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Title: The Homilies of the Anglo-Saxon Church - Containing the Sermones Catholici, or Homilies of Ælfric, - in the Original Anglo-Saxon, with an English Version. - Volume I.
Author: Aelfric, Abbot of Eynsham
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.

*** Start of this LibraryBlog Digital Book "The Homilies of the Anglo-Saxon Church - Containing the Sermones Catholici, or Homilies of Ælfric, - in the Original Anglo-Saxon, with an English Version. - Volume I." ***

Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text.

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Page numbers enclosed by curly braces (example: {25}) have been
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The work now presented to the Members of the Ælfric Society, the first
fruit of its praiseworthy attempt to rescue from oblivion the literary
remains of our forefathers, was selected for the earliest publication of
the Society, on account both of its valuable matter and the beautiful
medium by which it is conveyed.

Of the author of the SERMONES CATHOLICI we know nothing with certainty
beyond his name, though from the words of his own preface, where he speaks
of king Æthelred's days as past, and informs us that in those days he was
only a monk and mass-priest, it follows that he was not Ælfric archbishop
of Canterbury, who died in the year 1006, or ten years before the death of
king Æthelred.

With better foundation we may assume him to have been Ælfric archbishop of
York, who presided over that see from the year 1023 to 1051[1]. Against
this supposition there seems no objection on the score of dates, and that
the composer of the 'Sermones' was a person of eminence during the life of
archbishop {vi} Wulfstan, of whom, according to our hypothesis, he was the
immediate successor, is evident from the language of his Canons, and of his
Pastoral Epistle to Wulfstan, in which he speaks as one having authority;
though in the first-mentioned of these productions he styles himself simply
"humilis frater," and in the other "Ælfricus abbas[2]," and afterwards

Of Ælfric's part in these Homilies, whether, as it would seem from his
preface, it was that of a mere translator from the several works he therein
names[3], or whether he drew aught from his own stores, my pursuits do not
enable me to speak, though it seems that no one of his homilies is,
generally speaking, a mere translation from any one given Latin original,
but rather a compilation from several. Be this, however, as it may, his
sermons in either case equally exhibit what were the doctrines of the
Anglo-Saxon church at the period in which they were compiled or translated,
and are for the most part valuable in matter, and expressed in language
which may be pronounced a pure specimen of our noble, old, Germanic
mother-tongue. Of those doctrines it would not be consistent with the
object of the Society, nor am I qualified to hazard an opinion: my labour
has, {vii} consequently, been limited to that of a faithful transcription
of what I believe to be the most complete manuscript, and to a
conscientiously correct translation of that transcript, as literal as my
acquaintance with the language and my notions of good taste permitted[4];
and I venture to hope that such a translation, though unattended by a
commentary, will be regarded with interest by the members of each of the
great communities into which the Christian world is divided.

Besides the Homilies, the chief works attributed to our Ælfric are,--

    I. A Grammar of the Latin tongue, printed at the end of Somner's
    Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, with a Glossary of Anglo-Saxon words[5].

    II. A short astronomical treatise, entitled De Temporibus Anni[6].

    III. An abridgment in Anglo-Saxon of the {viii} Pentateuch, the book of
    Joshua, and the book of Judges, printed by Thwaites[7].

    IV. A Treatise on the Old and New Testaments[8].

    V. Excerpta ex Libro Æthelwoldi de Consuetudine Monachorum[9].

    VI. A Latin Dialogue, with an interlinear Anglo-Saxon gloss[10].

    VII. Ecclesiastical Canons, addressed to Wulsine, bishop of Sherborne.

    VIII. A Pastoral Epistle, written by command of archbishop Wulfstan.

    IX. An Epistle entitled "Quando dividis Chrisma[11]."

    {ix} X. A Collection of Homilies on the Saints' days observed by the
    Anglo-Saxon Church.

Though the present is the first edition of these most ancient sermons in
any of the Germanic tongues, it may be interesting to some readers to be
informed that two attempts at publishing them were made in the early part
of the last century by Mrs. Elizabeth Elstob, which failed through want of
encouragement, a few leaves only having been printed[12].

In assigning to Ælfric, archbishop of York, the honour of being the author
of the Homilies and other works enumerated above, it would have been
gratifying to add, that the character of that prelate given by the
chroniclers was beyond a doubt all that could be desired, and such as to
render it highly probable that to him we are indebted for those noble and
holy labours. Unfortunately the case is otherwise, the few facts recorded
of Ælfric of York being for the most part quite irreconcileable with the
portrait of the pious student which our imagination spontaneously draws, on
calling to mind the exertions in the cause of religion and learning
attributed to our Ælfric. Of the archbishop, Malmesbury speaks in terms of
{x} no ordinary severity, asserting, that at his instigation Hardacnut
caused the corpse of his brother Harald Harefoot to be taken from the grave
and decapitated, and afterwards thrown into the Thames; also, that being
exasperated against the people of Worcester, who had rejected him for their
bishop, he again instigated the same king to burn their city and confiscate
their property, under the pretext of their having resisted the royal
tax-gatherers[13]. The better testimony of Florence of Worcester, with
regard to the first of these transactions, is, however, less prejudicial to
the character of Ælfric: he says merely, that Ælfric, archbishop of York,
with others was sent to London by the king for the purpose of digging up
the body of Harald and casting it into a fen[14]. Of the second transaction
Florence makes no mention. But the earliest account is that in the Saxon
Chronicle[15], and in this it is simply said, that "he (Harthacnut) caused
the dead body of Harald to be taken up, and had it cast into a fen:" to
Ælfric and the others there is no allusion whatever. In the same record his
death is mentioned in the following terms of respect: "This year (1052)
died Ælfric, archbishop of York, a very venerable and wise man." It is also
stated that he was the accuser of earl Godwine, of the earl of Kent, and of
Living, bishop of Worcester, as the murderers of the young Ælfred, the son
of Æthelred[16].

The manuