of linear differential equations of the
  second order with all their integrals algebraic, whose group has the
  greatest possible order, viz. 120, has been carried out by Klein.

  AUTHORITIES.--Continuous groups: Lie and Engel, _Theorie der
  Transformationsgruppen_ (Leipzig, vol. i., 1888; vol. ii., 1890; vol.
  iii., 1893); Lie and Scheffers, _Vorlesungen über gewöhnliche
  Differentialgleichungen mit bekannten infinitesimalen
  Transformationen_ (Leipzig, 1891); _Idem, Vorlesungen über
  continuierliche Gruppen_ (Leipzig, 1893); _Idem, Geometrie der
  Berührungstransformationen_ (Leipzig, 1896); Klein and Schilling,
  _Höhere Geometrie_, vol. ii. (lithographed) (Göttingen, 1893, for both
  continuous and discontinuous groups). Campbell, _Introductory Treatise
  on Lie's Theory of Finite Continuous Transformation Groups_ (Oxford,
  1903). Discontinuous groups: Klein and Fricke, _Vorlesungen über die
  Theorie der elliptischen Modulfunktionen_ (vol. i., Leipzig, 1890)
  (for a full discussion of the modular group); _Idem, Vorlesungen über
  die Theorie der automorphen Funktionen_ (vol. i., Leipzig, 1897; vol.
  ii. pt. i., 1901) (for the general theory of discontinuous groups);
  Schoenflies, _Krystallsysteme und Krystallstruktur_ (Leipzig, 1891)
  (for discontinuous groups of motions); Groups of finite order: Galois,
  _[OE]uvres mathématiques_ (Paris, 1897, reprint); Jordan, _Traité des
  substitutions et des équations algébriques_ (Paris, 1870); Netto,
  _Substitutionentheorie und ihre Anwendung auf die Algebra_ (Leipzig,
  1882; Eng. trans. by Cole, Ann Arbor, U.S.A., 1892); Klein,
  _Vorlesungen über das Ikosaeder_ (Leipzig, 1884; Eng. trans. by
  Morrice, London, 1888); H. Vogt, _Leçons sur la résolution algébrique
  des équations_ (Paris, 1895); Weber, _Lehrbuch der Algebra_
  (Braunschweig, vol. i., 1895; vol. ii., 1896; a second edition
  appeared in 1898); Burnside, _Theory of Groups of Finite Order_
  (Cambridge, 1897); Bianchi, _Teoria dei gruppi di sostituzioni e delle
  equazioni algebriche_ (Pisa, 1899); Dickson, _Linear Groups with an
  Exposition of the Galois Field Theory_ (Leipzig, 1901); De Séguier,
  _Éléments de la théorie des groupes abstraits_ (Paris, 1904), A
  summary with many references will be found in the _Encyklopädie der
  mathematischen Wissenschaften_ (Leipzig, vol. i., 1898, 1899).
       (W. Bu.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The word "group," which appears first in English in the sense of
    an assemblage of figures in an artistic design, picture, &c., is
    adapted from the Fr. _groupe_, which is to be referred to the
    Teutonic word meaning "knot," "mass," "bunch," represented in English
    by "crop" (q.v.). The technical mathematical sense is not older than
    1870.



GROUSE, a word of uncertain origin,[1] now used generally by
ornithologists to include all the "rough-footed" Gallinaceous birds, but
in common speech applied almost exclusively, when used alone, to the
_Tetrao scoticus_ of Linnaeus, the _Lagopus scoticus_ of modern
systematists--more particularly called in English the red grouse, but
till the end of the 18th century almost invariably spoken of as the
Moor-fowl or Moor-game. The effect which this species is supposed to
have had on the British legislature, and therefore on history, is well
known, for it was the common belief that parliament always rose when the
season for grouse-shooting began (August 12th); while according to the
_Orkneyinga Saga_ (ed. Jonaeus, p. 356; ed. Anderson, p. 168) events of
some importance in the annals of North Britain followed from its pursuit
in Caithness in the year 1157.

The red grouse is found on moors from Monmouthshire and Derbyshire
northward to the Orkneys, as well as in most of the Hebrides. It
inhabits similar situations throughout Wales and Ireland, but it does
not naturally occur beyond the limits of the British Islands,[2] and is
the only species among birds peculiar to them. The word "species" may in
this case be used advisedly (since the red grouse invariably "breeds
true," it admits of an easy diagnosis, and it has a definite
geographical range); but scarcely any zoologist can doubt of its common
origin with the willow-grouse, _Lagopus albus_ (_L. subalpinus_ or _L.
saliceti_ of some authors), that inhabits a subarctic zone from Norway
across the continents of Europe and Asia, as well as North America from
the Aleutian Islands to Newfoundland. The red grouse indeed is rarely or
never found away from the heather on which chiefly it subsists; while
the willow-grouse in many parts of the Old World seems to prefer the
shrubby growth of berry-bearing plants (_Vaccinium_ and others) that,
often thickly interspersed with willows and birches, clothes the higher
levels or the lower mountain-slopes, and it flourishes in the New World
where heather scarcely exists, and a "heath" in its strict sense is
unknown. It is true that the willow-grouse always becomes white in
winter, which the red grouse never does; but in summer there is a
considerable resemblance between the two species, the cock willow-grouse
having his head, neck and breast of nearly the same rich chestnut-brown
as his British representative, and, though his back be lighter in
colour, as is also the whole plumage of his mate, than is found in the
red grouse, in other respects the two species are precisely alike. No
distinction can be discovered in their voice, their eggs, their build,
nor in their anatomical details, so far as these have been investigated
and compared.[3] Moreover, the red grouse, restricted as is its range,
varies in colour not inconsiderably according to locality.

[Illustration: Red Grouse.]

Though the red grouse does not, after the manner of other members of the
genus _Lagopus_, become white in winter, Scotland possesses a species of
the genus which does. This is the ptarmigan, _L. mutus_ or _L. alpinus_,
which differs far more in structure, station and habits from the red
grouse than that does from the willow-grouse, and in Scotland is far
less abundant, haunting only the highest and most barren mountains. It
is said to have formerly inhabited both Wales and England, but there is
no evidence of its appearance in Ireland. On the continent of Europe it
is found most numerously in Norway, but at an elevation far above the
growth of trees, and it occurs on the Pyrenees and on the Alps. It also
inhabits northern Russia. In North America, Greenland and Iceland it is
represented by a very nearly allied form--so much so indeed that it is
only at certain seasons that the slight difference between them can be
detected. This form is the _L. rupestris_ of authors, and it would
appear to be found also in Siberia (_Ibis_, 1879, p. 148). Spitzbergen
is inhabited by a large form which has received recognition as _L.
hemileucurus_, and the northern end of the chain of the Rocky Mountains
is tenanted by a very distinct species, the smallest and perhaps the
most beautiful of the genus, _L. leucurus_, which has all the feathers
of the tail white.

[Illustration: Ptarmigan.]

[Illustration: Blackcock.]

The bird, however, to which the name of grouse in all strictness belongs
is probably the _Tetrao tetrix_ of Linnaeus--the blackcock and greyhen,
as the sexes are respectively called. It is distributed over most of the
heath-country of England, except in East Anglia, where attempts to
introduce it have been only partially successful. It also occurs in
North Wales and very generally throughout Scotland, though not in
Orkney, Shetland or the Outer Hebrides, nor in Ireland. On the continent
of Europe it has a very wide range, and it extends into Siberia. In
Georgia its place is taken by a distinct species, on which a Polish
naturalist (_Proc. Zool. Society_, 1875, p. 267) has conferred the name
of _T. mlokosiewiczi_. Both these birds have much in common with their
larger congener the capercally and its eastern representative.

The species of the genus _Bonasa_, of which the European _B. sylvestris_
is the type, does not inhabit the British Islands. It is perhaps the
most delicate game-bird that comes to table. It is the _gelinotte_ of
the French, the _Haselhuhn_ of Germans, and _Hjerpe_ of Scandinavians.
Like its transatlantic congener _B. umbellus_, the ruffed grouse or
birch-partridge (of which there are two other local forms, _B.
umbelloides_ and _B. sabinii_), it is purely a forest-bird. The same may
be said of the species of _Canace_, of which two forms are found in
America, _C. canadensis_, the spruce-partridge, and _C. franklini_, and
also of the Siberian _C. falcipennis_. Nearly allied to these birds is
the group known as _Dendragapus_, containing three large and fine forms
_D. obscurus_, _D. fuliginosus_, and _D. richardsoni_--all peculiar to
North America. Then there are _Centrocercus urophasianus_, the sage-cock
of the plains of Columbia and California, and _Pedioecetes_, the
sharp-tailed grouse, with its two forms, _P. phasianellus_ and _P.
columbianus_, while finally _Cupidonia_, the prairie-hen, also with two
local forms, _C. cupido_ and _C. pallidicincta_, is a bird that in the
United States of America possesses considerable economic value, enormous
numbers being consumed there, and also exported to Europe.

  The various sorts of grouse are nearly all figured in Elliot's
  _Monograph of the Tetraoninae_, and an excellent account of the
  American species is given in Baird, Brewer and Ridgway's _North
  American Birds_ (iii. 414-465). See also SHOOTING.     (A. N.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] It seems first to occur (O. Salusbury Brereton, _Archaeologia_,
    iii. 157) as "grows" in an ordinance for the regulation of the royal
    household dated "apud Eltham, mens. Jan. 22 Hen. VIII.," i.e. 1531,
    and considering the locality must refer to black game. It is found in
    an Act of Parliament 1 Jac. I. cap. 27, § 2, i.e. 1603, and, as
    reprinted in the _Statutes at Large_, stands as now commonly spelt,
    but by many writers or printers the final e was omitted in the 17th
    and 18th centuries. In 1611 Cotgrave had "Poule griesche. A
    Moore-henne; the henne of the Grice [in ed. 1673 "Griece"] or
    Mooregame" (_Dictionarie of the French and English Tongues, s.v.
    Poule_). The most likely derivation seems to be from the old French
    word _griesche_, _greoche_ or _griais_ (meaning speckled, and cognate
    with _griseus_, grisly or grey), which was applied to some kind of
    partridge, or according to Brunetto Latini (_Trés._ p. 211) to a
    quail, "porce que ele fu premiers trovée en Grece." The Oxford
    Dictionary repudiates the possibility of "grouse" being a spurious
    singular of an alleged plural "grice," and, with regard to the
    possibility of "grows" being a plural of "grow," refers to Giraldus
    Cambrensis (c. 1210), _Topogr. Hib. opera_ (Rolls) v. 47: "gallinae
    campestres, quas vulgariter _grutas_ vocant."

  [2] It was successfully, though with much trouble, introduced by Mr
    Oscar Dickson on a tract of land near Gottenburg in Sweden (_Svenska
    Jägarförbundets Nya Tidskrift_, 1868, p. 64 _et alibi_).

  [3] A very interesting subject for discussion would be whether
    _Lagopus scoticus_ or _L. albus_ has varied most from the common
    stock of both. Looking to the fact that the former is the only
    species of the genus which does not assume white clothing in winter,
    an evolutionist might at first deem the variation greatest in its
    case; but then it must be borne in mind that the species of _Lagopus_
    which turn white differ in that respect from all other groups of the
    family _Tetraonidae_. Furthermore every species of _Lagopus_ (even
    _L. leucurus_, the whitest of all) has its first set of _remiges_
    coloured brown. These are dropped when the bird is about half-grown,
    and in all the species but _L. scoticus_ white _remiges_ are then
    produced. If therefore the successive phases assumed by any animal in
    the course of its progress to maturity indicate the phases through
    which the species has passed, there may have been a time when all the
    species of _Lagopus_ wore a brown livery even when adult, and the
    white dress donned in winter has been imposed upon the wearers by
    causes that can be easily suggested. The white plumage of the birds
    of this group protects them from danger during the snows of a
    protracted winter. But the red grouse, instead of perpetuating
    directly the more ancient properties of an original _Lagopus_ that
    underwent no great seasonal change of plumage, may derive its
    ancestry from the widely-ranging willow-grouse, which in an epoch
    comparatively recent (in the geological sense) may have stocked
    Britain, and left descendants that, under conditions in which the
    assumption of a white garb would be almost fatal to the preservation
    of the species, have reverted (though doubtless with some
    modifications) to a comparative immutability essentially the same as
    that of the primal _Lagopus_.



GROVE, SIR GEORGE (1820-1900), English writer on music, was born at
Clapham on the 13th of August 1820. He was articled to a civil engineer,
and worked for two years in a factory near Glasgow. In 1841 and 1845 he
was employed in the West Indies, erecting lighthouses in Jamaica and
Bermuda. In 1849 he became secretary to the Society of Arts, and in 1852
to the Crystal Palace. In this capacity his natural love of music and
enthusiasm for the art found a splendid opening, and he threw all the
weight of his influence into the task of promoting the best music of all
schools in connexion with the weekly and daily concerts at Sydenham,
which had a long and honourable career under the direction of Mr
(afterwards Sir) August Manns. Without Sir George Grove that eminent
conductor would hardly have succeeded in doing what he did to encourage
young composers and to educate the British public in music. Grove's
analyses of the Beethoven symphonies, and the other works presented at
the concerts, set the pattern of what such things should be; and it was
as a result of these, and of the fact that he was editor of _Macmillan's
Magazine_ from 1868 to 1883, that the scheme of his famous _Dictionary
of Music and Musicians_, published from 1878 to 1889 (new edition,
edited by J. A. Fuller Maitland, 1904-1907), was conceived and executed.
His own articles in that work on Beethoven, Mendelssohn and Schubert are
monuments of a special kind of learning, and that the rest of the book
is a little thrown out of balance owing to their great length is hardly
to be regretted. Long before this he had contributed to the _Dictionary
of the Bible_, and had promoted the foundation of the Palestine
Exploration Fund. On a journey to Vienna, undertaken in the company of
his lifelong friend, Sir Arthur Sullivan, the important discovery of a
large number of compositions by Schubert was made, including the music
to _Rosamunde_. When the Royal College of Music was founded in 1882 he
was appointed its first director, receiving the honour of knighthood. He
brought the new institution into line with the most useful European
conservatoriums. On the completion of the new buildings in 1894 he
resigned the directorship, but retained an active interest in the
institution to the end of his life. He died at Sydenham on the 28th of
May 1900.

  His life, a most interesting one, was written by Mr Charles Graves.
      (J. A. F. M.)



GROVE, SIR WILLIAM ROBERT (1811-1896), English judge and man of science,
was born on the 11th of July 1811 at Swansea, South Wales. After being
educated by private tutors, he went to Brasenose College, Oxford, where
he took an ordinary degree in 1832. Three years later he was called to
the bar at Lincoln's Inn. His health, however, did not allow him to
devote himself strenuously to practice, and he occupied his leisure with
scientific studies. About 1839 he constructed the platinum-zinc voltaic
cell that bears his name, and with the aid of a number of these
exhibited the electric arc light in the London Institution, Finsbury
Circus. The result was that in 1840 the managers appointed him to the
professorship of experimental philosophy, an office which he held for
seven years. His researches dealt very largely with electro-chemistry
and with the voltaic cell, of which he invented several varieties. One
of these, the Grove gas-battery, which is of special interest both
intrinsically and as the forerunner of the secondary batteries now in
use for the "storage" of electricity, was based on his observation that
a current is produced by a couple of platinum plates standing in
acidulated water and immersed, the one in hydrogen, the other in oxygen.
At one of his lectures at the Institution he anticipated the electric
lighting of to-day by illuminating the theatre with incandescent
electric lamps, the filaments being of platinum and the current supplied
by a battery of his nitric acid cells. In 1846 he published his famous
book on _The Correlation of Physical Forces_, the leading ideas of which
he had already put forward in his lectures: its fundamental conception
was that each of the forces of nature--light, heat, electricity, &c.--is
definitely and equivalently convertible into any other, and that where
experiment does not give the full equivalent, it is because the initial
force has been dissipated, not lost, by conversion into other
unrecognized forces. In the same year he received a Royal medal from the
Royal Society for his Bakerian lecture on "Certain phenomena of voltaic
ignition and the decomposition of water into its constituent gases." In
1866 he presided over the British Association at its Nottingham meeting
and delivered an address on the continuity of natural phenomena. But
while he was thus engaged in scientific research, his legal work was not
neglected, and his practice increased so greatly that in 1853 he became
a Q.C. One of the best-known cases in which he appeared as an advocate
was that of William Palmer, the Rugeley poisoner, whom he defended. In
1871 he was made a judge of the Common Pleas in succession to Sir Robert
Collier, and remained on the bench till 1887. He died in London on the
1st of August 1896.

  A selection of his scientific papers is given in the sixth edition of
  _The Correlation of Physical Forces_, published in 1874.



GROVE (O.E. _graf_, cf. O.E. _groefa_, brushwood, later "greave"; the
word does not appear in any other Teutonic language, and the _New
English Dictionary_ finds no Indo-European root to which it can be
referred; Skeat considers it connected with "grave," to cut, and finds
the original meaning to be a glade cut through a wood), a small group or
cluster of trees, growing naturally and forming something smaller than a
wood, or planted in particular shapes or for particular purposes, in a
park, &c. Groves have been connected with religious worship from the
earliest times, and in many parts of India every village has its sacred
group of trees. For the connexion of religion with sacred groves see
TREE-WORSHIP.

  The word "grove" was used by the authors of the Authorized Version of
  the Bible to translate two Hebrew words: (1) _'eshel_, as in Gen. xxi.
  33, and 1 Sam. xxii. 6; this is rightly given in the Revised Version
  as "tamarisk"; (2) _asherah_ in many places throughout the Old
  Testament. Here the translators followed the Septuagint [Greek: alsos]
  and the Vulgate _lucus_. The _'[)a]shéráh_ was a wooden post erected
  at the Canaanitish places of worship, and also by the altars of
  Yahweh. It may have represented a tree.



GROZNYI, a fortress and town of Russia, North Caucasia, in the province
of Terek, on the Zunzha river, 82 m. by rail N.E. of Vladikavkaz, on the
railway to Petrovsk. There are naphtha wells close by. The
fortifications were constructed in 1819. Pop. (1897) 15,599.



GRUB, the larva of an insect, a caterpillar, maggot. The word is formed
from the verb "to grub," to dig, break up the surface of the ground,
and clear of stumps, roots, weeds, &c. According to the _New English
Dictionary_, "grub" may be referred to an ablaut variant of the Old
Teutonic _grab_-, to dig, cf. "grave." Skeat (_Etym. Dict._ 1898) refers
it rather to the root seen in "grope," "grab," &c., the original meaning
"to search for." The earliest quotation of the slang use of the word in
the sense of food in the _New English Dictionary_ is dated 1659 from
_Ancient Poems, Ballads_, &c., Percy Society Publications.
"Grub-street," as a collective term for needy hack-writers, dates from
the 17th century and is due to the name of a street near Moorfields,
London, now Milton Street, which was as Johnson says "much inhabited by
writers of small histories, dictionaries and temporary poems."



GRUBER, JOHANN GOTTFRIED (1774-1851), German critic and literary
historian, was born at Naumburg on the Saale, on the 29th of November
1774. He received his education at the town school of Naumburg and the
university of Leipzig, after which he resided successively at Göttingen,
Leipzig, Jena and Weimar, occupying himself partly in teaching and
partly in various literary enterprises, and enjoying in Weimar the
friendship of Herder, Wieland and Goethe. In 1811 he was appointed
professor at the university of Wittenberg, and after the division of
Saxony he was sent by the senate to Berlin to negotiate the union of the
university of Wittenberg with that of Halle. After the union was
effected he became in 1815 professor of philosophy at Halle. He was
associated with Johann Samuel Ersch in the editorship of the great work
_Allgemeine Encyklopädie der Wissenschaften und Künste_; and after the
death of Ersch he continued the first section from vol. xviii. to vol.
liv. He also succeeded Ersch in the editorship of the _Allgemeine
Literaturzeitung_. He died on the 7th of August 1851.

  Gruber was the author of a large number of works, the principal of
  which are _Charakteristik Herders_ (Leipzig, 1805), in conjunction
  with Johann T. L. Danz (1769-1851), afterwards professor of theology
  at Jena; _Geschichte des menschlichen Geschlechts_ (2 vols., Leipzig,
  1806); _Wörterbuch der altklassischen Mythologie_ (3 vols., Weimar,
  1810-1815); _Wielands Leben_ (2 parts, Weimar, 1815-1816), and
  _Klopstocks Leben_ (Weimar, 1832). He also edited Wieland's _Sämtliche
  Werke_ (Leipzig, 1818-1828).



GRUMBACH, WILHELM VON (1503-1567), German adventurer, chiefly known
through his connexion with the so-called "Grumbach feuds" (_Grumbachsche
Händel_), the last attempt of the German knights to destroy the power of
the territorial princes. A member of an old Franconian family, he was
born on the 1st of June 1503, and having passed some time at the court
of Casimir, prince of Bayreuth (d. 1527), fought against the peasants
during the rising in 1524 and 1525. About 1540 Grumbach became
associated with Albert Alcibiades, the turbulent prince of Bayreuth,
whom he served both in peace and war. After the conclusion of the peace
of Passau in 1552, Grumbach assisted Albert in his career of plunder in
Franconia and was thus able to take some revenge upon his enemy,
Melchior von Zobel, bishop of Würzburg. As a landholder Grumbach was a
vassal of the bishops of Würzburg, and had held office at the court of
Conrad of Bibra, who was bishop from 1540 to 1544. When, however, Zobel
was chosen to succeed Conrad the harmonious relations between lord and
vassal were quickly disturbed. Unable to free himself and his associates
from the suzerainty of the bishop by appealing to the imperial courts he
decided to adopt more violent measures, and his friendship with Albert
was very serviceable in this connexion. Albert's career, however, was
checked by his defeat at Sievershausen in July 1553 and his subsequent
flight into France, and the bishop took advantage of this state of
affairs to seize Grumbach's lands. The knight obtained an order of
restitution from the imperial court of justice (_Reichskammergericht_),
but he was unable to carry this into effect; and in April 1558 some of
his partisans seized and killed the bishop. Grumbach declared he was
innocent of this crime, but his story was not believed, and he fled to
France. Returning to Germany he pleaded his cause in person before the
diet at Augsburg in 1559, but without success. Meanwhile he had found a
new patron in John Frederick, duke of Saxony, whose father, John
Frederick, had been obliged to surrender the electoral dignity to the
Albertine branch of his family. Chafing under this deprivation the duke
listened readily to Grumbach's plans for recovering the lost dignity,
including a general rising of the German knights and the deposition of
Frederick II., king of Denmark. Magical charms were employed against the
duke's enemies, and communications from angels were invented which
helped to stir up the zeal of the people. In 1563 Grumbach attacked
Würzburg, seized and plundered the city and compelled the chapter and
the bishop to restore his lands. He was consequently placed under the
imperial ban, but John Frederick refused to obey the order of the
emperor Maximilian II. to withdraw his protection from him. Meanwhile
Grumbach sought to compass the assassination of the Saxon elector,
Augustus; proclamations were issued calling for assistance; and
alliances both without and within Germany were concluded. In November
1566 John Frederick was placed under the ban, which had been renewed
against Grumbach earlier in the year, and Augustus marched against
Gotha. Assistance was not forthcoming, and a mutiny led to the
capitulation of the town. Grumbach was delivered to his foes, and, after
being tortured, was executed at Gotha on the 18th of April 1567.

  See F. Ortloff, _Geschichte der Grumbachschen Händel_ (Jena,
  1868-1870), and J. Voigt, _Wilhelm von Grumbach und seine Händel_
  (Leipzig, 1846-1847).



GRUMENTUM, an ancient town in the centre of Lucania, 33 m. S. of
Potentia by the direct road through Anxia, and 52 m. by the Via
Herculia, at the point of divergence of a road eastward to Heraclea. It
seems to have been a native Lucanian town, not a Greek settlement. In
215 B.C. the Carthaginian general Hanno was defeated under its walls,
and in 207 B.C. Hannibal made it his headquarters. In the Social War it
appears as a strong fortress, and seems to have been held by both sides
at different times. It became a colony, perhaps in the time of Sulla, at
latest under Augustus, and seems to have been of some importance. Its
site, identified by Holste from the description of the martyrdom of St
Laverius, is a ridge on the right bank of the Aciris (Agri) about 1960
ft. above sea-level, ½ m. below the modern Saponara, which lies much
higher (2533 ft.). Its ruins (all of the Roman period) include those of
a large amphitheatre (arena 205 by 197 ft.), the only one in Lucania,
except that at Paestum. There are also remains of a theatre.
Inscriptions record the repair of its town walls and the construction of
_thermae_ (of which remains were found) in 57-51 B.C., the construction
in 43 B.C., of a portico, remains of which may be seen along an ancient
road, at right angles to the main road, which traversed Grumentum from
S. to N.

  See F. P. Caputi in _Notizie degli scavi_ (1877), 129, and G. Patroni,
  ibid. (1897) 180.     (T. As.)



GRÜN. HANS BALDUNG (c. 1470-1545), commonly called Grün, a German
painter of the age of Dürer, was born at Gmünd in Swabia, and spent the
greater part of his life at Strassburg and Freiburg in Breisgau. The
earliest pictures assigned to him are altarpieces with the monogram H.
B. interlaced, and the date of 1496, in the monastery chapel of
Lichtenthal near Baden. Another early work is a portrait of the emperor
Maximilian, drawn in 1501 on a leaf of a sketch-book now in the
print-room at Carlsruhe. The "Martyrdom of St Sebastian" and the
"Epiphany" (Berlin Museum), fruits of his labour in 1507, were painted
for the market-church of Halle in Saxony. In 1509 Grün purchased the
freedom of the city of Strassburg, and resided there till 1513, when he
moved to Freiburg in Breisgau. There he began a series of large
compositions, which he finished in 1516, and placed on the high altar of
the Freiburg cathedral. He purchased anew the freedom of Strassburg in
1517, resided in that city as his domicile, and died a member of its
great town council 1545.

Though nothing is known of Grün's youth and education, it may be
inferred from his style that he was no stranger to the school of which
Dürer was the chief. Gmünd is but 50 m. distant on either side from
Augsburg and Nuremberg. Grün prints were often mistaken for those of
Dürer; and Dürer himself was well acquainted with Grün's woodcuts and
copper-plates in which he traded during his trip to the Netherlands
(1520). But Grün's prints, though Düreresque, are far below Dürer, and
his paintings are below his prints. Without absolute correctness as a
draughtsman, his conception of human form is often very unpleasant,
whilst a questionable taste is shown in ornament equally profuse and
"baroque." Nothing is more remarkable in his pictures than the pug-like
shape of the faces, unless we except the coarseness of the extremities.
No trace is apparent of any feeling for atmosphere or light and shade.
Though Grün has been commonly called the Correggio of the north, his
compositions are a curious medley of glaring and heterogeneous colours,
in which pure black is contrasted with pale yellow, dirty grey, impure
red and glowing green. Flesh is a mere glaze under which the features
are indicated by lines. His works are mainly interesting because of the
wild and fantastic strength which some of them display. We may pass
lightly over the "Epiphany" of 1507, the "Crucifixion" of 1512, or the
"Stoning of Stephen" of 1522, in the Berlin Museum. There is some force
in the "Dance of Death" of 1517, in the museum of Basel, or the
"Madonna" of 1530, in the Liechtenstein Gallery at Vienna. Grün's best
effort is the altarpiece of Freiburg, where the "Coronation of the
Virgin," and the "Twelve Apostles," the "Annunciation, Visitation,
Nativity and Flight into Egypt," and the "Crucifixion," with portraits
of donors, are executed with some of that fanciful power which Martin
Schön bequeathed to the Swabian school. As a portrait painter he is well
known. He drew the likeness of Charles V., as well as that of
Maximilian; and his bust of Margrave Philip in the Munich Gallery tells
us that he was connected with the reigning family of Baden as early as
1514. At a later period he had sittings from Margrave Christopher of
Baden, Ottilia his wife, and all their children, and the picture
containing these portraits is still in the grand-ducal gallery at
Carlsruhe. Like Dürer and Cranach, Grün became a hearty supporter of the
Reformation. He was present at the diet of Augsburg in 1518, and one of
his woodcuts represents Luther under the protection of the Holy Ghost,
which hovers over him in the shape of a dove.



GRÜNBERG, a town of Germany, in Prussian Silesia, beautifully situated
between two hills on an affluent of the Oder, and on the railway from
Breslau to Stettin via Küstrin, 36 m. N.N.W. of Glogau. Pop. (1905)
20,987. It has a Roman Catholic and two Evangelical churches, a modern
school and a technical (textiles) school. There are manufactures of
cloth, paper, machinery, straw hats, leather and tobacco. The prosperity
of the town depends chiefly on the vine culture in the neighbourhood,
from which, besides the exportation of a large quantity of grapes, about
700,000 gallons of wine are manufactured annually.



GRUNDTVIG, NIKOLAI FREDERIK SEVERIN (1783-1872), Danish poet, statesman
and divine, was born at the parsonage of Udby in Zealand on the 8th of
September 1783. In 1791 he was sent to live at the house of a priest in
Jutland, and studied at the free school of Aarhuus until he went up to
the university of Copenhagen in 1800. At the close of his university
life he made Icelandic his special study, until in 1805 he took the
position of tutor in a house on the island of Langeland. The next three
years were spent in the study of Shakespeare, Schiller and Fichte. His
cousin, the philosopher Henrik Steffens, had returned to Copenhagen in
1802 full of the teaching of Schelling and his lectures and the early
poetry of Öhlenschläger opened the eyes of Grundtvig to the new era in
literature. His first work, _On the Songs in the Edda_, attracted no
attention. Returning to Copenhagen in 1808 he achieved greater success
with his _Northern Mythology_, and again in 1809-1811 with a long epic
poem, the _Decline of the Heroic Life in the North_. The boldness of the
theological views expressed in his first sermon in 1810 offended the
ecclesiastical authorities, and he retired to a country parish as his
father's assistant for a while. From 1812 to 1817 he published five or
six works, of which the _Rhyme of Roskilde_ is the most remarkable. From
1816 to 1819 he was editor of a polemical journal entitled _Dannevirke_,
and in 1818 to 1822 appeared his Danish paraphrases (6 vols.) of Saxo
Grammaticus and Snorri. During these years he was preaching against
rationalism to an enthusiastic congregation in Copenhagen, but he
accepted in 1821 the country living of Praestö, only to return to the
metropolis the year after. In 1825 he published a pamphlet, _The
Church's Reply_, against H. N. Clausen, who was professor of theology in
the university of Copenhagen. Grundtvig was publicly prosecuted and
fined, and for seven years he was forbidden to preach, years which he
spent in publishing a collection of his theological works, in paying two
visits to England, and in studying Anglo-Saxon. In 1832 he obtained
permission to preach again, and in 1839 he became priest of the
workhouse church of Vartov hospital, Copenhagen, a post he continued to
hold until his death. In 1837-1841 he published _Songs for the Danish
Church_, a rich collection of sacred poetry; in 1838 he brought out a
selection of early Scandinavian verse; in 1840 he edited the Anglo-Saxon
poem of the _Phoenix_, with a Danish translation. He visited England a
third time in 1843. From 1844 until after the first German war Grundtvig
took a very prominent part in politics. In 1861 he received the titular
rank of bishop, but without a see. He went on writing occasional poems
till 1866, and preached in the Vartov every Sunday until a month before
his death. His preaching attracted large congregations, and he soon had
a following. His hymn-book effected a great change in Danish church
services, substituting the hymns of the national poets for the slow
measures of the orthodox Lutherans. The chief characteristic of his
theology was the substitution of the authority of the "living word" for
the apostolic commentaries, and he desired to see each congregation a
practically independent community. His patriotism was almost a part of
his religion, and he established popular schools where the national
poetry and history should form an essential part of the instruction. His
followers are known as Grundtvigians. He was married three times, the
last time in his seventy-sixth year. He died on the 2nd of September
1872. Grundtvig holds a unique position in the literature of his
country; he has been styled the Danish Carlyle. He was above all things
a man of action, not an artist; and the formless vehemence of his
writings, which have had a great influence over his own countrymen, is
hardly agreeable or intelligible to a foreigner. The best of his
poetical works were published in a selection (7 vols., 1880-1889) by his
eldest son, Svend Hersleb Grundtvig (1824-1883), who was an authority on
Scandinavian antiquities, and made an admirable collection of old Danish
poetry (_Danmarks gamle Folkeviser_, 1853-1883, 5 vols.; completed in
1891 by A. Olrik).

  His correspondence with Ingemann was edited by S. Grundtvig (1882);
  his correspondence with Christian Molbech by L. Schröder (1888); see
  also F. Winkel Horn, _Grundtvigs Liv og Gjerning_ (1883); and an
  article by F. Nielsen in Bricka's _Dansk Biografisk Lexikon_.



GRUNDY, SYDNEY (1848-   ), English dramatist, was born at Manchester on
the 23rd of March 1848, son of Alderman Charles Sydney Grundy. He was
educated at Owens College, Manchester, and was called to the bar in
1869, practising in Manchester until 1876. His farce, _A Little Change_,
was produced at the Haymarket Theatre in 1872. He became well known as
an adapter of plays, among his early successes in this direction being
_The Snowball_ (Strand Theatre, 1879) from _Oscar, ou le mari qui trompe
sa femme_ by MM. Scribe and Duvergne, and _In Honour Bound_ (1880) from
Scribe's _Une Chaîne_. In 1887 he made a popular success with _The Bells
of Haslemere_, written with Mr H. Pettitt and produced at the Adelphi.
In 1889-1890 he produced two ingenious original comedies, _A White Lie_
(Court Theatre) and _A Fool's Paradise_ (Gaiety Theatre), which had been
played two years earlier at Greenwich as _The Mouse-Trap_. These were
followed by _Sowing the Wind_ (Comedy, 1893), _An Old Jew_ (Garrick,
1894), and by an adaptation of Octave Feuillet's _Montjoye as A Bunch of
Violets_ (Haymarket, 1894). In 1894 he produced _The New Woman_ and _The
Slaves of the Ring_; in 1895, _The Greatest of These_, played by Mr and
Mrs Kendal at the Garrick Theatre; _The Degenerates_ (Haymarket, 1899),
and _A Debt of Honour_ (St James's 1900). Among Mr Grundy's most
successful adaptations were the charming _Pair of Spectacles_ (Garrick,
1890) from _Les Petits Oiseaux_ of MM. Labiche and Delacour. Others
were _A Village Priest_ (Haymarket, 1890) from _Le Secret de la
terreuse_, a melodrama by MM. Busnach and Cauvin; _A Marriage of
Convenience_ (Haymarket, 1897) from _Un Mariage de Louis XV_, by Alex.
Dumas, père, _The Silver Key_ (Her Majesty's, 1897) from his _Mlle de
Belle-isle_, and _The Musqueteers_ (1899) from the same author's novel;
_Frocks and Frills_ (Haymarket, 1902) from the _Doigts de fées_ of MM.
Scribe and Legouvé; _The Garden of Lies_ (St James's Theatre, 1904) from
Mr Justus Miles Forman's novel; _Business is Business_ (His Majesty's
Theatre, 1905), a rather free adaptation from Octave Mirbeau's _Les
Affaires sont les affaires_; and _The Diplomatists_ (Royalty Theatre,
1905) from _La Poudre aux yeux_, by Labiche.



GRUNDY, MRS, the name of an imaginary English character, who typifies
the disciplinary control of the conventional "proprieties" of society
over conduct, the tyrannical pressure of the opinion of neighbours on
the acts of others. The name appears in a play of Thomas Morton, _Speed
the Plough_ (1798), in which one of the characters, Dame Ashfield,
continually refers to what her neighbour Mrs Grundy will say as the
criterion of respectability. Mrs Grundy is not a character in the play,
but is a kind of "Mrs Harris" to Dame Ashfield.



GRUNER, GOTTLIEB SIGMUND (1717-1778), the author of the first connected
attempt to describe in detail the snowy mountains of Switzerland. His
father, Johann Rudolf Gruner (1680-1761), was pastor of Trachselwald, in
the Bernese Emmenthal (1705), and later (1725) of Burgdorf, and a great
collector of information relating to historical and scientific matters;
his great _Thesaurus topographico-historicus totius ditionis Bernensis_
(4 vols. folio, 1729-1730) still remains in MS., but in 1732 he
published a small work entitled _Deliciae urbis Bernae_, while he
possessed an extensive cabinet of natural history objects. Naturally
such tastes had a great influence on the mind of his son, who was born
at Trachselwald, and educated by his father and at the Latin school at
Burgdorf, not going to Berne much before 1736, when he published a
dissertation on the use of fire by the heathen. In 1739 he qualified as
a notary, in 1741 became the archivist of Hesse-Homburg, and in 1743
accompanied Prince Christian of Anhalt-Schaumburg to Silesia and the
university of Halle. He returned to his native land before 1749, when he
obtained a post at Thorberg, being transferred in 1764 to Landshut and
Fraubrunnen. It was in 1760 that he published in 3 vols. at Berne his
chief work, _Die Eisgebirge des Schweizerlandes_ (bad French translation
by M. de Kéralio, Paris, 1770). The first two volumes are filled by a
detailed description of the snowy Swiss mountains, based not so much on
personal experience as on older works, and a very large number of
communications received by Gruner from numerous friends; the third
volume deals with glaciers in general, and their various properties.
Though in many respects imperfect, Gruner's book sums up all that was
known on the subject in his day, and forms the starting-point for later
writers. The illustrations are very curious and interesting. In 1778 he
republished (nominally in London, really at Berne) much of the
information contained in his larger work, but thrown into the form of
letters, supposed to be written in 1776 from various spots, under the
title of _Reisen durch die merkwürdigsten Gegenden Helvetiens_ (2
vols.).     (W. A. B. C.)



GRÜNEWALD, MATHIAS. The accounts which are given of this German painter,
a native of Aschaffenburg, are curiously contradictory. Between 1518 and
1530, according to statements adopted by Waagen and Passavant, he was
commissioned by Albert of Brandenburg, elector and archbishop of Mainz,
to produce an altarpiece for the collegiate church of St Maurice and
Mary Magdalen at Halle on the Saale; and he acquitted himself of this
duty with such cleverness that the prelate in after years caused the
picture to be rescued from the Reformers and brought back to
Aschaffenburg. From one of the churches of that city it was taken to the
Pinakothek of Munich in 1836. It represents St Maurice and Mary Magdalen
between four saints, and displays a style so markedly characteristic,
and so like that of Lucas Cranach, that Waagen was induced to call
Grünewald Cranach's master. He also traced the same hand and technical
execution in the great altarpieces of Annaberg and Heilbronn, and in
various panels exhibited in the museums of Mainz, Darmstadt,
Aschaffenburg, Vienna and Berlin. A later race of critics, declining to
accept the statements of Waagen and Passavant, affirm that there is no
documentary evidence to connect Grünewald with the pictures of Halle and
Annaberg, and they quote Sandrart and Bernhard Jobin of Strassburg to
show that Grünewald is the painter of pictures of a different class.
They prove that he finished before 1516 the large altarpiece of
Issenheim, at present in the museum of Colmar, and starting from these
premises they connect the artist with Altdorfer and Dürer to the
exclusion of Cranach. That a native of the Palatinate should have been
asked to execute pictures for a church in Saxony can scarcely be
accounted strange, since we observe that Hans Baldung (Grün) was
entrusted with a commission of this kind. But that a painter of
Aschaffenburg should display the style of Cranach is strange and indeed
incredible, unless vouched for by first-class evidence. In this case
documents are altogether wanting, whilst on the other hand it is beyond
the possibility of doubt, even according to Waagen, that the altarpiece
of Issenheim is the creation of a man whose teaching was altogether
different from that of the painter of the pictures of Halle and
Annaberg. The altarpiece of Issenheim is a fine and powerful work,
completed as local records show before 1516 by a Swabian, whose
distinguishing mark is that he followed the traditions of Martin
Schongauer, and came under the influence of Altdorfer and Dürer. As a
work of art the altarpiece is important, being a poliptych of eleven
panels, a carved central shrine covered with a double set of wings, and
two side pieces containing the Temptation of St Anthony, the hermits
Anthony and Paul in converse, the Virgin adored by Angels, the
Resurrection, the Annunciation, the Crucifixion, St Sebastian, St
Anthony, and the Marys wailing over the dead body of Christ. The author
of these compositions is also the painter of a series of monochromes
described by Sandrart in the Dominican convent, and now in part in the
Saalhof at Frankfort, and a Resurrection in the museum of Basel,
registered in Amerbach's inventory as the work of Grünewald.



GRUTER (or GRUYTÈRE), JAN (1560-1627), a critic and scholar of Dutch
parentage by his father's side and English by his mother's, was born at
Antwerp on the 3rd of December 1560. To avoid religious persecution his
parents while he was still young came to England; and for some years he
prosecuted his studies at Cambridge, after which he went to Leiden,
where he graduated M. A. In 1586 he was appointed professor of history
at Wittenberg, but as he refused to subscribe the _formula concordiae_
he was unable to retain his office. From 1589 to 1592 he taught at
Rostock, after which he went to Heidelberg, where in 1602 he was
appointed librarian to the university. He died at Heidelberg on the 20th
of September 1627.

  Gruter's chief works were his _Inscriptiones antiquae totius orbis
  Romani_ (2 vols., Heidelberg, 1603), and _Lampas, sive fax artium
  liberalium_ (7 vols., Frankfort, 1602-1634).



GRUYÈRE (Ger. _Greyerz_), a district in the south-eastern portion of the
Swiss canton of Fribourg, famed for its cattle and its cheese, and the
original home of the "Ranz des Vaches," the melody by which the herdsmen
call their cows home at milking time. It is composed of the middle reach
(from Montbovon to beyond Bulle) of the Sarine or Saane valley, with its
tributary glens of the Hongrin (left), the Jogne (right) and the Trême
(left), and is a delightful pastoral region (in 1901 it contained 17,364
cattle). It forms an administrative district of the canton of Fribourg,
its population in 1900 being 23,111, mainly French-speaking and
Romanists. From Montbovon (11 m. by rail from Bulle) there are mountain
railways leading S.W. past Les Avants to Montreux (14 m.), and E. up the
Sarine valley past Château d'Oex to Saanen or Gessenay (14 m.), and by a
tunnel below a low pass to the Simme valley and Spiez on the Lake of
Thun. The modern capital of the district is the small town of Bulle
[Ger. _Boll_], with a 13th-century castle and in 1900 3330 inhabitants,
French-speaking and Romanists. But the historical capital is the very
picturesque little town of _Gruyères_ (which keeps its final "s" in
order to distinguish it from the district), perched on a steep hill
(S.E. of Bulle) above the left bank of the Sarine, and at a height of
2713 ft. above the sea-level. It is only accessible by a rough carriage
road, and boasts of a very fine old castle, at the foot of which is the
solitary street of the town, which in 1900 had 1389 inhabitants.

The castle was the seat of the counts of the Gruyère, who are first
mentioned in 1073. The name is said to come from the word _gruyer_,
meaning the officer of woods and forests, but the counts bore the
canting arms of a crane (_grue_), which are seen all over the castle and
the town. That valiant family ended (in the legitimate line) with Count
Michel (d. 1575) whose extravagance and consequent indebtedness
compelled him in 1555 to sell his domains to Bern and Fribourg. Bern
took the upper Sarine valley (it still keeps Saanen at its head, but in
1798 lost the Pays d'En-Haut to the canton du Léman, which in 1803
became the canton of Vaud). Fribourg took the rest of the county, which
it added to Bulle and Albeuve (taken in 1537 from the bishop of
Lausanne), and to the lordship of Jaun in the Jaun or Jogne valley
(bought in 1502-1504 from its lords), in order to form the present
administrative district of Gruyère, which is not co-extensive with the
historical county of that name.

  See the materials collected by J. J. Hisely and published in
  successive vols. of the _Mémoires et documents de la suisse romande
  ... introa. à l'hist._ (1851); Histoire (2 vols., 1855-1857); and
  Monuments de l'histoire (2 vols., 1867-1869); K. V. von Bonstetten,
  _Briefe über ein schweiz. Hirtenland_ (1781) (Eng. trans., 1784); J.
  Reichlen, _La Gruyère illustrée_ (1890), seq.; H. Raemy, _La Gruyère_
  (1867); and _Les Alpes fribourgeoises_, by many authors (Lausanne,
  1908).     (W. A. B. C.)



GRYNAEUS (or GRYNER), JOHANN JAKOB (1540-1617), Swiss Protestant divine,
was born on the 1st of October 1540 at Bern. His father, Thomas
(1512-1564), was for a time professor of ancient languages at Basel and
Bern, but afterwards became pastor of Röteln in Baden. He was nephew of
the more eminent Simon Grynaeus (q.v.). Johann was educated at Basel,
and in 1559 received an appointment as curate to his father. In 1563 he
proceeded to Tübingen for the purpose of completing his theological
studies, and in 1565 he returned to Röteln as successor to his father.
Here he felt compelled to abjure the Lutheran doctrine of the Lord's
Supper, and to renounce the _formula concordiae_. Called in 1575 to the
chair of Old Testament exegesis at Basel, he became involved in
unpleasant controversy with Simon Sulzer and other champions of Lutheran
orthodoxy; and in 1584 he was glad to accept an invitation to assist in
the restoration of the university of Heidelberg. Returning to Basel in
1586, after Simon Sulzer's death, as _antistes_ or superintendent of the
church there and as professor of the New Testament, he exerted for
upwards of twenty-five years a considerable influence upon both the
church and the state affairs of that community, and acquired a wide
reputation as a skilful theologian of the school of Ulrich Zwingli.
Amongst other labours he helped to reorganize the gymnasium in 1588.
Five years before his death he became totally blind, but continued to
preach and lecture till his death on the 13th of August 1617.

  His many works include commentaries on various books of the Old and
  New Testament, _Theologica theoremata el problemata_ (1588), and a
  collection of patristic literature entitled _Monumenta S. patrum
  orthodoxographa_ (2 vols., fol., 1569).



GRYNAEUS, SIMON (1493-1541), German scholar and theologian of the
Reformation, son of Jacob Gryner, a Swabian peasant, was born in 1493 at
Vehringen, in Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. He adopted the name Grynaeus
from the epithet of Apollo in Virgil. He was a schoolfellow with
Melanchthon at Pforzheim, whence he went to the university of Vienna,
distinguishing himself there as a Latinist and Grecian. His appointment
as rector of a school at Buda was of no long continuance; his views
excited the zeal of the Dominicans and he was thrown into prison.
Gaining his freedom at the instance of Hungarian magnates, he visited
Melanchthon at Wittenberg, and in 1524 became professor of Greek at the
university of Heidelberg, being in addition professor of Latin from
1526. His Zwinglian view of the Eucharist disturbed his relations with
his Catholic colleagues. From 1526 he had corresponded with
Oecolampadius, who in 1529 invited him to Basel, which Erasmus had just
left. The university being disorganized, Grynaeus pursued his studies,
and in 1531 visited England for research in libraries. A commendatory
letter from Erasmus gained him the good offices of Sir Thomas More. He
returned to Basel charged with the task of collecting the opinions of
continental reformers on the subject of Henry VIII.'s divorce, and was
present at the death of Oecolampadius (Nov. 24, 1531). He now, while
holding the chair of Greek, was appointed extraordinary professor of
theology, and gave exegetical lectures on the New Testament. In 1534
Duke Ulrich called him to Württemberg in aid of the reformation there,
as well as for the reconstitution of the university of Tübingen, which
he carried out in concert with Ambrosius Blarer of Constanz. Two years
later he had an active hand in the so-called First Helvetic Confession
(the work of Swiss divines at Basel in January 1536); also in the
conferences which urged the Swiss acceptance of the Wittenberg Concord
(1536). At the Worms conference (1540) between Catholics and Protestants
he was the sole representative of the Swiss churches, being deputed by
the authorities of Basel. He was carried off suddenly in his prime by
the plague at Basel on the 1st of August 1541. A brilliant scholar, a
mediating theologian, and personally of lovable temperament, his
influence was great and wisely exercised. Erasmus and Calvin were among
his correspondents. His chief works were Latin versions of Plutarch,
Aristotle and Chrysostom.

His son SAMUEL (1539-1599) was professor of jurisprudence at Basel. His
nephew THOMAS (1512?-1564) was professor at Basel and minister in Baden,
and left four distinguished sons of whom JOHANN JAKOB (1540-1617) was a
leader in the religious affairs of Basel. The last of the direct
descendants of Simon Grynaeus was his namesake SIMON (1725-1799),
translator into German of French and English anti-deistical works, and
author of a version of the Bible in modern German (1776).

  See Bayle's _Dictionnaire_; W. T. Streuber in Hauck's
  _Realencyklopädie_ (1899); and for bibliography, Streuber's _S.
  Grynaei epistolae_ (1847).     (A. Go.*)



GRYPHIUS, ANDREAS (1616-1664), German lyric poet and dramatist, was born
on the 11th of October 1616, at Grossglogau in Silesia, where his father
was a clergyman. The family name was Greif, latinized, according to the
prevailing fashion, as Gryphius. Left early an orphan and driven from
his native town by the troubles of the Thirty Years' War, he received
his schooling in various places, but notably at Fraustadt, where he
enjoyed an excellent classical education. In 1634 he became tutor to the
sons of the eminent jurist Georg von Schönborn (1579-1637), a man of
wide culture and considerable wealth, who, after filling various
administrative posts and writing many erudite volumes on law, had been
rewarded by the emperor Ferdinand II. with the title and office of
imperial count-palatine (_Pfalzgraf_). Schönborn, who recognized
Gryphius's genius, crowned him _poëta laureatus_, gave him the diploma
of master of philosophy, and bestowed on him a patent of nobility,
though Gryphius never used the title. A month later, on the 23rd of
December 1637, Schönborn died; and next year Gryphius went to continue
his studies at Leiden, where he remained six years, both hearing and
delivering lectures. Here he fell under the influence of the great Dutch
dramatists, Pieter Cornelissen Hooft (1581-1647) and Joost van den
Vondel (1587-1679), who largely determined the character of his later
dramatic works. After travelling in France, Italy and South Germany,
Gryphius settled in 1647 at Fraustadt, where he began his dramatic work,
and in 1650 was appointed syndic of Glogau, a post he held until his
death on the 16th of July 1664. A short time previously he had been
admitted under the title of "The Immortal" into the _Fruchtbringende
Gesellschaft_, a literary society, founded in 1617 by Ludwig, prince of
Anhalt-Köthen on the model of the Italian academies.

Gryphius was a man of morbid disposition, and his melancholy
temperament, fostered by the misfortunes of his childhood, is largely
reflected in his lyrics, of which the most famous are the
_Kirchhofsgedanken_ (1656). His best works are his comedies, one of
which, _Absurda Comica, oder Herr Peter Squentz_ (1663), is evidently
based on the comic episode of Pyramus and Thisbe in _The Midsummer
Night's Dream_. _Die geliebte Dornrose_ (1660), which is written in a
Silesian dialect, contains many touches of natural simplicity and grace,
and ranks high among the comparatively small number of German dramas of
the 17th century. _Horribilicribrifax_ (1663), founded on the _Miles
gloriosus_ of Plautus, is a rather laboured attack on pedantry. Besides
these three comedies, Gryphius wrote five tragedies. In all of them his
tendency is to become wild and bombastic, but he had the merit of at
least attempting to work out artistically conceived plans, and there are
occasional flashes both of passion and of imagination. His models seem
to have been Seneca and Vondel. He had the courage, in _Carolus
Stuardus_ (1649) to deal with events of his own day; his other tragedies
are _Leo Armenius_ (1646); _Katharina von Georgien_ (1657), _Cardenio
und Celinde_ (1657) and _Papinianus_ (1663). No German dramatic writer
before him had risen to so high a level, nor had he worthy successors
until about the middle of the 18th century.

  A complete edition of Gryphius's dramas and lyric poetry has been
  published by H. Palm in the series of the Stuttgart Literarische
  Verein (3 vols., 1878, 1882, 1884). Volumes of selected works will be
  found in W. Muller's _Bibliothek der deutschen Dichter des 17ten
  Jahrhunderts_ (1822) and in J. Tittmann's _Deutsche Dichter des 17ten
  Jahrhunderts_ (1870). There is also a good selection by H. Palm in
  Kürschner's _Deutsche Nationalliteratur_.

  See O. Klopp, _Andreas Gryphius als Dramatiker_ (1851); J. Hermann,
  _Über Andreas Gryphius_ (1851); T. Wissowa, _Beiträge zur Kenntnis von
  Andreas Gryphius' Leben und Schriften_ (1876); J. Wysocki, _Andreas
  Gryphius et la tragédie allemande au XVII^e siècle_; and V.
  Mannheimer, _Die Lyrik des Andreas Gryphius_ (1904).



GUACHARO (said to be an obsolete Spanish word signifying one that cries,
moans or laments loudly), the Spanish-American name of what English
writers call the oil-bird, the _Steatornis caripensis_ of
ornithologists, a very remarkable bird, first described by Alexander von
Humboldt (_Voy. aux rég. équinoxiales_ i. 413, Eng. trans. iii. 119;
_Obs. Zoologie_ ii. 141, pl. xliv.) from his own observation and from
examples obtained by Aimé J. A. Bonpland, on the visit of those two
travellers, in September 1799, to a cave near Caripé (at that time a
monastery of Aragonese Capuchins) some forty miles S.E. of Cumaná on the
northern coast of South America. A few years later it was discovered,
says Latham (_Gen. Hist. Birds_, 1823, vii. 365), to inhabit Trinidad,
where it appears to bear the name of _Diablotin_;[1] but by the receipt
of specimens procured at Sarayacu in Peru, Cajamarca in the Peruvian
Andes, and Antioquia in Colombia (_Proc. Zool. Society_, 1878, pp. 139,
140; 1879, p. 532), its range has been shown to be much greater than had
been supposed. The singularity of its structure, its curious habits, and
its peculiar economical value have naturally attracted no little
attention from zoologists. First referring it to the genus
_Caprimulgus_, its original describer soon saw that it was no true
goatsucker. It was subsequently separated as forming a subfamily, and
has at last been regarded as the type of a distinct family,
_Steatornithidae_--a view which, though not put forth till 1870 (_Zool.
Record_, vi. 67), seems now to be generally deemed correct. Its
systematic position, however, can scarcely be considered settled, for
though on the whole its predominating alliance may be with the
_Caprimulgidae_, nearly as much affinity may be traced to the
_Strigidae_, while it possesses some characters in which it differs from
both (_Proc. Zool. Society_, 1873, pp. 526-535). About as big as a crow,
its plumage exhibits the blended tints of chocolate-colour and grey,
barred and pencilled with dark-brown or black, and spotted in places
with white, that prevail in the two families just named. The beak is
hard, strong and deeply notched, the nostrils are prominent, and the
gape is furnished with twelve long hairs on each side. The legs and toes
are comparatively feeble, but the wings are large. In habits the
guacharo is wholly nocturnal, slumbering by day in deep and dark caverns
which it frequents in vast numbers. Towards evening it arouses itself,
and, with croaking and clattering which has been likened to that of
castanets, it approaches the exit of its retreat, whence at nightfall it
issues in search of its food, which, so far as is known, consists
entirely of oily nuts or fruits, belonging especially to the genera
_Achras_, _Aiphanas_, _Laurus_ and _Psichotria_, some of them sought, it
would seem, at a very great distance, for Funck (_Bull. Acad. Sc.
Bruxelles_ xi. pt. 2, pp. 371-377) states that in the stomach of one he
obtained at Caripé he found the seed of a tree which he believed did not
grow nearer than 80 leagues. The hard, indigestible seed swallowed by
the guacharo are found in quantities on the floor and the ledges of the
caverns it frequents, where many of them for a time vegetate, the plants
thus growing being etiolated from want of light, and, according to
travellers, forming a singular feature of the gloomy scene which these
places present. The guacharo is said to build a bowl-like nest of clay,
in which it lays from two to four white eggs, with a smooth but
lustreless surface, resembling those of some owls. The young soon after
they are hatched become a perfect mass of fat, and while yet in the nest
are sought by the Indians, who at Caripé, and perhaps elsewhere, make a
special business of taking them and extracting the oil they contain.
This is done about midsummer, when by the aid of torches and long poles
many thousands of the young birds are slaughtered, while their parents
in alarm and rage hover over the destroyers' heads, uttering harsh and
deafening cries. The grease is melted over fires kindled at the cavern's
mouth, run into earthen pots, and preserved for use in cooking as well
as for the lighting of lamps. It is said to be pure and limpid, free
from any disagreeable taste or smell, and capable of being kept for a
year without turning rancid. In Trinidad the young are esteemed s great
delicacy for the table by many, though some persons object to their
peculiar scent, which resembles that of a cockroach (_Blatta_), and
consequently refuse to eat them. The old birds also, according to E. C.
Taylor (_Ibis_, 1864, p. 90), have a strong crow-like odour. But one
species of the genus _Steatornis_ is known.

  In addition to the works above quoted valuable information about this
  curious bird may be found under the following references: L'Herminier,
  _Ann. Sc. Nat._ (1836), p. 60, and _Nouv. Ann. Mus._ (1838), p. 321;
  Hautessier, Rev. Zool. (1838), p. 164; J. Müller, _Monatsb. Berl.
  Acad._ (1841), p. 172, and _Archiv für Anat._ (1862), pp. 1-11; des
  Murs, _Rev. zool._ (1843), p. 32, and _Ool. Orn._ pp. 260-263;
  Blanchard, _Ann. Mus._ (1859), xi. pl. 4, fig. 30; König-Warthausen,
  _Journ. für Orn._ (1868), pp. 384-387; Goering, _Vargasia_ (1869), pp.
  124-128; Murie, _Ibis_ (1873), pp. 81-86.     (A. N.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Not to be confounded with the bird so called in the French
    Antilles, which is a petrel (_Oestrelata_).



GUACO, HUACO or GUAO, also Vejuco and Bejuco, terms applied to various
Central and South American and West Indian plants, in repute for
curative virtues. The Indians and negroes of Colombia believe the plants
known to them as guaco to have been so named after a species of kite,
thus designated in imitation of its cry, which they say attracts to it
the snakes that serve it principally for food; they further hold the
tradition that their antidotal qualities were discovered through the
observation that the bird eats of their leaves, and even spreads the
juice of the same on its wings, during contests with its prey. The
disputes that have arisen as to what is "the true guaco" are to be
attributed mainly to the fact that the names of the American Indians for
all natural objects are generic, and their genera not always in
coincidence with those of naturalists. Thus any twining plant with a
heart-shaped leaf, white and green above and purple beneath, is called
by them guaco (R. Spruce, in Howard's _Neueva Quinologia_, "Cinchona
succirubra," p. 22, note). What is most commonly recognized in Colombia
as guaco, or _Vejuco del guaco_, would appear to be _Mikania Guaco_
(Humboldt and Bonpland, _Pl. équinox_, ii. 84, pl. 105, 1809), a
climbing Composite plant of the tribe _Eupatoriaceae_, affecting moist
and shady situations, and having a much-branched and deep-growing root,
variegated, serrate, opposite leaves and dull-white flowers, in axillary
clusters. The whole plant emits a disagreeable odour. It is stated that
the Indians of Central America, after having "guaconized" themselves,
i.e. taken guaco, catch with impunity the most dangerous snakes, which
writhe in their hands as though touched by a hot iron (B. Seemann,
_Hooker's Journ. of Bot._ v. 76, 1853). The odour alone of guaco has
been said to cause in snakes a state of stupor and torpidity; and
Humboldt, who observed that the near approach of a rod steeped in
guaco-juice was obnoxious to the venomous _Coluber corallinus_, was of
opinion that inoculation with it imparts to the perspiration an odour
which makes reptiles unwilling to bite. The drug is not used in modern
therapeutics.



GUADALAJARA, an inland city of Mexico and capital of the state of
Jalisco, 275 m. (direct) W.N.W. of the Federal capital, in lat. 20° 41´
10´´ N., long. 103° 21´ 15´´ W. Pop. (1895) 83,934; (1900) 101,208.
Guadalajara is served by a short branch of the Mexican Central railway
from Irapuato. The city is in the Antemarac valley near the Rio Grande
de Santiago, 5092 ft. above sea-level. Its climate is dry, mild and
healthy, though subject to sudden changes. The city is well built, with
straight and well-paved streets, numerous plazas, public gardens and
shady promenades. Its public services include tramways and electric
lighting, the Juanacatlán falls of the Rio Grande near the city
furnishing the electric power. Guadalajara is an episcopal see, and its
cathedral, built between 1571 and 1618, is one of the largest and most
elaborately decorated churches in Mexico. The government palace, which
like the cathedral faces upon the _plaza mayor_, is generally considered
one of the finest specimens of Spanish architecture in Mexico. Other
important edifices and institutions are the university, with its schools
of law and medicine, the mint, built in 1811, the modern national
college and high schools, a public library of over 28,000 volumes, an
episcopal seminary, an academy of fine arts, the Teatro Degollado, and
the large modern granite building of the penitentiary. There are many
interesting churches and eleven conventual establishments in the city.
Charitable institutions of a high character are also prominent, among
which are the Hospicio, which includes an asylum for the aged, infirm,
blind, deaf and dumb, foundlings and orphans, a primary school for both
sexes, and a girls' training school, and the Hospital de San Miguel de
Belen, which is a hospital, an insane asylum, and a school for little
children. One of the most popular public resorts of the city is the
_Paseo_, a beautiful drive and promenade extending along both banks of
the Rio San Juan de Dios for 1¼ m. and terminating in the _alameda_, or
public garden. The city has a good water-supply, derived from springs
and brought in through an aqueduct 8 m. long. Guadalajara is surrounded
by a fertile agricultural district and is an important commercial town,
but the city is chiefly distinguished as the centre of the iron, steel
and glass industries of Mexico. It is also widely known for the artistic
pottery manufactured by the Indians of the city and of its suburb, San
Pedro. Among other prominent industries are the manufacture of cotton
and woollen goods, leather, furniture, hats and sweetmeats. Guadalajara
was founded in 1531 by Nuño de Guzman, and became the seat of a bishop
in 1549. The Calderon bridge near the city was the scene of a serious
defeat of the revolutionists under Hidalgo in January 1811. The severe
earthquake of the 31st of May 1818 partially destroyed the two cathedral
steeples; and that of the 11th of March 1875 damaged many of the larger
buildings. The population includes large Indian and mestizo elements.



GUADALAJARA, a province of central Spain, formed in 1833 of districts
taken from New Castile; bounded on the N. by Segovia, Soria and
Saragossa, E. by Saragossa and Teruel, S. by Cuenca and W. by Madrid.
Pop. (1900) 200,186; area, 4676 sq. m. Along the northern frontier of
Guadalajara rise the lofty Guadarrama mountains, culminating in the
peaks of La Cebollera (6955 ft.) and Ocejon (6775 ft.); the rest of the
province, apart from several lower ranges in the east, belongs to the
elevated plateau of New Castile, and has a level or slightly undulating
surface, which forms the upper basin of the river Tagus, and is watered
by its tributaries the Tajuña, Henares, Jarama and Gallo. The climate of
this region, as of Castile generally, is marked by the extreme severity
of its winter cold and summer heat; the soil varies very much in
quality, but is fertile enough in many districts, notably the cornlands
of the Alcarria, towards the south. Few of the cork and oak forests
which formerly covered the mountains have escaped destruction; and the
higher tracts of land are mainly pasture for the sheep and goats which
form the principal wealth of the peasantry. Grain, olive oil, wine,
saffron, silk and flax are produced, but agriculture makes little
progress, owing to defective communications and unscientific farming. In
1903, the only minerals worked were common salt and silver, and the
total output of the mines was valued at £25,000. Deposits of iron, lead
and gold also exist and were worked by the Romans; but their
exploitation proved unprofitable when renewed in the 19th century. Trade
is stagnant and the local industries are those common to almost all
Spanish towns and villages, such as the manufacture of coarse cloth and
pottery. The Madrid-Saragossa railway traverses the province for 70 m.;
the roads are ill-kept and insufficient. Guadalajara (11,144) is the
capital, and the only town with more than 5000 inhabitants; Molina de
Aragon, a fortified town built at the foot of the Parameras de Molina
(2500-3500 ft.), and on the right bank of the Gallo, a tributary of the
Tagus, is of some importance as an agricultural centre. Siguënza, on the
railway, is an episcopal city, with a fine Romanesque cathedral dating
from the 11th century. It is probably the ancient _Segontia_, founded in
218 B.C. by refugees from Saguntum. The population of the province,
which numbers only 42 per sq. m., decreased slightly between 1870 and
1900, and extreme poverty compels many families to emigrate (see also
CASTILE).



GUADALAJARA, the capital of the Spanish province of Guadalajara, on the
left bank of the river Henares, and on the Madrid-Saragossa railway, 35
m. E.N.E. of Madrid. Pop. (1900) 11,144. Guadalajara is a picturesque
town, occupying a somewhat sterile plain, 2100 ft. above the sea. A
Roman aqueduct and the Roman foundations of the bridge built in 1758
across the Henares bear witness to its antiquity. Under Roman and
Visigothic rule it was known as _Arriaca_ or _Caraca_; its present name,
which sometimes appears in medieval chronicles as _Godelfare_,
represents the _Wad-al-hajarah_, or "Valley of Stones," of the Moors,
who occupied the town from 714 until 1081, when it was captured by Alvar
Yañez de Minaya, a comrade of the more famous Cid. The church of Santa
Maria contains the image of the "Virgin of Battles," which accompanied
Alphonso VI. of Castile (1072-1109) on his campaigns against the Moors;
and there are several other ancient and interesting churches in
Guadalajara, besides two palaces, dating from the 15th century, and
built with that blend of Christian and Moorish architecture which
Spaniards call the _Mudéjar_ style. The more important of these is the
palace of the ducal house del Infantado, formerly owned by the Mendoza
family, whose _panteon_, or mausoleum, added between 1696 and 1720 to
the 13th-century church of San Francisco, is remarkable for the rich
sculpture of its tombs. The town and provincial halls date from 1585,
and the college of engineers was originally built by Philip V., early in
the 18th century, as a cloth factory. Manufactures of soap, leather,
woollen fabrics and bricks have superseded the original cloth-weaving
industry for which Guadalajara was long celebrated; there is also a
considerable trade in agricultural produce.



GUADALQUIVIR (ancient _Baetis_, Moorish _Wadi al Kebir_, "the Great
River"), a river of southern Spain. What is regarded as the main stream
rises 4475 ft. above sea-level between the Sierra de Cazorla and Sierra
del Pozo, in the province of Jaen. It does not become a large river
until it is joined by the Guadiana Menor (Guadianamenor) on the left,
and the Guadalimar on the right. Lower down it receives many
tributaries, the chief being the Genil or Jenil, from the left. The
general direction of the river is west by south, but a few miles above
Seville it changes to south by west. Below Coria it traverses the series
of broad fens known as Las Marismas, the greatest area of swamp in the
Iberian Peninsula. Here it forms two subsidiary channels, the western 31
m., the eastern 12 m. long, which rejoin the main stream on the borders
of the province of Cadiz. Below Sanlúcar the river enters the Atlantic
after a total course of 360 m. It drains an area of 21,865 sq. m. Though
the shortest of the great rivers of the peninsula, it is the only one
which flows at all seasons with a full stream, being fed in winter by
the rains, in summer by the melted snows of the Sierra Nevada. In the
time of the Moors it was navigable up to Cordova, but owing to the
accumulation of silt in its lower reaches it is now only navigable up to
Seville by vessels of 1200 to 1500 tons.



GUADELOUPE, a French colony in the West Indies, lying between the
British islands of Montserrat on the N., and Dominica on the S., between
15° 59´ and 16° 20´ N. and 61° 31´ and 61° 50´ W. It consists of two
entirely distinct islands, separated by a narrow arm of the sea, Rivière
Salée (Salt river), varying from 100 ft. to 400 ft. in width and
navigable for small vessels. The western island, a rugged mass of
ridges, peaks and lofty uplands, is called Basse-Terre, while the
eastern and smaller island, the real low-land, is known as Grande-Terre.
A sinuous ridge runs through Basse-Terre from N. to S. In the north-west
rises the peak of Grosse Montagne (2370 ft.), from which sharp spurs
radiate in all directions; near the middle of the west coast are the
twin heights of Les Mamelles (2536 ft. and 2368 ft.). Farther south the
highest elevation is attained in La Soufrière (4900 ft.). In 1797 this
volcano was active, and in 1843 its convulsions laid several towns in
ruins; but a few thermal springs and solfataras emitting vapour are now
its only signs of activity. The range terminates in the extreme south in
the jagged peak of Caraibe (2300 ft.). Basse-Terre is supremely
beautiful, its cloud-capped mountains being clothed with a mantle of
luxuriant vegetation. On Grande-Terre the highest elevation is only 450
ft., and this island is the seat of extensive sugar plantations. It
consists of a plain composed mainly of limestone and a conglomerate of
sand and broken shells known as _maconne de bon dieu_, much used for
building. The bay between the two sections of Guadeloupe on the north is
called Grand Cul-de-Sac Marin, that on the south being Petit Cul-de-Sac
Marin. Basse-Terre (364 sq. m.) is 28 m. long by 12 m. to 15 m. wide;
Grande-Terre (255 sq. m.) is 22 m. long from N. to S., of irregular
shape, with a long peninsula, Chateaux Point, stretching from the
south-eastern extremity. Basse-Terre is watered by a considerable number
of streams, most of which in the rainy season are liable to sudden
floods (locally called _galions_), but Grande-Terre is practically
destitute of springs, and the water-supply is derived almost entirely
from ponds and cisterns.

The west half of the island consists of a foundation of old eruptive
rocks upon which rest the recent accumulations of the great volcanic
cones, together with mechanical deposits derived from the denudation of
the older rocks. Grande-Terre on the other hand, consists chiefly of
nearly horizontal limestones lying conformably upon a series of fine
tuffs and ashes, the whole belonging to the early part of the Tertiary
system (probably Eocene and Oligocene). Occasional deposits of marl and
limestone of late Pliocene age rest unconformably upon these older beds;
and near the coast there are raised coral reefs of modern date.

The mean annual temperature is 78° F., and the minimum 61° F., and the
maximum 101° F. From July to November heavy rains fall, the annual
average on the coast being 86 in., while in the interior it is much
greater. Guadeloupe is subject to terrible storms. In 1825 a hurricane
destroyed the town of Basse-Terre, and Grand Bourg in Marie Galante
suffered a like fate in 1865. The soil is rich and fruitful, sugar
having long been its staple product. The other crops include cereals,
cocoa, cotton, manioc, yams and rubber; tobacco, vanilla, coffee and
bananas are grown, but in smaller quantities. Over 30% of the total area
is under cultivation, and of this more than 50% is under sugar. The
centres of this industry are St Anne, Pointe-à-Pitre and Le Moule, where
there are well-equipped _usines_, and there is also a large _usine_ at
Basse-Terre. The forests, confined to the island of Basse-Terre, are
extensive and rich in valuable woods, but, being difficult of access,
are not worked. Salt and sulphur are the only minerals extracted, and in
addition to the sugar _usines_, there are factories for the making of
rum, liqueurs, chocolate, besides fruit-canning works and tanneries.
France takes most of the exports; and next to France, the United States,
Great Britain and India are the countries most interested in the import
trade.

The inhabitants of Guadeloupe consist of a few white officials and
planters, a few East Indian immigrants from the French possessions in
India, and the rest negroes and mulattoes. These mulattoes are famous
for their grace and beauty of both form and feature. The women greatly
outnumber the men, and there is a very large percentage of illegitimate
births. Pop. (1900) 182,112.

The governor is assisted by a privy council, a director of the interior,
a procurator-general and a paymaster, and there is also an elected
legislative council of 30 members. The colony forms a department of
France and is represented in the French parliament by a senator and two
deputies. Political elections are very eagerly contested, the mulatto
element always striving to gain the preponderance of power.

The seat of government, of the Apostolic administration and of the court
of appeal is at Basse-Terre (7762), which is situated on the south-west
coast of the island of that name. It is a picturesque, healthy town
standing on an open roadstead. Pointe-à-Pitre (17,242), the largest
town, lies in Grande-Terre near the mouth of the Rivière Salée. Its
excellent harbour has made it the chief port and commercial capital of
the colony. Le Moule (10,378) on the east coast of Grande-Terre does a
considerable export trade in sugar, despite its poor harbour. Of the
other towns, St Anne (9497), Morne à l'Eau (8442), Petit Canal (6748),
St François (5265), Petit Bourg (5110) and Trois Rivières (5016), are
the most important.

Round Guadeloupe are grouped its dependencies, namely, La Desirade, 6 m.
E., a narrow rugged island 10 sq. m. in area; Marie Galante 16 m. S.E.
Les Saintes, a group of seven small islands, 7 m. S., one of the
strategic points of the Antilles, with a magnificent and strongly
fortified naval harbour; St Martin, 142 m. N.N.W.; and St Bartholomew,
130 m. N.N.W.

_History._--Guadeloupe was discovered by Columbus in 1493, and received
its name in honour of the monastery of S. Maria de Guadalupe at
Estremadura in Spain. In 1635 l'Olive and Duplessis took possession of
it in the name of the French Company of the Islands of America, and
l'Olive exterminated the Caribs with great cruelty. Four chartered
companies were ruined in their attempts to colonize the island, and in
1674 it passed into the possession of the French crown and long remained
a dependency of Martinique. After unsuccessful attempts in 1666, 1691
and 1703, the British captured the island in 1759, and held it for four
years. Guadeloupe was finally separated from Martinique in 1775, but it
remained under the governor of the French Windward Islands. In 1782
Rodney defeated the French fleet near the island, and the British again
obtained possession in April 1794, but in the following summer they were
driven out by Victor Hugues with the assistance of the slaves whom he
had liberated for the purpose. In 1802 Bonaparte, then first consul,
sent an expedition to the island in order to re-establish slavery, but,
after a heroic defence, many of the negroes preferred suicide to
submission. During the Hundred Days in 1810, the British once more
occupied the island, but, in spite of its cession to Sweden by the
treaty of 1813 and a French invasion in 1814, they did not withdraw till
1816. Between 1816 and 1825 the code of laws peculiar to the island was
introduced. Municipal institutions were established in 1837; and slavery
was finally abolished in 1848.



GUADET, MARGUERITE ÉLIE (1758-1794), French Revolutionist, was born at
St Émilion near Bordeaux on the 20th of July 1758. When the Revolution
broke out he had already gained a reputation as a brilliant advocate at
Bordeaux. In 1790 he was made administrator of the Gironde and in 1791
president of the criminal tribunal. In this year he was elected to the
Legislative Assembly as one of the brilliant group of deputies known
subsequently as Girondins or Girondists. As a supporter of the
constitution of 1791 he joined the Jacobin club, and here and in the
Assembly became an eloquent advocate of all the measures directed
against real or supposed traitors to the constitution. He bitterly
attacked the ministers of Louis XVI., and was largely instrumental in
forcing the king to accept the Girondist ministry of the 15th of March
1792. He was an ardent advocate of the policy of forcing Louis XVI.
into harmony with the Revolution; moved (May 3) for the dismissal of the
king's non-juring confessor, for the banishment of all non-juring
priests (May 16), for the disbandment of the royal guard (May 30), and
the formation in Paris of a camp of _fédérés_ (June 4). He remained a
royalist, however, and with Gensonné and Vergniaud even addressed a
letter to the king soliciting a private interview. Whatever negotiations
may have resulted, however, were cut short by the insurrection of the
10th of August. Guadet, who presided over the Assembly during part of
this fateful day, put himself into vigorous opposition to the
insurrectionary Commune of Paris, and it was on his motion that on the
30th of August the Assembly voted its dissolution--a decision reversed
on the following day. In September Guadet was returned by a large
majority as deputy to the Convention. At the trial of Louis XVI. he
voted for an appeal to the people and for the death sentence, but with a
respite pending appeal. In March 1793 he had several conferences with
Danton, who was anxious to bring about a _rapprochement_ between the
Girondists and the Mountain during the war in La Vendée, but he
unconditionally refused to join hands with the man whom he held
responsible for the massacres of September. Involved in the fall of the
Girondists, and his arrest being decreed on the 2nd of June 1793, he
fled to Caen, and afterwards hid in his father's house at St Émilion. He
was discovered and taken to Bordeaux, where, after his identity had been
established, he was guillotined on the 17th of June 1794.

  See J. Guadet, _Les Girondins_ (Paris, 1889); and F. A. Aulard, _Les
  Orateurs de la législative et de la convention_ (Paris, 2nd ed.,
  1906).



GUADIANA (anc. _Anas_, Moorish _Wadi Ana_), a river of Spain and
Portugal. The Guadiana was long believed to rise in the lowland known as
the Campo de Montiel, where a chain of small lakes, the Lagunas de
Ruidera (partly in Ciudad Real, partly in Albacete), are linked together
by the Guadiana Alto or Upper Guadiana. This stream flows north-westward
from the last lake and vanishes underground within 3 m. of the river
Zancara or Giguela. About 22 m. S.W. of the point of disappearance, the
Guadiana Alto was believed to re-emerge in the form of several large
springs, which form numerous lakes near the Zancara and are known as the
"eyes of the Guadiana" (_los ojos de Guadiana_). The stream which
connects them with the Zancara is called the Guadiana Bajo or Lower
Guadiana. It is now known that the Guadiana Alto has no such course, but
flows underground to the Zancara itself, which is the true "Upper
Guadiana." The Zancara rises near the source of the Júcar, in the east
of the tableland of La Mancha; thence it flows westward, assuming the
name of Guadiana near Ciudad Real, and reaching the Portuguese frontier
6 m. S.W. of Badajoz. In piercing the Sierra Morena it forms a series of
foaming rapids, and only begins to be navigable at Mertola, 42 m. from
its mouth. From the neighbourhood of Badajoz it forms the boundary
between Spain and Portugal as far as a point near Monsaraz, where it
receives the small river Priega Muñoz on the left, and passes into
Portuguese territory, with a southerly direction. At Pomarão it again
becomes a frontier stream and forms a broad estuary 25 m. long. It
enters the Gulf of Cadiz between the Portuguese town of Villa Real de
Santo Antonio and the Spanish Ayamonte, after a total course of 510 m.
Its mouth is divided by sandbanks into many channels. The Guadiana
drains an area of 31,940 sq. m. Its principal tributaries are the Zujar,
Jabalón, Matachel and Ardila from the left; the Bullaque, Ruecas, Botoa,
Degebe and Cobres from the right.

The GUADIANA MENOR (or _Guadianamenor_, i.e. "Lesser Guadiana") rises in
the Sierra Nevada, receives two large tributaries, the Fardes from the
right and Barbata from the left, and enters the Guadalquivir near Ubeda,
after a course of 95 m.



GUADIX, a city of southern Spain, in the province of Granada; on the
left bank of the river Guadix, a subtributary of the Guadiana Menor, and
on the Madrid-Valdepeñas-Almería railway. Pop. (1900) 12,652. Guadix
occupies part of an elevated plateau among the northern foothills of the
Sierra Nevada. It is surrounded by ancient walls, and was formerly
dominated by a Moorish castle, now in ruins. It is an episcopal see of
great antiquity, but its cathedral, built in the 18th century on the
site of a mosque, possesses little architectural merit. The city was
once famous for its cutlery; but its modern manufactures (chiefly
earthenware, hempen goods, and hats) are inconsiderable. It has some
trade in wool, cotton, flax, corn and liqueurs. The warm mineral springs
of Graena, much frequented during the summer, are 6 m. W. Guadix el
Viejo, 5 m. N.W., was the Roman _Acci_, and, according to tradition, the
seat of the first Iberian bishopric, in the 2nd century. After 711 it
rose to some importance as a Moorish fortress and trading station, and
was renamed _Wad Ash_, "Water of Life." It was surrendered without a
siege to the Spaniards, under Ferdinand and Isabella, in 1489.



GUADUAS, a town of the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia, 53 m. N.W.
of Bogotá on the old road between that city and the Magdalena river port
of Honda. Pop. (1900, estimate) 9000, chiefly Indians or of mixed blood.
It stands in a narrow and picturesque valley formed by spurs of the
Eastern Cordillera, and on a small stream bearing the same name, which
is that of the South American bamboo (_guaduas_), found in great
abundance along its banks. Sugar-cane and coffee are cultivated in the
vicinity, and fruits of various kinds are produced in great abundance.
The elevation of the town is 3353 ft. above the sea, and it has a
remarkably uniform temperature throughout the whole year. Guaduas has a
pretty church facing upon its _plaza_, and an old monastery now used for
secular purposes. The importance of the town sprang from its position on
the old _camino real_ between Bogotá and Honda, an importance that has
passed away with the completion of the railway from Girardot to the
Bogotá plateau. Guaduas was founded in 1614.



GUAIACUM, a genus of trees of the natural order _Zygophyllaceae_. The
guaiacum or lignum-vitae tree (Ger. _Guajakbaum_, _Franzosenbaum_,
_Pockenholzbaum_; Fr. _Gayac_, _Gaïac_), _G. officinale_, is a native of
the West Indies and the north coast of South America, where it attains a
height of 20 to 30 ft. Its branches are numerous, flexuous and knotted;
the leaves opposite and pinnate, with caducous (falling early) stipules,
and entire, glabrous, obovate or oval leaflets, arranged in 2 or, more
rarely, 3 pairs; the flowers are in axillary clusters (cymes), and have
5 oval pubescent sepals, 5 distinct pale-blue petals three times the
length of the sepals, 10 stamens, and a 2-celled superior ovary. The
fruit is about ¾ in. long, with a leathery pericarp, and contains in
each of its two cells a single seed (see fig.). _G. sanctum_ grows in
the Bahamas and Cuba, and at Key West in Florida. It is distinguished
from _G. officinale_ by its smaller and narrow leaflets, which are in 4
to 5 pairs, by its shorter and glabrous sepals, and 5-celled and
5-winged fruit. _G. arboreum_, the guaiacum tree of Colombia, is found
in the valley of the Magdalena up to altitudes 800 metres (2625 ft.)
above sea-level, and reaches considerable dimensions. Its wood is of a
yellow colour merging into green, and has an almost pulverulent
fracture; the flowers are yellow and conspicuous; and the fruit is dry
and 4-winged.

The lignum vitae of commerce, so named on account of its high repute as
a medicinal agent in past times, when also it was known as _lignum
sanctum_ and _lignum Indicum_, _lignum guaycanum_, or simply _guayacan_,
is procured from _G. officinale_, and in smaller amount from _G.
sanctum_. It is exported in large logs or blocks, generally divested of
bark, and presents in transverse section very slightly marked concentric
rings of growth, and scarcely any traces of pith; with the aid of a
magnifying glass the medullary rays are seen to be equidistant and very
numerous. The outer wood, the sapwood or alburnum, is of a pale yellow
hue, and devoid of resin; the inner, the heartwood or duramen, which is
by far the larger proportion, is of a dark greenish-brown, contains in
its pores 26% of resin, and has a specific gravity of 1.333, and
therefore sinks in water on which the alburnum floats. Owing to the
diagonal and oblique arrangement of the successive layers of its fibres,
the wood cannot be split; and on account of its hardness, density and
durability it is much valued for the manufacture of ships' pulleys,
rulers, skittle-balls, mallets and other articles.

[Illustration: From Bentley & Trimen's _Medicinal Plants_, by permission
of J. & A. Churchill.

Guaiacum or Lignum Vitae, _Guaiacum officinale_ shoot-bearing leaves and
flowers. 1, Fruit; 2, Vertical section of fruit, showing the solitary
pendulous seed in each chamber. All about ½ natural size.]

Chips or turnings of the heartwood of _G. officinale_ (_guaiaci lignum_)
are employed in the preparation of the _liquor sarsae compositus
concentratus_ of British pharmacy. They may be recognized by being
either yellow of greenish-brown in colour, and by turning bluish-green
when treated with nitric acid, or when heated with corrosive sublimate,
and green with solution of chloride of lime. They are occasionally
adulterated with boxwood shavings. Lignum vitae is imported chiefly from
St Domingo, the Bahamas and Jamaica.

  The bark was formerly used in medicine; it contains much calcium
  oxalate, and yields on incineration 23% of ash. Guaiacum resin, the
  _guaiaci resina_ of pharmacopoeias, is obtained from the wood as an
  exudation from natural fissures or from incisions; by heating billets
  about 3 ft. in length, bored to permit of the outflow of the resin; or
  by boiling chips and raspings in water to which salt has been added to
  raise the temperature of ebullition. It occurs in rounded or oval
  tears, commonly coated with a greyish-green dust, and supposed to be
  the produce of _G. sanctum_, or in large brownish or greenish-brown
  masses, translucent at the edges; fuses at 85° C.; is brittle, and has
  a vitreous fracture, and a slightly balsamic odour, increased by
  pulverization and by heat; and is at first tasteless when chewed, but
  produces subsequently a sense of heat in the throat. It is readily
  soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, creosote, oil of cloves and
  solutions of caustic alkalies; and its solution gives a blue colour
  with gluten, raw potato parings and the roots of horse-radish, carrot
  and various other plants. The alcoholic tincture becomes green with
  sodium hypochlorite, and with nitric acid turns in succession green,
  blue and brown. With glycerin it gives a clear solution, and with
  nitrous ether a bluish-green gelatinous mass. It is blued by various
  oxidizing agents, e.g. ozone, and, as Schönbein discovered, by the
  juice of certain fungi. The chief constituents are three distinct
  resins, _guaiaconic acid_, C19H20O5 (70%), _guaiac acid_, which is
  closely allied to benzoic acid, and _guaiaretic acid_. Like all
  resins, these are insoluble in water, soluble in alkalies, but
  precipitated on neutralization of the alkaline solution.

  Guaiacum wood was first introduced into Europe by the Spaniards in
  1508, and Nicolaus Poll, writing in 1517 (see Luisinus, _De morbo
  gallico_, p. 210, Ven., 1566), states that some three thousand persons
  in Spain had already been restored to health by it. The virtues of the
  resin, however, were not known until a later period, and in Thomas
  Paynel's translation (_Of the Wood called Guaiacum_, &c., p. 9, ed. of
  1540) of Ulrich von Hutten's treatise _De morbi gallici curatione per
  administrationem ligni guaiaci_ (1519) we read of the wood: "There
  followeth fro it, whan it bourneth a gomme, which we yet knowe not,
  for what pourpose it serueth." Flückiger and Hanbury
  (_Pharmacographia_, p. 95) state that the first edition of the _London
  Pharmacopoeia_ in which they find the resin mentioned is that of 1677.
  The decoction of the wood was administered in gout, the stone, palsy,
  leprosy, dropsy, epilepsy, and other diseases, but principally in the
  "morbus gallicus," or syphilis, for which it was reckoned a certain
  specific, insomuch that at first "the physitions wolde not allowe it,
  perceyuynge that theyr profite wolde decay therby" (Paynel, _op. cit._
  p. 8). Minute instructions are given in old works as to the mode of
  administering guaiacum. The patient was confined in a closed and
  heated chamber, was placed on the lowest possible diet, and, after
  liberal purgation, was made twice a day to drink a milk-warm decoction
  of the wood. The use of salt was specially to be avoided. A decoction
  of 1 lb. of guaiacum was held to be sufficient for the four first days
  of the treatment. The earlier opinions as to the efficacy of guaiacum
  came to be much modified in the course of time, and Dr Pearson
  (_Observations on the Effects of Various Articles of the Mat. Med. in
  the Cure of Lues Venerea_, c. i., 2nd ed., 1807) says:--"I never saw
  one single instance in which the powers of this medicine eradicated
  the venereal virus." He found its beneficial effects to be most marked
  in cases of secondary symptoms. Guaiacum resin is given medicinally in
  doses of 5-15 grains. Its important preparations in the British
  Pharmacopoeia are the _mistura guiaci_ (dose ½-1 oz.), the ammoniated
  tincture of guaiacum (dose ½-1 drachm), in which the resin is
  dissolved by means of ammonia, and the trochiscus or lozenge,
  containing 3 grains of the resin. This lozenge is undoubtedly of value
  when given early in cases of sore throat, especially of rheumatic
  origin. Powdered guaiacum is also used.

  Guaiacum resin differs pharmacologically from other resins in being
  less irritant, so that it is absorbed from the bowel and exerts remote
  stimulant actions, notably upon the skin and kidneys. It affects the
  bronchi but slightly, since it contains no volatile oil.

  The drug is useful both in acute and chronic sore throat, the mixture,
  according to Sir Lauder Brunton, being more effective than the
  tincture. The aperient action, which it exerts less markedly than
  other members of its class, renders it useful in the treatment of
  chronic constipation. Sir Alfred Garrod has urged the claims of this
  drug in the treatment of chronic gout. Both in this disease and in
  other forms of chronic arthritis guaiacum may be given in combination
  with iodides, which it often enables the patient to tolerate. Guaiacum
  is not now used in the treatment of syphilis.

  The tincture of guaiacum is universally used as a test for the
  presence of blood, or rather of haemoglobin, the red colouring matter
  of the blood, in urine or other secretions. This test was first
  suggested by Dr John Day of Geelong, Australia. A _single drop_ of the
  tincture should be added to, say, an inch of urine in a test-tube. The
  resin is at once precipitated, yielding a milky fluid. If "ozonic
  ether"--an ethereal solution of hydrogen peroxide--be now poured
  gently into the test-tube, a deep blue coloration is produced along
  the line of contact if haemoglobin be present. The reaction is due to
  the oxidation of the resin by the peroxide of hydrogen--such oxidation
  occurring only if haemoglobin be present to act as an oxygen-carrier.



GUALDO TADINO (anc. _Tadinum_, 1 m. to the W.), a town and episcopal see
of Umbria, Italy, 1755 ft. above sea-level, in the province of Perugia,
22 m. N. of Foligno by rail. Pop. (1901), town, 4440; commune, 10,756.
The suffix Tadino distinguishes it from Gualdo in the province of
Macerata, and Gualdo Cattaneo, S.W. of Foligno. The cathedral has a good
rose-window and possesses, like several of the other churches,
15th-century paintings by Umbrian artists, especially works by Niccolò
Alunno. The town is still surrounded by walls. The ancient Tadinum lay 1
m. to the W. of the modern town. It is mentioned in the Eugubine tablets
(see IGUVIUM) as a hostile city against which imprecations are directed.
In its neighbourhood Narses defeated and slew Totila in 552. No ruins
are now visible, though they seem to have been extant in the 17th
century. The new town seems to have been founded in 1237. It was at
first independent, but passed under Perugia in 1292, and later became
dependent on the duchy of Spoleto.



GUALEGUAY, a flourishing town and river port of the province of Entre
Rios, Argentine Republic, on the Gualeguay river, 32 m. above its
confluence with the Ibicuy branch of the Paraná, and about 120 m. N.N.W.
of Buenos Aires. Pop. (1895) 7810. The Gualeguay is the largest of the
Entre Rios rivers, traversing almost the whole length of the province
from N. to S., but it is of but slight service in the transportation of
produce except the few miles below Gualeguay, whose port, known as
Puerto Ruiz, is 7 m. lower down stream. A steam tramway connects the
town and port, and a branch line connects with Entre Rios railways at
the station of Tala. The principal industry in this region is that of
stock-raising, and there is a large exportation of cattle, jerked beef,
hides, tallow, mutton, wool and sheep-skins. Wood and charcoal are also
exported to Buenos Aires. The town was founded in 1783.



GUALEGUAYCHÚ, a prosperous commercial and industrial town and port of
the province of Entre Rios, Argentine Republic, on the left bank of the
Gualeguaychú river, 11 m. above its confluence with the Uruguay, and 120
m. N. of Buenos Aires. Pop. (1892, est.) 14,000. It is the chief town of
a department of the same name, the largest in the province. A bar at the
mouth of the river prevents the entrance of larger vessels and compels
the transfer of cargoes to and from lighters. The town is surrounded by
a rich grazing country, and exports cattle, jerked beef, mutton, hides,
pelts, tallow, wool and various by-products. A branch line running N.
connects with the Entre Rios railways at Basavilbaso. The town was
founded in 1783.



GUALO, CARDINAL (fl. 1216), was sent to England by Pope Innocent III. in
1216. He supported John with all the weight of papal authority. After
John's death he crowned the infant Henry III. and played an active part
in organizing resistance to the rebels led by Louis of France,
afterwards king Louis VIII. As representing the pope, the suzerain of
Henry, he claimed the regency and actually divided the chief power with
William Marshal, earl of Pembroke. He proclaimed a crusade against Louis
and the French, and, after the peace of Lambeth, he forced Louis to make
a public and humiliating profession of penitence (1217). He punished the
rebellious clergy severely, and ruled the church with an absolute hand
till his departure from England in 1218. Gualo's character has been
severely criticized by English writers; but his chief offence seems to
have been that of representing unpopular papal claims.



GUAM (Span. _Guajan_; _Guahan_, in the native Chamorro), the largest and
most populous of the Ladrone or Mariana Islands, in the North Pacific,
in 13° 26´ N. lat. and 144° 39´ E. long., about 1823 m. E. by S. of Hong
Kong, and about 1450 m. E. of Manila. Pop. (1908) about 11,360, of whom
363 were foreigners, 140 being members of the U.S. naval force. Guam
extends about 30 m. from N.N.E. to S.S.W., has an average width of about
6½ m., and has an area of 207 sq. m. The N. portion is a plateau from
300 to 600 ft. above the sea, lowest in the interior and highest along
the E. and W. coast, where it terminates abruptly in bluffs and
headlands; Mt Santa Rosa, toward the N. extremity, has an elevation of
840 ft. A range of hills from 700 to nearly 1300 ft. in height traverses
the S. portion from N. to S. a little W. of the middle--Mt Jumullong
Mangloc, the highest peak, has an elevation of 1274 ft. Between the foot
of the steep W. slope of these hills and the sea is a belt of rolling
lowlands and to the E. the surface is broken by the valleys of five
rivers with a number of tributaries, has a general slope toward the sea,
and terminates in a coast-line of bluffs. Apra (formerly San Luis
d'Apra) on the middle W. coast is the only good harbour; it is about 3½
m. across, has a depth of 4-27 fathoms, and is divided into an inner and
an outer harbour by a peninsula and an island. It serves as a naval
station and as a port of transit between America and the Philippines, at
which army transports call monthly. Deer, wild hog, duck, curlew, snipe
and pigeon are abundant game, and several varieties of fish are caught.
Some of the highest points of the island are nearly bare of vegetation,
and the more elevated plateau surface is covered with sword grass, but
in the valleys and on the lower portions of the plateaus there is
valuable timber. The lowlands have a rich soil; in lower parts of the
highlands raised coralliferous limestone with a light covering of soil
appears, and in the higher parts the soil is entirely of clay and silt.
The climate is agreeable and healthy. From December to June the N.E.
trade winds prevail and the rainfall is relatively light; during the
other six months the monsoon blows and produces the rainy season.
Destructive typhoons and earthquakes sometimes visit Guam. The island is
thought to possess little if any mineral wealth, with the possible
exception of coal. Only a small part of Guam is under cultivation, and
most of this lies along the S.W. coast, its chief products being
cocoanuts, rice, sugar, coffee and cacao. A United States Agricultural
Experiment Station in Guam (at Agaña) was provided for in 1908.

The inhabitants are of the Chamorro (Indonesian) stock, strongly
intermixed with Philippine Tagals and Spaniards; their speech is a
dialect of Malay, corrupted by Tagal and Spanish. There are very few
full-blood Chamorros. The aboriginal native was of a very dark mahogany
or chocolate colour. A majority of the total number of natives live in
Agaña. The natives are nearly all farmers, and most of them are poor,
but their condition has been improved under American rule. Public
schools have been established; in 1908 the enrolment was 1700. On the
island there is a small colony of lepers, segregated only after American
occupation. Gangrosa is a disease said to be peculiar to Guam and the
neighbouring islands; it is due to a specific bacillus and usually
destroys the nasal septum. The victims of this disease also are
segregated. There is a good general hospital.

Agaña (or San Ignacio de Agaña) is the capital and principal town; under
the Spanish régime it was the capital of the Ladrones. It is about 5 m.
N.E. of Piti, the landing-place of Apra harbour and port of entry, with
which it is connected by an excellent road. Agaña has paved streets and
sewer and water systems. Other villages, all small, are Asan, Piti,
Sumay, Umata, Merizo and Inarajan. Guam is governed by a "naval
governor," an officer of the U.S. navy who is commandant of the naval
station. The island is divided into four administrative districts, each
with an executive head called a gobernadorcillo (commissioner), and
there are a court of appeals, a court of first instance and courts of
justices of the peace. Peonage was abolished in the island by the United
States in February 1900. Telegraphic communication with the Caroline
Islands was established in 1905; in 1908 there were four cables ending
at the relay station at Sumay on the Shore of Apra harbour.

Guam was discovered by Magellan in 1521, was occupied by Spain in 1688,
was captured by the United States cruiser "Charleston" in June 1899, and
was ceded to the United States by the Treaty of Paris on the 10th of
December 1898.

  See _A List of Books (with References to Periodicals) on Samoa and
  Guam_ (1901; issued by the Library of Congress); L. M. Cox, "The
  Island of Guam," in _Bulletin of the American Geographical Society_,
  vol. 36 (New York, 1904); Gen. Joseph Wheeler, _Report on the Island
  of Guam_, June 1900 (War Department, Document No. 123); F. W.
  Christian, _The Caroline Islands_ (London, 1899); an account of the
  flora of Guam by W. E. Safford in the publications of the National
  Herbarium (Smithsonian Institution); and the reports of the naval
  governor.



GUAN, a word apparently first introduced into the ornithologist's
vocabulary about 1743 by Edwards,[1] who said that a bird he figured
(_Nat. Hist. Uncommon Birds_, pl. xiii.) was "so called in the West
Indies," and the name has hence been generally applied to all the
members of the subfamily _Penelopinae_, which are distinguished from the
kindred subfamily _Cracinae_ or curassows by the broad postacetabular
area of the pelvis as pointed out by Huxley (_Proc. Zool. Society_,
1868, p. 297) as well as by their maxilla being wider than it is high,
with its culmen depressed, the crown feathered, and the nostrils
bare--the last two characters separating the _Penelopinae_ from the
_Oreophasinae_, which form the third subfamily of the _Cracidae_,[2] a
family belonging to that taxonomer's division _Peristeropodes_ of the
order _Gallinae_.

The _Penelopinae_ have been separated into seven genera, of which
_Penelope_ and _Ortalis_, containing respectively about sixteen and
nineteen species, are the largest, the others numbering from one to
three only. Into their minute differences it would be useless to enter:
nearly all have the throat bare of feathers, and from that of many of
them hangs a wattle; but one form, _Chamaepetes_, has neither of these
features, and _Stegnolaema_, though wattled, has the throat clothed.
With few exceptions the guans are confined to the South-American
continent; one species of _Penelope_ is however found in Mexico (e.g. at
Mazatlan), _Pipile cumanensis_ inhabits Trinidad as well as the
mainland, while three species of _Ortalis_ occur in Mexico or Texas, and
one, which is also common to Venezuela, in Tobago. Like curassows, guans
are in great measure of arboreal habit. They also readily become tame,
but all attempts to domesticate them in the full sense of the word have
wholly failed, and the cases in which they have even been induced to
breed and the young have been reared in confinement are very few. Yet it
would seem that guans and curassows will interbreed with poultry
(_Ibis_, 1866, p. 24; _Bull. Soc. Imp. d'Acclimatation_, 1868, p. 559;
1869, p. 357), and what is more extraordinary is that in Texas the
hybrids between the chiacalacca (_Ortalis vetula_) and the domestic fowl
are asserted to be far superior to ordinary game-cocks for fighting
purposes.     (A. N.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Edwards also gives "quan" as an alternative spelling, and this
    may be nearer the original form, since we find Dampier in 1676
    writing (Voy. ii. pt. 2, p. 66) of what was doubtless an allied if
    not the same bird as the "quam." The species represented by Edwards
    does not seem to have been identified.

  [2] See the excellent _Synopsis_ by Sclater and Salvin in the
    _Proceedings of the Zoological Society_ for 1870 (pp. 504-544), while
    further information on the Cracinae was given by Sclater in the
    _Transactions_ of the same society (ix. pp. 273-288, pls. xl.-liii.).
    Some additions have since been made to the knowledge of the family,
    but none of very great importance.



GUANABACOA (an Indian name meaning "site of the waters"), a town of
Cuba, in Havana province, about 6 m. E. of Havana. Pop. (1907) 14,368.
Guanabacoa is served by railway to Havana, with which it is connected by
the Regla ferry across the bay. It is picturesquely situated amid woods,
on high hills which furnish a fine view. There are medicinal springs in
the town, and deposits of liquid bitumen in the neighbouring hills. The
town is essentially a residence suburb of the capital, and has some
rather pretty streets and squares and some old and interesting churches
(including Nuestra Señora de la Asuncion, 1714-1721). Just outside the
city is the church of Potosi with a famous "wonder-working" shrine and
image. An Indian pueblo of the same name existed here before 1555, and a
church was established in 1576. Already at the end of the 17th century
Guanabacoa was the fashionable summer residence of Havana. It enjoyed
its greatest popularity in this respect from the end of the 18th to the
middle of the 19th century. It was created a _villa_ with an
_ayuntamiento_ (city council) in 1743. In 1762 its fort, the Little
Morro, on the N. shore near Cojimar (a bathing beach, where the Key West
cable now lands), was taken by the English.



GUANACO, sometimes spelt Huanaca, the larger of the two wild
representatives in South America of the camel tribe; the other being the
vicugña. The guanaco (_Lama huanacus_), which stands nearly 4 ft. at the
shoulder, is an elegant creature, with gracefully curved neck and long
slender legs, the hind-pair of the latter bearing two naked patches or
callosities. The head and body are covered with long soft hair of a fawn
colour above and almost pure white beneath. Guanaco are found throughout
the southern half of South America, from Peru in the north to Cape Horn
in the south, but occur in greatest abundance in Patagonia. They live in
herds usually of from six to thirty, although these occasionally contain
several hundreds, while solitary individuals are sometimes met. They are
exceedingly timid, and therefore wary and difficult of approach; like
many other ruminants, however, their curiosity sometimes overcomes their
timidity, so as to bring them within range of the hunter's rifle. Their
cry is peculiar, being something between the belling of a deer and the
neigh of a horse. The chief enemies of the guanaco are the Patagonian
Indians and the puma, as it forms the principal food of both. Its flesh
is palatable although wanting in fat, while its skin forms the chief
clothing material of the Patagonians. Guanaco are readily domesticated,
and in this state become very bold and will attack man, striking him
from behind with both knees. In the wild state they never defend
themselves, and if approached from different points, according to the
Indian fashion of hunting, get completely bewildered and fall an easy
prey. They take readily to the water, and have been observed swimming
from one island to another, while they have been seen drinking
salt-water. They have a habit of depositing their droppings during
successive days on the same spot--a habit appreciated by the Peruvian
Indians, who use those deposits for fuel. Guanaco also have favourite
localities in which to die, as appears from the great heaps of their
bones found in particular spots.

[Illustration: Head of Guanaco.]



GUANAJAY, a town of western Cuba, in Pinar del Rio province, about 36 m.
(by rail) S.W. of Havana. Pop. (1907) 6400. Guanajay is served by the W.
branch of the United railways of Havana, of which it is the W. terminus.
The town lies among hills, has an excellent climate, and in colonial
times was (like Holguín) an acclimatization station for troops fresh
from Spain; it now has considerable repute as a health resort. The
surrounding country is a fertile sugar and tobacco region. Guanajay has
always been important as a distributing point in the commerce of the
western end of the island. It was an ancient pueblo, of considerable
size and importance as early as the end of the 18th century.



GUANAJUATO, or GUANAXUATO, an inland state of Mexico, bounded N. by
Zacatecas and San Luis Potosi, E. by Querétaro, S. by Michoacan and W.
by Jalisco. Area, 11,370 sq. m. It is one of the most densely populated
states of the republic; pop. (1895) 1,047,817; (1900) 1,061,724. The
state lies wholly within the limits of the great central plateau of
Mexico, and has an average elevation of about 6000 ft. The surface of
its northern half is broken by the Sierra Gorda and Sierra de
Guanajuato, but its southern half is covered by fertile plains largely
devoted to agriculture. It is drained by the Rio Grande de Lerma and its
tributaries, which in places flow through deeply eroded valleys. The
climate is semi-tropical and healthy, and the rainfall is sufficient to
insure good results in agriculture and stock-raising. In the warm
valleys sugar-cane is grown, and at higher elevations Indian corn,
beans, barley and wheat. The southern plains are largely devoted to
stock-raising. Guanajuato has suffered much from the destruction of its
forests, but there remain some small areas on the higher elevations of
the north. The principal industry of the state is mining, the mineral
wealth of the mountain ranges of the north being enormous. Among its
mineral products are silver, gold, tin, lead, mercury, copper and opals.
Silver has been extracted since the early days of the Spanish conquest,
over $800,000,000 having been taken from the mines during the subsequent
three and a half centuries. Some of the more productive of these mines,
or groups of mines, are the Veta Madre (mother lode), the San Bernabé
lode, and the Rayas mines of Guanajuato, and the La Valenciana mine, the
output of which is said to have been $226,000,000 between 1766 and 1826.
The manufacturing establishments include flour mills, tanneries and
manufactories of leather, cotton and woollen mills, distilleries,
foundries and potteries. The Mexican Central and the Mexican National
railway lines cross the state from N. to S., and the former operates a
short branch from Silao to the state capital and another westward from
Irapuato to Guadalajara. The capital is Guanajuato, and other important
cities and towns are León, or León de las Aldamas; Celaya (pop. 25,565
in 1900), an important railway junction 22 m. by rail W. from Querétaro,
and known for its manufactures of broadcloth, saddlery, soap and
sweetmeats; Irapuato (18,593 in 1900), a railway junction and commercial
centre, 21 m. S. by W. of Guanajuato; Silao (15,355), a railway junction
and manufacturing town (woollens and cottons), 14 m. S.W. of Guanajuato;
Salamanca (13,583). on the Mexican Central railway and Lerma river, 25
m. S. by E. of Guanajuato, with manufactures of cottons and porcelain;
Allende (10,547), a commercial town 30 m. E. by S. of Guanajuato, with
mineral springs; Valle de Santiago (12,660). 50 m. W. by S. of
Querétaro; Salvatierra (10,393), 60 m. S.E. of Guanajuato; Cortazar
(8633); La Luz (8318), in a rich mining district; Pénjamo (8262); Santa
Cruz (7239); San Francisco del Rincón (10,904), 39 m. W. of Guanajuato
in a rich mining district; and Acambaro (8345), a prosperous town of the
plain, 76 m. S.S.E. of Guanajuato.



GUANAJUATO, or SANTA FÉ DE GUANAJUATO, a city of Mexico and capital of
the above state, 155 m. (direct) N.W. of the Federal capital, on a small
tributary of the Rio Grande de Lerma or Santiago. Pop. (1895) 39,404;
(1900) 41,486. The city is built in the Cañada de Marfil at the junction
of three ravines about 6500 ft. above the sea, and its narrow, tortuous
streets rise steeply as they follow the ravines upward to the mining
villages clustered about the opening of the mines in the hillsides.
Guanajuato is sometimes described as a collection of mining villages;
but in addition there is the central city with its crowded winding
streets, its substantial old Spanish buildings, its fifty ore-crushing
mills and busy factories and its bustling commercial life. Enclosing the
city are the steep, barren mountain sides honeycombed with mines. The
climate is semi-tropical and is considered healthy. The noteworthy
public buildings and institutions are an interesting old Jesuit church
with arches of pink stone and delicate carving, eight monasteries, the
government palace, a mint dating from 1812, a national college, the fine
Teatro Juárez, and the Pantheon, or public cemetery, with catacombs
below. The Alhóndiga de Granaditas, originally a public granary, was
used as a fort during the War of Independence, and is celebrated as the
scene of the first battle (1810) in that long struggle. Among the
manufactures are cottons, prints, soaps, chemicals, pottery and
silverware, but mining is the principal interest and occupation of the
population. The silver mines of the vicinity were long considered the
richest in Mexico, the celebrated Veta Madre (mother lode) even being
described as the richest in the world; and Guanajuato has the largest
reduction works in Mexico. The railway outlet for the city consists of a
short branch of the Mexican Central, which joins the trunk line at
Silao. Guanajuato was founded in 1554. It attained the dignity of a city
in 1741. It was celebrated for its vigorous resistance to the invaders
at the time of the Spanish conquest, and was repeatedly sacked during
that war.



GUANCHES, GUANCHIS or GUANCHOS (native Guanchinet; _Guan_=person,
_Chinet_ = Teneriffe,--"man of Teneriffe," corrupted, according to Nuñez
de la Peña, by Spaniards into Guanchos), the aboriginal inhabitants of
the Canary Islands. Strictly the Guanches were the primitive inhabitants
of Teneriffe, where they seem to have preserved racial purity to the
time of the Spanish conquest, but the name came to be applied to the
indigenous populations of all the islands. The Guanches, now extinct as
a distinct people, appear, from the study of skulls and bones
discovered, to have resembled the Cro-Magnon race of the Quaternary age,
and no real doubt is now entertained that they were an offshoot of the
great race of Berbers which from the dawn of history has occupied
northern Africa from Egypt to the Atlantic. Pliny the Elder, deriving
his knowledge from the accounts of Juba, king of Mauretania, states that
when visited by the Carthaginians under Hanno the archipelago was found
by them to be uninhabited, but that they saw ruins of great buildings.
This would suggest that the Guanches were not the first inhabitants, and
from the absence of any trace of Mahommedanism among the peoples found
in the archipelago by the Spaniards it would seem that this extreme
westerly migration of Berbers took place between the time of which Pliny
wrote and the conquest of northern Africa by the Arabs. Many of the
Guanches fell in resisting the Spaniards, many were sold as slaves, and
many conformed to the Roman Catholic faith and married Spaniards.

Such remains as there are of their language, a few expressions and the
proper names of ancient chieftains still borne by certain families,
connect it with the Berber dialects. In many of the islands signs are
engraved on rocks. Domingo Vandewalle, a military governor of Las
Palmas, was the first, in 1752, to investigate these; and it is due to
the perseverance of D. Aquilino Padran, a priest of Las Palmas, that
anything about the inscription on the island Hierro has been brought to
light. In 1878 Dr R. Verneau discovered in the ravines of Las Balos some
genuine Libyan inscriptions. Without exception the rock inscriptions
have proved to be Numidic. In two of the islands (Teneriffe and Gomera)
the Guanche type has been retained with more purity than in the others.
No inscriptions have been found in these two islands, and therefore it
would seem that the true Guanches did not know how to write. In the
other islands numerous Semitic traces are found, and in all of them are
the rock-signs. From these facts it would seem that the Numidians,
travelling from the neighbourhood of Carthage and intermixing with the
dominant Semitic race, landed in the Canary Islands, and that it is they
who have written the inscriptions at Hierro and Grand Canary.

The political and social institutions of the Guanches varied. In some
islands hereditary autocracy prevailed; in others the government was
elective. In Teneriffe all the land belonged to the chiefs who leased it
to their subjects. In Grand Canary suicide was regarded as honourable,
and on a chief inheriting, one of his subjects willingly honoured the
occasion by throwing himself over a precipice. In some islands polyandry
was practised; in others the natives were monogamous. But everywhere the
women appear to have been respected, an insult offered any woman by an
armed man being a capital offence. Almost all the Guanches used to wear
garments of goat-skins, and others of vegetable fibres, which have been
found in the tombs of Grand Canary. They had a taste for ornaments,
necklaces of wood, bone and shells, worked in different designs. Beads
of baked earth, cylindrical and of all shapes, with smooth or polished
surfaces, mostly black and red in colour, were chiefly in use. They
painted their bodies; the _pintaderas_, baked clay objects like seals in
shape, have been explained by Dr Verneau as having been used solely for
painting the body in various colours. They manufactured rough pottery,
mostly without decorations, or ornamented by means of the finger-nail.
The Guanches' weapons were those of the ancient races of south Europe.
The polished battle-axe was more used in Grand Canary, while stone and
obsidian, roughly cut, were commoner in Teneriffe. They had, besides,
the lance, the club, sometimes studded with pebbles, and the javelin,
and they seem to have known the shield. They lived in natural or
artificial caves in their mountains. In districts where cave-dwellings
were impossible, they built small round houses and, according to the
Spaniards, they even practised rude fortification. In Palma the old
people were at their own wish left to die alone. After bidding their
family farewell they were carried to the sepulchral cave, nothing but a
bowl of milk being left them. The Guanches embalmed their dead; many
mummies have been found in an extreme state of desiccation, each
weighing not more than 6 or 7 lb. Two almost inaccessible caves in a
vertical rock by the shore 3 m. from Santa Cruz (Teneriffe) are said
still to contain bones. The process of embalming seems to have varied.
In Teneriffe and Grand Canary the corpse was simply wrapped up in goat
and sheep skins, while in other islands a resinous substance was used to
preserve the body, which was then placed in a cave difficult of access,
or buried under a tumulus. The work of embalming was reserved for a
special class, women for female corpses, men for male. Embalming seems
not to have been universal, and bodies were often simply hidden in caves
or buried.

Little is known of the religion of the Guanches. They appear to have
been a distinctly religious race. There was a general belief in a
supreme being, called Acoran, in Grand Canary, Achihuran in Teneriffe,
Eraoranhan in Hierro, and Abora in Palma. The women of Hierro worshipped
a goddess called Moneiba. According to tradition the male and female
gods lived in mountains whence they descended to hear the prayers of the
people. In other islands the natives venerated the sun, moon, earth and
stars. A belief in an evil spirit was general. The demon of Teneriffe
was called Guayota and lived in the peak of Teyde, which was the hell
called Echeyde. In times of drought the Guanches drove their flocks to
consecrated grounds, where the lambs were separated from their mothers
in the belief that their plaintive bleatings would melt the heart of the
Great Spirit. During the religious feasts all war and even personal
quarrels were stayed.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--S. Berthelot, _Antiquités canariennes_ (Paris, 1839);
  Baker Webb and S. Berthelot, _Histoire naturelle des îles Canaries_
  (Paris, 1839); Paul Broca, _Revue d'anthropologie_, iv. (1874);
  General L. L. C. Faidherbe, _Quelque mots sur l'ethnologie de
  l'archipel canarien_ (Paris, 1875); Chil y Naranjo, _Estudios
  historicos, climatologicos y Patologicos de las Islas Canarias_ (Las
  Palmas, 1876-1889); "De la pluralité des races humaines de l'archipel
  canarien," _Bull. Soc. Anthrop. Paris_, 1878; "Habitations et
  sépultures des anciens habitants des îles Canaries," _Revue
  d'anthrop._, 1879; R. Verneau, "Sur les Sémites aux îles Canaries,"
  and "Sur les anciens habitants de la Isleta, Grande Canarie," _Bull.
  Soc. Anthrop. Paris_, 1881; _Rapport sur une mission scientifique dans
  l'archipel canarien_ (Paris, 1887); _Cinq années de séjour aux îles
  Canaries_ (Paris, 1891); H. Meyer, _Die Insel Tenerife_ (Leipzig,
  1896), "Über die Urbewohner der canarischen Inseln," in _Adolf Bastian
  Festschrift_ (Berlin, 1896); F. von Luschan, _Anhang über eine
  Schädelsammlung von den canarischen Inseln_; R. Virchow, "Schädel mit
  Carionecrosis der Sagittalgegend," _Verhandlungen der Berliner
  Anthrop. Gesellschaft_ (1896); G. Sergi, _The Mediterranean Race_
  (London, 1901); _The Guanches of Tenerife ..._, by Alonso de Espinosa,
  translated by Sir Clements Markham, with bibliography (Hakluyt
  Society, 1907).



GUANIDINE, CN3H5 or HN:C(NH2)2, the amidine of amidocarbonic acid. It
occurs in beet juice. It was first prepared in 1861 by A. Strecker, who
oxidized guanine with hydrochloric acid and potassium chlorate. It may
be obtained synthetically by the action of ammonium iodide on cyanamide,
CN·NH2 + NH4I=CN3H5·HI·; by heating ortho-carbonic esters with ammonia
to 150° C.; but best by heating ammonium thiocyanate to 180°-190° C.,
when the thiourea first formed is converted into guanidine thiocyanate,
2CS(NH2)2=HN:C(NH2)2·HCNS+H2S. It is a colourless crystalline solid,
readily soluble in water and alcohol; it deliquesces on exposure to air.
It has strong basic properties, absorbs carbon dioxide readily, and
forms well-defined crystalline salts. Baryta water hydrolyses it to
urea. By direct union with glycocoll acid, it yields glycocyamine,
NH2·(HN):C·NH·CH2·CO2H, whilst with methyl glycocoll (sarcosine) it
forms creatine, NH2·(NH):C·N(CH3)·CH2·CO2H.

  Many derivatives of guanidine were obtained by J. Thiele (_Ann._,
  1892, 270, p. 1; 1893, 273, p. 133; _Ber._, 1893, 26, pp. 2598, 2645).
  By the action of nitric acid on guanidine in the presence of sulphuric
  acid, nitroguanidine, HN:C(NH2)·NH·NO2 (a substance possessing acid
  properties) is obtained; from which, by reduction with zinc dust,
  amidoguanidine, HN:C(NH2)·NH·NH2, is formed. This amidoguanidine
  decomposes on hydrolysis with the formation of semicarbazide,
  NH2·CO·NH·NH2, which, in its turn, breaks down into carbon dioxide,
  ammonia and hydrazine. Amidoguanidine is a body of hydrazine type, for
  it reduces gold and silver salts and yields a benzylidine derivative.
  On oxidation with potassium permanganate, it gives
  azodicarbondiamidine nitrate, NH2·(HN):C·N:N·C:(NH)·NH2·2HNO3, which,
  when reduced by sulphuretted hydrogen, is converted into the
  corresponding hydrazodicarbondiamidine, NH2·(HN):C·NH·NH·C:(NH)·NH2.
  By the action of nitrous acid on a nitric acid solution of
  amidoguanidine, diazoguanidine nitrate, NH2·(HN):C·NH·N2·NO3, is
  obtained. This diazo compound is decomposed by caustic alkalis with
  the formation of cyanamide and hydrazoic acid,
  CH4N5·NO3=N3H+CN·NH2+HNO3, whilst acetates and carbonates convert it
  into amidotetrazotic acid,

           N--N.
         //
    H2N·C    ||.
         \\
          NH--N

  Amidotetrazotic acid yields addition compounds with amines, and by the
  further action of nitrous acid yields a very explosive derivative,
  diazotetrazol, CN6. By fusing guanidine with urea, dicyandiamidine
  H2N·(HN):C·NH·CO·NH2, is formed.



GUANO (a Spanish word from the Peruvian _huanu_, dung), the excrement of
birds, found as large deposits on certain islands off the coast of Peru,
and on others situated in the Southern ocean and off the west coast of
Africa. The large proportions of phosphorus in the form of phosphates
and of nitrogen as ammonium oxalate and urate renders it a valuable
fertilizer. Bat's guano, composed of the excrement of bats, is found in
certain caves in New Zealand and elsewhere; it is similar in composition
to Peruvian guano. (See MANURES AND MANURING.)



GUANTA, a port on the Caribbean coast of the state of Bermúdez,
Venezuela, 12 m. N.E. of Barcelona, with which it is connected by rail.
It dates from the completion of the railway to the coal mines of
Naricual and Capiricual nearly 12 m. beyond Barcelona, and was created
for the shipment of coal. The harbour is horseshoe-shaped, with its
entrance, 1998 ft. wide, protected by an island less than 1 m. off the
shore. The entrance is easy and safe, and the harbour affords secure
anchorage for large vessels, with deep water alongside the iron railway
wharf. These advantages have made Guanta the best port on this part of
the coast, and the trade of Barcelona and that of a large inland
district have been transferred to it. A prominent feature in its trade
is the shipment of live cattle. Among its exports are sugar, coffee,
cacáo, tobacco and fruit.



GUANTÁNAMO, the easternmost important town of the S. coast of Cuba, in
the province of Santiago, about 40 m. E. of Santiago. Pop. (1907)
14,559. It is situated by the Guazo (or Guaso) river, on a little open
plain between the mountains. The beautiful, land-locked harbour, 10 m.
long from N. to S. and 4 m. wide in places, has an outer and an inner
basin. The latter has a very narrow entrance, and 2 to 2.5 fathoms depth
of water. From the port of Caimanera to the city of Guantánamo, 13 m.
N., there is a railway, and the city has railway connexion with
Santiago. Guantánamo is one of the two ports leased by Cuba to the
United States for a naval station. It is the shipping-port and centre of
a surrounding coffee-, sugar- and lime-growing district. In 1741 an
English force under Admiral Edward Vernon and General Thomas Wentworth
landed here to attack Santiago. They named the harbour Cumberland bay.
After their retreat fortifications were begun. The history of the region
practically dates, however, from the end of the 18th century, when it
gained prosperity from the settlement of French refugees from Santo
Domingo; the town, as such, dates only from 1822. Almost all the old
families are of French descent, and French was the language locally most
used as late as the last third of the 19th century. In recent years,
especially since the Spanish-American War of 1898, the region has
greatly changed socially and economically. Guantánamo was once a
fashionable summer residence resort for wealthy Cubans.



GUARANA (so called from the Guaranis, an aboriginal American tribe), the
plant _Paullinia Cupana_ (or _P. sorbilis_) of the natural order
_Sapindaceae_, indigenous to the north and west of Brazil. It has a
smooth erect stem; large pinnate alternate leaves, composed of 5
oblong-oval leaflets; narrow panicles of short-stalked flowers; and
ovoid or pyriform fruit about as large as a grape, and containing
usually one seed only, which is shaped like a minute horse-chestnut.
What is commonly known as guarana, guarana bread or Brazilian cocoa, is
prepared from the seeds as follows. In October and November, at which
time they become ripe, the seeds are removed from their capsules and
sun-dried, so as to admit of the ready removal by hand of the white
aril; they are next ground in a stone mortar or deep dish of hard
sandstone; the powder, moistened by the addition of a small quantity of
water, or by exposure to the dews, is then made into a paste with a
certain proportion of whole or broken seeds, and worked up sometimes
into balls, but usually into rolls not unlike German sausages, 5 to 8
in. in length, and 12 to 16 oz. in weight. After drying by artificial or
solar heat, the guarana is packed between broad leaves in sacks or
baskets. Thus prepared, it is of extreme hardness, and has a brown hue,
a bitter astringent taste, and an odour faintly resembling that of
roasted coffee. An inferior kind, softer and of a lighter colour, is
manufactured by admixture of cocoa or cassava. Rasped or grated into
sugar and water, guarana forms a beverage largely consumed in S.
America. Its manufacture, originally confined to the Mauhés Indians, has
spread into various parts of Brazil.

  The properties of guarana as a nervous stimulant and restorative are
  due to the presence of what was originally described as a new
  principle and termed guaranine, but is now known to be identical with
  caffeine or theine. Besides this substance, which is stated to exist
  in it in the form of tannate, guarana yields on analysis the glucoside
  saponin, with tannin, starch, gum, three volatile oils, and an acrid
  green fixed oil (Fournier, _Journ. de Pharm._ vol. xxxix., 1861, p.
  291).



GUARANIS, a tribe and stock of South American Indians, having their home
in Paraguay, Uruguay and on the Brazilian coast. The Guaranis had
developed some civilization before the arrival of the Spaniards, and
being a peaceable people quickly submitted. They form to-day the chief
element in the populations of Paraguay and Uruguay. Owing to its
patronage by the Jesuit missionaries the Guarani language became a
widespread medium of communication, and in a corrupted form is still
the common language in Paraguay.



GUARANTEE (sometimes spelt "guarantie" or "guaranty"; an O. Fr. form of
"warrant," from the Teutonic word which appears in German as _wahren_,
to defend or make safe and binding), a term more comprehensive and of
higher import than either "warrant" or "security," and designating
either some international treaty whereby claims, rights or possessions
are secured, or more commonly a mere private transaction, by means of
which one person, to obtain some trust, confidence or credit for
another, engages to be answerable for him.

In English law, a guarantee is a contract to answer for the payment of
some debt, or the performance of some duty, by a third person who is
_primarily_ liable to such payment or performance. It is a _collateral_
contract, which does not extinguish the original liability or obligation
to which it is accessory, but on the contrary is itself rendered null
and void should the latter fail, as without a principal there can be no
accessory. The liabilities of a surety are in law dependent upon those
of the principal debtor, and when the latter cease the former do so
likewise (_per_ Collins, L.J., in _Stacey_ v. _Hill_, 1901, 1 K.B., at
p. 666; see _per_ Willes, J., in _Bateson_ v. _Gosling_, 1871, L.R. 7
C.P., at p. 14), except in certain cases where the discharge of the
principal debtor is by operation of law (see _In re Fitzgeorge--ex parte
Robson_, 1905, 1 K.B. p. 462). If, therefore, persons wrongly suppose
that a third person is liable to one of them, and a guarantee is given
on that erroneous supposition, it is invalid _ab initio_, by virtue of
the _lex contractûs_, because its foundation (which was that another was
taken to be liable) has failed (_per_ Willes, J., in _Mountstephen_ v.
_Lakeman_, L.R. 7 Q.B. p. 202). According to various existing codes
civil, a suretyship, in respect of an obligation "non-valable," is null
and void save where the invalidity is the result of personal incapacity
of the principal debtor (Codes Civil, France and Belgium, 2012; Spain,
1824; Portugal, 822; Italy, 1899; Holland, 1858; Lower Canada, 1932). In
some countries, however, the mere personal incapacity of a son under age
to borrow suffices to vitiate the guarantee of a loan made to him
(Spain, 1824; Portugal, 822, s. 2, 1535, 1536). The Egyptian codes
sanction guarantees expressly entered into "in view of debtor's want of
legal capacity" to contract a valid principal obligation (Egyptian
Codes, Mixed Suits, 605; Native Tribunals, 496). The Portuguese code
(art. 822, s. 1) retains the surety's liability, in respect of an
invalid principal obligation, until the latter has been legally
rescinded.

The giver of a guarantee is called "the surety," or "the guarantor"; the
person to whom it is given "the creditor," or "the guarantee"; while the
person whose payment or performance is secured thereby is termed "the
principal debtor," or simply "the principal." In America, but not
apparently elsewhere, there is a recognized distinction between "a
surety" and "a guarantor"; the former being usually bound with the
principal, at the same time and on the same consideration, while the
contract of the latter is his own separate undertaking, in which the
principal does not join, and in respect of which he is not to be held
liable, until due diligence has been exerted to compel the principal
debtor to make good his default. There is no privity of contract between
the surety and the principal debtor, for the surety contracts with the
creditor, and they do not constitute in law one person, and are not
jointly liable to the creditor (_per_ Baron Parke in _Bain_ v. _Cooper_,
1 Dowl. R. (N.S.) 11, 14).

No special phraseology is necessary to the formation of a guarantee; and
what really distinguishes such a contract from one of insurance is not
any essential difference between the two forms of words _insurance_ and
_guarantee_, but the substance of the contract entered into by the
parties in each particular case (_per_ Romer, L.J., in _Seaton_ v.
_Heath_--_Seaton_ v. _Burnand_, 1899, 1 Q.B. 782, 792, C.A.; _per_
Vaughan Williams, L.J., in _In re Denton's Estate Licenses Insurance
Corporation and Guarantee Fund Ltd._ v. _Denton_, 1904, 2 Ch., at p.
188; and see _Dane_ v. _Mortgage Insurance Corporation_, 1894, 1 Q.B. 54
C.A.) In this connexion it may be mentioned that the different kinds of
suretyships have been classified as follows: (1) Those in which there is
an agreement to constitute, for a particular purpose, the relation of
principal and surety, to which agreement the creditor thereby secured is
a party; (2) those in which there is a similar agreement between the
principal and surety only, to which the creditor is a stranger; and (3)
those in which, without any such contract of suretyship, there is a
primary and a secondary liability of two persons for one and the same
debt, the debt being, as between the two, that of one of those persons
only, and not equally of both, so that the other, if he should be
compelled to pay it, would be entitled to reimbursement from the person
by whom (as between the two) it ought to have been paid (_per_ Earl of
Selborne, L.C., _in Duncan Fox and Co._ v. _North and South Wales Bank_,
6 App. Cas., at p. 11). According to several codes civil sureties are
made divisible into conventional, legal and judicial (Fr. and Bel.,
2015, 2040 et seq.; Spain, 1823; Lower Canada, 1930), while the Spanish
code further divides them into gratuitous and for valuable consideration
(art. 1, 823).

In England the common-law requisites of a guarantee in no way differ
from those essential to the formation of any other contract. That is to
say, they comprise the mutual assent of two or more parties, competency
to contract, and, unless the guarantee be under seal, valuable
consideration. An offer to guarantee is not binding until it has been
accepted, being revocable till then by the party making it. Unless,
however, as sometimes happens, the offer contemplates an express
acceptance, one may be implied, and it may be a question for a jury
whether an offer of guarantee has in fact been accepted. Where the
surety's assent to a guarantee has been procured by fraud of the person
to whom it is given, there is no binding contract. Such fraud may
consist of suppression or concealment or misrepresentation. There is
some conflict of authorities as to what facts must be spontaneously
disclosed to the surety by the creditor, but it may be taken that the
rule on the subject is less stringent than that governing insurances
upon marine, life and other risks (_The North British Insurance Co._ v.
_Lloyd_, 10 Exch. 523), though formerly this was denied (_Owen_ v.
_Homan_, 3 Mac. & G. 378, 397). Moreover, even where the contract relied
upon is in the form of a policy guaranteeing the solvency of a surety
for another's debt, and is therefore governed by the doctrine of
_uberrima_ fides, only such facts as are really material to the risk
undertaken need be spontaneously disclosed (_Seaton_ v.
_Burnand_--_Burnand_ v. _Seaton_, 1900, A.C. 135). As regards the
competency of the parties to enter into a contract of guarantee, this
may be affected by insanity or intoxication of the surety, if known to
the creditor, or by disability of any kind. The ordinary disabilities
are those of infants and married women--now in England greatly mitigated
as regards the latter by the Married Women's Property Acts, 1870 to
1893, which enable a married woman to contract, as a _feme sole_, to the
extent of her separate property. Every guarantee not under seal must
according to English law have a consideration to support it, though the
least spark of one suffices (_per_ Wilmot, J., in _Pillan_ v. _van
Mierop and Hopkins_, 3 Burr., at p. 1666; _Haigh_ v. _Brooks_, 10 A. &
E. 309; _Barrell_ v. _Trussell_, 4 Taunt. 117), which, as in other
cases, may consist either of some right, interest, profit or benefit
accruing to the one party, or some forbearance, detriment, loss or
responsibility given, suffered or undertaken by the other. In some
guarantees the consideration is entire--as where, in consideration of a
lease being granted, the surety becomes answerable for the performance
of the covenants; in other cases it is fragmentary, i.e. supplied from
time to time--as where a guarantee is given to secure the balance of a
running account at a banker's, or a balance of a running account for
goods supplied (_per_ Lush, L.J., in _Lloyd's_ v. _Harper_, 16 Ch. Div.,
at p. 319). In the former case, the moment the lease is granted there is
nothing more for the lessor to do, and such a guarantee as that of
necessity runs on throughout the duration of the lease and is
irrevocable. In the latter case, however, unless the guarantee
stipulates to the contrary, the surety may at any time terminate his
liability under the guarantee as to _future_ advances, &c. The
consideration for a guarantee must not be _past_ or _executed_, but on
the other hand it need not comprise a direct benefit or advantage to
either the surety or the creditor, but may solely consist of anything
done, or any promise made, for the benefit of the principal debtor. It
is more frequently _executory_ than _concurrent_, taking the form either
of forbearance to sue the principal debtor, or of a future advance of
money or supply of goods to him.

By the Indian Contract Act 1872, sect. 127, it is provided that the
consideration for a guarantee may consist of anything done or any
promise made for the benefit of the principal debtor by the creditor.
Total failure of the consideration stipulated for by the party giving a
guarantee will prevent its being enforced, as will also the existence of
an illegal consideration. Though in all countries the mutual assent of
two or more parties is essential to the formation of any contract (see
e.g. Codes Civil, Fr. and Bel. 1108; Port. 643, 647 et seq.; Spain,
1258, 1261; Italy, 1104; Holl. 1356; Lower Canada, 984), a consideration
is not everywhere regarded as a necessary element (see Pothier's _Law of
Obligations_, Evans's edition, vol. ii. p. 19). Thus in Scotland a
contract may be binding without a consideration to support it (Stair i.
10. 7).

The statutory requisites of a guarantee are, in England, prescribed by
(1) the Statute of Frauds, which, with reference to guarantees, provides
that "no action shall be brought whereby to charge the defendant upon
any special promise to answer for the debt, default or miscarriages of
another person, unless the agreement upon which such action shall be
brought, or some memorandum or note thereof, shall be in writing and
signed by the party to be charged therewith, or some other person
thereunto by him lawfully authorized," and (2) Lord Tenterden's Act (9
Geo. IV. c. 14), which by § 6 enacts that "no action shall be brought
whereby to charge any person upon or by reason of any representation or
assurance made or given concerning or relating to the character,
conduct, credit, ability, trade or dealings of any other person, to the
intent or purpose that such other person may obtain credit, money or
goods upon" (i.e. "upon credit," see _per_ Parke, B., in _Lyde_ v.
_Barnard_, 1 M. & W., at p. 104), "unless such representation or
assurance be made in writing signed by the party to be charged
therewith." This latter enactment, which applies to incorporated
companies as well as to individual persons (_Hirst_ v. _West Riding
Union Banking Co._, 1901, 2 K.B. 560 C.A.), was rendered necessary by an
evasion of the 4th section of the Statute of Frauds, accomplished by
treating the special promise to answer for another's debt, default or
miscarriage, when not in writing, as required by that section, as a
false and fraudulent representation concerning another's credit,
solvency or honesty, in respect of which damages, as for a tort, were
held to be recoverable (_Pasley_ v. _Freeman_, 3 T.R. 51). In Scotland,
where, it should be stated, a guarantee is called a "cautionary
obligation," similar enactments to those just specified are contained in
§ 6 of the Mercantile Law Amendment Act (Scotland) 1856, while in the
Irish Statute of Frauds (7 Will. III. c. 12) there is a provision (§ 2)
identical with that found in the English Statute of Frauds. In India a
guarantee may be either oral or written (Indian Contract Act, § 126),
while in the Australian colonies, Jamaica and Ceylon it must be in
writing. The German code civil requires the surety's promise to be
verified by writing where he has not executed the principal obligation
(art. 766), and the Portuguese code renders a guarantee provable by all
the modes established by law for the proof of the principal contract
(art. 826). According to most codes civil now in force a guarantee like
any other contract can usually be made verbally in the presence of
witnesses and in certain cases (where for instance considerable sums of
money are involved) _sous signature privée_ or else by judicial or
notarial instrument (see Codes Civil, Fr. and Bel. 1341; Spain, 1244;
Port. 2506, 2513; Italy, 1341 et seq.; Pothier's _Law of Obligations_,
Evans's ed. i. 257; Burge on _Suretyship_, p. 19; van der Linden's
_Institutes of Holland_, p. 120); the French and Belgian Codes,
moreover, provide that suretyship is not to be presumed but must always
be expressed (art. 2015).

The Statute of Frauds does not invalidate a verbal guarantee, but
renders it unenforceable by action. It may therefore be available in
support of a defence to an action, and money paid under it cannot be
recovered. An indemnity is not a guarantee within the statute, unless it
contemplates the primary liability of a third person. It need not,
therefore, be in writing when it is a mere promise to become liable for
a debt, whenever the person to whom the promise is made should become
liable (_Wildes_ v. _Dudlow_, L.R. 19 Eq. 198; _per_ Vaughan Williams,
L.J. in _Harburg India-Rubber Co._ v. _Martin_, 1902, 1 K.B. p. 786;
_Guild_ v. _Conrad_, 1894, 2 Q.B. 885 C.A.). Neither does the statute
apply to the promise of a _del credere_ agent, which binds him, in
consideration of the higher commission he receives, to make no sales on
behalf of his principal except to persons who are absolutely solvent,
and renders him liable for any loss that may result from the
non-fulfilment of his promise. A promise to _give_ a guarantee is,
however, within the statute, though not one to _procure_ a guarantee.

The general principles which determine what are guarantees within the
Statute of Frauds, as deduced from a multitude of decided cases, are
briefly as follows: (1) the primary liability of a third person must
exist or be contemplated as the foundation of the contract (_Birkmyr_ v.
_Darnell_, 1 Sm. L.C. 11th ed. p. 299; _Mountstephen_ v. _Lakeman_, L.R.
7 Q.B. 196; L.R. 7 H.L. 17); (2) the promise must be made to the
creditor; (3) there must be an absence of all liability on the part of
the surety independently of his express promise of guarantee; (4) the
main object of the transaction between the parties to the guarantee must
be the fulfilment of a third party's obligation (see _Harburg
India-rubber Comb Co._ v. _Martin_, 1902, 1 K.B. 778, 786); and (5) the
contract entered into must not amount to a sale by the creditor to the
promiser of a security for a debt or of the debt itself (see de Colyar's
_Law of Guarantees and of Principal and Surety_, 3rd ed. pp. 65-161,
where these principles are discussed in detail by the light of decided
cases there cited).

As regards the kind of note or memorandum of the guarantee that will
satisfy the Statute of Frauds, it is now provided by § 3 of the
Mercantile Law Amendment Act 1856, that "no special promise to be made,
by any person after the passing of this act, to answer for the debt,
default or miscarriage of another person, being in writing and signed by
the party to be charged therewith, or some other person by him thereunto
lawfully authorized, shall be deemed invalid to support an action, suit
or other proceeding, to charge the person by whom such promise shall
have been made, by reason only that the consideration for such promise
does not appear in writing or by necessary inference from a written
document." Prior to this enactment, which is not retrospective in its
operation, it was held in many cases that as the Statute of Frauds
requires "the agreement" to be in writing, all parts thereof were
required so to be, including the consideration moving to, as well as the
promise by, the party to be charged (_Wain_ v. _Walters_, 5 East, 10;
_Sounders_ v. _Wakefield_, 4 B. & Ald. 595). These decisions, however,
proved to be burdensome to the mercantile community, especially in
Scotland and the north of England, and ultimately led to the alteration
of the law, so far as guarantees are concerned, by means of the
enactment already specified. Any writing embodying the terms of the
agreement between the parties, and signed by the party to be charged, is
sufficient; and the idea of agreement need not be present to the mind of
the person signing (_per_ Lindley, L.J., in _In re_ Hoyle--_Hoyle_ v.
_Hoyle_, 1893, 1 Ch., at p. 98). It is, however, necessary that the
names of the contracting parties should appear somewhere in writing;
that the party to be charged, or his agent, should sign the memorandum
or note of agreement, or else should sign another paper referring
thereto; and that, when the note or memorandum is made, a complete
agreement shall exist. Moreover, the memorandum must have been made
before action brought, though it need not be contemporaneous with the
agreement itself. As regards the stamping of the memorandum or note of
agreement, a guarantee cannot, in England, be given in evidence unless
properly stamped (Stamp Act 1891). A guarantee for the payment of goods,
however, requires no stamp, being within the exception contained in the
first schedule of the act. Nor is it necessary to stamp a written
representation or assurance as to character within 9 Geo. IV. c. 14,
_supra_. If under seal, a guarantee requires sometimes an _ad valorem_
stamp and sometimes a ten-shilling stamp; in other cases a sixpenny
stamp generally suffices; and, on certain prescribed terms, the stamps
can be affixed any time after execution (Stamp Act 1891, § 15, amended
by § 15 of the Finance Act 1895).


  Extent of surety's liability.

The liability incurred by a surety under his guarantee depends upon its
terms, and is not necessarily co-extensive with that of the principal
debtor. It is, however, obvious that as the surety's obligation is
merely accessory to that of the principal it cannot as such exceed it
(de Colyar, _Law of Guarantees_, 3rd ed. p. 233; Burge, _Suretyship_, p.
5). By the Roman law, if there were any such excess the surety's
obligation was rendered _wholly_ void and not merely void _pro tanto_.
By many existing codes civil, however, a guarantee which imposes on the
surety a greater liability than that of the principal is not thereby
invalidated, but the liability is merely reducible to that of the
principal (Fr. and Bel. 2013; Port. 823; Spain, 1826; Italy, 1900;
Holland, 1859; Lower Canada, 1933). By sec. 128 of the Indian Contract
Act 1872 the liability of the surety is, unless otherwise provided by
contract, coextensive with that of the principal. Where the liability of
the surety is _less_ extensive in amount than that of the principal
debtor, difficult questions have arisen in England and America as to
whether the surety is liable only for _part_ of the debt equal to the
limit of his liability, or, up to such limit, for the _whole_ debt
(_Ellis_ v. _Emmanuel_, 1 Ex. Div. 157; _Hobson_ v. _Bass_, 6 Ch. App.
792; Brandt, _Suretyship_, sec. 219). The surety cannot be made liable
except for a loss sustained by reason of the default guaranteed against.
Moreover, in the case of a joint and several guarantee by several
sureties, unless all sign it none are liable thereunder (_National Pro.
Bk. of England_ v. _Brackenbury_, 1906, 22 _Times_ L.R. 797). It was
formerly considered in England to be the duty of the party taking a
guarantee to see that it was couched in language enabling the party
giving it to understand clearly to what extent he was binding himself
(_Nicholson_ v. _Paget_, 1 C. & M. 48, 52). This view, however, can no
longer be sustained, it being now recognized that a guarantee, like any
other contract, must, in cases of ambiguity, be construed against the
party bound thereby and in favour of the party receiving it (_Mayer_ v.
_Isaac_, 6 M. & W. 605, 612; _Wood_ v. _Priestner_, L.R. 2 Exch. 66,
71). The surety is not to be changed beyond the limits prescribed by his
contract, which must be construed so as to give effect to what may
fairly be inferred to have been the intention of the parties, from what
they themselves have expressed in writing. In cases of doubtful import,
recourse to parol evidence is permissible, to explain, but not to
contradict, the written evidence of the guarantee. As a general rule,
the surety is not liable if the principal debt cannot be enforced,
because, as already explained, the obligation of the surety is merely
accessory to that of the principal debtor. It has never been actually
decided in England whether this rule holds good in cases where the
principal debtor is an infant, and on that account is not liable to the
creditor. Probably in such a case the surety might be held liable by
estoppel (see _Kimball_ v. _Newell_, 7 Hill (N.Y.) 116). When directors
guarantee the performance by their company of a contract which is ultra
vires, and therefore not binding on the latter, the directors'
suretyship liability is, nevertheless, enforceable against them
(_Yorkshire Railway Waggon Co._ v. _Maclure_, 21 Ch. D. 309 C.A.).

It is not always easy to determine for how long a time liability under a
guarantee endures. Sometimes a guarantee is limited to a single
transaction, and is obviously intended to be security against one
specific default only. On the other hand, it as often happens that it is
not exhausted by one transaction on the faith of it, but extends to a
series of transactions, and remains a standing security until it is
revoked, either by the act of the parties or else by the death of the
surety. It is then termed a continuing guarantee. No fixed rules of
interpretation determine whether a guarantee is a continuing one or
not, but each case must be judged on its individual merits; and
frequently, in order to achieve a correct construction, it becomes
necessary to examine the surrounding circumstances, which often reveal
what was the subject-matter which the parties contemplated when the
guarantee was given, and likewise what was the scope and object of the
transaction between them. Most continuing guarantees are either ordinary
mercantile securities, in respect of advances made or goods supplied to
the principal debtor or else bonds for the good behaviour of persons in
public or private offices or employments. With regard to the latter
class of continuing guarantees, the surety's liability is, generally
speaking, revoked by any change in the constitution of the persons to or
for whom the guarantee is given. On this subject it is now provided by
section 18 of the Partnership Act 1890, which applies to Scotland as
well as England, that "a continuing guarantee or cautionary obligation
given either to a firm or to a third person in respect of the
transactions of a firm, is, in the absence of agreement to the contrary,
revoked as to future transactions by any change in the constitution of
the firm to which, or of the firm in respect of the transactions of
which the guaranty or obligation was given." This section, like the
enactment it replaces, namely, sec. 4 of the Mercantile Law Amendment
Act 1856, is mainly declaratory of the English common law, as embodied
in decided cases, which indicate that the changes in the persons to or
for whom a guarantee is given may consist either of an increase in their
number, of a diminution thereof caused by death or retirement from
business, or of the incorporation or consolidation of the persons to
whom the guarantee is given. In this connexion it may be stated that the
Government Offices (Security) Act 1875, which has been amended by the
Statute Law Revision Act 1883, contains certain provisions with regard
to the acceptance by the heads of public departments of guarantees given
by companies for the due performance of the duties of an office or
employment in the public service, and enables the Commissioners of His
Majesty's Treasury to vary the character of any security, for good
behaviour by public servants, given after the passing of the act.

Before the surety can be rendered liable on his guarantee, the principal
debtor must have made default. When, however, this has occurred, the
creditor, in the absence of express agreement to the contrary, may sue
the surety, without even informing him of such default having taken
place, or requiring him to pay, and before proceeding against the
principal debtor or resorting to securities for the debt received from
the latter. In those countries where the municipal law is based on the
Roman civil law, sureties usually possess the right (which may, however,
be renounced by them) originally conferred by the Roman law, of
compelling the creditor to insist on the goods, &c. (if any) of the
principal debtor being first "discussed," i.e. appraised and sold, and
appropriated to the liquidation of the debt guaranteed (see Codes Civil,
Fr. and Bel. 2021 et seq.; Spain, 1830, 1831; Port. 830; Germany, 771,
772, 773; Holland, 1868; Italy, 1907; Lower Canada, 1941-1942; Egypt
[mixed suits] 612; _ibid._ [native tribunals] 502), before having
recourse to the sureties. This right, according to a great American
jurist (Chancellor Kent in _Hayes_ v. _Ward_, 4 Johns. New York, Ch.
Cas. p. 132), "accords with a common sense of justice and the natural
equity of mankind." In England this right has never been fully
recognized. Neither does it prevail in America nor, since the passing of
the Mercantile Law Amendment Act (Scotland) 1856, s. 8, is it any longer
available in Scotland where, prior to the last-named enactment, the
benefit of discussion, as it is termed, existed. In England, however,
before any demand for payment has been made by the creditor on the
surety, the latter can, as soon as the principal debtor has made
default, compel the creditor, on giving him an indemnity against costs
and expenses, to sue the principal debtor if the latter be solvent and
able to pay (_per_ A. L. Smith, L.J., in _Rouse_ v. _Bradford Banking
Company_, 1894, 2 Ch. 75; _per_ Lord Eldon in _Wright_ v. _Simpson_, 6
Ves., at p. 733), and a similar remedy is also open to the surety in
America (see Brandt on _Suretyship_, par. 205, p. 290) though in
neither of these countries nor in Scotland can one of several sureties,
when sued for the whole guaranteed debt by the creditor, compel the
latter to divide his claim amongst all the solvent sureties, and reduce
it to the share and proportion of each surety. However, this _beneficium
divisionis_, as it is called in Roman law, is recognized by many
existing codes (Fr. and Bel. 2025-2027; Spain, 1837; Portugal, 835-836;
Germany, 426; Holland, 1873-1874; Italy, 1911-1912; Lower Canada, 1946;
Egypt [mixed suits], 615, 616).

The usual mode in England of enforcing liability under a guarantee is by
action in the High Court or in the county court. It is also permissible
for the creditor to obtain redress by means of a set-off or
counter-claim, in an action brought against him by the surety. On the
other hand, the surety may now, in any court in which the action on the
guarantee is pending, avail himself of any set-off which may exist
between the principal debtor and the creditor. Moreover, if one of
several sureties for the same debt is sued by the creditor or his
guarantee, he can, by means of a proceeding termed a third-party notice,
claim contribution from his co-surety towards the common liability.
Independent proof of the surety's liability under his guarantee must
always be given at the trial; as the creditor cannot rely either on
admissions made by the principal debtor, or on a judgment or award
obtained against him (_Ex parte Young In re Kitchin_, 17 Ch. Div. 668).
Should the surety become bankrupt either before or after default has
been made by the principal debtor, the creditor will have to prove
against his estate. This right of proof is now in England regulated by
the 37th section of the Bankruptcy Act, 1883, which is most
comprehensive in its terms.


  Rights of sureties.

A person liable as a surety for another under a guarantee possesses
various rights against him, against the person to whom the guarantee is
given, and also against those who may have become co-sureties in respect
of the same debt, default or miscarriage. As regards the surety's rights
against the principal debtor, the latter may, where the guarantee was
made with his consent but not otherwise (see _Hodgson_ v. _Shaw_, 3 Myl.
& K. at p. 190), after he has made default, be compelled by the surety
to exonerate him from liability by payment of the guaranteed debt (_per_
Sir W. Grant, M.R., in _Antrobus_ v. _Davidson_, 3 Meriv. 569, 579;
_per_ Lindley, L.J., in _Johnston_ v. _Salvage Association_, 19 Q.B.D.
460, 461; and see _Wolmershausen_ v. _Gullick_, 1893, 2 Ch. 514). The
moment, moreover, the surety has himself paid any portion of the
guaranteed debt, he is entitled to rank as a creditor for the amount so
paid, and to compel repayment thereof. In the event of the principal
debtor's bankruptcy, the surety can in England, if the creditor has not
already proved in respect of the guaranteed debt, prove against the
bankrupt's estate, not only in respect of payments made before the
bankruptcy of the principal debtor, but also, it seems, in respect of
the contingent liability to pay under the guarantee (see _Ex parte
Delmar re Herepath_, 1889, 38 W.R. 752), while if the creditor has
already proved, the surety who has paid the guaranteed debt has a right
to all dividends received by the creditor from the bankrupt in respect
thereof, and to stand in the creditor's place as to future dividends.
This right is, however, often waived by the guarantee stipulating that,
until the creditor has received full payment of all sums over and above
the guaranteed debt, due to him from the principal debtor, the surety
shall not participate in any dividends distributed from the bankrupt's
estate amongst his creditors. As regards the rights of the surety
against the creditor, they are in England exercisable even by one who in
the first instance was a principal debtor, but has since become a
surety, by arrangement with his creditor, duly notified to the creditor,
though not even sanctioned by him. This was decided by the House of
Lords in the case of _Rouse_ v. _The Bradford Banking Co._, 1894, A.C.
586, removing a doubt created by the previous case of _Swire_ v.
_Redman_, 1 Q.B.D. 536, which must now be treated as overruled. The
surety's principal right against the creditor entitles him, after
payment of the guaranteed debt, to the benefit of all securities,
whether known to him (the surety) or not, which the creditor held
against the principal debtor; and where, by default or _laches_ of the
creditor, such securities have been lost, or rendered otherwise
unavailable, the surety is discharged _pro tanto_. This right, which is
_not_ in abeyance till the surety is called on to pay (_Dixon_ v.
_Steel_, 1901, 2 Ch. 602), extends to all securities, whether satisfied
or not, given before or after the contract of suretyship was entered
into. On this subject the Mercantile Law Amendment Act, 1856, § 5,
provides that "every person who being surety for the debt or duty of
another, or being liable with another for any debt or duty, shall pay
such debt or perform such duty, shall be entitled to have assigned to
him, or to a trustee for him, every judgment, specialty, or other
security, which shall be held by the creditor in respect of such debt or
duty, whether such judgment, specialty, or other security shall or shall
not be deemed at law to have been satisfied by the payment of the debt
or performance of the duty, and such person shall be entitled to stand
in the place of the creditor, and to use all the remedies, and, if need
be, and upon a proper indemnity, to use the name of the creditor, in any
action or other proceeding at law or in equity, in order to obtain from
the principal debtor, or any co-surety, co-contractor, or co-debtor, as
the case may be, indemnification for the advances made and loss
sustained by the person who shall have so paid such debt or performed
such duty; and such payment or performance so made by such surety shall
not be pleadable in bar of any such action or other proceeding by him,
provided always that no co-surety, co-contractor, or co-debtor shall be
entitled to recover from any other co-surety, co-contractor, or
co-debtor, by the means aforesaid, more than the just proportion to
which, as between those parties themselves, such last-mentioned person
shall be justly liable." This enactment is so far retrospective that it
applies to a contract made before the act, where the breach thereof, and
the payment by the surety, have taken place subsequently. The right of
the surety to be subrogated, on payment by him of the guaranteed debt,
to all the rights of the creditor against the principal debtor is
recognized in America (_Tobin_ v. _Kirk_, 80 New York S.C.R. 229), and
many other countries (Codes Civil, Fr. and Bel. 2029; Spain, 1839; Port.
839; Germany, 774; Holland, 1877; Italy, 1916; Lower Canada, 2959; Egypt
[mixed suits], 617; _ibid._ [native tribunals], 505).

As regards the rights of the surety against a co-surety, he is entitled
to contribution from him in respect of their common liability. This
particular right is not the result of any contract, but is derived from
a general equity, on the ground of equality of burden and benefit, and
exists whether the sureties be bound jointly, or jointly and severally,
and by the same, or different, instruments. There is, however, no right
of contribution where each surety is severally bound for a given portion
only of the guaranteed debt; nor in the case of a surety for a surety;
(see _In re Denton's Estate_, 1904, 2 Ch. 178 C.A.); nor where a person
becomes a surety jointly with another and at the latter's request.
Contribution may be enforced, either before payment, or as soon as the
surety has paid more than his share of the common debt (_Wolmershausen_
v. _Gullick_, 1803, 2 Ch. 514); and the amount recoverable is now always
regulated by the number of solvent sureties, though formerly this rule
only prevailed in equity. In the event of the bankruptcy of a surety,
proof can be made against his estate by a co-surety for any excess over
the latter's contributive share. The right of contribution is not the
only right possessed by co-sureties against each other, but they are
also entitled to the benefit of all securities which have been taken by
any one of them as an indemnity against the liability incurred for the
principal debtor. The Roman law did not recognize the right of
contribution amongst sureties. It is, however, sanctioned by many
existing codes (Fr. and Bel. 2033; Germany, 426, 474; Italy, 1920;
Holland, 1881; Spain, 1844; Port. 845; Lower Canada, 1955; Egypt [mixed
suits], 618, _ibid._ [native tribunals], 506), and also by the Indian
Contract Act 1872, ss. 146-147.

The discharge of a surety from liability under his guarantee may be
accomplished In various ways, he being regarded, especially in England
and America, as a "favoured debtor" (_per_ Turner, L.J., in _Wheatley_
v. _Bastow_, 7 De G. M. & G. 279, 280; _per_ Earl of Selborne, L.C., in
_In re Sherry--London and County Banking Co._ v. _Terry_, 25 Ch. D., at
p. 703; and see Brandt on _Suretyship_, secs. 79, 80). Thus, fraud
subsequent to the execution of the guarantee (as where, for example, the
creditor connives at the principal debtor's default) will certainly
discharge the surety. Again, a material alteration made by the creditor
in the instrument of guarantee after its execution may also have this
effect. The most prolific ground of discharge, however, is usually
traceable to causes originating in the creditor's laches or conduct, the
governing principle being that if the creditor violates any rights which
the surety possessed when he entered into the suretyship, even though
the damage be nominal only, the guarantee cannot be enforced. On this
subject it suffices to state that the surety's discharge may be
accomplished (1) by a variation of the terms of the contract between the
creditor and the principal debtor, or of that subsisting between the
creditor and the surety (see _Rickaby_ v. _Lewis_, 22 T.L.R. 130); (2)
by the creditor taking a new security from the principal debtor in lieu
of the original one; (3) by the creditor discharging the principal
debtor from liability; (4) by the creditor binding himself to give time
to the principal debtor for payment of the guaranteed debt; or (5) by
loss of securities received by the creditor in respect of the guaranteed
debt.

In this connexion It may be stated in general terms that whatever
extinguishes the principal obligation necessarily determines that of the
surety (which is accessory thereto), not only in England but elsewhere
also (Codes Civil, Fr. and Bel. 2034, 2038; Spain, 1847; Port. 848;
Lower Canada, 1956; 1960; Egypt [mixed suits], 622, _ibid._ [native
tribunals], 509; Indian Contract Act 1872, sec. 134), and that, by most
of the codes civil now in force, the surety is discharged by _laches_ or
conduct of the creditor inconsistent with the surety's rights (see Fr.
and Bel. 2037; Spain, 1852; Port. 853; Germany, 776; Italy, 1928; Egypt
[mixed suits], 623), though it may be mentioned that the rule prevailing
in England, Scotland, America and India which releases the surety from
liability where the creditor, by binding contract with the principal,
extends without the surety's consent the time for fulfilling the
principal obligation, while recognized by two existing codes civil
(Spain, 1851; Port. 852), is rejected by the majority of them (Fr. and
Bel. 2039; Holland, 1887; Italy, 1930; Lower Canada, 1961; Egypt [mixed
suits], 613; _ib._ [native tribunals], 503); (and see Morice, _English
and Dutch Law_, p. 96; van der Linden, _Institutes of Holland_, pp.
120-121). A revocation of the contract of suretyship by act of the
parties, or in certain cases by the death of the surety, may also
operate to discharge the surety. The death of a surety does not _per se_
determine the guarantee, but, save where from its nature the guarantee
is irrevocable by the surety himself, it can be revoked by express
notice after his death, or, it would appear, by the creditor becoming
affected with constructive notice thereof; except where, under the
testator's will, the executor has the option of continuing the
guarantee, in which case the executor should, it seems, specifically
withdraw the guarantee in order to determine it. Where one of a number
of joint and several sureties dies, the future liability of the
survivors under the guarantee continues, at all events until it has been
determined by express notice. Moreover, when three persons joined in a
guarantee to a bank, and their liability thereunder was not expressed to
be several, it was held that the death of one surety did not determine
the liability of the survivors. In such a case, however, the estate of
the deceased surety would be relieved from liability.

The Statutes of Limitation bar the right of action on guarantees under
seal after twenty years, and on other guarantees after six years, from
the date when the creditor might have sued the surety.

  AUTHORITIES.--De Colyar, _Law of Guarantees and of Principal and
  Surety_ (3rd ed., 1897); American edition, by J. A. Morgan (1875);
  Throop, _Validity of Verbal Agreements_; Fell, _Guarantees_ (2nd
  ed.); Theobald, _Law of Principal and Surety_; Brandt, _Law of
  Suretyships and Guarantee_; article by de Colyar in _Journal of
  Comparative Legislation_ (1905), on "Suretyship from the Standpoint of
  Comparative Jurisprudence."     (H. A. de C.)



GUARATINGUETÁ, a city of Brazil In the eastern part of the state of São
Paulo, 124 m. N.E. of the city of São Paulo. Pop. (1890) of the
municipality, which includes a large rural district and the villages of
Apparecida and Roseira, 30,690. The city, which was founded in 1651,
stands on a fertile plain 3 m. from the Parahyba river, and is the
commercial centre of one of the oldest agricultural districts of the
state. The district produces large quantities of coffee, and some sugar,
Indian corn and beans. Cattle and pigs are raised. The city dwellings
are for the most part constructed of rough wooden frames covered with
mud, called _taipa_ by the natives, and roofed with curved tiles. The
São Paulo branch of the Brazilian Central railway passes through the
city, by which it is connected with Rio de Janeiro on one side and São
Paulo and Santos on the other.



GUARDA, an episcopal city and the capital of an administrative district
bearing the same name, and formerly in the province of Beira, Portugal;
on the Guarda-Abrantes and Lisbon-Villar Formoso railways. Pop. (1900)
6124. Guarda is situated 3370 ft. above sea-level, at the north-eastern
extremity of the Serra da Estrella, overlooking the fertile valley of
the river Côa. It is surrounded by ancient walls, and contains a ruined
castle, a fine 16th-century cathedral and a sanatorium for consumptives.
Its industries comprise the manufacture of coarse cloth and the sale of
grain, wine and live stock. In 1199 Guarda was founded, on the site of
the Roman Lencia Oppidana, by Sancho I. of Portugal, who intended it, as
its name implies, to be a "guard" against Moorish invasion. The
administrative district of Guarda coincides with north-eastern Beira;
pop. (1900), 261,630; area, 1065 sq. m.



GUARDI, FRANCESCO (1712-1793), Venetian painter, was a pupil of
Canaletto, and followed his style so closely that his pictures are very
frequently attributed to his more celebrated master. Nevertheless, the
diversity, when once perceived, is sufficiently marked--Canaletto being
more firm, solid, distinct, well-grounded, and on the whole the higher
master, while Guardi is noticeable for spirited touch, sparkling colour
and picturesquely sketched figures--in these respects being fully equal
to Canaletto. Guardi sometimes coloured Canaletto's designs. He had
extraordinary facility, three or four days being enough for producing an
entire work. The number of his performances is large in proportion to
this facility and to the love of gain which characterized him. Many of
his works are to be found in England and seven in the Louvre.



GUARDIAN, one who guards or defends another, a protector. The O. Fr.
_guarden_, _garden_, mod. _gardien_, from _guarder_, _garder_, is of
Teutonic origin, from the base _war-_, to protect, cf. O.H. Ger.
_warten_, and Eng. "ward"; thus "guardian" and "warden" are
etymologically identical, as are "guard" and "ward"; cf. the use of the
correlatives "guardian" and "ward," i.e. a minor, or person incapable of
managing his affairs, under the protection or in the custody of a
guardian. For the position of guardians of the poor see POOR LAW, and
for the legal relations between a guardian and his ward see INFANT,
MARRIAGE and ROMAN LAW.



GUARDS, AND HOUSEHOLD TROOPS. The word _guard_ is an adaptation of the
Fr. _guarde_, mod. _garde_, O. Ger. _ward_; see GUARDIAN. The practice
of maintaining bodyguards is of great antiquity, and may indeed be
considered the beginning of organized armies. Thus there is often no
clear distinction between the inner ring of personal defenders and the
select corps of trained combatants who are at the chief's entire
disposal. Famous examples of corps that fell under one or both these
headings are the "Immortals" of Xerxes, the Mamelukes, Janissaries, the
_Huscarles_ of the Anglo-Saxon kings, and the Russian Strelitz
(_Stryeltsi_). In modern times the distinction of function is better
marked, and the fighting men who are more intimately connected with the
sovereign than the bulk of the army can be classified as to duties into
"Household Troops," who are in a sense personal retainers, and
"Guards," who are a _corps d'élite_ of combatants. But the dividing line
is not so clear as to any given body of troops. Thus the British
Household Cavalry is part of the combatant army as well as the
sovereign's escort.

The oldest of the household or bodyguard corps in the United Kingdom is
the King's Bodyguard of the _Yeomen of the Guard_ (q.v.), formed at his
accession by Henry VII. The "nearest guard," the personal escort of the
sovereign, is the "King's Bodyguard of the Honourable Corps of
_Gentlemen-at-Arms_," created by Henry VIII. at his accession in 1509.
Formed possibly on the pattern of the "Pensionnaires" of the French
kings--retainers of noble birth who were the predecessors of the _Maison
du Roi_ (see below)--the new corps was originally called "the
Pensioners." The importance of such guards regiments in the general
development of organized armies is illustrated by a declaration of the
House of Commons, made in 1674, that the militia, the pensioners and the
Yeomen of the Guard were the only lawful armed forces in the realm. But
with the rise of the professional soldier and the corresponding disuse
of arms by the nobles and gentry, the Gentlemen-at-Arms (a title which
came into use in James II.'s time, though it did not become that of the
corps until William IV.'s) retaining their noble character, became less
and less military. Burke attempted without success in 1782 to restrict
membership to officers of the army and navy, but the necessity of giving
the corps an effective military character became obvious when, on the
occasion of a threatened Chartist riot, it was called upon to do duty as
an armed body at St James's Palace. The corps was reconstituted on a
purely military basis in 1862, and from that date only military officers
of the regular services who have received a war decoration are eligible
for appointment. The office of captain, however, is political, the
holder (who is always a peer) vacating it on the resignation of the
government of which he is a member. The corps consists at present of
captain, lieutenant, standard bearer, clerk of the cheque (adjutant),
sub-officer and 39 gentlemen-at-arms. The uniform consists of a scarlet
swallow-tailed coat and blue overalls, with gold epaulettes, brass
dragoon helmet with drooping white plume and brass box-spurs, these last
contrasting rather forcibly with the partizan, an essentially infantry
weapon, that they carry.

  _The Royal Company of Archers._--The king's bodyguard for Scotland was
  constituted in its present form in the year 1670, by an act of the
  privy council of Scotland. An earlier origin has been claimed for the
  company, some connecting it with a supposed archer guard of the kings
  of Scotland. In the above-mentioned year, 1676, the minutes of the
  Royal Company begin by stating, that owing to "the noble and usefull
  recreation of archery being for many years much neglected, several
  noblemen and gentlemen did associate themselves in a company for
  encouragement thereof ... and did apply to the privy council for their
  approbation ... which was granted." For about twenty years at the end
  of the 17th century, perhaps owing to the adhesion of the majority to
  the Stuart cause, its existence seems to have been suspended. But in
  1703 a new captain-general, Sir George Mackenzie, Viscount Tarbat,
  afterwards earl of Cromarty (1630-1714), was elected, and he procured
  for the company a new charter from Queen Anne. The rights and
  privileges renewed or conferred by this charter were to be held of the
  crown for the _reddendo_ of a pair of barbed arrows. This _reddendo_
  was paid to George IV. at Holyrood in 1822, to Queen Victoria in 1842
  and to King Edward VII. in 1903. The history of the Royal Company
  since 1703 has been one of great prosperity. Large parades were
  frequently held, and many distinguished men marched in the ranks.
  Several of the leading insurgents in 1745 were members, but the
  company was not at that time suspended in any way.

  In 1822 when King George IV. visited Scotland, it was thought
  appropriate that the Royal Company should act as his majesty's
  bodyguard during his stay, especially as there was a tradition of a
  former archer bodyguard. They therefore performed the duties usually
  assigned to the gentlemen-at-arms. When Queen Victoria visited the
  Scottish capital in 1842, the Royal Company again did duty; the last
  time they were called out in her reign in their capacity of royal
  bodyguard was in 1860 on the occasion of the great volunteer review in
  the Queen's Park, Edinburgh. They acted in the same capacity when King
  Edward VII. reviewed the Scottish Volunteers there on the 18th of
  September 1905.

  King George IV. authorized the company to take, in addition to their
  former name, that of "The King's Body Guard for Scotland," and
  presented to the captain-general a gold stick, thus constituting the
  company part of the royal household. In virtue of this stick the
  captain-general of the Royal Company takes his place at a coronation
  or similar pageant immediately behind the gold stick of England. The
  lieutenants-general of the company have silver sticks; and the
  council, which is the executive body of the company, possess seven
  ebony ones. George IV. further appointed a full dress uniform to be
  worn by members of the company at court, when not on duty as guards,
  in which latter case the ordinary field dress is used. The court dress
  is green with green velvet facings, gold epaulettes and lace, crimson
  silk sash, and cocked hat with green plume. The officers wear a gold
  sash in place of a crimson one, and an _aiguillette_ on the left
  shoulder. All ranks wear swords. The field dress at present consists
  of a dark-green tunic, shoulder-wings and gauntleted cuffs and
  trousers trimmed with black and crimson; a bow-case worn as a sash, of
  the same colour as the coat, black waistbelt with sword, and Balmoral
  bonnet with thistle ornament and eagle's feather. The officers of the
  company are the captain-general, 4 captains, 4 lieutenants, 4 ensigns,
  12 brigadiers and adjutant.

Corps of the gentlemen-at-arms or yeoman type do not of course count as
combatant troops--if for no other reason at least because they are armed
with the weapons of bygone times. Colonel Clifford Walton states in his
_History of the British Standing Army_ that neither the Yeomen of the
Guard nor the Pensioners were ever subject to martial law. The British
guards and household troops that are armed, trained and organized as
part of the army are the _Household Cavalry_ and the _Foot Guards_.

The Household Cavalry consists at the present day of three regiments,
and has its origin, as have certain of the Foot guard regiments, in the
ashes of the "New Model" army disbanded at the restoration of Charles
II. in 1660. In that year the "1st or His Majesty's Own Troop of Guards"
formed during the king's exile of his cavalier followers, was taken on
the strength of the army. The 2nd troop was formerly in the Spanish
service as the "Duke of York's Guards," and was also a cavalier unit. In
1670, on Monk's death, the original 3rd troop (Monk's Life Guards,
renamed in 1660 the "Lord General's Troop of Guards") became the 2nd
(the queen's) troop, and the duke of York's troop the 3rd. In 1685 the
1st and 2nd troops were styled Life Guards of Horse, and two years later
the blue-uniformed "Royal Regiment of Horse," a New Model regiment that
had been disbanded and at once re-raised in 1660, was made a household
cavalry corps. Later under the colonelcy of the earl of Oxford it was
popularly called "The Oxford Blues." There were also from time to time
other troops (e.g. Scots troops 1700-1746) that have now disappeared. In
1746 the 2nd troop was disbanded, but it was revived in 1788, when the
two senior corps were given their present title of 1st and 2nd Life
Guards. From 1750 to 1819 the Blues bore the name of "Royal Horse Guards
Blue," which in 1819 was changed to "Royal Horse Guards (The Blues)."
The general distinction between the uniforms of the red Life Guard and
the blue Horse Guard still exists. The 1st and the 2nd regiments of Life
Guards wear scarlet tunics with blue collars and cuffs, and the Royal
Horse Guards blue tunics with scarlet collars and cuffs. All three wear
steel cuirasses on state occasions and on guard duty. The head-dress is
a steel helmet with drooping horse-hair plume (white for Life Guards,
red for Horse Guards). In full dress white buckskin pantaloons and long
knee boots are worn. Amongst the peculiarities of these _corps d'élite_
is the survival of the old custom of calling non-commissioned officers
"corporal of horse" instead of sergeant, and corporal-major instead of
sergeant-major, the wearing by trumpeters and bandsmen in full dress of
a black velvet cap, a richly laced coat with a full skirt extending to
the wearer's knees and long white gaiters. There is little distinction
between the two Life Guards regiments' uniforms, the most obvious point
being that the cord running through the white leather pouch belt is red
for the 1st and blue for the 2nd.

The Foot Guards comprise the Grenadier Guards, the Coldstream Guards,
the Scots Guards and the Irish Guards, each (except the last) of three
battalions. The Grenadiers, originally the First Foot Guards, represent
a royalist infantry regiment which served with the exiled princes in the
Spanish army and returned at the Restoration in 1660. The Coldstream
Guards are a New Model regiment, and were originally called the Lord
General's (Monk's) regiment of Foot Guards. Their popular title, which
became their official designation in 1670, is derived from the fact that
the army with which Monk restored the monarchy crossed the Tweed into
England at the village of Coldstream, and that his troops (which were
afterwards, except the two units of horse and foot of which Monk himself
was colonel, disbanded) were called the Coldstreamers. The two
battalions of Scots Foot Guards, which regiment was separately raised
and maintained in Scotland after the Restoration, marched to London in
1686 and 1688 and were brought on to the English Establishment in 1707.
In George III.'s reign they were known as the Third Guards, and from
1831 to 1877 (when the present title was adopted) as the Scots Fusilier
Guards.

The Irish Guards (one battalion) were formed in 1902, after the South
African War, as a mark of Queen Victoria's appreciation of the services
rendered by the various Irish regiments of the line.[1] The dress of the
Foot Guards is generally similar in all four regiments, scarlet tunic
with blue collars, cuffs and shoulder-straps, blue trousers and high,
rounded bearskin cap. The regimental distinctions most easily noticed
are these. The Grenadiers wear a small white plume in the bearskin, the
Coldstreams a similar red one, the Scots none, the Irish a blue-green
one. The buttons on the tunic are spaced evenly for the Grenadiers, by
twos for the Coldstreams, by threes for the Scots and by fours for the
Irish. The band of the modern cap is red for the Grenadiers, white for
the Coldstreams, "diced" red and white (chequers) for the Scots and
green for the Irish. Former privileges of foot guard regiments, such as
higher brevet rank in the army for their regimental officers, are now
abolished, but Guards are still subject exclusively to the command of
their own officers, and the officers of the Foot Guards, like those of
the Household Cavalry, have special duties at court. Neither the cavalry
nor the infantry guards serve abroad in peace time as a rule, but in
1907 a battalion of the Guards, which it was at that time proposed to
disband, was sent to Egypt. "Guards' Brigades" served in the Napoleonic
Wars, in the Crimea, in Egypt at various times from 1887 to 1898 and in
South Africa 1899-1902. The last employment of the Household Cavalry as
a brigade in war was at Waterloo, but composite regiments made up from
officers and men of the Life Guards and Blues were employed in Egypt and
in S. Africa.

  The sovereigns of France had guards in their service in Merovingian
  times, and their household forces appear from time to time in the
  history of medieval wars. Louis XI. was, however, the first to
  regularize their somewhat loose organization, and he did so to such
  good purpose that Francis I. had no less than 8000 guardsmen
  organized, subdivided and permanently under arms. The senior unit of
  the _Gardes du Corps_ was the famous company of Scottish archers
  (_Compagnie écossaise de la Garde du Corps du Roi_), which was
  originally formed (1418) from the Scottish contingents that assisted
  the French in the Hundred Years' War. Scott's _Quentin Durward_ gives
  a picture of life in the corps as it was under Louis XI. In the
  following century, however, its regimental history becomes somewhat
  confused. Two French companies were added by Louis XI. and Francis I.
  and the _Gardes du Corps_ came to consist exclusively of cavalry.
  About 1634 nearly all the Scots then serving went into the "regiment
  d'Hébron" and thence later into the British regular army (see HEPBURN,
  SIR JOHN). Thereafter, though the titles, distinctions and privileges
  of the original Archer Guard were continued, it was recruited from
  native Frenchmen, preference being (at any rate at first) given to
  those of Scottish descent. At its disbandment in 1791 along with the
  rest of the _Gardes du Corps_, it contained few, if any, native Scots.
  There was also, for a short time (1643-1660), an infantry regiment of
  _Gardes écossaises_.

  In 1671 the title of _Maison Militaire du Roi_ was applied to that
  portion of the household that was distinctively military. It came to
  consist of 4 companies of the _Gardes du Corps_, 2 companies of
  _Mousquetaires_ (cavalry) (formed 1622 and 1660), 1 company of
  _Chevaux légers_ (1570), 1 of _Gendarmes de la Maison Rouge_, and 1 of
  _Grenadiers à Cheval_ (1676), with 1 company of _Gardes de la Porte_
  and one called the _Cent-Suisses_, the last two being semi-military.
  This large establishment, which did not include all the guard
  regiments, was considerably reduced by the Count of St Germain's
  reforms in 1775, all except the _Gardes du Corps_ and the
  _Cent-Suisses_ being disbanded. The whole of the _Maison du Roi_, with
  the exception of the semi-military bodies referred to, was cavalry.

  The _Gardes françaises_, formed in 1563, did not form part of the
  _Maison_. They were an infantry regiment, as were the famous _Gardes
  suisses_, originally a Swiss mercenary regiment in the Wars of
  Religion, which was, for good conduct at the combat of Arques,
  incorporated in the permanent establishment by Henry IV. in 1589 and
  in the guards in 1615. At the Revolution, contrary to expectation, the
  French Guards sided openly with the Constitutional movement and were
  disbanded. The Swiss Guards, however, being foreigners, and therefore
  unaffected by civil troubles, retained their exact discipline and
  devotion to the court to the day on which they were sacrificed by
  their master to the bullets of the Marseillais and the pikes of the
  mob (August 10, 1792). Their tragic fate is commemorated by the
  well-known monument called the "Lion of Lucerne," the work of
  Thorvaldsen, erected near Lucerne in 1821. The "Constitutional,"
  "Revolutionary" and other guards that were created after the abolition
  of the _Maison_ and the slaughter of the Swiss are unimportant, but
  through the "Directory Guards" they form a nominal link between the
  household troops of the monarchy and the corps which is perhaps the
  most famous "Guard" in history. The Imperial Guard of Napoleon had its
  beginnings in an escort squadron called the Corps of Guides, which
  accompanied him in the Italian campaign of 1796-1797 and in Egypt. On
  becoming First Consul in 1799 he built up out of this and of the guard
  of the Directory a small corps of horse and foot, called the Consular
  Guard, and this, which was more of a fighting unit than a personal
  bodyguard, took part in the battle of Marengo. The Imperial Guard,
  into which it was converted on the establishment of the Empire, was at
  first of about the strength of a division. As such it took part in the
  Austerlitz and Jena campaigns, but after the conquest of Prussia
  Napoleon augmented it, and divided it into the "Old Guard" and the
  "Young Guard." Subsequently the "Middle Guard" was created, and by
  successive augmentations the corps of the guard had grown to be 57,000
  strong in 1811-1812 and 81,000 in 1813. It preserved its general
  character as a _corps d'élite_ of veterans to the last, but from about
  1813 the "Young Guard" was recruited directly from the best of the
  annual conscript contingent. The officers held a higher rank in the
  army than their regimental rank in the Guards. At the first
  Restoration an attempt was made to revive the _Maison du Roi_, but in
  the constitutional régime of the second Restoration this semi-medieval
  form of bodyguard was given up and replaced by the _Garde Royale_, a
  selected fighting corps. This took part in the short war with Spain
  and a portion of it fought in Algeria, but it was disbanded at the
  July Revolution. Louis Philippe had no real guard troops, but the
  memories of the Imperial Guard were revived by Napoleon III., who
  formed a large guard corps in 1853-1854. This, however, was open to an
  even greater degree than Napoleon I.'s guard to the objection that it
  took away the best soldiers from the line. Since the fall of the
  Empire in 1870 there have been no guard troops in France. The duty of
  watching over the safety of the president is taken in the ordinary
  roster of duty by the troops stationed in the capital. The "Republican
  Guard" is the Paris gendarmerie, recruited from old soldiers and armed
  and trained as a military body.

  In _Austria-Hungary_ there are only small bodies of household troops
  (Archer Body Guard, Trabant Guard, Hungarian Crown Guards, &c.)
  analogous to the British Gentlemen at Arms or Yeomen of the Guard.
  Similar forces, the "Noble Guard" and the "Swiss Guard," are
  maintained in the Vatican. The court troops of Spain are called
  "halberdiers" and armed with the halbert.

  In _Russia_ the Guard is organized as an army corps. It possesses
  special privileges, particularly as regards officers' advancement.

  In _Germany_ the distinction between armed retainers and "Guards" is
  well marked. The army is for practical purposes a unit under imperial
  control, while household troops ("castle-guards" as they are usually
  called) belong individually to the various sovereigns within the
  empire. The "Guards," as a combatant force in the army are those of
  the king of _Prussia_ and constitute a strong army corps. This has
  grown gradually from a bodyguard of archers, and, as in Great Britain,
  the functions of the heavy cavalry regiments of the Guard preserve to
  some extent the name and character of a body guard (_Gardes du
  Corps_). The senior foot guard regiment is also personally connected
  with the royal family. The conversion of a palace-guard to a combatant
  force is due chiefly to Frederick William I., to whom drill was a
  ruling passion, and who substituted effective regiments for the
  ornamental "Trabant Guards" of his father. A further move was made by
  Frederick the Great in substituting for Frederick William's expensive
  "giant" regiment of guards a larger number of ordinary soldiers, whom
  he subjected to the same rigorous training and made a _corps d'élite_.
  Frederick the Great also formed the Body Guard alluded to above.
  Nevertheless in 1806 the Guard still consisted only of two cavalry
  regiments and four infantry regiments, and it was the example of
  Napoleon's imperial guard which converted this force into a corps of
  all arms. In 1813 its strength was that of a weak division, but in
  1860 by slight but frequent augmentations it had come to consist of an
  army corps, complete with all auxiliary services. A few guard
  regiments belonging to the minor sovereigns are counted in the line
  of the German army. In war the Guard is employed as a unit, like other
  army corps. It is recruited by the assignment of selected young men of
  each annual contingent, and is thus free from the reproach of the
  French Imperial Guard, which took the best-trained soldiers from the
  regiments of the line.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The "Irish Guards" of the Stuarts took the side of James II.,
    fought against William III. in Ireland and lost their regimental
    identity in the French service to which the officers and soldiers
    transferred themselves on the abandonment of the struggle.



GUARD-SHIP, a warship stationed at some port or harbour to act as a
guard, and in former times in the British navy to receive the men
impressed for service. She usually was the flagship of the admiral
commanding on the coast. A guard-boat is a boat which goes the round of
a fleet at anchor to see that due watch is kept at night.



GUÁRICO, a large inland state of Venezuela created by the territorial
redivision of 1904, bounded by Aragua and Miranda on the N., Bermúdez on
the E., Bolívar on the S., and Zamora on the W. Pop. (1905 estimate),
78,117. It extends across the northern _llanos_ to the Orinoco and Apure
rivers and is devoted almost wholly to pastoral pursuits, exporting
cattle, horses and mules, hides and skins, cheese and some other
products. The capital is Calabozo, and the other principal towns are
Camaguán (pop. 3648) on the Portugueza river, Guayabal (pop. 3146), on a
small tributary of the Guárico river, and Zaraza (pop. 14,546) on the
Unare river, nearly 150 m. S.E. of Carácas.



GUARIENTO, sometimes incorrectly named GUERRIERO, the first Paduan
painter who distinguished himself. The only date distinctly known in his
career is 1365, when, having already acquired high renown in his native
city, he was invited by the Venetian authorities to paint a Paradise,
and some incidents of the war of Spoleto, in the great council-hall of
Venice. These works were greatly admired at the time, but have long ago
disappeared under repaintings. His works in Padua have suffered much. In
the church of the Eremitani are allegories of the Planets, and, in its
choir, some small sacred histories in dead colour, such as an Ecce Homo;
also, on the upper walls, the life of St Augustine, with some other
subjects. A few fragments of other paintings by Guariento are still
extant in Padua. In the gallery of Bassano is a Crucifixion, carefully
executed, and somewhat superior to a merely traditional method of
handling, although on the whole Guariento must rather be classed in that
school of art which preceded Cimabue than as having advanced in his
vestiges; likewise two other works in Bassano, ascribed to the same
hand. The painter is buried in the church of S. Bernardino, Padua.



GUARINI, CAMILLO-GUARINO (1624-1683), Italian monk, writer and
architect, was born at Modena in 1624. He was at once a learned
mathematician, professor of literature and philosophy at Messina, and,
from the age of seventeen, was architect to Duke Philibert of Savoy. He
designed a very large number of public and private buildings at Turin,
including the palaces of the duke of Savoy and the prince of Cacignan,
and many public buildings at Modena, Verona, Vienna, Prague, Lisbon and
Paris. He died at Milan in 1683.



GUARINI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA (1537-1612), Italian poet, author of the
_Pastor fido_, was born at Ferrara on the 10th of December 1537, just
seven years before the birth of Tasso. He was descended from Guarino da
Verona. The young Battista studied both at Pisa and Padua, whence he was
called, when not yet twenty, to profess moral philosophy in the schools
of his native city. He inherited considerable wealth, and was able early
in life to marry Taddea de' Bendedei, a lady of good birth. In 1567 he
entered the service of Alphonso II., duke of Ferrara, thus beginning the
court career which was destined to prove a constant source of
disappointment and annoyance to him. Though he cultivated poetry for
pastime, Guarini aimed at state employment as the serious business of
his life, and managed to be sent on various embassies and missions by
his ducal master. There was, however, at the end of the 16th century no
opportunity for a man of energy and intellectual ability to distinguish
himself in the petty sphere of Italian diplomacy. The time too had
passed when the profession of a courtier, painted in such glowing terms
by Castiglione, could confer either profit or honour. It is true that
the court of Alphonso presented a brilliant spectacle to Europe, with
Tasso for titular poet, and an attractive circle of accomplished
ladies. But the last duke of Ferrara was an illiberal patron, feeding
his servants with promises, and ever ready to treat them with the
brutality that condemned the author of the _Gerusalemme liberata_ to a
madhouse. Guarini spent his time and money to little purpose, suffered
from the spite and ill-will of two successive secretaries,--Pigna and
Montecatini,--quarrelled with his old friend Tasso, and at the end of
fourteen years of service found himself half-ruined, with a large family
and no prospects. When Tasso was condemned to S. Anna, the duke promoted
Guarini to the vacant post of court poet. There is an interesting letter
extant from the latter to his friend Cornelio Bentivoglio, describing
the efforts he made to fill this place appropriately. "I strove to
transform myself into another person, and, like a player, reassumed the
character, costume and feelings of my youth. Advanced in manhood, I
forced myself to look young; I turned my natural melancholy into
artificial gaiety, affected loves I did not feel, exchanged wisdom for
folly, and, in a word, passed from a philosopher into a poet." How
ill-adapted he felt himself to this masquerade life may be gathered from
the following sentence: "I am already in my forty-fourth year, the
father of eight children, two of whom are old enough to be my censors,
while my daughters are of an age to marry." Abandoning so uncongenial a
strain upon his faculties, Guarini retired in 1582 to his ancestral
farm, the Villa Guarina, in the lovely country that lies between the
Adige and Po, where he gave himself up to the cares of his family, the
nursing of his dilapidated fortunes and the composition of the _Pastor
fido_. He was not happy in his domestic lot; for he had lost his wife
young, and quarrelled with his elder sons about the division of his
estate. Litigation seems to have been an inveterate vice with Guarini;
nor was he ever free from legal troubles. After studying his biography,
the conclusion is forced upon our minds that he was originally a man of
robust and virile intellect, ambitious of greatness, confident in his
own powers, and well qualified for serious affairs, whose energies found
no proper scope for their exercise. Literary work offered but a poor
sphere for such a character, while the enforced inactivity of court life
soured a naturally capricious and choleric temper. Of poetry he spoke
with a certain tone of condescension, professing to practise it only in
his leisure moments; nor are his miscellaneous verses of a quality to
secure for their author a very lasting reputation. It is therefore not a
little remarkable that the fruit of his retirement--a disappointed
courtier past the prime of early manhood--should have been a dramatic
masterpiece worthy to be ranked with the classics of Italian literature.
Deferring a further account of the _Pastor fido_ for the present, the
remaining incidents of Guarini's restless life may be briefly told. In
1585 he was at Turin superintending the first public performance of his
drama, whence Alphonso recalled him to Ferrara, and gave him the office
of secretary of state. This reconciliation between the poet and his
patron did not last long. Guarini moved to Florence, then to Rome, and
back again to Florence, where he established himself as the courtier of
Ferdinand de' Medici. A dishonourable marriage, pressed upon his son
Guarino by the grand-duke, roused the natural resentment of Guarini,
always scrupulous upon the point of honour. He abandoned the Medicean
court, and took refuge with Francesco Maria of Urbino, the last scion of
the Montefeltro-della-Rovere house. Yet he found no satisfaction at
Urbino. "The old court is a dead institution," he writes to a friend;
"one may see a shadow of it, but not the substance in Italy of to-day.
Ours is an age of appearances, and one goes a-masquerading all the
year." This was true enough. Those dwindling deadly-lively little
residence towns of Italian ducal families, whose day of glory was over,
and who were waiting to be slowly absorbed by the capacious appetite of
Austria, were no fit places for a man of energy and independence.
Guarini finally took refuge in his native Ferrara, which, since the
death of Alphonso, had now devolved to the papal see. Here, and at the
Villa Guarina, his last years were passed in study, law-suits, and
polemical disputes with his contemporary critics, until 1612, when he
died at Venice in his seventy-fifth year.

The _Pastor fido_ (first published in 1590) is a pastoral drama composed
not without reminiscences of Tasso's _Aminta_. The scene is laid in
Arcadia, where Guarini supposes it to have been the custom to sacrifice
a maiden yearly to Diana. But an oracle has declared that when two
scions of divine lineage are united in marriage, and a faithful shepherd
has atoned for the ancient error of a faithless woman, this inhuman rite
shall cease. The plot turns upon the unexpected fulfilment of this
prophecy, contrary to all the schemes which had been devised for
bringing it to accomplishment, and in despite of apparent
improbabilities of divers kinds. It is extremely elaborate, and,
regarded as a piece of cunning mechanism, leaves nothing to be desired.
Each motive has been carefully prepared, each situation amply developed.
Yet, considered as a play, the _Pastor fido_ disappoints a reader
trained in the school of Sophocles or Shakespeare. The action itself
seems to take place off the stage, and only the results of action,
stationary tableaux representing the movement of the drama, are put
before us in the scenes. The art is lyrical, not merely in form but in
spirit, and in adaptation to the requirements of music which demands
stationary expressions of emotion for development. The characters have
been well considered, and are exhibited with great truth and vividness;
the cold and eager hunter Silvio contrasting with the tender and
romantic Mirtillo, and Corisca's meretricious arts enhancing the pure
affection of Amarilli. Dorinda presents another type of love so
impulsive that it prevails over a maiden's sense of shame, while the
courtier Carino brings the corruption of towns into comparison with the
innocence of the country. In Carino the poet painted his own experience,
and here his satire upon the court of Ferrara is none the less biting
because it is gravely measured. In Corisca he delineated a woman
vitiated by the same town life, and a very hideous portrait has he
drawn. Though a satirical element was thus introduced into the _Pastor
fido_ in order to relieve its ideal picture of Arcadia, the whole play
is but a study of contemporary feeling in Italian society. There is no
true rusticity whatever in the drama. This correspondence with the
spirit of the age secured its success during Guarini's lifetime; this
made it so dangerously seductive that Cardinal Bellarmine told the poet
he had done more harm to Christendom by his blandishments than Luther by
his heresy. Without anywhere transgressing the limits of decorum, the
_Pastor fido_ is steeped in sensuousness; and the immodesty of its
pictures is enhanced by rhetorical concealments more provocative than
nudity. Moreover, the love described is effeminate and wanton, felt less
as passion than as lust enveloped in a veil of sentiment. We divine the
coming age of _cicisbei_ and _castrati_. Of Guarini's style it would be
difficult to speak in terms of too high praise. The thought and
experience of a lifetime have been condensed in these five acts, and
have found expression in language brilliant, classical, chiselled to
perfection. Here and there the taste of the 17th century makes itself
felt in frigid conceits and forced antitheses; nor does Guarini abstain
from sententious maxims which reveal the moralist rather than the poet.
Yet these are but minor blemishes in a masterpiece of diction,
glittering and faultless like a polished bas-relief of hard Corinthian
bronze. That a single pastoral should occupy so prominent a place in the
history of literature seems astonishing, until we reflect that Italy,
upon the close of the 16th century, expressed itself in the _Pastor
fido_, and that the influence of this drama was felt through all the art
of Europe till the epoch of the Revolution. It is not a mere play. The
sensual refinement proper to an age of social decadence found in it the
most exact embodiment, and made it the code of gallantry for the next
two centuries.

  The best edition of the _Pastor fido_ is the 20th, published at Venice
  (Ciotti) in 1602. The most convenient is that of Barbéra (Florence,
  1866). For Guarini's miscellaneous _Rime_, the Ferrara edition, in 4
  vols., 1737, may be consulted. His polemical writings, _Verato primo_
  and _secondo_, and his prose comedy called _Idropica_, were published
  at Venice, Florence and Rome, between 1588 and 1614.     (J. A. S.)



GUARINO, also known as VARINUS, and surnamed from his birthplace
FAVORINUS, PHAVORINUS or CAMERS (c. 1450-1537), Italian lexicographer
and scholar, was born at Favera near Camerino, studied Greek and Latin
at Florence under Politian, and afterwards became for a time the pupil
of Lascaris. Having entered the Benedictine order, he now gave himself
with great zeal to Greek lexicography; and in 1496 published his
_Thesaurus cornucopiae et horti Adonidis_, a collection of thirty-four
grammatical tracts in Greek. He for some time acted as tutor to Giovanni
dei Medici (afterwards Leo X.), and also held the appointment of keeper
of the Medicean library at Florence. In 1514 Leo appointed him bishop of
Nocera. In 1517 he published a translation of the _Apophthegmata_ of
Joannes Stobaeus, and in 1523 appeared his _Etymologicum magnum, sive
thesaurus universae linguae Graecae ex multis variisque autoribus
collectus_, a compilation which has been frequently reprinted, and which
has laid subsequent scholars under great though not always acknowledged
obligations.



GUARINO [GUARINUS] DA VERONA (1370-1460), one of the Italian restorers
of classical learning, was born in 1370 at Verona, and studied Greek at
Constantinople, where for five years he was the pupil of Manuel
Chrysoloras. When he set out on his return to Italy he was the happy
possessor of two cases of precious Greek MSS. which he had been at great
pains to collect; it is said that the loss of one of these by shipwreck
caused him such distress that his hair turned grey in a single night. He
supported himself as a teacher of Greek, first at Verona and afterwards
in Venice and Florence; in 1436 he became, through the patronage of
Lionel, marquis of Este, professor of Greek at Ferrara; and in 1438 and
following years he acted as interpreter for the Greeks at the councils
of Ferrara and Florence. He died at Ferrara on the 14th of December
1460.

  His principal works are translations of Strabo and of some of the
  _Lives_ of Plutarch, a compendium of the Greek grammar of Chrysoloras,
  and a series of commentaries on Persius, Juvenal, Martial and on some
  of the writings of Aristotle and Cicero. See Rosmini, _Vita e
  disciplina di Guarino_ (1805-1806); Sabbadini, _Guarino Veronese_
  (1885); Sandys, _Hist. Class. Schol._ ii. (1908).



GUARNIERI, or GUARNERIUS, a celebrated family of violin-makers of
Cremona. The first was Andreas (c. 1626-1698), who worked with Antonio
Stradivari in the workshop of Nicolo Amati (son of Geronimo). Violins of
a model original to him are dated from the sign of "St Theresa" in
Cremona. His son Joseph (1666-c. 1739) made instruments at first like
his father's, but later in a style of his own with a narrow waist; his
son, Peter of Venice (b. 1695), was also a fine maker. Another son of
Andreas, Peter (Pietro Giovanni), commonly known as "Peter of Cremona"
(b. 1655), moved from Cremona and settled at Mantua, where he too worked
"sub signo Sanctae Teresae." Peter's violins again showed considerable
variations from those of the other Guarnieri. Hart, in his work on the
violin, says, "There is increased breadth between the sound-holes; the
sound-hole is rounder and more perpendicular; the middle bouts are more
contracted, and the model is more raised."

The greatest of all the Guarnieri, however, was a nephew of Andreas,
Joseph del Gesù (1687-1745), whose title originates in the I.H.S.
inscribed on his tickets. His master was Gaspar di Salo. His conception
follows that of the early Brescian makers in the boldness of outline and
the massive construction which aim at the production of tone rather than
visual perfection of form. The great variety of his work in size, model,
&c., represents his various experiments in the direction of discovering
this tone. A stain or sap-mark, parallel with the finger-board on both
sides, appears on the bellies of most of his instruments. Since the
middle of the 18th century a great many spurious instruments ascribed to
this master have poured over Europe. It was not until Paganini played on
a "Joseph" that the taste of amateurs turned from the sweetness of the
Amati and the Stradivarius violins in favour of the robuster tone of the
Joseph Guarnerius. See VIOLIN.



GUASTALLA, a town and episcopal see of Emilia, Italy, in the province of
Reggio, from which it is 18 m. N. by road, on the S. bank of the Po, 79
ft. above sea-level. It is also connected by rail with Parma and Mantua
(via Suzzara). Pop. (1901), 2658 (town); 11,091 (commune). It has
16th-century fortifications. The cathedral, dating from the 10th
century, has been frequently restored. Guastalla was founded by the
Lombards in the 7th century; in the church of the Pieve Pope Paschal II.
held a council in 1106. In 1307 it was seized by Giberto da Correggio of
Parma. In 1403 it passed to Guido Torello, cousin of Filippo Maria
Visconti of Milan. In 1539 it was sold by the last female descendant of
the Torelli to Ferrante Gonzaga. In 1621 it was made the seat of a
duchy, but in 1748 it was added to those of Parma and Piacenza, whose
history it subsequently followed.



GUATEMALA (sometimes incorrectly written GUATIMALA), a name now
restricted to the republic of Guatemala and to its chief city, but
formerly given to a captaincy-general of Spanish America, which included
the fifteen provinces of Chiapas, Suchitepeques, Escuintla, Sonsonate,
San Salvador, Vera Paz and Peten, Chiquimula, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa
Rica, Totonicapam, Quezaltenango, Sololá, Chimaltenango and
Sacatepeques,--or, in other words, the whole of Central America (except
Panama) and part of Mexico. The name is probably of Aztec origin, and is
said by some authorities to mean in its native form Quauhtematlan, "Land
of the Eagle," or "Land of Forest"; others, writing it U-ha-tez-ma-la,
connect it with the volcano of Agua (i.e. "water"), and interpret it as
"mountain vomiting water."

The republic of Guatemala is situated between 13° 42´ and 17° 49´ N.,
and 88° 10´ and 92° 30´ W. (For map, see CENTRAL AMERICA.) Pop. (1903),
1,842,134; area about 48,250 sq. m. Guatemala is bounded on the W. and
N. by Mexico, N.E. by British Honduras, E. by the Gulf of Honduras, and
the republic of Honduras, S.E. by Salvador and S. by the Pacific Ocean.
The frontier towards Mexico was determined by conventions of the 27th of
September 1882, the 17th of October 1883, the 1st of April 1895, and the
8th of May 1899. Starting from the Pacific, it ascends the river
Suchiate, then follows an irregular line towards the north-east, till it
reaches the parallel of 17° 49[min] N., along which it runs to the
frontier of British Honduras. This frontier, by the convention of the
9th of July 1893, coincides with the meridian of 89° 20[min] W., till it
meets the river Sarstoon or Sarstun, which it follows eastwards to the
Gulf of Honduras.

  _Physical Description._--Guatemala is naturally divided into five
  regions--the lowlands of the Pacific coast, the volcanic mountains of
  the Sierra Madre, the so-called plateaus immediately north of these,
  the mountains of the Atlantic versant and the plain of Peten. (1) The
  coastal plains extend along the entire southern seaboard, with a mean
  breadth of 50 m., and link together the belts of similar territory in
  Salvador and the district of Soconusco in Chiapas. Owing to their
  tropical heat, low elevation above sea-level, and marshy soil, they
  are thinly peopled, and contain few important towns except the
  seaports. (2) The precipitous barrier of the Sierra Madre, which
  closes in the coastal plains on the north, is similarly prolonged into
  Salvador and Mexico. It is known near Guatemala city as the Sierra de
  las Nubes, and enters Mexico as the Sierra de Istatan. It forms the
  main watershed between the Pacific and Atlantic river systems. Its
  summit is not a well-defined crest, but is often rounded or flattened
  into a table-land. The direction of the great volcanic cones, which
  rise in an irregular line above it, is not identical with the main
  axis of the Sierra itself, except near the Mexican frontier, but has a
  more southerly trend, especially towards Salvador; here the base of
  many of the igneous peaks rests among the southern foothills of the
  range. It is, however, impossible to subdivide the Sierra Madre into a
  northern and a volcanic chain; for the volcanoes are isolated by
  stretches of comparatively low country; at least thirteen considerable
  streams flow down between them, from the main watershed to the sea.
  Viewed from the coast, the volcanic cones seem to rise directly from
  the central heights of the Sierra Madre, above which they tower; but
  in reality their bases are, as a rule, farther south. East of Tacana,
  which marks the Mexican frontier, and is variously estimated at 13,976
  ft. and 13,090 ft., and if the higher estimate be correct is the
  loftiest peak in Central America, the principal volcanoes
  are--Tajamulco or Tajumulco (13,517 ft.); Santa Maria (12,467 ft.),
  which was in eruption during 1902, after centuries of quiescence, in
  which its slopes had been overgrown by dense forests; Atitlán
  (11,719), overlooking the lake of that name; Acatenango (13,615).
  which shares the claim of Tacana to be the highest mountain of Central
  America; Fuego (i.e. "fire," variously estimated at 12,795 ft. and
  12,582 ft.), which received its name from its activity at the time of
  the Spanish conquest; Agua (i.e. "water," 12,139 ft.), so named in
  1541 because it destroyed the former capital of Guatemala with a
  deluge of water from its flooded crater; and Pacaya (8390), a group of
  igneous peaks which were in eruption in 1870. (3) The so-called
  plateaus which extend north of the Sierra Madre are in fact high
  valleys, rather than table-lands, enclosed by mountains. A better idea
  of this region is conveyed by the native name Altos, or highlands,
  although that term includes the northern declivity of the Sierra
  Madre. The mean elevation is greatest in the west (Altos of
  Quezaltenango) and least in the east (Altos of Guatemala). A few of
  the streams of the Pacific slope actually rise in the Altos, and force
  a way through the Sierra Madre at the bottom of deep ravines. One
  large river, the Chixoy, escapes northwards towards the Atlantic. (4)
  The relief of the mountainous country which lies north of the Altos
  and drains into the Atlantic is varied by innumerable terraces, ridges
  and underfalls; but its general configuration is admirably compared by
  E. Reclus with the appearance of "a stormy sea breaking into parallel
  billows" (_Universal Geography_, ed. E. G. Ravenstein, div. xxxiii.,
  p. 212). The parallel ranges extend east and west with a slight
  southerly curve towards their centres. A range called the Sierra de
  Chama, which, however, changes its name frequently from place to
  place, strikes eastward towards British Honduras, and is connected by
  low hills with the Cockscomb Mountains; another similar range, the
  Sierra de Santa Cruz, continues east to Cape Cocoli between the
  Polochic and the Sarstoon; and a third, the Sierra de las Minas or, in
  its eastern portion, Sierra del Mico, stretches between the Polochic
  and the Motagua. Between Honduras and Guatemala the frontier is formed
  by the Sierra de Merendon. (5) The great plain of Peten, which
  comprises about one-third of the whole area of Guatemala, belongs
  geographically to the Yucatan Peninsula, and consists of level or
  undulating country, covered with grass or forest. Its population
  numbers less than two per sq. m., although many districts have a
  wonderfully fertile soil and abundance of water. The greater part of
  this region is uncultivated, and only utilized as pasture by the
  Indians, who form the majority of its inhabitants.

  Guatemala is richly watered. On the western side of the sierras the
  versant is short, and the streams, while very numerous, are
  consequently small and rapid; but on the eastern side a number of the
  rivers attain a very considerable development. The Motagua, whose
  principal head stream is called the Rio Grande, has a course of about
  250 m., and is navigable to within 90 m. of the capital, which is
  situated on one of its confluents, the Rio de las Vacas. It forms a
  delta on the south of the Gulf of Honduras. Of similar importance is
  the Polochic, which is about 180 m. in length, and navigable about 20
  m. above the river-port of Telemán. Before reaching the Golfo Amatique
  it passes through the Golfo Dulce, or Izabal Lake, and the Golfete
  Dulce. A vast number of streams, among which are the Chixoy, the
  Guadalupe, and the Rio de la Pasion, unite to form the Usumacinta,
  whose noble current passes along the Mexican frontier, and flowing on
  through Chiapas and Tabasco, falls into the Bay of Campeche. The
  Chiapas follows a similar course.

  There are several extensive lakes in Guatemala. The Lake of Peten or
  Laguna de Flores, in the centre of the department of Peten, is an
  irregular basin about 27 m. long, with an extreme breadth of 13 m. In
  an island in the western portion stands Flores, a town well known to
  American antiquaries for the number of ancient idols which have been
  recovered from its soil. On the shore of the lake is the stalactite
  cave of Jobitsinal, of great local celebrity; and in its depths,
  according to the popular legend, may still be discerned the stone
  image of a horse that belonged to Cortes. The Golfo Dulce is, as its
  name implies, a fresh-water lake, although so near the Atlantic. It is
  about 36 m. long, and would be of considerable value as a harbour if
  the bar at the mouth of the Rio Dulce did not prevent the upward
  passage of seafaring vessels. As a contrast the Lake of Atitlán (q.v.)
  is a land-locked basin encompassed with lofty mountains. About 9 m. S.
  of the capital lies the Lake of Amatitlán (q.v.) with the town of the
  same name. On the borders of Salvador and Guatemala there is the Lake
  of Guija, about 20 m. long and 12 broad, at a height of 2100 ft. above
  the sea. It is connected by the river Ostuma with the Lake of Ayarza
  which lies about 1000 ft. higher at the foot of the Sierra Madre.

  The geology, fauna and flora of Guatemala are discussed under CENTRAL
  AMERICA. The bird-life of the country is remarkably rich; one bird of
  magnificent plumage, the quetzal, quijal or quesal (_Trogon
  resplendens_), has been chosen as the national emblem.

  _Climate._--The climate is healthy, except on the coasts, where
  malarial fever is prevalent. The rainy season in the interior lasts
  from May to October, but on the coast sometimes continues till
  December. The coldest month is January, and the warmest is May. The
  average temperatures for these months at places of different
  altitudes, as given by Dr Karl Sapper, are shown on the following
  page.

  The average rainfall is very heavy, especially on the Atlantic slope,
  where the prevailing winds are charged with moisture from the Gulf of
  Mexico or the Caribbean Sea; at Tual, a high station on the Atlantic
  slope, it reaches 195 in.; in central Guatemala it is only 27 in.
  Towards the Atlantic rain often occurs in the dry season, and there is
  a local saying near the Golfo Dulce that "it rains thirteen months in
  the year." Fogs are not rare. In Guatemala, as in other parts of
  Central America (q.v.), each of the three climatic zones, cold,
  temperate and hot (_tierra fria_, _tierra templada_, _tierra
  caliente_) has its special characteristics, and it is not easy to
  generalize about the climate of the country as a whole.

    +----------------+----------+--------------------+
    |                | Altitude | Fahrenheit Degrees.|
    |    Locality.   |  (Feet). +--------------------+
    |                |          |  January. |  May.  |
    +----------------+----------+-----------+--------+
    | Puerto Barrios |      6   |    74     |   81   |
    | Salamá         |   3020   |    68     |   77   |
    | Campur         |   3050   |    64     |   73   |
    | Chimax         |   4280   |    61     |   68   |
    | Guatemala      |   4870   |    60     |   67   |
    | Quezaltenango  |   7710   |    50     |   62   |
    +----------------+----------+-----------+--------+

  _Natural Products._--The minerals discovered in Guatemala include
  gold, silver, lead, tin, copper, mercury, antimony, coal, salt and
  sulphur; but it is uncertain if many of these exist in quantities
  sufficient to repay exploitation. Gold is obtained at Las Quebradas
  near Izabal, silver in the departments of Santa Rosa and Chiquimula,
  salt in those of Santa Rosa and Alta Vera Paz. During the 17th century
  gold-washing was carried on by English miners in the Motagua valley,
  and is said to have yielded rich profits; hence the name of "Gold
  Coast" was not infrequently given to the Atlantic littoral near the
  mouth of the Motagua.

  The area of forest has only been seriously diminished in the west, and
  amounted to 2030 sq. m. in 1904. Besides rubber, it yields many
  valuable dye-woods and cabinet-woods, such as cedar, mahogany and
  logwood. Fruits, grain and medicinal plants are obtained in great
  abundance, especially where the soil is largely of volcanic origin, as
  in the Altos and Sierra Madre. Parts of the Peten district are equally
  fertile, maize in this region yielding two hundredfold from unmanured
  soil. The vegetable products of Guatemala include coffee, cocoa,
  sugar-cane, bananas, oranges, vanilla, aloes, agave, ipecacuanha,
  castor-oil, sarsaparilla, cinchona, tobacco, indigo and the wax-plant
  (_Myrica cerifera_).

_Inhabitants._--The inhabitants of Guatemala, who tend to increase
rapidly owing to the high birth-rate, low mortality, and low rate of
emigration, numbered in 1903 1,842,134, or more than one-third of the
entire population of Central America. Fully 60% are pure Indians, and
the remainder, classed as _Ladinos_ or "Latins" (i.e. Spaniards in
speech and mode of life), comprise a large majority of half-castes
(_mestizos_) and civilized Indians and a smaller proportion of whites.
It includes a foreign population of about 12,000 Europeans and North
Americans, among them being many Jews from the west of the United
States. There are important German agricultural settlements, and many
colonists from north Italy who are locally called _Tiroleses_, and
despised by the Indians for their industry and thrift. About half the
births among the Indians and one-third among the whites are
illegitimate.

No part of Central America contains a greater diversity of tribes, and
in 1883 Otto Stoll estimated the number of spoken languages as eighteen,
although east of the meridian of Lake Amatitlán the native speech has
almost entirely disappeared and been replaced by Spanish. The Indians
belong chiefly to the Maya stock, which predominates throughout Peten,
or to the allied Quiché race which is well represented in the Altos and
central districts. The Itzas, Mopans, Lacandons, Chols, Pokonchi and the
Pokomans who inhabit the large settlement of Mixco near the capital, all
belong to the Maya family; but parts of central and eastern Guatemala
are peopled by tribes distinct from the Mayas and not found in Mexico.
In the 16th century the Mayas and Quichés had attained a high level of
civilization (see CENTRAL AMERICA, _Archaeology_), and at least two of
the Guatemalan languages, Quiché and Cakchiquel, possess the rudiments
or the relics of a literature. The Quiché _Popol Vuh_, or "Book of
History," which was translated into Spanish by the Dominican friar
Ximenes, and edited with a French version by Brasseur de Bourbourg, is
an important document for students of the local myths. In appearance the
various Guatemalan tribes differ very little; in almost all the
characteristic type of Indian is short but muscular, with low forehead,
prominent cheek-bones and straight black hair. In character the Indians
are, as a rule, peaceable, though conscious of their numerical
superiority and at times driven to join in the revolutions which so
often disturb the course of local politics; they are often intensely
religious, but with a few exceptions are thriftless, indolent and
inveterate gamblers. Their _confradias_, or brotherhoods, each with its
patron saint and male and female chiefs, exist largely to organize
public festivals, and to purchase wooden masks, costumes and decorations
for the dances and dramas in which the Indians delight. These dramas,
which deal with religious and historical subjects, are of Indian origin,
and somewhat resemble the mystery-plays of medieval Europe, a
resemblance heightened by the introduction, due to Spanish missionaries,
of Christian saints and heroes such as Charlemagne. The Indians are
devoted to bull-fighting and cock-fighting. Choral singing is a popular
amusement, and is accompanied by the Spanish guitar and native
wind-instruments. The Indians have a habit of consuming a yellowish
edible earth containing sulphur; on pilgrimages they obtain images
moulded of this earth at the shrines they visit, and eat the images as a
prophylactic against disease. Maize, beans and bananas, varied
occasionally with dried meat and fresh pork, form their staple diet;
drunkenness is common on pay-days and festivals, when large quantities
of a fiery brandy called _chicha_ are consumed.

  _Chief Towns._--The capital of the republic, Guatemala or Guatemala la
  Nueva (pop. 1905 about 97,000) and the cities of Quezaltenango
  (31,000), Totonicapam (28,000), Coban (25,000), Sololá (17,000),
  Escuintla (12,000), Huehuetanango (12,000), Amatitlán (10,000) and
  Atitlán (9000) are described under separate headings. All the chief
  towns except the seaports are situated within the mountainous region
  where the climate is temperate. Retalhuleu, among the southern
  foothills of the Sierra Madre, is one of the centres of coffee
  production, and is connected by rail with the Pacific port of
  Champerico, a very unhealthy place in the wet season. Both Retalhuleu
  and Champerico were, like Quezaltenango, Sololá, and other towns,
  temporarily ruined by the earthquake of the 18th of April 1902. Santa
  Cruz Quiché, 25 m. N.E. of Totonicapam, was formerly the capital of
  the Quiché kings, but has now a Ladino population. Livingston, a
  seaport at the mouth of the Polochic (here called the Rio Dulce), was
  founded in 1806, and subsequently named after the author of a code of
  Guatemalan laws; few vestiges remain of the Spanish settlement of
  Sevilla la Nueva, founded in 1844, and of the English colony of
  Abbotsville, founded in 1825,--both near Livingston. La Libertad, also
  called by its Indian name of Sacluc, is the principal town of Peten.

  _Shipping and Communications._--The republic is in regular steam
  communication on the Atlantic side with New Orleans, New York and
  Hamburg, by vessels which visit the ports of Barrios (Santo Tomas) and
  Livingston. On the southern side the ports of San José, Champerico and
  Ocós are visited by the Pacific mail steamers, by the vessels of a
  Hamburg company and by those of the South American (Chilean) and the
  Pacific Steam Navigation Companies. Iztapa, formerly the principal
  harbour on the south coast, has been almost entirely abandoned since
  1853. Gualan, on the Motagua, and Panzos, on the Polochic, are small
  river-ports. The principal towns are connected by wagon roads, towards
  the construction and maintenance of which each male inhabitant is
  required to pay two pesos or give four days' work a year. There are
  coach routes between the capital and Quezaltenango, but over a great
  portion of the country transport is still on mule-back. All the
  railway lines have been built since 1875. The main lines are the
  Southern, belonging to an American company and running from San José
  to the capital; the Northern, a government line from the capital to
  Puerto Barrios, which completes the interoceanic railroad; and the
  Western, from Champerico to Quezaltenango, belonging to a Guatemalan
  company, but largely under German management. For local traffic there
  are several lines; one from Iztapa, near San José, to Naranjo, and
  another from Ocós to the western coffee plantations. On the Atlantic
  slope transport is effected mainly by river tow-boats from Livingston
  along the Golfo Dulce and other lakes, and the Polochic river as far
  as Panzos. The narrow-gauge railway that serves the German plantations
  in the Vera Paz region is largely owned by Germans.

  Guatemala joined the Postal Union in 1881; but its postal and
  telegraphic services have suffered greatly from financial
  difficulties. The telephonic systems of Guatemala la Nueva,
  Quezaltenango and other cities are owned by private companies.

  _Commerce and Industry._--The natural resources of Guatemala are rich
  but undeveloped; and the capital necessary for their development is
  not easily obtained in a country where war, revolution and economic
  crises recur at frequent intervals, where the premium on gold has
  varied by no less than 500% in a single year, and where many of the
  wealthiest cities and agricultural districts have been destroyed by
  earthquake in one day (18th of April 1902). At the beginning of the
  19th century, Guatemala had practically no export trade; but between
  1825 and 1850 cochineal was largely exported, the centre of production
  being the Amatitlán district. This industry was ruined by the
  competition of chemical dyes, and a substitute was found in the
  cultivation of coffee. Guatemala is surpassed only by Brazil and the
  East Indies in the quantity of coffee it exports. The chief
  plantations are owned and managed by Germans; more than half of the
  crop is sent to Germany, while three-fifths of the remainder go to the
  United States and one-fifth to Great Britain. The average yearly
  product is about 70,000,000 lb., worth approximately £1,300,000, and
  subject to an export duty of one gold dollar (4s.) per quintal (101
  lb.). Sugar, bananas, tobacco and cocoa are also cultivated; but much
  of the sugar and bananas, most of the cocoa, and all the tobacco are
  consumed in the country. During the colonial period, the cocoa of
  western Guatemala and Soconusco was reserved on account of its fine
  flavour for the Spanish court. The indigo and cotton plantations yield
  little profit, owing to foreign competition, and have in most cases
  been converted to other uses. The cultivation of bananas tends to
  increase, though more slowly than in other Central American countries.
  Grain, sweet potatoes and beans are grown for home consumption.
  Cattle-farming is carried on in the high pasture-lands and the plains
  of Peten; but the whole number of sheep (77,000 in 1900) and pigs
  (30,000) in the republic is inferior to the number kept in many single
  English counties. Much of the wool is sold, like the native cotton, to
  Indian and Ladino women, who manufacture coarse cloth and linen in
  their homes.

  By the Land Act of 1894 the state domains, except on the coasts and
  frontiers, were divided into lots for sale. The largest holding
  tenable by one person under this act was fixed at 50 caballerias, or
  5625 acres; the price varies from £40 to £80 per caballeria of 112½
  acres. Free grants of uncultivated land are sometimes made to
  immigrants (including foreign companies), to persons who undertake to
  build roads or railways through their allotments, to towns, villages
  and schools. The condition of the Indians on the plantations is often
  akin to slavery, owing to the system adopted by some planters of
  making payments in advance; for the Indians soon spend their earnings,
  and thus contract debts which can only be repaid by long service.

  In addition to the breweries, rum and brandy distilleries, sugar mills
  and tobacco factories, which are sometimes worked as adjuncts to the
  plantations, there are many purely urban industries, such as the
  manufacture of woollen and cotton goods on a large scale, and
  manufactures of building material and furniture; but these industries
  are far less important than agriculture.

  During the five years 1900 to 1904 inclusive, the average value of
  Guatemalan imports, which consisted chiefly of textiles, iron and
  machinery, sacks, provisions, flour, beer, wine and spirits, amounted
  to £776,000; about one-half came from the United States, and nearly
  one-fourth from the United Kingdom. The exports during the same period
  had an average value of £1,528,000, and ranked as follows in order of
  value: coffee (£1,300,000), timber, hides, rubber, sugar, bananas,
  cocoa.

  _Finance._--Within the republic there are six banks of issue, to which
  the government is deeply indebted. There is practically neither gold
  nor silver in circulation, and the value of the bank-notes is so
  fluctuating that trade is seriously hampered. On the 25th of June
  1903, the issue of bank-notes without a guarantee was restricted; and
  thenceforward all banks were compelled to retain gold or silver to the
  value of 10% of the notes issued in 1904, 20% in 1905 and 30% in 1906.
  This reform has not, to any appreciable extent, rendered more stable
  the value of the notes issued. The silver peso, or dollar, of 100
  centavas is the monetary unit, weighs 25 grammes .900 fine, and has a
  nominal value of 4s. Being no longer current it has been replaced by
  the paper peso. The nickel coins include the real (nominal value 6d.),
  half-real and quarter-real. The metric system of weights and measures
  has been adopted, but the old Spanish standards remain in general use.

  Of the revenue, about 64% is derived from customs and excise; 9% from
  property, road, military, slaughter and salt taxes; 1.7% from the
  gunpowder monopoly; and the remainder from various taxes, stamps,
  government lands, and postal and telegraph services. The estimated
  revenue for 1905-1906 was 23,000,000 pesos (about £328,500); the
  estimated expenditure was 27,317,659 pesos (£390,200), of which
  £242,800 were allotted to the public debt, £42,000 to internal
  development and justice, £29,000 to the army and the remainder largely
  to education. The gold value of the currency peso (75 = £1 in 1903, 70
  = £1 in 1904, 58 = £1 in 1905) fluctuates between limits so wide that
  conversion into sterling (especially for a series of years), with any
  pretension to accuracy, is impracticable. In 1899 the rate of exchange
  moved between 710% and 206% premium on gold. According to the official
  statement, the gold debt, which runs chiefly at 4% and is held in
  Germany and England, amounted to £1,987,905 on the 1st of January
  1905; the currency debt (note issues, internal loans, &c.) amounted to
  £704,730; total £2,692,635, a decrease since 1900 of about £300,000.

_Government._--According to the constitution of December 1879 (modified
in 1885, 1887, 1889 and 1903) the legislative power is vested in a
national assembly of 69 deputies (1 for every 20,000 inhabitants) chosen
for 4 years by direct popular vote, under universal manhood suffrage.
The president of the republic is elected in a similar manner, but for 6
years, and he is theoretically not eligible for the following term. He
is assisted by 6 ministers, heads of government departments, and by a
council of state of 13 members, partly appointed by himself and partly
by the national assembly.

_Local Government._--Each of the twenty-two departments is administered
by an official called a _jefe politico_, or political chief, appointed
by the president, and each is subdivided into municipal districts. These
districts are administered by one or more _alcaldes_ or mayors, assisted
by municipal councils, both alcaldes and councils being chosen by the
people.

_Justice._--The judicial power is vested in a supreme court, consisting
of a chief justice and four associate justices elected by the people;
six appeal courts, each with three judges, also elected by the people;
and twenty-six courts of first instance, each consisting of one judge
appointed by the president and two by the chief justice of the supreme
court.

_Religion and Instruction._--The prevailing form of religion is the
Roman Catholic, but the state recognizes no distinction of creed. The
establishment of conventual or monastic institutions is prohibited. Of
the population in 1893, 90% could neither read nor write, 2% could only
read, and 8% could read and write. Primary instruction is nominally
compulsory, and, in government schools, is provided at the cost of the
state. In 1903 there were 1064 government primary schools. There are
besides about 128 private (occasionally aided) schools of similar
character, owners of plantations on which there are more than ten
children being obliged to provide school accommodation. Higher
instruction is given in two national institutes at the capital, one for
men with 500 pupils and one for women with 300. At Quezaltenango there
are two similar institutes, and at Chiquimula there are other two. To
each of the six there is a school for teachers attached, and within the
republic there are four other schools for teachers. For professional
instruction (law, medicine, engineering) there are schools supported by
private funds, but aided occasionally by the government. Other
educational establishments are a school of art, a national conservatory
of music, a commercial college, four trades' schools with more than 600
pupils and a national library. There is a German school, endowed by the
German government.

_Defence._--For the white and mixed population military service is
compulsory; from the eighteenth to the thirtieth year of age in the
active army, and from the thirtieth to the fiftieth in the reserve. The
effective force of the active army is 56,900, of the reserve 29,400.
About 7000 officers and men are kept in regular service. Military
training is given in all public and most private schools.

_History._--Guatemala was conquered by the Spaniards under Pedro de
Alvarado between 1522 and 1524. Up to the years 1837-1839 its history
differs only in minor details from that of the neighbouring states of
Central America (q.v.). The colonial period was marked by the
destruction of the ancient Indian civilization, the extermination of
many entire tribes, and the enslavement of the survivors, who were
exploited to the utmost for the benefit of Spanish officials and
adventurers. But although the administration was weak, corrupt and
cruel, it succeeded in establishing the Roman Catholic religion, and in
introducing the Spanish language among the Indians and Ladinos, who thus
obtained a tincture of civilization and ultimately a desire for more
liberal institutions. The Central American provinces revolted in 1821,
were annexed to the Mexican empire of Iturbide from 1822 to 1823, and
united to form a federal republic from 1823 to 1839. In Guatemala the
Clerical, Conservative or anti-Federal party was supreme; after a
protracted struggle it overthrew the Liberals or Federalists, and
declared the country an independent republic, with Rafael Carrera
(1814-1865) as president. In 1845 an attempt to restore the federal
union failed; in 1851 Carrera defeated the Federalist forces of Honduras
and Salvador at La Arada near Chiquimula, and was recognized as the
pacificator of the republic. In 1851 a new constitution was promulgated,
and Carrera was appointed president till 1856, a dignity which was in
1854 bestowed upon him for life. His rivalry with Gerardo Barrios (d.
1865), president of Salvador, resulted in open war in 1863. At
Coatepeque the Guatemalans suffered a severe defeat, which was followed
by a truce. Honduras now joined with Salvador, and Nicaragua and Costa
Rica with Guatemala. The contest was finally settled in favour of
Carrera, who besieged and occupied San Salvador and made himself
dominant also in Honduras and Nicaragua. During the rest of his rule,
which lasted till his death in April 1865, he continued to act in
concert with the Clerical party, and endeavoured to maintain friendly
relations with the European governments. Carrera's successor was General
Cerna, who had been recommended by him for election. The Liberal party
began to rise in influence about 1870, and in May 1871 Cerna was
deposed. The archbishop of Guatemala and the Jesuits were driven into
exile as intriguers in the interests of the Clericals. Pres. Rufino
Barrios (1835-1885), elected in 1873, governed the country after the
manner of a dictator; he expelled the Jesuits, confiscated their
property and disestablished and disendowed the church. But though he
encouraged education, promoted railway and other enterprises, and
succeeded in settling difficulties as to the Mexican boundary, the
general result of his policy was baneful. Conspiracies against him were
rife, and in 1884 he narrowly escaped assassination. His ambition was to
be the restorer of the federal union of the Central American states, and
when his efforts towards this end by peaceful means failed he had
recourse to the sword. Counting on the support of Honduras and Salvador,
he proclaimed himself, in February 1885, the supreme military chief of
Central America, and claimed the command of all the forces within the
five states. President Zaldívar, of Salvador, had been his friend, but
after the issue of the decree of union he entered into a defensive
alliance with Costa Rica and Nicaragua. In March Barrios invaded
Salvador, and on the 2nd of April a battle was fought, in which the
Guatemalan president was killed. He was succeeded by General Manuel
Barillas. No further effort was made to force on the union, and on the
16th of April the war was formally ended. Peace, however, only provided
opportunity for domestic conspiracy, with assassination and revolution
in view. In 1892 General José Maria Reina Barrios was elected president,
and in 1897 he was re-elected; but on the 8th of February 1898 he was
assassinated. Señor Morales, vice-president, succeeded him; but in the
same year Don Manuel Estrada Cabrera (b. 1857) was elected president for
the term ending 1905. Cabrera promoted education, commerce and the
improvement of communications, but his re-election for the term
1905-1911 caused widespread discontent. He was charged with aiming at a
dictatorship, with permitting or even encouraging the imprisonment,
torture and execution without trial of political opponents, with
maladministration of the finances and with aggression against the
neighbouring states. A well-armed force, which included a body of
adventurers from San Francisco (U.S.A.) was organized by General
Barillas, the ex-president, and invaded Guatemala in March 1906 from
Mexico, British Honduras and Salvador. Barillas (1845-1907) proclaimed
his intention of establishing a silver currency, and gained, to a great
extent, the sympathy of the German and British residents; he had been
the sole Guatemalan president who had not sought to prolong his own
tenure of office. Ocós was captured by his lieutenant, General Castillo,
and the revolution speedily became a war, in which Honduras, Costa Rica
and Salvador were openly involved against Guatemala, while Nicaragua was
hostile. But Cabrera held his ground, and even gained several indecisive
victories. The intervention of President Roosevelt and of President Diaz
of Mexico brought about an armistice on the 19th of July, and the
so-called "Marblehead Pact" was signed on the following day on board the
United States cruiser "Marblehead." Its terms were embodied in a treaty
signed (28th of September) by representatives of the four belligerent
states, Nicaragua taking no part in the negotiations. The treaty
included regulations for the improvement of commerce and navigation in
the area affected by the war, and provided for the settlement of
subsequent disputes by the arbitration of the United States and Mexico.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Besides the works cited under CENTRAL AMERICA see the
  interesting narrative of Thomas Gage, the English missionary, in
  Juarros, _Compendio de la historia de Guatemala_ (1808-1818, 2 vols.;
  new ed., 1857), which in Bailly's English translation (London, 1823)
  long formed the chief authority. See also C. Juan Anino, _La Republica
  de Guatemala_ (Guatemala, 1894); T. Brigham, _Guatemala, The Land of
  the Quetzal_ (London, 1887); J. M. Caceres, _Geografia de
  Centro-America_ (Paris, 1882); G. Lemale, _Guia geografica de los
  centros de poblacion de la republica de Guatemala_ (Guatemala, 1882);
  F. A. de Fuentes y Guzman, _Historia de Guatemala o Recordacion
  Florida_ (Madrid, 1882); A. C. and A. P. Maudslay, _A Glimpse at
  Guatemala, and some Notes on the Ancient Monuments of Central America_
  (London, 1899); Gustavo Niederlein, _The Republic of Guatemala_
  (Philadelphia, 1898); Ramon A. Salazar, _Historia del disenvolvimiento
  intelectual de Guatemala_, vol. i. (Guatemala, 1897); Otto Stoll,
  _Reisen und Schilderungen aus den Jahren 1878-1883_ (Leipzig, 1886);
  J. Mendez, _Guia del immigrante en la republica de Guatemala_
  (Guatemala, 1895); Karl Sapper, "Grundzüge der physikalischen
  Geographie von Guatemala," Ergänzungsheft No. 115, _Petermann's
  Mitteilungen_ (Gotha, 1894); _Anuario de estadistica de la republica
  de Guatemala_ (Guatemala); _Memoria de la Secretaria de Instruccion
  Publica_ (Guatemala, 1899); _Handbook of Guatemala_, revised (Bureau
  of the American Republics, Washington, 1897); _United States Consular
  Reports_ (Washington); _British Foreign Office Diplomatic and Consular
  Reports_ (London).



GUATEMALA, or GUATEMALA LA NUEVA (i.e. "New Guatemala," sometimes
written Nueva Guatemala, and formerly Santiago de los Caballeros de
Guatemala), the capital of the republic of Guatemala, and until 1821 of
the Spanish captaincy-general of Guatemala, which comprised Chiapas in
Mexico and all Central America except Panama. Pop. (1905) about 97,000.
Guatemala is built more than 5000 ft. above sea-level, in a wide
table-land traversed by the Rio de las Vacas, or Cow River, so called
from the cattle introduced here by Spanish colonists in the 16th
century. Deep ravines mark the edge of the table-land, and beyond it
lofty mountains rise on every side, the highest peaks being on the
south, where the volcanic summits of the Sierra Madre exceed 12,000 ft.
Guatemala has a station on the transcontinental railway from Puerto
Barrios on the Atlantic (190 m. N.E.) to San José on the Pacific (75 m.
S. by W.). It is thrice the size of any other city in the republic, and
has a corresponding commercial superiority. Its archbishop is the
primate of Central America (excluding Panama). Like most
Spanish-American towns Guatemala is laid out in wide and regular
streets, often planted with avenues of trees, and it has extensive
suburbs. The houses, though usually of only one storey, are solidly and
comfortably constructed; many of them are surrounded by large gardens
and courts. Among the open spaces the chief are the Plaza Mayor, which
contains the cathedral, erected in 1730, the archiepiscopal palace, the
government buildings, the mint and other public offices; and the more
modern Reforma Park and Plaza de la Concordia, now the favourite resorts
of the inhabitants. There are many large schools for both sexes, besides
hospitals and an orphanage. Many of the principal buildings, such as the
military academy, were originally convents. The theatre, founded in
1858, is one of the best in Central America. A museum, founded in 1831,
is maintained by the Sociedad Economica, which in various ways has done
great service to the city and the country. There are two fortresses, the
Castello Matamoros, built by Rafael Carrera (see GUATEMALA [republic]
under _History_), and the Castello de San José. Water is brought from a
distance of about 8 m. by two old aqueducts from the towns of Mixco and
Pinula; fuel and provisions are largely supplied by the Pokoman Indians
of Mixco. The general prosperity, and to some extent the appearance, of
Guatemala have procured it the name of the Paris of Central America. It
is lighted by electricity and has a good telephone service. Its trade is
chiefly in coffee, but it also possesses cigar factories, wool and
cotton factories, breweries, tanneries and other industrial
establishments. The foreign trade is chiefly controlled by Germans.

The first city named Guatemala, now called Ciudad Vieja or "Old City,"
was founded in 1527 by Pedro de Alvarado, the conqueror of the country,
on the banks of the Rio Pensativo, and at the foot of the volcano of
Agua (i.e. "Water"). In 1541 it was overwhelmed by a deluge of water
from the flooded crater of Agua; and in 1542 Alvarado founded Santiago
de los Caballeros la Nueva, now Antigua. This city flourished greatly,
and by the middle of the 18th century had become the most populous place
in Central America, with 60,000 inhabitants and more than 100 churches
and convents. But in 1773 it was ruined by an earthquake. It was
rebuilt, and ultimately became capital of the department of
Sacatepeques, and a health-resort locally celebrated for its thermal
springs. But the Guatemalans determined to found a new capital on the
site occupied by the hamlet of Ermita, 27 m. N.E. Here the third and
last city of Guatemala was built, and became the seat of government in
1779. The remarkable regularity of the streets is due to the
construction of the city on a uniform plan. The wide area covered, and
the lowness of the houses, were similarly due to an ordinance which, in
order to minimize the danger from earthquakes, forbade the erection of
any building more than 20 ft. high. Many of the belfries of convents or
churches, added after the ordinance had fallen into abeyance, were
overthrown by the earthquake of 1874, which also destroyed a large part
of Antigua.



GUATOS, a tribe of South American Indians of the upper Paraguay. They
are of a European fairness and wear beards. They live almost entirely in
canoes, building rough shelters in the swamps. They aided the Brazilians
in the war with Paraguay 1865-70. Very few survive.



GUATUSOS, a tribe of American Indians of Costa Rica. They are an active,
hardy people, who have always maintained hostility towards the Spaniards
and retain their independence. From their language they appear to be a
distinct stock. They were described by old writers as being very fair,
with flaxen hair, and these reports led to a belief, since exploded,
that they were European hybrids. There are very few surviving.



GUAVA (from the Mexican _guayaba_), the name applied to the fruits of
species of _Psidium_, a genus belonging to the natural order
_Myrtaceae_. The species which produces the bulk of the guava fruits of
commerce is _Psidium Guajava_, a small tree from 15 to 20 ft. high, a
native of the tropical parts of America and the West Indies. It bears
short-stalked ovate or oblong leaves, with strongly marked veins, and
covered with a soft tomentum or down. The flowers are borne on axillary
stalks, and the fruits vary much in size, shape and colour, numerous
forms and varieties being known and cultivated. The variety of which the
fruits are most valued is that which is sometimes called the white guava
(_P. Guajava_, var. _pyriferum_). The fruits are pear-shaped, about the
size of a hen's egg, covered with a thin bright yellow or whitish skin
filled with soft pulp, also of a light yellowish tinge, and having a
pleasant sweet-acid and somewhat aromatic flavour. _P. Guajava_, var.
_pomiferum_, produces a more globular or apple-shaped fruit, sometimes
called the red guava. The pulp of this variety is mostly of a darker
colour than the former and not of so fine a flavour, therefore the first
named is most esteemed for eating in a raw state; both, however, are
used in the preparation of two kinds of preserve known as guava jelly
and guava cheese, which are made in the West Indies and imported thence
to England; the fruits are of much too perishable a nature to allow of
their importation in their natural state. Both varieties have been
introduced into various parts of India, as well as in other countries of
the East, where they have become perfectly naturalized. Though of course
much too tender for outdoor planting in England, the guava thrives there
in hothouses or stoves.

_Psidium variabile_ (also known as _P. Cattleyanum_), a tree of from 10
to 20 ft. high, a native of Brazil (the Araçá or Araçá de Praya), is
known as the purple guava. The fruit, which is very abundantly produced
in the axils of the leaves, is large, spherical, of a fine deep claret
colour; the rind is pitted, and the pulp is soft, fleshy, purplish,
reddish next the skin, but becoming paler towards the middle and in the
centre almost or quite white. It has a very agreeable acid-sweet
flavour, which has been likened to that of a strawberry.



GUAYAMA, a small city and the capital of a municipal district and
department of the same name, on the southern coast of Porto Rico, 53 m.
S. of San Juan. Pop. (1899) of the city, 5334; (1910) 8321; (1899) of
the district, 12,749. The district (156 sq. m.) includes Arroyo and
Salinas. The city stands about 230 ft. above the sea and has a mild,
healthy climate. It is connected with Ponce by railway (1910), and with
the port of Arroyo by an excellent road, part of the military road
extending to Cayey, and it exports sugar, rum, tobacco, coffee, cattle,
fruit and other products of the department, which is very fertile. The
city was founded in 1736, but was completely destroyed by fire in 1832.
It was rebuilt on a rectangular plan and possesses several buildings of
note. Drinking-water is brought in through an aqueduct.



GUAYAQUIL, or SANTIAGO DE GUAYAQUIL, a city and port of Ecuador, capital
of the province of Guayas, on the right bank of the Guayas river, 33 m.
above its entrance into the Gulf of Guayaquil, in 2° 12´ S., 79° 51´ W.
Pop. (1890) 44,772; (1897, estimate) 51,000, mostly half-breeds. The
city is built on a comparatively level _pajonal_ or savanna, extending
southward from the base of three low hills, called Los Cerros de la
Cruz, between the river and the partially filled waters of the Estero
Salado. It is about 30 ft. above sea-level, and the lower parts of the
town are partially flooded in the rainy season. The old town is the
upper or northern part, and is inhabited by the poorer classes, its
streets being badly paved, crooked, undrained, dirty and pestilential.
The great fire of 1896 destroyed a large part of the old town, and some
of its insanitary conditions were improved in rebuilding. The new town,
or southern part, is the business and residential quarter of the better
classes, but the buildings are chiefly of wood and the streets are
provided with surface drainage only. Among the public buildings are the
governor's and bishop's palaces, town-hall, cathedral and 9 churches,
national college, episcopal seminary and schools of law and medicine,
theatre, two hospitals, custom-house, and several asylums and charitable
institutions. Guayaquil is also the seat of a university corporation
with faculties of law and medicine. A peculiarity of Guayaquil is that
the upper floors in the business streets project over the walks, forming
covered arcades. The year is divided into a wet and dry season, the
former from January to June, when the hot days are followed by nights of
drenching rain. The mean annual temperature is about 82° to 83° F.;
malarial and bilious fevers are common, the latter being known as
"Guayaquil fever," and epidemics of yellow fever are frequent. The dry
or summer season is considered pleasant and healthy. The water-supply is
now brought in through iron mains from the Cordilleras 53 m. distant.
The mains pass under the Guayas river and discharge into a large
distributing reservoir on one of the hills N. of the city. The city is
provided with tramway and telephone services, the streets are lighted
with gas and electricity, and telegraph communication with the outside
world is maintained by means of the West Coast cable, which lands at the
small port of Santa Elena, on the Pacific coast, about 65 m. W. of
Guayaquil. Railway connexion with Quito (290 m.) was established in June
1908. There is also steamboat connexion with the producing districts of
the province on the Guayas river and its tributaries, on which boats run
regularly as far up as Bodegas (80 m.) in the dry season, and for a
distance of 40 m. on the Daule. For smaller boats there are about 200 m.
of navigation on this system of rivers. The exports of the province are
almost wholly transported on these rivers, and are shipped either at
Guayaquil, or at Puna, its deep-water port, 6½ m. outside the Guayas
bar, on the E. end of Puna Island. The Guayas river is navigable up to
Guayaquil for steamers drawing 22 ft. of water; larger vessels anchor at
Puna, 40 m. from Guayaquil, where cargoes and passengers are transferred
to lighters and tenders. There is a quay on the river front, but the
depth alongside does not exceed 18 ft. The principal exports are cacao,
rubber, coffee, tobacco, hides, cotton, Panama hats, cinchona bark and
ivory nuts, the value of all exports for the year 1905 being 14,148,877
_sucres_, in a total of 18,565,668 _sucres_ for the whole republic. In
1908 the exports were: cacao, about 64,000,000 lb., valued at
$6,400,000; hides, valued at $135,000; rubber, valued at $235,000;
coffee, valued at $273,000; and vegetable ivory, valued at $102,000.
There are some small industries in the city, including a shipyard,
saw-mills, foundry, sugar refineries, cotton and woollen mills, brewery,
and manufactures of soap, cigars, chocolate, ice, soda-water and
liqueurs.

Santiago de Guayaquil was founded on St James's day, the 25th of July
1535, by Sebastian de Benalcazar, but was twice abandoned before its
permanent settlement in 1537 by Francesco de Orellana. It was captured
and sacked several times in the 17th and 18th centuries by pirates and
freebooters--by Jacob Clark in 1624, by French pirates in 1686, by
English freebooters under Edward David in 1687, by William Dampier in
1707 and by Clapperton in 1709. Defensive works were erected in 1730,
and in 1763, when the town was made a governor's residence, a castle and
other fortifications were constructed. Owing to the flimsy construction
of its buildings Guayaquil has been repeatedly burned, the greater fires
occurring in 1707, 1764, 1865, 1896 and 1899. The city was made the see
of a bishopric in 1837.



GUAYAS, or EL GUAYAS, a coast province of Ecuador, bounded N. by Manabí
and Pichincha, E. by Los Rios, Cañar and Azuay, S. by El Oro and the
Gulf of Guayaquil, and W. by the same gulf, the Pacific Ocean and the
province of Manabí. Pop. (1893, estimate) 98,100; area, 11,504 sq. m. It
is very irregular in form and comprises the low alluvial districts
surrounding the Gulf of Guayaquil between the Western Cordilleras and
the coast. It includes (since 1885) the Galápagos Islands, lying 600 m.
off the coast. The province of Guayas is heavily forested and traversed
by numerous rivers, for the most part tributaries of the Guayas river,
which enters the gulf from the N. This river system has a drainage area
of about 14,000 sq. m. and an aggregate of 200 m. of navigable channels
in the rainy season. Its principal tributaries are the Daule and
Babahoyo or Chimbo (also called Bodegas), and of the latter the Vinces
and Yaguachi. The climate is hot, humid and unhealthy, bilious and
malarial fevers being prevalent. The rainfall is abundant and the soil
is deep and fertile. Agriculture and the collection of forest products
are the chief industries. The staple products are cacao, coffee,
sugar-cane, cotton, tobacco and rice. The cultivation of cacao is the
principal industry, the exports forming about one-third the world's
supply. Stock-raising is also carried on to a limited extent. Among
forest products are rubber, cinchona bark, toquilla fibre and ivory
nuts. The manufacture of so-called Panama hats from the fibre of the
toquilla palm (commonly called _jipijapa_, after a town in Manabí famous
for this industry) is a long-established domestic industry among the
natives of this and other coast provinces, the humidity of the climate
greatly facilitating the work of plaiting the delicate straws, which
would be broken in a dry atmosphere. Guayas is the chief industrial and
commercial province of the republic, about nineteen-twentieths of the
commerce of Ecuador passing through the port of its capital, Guayaquil.
There are no land transport routes in the province except the Quito &
Guayaquil railway, which traverses its eastern half. The sluggish river
channels which intersect the greater part of its territory afford
excellent facilities for transporting produce, and a large number of
small boats are regularly engaged in that traffic. There are no large
towns in Guayas other than Guayaquil. Durán, on the Guayas river
opposite Guayaquil, is the starting point of the Quito railway and
contains the shops and offices of that line. The port of Santa Elena on
a bay of the same name, about 65 m. W. of Guayaquil, is a landing-point
of the West Coast cable, and a port of call for some of the regular
steamship lines. Its exports are chiefly Panama hats and salt.



GUAYCURUS, a tribe of South American Indians on the Paraguay. The name
has been used generally of all the mounted Indians of Gran Chaco. The
Guaycurus are a wild, fierce people, who paint their bodies and go
naked. They are fearless horsemen and are occupied chiefly in cattle
rearing.



GUAYMAS, or SAN JOSÉ DE GUAYMAS, a seaport of Mexico, in the state of
Sonora, on a small bay opening into the Gulf of California a few miles
W. of the mouth of the Yaqui river, in lat. 27° 58´ N., long. 110° 58´
W. Pop. (1900) 8648. The harbour is one of the best on the W. coast of
Mexico, and the port is a principal outlet for the products of the large
state of Sonora. The town stands on a small, arid plain, nearly shut in
by mountains, and has a very hot, dry climate. It is connected with the
railways of the United States by a branch of the Southern Pacific from
Benson, Arizona, and is 230 m. S. by W. of the frontier town of Nogales,
where that line enters Mexico. The exports include gold, silver, hides
and pearls.



GUBBIO (anc. _Iguvium_, q.v.; med. _Eugubium_), a town and episcopal see
of Umbria, Italy, in the province of Perugia, from which it is 23 m.
N.N.E. by road; by rail it is 13 m. N.W. of Fossato di Vico (on the line
between Foligno and Ancona) and 70 m. E.S.E. of Arezzo. Pop. (1901) 5783
(town); 26,718 (commune). Gubbio is situated at the foot and on the
steep slopes of Monte Calvo, from 1568 to 1735 ft. above sea-level, at
the entrance to the gorge which ascends to Scheggia, probably on the
site of the ancient Umbrian town. It presents a markedly medieval
appearance. The most prominent building is the Palazzo dei Consoli, on
the N. side of the Piazza della Signoria; it is a huge Gothic edifice
with a tower, erected in 1332-1346, according to tradition, by Matteo di
Giovanello of Gubbio, the name of Angelo da Orvieto occurs on the arch
of the main door, but his work may be limited to the sculptures of this
arch. It has two stories above the ground floor, and, being on the slope
of the hill, is, like the whole piazza, raised on arched substructures.
On the S. side of the piazza is the Palazzo Pretorio, or della Podestà,
begun in 1349 and now the municipal palace. It contains the famous
_Tabulae Iguvinae_, and a collection of paintings of the Umbrian school,
of furniture and of majolica. On the E. side is the modern Palazzo
Ranghiasci-Brancaleone, which until 1882 contained fine collections, now
dispersed. Above the Piazza della Signoria, at the highest point of the
town, is the Palazzo Ducale, erected by the dukes of Urbino in
1474-1480; the architect was, in all probability, Lucio da Laurana, to
whom is due the palace at Urbino, which this palace resembles,
especially in its fine colonnaded court. The Palazzo Beni, lower down,
belongs to a somewhat earlier period of the 15th century. Pope Martin V.
lodged here for a few days in 1420. The Palazzo Accoramboni, on the
other hand, is a Renaissance structure, with a fine entrance arch. Here
Vittoria Accoramboni was born in 1557. Opposite the Palazzo Ducale is
the cathedral, dedicated to SS. Mariano e Jacopo, a structure of the
12th century, with a façade, adorned with contemporary sculptures,
partly restored in 1514-1550. The interior contains some good pictures
by Umbrian artists, a fine episcopal throne in carved wood, and a fine
Flemish cope given by Pope Marcellus II. (1555) in the sacristy. The
exterior of the Gothic church of S. Francesco, in the lower part of the
town, built in 1259, preserves its original style, but the interior has
been modernized; and the same fate has overtaken the Gothic churches of
S. Maria Nuova and S. Pietro. S. Agostino, on the other hand, has its
Gothic interior better preserved. The whole town is full of specimens of
medieval architecture, the pointed arch of the 13th century being
especially prevalent. A remarkable procession takes place in Gubbio on
the 15th of May in each year, in honour of S. Ubaldo, when three
colossal wooden pedestals, each over 30 ft. high, and crowned by statues
of SS. Ubaldo, Antonio and Giorgio, are carried through the town, and
then, in a wild race, up to the church of S. Ubaldo on the mountain-side
(2690 ft.). See H. M. Bower, _The Elevation and Procession of the Ceri
at Gubbio_ (Folk-lore Society, London, 1897).

After its reconstruction with the help of Narses (see IGUVIUM) the town
remained subject to the exarchs of Ravenna, and, after the destruction
of the Lombard kingdom in 774, formed part of the donation of
Charlemagne to the pope. In the 11th century the beginnings of its
independence may be traced. In the struggles of that time it was
generally on the Ghibelline side. In 1151 it repelled an attack of
several neighbouring cities, and formed from this time a republic
governed by consuls. In 1155 it was besieged by the emperor Frederick
I., but saved by the intervention of its bishop, S. Ubaldo, and was
granted privileges by the emperor. In 1203 it had its first podestà,
and from this period dates the rise of its importance. In 1387, after
various political changes, it surrendered to Antonio da Montefeltro of
Urbino, and remained under the dominion of the dukes of Urbino until, in
1624, the whole duchy was ceded to the pope.

Gubbio was the birthplace of Oderisio, a famous miniature painter
(1240-1299), mentioned by Dante as the honour of his native town
(_Purg._ xi. 80 "_l'onor d'Agobbio_"), but no authentic works by him
exist. In the 14th and 15th centuries a branch of the Umbrian school of
painting flourished here, the most famous masters of which were Guido
Palmerucci (1280-1345?) and several members of the Nelli family,
particularly Ottaviano (d. 1444), whose best work is the "Madonna del
Belvedere" in S. Maria Nuova at Gubbio (1404), extremely well preserved,
with bright colouring and fine details. Another work by him is the group
of frescoes including a large "Last Judgment," and scenes from the life
of St Augustine, in the church of S. Agostino, discovered in 1902 under
a coating of whitewash. These painters seem to have been influenced by
the contemporary masters of the Sienese school.

Gubbio occupies a far more important place in the history of majolica.
In a decree of 1438 a _vasarius vasorum pictorum_ is mentioned, who
probably was not the first of his trade. The art was brought to
perfection by Giorgio Andreoli, whose father had emigrated hither from
Pavia, and who in 1498 became a citizen of Gubbio. The works by his hand
are remarkable for their ruby tint, with a beautiful metallic lustre;
but only one small tazza remains in Gubbio itself. His art was carried
on by his sons, Cencio and Ubaldo, but was afterwards lost, and only
recovered in 1853 by Angelico Fabbri and Luigi Carocci.

Two miles outside Porta Metauro to the N.E. is the Bottaccione, a large
water reservoir, constructed in the 12th or 14th century; the water is
collected in the bed of a stream by a massive dam.

  See A. Colasanti, _Gubbio_ (Bergamo, 1905); L. McCracken, _Gubbio_
  (London, 1905).     (T. As.)



GUBEN, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Prussia, at the confluence
of the Lubis with the Neisse, 28 m. S.S.E. of Frankfort-on-Oder, at the
junction of railways to Breslau, Halle and Forst. Pop. (1875) 23,704;
(1905) 36,666. It possesses three Evangelical churches, a Roman Catholic
church, a synagogue, a gymnasium, a modern school, a museum and a
theatre. The principal industries are the spinning and weaving of wool,
dyeing, tanning, and the manufacture of pottery ware, hats, cloth, paper
and machinery. The vine is cultivated in the neighbourhood to some
extent, and there is also some trade in fruit and vegetables. Guben is
of Wendish origin. It is mentioned in 1207 and received civic rights in
1235. It was surrounded by walls in 1311, about which time it came into
the possession of the margrave of Brandenburg, from whom it passed to
Bohemia in 1368. It was twice devastated by the Hussites, and in 1631
and 1642 it was occupied by the Swedes. By the peace of Prague in 1635
it came into the possession of the elector of Saxony, and in 1815 it
was, with the rest of Lower Lusatia, united to Prussia.



GUBERNATIS, ANGELO DE, COUNT (1840-   ), Italian man of letters, was born
at Turin and educated there and at Berlin, where he studied philology.
In 1862 he was appointed professor of Sanskrit at Florence, but having
married a cousin of the Socialist Bakunin and become interested in his
views he resigned his appointment and spent some years in travel. He was
reappointed, however, in 1867; and in 1891 he was transferred to the
university of Rome. He became prominent both as an orientalist, a
publicist and a poet. He founded the _Italia letteraria_ (1862), the
_Rivista orientale_ (1867), the _Civitta italiana_ and _Rivista europea_
(1869), the _Bollettino italiano degli studii orientali_ (1876) and the
_Revue internationale_ (1883), and in 1887 became director of the
_Giornale della società asiatica_. In 1878 he started the _Dizionario
biografico degli scrittori contemporanei_. His Oriental and mythological
works include the _Piccola enciclopedia indiana_ (1867), the _Fonti
vediche_ (1868), a famous work on zoological mythology (1872), and
another on plant mythology (1878). He also edited the encyclopaedic
_Storia universale della letteratura_ (1882-1885). His work in verse
includes the dramas _Cato_, _Romolo_, _Il re Nala_, _Don Rodrigo_,
_Savitri_, &c.



GUDBRANDSDAL, a district in the midlands of southern Norway, comprising
the upper course of the river Lougen or Laagen from Lillehammer at the
head of Lake Mjösen to its source in Lake Lesjekogen and tributary
valleys. Lillehammer, the centre of a rich timber district, is 114 m. N.
of Christiania by rail. The railway continues through the well-wooded
and cultivated valley to Otta (70 m.). Several tracks run westward into
the wild district of the Jotunheim. From Otto good driving routes run
across the watershed and descend the western slope, where the scenery is
incomparably finer than in Gudbrandsdal itself--(a) past Sörum, with the
13th-century churches of Vaagen and Lom (a fine specimen of the
Stavekirke or timber-built church), Aanstad and Polfos, with beautiful
falls of the Otta river, to Grotlid, whence roads diverge to Stryn on
the Nordfjord, and to Marok on the Geirangerfjord; (b) past Domaas (with
branch road north to Stören near Trondhjem, skirting the Dovrefjeld),
over the watershed formed by Lesjekogen Lake, which drains in both
directions, and down through the magnificent Romsdal.



GUDE (GUDIUS), MARQUARD (1635-1689), German archaeologist and classical
scholar, was born at Rendsburg in Holstein on the 1st of February 1635.
He was originally intended for the law, but from an early age showed a
decided preference for classical studies. In 1658 he went to Holland in
the hope of finding work as a teacher of classics, and in the following
year, through the influence of J. F. Gronovius, he obtained the post of
tutor and travelling companion to a wealthy young Dutchman, Samuel
Schars. During his travels Gude seized the opportunity of copying
inscriptions and MSS. At the earnest request of his pupil, who had
become greatly attached to him, Gude refused more than one professional
appointment, and it was not until 1671 that he accepted the post of
librarian to Duke Christian Albert of Holstein-Gottorp. Schars, who had
accompanied Gude, died in 1675, and left him the greater part of his
property. In 1678 Gude, having quarrelled with the duke, retired into
private life; but in 1682 he entered the service of Christian V. of
Denmark as counsellor of the Schleswig-Holstein chancellery, and
remained in it almost to the time of his death on the 26th of November
1689. Gude's great life-work, the collection of Greek and Latin
inscriptions, was not published till 1731. Mention may also be made of
his _editio princeps_ (1661) of the treatise of Hippolytus the Martyr on
Antichrist, and of his notes on Phaedrus (with four new fables
discovered by him) published in P. Burmann's edition (1698).

  His correspondence (ed. P. Burmann, 1697) is the most important
  authority for the events of Gude's life, besides containing valuable
  information on the learning of the times. See also J. Moller, _Cimbria
  literata_, iii., and C. Bursian in _Allgemeine deutsche Biographie_,
  x.



GUDEMAN, ALFRED (1862-   ), American classical scholar, was born in
Atlanta, Georgia, on the 26th of August 1862. He graduated at Columbia
University in 1883 and studied under Hermann Diels at the University of
Berlin. From 1890 to 1893 he was reader in classical philology at Johns
Hopkins University, from 1893 to 1902 professor in the University of
Pennsylvania, and from 1902 to 1904 professor in Cornell University. In
1904 he became a member of the corps of scholars preparing the Wölfflin
_Thesaurus linguae Latinae_--a unique distinction for an American
Latinist, as was the publication of his critical edition, with German
commentary, of Tacitus' _Agricola_ in 1902 by the Weidmannsche
Buchhandlung of Berlin. He wrote _Latin Literature of the Empire_ (2
vols., _Prose and Poetry_, 1898-1899), a _History of Classical
Philology_ (1902) and _Sources of Plutarch's Life of Cicero_ (1902); and
edited Tacitus' _Dialogus de oratoribus_ (text with commentary, 1894 and
1898) and _Agricola_ (1899; with _Germania_, 1900), and Sallust's
_Catiline_ (1903).



GUDGEON (_Gobio fluviatilis_), a small fish of the Cyprinid family. It
is nearly related to the barbel, and has a small barbel or fleshy
appendage at each corner of the mouth. It is the _gobione_ of Italy,
_goujon_ of France (whence adapted in M. English as _gojon_), and
_Grässling_ or _Gründling_ of Germany. Gudgeons thrive in streams and
lakes, keeping to the bottom, and seldom exceeding 8 in. in length. In
China and Japan there are varieties differing only slightly from the
common European type.



GUDRUN (KUDRUN), a Middle High German epic, written probably in the
early years of the 13th century, not long after the _Nibelungenlied_,
the influence of which may be traced upon it. It is preserved in a
single MS. which was prepared at the command of Maximilian I., and was
discovered as late as 1820 in the Castle of Ambras in Tirol. The author
was an unnamed Austrian poet, but the story itself belongs to the cycle
of sagas, which originated on the shores of the North Sea. The epic
falls into three easily distinguishable parts--the adventures of King
Hagen of Ireland, the romance of Hettel, king of the Hegelingen, who
woos and wins Hagen's daughter Hilde, and lastly, the more or less
parallel story of how Herwig, king of Seeland, wins, in opposition to
her father's wishes, Gudrun, the daughter of Hettel and Hilde. Gudrun is
carried off by a king of Normandy, and her kinsfolk, who are in pursuit,
are defeated in a great battle on the island of Wülpensand off the Dutch
coast. The finest parts of the epic are those in which Gudrun, a
prisoner in the Norman castle, refuses to become the wife of her captor,
and is condemned to do the most menial work of the household. Here,
thirteen years later, Herwig and her brother Ortwin find her washing
clothes by the sea; on the following day they attack the Norman castle
with their army and carry out the long-delayed retribution.

The epic of _Gudrun_ is not unworthy to stand beside the greater
_Nibelungenlied_, and it has been aptly compared with it as the
_Odyssey_ to the _Iliad_. Like the _Odyssey_, Gudrun is an epic of the
sea, a story of adventure; it does not turn solely round the conflict of
human passions; nor is it built up round one all-absorbing,
all-dominating idea like the _Nibelungenlied_. Scenery and incident are
more varied, and the poet has an opportunity for a more lyric
interpretation of motive and character. _Gudrun_ is composed in stanzas
similar to those of the _Nibelungenlied_, but with the essential
difference that the last line of each stanza is identical with the
others, and does not contain the extra accented syllable characteristic
of the _Nibelungen_ metre.

  _Gudrun_ was first edited by von der Hagen in vol. i. of his
  _Heldenbuch_ (1820). Subsequent editions by A. Ziemann and A. J.
  Vollmer followed in 1837 and 1845. The best editions are those by K.
  Bartsch (4th ed., 1880), who has also edited the poem for Kürschner's
  _Deutsche Nationalliteratur_ (vol. 6, 1885), by B. Symons (1883) and
  by E. Martin (2nd ed., 1901). L. Ettmüller first applied Lachmann's
  ballad-theory to the poem (1841), and K. Müllenhoff (_Kudrun, die
  echten Teile des Gedichts_, 1845) rejected more than three-quarters of
  the whole as "not genuine." There are many translations of the epic
  into modern German, the best known being that of K. Simrock (15th ed.,
  1884). A translation into English by M. P. Nichols appeared at Boston,
  U.S.A., in 1889.

  See K. Bartsch, _Beiträge zur Geschichte und Kritik der Kudrun_
  (1865); H. Keck, _Die Gudrunsage_ (1867); W. Wilmanns, _Die
  Entwickelung der Kudrundichtung_ (1873); A. Fécamp, _Le Poème de
  Gudrun, ses origines, sa formation et son histoire_ (1892); F. Panzer,
  _Hilde-Gudrun_ (1901). For later versions and adaptations of the saga
  see O. Benedict, _Die Gudrunsage in der neueren Literatur_ (1902.)



GUÉBRIANT, JEAN BAPTISTE BUDES, COMTE DE (1602-1643), marshal of France,
was born at Plessis-Budes, near St Brieuc, of an old Breton family. He
served first in Holland, and in the Thirty Years' War he commanded from
1638 to 1639 the French contingent in the army of his friend Bernard of
Saxe-Weimar, distinguishing himself particularly at the siege of
Breisach in 1638. Upon the death of Bernard he received the command of
his army, and tried, in conjunction with J. Baner (1596-1641), the
Swedish general, a bold attack upon Regensburg (1640). His victories of
Wolfenbüttel on the 29th of June 1641 and of Kempen in 1642 won for him
the marshal's bâton. Having failed in an attempt to invade Bavaria in
concert with Torstensson he seized Rottweil, but was mortally wounded
there on the 17th of November 1643.

  A biography was published by Le Laboureur, _Histoire du mareschal de
  Guébriant_, in 1656. See A. Brinzinger in _Württembergische
  Vierteljahrschrift für Landesgeschichte_ (1902).



GUELDER ROSE, so called from Guelderland, its supposed source, termed
also marsh elder, rose elder, water elder (Ger. _Wasserholder_,
_Schneeball_; Fr. _viorne-obier_, _l'obier d'Europe_), known botanically
as _Viburnum Opulus_, a shrub or small tree of the natural order
Caprifoliaceae, a native of Britain, and widely distributed in the
temperate and colder parts of Europe, Asia and North America. It is
common in Ireland, but rare in Scotland. In height it is from 6 to 12
ft., and it thrives best in moist situations. The leaves are smooth, 2
to 3 in. broad, with 3 to 5 unequal serrate lobes, and glandular
stipules adnate to the stalk. In autumn the leaves change their normal
bright green for a pink or crimson hue. The flowers, which appear in
June and July, are small, white, and arranged in cymes 2 to 4 in. in
diameter. The outer blossoms in the wild plant have an enlarged corolla,
¾ in. in diameter, and are devoid of stamens or pistils; in the common
cultivated variety all the flowers are sterile and the inflorescence is
globular, hence the term "snowball tree" applied to the plant, the
appearance of which at the time of flowering has been prettily described
by Cowper in his _Winter Walk at Noon_. The guelder rose bears juicy,
red, elliptical berries, 1/3 in. long, which ripen in September, and
contain each a single compressed seed. In northern Europe these are
eaten, and in Siberia, after fermentation with flour, they are distilled
for spirit. The plant has, however, emetic, purgative and narcotic
properties; and Taylor (_Med. Jurisp._ i. 448, 2nd ed., 1873) has
recorded an instance of the fatal poisoning of a child by the berries.
Both they and the bark contain valerianic acid. The woody shoots of the
guelder rose are manufactured into various small articles in Sweden and
Russia. Another member of the genus, _Viburnum_, _Lantana_, wayfaring
tree, is found in dry copses and hedges in England, except in the north.



GUELPH, a city of Ontario, Canada, 45 m. W. of Toronto, on the river
Speed and the Grand Trunk and Canadian Pacific railways. Pop. (1901)
11,496. It is the centre of a fine agricultural district, and exports
grain, fruit and live-stock in large quantities. It contains, in
addition to the county and municipal buildings, the Ontario Agricultural
College, which draws students from all parts of North and South America.
The river affords abundant water-power for flour-mills, saw-mills,
woollen-mills and numerous factories, of which agricultural implements,
sewing machines and musical instruments are the chief.



GUELPHS AND GHIBELLINES. These names are doubtless Italianized forms of
the German words Welf and Waiblingen, although one tradition says that
they are derived from Guelph and Gibel, two rival brothers of Pistoia.
Another theory derives Ghibelline from Gibello, a word used by the
Sicilian Arabs to translate Hohenstaufen. However, a more popular story
tells how, during a fight around Weinsberg in December 1140 between the
German king Conrad III. and Welf, count of Bavaria, a member of the
powerful family to which Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony and Bavaria,
belonged, the soldiers of the latter raised the cry "Hie Welf!" to which
the king's troops replied with "Hie Waiblingen!" this being the name of
one of Conrad's castles. But the rivalry between Welf and Hohenstaufen,
of which family Conrad was a member, was anterior to this event, and had
been for some years a prominent fact in the history of Swabia and
Bavaria, although its introduction into Italy--in a slightly modified
form, however--only dates from the time of the Italian expeditions of
the emperor Frederick I. It is about this time that the German
chronicler, Otto of Freising, says, "Duae in Romano orbe apud Galliae
Germaniaeve fines famosae familiae actenus fuere, una Heinricorum de
Gueibelinga, alia Guelforum de Aldorfo, altera imperatores, altera
magnos duces producere solita." Chosen German king in 1152, Frederick
was not only the nephew and the heir of Conrad, he was related also to
the Welfs; yet, although his election abated to some extent the rivalry
between Welf and Hohenstaufen in Germany, it opened it upon a larger and
fiercer scale in Italy.

During the long and interesting period covered by Frederick's Italian
campaigns, his enemies, prominent among whom were the cities of the
Lombard League, became known as Welfs, or Guelphs, while his partisans
seized upon the rival term of Waiblingen, or Ghibelline, and the
contest between these two parties was carried on with a ferocity unknown
even to the inhabitants of southern Germany. The distracted state of
northern Italy, the jealousies between various pairs of towns, the
savage hatred between family and family, were some of the causes which
fed this feud, and it reached its height during the momentous struggle
between Frederick II. and the Papacy in the 13th century. The story of
the contest between Guelph and Ghibelline, however, is little less than
the history of Italy in the middle ages. At the opening of the 13th
century it was intensified by the fight for the German and imperial
thrones between Philip, duke of Swabia, a son of Frederick I., and the
Welf, Otto of Brunswick, afterwards the emperor Otto IV., a fight waged
in Italy as well as in Germany. Then, as the heir of Philip of Swabia
and the rival of Otto of Brunswick, Frederick II. was forced to throw
himself into the arms of the Ghibellines, while his enemies, the popes,
ranged themselves definitely among the Guelphs, and soon Guelph and
Ghibelline became synonymous with supporter of pope and emperor.

After the death of Frederick II. in 1250 the Ghibellines looked for
leadership to his son and successor, the German king, Conrad IV., and
then to his natural son, Manfred, while the Guelphs called the French
prince, Charles of Anjou, to their aid. But the combatants were nearing
exhaustion, and after the execution of Conradin, the last of the
Hohenstaufen, in 1268, this great struggle began to lose force and
interest. Guelph and Ghibelline were soon found representing local and
family rather than papal and imperial interests; the names were taken
with little or no regard for their original significance, and in the
15th century they began to die out of current politics. However, when
Louis XII. of France conquered Milan at the beginning of the 16th
century the old names were revived; the French king's supporters were
called Guelphs and the friends of the emperor Maximilian I. were
referred to as Ghibellines.

The feud of Guelph and Ghibelline penetrated within the walls of almost
every city of northern Italy, and the contest between the parties, which
practically makes the history of Florence during the 13th century, is
specially noteworthy. First one side and then the other was driven into
exile; the Guelph defeat at the battle of Monte Aperto in 1260 was
followed by the expulsion of the Ghibellines by Charles of Anjou in
1266, and on a smaller scale a similar story may be told of many other
cities (see FLORENCE).

The Guelph cause was buttressed by an idea, yet very nebulous, of
Italian patriotism. Dislike of the German and the foreigner rather than
any strong affection for the Papacy was the feeling which bound the
Guelph to the pope, and so enabled the latter to defy the arms of
Frederick II. The Ghibelline cause, on the other hand, was aided by the
dislike of the temporal power of the pope and the desire for a strong
central authority. This made Dante a Ghibelline, but the hopes of this
party, kindled anew by the journey of Henry VII. to Italy in 1310, were
extinguished by his departure. J. A. Symonds thus describes the
constituents of the two parties: "The Guelph party meant the burghers of
the consular Communes, the men of industry and commerce, the upholders
of civil liberty, the friends of democratic expansion. The Ghibelline
party included the naturalized nobles, the men of arms and idleness, the
advocates of feudalism, the politicians who regarded constitutional
progress with disfavour. That the banner of the church floated over the
one camp, while the standard of the empire rallied to itself the hostile
party, was a matter of comparatively superficial moment." In another
passage the same writer thus describes the sharp and universal division
between Guelph and Ghibelline: "Ghibellines wore the feathers in their
caps upon one side, Guelphs upon the other. Ghibellines cut fruit at
table crosswise, Guelphs straight down ... Ghibellines drank out of
smooth and Guelphs out of chased goblets. Ghibellines wore white and
Guelphs red roses." It is interesting to note that while Dante was a
Ghibelline, Petrarch was a Guelph.

  See J. A. Symonds, _The Renaissance in Italy_, vol. i. (1875).



GUENEVERE (Lat. _Guanhumara_; Welsh, _Gwenhwyfar_; O. Eng. _Gaynore_),
in Arthurian romance the wife of King Arthur. Geoffrey of Monmouth, who
calls her Guanhumara, makes her a Roman lady, but the general tradition
is that she was of Cornish birth and daughter to King Leodegrance. Wace,
who, while translating Geoffrey, evidently knew, and used, popular
tradition, combines these two, asserting that she was of Roman parentage
on the mother's side, but cousin to Cador of Cornwall by whom she was
brought up. The tradition relating to Guenevere is decidedly confused
and demands further study. The Welsh triads know no fewer than three
Gwenhwyfars; Giraldus Cambrensis, relating the discovery of the royal
tombs at Glastonbury, speaks of the body found as that of Arthur's
second wife; the prose _Merlin_ gives Guenevere a bastard half-sister of
the same name, who strongly resembles her; and the _Lancelot_ relates
how this lady, trading on the likeness, persuaded Arthur that she was
the true daughter of Leodegrance, and the queen the bastard interloper.
This episode of the false Guenevere is very perplexing.

To the majority of English readers Guenevere is best known in connexion
with her liaison with Lancelot, a story which, in the hands of Malory and
Tennyson, has assumed a form widely different from the original
conception, and at once more picturesque and more convincing. In the
French romances Lancelot is a late addition to the Arthurian cycle, his
birth is not recorded till long after the marriage of Arthur and
Guenevere, and he is at least twenty years the junior of the queen. The
relations between them are of the most conventional and courtly
character, and are entirely lacking in the genuine dramatic passion which
marks the love story of Tristan and Iseult. The _Lancelot-Guenevere_
romance took form and shape in the artificial atmosphere encouraged by
such patronesses of literature as Eleanor of Aquitaine and her daughter
Marie, Comtesse de Champagne (for whom Chrétien de Troyes wrote his
_Chevalier de la Charrette_), and reflects the low social morality of a
time when love between husband and wife was declared impossible. But
though Guenevere has changed her lover, the tradition of her infidelity
is of much earlier date and formed a part of the primitive Arthurian
legend. Who the original lover was is doubtful; the _Vita Gildae_ relates
how she was carried off by Melwas, king of Aestiva Regis, to Glastonbury,
whither Arthur, at the head of an army, pursued the ravisher. A fragment
of a Welsh poem seems to confirm this tradition, which certainly lies at
the root of her later abduction by Meleagaunt. In the _Lanzelet_ of
Ulrich von Zatzikhoven the abductor is Falerîn. The story in these forms
represents an other-world abduction. A curious fragment of Welsh
dialogues, printed by Professor Rhys in his _Studies on the Arthurian
Legend_, appears to represent Kay as the abductor. In the
pseudo-Chronicles and the romances based upon them the abductor is
Mordred, and in the chronicles there is no doubt that the lady was no
unwilling victim. On the final defeat of Mordred she retires to a
nunnery, takes the veil, and is no more heard of. Wace says
emphatically--

  _Ne fu oie ne véue,
  Ne fu trovée, ne séue
  Por la vergogne del mesfait
  Et del pecié qu ele avoit fait_ (11. 13627-30).

Layamon, who in his translation of Wace treats his original much as Wace
treated Geoffrey, says that there was a tradition that she had drowned
herself, and that her memory and that of Mordred were hateful in every
land, so that none would offer prayer for their souls. On the other hand
certain romances, e.g. the _Perceval_, give her an excellent character.
The truth is probably that the tradition of his wife's adultery and
treachery was a genuine part of the Arthurian story, which, neglected
for a time, was brought again into prominence by the social conditions
of the courts for which the later romances were composed; and it is in
this later and conventionalized form that the tale has become familiar
to us (see also LANCELOT).

  See _Studies on the Arthurian Legend_ by Professor Rhys; _The Legend
  of Sir Lancelot_, Grimm Library, xii., Jessie L. Weston; _Der
  Karrenritter_, ed. Professor Foerster.     (J. L. W.)



GUENON (from the French, = one who grimaces, hence an ape), the name
applied by naturalists to the monkeys of the African genus
_Cercopithecus_, the Ethiopian representative of the Asiatic macaques,
from which they differ by the absence of a posterior heel to the last
molar in the lower jaw.



GUÉRET, a town of central France, capital of the department of Creuse,
situated on a mountain declivity 48 m. N.E. of Limoges on the Orleans
railway. Pop. (1906), town, 6042; commune (including troops, &c.), 8058.
Apart from the Hôtel des Monneyroux (used as prefecture), a picturesque
mansion of the 15th and 16th centuries, with mansard roofs and mullioned
windows, Guéret has little architectural interest. It is the seat of a
prefect and a court of assizes, and has a tribunal of first instance, a
chamber of commerce and lycées and training colleges, for both sexes.
The industries include brewing, saw-milling, leather-making and the
manufacture of basket-work and wooden shoes, and there is trade in
agricultural produce and cattle. Guéret grew up round an abbey founded
in the 7th century, and in later times became the capital of the
district of Marche.



GUEREZA, the native name of a long-tailed, black and white Abyssinian
monkey, _Colobus guereza_ (or _C. abyssinicus_), characterized by the
white hairs forming a long pendent mantle. Other east African monkeys
with a similar type of colouring, which, together with the wholly black
west African _C. satanas_, collectively constitute the subgenus
_Guereza_, may be included under the same title; and the name may be
further extended to embrace all the African thumbless monkeys of the
genus _Colobus_. These monkeys are the African representatives of the
Indo-Malay langurs (_Semnopithecus_), with which they agree in their
slender build, long limbs and tail, and complex stomachs, although
differing by the rudimentary thumb. The members of the subgenus
_Guereza_ present a transition from a wholly black animal (_C. satanas_)
to one (_C. caudatus_) in which the sides of the face are white, and the
whole flanks, as well as the tail, clothed with a long fringe of pure
white hairs.



GUERICKE, HEINRICH ERNST FERDINAND (1803-1878), German theologian, was
born at Wettin in Saxony on the 25th of February 1803 and studied
theology at Halle, where he was appointed professor in 1829. He greatly
disliked the union between the Lutheran and the Reformed churches, which
had been accomplished by the Prussian government in 1817, and in 1833 he
definitely threw in his lot with the Old Lutherans. In 1835 he lost his
professorship, but he regained it in 1840. Among his works were a Life
of _August Hermann Francke_ (1827, Eng. trans. 1837), _Church History_
(1833, Eng. trans. by W. T. Shedd, New York, 1857-1863), _Allgemeine
christliche Symbolik_ (1839). In 1840 he helped to found the
_Zeitschrift für die gesammte lutherische Theologie und Kirche_, and he
died at Halle on the 4th of February 1878.



GUERICKE, OTTO VON (1602-1686), German experimental philosopher, was
born at Magdeburg, in Prussian Saxony, on the 20th of November 1602.
Having studied law at Leipzig, Helmstadt and Jena, and mathematics,
especially geometry and mechanics, at Leiden, he visited France and
England, and in 1636 became engineer-in-chief at Erfurt. In 1627 he was
elected alderman of Magdeburg, and in 1646 mayor of that city and a
magistrate of Brandenburg. His leisure was devoted to scientific
pursuits, especially in pneumatics. Incited by the discoveries of
Galileo, Pascal and Torricelli, he attempted the creation of a vacuum.
He began by experimenting with a pump on water placed in a barrel, but
found that when the water was drawn off the air permeated the wood. He
then took a globe of copper fitted with pump and stopcock, and
discovered that he could pump out air as well as water. Thus he became
the inventor of the air-pump (1650). He illustrated his discovery before
the emperor Ferdinand III. at the imperial diet which assembled at
Regensburg in 1654, by the experiment of the "Magdeburg hemispheres."
Taking two hollow hemispheres of copper, the edges of which fitted
nicely together, he exhausted the air from between them by means of his
pump, and it is recorded that thirty horses, fifteen back to back, were
unable to pull them asunder until the air was readmitted. Besides
investigating other phenomena connected with a vacuum, he constructed an
electrical machine which depended on the excitation of a rotating ball
of sulphur; and he made successful researches in astronomy, predicting
the periodicity of the return of comets. In 1681 he gave up office, and
retired to Hamburg, where he died on the 11th of May 1686.

  His principal observations are given in his work, _Experimenta nova,
  ut vocant, Magdeburgica de vacuo spatio_ (Amsterdam, 1672). He is also
  the author of a _Geschichte der Belagerung und Eroberung von
  Magdeburg_. See F. W. Hoffmann, _Otto von Guericke_ (Magdeburg, 1874).



GUÉRIDON, a small table to hold a lamp or vase, supported by a tall
column or a human or mythological figure. This piece of furniture, often
very graceful and elegant, originated in France towards the middle of
the 17th century. In the beginning the table was supported by a negro or
other exotic figure, and there is some reason to believe that it took
its name from the generic appellation of the young African groom or
"tiger," who was generally called "Guéridon," or as we should say in
English "Sambo." The swarthy figure and brilliant costume of the "Moor"
when reproduced in wood and picked out in colours produced a very
striking effect, and when a small table was supported on the head by the
upraised hands the idea of passive service was suggested with
completeness. The guéridon is still occasionally seen in something
approaching its original form; but it had no sooner been introduced than
the artistic instinct of the French designer and artificer converted it
into a far worthier object. By the death of Louis XIV. there were
several hundreds of them at Versailles, and within a generation or two
they had taken an infinity of forms--columns, tripods, termini and
mythological figures. Some of the simpler and more artistic forms were
of wood carved with familiar decorative motives and gilded. Silver,
enamel, and indeed almost any material from which furniture can be made,
have been used for their construction. A variety of small "occasional"
tables are now called in French _guéridons_.



GUÉRIN, JEAN BAPTISTE PAULIN (1783-1855), French painter, was born at
Toulon, on the 25th of March 1783, of poor parents. He learnt, as a lad,
his father's trade of a locksmith, whilst at the same time he followed
the classes of the free school of art. Having sold some copies to a
local amateur, Guérin started for Paris, where he came under the notice
of Vincent, whose counsels were of material service. In 1810 Guérin made
his first appearance at the Salon with some portraits, which had a
certain success. In 1812 he exhibited "Cain after the murder of Abel"
(formerly in Luxembourg), and, on the return of the Bourbons, was much
employed in works of restoration and decoration at Versailles. His "Dead
Christ" (Cathedral, Baltimore) obtained a medal in 1817, and this
success was followed up by a long series of works, of which the
following are the more noteworthy: "Christ on the knees of the Virgin"
(1819); "Anchises and Venus" (1822) (formerly in Luxembourg); "Ulysses
and Minerva" (1824) (Musée de Rennes); "the Holy Family" (1829)
(Cathedral, Toulon); and "Saint Catherine" (1838) (St Roch). In his
treatment of subject, Guérin attempted to realize rococo graces of
conception, the liveliness of which was lost in the strenuous effort to
be correct. His chief successes were attained by portraits, and those of
Charles Nodier and the Abbé Lamennais became widely popular. He died on
the 19th of January 1855.



GUÉRIN, PIERRE NARCISSE, BARON (1774-1833), French painter, was born at
Paris on the 13th of May 1774. Becoming a pupil of Jean Baptiste
Regnault, he carried off one of the three "grands prix" offered in 1796,
in consequence of the competition not having taken place since 1793. The
_pension_ was not indeed re-established, but Guérin fulfilled at Paris
the conditions imposed upon a _pensionnaire_, and produced various
works, one of which brought him prominently before the public. This
work, "Marcus Sextus" (Louvre), exhibited at the Salon of 1799, excited
wild enthusiasm, partly due to the subject,--a victim of Sulla's
proscription returning to Rome to find his wife dead and his house in
mourning--in which an allusion was found to the actual situation of the
_émigrés_. Guérin on this occasion was publicly crowned by the president
of the Institute, and before his departure for Rome (on the
re-establishment of the École under Suvée) a banquet was given to him by
the most distinguished artists of Paris. In 1800, unable to remain in
Rome on account of his health, he went to Naples, where he painted the
"Grave of Amyntas." In 1802 Guérin produced "Phaedra and Hippolytus"
(Louvre); in 1810, after his return to Paris, he again achieved a great
success with "Andromache and Pyrrhus" (Louvre); and in the same year
also exhibited "Cephalus and Aurora" (Collection Sommariva) and
"Bonaparte and the Rebels of Cairo" (Versailles). The Restoration
brought to Guérin fresh honours; he had received from the first consul
in 1803 the cross of the Legion of Honour, and in 1815 Louis XVIII.
named him Academician. The success of Guérin's "Hippolytus" of
"Andromache," of "Phaedra" and of "Clytaemnestra" (Louvre) had been
ensured by the skilful selection of highly melodramatic situations,
treated with the strained and pompous dignity proper to the art of the
first empire; in "Aeneas relating to Dido the disasters of Troy"
(Louvre), which appeared side by side with "Clytaemnestra" at the Salon
of 1817, the influence of the Restoration is plainly to be traced. In
this work Guérin sought to captivate the public by an appeal to those
sensuous charms which he had previously rejected, and by the
introduction of picturesque elements of interest. But with this work
Guérin's public successes came to a close. He was, indeed, commissioned
to paint for the Madeleine a scene from the history of St Louis, but his
health prevented him from accomplishing what he had begun, and in 1822
he accepted the post of director of the École de Rome, which in 1816 he
had refused. On returning to Paris in 1828, Guérin, who had previously
been made chevalier of the order of St Michel, was ennobled. He now
attempted to complete "Pyrrhus and Priam," a work which he had begun at
Rome, but in vain; his health had finally broken down, and in the hope
of improvement he returned to Italy with Horace Vernet. Shortly after
his arrival at Rome Baron Guérin died, on the 6th of July 1833, and was
buried in the church of La Trinità de' Monti by the side of Claude
Lorraine.

  A careful analysis and criticism of his principal works will be found
  in Meyer's _Geschichte der französischen Malerei_.



GUÉRIN DU CAYLA, GEORGES MAURICE DE (1810-1839), French poet, descended
from a noble but poor family, was born at the chateau of Le Cayla in
Languedoc, on the 4th of August 1810. He was educated for the church at
a religious seminary at Toulouse, and then at the Collège Stanislas,
Paris, after which he entered the society at La Chesnaye in Brittany,
founded by Lamennais. It was only after great hesitation, and without
being satisfied as to his religious vocation, that under the influence
of Lamennais he joined the new religious order in the autumn of 1832;
and when, in September of the next year, Lamennais, who had come under
the displeasure of Rome, severed connexion with the society, Maurice de
Guérin soon followed his example. Early in the following year he went to
Paris, where he was for a short time a teacher at the College Stanislas.
In November 1838 he married a Creole lady of some fortune; but a few
months afterwards he was attacked by consumption and died on the 19th of
July 1839. In the _Revue des deux mondes_ for May 15th, 1840, there
appeared a notice of Maurice de Guérin by George Sand, to which she
added two fragments of his writings--one a composition in prose entitled
the _Centaur_, and the other a short poem. His _Reliquiae_ (2 vols.,
1861), including the _Centaur_, his journal, a number of his letters and
several poems, was edited by G. S. Trébutien, and accompanied with a
biographical and critical notice by Sainte-Beuve; a new edition, with
the title _Journal, lettres et poèmes_, followed in 1862; and an English
translation of it was published at New York in 1867. Though he was
essentially a poet, his prose is more striking and original than his
poetry. Its peculiar and unique charm arises from his strong and
absorbing passion for nature, a passion whose intensity reached almost
to adoration and worship, but in which the pagan was more prominent than
the moral element. According to Sainte-Beuve, "no French poet or
painter has rendered so well the feeling for nature--the feeling not so
much for details as for the ensemble and the divine universality, the
feeling for the origin of things and the sovereign principle of life."

The name of EUGÉNIE DE GUÉRIN (1805-1848), the sister of Maurice, cannot
be omitted from any notice of him. Her _Journals_ (1861, Eng. trans.,
1865) and her _Lettres_ (1864, Eng. trans., 1865) indicated the
possession of gifts of as rare an order as those of her brother, though
of a somewhat different kind. In her case mysticism assumed a form more
strictly religious, and she continued to mourn her brother's loss of his
early Catholic faith. Five years older than he, she cherished a love for
him which was blended with a somewhat motherly anxiety. After his death
she began the collection and publication of the scattered fragments of
his writings. She died, however, on the 31st of May 1848, before her
task was completed.

  See the notices by George Sand and Sainte-Beuve referred to above;
  Sainte-Beuve, _Causeries du lundi_ (vol. xii.) and _Nouveaux Lundis_
  (vol. iii.); G. Merlet, _Causeries sur les femmes et les livres_
  (Paris, 1865); Selden, _L'Esprit des femmes de notre temps_ (Paris,
  1864); Marelle, _Eugénie et Maurice de Guérin_ (Berlin, 1869); Harriet
  Parr, _M. and E. de Guérin, a monograph_ (London, 1870); and Matthew
  Arnold's essays on Maurice and Eugénie de Guérin, in his _Essays in
  Criticism_.



GUERNIERI, or WERNER, a celebrated mercenary captain who lived about the
middle of the 14th century. He was a member of the family of the dukes
of Urslingen, and probably a descendant of the dukes of Spoleto. From
1340 to 1343 he was in the service of the citizens of Pisa, but
afterwards he collected a troop of adventurers which he called the Great
Company, and with which he plundered Tuscany and Lombardy. He then
entered the service of Louis I. the Great, king of Hungary and Poland,
whom he assisted to obtain possession of Naples; but when dismissed from
this service his ravages became more terrible than ever, culminating in
the dreadful sack of Anagni in 1358, shortly after which Guernieri
disappeared from history. He is said to have worn a breastplate with the
inscription, "The enemy of God, of pity and of mercy."



GUERNSEY (Fr. _Guernesey_), one of the Channel Islands, belonging to
Britain, the second in size and westernmost of the important members of
the group. Its chief town, St Peter Port, on the east coast, is in 2°
33´ W., 49° 27´ N., 74 m. S. of Portland Bill on the English coast, and
30 m. from the nearest French coast to the east. The island, roughly
triangular in form, is 9¼ m. long from N.E. to S.W. and has an extreme
breadth of 5¼ m. and an area of 15,691 acres or 24.5 sq. m. Pop. (1901),
40,446, the density being thus 162 per sq. m.

The surface of the island rises gradually from north to south, and
reaches its greatest elevation at Haut Nez (349 ft.) above Point Icart
on the south coast. The coast scenery, which forms one of the principal
attractions to the numerous summer visitors to the island, is finest on
the south. This coast, between Jerbourg and Pleinmont Points,
respectively at the south-eastern and south-western corners of the
island, is bold, rocky and indented with many exquisite little bays. Of
these the most notable are Moulin Huet, Saint's, and Petit Bot, all in
the eastern half of the south coast. The cliffs, however, culminate in
the neighbourhood of Pleinmont. Picturesque caves occur at several
points, such as the Creux Mahie. On the west coast there is a succession
of larger bays--Rocquaine Perelle, Vazon, and Cobo. Off the first lies
Lihou Island, the Hanois and other islets, and all three bays are sown
with rocks. The coast, however, diminishes in height, until at the
north-eastern extremity of the island the land is so low across the Vale
or Braye du Val, from shore to shore, that the projection of L'Ancresse
is within a few feet of being isolated. The east coast, on which,
besides the town and harbour of St Peter Port, is that of St Sampson,
presents no physical feature of note. The interior of the island is
generally undulating, and gains in beauty from its rich vegetation.
Picturesque glens descend upon some of the southern bays (the two
converging upon Petit Bot are notable), and the high-banked paths,
arched with foliage, which follow the small rills down to Moulin Huet
Bay, are much admired under the name of water-lanes.

The soil is generally light sandy loam, overlying an angular gravel
which rests upon the weathered granite. This soil requires much manure,
and a large proportion of the total area (about three-fifths) is under
careful cultivation, producing a considerable amount of grain, but more
famous for market-gardening. Vegetables and potatoes are exported, with
much fruit, including grapes and flowers. Granite is quarried and
exported from St Sampson, and the fisheries form an important industry.

For administrative purposes Guernsey is united with Alderney, Sark, Herm
and the adjacent islets to form the bailiwick of Guernsey, separate from
Jersey. The peculiar constitution, machinery of administration and
justice, finance, &c., are considered under the heading CHANNEL ISLANDS.
Guernsey is divided into the ten parishes of St Peter Port, St Sampson,
Vale, Câtel, St Saviour, St Andrew, St Martin, Forest, St Peter du Bois
and Torteval. The population of St Peter Port in 1901 was 18,264; of the
other parishes that of St Sampson was 5614 and that of Vale 5082. The
population of the bailiwick of Guernsey nearly doubled between 1821 and
1901, and that of the island increased from 35,243 in 1891 to 40,446 in
1901. The island roads are excellent, Guernsey owing much in this
respect to Sir John Doyle (d. 1834), the governor whose monument stands
on the promontory of Jerbourg. Like Jersey and the neighbouring part of
France, Guernsey retains considerable traces of early habitation in
cromlechs and menhirs, of which the most notable is the cromlech in the
north at L'Ancresse. As regards ecclesiastical architecture, all the
parish churches retain some archaeological interest. There is good
Norman work in the church of St Michael, Vale, and the church of St
Peter Port is a notable building of various periods from the early 14th
century. Small remains of monastic buildings are seen at Vale and on
Lihou Island.



GUERRAZZI, FRANCESCO DOMENICO (1804-1873), Italian publicist, born at
Leghorn, was educated for the law at Pisa, and began to practise in his
native place. But he soon took to politics and literature, under the
influence of Byron, and his novel, the _Battagli di Benevento_ (1827),
brought him into notice. Mazzini made his acquaintance, and with Carlo
Bini they started a paper, the _Indicatore_, at Leghorn in 1829, which
was quickly suppressed. Guerrazzi himself had to endure several terms of
imprisonment for his activity in the cause of Young Italy, and it was in
Portoferrato in 1834 that he wrote his most famous novel _Assidio di
Firenze_. He was the most powerful Liberal leader at Leghorn, and in
1848 became a minister, with some idea of exercising a moderating
influence in the difficulties with the grand-duke of Tuscany. In 1849,
when the latter fled, he was first one of the triumvirate with Mazzini
and Montanelli, and then dictator, but on the restoration he was
arrested and imprisoned for three years. His _Apologia_ was published in
1852. Released from prison, he was exiled to Corsica, but subsequently
was restored and was for some time a deputy at Turin (1862-1870), dying
of apoplexy at Leghorn on the 25th of September 1873. He wrote a number
of other works besides the novels already mentioned, notably _Isabella
Orsini_ (1845) and _Beatrice Cenci_ (1854), and his _Opere_ were
collected at Milan (1868).

  See the _Life and Works_ by Bosio (1877), and Carducci's edition of
  his letters (1880).



GUERRERO, a Pacific coast state of Mexico, bounded N.W. by Michoacan, N.
by Mexico (state) and Morelos, N.E. and E. by Puebla and Oaxaca, and S.
and W. by the Pacific. Area, 24,996 sq. m. Pop., largely composed of
Indians and mestizos (1895), 417,886; (1900) 479,205. The state is
roughly broken by the Sierra Madre and its spurs, which cover its entire
surface with the exception of the low coastal plain (averaging about 20
m. in width) on the Pacific. The valleys are usually narrow, fertile and
heavily forested, but difficult of access. The state is divided into two
distinct zones--the _tierras calientes_ of the coast and lower river
courses where tropical conditions prevail, and the _tierras templadas_
of the mountain region where the conditions are subtropical. The latter
is celebrated for its agreeable and healthy climate, and for the variety
and character of its products. The principal river of the state is the
Rio de las Balsas or Mescala, which, having its source in Tlaxcala,
flows entirely across the state from W. to E., and then southward to the
Pacific on the frontier of Michoacan. This river is 429 m. long and
receives many affluents from the mountainous region through which it
passes, but its course is very precipitous and its mouth obstructed by
sand bars. The agricultural products include cotton, coffee, tobacco and
cereals, and the forests produce rubber, vanilla and various textile
fibres. Mining is undeveloped, although the mineral resources of the
state include silver, gold, mercury, lead, iron, coal, sulphur and
precious stones. The capital, Chilpancingo, or Chilpancingo de los
Bravos (pop. 7497 in 1900), is a small town in the Sierra Madre about
110 m. from the coast and 200 m. S. of the Federal capital. It is a
healthy well-built town on the old Acapulco road, is lighted by
electricity and is temporarily the western terminus of the Interoceanic
railway from Vera Cruz. It is celebrated in the history of Mexico as the
meeting-place of the revolutionary congress of 1813, which issued a
declaration of independence. Chilpancingo was badly damaged by an
earthquake in January 1902, and again on the 16th of April 1907. Other
important towns of the state are Tixtla, or Tixtla de Guerrero, formerly
the capital (pop. 6316 in 1900), 3 m. N.E. of Chilpancingo; Chilapa
(8256 in 1895), the most populous town of the state, partially destroyed
by a hurricane in 1889, and again by the earthquake of 1907; Iguala
(6631 in 1895); and Acapulco. Guerrero was organized as a state in 1849,
its territory being taken from the states of Mexico, Michoacan and
Puebla.



GUERRILLA (erroneously written "guerilla," being the diminutive of the
Span. _guerra_, war), a term currently used to denote war carried on by
bands in any irregular and unorganized manner. At the Hague Conference
of 1899 the position of irregular combatants was one of the subjects
dealt with, and the rules there adopted were reaffirmed at the
Conference of 1907. They provide that irregular bands in order to enjoy
recognition as belligerent forces shall (a) have at their head a person
responsible for his subordinates, (b) wear some fixed distinctive badge
recognizable at a distance, (c) carry arms openly, and (d) conform in
their operations to the laws and customs of war. The rules, however,
also provide that in case of invasion the inhabitants of a territory who
on the approach of the invading enemy spontaneously take up arms to
resist it, shall be regarded as belligerent troops if they carry arms
openly and respect the laws and customs of war, although they may not
have had time to become organized in accordance with the above
provisions. These rules were borrowed almost word for word from the
project drawn up at the Brussels international conference of 1874,
which, though never ratified, was practically incorporated in the army
regulations issued by the Russian government in connexion with the war
of 1877-78.     (T. Ba.)



GUERRINI, OLINDO (1845-   ), Italian poet, was born at Sant' Alberto,
Ravenna, and after studying law took to a life of letters, becoming
eventually librarian at Bologna University. In 1877 he published
_Postuma_, a volume of _canzoniere_, under the name of Lorenzo
Stechetti, following this with _Polemica_ (1878), _Canti popolari
romagnoli_ (1880) and other poetical works, and becoming known as the
leader of the "verist" school among Italian lyrical writers.



GUESDE, JULES BASILE (1845-   ), French socialist, was born in Paris on
the 11th of November 1845. He had begun his career as a clerk in the
French Home Office, but at the outbreak of the Franco-German War he was
editing _Les Droits de l'homme_ at Montpellier, and had to take refuge
at Geneva in 1871 from a prosecution instituted on account of articles
which had appeared in his paper in defence of the Commune. In 1876 he
returned to France to become one of the chief French apostles of Marxian
collectivism, and was imprisoned for six months in 1878 for taking part
in the first Parisian International Congress. He edited at different
times _Les Droits de l'homme_, _Le Cri du peuple_, _Le Socialiste_, but
his best-known organ was the weekly _Égalité_. He had been in close
association with Paul Lafargue, and through him with Karl Marx, whose
daughter he married. It was in conjunction with Marx and Lafargue that
he drew up the programme accepted by the national congress of the Labour
party at Havre in 1880, which laid stress on the formation of an
international labour party working by revolutionary methods. Next year
at the Reims congress the orthodox Marxian programme of Guesde was
opposed by the "possibilists," who rejected the intransigeant attitude
of Guesde for the opportunist policy of Benoît Malon. At the congress of
St-Étienne the difference developed into separation, those who refused
all compromise with a capitalist government following Guesde, while the
opportunists formed several groups. Guesde took his full share in the
consequent discussion between the Guesdists, the Blanquists, the
possibilists, &c. In 1893 he was returned to the Chamber of Deputies for
Lille (7th circonscription) with a large majority over the Christian
Socialist and Radical candidates. He brought forward various proposals
in social legislation forming the programme of the Labour party, without
reference to the divisions among the Socialists, and on the 20th of
November 1894 succeeded in raising a two days' discussion of the
collectivist principle in the Chamber. In 1902 he was not re-elected,
but resumed his seat in 1906. In 1903 there was a formal reconciliation
at the Reims congress of the sections of the party, which then took the
name of the Socialist party of France. Guesde, nevertheless, continued
to oppose the opportunist policy of Jaurès, whom he denounced for
supporting one bourgeois party against another. His defence of the
principle of freedom of association led him, incongruously enough, to
support the religious Congregations against Émile Combes. Besides his
numerous political and socialist pamphlets he published in 1901 two
volumes of his speeches in the Chamber of Deputies entitled _Quatre ans
de lutte de classe 1893-1898_.



GUEST, EDWIN (1800-1880), English antiquary, was born in 1800. He was
educated at King Edward's school, Birmingham, and at Caius College,
Cambridge, where he graduated as eleventh wrangler, subsequently
becoming a fellow of his college. Called to the bar in 1828, he devoted
himself, after some years of legal practice, to antiquarian and literary
research. In 1838 he published his exhaustive _History of English
Rhythms_. He also wrote a very large number of papers on Roman-British
history, which, together with a mass of fresh material for a history of
early Britain, were published posthumously under the editorship of Dr
Stubbs under the title _Origines Celticae_ (1883). In 1852 Guest was
elected master of Caius College, becoming LL.D. in the following year,
and in 1854-1855 he was vice-chancellor of Cambridge University. Guest
was a fellow of the Royal Society, and an honorary member of the Society
of Antiquaries. He died on the 23rd of November 1880.



GUEST (a word common to Teutonic languages; cf. Ger. _Gast_, and Swed.
_gäst_; cognate with Lat. _hostis_, originally a stranger, hence enemy;
cf. "host"), one who receives hospitality in the house of another, his
"host"; hence applied to a parasite.



GUETTARD, JEAN ÉTIENNE (1715-1786), French naturalist and mineralogist,
was born at Étampes, on the 22nd of September 1715. In boyhood he gained
a knowledge of plants from his grandfather, who was an apothecary, and
later he qualified as a doctor in medicine. Pursuing the study of botany
in various parts of France and other countries, he began to take notice
of the relation between the distribution of plants and the soils and
subsoils. In this way his attention came to be directed to minerals and
rocks. In 1746 he communicated to the Academy of Sciences in Paris a
memoir on the distribution of minerals and rocks, and this was
accompanied by a map on which he had recorded his observations. He thus,
as remarked by W. D. Conybeare, "first carried into execution the idea,
proposed by [Martin] Lister years before, of geological maps." In the
course of his journeys he made a large collection of fossils and figured
many of them, but he had no clear ideas about the sequence of strata. He
made observations also on the degradation of mountains by rain, rivers
and sea; and he was the first to ascertain the existence of former
volcanoes in the district of Auvergne. He died in Paris on the 7th of
January 1786.

  His publications include: _Observations sur les plantes_ (2 vols.,
  1747); _Histoire de la découverte faite en France de matières
  semblables à celles dont la porcelaine de la Chine est composée_
  (1765); _Mémoires sur différentes parties des sciences et arts_ (5
  vols., 1768-1783); _Mémoire sur la minéralogie du Dauphiné_ (2 vols.,
  1779). See _The Founders of Geology_, by Sir A. Geikie (1897).



GUEUX, LES, or "THE BEGGARS," a name assumed by the confederacy of
nobles and other malcontents, who in 1566 opposed Spanish tyranny in the
Netherlands. The leaders of the nobles, who signed a solemn league known
as "the Compromise," by which they bound themselves to assist in
defending the rights and liberties of the Netherlands against the civil
and religious despotism of Philip II., were Louis, count of Nassau, and
Henry, count of Brederode. On the 5th of April 1566 permission was
obtained for the confederates to present a petition of grievances,
called "the Request," to the regent, Margaret, duchess of Parma. About
250 nobles marched to the palace accompanied by Louis of Nassau and
Brederode. The regent was at first alarmed at the appearance of so large
a body, but one of her councillors, Berlaymont by name, was heard to
exclaim, "What, madam, is your highness afraid of these beggars (_ces
gueux_)?" The appellation was not forgotten. At a great feast held by
some 300 confederates at the Hôtel Culemburg three days later, Brederode
in a speech declared that if need be they were all ready to become
"beggars" in their country's cause. The words caught on, and the hall
resounded with loud cries of "_Vivent les gueux!_" The name became
henceforward a party appellation. The patriot party adopted the emblems
of beggarhood, the wallet and the bowl, as trinkets to be worn on their
hats or their girdles, and a medal was struck having on one side the
head of Philip II., on the other two clasped hands with the motto
"_Fidèle au roy, jusques à porter la besace_." The original league of
"Beggars" was short-lived, crushed by the iron hand of Alva, but its
principles survived and were to be ultimately triumphant.

In the year 1569 the prince of Orange, who had now openly placed himself
at the head of the party of revolt, granted letters of marque to a
number of vessels manned by crews of desperadoes drawn from all
nationalities. These fierce corsairs under the command of a succession
of daring and reckless leaders--the best-known of whom is William de la
Marek, lord of Lumey--were called "_Gueux de mer_," or "Sea Beggars." At
first they were content with plundering both by sea and land and
carrying their booty to the English ports where they were able to refit
and replenish their stores. This went on till 1572, when Queen Elizabeth
suddenly refused to admit them to her harbours. Having no longer any
refuge, the Sea Beggars in desperation made an attack upon Brill, which
they seized by surprise in the absence of the Spanish garrison on the
1st of April 1572. Encouraged by their unhoped-for success, they now
sailed to Flushing, which was also taken by a _coup de main._ The
capture of these two towns gave the signal for a general revolt of the
northern Netherlands, and is regarded as the real beginning oí the War
of Dutch Independence.



GUEVARA, ANTONIO DE (c. 1490-1544), Spanish chronicler and moralist,
was a native of the province of Alava, and passed some of his earlier
years at the court of Isabella, queen of Castile. In 1528 he entered the
Franciscan order, and afterwards accompanied the emperor Charles V.
during his journeys to Italy and other parts of Europe. After having
held successively the offices of court preacher, court historiographer,
bishop of Guadix and bishop of Mondoñedo, he died in 1544. His earliest
work, entitled _Reloj de principes_, published at Valladolid in 1529,
and, according to its author, the fruit of eleven years' labour, is a
didactic novel, designed, after the manner of Xenophon's _Cyropaedia_,
to delineate, in a somewhat ideal way for the benefit of modern
sovereigns, the life and character of an ancient prince, Marcus
Aurelius, distinguished for wisdom and virtue. It was often reprinted in
Spanish; and before the close of the century had also been translated
into Latin, Italian, French and English, an English translation being
by J. Bourchier (London, 1546) and another being by T. North. It is
difficult now to account for its extraordinary popularity, its thought
being neither just nor profound, while its style is stiff and affected.
It gave rise to a literary controversy, however, of great bitterness and
violence, the author having ventured without warrant to claim for it an
historical character, appealing to an imaginary "manuscript in
Florence." Other works of Guevara are the _Decada de los Césares_
(Valladolid, 1539), or "Lives of the Ten Roman Emperors," in imitation
of the manner of Plutarch and Suetonius; and the _Epistolas familiares_
(Valladolid, 1539-1545), sometimes called "The Golden Letters," often
printed in Spain, and translated into all the principal languages of
Europe. They are in reality a collection of stiff and formal essays
which have long ago fallen into merited oblivion. Guevara, whose
influence upon the Spanish prose of the 16th century was considerable,
also wrote _Libro de los inventores del arte de marear_ (Valladolid,
1539, and Madrid, 1895).



GUEVARA, LUIS VELEZ DE (1579-1644), Spanish dramatist and novelist, was
born at Écija on the 1st of August 1579. After graduating as a sizar at
the university of Osuna in 1596, he joined the household of Rodrigo de
Castro, cardinal-archbishop of Seville, and celebrated the marriage of
Philip II. in a poem signed "Velez de Santander," a name which he
continued to use till some years later. He appears to have served as a
soldier in Italy and Algiers, returning to Spain in 1602 when he entered
the service of the count de Saldaña, and dedicated himself to writing
for the stage. He died at Madrid on the 10th of November 1644. He was
the author of over four hundred plays, of which the best are _Reinar
despues de morir_, _Más pesa el rey que la sangre_, _La Luna de la
Sierra_ and _El Diablo está en Cantillana_; but he is most widely known
as the author of _El Diablo cojuelo_ (1641), a fantastic novel which
suggested to Le Sage the idea of his _Diable boiteux_.



GUGLIELMI, PIETRO (1727-1804), Italian composer, was born at Massa
Carrara in May 1727, and died in Rome on the 19th of November 1804. He
received his first musical education from his father, and afterwards
studied under Durante at the Conservatorio di Santa Maria di Loreto at
Naples. His first operatic work, produced at Turin in 1755, established
his reputation, and soon his fame spread beyond the limits of his own
country, so that in 1762 he was called to Dresden to conduct the opera
there. He remained for some years in Germany, where his works met with
much success, but the greatest triumphs were reserved for him in
England. He went to London, according to Burney, in 1768, but according
to Florimo in 1772, returning to Naples in 1777. He still continued to
produce operas at an astounding rate, but was unable to compete
successfully with the younger masters of the day. In 1793 he became
_maestro di cappella_ at St Peter's, Rome. He was a very prolific
composer of Italian comic opera, and there is in most of his scores a
vein of humour and natural gaiety not surpassed by Cimarosa himself. In
serious opera he was less successful. But here also he shows at least
the qualities of a competent musician. Considering the enormous number
of his works, his unequal workmanship and the frequent instances of
mechanical and slip-shod writing in his music need not surprise us. The
following are among the most celebrated of his operas: _I Due Gemelli_,
_La Serva inamorata_, _La Pastorella nobile_, _La Bella Peccatrice_,
_Rinaldo_, _Artaserse_, _Didone_ and _Enea e Lavinia_. He also wrote
oratorios and miscellaneous pieces of orchestral and chamber music. Of
his eight sons two at least acquired fame as musicians--Pietro Carlo
(1763-1827), a successful imitator of his father's operatic style, and
Giacomo, an excellent singer.



GUIANA (_Guyana_, _Guayana_[1]), the general name given in its widest
acceptation to the part of South America lying to the north-east from 8°
40´ N. to 3° 30´ S. and from 50° W. to 68° 30´ W. Its greatest length,
from Cabo do Norte to the confluence of the Rio Xie and Rio Negro, is
about 1250 m., its greatest breadth, from Barima Point in the mouth of
the Orinoco to the confluence of the Rio Negro and Amazon, 800 m. Its
area is roughly 690,000 sq. m. Comprised in this vast territory are
Venezuelan (formerly Spanish) Guiana, lying on both sides of the Orinoco
and extending S. and S.W. to the Rio Negro and Brazilian settlements;
British Guiana, extending from Venezuela to the left bank of the
Corentyn river; Dutch Guiana (or Surinam), from the Corentyn to the
Maroni river; French Guiana (or Cayenne), from the Maroni to the Oyapock
river;[2] Brazilian (formerly Portuguese) Guiana, extending from the
southern boundaries of French, Dutch, British and part of Venezuelan
Guiana, to the Amazon and the Negro. Of these divisions the first and
last are now included in Venezuela and Brazil respectively; British,
Dutch and French Guiana are described in order below, and are alone
considered here.

[Illiustration: Map of Guiana.]

In their physical geography the three Guianas present certain common
characteristics. In each the principal features are the rivers and their
branch streams. In each colony the northern portion consists of a
fluviomarine deposit extending inland and gradually rising to a height
of 10 to 15 ft. above the sea. This alluvial plain varies in width from
50 m. to 18 m. and is traversed by ridges of sand and shells, roughly
parallel to what is now the coast, indicating the trend of former shore
lines. By the draining and diking of these lands the plantations have
been formed along the coast and up the rivers. These low lands are
attached to a somewhat higher plateau, which towards the coast is
traversed by numerous huge sand-dunes and inland by ranges of hills
rising in places to as much as 2000 ft. The greater part of this belt of
country, in which the auriferous districts principally occur, is covered
with a dense growth of jungle and high forest, but savannahs, growing
only a long wiry grass and poor shrubs, intrude here and there, being in
the S.E. much nearer to the coast than in the N.W. The hinterlands
consist of undulating open savannahs rising into hills and mountains,
some grass-covered, some in dense forest.

  _Geology_[3].--Guiana is formed almost entirely of gneiss and
  crystalline schists penetrated by numerous dikes of diorite, diabase,
  &c. The gold of the placer deposits appears to be derived, not from
  quartz reefs, but from the schists and intrusive rocks, the selvages
  of the diabase dikes sometimes containing as much as 5 oz. of gold to
  the ton. In British Guiana a series of conglomerates, red and white
  sandstone and red shale, rests upon the gneiss and forms the
  remarkable table-topped mountains Roraima, Kukenaam, &c. The beds are
  horizontal, and according to Brown and Sawkins, three layers of
  greenstone, partly intrusive and partly contemporaneous, are
  interstratified with the sedimentary deposits. The age of these beds
  is uncertain, but they evidently correspond with the similar series
  which occurs in Brazil, partly Palaeozoic and partly Cretaceous. In
  Dutch Guiana there are a few small patches supposed to belong to the
  Cretaceous period. Along the coast, and in the lower parts of the
  river valleys, are deposits which are mainly Quaternary but may also
  include beds of Tertiary age.

_History._--The coast of Guiana was sighted by Columbus in 1498 when he
discovered the island of Trinidad and the peninsula of Paria, and in the
following year by Alonzo de Ojeda and Amerigo Vespucci; and in 1500
Vincente Yañez Pinzon ventured south of the equator, and sailing
north-west along the coast discovered the Amazon; he is believed to have
also entered some of the other rivers of Guiana, one of which, now
called Oyapock, is marked on early maps as Rio Pinzon. Little, however,
was known of Guiana until the fame of the fabled golden city Manoa or El
Dorado tempted adventurers to explore its rivers and forests. From
letters of these explorers found in captured ships, Sir Walter Raleigh
was induced to ascend the Orinoco in search of El Dorado in 1595, to
send Lawrence Keymis on the same quest in the following year, and in
1617 to try once again, with the same intrepid lieutenant, an expedition
fraught with disaster for both of them. As early as 1580 the Dutch had
established a systematic trade with the Spanish main, but so far as is
known their first voyage to Guiana was in 1598. By 1613 they had three
or four settlements on the coast of Demerara and Essequibo, and in about
1616 some Zeelanders settled on a small island, called by them _Kyk ober
al_ ("see over all"), in the confluence of the Cuyuni and Mazaruni
rivers. While the Dutch traders were struggling for a footing in
Essequibo and Demerara, English and French traders were endeavouring to
form settlements on the Oyapock river, in Cayenne and in Surinam, and by
1652 the English had large interests in the latter and the French in
Cayenne. In 1663 Charles II. issued letters patent to Lord Willoughby of
Parham and Lawrence Hyde, second son of the earl of Clarendon, granting
them the district between the Copenam and Maroni rivers, a province
described as extending from E. to W. some 120 m. This colony was,
however, formally ceded to the Netherlands in 1667 by the peace of
Breda, Great Britain taking possession of New York. Meanwhile the Dutch
West India Company, formed in 1621, had taken possession of Essequibo,
over which colony it exercised sovereign rights until 1791. In 1624 a
Dutch settlement was effected in the Berbice river, and from this grew
Berbice, for a long time a separate and independent colony. In 1657 the
Zeelanders firmly established themselves in the Pomeroon, Moruca and
Demerara rivers, and by 1674 the Dutch were colonizing all the territory
now known as British and Dutch Guiana. The New Dutch West Indian
Company, founded in that year to replace the older company which had
failed, received Guiana by charter from the states-general in 1682. In
the following year the company sold one-third of their territory to the
city of Amsterdam, and another third to Cornelis van Aerssens, lord of
Sommelsdijk. The new owners and the company incorporated themselves as
the Chartered Society of Surinam, and Sommelsdijk agreed to fill the
post of governor of the colony at his own expense. The lucrative trade
in slaves was retained by the West Indian Company, but the society could
import them on its own account by paying a fine to the company.
Sommelsdijk's rule was wise and energetic. He repressed and pacified the
Indian tribes, erected forts and disciplined the soldiery, constructed
the canal which bears his name, established a high court of justice and
introduced the valuable cultivation of the cocoa-nut. But on the 17th of
June 1688 he was massacred in a mutiny of the soldiers. The "third"
which Sommelsdijk possessed was offered by his widow to William III. of
England, but it was ultimately purchased by the city of Amsterdam for
700,000 fl. The settlements in Essequibo progressed somewhat slowly, and
it was not until immigration was attracted in 1740 by offers to
newcomers of free land and immunity for a decade from taxation that
anything like a colony could be said to exist there. In 1732 Berbice
placed itself under the protection of the states-general of Holland and
was granted a constitution, and in 1773 Demerara, till then a dependency
of Essequibo, was constituted as a separate colony. In 1781 the three
colonies, Demerara, Essequibo and Berbice, were captured by British
privateers, and were placed by Rodney under the governor of Barbados,
but in 1782 they were taken by France, then an ally of the Netherlands,
and retained until the peace of 1783, when they were restored to
Holland. In 1784 Essequibo and Demerara were placed under one governor,
and Georgetown--then called Stabroek--was fixed on as the seat of
government. The next decade saw a series of struggles between the
colonies and the Dutch West India company, which ended in the company
being wound up and in the three colonies being governed directly by the
states-general. In 1796 the British again took possession, and retained
the three colonies until the peace of Amiens in 1802, when they were
once again restored to Holland, only to be recaptured by Great Britain
in 1803, in which year the history proper of British Guiana began.


  British Guiana.

I. BRITISH GUIANA, the only British possession in S. America, was
formally ceded in 1814-1815. The three colonies were in 1831
consolidated into one colony divided into three counties, Berbice
extending from the Corentyn river to the Abary creek, Demerara from the
Abary to the Boerasirie creek, Essequibo from the Boerasirie to the
Venezuelan frontier. This boundary-line between British Guiana and
Venezuela was for many years the subject of dispute. The Dutch, while
British Guiana was in their possession, claimed the whole watershed of
the Essequibo river, while the Venezuelans asserted that the Spanish
province of Guayana had extended up to the left bank of the Essequibo.
In 1840 Sir Robert Schomburgk had suggested a demarcation, afterwards
known as the "Schomburgk line"; and subsequently, though no agreement
was arrived at, certain modifications were made in this British claim.
In 1886 the government of Great Britain declared that it would
thenceforward exercise jurisdiction up to and within a boundary known as
"the modified Schomburgk line." Outposts were located at points on this
line, and for some years Guianese police and Venezuelan soldiers faced
one another across the Amacura creek in the Orinoco mouth and at Yuruan
up the Cuyuni river. In 1897 the dispute formed the subject of a message
to congress from the president of the United States, and in consequence
of this intervention the matter was submitted to an international
commission, whose award was issued at Paris in 1899 (see VENEZUELA). By
this decision neither party gained its extreme claim, the line laid down
differing but little from the original Schomburgk line. The demarcation
was at once undertaken by a joint commission appointed by Venezuela and
British Guiana and was completed in 1904. It was not found practicable,
owing to the impassable nature of the country, to lay down on earth that
part of the boundary fixed by the Paris award between the head of the
Wenamu creek and the summit of Mt. Roraima, and the boundary
commissioners suggested a deviation to follow the watersheds of the
Caroni, Cuyuni and Mazaruni rivers, a suggestion accepted by the two
governments. In 1902 the delimitation of the boundary between British
Guiana and Brazil was referred to the arbitration of the king of Italy,
and by his reward, issued in June 1904, the substantial area in dispute
was conceded to British Guiana. The work of demarcation has since been
carried out.

_Towns, &c._--The capital of British Guiana is Georgetown, at the mouth
of the Demerara river, on its right bank, with a population of about
50,000. New Amsterdam, on the right bank of the Berbice river, has a
population of about 7500. Each possesses a mayor and town council, with
statutory powers to impose rates. There are nineteen incorporated
villages, and ten other locally governed areas known as country
districts, the affairs of which are controlled by local authorities,
known as village councils and country authorities respectively.

_Population._--The census of 1891 gave the population of British Guiana
as 278,328. There was no census taken in 1901. By official estimates the
population at the end of 1904 was 301,923. Of these some 120,000 were
negroes and 124,000 East Indians; 4300 were Europeans, other than
Portuguese, estimated at about 11,600, and some 30,000 of mixed race.
The aborigines--Arawaks, Caribs, Wapisianas, Warraws, &c.--who numbered
about 10,000 in 1891, are now estimated at about 6500. In 1904 the
birth-rate for the whole colony was 30.3 per 1000 and the death-rate
28.8.

  _Physical Geography._--The surface features of British Guiana may be
  divided roughly into four regions: first, the alluvial seaboard, flat
  and below the level of high-water; secondly, the forest belt, swampy
  along the rivers but rising into undulating lands and hills between
  them; thirdly, the savannahs in and inland of the forest belt,
  elevated table-lands, grass-covered and practically treeless; and
  fourthly, the mountain ranges. The eastern portion of the colony, from
  the source of its two largest rivers, the Corentyn and Essequibo, is a
  rough inclined plain, starting at some 900 ft. above sea-level at the
  source of the Takutu in the west, but only some 400 at that of the
  Corentyn in the west, and sloping down gradually to the low alluvial
  flats about 3 ft. below high-water line. The eastern part is generally
  forested; the western is an almost level savannah, with woodlands
  along the rivers. The northern portion of British Guiana, the
  alluvial flats alluded to already, consists of a fluviomarine deposit
  extending inland from 25 m. to 30 m., gradually rising to about 12 ft.
  above high-water mark and ending against beds of sandy clay, the
  residua of igneous rocks decomposed _in situ_, which form an extensive
  undulating region rising to 150 ft. above the sea and stretching back
  to the forest-covered hills. Roughly parallel to the existing
  coast-line are narrow reefs of sand and sea-shells, which are dunes
  indicating the trend of former limits of the sea, and still farther
  back are the higher "sand hills," hills of granite or diabase with a
  thick stratum of coarse white sand superimposed. From the coast-line
  seawards the ocean deepens very gradually, and at low tide extensive
  flats of sand and of mixed clay and sand (called locally "caddy") are
  left bare, these flats being at times covered with a deposit of thin
  drift mud.

  Two great parallel mountain systems cross the colony from W. to E.,
  the greater being that of the Pacaraima and Merumé Mts., and the
  lesser including the Kanuku Mts. (2000 ft.), while the Acarai Mts., a
  densely-wooded range rising to 2500 ft., form the southern boundary of
  British Guiana and the watershed between the Essequibo and the Amazon.
  These mountains rise generally in a succession of terraces and broad
  plateaus, with steep or even sheer sandstone escarpments. They are
  mostly flat-topped, and their average height is about 3500 ft. The
  Pacaraima Mts., however, reach 8635 ft. at Roraima, and the latter
  remarkable mountain rises as a perpendicular wall of red rock 1500 ft.
  in height springing out of the forest-clad slopes below the summit,
  and was considered inaccessible until in December 1884 Messrs im Thurn
  and Perkins found a ledge by which the top could be reached. The
  summit is a table-land some 12 sq. m. in area. Mt. Kukenaam is of
  similar structure and also rises above 8500 ft. Other conspicuous
  summits (about 7000 ft.) are Iwalkarima, Eluwarima, Ilutipu and
  Waiakapiapu. The southern portion of the Pacaraima range comprises
  rugged hills and rock-strewn valleys, but to the N., where the
  sandstone assumes the table-shaped form, there are dense forests, and
  the scenery is of extraordinary grandeur. Waterfalls frequently
  descend the cliffs from a great height (nearly 2000 ft. sheer at
  Roraima and Kukenaam). The sandstone formation can be traced from the
  northern Pacaraima range on the N.W. to the Corentyn in the S.E. It is
  traversed in places by dikes and sills of diabase or dolerite, while
  bosses of more or less altered gabbro rise through it. The surface of
  a large part of the colony is composed of gneiss, and of gneissose
  granite, which is seen in large water-worn bosses in the river beds.
  Intrusive granite is of somewhat rare occurrence; where found, it
  gives rise to long low rolls of hilly country and to cataracts in the
  rivers. Extensive areas of the country consist of quartz-porphyry,
  porphyrites and felstone, and of more or less schistose rocks derived
  from them. These rocks are closely connected with the gneissose
  granites and gneiss, and there are reasons for believing that the
  latter are the deep-seated portions of them and are only visible where
  they have been exposed by denudation. Long ranges of hills, varying in
  elevation from a few hundreds to from 2000 ft. to 3000 ft., traverse
  the plains of the gneissose districts. These are caused either by old
  intrusions of diabase and gabbro which have undergone modifications,
  or by later ones of dolerite. These ranges are of high importance, as
  the rocks comprising them are the main source of gold in British
  Guiana.

  _Rivers._--The principal physical features of British Guiana are its
  rivers and their branches, which form one vast network of waterways
  all over it, and are the principal, indeed practically the only,
  highways inland from the coast. Chief among them are the Waini, the
  Essequibo, and its tributaries the Mazaruni and Cuyuni, the Demerara,
  the Berbice and the Corentyn. The Essequibo rises in the Acarai Mts.,
  in 0° 41´ N. and about 850 ft. above the sea, and flows northwards for
  about 600 m. until it discharges itself into the ocean by an estuary
  nearly 15 m. in width. In this estuary are several large and fertile
  islands, on four of which sugar used to be grown. Now but one,
  Wakenaam, can boast of a factory. The Essequibo can be entered only by
  craft drawing less than 20 ft. and is navigable for these vessels for
  not more than 50 m., its subsequent course upwards being frequently
  broken by cataracts and rapids. Some 7 m. below the first series of
  rapids it is joined by the Mazaruni, itself joined by the Cuyuni some
  4 m. farther up. It has a remarkable course from its source in the
  Merume Mountains, about 2400 ft. above the sea. It flows first south,
  then west, north-west, north, and finally south-east to within 20 m.
  of its own source, forming many fine falls, and its course thereafter
  is still very tortuous. In 4° N. and 58° W., the Essequibo is joined
  by the Rupununi, which, rising in a savannah at the foot of the
  Karawaimento Mts., has a northerly and easterly course of fully 200 m.
  In 3° 37´ N. the Awaricura joins the Rupununi, and by this tributary
  the Pirara, a tributary of the Amazon, may be reached,--an example of
  the interesting series of _itabos_ connecting nearly all S. American
  rivers with one another. Another large tributary of the Essequibo is
  the Potaro, on which, at 1130 ft. above sea-level and in 5° 8´ N. and
  59° 19´ W., is the celebrated Kaieteur fall, discovered in 1870 by Mr
  C. Barrington Brown while engaged on a geological survey. This fall is
  produced by the river flowing from a tableland of sandstone and
  conglomerate into a deep valley 822 ft. below. For the first 741 ft.
  the water falls as a perpendicular column, thence as a sloping
  cataract to the still reach below. The river 200 yds. above the fall
  is about 400 ft. wide, while the actual waterway of the fall itself
  varies from 120 ft. in dry weather to nearly 400 ft. in rainy seasons.
  The Kaieteur, which it took Mr Brown a fortnight to reach from the
  coast, can now be reached on the fifth day from Georgetown. Among
  other considerable tributaries of the Essequibo are the Siparuni,
  Burro-Burro, Rewa, Kuyuwini and Kassi-Kudji. The Demerara river, the
  head-waters of which are known only to Indians, rises probably near 5°
  N., and after a winding northerly course of some 200 m. enters the
  ocean in 6° 50´ N. and 58° 20´ W. A bar of mud and sand prevents the
  entrance of vessels drawing more than 19 ft. The river is from its
  mouth, which is nearly 2 m. wide, navigable for 70 m. to all vessels
  which can enter. The Berbice river rises in about 3° 40´ N., and in 3°
  53´ N. is within 9 m. of the Essequibo. At its mouth it is about 2½ m.
  wide, and is navigable for vessels drawing not more than 12 ft. for
  about 105 m. and for vessels drawing not more than 7 ft. for fully 175
  m. Thence upwards it is broken by great cataracts. The Canje creek
  joins the Berbice river close to the sea. The Corentyn river rises in
  1° 48´ 30´´ N., about 140 m. E. of the Essequibo, and flowing
  northwards enters the Atlantic by an estuary some 14 m. wide. The
  divide between its head-waters and those of streams belonging to the
  Amazon system is only some 400 ft. in elevation. It is navigable for
  about 150 m., some of the reaches being of great width and beauty. The
  upper reaches are broken by a series of great cataracts, some of
  which, until the discovery of Kaieteur, were believed to be the
  grandest in British Guiana. Among other rivers are the Pomeroon,
  Moruca and Barima, while several large streams or creeks fall directly
  into the Atlantic, the largest being the Abary, Mahaicony and Mahaica,
  between Berbice and Demerara, and the Boerasirie between Demerara and
  Essequibo. The colour of the water of the rivers and creeks is in
  general a dark brown, caused by the infusion of vegetable matter, but
  where the streams run for a long distance through savannahs they are
  of a milky colour.

  _Climate._--The climate is, as tropical countries go, not unhealthy.
  Malarial fevers are common but preventible; and phthisis is prevalent,
  not because the climate is unsuitable to sufferers from pulmonary
  complaints, but because of the ignorance of the common people of the
  elementary principles of hygiene, an ignorance which the state is
  endeavouring to lessen by including the teaching of hygiene in the
  syllabus of the primary schools. The temperature is uniform on the
  coast for the ten months from October to July, the regular N.E. trade
  winds keeping it down to an average of 80° F. In August and September
  the trades die away and the heat becomes oppressive. In the interior
  the nights are cold and damp. Hurricanes, indeed even strong gales,
  are unknown; a tidal wave is an impossibility; and the nature of the
  soil of the coast lands renders earthquakes practically harmless.
  Occasionally there are severe droughts, and the rains are sometimes
  unduly prolonged, but usually the year is clearly divided into two wet
  and two dry seasons. The long wet season begins in mid-April and lasts
  until mid-August. The long dry season is from September to the last
  week in November. December and January constitute the short rainy
  season, and February and March the short dry season. The rainfall
  varies greatly in different parts of the colony; on the coast it
  averages about 80 in. annually.

  _Flora._--The vegetation is most luxuriant and its growth perpetual.
  Indigenous trees and plants abound in the utmost variety, while many
  exotics have readily adapted themselves to local conditions. Along the
  coast is a belt of courida and mangrove--the bark of the latter being
  used for tanning--forming a natural barrier to the inroads of the sea,
  but one which--very unwisely--has been in parts almost ruined to allow
  of direct drainage. The vast forests afford an almost inexhaustible
  supply of valuable timbers; greenheart and mora, largely used in
  shipbuilding and for wharves and dock and lock gates; silverbally,
  yielding magnificent planks for all kinds of boats; and cabinet woods,
  such as cedar and crabwood. There may be seen great trees, struggling
  for life one with the other, covered with orchids--some of great
  beauty and value--and draped with falling _lianas_ and vines. Giant
  palms fringe the river-banks and break the monotony of the mass of
  smaller foliage. Many of the trees yield gums, oils and febrifuges,
  the bullet tree being bled extensively for _balata_, a gum used
  largely in the manufacture of belting. Valuable varieties of rubber
  have also been found in several districts, and since early in 1905
  have attracted the attention of experts from abroad. On the coast
  plantains, bananas and mangoes grow readily and are largely used for
  food, while several districts are admirably adapted to the growth of
  limes. Oranges, pineapples, star-apples, granadillas, guavas are among
  the fruits; Indian corn, cassava, yams, eddoes, tannias, sweet
  potatoes and ochroes are among the vegetables, while innumerable
  varieties of peppers are grown and used in large quantities by all
  classes. The dainty avocado pear, purple and green, grows readily. In
  the lagoons and trenches many varieties of water-lilies grow wild, the
  largest being the famous _Victoria regia_.

  _Fauna._--Guiana is full of wild animals, birds, insects and reptiles.
  Among the wild animals, one and all nocturnal, are the mipourrie or
  tapir, manatee, acouri and labba (both excellent eating), sloth,
  ant-eater, armadillo, several kinds of deer, baboons, monkeys and the
  puma and jaguar. The last is seen frequently down on the coast,
  attracted from the forest by the cattle grazing on the front and back
  pasture lands of the estates. Among the birds may be mentioned the
  carrion crow (an invaluable scavenger), vicissi and muscovy ducks,
  snipe, teal, plover, pigeon, the ubiquitous kiskadee or _qu'est que
  dit_, a species of shrike--his name derived from his shrill call--the
  canary and the twa-twa, both charming whistlers. These are all found
  on the coast. In the forest are maam (partridge), maroudi (wild
  turkey), the beautiful bell-bird with note like a silver gong, the
  quadrille bird with its tuneful oft-repeated bar, great flocks of
  macaws and parrots, and other birds of plumage of almost indescribable
  richness and variety. On the coast the trenches and canals are full of
  alligators, but the great cayman is found only in the rivers of the
  interior. Among the many varieties of snakes are huge constricting
  camoudies, deadly bushmasters, labarrias and rattlesnakes. Among other
  reptiles are the two large lizards, the salumpenta (an active enemy of
  the barn-door fowl), and the iguana, whose flesh when cooked resembles
  tender chicken. The rivers, streams and trenches abound with fishes,
  crabs and shrimps, the amount of the latter consumed being enormous,
  running into tons weekly as the coolies use them in their curries and
  the blacks in their foo-foo.

_Government and Administration._--Executive power is vested in a
governor, who is advised in all administrative matters by an executive
council, consisting of five official and three unofficial members
nominated by the crown. Legislative authority is vested in the Court of
Policy, consisting of the governor, who presides and without whose
permission no legislation can be initiated, seven other official members
and eight elected members. This body has, however, no financial
authority, all taxation and expenditure being dealt with by the Combined
Court, consisting of the Court of Policy combined with six financial
representatives. The elected members of the Court of Policy and the
financial representatives are elected by their several constituencies
for five years. Qualification for the Court of Policy is the ownership,
or possession under lease for a term of twenty-one years, of eighty
acres of land, of which at least forty acres are under cultivation, or
of house property to the value of $7500. A financial representative must
be similarly qualified or be in receipt of a clear income of not less
than £300 per annum. Every male is entitled to be registered as a voter
who (in addition to the usual formal qualifications) owns (during six
months prior to registration) three acres of land in cultivation or a
house of the annual rental or value of £20; or is a secured tenant for
not less than three years of six acres of land in cultivation or for one
year of a house of £40 rental; or has an income of not less than £100
per annum; or has during the previous twelve months paid £4, 3s. 4d. in
direct taxation. Residence in the electoral district for six months
prior to registration is coupled with the last two alternative
qualifications. Plural voting is legal but no plumping is allowed. The
combined court is by this constitution, which was granted in 1891,
allowed the use of all revenues due to the crown in return for a civil
list voted for a term now fixed at three years. English is the official
and common language. The Roman-Dutch law, modified by orders-in-council
and local statutes, governs actions in the civil courts, but the
criminal law is founded on that of England. Magistrates have in civil
cases jurisdiction up to £20, while an appeal lies from their decisions
in any criminal or civil case. The supreme court consists of a chief
justice and two puisne judges, and has various jurisdictions. The full
court, consisting of the three judges or any two of them, has
jurisdiction over all civil matters, but an appeal lies to His Majesty
in privy council in cases involving £500 and upwards. A single judge
sits in insolvency, in actions involving not over £520, and in appeals
from magistrates' decisions. The appeal full court, consisting of three
judges, sits to hear appeals from decisions of a single judge in the
limited civil, appellate and insolvency courts. Criminal courts are held
four times a year in each county, a single judge presiding in each
court. A court of crown cases reserved is formed by the three judges, of
whom two form a quorum provided the chief-justice is one of the two.
There are no imperial troops now stationed in British Guiana, but there
is a semi-military police force, a small militia and two companies of
volunteers. The Church of England and the Church of Scotland are both
established, and grants-in-aid are also given to the Roman Catholic and
Wesleyan churches and to several other denominations.

  The revenue and expenditure now each amount annually to an average of
  a little over £500,000. About one-half of the revenue is produced by
  import duties, and about £90,000 by excise. The public debt on the
  31st of March 1905 stood at £989,620.

  The system of primary education is denominational and is mainly
  supported from the general revenue. During 1904-1905, 213 schools
  received grants-in-aid amounting to £23,500, the average cost per
  scholar being a little over £1. These grants are calculated on the
  results of examinations held annually, an allowance varying from 4s.
  4½d. to 1s. 0½d. being made for each pass in reading, writing,
  arithmetic, school-garden work, nature study, singing and drill,
  English, geography, elementary hygiene and sewing. Secondary education
  is provided in Georgetown at some private establishments, and for boys
  at Queen's College, an undenominational government institution where
  the course of instruction is the same as at a public school in
  England, and the boys are prepared for the Cambridge local
  examinations, on the result of which annually depend the Guiana
  scholarship--open to boys and girls, and carrying a university or
  professional training in England--and two scholarships at Queen's
  College.

  _Industries and Trade._--At the end of the third decade of the 19th
  century the principal exports were sugar, rum, molasses, cotton and
  coffee. In 1830, 9,500,000 lb. of coffee were sent abroad, but after
  the emancipation of the slaves it almost ceased as an export, and the
  little that is now grown is practically entirely consumed in the
  colony. The cultivation of cotton ceased in 1844, and, but for a short
  revival during the American civil war, has never prospered since.
  Efforts have been made to resuscitate its growth, but the experiments
  of the Board of Agriculture have only shown that Sea Island cotton is
  not adaptable to local conditions, and that no other known variety can
  as yet be recommended. To-day the principal exports are sugar, rum,
  molasses, molascuit--a cattle food made from molasses--gold, timber,
  balata, shingles and cattle. The annual value of the total exports is
  just under £2,000,000, of which about two-thirds go to Great Britain
  and British possessions. The cultivation of rice has made great
  strides in recent years, and, where difficulties of drainage and
  irrigation can be economically overcome, promises to increase rapidly.
  In 1873, 32,000,000 lb. of rice were imported, whereas in 1904-1905,
  the quantity imported having fallen to 20,500,000 lb., there were over
  18,000 acres under rice cultivation, and exportation, principally to
  the British West Indies, had commenced. The cultivation of the
  sugar-cane, and its manufacture into sugar and its by-products, still
  remains, in spite of numerous fluctuations, the staple industry. The
  provision of a trustworthy labour supply for the estates is of great
  importance, and local scarcity has made it necessary since 1840 to
  import it under a system of indenture. In that year and until 1867,
  liberated Africans were brought from Rio de Janeiro, Havana, Sierra
  Leone and St Helena, and in 1845 systematic immigration from India
  commenced and has since been carried on annually--save in 1849-1850.
  In 1853 immigration from China was tried, and was carried on by the
  government from 1859 to 1866, when it ceased owing to a convention
  arranged at Peking, stipulating that all immigrants should on the
  expiry of their term of indenture be entitled to be sent back at the
  expense of the colony, a liability it could not afford to incur. To
  reduce the cost of supervision and kindred expenses, and consequently
  of the cane and its manufacture into sugar, the policy of
  centralization has been universally adopted, and forty-six estates now
  produce as much sugar as three times that number did in 1875. During
  recent years Canada has come forward as a large buyer of Guiana's
  sugar, and in 1904-1905 the same amount went there as to the United
  States, in each case over 44,000 tons, whereas in 1901-1902 the United
  States took 85,000 tons and Canada under 8000 tons. Practically all
  the rum and molascuit go to England, and the molasses to Holland and
  Portuguese possessions. The lands on the coast and on the river banks
  up to the sand hills are of marked fertility, and can produce almost
  any tropical vegetable or fruit. Cultivation, however, save on the
  sugar, coffee and cocoa estates, and by a few exceptional small
  farmers, is carried on in a haphazard and half-hearted manner, and the
  problem of agricultural development is one of great difficulty for the
  government. Much of the privately-owned land is not beneficially
  occupied, and in many cases it is not possible even to learn to whom
  it belongs, and though there are vast tracts of uncultivated crown
  land where a large farm or a small homestead can be easily and cheaply
  acquired, the difficulties involved in clearing, draining, and in some
  cases of protecting it by dams, are prohibitive to all but the
  exceptionally determined.

  Prospecting for gold began in 1880, and from 1884 to 1893-1894 the
  output, chiefly from alluvial workings, increased from 250 oz. to
  nearly 140,000 oz. annually. The industry then received a serious
  check by the failure of several mines, and for nearly a decade was
  almost entirely in the hands of the small tributor, known locally as a
  pork-knocker. There has been some revival, chiefly due to foreign
  enterprise. At Omai on the Essequibo river a German syndicate worked a
  large concession on the hydraulic process of placer mining with
  considerable success, and more recently took to dredging on its
  flats. In the Puruni (a tributary of the Mazaruni) American
  capitalists, working the Peters' mine, have established their workings
  to a considerable depth, besides constructing a road, 60 m. in length,
  from Kartabo point, at the confluence of the Guyuni and Mazaruni, to
  the Puruni river opposite the mine. An English syndicate started
  dredging in the Conawarook, a tributary of the Essequibo. The
  principal gold districts are on the Essequibo and its tributaries--the
  chief being the Cuyuni, Mazaruni, Potaro and Conawarook--and on the
  Barima, Barama and Waini rivers in the north-west district. There have
  been smaller workings, mostly unsuccessful, in the Demerara and
  Berbice rivers.

  Diamonds and other precious stones have been found in small
  quantities, and since 1900 efforts have been made to extend the
  output, nearly 11,000 carats weight of diamonds being exported in
  1904. But though the small stones found were of good water, the cost
  of transport to the diamond fields, on the Mazaruni river, was heavy,
  and after 1904 the industry declined. Laws dealing with gold and
  precious stones passed in 1880, 1886 and 1887, and regulations in
  1899, were codified in 1902 and amended in 1905.

  Timber is cut, and balata and rubber collected, from crown lands by
  licences issued from the department of Lands and Mines. Wood-cutting,
  save on concessions held by a local company owning an up-country line
  of railway connecting the Demerara and Essequibo rivers, is limited to
  those parts of the forest which are close to the lower stretches of
  the rivers and creeks, the overland haulage of the heavy logs being
  both difficult and costly, while transport through the upper reaches
  of the rivers is impossible on account of the many cataracts and
  rapids. The average annual value of imports is £1,500,000, of which
  about two-thirds are from Great Britain and British possessions. Of
  the vessels trading with the colony, most are under the British flag,
  the remainder being principally American and Norwegian.

  The money of account is dollars and cents, but, with the exception of
  the notes of the two local banks, the currency is British sterling.
  The unit of land measure is the Rhynland rood, roughly equal to 12 ft.
  4 in. A Rhynland acre contains 300 square roods.

  _Inland Communication, &c._--The public roads extend along the coast
  from the Corentyn river to some 20 m. N. of the Essequibo mouth on the
  Aroabisci coast, and for a short distance up each of the principal
  rivers and creeks entering the sea between these points. A line of
  railway 60½ m. in length runs from Georgetown to Rosignol on the left
  bank of the Berbice river opposite New Amsterdam; and another line 15
  m. long starts from Vreed-en-hoop, on the left bank of the Demerara
  river opposite Georgetown, and runs to Greenwich Park on the right
  bank of the Essequibo river some 3 m. from its mouth. A light railway,
  metre gauge, 18½ m. in length, connects Wismar (on the left bank of
  the Demerara river some 70 m. from its mouth) with Rockstone (on the
  right bank of the Essequibo, and above the first series of cataracts
  in that river). Steamers run daily to and from Georgetown and Wismar,
  and launches to and from Rockstone and Tumatumari Fall on the Potaro,
  and all expeditions for the goldfields of the Essequibo and its
  tributaries above Rockstone travel by this route. Another steamer goes
  twice a week to Bartica at the confluence of the Essequibo and
  Mazaruni, and another weekly to Mt. Everard on the Barima, from which
  termini expeditions start to the other gold and diamond fields.
  Steamers also run from Georgetown to New Amsterdam and up the Berbice
  river for about 100 m. Above the termini of these steamer routes all
  travelling is done in keelless _bateaux_, propelled by paddlers and
  steered when coming through the rapids at both bow and stern by
  certificated bowmen and steersmen. Owing to the extreme dangers of
  this inland travelling, stringent regulations have been framed as to
  the loading of boats, supply of ropes and qualifications of men in
  charge, and the shooting of certain falls is prohibited. Voyages
  up-country are of necessity slow, but the return journey is made with
  comparatively great rapidity, distances laboriously covered on the
  up-trip in three days being done easily in seven hours when coming
  back.

  From England British Guiana is reached in sixteen days by the steamers
  of the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company, and in nineteen days by those
  of the direct line from London and Glasgow. There are also regular
  services from Canada, the United States, France and Holland.

_History._--When taken over in 1803 the prospects of three British
colonies were by no means promising, and during the next decade the
situation became very critical. Owing to the increased output of sugar
by conquered Dutch and French colonies the English market was glutted
and the markets of the continent of Europe were not available, Bonaparte
having closed the ports. The years 1811 and 1812 were peculiarly
disastrous, especially to those engaged in the manufacture of sugar, and
at a public meeting held in Georgetown early in the latter year it was
stated that the produce of the colony ordinarily worth £1,860,000 had on
account of deteriorated value decreased by fully one-third. At this
meeting it was resolved to petition the imperial parliament to allow the
interchange of produce with the United States; a resolution which was
unfortunately rendered abortive by the outbreak of war between England
and the States in 1812, the trade of British Guiana being instead
actually harried by American privateers. In his address to the Combined
Court on the 20th of October 1812 the governor (General Carmichael)
stated that a vessel with government stores had been captured by an
American privateer, and in February 1813 the imperial government sent
H.M.S. "Peacock" to protect the coast. On the 23rd of that month in
cruising along the east coast of Demerara the "Peacock" met the American
privateer "Hornet," and though, after a gallant struggle, in which
Captain Peake, R.N., was killed, the English ship was sunk with nearly
all her crew, the colony did not suffer from any further depredations.
In the following years news of the agitation in England in favour of
emancipation gradually became known to the slaves and caused
considerable unrest among them, culminating in 1823 in a serious
outbreak on the estates on the east coast of Demerara. Negroes,
demanding their freedom, attacked the houses of several managers, and
although at most points these attacks were repulsed with but little loss
on either side, the situation was so serious as to necessitate the
calling out of the military. The ringleaders were arrested and promptly
and vigorously dealt with, while a special court-martial was appointed
to try the Rev. John Smith, of the London Missionary Society, who it was
alleged had fostered the rising by his teachings to the slave
congregation at his chapel in Le Ressouvenir. This trial was stigmatized
as unfair by the missionary party in England, but on the whole appears
to have been conducted decently by an undoubtedly unbiassed court. It is
difficult now to form any very definite conclusion. Mr Smith certainly
had great influence over the slaves, and while his teaching prior to the
outbreak was at least ill-advised, he made no efforts while the
disturbances were going on to use his influence on the side of law and
order; indeed all he could say in his own defence was that he was
ignorant of what was going on, a statement it is impossible to believe
to have been strictly veracious. He was found guilty and sentenced to be
hanged. It is obvious that it was never intended to carry out this
sentence, and on the 29th of November the governor announced that he
felt it imperative on him to transmit the findings of the court for His
Majesty's consideration. The question of Smith's guilt or innocence
created a great deal of feeling in England, the anti-slavery and
missionary societies making it a basis for increased agitation in favour
of the slaves; but the imperial government evidently agreed with the
colonial executive in holding that he could not be exonerated of grave
responsibility, as the order of the king was that while the sentence of
death was remitted Mr Smith was to be dismissed from the colony and to
enter into a recognizance in £2000 not to return to British Guiana or to
reside in any other West Indian colony. This order reached Georgetown in
April 1824, but Mr Smith had died in the city jail on the 6th of
February of a pulmonary complaint from which he had been suffering for
some time.

Sir Benjamin d'Urban was governor from April 1824 to May 1833, the
principal event of his administration being the consolidation in 1831 of
the three colonies into one colony divided into three counties, Berbice,
Demerara and Essequibo.

Governor d'Urban was succeeded in June 1833 by Sir James Carmichael
Smyth, who began his administration by a proclamation to the slaves
stating that while the king intended to improve their condition, the
details of his plans were not as yet completed, and warning them against
impatience or insubordination. When the resolutions foreshadowing
emancipation, passed by the House of Commons on the 12th of June 1833,
reached the colony, the planters, to whom the governor's proclamation
had been most distasteful, were thunderstruck and even the government
was surprised. Naturally the slaves were wildly jubilant. Emancipation
brought troublous times through which the governor steered the colony
with great tact and firmness, serious troubles being nipped in the bud
solely by his great personality, and the subsequent conflicts with the
apprentices might have been obviated had he lived longer. He died at
Camp House on the 4th of March 1838.

In the years following emancipation the colony was in a serious
condition. The report of a commission in 1850 proved that it was
virtually ruined, and only by the introduction of immigrants to provide
a reliable labour supply were the sugar estates saved from total
extinction. By 1853 the colony had begun to make headway, and Sir Henry
Barkly, the then governor, was able to state in his speech to the
Combined Court in January that its progress was in every way
satisfactory. During Governor Barkly's administration the long series of
struggles between the legislature and the executive terminated, and when
he left in May 1853 he did so with the respect and good-will of all
classes. The strengthening of the labour supply was not effected without
troubles. In 1847 the negroes in Berbice attacked the persons and
property of the Portuguese immigrants, the riots spreading to Demerara
and Essequibo, and not until the military were called out were the
disturbances quelled. Similar riots in 1862 were only stopped by the
prompt and firm action of the new governor, Mr (afterwards Sir) Francis
Hincks, while rows between negroes and Chinese and negroes and East
Indians were frequent. Gradually, however, things quieted down, and
until 1883 the estates as a whole did well. In 1884 the price of sugar
fell so seriously as to make the prospects of the colony very gloomy,
and for nearly two decades proprietors had to be content with a price
kept artificially low by bounty-fed beet-sugar, many estates being
ruined, while those that survived only did so by the application of
every economy, and by their owners availing themselves of every new
discovery in the sciences of cultivation and manufacture.

The year 1889 was marked by an outbreak on the part of a section of the
negro population in Georgetown directed against the Portuguese residents
there. A Portuguese had murdered his black paramour and had been
convicted and sentenced to death. The governor commuted the sentence to
penal servitude for life. Shortly after this a Portuguese stall-holder
in the market assaulted a small black boy whom he suspected of
pilfering, the latter having to be taken to a hospital, while the
former, after being taken to a police station was, through some
misunderstanding or informality, at once released. Almost immediately
excitable and unreasoning negroes were rushing about loudly proclaiming
that the boy was dead, that the Portuguese were allowed to kill black
people and to go free, and calling on one another to take their own
revenge. Mobs gathered quickly, attacked individual Portuguese and
wrecked their shops and houses, and not until the city had been given up
for two days to scenes of disgraceful disorder were the efforts of the
police and special constables successful in quelling the disturbances.
The damage done amounted to several thousands of dollars, the Portuguese
owners being eventually compensated from general revenue.

In 1884 the dispute as to the boundary with Venezuela became acute. It
was reported to the colonial government that the government of Venezuela
had granted to an American syndicate a concession which covered much of
the territory claimed by Great Britain, and although prompt
investigation by an agent despatched by the governor did not then
disclose any trace of interference with British claims, a further visit
in January 1885, made in consequence of reports that servants of the
Manoa Company had torn down notices posted by Mr McTurk on his former
visit, discovered that the British notices had been covered over by
Venezuelan ones and resulted in the government of Great Britain
declaring that it would thenceforward exercise jurisdiction up to and
within a boundary known as "the modified Schomburgk line." Outposts were
located at points on this line, and for some years Guianese police and
Venezuelan soldiers faced one another across the Amacura creek in the
Orinoco mouth and at Yuruan up the Cuyuni river. Guianese officers were,
however, presumably instructed not actively to oppose acts of aggression
by the Venezuelan government, for in January 1895 Venezuelan soldiers
arrested Messrs D. D. Barnes and A. H. Baker, inspectors of police in
charge at Yuruan station, conveyed them through Venezuela to Caracas,
eventually allowing them to take steamer to Trinidad. For this act
compensation was demanded and was eventually paid by Venezuela. The
diplomatic question as to the boundary--the results of which are stated
above--was passed out of the hands of the colony; see the account of the
arbitration under VENEZUELA.

The last two months of 1905 were marked by serious disturbances in
Georgetown, and in a lesser degree on the east and west banks of the
Demerara river. On the 29th of November the dock labourers employed on
the wharves in Georgetown struck for higher wages, and large crowds
invaded the principal stores in the city, compelling men willing to work
to desist and in some cases assaulting those who opposed them. By the
evening of the 30th of November they had got so far out of hand as to
necessitate the reading of the Riot Act and a proclamation by the
governor (Sir F. M. Hodgson) forbidding all assemblies. On the morning
of the 1st of December serious disturbances broke out at Ruimvelt, a
sugar estate directly south of Georgetown, where the cane-cutters had
suddenly struck for higher pay, and the police were compelled to fire on
the mob, killing some and wounding others. All through that day mobs in
all parts of the city assaulted any white man they met, houses were
invaded and windows smashed, and on two further occasions the police had
to fire. At night torrential rains forced the rioters to shelter, and
enabled the police to get rest, their places being taken by pickets of
militiamen and special constables. On Saturday, the 2nd of December, the
police had got the upper hand, and the arrival that night of H.M.S.
"Sappho" and on Sunday of H.M.S. "Diamond" gave the government complete
control of the situation. Threatened troubles on the sugar estates on
the west bank were suppressed by the prompt action of the governor, and
the arrest of large numbers of the rioters and their immediate trial by
special courts restored thorough order.

  AUTHORITIES.--See Raleigh's _Voyages for the Discovery of Guiana
  1595-1596_, ("Hakluyt" series); Laurence Keymis' _Relation of the
  second Voyage to Guiana (1596)_, ("Hakluyt" series); Sir R. H.
  Schomburgk, _Description of British Guiana_ (London, 1840); C.
  Waterton, _Wanderings in South America, 1812-1825_ (London, 1828); J.
  Rodway, _History of British Guiana_ (Georgetown, 1891-1894); H. G.
  Dalton, History of British Guiana (London, 1855); J. W. Boddam
  Whetham, _Roraima and British Guiana_ (London, 1879); C. P. Lucas,
  _Historical Geography of British Colonies_; E. F. im Thurn, _Among the
  Indians of Guiana_ (London, 1883); _British Guiana Directory_
  (Georgetown, 1906); G. D. Bayley, _Handbook of British Guiana_
  (Georgetown, 1909).     (A. G. B.*)


  Dutch Guiana.

II. DUTCH GUIANA, or _Surinam_, has an area of about 57,900 sq. m.
British Guiana bounds it on the west and French on the east (the long
unsettled question of the French boundary is dealt with in section III.,
FRENCH GUIANA). The various peoples inhabiting Surinam are distributed
according to the soil and the products. The Indians (Caribs, Arawaks,
Warrous) live on the savannahs, or on the upper Nickerie, Coppename and
Maroni, far from the plantations, cultivating their fields of manioc or
cassava, and for the rest living by fishing and hunting. They number
about 2000. The bush negroes (Marrons) dwell between 3° and 4° N., near
the isles and cataracts. They are estimated at 10,000, and are employed
in the transport of men and goods to the goldfields, the navigation of
the rivers in trade with the Indians, and in the transport of wood to
Paramaribo and the plantations. They are the descendants of runaway
slaves, and before missionaries had worked among them their paganism
retained curious traces of their former connexion with Christianity.
Their chief god was Gran Gado (grand-god), his wife Maria, and his son
Jesi Kist. Various minor deities were also worshipped, Ampuka the
bush-god, Toni the water-god, &c. Their language was based on a bastard
English, mingled with many Dutch, Portuguese and native elements. Their
chiefs are called _gramman_ or grand man; but the authority of these
men, and the peculiarities of language and religion, have in great
measure died out owing to modern intercourse with the Dutch and others.
The inhabitants of Paramaribo and the plantations comprise a variety of
races, represented by Chinese, Javanese, coolies from India and the West
Indies, negroes and about 2000 whites. Of non-Christian immigrants there
are about 6000 Mahommedans and 12,000 Hindus; and Jews number about
1200. The total population was given in 1907 as 84,103, exclusive of
Indians, &c., in the forests. Nearly one-half of this total are in
Paramaribo and one-half in the districts. The population has shown a
tendency to move from the districts to the town; thus in 1852 there were
6000 persons in the town and 32,000 in the districts.

The principal settlements have been made in the lower valley of the
Surinam, or between that river and the Saramacca on the W. and the
Commewyne on the E. The Surinam is the chief of a number of large rivers
which rise in the Tumuc Humac range or the low hills between it and the
sea, which they enter on the Dutch seaboard, between the Corentyn and
the Maroni (Dutch _Corantijn_ and _Marowijne_), which form the
boundaries with British and French territories respectively. Between the
rivers of Dutch Guiana there are remarkable cross channels available
during the floods at least. As the Maroni communicates with the Cottica,
which is in turn a tributary of the Commewyne, a boat can pass from the
Maroni to Paramaribo; thence by the Sommelsdijk canal it can reach the
Saramacca; and from the Saramacca it can proceed up the Coppename, and
by means of the Nickerie find its way to the Corentyn. The rivers are
not navigable inland to any considerable extent, as their courses are
interrupted by rapids. The interior of the country consists for the most
part of low hills, though an extreme height of 3800 ft. is known in the
Wilhelmina Kette, in the west of the colony, about 3° 50´ to 4° N. The
hinterland south of this latitude, and that part of the Tumuc Humac
range along which the Dutch frontier runs, are, however, practically
unexplored. Like the other territories of Guiana the Dutch colony is
divided physically into a low coast-land, savannahs and almost
impenetrable forest.

Meteorological observations have been carried on at five stations
(Paramaribo, Coronie, Sommelsdijk, Nieuw-Nickerie and Groningen). The
mean range of temperature for the day, month and year shows little
variation, being respectively 77.54°-88.38° F., 76.1°-78.62° F. and
70.52°-90.14° F. The north-east trade winds prevail throughout the year,
but the rainfall varies considerably; for December and January the mean
is respectively 8.58 and 9.57 in., for May and June 11.26 and 10.31 in.,
but for February and March 7.2 and 6.81 in., and for September 2.48 and
2.0 in. The seasons comprise a long and a short dry season, and a period
of heavy and of slight rainfall.

  _Products and Trade._--It has been found exceedingly difficult to
  exploit the produce of the forests. The most important crops and those
  supplying the chief exports are cocoa, coffee and sugar, all
  cultivated on the larger plantations, with rice, maize and bananas on
  the smaller or coast lands. Most of the larger plantations are
  situated on the lower courses of the Surinam, Commewyne, Nickerie and
  Cottica, and on the coast lands, rarely in the upper parts. Goldfields
  lie in the older rocks (especially the slate) of the upper Surinam,
  Saramacca and Maroni. The first section of a railway designed to
  connect the goldfields with Paramaribo was opened in 1906. The annual
  production of gold amounts in value to about £100,000, but has shown
  considerable fluctuation. Agriculture is the chief means of
  subsistence. About 42,000 acres are under cultivation. Of 30,000,
  persons whose occupation is given in official statistics, close upon
  21,000 are engaged in agriculture or on the plantations, 2400 in
  gold-mining and only 1000 in trade. The exports increased in value
  from £200,800 in 1875 to £459,800 in 1899, and imports from £260,450
  in 1875 to £510,180 in 1899; but the average value of exports over
  five years subsequently was only £414,000, while that of imports was
  £531,000.

  _Administration._--The colony is under a governor, who is president of
  an executive council, which also includes a vice-president and three
  members nominated by the crown. The legislative body is the states,
  the members of which are elected for six years by electors, of whom
  there is one for every 200 holders of the franchise. The colony is
  divided into sixteen districts. For the administration of justice
  there are three cantonal courts, two district courts, and the supreme
  court at Paramaribo, whose president and permanent members are
  nominated by the crown. The average local revenue (1901-1906) was
  about £276,000 and the expenditure about £317,000; both fluctuated
  considerably, and a varying subvention is necessary from the home
  government (£16,000 in 1902, £60,400 in 1906; the annual average is
  about £37,000). There are a civic guard of about 1800 men and a
  militia of 500, with a small garrison.

_History._--The history of the Dutch in Guiana, and the compression of
their influence within its present limits, belongs to the general
history of Guiana (above). Surinam and the Dutch islands of the West
Indies were placed under a common government in 1828, the governor
residing at Paramaribo, but in 1845 they were separated. Slavery was
abolished in 1863. Labour then became difficult to obtain, and in 1870 a
convention was signed between Holland and England for the regulation of
the coolie traffic, and a Dutch government agent for Surinam was
appointed at Calcutta. The problem was never satisfactorily solved, but
the interest of the mother-country in the colony greatly increased
during the last twenty years of the 19th century, as shown by the
establishment of the Surinam Association, of the Steam Navigation
Company's service to Paramaribo, and by the formation of a botanical
garden for experimental culture at that town, as also by geological and
other scientific expeditions, and the exhibition at Haarlem in 1898.

  AUTHORITIES.--Among the older works on Surinam the first rank is held
  by Jan Jacob Hartsinck's masterly _Beschryving van Guiana, of de Wilde
  Kust, in Zuid Amerika_ (2 vols., Amsterdam, 1770). Extracts from this
  work, selected for their bearing upon British boundary questions, were
  translated and annotated by J. A. J. de Villiers (London, 1897). A
  valuable _Geschiedenis der Kolonie van Suriname_, by a number of
  "learned Jews," was published at Amsterdam in 1791 and it was
  supplemented and so far superseded by Wolbers, _Geschiedenis van
  Suriname_ (Amsterdam, 1861). See further W. G. Palgrave, _Dutch
  Guiana_ (London, 1876); A. Kappler, _Surinam, sein Land, &c._
  (Stuttgart, 1887); Prince Roland Bonaparte, _Les Habitants de Surinam_
  (Paris, 1884); K. Martin, "Bericht über eine Reise ins Gebiet des
  Oberen-Surinam," _Bijdragen v. h. Inst. voor Taal Land en
  Volkenkunde_, i. 1. (The Hague); Westerouen van Meeteren, _La Guyane
  néerlandaise_ (Leiden, 1884); H. Ten Kate, "Een en ander over
  Suriname," _Gids_ (1888); G. Verschuur, "Voyages aux trois Guyanes,"
  _Tour du monde_ (1893). pp. 1, 49, 65; W. L. Loth, _Beknopte
  Aardrijkskundige beschrijving van Suriname_ (Amsterdam, 1898), and
  _Tijdschrift van het Aardrijkskundig Genootschap_ (1878), 79, 93; Asch
  van Wyck, "La Colonie de Surinam," _Les Pays-Bas_ (1898); L. Thompson,
  _Overzicht der Geschiedenis van Suriname_ (The Hague, 1901);
  _Catalogus der Nederl. W. I. ten Toonstelling te Haarlem_ (1899);
  _Guide à travers la section des Indes néerlandaises_, p. 323
  (Amsterdam, 1899); _Surinaamsche Almanak_ (Paramaribo, annually). For
  the language of the bush-negroes see Wullschlaegel, _Kurzgefasste
  neger-englische Grammatik_ (Bautzen, 1854), and _Deutsch
  neger-englisches Wörterbuch_ (Lobau, 1865).


  French Guiana.

III. FRENCH GUIANA (_Guyane_).--This colony is situated between Dutch
Guiana and Brazil. A delimitation of the territory belonging to France
and the Netherlands was arrived at in 1891, by decision of the emperor
of Russia. This question originated in the arrangement of 1836, that the
river Maroni should form the frontier. It turned on the claim of the Awa
or the Tapanahoni to be recognized as the main head-stream of the
Maroni, and the final decision, in indicating the Awa, favoured the
Dutch. In 1905 certain territory lying between the upper Maroni and the
Itany, the possession of which had not then been settled, was acquired
by France by agreement between the French and Dutch governments. The
question of the exploitation of gold in the Maroni was settled by
attributing alternate reaches of the river to France and Holland; while
France obtained the principal islands in the lower Maroni. The
additional territory thus attached to the French colony amounted to 965
sq. m. In December 1900 the Swiss government as arbitrators fixed the
boundary between French Guiana and Brazil as the river Oyapock and the
watershed on the Tumuc Humac mountains, thus awarding to France about
3000 of the 100,000 sq. m. which she claimed. This dispute was of
earlier origin than that with the Dutch; dissensions between the French
and the Portuguese relative to territory north of the Amazon occurred in
the 17th century. In 1700 the Treaty of Lisbon made the contested area
(known as the Terres du Cap du Nord) neutral ground. The treaty of
Utrecht in 1713 indicated as the French boundary a river which the
French afterwards claimed to be the Araguary, but the Portuguese
asserted that the Oyapock was intended. After Brazil had become
independent the question dragged on until in 1890-1895 there were
collisions in the contested territory between French and Brazilian
adventurers. This compelled serious action, and a treaty of arbitration,
preliminary to the settlement, was signed at Rio de Janeiro in 1897.
French Guiana, according to official estimate, has an area of about
51,000 sq. m. The population is estimated at about 30,000; its movement
is not rapid. Of this total 12,350 live at Cayenne, 10,100 were in the
communes, 5700 formed the penal population, 1500 were native Indians
(Galibi, Emerillon, Oyampi) and 500 near Maroni were negroes. Apart from
Cayenne, which was rebuilt after the great fire of 1888, the centres of
population are unimportant: Sinnamarie with 1500 inhabitants, Mana with
1750, Roura with 1200 and Approuague with 1150. In 1892 French Guiana
was divided into fourteen communes, exclusive of the Maroni district.
Belonging to the colony are also the three Safety Islands (Royale,
Joseph and Du Diable--the last notable as the island where Captain
Dreyfus was imprisoned), the Enfant Perdu Island and the five Remire
Islands.

  A considerable portion of the low coast land is occupied by marshes,
  with a dense growth of mangroves or, in the drier parts, with the
  pinot or wassay palm (_Euterpe oleracea_). Settlements are confined
  almost entirely to the littoral and alluvial districts. The
  forest-clad hills of the hinterland do not generally exceed 1500 ft.
  in elevation; that part of the Tumuc Humac range which forms the
  southern frontier may reach an extreme elevation of 2600 ft. But the
  dense tropical forests attract so much moisture from the ocean winds
  that the highlands are the birthplace of a large number of rivers
  which in the rainy season especially pour down vast volumes of water.
  Not less than 15 are counted between the Maroni and the Oyapock.
  South-eastward from the Maroni the first of importance is the Mana,
  which is navigable for large vessels 10 m. from its mouth, and for
  smaller vessels 27 m. farther. Passing the Sinnamary and the Kourou,
  the Oyock is next reached, near the mouth of which is Cayenne, the
  capital of the colony, and thereafter the Approuage. All these rivers
  take their rise in a somewhat elevated area about the middle of the
  colony; those streams which rise farther south, in the Tumuc Humac
  hills, are tributaries of the two frontier rivers, the Maroni on the
  one hand or the Oyapock on the other.

  _Climate and Products._--The rainy season begins in November or
  December, and lasts till the latter part of June; but there are
  usually three or four weeks of good weather in March. During the rest
  of the year there is often hardly a drop of rain for months, but the
  air is always very moist. At Cayenne the average annual rainfall
  amounts to fully 130 in., and it is naturally heavier in the interior.
  During the hotter part of the year--August, September, October--the
  temperature usually rises to about 86° F., but it hardly ever exceeds
  88°; in the colder season the mean is 79° and it seldom sinks so low
  as 70°. Between day and night there is very little thermometric
  difference. The prevailing winds are the N.N.E. and the S.E.; and the
  most violent are those of the N.E. During the rainy season the winds
  keep between N. and E., and during the dry season between S. and E.
  Hurricanes are unknown. In flora and fauna French Guiana resembles the
  rest of the Guianese region. Vegetation is excessively rich. Among
  leguminous trees, which are abundantly represented, the wacapou is the
  finest of many hardwood trees. Caoutchouc and various palms are also
  common. The manioc is a principal source of food; rice is an important
  object of cultivation; and maize, yams, arrowroot, bananas and the
  bread-fruit are also to be mentioned. Vanilla is one of the common
  wild plants of the country. The clove tree has been acclimatized, and
  in the latter years of the empire it formed a good source of wealth;
  the cinnamon tree was also successfully introduced in 1772, but like
  that of the pepper-tree and the nutmeg its cultivation is neglected. A
  very small portion of the territory indeed is devoted to agriculture,
  although France has paid some attention to the development of this
  branch of activity. In 1880 a colonial garden was created near
  Cayenne; since 1894 an experimental garden has been laid out at
  Baduel. About 8200 acres are cultivated, of which 5400 acres are under
  cereals and rice, the remaining being under coffee (introduced in
  1716), cacao, cane and other cultures. The low lands between Cayenne
  and Oyapock are capable of bearing colonial produce, and the savannahs
  might support large herds; cereals, root-crops and vegetables might
  easily be grown on the high grounds, and timber working in the
  interior should be profitable.

  Gold-mining is the most important industry in the colony. Placers of
  great wealth have been discovered on the Awa, on the Dutch frontier
  and at Carsevenne in the territory which formed the subject of the
  Franco-Brazilian dispute. But wages are high and transport is costly,
  and the amount of gold declared at Cayenne did not average more than
  130,550 oz. annually in 1900-1905. Silver and iron have been found in
  various districts; kaolin is extracted in the plains of Montsinéry;
  and phosphates have been discovered at several places. Besides
  gold-workings, the industrial establishments comprise saw-mills,
  distilleries, brick-works and sugar-works.

  _Trade and Communications._--The commerce in 1885 amounted to £336,000
  for imports and to £144,000 for exports; in 1897 the values were
  respectively £373,350 and £286,400, but in 1903, while imports had
  increased in value only to £418,720, exports had risen to £493,213.
  The imports consist of wines, flour, clothes, &c.; the chief are gold,
  phosphates, timber, cocoa and rosewood essence. Cayenne is the only
  considerable port. One of the drawbacks to the development of the
  colony is the lack of labour. Native labour is most difficult to
  obtain, and attempts to utilize convict labour have not proved very
  successful. Efforts to supply the need by immigration have not done so
  completely. The land routes are not numerous. The most important are
  that from Cayenne to Mana by way of Kourou, Sinnamarie and Iracoubo,
  and that from Cayenne along the coast to Kaw and the mouth of the
  Approuague. Towards the interior there are only foot-paths, badly
  made. By water, Cayenne is in regular communication with the Safety
  Islands (35 m.), and the mouth of the Maroni (80 m.), with Fort de
  France in the island of Martinique, where travellers meet the mail
  packet for France, and with Boston (U.S.A.). There is a French cable
  between Cayenne and Brest.

  _Administration._--The colony is administered by a
  commissioner-general assisted by a privy council, including the
  secretary general and chief of the judicial service, the military,
  penitentiary and administrative departments. In 1879 an elective
  general council of sixteen members was constituted. There are a
  tribunal of first instance and a higher tribunal at Cayenne, besides
  four justices of peace, one of whom has extensive jurisdiction in
  other places. Of the £256,000 demanded for the colony in the colonial
  budget for 1906, £235,000 represented the estimated expenditure on the
  penal settlement, so that the cost of the colony was only about
  £21,000. The local budget for 1901 balanced at £99,000 and in 1905 at
  £116,450. Instruction is given in the college of Cayenne and in six
  primary schools. At the head of the clergy is an apostolic prefect.
  The armed force consists of two companies of marine infantry, half a
  battery of artillery, and a detachment of gendarmerie, and comprises
  about 380 men. The penal settlement was established by a decree of
  1852. From that year until 1867, 18,000 exiles had been sent to
  Guiana, but for the next twenty years New Caledonia became the chief
  penal settlement in the French colonies. But in 1885-1887 French
  Guiana was appointed as a place of banishment for confirmed criminals
  and for convicts sentenced to more than eight years' hard labour. A
  large proportion of these men have been found unfit for employment
  upon public works.

_History._--The Sieur La Revardière, sent out in 1604 by Henry IV. to
reconnoitre the country, brought back a favourable report; but the death
of the king put a stop to the projects of formal colonization. In 1626 a
small body of traders from Rouen settled on the Sinnamary, and in 1635 a
similar band founded Cayenne. The Compagnie du Cap Nord, founded by the
people of Rouen in 1643 and conducted by Poncet de Brétigny, the
Compagnie de la France Équinoxiale, established in 1645, and the second
Compagnie de la France Équinoxiale, or Compagnie des Douze Seigneurs,
established in 1652, were failures, the result of incompetence,
mismanagement and misfortune. From 1654 the Dutch held the colony for a
few years. The French Compagnie des Indes Occidentales, chartered in
1664 with a monopoly of Guiana commerce for forty years, proved hardly
more successful than its predecessors; but in 1674 the colony passed
under the direct control of the crown, and the able administration of
Colbert began to tell favourably on its progress, although in 1686 an
unsuccessful expedition against the Dutch in Surinam set back the
advance of the French colony until the close of the century.

The year 1763 was marked by a terrible disaster. Choiseul, the prime
minister, having obtained for himself and his cousin Praslin a
concession of the country between the Kourou and the Maroni, sent out
about 12,000 volunteer colonists, mainly from Alsace and Lorraine. They
were landed at the mouth of the Kourou, where no preparation had been
made for their reception, and where even water was not to be obtained.
Mismanagement was complete; there was (for example) a shop for skates,
whereas the necessary tools for tillage were wanting. By 1765 no more
than 918 colonists remained alive, and these were a famished
fever-stricken band. A long investigation in Paris resulted in the
imprisonment of the incompetent leaders of the expedition. Several minor
attempts at colonization in Guiana were made in the latter part of the
century; but they all seemed to suffer from the same fatal prestige of
failure. During the revolution band after band of political prisoners
were transported to Guiana. The fate of the royalists, nearly 600 in
number, who were exiled on the 18th Fructidor (1797), was especially
sad. Landed on the Sinnamary without shelter or food, two-thirds of them
perished miserably. In 1800 Victor Hugues was appointed governor, and he
managed to put the colony in a better state; but in 1809 his work was
brought to a close by the invasion of the Portuguese and British.

Though French Guiana was nominally restored to the French in 1814, it
was not really surrendered by the Portuguese till 1817. Numerous efforts
were now made to establish the colony firmly, although its past
misfortunes had prejudiced the public mind in France against it. In 1822
the first steam sugar mills were introduced; in 1824 an agricultural
colony (Nouvelle Angoulême) was attempted in the Mana district, which,
after failure at first, became comparatively successful. The
emancipation of slaves and the consequent dearth of labour almost ruined
the development of agricultural resources about the middle of the
century, but in 1853 a large body of African immigrants was introduced.
The discovery of gold on the Approuague in 1855 caused feverish
excitement, and seriously disturbed the economic condition of the
country.

  AUTHORITIES.--A detailed bibliography of French Guiana will be found
  in Ternaux-Compans, _Notice historique de la Guyane française_ (Paris,
  1843). Among more recent works, see E. Bassières, _Notice sur la
  Guyane_, issued on the occasion of the Paris Exhibition (1900);
  _Publications de la société d'études pour la colonisation de la Guyane
  française_ (Paris, 1843-1844); H. A. Coudreau, _La France équinoxiale_
  (1887), _Dialectes indiens de Guyane_ (1891), _Dix ans de Guyane_
  (1892), and _Chez nos Indiens_ (1893), all at Paris; G. Brousseau,
  _Les Richesses de la Guyane française_ (Paris, 1901); L. F. Viala,
  _Les Trois Guyanes_ (Montpellier, 1893).


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The origin of the name is somewhat obscure, and has been
    variously interpreted. But the late Col. G. E. Church supplies the
    following note, which has the weight of his great authority: "I
    cannot confirm the suggestion of Schomburgk that Guayaná 'received
    its name from a small river, a tributary of the Orinoco', supposed to
    be the Waini or Guainia. In South America, east of the Andes, it was
    the common custom of any tribe occupying a length of river to call it
    simply 'the river'; but the other tribes designated any section of it
    by the name of the people living on its banks. Many streams,
    therefore, had more than a dozen names. It is probable that no
    important river had one name alone throughout its course, prior to
    the time of the Conquest. The radical _wini_, _waini_, _wayni_, is
    found as a prefix, and very frequently as a termination, to the names
    of numerous rivers, not only throughout Guayaná but all over the
    Orinoco and Amazon valleys. For instance, Paymary Indians called the
    portion of the Purús river which they occupied the _Waini_. It simply
    means water, or a fountain of water, or a river. The alternative
    suggestion that Guayaná is an Indian word signifying 'wild coast,' I
    also think untenable. This term, applied to the north-east frontage
    of South America between the Orinoco and the Amazon, is found on the
    old Dutch map of Hartsinck, who calls it 'Guiana Caribania of de
    Wilde Kust,' a name which must have well described it when, in 1580,
    some Zealanders, of the Netherlands, sent a ship to cruise along it,
    from the mouth of the Amazon to that of the Orinoco, and formed the
    first settlement near the river Pomeroon. The map of Firnao Vaz
    Dourado, 1564, calls the northern part of South America, including
    the present British Guiana, 'East Peru.' An anonymous Spanish map,
    about 1566, gives Guayaná as lying on the east side of the Orinoco
    just above its mouth. About 1660, Sebastien de Ruesta, cosmographer
    of the _Casa de Contractacion de Seville_, shows Guayaná covering the
    British, French and Dutch Guayanás. According to the map of Nicolas
    de Fer, 1719, a tribe of Guayazis (Guyanas) occupied the south side
    of the Amazon river, front of the island of Tupinambará, east of the
    mouth of the Madeira. Aristides Rojas, an eminent Venezuelan scholar,
    says that the Mariches Indians, near Caracas, inhabited a site called
    Guayaná long before the discovery of South America by the Spaniards.
    Coudreau in his _Chez nos Indiens_ mentions that the _Roucouyennes_
    of Guayaná take their name from a large tree in their forests, 'which
    appears to be the origin of the name Guayane.' According to Michelana
    y Rojas, in their report to the Venezuelan government on their
    voyages in the basin of the Orinoco, 'Guyana derives its name from
    the Indians who live between the Caroni river and the Sierra de
    Imataca, called Guayanos.' My own studies of aboriginal South America
    lead me to support the statement of Michelana y Rojas, but with the
    following enlargement of it: The Portuguese, in the early part of the
    16th century, found that the coast and mountain district of Rio de
    Janeiro, between Cape São Thome and Angra dos Reis, belonged to the
    formidable _Tamoyos_. South of these, for a distance of about 300 m.
    of the ocean slope of the coast range, were the _Guayaná_ tribes,
    called by the early writers _Guianás_, _Goyaná_, _Guayaná_, _Goaná_
    and, plural, _Goaynázés_, _Goayanázes_ and _Guayanázes_. They were
    constantly at feud with the _Tamoyos_ and with their neighbours on
    the south, the _Carijos_, as well as with the vast Tapuya hordes of
    the Sertão of the interior. Long before the discovery, they had been
    forced to abandon their beautiful lands, but had recuperated their
    strength, returned and reconquered their ancient habitat. Meanwhile,
    however, many of them had migrated northward, some had settled in the
    _Sertão_ back of Bahia and Pernambuco, others on the middle Amazon
    and in the valley of the Orinoco, but a large number had crossed the
    lower Amazon and occupied an extensive area of country to the north
    of it, about the size of Belgium, along the Tumuchumac range of
    highlands, and the upper Paron and Maroni rivers, as well as a large
    district on the northern slope of the above-named range. In their new
    home they became known as _Roucouyennes_, because, like the
    Mundurucus of the middle Amazon, they rubbed and painted themselves
    with _roucou_ or _urucu_ (Bixa Orellana); but other surrounding
    tribes called them Ouayanás, that is Guayanás--the Gua, so common to
    the Guarani-Tupi tongue, having become corrupted into _Oua_. Porto
    Seguro says of the so-called Tupis, 'at other times they gave
    themselves the name of _Guayá_ or _Guayaná_, which probably means
    "brothers," from which comes _Guayazes_ and _Guayanazes_.... The
    latter occupied the country just south of Rio de Janeiro.... The
    masters of the Capitania of St Vincente called themselves _Guianas_.'
    Guinila, referring to north-eastern South America (1745), speaks of
    five missions being formed to civilize the '_Nacion Guayana_.' In
    view of the above, it may be thought reasonable to assume that the
    vast territory now known as _Guayaná_ (British, Dutch, French,
    Brazilian and Venezuelan) derives its name from its aborigines who
    were found there at the time of the discovery, and whose original
    home was the region I have indicated."

  [2] This is the boundary generally accepted; but it is in dispute.

  [3] See C. B. Brown and J. G. Sawkins, _Reports on the Physical,
    Descriptive and Economic Geology of British Guiana_ (London, 1875);
    C. Velain, "Esquisse géologique de la Guyane française et des bassins
    du Parou et du Yari (affluents de l'Amazone) d'après les explorations
    du Dr Crevaux," _Bull. Soc. Géogr._ ser. 7, vol. vi. (Paris, 1885),
    pp. 453-492 (with geological map); E. Martin, _Geologische Studien
    über Niederländisch-West-Indien, auf Grund eigener
    Untersuchungsreisen_ (Leiden, 1888); W. Bergt, "Zur Geologie des
    Coppename- und Nickerietales in Surinam (Hollandisch-Guyana),"
    _Samml. d. Geol. Reichsmus._ (Leiden), ser. 2, Bd. ii. Heft 2, pp.
    93-163 (with 3 maps); and for British Guiana, the official reports on
    the geology of various districts, by J. B. Harrison, C. W. Anderson,
    H. I. Perkins, published at Georgetown.



GUIART (or GUIARD), GUILLAUME (d. c. 1316), French chronicler and poet,
was probably born at Orleans, and served in the French army in Flanders
in 1304. Having been disabled by a wound he began to write, lived at
Arras and then in Paris, thus being able to consult the large store of
manuscripts in the abbey of St Denis, including the _Grandes chroniques
de France_. Afterwards he appears as a _ménestrel de bouche_. Guiart's
poem _Branche des royaulx lignages_, was written and then rewritten
between 1304 and 1307, in honour of the French king Philip IV., and in
answer to the aspersions of a Flemish poet. Comprising over 21,000
verses it deals with the history of the French kings from the time of
Louis VIII.; but it is only really important for the period after 1296
and for the war in Flanders from 1301 to 1304, of which it gives a
graphic account, and for which it is a high authority. It was first
published by J. A. Buchon (Paris, 1828), and again in tome xxii. of the
_Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France_ (Paris, 1865).

  See A. Molinier, _Les Sources de l'histoire de France_, tome iii.
  (Paris, 1903).



GUIBERT, or WIBERT (c. 1030-1100), of Ravenna, antipope under the title
of Clement III. from the 25th of June 1080 until September 1100, was
born at Parma between 1020 and 1030 of the noble imperialist family,
Corregio. He entered the priesthood and was appointed by the empress
Agnes, chancellor and, after the death of Pope Victor II. (1057),
imperial vicar in Italy. He strove to uphold the imperial authority
during Henry IV.'s minority, and presided over the synod at Basel (1061)
which annulled the election of Alexander II. and created in the person
of Cadalous, bishop of Parma, the antipope Honorius II. Guibert lost the
chancellorship in 1062. In 1073, through the influence of Empress Agnes
and the support of Cardinal Hildebrand, he obtained the archbishopric of
Ravenna and swore fealty to Alexander II. and his successors. He seems
to have been at first on friendly terms with Gregory VII., but soon
quarrelled with him over the possession of the city of Imola, and
henceforth was recognized as the soul of the imperial faction in the
investiture contest. He allied himself with Cencius, Cardinal Candidus
and other opponents of Gregory at Rome, and, on his refusal to furnish
troops or to attend the Lenten synod of 1075, he was ecclesiastically
suspended by the pope. He was probably excommunicated at the synod of
Worms (1076) with other Lombard bishops who sided with Henry IV., and
at the Lenten synod of 1078 he was banned by name. The emperor, having
been excommunicated for the second time in March 1080, convened nineteen
bishops of his party at Mainz on the 31st of May, who pronounced the
deposition of Gregory; and on the 25th of June he caused Guibert to be
elected pope by thirty bishops assembled at Brixen. Guibert, whilst
retaining possession of his archbishopric, accompanied his imperial
master on most of the latter's military expeditions. Having gained Rome,
he was installed in the Lateran and consecrated as Clement III. on the
24th of March 1084. One week later, on Easter Sunday, he crowned Henry
IV. and Bertha in St Peter's. Clement survived not only Gregory VII. but
also Victor III. and Urban II., maintaining his title to the end and in
great measure his power over Rome and the adjoining regions.
Excommunication was pronounced against him by all his rivals. He was
driven out of Rome finally by crusaders in 1097, and sought refuge in
various fortresses on his own estates. St Angelo, the last Guibertist
stronghold in Rome, fell to Urban II. on the 24th of August 1098.
Clement, on the accession of Paschal II. in 1099, prepared to renew his
struggle but was driven from Albano by Norman troops and died at Civita
Castellana in September 1100. His ashes, which were said by his
followers to have worked miracles, were thrown into the water by Paschal
II.

  See J. Langen, _Geschichte der römischen Kirche von Gregor VII. bis
  Innocenz III._ (Bonn, 1893); Jaffé-Wattenbach, _Regesta pontif.
  Roman_. (2nd ed., 1885-1888); K. J. von Hefele, _Conciliengeschichte_,
  vol. v. (2nd ed.); F. Gregorovius, _Rome in the Middle Ages_, vol.
  iv., trans. by Mrs G. W. Hamilton (London, 1900-1902); and O. Köhncke,
  _Wibert von Ravenna_ (Leipzig, 1888).     (C. H. Ha.)



GUIBERT (1053-1124), of Nogent, historian and theologian, was born of
noble parents at Clermont-en-Beauvoisis, and dedicated from infancy to
the church. He received his early education at the Benedictine abbey of
Flavigny (Flaviacum) or St Germer, where he studied with great zeal,
devoting himself at first to the secular poets, an experience which left
its imprint on his works; later changing to theology, through the
influence of Anselm of Bec, afterwards of Canterbury. In 1104, he was
chosen to be head of the abbey of Notre Dame de Nogent and henceforth
took a prominent part in ecclesiastical affairs. His autobiography (_De
vita sua, sive monodiarum_), written towards the close of his life,
gives many picturesque glimpses of his time and the customs of his
country. The description of the commune of Laon is an historical
document of the first order. The same local colour lends charm to his
history of the first crusade (_Gesta Dei per Francos_) written about
1110. But the history is largely a paraphrase, in ornate style, of the
_Gesta Francorum_ of an anonymous Norman author (see CRUSADES); and when
he comes to the end of his authority, he allows his book to degenerate
into an undigested heap of notes and anecdotes. At the same time his
high birth and his position in the church give his work an occasional
value.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Guibert's works, edited by d'Achery, were first
  published in 1651, in 1 vol. folio, at Paris (_Venerabilis Guiberti
  abbatis B. Mariae de Novigento opera omnia_), and republished in
  Migne's _Patrologia Latina_, vols. clvi. and clxxxiv. They include,
  besides minor works, a treatise on homiletics ("Liber quo ordine sermo
  fieri debeat"); ten books of _Moralia_ on Genesis, begun in 1084, but
  not completed until 1116, composed on the model of Gregory the Great's
  _Moralia in Jobum_; five books of _Tropologiae_ on Hosea, Amos and the
  Lamentations; a treatise on the _Incarnation_, against the Jews; four
  books _De pignoribus sanctorum_, a remarkably free criticism on the
  abuses of saint and relic worship; three books of autobiography, _De
  vita sua, sive monodiarum_; and eight books of the _Historia quae
  dicitur Gesta Dei per Francos, sive historia Hierosolymitana_ (the
  ninth book is by another author). Separate editions exist of the last
  named, in J. Bongars, _Gesta Dei per Francos_, i., and _Recueil des
  historiens des croisades, hist. Occid._, iv. 115-263. It has been
  translated into French in Guizot's _Collection_, ix. 1-338. See H. von
  Sybel, _Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzuges_ (Leipzig, 1881); B. Monod,
  _Le Moine Guibert et son temps_ (Paris, 1905); and _Guibert de Nogent;
  histoire de sa vie_, edited by G. Bourgin (Paris, 1907).



GUIBERT, JACQUES ANTOINE HIPPOLYTE, COMTE DE (1743-1790), French general
and military writer, was born at Montauban, and at the age of thirteen
accompanied his father, Charles Bénoit, comte de Guibert (1715-1786),
chief of staff to Marshal de Broglie, throughout the war in Germany,
and won the cross of St Louis and the rank of colonel in the expedition
to Corsica (1767). In 1770 he published his _Essai général de tactique_
in London, and this celebrated work appeared in numerous subsequent
editions and in English, German and even Persian translations (extracts
also in Liskenne and Sauvan, _Bibl. historique et militaire_, Paris,
1845). Of this work (for a detailed critique of which see Max Jähns,
_Gesch. d. Kriegswissenschaften_, vol. iii. pp. 2058-2070 and references
therein) it may be said that it was the best essay on war produced by a
soldier during a period in which tactics were discussed even in the
salon and military literature was more abundant than at any time up to
1871. Apart from technical questions, in which Guibert's enlightened
conservatism stands in marked contrast to the doctrinaire
progressiveness of Menil Durand, Folard and others, the book is chiefly
valued for its broad outlook on the state of Europe, especially of
military Europe in the period 1763-1792. One quotation may be given as
being a most remarkable prophecy of the impending revolution in the art
of war, a revolution which the "advanced" tacticians themselves scarcely
foresaw. "The standing armies, while a burden on the people, are
inadequate for the achievement of great and decisive results in war, and
meanwhile the mass of the people, untrained in arms, degenerates.... The
hegemony over Europe will fall to that nation which ... becomes
possessed of manly virtues and _creates a national army_"--a prediction
fulfilled almost to the letter within twenty years of Guibert's death.
In 1773 he visited Germany and was present at the Prussian regimental
drills and army manoeuvres; Frederick the Great, recognizing Guibert's
ability, showed great favour to the young colonel and freely discussed
military questions with him. Guibert's _Journal d'un voyage en
Allemagne_ was published, with a memoir, by Toulongeon (Paris, 1803).
His _Défense du système de guerre moderne_, a reply to his many critics
(Neuchâtel, 1779) is a reasoned and scientific defence of the Prussian
method of tactics, which formed the basis of his work when in 1775 he
began to co-operate with the count de St Germain in a series of
much-needed and successful reforms in the French army. In 1777, however,
St Germain fell into disgrace, and his fall involved that of Guibert who
was promoted to the rank of _maréchal de camp_ and relegated to a
provincial staff appointment. In his semi-retirement he vigorously
defended his old chief St Germain against his detractors. On the eve of
the Revolution he was recalled to the War Office, but in his turn he
became the object of attack and he died, practically of disappointment,
on the 6th of May 1790. Other works of Guibert, besides those mentioned,
are: _Observations sur la constitution politique et militaire des armées
de S. M. Prussienne_ (Amsterdam, 1778), _Éloges_ of Marshal Catinat
(1775), of Michel de l'Hôpital (1778), and of Frederick the Great
(1787). Guibert was a member of the Academy from 1786, and he also wrote
a tragedy, _Le Connétable de Bourbon_ (1775) and a journal of travels in
France and Switzerland.

  See Toulongeon, _Éloge véridique de Guibert_ (Paris, 1790); Madame de
  Stäel, _Éloge de Guibert_; Bardin, _Notice historique du général
  Guibert_ (Paris, 1836); Flavian d'Aldeguier, _Discours sur la vie et
  les écrits du comte de Guibert_ (Toulouse, 1855); Count Forestie,
  _Biographie du comte de Guibert_ (Montauban, 1855); Count zur Lippe,
  "Friedr. der Grosse und Oberst Guibert" (_Militär-Wochenblatt_, 1873,
  9 and 10).



GUICCIARDINI, FRANCESCO (1483-1540), the celebrated Italian historian
and statesman, was born at Florence in the year 1483, when Marsilio
Ficino held him at the font of baptism. His family was illustrious and
noble; and his ancestors for many generations had held the highest posts
of honour in the state, as may be seen in his own genealogical _Ricordi
autobiografici e di famiglia_ (_Op. ined._ vol. x.). After the usual
education of a boy in grammar and elementary classical studies, his
father, Piero, sent him to the universities of Ferrara and Padua, where
he stayed until the year 1505. The death of an uncle, who had occupied
the see of Cortona with great pomp, induced the young Guicciardini to
hanker after an ecclesiastical career. He already saw the scarlet of a
cardinal awaiting him, and to this eminence he would assuredly have
risen. His father, however, checked this ambition, declaring that,
though he had five sons, he would not suffer one of them to enter the
church in its then state of corruption and debasement. Guicciardini,
whose motives were confessedly ambitious (see _Ricordi, Op. ined._ x.
68), turned his attention to law, and at the age of twenty-three was
appointed by the Signoria of Florence to read the _Institutes_ in
public. Shortly afterwards he engaged himself in marriage to Maria,
daughter of Alamanno Salviati, prompted, as he frankly tells us, by the
political support which an alliance with that great family would bring
him (ib. x. 71). He was then practising at the bar, where he won so much
distinction that the Signoria, in 1512, entrusted him with an embassy to
the court of Ferdinand the Catholic. Thus he entered on the real work of
his life as a diplomatist and statesman. His conduct upon that legation
was afterwards severely criticized; for his political antagonists
accused him of betraying the true interests of the commonwealth, and
using his influence for the restoration of the exiled house of Medici to
power. His Spanish correspondence with the Signoria (_Op. ined._ vol.
vi.) reveals the extraordinary power of observation and analysis which
was a chief quality of his mind; and in Ferdinand, hypocritical and
profoundly dissimulative, he found a proper object for his scientific
study. To suppose that the young statesman learned his frigid statecraft
in Spain would be perhaps too simple a solution of the problem offered
by his character, and scarcely fair to the Italian proficients in
perfidy. It is clear from Guicciardini's autobiographical memoirs that
he was ambitious, calculating, avaricious and power-loving from his
earliest years; and in Spain he had no more than an opportunity of
studying on a large scale those political vices which already ruled the
minor potentates of Italy. Still the school was pregnant with
instructions for so apt a pupil. Guicciardini issued from this first
trial of his skill with an assured reputation for diplomatic ability, as
that was understood in Italy. To unravel plots and weave counterplots;
to meet treachery with fraud; to parry force with sleights of hand; to
credit human nature with the basest motives, while the blackest crimes
were contemplated with cold enthusiasm for their cleverness, was
reckoned then the height of political sagacity. Guicciardini could play
the game to perfection. In 1515 Leo X. took him into service, and made
him governor of Reggio and Modena. In 1521 Parma was added to his rule,
and in 1523 he was appointed viceregent of Romagna by Clement VII. These
high offices rendered Guicciardini the virtual master of the papal
states beyond the Apennines, during a period of great bewilderment and
difficulty. The copious correspondence relating to his administration
has recently been published (_Op. ined._ vols. vii., viii.). In 1526
Clement gave him still higher rank as lieutenant-general of the papal
army. While holding this commission, he had the humiliation of
witnessing from a distance the sack of Rome and the imprisonment of
Clement, without being able to rouse the perfidious duke of Urbino into
activity. The blame of Clement's downfall did not rest with him; for it
was merely his duty to attend the camp, and keep his master informed of
the proceedings of the generals (see the Correspondence, _Op. ined._
vols. iv., v.). Yet Guicciardini's conscience accused him, for he had
previously counselled the pope to declare war, as he notes in a curious
letter to himself written in 1527 (_Op. ined._, x. 104). Clement did
not, however, withdraw his confidence, and in 1531 Guicciardini was
advanced to the governorship of Bologna, the most important of all the
papallord-lieutenancies (Correspondence, _Op. ined._ vol. ix.). This
post he resigned in 1534 on the election of Paul III., preferring to
follow the fortunes of the Medicean princes. It may here be noticed that
though Guicciardini served three popes through a period of twenty years,
or perhaps because of this, he hated the papacy with a deep and frozen
bitterness, attributing the woes of Italy to the ambition of the church,
and declaring he had seen enough of sacerdotal abominations to make him
a Lutheran (see _Op. ined._ i. 27, 104, 96, and _Ist. d' It._, ed. Ros.,
ii. 218). The same discord between his private opinions and his public
actions may be traced in his conduct subsequent to 1534. As a political
theorist, Guicciardini believed that the best form of government was a
commonwealth administered upon the type of the Venetian constitution
(_Op. ined._ i. 6; ii. 130 sq.); and we have ample evidence to prove
that he had judged the tyranny of the Medici at its true worth (_Op.
ined._ i. 171, on the tyrant; the whole _Storia Fiorentina_ and
_Reggimento di Firenze_, ib. i. and iii., on the Medici). Yet he did not
hesitate to place his powers at the disposal of the most vicious members
of that house for the enslavement of Florence. In 1527 he had been
declared a rebel by the Signoria on account of his well-known Medicean
prejudices; and in 1530, deputed by Clement to punish the citizens after
their revolt, he revenged himself with a cruelty and an avarice that
were long and bitterly remembered. When, therefore, he returned to
inhabit Florence in 1534, he did so as the creature of the dissolute
Alessandro de' Medici. Guicciardini pushed his servility so far as to
defend this infamous despot at Naples in 1535, before the bar of Charles
V., from the accusations brought against him by the Florentine exiles
(_Op. ined._ vol. ix.). He won his cause; but in the eyes of all
posterity he justified the reproaches of his contemporaries, who
describe him as a cruel, venal, grasping seeker after power, eager to
support a despotism for the sake of honours, offices and emoluments
secured for himself by a bargain with the oppressors of his country.
Varchi, Nardi, Jacopo Pitti and Bernardo Segni are unanimous upon this
point; but it is only the recent publication of Guicciardini's private
MSS. that has made us understand the force of their invectives. To plead
loyalty or honest political conviction in defence of his Medicean
partianship is now impossible, face to face with the opinions expressed
in the _Ricordi politici_ and the _Storia Fiorentina_. Like Machiavelli,
but on a lower level, Guicciardini was willing to "roll stones," or to
do any dirty work for masters whom, in the depth of his soul, he
detested and despised. After the murder of Duke Alessandro in 1537,
Guicciardini espoused the cause of Cosimo de' Medici, a boy addicted to
field sports, and unused to the game of statecraft. The wily old
diplomatist hoped to rule Florence as grand vizier under this
inexperienced princeling. He was mistaken, however, in his schemes, for
Cosimo displayed the genius of his family for politics, and coldly
dismissed his would-be lord-protector. Guicciardini retired in disgrace
to his villa, where he spent his last years in the composition of the
_Storia d'Italia_. He died in 1540 without male heirs.

Guicciardini was the product of a cynical and selfish age, and his life
illustrated its sordid influences. Of a cold and worldly temperament,
devoid of passion, blameless in his conduct as the father of a family,
faithful as the servant of his papal patrons, severe in the
administration of the provinces committed to his charge, and
indisputably able in his conduct of affairs, he was at the same time,
and in spite of these qualities, a man whose moral nature inspires a
sentiment of liveliest repugnance. It is not merely that he was
ambitious, cruel, revengeful and avaricious, for these vices have
existed in men far less antipathetic than Guicciardini. Over and above
those faults, which made him odious to his fellow-citizens, we trace in
him a meanness that our century is less willing to condone. His
phlegmatic and persistent egotism, his sacrifice of truth and honour to
self-interest, his acquiescence in the worst conditions of the world, if
only he could use them for his own advantage, combined with the glaring
discord between his opinions and his practice, form a character which
would be contemptible in our eyes were it not so sinister. The social
and political decrepitude of Italy, where patriotism was unknown, and
only selfishness survived of all the motives that rouse men to action,
found its representative and exponent in Guicciardini. When we turn from
the man to the author, the decadence of the age and race that could
develop a political philosophy so arid in its cynical despair of any
good in human nature forces itself vividly upon our notice. Guicciardini
seems to glory in his disillusionment, and uses his vast intellectual
ability for the analysis of the corruption he had helped to make
incurable. If one single treatise of that century should be chosen to
represent the spirit of the Italian people in the last phase of the
Renaissance, the historian might hesitate between the _Principe_ of
Machiavelli and the _Ricordi politici_ of Guicciardini. The latter is
perhaps preferable to the former on the score of comprehensiveness. It
is, moreover, more exactly adequate to the actual situation, for the
_Principe_ has a divine spark of patriotism yet lingering in the cinders
of its frigid science, an idealistic enthusiasm surviving in its moral
aberrations; whereas a great Italian critic of this decade has justly
described the _Ricordi_ as "Italian corruption codified and elevated to
a rule of life." Guicciardini is, however, better known as the author of
the _Storia d'Italia_, that vast and detailed picture of his country's
sufferings between the years 1494 and 1532. Judging him by this
masterpiece of scientific history, he deserves less commendation as a
writer than as a thinker and an analyst. The style is wearisome and
prolix, attaining to precision at the expense of circumlocution, and
setting forth the smallest particulars with the same distinctness as the
main features of the narrative. The whole tangled skein of Italian
politics, in that involved and stormy period, is unravelled with a
patience and an insight that are above praise. It is the crowning merit
of the author that he never ceases to be an impartial spectator--a cold
and curious critic. We might compare him to an anatomist, with knife and
scalpel dissecting the dead body of Italy, and pointing out the symptoms
of her manifold diseases with the indifferent analysis of one who has no
moral sensibility. This want of feeling, while it renders Guicciardini a
model for the scientific student, has impaired the interest of his
history. Though he lived through that agony of the Italian people, he
does not seem to be aware that he is writing a great historical tragedy.
He takes as much pains in laying bare the trifling causes of a petty war
with Pisa as in probing the deep-seated ulcer of the papacy. Nor is he
capable of painting the events in which he took a part, in their
totality as a drama. Whatever he touches, lies already dead on the
dissecting table, and his skill is that of the analytical pathologist.
Consequently, he fails to understand the essential magnitude of the
task, or to appreciate the vital vigour of the forces contending in
Europe for mastery. This is very noticeable in what he writes about the
Reformation. Notwithstanding these defects, inevitable in a writer of
Guicciardini's temperament, the _Storia d'Italia_ was undoubtedly the
greatest historical work that had appeared since the beginning of the
modern era. It remains the most solid monument of the Italian reason in
the 16th century, the final triumph of that Florentine school of
philosophical historians which included Machiavelli, Segni, Pitti,
Nardi, Varchi, Francesco Vettori and Donato Giannotti. Up to the year
1857 the fame of Guicciardini as a writer, and the estimation of him as
a man, depended almost entirely upon the _History of Italy_, and on a
few ill-edited extracts from his aphorisms. At that date his
representatives, the counts Piero and Luigi Guicciardini, opened their
family archives, and committed to Signor Giuseppe Canestrini the
publication of his hitherto inedited MSS. in ten important volumes. The
vast mass of documents and finished literary work thus given to the
world has thrown a flood of light upon Guicciardini, whether we consider
him as author or as citizen. It has raised his reputation as a political
philosopher into the first rank, where he now disputes the place of
intellectual supremacy with his friend Machiavelli; but it has coloured
our moral judgment of his character and conduct with darker dyes. From
the stores of valuable materials contained in those ten volumes, it will
be enough here to cite (1) the _Ricordi politici_, already noticed,
consisting of about 400 aphorisms on political and social topics; (2)
the observations on Machiavelli's _Discorsi_, which bring into
remarkable relief the views of Italy's two great theorists on statecraft
in the 16th century, and show that Guicciardini regarded Machiavelli
somewhat as an amiable visionary or political enthusiast; (3) the
_Storia Fiorentina_, an early work of the author, distinguished by its
animation of style, brilliancy of portraiture, and liberality of
judgment; and (4) the _Dialogo del reggimento di Firenze_, also in all
probability an early work, in which the various forms of government
suited to an Italian commonwealth are discussed with infinite subtlety,
contrasted, and illustrated from the vicissitudes of Florence up to the
year 1494. To these may be added a series of short essays, entitled
_Discorsi politici_, composed during Guicciardini's Spanish legation. It
is only after a careful perusal of these minor works that the student of
history may claim to have comprehended Guicciardini, and may feel that
he brings with him to the consideration of the _Storia d' Italia_ the
requisite knowledge of the author's private thoughts and jealously
guarded opinions. Indeed, it may be confidently affirmed that those who
desire to gain an insight into the true principles and feelings of the
men who made and wrote history in the 16th century will find it here far
more than in the work designed for publication by the writer. Taken in
combination with Machiavelli's treatises, the _Opere inedite_ furnish a
comprehensive body of Italian political philosophy anterior to the date
of Fra Paolo Sarpi. (J. A. S.)

  See Rosini's edition oí the _Storia d' Italia_ (10 vols., Pisa, 1819),
  and the _Opere inedite_, in 10 vols., published at Florence, 1857. A
  complete and initial edition of Guicciardini's works is now in
  preparation in the hands of Alessandro Gherardi of the Florence
  archives. Among the many studies on Guicciardini we may mention
  Agostino Rossi's _Francesco Guicciardini e il governo Fiorentino_ (2
  vols., Bologna, 1896), based on many new documents; F. de Sanctis's
  essay "L'Uomo del Guicciardini," in his _Nuovi Saggi critici_ (Naples,
  1879), and many passages in Professor P. Villari's _Machiavelli_ (Eng.
  trans., 1892); E. Benoist's _Guichardin, historien et homme d'état
  italien an XVI^e siècle_ (Paris, 1862), and C. Gioda's _Francesco
  Guicciardini e le sue opere inedite_ (Bologna, 1880) are not without
  value, but the authors had not had access to many important documents
  since published. See also Geoffrey's article "Une Autobiographie de
  Guichardin d'après ses oeuvres inédites," in the _Revue des deux
  mondes_ (1st of February 1874).



GUICHARD, KARL GOTTLIEB (1724-1775), soldier and military writer, known
as QUINTUS ICILIUS, was born at Magdeburg in 1724, of a family of French
refugees. He was educated for the Church, and at Leiden actually
preached a sermon as a candidate for the pastorate. But he abandoned
theology for more secular studies, especially that of ancient history,
in which his learning attracted the notice of the prince of Orange, who
promised him a vacant professorship at Utrecht. On his arrival, however,
he found that another scholar had been elected by the local authorities,
and he thereupon sought and obtained a commission in the Dutch army. He
made the campaigns of 1747-48 in the Low Countries. In the peace which
followed, his combined military and classical training turned his
thoughts in the direction of ancient military history. His notes on this
subject grew into a treatise, and in 1754 he went over to England in
order to consult various libraries. In 1757 his _Mémoires militaires sur
les Grecs et les Romains_ appeared at the Hague, and when Carlyle wrote
his _Frederick the Great_ it had reached its fifth edition. Coming back,
with English introductions, to the Continent, he sought service with
Ferdinand of Brunswick, who sent him on to Frederick the Great, whom he
joined in January 1758 at Breslau. The king was very favourably
impressed with Guichard and his works, and he remained for nearly 18
months in the royal suite. His Prussian official name of Quintus Icilius
was the outcome of a friendly dispute with the king (see Nikolai,
_Anekdoten_, vi. 129-145; Carlyle, _Frederick the Great_, viii.
113-114). Frederick in discussing the battle of Pharsalia spoke of a
centurion Quintus Caecilius as Q. Icilius. Guichard ventured to correct
him, whereupon the king said, "_You_ shall be Quintus Icilius," and as
Major Quintus Icilius he was forthwith gazetted to the command of a free
battalion. This corps he commanded throughout the later stages of the
Seven Years' War, his battalion, as time went on, becoming a regiment of
three battalions, and Quintus himself recruited seven more battalions of
the same kind of troops. His command was almost always with the king's
own army in these campaigns, but for a short time it fought in the
western theatre under Prince Henry. When not on the march he was always
at the royal headquarters, and it was he who brought about the famous
interview between the king and Gellert (see Carlyle, _Frederick the
Great_, ix. 109; Gellert, _Briefwechsel mit Demoiselle Lucius_, ed.
Ebert, Leipzig, 1823, pp. 629-631) on the subject of national German
literature. On 22nd January 1761 Quintus was ordered to sack the castle
of Hubertusburg (a task which Major-General Saldern had point-blank
refused to undertake, from motives of conscience), and carried out his
task, it is said, to his own very considerable profit. The place cannot
have been seriously injured, as it was soon afterwards the meeting-place
of the diplomatists whose work ended in the peace of Hubertusburg, but
the king never ceased to banter Quintus on his supposed depredations.
The very day of Frederick's triumphant return from the war saw the
disbanding of most of the free battalions, including that of Quintus,
but the major to the end of his life remained with the king. He was made
lieutenant-colonel in 1765, and in 1773, in recognition of his work
_Mémoires critiques et historiques sur plusieurs points d'antiquités
militaires_, dealing mainly with Caesar's campaigns in Spain (Berlin,
1773), was promoted colonel. He died at Potsdam, 1775.



GUICHEN, LUC URBAIN DE BOUËXIC, COMTE DE (1712-1790), French admiral,
entered the navy in 1730 as "garde de la Marine," the first rank in the
corps of royal officers. His promotion was not rapid. It was not till
1748 that he became "lieutenant de vaisseau," which was, however, a
somewhat higher rank than the lieutenant in the British navy, since it
carried with it the right to command a frigate. He was "capitaine de
vaisseau," or post captain, in 1756. But his reputation must have been
good, for he was made chevalier de Saint Louis in 1748. In 1775 he was
appointed to the frigate "Terpsichore," attached to the training
squadron, in which the duc de Chartres, afterwards notorious as the duc
d'Orléans and as Philippe Égalité, was entered as volunteer. In the next
year he was promoted chef d'escadre, or rear-admiral. When France had
become the ally of the Americans in the War of Independence, he hoisted
his flag in the Channel fleet, and was present at the battle of Ushant
on the 27th of July 1779. In March of the following year he was sent to
the West Indies with a strong squadron and was there opposed to Sir
George Rodney. In the first meeting between them on the 17th of April to
leeward of Martinique, Guichen escaped disaster only through the clumsy
manner in which Sir George's orders were executed by his captains.
Seeing that he had to deal with a formidable opponent, Guichen acted
with extreme caution, and by keeping the weather gauge afforded the
British admiral no chance of bringing him to close action. When the
hurricane months approached (July to September) he left the West Indies,
and his squadron, being in a bad state from want of repairs, returned
home, reaching Brest in September. Throughout all this campaign Guichen
had shown himself very skilful in handling a fleet, and if he had not
gained any marked success, he had prevented the British admiral from
doing any harm to the French islands in the Antilles. In December 1781
the comte de Guichen was chosen to command the force which was entrusted
with the duty of carrying stores and reinforcements to the West Indies.
On the 12th Admiral Kempenfelt, who had been sent out by the British
Government with an unduly weak force to intercept him, sighted the
French admiral in the Bay of Biscay through a temporary clearance in a
fog, at a moment when Guichen's warships were to leeward of the convoy,
and attacked the transports at once. The French admiral could not
prevent his enemy from capturing twenty of the transports, and driving
the others into a panic-stricken flight. They returned to port, and the
mission entrusted to Guichen was entirely defeated. He therefore
returned to port also. He had no opportunity to gain any
counterbalancing success during the short remainder of the war, but he
was present at the final relief of Gibraltar by Lord Howe. His death
occurred on the 13th of January 1790. The comte de Guichen was, by the
testimony of his contemporaries, a most accomplished and high-minded
gentleman. It is probable that he had more scientific knowledge than any
of his English contemporaries and opponents. But as a commander in war
he was notable chiefly for his skill in directing the orderly movements
of a fleet, and seems to have been satisfied with formal operations,
which were possibly elegant but could lead to no substantial result. He
had none of the combative instincts of his countryman Suffren, or of the
average British admiral.

  See vicomte de Noailles, _Marins et soldats français en Amérique_
  (1903); and E. Chevalier, _Histoire de la marine française pendant la
  guerre de l'indépendence américaine_ (1877).     (D. H.)



GUIDE (in Mid. Eng. _gyde_, from the Fr. _guide_; the earlier French
form was _guie_, English "guy," the _d_ was due to the Italian form
_guida_; the ultimate origin is probably Teutonic, the word being
connected with the base seen in O. Eng. _witan_, to know), an agency for
directing or showing the way, specifically a person who leads or directs
a stranger over unknown or unmapped country, or conducts travellers and
tourists through a town, or over buildings of interest. In European wars
up to the time of the French Revolution, the absence of large scale
detailed maps made local guides almost essential to the direction of
military operations, and in the 18th century the general tendency to the
stricter organization of military resources led in various countries to
the special training of guide officers (called _Feldjäger_, and
considered as general staff officers in the Prussian army), whose chief
duty it was to find, and if necessary establish, routes across country
for those parts of the army that had to move parallel to the main road
and as nearly as possible at deploying interval from each other, for in
those days armies were rarely spread out so far as to have the use of
two or more made roads. But the necessity for such precautions died away
when adequate surveys (in which guide officers were, at any rate in
Prussia, freely employed) were carried out, and, as a definite term of
military organization to-day, "guide" possesses no more essential
peculiarity than fusilier, grenadier or rifleman. The genesis of the
modern "Guide" regiments is perhaps to be found in a short-lived Corps
of Guides formed by Napoleon in Italy in 1796, which appears to have
been a personal escort or body guard composed of men who knew the
country. In the Belgian army of to-day the Guide regiments correspond
almost to the Guard cavalry of other nations; in the Swiss army the
squadrons of "Guides" act as divisional cavalry, and in this role
doubtless are called upon on occasion to lead columns. The "Queen's own
Corps of Guides" of the Indian army consists of infantry companies and
cavalry squadrons. In drill, a "guide" is an officer or non-commissioned
officer told off to regulate the direction and pace of movements, the
remainder of the unit maintaining their alignment and distances by him.

A particular class of guides are those employed in mountaineering; these
are not merely to show the way but stand in the position of professional
climbers with an expert knowledge of rock and snowcraft, which they
impart to the amateur, at the same time assuring the safety of the
climbing party in dangerous expeditions. This professional class of
guides arose in the middle of the 19th century when Alpine climbing
became recognized as a sport (see MOUNTAINEERING). It is thus natural to
find that the Alpine guides have been requisitioned for mountaineering
expeditions all over the world. In climbing in Switzerland, the central
committee of the Swiss Alpine Club issues a guides' tariff which fixes
the charges for guides and porters; there are three sections, for the
Valais and Vaudois Alps, for the Bernese Oberland, and for central and
eastern Switzerland. The names of many of the great guides have become
historical. In Chamonix a statue has been raised to Jacques Balmat, who
was the first to climb Mont Blanc in 1786. Of the more famous guides
since the beginning of Alpine climbing may be mentioned Auguste Balmat,
Michel Cros, Maquignay, J. A. Carrel, who went with E. Whymper to the
Andes, the brothers Lauener, Christian Almer and Jakob and Melchior
Anderegg.

"Guide" is also applied to a book, in the sense of an elementary primer
on some subject, or of one giving full information for travellers of a
country, district or town. In mechanical usage, the term "guide" is of
wide application, being used of anything which steadies or directs the
motion of an object, as of the "leading" screw of a screw-cutting lathe,
of a loose pulley used to steady a driving-belt, or of the bars or rods
in a steam-engine which keep the sliding blocks moving in a straight
line. The doublet "guy" is thus used of a rope which steadies a sail
when it is being raised or lowered, or of a rope, chain or stay
supporting a funnel, mast, derrick, &c.



GUIDI, CARLO ALESSANDRO (1650-1712), Italian lyric poet, was born at
Pavia in 1650. As chief founder of the well-known Roman academy called
"L'Arcadia," he had a considerable share in the reform of Italian
poetry, corrupted at that time by the extravagance and bad taste of the
poets Marini and Achillini and their school. The poet Guidi and the
critic and jurisconsult Gravina checked this evil by their influence and
example. The genius of Guidi was lyric in the highest degree; his songs
are written with singular force, and charm the reader, in spite of
touches of bombast. His most celebrated song is that entitled _Alla
Fortuna_ (To Fortune), which certainly is one of the most beautiful
pieces of poetry of the 17th century. Guidi was squint-eyed, humpbacked,
and of a delicate constitution, but possessed undoubted literary
ability. His poems were printed at Parma in 1671, and at Rome in 1704.
In 1681 he published at Parma his lyric tragedy _Amalasunta in Italy_,
and two pastoral dramas _Daphne_ and _Endymion_. The last had the honour
of being mentioned as a model by the critic Gravina, in his treatise on
poetry. Less fortunate was Guidi's poetical version of the six homilies
of Pope Clement XI., first as having been severely criticized by the
satirist Settano, and next as having proved to be the indirect cause of
the author's death. A splendid edition of this version had been printed
in 1712, and, the pope being then in San Gandolfo, Guidi went there to
present him with a copy. On the way he found out a serious typographical
error, which he took so much to heart that he was seized with an
apoplectic fit at Frascati and died on the spot. Guidi was honoured with
the special protection of Ranuccio II., duke of Parma, and of Queen
Christina of Sweden.



GUIDICCIONI, GIOVANNI (1480-1541), Italian poet, was born at Lucca in
1480, and died at Macerata in 1541. He occupied a high position, being
bishop of Fossombrone and president of Romagna. The latter office nearly
cost him his life; a murderer attempted to kill him, and had already
touched his breast with his dagger when, conquered by the resolute
calmness of the prelate, he threw away the weapon and fell at his feet,
asking forgiveness. The _Rime_ and _Letters_ of Guidiccioni are models
of elegant and natural Italian style. The best editions are those of
Genoa (1749), Bergamo (1753) and Florence (1878).



GUIDO OF AREZZO (possibly to be identified with Guido de St Maur des
Fosses), a musician who lived in the 11th century. He has by many been
called the father of modern music, and a portrait of him in the
refectory of the monastery of Avellana bears the inscription _Beatus
Guido, inventor musicae_. Of his life little is known, and that little
is chiefly derived from the dedicatory letters prefixed to two of his
treatises and addressed respectively to Bishop Theodald (not Theobald,
as Burney writes the name) of Arezzo, and Michael, a monk of Pomposa and
Guido's pupil and friend. Occasional references to the celebrated
musician in the works of his contemporaries are, however, by no means
rare, and from these it may be conjectured with all but absolute
certainty that Guido was born in the last decade of the 10th century.
The place of his birth is uncertain in spite of some evidence pointing
to Arezzo; on the title-page of all his works he is styled _Guido
Aretinus_, or simply _Aretinus_. At his first appearance in history
Guido was a monk in the Benedictine monastery of Pomposa, and it was
there that he taught singing and invented his educational method, by
means of which, according to his own statement, a pupil might learn
within five months what formerly it would have taken him ten years to
acquire. Envy and jealousy, however, were his only reward, and by these
he was compelled to leave his monastery--"inde est, quod me vides
prolixis finibus exulatum," as he says himself in the second of the
letters above referred to. According to one account, he travelled as far
as Bremen, called there by Archbishop Hermann in order to reform the
musical service. But this statement has been doubted. Certain it is that
not long after his flight from Pomposa Guido was living at Arezzo, and
it was here that, about 1030, he received an invitation to Rome from
Pope John XIV. He obeyed the summons, and the pope himself became his
first and apparently one of his most proficient pupils. But in spite of
his success Guido could not be induced to remain in Rome, the
insalubrious air of which seems to have affected his health. In Rome he
met again his former superior, the abbot of Pomposa, who seems to have
repented of his conduct, and to have induced Guido to return to Pomposa;
and here all authentic records of Guido's life cease. We only know that
he died, on the 17th of May 1050, as prior of Avellana, a monastery of
the Camaldulians; such at least is the statement of the chroniclers of
that order. It ought, however, to be added that the Camaldulians claim
the celebrated musician as wholly their own, and altogether deny his
connexion with the Benedictines.

The documents discovered by Dom Germain Morin, the Belgian Benedictine,
about 1888, point to the conclusion that Guido was a Frenchman and lived
from his youth upwards in the Benedictine monastery of St Maur des
Fosses where he invented his novel system of notation and taught the
brothers to sing by it. In codex 763 of the British Museum the composer
of the "Micrologus" and other works by Guido of Arezzo is always
described as Guido de Sancto Mauro.

There is no doubt that Guido's method shows considerable progress in the
evolution of modern notation. It was he who for the first time
systematically used the lines of the staff, and the intervals or
_spatia_ between them. There is also little doubt that the names of the
first six notes of the scale, _ut_, _re_, _mi_, _fa_, _sol_, _la_, still
in use among Romance nations, were introduced by Guido, although he
seems to have used them in a relative rather than in an absolute sense.
It is well known that these words are the first syllables of six lines
of a hymn addressed to St John the Baptist, which may be given here:--

  _Ut_ queant laxis   _re_sonare fibris
  _Mi_ra gestorum     _fa_muli tuorum,
  _Sol_ve polluti     _la_bii reatum,
             Sancte Joannes.

In addition to this Guido is generally credited with the introduction of
the F clef. But more important than all this, perhaps, is the thoroughly
practical tone which Guido assumes in his theoretical writings, and
which differs greatly from the clumsy scholasticism of his
contemporaries and predecessors.

  The most important of Guido's treatises, and those which are generally
  acknowledged to be authentic, are _Micrologus Guidonis de disciplina
  artis musicae_, dedicated to Bishop Theodald of Arezzo, and comprising
  a complete theory of music, in 20 chapters; _Musicae Guidonis regulae
  rhythmicae in antiphonarii sui prologum prolatae_, written in trochaic
  decasyllabics of anything but classical structure; _Aliae Guidonis
  regulae de ignoto cantu, identidem in antiphonarii sui prologum
  prolatae_; and the _Epistola Guidonis Michaeli monacho de ignoto
  cantu_, already referred to. These are published in the second volume
  of Gerbert's _Scriptores ecclesiastici de musica sacra_. A very
  important manuscript unknown to Gerbert (the _Codex bibliothecae
  Uticensis_, in the Paris library) contains, besides minor treatises,
  an antiphonarium and gradual undoubtedly belonging to Guido.

  See also L. Angeloni, _G. d'Arezzo_ (1811); Kiesewetter, _Guido von
  Arezzo_ (1840); Kornmüller, "Leben und Werken Guidos von Arezzo," in
  Habert's _Jahrb._ (1876); Antonio Brandi, _G. Aretino_ (1882); G. B.
  Ristori, _Biografia di Guido monaco d'Arezzo_ (1868).



GUIDO OF SIENA. The name of this Italian painter is of considerable
interest in the history of art, on the ground that, if certain
assumptions regarding him could be accepted as true, he would be
entitled to share with Cimabue, or rather indeed to supersede him in,
the honour of having given the first onward impulse to the art of
painting. The case stands thus. In the church of S. Domenico in Siena is
a large painting of the "Virgin and Child Enthroned," with six angels
above, and in the Benedictine convent of the same city is a triangular
pinnacle, once a portion of the same composition, representing the
Saviour in benediction, with two angels; the entire work was originally
a triptych, but is not so now. The principal section of this picture has
a rhymed Latin inscription, giving the painter's name as Gu ... o de
Senis, with the date 1221: the genuineness of the inscription is not,
however, free from doubt, and especially it is maintained that the date
really reads as 1281. In the general treatment of the picture there is
nothing to distinguish it particularly from other work of the same early
period; but the heads of the Virgin and Child are indisputably very
superior, in natural character and graceful dignity, to anything to be
found anterior to Cimabue. The question therefore arises, Are these
heads really the work of a man who painted in 1221? Crowe and
Cavalcaselle pronounce in the negative, concluding that the heads are
repainted, and are, as they now stand, due to some artist of the 14th
century, perhaps Ugolino da Siena; thus the claims of Cimabue would
remain undisturbed and in their pristine vigour. Beyond this, little is
known of Guido da Siena. There is in the Academy of Siena a picture
assigned to him, a half-figure of the "Virgin and Child," with two
angels, dating probably between 1250 and 1300; also in the church of S.
Bernardino in the same city a Madonna dated 1262. Milanesi thinks that
the work in S. Domenico is due to Guido Graziani, of whom no other
record remains earlier than 1278, when he is mentioned as the painter of
a banner. Guido da Siena appears always to have painted on panel, not in
fresco on the wall. He has been termed, very dubiously, a pupil of
Pietrolino, and the master of "Diotisalvi," Mino da Turrita and
Berlinghieri da Lucca.



GUIDO RENI (1575-1642), a prime master in the Bolognese school of
painting, and one of the most admired artists of the period of incipient
decadence in Italy, was born at Calvenzano near Bologna on the 4th of
November 1575. His father was a musician of repute, a player on the
flageolet; he wished to bring the lad up to perform on the harpsichord.
At a very childish age, however, Guido displayed a determined bent
towards the art of form, scribbling some attempt at a drawing here,
there and everywhere. He was only nine years of age when Denis Calvart
took notice of him, received him into his academy of design by the
father's permission, and rapidly brought him forward, so that by the age
of thirteen Guido had already attained marked proficiency. Albani and
Domenichino became soon afterwards pupils in the same academy. With
Albani Guido was very intimate up to the earlier period of manhood, but
they afterwards became rivals, both as painters and as heads of
ateliers, with a good deal of asperity on Albani's part; Domenichino was
also pitted against Reni by the policy of Annibale Caracci. Guido was
still in the academy of Calvart when he began frequenting the opposition
school kept by Lodovico Caracci, whose style, far in advance of that of
the Flemish painter, he dallied with. This exasperated Calvart. Him
Guido, not yet twenty years of age, cheerfully quitted, transferring
himself openly to the Caracci academy, in which he soon became
prominent, being equally skilful and ambitious. He had not been a year
with the Caracci when a work of his excited the wonder of Agostino and
the jealousy of Annibale. Lodovico cherished him, and frequently painted
him as an angel, for the youthful Reni was extremely handsome. After a
while, however, Lodovico also felt himself nettled, and he patronized
the competing talents of Giovanni Barbiere. On one occasion Guido had
made a copy of Annibale's "Descent from the Cross"; Annibale was asked
to retouch it, and, finding nothing to do, exclaimed pettishly, "He
knows more than enough" ("Costui ne sa troppo"). On another occasion
Lodovico, consulted as umpire, lowered a price which Reni asked for an
early picture. This slight determined the young man to be a pupil no
more. He left the Caracci, and started on his own account as a
competitor in the race for patronage and fame. A renowned work, the
story of "Callisto and Diana," had been completed before he left.

Guido was faithful to the eclectic principle of the Bolognese school of
painting. He had appropriated something from Calvart, much more from
Lodovico Caracci; he studied with much zest after Albert Dürer; he
adopted the massive, sombre and partly uncouth manner of Caravaggio. One
day Annibale Caracci made the remark that a style might be formed
reversing that of Caravaggio in such matters as the ponderous shadows
and the gross common forms; this observation germinated in Guido's mind,
and he endeavoured after some such style, aiming constantly at suavity.
Towards 1602 he went to Rome with Albani, and Rome remained his
headquarters for twenty years. Here, in the pontificate of Paul V.
(Borghese), he was greatly noted and distinguished. In the garden-house
of the Rospigliosi Palace he painted the vast fresco which is justly
regarded as his masterpiece--"Phoebus and the Hours preceded by Aurora."
This exhibits his second manner, in which he had deviated far indeed
from the promptings of Caravaggio. He founded now chiefly upon the
antique, more especially the Niobe group and the "Venus de' Medici,"
modified by suggestions from Raphael, Correggio, Parmigiano and Paul
Veronese. Of this last painter, although on the whole he did not get
much from him, Guido was a particular admirer; he used to say that he
would rather have been Paul Veronese than any other master--Paul was
more nature than art. The "Aurora" is beyond doubt a work of pre-eminent
beauty and attainment; it is stamped with pleasurable dignity, and,
without being effeminate, has a more uniform aim after graceful
selectness than can readily be traced in previous painters, greatly
superior though some of them had been in impulse and personal fervour of
genius. The pontifical chapel of Montecavallo was assigned to Reni to
paint; but, being straitened in payments by the ministers, the artist
made off to Bologna. He was fetched back by Paul V. with ceremonious
éclat, and lodging, living and equipage were supplied to him. At another
time he migrated from Rome to Naples, having received a commission to
paint the chapel of S. Gennaro. The notorious cabal of three painters
resident in Naples--Corenzio, Caracciolo and Ribera--offered, however,
as stiff an opposition to Guido as to some other interlopers who
preceded and succeeded him. They gave his servant a beating by the hands
of two unknown bullies, and sent by him a message to his master to
depart or prepare for death; Guido waited for no second warning, and
departed. He now returned to Rome; but he finally left that city
abruptly, in the pontificate of Urban VIII., in consequence of an
offensive reprimand administered to him by Cardinal Spinola. He had
received an advance of 400 scudi on account of an altarpiece for St
Peter's, but after some lapse of years had made no beginning with the
work. A broad reminder from the cardinal put Reni on his mettle; he
returned the 400 scudi, quitted Rome within a few days, and steadily
resisted all attempts at recall. He now resettled in Bologna. He had
taught as well as painted in Rome, and he left pupils behind him; but on
the whole he did not stamp any great mark upon the Roman school of
painting, apart from his own numerous works in the papal city.

In Bologna Guido lived in great splendour, and established a celebrated
school, numbering more than two hundred scholars. He himself drew in it,
even down to his latest years. On first returning to this city, he
charged about £21 for a full-length figure (mere portraits are not here
in question), half this sum for a half-length, and £5 for a head. These
prices must be regarded as handsome, when we consider that Domenichino
about the same time received only £10, 10s. for his very large and
celebrated picture, the "Last Communion of St Jerome." But Guido's
reputation was still on the increase, and in process of time he
quintupled his prices. He now left Bologna hardly at all; in one
instance, however, he went off to Ravenna, and, along with three pupils,
he painted the chapel in the cathedral with his admired picture of the
"Israelites gathering Manna." His shining prosperity was not to last
till the end. Guido was dissipated, generously but indiscriminately
profuse, and an inveterate gambler. The gambling propensity had been his
from youth, but until he became elderly it did not noticeably damage his
fortunes. It grew upon him, and in a couple of evenings he lost the
enormous sum of 14,400 scudi. The vice told still more ruinously on his
art than on his character. In his decline he sold his time at so much
per hour to certain picture dealers; one of them, the Shylock of his
craft, would stand by, watch in hand, and see him work.
Half-heartedness, half-performance, blighted his product:
self-repetition and mere mannerism, with affectation for sentiment and
vapidity for beauty, became the art of Guido. Some of these trade-works,
heads or half-figures, were turned out in three hours or even less. It
is said that, tardily wise, Reni left off gambling for nearly two
years; at last he relapsed, and his relapse was followed not long
afterwards by his death, caused by malignant fever. This event took
place in Bologna on the 18th of August 1642; he died in debt, but was
buried with great pomp in the church of S. Domenico.

  Guido was personally modest, although he valued himself on his
  position in the art, and would tolerate no slight in that relation; he
  was extremely upright, temperate in diet, nice in his person and his
  dress. He was fond of stately houses, but could feel also the charm of
  solitude. In his temper there was a large amount of suspiciousness;
  and the jealousy which his abilities and his successes excited, now
  from the Caracci, now from Albani, now from the monopolizing league of
  Neapolitan painters, may naturally have kept this feeling in active
  exercise. Of his numerous scholars, Simone Cantarini, named II
  Pesarese, counts as the most distinguished; he painted an admirable
  head of Reni, now in the Bolognese Gallery. The portrait in the Uffizi
  Gallery of Florence is from Reni's own hand. Two other good scholars
  were Giacomo Semenza and Francesco Gessi.

  The character of Guido's art is so well known as hardly to call for
  detailed analysis, beyond what we have already intimated. His most
  characteristic style exhibits a prepense ideal, of form rather than
  character, with a slight mode of handling, and silvery, somewhat cold,
  colour. In working from the nude he aimed at perfection of form,
  especially marked in the hands and feet. But he was far from always
  going to choice nature for his model; he transmuted _ad libitum_, and
  painted, it is averred, a Magdalene of demonstrative charms from a
  vulgar-looking colour-grinder. His best works have beauty, great
  amenity, artistic feeling and high accomplishment of manner, all
  alloyed by a certain core of commonplace; in the worst pictures the
  commonplace swamps everything, and Guido has flooded European
  galleries with trashy and empty pretentiousness, all the more noxious
  in that its apparent grace of sentiment and form misleads the unwary
  into approval, and the dilettante dabbler into cheap raptures. Both in
  Rome and wherever else he worked he introduced increased softness of
  style, which was then designated as the modern method. His pictures
  are mostly Scriptural or mythologic in subject, and between two and
  three hundred of them are to be found in various European
  collections--more than a hundred of these containing life-sized
  figures. The portraits which he executed are few--those of Sixtus V.,
  Cardinal Spada and the so-called Beatrice Cenci being among the most
  noticeable. The identity of the last-named portrait is very dubious;
  it certainly cannot have been painted direct from Beatrice, who had
  been executed in Rome before Guido ever resided there. Many etchings
  are attributed to him--some from his own works, and some after other
  masters; they are spirited, but rather negligent.

  Of other works not already noticed, the following should be named:--in
  Rome (the Vatican), the "Crucifixion of St Peter," an example of the
  painter's earlier manner; in S. Lorenzo in Lucina, "Christ Crucified";
  in Forlì, the "Conception"; in Bologna, the "Alms of St Roch" (early),
  the "Massacre of the Innocents," and the "Pietà, or Lament over the
  Body of Christ" (in the church of the Mendicanti), which is by many
  regarded as Guido's prime executive work; in the Dresden Gallery, an
  "Ecce Homo"; in Milan (Brera Gallery), "Saints Peter and Paul"; in
  Genoa (church of S. Ambrogio), the "Assumption of the Virgin"; in
  Berlin, "St Paul the Hermit and St Anthony in the Wilderness." The
  celebrated picture of "Fortune" (in the Capitol) is one of Reni's
  finest treatments of female form; as a specimen of male form, the
  "Samson Drinking from the Jawbone of an Ass" might be named beside it.
  One of his latest works of mark is the "Ariadne," which used to be in
  the Gallery of the Capitol. The Louvre contains twenty of his
  pictures, the National Gallery of London seven, and others were once
  there, now removed to other public collections. The most interesting
  of the seven is the small "Coronation of the Virgin," painted on
  copper, an elegantly finished work, more pretty than beautiful. It was
  probably painted before the master quitted Bologna for Rome.

  For the life and works of Guido Reni, see Bolognini, _Vita di Guido
  Reni_ (1839); Passeri, _Vite de' pittori_; and Malvasia, _Felsina
  Pittrice_; also Lanzi, _Storia pitiorica_.     (W. M. R.)



GUIENNE, an old French province which corresponded roughly to the
_Aquitania Secunda_ of the Romans and the archbishopric of Bordeaux. In
the 12th century it formed with Gascony the duchy of Aquitaine, which
passed under the dominion of the kings of England by the marriage of
Eleanor of Aquitaine to Henry II.; but in the 13th, through the
conquests of Philip Augustus, Louis VIII. and Louis IX., it was confined
within the narrower limits fixed by the treaty of Paris (1259). It is at
this point that Guienne becomes distinct from Aquitaine. It then
comprised the Bordelais (the old countship of Bordeaux), the Bazadais,
part of Périgord, Limousin, Quercy and Rouergue, the Agenais ceded by
Philip III. (the Bold) to Edward I. (1279), and (still united with
Gascony) formed a duchy extending from the Charente to the Pyrenees.
This duchy was held on the terms of homage to the French kings, an
onerous obligation; and both in 1296 and 1324 it was confiscated by the
kings of France on the ground that there had been a failure in the
feudal duties. At the treaty of Brétigny (1360) Edward III. acquired the
full sovereignty of the duchy of Guienne, together with Aunis,
Saintonge, Angoumois and Poitou. The victories of du Guesclin and Gaston
Phoebus, count of Foix, restored the duchy soon after to its
13th-century limits. In 1451 it was conquered and finally united to the
French crown by Charles VII. In 1469 Louis XI. gave it in exchange for
Champagne and Brie to his brother Charles, duke of Berry, after whose
death in 1472 it was again united to the royal dominion. Guienne then
formed a government which from the 17th century onwards was united with
Gascony. The government of Guienne and Gascony, with its capital at
Bordeaux, lasted till the end of the _ancien régime_. Under the
Revolution the departments formed from Guienne proper were those of
Gironde, Lot-et-Garonne, Dordogne, Lot, Aveyron and the chief part of
Tarn-et-Garonne.



GUIGNES, JOSEPH DE (1721-1800), French orientalist, was born at Pontoise
on the 19th of October 1721. He succeeded Fourmont at the Royal Library
as secretary interpreter of the Eastern languages. A _Mémoire historique
sur l'origine des Huns et des Turcs_, published by de Guignes in 1748,
obtained his admission to the Royal Society of London in 1752, and he
became an associate of the French Academy of Inscriptions in 1754. Two
years later he began to publish his learned and laborious _Histoire
générale des Huns, des Mongoles, des Turcs et des autres Tartares
occidentaux_ (1756-1758); and in 1757 he was appointed to the chair of
Syriac at the Collège de France. He maintained that the Chinese nation
had originated in Egyptian colonization, an opinion to which, in spite
of every argument, he obstinately clung. He died in Paris in 1800. The
_Histoire_ had been translated into German by Dähnert (1768-1771). De
Guignes left a son, Christian Louis Joseph (1759-1845), who, after
learning Chinese from his father, went as consul to Canton, where he
spent seventeen years. On his return to France he was charged by the
government with the work of preparing a Chinese-French-Latin dictionary
(1813). He was also the author of a work of travels (_Voyages à Pékin,
Manille, et l'île de France_, 1808).

  See Quérard, _La France littéraire_, where a list of the memoirs
  contributed by de Guignes to the _Journal des savants_ is given.



GUILBERT, YVETTE (1869-   ), French _diseuse_, was born in Paris. She
served for two years until 1885 in the Magasin du Printemps, when, on
the advice of the journalist, Edmond Stoullig, she trained for the stage
under Landrol. She made her début at the Bouffes du Nord, then played at
the Variétés, and in 1890 she received a regular engagement at the
Eldorado to sing a couple of songs at the beginning of the performance.
She also sang at the Ambassadeurs. She soon won an immense vogue by her
rendering of songs drawn from Parisian lower-class life, or from the
humours of the Latin Quarter, "_Quatre z'étudiants_" and the "_Hôtel du
numéro trois_" being among her early triumphs. Her adoption of an
habitual yellow dress and long black gloves, her studied simplicity of
diction, and her ingenuous delivery of songs charged with _risqué_
meaning, made her famous. She owed something to M. Xanrof, who for a
long time composed songs especially for her, and perhaps still more to
Aristide Bruant, who wrote many of her _argot_ songs. She made
successful tours in England, Germany and America, and was in great
request as an entertainer in private houses. In 1895 she married Dr M.
Schiller. In later years she discarded something of her earlier manner,
and sang songs of the "pompadour" and the "crinoline" period in costume.
She published the novels _La Vedette_ and _Les Demi-vieilles_, both in
1902.



GUILDFORD, a market town and municipal borough, and the county town of
Surrey, England, in the Guildford parliamentary division, 29 m. S.W. of
London by the London and South Western railway; served also by the
London, Brighton, and South Coast and the South Eastern and Chatham
railways. Pop. (1901) 15,938. It is beautifully situated on an
acclivity of the northern chalk Downs and on the river Wey. Its older
streets contain a number of picturesque gabled houses, with quaint
lattices and curious doorways. The ruins of a Norman castle stand finely
above the town and are well preserved; while the ground about them is
laid out as a public garden. Beneath the Angel Inn and a house in the
vicinity are extensive vaults, apparently of Early English date, and
traditionally connected with the castle. The church of St Mary is Norman
and Early English, with later additions and considerably restored; its
aisles retain their eastward apses and it contains many interesting
details. The church of St Nicholas is a modern building on an ancient
site, and that of Holy Trinity is a brick structure of 1763, with later
additions, also on the site of an earlier church, from which some of the
monuments are preserved, including that of Archbishop Abbot (1640). The
town hall dates from 1683 and contains a number of interesting pictures.
Other public buildings are the county hall, corn-market and institute
with museum and library. Abbot's Hospital, founded by Archbishop Abbot
in 1619, is a beautiful Tudor brick building. The county hospital (1866)
was erected as a memorial to Albert, Prince Consort. The Royal Free
Grammar School, founded in 1509, and incorporated by Edward VI., is an
important school for boys. At Cranleigh, 6 m. S.E., is a large
middle-class county school. The town has flour mills, iron foundries and
breweries, and a large trade in grain; while fairs are held for live
stock. There is a manufacture of gunpowder in the neighbouring village
of Chilworth. Guildford is a suffragan bishopric in the diocese of
Winchester. The borough is under a mayor, 4 aldermen and 12 councillors.
Area, 2601 acres.

Guildford (Gyldeford, Geldeford), occurs among the possessions of King
Alfred, and was a royal borough throughout the middle ages. It probably
owed its rise to its position at the junction of trade routes. It is
first mentioned as a borough in 1131. Henry III. granted a charter to
the men of Guildford in 1256, by which they obtained freedom from toll
throughout the kingdom, and the privilege of having the county court
held always in their town. Edward III. granted charters to Guildford in
1340, 1346 and 1367; Henry VI. in 1423; Henry VII. in 1488. Elizabeth in
1580 confirmed earlier charters, and other charters were granted in
1603, 1626 and 1686. The borough was incorporated in 1486 under the
title of the mayor and good men of Guildford. During the middle ages the
government of the town rested with a powerful merchant gild. Two members
for Guildford sat in the parliament of 1295, and the borough continued
to return two representatives until 1867 when the number was reduced to
one. By the Redistribution Act of 1885 Guildford became merged in the
county for electoral purposes. Edward II. granted to the town the right
of having two fairs, at the feast of St Matthew (21st of September) and
at Trinity respectively. Henry VII. granted fairs on the feast of St
Martin (11th of November) and St George (23rd of April). Fairs in May
for the sale of sheep and in November for the sale of cattle are still
held. The market rights date at least from 1276, and three weekly
markets are still held for the sale of corn, cattle and vegetables
respectively. The cloth trade which formed the staple industry at
Guildford in the middle ages is now extinct.



GUILDHALL, the hall of the corporation of the city of London, England.
It faces a courtyard opening out of Gresham Street. The date of its
original foundation is not known. An ancient crypt remains, but the hall
has otherwise undergone much alteration. It was rebuilt in 1411,
beautified by the munificence of successive officials, damaged in the
Great Fire of 1666, and restored in 1789 by George Dance; while the hall
was again restored, with a new roof, in 1870. This fine chamber, 152 ft.
in length, is the scene of the state banquets and entertainments of the
corporation, and of the municipal meetings "in common hall." The
building also contains a council chamber and various court rooms, with a
splendid library, open to the public, a museum and art gallery
adjoining. The hall contains several monuments and two giant figures of
wood, known as Gog and Magog. These were set up in 1708, but the
appearance of giants in city pageants is of much earlier date.



GUILFORD, BARONS AND EARLS OF. FRANCIS NORTH, 1st Baron Guilford
(1637-1685), was the third son of the 4th Baron North (see NORTH,
BARONS), and was created Baron Guilford in 1683, after becoming lord
keeper in succession to Lord Nottingham. He had been an eminent lawyer,
solicitor-general (1671), attorney-general (1673), and chief-justice of
the common pleas (1675), and in 1679 was made a member of the council of
thirty and on its dissolution of the cabinet. He was a man of wide
culture and a stanch royalist. In 1672 he married Lady Frances Pope,
daughter and co-heiress of the earl of Downe, who inherited the Wroxton
estate; and he was succeeded as 2nd baron by his son Francis
(1673-1729), whose eldest son Francis (1704-1790), after inheriting
first his father's title as 3rd baron, and then (in 1734) the barony of
North from his kinsman the 6th Baron North, was in 1752 created 1st earl
of Guilford. His first wife was a daughter of the earl of Halifax, and
his son and successor Frederick was the English prime minister, commonly
known as Lord North, his courtesy title while the 1st earl was alive.

FREDERICK NORTH, 2nd earl of Guilford, but better known by his courtesy
title of Lord North (1732-1792), prime minister of England during the
important years of the American War, was born on the 13th of April 1732,
and after being educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford, was sent to
make the grand tour of the continent. On his return he was, though only
twenty-two years of age, at once elected M.P. for Banbury, of which town
his father was high steward; and he sat for the same town in parliament
for nearly forty years. In 1759 he was chosen by the duke of Newcastle
to be a lord of the treasury, and continued in the same office under
Lord Bute and George Grenville till 1765. He had shown himself such a
ready debater that on the fall of the first Rockingham ministry in 1766
he was sworn of the privy council, and made paymaster-general by the
duke of Grafton. His reputation for ability grew so high that in
December 1767, on the death of the brilliant Charles Townshend, he was
made chancellor of the exchequer. His popularity with both the House of
Commons and the people continued to increase, for his temper was never
ruffled, and his quiet humour perpetually displayed; and, when the
retirement of the duke of Grafton was necessitated by the hatred he
inspired and the attacks of Junius, no better successor could be found
for the premiership than the chancellor of the exchequer. Lord North
succeeded the duke in March 1770, and continued in office for twelve of
the most eventful years in English history. George III. had at last
overthrown the ascendancy of the great Whig families, under which he had
so long groaned, and determined to govern as well as rule. He knew that
he could only govern by obtaining a majority in parliament to carry out
his wishes, and this he had at last obtained by a great expenditure of
money in buying seats and by a careful exercise of his patronage. But in
addition to a majority he must have a minister who would consent to act
as his lieutenant, and such a minister he found in Lord North. How a man
of undoubted ability such as Lord North was could allow himself to be
thus used as a mere instrument cannot be explained; but the confidential
tone of the king's letters seems to show that there was an unusual
intimacy between them, which may account for North's compliance. The
path of the minister in parliament was a hard one; he had to defend
measures which he had not designed, and of which he had not approved,
and this too in a House of Commons in which all the oratorical ability
of Burke and Fox was against him, and when he had only the purchased
help of Thurlow and Wedderburne to aid him. The most important events of
his ministry were those of the American War of Independence. He cannot
be accused of causing it, but one of his first acts was the retention of
the tea-duty, and he it was also who introduced the Boston Port Bill in
1774. When the war had broken out he earnestly counselled peace, and it
was only the earnest solicitations of the king not to leave his
sovereign again at the mercy of the Whigs that induced him to defend a
war which from 1779 he knew to be both hopeless and impolitic. At last,
in March 1782, he insisted on resigning after the news of Cornwallis's
surrender at Yorktown, and no man left office more blithely. He had been
well rewarded for his assistance to the king: his children had good
sinecures; his half-brother, Brownlow North (1741-1820), was bishop of
Winchester; he himself was chancellor of the university of Oxford,
lord-lieutenant of the county of Somerset, and had finally been made a
knight of the Garter, an honour which has only been conferred on three
other members of the House of Commons, Sir R. Walpole, Lord Castlereagh
and Lord Palmerston. Lord North did not remain long out of office, but
in April 1783 formed his famous coalition with his old subordinate, C.
J. Fox (q.v.), and became secretary of state with him under the nominal
premiership of the duke of Portland. He was probably urged to this
coalition with his old opponent by a desire to show that he could act
independently of the king, and was not a mere royal mouthpiece. The
coalition ministry went out of office on Fox's India Bill in December
1783, and Lord North, who was losing his sight, then finally gave up
political ambition. He played, when quite blind, a somewhat important
part in the debates on the Regency Bill in 1789, and in the next year
succeeded his father as earl of Guilford. He did not long survive his
elevation, and died peacefully on the 5th of August 1792. It is
impossible to consider Lord North a great statesman, but he was a most
good-tempered and humorous member of the House of Commons. In a time of
unexampled party feeling he won the esteem and almost the love of his
most bitter opponents. Burke finely sums up his character in his _Letter
to a Noble Lord_: "He was a man of admirable parts, of general
knowledge, of a versatile understanding, fitted for every sort of
business; of infinite wit and pleasantry, of a delightful temper, and
with a mind most disinterested. But it would be only to degrade myself,"
he continues, "by a weak adulation, and not to honour the memory of a
great man, to deny that he wanted something of the vigilance and spirit
of command which the times required."

By his wife Anne (d. 1797), daughter of George Speke of White
Lackington, Somerset, Guilford had four sons, the eldest of whom, George
Augustus (1757-1802), became 3rd earl on his father's death. This earl
was a member of parliament from 1778 to 1792 and was a member of his
father's ministry and also of the royal household; he left no sons when
he died on the 20th of April 1802 and was succeeded in the earldom by
his brother Francis (1761-1817), who also left no sons. The youngest
brother, Frederick (1766-1827), who now became 5th earl of Guilford, was
remarkable for his great knowledge and love of Greece and of the Greek
language. He had a good deal to do with the foundation of the Ionian
university at Corfu, of which he was the first chancellor and to which
he was very liberal. Guilford, who was governor of Ceylon from 1798 to
1805, died unmarried on the 14th of October 1827. His cousin, Francis
(1772-1861), a son of Brownlow North, bishop of Winchester from 1781 to
1820, was the 6th earl, and the latter's descendant, Frederick George
(b. 1876), became 8th earl in 1886.

On the death of the 3rd earl of Guilford in 1802 the barony of North
fell into abeyance between his three daughters, the survivor of whom,
Susan (1797-1884). wife of John Sidney Doyle, who took the name of
North, was declared by the House of Lords in 1841 to be Baroness North,
and the title passed to her son, William Henry John North, the 11th
baron (b. 1836) (see NORTH, BARONS).

  For the Lord Keeper Guilford see the _Lives_ by the Hon. R. North,
  edited by A. Jessopp (1890); and E. Foss, _The Judges of England_,
  vol. vii. (1848-1864). For the prime minister, Lord North, see
  _Correspondence of George III._ with Lord North, edited by W. B. Donne
  (1867); Horace Walpole, _Journal of the Reign of George III._ (1859),
  and _Memoirs of the Reign of George III._, edited by G. F. R. Barker
  (1894); Lord Brougham, _Historical Sketches of Statesmen_, vol. i.
  (1839); Earl Stanhope, _History of England_ (1858); Sir T. E. May,
  _Constitutional History of England_ (1863-1865); and W. E. H. Lecky,
  _History of England in the 18th century_ (1878-1890).



GUILFORD, a township, including a borough of the same name, in New Haven
county, Connecticut, U.S.A., on Long Island Sound and at the mouth of
the Menunkatuck or West river, about 16 m. E. by S. of New Haven. Pop.
of the township, including the borough (1900), 2785, of whom 387 were
foreign-born; (1910) 3001; pop. of the borough (1910), 1608. The borough
is served by the New York, New Haven & Hartford railroad. On a plain is
the borough green of nearly 12 acres, which is shaded by some fine old
elms and other trees, and in which there is a soldiers' monument. About
the green are several churches and some of the better residences. On an
eminence commanding a fine view of the Sound is an old stone house,
erected in 1639 for a parsonage, meeting-house and fortification; it was
made a state museum in 1898, when extensive alterations were made to
restore the interior to its original appearance. The Point of Rocks, in
the harbour, is an attractive resort during the summer season. There are
about 12 ft. of water on the harbour bar at high tide. The principal
industries of Guilford are coastwise trade, the manufacture of iron
castings, brass castings, wagon wheels and school furniture, and the
canning of vegetables. Near the coast are quarries of fine granite; the
stone for the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty on Bedloe's Island, in
New York Harbour, was taken from them.

Guilford was founded In 1639 as an independent colony by a company of
twenty-five or more families from Kent, Surrey and Sussex, England,
under the leadership of Rev. Henry Whitfield (1597-1657). While still on
shipboard twenty-five members of the company signed a plantation
covenant whereby they agreed not to desert the plantation which they
were about to establish. Arriving at New Haven early in July 1639, they
soon began negotiations with the Indians for the purchase of land, and
on the 29th of September a deed was signed by which the Indians conveyed
to them the territory between East River and Stony Creek for "12 coates,
12 Fathoms of Wampam, 12 glasses (mirrors), 12 payer of shooes, 12
Hatchetts, 12 paire of Stockings, 12 Hooes, 4 kettles, 12 knives, 12
Hatts, 12 Porringers, 12 spoones, and 2 English coates." Other purchases
of land from the Indians were made later. Before the close of the year
the company removed from New Haven and established the new colony; it
was known by the Indian name Menuncatuck for about four years and the
name Guilford (from Guildford, England) was then substituted. As a
provisional arrangement, civil power for the administration of justice
and the preservation of the peace was vested in four persons until such
time as a church should be organized. This was postponed until 1643 when
considerations of safety demanded that the colony should become a member
of the New Haven Jurisdiction, and then only to meet the requirements
for admission to this union were the church and church state modelled
after those of New Haven. Even then, though suffrage was restricted to
church members, Guilford planters who were not church members were
required to attend town meetings and were allowed to offer objections to
any proposed order or law. From 1661 until the absorption of the members
of the New Haven Jurisdiction by Connecticut, in 1664, William Leete
(1611-1683), one of the founders of Guilford, was governor of the
Jurisdiction, and under his leadership Guilford took a prominent part in
furthering the submission to Connecticut, which did away with the church
state and the restriction of suffrage to freemen. Guilford was the
birthplace of Fitz-Greene Halleck (1790-1867), the poet; of Samuel
Johnson (1696-1771), the first president of King's College (now Columbia
University); of Abraham Baldwin (1754-1807), prominent as a statesman
and the founder of the University of Georgia; and of Thomas Chittenden,
the first governor of Vermont. The borough was incorporated in 1815.

  See B. C. Steiner, _A History of the Plantation of Menunca-Tuck and of
  the Original Town of Guilford, Connecticut_ (Baltimore, 1897), and
  _Proceedings at the Celebration of the 250th Anniversary of the
  Settlement of Guilford, Connecticut_ (New Haven, 1889).



GUILLAUME, JEAN BAPTISTE CLAUDE EUGÈNE (1822-1905), French sculptor, was
born at Montbard on the 4th of July 1822, and studied under Cavelier,
Millet, and Barrias, at the École des Beaux-Arts, which he entered in
1841, and where he gained the _prix de Rome_ in 1845 with "Theseus
finding on a rock his Father's Sword." He became director of the École
des Beaux-Arts in 1864, and director-general of Fine Arts from 1878 to
1879, when the office was suppressed. Many of his works have been bought
for public galleries, and his monuments are to be found in the public
squares of the chief cities of France. At Rheims there is his bronze
statue of "Colbert," at Dijon his "Rameau" monument. The Luxembourg
Museum has his "Anacreon" (1852), "Les Gracques" (1853), "Faucheur"
(1855), and the marble bust of "Mgr Darboy"; the Versailles Museum the
portrait of "Thiers"; the Sorbonne Library the marble bust of "Victor le
Clerc, doyen de la faculté des lettres." Other works of his are at
Trinity Church, St Germain l'Auxerrois, and the church of St Clotilde,
Paris. Guillaume was a prolific writer, principally on sculpture and
architecture of the Classic period and of the Italian Renaissance. He
was elected member of the Académie Française in 1862, and in 1891 was
sent to Rome as director of the Académie de France in that city. He was
also elected an honorary member of the Royal Academy, London, 1869, on
the institution of that class.



GUILLAUME DE LORRIS (fl. 1230), the author of the earlier section of the
_Roman de la rose_, derives his surname from a small town about
equidistant from Montargis and Gien, in the present department of
Loiret. This and the fact of his authorship may be said to be the only
things positively known about him. The rubric of the poem, where his own
part finishes, attributes Jean de Meun's continuation to a period forty
years later than William's death and the consequent interruption of the
romance. Arguing backwards, this death used to be put at about 1260; but
Jean de Meun's own work has recently been dated earlier, and so the
composition of the first part has been thrown back to a period before
1240. The author represents himself as having dreamed the dream which
furnished the substance of the poem in his twentieth year, and as having
set to work to "rhyme it" five years later. The later and longer part of
the _Roman_ shows signs of greater intellectual vigour and wider
knowledge than the earlier and shorter, but Guillaume de Lorris is to
all appearance more original. The great features of his four or five
thousand lines are, in the first place, the extraordinary vividness and
beauty of his word-pictures, in which for colour, freshness and
individuality he has not many rivals except in the greatest masters,
and, secondly, the fashion of allegorical presentation, which, hackneyed
and wearisome as it afterwards became, was evidently in his time new and
striking. There are of course traces of it before, as in some romances,
such as those of Raoul de Houdenc, in the troubadours, and in other
writers; but it was unquestionably Guillaume de Lorris who fixed the
style.

  For an attempt to identify Guillaume de Lorris see L. Jarry,
  _Guillaume de Lorris et le testament d'Alphonse de Poitiers_ (1881).
  Also Paulin Paris in the _Hist. litt. de la France_, vol. xxiii.



GUILLAUME DE PALERME (WILLIAM OF PALERNE), hero of romance. The French
verse romance was written at the desire of a Countess Yolande, generally
identified with Yolande, daughter of Baldwin IV., count of Flanders. The
English poem in alliterative verse was written about 1350 by a poet
called William, at the desire of Humphrey Bohun, earl of Hereford, (d.
1361). Guillaume, a foundling supposed to be of low degree, is brought
up at the court of the emperor of Rome, and loves his daughter Melior
who is destined for a Greek prince. The lovers flee into the woods
disguised in bear-skins. Alfonso, who is Guillaume's cousin and a
Spanish prince, has been changed into a wolf by his step-mother's
enchantments. He provides food and protection for the fugitives, and
Guillaume eventually triumphs over Alfonso's father, and wins back from
him his kingdom. The benevolent werwolf is disenchanted, and marries
Guillaume's sister.

  See _Guillaume de Palerne_, ed. H. Michelant (Soc. d. anc. textes fr.,
  1876); _Hist. litt. de la France_, xxii. 829; _William of Palerme_,
  ed. Sir F. Madden (Roxburghe Club, 1832), and W. W. Skeat (E. E. Text
  Soc., extra series No. 1, 1867); M. Kaluza, in _Eng. Studien_
  (Heilbronn, iv. 196). The prose version of the French romance, printed
  by N. Bonfons, passed through several editions.



GUILLAUME D'ORANGE (d. 812), also known as Guillaume Fierabrace, St
Guillaume de Gellone, and the Marquis au court nez, was the central
figure of the southern cycle of French romance, called by the
_trouvères_ the _geste_ of Garin de Monglane. The cycle of Guillaume has
more unity than the other great cycles of Charlemagne or of Doon de
Mayence, the various poems which compose it forming branches of the main
story rather than independent epic poems. There exist numerous cyclic
MSS. in which there is an attempt at presenting a continuous _histoire
poétique_ of Guillaume and his family. MS. Royal 20 D xi. in the British
Museum contains eighteen _chansons_ of the cycle. Guillaume, son of
Thierry or Theodoric and of Alde, daughter of Charles Martel, was born
in the north of France about the middle of the 8th century. He became
one of the best soldiers and trusted counsellors of Charlemagne, and In
790 was made count of Toulouse, when Charles's son Louis the Pious was
put under his charge. He subdued the Gascons, and defended Narbonne
against the infidels. In 793 Hescham, the successor of Abd-al-Rahman
II., proclaimed a holy war against the Christians, and collected an army
of 100,000 men, half of which was directed against the kingdom of the
Asturias, while the second invaded France, penetrating as far as
Narbonne. Guillaume met the invaders near the river Orbieux, at
Villedaigne, where he was defeated, but only after an obstinate
resistance which so far exhausted the Saracens that they were compelled
to retreat to Spain. He took Barcelona from the Saracens in 803, and in
the next year founded the monastery of Gellone (now Saint Guilhem-le
Désert), of which he became a member in 806. He died there in the odour
of sanctity on the 28th of May 812.

No less than thirteen historical personages bearing the name of William
(Guillaume) have been thought by various critics to have their share in
the formation of the legend. William, count of Provence, son of Boso
II., again delivered southern France from a Saracen invasion by his
victory at Fraxinet in 973, and ended his life in a cloister. William
Tow-head (_Tête d'étoupe_), duke of Aquitaine (d. 983), showed a
fidelity to Louis IV. paralleled by Guillaume d'Orange's service to
Louis the Pious. The cycle of twenty or more _chansons_ which form the
_geste_ of Guillaume reposes on the traditions of the Arab invasions of
the south of France, from the battle of Poitiers (732) under Charles
Martel onwards, and on the French conquest of Catalonia from the
Saracens. In the Norse version of the Carolingian epic Guillaume appears
in his proper historical environment, as a chief under Charlemagne; but
he plays a leading part in the _Couronnement Looys_, describing the
formal associations of Louis the Pious in the empire at Aix (813, the
year after Guillaume's death), and after the battle of Aliscans it is
from the emperor Louis that he seeks reinforcements. This anachronism
arises from the fusion of the epic Guillaume with the champion of Louis
IV., and from the fact that he was the military and civil chief of Louis
the Pious, who was titular king of Aquitaine under his father from the
time when he was three years old. The inconsistencies between the real
and the epic Guillaume are often left standing in the poems. The
personages associated with Guillaume in his Spanish wars belong to
Provence, and have names common in the south. The most famous of these
are Beuves de Comarchis, Ernaud de Girone, Garin d'Anséun, Aïmer le
chétif, so called from his long captivity with the Saracens. The
separate existence of Aïmer, who refused to sleep under a roof, and
spent his whole life in warring against the infidel, is proved. He was
Hadhemar, count of Narbonne, who in 809 and 810 was one of the leaders
sent by Louis against Tortosa. No doubt the others had historical
prototypes. In the hands of the _trouvères_ they became all brothers of
Guillaume, and sons of Aymeri de Narbonne,[1] the grandson of Garin de
Monglane, and his wife Ermenjart. Nevertheless when Guillaume seeks help
from Louis the emperor he finds all his relations in Laon, in accordance
with his historic Frankish origin.

The central fact of the _geste_ of Guillaume is the battle of the
Archamp or Aliscans, in which perished Guillaume's heroic nephew, Vezian
or Vivien, a second Roland. At the eleventh hour he summoned Guillaume
to his help against the overwhelming forces of the Saracens. Guillaume
arrived too late to help Vivien, was himself defeated, and returned
alone to his wife Guibourc, leaving his knights all dead or prisoners.
This event is related in a Norman-French transcript of an old French
_chanson de geste_, the _Chançun de Willame_--which only was brought to
light in 1901 at the sale of the books of Sir Henry Hope Edwardes--in
the _Covenant Vivien_, a recension of an older French chanson and in
_Aliscans_. _Aliscans_ continues the story, telling how Guillaume
obtained reinforcements from Laon, and how, with the help of the comic
hero, the scullion Rainouart or Rennewart, he avenged the defeat of
Aliscans and his nephew's death. Rainouart turns out to be the brother
of Guillaume's wife Guibourc, who was before her marriage the Saracen
princess and enchantress Orable. Two other poems are consecrated to his
later exploits, _La Bataille Loquifer_, the work of a French Sicilian
poet, Jendeu de Brie (fl. 1170), and _Le Moniage Rainouart_. The
staring-point of Herbert le duc of Dammartin (fl. 1170) in _Foucon de
Candie_ (Candie=Gandia in Spain?) is the return of Guillaume from the
battle; and the Italian compilation _I Nerbonesi_, based on these and
other _chansons_, seems in some cases to represent an earlier tradition
than the later of the French _chansons_, although its author Andrea di
Barberino wrote towards the end of the 14th century. The minnesinger
Wolfram von Eschenbach based his _Willehalm_ on a French original which
must have differed from the versions we have. The variations in the
story of the defeat of Aliscans or the Archant, and the numerous
inconsistencies of the narratives even when considered separately have
occupied many critics. Aliscans (Aleschans, Alyscamps, Elysii Campi)
was, however, generally taken to represent the battle of Villedaigne,
and to take its name from the famous cemetery outside Arles. Wolfram von
Eschenbach even mentions the tombs which studded the field of battle.
Indications that this tradition was not unassailable were not lacking
before the discovery of the _Chançun de Willame_, which, although
preserved in a very corrupt form, represents the earliest recension we
have of the story, dating at least from the beginning of the 12th
century. It seems probable that the Archant was situated in Spain near
Vivien's headquarters at Tortosa, and that Guillaume started from
Barcelona, not from Orange, to his nephew's help. The account of the
disaster was modified by successive _trouvères_, and the uncertainty of
their methods may be judged by the fact that in the _Chançun de Willame_
two consecutive accounts (11. 450-1326 and 11. 1326-2420) of the fight
appear to be set side by side as if they were separate episodes. _Le
Couronnement Looys_, already mentioned, _Le Charroi de Nîmes_ (12th
century) in which Guillaume, who had been forgotten in the distribution
of fiefs, enumerates his services to the terrified Louis, and _Aliscans_
(12th century), with the earlier _Chançun_, are among the finest of the
French epic poems. The figure of Vivien is among the most heroic
elaborated by the _trouvères_, and the giant Rainouart has more than a
touch of Rabelaisian humour.

  The _chansons de geste_ of the cycle of Guillaume are: _Enfances Garin
  de Monglane_ (15th century) and _Garin de Monglane_ (13th century), on
  which is founded the prose romance of _Guérin de Monglane_, printed in
  the 15th century by Jehan Trepperel and often later; _Girars de Viane_
  (13th century, by Bertrand de Bar-sur-Aube), ed. P. Tarbé (Reims,
  1850); _Hernaut de Beaulande_ (fragment 14th century); _Renier de
  Gennes_, which only survives in its prose form; _Aymeri de Narbonne_
  (c. 1210) by Bertrand de Bar-sur-Aube, ed. L. Demaison (Soc. des anc.
  textes fr., Paris, 2 vols., 1887); _Les Enfances Guillaume_ (13th
  century); _Les Narbonnais_, ed. H. Suchier (Soc. des anc. textes fr.,
  2 vols., 1898), with a Latin fragment dating from the 11th century,
  preserved at the Hague; _Le Couronnement Looys_ (ed. E. Langlois,
  1888), _Le Charroi de Nîmes_, _La Prise d'Orange_, _Le Covenant
  Vivien_, _Aliscans_, which were edited by W. J. A. Jonckbloet in vol.
  i. of his _Guillaume d'Orange_ (The Hague, 1854); a critical text of
  _Aliscans_ (Halle, 1903, vol. i.) is edited by E. Wienbeck, W.
  Hartnacke and P. Rasch; _Loquifer_ and _Le Moniage Rainouart_ (12th
  century); _Bovon de Commarchis_ (13th century), recension of the
  earlier Siège de Barbastre, by Adenès li Rois, ed. A. Scheler
  (Brussels, 1874); _Guibert d'Andrenas_ (13th century); _La Prise de
  Cordres_ (13th century); _La Mort Aimeri de Narbonne_, ed. J. Couraye
  de Parc (Soc. des Anciens Textes français, Paris, 1884); _Foulque de
  Candie_ (ed. P. Tarbé, Reims, 1860); _Le Moniage Guillaume_ (12th
  century); _Les Enfances Vivien_ (ed. C. Wahlund and H. v. Feilitzen,
  Upsala and Paris, 1895); _Chançun de Willame_ (Chiswick Press, 1903),
  described by P. Meyer in _Romania_ (xxxiii. 597-618). The ninth branch
  of the _Karlamagnus Saga_ (ed. C. R. Unger, Christiania, 1860) deals
  with the _geste_ of Guillaume. _I Nerbonesi_ is edited by J. G. Isola
  (Bologna, 1877, &c.).

  See C. Révillout, _Étude hist. et litt. sur la vita sancti Willelmi_
  (Montpellier, 1876); W. J. A. Jonckbloet, _Guillaume d'Orange_ (2
  vols., 1854, The Hague); L. Clarus (ps. for W. Volk), _Herzog Wilhelm
  von Aquitanien_ (Münster, 1865); P. Paris, _in Hist. litt. de la
  France_ (vol. xxii., 1852); L. Gautier, _Épopées françaises_ (vol.
  iv., 2nd ed., 1882); R. Weeks, _The newly discovered Chançun de
  Willame_ (Chicago, 1904); A. Thomas, _Études romanes_ (Paris, 1891),
  on Vivien; L. Saltet, "S. Vidian de Martres-Tolosanes" in _Bull. de
  litt. ecclés._ (Toulouse, 1902); P. Becker, _Die altfrz. Wilhelmsage
  u. ihre Beziehung zu Wilhelm dem Heiligen_ (Halle, 1896), and _Der
  südfranzösische Sagenkreis und seine Probleme_ (Halle, 1898); A.
  Jeanroy, "Études sur le cycle de Guillaume au court nez" (in
  _Romania_, vols. 25 and 26, 1896-1897); H. Suchier, "Recherches sur
  ... Guillaume d'Orange" (in _Romania_, vol. 32, 1903). The conclusions
  arrived at by earlier writers are combated by Joseph Bédier in the
  first volume, "Le Cycle de Guillaume d'Orange" (1908), of his
  _Légendes épiques_, in which he constructs a theory that the cycle of
  Guillaume d'Orange grew up round the various shrines on the pilgrim
  route to Saint Gilles of Provence and Saint James of Compostella--that
  the _chansons de geste_ were, in fact, the product of 11th and 12th
  century trouvères, exploiting local ecclesiastical traditions, and
  were not developed from earlier poems dating back perhaps to the
  lifetime of Guillaume of Toulouse, the saint of Gellone.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The poem of _Aymeri de Narbonne_ contains the account of the
    young Aymeri's brilliant capture of Narbonne, which he then receives
    as a fief from Charlemagne, of his marriage with Ermenjart, sister of
    Boniface, king of the Lombards, and of their children. The fifth
    daughter, Blanchefleur, is represented as the wife of Louis the
    Pious. The opening of this poem furnished, though indirectly, the
    matter of the _Aymerillot_ of Victor Hugo's _Légende des siècles_.



GUILLEMOT (Fr. _guillemot_[1]), the name accepted by nearly all modern
authors for a sea-bird, the _Colymbus troile_ of Linnaeus and the _Uria
troile_ of Latham, which nowadays it seems seldom if ever to bear among
those who, from their vocation, are most conversant with it, though,
according to Willughby and Ray his translator, it was in their time so
called "by those of Northumberland and Durham." Around the coasts of
Britain it is variously known as the frowl, kiddaw or skiddaw, langy
(cf. Ice. _Langvia_), lavy, marrock, murre, scout (cf. COOT), scuttock,
strany, tinker or tinkershire and willock. In former days the guillemot
yearly frequented the cliffs on many parts of the British coasts in
countless multitudes, and this is still the case in the northern parts
of the United Kingdom; but more to the southward nearly all its smaller
settlements have been rendered utterly desolate by the wanton and cruel
destruction of their tenants during the breeding season, and even the
inhabitants of those which were more crowded had become so thinned that,
but for the intervention of the Sea Birds Preservation Act (32 & 33
Vict. cap. 17), which provided under penalty for the safety of this and
certain other species at the time of year when they were most exposed to
danger, they would unquestionably by this time have been exterminated so
far as England is concerned.

Part of the guillemot's history is still little understood. We know that
it arrives at its wonted breeding stations on its accustomed day in
spring, that it remains there till, towards the end of the summer, its
young are hatched and able, as they soon are, to encounter the perils of
a seafaring life, when away go all, parents and progeny. After that time
it commonly happens that a few examples are occasionally met with in
bays and shallow waters. Tempestuous weather will drive ashore a large
number in a state of utter destitution--many of them indeed are not
unfrequently washed up dead--but what becomes of the bulk of the birds,
not merely the comparatively few thousands that are natives of Britain,
but the tens and hundreds of thousands, not to say millions, that are in
summer denizens of more northern latitudes, no one can say. This mystery
is not peculiar to the guillemot, but is shared by all the _Alcidae_
that inhabit the Atlantic Ocean. Examples stray every season across the
Bay of Biscay, are found off the coasts of Spain and Portugal, enter
the Mediterranean and reach Italian waters, or, keeping farther south,
may even touch the Madeiras, Canaries or Azores; but these bear no
proportion whatever to the mighty hosts of whom they are literally the
"scouts," and whose position and movements they no more reveal than do
the vedettes of a well-appointed army. The common guillemot of both
sides of the Atlantic is replaced farther northward by a species with a
stouter bill, the _U. arra_ or _U. bruennichi_ of ornithologists, and on
the west coast of North America by the _U. californica_. The habits of
all these are essentially the same, and the structural resemblance
between all of them and the Auks is so great that several systematists
have relegated them to the genus _Alca_, confining the genus _Uria_ to
the guillemots of another group, of which the type is the _U. grylla_,
the black guillemot of British authors, the dovekey or Greenland dove of
sailors, the tysty of Shetlanders. This bird assumes in summer an
entirely black plumage with the exception of a white patch on each wing,
while in winter it is beautifully marbled with white and black. Allied
to it as species or geographical races are the _U. mandti_, _U. columba_
and _U. carbo_. All these differ from the larger guillemots by laying
two or three eggs, which are generally placed in some secure niche,
while the members of the other group lay but a single egg, which is
invariably exposed on a bare ledge.     (A. N.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The word, however, seems to be cognate with or derived from the
    Welsh and Manx _Guillem_, or _Gwilym_ as Pennant spells it. The
    association may have no real meaning, but one cannot help comparing
    the resemblance between the French _guillemot_ and _Guillaume_ with
    that between the English willock (another name for the bird) and
    William.



GUILLOCHE, a French word for an ornament, either painted or carved,
which was one of the principal decorative bands employed by the Greeks
in their temples or on their vases. Guilloches are single, double or
triple; they consist of a series of circles equidistant one from the
other and enclosed in a band which winds round them and interlaces. This
guilloche is of Asiatic origin and was largely employed in the
decoration of the Assyrian palaces, where it was probably copied from
Chaldaean work, as there is an early example at Erech which dates from
the time of Gudea (2294 B.C.). The ornament as painted by the Greeks has
almost entirely disappeared, but traces are found in the temple of
Nemesis at Rhamnus; and on the terra-cotta slabs by which the timber
roofs of Greek temples were protected, it is painted in colours which
are almost as brilliant as when first produced, those of the Treasury of
Gela at Olympia being of great beauty. These examples are double
guilloches, with two rows of circles, each with an independent
interlacing band and united by a small arc with palmette inside; in both
the single and double guilloches of Greek work there is a flower in the
centre of the circles. In the triple guilloche, the centre row of
circles comes half-way between the others, and the enclosing band
crosses diagonally both ways, interlacing alternately. The best example
of the triple guilloche is that which is carved on the torus moulding of
the base and on the small convex moulding above the echinus of the
capitals of the columns of the Erechtheum at Athens. It was largely
employed in Roman work, and the single guilloche is found almost
universally as a border in mosaic pavements, not only in Italy but
throughout Europe. In the Renaissance in Italy it was also a favourite
enrichment for borders and occasionally in France and England.



GUILLON, MARIE NICOLAS SYLVESTRE (1760-1847), French ecclesiastic, was
born in Paris on the 1st of January 1760. He was librarian and almoner
in the household of the princess de Lamballe, and when in 1792 she was
executed, he fled to the provinces, where under the name of Pastel he
practised medicine. A man of facile conscience, he afterwards served in
turn under Napoleon, the Bourbons and the Orleanists, and became canon
of St Denis, bishop of Morocco and dean of the Sorbonne.

  Among his many literary works are a _Collection des brefs du pape Pie
  VI_ (1798), _Bibliothèque choisie des pères grecs et latins_ (1822, 26
  vols.) and a French translation of Cyprian with notes (1837, 2 vols.).



GUILLOTINE, the instrument for inflicting capital punishment by
decapitation, introduced into France at the period of the Revolution. It
consists of two upright posts surmounted by a cross beam, and grooved so
as to guide an oblique-edged knife, the back of which is heavily
weighted to make it fall swiftly and with force when the cord by which
it is held aloft is let go. Some ascribe the invention of the machine
to the Persians; and previous to the period when it obtained notoriety
under its present name it had been in use in Scotland, England and
various parts of the continent. There is still preserved In the
antiquarian museum of Edinburgh the rude guillotine called the "maiden"
by which the regent Morton was decapitated in 1581. The last persons
decapitated by the Scottish "maiden" were the marquis of Argyll in 1661
and his son the earl of Argyll in 1685. It would appear that no similar
machine was ever in general use in England; but until 1650 there existed
in the forest of Hardwick, which was coextensive with the parish of
Halifax, West Riding, Yorkshire, a mode of trial and execution called
the gibbet law, by which a felon convicted of theft within the liberty
was sentenced to be decapitated by a machine called the Halifax gibbet.
A print of it is contained in a small book called _Halifax and its
Gibbet Law_ (1708), and in Gibson's edition of Camden's _Britannia_
(1722). In Germany the machine was in general use during the middle
ages, under the name of the _Diele_, the _Hobel_ or the _Dolabra_. Two
old German engravings, the one by George Penez, who died in 1550, and
the other by Heinrich Aldegrever, with the date 1553, represent the
death of a son of Titus Manlius by a similar instrument, and its
employment for the execution of a Spartan is the subject of the
engraving of the eighteenth symbol in the volume entitled _Symbolicae
quaestiones de universo genere_, by Achilles Bocchi (1555). From the
13th century it was used in Italy under the name of _Mannaia_ for the
execution of criminals of noble birth. The _Chronique de Jean d'Anton_,
first published in 1835, gives minute details of an execution in which
it was employed at Genoa in 1507; and it is elaborately described by
Père Jean Baptiste Labat in his _Voyage en Espagne et en Italie en
1730_. It is mentioned by Jacques, viscomte de Puységur, in his
_Mémoires_ as in use in the south of France, and he describes the
execution by it of Marshal Montmorency at Toulouse in 1632. For about a
century it had, however, fallen into general disuse on the continent;
and Dr Guillotine, who first suggested its use in modern times, is said
to have obtained his information regarding it from the description of an
execution that took place at Milan in 1702, contained in an anonymous
work entitled _Voyage historique et politique de Suisse, d'Italie, et
d'Allemagne_.

Guillotine, who was born at Saintes, May 28, 1738, and elected to the
Constituent Assembly in 1789, brought forward on the 1st December of
that year two propositions regarding capital punishment, the second of
which was that, "in all cases of capital punishment it shall be of the
same kind--that is, decapitation--and it shall be executed by means of a
machine." The reasons urged in support of this proposition were that in
cases of capital punishment the privilege of execution by decapitation
should no longer be confined to the nobles, and that it was desirable to
render the process of execution as swift and painless as possible. The
debate was brought to a sudden termination in peals of laughter caused
by an indiscreet reference of Dr Guillotine to his machine, but his
ideas seem gradually to have leavened the minds of the Assembly, and
after various debates decapitation was adopted as the method of
execution in the penal code which became law on the 6th October 1791. At
first it was intended that decapitation should be by the sword, but on
account of a memorandum by M. Sanson, the executioner, pointing out the
expense and certain other inconveniences attending that method, the
Assembly referred the question to a committee, at whose request Dr
Antoine Louis, secretary to the Academy of Surgeons, prepared a
memorandum on the subject. Without mentioning the name of Guillotine, it
recommended the adoption of an instrument similar to that which was
formerly suggested by him. The Assembly decided in favour of the report,
and the contract was offered to the person who usually provided the
instruments of justice; but, as his terms were considered exorbitant, an
agreement was ultimately come to with a German of the name of Schmidt,
who, under the direction of M. Louis, furnished a machine for each of
the French departments. After satisfactory experiments had been made
with the machine on several dead bodies in the hospital of Bicêtre, it
was erected on the Place de Grève for the execution of the highwayman
Pelletier on the 25th April 1792. While the experiments regarding the
machine were being carried on, it received the name _Louisette_ or _La
Petite Louison_, but the mind of the nation seems soon to have reverted
to Guillotine, who first suggested its use; and in the _Journal des
révolutions de Paris_ for 28th April 1792 it is mentioned as _la
guillotine_, a name which it thenceforth bore both popularly and
officially. In 1795 the question was much debated as to whether or not
death by the guillotine was instantaneous, and in support of the
negative side the case of Charlotte Corday was adduced whose
countenance, it is said, blushed as if with indignation when the
executioner, holding up the head to the public gaze, struck it with his
fist. The connexion of the instrument with the horrors of the Revolution
has hindered its introduction into other countries, but in 1853 it was
adopted under the name of _Fallschwert_ or _Fallbeil_ by the kingdom of
Saxony; and it is used for the execution of sentences of death in
France, Belgium and some parts of Germany. It has often been stated that
Dr Guillotine perished by the instrument which bears his name, but it is
beyond question that he survived the Revolution and died a natural death
in 1814.

  See Sédillot, _Réflexions historiques et physiologiques sur le
  supplice de la guillotine_ (1795); Sue, _Opinion sur le supplice de la
  guillotine_, (1796); Réveillé-Parise, _Étude biographique sur
  Guillotine_ (Paris, 1851); _Notice historique et physiologique sur le
  supplice de la guillotine_ (Paris, 1830); Louis Dubois, _Recherches
  historiques et physiologiques sur la guillotine et détails sur Sanson_
  (Paris, 1843); and a paper by J. W. Croker in the _Quarterly Review_
  for December 1843, reprinted separately in 1850 under the title _The
  Guillotine, a historical Essay_.



GUILT, a lapse from duty, a crime, now usually the fact of wilful
wrong-doing, the condition of being guilty of a crime, hence conduct
deserving of punishment. The O. Eng. form of the word is _gylt_. The
_New English Dictionary_ rejects for phonetic reasons the usually
accepted connexion with the Teutonic root _gald_-, to pay, seen in Ger.
_gelten_, to be of value, _Geld_, money, payment, English "yield."



GUIMARÃES (sometimes written _Guimaraens_), a town of northern Portugal,
in the district of Braga, formerly included in the province of
Entre-Minho-e-Douro; 36 m. N.E. of Oporto by the Trofa-Guimarães branch
of the Oporto-Corunna railway. Pop. (1900) 9104. Guimarães is a very
ancient town with Moorish fortifications; and even the quarters which
are locally described as "new" date partly from the 15th century. It
occupies a low hill, skirted on the north-west by a small tributary of
the river Ave. The citadel, founded in the 11th century by Count Henry
of Burgundy, was in 1094 the birthplace of his son Alphonso, the first
king of Portugal. The font in which Alphonso was baptized is preserved,
among other interesting relics, in the collegiate church of Santa Maria
da Oliveira, "St Mary of the Olive," a Romanesque building of the 14th
century, which occupies the site of an older foundation. This church
owes its name to the legend that the Visigothic king Wamba (672-680)
here declined the crown of Spain, until his olive wood spear-shaft
blossomed as a sign that he should consent. The convent of São Domingos,
now a museum of antiquities, has a fine 12th-13th century cloister; the
town hall is built in the blend of Moorish and Gothic architecture known
as Manoelline. Guimarães has a flourishing trade in wine and farm
produce; it also manufactures cutlery, linen, leather and preserved
fruits. Near the town are Citania, the ruins of a prehistoric Iberian
city, and the hot sulphurous springs of Taipas, frequented since the 4th
century, when Guimarães itself was founded.



GUIMARD, MARIE MADELEINE (1743-1816), French dancer, was born in Paris
on the 10th of October 1743. For twenty-five years she was the star of
the Paris Opéra. She made herself even more famous by her love affairs,
especially by her long liaison with the prince de Soubise. She bought a
magnificent house at Pantin, and built a private theatre connected with
it, where Collé's _Partie de chasse de Henri IV_ which was prohibited in
public, and most of the _Proverbes_ of Carmontelle (Louis Carrogis,
1717-1806), and similar licentious performances were given to the
delight of high society. In 1772, in defiance of the archbishop of
Paris, she opened a gorgeous house with a theatre seating five hundred
spectators in the Chaussée d'Antin. In this Temple of Terpsichore, as
she named it, the wildest orgies took place. In 1786 she was compelled
to get rid of the property, and it was disposed of by lottery for her
benefit for the sum of 300,000 francs. Soon after her retirement in 1789
she married Jean Etienne Despréaux (1748-1820), dancer, song-writer and
playwright.



GUIMET, JEAN BAPTISTE (1795-1871), French industrial chemist, was born
at Voiron on the 20th of July 1795. He studied at the École
Polytechnique in Paris, and in 1817 entered the Administration des
Poudres et Salpêtres. In 1828 he was awarded the prize offered by the
Société d'Encouragement pour l'Industrie Nationale for a process of
making artificial ultramarine with all the properties of the substance
prepared from lapis lazuli; and six years later he resigned his official
position in order to devote himself to the commercial production of that
material, a factory for which he established at Fleurieux sur Saône. He
died on the 8th of April 1871.

His son ÉMILE ÉTIENNE GUIMET, born at Lyons on the 26th of June 1836,
succeeded him in the direction of the factory, and founded the Musée
Guimet, which was first located at Lyons in 1879 and was handed over to
the state and transferred to Paris in 1885. Devoted to travel, he was in
1876 commissioned by the minister of public instruction to study the
religions of the Far East, and the museum contains many of the fruits of
this expedition, including a fine collection of Japanese and Chinese
porcelain and many objects relating not merely to the religions of the
East but also to those of Ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome. He wrote
_Lettres sur l'Algérie_ (1877) and _Promenades japonaises_ (1880), and
also some musical compositions, including a grand opera, _Taï-Tsoung_
(1894).



GUINEA, the general name applied by Europeans to part of the western
coast region of equatorial Africa, and also to the gulf formed by the
great bend of the coast line eastward and then southward. Like many
other geographical designations the use of which is controlled neither
by natural nor political boundaries, the name has been very differently
employed by different writers and at different periods. In the widest
acceptation of the term, the Guinea coast may be said to extend from 13°
N. to 16° S., from the neighbourhood of the Gambia to Cape Negro.
Southern or Lower Guinea comprises the coasts of Gabun and Loango (known
also as French Congo) and the Portuguese possessions on the south-west
coast, and Northern or Upper Guinea stretches from the river Casamance
to and inclusive of the Niger delta, Cameroon occupying a middle
position. In a narrower use of the name, Guinea is the coast only from
Cape Palmas to the Gabun estuary. Originally, on the other hand, Guinea
was supposed to begin as far north as Cape Nun, opposite the Canary
Islands, and Gomes Azurara, a Portuguese historian of the 15th century,
is said to be the first authority who brings the boundary south to the
Senegal. The derivation of the name is uncertain, but is probably taken
from Ghinea, Ginnie, Genni or Jenné, a town and kingdom in the basin of
the Niger, famed for the enterprise of its merchants and dating from the
8th century A.D. The name Guinea is found on maps of the middle of the
14th century, but it did not come into general use in Europe till
towards the close of the 15th century.[1]

Although the term Gulf of Guinea is applied generally to that part of
the coast south of Cape Palmas and north of the mouth of the Congo,
particular indentations have their peculiar designations. The bay formed
by the configuration of the land between Cape St Paul and the Nun mouth
of the Niger is known as the Bight of Benin, the name being that of the
once powerful native state whose territory formerly extended over the
whole district. The Bight of Biafra, or Mafra (named after the town of
Mafra in southern Portugal), between Capes Formosa and Lopez, is the
most eastern part of the Gulf of Guinea; it contains the islands
Fernando Po, Prince's and St Thomas's. The name Biafra--as indicating
the country--fell into disuse in the later part of the 19th century.

The coast is generally so low as to be visible to navigators only within
a very short distance, the mangrove trees being their only sailing
marks. In the Bight of Biafra the coast forms an exception, being high
and bold, with the Cameroon Mountains for background. At Sierra Leone
also there is high land. The coast in many places maintains a dead level
for 30 to 50 m. inland. Vegetation is exceedingly luxuriant and varied.
The palm-oil tree is indigenous and abundant from the river Gambia to
the Congo. The fauna comprises nearly all the more remarkable of African
animals. The inhabitants are the true Negro stock.

By the early traders the coast of Upper Guinea was given names founded
on the productions characteristic of the different parts. The Grain
coast, that part of the Guinea coast extending for 500 m. from Sierra
Leone eastward to Cape Palmas received its name from the export of the
seeds of several plants of a peppery character, called variously grains
of paradise, Guinea pepper and melegueta. The name Grain coast was first
applied to this region in 1455. It was occasionally styled the Windy or
Windward coast, from the frequency of short but furious tornadoes
throughout the year. Towards the end of the 18th century, Guinea pepper
was supplanted in Europe by peppers from the East Indies. The name now
is seldom used, the Grain coast being divided between the British colony
of Sierra Leone and the republic of Liberia. The Ivory coast extends
from Cape Palmas to 3° W., and obtained its name from the quantity of
ivory exported therefrom. It is now a French possession. Eastwards of
the Ivory coast are the Gold and Slave coasts. The Niger delta was for
long known as the Oil rivers. To two regions only of the coast is the
name Guinea officially applied, the French and Portuguese colonies north
of Sierra Leone being so styled.

Of the various names by which the divisions of Lower Guinea were known,
Loango was applied to the country south of the Gabun and north of the
Congo river. It is now chiefly included in French Congo. Congo was used
to designate the country immediately south of the river of the same
name, usually spoken of until the last half of the 19th century as the
Zaire. Congo is now one of the subdivisions of Portuguese West Africa
(see ANGOLA). It must not be confounded with the Belgian Congo.

Few questions in historical geography have been more keenly discussed
than that of the first discovery of Guinea by the navigators of modern
Europe. Lancelot Malocello, a Genoese, in 1270 reached at least as far
as the Canaries. The first direct attempt to find a sea route to India
was, it is said, also made by Genoese, Ugolino and Guido de Vivaldo,
Tedisio Doria and others who equipped two galleys and sailed south along
the African coast in 1291. Beyond the fact that they passed Cape Nun
there is no trustworthy record of their voyage. In 1346 a Catalan
expedition started for "the river of gold" on the Guinea coast; its fate
is unknown. The French claim that between 1364 and 1410 the people of
Dieppe sent out several expeditions to Guinea; and Jean de Béthencourt,
who settled in the Canaries about 1402, made explorations towards the
south. At length the consecutive efforts of the navigators employed by
Prince Henry of Portugal--Gil Eannes, Diniz Diaz, Nuno Tristam, Alvaro
Fernandez, Cadamosto, Usodimare and Diego Gomez--made known the coast as
far as the Gambia, and by the end of the 15th century the whole region
was familiar to Europeans.

  For further information see SENEGAL, GOLD COAST, IVORY COAST, FRENCH
  GUINEA, PORTUGUESE GUINEA, LIBERIA, &c. For the history of European
  discoveries, consult G. E. de Azurara, _Chronica de descobrimento e
  conquista de Guiné_, published, with an introduction, by Barros de
  Santarem (Paris, 1841), English translation, _The Discovery and
  Conquest of Guinea_, by C. R. Beazley and E. Prestage (Hakluyt Society
  publications, 2 vols., London, 1896-1899, vol. ii. has an
  introduction on the early history of African exploration, &c. with
  full bibliographical notes). L. Estancelin, _Recherches sur les
  voyages et découvertes des navigateurs normands en Afrique_ (Paris,
  1832); Villault de Bellefond, _Relation des costes d'Afrique appellées
  Guinée_ (Paris, 1669); Père Labat, _Nouvelle Relation de l'Afrique
  occidentale_ (Paris, 1728); Desmarquets, _Mém. chron. pour servir à
  l'hist. de Dieppe_ (1875); Santarem, _Priorité de la découverte des
  pays situés sur la côte occidentale d'Afrique_ (Paris, 1842); R. H.
  Major, _Life of Prince Henry the Navigator_ (London, 1868); and the
  elaborate review of Major's work by M. Codine in the _Bulletin de la
  Soc. de Géog._ (1873); A. E. Nordenskiöld, _Periplus_ (Stockholm,
  1897); _The Story of Africa_, vol. i. (London, 1892), edited by Dr
  Robert Brown.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Guinea may, however, be derived from Ghana (or Ghanata) the name
    of the oldest known state in the western Sudan. Ghana dates,
    according to some authorities, from the 3rd century A.D. From the 7th
    to the 12th century it was a powerful empire, its dominions
    extending, apparently, from the Atlantic to the Niger bend. At one
    time Jenné was included within its borders. Ghana was finally
    conquered by the Mandingo kings of Melle in the 13th century. Its
    capital, also called Ghana, was west of the Niger, and is generally
    placed some 200 m. west of Jenné. In this district L. Desplagnes
    discovered in 1907 numerous remains of a once extensive city, which
    he identified as those of Ghana. The ruins lie 25 m. W. of the Niger,
    on both banks of a marigot, and are about 40 m. N. by E. of Kulikoro
    (see _La Géographie_, xvi. 329). By some writers Ghana city is,
    however, identified with Walata, which town is mentioned by Arab
    historians as the capital of Ghanata. The identification of Ghana
    city with Jenné is not justified, though Idrisi seems to be
    describing Jenné when writing of "Ghana the Great."



GUINEA, a gold coin at one time current in the United Kingdom. It was
first coined in 1663, in the reign of Charles II., from gold imported
from the Guinea coast of West Africa by a company of merchants trading
under charter from the British crown--hence the name. Many of the first
guineas bore an elephant on one side, this being the stamp of the
company; in 1675 a castle was added. Issued at the same time as the
guinea were five-guinea, two-guinea and half-guinea pieces. The current
value of the guinea on its first issue was twenty shillings. It was
subsidiary to the silver coinage, but this latter was in such an
unsatisfactory state that the guinea in course of time became
over-valued in relation to silver, so much so that in 1694 it had risen
in value to thirty shillings. The rehabilitation of the silver coinage
in William III.'s reign brought down the value of the guinea to 21s. 6d.
in 1698, at which it stood until 1717, when its value was fixed at
twenty-one shillings. This value the guinea retained until its
disappearance from the coinage. It was last coined in 1813, and was
superseded in 1817 by the present principal gold coin, the sovereign. In
1718 the quarter-guinea was first coined. The third-guinea was first
struck in George III.'s reign (1787). To George III.'s reign also
belongs the "spade-guinea," a guinea having the shield on the reverse
pointed at the base or spade-shaped. It is still customary to pay
subscriptions, professional fees and honoraria of all kinds, in terms of
"guineas," a guinea being twenty-one shillings.



GUINEA FOWL, a well-known domestic gallinaceous bird, so called from the
country whence in modern times it was brought to Europe, the _Meleagris_
and _Avis_ or _Gallina Numidica_ of ancient authors.[1] Little is
positively known of the wild stock to which we owe our tame birds, nor
can the period of its reintroduction (for there is apparently no
evidence of its domestication being continuous from the time of the
Romans) be assigned more than roughly to that of the African discoveries
of the Portuguese. It does not seem to have been commonly known till the
middle of the 16th century, when John Caius sent a description and
figure, with the name _Gallus Mauritanus_, to Gesner, who published both
in his _Paralipomena_ in 1555, and in the same year Belon also gave a
notice and woodcut under the name of _Poulle de la Guinée_; but while
the former authors properly referred their bird to the ancient
_Meleagris_, the latter confounded the _Meleagris_ and the turkey.

The ordinary guinea fowl of the poultry-yard (see also POULTRY AND
POULTRY-FARMING) is the _Numida meleagris_ of ornithologists. The chief
or only changes which domestication seems to have induced in its
appearance are a tendency to albinism generally shown in the plumage of
its lower parts, and frequently, though not always, the conversion of
the colour of its legs and feet from dark greyish-brown to bright
orange. That the home of this species is West Africa from the Gambia[2]
to the Gaboon is certain, but its range in the interior is quite
unknown. It appears to have been imported early into the Cape Verd
Islands, where, as also in some of the Greater Antilles and in
Ascension, it has run wild. Representing the species in South Africa we
have the _N. coronata_, which is very numerous from the Cape Colony to
Ovampoland, and the _N. cornuta_ of Drs Finsch and Hartlaub, which
replaces it in the west as far as the Zambesi. Madagascar also has its
peculiar species, distinguishable by its red crown, the _N. mitrata_ of
Pallas, a name which has often been misapplied to the last. This bird
has been introduced to Rodriguez, where it is now found wild. Abyssinia
is inhabited by another species, the _N. ptilorhyncha_,[3] which differs
from all the foregoing by the absence of any red colouring about the
head. Very different from all of them, and the finest species known, is
the _N. vulturina_ of Zanzibar, conspicuous by the bright blue in its
plumage, the hackles that adorn the lower part of its neck, and its long
tail. By some writers it is thought to form a separate genus,
_Acryllium_. All these guinea fowls except the last are characterized by
having the crown bare of feathers and elevated into a bony "helmet," but
there is another group (to which the name _Guttera_ has been given) in
which a thick tuft of feathers ornaments the top of the head. This
contains four or five species, all inhabiting some part or other of
Africa, the best known being the _N. cristata_ from Sierra Leone and
other places on the western coast. This bird, apparently mentioned by
Marcgrave more than 200 years ago, but first described by Pallas, is
remarkable for the structure--unique, if not possessed by its
representative forms--of its _furcula_, where the head, instead of being
the thin plate found in all other _Gallinae_, is a hollow cup opening
upwards, into which the trachea dips, and then emerges on its way to the
lungs. Allied to the genus _Numida_, but readily distinguished form
among other characters by the possession of spurs and the absence of a
helmet, are two very rare forms, _Agelastes_ and _Phasidus_, both from
western Africa. Of their habits nothing is known. All these birds are
beautifully figured in Elliot's _Monograph of the Phasianidae_, from
drawings by Wolf.     (A. N.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Columella (_De re rustica_, viii. cap. 2) distinguishes the
    _Meleagris_ from the _Gallina Africana_ or _Numidica_, the latter
    having, he says, a red wattle (_palea_, a reading obviously
    preferable to _galea_), while it was blue in the former. This would
    look as if the _Meleagris_ had sprung from what is now called _Numida
    ptilorhyncha_, while the _Gallina Africana_ originated in the _N.
    meleagris_, species which have a different range, and if so the fact
    would point to two distinct introductions--one by Greeks, the other
    by Latins.

  [2] Specimens from the Gambia are said to be smaller, and have been
    described as distinct under the name of _N. rendalli_.

  [3] Darwin (_Anim. and Pl. under Domestication_, i. 294), gives this
    as the original stock of the modern domestic birds, but obviously by
    an accidental error. As before observed, it may possibly have been
    the true [Greek: meleagris] of the Greeks.



GUINEA-WORM (_Dracontiasis_), a disease due to the _Filaria medinensis_,
or _Dracunculus_, or Guinea-worm, a filarious nematode like a
horse-hair, whose most frequent habitat is the subcutaneous and
intramuscular tissues of the legs and feet. It is common on the Guinea
coast, and in many other tropical and subtropical regions and has been
familiarly known since ancient times. The condition of dracontiasis due
to it is a very common one, and sometimes amounts to an epidemic. The
black races are most liable, but Europeans of almost any social rank and
of either sex are not altogether exempt. The worm lives in water, and,
like the _Filaria sanguinis hominis_, appears to have an intermediate
host for its larval stage. It is doubtful whether the worm penetrates
the skin of the legs directly; it is not impossible that the
intermediate host (a cyclops) which contains the larvae may be swallowed
with the water, and that the larvae of the _Dracunculus_ may be set free
in the course of digestion.



GÜINES, a town in the interior of Havana province, Cuba, about 30 m.
S.E. of Havana. Pop. (1907) 8053. It is situated on a plain, in the
midst of a rich plantation district, chiefly devoted to the cultivation
of tobacco. The first railway in Cuba was built from Havana to Güines
between 1835 and 1838. One of the very few good highways of the island
also connects Güines with the capital. The pueblo of Güines, which was
built on a great private estate of the same name, dates back to about
1735. The church dates from 1850. Güines became a "villa" in 1814, and
was destroyed by fire in 1817.



GUINGAMP, a town of north-western France, capital of an arrondissement
in the department of Côtes-du-Nord, on the right bank of the Trieux, 20
m. W.N.W. of St Brieuc on the railway to Brest. Pop. (1906), town 6937,
commune 9212. Its chief church, Notre-Dame de Bon-Secours, dates from
the 14th to the 16th centuries; two towers rise on each side of the
richly sculptured western portal and a third surmounts the crossing. A
famous statue of the Virgin, the object of one of the most important
"pardons" or religious pilgrimages in Brittany, stands in one of the two
northern porches. The central square is decorated by a graceful fountain
in the Renaissance style, restored in 1743. Remains of the ramparts and
of the château of the dukes of Penthièvre, which belong to the 15th
century, still survive. Guingamp is the seat of a sub-prefect and of a
tribunal of first instance. It is an important market for dairy-cattle,
and its industries include flour-milling, tanning and leather-dressing.
Guingamp was the chief town of the countship (subsequently the duchy) of
Penthièvre. The Gothic chapel of Grâces, near Guingamp, contains fine
sculptures.



GUINNESS, the name of a family of Irish brewers. The firm was founded by
ARTHUR GUINNESS, who about the middle of the 18th century owned a modest
brewing-plant at Leixlip, a village on the upper reaches of the river
Liffey. In or about 1759 Arthur Guinness, seeking to extend his trade,
purchased a small porter brewery belonging to a Mr Rainsford at St
James's Gate, Dublin. By careful attention to the purity of his product,
coupled with a shrewd perception of the public taste, he built up a
considerable business. But his third son, BENJAMIN LEE GUINNESS
(1798-1868), may be regarded as the real maker of the firm, into which
he was taken at an early age, and of which about 1825 he was given sole
control. Prior to that date the trade in Guinness's porter and stout had
been confined to Ireland, but Benjamin Lee Guinness at once established
agencies in the United Kingdom, on the continent, in the British
colonies and in America. The export trade soon assumed huge proportions;
the brewery was continually enlarged, and when in 1855 his father died,
Benjamin Lee Guinness, who in 1851 was elected first lord mayor of
Dublin, found himself sole proprietor of the business and the richest
man in Ireland. Between 1860 and 1865 he devoted a portion of this
wealth to the restoration of St Patrick's cathedral, Dublin. The work,
the progress of which he regularly superintended himself, cost £160,000.
Benjamin Lee Guinness represented the city of Dublin in parliament as a
Conservative from 1865 till his death, and in 1867 was created a
baronet. He died in 1868, and was succeeded in the control of the
business by Sir Arthur Edward Guinness (b. 1840), his eldest, and Edward
Cecil Guinness (b. 1847), his third, son. SIR ARTHUR EDWARD GUINNESS,
who for some time represented Dublin in parliament, was in 1880 raised
to the peerage as Baron Ardilaun, and about the same time disposed of
his share in the brewery to his brother Edward Cecil Guinness. In 1886
EDWARD CECIL GUINNESS disposed of the brewery, the products of which
were then being sent all over the world, to a limited company, in which
he remained the largest shareholder. Edward Cecil Guinness was created a
baronet in 1885, and in 1891 was raised to the peerage as Baron Iveagh.

The Guinness family have been distinguished for their philanthropy and
public munificence. Lord Ardilaun gave a recreation ground to Dublin,
and the famous Muckross estate at Killarney to the nation. Lord Iveagh
set aside £250,000 for the creation of the Guinness trust (1889) for the
erection and maintenance of buildings for the labouring poor in London
and Dublin, and was a liberal benefactor to the funds of Dublin
university.



GUINOBATAN, a town of the province of Albay, Luzon, Philippine Islands,
on the Inaya river, 9 m. W. by N. of the town of Albay. Pop. (1903),
20,027. Its chief interest is in hemp, which is grown in large
quantities in the neighbouring country.



GUIPÚZCOA, a maritime province of northern Spain, included among the
Basque provinces, and bounded on the N. by the Bay of Biscay; W. by the
province of Biscay (_Vizcaya_); S. and S.E. by. Álava and Navarre: and
N.E. by the river Bidassoa,[1] which separates it from France. Pop.
(1900), 195,850; area, 728 sq. m. Situated on the northern slope of the
great Cantabrian chain at its junction with the Pyrenees, the province
has a great variety of surface in mountain, hill and valley; and its
scenery is highly picturesque. The coast is much indented, and has
numerous harbours, but none of very great importance; the chief are
those of San Sebastian, Pasajes, Guetaria, Deva and Fuenterrabia. The
rivers (Deva, Urola, Oria, Urumea, Bidassoa) are all short, rapid and
unnavigable. The mountains are for the most part covered with forests of
oak, chestnut or pine; holly and arbutus are also common, with furze and
heath in the poorer parts. The soil in the lower valleys is generally of
hard clay and unfertile; it is cultivated with great care, but the grain
raised falls considerably short of what is required for home
consumption. The climate, though moist, is mild, pleasant and healthy;
fruit is produced in considerable quantities, especially apples for
manufacture into _zaragua_ or cider. The chief mineral products are
iron, lignite, lead, copper, zinc and cement. Ferruginous and sulphurous
springs are very common, and are much frequented every summer by
visitors from all parts of the kingdom. There are excellent fisheries,
which supply the neighbouring provinces with cod, tunny, sardines and
oysters; and the average yearly value of the coasting trade exceeds
£400,000. By Irun, Pasajes and the frontier roads £4,000,000 of imports
and £3,000,000 of exports pass to and from France, partly in transit for
the rest of Europe. Apart from the four Catalan provinces, no province
has witnessed such a development of local industries as Guipúzcoa. The
principal industrial centres are Irun, Renteria, Villabona, Vergara and
Azpéitia for cotton and linen stuffs; Zumarraga for osiers; Eibar,
Plasencia and Elgoibar for arms and cannon and gold incrustations; Irun
for soap and carriages; San Sebastian, Irun and Onate for paper, glass,
chemicals and saw-mills; Tolosa for paper, timber, cloths and furniture;
and the banks of the bay of Pasajes for the manufacture of liqueurs of
every kind, and the preparation of wines for export and for consumption
in the interior of Spain. This last industry occupies several thousand
French and Spanish workmen. An arsenal was established at Azpéitia
during the Carlist rising of 1870-1874; but the manufacture of ordnance
and gunpowder was subsequently discontinued. The main line of the
northern railway from Madrid to France runs through the province, giving
access, by a loop line, to the chief industrial centres. The
custom-house through which it passes on the frontier is one of the most
important in Spain. Despite the steep gradients, where traffic is hardly
possible except by ox-carts, there are over 350 m. of admirably
engineered roads, maintained solely by the local tax-payers. After San
Sebastian, the capital (pop. 1900, 37,812), the chief towns are
Fuenterrabia (4345) and Irun (9912). Other towns with more than 6000
inhabitants are Azpéitia (6066), Eibar (6583), Tolosa (8111) and Vergara
(6196). Guipúzcoa is the smallest and one of the most densely peopled
provinces of Spain; for its constant losses by emigration are
counterbalanced by a high birth-rate and the influx of settlers from
other districts who are attracted by its industrial prosperity.

  For an account of its inhabitants and their customs, language and
  history, see BASQUES and BASQUE PROVINCES.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] A small island in the Bidassoa, called La Isla de los Faisanes,
    or l'Isle de la Conférence, is celebrated as the place where the
    marriage of the duke of Guienne was arranged between Louis XI. and
    Henry IV. in 1463, where Francis I., the prisoner of Charles V., was
    exchanged for his two sons in 1526, and where in 1659 "the Peace of
    the Pyrenees" was concluded between D. Luis de Haro and Cardinal
    Mazarin.



GUIRAUD, ERNEST (1837-1892), French composer, was born at New Orleans on
the 26th of June 1837. He studied at the Paris Conservatoire, where he
won the _grand prix de Rome_. His father had gained the same distinction
many years previously, this being the only instance of both father and
son obtaining this prize. Ernest Guiraud composed the following operas:
_Sylvie_ (1864); _Le Kobold_ (1870), _Madame Turlupin_ (1872),
_Piccolino_ (1876), _Galante Aventure_ (1882), and also the ballet
_Gretna Green_, given at the Opéra in 1873. His opera _Frédégonde_ was
left in an unfinished condition and was completed by Camille
Saint-Saëns. Guiraud, who was a fellow-student and intimate friend of
Georges Bizet, was for some years professor of composition at the
Conservatoire. He was the author of an excellent treatise on
instrumentation. He died in Paris on the 6th of May 1892.



GUISBOROUGH, or GUISBROUGH, a market town in the Cleveland parliamentary
division of the North Riding of Yorkshire, England, 10 m. E.S.E. of
Middlesbrough by a branch of the North-Eastern railway. Pop. of urban
district (1901), 5645. It is well situated in a narrow, fertile valley
at the N. foot of the Cleveland Hills. The church of St Nicholas is
Perpendicular, greatly restored. Other buildings are the town hall, and
the modern buildings of the grammar school founded in 1561. Ruins of an
Augustinian priory, founded in 1129, are beautifully situated near the
eastern extremity of the town. The church contains some fine Decorated
work, and the chapter house and parts of the conventual buildings may be
traced. Considerable fragments of Norman and transitional work remain.
Among the historic personages who were buried within its walls was
Robert Bruce, lord of Annandale, the competitor for the throne of
Scotland with John Baliol, and the grandfather of King Robert the Bruce.
About 1 m. S.E. of the town there is a sulphurous spring discovered in
1822. The district neighbouring to Guisborough is rich in iron-stone.
Its working forms the chief industry of the town, and there are also
tanneries and breweries.



GUISE, a town of northern France, in the department of Aisne, on the
Oise, 31 m. N. of Laon by rail. Pop. (1906), 7562. The town was formerly
the capital of the district of Thiérache and afterwards of a countship
(see below). There is a château dating in part from the middle of the
16th century. Camille Desmoulins was in 1762 born in the town, which has
erected a statue to him. The chief industry is the manufacture of iron
stoves and heating apparatus, carried on on the co-operative system in
works founded by J. B. A. Godin, who built for his workpeople the huge
buildings known as the _familistère_, in front of which stands his
statue. A board of trade-arbitration is among the public institutions.



GUISE, HOUSE OF, a cadet branch of the house of Lorraine (q.v.). René
II., duke of Lorraine (d. 1508), united the two branches of the house of
Lorraine. From his paternal grandmother, Marie d'Harcourt, René
inherited the countships of Aumale, Mayenne, Elbeuf, Lillebonne, Brionne
and other French fiefs, in addition to the honours of the elder branch,
which included the countship of Guise, the dowry of Marie of Blois on
her marriage in 1333 with Rudolph or Raoul of Lorraine. René's eldest
surviving son by his marriage with Philippa, daughter of Adolphus of
Egmont, duke of Gelderland, was Anthony, who succeeded his father as
duke of Lorraine (d. 1544), while the second, Claude, count and
afterwards duke of Guise, received the French fiefs. The Guises, though
naturalized in France, continued to interest themselves in the fortunes
of Lorraine, and their enemies were always ready to designate them as
foreigners. The partition between the brothers Anthony and Claude was
ratified by a further agreement in 1530, reserving the lapsed honours of
the kingdoms of Jerusalem, Sicily, Aragon, the duchy of Anjou and the
countships of Provence and Maine to the duke of Lorraine. Of the other
sons of René II., John (1498-1550) became the first cardinal of
Lorraine, while Ferri, Louis and Francis fell fighting in the French
armies at Marignano (1515), Naples (1528) and Pavia (1525) respectively.

CLAUDE OF LORRAINE, count and afterwards 1st duke of Guise (1496-1550),
was born on the 20th of October 1496. He was educated at the French
court, and at seventeen allied himself to the royal house of France by a
marriage with Antoinette de Bourbon (1493-1583) daughter of François,
Count of Vendôme. Guise distinguished himself at Marignano (1515), and
was long in recovering from the twenty-two wounds he received in the
battle; in 1521 he fought at Fuenterrabia, when Louise of Savoy ascribed
the capture of the place to his efforts; in 1522 he defended northern
France, and forced the English to raise the siege of Hesdin; and in 1523
he obtained the government of Champagne and Burgundy, defeating at
Neufchâteau the imperial troops who had invaded his province. In 1525
he destroyed the Anabaptist peasant army, which was overrunning
Lorraine, at Lupstein, near Saverne (Zabern). On the return of Francis
I. from captivity, Guise was erected into a duchy in the peerage of
France, though up to this time only princes of the royal house had held
the title of duke and peer of France. The Guises, as cadets of the
sovereign house of Lorraine and descendants of the house of Anjou,
claimed precedence of the Bourbon princes. Their pretensions and
ambitions inspired distrust in Francis I., although he rewarded Guise's
services by substantial gifts in land and money. The duke distinguished
himself in the Luxemburg campaign in 1542, but for some years before his
death he effaced himself before the growing fortunes of his sons. He
died on the 12th of April 1550.

He had been supported in all his undertakings and intrigues by his
brother JOHN, cardinal of Lorraine (1498-1550), who had been made
coadjutor of Metz at the age of three. The cardinal was archbishop of
Reims, Lyons and Narbonne, bishop of Metz, Toul, Verdun, Thérouanne,
Luçon, Albi, Valence, Nantes and Agen, and before he died had squandered
most of the wealth which he had derived from these and other benefices.
Part of his ecclesiastical preferments he gave up in favour of his
nephews. He became a member of the royal council in 1530, and in 1536
was entrusted with an embassy to Charles V. Although a complaisant
helper in Francis I.'s pleasures, he was disgraced in 1542, and retired
to Rome. He died at Nogent-sur-Yonne on the 18th of May 1550. He was
extremely dissolute, but as an open-handed patron of art and learning,
as the protector and friend of Erasmus, Marot and Rabelais he did
something to counter-balance the general unpopularity of his calculating
and avaricious brother.

  Claude of Guise had twelve children, among them Francis, 2nd duke of
  Guise; Charles, 2nd cardinal of Lorraine (1524-1574), who became
  archbishop of Reims in 1538 and cardinal in 1547; Claude, marquis of
  Mayenne, duke of Aumale (1526-1573), governor of Burgundy, who married
  Louise de Brézé, daughter of Diane de Poitiers, thus securing a
  powerful ally for the family; Louis (1527-1578), bishop of Troyes,
  archbishop of Sens and cardinal of Guise; René, marquis of Elbeuf
  (1536-1566), from whom descended the families of Harcourt, Armagnac,
  Marsan and Lillebonne; Mary of Lorraine (q.v.), generally known as
  Mary of Guise, who after the death of her second husband, James V. of
  Scotland, acted as regent of Scotland for her daughter Mary, queen of
  Scots; and Francis (1534-1563), grand prior of the order of the
  Knights of Malta. The solidarity of this family, all the members of
  which through three generations cheerfully submitted to the authority
  of the head of the house, made it a formidable factor in French
  politics.

FRANCIS OF LORRAINE, 2nd duke of Guise (1519-1563), "le grand Guise,"
was born at Bar on the 17th of February 1519. As count of Aumale he
served in the French army, and was nearly killed at the siege of
Boulogne in 1545 by a wound which brought him the name of "Balafré."
Aumale was made (1547) a peerage-duchy in his favour, and on the
accession of Henry II. the young duke, who had paid assiduous court to
Diane de Poitiers, shared the chief honours of the kingdom with the
constable Anne de Montmorency. Both cherished ambitions for their
families, but the Guises were more unscrupulous in subordinating the
interests of France to their own. Montmorency's brutal manners, however,
made enemies where Guise's grace and courtesy won him friends. Guise was
a suitor for the hand of Jeanne d'Albret, princess of Navarre, who
refused, however, to become a sister-in-law of a daughter of Diane de
Poitiers and remained one of the most dangerous and persistent enemies
of the Guises. He married in December 1548 Anne of Este, daughter of
Ercole II., duke of Ferrara, and through her mother Renée, a
granddaughter of Louis XII. of France. In the same year he had put down
a peasant rising in Saintonge with a humanity that compared very
favourably with the cruelty shown by Montmorency to the town of
Bordeaux. He made preparations in Lorraine for the king's German
campaign of 1551-52. He was already governor of Dauphiné, and now became
grand chamberlain, prince of Joinville, and hereditary seneschal of
Champagne, with large additions to his already considerable revenues. He
was charged with the defence of Metz, which Henry II. had entered in
1551. He reached the city in August 1552, and rapidly gave proof of his
great powers as a soldier and organizer by the skill with which the
place, badly fortified and unprovided with artillery, was put in a state
of defence. Metz was invested by the duke of Alva in October with an
army of 60,000 men, and the emperor joined his forces in November. An
army of brigands commanded by Albert of Brandenburg had also to be
reckoned with. Charles was obliged to raise the siege on the 2nd of
January 1553, having lost, it is said, 30,000 men before the walls.
Guise used his victory with rare moderation and humanity, providing
medical care for the sick and wounded left behind in the besiegers'
camp. The subsequent operations were paralysed by the king's suspicion
and carelessness, and the constable's inactivity, and a year later Guise
was removed from the command. He followed the constable's army as a
volunteer, and routed the army of Charles V. at the siege of Renty on
the 12th of August 1554. Montmorency's inaction rendered the victory
fruitless, and a bitter controversy followed between Guise and the
constable's nephew Coligny, admiral of France, which widened a breach
already existing.

The conclusion of a six years' truce at Vaucelles (1556) disappointed
Guise's ambitions, and he was the main mover in the breach of the treaty
in 1558, when he was sent at the head of a French army to Italy to the
assistance of Pope Paul IV. against Spain. Guise, who perhaps had in
view the restoration to his family of the Angevin dominion of Naples and
Sicily, crossed the Alps early in 1557 and after a month's delay in
Rome, where he failed to receive the promised support, marched on the
kingdom of Naples, then occupied by the Spanish troops under Alva. He
seized and sacked Campli (April 17th), but was compelled to raise the
siege of Civitella. Meanwhile the pope had veered round to a Spanish
alliance, and Guise, seeing that no honour was to be gained in the
campaign, wisely spared his troops, so that his army was almost intact
when, in August, he was hastily summoned home to repel the Spanish army
which had invaded France from the north, and had taken St Quentin. On
reaching Paris in October Guise was made lieutenant-general of the
kingdom, and proceeded to prepare for the siege of Calais. The town was
taken, after six days' fighting, on the 6th of January 1558, and this
success was followed up by the capture of Guînes, Thionville and Arlon,
when the war was ended by the treaty of Câteau Cambrésis (1559).
Although his brother, the cardinal of Lorraine, was one of the
negotiators, this peace was concluded against the wishes of Guise, and
was regarded as a triumph of the constable's party. The Guises were
provided with a weapon against Montmorency by the bishop of Arras
(afterwards Cardinal Granvella), who gave to the cardinal of Lorraine at
an interview at Péronne in 1558 an intercepted letter proving the
Huguenot leanings of the constable's nephews.

On the accession in 1559 of Francis II., their nephew by marriage with
Mary Stuart, the royal authority was practically delegated to Guise and
the cardinal, who found themselves beyond rivalry for the time being.
They had, however, to cope with a new and dangerous force in Catherine
de' Medici, who was now for the first time free to use her political
ability. The incapacity, suspicion and cruelty of the cardinal, who
controlled the internal administration, roused the smaller nobility
against the Lorraine princes. A conspiracy to overturn their government
was formed at Nantes, with a needy Périgord nobleman named La Renaudie
as its nominal head, though the agitation had in the first instance been
fostered by the agents of Louis I., prince of Condé. The Guises were
warned of the conspiracy while the court was at Blois, and for greater
security removed the king to Amboise. La Renaudie, nothing daunted,
merely postponed his plans; and the conspirators assembled in small
parties in the woods round Amboise. They had, however, been again
betrayed and many of them were surrounded and taken before the _coup_
could be delivered; one party, which had seized the château of Noizay,
surrendered on a promise of amnesty given "on his faith as a prince" by
James of Savoy, duke of Nemours, a promise which, in spite of the duke's
protest, was disregarded. On the 19th of March 1560, La Renaudie and
the rest of the conspirators openly attacked the château of Amboise.
They were repelled; their leader was killed; and a large number were
taken prisoners. The merciless vengeance of the Guises was the measure
of their previous fears. For a whole week the torturings, quarterings
and hangings went on, the bodies being cast into the Loire, the young
king and queen witnessing the bloody spectacle day by day from a balcony
of the château.

The cruel repression of this "conspiracy of Amboise" inspired bitter
hatred of the Guises, since they were avenging a rising rather against
their own than the royal authority. They now entrenched themselves with
the king at Orleans, and the Bourbon princes, Anthony, king of Navarre,
and his brother Condé, were summoned to court. The Guises convened a
special commission to try Condé, who was condemned to death; but the
affair was postponed by the chancellor, and the death of Francis II. in
December saved Condé. Guise then made common cause with his old rival
Montmorency and with the Marshal de Saint André against Catherine, the
Bourbons and Coligny. This alliance, constituted on the 6th of April
1561, and known as the triumvirate, aimed at the annulment of the
concessions made by Catherine to the Huguenots. The cardinal of Lorraine
fomented the discord which appeared between the clergy of the two
religions when they met at the colloquy of Poissy in 1561, but in spite
of the extreme Catholic views he there professed, he was at the time in
communication with the Lutheran princes of Germany, and in February 1562
met the duke of Württemberg at Zabern to discuss the possibility of a
religious compromise.

The signal for civil war was given by an attack of Guise's escort on a
Huguenot congregation at Vassy (1st of March 1562). Although Guise did
not initiate the massacre, and although, when he learned what was going
on, he even tried to restrain his soldiers, he did not disavow their
action. When Catherine de' Medici forbade his entry into Paris, he
accepted the challenge, and on the 16th of March he entered the city,
where he was a popular hero, at the head of 2000 armed nobles. The
provost of the merchants offered to put 20,000 men and two million
livres at his disposal. In September he joined Montmorency in besieging
Rouen, which was sacked as if it had been a foreign city, in spite of
Guise's efforts to save it from the worst horrors. At the battle of
Dreux (19th of December 1562) he commanded a reserve army, with which he
saved Montmorency's forces from destruction and inflicted a crushing
defeat on the Huguenots. The prince of Condé was his prisoner, while the
capture of Montmorency by the Huguenots and the assassination of the
Marshal de Saint-André after the battle left Guise the undisputed head
of the Catholic party. He was appointed lieutenant-general of the
kingdom, and on the 5th of February 1563 he appeared with his army
before Orleans. On the 19th, however, he was shot by the Huguenot Jean
Poltrot de Méré as he was returning to his quarters, and died on the
24th of the effects of the wound. Guise's splendid presence, his
generosity and humanity and his almost unvarying success on the
battlefield made him the idol of his soldiers. He attended personally to
the minutest details, and Monluc complains that he even wrote out his
own orders. The mistakes and cruelties associated with his name were
partly due to the evil counsels of his brother Charles, the cardinal,
whose cowardice and insincerity were the scorn of his contemporaries.
The negotiations of the Guises with Spain dated from the interview with
Granvella at Péronne, in 1558, and after the death of his brother the
cardinal of Lorraine was constantly in communication with the Spanish
court, offering, in the event of the failure of direct heirs to the
Valois kings, to deliver up the frontier fortresses and to acknowledge
Philip II. as king of France. His death in 1574 temporarily weakened the
extreme Catholic party.

  Of the children of Francis "le Balafré" five survived him: Henry, 3rd
  duke of Guise; Charles, duke of Mayenne (1554-1611) (q.v.), who
  consolidated the League; Catherine (1552-1596), who married Louis of
  Bourbon, duke of Montpensier, and encouraged the fanaticism of the
  Parisian leaguers; Louis, second cardinal of Guise, afterwards of
  Lorraine (1555-1588), who was assassinated with his brother Henry; and
  Francis (1558-1573).

HENRY OF LORRAINE, 3rd duke of Guise (1550-1588), born on the 31st of
December 1550, was thirteen years old at the time of his father's death,
and grew up under the domination of a passionate desire for revenge.
Catherine de' Medici refused to take steps against Coligny, who was
formally accused by the duchess of Guise and her brothers-in-law of
having incited the murder. In 1566 she insisted on a formal
reconciliation at Moulins between the Guises and Coligny, at which,
however, none of the sons of the murdered man was present. Henry and his
brothers were, however, compelled in 1572 to sign an ambiguous assent to
this agreement. Guise's widow married James of Savoy, duke of Nemours,
and the young duke at sixteen went to fight against the Turks in
Hungary. On the fresh outbreak of civil war in 1567 he returned to
France and served under his uncle Aumale. In the autumn of 1568 he
received a considerable command, and speedily came into rivalry with
Henry of Valois, duke of Anjou. He had not inherited his father's
generalship, and his rashness and headstrong valour more than once
brought disaster on his troops, but the showy quality of his fighting
brought him great popularity in the army. In the defence of Poitiers in
1569 with his brother, the duke of Mayenne, he showed more solid
abilities as a soldier. On the conclusion of peace in 1570 he returned
to court, where he made no secret of his attachment to Margaret of
Valois. His pretensions were violently resented by her brothers, who
threatened his life, and he saved himself by a precipitate marriage with
Catherine of Cleves (daughter of Francis of Cleves, duke of Nevers, and
Margaret of Bourbon), the widow of a Huguenot nobleman, Antoine de Crog,
prince of Porcien. Presently he ended his disgrace by an apparent
reconciliation with Henry of Valois and an alliance with Catherine de'
Medici. He was an accomplice in the first attack on Coligny's life, and
when permission for the massacre of Saint Bartholomew had been extorted
from Charles IX. he roused Paris against the Huguenots, and satisfied
his personal vengeance by superintending the murder of Coligny. He was
now the acknowledged chief of the Catholic party, and the power of his
family was further increased by the marriage (1575) of Henry III. with
Louise of Vaudémont, who belonged to the elder branch of the house of
Lorraine. In a fight at Dormans (10th of October 1575), the only
Catholic victory in a disastrous campaign, Guise received a face wound
which won for him his father's name of Balafré and helped to secure the
passionate attachment of the Parisians. He refused to acquiesce in the
treaty of Beaulieu (5th of May 1576), and with the support of the
Jesuits proceeded to form a "holy league" for the defence of the Roman
Catholic Church. The terms of enrolment enjoined offensive action
against all who refused to join. This association had been preceded by
various provincial leagues among the Catholics, notably one at Péronne.
Condé had been imposed on this town as governor by the terms of the
peace, and the local nobility banded together to resist him. This, like
the Holy League itself, was political as well as religious in its aims,
and was partly inspired by revolt against the royal authority. In the
direction of the League Guise was hampered by Philip of Spain, who
subsidized the movement, while he also had to submit to the dictation of
the Parisian democracy. Ulterior ambitions were freely ascribed to him.
It was asserted that papers seized from his envoy to Rome, Jean David,
revealed a definite design of substituting the Lorraines, who
represented themselves as the successors of Charlemagne, for the Valois;
but these papers were probably a Huguenot forgery. Henry III. eventually
placed himself at the head of the League, and resumed the war against
the Huguenots; but on the conclusion of peace (September 1577) he seized
the opportunity of disbanding the Catholic associations. The king's
jealousy of Guise increased with the duke's popularity, but he did not
venture on an open attack, nor did he dare to avenge the murder by
Guise's partisans of one of his personal favourites, Saint-Mégrin, who
had been set on by the court to compromise the reputation of the duchess
of Guise.[1]

Meanwhile the duke had entered on an equivocal alliance with Don John of
Austria. He was also in constant correspondence with Mary of Lorraine,
and meditated a descent on Scotland in support of the Catholic cause.
But the great riches of the Guises were being rapidly dissipated, and in
1578 the duke became a pensioner of Philip II. When in 1584 the death of
the duke of Anjou made Henry of Navarre the next heir to the throne, the
prospect of a Huguenot dynasty roused the Catholics to forget their
differences, and led to the formation of a new league of the Catholic
nobles. At the end of the same year Guise and his brother, the duke of
Mayenne, with the assent of other Catholic nobles, signed a treaty at
Joinville with Philip II., fixing the succession to the crown on
Charles, cardinal of Bourbon, to the exclusion of the Protestant princes
of his house. In March 1585 the chiefs of the League issued the
Declaration of Péronne, exposing their grievances against the government
and announcing their intention to restore the dignity of religion by
force of arms. On the refusal of Henry III. to accept Spanish help
against his Huguenot subjects, war broke out. The chief cities of France
declared for the League, and Guise, who had recruited his forces in
Germany and Switzerland, took up his headquarters at Châlons, while
Mayenne occupied Dijon, and his relatives, the dukes of Elbeuf, Aumale
and Mercoeur,[2] roused Normandy and Brittany. Henry III. accepted, or
feigned to accept, the terms imposed by the Guises at Nemours (7th of
July 1585). The edicts in favour of the Huguenots were immediately
revoked. Guise added to his reputation as the Catholic champion by
defeating the German auxiliaries of the Huguenots at Vimory (October
1587) and Auneau (November 1587). The protestations of loyalty to Henry
III. which had marked the earlier manifestoes of the League were
modified. Obedience to the king was now stated to depend on his giving
proof of Catholic zeal and showing no favour to heresy. In April 1588
Guise arrived in Paris, where he put himself at the head of the Parisian
mob, and on the 12th of May, known as the Day of the Barricades, he
actually had the crown within his grasp. He refused to treat with
Catherine de' Medici, who was prepared to make peace at any cost, but
restrained the populace from revolution and permitted Henry to escape
from Paris. Henry came to terms with the League in May, and made Guise
lieutenant-general of the royal armies. The estates-general, which were
assembled at Blois, were devoted to the Guise interest, and alarmed the
king by giving voice to the political as well as the religious
aspirations of the League. Guise remained at the court of Blois after
receiving repeated warnings that Henry meditated treason. On the 25th of
December he was summoned to the king's chamber during a sitting of the
royal council, and was murdered by assassins carefully posted by Henry
III. himself. The cardinal of Lorraine was murdered in prison on the
next day. The history of the Guises thenceforward centres in the duke of
Mayenne (q.v.).

  By his wife, Catherine of Cleves, the third duke had fourteen
  children: among them Charles, 4th duke of Guise (1571-1640); Claude,
  duke of Chevreuse (1578-1657), whose wife, Marie de Rohan, duchess of
  Chevreuse, became famous for her intrigues; Louis (1585-1621), 3rd
  cardinal of Guise, archbishop of Reims, remembered for his liaison
  with Charlotte des Essarts, mistress of Henry IV.

CHARLES, 4th duke of Guise (1571-1640), was imprisoned for three years
after his father's death. He married Henriette Catherine de Joyeuse,
widow of the duke of Montpensier. His eldest son predeceased him, and he
was succeeded by his second son HENRY (1614-1664), who had been
archbishop of Reims, but renounced the ecclesiastical estate and became
5th duke. He made an attempt (1647) on the crown of Naples, and was a
prisoner in Spain from 1648 to 1652. A second expedition to Naples in
1654 was a fiasco. He was succeeded by his nephew, LOUIS JOSEPH
(1650-1671), as 6th duke. With his son, FRANCIS JOSEPH (1670-1675), the
line failed; and the title and estates passed to his great-aunt, Marie
of Lorraine, duchess of Guise (1615-1688), daughter of the 4th duke, and
with her the title became extinct. The title is now vested in the family
of the Bourbon-Orleans princes.


GENEALOGICAL TABLE OF THE HOUSE OF GUISE

  René II. (who united the two branches of the house of Lorraine), duke
  of Lorraine, and Philippa of Gelderland, had (besides two older boys
  who died in childhood, and four unmarried daughters)

                                                  |
             +--------------+--------------+------+-----+------------+-----------+
             |              |              |            |            |           |
         Antoine,        Claude,         John,        Ferri,       Louis,     Francis,
         duke of       1st duke of   1st cardinal   killed at    killed at   killed at
        Lorraine,        Guise,      of Lorraine.   Marignano.     Naples.     Pavia.
         +1544,          +1550,
       ancestor of    = Antoinette
      the dukes of     of Bourbon.
    Lorraine and the        |
   house of Mercoeur.       |
                            |
       +--------------+------------+-------------+------------+----------+------------+---------+
       |              |            |             |            |          |            |         |
    Francis,       Charles,      Claude,       Louis,      Francis,    René,      Marie =      And
  2nd duke of   2nd cardinal   marquis of  1st cardinal     grand     marquis   (1) duke of    five
     Guise,     of Lorraine,  Mayenne and    of Guise,      prior.   of Elbeuf, Longueville,  others.
     +1563.        +1574.     and duke of      +1578                   +1566.   (2) James V.
   = Anne of                    Aumale,                                  |      of Scotland.
     Este.                      +1573.                                   |           |
       |                  = Louise de Brézé.                             |      Mary Stuart,
       |                           |                                     |        queen of
       |                        Charles,                              Charles,     Scots.
       |                    duke of Aumale,                       duke of Elbeuf,
       |                        +1631.                                +1605.
       |
       +----+-------------+-------------+----------------+-------------------+
            |             |             |                |                   |
          Henry,       Charles,       Louis,         Catherine =      And five others.
        3rd duke,      duke of     2nd cardinal   Louis de Bourbon,
          +1588        Mayenne,      of Guise,        duke of
        =Catherine      +1611.        +1588.        Montpensier.
        of Cleves         |
        (and had          |
       14 children).      |
            |           Henry,
            |      duke of Mayenne,
            |           +1621.
            |
            ---+--------------------+-------------------------+---------------------+
               |                    |                         |                     |
            Charles,             Claude,                    Louis,          And eleven more.
       4th duke of Guise,   duke of Chevreuse,      3rd cardinal of Guise,
             +1640.         = Marie de Rohan,               +1621.
               |       widow of the duke of Luynes.
               |
               +------------------------+-------------------------+------------------+
               |                        |                         |                  |
             Henry,                   Marie,                    Louis,           And eight
      archbishop of Reims,    called Mlle. de Guise,   chevalier of Guise and      more.
         and 5th duke,        succeeded to the duchy       duke of Joyeuse,
            +1664.            in 1675 and sold her              +1654.
                            rights to Louis Augustus,             |
                                 duke of Maine.              Louis-Joseph,
                                                           6th duke of Guise,
                                                                +1671.
                                                                  |
                                                            Francis-Joseph,
                                                      7th and last duke of Guise,
                                                                +1675.

  AUTHORITIES.--A number of contemporary documents relating to the
  Guises are included by L. Cimber and F. Danjou in their _Archives
  curieuses de l'histoire de France_ (Paris, 1834, &c.). Vol. iii.
  contains a soldier's diary of the siege of Metz, first published in
  Italian (Lyons, 1553), accounts of the sieges of Calais (Tours, 1558).
  of Thionville (Paris, 1558); vol. iv. an account of the tumult of
  Amboise from the _Mémoires_ of Condé, and four accounts of the affair
  of Vassy; vol. v. four accounts of the battle of Dreux, one dictated
  by Guise, and accounts of the murder of Guise; vol. xi. accounts of
  the Parisian revolution of 1558; and vol. xii. numerous pamphlets and
  pieces dealing with the murder of Henry of Guise and his brother. An
  account of the murder of Guise and of the subsequent measures taken by
  Mayenne, which was supplied by the Venetian ambassador, G. Mocenigo,
  to his government, is printed by H. Brown in the _Eng. Hist. Rev._
  (April 1895). For the foreign policy of the Guises, and especially
  their relations with Scotland, there is abundant material in the
  English _Calendar of State Papers_ of Queen Elizabeth (Foreign Series)
  and in the correspondence of Cardinal Granvella. The memoirs of
  Francis, duke of Guise, covering the years 1547 to 1563, were
  published by Michel and Poujoulat in series 1, vol. iv. of their
  _Coll. de mémoires_. Among contemporary memoirs see especially those
  of the prince of Condé, of Blaise de Monluc and of Gaspard de
  Saulx-Tavannes. See also _La Vie de F. de Lorraine, duc de Guise_
  (Paris, 1681), by J. B. H. du Trousset de Valincourt; A. de Ruble,
  _L'Assassinat de F. de Lorraine, duc de Guise_ (1897), where there is
  a list of the MS. sources available for a history of the house; R. de
  Bouillé, _Hist. des ducs de Guise_ (4 vols., 1849); H. Forneron, _Les
  Guise et leur époque_ (2 vols., 1887).


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] This incident supplied Alexandre Dumas _père_ with the subject of
    his _Henri III et sa cour_ (1829).

  [2] Philippe-Emmanuel of Lorraine, duke of Mercoeur, a cadet of
    Lorraine and brother of Louise de Vaudémont, Henry III.'s queen. His
    wife, Mary of Luxemburg, descended from the dukes of Brittany, and he
    was made governor of the province in 1582. He aspired to separate
    sovereignty, and called his son prince and duke of Brittany.



GUITAR (Fr. _guitarre_, Ger. _Guitarre_, Ital. _chitarra_, Span.
_guitarra_), a musical instrument strung with gut strings twanged by the
fingers, having a body with a flat back and graceful incurvations in
complete contrast to the members of the family of lute (i.e.), whose
back is vaulted. The construction of the instrument is of paramount
importance in assigning to the guitar its true position in the history
of musical instruments, midway between the cithara (i.e.) and the
violin. The medieval stringed instruments with neck fall into two
classes, characterized mainly by the construction of the body: (1) Those
which, like their archetype the cithara, had a body composed of a flat
or delicately arched back and soundboard joined by ribs. (2) Those
which, like the lyre, had a body consisting of a vaulted back over which
was glued a flat soundboard without the intermediary of ribs; this
method of construction predominates among Oriental Instruments and is
greatly inferior to the first. A striking proof of this inferiority is
afforded by the fact that instruments with vaulted backs, such as the
rebab or rebec, although extensively represented during the middle ages
in all parts of Europe by numerous types, have shown but little or no
development during the course of some twelve centuries, and have dropped
out one by one from the realm of practical music without leaving a
single survivor. The guitar must be referred to the first of these
classes.

[Illustration: Notation.]

[Illustration: Real Sounds.]

The back and ribs of the guitar are of maple, ash or cherry-wood,
frequently inlaid with rose-wood, mother-of-pearl, tortoise-shell, &c.,
while the soundboard is of pine and has one large ornamental rose sound
hole. The bridge, to which the strings are fastened, is of ebony with an
ivory nut which determines the one end of the vibrating strings, while
the nut at the end of the fingerboard determines the other. The neck and
fingerboard are made of hard wood, such as ebony, beech or pear. The
head, bent back from the neck at an obtuse angle contains two parallel
barrels or long holes through which the pegs or metal screws pass, three
on each side of the head. The correct positions for stopping the
intervals are marked on the fingerboard by little metal ridges called
frets. The modern guitar has six strings, three of gut and three of silk
covered with silver wire, tuned as shown. To the thumb are assigned the
three deepest strings, while the first, second and third fingers are
used to twang the highest strings. It is generally stated that the sixth
or lowest string was added in 1790 by Jacob August Otto of Jena, who was
the first in Germany to take up the construction of guitars after their
introduction from Italy in 1788 by the duchess Amalie of Weimar. Otto[1]
states that it was Capellmeister Naumann of Dresden who requested him to
make him a guitar with six strings by adding the low E, a spun wire
string. The original guitar brought from Italy by the duchess Amalie had
five strings,[2] the lowest A being the only one covered with wire. Otto
also covered the D in order to increase the fulness of the tone. In
Spain six-stringed guitars and vihuelas were known in the 16th century;
they are described by Juan Bermudo[3] and others.[4] The lowest string
was tuned to G. Other Spanish guitars of the same period had four, five
or seven strings or courses of strings in pairs of unisons. They were
always twanged by the fingers.

[Illustration: From Juan Bermudo.

FIG. 1.--Spanish Guitar with seven Strings. 1555. _Vihuela da Mano_.]

  The guitar is derived from the cithara[5] both structurally and
  etymologically. It is usually asserted that the guitar was introduced
  into Spain by the Arabs, but this statement is open to the gravest
  doubts. There is no trace among the instruments of the Arabs known to
  us of any similar to the guitar in construction or shape, although a
  guitar (fig. 2) with slight incurvations was known to the ancient
  Egyptians.[6] There is also extant a fine example of the guitar, with
  ribs and incurvations and a long neck provided with numerous frets, on
  a Hittite bas-relief on the dromos at Euyuk (_c_. 1000 B.C.) in
  Cappadocia.[7] Unless other monuments of much later date should come
  to light showing guitars with ribs, we shall be justified in assuming
  that the instrument, which required skill in construction, died out in
  Egypt and in Asia before the days of classic Greece, and had to be
  evolved anew from the cithara by the Greeks of Asia Minor. That the
  evolution should take place within the Byzantine Empire or in Syria
  would be quite consistent with the traditions of the Greeks and their
  veneration for the cithara, which would lead them to adapt the neck
  and other improvements to it, rather than adopt the rebab, the tanbur
  or the barbiton from the Persians or Arabians. This is, in fact, what
  seems to have taken place. It is true that in the 14th century in an
  enumeration of musical instruments by the Archipreste de Hita, a
  _guitarra morisca_ is mentioned and unfavourably compared with the
  _guitarra latina_; moreover, the Arabs of the present day still use an
  instrument called _kuitra_ (which in N. Africa would be guithara), but
  it has a vaulted back, the body being like half a pear with a long
  neck; the strings are twanged by means of a quill. The Arab instrument
  therefore belongs to a different class, and to admit the instrument as
  the ancestor of the Spanish guitar would be tantamount to deriving the
  guitar from the lute.[8]

  By piecing together various indications given by Spanish writers, we
  obtain a clue to the identity of the medieval instruments, which, in
  the absence of absolute proof, is entitled to serious consideration.
  From Bermudo's work, quoted above, we learn that the guitar and the
  _vihuela da mano_ were practically identical, differing only in
  accordance and occasionally in the number of strings.[9] Three kinds
  of vihuelas were known in Spain during the middle ages, distinguished
  by the qualifying phrases _da arco_ (with bow), _da mano_ (by hand),
  _da penola_ (with quill). Spanish scholars[10] who have inquired into
  this question of identity state that the _guitarra latina_ was
  afterwards known as the _vihuela da mano_, a statement fully supported
  by other evidence. As the Arab _kuitra_ was known to be played by
  means of a quill, we shall not be far wrong in identifying it with the
  _vihuela da penola_. The word _vihuela_ or _vigola_ is connected with
  the Latin _fidicula_ or _fides_, a stringed instrument mentioned by
  Cicero[11] as being made from the wood of the plane-tree and having
  many strings. The remaining link in the chain of identification is
  afforded by St Isidore, bishop of Seville in the 7th century, who
  states that fidicula was another name for cithara, "Veteres aut
  citharas fidicula vel fidice nominaverunt."[12] The fidicula therefore
  was the cithara, either in its original classical form or in one of
  the transitions which transformed it into the guitar. The existence of
  a superior _guitarra latina_ side by side with the _guitarra morisca_
  is thus explained. It was derived directly from the classical cithara
  introduced by the Romans into Spain, the archetype of the structural
  beauty which formed the basis of the perfect proportions and delicate
  structure of the violin. In an inventory[13] made by Philip van Wilder
  of the musical instruments which had belonged to Henry VIII. is the
  following item bearing on the question: "foure gitterons with iiii.
  cases _they are called Spanishe Vialles_." _Vial_ or _viol_ was the
  English equivalent of _vihuela_. The transitions whereby the cithara
  acquired a neck and became a guitar are shown in the miniatures (fig.
  3) of a single MS., the celebrated Utrecht Psalter, which gave rise to
  so many discussions. The Utrecht Psalter was executed in the diocese
  of Reims in the 9th century, and the miniatures, drawn by an
  Anglo-Saxon artist attached to the Reims school, are unique, and
  illustrate the Psalter, psalm by psalm. It is evident that the
  Anglo-Saxon artist, while endowed with extraordinary talent and vivid
  imagination, drew his inspiration from an older Greek illustrated
  Psalter from the Christian East,[14] where the evolution of the guitar
  took place.

  [Illustration: From Denon's _Voyage in Egypt_.

  FIG. 2.--Ancient Egyptian Guitar. 1700 to 1200 B.C.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 3.--Instrumentalists from the Utrecht Psalter, 9th
  century: (a) The bass rotta, first transition of cithara in (C);
  (b, c, d), Transitions showing the addition of neck to the body of
  the cithara.]

  [Illustration: From Dr H. Janitschek's _Geschichte der deutschen
  Malerei_.

  FIG. 4.--Representation of a European Guitar. A.D. 1180.]

  One of the earliest representations (fig. 4) of a guitar in Western
  Europe occurs in a Passionale from Zwifalten A.D. 1180, now in the
  Royal Library at Stuttgart.[15] St Pelagia seated on an ass holds a
  rotta, or cithara in transition, while one of the men-servants leading
  her ass holds her guitar. Both instruments have three strings and the
  characteristic guitar outline with incurvations, the rotta differing
  in having no neck. Mersenne[16] writing early in the 17th century
  describes and figures two Spanish guitars, one with four, the other
  with five strings; the former had a cittern head, the latter the
  straight head bent back at an obtuse angle from the neck, as in the
  modern instrument; he gives the Italian, French and Spanish tablatures
  which would seem to show that the guitar already enjoyed a certain
  vogue in France and Italy as well as in Spain. Mersenne states that
  the proportions of the guitar demand that the length of the neck from
  shoulder to nut shall be equal to the length of the body from the
  centre of the rose to the tail end. From this time until the middle of
  the 19th century the guitar enjoyed great popularity on the continent,
  and became the fashionable instrument in England after the Peninsular
  War, mainly through the virtuosity of Ferdinand Sor, who also wrote
  compositions for it. This popularity of the guitar was due less to its
  merits as a solo instrument than to the ease with which it could be
  mastered sufficiently to accompany the voice. The advent of the
  Spanish guitar in England led to the wane in the popularity of the
  cittern, also known at that time in contradistinction as the English
  or wire-strung guitar, although the two instruments differed in many
  particulars. As further evidence of the great popularity of the guitar
  all over Europe may be instanced the extraordinary number of books
  extant on the instrument, giving instructions how to play the guitar
  and read the tablature.[17]     (K. S.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] _Über den Bau der Bogeninstrumente_ (Jena, 1828), pp. 94 and 95.

  [2] See Pietro Millioni, _Vero e facil modo d' imparare a sonare et
    accordare da se medesimo la chitarra spagnola_, with illustration
    (Rome, 1637).

  [3] _Declaracion de instrumentos musicales_ (Ossuna, 1555), fol.
    xciii. _b_ and fol. xci. _a_. See also illustration of _vihuela da
    mano_.

  [4] See also G. G. Kapsperger, _Libro primo di Villanelle con l'
    infavolutura del chitarone et alfabeto per la chitarra spagnola_
    (three books, Rome, 1610-1623).

  [5] See Kathleen Schlesinger, _The Instruments of the Orchestra_,
    part ii. "Precursors of the Violin Family," pp. 230-248.

  [6] See Denon's _Voyage in Egypt_ (London, 1807, pl. 55).

  [7] Illustrated from a drawing in Perrot and Chipiez, "Judée
    Sardaigne, Syrie, Cappadoce." Vol. iv. of _Hist. de l'art dans
    l'antiquité_, Paris, 1887, p. 670. Also see plate from a photograph
    by Prof. John Garstang, in Kathleen Schlesinger, _op. cit._

  [8] See Biernath, _Die Guitarre_ (1908).

  [9] See also Luys Milan, _Libro de musica de vihuela da mano,
    Intitulado Il Maestro_, where the accordance is D, G, C, E, A, D from
    bass to treble.

  [10] Mariano Soriano, _Fuertes Historia de la musica española_
    (Madrid, 1855), i. 105, and iv. 208, &c.

  [11] _De natura deorum_, ii. 8, 22.

  [12] See _Etymologiarium_, lib. iii., cap. 21.

  [13] See British Museum, Harleian MS. 1419, fol. 200.

  [14] The literature of the Utrecht Psalter embraces a large number of
    books and pamphlets in many languages of which the principal are here
    given: Professor J. O. Westwood, _Facsimiles of the Miniatures and
    Ornaments of Anglo-Saxon and Irish MSS._ (London, 1868); Sir Thos.
    Duffus-Hardy, _Report on the Athanasian Creed in connection with the
    Utrecht Psalter_ (London, 1872); _Report on the Utrecht Psalter_,
    addressed to the Trustees of the British Museum (London, 1874); Sir
    Thomas Duffus-Hardy, _Further Report on the Utrecht Psalter_ (London,
    1874); Walter de Gray Birch, _The History, Art and Palaeography of
    the MS. styled the Utrecht Psalter_ (London, 1876); Anton Springer,
    "Die Psalterillustrationen im frühen Mittelalter mit besonderer
    Rücksicht auf den Utrecht Psalter," _Abhandlungen der kgl. sächs.
    Ges. d. Wissenschaften, phil.-hist. Klasse_, Bd. viii. pp. 187-296,
    with 10 facsimile plates in autotype from the MS.; Adolf Goldschmidt,
    "Der Utrecht Psalter," in _Repertorium für Kunstwissenschaft_, Bd.
    xv. (Stuttgart, 1892), pp. 156-166; Franz Friedrich Leitschuh,
    _Geschichte der karolingischen Malerei, ihr Bilderkreis und seine
    Quellen_ (Berlin, 1894), pp. 321-330; Adolf Goldschmidt, _Der Albani
    Psalter in Hildesheim_, &c. (Berlin, 1895); Paul Durrieu, _L'Origine
    du MS. célèbre dit le Psaultier d'Utrecht_ (Paris, 1895); Hans
    Graeven, "Die Vorlage des Utrecht Psalters," paper read before the
    XI. International Oriental Congress, Paris, 1897. See also
    _Repertorium für Kunstwissenschaft_ (Stuttgart, 1898), Bd. xxi. pp.
    28-35; J. J. Tikkanen, _Abendländische Psalter-Illustration im
    Mittelalter_, part iii. "Der Utrecht Psalter" (Helsingfors, 1900),
    320 pp. and 77 ills. (Professor Tikkanen now accepts the Greek or
    Syrian origin of the Utrecht Psalter); Georg Swarzenski, "Die
    karolingische Malerei und Plastik in Reims." in _Jahrbuch d. kgl.
    preussischen Kunstsammlungen_, Bd. xxiii. (Berlin, 1902), pp. 81-100;
    Ormonde M. Dalton, "The Crystal of Lothair," in _Archäologie_, vol.
    lix. (1904); Kathleen Schlesinger, _The Instruments of the
    Orchestra_, part ii. "The Precursors of the Violin Family," chap.
    viii. "The Question of the Origin of the Utrecht Psalter," pp.
    352-382 (with illustrations), where all the foregoing are summarized.

  [15] Reproduced in Hubert Janitschek's _Geschichte der deutschen
    Malerei_, Bd. iii. of _Gesch. der deutschen Kunst_ (Berlin, 1890), p.
    118.

  [16] _Harmonie universelle_ (Paris, 1636), livre ii. prop. xiv.

  [17] See C. F. Becker, _Darstellung der musik. Literatur_ (Leipzig,
    1836); and Wilhelm Tappert, "Zur Geschichte der Guitarre," in
    _Monatshefte für Musikgeschichte_ (Berlin, 1882), No. 5. pp. 77-85.



GUITAR FIDDLE (_Troubadour Fiddle_), a modern name bestowed
retrospectively upon certain precursors of the violin possessing
characteristics of both guitar and fiddle. The name "guitar fiddle" is
intended to emphasize the fact that the instrument in the shape of the
guitar, which during the middle ages represented the most perfect
principle of construction for stringed instruments with necks, adopted
at a certain period the use of the bow from instruments of a less
perfect type, the rebab and its hybrids. The use of the bow with the
guitar entailed certain constructive changes in the instrument: the
large central rose sound-hole was replaced by lateral holes of various
shapes; the flat bridge, suitable for instruments whose strings were
plucked, gave place to the arched bridge required in order to enable the
bow to vibrate each string separately; the arched bridge, by raising the
strings higher above the soundboard, made the stopping of strings on the
neck extremely difficult if not impossible; this matter was adjusted by
the addition of a finger-board of suitable shape and dimensions (fig.
1). At this stage the guitar fiddle possesses the essential features of
the violin, and may justly claim to be its immediate predecessor[1] not
so much through the viols which were the outcome of the Minnesinger
fiddle with sloping shoulders, as through the intermediary of the
Italian _lyra_, a guitar-shaped bowed instrument with from 7 to 12
strings.

[Illustration: From Ruhlmann's _Geschichte der Bogeninstrumente_.

FIG. 1.--Typical Alto Guitar Fiddle, 15th century (Pinakothek, Munich).]

  From such evidence as we now possess, it would seem that the evolution
  of the early guitar with a neck from the Greek cithara took place
  under Greek influence in the Christian East. The various stages of
  this transition have been definitely established by the remarkable
  miniatures of the Utrecht Psalter.[2] Two kinds of citharas are shown:
  the antique rectangular,[3] and the later design with rounded body
  having at the point where the arms are added indications of the waist
  or incurvations characteristic of the outline of the Spanish
  guitar.[4] The first stage in the transition is shown by a cithara or
  rotta[5] in which arms and transverse bar are replaced by a kind of
  frame repeating the outline of the body and thus completing the second
  lobe of the Spanish guitar. The next stages in the transition are
  concerned with the addition of a neck[6] and of frets.[7] All these
  instruments are twanged by the fingers. One may conclude that the use
  of the bow was either unknown at this time (c. 6th century A.D.), or
  that it was still confined to instruments of the rebab type. The
  earliest known representation of a guitar fiddle complete with bow[8]
  (fig. 2) occurs in a Greek Psalter written and illuminated in Caesarea
  by the archpriest Theodorus in 1066 (British Museum, Add. MS. 19352).
  Instances of perfect guitar fiddles abound in the 13th century MSS.
  and monuments, as for instance in a picture by Cimabue (1240-1302). in
  the Pitti Gallery in Florence.[9]

  [Illustration: From a Byzantine MS. in the British Museum.

  FIG. 2.--Earliest example of the Guitar Fiddle. A.D. 1066.]

  An evolution on parallel lines appears also to have taken place from
  the antique rectangular cithara[10] of the _citharoedes_, which was a
  favourite in Romano-Christian art.[11] In this case examples
  illustrative of the transitions are found represented in great variety
  in Europe. The old German rotta[12] of the 6th century preserved in
  the Völker Museum, Berlin, and the instruments played by King David in
  two early Anglo-Saxon illuminated MSS., one a Psalter (Cotton MS.
  Vesp. A. i. British Museum) finished in A.D. 700, the other "A
  Commentary on the Psalms by Cassiodorus _manu Bedae_" of the 8th
  century preserved in the Cathedral Library at Durham[13] form examples
  of the first stage of transition. From such types as these the
  rectangular _crwth_ or crowd was evolved by the addition of a
  finger-board and the reduction in the number of strings, which follows
  as a natural consequence as soon as an extended compass can be
  obtained by stopping the strings. By the addition of a neck we obtain
  the clue to the origin of rectangular citterns with rounded corners
  and of certain instruments played with the bow whose bodies or
  sound-chests have an outline based upon the rectangle with various
  modifications. We may not look upon this type of guitar fiddle as due
  entirely to western or southern European initiative; its origin like
  that of the type approximating to the violin is evidently Byzantine.
  It is found among the frescoes which cover walls and barrel vaults in
  the palace of Kosseir 'Amra,[14] believed to be that of Caliph Walid
  II. (A.D. 744) of the Omayyad dynasty, or of Prince Ahmad, the
  Abbasid (862-866). The instrument, a cittern with four strings, is
  being played by a bear. Other examples occur in the Stuttgart
  Carolingian Psalter[15] (10th century); in MS. 1260 (Bibl. Imp. Paris)
  _Tristan and Yseult_; as guitar fiddle in the Liber Regalis preserved
  in Westminster Abbey (14th century); in the Sforza Book[16]
  (1444-1476), the Book of Hours executed for Bona of Savoy, wife of
  Galeazzo Maria Sforza; on one of the carvings of the 13th century in
  the Cathedral of Amiens. It has also been painted by Italian artists
  of the 15th and 16th centuries.     (K. S.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] See "The Precursors of the Violin Family," by Kathleen
    Schlesinger, part ii. of _An Illustrated Handbook on the Instruments
    of the Orchestra_ (London, 1908), chs. ii. and x.

  [2] See Kathleen Schlesinger, _op. cit._ part ii., the "Utrecht
    Psalter," pp. 127-135, and the "Question of the Origin of the Utrecht
    Psalter," pp. 136-166, where the subject is discussed and
    illustrated.

  [3] _Idem_, see pl. vi. (2) to the right centre.

  [4] _Idem_, see pl. iii. centre and figs. 118 and 119.

  [5] _Idem_, see fig. 117, p. 341, and figs. 172 and 116.

  [6] _Idem_, see fig. 121, p. 246, figs. 122, 123, 125 and 126 pl.
    iii. vi. (1) and (2).

  [7] _Idem_, see fig. 126, p. 350, and pl. iii. right centre.

  [8] _Idem_, see fig. 173, p. 448.

  [9] _Idem_, see fig. 205, p. 480.

  [10] See _Museo Pio Clementino_, by Visconti (Milan, 1818).

  [11] See for example _Georgics_, iv. 471-475 in the Vatican Virgil
    (Cod. 3225), in facsimile (Rome, 1899) (British Museum press-mark 8,
    tab. f. vol. ii.).

  [12] This rotta was found in an Alamannic tomb of the 4th to the 7th
    centuries at Oberflacht in the Black Forest. A facsimile is preserved
    in the collection of the Kgl. Hochschule, Berlin, illustrations in
    "Grabfunde am Berge Lupfen bei Oberflacht, 1846," _Jahresberichte d.
    Württemb. Altertums-Vereins_, iii. (Stuttgart, 1846), tab. viii. also
    Kathleen Schlesinger, _op. cit._ part ii. fig. 168 (drawing from the
    facsimile).

  [13] Reproductions of both miniatures are to be found in Professor J.
    O. Westwood's _Facsimiles of the Miniatures and Ornaments of
    Anglo-Saxon and Irish MSS._ (London, 1868).

  [14] An illustration occurs in the fine publication of the Austrian
    Academy of Sciences, _Kusejr 'Amra_ (Vienna, 1907, pl. xxxiv.).

  [15] See reproduction of some of the miniatures in Jacob and H. von
    Hefner-Alteneck, _Trachten des christlichen Mittelalters_ (Darmstadt.
    1840-1854, 3 vols.), and in _Trachten, Kunstwerke und Gerätschaften
    vom frühen Mittelalter_ (Frankfort-on-Main, 1879-1890),

  [16] Add. MS. 34294, British Museum, vol. ii. fol. 83, 161, vol. iii.
    fol. 402, vol. iv. fols. 534 and 667.



GUITRY, LUCIEN GERMAIN (1860-   ), French actor, was born in Paris. He
became prominent on the French stage at the Porte Saint-Martin theatre
in 1900, and the Variétés in 1901, and then became a member of the
Comédie Française, but he resigned very soon in order to become director
of the Renaissance, where he was principally associated with the actress
Marthe Brandès, who had also left the Comédie. Here he established his
reputation, in a number of plays, as the greatest contemporary French
actor in the drama of modern reality.



GUIZOT, FRANÇOIS PIERRE GUILLAUME (1787-1874), historian, orator and
statesman, was born at Nîmes on the 4th of October 1787, of an
honourable Protestant family belonging to the _bourgeoisie_ of that
city. It is characteristic of the cruel disabilities which still weighed
upon the Protestants of France before the Revolution, that his parents,
at the time of their union, could not be publicly or legally married by
their own pastors, and that the ceremony was clandestine. The liberal
opinions of his family did not, however, save it from the sanguinary
intolerance of the Reign of Terror, and on the 8th April 1794 his father
perished at Nîmes upon the scaffold. Thenceforth the education of the
future minister devolved entirely upon his mother, a woman of slight
appearance and of homely manners, but endowed with great strength of
character and clearness of judgment. Madame Guizot was a living type of
the Huguenots of the 16th century, stern in her principles and her
faith, immovable in her convictions and her sense of duty. She formed
the character of her illustrious son and shared every vicissitude of his
life. In the days of his power her simple figure, always clad in deep
mourning for her martyred husband, was not absent from the splendid
circle of his political friends. In the days of his exile in 1848 she
followed him to London, and there at a very advanced age closed her life
and was buried at Kensal Green. Driven from Nîmes by the Revolution,
Madame Guizot and her son repaired to Geneva, where he received his
education. In spite of her decided Calvinistic opinions, the theories of
Rousseau, then much in fashion, were not without their influence on
Madame Guizot. She was a strong Liberal, and she even adopted the notion
inculcated in the _Émile_ that every man ought to learn a manual trade
or craft. Young Guizot was taught to be a carpenter, and he so far
succeeded in his work that he made a table with his own hands, which is
still preserved. Of the progress of his graver studies little is known,
for in the work which he entitled _Memoirs of my own Times_ Guizot
omitted all personal details of his earlier life. But his literary
attainments must have been precocious and considerable, for when he
arrived in Paris in 1805 to pursue his studies in the faculty of laws,
he entered at eighteen as tutor into the family of M. Stapfer, formerly
Swiss minister in France, and he soon began to write in a journal edited
by M. Suard, the _Publiciste_. This connexion introduced him to the
literary society of Paris. In October 1809, being then twenty-two, he
wrote a review of M. de Chateaubriand's _Martyrs_, which procured for
him the approbation and cordial thanks of that eminent person, and he
continued to contribute largely to the periodical press. At Suard's he
had made the acquaintance of Pauline Meulan, an accomplished lady of
good family, some fourteen years older than himself, who had been forced
by the hardships of the Revolution to earn her living by literature, and
who also was engaged to contribute a series of articles to Suard's
journal. These contributions were interrupted by her illness, but
immediately resumed and continued by an unknown hand. It was discovered
that François Guizot had quietly supplied the deficiency on her behalf.
The acquaintance thus begun ripened into friendship and love, and in
1812 Mademoiselle de Meulan consented to marry her youthful ally. She
died in 1827; she was the author of many esteemed works on female
education. An only son, born in 1819, died in 1837 of consumption. In
1828 Guizot married Elisa Dillon, niece of his first wife, and also an
author. She died in 1833, leaving a son, Maurice Guillaume (1833-1892),
who attained some reputation as a scholar and writer.

During the empire, Guizot, entirely devoted to literary pursuits,
published a collection of French synonyms (1809), an essay on the fine
arts (1811), and a translation of Gibbon with additional notes in 1812.
These works recommended him to the notice of M. de Fontanes, then
grand-master of the university of France, who selected Guizot for the
chair of modern history at the Sorbonne in 1812. His first lecture
(which is reprinted in his _Memoirs_) was delivered on the 11th of
December of that year. The customary compliment to the all-powerful
emperor he declined to insert in it, in spite of the hints given him by
his patron, but the course which followed marks the beginning of the
great revival of historical research in France in the 19th century. He
had now acquired a considerable position in the society of Paris, and
the friendship of Royer-Collard and the leading members of the liberal
party, including the young duc de Broglie. Absent from Paris at the
moment of the fall of Napoleon in 1814, he was at once selected, on the
recommendation of Royer-Collard, to serve the government of Louis XVIII.
in the capacity of secretary-general of the ministry of the interior,
under the abbé de Montesquiou. Upon the return of Napoleon from Elba he
immediately resigned, on the 25th of March 1815 (the statement that he
retained office under General Carnot is incorrect), and returned to his
literary pursuits. After the Hundred Days, he repaired to Ghent, where
he saw Louis XVIII., and in the name of the liberal party pointed out to
his majesty that a frank adoption of a liberal policy could alone secure
the duration of the restored monarchy--advice which was ill-received by
M. de Blacas and the king's confidential advisers. This visit to Ghent,
at the time when France was a prey to a second invasion, was made a
subject of bitter reproach to Guizot in after life by his political
opponents, as an unpatriotic action. "The Man of Ghent" was one of the
terms of insult frequently hurled against him in the days of his power.
But the reproach appears to be wholly unfounded. The true interests of
France were not in the defence of the falling empire, but in
establishing a liberal policy on a monarchical basis and in combating
the reactionary tendencies of the ultra-royalists. It is at any rate a
remarkable circumstance that a young professor of twenty-seven, with
none of the advantages of birth or political experience, should have
been selected to convey so important a message to the ears of the king
of France, and a proof, if any were wanting, that the Revolution had, as
Guizot said, "done its work."

On the second restoration, Guizot was appointed secretary-general of the
ministry of justice under M. de Barbé-Marbois, but resigned with his
chief in 1816. Again in 1819 he was appointed general director of
communes and departments in the ministry of the interior, but lost his
office with the fall of Decazes in February 1820. During these years
Guizot was one of the leaders of the _Doctrinaires_, a small party
strongly attached to the charter and the crown, and advocating a policy
which has become associated (especially by Faguet) with the name of
Guizot, that of the _juste milieu_, a _via media_ between absolutism and
popular government. Their opinions had more of the rigour of a sect than
the elasticity of a political party. Adhering to the great principles of
liberty and toleration, they were sternly opposed to the anarchical
traditions of the Revolution. They knew that the elements of anarchy
were still fermenting in the country; these they hoped to subdue, not by
reactionary measures, but by the firm application of the power of a
limited constitution, based on the suffrages of the middle class and
defended by the highest literary talent of the times. Their motives
were honourable. Their views were philosophical. But they were opposed
alike to the democratical spirit of the age, to the military traditions
of the empire, and to the bigotry and absolutism of the court. The fate
of such a party might be foreseen. They lived by a policy of resistance;
they perished by another revolution (1830). They are remembered more for
their constant opposition to popular demands than by the services they
undoubtedly rendered to the cause of temperate freedom.

In 1820, when the reaction was at its height after the murder of the duc
de Berri, and the fall of the ministry of the duc Decazes, Guizot was
deprived of his offices, and in 1822 even his course of lectures were
interdicted. During the succeeding years he played an important part
among the leaders of the liberal opposition to the government of Charles
X., although he had not yet entered parliament, and this was also the
time of his greatest literary activity. In 1822 he had published his
lectures on representative government (_Histoire des origines du
gouvernement représentatif_, 1821-1822, 2 vols.; Eng. trans. 1852); also
a work on capital punishment for political offences and several
important political pamphlets. From 1822 to 1830 he published two
important collections of historical sources, the memoirs of the history
of England in 26 volumes, and the memoirs of the history of France in 31
volumes, and a revised translation of Shakespeare, and a volume of
essays on the history of France. The most remarkable work from his own
pen was the first part of his _Histoire de la révolution d'Angleterre
depuis Charles I^er à Charles II._ (2 vols., 1826-1827; Eng. trans., 2
vols., Oxford, 1838), a book of great merit and impartiality, which he
resumed and completed during his exile in England after 1848. The
Martignac administration restored Guizot in 1828 to his professor's
chair and to the council of state. Then it was that he delivered the
celebrated courses of lectures which raised his reputation as an
historian to the highest point of fame, and placed him amongst the best
writers of France and of Europe. These lectures formed the basis of his
general _Histoire de la civilisation en Europe_ (1828; Eng. trans, by W.
Hazlitt, 3 vols., 1846), and of his _Histoire de la civilisation en
France_ (4 vols., 1830), works which must ever be regarded as classics
of modern historical research.

Hitherto Guizot's fame rested on his merits as a writer on public
affairs and as a lecturer on modern history. He had attained the age of
forty-three before he entered upon the full display of his oratorical
strength. In January 1830 he was elected for the first time by the town
of Lisieux to the chamber of deputies, and he retained that seat during
the whole of his political life. Guizot immediately assumed an important
position in the representative assembly, and the first speech he
delivered was in defence of the celebrated address of the 221, in answer
to the menacing speech from the throne, which was followed by the
dissolution of the chamber, and was the precursor of another revolution.
On his returning to Paris from Nîmes on the 27th of July, the fall of
Charles X. was already imminent. Guizot was called upon by his friends
Casimir-Périer, Laffitte, Villemain and Dupin to draw up the protest of
the liberal deputies against the royal ordinances of July, whilst he
applied himself with them to control the revolutionary character of the
late contest. Personally, Guizot was always of opinion that it was a
great misfortune for the cause of parliamentary government in France
that the infatuation and ineptitude of Charles X. and Prince Polignac
rendered a change in the hereditary line of succession inevitable. But,
though convinced that it was inevitable, he became one of the most
ardent supporters of Louis-Philippe. In August 1830 Guizot was made
minister of the interior, but resigned in November. He had now passed
into the ranks of the conservatives, and for the next eighteen years was
the most determined foe of democracy, the unyielding champion of "a
monarchy limited by a limited number of bourgeois."

In 1831 Casimir-Périer formed a more vigorous and compact
administration, which was terminated in May 1832 by his death; the
summer of that year was marked by a formidable republican rising in
Paris, and it was not till the 11th of October 1832 that a stable
government was formed, in which Marshal Soult was first minister, the
duc de Broglie took the foreign office, Thiers the home department, and
Guizot the department of public instruction. This ministry, which lasted
for nearly four years, was by far the ablest that ever served Louis
Philippe. Guizot, however, was already marked with the stigma of
unpopularity by the more advanced liberal party. He remained unpopular
all his life, "not," said he, "that I court unpopularity, but that I
think nothing about it." Yet never were his great abilities more useful
to his country than whilst he filled this office of secondary rank but
of primary importance in the department of public instruction. The
duties it imposed on him were entirely congenial to his literary tastes,
and he was master of the subjects they concerned. He applied himself in
the first instance to carry the law of the 28th of June 1833, and then
for the next three years to put it into execution. In establishing and
organizing primary education in France, this law marked a distinct epoch
in French history. In fifteen years, under its influence, the number of
primary schools rose from ten to twenty-three thousand; normal schools
for teachers, and a general system of inspection, were introduced; and
boards of education, under mixed lay and clerical authority, were
created. The secondary class of schools and the university of France
were equally the subject of his enlightened protection and care, and a
prodigious impulse was given to philosophical study and historical
research. The branch of the Institute of France known as the "Académie
des Sciences Morales et Politiques," which had been suppressed by
Napoleon, was revived by Guizot. Some of the old members of this learned
body--Talleyrand, Siéyès, Roederer and Lakanal--again took their seats
there, and a host of more recent celebrities were added by election for
the free discussion of the great problems of political and social
science. The "Société de l'Histoire de France" was founded for the
publication of historical works; and a vast publication of medieval
chronicles and diplomatic papers was undertaken at the expense of the
state (see HISTORY; and FRANCE, _History_, section _Sources_).

The object of the cabinet of October 1832 was to organize a conservative
party, and to carry on a policy of resistance to the republican faction
which threatened the existence of the monarchy. It was their pride and
their boast that their measures never exceeded the limits of the law,
and by the exercise of legal power alone they put down an insurrection
amounting to civil war in Lyons and a sanguinary revolt in Paris. The
real strength of the ministry lay not in its nominal heads, but in the
fact that in this government and this alone Guizot and Thiers acted in
cordial co-operation. The two great rivals in French parliamentary
eloquence followed for a time the same path; but neither of them could
submit to the supremacy of the other, and circumstances threw Thiers
almost continuously on a course of opposition, whilst Guizot bore the
graver responsibilities of power.

Once again indeed, in 1839, they were united, but it was in opposition
to M. Molé, who had formed an intermediate government, and this
coalition between Guizot and the leaders of the left centre and the
left, Thiers and Odilon Barrot, due to his ambition and jealousy of
Molé, is justly regarded as one of the chief inconsistencies of his
life. Victory was secured at the expense of principle, and Guizot's
attack upon the government gave rise to a crisis and a republican
insurrection. None of the three chiefs of that alliance took ministerial
office, however, and Guizot was not sorry to accept the post of
ambassador in London, which withdrew him for a time from parliamentary
contests. This was in the spring of 1840, and Thiers succeeded shortly
afterwards to the ministry of foreign affairs.

Guizot was received with marked distinction by the queen and by the
society of London. His literary works were highly esteemed, his
character was respected, and France was never more worthily represented
abroad than by one of her greatest orators. He was known to be well
versed in the history and the literature of England, and sincerely
attached to the alliance of the two nations and the cause of peace. But,
as he himself remarked, he was a stranger to England and a novice in
diplomacy; and unhappily the embroiled state of the Syrian question, on
which the French government had separated itself from the joint policy
of Europe, and possibly the absence of entire confidence between the
ambassador and the minister of foreign affairs, placed him in an
embarrassing and even false position. The warnings he transmitted to
Thiers were not believed. The warlike policy of Thiers was opposed to
his own convictions. The treaty of the 15th of July was signed without
his knowledge and executed in the teeth of his remonstrances. For some
weeks Europe seemed to be on the brink of war, until the king put an end
to the crisis by refusing his assent to the military preparations of
Thiers, and by summoning Guizot from London to form a ministry and to
aid his Majesty in what he termed "ma lutte tenace contre l'anarchie."
Thus began, under dark and adverse circumstances, on the 29th of October
1840, the important administration in which Guizot remained the
master-spirit for nearly eight years. He himself took the office of
minister for foreign affairs, to which he added some years later, on the
retirement of Marshal Soult, the ostensible rank of prime minister. His
first care was the maintenance of peace and the restoration of amicable
relations with the other powers of Europe. If he succeeded, as he did
succeed, in calming the troubled elements and healing the wounded pride
of France, the result was due mainly to the indomitable courage and
splendid eloquence with which he faced a raging opposition, gave unity
and strength to the conservative party, who now felt that they had a
great leader at their head, and appealed to the thrift and prudence of
the nation rather than to their vanity and their ambition. In his
pacific task he was fortunately seconded by the formation of Sir Robert
Peel's administration in England, in the autumn of 1841. Between Lord
Palmerston and Guizot there existed an incompatibility of character
exceedingly dangerous in the foreign ministers of two great and in some
respects rival countries. With Lord Palmerston in office, Guizot felt
that he had a bitter and active antagonist in every British agent
throughout the world; the combative element was strong in his own
disposition; and the result was a system of perpetual conflict and
counter-intrigues. Lord Palmerston held (as it appears from his own
letters) that war between England and France was, sooner or later,
inevitable. Guizot held that such a war would be the greatest of all
calamities, and certainly never contemplated it. In Lord Aberdeen, the
foreign secretary of Sir Robert Peel, Guizot found a friend and an ally
perfectly congenial to himself. Their acquaintance in London had been
slight, but it soon ripened into mutual regard and confidence. They were
both men of high principles and honour; the Scotch Presbyterianism which
had moulded the faith of Lord Aberdeen was reflected in the Huguenot
minister of France; both were men of extreme simplicity of taste, joined
to the refinement of scholarship and culture; both had an intense
aversion to war and felt themselves ill-qualified to carry on those
adventurous operations which inflamed the imagination of their
respective opponents. In the eyes of Lord Palmerston and Thiers their
policy was mean and pitiful; but it was a policy which secured peace to
the world, and united the two great and free nations of the West in what
was termed the _entente cordiale_. Neither of them would have stooped to
snatch an advantage at the expense of the other; they held the common
interest of peace and friendship to be paramount; and when differences
arose, as they did arise, in remote parts of the world,--in Tahiti, in
Morocco, on the Gold Coast,--they were reduced by this principle to
their proper insignificance. The opposition in France denounced Guizot's
foreign policy as basely subservient to England. He replied in terms of
unmeasured contempt,--"You may raise the pile of calumny as high as you
will; vous n'arriverez jamais à la hauteur de mon dédain!" The
opposition in England attacked Lord Aberdeen with the same reproaches,
but in vain. King Louis Philippe visited Windsor. The queen of England
(in 1843) stayed at the Château d'Eu. In 1845 British and French troops
fought side by side for the first time in an expedition to the River
Plate.

The fall of Sir Robert Peel's government in 1846 changed these intimate
relations; and the return of Lord Palmerston to the foreign office led
Guizot to believe that he was again exposed to the passionate rivalry of
the British cabinet. A friendly understanding had been established at Eu
between the two courts with reference to the future marriage of the
young queen of Spain. The language of Lord Palmerston and the conduct of
Sir Henry Bulwer (afterwards Lord Dalling) at Madrid led Guizot to
believe that this understanding was broken, and that it was intended to
place a Coburg on the throne of Spain. Determined to resist any such
intrigue, Guizot and the king plunged headlong into a counter-intrigue,
wholly inconsistent with their previous engagements to England, and
fatal to the happiness of the queen of Spain. By their influence she was
urged into a marriage with a despicable offset of the house of Bourbon,
and her sister was at the same time married to the youngest son of the
French king, in direct violation of Louis Philippe's promises. This
transaction, although it was hailed at the time as a triumph of the
policy of France, was in truth as fatal to the monarch as it was
discreditable to the minister. It was accomplished by a mixture of
secrecy and violence. It was defended by subterfuges. By the
dispassionate judgment of history it has been universally condemned. Its
immediate effect was to destroy the Anglo-French alliance, and to throw
Guizot into closer relations with the reactionary policy of Metternich
and the Northern courts.

The history of Guizot's administration, the longest and the last which
existed under the constitutional monarchy of France, bears the stamp of
the great qualities and the great defects of his political character,
for he was throughout the master-spirit of that government. His first
object was to unite and discipline the conservative party, which had
been broken up by previous dissensions and ministerial changes. In this
he entirely succeeded by his courage and eloquence as a parliamentary
leader, and by the use of all those means of influence which France too
liberally supplies to a dominant minister. No one ever doubted the
purity and disinterestedness of Guizot's own conduct. He despised money;
he lived and died poor; and though he encouraged the fever of
money-getting in the French nation, his own habits retained their
primitive simplicity. But he did not disdain to use in others the baser
passions from which he was himself free. Some of his instruments were
mean; he employed them to deal with meanness after its kind. Gross
abuses and breaches of trust came to light even in the ranks of the
government, and under an incorruptible minister the administration was
denounced as corrupt. _Licet uti alieno vitio_ is a proposition as false
in politics as it is in divinity.

Of his parliamentary eloquence it is impossible to speak too highly. It
was terse, austere, demonstrative and commanding,--not persuasive, not
humorous, seldom adorned, but condensed with the force of a supreme
authority in the fewest words. He was essentially a ministerial speaker,
far more powerful in defence than in opposition. Like Pitt he was the
type of authority and resistance, unmoved by the brilliant charges, the
wit, the gaiety, the irony and the discursive power of his great rival.
Nor was he less a master of parliamentary tactics and of those sudden
changes and movements in debate which, as in a battle, sometimes change
the fortune of the day. His confidence in himself, and in the majority
of the chamber which he had moulded to his will, was unbounded; and long
success and the habit of authority led him to forget that in a country
like France there was a people outside the chamber elected by a small
constituency, to which the minister and the king himself were held
responsible.

A government based on the principle of resistance and repression and
marked by dread and distrust of popular power, a system of diplomacy
which sought to revive the traditions of the old French monarchy, a
sovereign who largely exceeded the bounds of constitutional power and
whose obstinacy augmented with years, a minister who, though far removed
from the servility of the courtier, was too obsequious to the personal
influence of the king, were all singularly at variance with the promises
of the Revolution of July, and they narrowed the policy of the
administration. Guizot's view of politics was essentially historical and
philosophical. His tastes and his acquirements gave him little insight
into the practical business of administrative government. Of finance he
knew nothing; trade and commerce were strange to him; military and naval
affairs were unfamiliar to him; all these subjects he dealt with by
second hand through his friends, P. S. Dumon (1797-1870), Charles Marie
Tanneguy, Comte Duchâtel (1803-1867), or Marshal Bugeaud. The
consequence was that few measures of practical improvement were carried
by his administration. Still less did the government lend an ear to the
cry for parliamentary reform. On this subject the king's prejudices were
insurmountable, and his ministers had the weakness to give way to them.
It was impossible to defend a system which confined the suffrage to
200,000 citizens, and returned a chamber of whom half were placemen.
Nothing would have been easier than to strengthen the conservative party
by attaching the suffrage to the possession of land in France, but blank
resistance was the sole answer of the government to the just and
moderate demands of the opposition. Warning after warning was addressed
to them in vain by friends and by foes alike; and they remained
profoundly unconscious of their danger till the moment when it
overwhelmed them. Strange to say, Guizot never acknowledged either at
the time or to his dying day the nature of this error; and he speaks of
himself in his memoirs as the much-enduring champion of liberal
government and constitutional law. He utterly fails to perceive that a
more enlarged view of the liberal destinies of France and a less intense
confidence in his own specific theory might have preserved the
constitutional monarchy and averted a vast series of calamities, which
were in the end fatal to every principle he most cherished. But with the
stubborn conviction of absolute truth he dauntlessly adhered to his own
doctrines to the end.

The last scene of his political life was singularly characteristic of
his inflexible adherence to a lost cause. In the afternoon oí the 23rd
of February 1848 the king summoned his minister from the chamber, which
was then sitting, and informed him that the aspect of Paris and the
country during the banquet agitation for reform, and the alarm and
division of opinion in the royal family, led him to doubt whether he
could retain his ministry. That doubt, replied Guizot, is decisive of
the question, and instantly resigned, returning to the chamber only to
announce that the administration was at an end and that Molé had been
sent for by the king. Molé failed in the attempt to form a government,
and between midnight and one in the morning Guizot, who had according to
his custom retired early to rest, was again sent for to the Tuileries.
The king asked his advice. "We are no longer the ministers of your
Majesty," replied Guizot; "it rests with others to decide on the course
to be pursued. But one thing appears to be evident: this street riot
must be put down; these barricades must be taken; and for this purpose
my opinion is that Marshal Bugeaud should be invested with full power,
and ordered to take the necessary military measures, and as your Majesty
has at this moment no minister, I am ready to draw up and countersign
such an order." The marshal, who was present, undertook the task,
saying, "I have never been beaten yet, and I shall not begin to-morrow.
The barricades shall be carried before dawn." After this display of
energy the king hesitated, and soon added: "I ought to tell you that M.
Thiers and his friends are in the next room forming a government!" Upon
this Guizot rejoined, "Then it rests with them to do what they think
fit," and left the palace. Thiers and Barrot decided to withdraw the
troops. The king and Guizot next met at Claremont. This was the most
perilous conjuncture of Guizot's life, but fortunately he found a safe
refuge in Paris for some days in the lodging of a humble miniature
painter whom he had befriended, and shortly afterwards effected his
escape across the Belgian frontier and thence to London, where he
arrived on the 3rd of March. His mother and daughters had preceded him,
and he was speedily installed in a modest habitation in Pelham Crescent,
Brompton.

The society of England, though many persons disapproved of much of his
recent policy, received the fallen statesman with as much distinction
and respect as they had shown eight years before to the king's
ambassador. Sums of money were placed at his disposal, which he
declined. A professorship at Oxford was spoken of, which he was unable
to accept. He stayed in England about a year, devoting himself again to
history. He published two more volumes on the English revolution, and in
1854 his _Histoire de la république d'Angleterre et de Cromwell_ (2
vols., 1854), then his _Histoire du protectorat de Cromwell et du
rétablissement des Stuarts_ (2 vols., 1856). He also published an essay
on Peel, and amid many essays on religion, during the ten years
1858-1868, appeared the extensive _Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire de
mon temps_, in nine volumes. His speeches were included in 1863 in his
_Histoire parlementaire de la France_ (5 vols. of parliamentary
speeches, 1863).

Guizot survived the fall of the monarchy and the government he had
served twenty-six years. He passed abruptly from the condition of one of
the most powerful and active statesmen in Europe to the condition of a
philosophical and patriotic spectator of human affairs. He was aware
that the link between himself and public life was broken for ever; and
he never made the slightest attempt to renew it. He was of no party, a
member of no political body; no murmur of disappointed ambition, no
language of asperity, ever passed his lips; it seemed as if the fever of
oratorical debate and ministerial power had passed from him and left him
a greater man than he had been before, in the pursuit of letters, in the
conversation of his friends, and as head of the patriarchal circle of
those he loved. The greater part of the year he spent at his residence
at Val Richer, an Augustine monastery near Lisieux in Normandy, which
had been sold at the time of the first Revolution. His two daughters,
who married two descendants of the illustrious Dutch family of De Witt,
so congenial in faith and manners to the Huguenots of France, kept his
house. One of his sons-in-law farmed the estate. And here Guizot devoted
his later years with undiminished energy to literary labour, which was
in fact his chief means of subsistence. Proud, independent, simple and
contented he remained to the last; and these years of retirement were
perhaps the happiest and most serene portion of his life.

Two institutions may be said even under the second empire to have
retained their freedom--the Institute of France and the Protestant
Consistory. In both of these Guizot continued to the last to take an
active part. He was a member of three of the five academies into which
the Institute of France is divided. The Academy of Moral and Political
Science owed its restoration to him, and he became in 1832 one of its
first associates. The Academy of Inscriptions and Belles Lettres elected
him in 1833 as the successor to M. Dacier; and in 1836 he was chosen a
member of the French Academy, the highest literary distinction of the
country. In these learned bodies Guizot continued for nearly forty years
to take a lively interest and to exercise a powerful influence. He was
the jealous champion of their independence. His voice had the greatest
weight in the choice of new candidates; the younger generation of French
writers never looked in vain to him for encouragement; and his constant
aim was to maintain the dignity and purity of the profession of letters.

In the consistory of the Protestant church in Paris Guizot exercised a
similar influence. His early education and his experience of life
conspired to strengthen the convictions of a religious temperament. He
remained through life a firm believer in the truths of revelation, and a
volume of _Meditations on the Christian Religion_ was one of his latest
works. But though he adhered inflexibly to the church of his fathers and
combated the rationalist tendencies of the age, which seemed to threaten
it with destruction, he retained not a tinge of the intolerance or
asperity of the Calvinistic creed. He respected in the Church of Rome
the faith of the majority of his countrymen; and the writings of the
great Catholic prelates, Bossuet and Bourdaloue, were as familiar and
as dear to him as those of his own persuasion, and were commonly used by
him in the daily exercises of family worship.

In these literary pursuits and in the retirement of Val Richer years
passed smoothly and rapidly away; and as his grandchildren grew up
around him, he began to direct their attention to the history of their
country. From these lessons sprang his last and not his least work, the
_Histoire de France racontée à mes petits enfants_, for although this
publication assumed a popular form, it is not less complete and profound
than it is simple and attractive. The history came down to 1789, and was
continued to 1870 by his daughter Madame Guizot de Witt from her
father's notes.

Down to the summer of 1874 Guizot's mental vigour and activity were
unimpaired. His frame, temperate in all things, was blessed with a
singular immunity from infirmity and disease; but the vital power ebbed
away, and he passed gently away on the 12th of September 1874, reciting
now and then a verse of Corneille or a text of Scripture.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--See his own _Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire de mon
  temps_ (8 vols., 1858-1861); _Lettres de M. Guizot à sa famille et à
  ses amis_ (1884); C. A. Sainte-Beuve, _Causeries du lundi_ (vol. i.,
  1857) and _Nouveaux Lundis_ (vols. i. and ix., 1863-1872); E. Scherer,
  _Études critiques sur la littérature contemporaine_ (vol. iv., 1873);
  Mme de Witt, _Guizot dans sa famille_ (1880); Jules Simon, _Thiers,
  Guizot et Rémusat_ (1885); E. Faguet, _Politiques et moralistes au
  XIX^e siècle_ (1891); G. Bardoux, _Guizot_ (1894) in the series of
  "Les Grands Écrivains français"; Maurice Guizot, _Les Années de
  retraite de M. Guizot_ (1901); and for a long list of books and
  articles on Guizot in periodicals see H. P. Thieme, _Guide
  bibliographique de la littérature française de 1800 à 1906_ (_s.v._
  Guizot, Paris, 1907). For a notice of his first wife see C. A.
  Sainte-Beuve, _Portraits de femmes_ (1884), and Ch. de Rémusat,
  _Critiques et études littéraires_ (vol. ii., 1847).
       (H. R.; J. T. S.*)



GUJARAT or GUZERAT, a region of India, in the Bombay Presidency. In the
widest sense of the name it includes the whole of the country where the
Gujarati language is spoken, i.e. the northern districts and states of
the Presidency from Palanpur to Damaun, with Kathiawar and Cutch. But it
is more properly confined to the country north of the Nerbudda and east
of the Rann of Cutch and Kathiawar. In this sense it has an area of
29,071 sq. m., with a population in 1901 of 4,798,504. It includes the
states distributed among the agencies of Palanpur, Mahi Kantha, Rewa
Kantha and Cambay, with most of Baroda and the British districts of
Ahmedabad, Kaira, Panch Mahals and Broach. Less than one-fourth is
British territory. The region takes its name from the Gujars, a tribe
who passed into India from the north-west, established a kingdom in
Rajputana, and spread south in A.D. 400-600. The ancient Hindu capital
was Anhilvada; the Mahommedan dynasty, which ruled from 1396 to 1572,
founded Ahmedabad, which is still the largest city; but Gujarat owed
much of its historical importance to the seaports of Broach, Cambay and
Surat. Its fertile plain, with a regular rainfall and numerous rivers,
has caused it to be styled the "garden of India." It suffered, however,
severely from the famine of 1899-1901. For an account of the history,
geography, &c., of Gujarat see the articles on the various states and
districts. Gujarat gives its name to the vernacular of northern Bombay,
viz. Gujarati, one of the three great languages of that Presidency,
spoken by more than 9 millions. It has an ancient literature and a
peculiar character. As the language of the Parsis it is prominent in the
Bombay press; and it is also the commercial language of Bombay city,
which lies outside the territorial area of Gujarat.

  See J. Campbell, _History of Gujarat_ (Bombay, 1896); Sir E. C.
  Bayley, _The Muhammedan Kingdom of Gujarat_ (1886); A. K. Forbes, _Ras
  Mala_ (1856).



GUJARATI and RAJASTHANI, the names of two members of the western
sub-group of the Intermediate Group of Indo-Aryan languages (q.v.). The
remaining member of this sub-group is Panjabi or Punjabi (see
HINDOSTANI). In 1901 the speakers of those now dealt with numbered:
Gujarati, 9,439,925, and Rajasthani, 10,917,712. The two languages are
closely connected and might almost be termed co-dialects of the same
form of speech. Together they occupy an almost square block of country,
some 400 m. broad, reaching from near Agra and Delhi on the river Jumna
to the Arabian Sea. Gujarati (properly _Gujarati_) is spoken in Gujarat,
the northern maritime province of the Bombay Presidency, and also in
Baroda and the native states adjoining. Rajasthani (properly
_Rajasthani_, from "_Rajasthan_," the native name for Rajputana) is
spoken in Rajputana and the adjoining parts of Central India.

In the articles INDO-ARYAN LANGUAGES and PRAKRIT the history of the
earlier stages of the Indo-Aryan vernaculars is given at some length. It
is there shown that, from the most ancient times, there were two main
groups of these forms of speech--one, the language of the Midland,
spoken in the country near the Gangetic Doab, and the other, the
so-called "Outer Band," containing the Midland on three sides, west,
north and south. The country to the west and south-west of the Midland,
in which this outer group of languages was spoken, included the modern
Punjab, Rajputana and Gujarat. In process of time the population of the
Midland expanded and carried its language to its new homes. It occupied
the eastern and central Punjab, and the mixed (or "intermediate")
language which there grew up became the modern Panjabi. To the west it
spread into Rajputana, till its progress was stopped by the Indian
desert, and in Rajputana another intermediate language took rise and
became Rajasthani. As elsewhere explained, the language-wave of the
Midland exercised less and less influence as it travelled farther from
its home, so that, while in eastern Rajputana the local dialect is now
almost a pure midland speech, in the west there are many evident traces
of the old outer language still surviving. To the south-west of
Rajputana there was no desert to stop the wave of Midland expansion,
which therefore rolled on unobstructed into Gujarat, where it reached
the sea. Here the survivals of the old outer language are stronger
still. The old outer Prakrit of north Gujarat was known as "Saurastri,"
while the Prakrit of the Midland invaders was called "Sauraseni," and we
may therefore describe Gujarati as being an intermediate language
derived (as explained in the articles PRAKRIT) from a mixture of the
Apabhramsa forms of Saurastri and Sauraseni, in which the latter
predominated.

It will be observed that, at the present day, Gujarati breaks the
continuity of the outer band of Indo-Aryan languages. To its north it
has Sindhi and to its south Marathi, both outer languages with which it
has only a slight connexion. On the other hand, on the east and
north-east it has Rajasthani, into which it merges so gradually and
imperceptibly that at the conventional border-line, in the state of
Palanpur, the inhabitants of Rajputana say that the local dialect is a
form of Gujarati, while the inhabitants of Gujarat say that it is
Rajasthani.


  Language.

Gujarati has no important local dialects, but there is considerable
variation in the speeches of different classes of the community. Parsees
and Mussulmans (when the latter use the language--as a rule the Gujarat
Mussulmans speak Hindostani) have some striking peculiarities of
pronunciation, the most noticeable of which is the disregard by the
latter of the distinction between cerebral and dental letters. The
uneducated Hindus do not pronounce the language in the same way as their
betters, and this difference is accentuated in northern Gujarat, where
the lower classes substitute _e_ for _i_, _c_ for _k_, _ch_ for _kh_,
_s_ for _c_ and _ch_, _h_ for _s_, and drop _h_ as readily as any
cockney. There is also (as in the case of the Mussulmans) a tendency to
confuse cerebral and dental consonants, to substitute _r_ for _d_ and
_l_, to double medial consonants, and to pronounce the letter _a_ as
_å_, something like the _a_ in "all." The Bhils of the hills east of
Gujarat also speak a rude Gujarati, with special dialectic peculiarities
of their own, probably due to the fact that the tribes are of Dravidian
origin. These Bhil peculiarities are further mixed with corruptions of
Marathi idioms in Nimar and Khandesh, where we have almost a new
language.

Rajasthani has numerous dialects, each state claiming one or more of its
own. Thus, in the state of Jaipur there have been catalogued no less
than ten dialects among about 1,688,000 people. All Rajasthani dialects
can, however, be easily classed in four well-defined groups, a
north-eastern, a southern, a western and an east-central. The
north-eastern (Mewati) is that form of Rajasthani which is merging into
the Western Hindi of the Midland. It is a mixed form of speech, and need
not detain us further. Similarly, the southern (Malvi) is much mixed
with the neighbouring Bundeli form of Western Hindi. The western
(Marwari) spoken in Marwar and its neighbourhood, and the east-central
(Jaipuri) spoken in Jaipur and its neighbourhood, may be taken as the
typical Rajasthani dialects. In the following paragraphs we shall
therefore confine ourselves to Gujarati, Marwari and Jaipuri.

We know more about the ancient history of Gujarati than we do about that
of any other Indo-Aryan language. The one native grammar of Apabhramsa
Prakrit which we possess in a printed edition, was written by Hemacandra
(12th century A.D.), who lived in what is now north Gujarat, and who
naturally described most fully the particular vernacular with which he
was personally familiar. It was known as the Nagara Apabhramsa, closely
connected (as above explained) with Sauraseni, and was so named after
the Nagara Brahmans of the locality. These men carried on the tradition
of learning inherited from Hemacandra, and we see Gujarati almost in the
act of taking birth in a work called the _Mugdhavabodhamauktika_,
written by one of them only two hundred years after his death. Formal
Gujarati literature is said to commence with the poet Narsingh Meta in
the 15th century. Rajasthani literature has received but small attention
from European or native scholars, and we are as yet unable to say how
far back the language goes.

Both Gujarati and Rajasthani are usually written in current scripts
related to the well-known Nagari alphabet (see SANSKRIT). The form
employed in Rajputana is known all over northern India as the "Mahajani"
alphabet, being used by bankers or _Mahajans_, most of whom are
Marwaris. It is noteworthy as possessing two distinct characters for _d_
and _r_. The Gujarati character closely resembles the Kaithi character
of northern India (see BIHARI). The Nagari character is also freely used
in Rajputana, and to a less extent in Gujarat, where it is employed by
the Nagara Brahmans, who claim that their tribe has given the alphabet
its name.

In the following description of the main features of our two languages,
the reader is presumed to be familiar with the leading facts stated in
the articles INDO-ARYAN LANGUAGES and PRAKRIT. The article HINDOSTANI
may also be perused with advantage.

  (Abbreviations. Skr. = Sanskrit. Pr. = Prakrit. Ap. = Apabhramsa. G. =
  Gujarati. R. = Rajasthani. H. = Hindostaani.)

  _Vocabulary._--The vocabulary of both Gujarat and Rajasthani is very
  free from _tatsama_ words. The great mass of both vocabularies is
  _tadbhava_ (see INDO-ARYAN LANGUAGES). Rajputana was from an early
  period brought into close contact with the Mogul court at Agra and
  Delhi, and even in the 13th century A.D. official documents of the
  Rajput princes contained many borrowed Persian and Arabic words.
  Gujarati, under the influence of the learned Nagara Brahmans, has
  perhaps more _tatsama_ words than Rajasthani, but their employment is
  not excessive. On the other hand, Parsees and Mussulmans employ
  Persian and Arabic words with great freedom; while, owing to its
  maritime connexions, the language has also borrowed occasional words
  from other parts of Asia and from Europe. This is specially marked in
  the strange dialect of the Kathiawar boatmen who travel all over the
  world as lascars on the great steamships. Their language is a mixture
  of Hindostani and Gujarati with a heterogeneous vocabulary.

  _Phonetics._--With a few exceptions to be mentioned below, the
  sound-system of the two languages is the same as that of Sanskrit, and
  is represented in the same manner in the Roman character (see
  SANSKRIT). The simplest method for considering the subject in regard
  to Gujarati is to compare it with the phonetical system of Hindostani
  (q.v.). As a rule, Rajasthani closely follows Gujarati and need not be
  referred to except in special cases. G. invariably simplifies a medial
  Pr. double consonant, lengthening the preceding vowel in compensation.
  Thus Skr. _mraksanam_, Ap. _makkhanu_, H. _makkhan_, but G. _makhan_,
  butter. In H. this rule is generally observed, but in G. it is
  universal, while, on the other hand, in Panjabi the double consonant
  is never simplified, but is retained as in Ap. In G. (and sometimes in
  R.) when _a_ is followed by _h_ it is changed to _e_, as in H.
  _shahr_, G. _seher_, a city. As in other outer languages H. _ai_ and
  _au_ are usually represented by a short _e_ and by _å_ (sounded like
  the _a_ in "all") respectively. Thus H. _baitha_. G. _betho_, seated;
  H. _cautha_, G. _cåtho_ (written _cotho_), fourth. In R. this _e_ is
  often further weakened to the sound of _a_ in "man," a change which
  is also common in Bengali. Many words which have _i_ in H. have _a_ in
  G. and R., thus, H. _likhe_, G. _lakhe_, he writes; H. din, G. and R.
  _dan_, a day. Similarly we have _a_ for _u_, as in H. _tum_, G., R.
  _tame_, you. In colloquial G. _a_ often becomes _a_, and _i_ becomes
  _e_; thus, _pani_ for _pani_, water; _mares_ for _maris_, I shall
  strike. As in most Indo-Aryan vernaculars an _a_ after an accented
  syllable is very lightly pronounced, and is here represented by a
  small ^a above the line.

  The Vedic cerebral _l_ and the cerebral _n_ are very common as medial
  letters in both G. and R. (both being unknown to literary H.). The
  rule is, as elsewhere in western and southern intermediate and outer
  languages, that when n and l represent a double _nn_ (or _nn_) or a
  double _ll_ in Pr. they are dental, but when they represent single
  medial letters they are cerebralized. Thus Ap. _sonnau_, G. _sonu_,
  gold; Ap. _ghanau_, G. _ghanu_, dense; Ap. _callai_, G. _cale_, he
  goes; Ap. _calai_, G. _cale_, he moves. In northern G. and in some
  caste dialects dental and cerebral letters are absolutely
  interchangeable, as in _dah^ado_ or _dahado_, a day; _tu_ or _tu_,
  thou; _didho_ or _didho_, given. In G. and R. medial _d_ is pronounced
  as a rough cerebral _r_, and is then so transcribed. We have seen that
  in the Marwari alphabet there are actually distinct letters for these
  two sounds. In colloquial G. _c_ and _ch_ are pronounced _s_,
  especially in the north, as in _pas_ for _pac_, five; _pusyo_ for
  _puchyo_, he asked. Similarly, in the north, _j_ and _jh_ become _z_,
  as in _zad_ for _jhad_, a tree. In some localities (as in Marathi) we
  have _ts_ and _dz_ for these sounds, as in _Tsarotar_ (name of a tract
  of country) for _Carotar_. On the other hand, _k_, _kh_ and _g_,
  especially when preceded or followed by _i_, _e_ or _y_, become in the
  north _c_, _ch_ and _j_ respectively; thus, _dic^aro_ for _dik^aro_, a
  son; _chetar_ for _khetar_, a field; _lajyo_ for _lagyo_, begun. A
  similar change is found in dialectic Marathi, and is, of course, one
  of the commonplaces of the philology of the Romance languages. The
  sibilants _s_ and _s_ are colloquially pronounced _h_ (as in several
  outer languages), especially in the north. Thus _deh_ for _des_, a
  country; _hu_ for _su_, what; _ham^ajavyo_ for _sam^ajavyo_, he
  explained. An original aspirate is, however, often dropped, as in _'u_
  for _hu_, I; _'ate_ for _hathe_, on the hand. Standard G. is at the
  same time fond of pronouncing an _h_ where it is not written, as in
  _ame_, we, pronounced _ahme_. In other respects both G. and R. closely
  agree in their phonetical systems with the Apabhramsa form of
  Sauraseni Prakrit from which the Midland language is derived.

  _Declension._--Gujarati agrees with Marathi (an outer language) as
  against Hindostani in retaining the neuter gender of Sanskrit and
  Prakrit. Moreover, the neuter gender is often employed to indicate
  living beings of which the sex is uncertain, as in the case of
  _dik^aru_, a child, compared with _dik^aro_, a son, and _dik^ari_, a
  daughter. In R. there are only sporadic instances of the neuter, which
  grow more and more rare as we approach the Midland. Nouns in both G.
  and R. may be weak or strong as is fully explained in the article
  HINDOSTANI. We have there seen that the strong form of masculine nouns
  in Western Hindi generally ends in _au_, the _a_ of words like the
  Hindostani _ghora_, a horse, being an accident due to the fact that
  the Hindostani dialect of Western Hindi borrows this termination from
  Panjabi. G. and R. follow Western Hindi, for their masculine strong
  forms end in _o_. Feminine strong forms end in _i_ as elsewhere.
  Neuter strong forms in G. end in _u_, derived as follows: Skr,
  _svarnakam_, Ap. _sonnau_, G. _sonu_, gold. As an example of the three
  genders of the same word we may take G. _chok^aro_ (masc.), a boy;
  _chok^ari_ (fem.), a girl; _chok^aru_ (neut.), a child. Long forms
  corresponding to the Eastern Hindi _ghor^awa_, a horse, are not much
  used, but we not infrequently meet another long form made by suffixing
  the pleonastic termination _do_ or _ro_ (fem. _di_ or _ri_; G. neut.
  _du_ or _ru_) which is directly descended from the Ap. pleonastic
  termination _daü_, _dai_, _dau_. We come across this most often in R.,
  where it is used contemptuously, as in _Turuk-ro_, a Turk.

  In the article HINDOSTANI it is shown that all the oblique cases of
  each number in Sanskrit and Prakrit became melted down in the modern
  languages into one general oblique case, which, in the Midland, is
  derived in the singular from the Ap. termination _-hi_ or _-hi_, and
  that even this has survived only in the case of strong masculine
  nouns; thus, _ghora_, obl. _ghore_. In G. and R. this same termination
  has also survived, but for all nouns as the case sign of the agent and
  locative cases. The general oblique case is the same as the
  nominative, except in the case of strong masculine and neuter nouns in
  _o_ and _u_ respectively, where it ends in _a_, not _e_. This
  _a_-termination is characteristic of the outer band of languages, and
  is one of the survivals already referred to. It is derived from the
  Apabhramsa genitive form in -_aha_, corresponding to the Magadhi Pr.
  (an outer Prakrit) termination -_aha_. Thus, G. _chok^aro_, a son;
  _chok^aru_, a child; obl. sing. _chok^ara_.

  In G. the nominative and oblique plural for all nouns are formed by
  adding _o_ to the oblique form singular, but in the neuter strong
  forms the oblique singular is nasalized. The real plural is the same
  in form as the oblique singular in the case of masculines, and as a
  nasalized oblique singular in the case of neuter strong forms, as in
  other modern Indo-Aryan vernaculars, and the added _o_ is a further
  plural termination (making a double plural, exactly as it does in the
  Ardhamagadhi Prakrit _putta-o_, sons) which is often dropped. The
  nasalization of the strong neuter plurals is inherited from Ap., in
  which the neuter nom. plural of such nouns ended in -_aai_ In R. the
  nominative plural of masculine nouns is the same in form as the
  oblique case singular, and the oblique plural ends in _a_. The
  feminine has _a_ both in the nominative and in the oblique plural.
  These are all explained in the article HINDOSTANI. We thus get the
  following paradigms of the declension of nouns.

    +----------------------+--------------+---------------+------------+
    |                      |  Apabhramsa. |   Gujarati.   | Rajasthani.|
    +----------------------+--------------+---------------+------------+
    | Strong Noun Masc.--  |              |               |            |
    | "A horse." Sing. Nom.| ghodau       | ghodo         |   ghodo    |
    |                  Obl.| ghodaaha     | ghoda         |   ghoda    |
    |              Ag.-Loc.| ghodaahi     | ghode, ghodae |   ghodai   |
    |            Plur. Nom.| ghodaa       | ghoda-o       |   ghoda    |
    |                  Obl.| ghodaaha     | ghoda-o       |   ghoda    |
    |              Ag.-Loc.| ghodaahi     | ghoda-o-e     |   ghoda    |
    | Strong Noun Neut.--  |              |               |            |
    | "Gold."    Sing. Nom.| sonnau       | sonu          |     ..     |
    |                  Obl.| sonnaaha     | sona          |     ..     |
    |              Ag.-Loc.| sonnaahi     | sone, sonae   |     ..     |
    |            Plur. Nom.| sonnaai      | sone          |     ..     |
    |                  Obl.| sonnaaha     | sona-o        |     ..     |
    |              Ag.-Loc.| sonnaahi     | sona-o-e      |     ..     |
    | Strong Noun Fem.--   |              |               |            |
    | "A mare."  Sing. Nom.| ghodia       | ghodi         |   ghodi    |
    |                  Obl.| ghodiahi     | ghodi         |   ghodi    |
    |              Ag.-Loc.| ghodiae      | ghodie        |   ghodi    |
    |            Plur. Nom.| ghodia-o     | ghodi-o       |   ghodya   |
    |                  Obl.| ghodiahu     | ghodi-o       |   ghodya   |
    |              Ag.-Loc.| ghodiahi     | ghodi-o-e     |   ghodya   |
    | Weak Noun Masc.      |              |               |            |
    | or Neut.--           |              |               |            |
    | "A house." Sing. Nom.| gharu (neut.)| ghar          |   ghar     |
    |                  Obl.| gharaha      | ghar          |   ghar     |
    |              Ag.-Loc.| gharahi      | ghare         |   gharai   |
    |            Plur. Nom.| gharai       | ghar-o        |   ghar     |
    |                  Obl.| gharaha      | ghar-o        |   ghara    |
    |              Ag.-Loc.| gharahi      | ghar-o-e      |   ghara    |
    | Weak Noun Fem.--     |              |               |            |
    | "A word."  Sing. Nom.| vatta        | wat           |   bat      |
    |                  Obl.| vattahi      | wat           |   bat      |
    |              Ag.-Loc.| vattae       | wate          |   bat      |
    |            Plur. Nom.| vatta-o      | wat-o         |   bata     |
    |                  Obl.| vattahu      | wat-o         |   bata     |
    |              Ag.-Loc.| vattahi      | wat-o-e       |   bata     |
    +----------------------+--------------+---------------+------------+

  The general oblique case can be employed for any case except the
  nominative, but, in order to define the meaning, it is customary to
  add postpositions as in Hindostani. These are:

    +------------+----------+---------------+----------+----------+
    |            | Genitive.|    Dative.    | Ablative.| Locative.|
    +------------+----------+---------------+----------+----------+
    | Gujarati   |    no    |       ne      |    thi   |    ma    |
    | Rajasthani |  ro, ko  | nai, rai, kai |    su    |    mai   |
    +------------+----------+---------------+----------+----------+

  The suffix _no_ of the genitive is believed to be a contraction of
  _tano_, which is found in old Gujarati poetry, and which, under the
  form _tanas_ in Sanskrit and _tanaü_ in Apabhramsa, mean "belonging
  to." It is an adjective, and agrees in gender, number and case with
  the thing possessed. Thus, _raja-no dik^aro_, the king's son; _raja-ni
  dik^ari_, the king's daughter; _raja-nu ghar_, the king's house;
  _raja-na dik^ara-ne_, to the king's son (_na_ is in the oblique case
  masculine to agree with _dik^ara_); _raja-ne ghare_, in the king's
  house. The _ro_ and _ko_ of R. are similarly treated, but, of course,
  have no neuter. The dative postpositions are simply locatives of the
  genitive ones, as in all modern Indo-Aryan languages (see HINDOSTANI).
  _Thi_, the postposition of the G. ablative, is connected with _thawu_,
  to be, one of the verbs substantive in that language. The ablative
  suffix is made in this way in many modern Indo-Aryan languages (e.g.
  Bengali, q.v.). It means literally "having been" and is to be
  ultimately referred to the Sanskrit root, _stha_, stand. The
  derivation of the other postpositions is discussed in the article
  HINDOSTANI.

  Strong adjectives agree with the nouns they qualify in gender, number
  and case, as in the examples of the genitive above. Weak adjectives
  are immutable.

  Pronouns closely agree with those found in Hindostani. In the table on
  following page we give the first two personal pronouns, and the
  demonstrative pronoun "this."

   Similarly are formed the remaining pronouns, viz. G. _a_, R. _u_,
  he, that; G. _te_, R. _so_ (obl. sing. _ti_), that; G. _je_, R. _jo_,
  who; G. _kan_ (obl. _kan_, _ko_, or _ke_), R. _kun_ (obl. _kun_),
  who?; G. _su_, R. _kai_, what?; G., R. _koi_, anyone, someone, _kai_
  anything, something. G. has two other demonstratives, _pelo_ and
  _olyo_, both meaning "that." The derivation of these and of _su_ has
  been discussed without any decisive result. The rest are explained in
  the article HINDOSTANI. The reflexive pronoun is G. _ap^ane_, R.
  _apa_. It is generally employed as a plural of the first personal
  pronoun including the person addressed; thus G. _ap^ane_, we
  (including you), but _ame_, we (excluding you). In G. _pote_, obl.
  _pota_, is used to mean "self."

    +------------------+-------------------+----------+----------------+
    |                  |    Apabhramsa.    | Gujarati.|   Rajasthani.  |
    +------------------+-------------------+----------+----------------+
    | I           Nom. |   hau             |  hu      | hu, mhu, mai   |
    |             Obl. | mai, mahu, majjhu | ma, maj  | ma, mha, mu    |
    | MY               |   maharaü         |  maro    | maro, mharo    |
    | WE          Nom. |   amhe            |  ame     | mhe            |
    |             Obl. |   amhahã          |  am-o    | mha            |
    | OUR              |   amharaü         |  amaro   | mha-ro, mha-ko |
    | THOU        Nom. |   tuhu            |  tu      | tu             |
    |             Obl. | tai, tuha, tujjhu | ta, tuj  | ta, tha, tu    |
    | THY              |   tuharaü         |  taro    | tharo          |
    | YOU         Nom. |   tumhe           |  tame    | the, tame      |
    |             Obl. |   tumhahã         |  tam-o   | tha, tama      |
    | YOUR             |   tumharaü        |  tamaro  | tha-ro, tha-ko |
    | THIS, HE    Nom. |   eho             |  e       | yo             |
    |             Obl. | (?) ehaha, imaha  |  e       | i              |
    | THESE, THEY Nom. |   ei              |  e-o     | e, ye          |
    |             Obl. |   eammi, ehana    |  em      | ina, ya.       |
    +------------------+-------------------+----------+----------------+

  _Conjugation._--The old present has survived as in Hindostani and
  other Indian languages. Taking the base _call_ or _cal_, go, as our
  model, we have:

    +-------------+------------+-----------------------+
    |             | Apabhramsa.| Gujarati.| Rajasthani.|
    +-------------+------------+-----------------------+
    |  Sing.  1   |   callau   |   calu   |    calu    |
    |         2   |   callahi  |   cale   |    calai   |
    |         3   |   callai   |   cale   |    calai   |
    |  Plur.  1   |   callahu  |   calie  |    cala    |
    |         2   |   callahu  |   calo   |    calo    |
    |         3   |   callahi  |   cale   |    calai   |
    +-------------+------------+-----------------------+

  The derivation of the G. 1 plural is unknown. That of the other G. and
  R. forms is manifest. The imperative closely follows this, but as
  usual has no termination in the second person singular.

  In R. the future may be formed by adding _go_ (cf. Hindostani _ga_),
  _lo_, or _la_ to the old present. Thus, _calu-go_, _calu-lo_ or
  _calu-la_ I shall go. The _go_ and _lo_ agree in gender and number
  with the subject, but _la_ is immutable. The termination with _l_ is
  also found in Bhojpuri (see BIHARI), in Marathi and in Nepali. For
  _go_ see HINDOSTANI. Another form of the future has _s_ or _h_ for its
  characteristic letter, and is the only one employed in G. Thus, Ap.
  _callisau_ or _callihau_, G. _calis_, R. (Jaipuri) _cal^asyu_,
  (Marwari) _cal^ahu_. The other personal terminations differ
  considerably from those of the old present, and closely follow Ap.
  Thus, Ap. 3 sing. _callisai_ or _callihi_, G. _cal^ase_, Marwari
  _cal^ahi_.

  The participles and infinitive are as follows:

    +----------------------+------------+-----------------------+
    |                      | Apabhramsa.| Gujarati.| Rajasthani.|
    +----------------------+------------+-----------------------+
    | Pres. Part. Active   | callantau  | cal^ato  |   cal^ato  |
    | Past. Part. Passive  | calliau    | calyo    |   calyo    |
    | Future Part. Passive | calliavvau | cal^avo  |   cal^abo  |
    | Infinitive           |     ..     | cal^avu  |   cal^abo  |
    +----------------------+------------+-----------------------+

  In G. the infinitive is simply the neuter of the future passive
  participle. The participles are employed to form finite tenses; thus
  G. _hu cal^ato_], I used to go; _hu calyo_, I went. If the verb is
  transitive (see HINDOSTANI) the passive meaning of the past participle
  comes into force. The subject is put into the case of the agent, and
  the participle inflects to agree with the object, or, if there is no
  object, is employed impersonally in the neuter (in G.) or in the
  masculine (in R.). In Hindostani, if the object is expressed in the
  dative, the participle is also employed impersonally, in the
  masculine; thus _raja-ne sherni-ko mara_ (masc.), not _mari_, (fem.),
  by-the-king, with reference-to-the-tigress,
  it-(impersonal)-was-killed, i.e. the king killed the tigress. But in
  G. and R., even if the object is in the dative, the past participle
  agrees with it; thus, G. _rajae waghan-ne mari_, by-the-king,
  with-reference-to-the-tigress, she-was-killed. Other examples from G.
  of this passive construction are _me kahyu_, by me it was said, I
  said; _tene citthi lakhi_, by him a letter was written, he wrote a
  letter; _e baie vag^ada-ma, dahada kadya_, by this lady, in the
  wilderness, days were passed, i.e. she passed her days in the
  wilderness; _rajae vicaryu_, the king considered. The idiom of R. is
  exactly the same in these cases, except that the masculine must be
  used where G. has the neuter; thus, _rajaai vicaryo_. The future
  passive participle is construed in much the same way, but (as in
  Latin) the subject may be put into the dative. Thus, _mare a cåp^adi
  vac^avi, mihi ille liber (est) legendus_, I must read that book, but
  also _tene_ (agent case) _e kam kar^avu_, by him this business is to
  be done.

  G. also forms a past participle in _elo_ (_calelo_), which is one of
  the many survivals of the outer language. This -_l_- participle is
  typical of most of the languages of the outer band, including Marathi,
  Oriya, Bengali, Bihari and Assamese. It is formed by the addition of
  the Prakrit pleonastic suffix _-illa-_, which was not used by the
  Prakrit of the Midland, but was common elsewhere. Compare, for
  instance, the Ardhamagadhi past participle passive _an-illia-_,
  brought.

  The usual verbs substantive are as follows: G. _chu_, R. _hu_ or
  _chu_, I am, which are conjugated regularly as old presents, and G.
  _hato_, R. _ho_ or _cho_, was, which is a past participle, like the
  Hindostani (q.v.) _tha_. _Hu_, _hato_ and _ho_ are explained in the
  article on that language. _Chu_ is for Skr. _[r°]cchami_, Ap.
  _acchau_. The use of this base is one of the outer band survivals.
  Even in Prakrit, it is not found (so far as the present writer is
  aware) in the Sauraseni of the Midland. Using these as auxiliaries the
  finite verb makes a whole series of periphrastic tenses. A present
  definite is formed by conjugating the old present tense (not the
  present participle) with the present tense of the verb substantive.
  Thus, G. _calu chu_, I am going. A similar idiom is found in some
  Western Hindi dialects, but Hindostani employs the present participle;
  thus, _calta hu_. In G. and R., however, the imperfect is formed with
  the present participle as in H. Thus, G. _hu cal^ato hato_, I was
  going. So, as in H., we have a perfect _hu calyo_ (or _calelo_) _chu_,
  I have gone, and a pluperfect _hu calyo_ (or _calelo_) _hato_, I had
  gone. The R. periphrastic tenses are made on the same principles. With
  the genitive of the G. future passive participle, _cal^ava-no_, we
  have a kind of gerundive, as in _hu cal^avano chu_, I am to be gone,
  i.e. I am about to go; _hu cal^avano hato_, I was about to go.

  The same series of derivative verbs occurs in G. and R. as in H. Thus,
  we have a potential passive (a simple passive in G.) formed by adding
  _a_ to the base, as in G. _lakh^avu_, to write, _lakhavu_, to be
  written; and a causal by adding _av_ or _ad_, as in _lakhav^avu_, to
  cause to write; _bes^avu_, to sit, _besad^avu_, to seat. A new passive
  may be formed in G. from the causal, as in _tap^avu_, to be hot;
  _tapav^avu_, to cause to be hot; to heat; _tapavavu_, to be heated.

  Several verbs have irregular past participles. These must be learnt
  from the grammars. So also the numerous compound verbs, such as (G.)
  _cali sak^avu_, to be able to go; _cali cuk^avu_, to have completed
  going; _calya kar^avu_, to be in the habit of going, and so on.


  Literature.

Very little is known about the literature of Rajputana, except that it
is of large extent. It includes a number of bardic chronicles of which
only one has been partially edited, but the contents of which have been
described by Tod in his admired _Rajasthan_. It also includes a
considerable religious literature, but the whole mass of this is still
in MS. From those specimens which the present writer has examined, it
would appear that most of the authors wrote in Braj Bhasha, the Hindu
literary dialect of Hindostani (q.v.) In Marwar it is an acknowledged
fact that the literature falls into two branches, one called _Pingal_
and couched in Braj Bhasha, and the other called _[D.]ingal_ and couched
in Rajasthani. The most admired work in [D.]ingal is the _Raghunath
Rupak_ written by Mansa Ram in the beginning of the 19th century. It is
nominally a treatise on prosody, but, like many other works of the same
kind, it contrives to pay a double debt, for the examples of the metres
are so arranged as to form a complete epic poem celebrating the deeds of
the hero Rama.

The earliest writer of importance in Gujarati, and its most admired
poet, was Narsingh Meta, who lived in the 15th century A.D. Before him
there were writers on Sanskrit grammar, rhetoric and the like, who
employed an old form of Gujarati for their explanations. Narsingh does
not appear to have written any considerable work, his reputation
depending on his short songs, many of which exhibit much felicity of
diction. He had several successors, all admittedly his inferiors.
Perhaps the most noteworthy of these was Rewa Sankar, the translator of
the _Mahabharata_ (see SANSKRIT: _Literature_). A more important side of
Gujarati literature is its bardic chronicles, the contents of which have
been utilized by Forbes in his _Ras Mala_. Modern Gujarati literature
mostly consists of translations or imitations of English works.

  AUTHORITIES.--Volume ix. of the _Linguistic Survey of India_ contains
  a full and complete account of Gujarati and Rajasthani, including
  their various dialectic forms.

  For Rajasthani, see S. H. Kellogg, _Grammar of the Hindi Language_
  (2nd ed., London, 1893). In this are described several dialects of
  Rajasthani. See also Ram Karn Sarma, _Marwari Vyakarana_ (Jodhpur,
  1901) (a Marwari grammar written in that language), and G. Macalister,
  _Specimens of the Dialects spoken in the State of Jaipur_ (contains
  specimens, vocabularies and grammars) (Allahabad, 1898).

  For Gujarati, there are numerous grammars, amongst which we may note
  W. St C. Tisdall, _Simplified Grammar of the Gujarati Language_
  (London, 1892) and (the most complete) G. P. Taylor, _The Student's
  Gujarati Grammar_ (2nd ed., Bombay, 1908). As for dictionaries, the
  most authoritative is the _Narma-kos_ of Narmada Sankar (Bhaunagar
  and Surat, 1873), in Gujarati throughout. For English readers we may
  mention Shahpurji Edalji's (2nd ed., Bombay, 1868), the introduction
  to which contains an account of Gujarati literature by J. Glasgow,
  Belsare's (Ahmedabad, 1895), and Karbhari's (Ahmedabad, 1899).
       (G. A. Gr.)



GUJRANWALA, a town and district of British India, in the Lahore division
of the Punjab. The town is situated 40 m. N. of Lahore by rail. It is of
modern growth, and owes its importance to the father and grandfather of
Maharaja Ranjit Singh, whose capital it formed during the early period
of the Sikh power. Pop. (1901) 29,224. There are manufactures of
brass-ware, jewellery, and silk and cotton scarves.

The DISTRICT comprises an area of 3198 sq. m. In 1901 the population was
756,797, showing an increase of 29% in the decade. The district is
divided between a low alluvial tract along the rivers Chenab and Degh
and the upland between them, which forms the central portion of the
Rechna Doab, intermediate between the fertile submontane plains of
Sialkot and the desert expanses of Jhang. Part of the upland tract has
been brought under cultivation by the Chenab canal. The country is very
bare of trees, and the scenery throughout is tame and in the central
plateau becomes monotonous. It seems likely that the district once
contained the capital of the Punjab, at an epoch when Lahore had not
begun to exist. We learn from the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim, Hsuan Tsang,
that about the year 630 he visited a town known as Tse-kia (or Taki),
the metropolis of the whole country of the five rivers. A mound near the
modern village of Asarur has been identified as the site of the ancient
capital. Until the Mahommedan invasions little is known of Gujranwala,
except that Taki had fallen into oblivion and Lahore had become the
chief city. Under Mahommedan rule the district flourished for a time;
but a mysterious depopulation fell upon the tract, and the whole region
seems to have been almost entirely abandoned. On the rise of Sikh power,
the waste plains of Gujranwala were seized by various military
adventurers. Charat Singh took-possession of the village of Gujranwala,
and here his grandson the great Maharaja Ranjit Singh was born. The Sikh
rule, which was elsewhere so disastrous, appears to have been an
unmitigated benefit to this district. Ranjit Singh settled large
colonies in the various villages, and encouraged cultivation throughout
the depopulated plain. In 1847 the district came under British influence
in connexion with the regency at Lahore; and in 1849 it was included in
the territory annexed after the second Sikh war. A large export trade is
carried on in cotton, wheat and other grains. The district is served by
the main line and branches of the North-Western railway.



GUJRAT, a town and district of British India, in the Rawalpindi division
of the Punjab, lying on the south-western border of Kashmir. The town
stands about 5 m. from the right bank of the river Chenab, 70 m. N. of
Lahore by rail. Pop. (1901) 19,410. It is built upon an ancient site,
formerly occupied, according to tradition, by two successive cities, the
second of which is supposed to have been destroyed in 1303, the year of
a Mongol invasion. More than 200 years later either Sher Shah or Akbar
founded the existing town. Though standing in the midst of a Jat
neighbourhood, the fort was first garrisoned by Gujars, and took the
name of Gujrat. Akbar's fort, largely improved by Gujar Singh, stands in
the centre of the town. The neighbouring shrine of the saint Shah Daula
serves as a kind of native asylum for lunatics. The town has
manufactures of furniture, inlaid work in gold and iron, brass-ware,
boots, cotton goods and shawls.

The DISTRICT OF GUJRAT comprises a narrow wedge of sub-Himalayan plain
country, possessing few natural advantages. From the basin of the Chenab
on the south the general level rises rapidly towards the interior,
which, owing to the great distance of the water beneath the surface,
assumes a dreary and desert aspect. A range of low hills, known as the
Pabbi, traverses the northern angle of Gujrat. They are composed of a
friable Tertiary sandstone and conglomerate, destitute of vegetation,
and presenting a mere barren chaos of naked rock, deeply scored with
precipitous ravines. Immediately below the Pabbi stretches a high
plateau, terminating abruptly in a precipitous bluff some 200 ft. in
height. At the foot of this plateau is a plain, which forms the actual
valley of the Chenab and participates in the irrigation from the river
bed.

Numerous relics of antiquity stud the surface of the district. Mounds of
ancient construction yield early coins, and bricks are found whose size
and type prove them to belong to the prehistoric period. A mound now
occupied by the village of Moga or Mong has been identified as the site
of Nicaea, the city built by Alexander the Great on the field of his
victory over Porus. The Delhi empire established its authority in this
district under Bahlol Lodi (1451-1489). A century later it was visited
by Akbar, who founded Gujrat as the seat of government. During the decay
of the Mogul power, the Ghakkars of Rawalpindi overran this portion of
the Punjab and established themselves in Gujrat about 1741. Meanwhile
the Sikh power had been asserting itself in the eastern Punjab, and in
1765 the Ghakkar chief was defeated by Sirdar Gujar Singh, chief of the
Bhangi confederacy. On his death, his son succeeded him, but after a few
months' warfare, in 1798, he submitted himself as vassal to the Maharaja
Ranjit Singh. In 1846 Gujrat first came under the supervision of British
officials. Two years later the district became the theatre for the
important engagements which decided the event of the second Sikh war.
After several bloody battles in which the British were unsuccessful, the
Sikh power was irretrievably broken at the engagement which took place
at Gujrat on the 22nd of February 1849. The Punjab then passed by
annexation under British rule.

The district comprises an area of 2051 sq. m. In 1901 the population was
750,548, showing a decrease of 1%, compared with an increase of 10% in
the previous decade. The district has a large export trade in wheat and
other grains, oil, wool, cotton and hides. The main line and the
Sind-Sagar branch of the North-Western railway traverse it.



GULA, a Babylonian goddess, the consort of Ninib. She is identical with
another goddess, known as Bau, though it would seem that the two were
originally independent. The name Bau is more common in the oldest period
and gives way in the post-Khammurabic age to Gula. Since it is probable
that Ninib (q.v.) has absorbed the cults of minor sun-deities, the two
names may represent consorts of different gods. However this may be, the
qualities of both are alike, and the two occur as synonymous
designations of Ninib's female consort. Other names borne by this
goddess are Nin-Karrak, Ga-tum-dug and Nin-din-dug, the latter
signifying "the lady who restores to life." The designation well
emphasizes the chief trait of Bau-Gula which is that of healer. She is
often spoken of as "the great physician," and accordingly plays a
specially prominent rôle in incantations and incantation rituals
intended to relieve those suffering from disease. She is, however, also
invoked to curse those who trample upon the rights of rulers or those
who do wrong with poisonous potions. As in the case of Ninib, the cult
of Bau-Gula is prominent in Shirgulla and in Nippur. While generally in
close association with her consort, she is also invoked by herself, and
thus retains a larger measure of independence than most of the goddesses
of Babylonia and Assyria. She appears in a prominent position on the
designs accompanying the Kudurrus boundary-stone monuments of Babylonia,
being represented by a statue, when other gods and goddesses are merely
pictured by their shrines, by sacred animals or by weapons. In
neo-Babylonian days her cult continues to occupy a prominent position,
and Nebuchadrezzar II. speaks of no less than three chapels or shrines
within the sacred precincts of E-Zida in the city of Borsippa, besides a
temple in her honour at Babylon.     (M. Ja.)



GULBARGA, an ancient city of India, situated in the Nizam's dominions,
70 m. S.E. of Sholapur. Pop. (1901) 29,228. Originally a Hindu city, it
was made the capital of the Bahmani kings when that dynasty established
their independence in the Deccan in 1347, and it remained such until
1422. The palaces, mosques and tombs of these kings still stand
half-ruined. The most notable building is a mosque modelled after that
of Cordova in Spain, covering an area of 38,000 sq. ft., which is
almost unique in India as being entirely covered in. Since the opening
of a station on the Great India Peninsula railway, Gulbarga has become a
centre of trade, with cotton-spinning and weaving mills. It is also the
headquarters of a district and division of the same name. The district,
as recently reconstituted, has an area of 6004 sq. m.; pop. (1901),
1,041,067.



GULF STREAM,[1] the name properly applied to the stream current which
issues from the Gulf of Mexico and flows north-eastward, following the
eastern coast of North America, and separated from it by a narrow strip
of cold water (the _Cold Wall_), to a point east of the Grand Banks off
Newfoundland. The Gulf Stream is a narrow, deep current, and its
velocity is estimated at about 80 m. a day. It is joined by, and often
indistinguishable from, a large body of water which comes from outside
the West Indies and follows the same course. The term was formerly
applied to the drift current which carries the mixed waters of the Gulf
Stream and the Labrador current eastwards across the Atlantic. This is
now usually known as the "Gulf Stream drift," although the name is not
altogether appropriate. See Atlantic.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The word "gulf," a portion of the sea partially enclosed by the
    coast-line, and usually taken as referring to a tract of water larger
    than a bay and smaller than a sea, is derived through the Fr.
    _golfe_, from Late Gr. [Greek: kolphos], class. Gr. [Greek: kolpos],
    bosom, hence bay, cf. Lat. sinus. In University slang, the term is
    used of the position of those who fail to obtain a place in the
    honours list at a public examination, but are allowed a "pass."



GULFWEED, in botany, a popular name for the seaweed _Sargassum
bacciferum_, one of the brown seaweeds (Phaeophyceae), large quantities
of which are found floating in the Gulf of Mexico, whence it is carried
northwards by the Gulf Stream, small portions sometimes being borne as
far as the coasts of the British Isles. It was observed by Columbus, and
is remarkable among seaweeds for its form, which resembles branches
bearing leaves and berries; the latter, to which the species-name
_bacciferum_ refers, are hollow floats answering the same purpose as the
bladders in another brown seaweed, _Fucus vesiculosus_, which is common
round the British Isles between high and low water.



GULL, SIR WILLIAM WITHEY, 1st Bart. (1816-1890), English physician, was
the youngest son of John Gull, a barge-owner and wharfinger of
Thorpe-le-Soken, Essex, and was born on the 31st of December 1816 at
Colchester. He began life as a schoolmaster, but in 1837 Benjamin
Harrison, the treasurer of Guy's Hospital, who had noticed his ability,
brought him up to London from the school at Lewes where he was usher,
and gave him employment at the hospital, where he also gained permission
to attend the lectures. In 1843 he was made a lecturer in the medical
school of the hospital, in 1851 he was chosen an assistant physician,
and in 1856 he became full physician. In 1847 he was elected Fullerian
professor of physiology in the Royal Institution, retaining the post for
the usual three years, and in 1848 he delivered the Gulstonian Lectures
at the College of Physicians, where he filled every office of honour but
that of president. He died in London on the 29th of January 1890 after a
series of paralytic strokes, the first of which had occurred nearly
three years previously. He was created a baronet in 1872, in recognition
of the skill and care he had shown in attending the prince of Wales
during his attack of typhoid in 1871. Sir William Gull's fame rested
mainly on his success as a clinical practitioner; as he said himself, he
was "a clinical physician or nothing." This success must be largely
ascribed to his remarkable powers of observation, and to the great
opportunities he enjoyed for gaining experience of disease. He was
sometimes accused of being a disbeliever in drugs. That was not the
case, for he prescribed drugs like other physicians when he considered
them likely to be beneficial. He felt, however, that their
administration was only a part of the physician's duties, and his mental
honesty and outspokenness prevented him from deluding either himself or
his patients with unwarranted notions of what they can do. But though he
regarded medicine as primarily an art for the relief of physical
suffering, he was far from disregarding the scientific side of his
profession, and he made some real contributions to medical science. His
papers were printed chiefly in _Guy's Hospital Reports_ and in the
proceedings of learned societies: among the subjects he wrote about were
cholera, rheumatic fever, taenia, paraplegia and abscess of the brain,
while he distinguished for the first time (1873) the disease now known
as myxoedema, describing it as a "cretinoid state in adults."



GULL (Welsh _gwylan_, Breton, _goelann_, whence Fr. _goêland_), the name
commonly adopted, to the almost entire exclusion of the O. Eng. MEW
(Icel. _máfur_, Dan. _maage_, Swedish _måse_, Ger. _Meve_, Dutch
_meeuw_, Fr. _mouette_), for a group of sea-birds widely and commonly
known, all belonging to the genus _Larus_ of Linnaeus, which subsequent
systematists have broken up in a very arbitrary and often absurd
fashion. The family _Laridae_ is composed of two chief groups, _Larinae_
and _Sterninae_--the gulls and the terns, though two other subfamilies
are frequently counted, the skuas (_Stercorariinae_), and that formed by
the single genus _Rhynchops_, the skimmers; but there seems no strong
reason why the former should not be referred to the _Larinae_ and the
latter to the _Sterninae_.

Taking the gulls in their restricted sense, Howard Saunders, who has
subjected the group to a rigorous revision (_Proc. Zool. Society_, 1878,
pp. 155-211), admits forty-nine species of them, which he places in five
genera instead of the many which some prior investigators had sought to
establish. Of the genera recognized by him, _Pagophila_ and
_Rhodostethia_ have but one species each, _Rissa_ and _Xema_ two, while
the rest belong to _Larus_. The _Pagophila_ is the so-called ivory-gull,
_P. eburnea_, names which hardly do justice to the extreme whiteness of
its plumage, to which its jet-black legs offer a strong contrast. The
young, however, are spotted with black. An inhabitant of the most
northern seas, examples, most commonly young birds of the year, find
their way in winter to more temperate shores. Its breeding-place has
seldom been discovered, and the first of its eggs ever seen by
ornithologists was brought home by Sir L. M'Clintock in 1853 from Cape
Krabbe (_Journ. R. Dubl. Society_, i. 60, pl. 1); others were
subsequently obtained by Dr Malmgren in Spitsbergen. Of the species of
_Rissa_, one is the abundant and well-known kittiwake, _R. tridactyla_,
of circumpolar range, breeding, however, also in comparatively low
latitudes, as on the coasts of Britain, and in winter frequenting
southern waters. The other is _R. brevirostris_, limited to the North
Pacific, between Alaska and Kamchatka. The singular fact requires to be
noticed that in both these species the hind toe is generally deficient,
but that examples of each are occasionally found in which this
functionless member has not wholly disappeared. We have then the genus
_Larus_, which ornithologists have attempted most unsuccessfully to
subdivide. It contains the largest as well as the smallest of gulls. In
some species the adults assume a dark-coloured head every
breeding-season, in others any trace of dark colour is the mark of
immaturity. The larger species prey fiercely on other kinds of birds,
while the smaller content themselves with a diet of small animals, often
insects and worms. But however diverse be the appearance, structure or
habits of the extremities of the series of species, they are so closely
connected by intermediate forms that it is hard to find a gap between
them that would justify a generic division. Forty-three species of this
genus are recognized by Saunders. About fifteen belong to Europe and
fourteen to North America, of which (excluding stragglers) some five
only are common to both countries. Our knowledge of the geographical
distribution of several of them is still incomplete. Some have a very
wide range, others very much the reverse, as witness _L. fuliginosus_,
believed to be confined to the Galapagos, and _L. scopulinus_ and _L.
bulleri_ to New Zealand,--the last indeed perhaps only to the South
Island. The largest species of the group are the glaucous gull and
greater black-backed gull, _L. glaucus_ and _L. marinus_, of which the
former is circumpolar, and the latter nearly so--not being hitherto
found between Labrador and Japan. The smallest species is the European
_L. minutus_, though the North American _L. Philadelphia_ does not much
exceed it in size. Many of the gulls congregate in vast numbers to
breed, whether on rocky cliffs of the sea-coast or on healthy islands
in inland waters. Some of the settlements of the black-headed or
"peewit" gull, _L. ridibundus_, are a source of no small profit to their
proprietors,--the eggs, which are rightly accounted a great delicacy,
being taken on an orderly system up to a certain day, and the birds
carefully protected. Ross's or the roseate gull, _Rhodostethia rosea_,
forms a well-marked genus, distinguished not so much by the pink tint of
its plumage (for that is found in other species) but by its small
dove-like bill and wedge-shaped tail. It is an exceedingly scarce bird,
and beyond its having an Arctic habitat, little has yet been ascertained
about it. More rare still is one of the species of _Xema_, _X.
furcatum_, of which only two specimens, both believed to have come from
the Galapagos, have been seen. Its smaller congener Sabine's gull, _X.
sabinii_, is more common, and has been found breeding both in Arctic
America and in Siberia, and several examples, chiefly immature birds,
have been obtained in the British islands. Both species of _Xema_ are
readily distinguished from all other gulls by their forked tails.
     (A. N.)



GULLY, JOHN (1783-1863), English sportsman and politician, was born at
Wick, near Bath, on the 21st of August 1783, the son of an innkeeper. He
came into prominence as a boxer, and in 1805 he was matched against
Henry Pearce, the "Game Chicken," before the duke of Clarence
(afterwards William IV.) and numerous other spectators, and after
fighting sixty-four rounds, which occupied an hour and seventeen
minutes, was beaten. In 1807 he twice fought Bob Gregson, the Lancashire
giant, for two hundred guineas a side, winning on both occasions. As the
landlord of the "Plough" tavern in Carey Street, London, be retired from
the ring in 1808, and took to horse-racing. In 1827 he lost £40,000 by
backing his horse "Mameluke" (for which he had paid four thousand
guineas) for the St Leger. In partnership with Robert Ridskale, in 1832,
he made £85,000 by winning the Derby and St Leger with "St Giles" and
"Margrave." In partnership with John Day he won the Two Thousand Guineas
with "Ugly Buck" in 1844, and two years later he took the Derby and the
Oaks with "Pyrrhus the First" and "Mendicant," in 1854 the Two Thousand
Guineas with "Hermit," and in the same year, in partnership with Henry
Padwick, the Derby with "Andover." Having bought Ackworth Park near
Pontefract he was M.P. from December 1832 to July 1837. In 1862 he
purchased the Wingate Grange estate and collieries. Gully was twice
married and had twelve children by each wife. He died at Durham on the
9th of March 1863. He appears to have been no relation of the subsequent
Speaker, Lord Selby.



GULPÁÏGÁN (_Jerbádegán_ of the Arab geographers), a district and city in
Central Persia, situated N.W. of Isfahán and S.E. of Irák. Together with
Khunsár it forms a small province, paying a yearly revenue of about
£6000. The city of Gulpáïgán is situated 87 m. N.W. of Isfahán, at an
elevation of 5875 ft. in 33° 24´ N. and 50° 20´ E., and has a population
of about 5000. The district is fertile and produces much grain and some
opium. Sometimes it is under the governor-general of the Isfahán
province, at others it forms part of the province of Irák, and at times,
as in 1906, is under a governor appointed from Teheran.



GUM (Fr. _gomme_, Lat. _gommi_, Gr. [Greek: kommi], possibly a Coptic
word; distinguish "gum," the fleshy covering of the base of a tooth, in
O. Eng. _góma_, palate, cf. Ger. _Gaumen_, roof of the mouth; the
ultimate origin is probably the root _gha_, to open wide, seen in Gr.
[Greek: chainein], to gape, cf. "yawn"), the generic name given to a
group of amorphous carbo-hydrates of the general formula (C6H10O5)_n,
which exist in the juices of almost all plants, and also occur as
exudations from stems, branches and fruits of plants. They are entirely
soluble or soften in water, and form with it a thick glutinous liquid or
mucilage. They yield mucic and oxalic acids when treated with nitric
acid. In structure the gums are quite amorphous, being neither organized
like starch nor crystallized like sugar. They are odourless and
tasteless, and some yield clear aqueous solutions--the real gums--while
others swell up and will not percolate filter paper--the vegetable
mucilages. The acacias and the Rosaceae yield their gums most abundantly
when sickly and in an abnormal state, caused by a fulness of sap in the
young tissues, whereby the new cells are softened and finally
disorganized; the cavities thus formed fill with liquid, which exudes,
dries and constitutes the gum.

_Gum arabic_ may be taken as the type of the gums entirely soluble in
water. Another variety, obtained from the _Prosopis dulcis_, a
leguminous plant, is called gum mesquite or mezquite; it comes from
western Texas and Mexico, and is yellowish in colour, very brittle and
quite soluble in water.

  Gum arabic occurs in pieces of varying size, and some kinds are full
  of minute cracks. The specific gravity of Turkey picked gum (the
  purest variety) is 1.487, or, when dried at 100° C., 1.525. It is
  soluble in water to an indefinite extent; boiled with dilute sulphuric
  acid it is converted into the sugar galactose. Moderately strong
  nitric acid changes it into mucic, saccharic, tartaric and oxalic
  acids. Under the influence of yeast it does not enter into the
  alcoholic fermentation, but M. P. E. Berthelot, by digesting with
  chalk and cheese, obtained from it 12% of its weight of alcohol, along
  with calcium lactate, but no appreciable quantity of sugar. Gum arabic
  may be regarded as a potassium and calcium salt of gummic or arabic
  acid. T. Graham (_Chemical and Physical Researches_) recommended
  dialysis as the best mode of preparing gummic acid, and stated that
  the power of gum to penetrate the parchment septum is 400 times less
  than that of sodium chloride, and, further, that by mixing the gum
  with substances of the crystalloid class the diffusibility is lowered,
  and may be even reduced to nothing. The mucilage must be acidulated
  with hydrochloric acid before dialysing, to set free the gummic acid.
  By adding alcohol to the solution, the acid is precipitated as a white
  amorphous mass, which becomes glassy at 100°. Its formula is
  (C6H10O5)2H2O, and it forms compounds with nearly all bases which are
  easily soluble in water. Gummic acid reddens litmus, its reaction
  being about equal to carbonic acid. When solutions of gum arabic and
  gelatin are mixed, oily drops of a compound of the two are
  precipitated, which on standing form a nearly colourless jelly,
  melting at 25° C., or by the heat of the hand. This substance can be
  washed without decomposition. Gummic acid is soluble in water; when
  well dried at 100° C., it becomes transformed into metagummic acid,
  which is insoluble, but swells up in water like gum tragacanth.

  Gum arabic, when heated to 150° C. with two parts of acetic anhydride,
  swells up to a mass which, when washed with boiling water, and then
  with alcohol, gives a white amorphous insoluble powder called acetyl
  arabin C6H8(C2H3O)2O5. It is saponified by alkalies, with reproduction
  of soluble gum. Gum arabic is not precipitated from solution by alum,
  stannous chloride, sulphate or nitrate of copper, or neutral lead
  acetate; with basic lead acetate it forms a white jelly, with ferric
  chloride it yields a stiff clear gelatinoid mass, and its solutions
  are also precipitated by borax.

The finer varieties are used as an emollient and demulcent in medicine,
and in the manufacture of confectionery; the commoner qualities are used
as an adhesive paste, for giving lustre to crape, silk, &c., in cloth
finishing to stiffen the fibres, and in calico-printing. For labels,
&c., it is usual to mix sugar or glycerin with it to prevent it from
cracking.

Gum senegal, a variety of gum arabic produced by _Acacia Verek_, occurs
in pieces generally rounded, of the size of a pigeon's egg, and of a
reddish or yellow colour, and specific gravity 1.436. It gives with
water a somewhat stronger mucilage than gum arabic, from which it is
distinguished by its clear interior, fewer cracks and greater toughness.
It is imported from the river Gambia, and from Senegal and Bathurst.

Chagual gum, a variety brought from Santiago, Chile, resembles gum
senegal. About 75% is soluble in water. Its solution is not thickened by
borax, and is precipitated by neutral lead acetate; and dilute sulphuric
acid converts it into _d_-glucose.

_Gum tragacanth_, familiarly called gum dragon, exudes from the stem,
the lower part especially, of the various species of _Astragalus_,
especially _A. gummifer_, and is collected in Asia Minor, the chief port
of shipment being Smyrna. Formerly only what exuded spontaneously was
gathered; this was often of a brownish colour; but now the flow of the
gum is aided by incisions cut near the root, and the product is the
fine, white, flaky variety so much valued in commerce. The chief flow of
gum takes place during the night, and hot and dry weather is the most
favourable for its production.

  In colour gum tragacanth is of a dull white; it occurs in horny,
  flexible and tough, thin, twisted flakes, translucent, and with
  peculiar wavy lines on the surface. When dried at temperatures under
  100° C. it loses about 14% of water, and is then easily powdered. Its
  specific gravity is 1.384. With water it swells by absorption, and
  with even fifty times its weight of that liquid forms a thick
  mucilage. Part of it only is soluble in water, and that resembles
  gummic acid in being precipitated by alcohol and ammonium oxalate, but
  differs from it in giving a precipitate with neutral lead acetate and
  none with borax. The insoluble part of the gum is a calcium salt of
  bassorin (C12H20O10), which is devoid of taste and smell, forms a
  gelatinoid mass with water, but by continued boiling is rendered
  soluble.

Gum tragacanth is used in calico-printing as a thickener of colours and
mordants; in medicine as a demulcent and vehicle for insoluble powders,
and as an excipient in pills; and for setting and mending beetles and
other insect specimens. It is medicinally superior to gum acacia, as it
does not undergo acetous fermentation. The best pharmacopeial
preparation is the _Mucilago Tragacanthae_. The compound powder is a
useless preparation, as the starch it contains is very liable to
ferment.

Gum kuteera resembles in appearance gum tragacanth, for which the
attempt has occasionally been made to substitute it. It is said to be
the product of _Sterculia urens_, a plant of the natural order
Sterculiaceae.

_Cherry tree gum_ is an exudation from trees of the genera _Prunus_ and
_Cerasus_. It occurs in shiny reddish lumps, resembling the commoner
kinds of gum arabic. With water, in which it is only partially soluble,
it forms a thick mucilage. Sulphuric acid converts it into l-arabinose;
and nitric acid oxidizes it to oxalic acid (without the intermediate
formation of mucic acid as in the case of gum arabic).

_Gum of Bassora_, from Bassora or Bussorah in Asia, is sometimes
imported into the London market under the name of the hog tragacanth. It
is insipid, crackles between the teeth, occurs in variable-sized pieces,
is tough, of a yellowish-white colour, and opaque, and has properties
similar to gum tragacanth. Its specific gravity is 1.36. It contains
only 1% of soluble gum or arabin. Under the name of Caramania gum it is
mixed with inferior kinds of gum tragacanth before exportation.

_Mucilage._--Very many seeds, roots, &c., when infused in boiling water,
yield mucilages which, for the most part, consist of bassorin. Linseed,
quince seed and marshmallow root yield it in large quantity. In their
reactions the different kinds of mucilage present differences; e.g.
quince seed yields only oxalic acid when treated with nitric acid, and
with a solution of iodine in zinc iodide it gives, after some time, a
beautiful red tint. Linseed does not give the latter reaction; by
treatment with boiling nitric acid it yields mucic and oxalic acids.

  _Gum Resins._--This term is applied to the inspissated milky juices of
  certain plants, which consist of gum soluble in water, resin and
  essential oil soluble in alcohol, other vegetable matter and a small
  amount of mineral matter. They are generally opaque and solid, and
  often brittle. When finely powdered and rubbed down with water they
  form emulsions, the undissolved resin being suspended in the gum
  solution. Their chief uses are in medicine. Examples are ammoniacum,
  asafetida, bdellium, euphorbium, gamboge, myrrh, sagapanum and
  scammony.



GÜMBEL, KARL WILHELM VON, BARON (1823-1898), German geologist, was born
at Dannenfels, in the Palatinate of the Rhine, on the 11th of February
1823, and is known chiefly by his researches on the geology of Bavaria.
He received a practical and scientific education in mining at Munich and
Heidelberg, taking the degree of Ph.D. at Munich in 1862; and he was
engaged for a time at the colliery of St Ingbert and as a surveyor in
that district. In 1851, when the Geological Survey of Bavaria was
instituted, Gümbel was appointed chief geologist; in 1863 he was made
honorary professor of geognosy and surveying at the university of
Munich, and in 1879, Oberberg director of the Bavarian mining department
with which the Geological Survey was incorporated. His geological map of
Bavaria appeared in 1858, and the official memoir descriptive of the
detailed work, entitled _Geognostische Beschreibung des Königreichs
Bayern_ was issued in three parts (1861, 1868 and 1879). He subsequently
published his _Geologie von Bayern_ in 2 vols. (1884-1894), an elaborate
treatise on geology, with special reference to the geology of Bavaria.
In the course of his long and active career he engaged in much
palaeontological work: he studied the fauna of the Trias, and in 1861
introduced the term Rhaetic for the uppermost division of that system;
he supported at first the view of the organic nature of _Eozoon_ (1866
and 1876), he devoted special attention to Foraminifera, and described
those of the Eocene strata of the northern Alps (1868); he dealt also
with Receptaculites (1875) which he regarded as a genus belonging to the
Foraminifera. He died on the 18th of June 1898.



GUMBINNEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of East Prussia,
on the Pissa, an affluent of the Pregel, 22 m. by rail S.W. of
Eydtkuhnen on the line to Königsberg. Pop. (1905), 14,194. The
surrounding country is pleasant and fruitful, and the town has spacious
and regular streets shaded by linden trees. It has a Roman Catholic and
three Evangelical churches, a synagogue, a gymnasium, two public
schools, a public library, a hospital and an infirmary. In the market
square there is a statue of the king of Prussia Frederick William I.,
who in 1724 raised Gumbinnen to the rank of a town, and in 1732 brought
to it a number of persons who had been driven from Salzburg by religious
persecution. On the bridge over the Pissa a monument has been erected to
the soldiers from the neighbourhood who fell in the Franco-German war of
1870-71. Iron founding and the manufacture of machinery, wool, cotton,
and linen weaving, stocking-making, tanning, brewing and distilling are
the principal industries. There are horse and cattle markets, and some
trade in corn and linseed.

  See J. Schneider, _Aus Gumbinnens Vergangenheit_ (Gumbinnen, 1904).



GUMBO, or OKRA, termed also _Okro, Ochro, Ketmia, Gubbo_ and Syrian
mallow (Sans. _Tindisa_, Bengali _Dheras_, Pers. _Bámiyah_--the _Bammia_
of Prosper Alpinus; Fr. _Gombaut_, or better _Gombo_, and _Ketmie
comestible_), _Hibiscus esculentus_, a herbaceous hairy annual plant of
the natural order _Malvaceae_, probably of African origin, and now
naturalized or cultivated in all tropical countries. The leaves are
cordate, and 3 to 5-lobed, and the flowers yellow, with a crimson
centre; the fruit or pod, the _Bendi-Kai_ of the Europeans of southern
India, is a tapering, 10-angled capsule, 4 to 10 in. in length, except
in the dwarf varieties of the plant, and contains numerous oval
dark-coloured seeds, hairy at the base. Three distinct varieties of the
gumbo (_Quiabo_ and _Quimgombo_) in Brazil have been described by
Pacheco. The unripe fruit is eaten either pickled or prepared like
asparagus. It is also an ingredient in various dishes, e.g. the _gumbo_
of the Southern United States and the _calalou_ of Jamaica; and on
account of the large amount of mucilage it contains, it is extensively
consumed, both fresh and in the form of the prepared powder, for the
thickening of broths and soups. For winter use it is salted or sliced
and dried. The fruit is grown on a very large scale in the vicinity of
Constantinople. It was one of the esculents of Egypt in the time of
Abul-Abbas el-Nebati, who journeyed to Alexandria in 1216 (Wüstenfeld,
_Gesch. d. arab. Ärzte_, p. 118, Gött., 1840), and is still cultivated
by the Egyptians, who called it _Bammgé_.

The seeds of the gumbo are used as a substitute for coffee. From their
demulcent and emollient properties, the leaves and immature fruit have
long been in repute in the East for the preparation of poultices and
fomentations. Alpinus (1592) mentions the employment of their decoction
in Egypt in ophthalmia and in uterine and other complaints.

  The musk okra (Sans., _Latákasturiká_, cf. the Gr. [Greek: kástor];
  Bengali, _Latákasturi_; Ger. _Bisamkörnerstrauch_; Fr. _Ketmie
  musquée_), _Hibiscus Abelmoschus_ (_Abelmoschus moschatus_),
  indigenous to India, and cultivated in most warm regions of the globe,
  is a suffruticose plant, bearing a conical 5-ridged pod about 3 in. in
  length, within which are numerous brown reniform seeds, smaller than
  those of _H. esculentus._ The seeds possess a musky odour, due to an
  oleo-resin present in the integument, and are known to perfumers under
  the name of _ambrette_ as a substitute for musk. They are said to be
  used by the Arabs for scenting coffee. The seeds (in the Fantee
  language, _Incromahom_) are used in Africa as beads; and powdered and
  steeped in rum they are valued in the West Indies as a remedy for
  snakebites. The plant yields an excellent fibre, and, being rich in
  mucilage, is employed in Upper India for the clarifying of sugar. The
  best-perfumed seeds are reported to come from Martinique.

  See P. Alpinus, _De plantis Aegypti_, cap. xxvii. p. 38 (Venice,
  1592); J. Sontheimer's _Abd Allah ibn Ahmad_, &c., i. 118 (Stuttgart,
  1840-1842); P. P. Pacheco, "La Ketmie potagère ou comestible," _La
  Belgique horticole_, iv. 63 (1853); Della Sudda, "De l'emploi à
  Constantinople de la racine de l'Hibiscus esculentus," _Répert. de
  pharm._, January 1860, p. 229; E. J. Waring, _Pharm. of India_, p. 35
  (1868); O. Popp, "Über die Aschenbestandteile der Samen von Acacia
  nilotica und Hibiscus esculentus in Ägypten," _Arch. der Pharm._ cxcv.
  p. 140 (1871); Drury, _The Useful Plants of India_, pp. 1, 2 (2nd ed.,
  1873); U. C. Dutt, _The Mat. Med. of the Hindus_, pp. 123, 321 (1877);
  Lanessan, _Hist. des drogues_, i. 181-184 (1878); G. Watt, _Dictionary
  of the Economic Products of India_ (1890).



GUMTI, a river of northern India. It rises in a depression in the
Pilibhit district of the United Provinces, and after a sinuous but
generally south-easterly course of 500 m. past Lucknow and Jaunpur joins
the Ganges in Ghazipar district. At Jaunpur it is a fine stream, spanned
by a 16th-century bridge of sixteen arches, and is navigable by vessels
of 17 tons burden. There is also a small river of the same name in the
Tippera district of eastern Bengal and Assam.



GUMULJINA, or GUMURDJINA, a town of European Turkey, in the vilayet of
Adrianople. Pop. (1905), about 8000, of whom three-fourths are Turks and
the remainder Greeks, Jews or Armenians. Gumuljina is situated on the
river Karaja-Su, south of the eastern extremity of the Rhodope range of
mountains and 13 m. inland from the Aegean Sea. It has a station on the
railway between Salonica and Dédéagatch. The district produces wheat,
maize, barley and tobacco; sericulture and viticulture are both
practised on a limited scale. A cattle fair is held annually on Greek
Palm Sunday. Copper and antimony are found in the neighbourhood.



GUMUS, or GUMZ, Negroes of the Shangalla group of tribes, dwelling in
the mountainous district of Fazogli on the Sudan-Abyssinian frontier.
They live in independent groups, some being mountaineers while others
are settled on the banks of the Blue Nile. Gumz in the native tongue
signifies "people," and the sub-tribes have distinctive names. The Gumus
are nature-worshippers, God and the sun being synonymous. On ceremonial
occasions they carry parasols of honour (see SHANGALLA).



GÜMÜSH-KHANEH, the chief town of a sanjak of the same name in the
Trebizond vilayet of Asiatic Turkey, situated on high ground (4400 ft.)
in the valley of the Kharshut Su, about ½ m. to south of the
Trebizond-Erzerum _chaussée_. The silver mines from which the place
takes its name were noted in ancient times and are mentioned by Marco
Polo. Pop. about 3000, chiefly Greeks, who are in the habit of
emigrating to great distances to work in mines. They practically supply
the whole lead and silver-mining labour in Asiatic Turkey, and in
consequence the Greek bishop of Gümüsh-Khaneh has under his jurisdiction
all the communities engaged in this particular class of mines.



GUN, a general term for a weapon, tubular in form, from which a
projectile is discharged by means of an explosive. When applied to
artillery the word is confined to those pieces of ordnance which have a
direct as opposed to a high-angle fire, in which case the terms
"howitzer" and "mortar" are used (see ORDNANCE and MACHINE-GUN). "Gun"
as applied to firearms which are carried in the hand and fired from the
shoulder, the old "hand gun," is now chiefly used of the sporting
shot-gun, with which this article mainly deals; in military usage this
type of weapon, whether rifle, carbine, &c., is known collectively as
"small arms" (see RIFLE and PISTOL). The origin of the word, which in
Mid. Eng. is _gonne_ or _gunne_, is obscure, but it has been suggested
by Professor W. W. Skeat that it conceals a female name, _Gunnilde_ or
_Gunhilda_. The names, e.g. Mons Meg at Edinburgh Castle and _faule
Grete_ (heavy Peg), known to readers of Carlyle's _Frederick the Great_,
will be familiar parallelisms. "Gunne" would be a shortened "pet name"
of Gunnhilde. The _New English Dictionary_ finds support for the
suggestion in the fact that in Old Norwegian _gunne_ and _hilde_ both
mean "war," and quotes an inventory of war material at Windsor Castle in
1330-1331, where is mentioned "una magna balista de cornu quae vocatur
Domina Gunilda." Another suggestion for the origin of the word is that
the word represents a shortened form, _gonne_, of a supposed French
_mangonne_, a mangonel, but the French word is _mangonneau_.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Hand Gun.]

Firearms are said to have been first used in European warfare in the
14th century. The hand gun (see fig. 1) came into practical use in 1446
and was of very rude construction. It consisted of a simple iron or
brass tube with a touch-hole at the top fixed in a straight stock of
wood, the end of which passed under the right armpit when the "gonne"
was about to be fired. A similar weapon (see fig. 2) was also used by
the horse-soldier, with a ring at the end of the stock, by which it was
suspended by a cord round the neck; a forked rest, fitted by a ring to
the saddlebow, served to steady the gun. This rest, when not in use,
hung down in front of the right leg. A match was made of cotton or hemp
spun slack, and boiled in a strong solution of saltpetre or in the lees
of wine. The touch-hole was first placed on the top of the barrel, but
afterwards at the side, with a small pan underneath to hold the priming,
and guarded by a cover moving on a pivot.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Mounted Man with Hand Gun.]

[Illustration: From General Hardÿ de Périnï's _Turenne et Condé
1626-1675_.

FIG. 3.--Musketeer, 1626.]

An improvement in firearms took place in the first year of the reign of
Henry VII., or at the close of Edward IV., by fixing a cock (Fr.
_serpentine_) on the hand gun to hold the match, which was brought down
to the priming by a trigger, whence the term matchlock. This weapon is
still in use among the Chinese, Tatars, Sikhs, Persians and Turks. An
improvement in the stock was also made during this period by forming it
with a wide butt end to be placed against the right breast. Subsequently
the stock was bent, a German invention, and the arm was called a
hackbutt or hagbut, and the smaller variety a demihague. The arquebus
and hackbutt were about a yard in length, including barrel and stock,
and the demihague was about half the size and weight, the forerunner of
the pistol. The arquebus was the standard infantry firearm in Europe
from the battle of Pavia to the introduction of the heavier and more
powerful musket. It did not as a rule require a rest, as did the musket.
The wheel-lock, an improvement on the matchlock, was invented in
Nuremberg in 1517; was first used at the siege of Parma in 1521; was
brought to England in 1530, and continued in partial use there until the
time of Charles II. This wheel-lock consisted of a fluted or grooved
steel wheel which protruded into the priming pan, and was connected with
a strong spring. The cock, also regulated by a spring, was fitted with a
piece of iron pyrites. In order to discharge the gun the lock was wound
up by a key, the cock was let down on the priming pan, the pyrites
resting on the wheel; on the trigger being pressed the wheel was
released and rapidly revolved, emitting sparks, which ignited the powder
in the pan. The complicated and expensive nature of this lock, with its
liability to injury, no doubt prevented its general adoption.

[Illustration: From General Hardÿ de Périnï's _Turenne et Condé,
1626-1675_.

FIGS. 4 and 5.--Musketeers, 1675.]

About 1540 the Spaniards constructed a larger and heavier firearm
(matchlock), carrying a ball of 10 to the pound, called a musket. This
weapon was introduced into England before the middle of the 16th
century, and soon came into general use throughout Europe. The snaphance
was invented about this period in Germany, and from its comparative
cheapness was much used in England, France and Holland. It held a flint
instead of the pyrites of the wheel or firelock, which ignited the
powder in the pan by striking on a piece of furrowed steel, when
released by the trigger, and emitting sparks.

As a sporting weapon the gun may be said to date from the invention of
the wheel-lock in the beginning of the 16th century, though firearms
were used for sporting purposes in Italy, Spain, Germany, and to some
extent in France, in the 15th century. Before that period the longbow in
England and the crossbow on the Continent were the usual weapons of the
chase. In Great Britain little use appears to have been made of firearms
for game shooting until the latter half of the 17th century, and the
arms then used for the purpose were entirely of foreign make.

The French gunmakers of St-Étienne claim for their town that it is the
oldest centre of the firearms industry. They do not appear to have made
more than the barrels of the finest sporting arms, and these even were
sometimes made in Paris. The production of firearms by the artists of
Paris reached its zenith about the middle of the 17th century. The
Italian, German, Spanish and Russian gunsmiths also showed great skill
in the elegance and design of their firearms, the Spaniards in
particular being makers of fine barrels. The pistol (q.v.) is understood
to have been made for the first time about 1540 at Pistoia in Italy.
About 1635 the modern firelock or flint-lock was invented, which only
differed from the snaphance by the cover of the pan forming part of the
furrowed steel struck by the flint. Originally the priming was put into
the pan from a flask containing a fine-grained powder called serpentine
powder. Later the top of the cartridge was bitten off and the pan filled
therefrom before loading. The mechanism of the flint-lock musket
rendered all this unnecessary, as, in loading, a portion of the charge
passed through the vent into the pan, where it was held by the cover or
hammer. The matchlock, as a military weapon, gradually gave way to the
firelock, which came into general use in the last half of the 17th
century, and was the weapon of Marlborough's and Wellington's armies.
This was the famous "Brown Bess" of the British army. The highest
development of the flint-lock is found in the fowling-pieces of the end
of the 18th and beginning of the 19th centuries, particularly those made
by Joseph Manton, the celebrated English gunsmith and inventor. The
Napoleonic wars afforded English gunmakers an opportunity, which they
fully utilized, of gaining the supremacy over their foreign competitors
in the gunmaking trade. English gunmakers reduced the weight, improved
the shooting powers, and perfected the lock mechanism of the sporting
gun, and increased the range and efficiency of the rifle. This
transference of the gunmaking craft from the Continent to England was
also assisted by the tyranny of the foreign gunmaking gilds. In 1637 the
London gunmakers obtained their charter of incorporation. The important
gunmaking industry of Birmingham dates from 1603, and soon rivalled that
of London. Double shot-guns do not appear to have been generally used
until the 19th century. The first successful double guns were built with
the barrels over and under, and not side by side, and were invented
about 1616 by one Guilliano Bossi of Rome. In 1784 double shot guns were
described as a novelty. Joseph Manton patented the elevated rib which
rested on the barrels. The general success of the double gun was
eventually due to the light weight which the better material and
workmanship of the best gunmakers made possible, and to the quickness
and certainty of ignition of the modern cartridge.

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--Moorish Flint-lock.]

[Illustration: FIG. 7.--Indian Matchlock.]

The objections to the flint-lock were that it did not entirely preserve
the priming from wet, and that the flint sparks sometimes failed to
ignite the charge. In 1807 the Rev. Alexander John Forsyth obtained a
patent for priming with a fulminating powder made of chlorate of potash,
sulphur and charcoal, which exploded by concussion. This important
improvement in firearms was not recognized and adopted by the military
authorities until more than thirty years later. In the meantime it was
gradually developed, and the copper percussion cap invented, by various
gunmakers and private individuals. Thomas Shaw of Philadelphia first
used fulminate in a steel cap in 1814, which he changed to a copper cap
in 1816. It was not until the introduction of the copper cap that the
percussion gun could be considered in every way superior to the flint.
In 1834, in the reign of William IV., Forsyth's invention was tested at
Woolwich by firing 6000 rounds from six flint-lock muskets, and a
similar number from six percussion muskets, in all weathers. This trial
established the percussion principle. The shooting was found to be more
accurate, the recoil less, the charge of powder having been reduced from
6 to 4½ drs., the rapidity of firing greater and the number of
miss-fires much reduced, being as 1 to 26 nearly in favour of the
percussion system. In consequence of this successful trial the military
flint-lock in 1839 was altered to suit the percussion principle. This
was easily accomplished by replacing the hammer and pan by a nipple with
a hole through its centre to the vent or touch-hole, and by replacing
the cock which held the flint by a smaller cock or hammer with a hollow
to fit on the nipple when released by the trigger. On the nipple was
placed the copper cap containing the detonating composition, now made of
three parts of chlorate of potash, two of fulminate of mercury and one
of powdered glass.

[Illustration: FIG. 8.]

[Illustration: FIG. 9.]

[Illustration: FIG. 10.]

[Illustration: FIG. 11.]

[Illustration: FIG. 12.]

[Illustration: FIG. 13.]

[Illustration: FIG. 14.]

[Illustration: FIG. 15.]

[Illustration: FIG. 16.]

[Illustration: FIG. 17.]

[Illustration: FIG. 18.]

In 1840 the Austrian army was supplied with the percussion musket, and
in 1842 a new model percussion musket with a block or back-sight for 150
yds. was issued to the British army, 11 lb. 6 oz. in weight, 4 ft. 6¾
in. in length without bayonet, 6 ft. with bayonet and with a barrel 3
ft. 3 in. in length, firing a bullet of 14½ to the lb. with 4½ drs. of
powder. This musket was larger in bore than that of France, Belgium,
Russia and Austria, and thus had the advantage of being able to fire
their balls, while the English balls could not be fired from their
barrels. But the greater weight and momentum of the English ball was
counteracted by the excess of windage. This percussion musket of 1842,
the latest development of the renowned Brown Bess, continued in use in
the British army until partially superseded in 1851 by the Minié rifle,
and altogether by the Enfield rifle in 1855. For further information as
to the history and development of military, target and sporting rifles
see RIFLE.

  Illustrations are given herewith of a German carbine of the 16th
  century, with double wheel-lock (fig. 8); a snaphance (fig. 9);
  several forms of the Brown Bess or flint-lock military musket
  (English, William III., fig. 10; George II., fig. 11; George III.,
  fig. 12; French, Napoleon, fig. 13); and of the percussion musket
  adopted in the British service in 1839 (fig. 14). Examples of
  non-European firearms are shown in figs. 6 and 7, representing a
  Moorish flint-lock and an Indian matchlock respectively. Figs. 15-18
  represent various carbines, musketoons and blunderbusses, fig. 15
  showing a small blunderbuss or musketoon of the early 18th century,
  fig. 16 a large blunderbuss of 1750, fig. 17 a flint-lock cavalry
  carbine of about 1825 and fig. 18 a percussion carbine of 1830. All
  these are drawn from arms in the museum of the Royal United Service
  Institution, London.

_Modern Shot Guns._--The modern sporting breech-loaders may be said to
have originated with the invention of the cartridge-case containing its
own means of ignition. The breech-loading mechanism antedated the
cartridge by many years, the earliest breech-loading hand guns dating
back to 1537. Another distinct type of breech-loader was invented in
France about the middle of the 17th century. During the 17th and 18th
centuries breech-loading arms were very numerous and of considerable
variety. The original cartridge, a charge of powder and bullet in a
paper envelope, dates from 1586. These were used with muzzle-loaders,
the base of the cartridge being ripped or bitten off by the soldier
before placing in the barrel. It was only when the detonating cap came
into use that the paper cartridge answered well in breech-loaders. The
modern breech-loader has resulted from a gradual series of improvements,
and not from any one great invention. Its essential feature is the
prevention of all escape of gas at the breech when the gun is fired by
means of an expansive cartridge-case containing its own means of
ignition. The earlier breech-loaders were not gas-tight, because the
cartridge-cases were either consumable or the load was placed in a
strong non-expansive breech-plug. The earliest efficient modern
cartridge-case was the pin-fire, patented by Houiller, a Paris gunsmith,
in 1847, with a thin weak shell which expanded by the force of the
explosion, fitted perfectly in the barrel, and thus formed an efficient
gas check. Probably no invention connected with firearms has wrought
such changes in the principle of gun-construction as those effected by
the expansive cartridge-case. This invention has completely
revolutionized the art of gunmaking, has been successfully applied to
all descriptions of firearms, and has produced a new and important
industry--that of cartridge manufacture.

About 1836, C. Lefaucheux, a Paris gunsmith, improved the old Pauly
system of breech-loading, but its breech action was a crude mechanism,
with single grip worked by a bottom lever. The double grip for the
barrels was the subsequent invention of a Birmingham gunmaker. The
central-fire cartridge, practically as now in use, was introduced into
England in 1861 by Daw. It is said to have been the invention of Pottet,
of Paris, improved upon by Schneider, and gave rise to considerable
litigation in respect of its patent rights. Daw, who controlled the
English patents, was the only exhibitor of central-fire guns and
cartridges at the International Exhibition of 1862. In his system the
barrels work on a hinge joint, the bottom lever withdraws the
holding-down bolt; the cartridge is of the modern type, the cap being
detonated by a striker passing through the standing breech to the inner
face. The cartridge-case is withdrawn by a sliding extractor fitted to
the breech ends of the barrels. Daw was subsequently defeated in his
control of the patents by Eley Bros., owing to the patent not having
been kept in force in France. The modern breech-loading gun has been
gradually and steadily improved since 1860. Westley Richards adopted and
improved Matthews' top-lever mechanism. About 1866 the rebounding lock
was introduced, and improved in 1869. The treble wedge-fast mechanism
for holding down the barrels was originated by W. W. Greener in 1865,
and perfected in 1873. A very important improvement was the introduction
of the hammerless gun, in which the mechanism for firing is placed
entirely within the gun. This was made possible by the introduction of
the central-fire cartridge. In 1862 Daw, and in 1866 Green, introduced
hammerless guns in which the cocking was effected by the under lever.
These guns did not attain popularity. In 1871 T. Murcott patented a
hammerless gun, the first to obtain distinct success. This also was a
lever-cocking gun. About the same time Needham introduced the principle
of utilizing the weight of the barrels to assist in cocking. In 1875
Anson and Deeley utilized the fore-end attached to the barrels to cock
the locks. From this date hammerless guns became really popular.
Subsequently minor improvements were made by many other gun-makers,
including alternative movements introduced by Purdey and Rogers.
Improvements were also introduced by Westley Richards, Purdey and
others, including cocking by means of the mainspring. In 1874 J. Needham
introduced the ejector mechanism, by which each empty cartridge-case is
separately and automatically thrown out of the gun when the breech is
opened, the necessary force being provided by the mainspring of the
lock. W. W. Greener and some other gunmakers have since introduced minor
modifications and improvements of this mechanism. Next in turn came
Perks and other inventors, who separated the ejector mechanism from the
lock work. This very decided improvement is universal to-day. A later
innovation in the modern breech-loader is the single trigger mechanism
introduced by some of the leading English gun-makers, by which both
barrels can be fired in succession by a single trigger. This improvement
enables both barrels to be rapidly fired without altering the grip of
the right hand, but deprives the shooter of the power of selecting his
barrel.

Repeating or magazine shot-guns on the principle of the repeating rifle,
with a magazine below the single firing barrel, are also made by some
American and continental gun-makers, but as yet have not come into
general use, being comparatively cumbersome and not well balanced. The
difficulty of a shifting balance as each cartridge is fired has also yet
to be overcome. Several varieties of a combination rifle and shot-gun
are also made, for a description of which see RIFLE.

The chief purposes for which modern shot-guns are required are
game-shooting, trap-shooting at pigeons and wild-fowling. The game gun
may be any bore from 32 to 10 gauge. The usual standard bore is 12 gauge
unless it be for a boy, when it is 20 gauge. The usual weight of the
12-bore double-barrelled game gun is from 6 to 7 lb. with barrels 30 in.
long, there, however, being a present tendency to barrels of a shorter
length. These barrels are made of steel, as being a stronger and more
homogeneous material than the barrels formerly produced, which were
mostly of Damascus pattern, a mixture of iron and steel. Steel barrels,
drilled from the solid block, were originally produced by Whitworth.
To-day the makers of steel for this purpose are many. The standard
charge for the 12-bore is 42 grains of smokeless powder and 1 oz. to
1-1/8th oz. of shot. Powder of a lighter gravimetric density is
occasionally employed, when the weight of the charge is reduced to 33
grains. This charge of powder corresponds to the 3 drams of black powder
formerly used. The ordinary game gun should have a killing circle of 30
in. at 30 yds. with the first barrel and at 40 yds. with the second.
Improved materials and methods of manufacture, and what is known as
"choke" boring of the barrels, have enabled modern gun-makers to
regulate the shooting of guns to a nicety. Choke-boring is the
constriction of the diameter of the barrel near the muzzle, and was
known in America in the early part of the 19th century. In 1875 Pape of
Newcastle was awarded a prize for the invention of choke-boring, there
being no other claimant. The methods of choke-boring have since been
varied and improved by the leading English gun-makers. The pigeon gun is
usually heavier than the game gun and more choked. It generally weighs
from 7 to 8 lb. Its weight, by club rules, is frequently restricted to
7½ lb. and its bore to 12 gauge. The standard wild-fowling gun is a
double 8-bore with 30-in. barrels weighing 15 lb. and firing a charge of
7 drams of powder and 2¾ to 3 oz. of shot. These guns are also made in
both smaller and larger varieties, including a single barrel 4-bore,
which is the largest gun that can be used from the shoulder, and single
barrel punt guns of 1½-in. bore, weighing 100 lb. While no conspicuous
advance in improved gun-mechanism and invention has been made during the
last few years, the materials and methods of manufacture, and the
quality and exactitude of the gun-maker's work, have continued gradually
and steadily to improve. English, and particularly London-made, guns
stand pre-eminent all over the world.     (H. S.-K.)



GUNA, a town and military station in Central India, in the state of
Gwalior. Pop. (1901) 11,452. After the Mutiny, it became the
headquarters of the Central India Horse, whose commanding officer acts
as ex-officio assistant to the resident of Gwalior; and its trade has
developed rapidly since the opening of a station on a branch of the
Great Indian Peninsula railway in 1899.



GUNCOTTON, an explosive substance produced by the action of strong
nitric acid on cellulose at the ordinary temperature; chemically it is a
nitrate of cellulose, or a mixture of nitrates, according to some
authorities. The first step in the history of guncotton was made by T.
J. Pelouze in 1838, who observed that when paper or cotton was immersed
in cold concentrated nitric acid the materials, though not altered in
physical appearance, became heavier, and after washing and drying were
possessed of self-explosive properties. At the time these products were
thought to be related to the nitrated starch obtained a little
previously by Henri Braconnot and called _xyloidin_; they are only
related in so far as they are nitrates. C. F. Schönbein of Basel
published his discovery of guncotton in 1846 (_Phil. Mag._ [3], 31, p.
7), and this was shortly after followed by investigations by R. R.
Böttger of Frankfort and Otto and Knop, all of whom added to our
knowledge of the subject, the last-named introducing the use of
sulphuric along with nitric acid in the nitration process. The chemical
composition and constitution of guncotton has been studied by a
considerable number of chemists and many divergent views have been put
forward on the subject. W. Crum was probably the first to recognize that
some hydrogen atoms of the cellulose had been replaced by an oxide of
nitrogen, and this view was supported more or less by other workers,
especially Hadow, who appears to have distinctly recognized that at
least three compounds were present, the most violently explosive of
which constituted the main bulk of the product commonly obtained and
known as guncotton. This particular product was insoluble in a mixture
of ether and alcohol, and its composition could be expressed by the term
tri-nitrocellulose. Other products were soluble in the ether-alcohol
mixture: they were less highly nitrated, and constituted the so-called
collodion guncotton.

The smallest empirical formula for cellulose (q.v.) may certainly be
written C6H10O5. How much of the hydrogen and oxygen are in the
hydroxylic (OH) form cannot be absolutely stated, but from the study of
the acetates at least three hydroxyl groups may be assumed. The oldest
and perhaps most reasonable idea represents guncotton as cellulose
trinitrate, but this has been much disputed, and various formulae, some
based on cellulose as C12H20O10, others on a still more complex
molecule, have been proposed. The constitution of guncotton is a
difficult matter to investigate, primarily on account of the very
insoluble nature of cellulose itself, and also from the fact that
comparatively slight variations in the concentration and temperature of
the acids used produce considerable differences in the products. The
nitrates are also very insoluble substances, all the so-called solvents
merely converting them into jelly. No method has yet been devised by
which the molecular weight can be ascertained.[1] The products of the
action of nitric acid on cellulose are not nitro compounds in the sense
that picric acid is, but are nitrates or nitric esters.

Guncotton is made by immersing cleaned and dried cotton waste in a
mixture of strong nitric and sulphuric acids. The relative amounts of
the acids in the mixture and the time of duration of treatment of the
cotton varies somewhat in different works, but the underlying idea is
the same, viz. employing such an excess of sulphuric over nitric that
the latter will be rendered anhydrous or concentrated and maintained as
such in solution in the sulphuric acid, and that the sulphuric acid
shall still be sufficiently strong to absorb and combine with the water
produced during the actual formation of the guncotton. In the recent
methods the cotton remains in contact with the acids for two to four
hours at the ordinary air temperature (15° C.), in which time it is
almost fully nitrated, the main portion, say 90%, having a composition
represented by the formula[2] C6H7O2(NO3)3, the remainder consisting of
lower nitrated products, some oxidation products and traces of unchanged
cellulose and cellulose sulphates. The acid is then slowly run out by an
opening in the bottom of the pan in which the operation is conducted,
and water distributed carefully over its surface displaces it in the
interstices of the cotton, which is finally subjected to a course of
boiling and washing with water. This washing is a most important part of
the process. On its thoroughness depends the removal of small quantities
of products other than the nitrates, for instance, some sulphates and
products from impurities contained in the original cellulose. Cellulose
sulphates are one, and possibly the main, cause of instability in
guncotton, and it is highly desirable that they should be completely
hydrolysed and removed in the washing process. The nitrated product
retains the outward form of the original cellulose. In the course of the
washing, according to a method introduced by Sir F. Abel, the cotton is
ground into a pulp, a process which greatly facilitates the complete
removal of acids, &c. This pulp is finally drained, and is then either
compressed, while still moist, into slabs or blocks when required for
blasting purposes, or it is dried when required for the manufacture of
propellants. Sometimes a small quantity of an alkali (e.g. sodium
carbonate) is added to the final washing water, so that quantities of
this alkaline substance ranging from 0.5% to a little over 1% are
retained by the guncotton. The idea is that any traces of acid not
washed away by the washing process or produced later by a slow
decomposition of the substance will be thereby neutralized and rendered
harmless. Guncotton in an air-dry state, whether in the original form or
after grinding to pulp and compressing, burns with very great rapidity
but does not detonate unless confined.

Immediately after the discovery of guncotton Schönbein proposed its
employment as a substitute for gunpowder, and General von Lenk carried
out a lengthy and laborious series of experiments intending to adapt it
especially for artillery use. All these and many subsequent attempts to
utilize it, either loose or mechanically compressed in any way, signally
failed. However much compressed by mechanical means it is still a porous
mass, and when it is confined as in a gun the flame and hot gases from
the portion first ignited permeate the remainder, generally causing it
actually to detonate, or to burn so rapidly that its action approaches
detonation. The more closely it is confined the greater is the pressure
set up by a small part of the charge burning, and the more completely
will the explosion of the remainder assume the detonating form. The
employment of guncotton as a propellant was possible only after the
discovery that it could be gelatinized or made into a colloid by the
action of so-called solvents, e.g. ethylacetate and other esters,
acetone and a number of like substances (see CORDITE).

  When quite dry guncotton is easily detonated by a blow on an anvil or
  hard surface. If dry and warm it is much more sensitive to percussion
  or friction, and also becomes electrified by friction under those
  conditions. The amount of contained moisture exerts a considerable
  effect on its sensitiveness. With about 2% of moisture it can still be
  detonated on an anvil, but the action is generally confined to the
  piece struck. As the quantity of contained water increases it becomes
  difficult or even impossible to detonate by an ordinary blow.
  Compressed dry guncotton is easily detonated by an initiative
  detonator such as mercuric fulminate. Guncotton containing more than
  15% of water is uninflammable, may be compressed or worked without
  danger and is much more difficult to detonate by a fulminate
  detonator than when dry.[3] A small charge of dry guncotton will,
  however, detonate the wet material, and this peculiarity is made use
  of in the employment of guncotton for blasting purposes. A charge of
  compressed wet guncotton may be exploded, even under water, by the
  detonation of a small primer of the dry and waterproofed material,
  which in turn can be started by a small fulminate detonator. The
  explosive wave from the dry guncotton primer is in fact better
  responded to by the wet compressed material than the dry, and its
  detonation is somewhat sharper than that of the dry. It is not
  necessary for the blocks of wet guncotton to be actually in contact if
  they be under water, and the peculiar explosive wave can also be
  conveyed a little distance by a piece of metal such as a railway rail.
  The more nearly the composition of guncotton approaches that
  represented by C6H7O2(NO3)3, the more stable is it as regards storing
  at ordinary temperatures, and the higher the igniting temperature.
  Carefully prepared guncotton after washing with alcohol-ether until
  nothing more dissolves may require to be heated to 180-185° C. before
  inflaming. Ordinary commercial guncottons, containing from 10 to 15%
  of lower nitrated products, will ignite as a rule some 20-25° lower.

  Assuming the above formula to represent guncotton, there is sufficient
  oxygen for internal combustion without any carbon being left. The
  gaseous mixture obtained by burning guncotton in a vacuum vessel
  contains steam, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, nitric
  oxide, and methane. When slowly heated in a vacuum vessel until
  ignition takes place, some nitrogen dioxide, NO2, is also produced.
  When kept for some weeks at a temperature of 100° in steam, a
  considerable number of fatty acids, some bases, and glucose-like
  substances result. Under different pressures the relative amounts of
  the combustion products vary considerably. Under very great pressures
  carbon monoxide, steam and nitrogen are the main products, but nitric
  oxide never quite disappears.

  Dilute mineral acids have little or no action on guncotton. Strong
  sulphuric acid in contact with it liberates first nitric acid and
  later oxides of nitrogen, leaving a charred residue or a brown
  solution according to the quantity of acid. It sometimes fires on
  contact with strong sulphuric acid, especially when slightly warmed.
  The alkali hydroxides (e.g. sodium hydroxide) will in a solid state
  fire it on contact. Strong or weak solutions of these substances also
  decompose it, producing some alkali nitrate and nitrite, the cellulose
  molecule being only partially restored, some quantity undergoing
  oxidation. Ammonia is also active, but not quite in the same manner as
  the alkali hydroxides. Dry guncotton heated in ammonia gas detonates
  at about 70°, and ammonium hydroxide solutions of all strengths slowly
  decompose it, yielding somewhat complex products. Alkali
  sulphohydrates reduce guncotton, or other nitrated celluloses,
  completely to cellulose. The production of the so-called "artificial
  silk" depends on this action.

  A characteristic difference between guncotton and collodion cotton is
  the insolubility of the former in ether or alcohol or a mixture of
  these liquids. The so-called collodion cottons are nitrated
  celluloses, but of a lower degree of nitration (as a rule) than
  guncotton. They are sometimes spoken of as "lower" or "soluble"
  cottons or nitrates. The solubility in ether-alcohol may be owing to a
  lower degree of nitration, or to the temperature conditions under
  which the process of manufacture has been carried on. If guncotton be
  correctly represented by the formula C6H7O2(NO3)3, it should contain a
  little more than 14% of nitrogen. Guncottons are examined for degree
  of nitration by the nitrometer, in which apparatus they are decomposed
  by sulphuric acid in contact with mercury, and all the nitrogen is
  evolved as nitric oxide, NO, which is measured and the weight of its
  contained nitrogen calculated. Ordinary guncottons seldom contain more
  than 13% of nitrogen, and in most cases the amount does not exceed
  12.5%. Generally speaking, the lower the nitrogen content of a
  guncotton, as found by the nitrometer, the higher the percentage of
  matters soluble in a mixture of ether-alcohol. These soluble matters
  are usually considered as "lower" nitrates.

  Guncottons are usually tested by the Abel heat test for stability (see
  CORDITE). Another heat test, that of Will, consists in heating a
  weighed quantity of the guncotton in a stream of carbon dioxide to
  130° C., passing the evolved gases over some red-hot copper, and
  finally collecting them over a solution of potassium hydroxide which
  retains the carbon dioxide and allows the nitrogen, arising from the
  guncotton decomposition, to be measured. This is done at definite time
  intervals so that the _rate_ of decomposition can be followed. The
  relative stability is then judged by the amount of nitrogen gas
  collected in a certain time. Several modifications of this and of the
  Abel heat test are also in use. (See EXPLOSIVES.)     (W. R. E. H.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The composition of the cellulose nitrates was reviewed by G.
    Lunge (_Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc._, 1901, 23, p. 527), who, assuming the
    formula C24H40O20 for cellulose, showed how the nitrocelluloses
    described by different chemists may be expressed by the formula
    C24H_(46-x)O20(NO2)_x, where x has the values 4, 5, 6, ... 12.

  [2] This formula is retained mainly on account of its simplicity. It
    also expresses all that is necessary in this connexion.

  [3] Air-dried guncotton will contain 2% or less of moisture.



GUNDULICH, IVAN (1588-1638), known also as Giovanni Gondola, Servian
poet, was born at Ragusa on the 8th of January 1588. His father, Franco
Gundulich, once the Ragusan envoy to Constantinople and councillor of
the republic, gave him an excellent education. He studied the
"humanities" with the Jesuit, Father Muzzi, and philosophy with Father
Ricasoli. After that he studied Roman law and jurisprudence in general.
He was member of the Lower Council and once served as the chief
magistrate of the republic. He died on the 8th of December 1638. A born
poet, he admired much the Italian poets of his time, from whom he made
many translations into Servian. It is believed that he so translated
Tasso's _Gerusalemme liberata_. He is known to have written eighteen
works, of which eleven were dramas, but of these only three have been
fully preserved, others having perished during the great earthquake and
fire in 1667. Most of those dramas were translations from the Italian,
and were played, seemingly with great success, by the amateurs furnished
by the noble families of Ragusa. But his greatest and justly celebrated
work is an epic, entitled _Osman_, in twenty cantos. It is the first
political epic on the Eastern Question, glorifying the victory of the
Poles over Turks and Tatars in the campaign of 1621, and encouraging a
league of the Christian nations, under the guidance of Vladislaus, the
king of Poland, for the purpose of driving away the Turks from Europe.
The fourteenth and fifteenth cantos are lost. It is generally believed
that the Ragusan government suppressed them from consideration for the
Sultan, the protector of the republic, those two cantos having been
violently anti-Turkish.

  _Osman_ was printed for the first time in Ragusa in 1826, the two
  missing cantos being replaced by songs written by Pietro Sorgo (or
  Sorkochevich). From this edition the learned Italian, Francesco
  Appendini, made an Italian translation published in 1827. Since that
  time several other editions have been made. The best are considered to
  be the edition of the South Slavonic Academy in Agram (1877) and the
  edition published in Semlin (1889) by Professor Yovan Boshkovich. In
  the edition of 1844 (Agram) the last cantos, fourteen and fifteen,
  were replaced by very fine compositions of the Serbo-Croatian poet,
  Mazhuranich (Mazuranic). The complete works of Gundulich have been
  published in Agram, 1847, by V. Babukich and by the South Slavonic
  Academy of Agram in 1889.     (C. Mi.)



GUNG'L, JOSEF (1810-1889), Hungarian composer and conductor, was born on
the 1st of December 1810, at Zsámbék, in Hungary. After starting life as
a school-teacher, and learning the elements of music from Ofen, the
school-choirmaster, he became first oboist at Graz, and, at twenty-five,
bandmaster of the 4th regiment of Austrian artillery. His first
composition, a Hungarian march, written in 1836, attracted some notice,
and in 1843 he was able to establish an orchestra in Berlin. With this
band he travelled far, even (in 1849) to America. It is worth recording
that Mendelssohn's complete _Midsummer Night's Dream_ music is said to
have been first played by Gung'l's band. In 1853 he became bandmaster to
the 23rd Infantry Regiment at Brünn, but in 1864 he lived at Munich, and
in 1876 at Frankfort, after (in 1873) having conducted with great
success a series of promenade concerts at Covent Garden, London. From
Frankfort Gung'l went to Weimar to live with his daughter, a well-known
German opera singer and local prima donna. There he died, on the 31st of
January 1889. Gung'l's dances number over 300, perhaps the most popular
being the "Amoretten," "Hydropaten," "Casino," "Dreams on the Ocean"
waltzes; "In Stiller Mitternacht" polka, and "Blue Violets" mazurka. His
Hungarian march was transcribed by Liszt. His music is characterized by
the same easy flowing melodies and well-marked rhythm that distinguish
the dances of Strauss, to whom alone he can be ranked second in this
kind of composition.



GUNNER, or MASTER GUNNER, in the navy, the warrant officer who has
charge of the ordnance and ammunition, and of the training of the men at
gun drill. His functions in this respect are of less relative importance
than they were in former times, when specially trained corps of seamen
gunners had not been formed.



GUNNING, PETER (1614-1684), English divine, was born at Hoo, in Kent,
and educated at the King's School, Canterbury, and Clare College,
Cambridge, where he became a fellow in 1633. Having taken orders, he
advocated the royalist cause from the pulpit with much eloquence. In
1644 he retired to Oxford, and held a chaplaincy at New College until
the city surrendered to the parliamentary forces in 1646. Subsequently
he was chaplain, first to the royalist Sir Robert Shirley of Eatington
(1629-1656), and then at the Exeter House chapel. After the Restoration
in 1660 he returned to Clare College as master, and was appointed Lady
Margaret professor of divinity. He also received the livings of
Cottesmore, Rutlandshire, and Stoke Bruerne, Northamptonshire. In 1661
he became head of St John's College, Cambridge, and was elected Regius
professor of divinity. He was consecrated bishop of Chichester in 1669,
and was translated to the see of Ely in 1674-1675. Holding moderate
religious views, he deprecated alike the extremes represented by
Puritanism and Roman Catholicism.

  His works are chiefly reports of his disputations, such as that which
  appears in the _Scisme Unmask't_ (Paris, 1658), in which the
  definition of a schism is discussed with two Romanist opponents.



GUNNY, a sort of cloth, the name of which is supposed to be derived from
_ganga_ or _gania_ of Rumphius, or from _gonia_, a vernacular name of
the _Crotolaria juncea_--a plant common in Madras. One of the first
notices of the term itself is to be found in Knox's _Ceylon_, in which
he says: "The filaments at the bottom of the stem (coir from the
coco-nut husk, _Cocos nucifera_) may be made into a coarse cloth called
gunny, which is used for bags and similar purposes."

Warden, in _The Linen Trade_, says:

  "A very large proportion of the jute grown in Bengal is made into
  cloth in the districts where it is cultivated, and this industry forms
  the grand domestic manufacture of all the populous eastern districts
  of Bengal. It pervades all classes, and penetrates into every
  household, almost every one, man, woman and child, being in some way
  engaged in it. Boatmen, husbandmen, palankeen carriers, domestic
  servants, everyone, in fact, being Hindu--for Mussulmans spin cotton
  only--pass their leisure moments, distaff in hand, spinning gunny
  twist. It is spun by the takur and dhara, the former being a kind of
  spindle, which is turned upon the thigh or the sole of the foot, and
  the latter a reel, on which the thread, when sufficiently twisted, is
  wound up. Another kind of spinning machine, called a ghurghurea, is
  occasionally used. A bunch of the raw material is hung up in every
  farmer's house, or on the protruding stick of a thatched roof, and
  every one who has leisure forms with these spindles some coarse
  pack-thread, of which ropes are twisted for the use of the farm. The
  lower Hindu castes, from this pack-thread, spin a finer thread for
  being made into cloth, and, there being a loom in nearly every house,
  very much of it is woven by the women of the lower class of people. It
  is especially the employment of the Hindu widow, as it enables her to
  earn her bread without being a burden on her family. The cloth thus
  made is of various qualities, such as clothing for the family
  (especially the women, a great proportion of whom on all the eastern
  frontier wear almost nothing else), coarse fabrics, bedding, rice and
  sugar bags, sacking, pack-sheet, &c. Much of it is woven into short
  lengths and very narrow widths, two or three of which are sometimes
  sewed into one piece before they are sold. That intended for rice and
  sugar bags is made about 6 feet long, and from 24 to 27 inches wide,
  and doubled. A considerable quantity of jute yarn is dyed and woven
  into cloth for various local purposes, and some of it is also sent out
  of the district. The principal places where chotee, or jute cloth for
  gunny bags, is made are within a radius of perhaps 150 to 200 miles
  around Dacca, and there both labour and land are remarkably cheap. The
  short, staple, common jute is generally consumed in the local
  manufacture, the finer and long stapled being reserved for the export
  trade. These causes enable gunny cloth and bags to be sold almost as
  cheaply as the raw material, which creates an immense demand for them
  in nearly every market of the world."

Such appeared to be the definition of gunny cloth at the time the above
was written--between 1850 and 1860. Most of the Indian cloth for gunny
bags is now made by power, and within about 20 m. of Calcutta. In many
respects the term gunny cloth is still applied to all and sundry, but
there is no doubt that the original name was intended for cloth which
was similar to what is now known as "cotton bagging." This particular
type of cloth is still largely made in the hand loom, even in Dundee,
this method of manufacture being considered, for certain reasons, more
satisfactory than the power loom method (see JUTE and BAGGING).



GUNPOWDER, an explosive composed of saltpetre, charcoal and sulphur.
Very few substances have had a greater effect on civilization than
gunpowder. Its employment altered the whole art of war, and its
influence gradually and indirectly permeated and affected the whole
fabric of society. Its direct effect on the arts of peace was but
slight, and had but a limited range, which could not be compared to the
modern extended employment of high explosives for blasting in mining and
engineering work.

It is probably quite incorrect to speak of the _discovery_ of gunpowder.
From modern researches it seems more likely and more just to think of it
as a thing that has developed, passing through many stages--mainly of
improvement, but some undoubtedly retrograde. There really is not
sufficient solid evidence on which to pin down its invention to one man.
As Lieutenant-Colonel H. W. L. Hime (_Gunpowder and Ammunition_, 1904)
says, the invention of gunpowder was impossible until the properties of
nearly pure saltpetre had become known. The honour, however, has been
associated with two names in particular, Berthold Schwartz, a German
monk, and Friar Roger Bacon. Of the former Oscar Guttmann writes
(_Monumenta pulveris pyrii_, 1904, p. 6): "Berthold Schwartz was
generally considered to be the inventor of gunpowder, and only in
England has Roger Bacon's claim been upheld, though there are English
writers who have pleaded in favour of Schwartz. Most writers are agreed
that Schwartz invented the first firearms, and as nothing was known of
an inventor of gunpowder, it was perhaps considered justifiable to give
Schwartz the credit thereof. There is some ambiguity as to when Schwartz
lived. The year 1354 is sometimes mentioned as the date of his invention
of powder, and this is also to be inferred from an inscription on the
monument to him in Freiburg. But considering there can be no doubt as to
the manufacture in England of gunpowder and cannon in 1344, that we have
authentic information of guns in France in 1338 and in Florence in 1326,
and that the Oxford MS. _De officiis regum_ of 1325 gives an
illustration of a gun, Berthold Schwartz must have lived long before
1354 to have been the inventor of gunpowder or guns." In Germany also
there were powder-works at Augsburg in 1340, in Spandau in 1344, and
Liegnitz in 1348.

Roger Bacon, in his _De mirabili potestate artis et naturae_ (1242),
makes the most important communication on the history of gunpowder.
Reference is made to an explosive mixture as known before his time and
employed for "diversion, producing a noise like thunder and flashes like
lightning." In one passage Bacon speaks of saltpetre as a violent
explosive, but there is no doubt that he knew it was not a
self-explosive substance, but only so when mixed with other substances,
as appears from the statement in _De secretis operibus artis et
naturae_, printed at Hamburg in 1618, that "from saltpetre and other
ingredients we are able to make a fire that shall burn at any distance
we please." A great part of his three chapters, 9, 10, 11, long appeared
without meaning until the anagrammatic nature of the sentences was
realized. The words of this anagram are (chap. 11): "Item ponderis totum
30 sed tamen salis petrae _luru vopo vir can utri_[1] et sulphuris; et
sic facies tonitruum et coruscationem, si scias artificium. Videas tamen
utrum loquar aenigmate aut secundum veritatem." Hime, in his chapter on
the origin of gunpowder, discusses these chapters at length, and gives,
omitting the anagram, the translation: "Let the total weight of the
ingredients be 30, however, of saltpetre ... of sulphur; and with such a
mixture you will produce a bright flash and a thundering noise, if you
know the trick. You may find (by actual experiment) whether I am writing
riddles to you or the plain truth." The anagram reads, according to
Hime, "salis petrae r(ecipe) vii part(es), v nov(ellae) corul(i), v et
sulphuris" (take seven parts of saltpetre, five of young hazel-wood, and
five of sulphur). Hime then goes on to show that Bacon was in possession
of an explosive which was a considerable advance on mere incendiary
compositions. Bacon does not appear to have been aware of the projecting
power of gunpowder. He knew that it exploded and that perhaps people
might be blown up or frightened by it; more cannot be said. The
behaviour of small quantities of any explosive is hardly ever indicative
of its behaviour in large quantities and especially when under
confinement. Hime is of opinion that Bacon blundered upon gunpowder
whilst playing with some incendiary composition, such as those mentioned
by Marcus Graecus and others, in which he employed his comparatively
pure saltpetre instead of crude nitrum. It has been suggested that Bacon
derived his knowledge of these fiery mixtures from the MS. _Liber
ignium_, ascribed to Marcus Graecus, in the National Library in Paris
(Dutens, _Enquiry into Origin of Discoveries attributed to Moderns_).
Certainly this Marcus Graecus appears to have known of some incendiary
composition containing the gunpowder ingredients, but it was not
gunpowder. Hime seems to doubt the existence of any such person as
Marcus Graecus, as he says: "The _Liber ignium_ was written from first
to last in the period of literary forgeries and pseudographs ... and we
may reasonably conclude that Marcus Graecus is as unreal as the
imaginary Greek original of the tract which bears his name." Albertus
Magnus in the _De mirabilibus mundi_ repeats some of the receipts given
in Marcus Graecus, and several other writers give receipts for Greek
fire, rockets, &c. Dutens gives many passages in his work, above-named,
from old authors in support of his view that a composition of the nature
of gunpowder was not unknown to the ancients. Hime's elaborate arguments
go to show that these compositions could only have been of the
incendiary type and not real explosives. His arguments seem to hold good
as regards not only the Greeks but also the Arabs, Hindus and Chinese
(see also FIREWORKS).

There seems no doubt that incendiary compositions, some perhaps
containing nitre, mostly, however, simply combustible substances as
sulphur, naphtha, resins, &c., were employed and projected both for
defence and offence, but they were projected or blown by engines and not
by themselves. It is quite inconceivable that a real propelling
explosive should have been known in the time of Alexander or much later,
and not have immediately taken its proper place. In a chapter discussing
this question of explosives amongst the Hindus, Hime says: "It is
needless to enlarge the list of quotations: incendiaries pursued much
the same course in Upper India as in Greece and Arabia." No trustworthy
evidence of an explosive in India is to be found until the 21st of April
1526, the date of the decisive battle of Panipat, in which Ibrahim,
sultan of Delhi, was killed and his army routed by Baber the Mogul, who
possessed both great and small firearms.

As regards also the crusader period (1097-1291), so strange and deadly
an agent of destruction as gunpowder could not possibly have been
employed in the field without the full knowledge of both parties, yet no
historian, Christian or Moslem, alludes to an explosive of any kind,
while all of them carefully record the use of incendiaries. The
employment of rockets and "wildfire" incendiary composition seems
undoubtedly of very old date in India, but the names given to pieces of
artillery under the Mogul conqueror of Hindustan point to a European, or
at least to a Turkish origin, and it is quite certain that Europeans
were retained in the service of Akbar and Aurangzeb. The composition of
present day Chinese gunpowder is almost identical with that employed in
Europe, so that in all probability the knowledge of it was obtained from
Western sources.

In the writings of Bacon there is no mention of guns or the use of
powder as a propellant, but merely as an explosive and destructive
power. Owing perhaps to this obscurity hanging over the early history of
gunpowder, its employment as a propelling agent has been ascribed to the
Moors or Saracens. J. A. Conde (_Historia de la dominacion de los Arabes
en España_) states that Ismail Ben Firaz, king of Granada, who in 1325
besieged Boza, had among his machines "some that cast globes of fire,"
but there is not the least evidence that these were guns. The first
trustworthy document relative to the use of gunpowder in Europe, a
document still in existence, and bearing date February 11, 1326, gives
authority to the council of twelve of Florence and others to appoint
persons to superintend the manufacture of cannons of brass and iron
balls, for the defence of the territory, &c., of the republic. John
Barbour, archdeacon of Aberdeen, writing in 1375, states that cannons
(crakys of war) were employed in Edward III.'s invasion of Scotland in
1327. An indenture first published by Sir N. H. Nicolas in his _History
of the Royal Navy_ (London, 1846), and again by Lieutenant-Colonel H.
Brackenbury (_Proc. R.A. Inst._, 1865), stated to be 1338, contains
references to small cannon as among the stores of the Tower, and also
mentions "un petit barrell de gonpoudre le quart' plein." If authentic,
this is possibly the first mention of gunpowder as such in England, but
some doubts have been thrown upon the date of this MS. From a
contemporary document in the National Library in Paris it seems that in
the same year (1338) there existed in the marine arsenal at Rouen an
iron weapon called _pot de feu_, for propelling bolts, together with
some saltpetre and sulphur to make powder for the same. Preserved in the
Record Office in London are trustworthy accounts from the year 1345 of
the purchase of ingredients for making powder, and of the shipping of
cannon to France. In 1346 Edward III. appears to have ordered all
available saltpetre and sulphur to be bought up for him. In the first
year of Richard II. (1377) Thomas Norbury was ordered to buy, amongst
other munitions, sulphur, saltpetre and charcoal, to be sent to the
castle of Brest. In 1414 Henry V. ordered that no gunpowder should be
taken out of the kingdom without special licence, and in the same year
ordered twenty pipes of willow charcoal and other articles for the use
of the guns.

The manufacture of gunpowder seems to have been carried on as a crown
monopoly about the time of Elizabeth, and regulations respecting
gunpowder and nitre were made about 1623 (James I.). Powder-mills were
probably in existence at Waltham Abbey about the middle or towards the
end of the 16th century.

  _Ingredients and their Action._--Roger Bacon in his anagram gives the
  first real recipe for gunpowder, viz. (according to Hime, ch. xii.)
  saltpetre 41.2, charcoal 29.4, sulphur 29.4. Dr John Arderne of
  Newark, who began to practise about 1350 and was later surgeon to
  Henry IV., gives a recipe (Sloane MSS. 335, 795), saltpetre 66.6,
  charcoal 22.2, sulphur 11.1, "which are to be thoroughly mixed on a
  marble and then sifted through a cloth." This powder is nominally of
  the same composition as one given in a MS. of Marcus Graecus, but the
  saltpetre of this formula by Marcus Graecus was undoubtedly answerable
  for the difference in behaviour of the two compositions. Roger Bacon
  had not only refined and obtained pure nitre, but had appreciated the
  importance of thoroughly mixing the components of the powder. Most if
  not all the early powder was a "loose" mixture of the three
  ingredients, and the most important step in connexion with the
  development of gunpowder was undoubtedly the introduction of wet
  mixing or "incorporating." Whenever this was done, the improvement in
  the product must have been immediately evident. In the damp or wetted
  state pressure could be applied with comparative safety during the
  mixing. The loose powder mixture came to be called "serpentine"; after
  wet mixing it was more or less granulated or corned and was known as
  "corned" powder. Corned powder seems to have been gradually
  introduced. It is mentioned in the _Fire Book_ of Conrad von Schöngau
  (in 1429), and was used for hand-guns in England long before 1560. It
  would seem that corned powder was used for hand-guns or small arms in
  the 15th century, but cannon were not made strong enough to withstand
  its explosion for quite another century (Hime). According to the same
  writer, in the period 1250-1450, when serpentine only was used, one
  powder could differ from another in the proportions of the
  ingredients; in the modern period--say 1700-1886--the powders in use
  (in each state) differed only as a general rule in the size of the
  grain, whilst during the transition period--1450-1700--they generally
  differed both in composition and size of grain.

  Corned or grained powder was adopted in France in 1525, and in 1540
  the French utilized an observation that large-grained powder was the
  best for cannon, and restricted the manufacture to three sizes of
  grain or corn, possibly of the same composition. Early in the 18th
  century two or three sizes of grain and powder of one composition
  appear to have become common. The composition of English powder seems
  to have settled down to 75 nitre, 15 charcoal, and 10 sulphur,
  somewhere about the middle of the 18th century.

  The composition of gunpowders used in different countries at different
  times is illustrated in the following tables:--

  _English Powders (Hime)._

    +-----------+------+------+------+------+------+------+--------+
    |           | 1250.| 1350.| 1560.| 1647.| 1670.| 1742.|  1781. |
    +-----------+------+------+------+------+------+------+--------+
    | Saltpetre | 41.2 | 66.6 | 50.0 | 66.6 | 71.4 | 75.0 | 75.0   |
    | Charcoal  | 29.4 | 22.2 | 33.3 | 16.6 | 14.3 | 12.5 | 15.0   |
    | Sulphur   | 29.4 | 11.1 | 16.6 | 16.6 | 14.3 | 12.5 | 10.0[2]|
    +-----------+------+------+------+------+------+------+--------+

  _Foreign Powders (Hime)._

    +-----------+-------+-------+--------+--------+-------+-------+--------+
    |           |France.|Sweden.|Germany.|Denmark.|France.|Sweden.|Germany.|
    +-----------+-------+-------+--------+--------+-------+-------+--------+
    |           | 1338. | 1560. |  1595. |  1608. | 1650. | 1697. |  1882. |
    +-----------+-------+-------+--------+--------+-------+-------+--------+
    | Saltpetre |  50   |  66.6 |  52.2  |  68.3  |  75.6 |   73  |  78    |
    | Charcoal  |   ?   |  16.6 |  26.1  |  23.2  |  13.6 |   17  |  19    |
    | Sulphur   |  25   |  16.6 |  21.7  |   8.5  |  10.8 |   10  |   3[3] |
    +-----------+-------+-------+--------+--------+-------+-------+--------+

  When reasonably pure, none of the ingredients of gunpowder absorbs any
  material quantity of moisture from the atmosphere, and the nitre only
  is a soluble substance. It seems extremely probable that for a long
  period the three substances were simply mixed dry, indeed sometimes
  kept separate and mixed just before being required; the consequence
  must have been that, with every care as to weighing out, the
  proportions of any given quantity would alter on carriage. Saltpetre
  is considerably heavier than sulphur or charcoal, and would tend to
  separate out towards the bottom of the containing vessel if subjected
  to jolting or vibration. When pure there can only be one kind of
  saltpetre or sulphur, because they are chemical individuals, but
  charcoal is not. Its composition, rate of burning, &c., depend not
  only on the nature of the woody material from which it is made, but
  quite as much on the temperature and time of heating employed in the
  making. The woods from which it is made contain carbon, hydrogen and
  oxygen, and the two latter are never thoroughly expelled in
  charcoal-making. If they were, the resulting substance would be of no
  use for gunpowder. 1-3% of hydrogen and 8-15% of oxygen generally
  remain in charcoals suitable for gunpowder. A good deal of the
  fieriness and violence of explosion of a gunpowder depends on the mode
  of burning of the charcoal as well as on the wood from which it is
  made.

  _Properties of Ingredients._--Charcoal is the chief combustible in
  powder. It must burn freely, leaving as little ash or residue as
  possible; it must be friable, and grind into a non-gritty powder. The
  sources from which powder charcoal is made are dogwood (_Rhamnus
  frangula_), willow (_Salix alba_), and alder (_Betula alnus_). Dogwood
  is mainly used for small-arm powders. Powders made from dogwood
  charcoal burn more rapidly than those from willow, &c. The wood after
  cutting is stripped of bark and allowed to season for two or three
  years. It is then picked to uniform size and charred in cylindrical
  iron cases or slips, which can be introduced into slightly larger
  cylinders set in a furnace. The slips are provided with openings for
  the escape of gases. The rate of heating as well as the absolute
  temperature attained have an effect on the product, a slow rate of
  heating yielding more charcoal, and a high temperature reducing the
  hydrogen and oxygen in the final product. When heated for seven hours
  to about 800° C. to 900° C. the remaining hydrogen and oxygen amount
  to about 2% and 12% respectively. The time of charring is as a rule
  from 5 to 7 hours. The slips are then removed from the furnace and
  placed in a larger iron vessel, where they are kept comparatively
  air-tight until quite cold. The charcoal is then sorted, and stored
  for some time before grinding. The charcoal is ground, and the powder
  sifted on a rotating reel or cylinder of fine mesh copper-wire gauze.
  The sifted powder is again stored for some time before use in closed
  iron vessels.

  Sicilian sulphur is most generally employed for gunpowder, and for
  complete purification is first distilled and then melted and cast into
  moulds. It is afterwards ground into a fine powder and sifted as in
  the case of the charcoal.

  Potassium nitrate is eminently suitable as an oxygen-provider, not
  being deliquescent. Nitrates are continually being produced in surface
  soils, &c., by the oxidation of nitrogenous substances. Nitric and
  nitrous acids are also produced by electric discharges through the
  atmosphere, and these are found eventually as nitrates in soils, &c.
  Nitre is soluble in water, and much more so in hot than in cold. Crude
  nitre, obtained from soils or other sources, is purified by
  recrystallization. The crude material is dissolved almost to
  saturation in boiling water: on filtering and then cooling this liquor
  to about 30° C. almost pure nitre crystallizes out, most of the usual
  impurities still remaining in solution. By rapidly cooling and
  agitating the nitre solution crystals are obtained of sufficient
  fineness for the manufacture of powder without special grinding. Nitre
  contains nearly 48% of oxygen by weight, five-sixths of which is
  available for combustion purposes. Nearly all the gases of the powder
  explosion are derived from the nitre. The specific gravity of nitre is
  2.2 : 200 grams will therefore occupy about 100 cubic centimetres
  volume. This quantity on its decomposition by heat alone yields 28
  grams or 22,400 c.c. of nitrogen, and 80 grams or 56,000 c.c. of
  oxygen as gases, and 94 grams of potassium oxide, a fusible solid
  which vaporizes at a very high temperature.

  _Incorporation._--The materials are weighed out separately, mixed by
  passing through a sieve, and then uniformly moistened with a certain
  quantity of water, whilst on the bed of the incorporating mill. This
  consists of two heavy iron wheels mounted so as to run in a circular
  bed. The incorporation requires about four hours. The mechanical
  action of rollers on the powder paste is a double one: not only
  crushing but mixing by pushing forwards and twisting sideways. The
  pasty mass is deflected so that it repeatedly comes under first one
  roller and then the next by scrapers, set at an angle to the bed,
  which follow each wheel.

  Although the charge is wet it is possible for it to be fired either by
  the heat developed by the roller friction, by sparks from foreign
  matters, as bits of stone, &c., or possibly by heat generated by
  oxidation of the materials. The mills are provided with a drenching
  apparatus so arranged that in case of one mill firing it and its
  neighbours will be drowned by water from a cistern or tank immediately
  above the mill. The product from the incorporation is termed
  "mill-cake."

  After this incorporation in the damp state the ingredients never
  completely separate on drying, however much shaken, because each
  particle of nitre is surrounded by a thin layer of water containing
  nitre in solution in which the particles of charcoal and sulphur are
  entangled and retained. After due incorporation, powders are pressed
  to a certain extent whilst still moist. The density to which a powder
  is pressed is an important matter in regard to the rate of burning.
  The effect of high density is to slow down the initial rate of
  burning. Less dense powders burn more rapidly from the first and tend
  to put a great strain on the gun. Fouling is usually less with denser
  powders; and, as would be expected, such powders bear transport better
  and give less dust than light powders. Up to a certain pressure,
  hardness, density, and size of grain of a powder have an effect on the
  rate of burning and therefore on pressure. Glazing or polishing powder
  grains, also exerts a slight retarding action on burning and enables
  the powders to resist atmospheric moisture better. Excess of moisture
  in gunpowder has a marked effect in reducing the explosiveness. All
  powders are liable to absorb moisture, the quality and kind of
  charcoal being the main determinant in this respect; hard burnt black
  charcoal is least absorbent. The material employed in brown powders
  absorbs moisture somewhat readily. Powder kept in a very damp
  atmosphere, and especially in a changeable one, spoils rapidly, the
  saltpetre coming to the surface in solution and then crystallizing
  out. The pieces also break up owing to the formation of large crystals
  of nitre in the mass. After the pressing of the incorporated powder
  into a "press-cake," it is broken up or granulated by suitable
  machines, and the resulting grains separated and sorted by sifting
  through sieves of determined sizes of mesh. Some dust is formed in
  this operation, which is sifted away and again worked up under the
  rollers (for sizes of grains see fig. 1). These grains, cubes, &c.,
  are then either polished by rotating in drums alone or with graphite,
  which adheres to and coats the surfaces of the grains. This process is
  generally followed with powders intended for small-arms or moderately
  small ordnance.

  _Shaped Powders._--Prisms or prismatic powder are made by breaking up
  the press-cake into a moderately fine state, whilst still moist, and
  pressing a certain quantity in a mould. The moulds generally employed
  consist of a thick plate of bronze in which are a number of hexagonal
  perforations. Accurately fitting plungers are so applied to these that
  one can enter at the top and the other at the bottom. The lower
  plunger being withdrawn to the bottom of the plate the hexagonal hole
  is charged with the powder and the two plungers set in motion, thus
  compressing the powder between them. After the desired pressure has
  been applied the top plunger is withdrawn, and the lower one pushed
  upward to eject the prism of powder. The axial perforations in prism
  powders are made by small bronze rods which pass through the lower
  plunger and fit into corresponding holes in the upper one. If these
  prisms are made by a steadily applied pressure a density throughout of
  about 1.78 may be obtained. Further to regulate the rate of burning so
  that it shall be slow at first and more rapid as the powder is
  consumed, another form of machine was devised, the cam press, in which
  the pressure is applied very rapidly to the powder. It receives in
  fact one blow, which compresses the powder to the same dimensions, but
  the density of the outer layers of substance of the prism is much
  greater than in the interior.

  The leading idea in connexion with all shaped powder grains, and with
  the very large sizes, was to regulate the rate of burning so as to
  avoid extreme pressure when first ignited and to keep up the pressure
  in the gun as more space was provided in the chamber or tube by the
  movement of the shot towards the muzzle. In the perforated prismatic
  powder the ignition is intended to proceed through the perforations;
  since in a charge the faces of the prisms fit pretty closely together,
  it was thought that this arrangement would prevent unburnt cores or
  pieces of powder from being blown out. These larger grain powders
  necessitated a lengthened bore to take advantage of the slower
  production of gases and complete combustion of the powder. General T.
  J. Rodman first suggested and employed the perforated cake cartridge
  in 1860, the cake having nearly the diameter of the bore and a
  thickness of 1 to 2 in. with perforations running parallel with the
  gun axis. The burning would then start from the comparatively small
  surfaces of the perforations, which would become larger as the powder
  burnt away. Experiments bore out this theory perfectly. It was found
  that small prisms were more convenient to make than large disks, and
  as the prisms practically fit together into a disk the same result was
  obtained. This effect of mechanical density on rate of burning is good
  only up to a certain pressure, above which the gases are driven
  through the densest form of granular material. After granulating or
  pressing into shapes, all powders must be dried. This is done by
  heating in specially ventilated rooms heated by steam pipes. As a rule
  this drying is followed by the finishing or polishing process. Powders
  are finally blended, i.e. products from different batches or "makes"
  are mixed so that identical proof results are obtained.

  _Sizes and Shapes of Powders._--In fig. 1, _a_ to _k_ show the
  relative sizes and shapes of grain as formerly employed for military
  purposes, except that the three largest powders, _e-f-g_ and _h_ are
  figured half-size to save space, whereas the remainder indicate the
  actual dimensions of the grains. _a_ is for small-arms, all the others
  are for cannon of various sizes.

  [Illustration: FIG. 1.]

  _Proof of Powder._--In addition to chemical examination powder is
  passed through certain mechanical tests:--

  1. _For colour, glaze, texture and freedom from dust._

  2. _For proper incorporation._

  3. _For shape, size and proportion of the grains._--The first is
  judged by eye, and grains of the size required are obtained by the use
  of sieves of different sizes.

  4. _Density._--The density is generally obtained in some form of
  mercury densimeter, the powder being weighed in air and then under
  mercury. In some forms of the instrument the air can be pumped out so
  that the weighing takes place _in vacuo_.

  5. _Moisture and absorption of moisture._--The moisture and
  hygroscopic test consists in weighing a sample, drying at 100° C. for
  a certain time, weighing again, &c., until constant. The dried weighed
  sample can then be exposed to an artificial atmosphere of known
  moisture and temperature, and the gain in weight per hour similarly
  ascertained by periodic weighings.

  6. _Firing proof._--The nature of this depends upon the purpose for
  which the powder is intended. For sporting powders it consists in the
  "pattern" given by the shot upon a target at a given distance, or, if
  fired with a bullet, upon the "figure of merit," or mean radial
  deviation of a certain number of rounds; also upon the penetrative
  power. For military purposes the "muzzle" velocity produced by a
  powder is ascertained by a chronograph which measures the exact time
  the bullet or other projectile takes to traverse a known distance
  between two wire screens. By means of "crusher gauges" the exact
  pressure per square inch upon certain points in the interior of the
  bore can be found.

  In the chemical examination of gunpowder the points to be ascertained
  are, in addition to moisture, freedom from chlorides or sulphates, and
  correct proportion of nitre and sulphur to charcoal.

  _Products of Fired Powder and Changes taking place on
  Explosion._--With a mixture of the complexity of gunpowder it is quite
  impossible to say beforehand what will be the relative amounts of
  products. The desired products are nitrogen and carbon dioxide as
  gases, and potassium sulphate and carbonate as solids. But the
  ingredients of the mixture are not in any simple chemical proportion.
  Burning in contact with air under one atmosphere pressure, and burning
  in a closed or partially closed vessel under a considerable number of
  atmospheres pressure, may produce quite different results. The
  temperature of a reaction always rises with increased pressure.
  Although the main function of the nitre is to give up oxygen and
  nitrogen, of the charcoal to produce carbon dioxide and most of the
  heat, and of the sulphur by vaporizing to accelerate the rate of
  burning, it is quite impossible to represent the actions taking place
  on explosion by any simple or single chemical equation. Roughly
  speaking, the gases from black powder burnt in a closed vessel have a
  volume at 0° C. and 760 mm. pressure of about 280 times that of the
  original powder. The temperature produced under one atmosphere is
  above 2000° C., and under greater pressures considerably higher.

  Experiments have been made by Benjamin Robins (1743), Charles Hutton
  (1778), Count Rumford (1797), Gay-Lussac (1823), R. Bunsen and L.
  Schiskoff (1857), T. J. Rodman (1861), C. Karolyi (1863), and later
  many researches by Sir Andrew Noble and Sir F. A. Abel, and by H.
  Debus and others, all with the idea of getting at the precise
  mechanism of the explosion. Debus (_Ann._, 1882, vols. 212, 213; 1891,
  vol. 265) discussed at great length the results of researches by
  Bunsen, Karolyi, Noble and Abel, and others on the combustion of
  powder in closed vessels in such manner that all the products could be
  collected and examined and the pressures registered. A Waltham Abbey
  powder, according to an experiment by Noble and Abel, gave when fired
  in a closed vessel the following quantities of products calculated
  from one gram of powder:--

                         Fractions of    Fractions of a
                            a gram.     molecule or atom.

    Potassium carbonate     .2615       .00189 molecule
    Potassium sulphate      .1268       .00072    "
        "     thiosulphate  .1666       .00087    "
        "     sulphide      .0252       .00017    "
    Sulphur                 .0012       .00004 atom
    Carbon dioxide          .2678       .00608 molecule
    Carbon monoxide         .0339       .00121    "
    Nitrogen                .1071       .00765 atom
    Hydrogen                .0008       .0008   "
    Hydrogen sulphide       .0080       .00023 molecule
    Potassium thiocyanate   .0004
    Nitre                   .0005
    Ammonium carbonate      .0002

  From this, and other results, Debus concluded that Waltham Abbey
  powder could be represented by the formula 16KNO3+21·18C+6·63S and
  that on combustion in a closed vessel the end results could be fairly
  expressed (rounding off fractions) by 16KNO3+21C+5S = 5K2CO3 +
  K2SO4+2K2S2+13CO2+3CO+8N2. Some of the sulphur is lost, part combining
  with the metal of the apparatus and part with hydrogen in the
  charcoal. The military powders of most nations can be represented by
  the formula 16KNO3+21·2C+6·6S, proportions which are reasonably near
  to a theoretical mixture, that is one giving most complete combustion,
  greatest gas volume and temperature. The combustion of powder consists
  of two processes: (i.) oxidation, during which potassium carbonate and
  sulphate, carbon dioxide and nitrogen are mainly formed, and (ii.) a
  reduction process in which free carbon acts on the potassium sulphate
  and free sulphur on the potassium carbonate, producing potassium
  sulphide and carbon monoxide respectively. Most powders contain more
  carbon and sulphur than necessary, hence the second stage. In this
  second stage heat is lost. The potassium sulphide is also the most
  objectionable constituent as regards fouling.

  The energy of a powder is given, according to Berthelot, by
  multiplying the gas volume by the heat (in calories) produced during
  burning; Debus shows that a powder composed of 16KNO3 to 8C and 8S
  would have the least, and one of composition 16KNO3+24C+16S the
  greatest, when completely burnt. The greatest capability with the
  lowest proportion of carbon and sulphur to nitre would be obtained
  from the mixture ÷ 16KNO3+22C+8S.

  Smokeless and even noiseless powders seem to have been sought for
  during the whole gunpowder period. In 1756 one was experimented with
  in France, but was abandoned owing to difficulties in manufacture.
  Modern smokeless powders are certainly less noisy than the black
  powders, mainly because of the absence of metallic salts which
  although they may be gaseous whilst in the gun are certainly ejected
  as solids or become solids at the moment of contact with air.

  _Brown Powders._--About the middle of the 19th century guns and
  projectiles were made much larger and heavier than previously, and it
  was soon found that the ordinary black powders of the most dense form
  burnt much too rapidly, straining or bursting the pieces. Powders were
  introduced containing about 3% sulphur and 17-19% of a special form of
  charcoal made from slightly charred straw, or similar material. This
  "brown charcoal" contains a considerable amount of the hydrogen and
  oxygen of the original plant substance. The mechanical processes of
  manufacture of these brown powders is the same as for black. They,
  however, differ from black by burning very slowly, even under
  considerable pressure. This comparative slowness is caused by (1) the
  presence of a small amount of water even when air-dry; (2) the fact
  that the brown charcoal is practically very slightly altered
  cellulosic material, which before it can burn completely must undergo
  a little further resolution or charring at the expense of some heat
  from the portion of charge first ignited; and (3) the lower content of
  sulphur. An increase of a few per cent in the sulphur of black powder
  accelerates its rate of burning, and it may become almost a blasting
  powder. A decrease in sulphur has the reverse effect. It is really the
  sulphur vapour that in the early period of combustion spreads the
  flame through the charge.

  Many other powders have been made or proposed in which nitrates or
  chlorates of the alkalis or of barium, &c., are the oxygen providers
  and substances as sugar, starch, and many other organic compounds as
  the combustible elements. Some of these compositions have found
  employment for blasting or even as sporting powders, but in most cases
  their objectionable properties of fouling, smoke and mode of exploding
  have prevented their use for military purposes. The adoption by the
  French government of the comparatively smokeless nitrocellulose
  explosive of Paul Vieille in 1887 practically put an end to the old
  forms of gunpowders. The first smokeless powder was made in 1865 by
  Colonel E. Schultze (_Ding. Pol. Jour._ 174, p. 323; 175, p. 453) by
  nitrating wood meal and adding potassium and barium nitrates. It is
  somewhat similar in composition to the E. C. sporting powder. F.
  Uchatius, in Austria, proposed a smokeless powder made from nitrated
  starch, but it was not adopted owing to its hygroscopic nature and
  also its tendency to detonate.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Vanucchio Biringuccio, _De la pirotechnia_ (Venice,
  1540); Tartaglia, _Quesiti e invenzioni diversi_ (lib. iii.) (Venice,
  1546); Peter Whitehorne, _How to make Saltpetre, Gunpowder, &c._
  (London, 1573); Nic. Macchiavelli, _The Arte of Warre_, trans. by
  Whitehorne (London, 1588); Hanzelet, _Recueil de plusiers machines
  militaires_ (Paris, 1620); Boillet Langrois, _Modelles artifices de
  feu_ (1620); Kruger, _Chemical Meditations on the Explosion of
  Gunpowder_ (in Latin) (1636); Collado, _On the Invention of Gunpowder_
  (Spanish) (1641); _The True Way to make all Sorts of Gunpowder and
  Matches_ (1647); Hawksbee, _On Gunpowder_ (1686); Winter, _On
  Gunpowder_ (in Latin); Robins, _New Principles of Gunnery_ (London,
  1742) (new ed. by Hutton, 1805); D'Antoni, _Essame della polvere_
  (Turin, 1765) (trans. by Captain Thomson, R. A., London, 1787); Count
  Rumford, "Experiments on Fired Gunpowder," _Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc._
  (1797); Charles Hutton, _Mathematical Tracts_, vol. iii. (1812); Sir
  W. Congreve, _A Short Account of Improvements in Gunpowder made by_
  (London, 1818); Bunsen and Schiskoff, "On the Chemical Theory of
  Gunpowder," _Pogg. Ann._, 1857, vol. cii.; General Rodman,
  _Experiments on Metal for Cannon, and Qualities of Cannon Powder_
  (Boston, 1861); Napoleon III., _Études sur le passé et l'avenir de
  l'artillerie_, vol. iii. (Paris, 1862); Von Karolyi, "On the Products
  of the Combustion of Gun Cotton and Gunpowder," _Phil. Mag._ (October
  1863); Captain F. M. Smith, _Handbook of the Manufacture and Proof of
  Gunpowder at Waltham Abbey_ (London, 1870); Noble and Abel, _Fired
  Gunpowder_ (London, 1875, 1880); Noble, _Artillery and Explosives_
  (1906); H. W. L. Hime, _Gunpowder and Ammunition, their Origin and
  Progress_ (1904); O. Guttmann, _The Manufacture of Explosives_ (1895),
  _Monumenta pulveris pyrii_ (1906); _Notes on Gunpowder and Gun
  Cotton_, published by order of the secretary of state for war (London,
  1907). (See also EXPLOSIVES.)     (W. R. E. H.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] These words were emended by some authors to read _luru mope can
    ubre_, the letters of which can be arranged to give _pulvere
    carbonum_.

  [2] This represents the composition of English powder at present, and
    no doubt it has remained the same for a longer time than the above
    date indicates.

  [3] Brown or coco-powder for large charges in guns. The charcoal is
    not burnt black but roasted until brown, and is made from some
    variety of straw, not wood.



GUNPOWDER PLOT, the name given to a conspiracy for blowing up King James
I. and the parliament on the 5th of November 1605.

To understand clearly the nature and origin of the famous conspiracy, it
is necessary to recall the political situation and the attitude of the
Roman Catholics towards the government at the accession of James I. The
Elizabethan administration had successfully defended its own existence
and the Protestant faith against able and powerful antagonists, but this
had not been accomplished without enforcing severe measures of
repression and punishment upon those of the opposite faith. The
beginning of a happier era, however, was expected with the opening of
the new reign. The right of James to the crown could be more readily
acknowledged by the Romanists than that of Elizabeth: Pope Clement VIII.
appeared willing to meet the king half-way. James himself was by nature
favourable to the Roman Catholics and had treated the Roman Catholic
lords in Scotland with great leniency, in spite of their constant plots
and rebellions. Writing to Cecil before his accession he maintained, "I
am so far from any intention of persecution as I protest to God I
reverence their church as our mother church, although clogged with many
infirmities and corruptions, besides that I did ever hold persecution as
one of the infallible notes of a false church." He declared to
Northumberland, the kinsman and master of Thomas Percy, the conspirator,
"as for the Catholics, I will neither persecute any that will be quiet
and give but an outward obedience to the law, neither will I spare to
advance any of them that will be of good service and worthily deserved."
It is probable that these small but practical concessions would have
satisfied the lay Roman Catholics and the secular priests, but they were
very far from contenting the Jesuits, by whom the results of such
leniency were especially feared: "What rigour of laws would not compass
in so many years," wrote Henry Tichborne, the Jesuit, in 1598, "this
liberty and lenity will effectuate in 20 days, to wit the disfurnishing
of the seminaries, the disanimating of men to come and others to return,
the expulsion of the society and confusion as in Germany, extinction of
zeal and favour, disanimation of princes from the hot pursuit of the
enterprise.... We shall be left as a prey to the wolves that will
besides drive our greatest patron [the king of Spain] to stoop to a
peace which will be the utter ruin of our edifice, this many years in
building." Unfortunately, about this time the Jesuits, who thus thrived
on political intrigue, and who were deeply implicated in treasonable
correspondence with Spain, had obtained a complete ascendancy over the
secular priests, who were for obeying the civil government as far as
possible and keeping free from politics. The time, therefore, as far as
the Roman Catholics themselves were concerned, was not a propitious one
for introducing the moderate concessions which alone James had promised:
James, too, on his side, found that religious toleration, though clearly
sound in principle, was difficult in practice. During the first few
months of the reign all went well. In July 1603 the fines for recusancy
were remitted. In January 1604 peaceable Roman Catholics could live
unmolested and "serve God according to their consciences without any
danger." But James's expectations that the pope would prevent dangerous
and seditious persons from entering the country were unfulfilled and the
numbers of the Jesuits and the Roman Catholics greatly increased.
Rumours of plots came to hand. Cecil, though like his master naturally
in favour of toleration, with his experience gained in the reign of
Elizabeth, was alarmed at the policy pursued and its results, and great
anxiety was aroused in the government and nation, which was in the end
shared by the king. It was determined finally to return to the earlier
policy of repression. On the 22nd of February 1604 a proclamation was
issued banishing priests; on the 28th of November 1604, recusancy fines
were demanded from 13 wealthy persons, and on the 10th of February 1605
the penal laws were ordered to be executed. The plot, however, could not
have been occasioned by these measures, for it had been already
conceived in the mind of Robert Catesby. It was aimed at the repeal of
the whole Elizabethan legislation against the Roman Catholics and
perhaps derived some impulse at first from the leniency lately shown by
the administration, afterwards gaining support from the opposite cause,
the return of the government to the policy of repression.

It was in May 1603 that Catesby told Percy, in reply to the latter's
declaration of his intention to kill the king, that he was "thinking of
a most sure way." Subsequently, about the 1st of November 1603, Catesby
sent a message to his cousin Robert Winter at Huddington, near
Worcester, to come to London, which the latter refused. On the arrival
of a second urgent summons shortly afterwards he obeyed, and was then at
a house at Lambeth, probably in January 1604, initiated by Catesby
together with John Wright into the plot to blow up the parliament house.
Before putting this plan into execution, however, it was decided to try
a "quiet way"; and Winter was sent over to Flanders to obtain the good
offices of Juan de Velasco, duke of Frias and constable of Castile, who
had arrived there to conduct the negotiations for a peace between
England and Spain, in order to obtain the repeal of the penal laws.
Winter, having secured nothing but vain promises from the constable,
returned to England about the end of April, bringing with him Guy
Fawkes, a man devoted to the Roman Catholic cause and recommended for
undertaking perilous adventures. Subsequently the three and Thomas
Percy, who joined the conspiracy in May, met in a house behind St
Clement's and, having taken an oath of secrecy together, heard Mass and
received the Sacrament in an adjoining apartment from a priest stated by
Fawkes to have been Father Gerard. Later several other persons were
included in the plot, viz. Winter's brother Thomas, John Grant, Ambrose
Rokewood, Robert Keyes, Sir Everard Digby, Francis Tresham, a cousin of
Catesby and Thomas Bates Catesby's servant, all, with the exception of
the last, being men of good family and all Roman Catholics. Father
Greenway and Father Garnet, the Jesuits, were both cognisant of the plot
(see GARNET, HENRY). On the 24th of May 1604 a house was hired in
Percy's name adjoining the House of Lords, from the cellar of which they
proposed to work a mine. They began on the 11th of December 1604, and by
about March had got half-way through the wall. They then discovered that
a vault immediately under the House of Lords was available. This was at
once hired by Percy, and 36 barrels of gunpowder, amounting to about 1
ton and 12 cwt., were brought in and concealed under coal and faggots.
The preparations being completed in May the conspirators separated.
Fawkes was despatched to Flanders, where he imparted the plot to Hugh
Owen, a zealous Romanist intriguer. Sir Edmund Baynham was sent on a
mission to Rome to be at hand when the news came to gain over the pope
to the cause of the successful conspirators. An understanding was
arrived at with several officers levied for the service of the archduke,
that they should return at once to England when occasion arose of
defending the Roman Catholic cause. A great hunting match was organized
at Danchurch in Warwickshire by Digby, to which large numbers of the
Roman Catholic gentry were invited, who were to join the plot after the
successful accomplishment of the explosion of the 5th of November, the
day fixed for the opening of parliament, and get possession of the
princess Elizabeth, then residing in the neighbourhood; while Percy was
to seize the infant prince Charles and bring him on horseback to their
meeting-place. Guy Fawkes himself was to take ship immediately for
Flanders, spread the news on the continent and get supporters. The
conspirators imagined that a terrorized and helpless government would
readily agree to all their demands. Hitherto the secret had been well
kept and the preparations had been completed with extraordinary success
and without a single drawback; but a very serious difficulty now
confronted the conspirators as the time for action arrived, and
disturbed their consciences. The feelings of ordinary humanity shrunk
from the destruction of so many persons guiltless of any offence. But in
addition, among the peers to be assassinated were included many Roman
Catholics and some lords nearly connected in kinship or friendship with
the plotters themselves. Several appeals, however, made to Catesby to
allow warning to be given to certain individuals were firmly rejected.

On the 26th of October Lord Monteagle, a brother-in-law of Francis
Tresham, who had formerly been closely connected with some of the other
conspirators and had engaged in Romanist plots against the government,
but who had given his support to the new king, unexpectedly ordered
supper to be prepared at his house at Haxton, from which he had been
absent for more than a year. While at supper about 6 o'clock an
anonymous letter was brought by an unknown messenger which, having
glanced at, he handed to Ward, a gentleman of his service and an
intimate friend of Winter, the conspirator, to be read aloud. The
celebrated letter ran as follows:--

  "My lord, out of the love I bear to some of your friends, I have a
  care for your preservation. Therefore I would advise you, as you
  tender your life, to devise some excuse to shift of your attendance
  of this Parliament, for God and man hath concurred to punish the
  wickedness of this time. And think not slightly of this advertisement,
  but retire yourself into your country, where you may expect the event
  in safety, for though there be no appearance of any stir, yet I say
  they shall receive a terrible blow the Parliament, and yet they shall
  not see who hurts them. This counsel is not to be contemned, because
  it may do you good and can do you no harm, for the danger is past as
  soon as you have burnt the letter: and I hope God will give you the
  grace to make good use of it, to whose holy protection I commend you."

The authorship of the letter has never been disclosed or proved, but all
evidence seems to point to Tresham, and to the probability that he had
some days before warned Monteagle and agreed with him as to the best
means of making known the plot and preventing its execution, and at the
same time of giving the conspirators time to escape (see TRESHAM,
FRANCIS).

Monteagle at once started for Whitehall, found Salisbury and other
ministers about to sit down to supper, and showed the letter, whereupon
it was decided to search the cellar under the House of Lords before the
meeting of parliament, but not too soon, so that the plot might be ripe
and be fully disclosed. Meanwhile Ward, on the 27th of October, as had
evidently been intended, informed Winter that the plot was known, and on
the 28th Winter informed Catesby and begged him to give up the whole
project. Catesby, however, after some hesitation, finding from Fawkes
that nothing had been touched in the cellar, and prevailed upon by
Percy, determined to stand firm, hoping that the government had put no
credence in Monteagle's letter, and Fawkes returned to the cellar to
keep guard as before. On the 4th the king, having been shown the letter,
ordered the earl of Suffolk, as lord chamberlain, to examine the
buildings. He was accompanied by Monteagle. On arriving at the cellar,
the door was opened to him by Fawkes. Seeing the enormous piles of
faggots he asked the name of their owner, to which Fawkes replied that
they belonged to Percy. His name immediately aroused suspicions, and
accordingly it was ordered that a further search should be made by
Thomas Knyvett, a Westminster magistrate who, coming with his men at
night, discovered the gunpowder and arrested Fawkes on the threshold.

The opinion that the whole plot was the work of Salisbury, that he acted
as an _agent provocateur_ and lured on his victims to destruction,
repeated by some contemporary and later writers and recently formulated
and urged with great ability, has no solid foundation. Nor is it even
probable that he was aware of its existence till he received Monteagle's
letter. Even after its reception complete belief was not placed in the
warning. A search was made only to make sure that nothing was wrong and
guided only by Monteagle's letter, while no attempt was made to seize
the conspirators. The steps taken by Salisbury after the discovery of
the gunpowder do not show the possession of any information of the plot
or of the persons who were its chief agents outside Fawkes's first
statement, and his knowledge is seen to develop according to the
successive disclosures and confessions of the latter. Thus on the 7th of
November he had no knowledge of the _mine_, and it is only after
Fawkes's examination by torture on the 9th, when the names of the
conspirators were drawn from him, that the government was able to
classify them according to their guilt and extent of their
participation. The inquiry was not conducted by Salisbury alone, but by
several commissioners, some of whom were Roman Catholics, and many
rivals and secret enemies. To conceal his intrigue from all these would
have been impossible, and that he should have put himself in their power
to such an extent is highly improbable. Again, the plan agreed upon for
disclosing the plot was especially designed to allow the conspirators to
escape, and therefore scarcely a method which would have been arranged
with Salisbury. Not one of the conspirators, even when all hope of
saving life was gone, made any accusation against Salisbury or the
government and all died expressing contrition for their crime. Lastly
Salisbury had no conceivable motive in concocting a plot of this
description. His political power and position in the new reign had been
already secured and by very different methods. He was now at the height
of his influence, having been created Viscount Cranborne in August 1604
and earl of Salisbury in May 1605; and James had already, more than 16
months before the discovery of the plot, consented to return to the
repressive measures against the Romanists. The success with which the
conspirators concealed their plot from Salisbury's spies is indeed
astonishing, but is probably explained by its very audacity and by the
absence of incriminating correspondence, the medium through which the
minister chiefly obtained his knowledge of the plans of his enemies.

On the arrest of Fawkes the other conspirators, except Tresham, fled in
parties by different ways, rejoining each other in Warwickshire, as had
been agreed in case the plot had been successful. Catesby, who with some
others had covered the distance of 80 m. between London and his mother's
house at Ashby St Legers in eight hours, informed his friends in
Warwickshire, who had been awaiting the issue of the plot, of its
failure, but succeeded in persuading Sir Everard Digby, by an
unscrupulous falsehood, to further implicate himself in his hopeless
cause by assuring him that both James and Salisbury were dead; and,
according to Father Garnet, this was not the first time that Catesby had
been guilty of lies in order to draw men into the plot. He pushed on the
same day with his companions in the direction of Wales, where, it was
hoped, they would be joined by bands of insurgents. They arrived at
Huddington at 2 in the afternoon. On the morning of the 7th the band,
numbering about 36 persons, confessed and heard Mass, and then rode away
to Holbeche, 2 m. from Stourbridge, in Staffordshire, the house of
Stephen Littleton, who had been present at the hunting at Danchurch (see
DIGBY, EVERARD), where they arrived at 10 o'clock at night, having on
their way broken into Lord Windsor's house at Hewell Grange and taken
all the armour they found there. Their case was now desperate. None had
joined them: "Not one came to take our part," said Sir Everard Digby,
"though we had expected so many." They were being followed by the
sheriff and all the forces of the county. All spurned them from their
doors when they applied for succour. One by one their followers fled
from the house in which the last scene was to be played out. They now
began to feel themselves abandoned not only by man but by God; for an
explosion of some of their gunpowder, on the morning of the 8th, by
which Catesby and some others were scorched, struck terror into their
hearts as a judgment from heaven. The assurance of innocence and of a
just cause which till now had alone supported them was taken away. The
greatness of their crime, its true nature, now struck home to them, and
the few moments which remained to them of life were spent in prayer and
in repentance. The supreme hour had now arrived. About 11 o'clock the
sheriff and his men came up and immediately began firing into the house.
Catesby, Percy and the two Wrights were killed, Winter and Rokewood
wounded and taken prisoners with the men who still adhered to them. In
all eight of the conspirators, including the two Winters, Digby, Fawkes,
Rokewood, Keyes and Bates, were executed, while Tresham died in the
Tower. Of the priests involved, Garnet was tried and executed, while
Greenway and Gerard succeeded in escaping.

So ended the strange and famous Gunpowder Plot. However atrocious its
conception and its aims, it is impossible not to feel, together with
horror for the deed, some pity and admiration for the guilty persons who
took part in it. "Theirs was a crime which it would never have entered
into the heart of any man to commit who was not raised above the lowness
of the ordinary criminal." They sinned not against the light but in the
dark. They erred from ignorance, from a perverted moral sense rather
than from any mean or selfish motive, and exhibited extraordinary
courage and self-sacrifice in the pursuit of what seemed to them the
cause of God and of their country. Their punishment was terrible. Not
only had they risked and lost all in the attempt and drawn upon
themselves the frightful vengeance of the state, but they saw themselves
the means of injuring irretrievably the cause for which they felt such
devotion. Nothing could have been more disastrous to the cause of the
Roman Catholics than their crime. The laws against them were immediately
increased in severity, and the gradual advance towards religious
toleration was put back for centuries. In addition a new, increased and
long-enduring hostility was aroused in the country against the adherents
of the old faith, not unnatural in the circumstances, but unjust and
undiscriminating, because while some of the Jesuits were no doubt
implicated, the secular priests and Roman Catholic laity as a whole had
taken no part in the conspiracy.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The recent controversy concerning the nature and origin
  of the plot can be followed in _What was the Gunpowder Plot?_ by John
  Gerard, S.J. (1897); _What Gunpowder Plot was_, by S. R. Gardiner (a
  rejoinder) (1897); _The Gunpowder Plot ... in reply to Professor
  Gardiner_, by John Gerard, S.J. (1897); _Thomas Winter's Confession
  and the Gunpowder Plot_, by John Gerard, S.J. (with facsimiles of his
  writing) (1898); _Eng. Hist. Rev._ iii. 510 and xii. 791; _Edinburgh
  Review_, clxxxv. 183; _Athenaeum_ 1897, ii. 149, 785, 855; 1898, i.
  23, ii. 352, 420; _Academy_, vol. 52 p. 84; _The Nation_, vol. 65 p.
  400. A considerable portion of the controversy centres round the
  question of the authenticity of Thomas Winter's confession, the MS. of
  which is at Hatfield, supported by Professor Gardiner, but denied by
  Father Gerard principally on account of the document having been
  signed "Winter" instead of "Wintour," the latter apparently being the
  conspirator's usual style of signature. The document was deposited by
  the 3rd Marquess of Salisbury for inspection at the Record Office, and
  was pronounced by two experts, one from the British Museum and another
  from the Record Office, to be undoubtedly genuine. The cause of the
  variation in the signature still remains unexplained, but ceases to
  have therefore any great historical importance. The bibliography of
  the contemporary controversy is given in the article on Henry Garnet
  in the _Dictionary of National Biography_ and in _The Gunpowder Plot_
  by David Jardine (1857), the latter work still remaining the principal
  authority on the subject; add to these Gardiner's _Hist. of England_,
  i., where an excellent account is given; _History of the Jesuits in
  England_, by Father Ethelred Taunton (1901); Father Gerard's
  _Narrative in Condition of the Catholics under James I._ (1872), and
  Father Greenway's Narrative in _Troubles of our Catholic Forefathers_,
  1st series (1872), interesting as contemporary accounts, but not to be
  taken as complete or infallible authorities, of the same nature being
  _Historia Provinciae Anglicanae Societatis Jesu_, by Henry More, S.J.
  (1660), pp. 309 et seq.; also History of Great Britain, by John Speed
  (1611), pp. 839 et seq.; _Archaeologia_, xii. 200, xxviii. 422, xxix.
  80; _Harleian Miscellany_ (1809), iii. 119-135, or _Somers Tracts_
  (1809), ii. 97-117; M. A. Tierney's ed. of _Dodd's Church History_,
  vol. iv. (1841); _Treason and Plot_, by Martin Hume (1901); _Notes and
  Queries_, 7 ser. vi., 8 ser. iv. 408, 497, v. 55, xii. 505, 9 ser. xi.
  115; _Add. MSS. Brit. Mus._ 6178; _State Trials_, ii.; _Calendar of
  State Pap. Dom._ (1603-1610), and the official account, _A True and
  Perfect Relation of the Whole Proceedings against the late most
  Barbarous Traitors_ (1606), a neither true nor complete narrative
  however, now superseded as an authority, reprinted as _The Gunpowder
  Treason ..._ with additions in 1679 by Thomas Barlow, bishop of
  Lincoln. A large number of letters and papers in the State Paper
  Office relating to the plot were collected in one volume in 1819,
  called the _Gunpowder Plot Book_; these are noted in their proper
  place in the printed calendars of State Papers, Domestic Series; see
  also articles on FAWKES, GUY; TRESHAM, FRANCIS; MONTEAGLE, WILLIAM
  PARKER, 4TH BARON; PERCY, THOMAS; CATESBY, ROBERT; GARNET, HENRY;
  DIGBY, SIR EVERARD.     (P. C. Y.)



GUN-ROOM, a ship cabin occupied by the officers below the rank of
lieutenant, but who are not warrant officers of the class of the
boatswain, gunner or carpenter. In the wooden sailing ships it was on
the lower deck, and was originally the quarters of the gunner.



GUNTER, EDMUND (1581-1626), English mathematician, of Welsh extraction,
was born in Hertfordshire in 1581. He was educated at Westminster
school, and in 1599 was elected a student of Christ Church, Oxford. He
took orders, became a preacher in 1614, and in 1615 proceeded to the
degree of bachelor in divinity. Mathematics, however, which had been his
favourite study in youth, continued to engross his attention, and on the
6th of March 1619 he was appointed professor of astronomy in Gresham
College, London. This post he held till his death on the 10th of
December 1626. With Gunter's name are associated several useful
inventions, descriptions of which are given in his treatises on the
_Sector, Cross-staff, Bow, Quadrant and other Instruments_. He contrived
his sector about the year 1606, and wrote a description of it in Latin,
but it was more than sixteen years afterwards before he allowed the book
to appear in English. In 1620 he published his _Canon triangulorum_ (see
LOGARITHMS). There is reason to believe that Gunter was the first to
discover (in 1622 or 1625) that the magnetic needle does not retain the
same declination in the same place at all times. By desire of James I.
he published in 1624 _The Description and Use of His Majestie's Dials in
Whitehall Garden_, the only one of his works which has not been
reprinted. He introduced the words cosine and cotangent, and he
suggested to Henry Briggs, his friend and colleague, the use of the
arithmetical complement (see Brigg's _Arithmetica Logarithmica_, cap.
xv.). His practical inventions are briefly noticed below:

  _Gunter's Chain_, the chain in common use for surveying, is 22 yds.
  long and is divided into 100 links. Its usefulness arises from its
  decimal or centesimal division, and the fact that 10 square chains
  make an acre.

  _Gunter's Line_, a logarithmic line, usually laid down upon scales,
  sectors, &c. It is also called _the line of lines_ and _the line of
  numbers_, being only the logarithms graduated upon a ruler, which
  therefore serves to solve problems instrumentally in the same manner
  as logarithms do arithmetically.

  _Gunter's Quadrant_, an instrument made of wood, brass or other
  substance, containing a kind of stereographic projection of the sphere
  on the plane of the equinoctial, the eye being supposed to be placed
  in one of the poles, so that the tropic, ecliptic, and horizon form
  the arcs of circles, but the hour circles are other curves, drawn by
  means of several altitudes of the sun for some particular latitude
  every year. This instrument is used to find the hour of the day, the
  sun's azimuth, &c., and other common problems of the sphere or globe,
  and also to take the altitude of an object in degrees.

  _Gunter's Scale_ (generally called by seamen the _Gunter_) is a large
  plane scale, usually 2 ft. long by about 1½ in. broad, and engraved
  with various lines of numbers. On one side are placed the natural
  lines (as the line of chords, the line of sines, tangents, rhumbs,
  &c.), and on the other side the corresponding artificial or
  logarithmic ones. By means of this instrument questions in navigation,
  trigonometry, &c., are solved with the aid of a pair of compasses.



GÜNTHER, JOHANN CHRISTIAN (1695-1723), German poet, was born at Striegau
in Lower Silesia on the 8th of April 1695. After attending the gymnasium
at Schweidnitz, he was sent in 1715 by his father, a country doctor, to
study medicine at Wittenberg; but he was idle and dissipated, had no
taste for the profession chosen for him, and came to a complete rupture
with his family. In 1717 he went to Leipzig, where he was befriended by
J. B. Mencke (1674-1732), who recognized his genius; and there he
published a poem on the peace of Passarowitz (concluded between the
German emperor and the Porte in 1718) which acquired him reputation. A
recommendation from Mencke to Frederick Augustus II. of Saxony, king of
Poland, proved worse than useless, as Günther appeared at the audience
drunk. From that time he led an unsettled and dissipated life, sinking
ever deeper into the slough of misery, until he died at Jena on the 15th
of March 1723, when only in his 28th year. Goethe pronounces Günther to
have been a poet in the fullest sense of the term. His lyric poems as a
whole give evidence of deep and lively sensibility, fine imagination,
clever wit, and a true ear for melody and rhythm; but an air of cynicism
is more or less present in most of them, and dull or vulgar witticisms
are not infrequently found side by side with the purest inspirations of
his genius.

  Günther's collected poems were published in four volumes (Breslau,
  1723-1735). They are also included in vol. vi. of Tittmann's _Deutsche
  Dichter des 17ten Jahrh._ (Leipzig, 1874), and vol. xxxviii. of
  Kürschner's _Deutsche Nationalliteratur_ (1883). A pretended
  autobiography of Günther appeared at Schweidnitz in 1732, and a life
  of him by Siebrand at Leipzig in 1738. See Hoffmann von Fallersleben,
  _J. Ch. Günther_ (Breslau, 1833); O. Roquette, _Leben und Dichten J.
  Ch. Günthers_ (Stuttgart, 1860); M. Kalbeck, _Neue Beiträge zur
  Biographie des Dichters C. Günther_ (Breslau, 1879).



GÜNTHER OF SCHWARZBURG (1304-1349), German king, was a descendant of the
counts of Schwarzburg and the younger son of Henry VII., count of
Blankenburg. He distinguished himself as a soldier, and rendered good
service to the emperor Louis IV., on whose death in 1347 he was offered
the German throne, after it had been refused by Edward III., king of
England. He was elected German king at Frankfort on the 30th of January
1349 by four of the electors, who were partisans of the house of
Wittelsbach and opponents of Charles of Luxemburg, afterwards the
emperor Charles IV. Charles, however, won over many of Günther's
adherents, defeated him at Eltville, and Günther, who was now seriously
ill, renounced his claims for the sum of 20,000 marks of silver. He died
three weeks afterwards at Frankfort, and was buried in the cathedral of
that city, where a statue was erected to his memory in 1352.

  See Graf L. Ütterodt zu Scharffenberg, _Günther, Graf von Schwarzburg,
  erwählter deutscher König_ (Leipzig, 1862); and K. Janson, _Das
  Königtum Günthers von Schwarzburg_ (Leipzig, 1880).



GUNTRAM, or GONTRAN (561-592), king of Burgundy, was one of the sons of
Clotaire I. On the death of his father (561) he and his three brothers
divided the Frankish realm between them, Guntram receiving as his share
the valleys of the Saône and Rhone, together with Berry and the town of
Orleans, which he made his capital. On the death of Charibert (567), he
further obtained the _civitates_ of Saintes, Angoulême and Périgueux.
During the civil war which broke out between the kings of Neustria and
Austrasia, his policy was to try to maintain a state of equilibrium.
After the assassination of Sigebert (575), he took the youthful
Childebert II. under his protection, and, thanks to his assistance
against the intrigues of the great lords, the latter was able to
maintain his position in Austrasia. After the death of Chilperic (584)
he protected the young Clotaire II. in the same way, and prevented
Childebert from seizing his dominions. His course was rendered easier by
the fact that his own sons had died; consequently, having an inheritance
at his disposal, he was able to offer it to whichever of his nephews he
wished. The danger to the Frankish realm caused by the expedition of
Gundobald (585), and the anxiety which was caused him by the revolts of
the great lords in Austrasia finally decided him in favour of
Childebert. He adopted him as his son, and recognized him as his heir at
the treaty of Andelot (587); he also helped him to crush the great
lords, especially Ursion and Berthefried, who were conquered in la
Woëvre. From this time on he ceased to play a prominent part in the
affairs of Austrasia. He died in 592, and Childebert received his
inheritance without opposition. Gregory of Tours is very indulgent to
Guntram, who showed himself on occasions generous towards the church; he
almost always calls him "good king Guntram," and in his writings are to
be found such phrases as "good king Guntram took as his servant a
concubine Veneranda" (iv. 25); but Guntram was really no better than the
other kings of his age; he was cruel and licentious, putting his
_cubicularius_ Condo to death, for instance, because he was suspected of
having killed a buffalo in the Vosges. He was moreover a coward, and
went in such constant terror of assassination that he always surrounded
himself with a regular bodyguard.

  See Krusch, "Zur Chronologie der merowingischen Könige," in the
  _Forschungen zur deutschen Geschichte_, xxii. 451-490; Ulysse
  Chevalier, _Bio-bibliographie_ (2nd ed.), s.v. "Guntram."     (C. Pf.)



GUNTUR, a town and district of British India, in the Madras presidency.
The town (pop. in 1901, 30,833) has a station on the Bellary-Bezwada
branch of the Southern Mahratta railway. It is situated east of the
Kondavid hills, and is very healthy. It appears to have been founded in
the 18th century by the French. At the time of the cession of the
Circars to the English in 1765, Guntur was specially exempted during the
life of Basalat Jang, whose personal _jagir_ it was. In 1788 it came
into British possession, the cession being finally confirmed in 1823. It
has an important trade in cotton, with presses and ginning factories.
There is a second-grade college supported by the American Lutheran
Mission. Until 1859, Guntur was the headquarters of a district of the
same name, and in 1904 a new DISTRICT OF GUNTUR was constituted,
covering territory which till then had been divided between Kistna and
Nellore. Area, 5733 sq. m. The population on this area in 1901 was
1,490,635. The district is bounded on the E. and N. by the river Kistna;
in the W. a considerable part of the boundary is formed by the
Gundlakamma river. The greater part consists of a fertile plain
irrigated by canals from the Kistna, and producing cotton, rice and
other crops.



GUPTA, an empire and dynasty of northern India, which lasted from about
A.D. 320 to 480. The dynasty was founded by Chandragupta I., who must
not be confounded with his famous predecessor Chandragupta Maurya. He
gave his name to the Gupta era, which continued in use for several
centuries, dating from the 26th of February, A.D. 320. Chandragupta was
succeeded by Samudragupta (c. A.D. 326-375), one of the greatest of
Indian kings, who conquered nearly the whole of India, and whose
alliances extended from the Oxus to Ceylon; but his name was at one time
entirely lost to history, and has only been recovered of recent years
from coins and inscriptions. His empire rivalled that of Asoka,
extending from the Hugli on the east to the Jumna and Chambal on the
west, and from the foot of the Himalayas on the north to the Nerbudda on
the south. His son Chandragupta II. (c. A.D. 375-413) was also known as
Vikra-Maditya (q.v.), and seems to have been the original of the
mythical Hindu king of that name. About 388 he conquered the Saka satrap
of Surashtra (Kathiawar) and penetrated to the Arabian Sea. His
administration is described in the work of Fa-hien, the earliest Chinese
pilgrim, who visited India in A.D. 405-411. Pataliputra was the capital
of the dynasty, but Ajodhya seems to have been sometimes used by both
Samudragupta and Chandragupta II. as the headquarters of government. The
Gupta dynasty appears to have fostered a revival of Brahmanism at the
expense of Buddhism, and to have given an impulse to art and literature.
The golden age of the empire lasted from A.D. 330 to 455, beginning to
decline after the latter date. When Skandagupta came to the throne in
455, India was threatened with an irruption of the White Huns, on whom
he inflicted a severe defeat, thus saving his kingdom for a time; but
about 470 the White Huns (see EPHTHALITES) returned to the attack, and
the empire was gradually destroyed by their repeated inroads. When
Skandagupta died about 480, the Gupta empire came to an end, but the
dynasty continued to rule in the eastern provinces for several
generations. The last known prince of the imperial line of Guptas was
Kamaragupta II. (c. 535), after whom it passed "by an obscure
transition" into a dynasty of eleven Gupta princes, known as "the later
Guptas of Magadha," who seem for the most part to have been merely local
rulers of Magadha. One of them, however, Adityasena, after the death of
the paramount sovereign in 648, asserted his independence. The last
known Gupta king was Jivitagupta II., who reigned early in the 8th
century. About the middle of the century Magadha passed under the sway
of the Pal kings of Bengal.

  See J. F. Fleet, _Gupta Inscriptions_ (1888); and Vincent A. Smith,
  _The Early History of India_ (2nd ed., Oxford, 1908), pp. 264-295.



GURA, EUGEN (1842-1906), German singer, was born near Saatz in Bohemia,
and educated at first for the career of a painter at Vienna and Munich;
but later, developing a fine baritone voice, he took up singing and
studied it at the Munich Conservatorium. In 1865 he made his début at
the Munich opera, and in the following years he gained the highest
reputation in Germany, being engaged principally at Leipzig till 1876
and then at Hamburg till 1883. He sang in 1876 in the _Ring_ at
Bayreuth, and was famous for his Wagnerian rôles; and his Hans Sachs in
_Meistersinger_, as performed in London in 1882, was magnificent. In
later years he showed the perfection of art in his singing of German
_Lieder_. He died in Bavaria on the 26th of August 1906.



GURDASPUR, a town and district of British India, in the Lahore division
of the Punjab. The town had a population in 1901 of 5764. It has a fort
(now containing a Brahman monastery) which was famous for the siege it
sustained in 1712 from the Moguls. The Sikh leader, Banda, was only
reduced by starvation, when he and his men were tortured to death after
capitulating.

The DISTRICT comprises an area of 1889 sq. m. It is bounded on the N. by
the native states of Kashmir and Chamba, on the E. by Kangra district
and the river Beas, on the S.W. by Amritsar district, and on the W. by
Sialkot, and occupies the submontane portion of the Bari Doab, or tract
between the Beas and the Ravi. An intrusive spur of the British
dominions runs northward into the lower Himalayan ranges, to include the
mountain sanatorium of Dalhousie, 7687 ft. above sea-level. This
station, which has a large fluctuating population during the warmer
months, crowns the most westerly shoulder of a magnificent snowy range,
the Dhaoladhar, between which and the plain two minor ranges intervene.
Below the hills stretches a picturesque and undulating plateau covered
with abundant timber, made green by a copious rainfall, and watered by
the streams of the Bari Doab, which, diverted by dams and embankments,
now empty their waters into the Beas directly, in order that their
channels may not interfere with the Bari Doab canal. The district
contains several large _jhils_ or swampy lakes, and is famous for its
snipe-shooting. It is historically important in connexion with the rise
of the Sikh confederacy. The whole of the Punjab was then distributed
among the Sikh chiefs who triumphed over the imperial governors. In the
course of a few years, however, the maharaja Ranjit Singh acquired all
the territory which those chiefs had held. Pathankot and the
neighbouring villages in the plain, together with the whole hill portion
of the district, formed part of the area ceded by the Sikhs to the
British after the first Sikh war in 1846. In 1862, after receiving one
or two additions, the district was brought into its present shape. In
1901 the population was 940,334, showing a slight decrease, compared
with an increase of 15% in the previous decade. A branch of the
North-Western railway runs through the district. The largest town and
chief commercial centre is Batala. There are important woollen mills at
Dhariwal, and besides their products the district exports cotton, sugar,
grain and oil-seeds.



GURGAON, a town and district of British India, in the Delhi division of
the Punjab. The town (pop. in 1901, 4765) is the headquarters of the
district, but is otherwise unimportant. The district has an area of 1984
sq. m. It is bounded on the N. by Rohtak, on the W. and S.W. by portions
of the Alwar, Nabha and Jind native states, on the S. by the Muttra
district of the United Provinces, on the E. by the river Jumna and on
the N.E. by Delhi. It comprises the southernmost corner of the Punjab
province, stretching away from the level plain towards the hills of
Rajputana. Two low rocky ranges enter its borders from the south and run
northward in a bare and unshaded mass toward the plain country. East of
the western ridge the valley is wide and open, extending to the banks of
the Jumna. To the west lies the subdivision of Rewari, consisting of a
sandy plain dotted with isolated hills. Numerous torrents carry off the
drainage from the upland ranges, and the most important among them empty
themselves at last into the Najafgarh _jhil_. This swampy lake lies to
the east of the civil station of Gurgaon, and stretches long arms into
the neighbouring districts of Delhi and Rohtak. Salt is manufactured in
wells at several villages. The mineral products are iron ore, copper
ore, plumbago and ochre.

In 1803 Gurgaon district passed into the hands of the British after Lord
Lake's conquests. On the outbreak of the Mutiny in May 1857, the nawab
of Farukhnagar, the principal feudatory of the district, rose in
rebellion. The Meos and many Rajput families followed his example. A
faithful native officer preserved the public buildings and records at
Rewari from destruction; but with this exception, British authority
became extinguished for a time throughout Gurgaon. After the fall of the
rebel capital, a force marched into the district and either captured or
dispersed the leaders of rebellion. The territory of the nawab was
confiscated on account of his participation in the Mutiny. Civil
administration was resumed under orders from the Punjab government, to
which province the district was formally annexed on the final
pacification of the country. The population in 1901 was 746,208, showing
an increase of 11% in the decade. The largest town and chief trade
centre is Rewari. The district is now traversed by several lines of
railway, and irrigation is provided by the Agra canal. The chief trade
is in cereals, but hardware is also exported.



GURKHA (pronounced _góorka_; from Sans. _gau_, a cow, and _raks_, to
protect), the ruling Hindu race in Nepal (q.v.). The Gurkhas, or
Gurkhalis, claim descent from the rajas of Chitor in Rajputana. When
driven out of their own country by the Mahommedan invasion, they took
refuge in the hilly districts about Kumaon, whence they gradually
invaded the country to the eastward as far as Gurkha, Noakote and
ultimately to the valley of Nepal and even Sikkim. They were stopped by
the English in an attempt to push south, and the treaty of Segauli,
which ended the Gurkha War of 1814, definitely limited their
territorial growth. The Gurkhas of the present day remain Hindus by
religion, but show in their appearance a strong admixture of Mongolian
blood. They make splendid infantry soldiers, and by agreement with their
government about 20,000 have been recruited for the Gurkha regiments of
the Indian army. As a rule they are bold, enduring, faithful, frank,
independent and self-reliant. They despise other Orientals, but admire
and fraternize with Europeans, whose tastes in sport and war they share.
They strongly resemble the Japanese, but are of a sturdier build. Their
national weapon is the _kukri_, a heavy curved knife, which they use for
every possible purpose.

  See Capt. Eden Vansittart, _Notes on the Gurkhas_ (1898); and P. D.
  Bonarjee, _The Fighting Races of India_ (1899).



GURNALL, WILLIAM (1617-1679), English author, was born in 1617 at King's
Lynn, Norfolk. He was educated at the free grammar school of his native
town, and in 1631 was nominated to the Lynn scholarship in Emmanuel
College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1635 and M.A. in 1639. He
was made rector of Lavenham in Suffolk in 1644; and before he received
that appointment he seems to have officiated, perhaps as curate, at
Sudbury. At the Restoration he signed the declaration required by the
Act of Uniformity, and on this account he was the subject of a libellous
attack, published in 1665, entitled _Covenant-Renouncers Desperate
Apostates_. He died on the 12th of October 1679. Gurnall is known by his
_Christian in Complete Armour_, published in three volumes, dated 1655,
1658 and 1662. It consists of a series of sermons on the latter portion
of the 6th chapter of Ephesians, and is described as a "magazine from
whence the Christian is furnished with spiritual arms for the battle,
helped on with his armour, and taught the use of his weapon; together
with the happy issue of the whole war." The work is more practical than
theological; and its quaint fancy, graphic and pointed style, and its
fervent religious tone render it still popular with some readers.

  See also _An Inquiry into the Life of the Rev. W. Gurnall_, by H.
  M'Keon (1830), and a biographical introduction by Bishop Ryle to the
  _Christian in Complete Armour_ (1865).



GURNARD (_Trigla_), a genus of fishes forming a group of the family of
"mailed cheeks" (_Triglidae_), and easily recognized by three detached
finger-like appendages in front of the pectoral fins, and by their
large, angular, bony head, the sides of which are protected by strong,
hard and rough bones. The pectoral appendages are provided with strong
nerves, and serve not only as organs of locomotion when the fish moves
on the bottom, but also as organs of touch, by which it detects small
animals on which it feeds. Gurnards are coast-fishes, generally
distributed over the tropical and temperate areas; of the forty species
known six occur on the coast of Great Britain, viz. the red gurnard (_T.
pini_), the streaked gurnard (_T. lineata_), the sapphirine gurnard (_T.
hirundo_), the grey gurnard (_T. gurnardus_), the piper (_T. lyra_) and
the long-finned gurnard (_T. obscura_ or _T. lucerna_). Although never
found very far from the coast, gurnards descend to depths of several
hundred fathoms; and as they are bottom-fish they are caught chiefly by
means of the trawl. Not rarely, however, they may be seen floating on
the surface of the water, with their broad, finely coloured pectoral
fins spread out like fans. In very young fishes, which abound in certain
localities on the coast in the months of August and September, the
pectorals are comparatively much longer than in the adult, extending to
the end of the body; they are beautifully coloured and kept expanded,
the little fishes looking like butterflies. When caught and taken out of
the water, gurnards emit a grunting noise, which is produced by the
vibrations of a diaphragm situated transversely across the cavity of the
bladder and perforated in the centre. This grunting noise gave rise to
the name "gurnard," which is probably an adaptation or variation of the
Fr. _grognard_, grumbler, cf. the Fr. _grondin_, gurnard, from
_gronder_, and Ger. _Knurrfisch_. Their flesh is very white, firm and
wholesome.

[Illustration: _Trigla pleuracanthica_.]



GURNEY, the name of a philanthropic English family of bankers and
merchants, direct descendants of Hugh de Gournay, lord of Gournay, one
of the Norman noblemen who accompanied William the Conqueror to England.
Large grants of land were made to Hugh de Gournay in Norfolk and
Suffolk, and Norwich has since that time been the headquarters of the
family, the majority of whom were Quakers. Here in 1770 the brothers
John and Henry Gurney founded a banking-house, the business passing in
1779 to Henry's son, Bartlett Gurney. On the death of Bartlett Gurney in
1802 the bank became the property of his three cousins, of whom JOHN
GURNEY (1750-1809) was the most remarkable. One of his daughters was
Elizabeth Fry; another married Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton. Of his sons one
was Joseph JOHN GURNEY (1788-1847), a well-known philanthropist of the
day; another, SAMUEL GURNEY (1786-1856) assumed on his father's death
the control of the Norwich bank. Samuel Gurney also took over about the
same time the control of the London bill-broking business of Richardson,
Overend & Company, in which he was already a partner. This business had
been founded in 1800 by Thomas Richardson, clerk to a London
bill-discounter, and John Overend, chief clerk in the bank of Smith,
Payne & Company at Nottingham, the Gurneys supplying the capital. At
that time bill-discounting was carried on in a spasmodic fashion by the
ordinary merchant in addition to his regular business, but Richardson
considered that there was room for a London house which should devote
itself entirely to the trade in bills. This, at that time, novel idea
proved an instant success. The title of the firm was subsequently
changed to Overend, Gurney & Company, and for forty years it was the
greatest discounting-house in the world. During the financial crisis of
1825 Overend, Gurney & Company were able to make short loans to many
other bankers. The house indeed became known as "the bankers' banker,"
and secured many of the previous clients of the Bank of England. Samuel
Gurney died in 1856. He was a man of very charitable disposition, and
during the latter years of his life charitable and philanthropic
undertakings almost monopolized his attention. In 1865 the business of
Overend, Gurney & Company, which had come under less competent control,
was converted into a joint stock company, but in 1866 the firm suspended
payment with liabilities amounting to eleven millions sterling.



GURNEY, EDMUND (1847-1888), English psychologist, was born at Hersham,
near Walton-on-Thames, on the 23rd of March 1847. He was educated at
Blackheath and at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he took a high place
in the classical tripos and obtained a fellowship. His work for the
schools was done, says his friend F. W. H. Myers, "in the intervals of
his practice on the piano." Dissatisfied with his own executive skill as
a musician, he wrote _The Power of Sound_ (1880), an essay on the
philosophy of music. He then studied medicine with no intention of
practising, devoting himself to physics, chemistry and physiology. In
1880 he passed the second M.B. Cambridge examination in the science of
the healing profession. These studies, and his great logical powers and
patience in the investigation of evidence, he devoted to that outlying
field of psychology which is called "Psychical Research." He asked
whether, as universal tradition declares, there is an unexplored region
of human faculty transcending the normal limitations of sensible
knowledge. That there is such a region it was part of the system of
Hegel to declare, and the subject had been metaphysically treated by
Hartmann, Schopenhauer, Du Prel, Hamilton and others, as the philosophy
of the Unconscious or Subconscious. But Gurney's purpose was to
approach the subject by observation and experiment, especially in the
hypnotic field, whereas vague and ill-attested anecdotes had hitherto
been the staple of the evidence of metaphysicians. The tendency of his
mind was to investigate whatever facts may give a colour of truth to the
ancient belief in the persistence of the conscious human personality
after the death of the body. Like Joseph Glanvill's, the natural bent of
Gurney's mind was sceptical. Both thought the current and traditional
reports of supernormal occurrences suggestive and worth investigating by
the ordinary methods of scientific observation, and inquisition into
evidence at first hand. But the method of Gurney was, of course, much
more strict than that of the author of _Sadducismus Triumphatus_, and it
included hypnotic and other experiments unknown to Glanvill. Gurney
began at what he later saw was the wrong end by studying, with Myers,
the "séances" of professed spiritualistic "mediums" (1874-1878). Little
but detection of imposture came of this, but an impression was left that
the subject ought not to be abandoned. In 1882 the Society for Psychical
Research was founded. (See PSYCHICAL RESEARCH.) Paid mediums were
discarded, at least for the time, and experiments were made in
"thought-transference" and hypnotism. Personal evidence as to uninduced
hallucinations was also collected. The first results are embodied in the
volumes of _Phantasms of the Living_, a vast collection (Podmore, Myers
and Gurney), and in Gurney's remarkable essay, _Hallucinations_. The
chief consequence was to furnish evidence for the process called
"telepathy," involving the provisional hypothesis that one human mind
can affect another through no recognized channel of sense. The fact was
supposed to be established by the experiments chronicled in the
_Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research_, and it was argued
that similar experiences occurred spontaneously, as, for example, in the
many recorded instances of "deathbed wraiths" among civilized and savage
races. (Tylor, _Primitive Culture_, i. chapter xi., especially pp.
449-450, 1873. Lang, _Making of Religion_, pp. 120-124, 1898.) The dying
man is supposed to convey the hallucination of his presence as one
living person experimentally conveys his thought to another, by
"thought-transference." Gurney's hypnotic experiments, marked by great
exactness, patience and ingenuity, were undertaken in 1885-1888. Their
tendency was, in Myers's words, "to prove--so far as any one operator's
experience in this protean subject can be held to prove anything--that
there is sometimes, in the induction of hypnotic phenomena, some agency
at work which is neither ordinary nervous stimulation (monotonous or
sudden) nor suggestion conveyed by any ordinary channel to the subject's
mind." These results, if accepted, of course corroborate the idea of
telepathy. (See Gurney, "Hypnotism and Telepathy," _Proceedings S. P.
R._ vol. iv.) Experiments by MM. Gibert, Janet, Richet, Héricourt and
others are cited as tending in the same direction. Other experiments
dealt with "the relation of the memory in the hypnotic state to the
memory in another hypnotic state, and of both to the normal or waking
memory." The result of Gurney's labours, cut short by his early death,
was to raise and strengthen the presumption that there exists an
unexplored region of human faculty which ought not to be neglected by
science as if the belief in it were a mere survival of savage
superstition. Rather, it appears to have furnished the experiences
which, misinterpreted, are expressed in traditional beliefs. That Gurney
was credulous and easily imposed upon those who knew him, and knew his
penetrating humour, cannot admit; nor is the theory likely to be
maintained by those whom bias does not prevent from studying with care
his writings. In controversy "he delighted in replying with easy
courtesy to attacks envenomed with that _odium plus quam theologicum_
which the very allusion to a ghost or the human soul seems in some
philosophers to inspire." In discussion of themes unpopular and obscure
Gurney displayed the highest tact, patience, good temper, humour and
acuteness. There never was a more disinterested student. In addition to
his work on music and his psychological writings, he was the author of
_Tertium Quid_ (1887), a collection of essays, on the whole a protest
against one-sided ideas and methods of discussion. He died at Brighton
on 23rd June 1888, from the effects of an overdose of narcotic medicine.
     (A. L.)



GURWOOD, JOHN (1790-1845), British soldier, began his career in a
merchant's office, but soon obtained an ensigncy in the 52nd (1808).
With his regiment he served in the "Light Division" of Wellington's army
throughout the earlier Peninsular campaigns, and at Ciudad Rodrigo (19th
Jan. 1812) he led one of the forlorn hopes and was severely wounded. For
his gallant conduct on this occasion Wellington presented Gurwood with
the sword of the French governor of Ciudad Rodrigo. A little later,
transferring to the 9th Light Dragoons, he was made brigade-major to the
Guards' cavalry which had just arrived in the Peninsula. In the latter
part of the war he served as brigade-major to Lambert's brigade of the
sixth infantry division, and was present at the various actions in which
that division played a conspicuous part--the Nivelle, the Nive, Orthes
and Toulouse. At Waterloo Captain Gurwood was for the third time
severely wounded. In the first twelve years of the peace he was promoted
up to the grade of lieut.-colonel, and in 1841 became brevet-colonel. He
was for many years the duke of Wellington's private secretary, and was
entrusted by him with the collection and editing of the _Wellington
Despatches_, which occupied Gurwood from 1837 to the end of his life.
This work is a monument of industrious skill, and earned its author a
Civil List Pension of £200. But overwork and the effects of his wounds
had broken his health, and he committed suicide on Christmas day 1845.
He was a C.B. and deputy-lieutenant of the Tower.



GUSLA, or GUSLI, an ancient stringed instrument still in use among the
Slavonic races. The modern Servian gusla is a kind of tanbur (see
Pandura), consisting of a round, concave body covered with a parchment
soundboard; there is but one horse-hair string, and the peg for tuning
it is inserted in oriental fashion in the back of the head. The gusla is
played with a primitive bow called _goudalo_. The _gouslars_ or blind
bards of Servia and Croatia use it to accompany their chants. C. G.
Anton[1] mentions an instrument of that name in the shape of a half-moon
strung with eighteen strings in use among the Tatars. Prosper Merimée[2]
has taken the _gusla_ as the title for a book of Servian poems, which
are supposed to have been collected by him among the peasants, but which
are thought to have been inspired by the _Viaggio in Dalmazia_ of
Albarto Fortis.

Among the Russians, the gusli is an instrument of a different type, a
kind of psaltery having five or more strings stretched across a flat,
shallow sound-chest in the shape of a wing. In the gusli the strings, of
graduated length, are attached to little nails or pins at one end, and
at the other they are wound over a rod having screw attachments for
increasing and slackening the tension. There is no bridge to determine
the vibrating length of the strings. The body of the instrument is
shaped roughly like the tail of the grand piano, following the line of
the strings; the longest being at the left of the instrument. Matthew
Guthrie gives an illustration of the gusli.[3]     (K. S.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] _Erste Linien eines Versuchs über den Ursprung der alten Slaven_
    (Leipzig, 1783-1789), p. 145.

  [2] _La Guzla, ou choix de poésies lyriques recueillies dans la
    Dalmatie, la Bosnie, la Croatie, &c._ (Paris, 1827).

  [3] _Dissertations sur les antiquités de Russie_ (St Petersburg,
    1795), pl. ii. No. 9, p. 31.



GUSTAVUS I. ERIKSSON (1496-1560), king of Sweden, was born at his
mother's estate at Lindholm on Ascension Day 1496. He came of a family
which had shone conspicuously in 15th-century politics, though it
generally took the anti-national side. His father, Erik Johansson of
Rydboholm, "a merry and jocose gentleman," but, like all the Swedish
Vasas, liable to sudden fierce gusts of temper, was one of the senators
who voted for the deposition of Archbishop Trolle, at the _riksdag_ of
1517 (see SWEDEN, _History_), for which act of patriotism he lost his
head. Gustavus's mother, Cecilia Månsdåtter, was closely connected by
marriage with the great Sture family. Gustavus's youthful experiences
impressed him with a life-long distrust of everything Danish. In his
eighteenth year he was sent to the court of his cousin Sten Sture. At
the battle of Brännkyrka, when Sture defeated Christian II. of Denmark,
the young Gustavus bore the governor's standard, and in the same year
(1518) he was delivered with five other noble youths as a hostage to
King Christian, who treacherously carried him prisoner to Denmark. He
was detained for twelve months in the island fortress of Kalö, on the
east coast of Jutland, but contrived to escape to Lübeck in September
1519. There he found an asylum till the 20th of May 1520, when he
chartered a ship to Kalmar, one of the few Swedish fortresses which held
out against Christian II.

It was while hunting near Lake Mälar that the news of the Stockholm
massacre was brought to him by a peasant fresh from the capital, who
told him, at the same time, that a price had been set upon his head. In
his extremity, Gustavus saw only one way of deliverance, an appeal for
help to the sturdy yeomen of the dales. How the dalesmen set Gustavus on
the throne and how he and they finally drove the Danes out of Sweden
(1521-1523) is elsewhere recorded (see SWEDEN: _History_). But his worst
troubles only began after his coronation on the 6th of June 1523. The
financial position of the crown was the most important of all the
problems demanding solution, for upon that everything else depended. By
releasing his country from the tyranny of Denmark, Gustavus had made the
free independent development of Sweden a possibility. It was for him to
realize that possibility. First of all, order had to be evolved from the
chaos in which Sweden had been plunged by the disruption of the Union;
and the shortest, perhaps the only, way thereto was to restore the royal
authority, which had been in abeyance during ninety years. But an
effective reforming monarchy must stand upon a sound financial basis;
and the usual revenues of the crown, always inadequate, were so
diminished that they did not cover half the daily expenses of
government. New taxes could only be imposed with extreme caution, while
the country was still bleeding from the wounds of a long war. And men
were wanted even more than money. The lack of capable, trustworthy
administrators in Sweden was grievous. The whole burden of government
weighed exclusively on the shoulders of the new king, a young man of
seven and twenty. Half his time was taken up in travelling from one end
of the kingdom to the other, and doing purely clerical work for want of
competent assistance. We can form some idea of his difficulties when we
learn that, in 1533, he could not send an ambassador to Lübeck because
not a single man in his council, except himself, knew German. It was
this lack of native talent which compelled Gustavus frequently to employ
the services of foreign adventurers like Berent von Mehlen, John von
Hoja, Konrad von Pyhy and others.

It was not the least of Gustavus's many anxieties that he had constantly
to be on the watch lest a formidable democratic rival should encroach on
his prerogative. That rival was the Swedish peasantry. He succeeded
indeed in putting down the four formidable rebellions which convulsed
the realm from 1525 to 1542, but the consequent strain upon his
resources was very damaging, and more than once he was on the point of
abdicating and emigrating, out of sheer weariness. Moreover he was in
constant fear of the Danes. Necessity compelled him indeed (1534-1536)
to take part in _Grevens fejde_ (Counts' War) (see DENMARK, _History_),
as the ally of Christian III., but his exaggerated distrust of the Danes
was invincible. "We advise and exhort you," he wrote to the governor of
Kalmar, "to put no hope or trust in the Danes, or in their sweet
scribbling, inasmuch as they mean nothing at all by it except how best
they may deceive and betray us Swedes." Such instructions were not
calculated to promote confidence between Swedish and Danish negotiators.
A fresh cause of dispute was generated in 1548, when Christian III.'s
daughter was wedded to Duke Augustus of Saxony. On that occasion,
apparently by way of protest against the decree of the diet of Vesterås
(15th of January 1544), declaring the Swedish crown hereditary in
Gustavus's family, the Danish king caused to be quartered on his
daughter's shield not only the three Danish lions and the Norwegian lion
with the axe of St Olaf, but also "the three crowns" of Sweden.
Gustavus, naturally suspicious, was much perturbed by the innovation,
and warned all his border officials to be watchful and prepare for the
worst. In 1557 he even wrote to the Danish king protesting against the
placing of "the three crowns" in the royal Danish seal beneath the arms
of Denmark. Christian III. replied that "the three crowns" signified not
Sweden in especial, but the three Scandinavian kingdoms, and that their
insertion in the Danish shield was only a reminiscence of the union of
Kalmar. But Gustavus was not satisfied, and this was the beginning of
"the three crowns" dispute which did so much damage to both kingdoms.

The events which led to the rupture of Gustavus with the Holy See are
set forth in the proper place (see SWEDEN: _History_). Here it need only
be added that it was a purely political act, as Gustavus, personally,
had no strong dogmatic leanings either way. He not unnaturally expressed
his amazement when that very juvenile reformer Olavus Petri confidently
informed him that the pope was antichrist. He consulted the older and
graver Laurentius Andreae, who told him how "Doctor Martinus had clipped
the wings of the pope, the cardinals and the big bishops," which could
not fail to be pleasing intelligence to a monarch who was never an
admirer of episcopacy, while the rich revenues of the church,
accumulated in the course of centuries, were a tempting object to the
impecunious ruler of an impoverished people. Subsequently, when the
Protestant hierarchy was forcibly established in Sweden, matters were
much complicated by the absolutist tendencies of Gustavus. The incessant
labour, the constant anxiety, which were the daily portion of Gustavus
Vasa during the seven and thirty years of his reign, told at last even
upon his magnificent constitution. In the spring of 1560, conscious of
an ominous decline of his powers, Gustavus summoned his last diet, to
give an account of his stewardship. On the 16th of June 1560 the
assembly met at Stockholm. Ten days later, supported by his sons,
Gustavus greeted the estates in the great hall of the palace, when he
took a retrospect of his reign, reminding them of the misery of the
kingdom during the union and its deliverance from "that unkind tyrant,
King Christian." Four days later the diet passed a resolution confirming
the hereditary right of Gustavus's son, Prince Eric, to the throne. The
old king's last anxieties were now over and he could die in peace. He
expired on the 29th of September 1560.

Gustavus was thrice married. His first wife, Catherine, daughter of
Magnus I., duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, bore him in 1533 his eldest son Eric.
This union was neither long nor happy, but the blame for its infelicity
is generally attributed to the lady, whose abnormal character was
reflected and accentuated in her unhappy son. Much more fortunate was
Gustavus's second marriage, a year after the death of his first consort,
with his own countrywoman, Margaret Lejonhufvud, who bore him five sons
and five daughters, of whom three sons, John, Magnus and Charles, and
one daughter, Cecilia, survived their childhood. Queen Margaret died in
1551; and a twelvemonth later Gustavus wedded her niece, Catharine
Stenbock, a handsome girl of sixteen, who survived him more than sixty
years.

Gustavus's outward appearance in the prime of life is thus described by
a contemporary: "He was of the middle height, with a round head, light
yellow hair, a fine long beard, sharp eyes, a ruddy countenance ... and
a body as fitly and well proportioned as any painter could have painted
it. He was of a sanguine-choleric temperament, and when untroubled and
unvexed, a bright and cheerful gentleman, easy to get on with, and
however many people happened to be in the same room with him, he was
never at a loss for an answer to every one of them." Learned he was not,
but he had naturally bright and clear understanding, an unusually good
memory, and a marvellous capacity for taking pains. He was also very
devout, and his morals were irreproachable. On the other hand, Gustavus
had his full share of the family failings of irritability and
suspiciousness, the latter quality becoming almost morbid under the
pressure of adverse circumstances. His energy too not infrequently
degenerated into violence, and when crossed he was apt to be tyrannical.

  See A. Alberg, _Gustavus Vasa and his Times_ (London, 1882); R. N.
  Bain, _Scandinavia_, chaps. iii. and v. (Cambridge, 1905); P. B.
  Watson, _The Swedish Revolution under Gustavus Vasa_ (London, 1889);
  O. Sjögren, _Gustaf Vasa_ (Stockholm, 1896); C. M. Butler, _The
  Reformation in Sweden_ (New York, 1883); _Sveriges Historia_
  (Stockholm, 1877-1881); J. Weidling, _Schwedische Geschichte im
  Zeitalter der Reformation_ (Gotha, 1882).     (R. N. B.)



GUSTAVUS II. ADOLPHUS (1594-1632), king of Sweden, the eldest son of
Charles IX. and of Christina, daughter of Adolphus, duke of
Holstein-Gottorp, was born at Stockholm castle on the 9th of December
1594. From the first he was carefully nurtured to be the future prop of
Protestantism by his austere parents. Gustavus was well grounded in the
classics, and his linguistic accomplishments were extraordinary. He may
be said to have grown up with two mother-tongues, Swedish and German; at
twelve he had mastered Latin, Italian and Dutch; and he learnt
subsequently to express himself in Spanish, Russian and Polish. But his
practical father took care that he should grow up a prince, not a
pedant. So early as his ninth year he was introduced to public life; at
thirteen he received petitions and conversed officially with the foreign
ministers; at fifteen he administered his duchy of Vestmanland and
opened the Örebro diet with a speech from the throne; indeed from 1610
he may be regarded as his father's co-regent. In all martial and
chivalrous accomplishments he was already an adept; and when, a year
later, he succeeded to supreme power, his superior ability was as
uncontested as it was incontestable.

The first act of the young king was to terminate the fratricidal
struggle with Denmark by the peace of Knäred (28th of January 1613).
Simultaneously, another war, also an heritage from Charles IX., had been
proceeding in the far distant regions round lakes Ilmen, Peipus and
Ladoga, with Great Novgorod as its centre. It was not, however, like the
Danish War, a national danger, but a political speculation meant to be
remunerative and compensatory, and was concluded very advantageously for
Sweden by the peace of Stolbova on the 27th of February 1617 (see
SWEDEN: _History_). By this peace Gustavus succeeded in excluding
Muscovy from the Baltic. "I hope to God," he declared to the Stockholm
diet in 1617, when he announced the conclusion of peace, "that the
Russians will feel it a bit difficult to skip over _that_ little brook."
The war with Poland which Gustavus resumed in 1621 was a much more
difficult affair. It began with an attack upon Riga as the first step
towards conquering Livonia. Riga was invested on the 13th of August and
surrendered on the 15th of September; on the 3rd of October Mitau was
occupied; but so great were the ravages of sickness during the campaign
that the Swedish army had to be reinforced by no fewer than 10,000 men.
A truce was thereupon concluded and hostilities were suspended till the
summer of 1625, in the course of which Gustavus took Kokenhusen and
invaded Lithuania. In January 1626 he attacked the Poles at Walhof and
scattered the whole of their army after slaying a fifth part of it. This
victory, remarkable besides as Gustavus's first pitched battle,
completed the conquest of Livonia. As, however, it became every year
more difficult to support an army in the Dvina district, Gustavus now
resolved to transfer the war to the Prussian provinces of Poland with a
view to securing the control of the Vistula, as he had already secured
the control of the Dvina. At the end of 1626, the Swedish fleet, with
14,000 men on board, anchored in front of the chain of sand-dunes which
separates the Frische-Haff from the Baltic. Pillau, the only Baltic port
then accessible to ships of war, was at once occupied, and Königsberg
shortly afterwards was scared into an unconditional neutrality. July was
passed in conquering the bishopric of Ermeland. The surrender of Elbing
and Marienburg placed Gustavus in possession of the fertile and easily
defensible delta of the Vistula, which he treated as a permanent
conquest, making Axel Oxenstjerna its first governor-general.
Communications between Danzig and the sea were cut off by the erection
of the first of Gustavus's famous entrenched camps at Dirschau. From the
end of August 1626 the city was blockaded, and in the meantime Polish
irregulars, under the capable Stanislaus Koniecpolski, began to harass
the Swedes. But the object of the campaign, a convenient basis of
operations, was won; and in October the king departed to Sweden to get
reinforcements. He returned in May 1627 with 7000 men, which raised his
forces to 14,000, against which Koniecpolski could only oppose 9000.
But his superior strategy frustrated all the efforts of the Swedish
king, who in the course of the year was twice dangerously wounded and so
disabled that he could never wear armour again. Gustavus had made
extensive preparations for the ensuing campaign and took the field with
32,000 men. But once again, though far outnumbered, and unsupported by
his own government, the Polish grand-hetman proved more than a match for
Gustavus, who, on the 10th of September, broke up his camp and returned
to Prussia; the whole autumn campaign had proved a failure and cost him
5000 men. During the ensuing campaign of 1629 Gustavus had to contend
against the combined forces of Koniecpolski and 10,000 of Wallenstein's
mercenaries. The Polish commander now showed the Swedes what he could do
with adequate forces. At Stuhm, on the 29th of June, he defeated
Gustavus, who lost most of his artillery and narrowly escaped capture.
The result of the campaign was the conclusion of the six years' truce of
Altmark, which was very advantageous to Sweden.

And now Gustavus turned his attention to Germany. The motives which
induced the Swedish king to intervene directly in the Thirty Years' War
are told us by himself in his correspondence with Oxenstjerna. Here he
says plainly that it was the fear lest the emperor should acquire the
Baltic ports and proceed to build up a sea-power dangerous to
Scandinavia. For the same reason, the king rejected the chancellor's
alternative of waging a simply defensive war against the emperor by
means of the fleet, with Stralsund as his base. He was convinced by the
experience of Christian IV. of Denmark that the enemies' harbours could
be wrested from them only by a successful offensive war on land; and,
while quite alive to the risks of such an enterprise in the face of two
large armies, Tilly's and Wallenstein's, each of them larger than his
own, he argued that the vast extent of territory and the numerous
garrisons which the enemy was obliged to maintain, more than neutralized
his numerical superiority. Merely to blockade all the German ports with
the Swedish fleet was equally impossible. The Swedish fleet was too weak
for that; it would be safer to take and fortify the pick of them. In
Germany itself, if he once got the upper hand, he would not find himself
without resources. It is no enthusiastic crusader, but an anxious and
farseeing if somewhat speculative statesman who thus opens his mind to
us. No doubt religious considerations largely influenced Gustavus. He
had the deepest sympathy for his fellow-Protestants in Germany; he
regarded them as God's peculiar people, himself as their divinely
appointed deliverer. But his first duty was to Sweden; and, naturally
and rightly, he viewed the whole business from a predominantly Swedish
point of view. Lutherans and Calvinists were to be delivered from a
"soul-crushing tyranny"; but they were to be delivered by a foreign if
friendly power; and that power claimed as her reward the hegemony of
Protestant Europe and all the political privileges belonging to that
exalted position.

On the 19th of May 1630 Gustavus solemnly took leave of the estates of
the realm assembled at Stockholm. He appeared before them holding in his
arms his only child and heiress, the little princess Christina, then in
her fourth year, and tenderly committed her to the care of his loyal and
devoted people. Then he solemnly took the estates to witness, as he
stood there "in the sight of the Almighty," that he had begun
hostilities "out of no lust for war, as many will certainly devise and
imagine," but in self-defence and to deliver his fellow-Christians from
oppression. On the 7th of June 1630 the Swedish fleet set sail, and two
days after midsummer day, the whole army, 16,000 strong, was disembarked
at Peenemünde. Gustavus's plan was to take possession of the mouths of
the Oder Haff, and, resting upon Stralsund in the west and Prussia in
the east, penetrate into Germany. In those days rivers were what
railways now are, the great military routes; and Gustavus's German war
was a war waged along river lines. The opening campaign was to be fought
along the line of the Oder. Stettin, the capital of Pomerania, and the
key of the Oder line, was occupied and converted into a first-class
fortress. He then proceeded to clear Pomerania of the piebald imperial
host composed of every nationality under heaven, and officered by
Italians, Irishmen, Czechs, Croats, Danes, Spaniards and Walloons.
Gustavus's army has often been described by German historians as an army
of foreign invaders; in reality it was far more truly Teutonic than the
official defenders of Germany at that period. Gustavus's political
difficulties (see SWEDEN: _History_) chained him to his camp for the
remainder of the year. But the dismissal of Wallenstein and the
declaration in Gustavus's favour of Magdeburg, the greatest city in the
Lower Saxon Circle, and strategically the strongest fortress of North
Germany, encouraged him to advance boldly. But first, honour as well as
expediency moved him to attempt to relieve Magdeburg, now closely
invested by the imperialists, especially as his hands had now been
considerably strengthened by a definite alliance with France (treaty of
Bärwalde, 13th of January 1631). Magdeburg, therefore, became the focus
of the whole campaign of 1631; but the obstructive timidity of the
electors of Brandenburg and Saxony threw insuperable obstacles in his
way, and, on the very day when John George I. of Saxony closed his gates
against Gustavus the most populous and prosperous city in North Germany
became a heap of smoking ruins (20th of May). Gustavus, still too weak
to meet the foe, entrenched himself at Werben, at the confluence of the
Havel and Elbe. Only on the 12th of September did the elector of Saxony,
alarmed for the safety of his own states, now invaded by the emperor,
place himself absolutely at the disposal of Gustavus; and, five days
later, at the head of the combined Swedish-Saxon army, though the Swedes
did all the fighting, Gustavus routed Tilly at the famous battle of
Breitenfeld, north of Leipzig.

The question now was: In what way should Gustavus utilize his advantage?
Should he invade the Austrian crown lands, and dictate peace to
Ferdinand II. at the gates of Vienna? Or should he pursue Tilly
westwards and crush the league at its own hearth and home? Oxenstjerna
was the first alternative, but Gustavus decided in favour of the second.
His decision has been greatly blamed. More than one modern historian has
argued that if Gustavus had done in 1631 what Napoleon did in 1805 and
1809, there would have been a fifteen instead of a thirty years' war.
But it should be borne in mind that, in the days of Gustavus, Vienna was
by no means so essential to the existence of the Habsburg monarchy as it
was in the days of Napoleon; and even Gustavus could not allow so
dangerous an opponent as Tilly time to recover himself. Accordingly, he
set out for the Rhine, taking Marienberg and Frankfort on his way, and
on the 20th of December entered Mainz, where he remained throughout the
winter of 1631-1632. At the beginning of 1632, in order to bring about
the general peace he so earnestly desired, he proposed to take the field
with an overwhelming numerical majority. The signal for Gustavus to
break up from the Rhine was the sudden advance of Tilly from behind the
Danube. Gustavus pursued Tilly into Bavaria, forced the passage of the
Danube at Donauwörth and the passage of the Lech, in the face of Tilly's
strongly entrenched camp at Rain, and pursued the flying foe to the
fortress of Ingolstadt where Tilly died of his wounds a fortnight later.
Gustavus then liberated and garrisoned the long-oppressed Protestant
cities of Augsburg and Ulm, and in May occupied Munich. The same week
Wallenstein chased John George from Prague and manoeuvred the Saxons
out of Bohemia. Then, armed as he was with plenipotentiary power, he
offered the elector of Saxony peace on his own terms. Gustavus suddenly
saw himself exposed to extreme peril. If Tilly had made John George such
an offer as Wallenstein was now empowered to make, the elector would
never have become Gustavus's ally; would he remain Gustavus's ally now?
Hastily quitting his quarters in Upper Swabia, Gustavus hastened towards
Nuremberg on his way to Saxony, but finding that Wallenstein and
Maximilian of Bavaria had united their forces, he abandoned the attempt
to reach Saxony, and both armies confronted each other at Nuremberg
which furnished Gustavus with a point of support of the first order. He
quickly converted the town into an entrenched and fortified camp.
Wallenstein followed the king's example, and entrenched himself on the
western bank of the Regnitz in a camp twelve English miles in
circumference. His object was to pin Gustavus fast to Nuremberg and cut
off his retreat northwards. Throughout July and August the two armies
faced each other immovably. On the 24th of August, after an unsuccessful
attempt to storm Alte Veste, the key of Wallenstein's position, the
Swedish host retired southwards.

Towards the end of October, Wallenstein, after devastating Saxony, was
preparing to go into winter quarters at Lützen, when the king surprised
him as he was crossing the Rippach (1st of November) and a rearguard
action favourable to the Swedes ensued. Indeed, but for nightfall,
Wallenstein's scattered forces might have been routed. During the night,
however, Wallenstein re-collected his host for a decisive action, and at
daybr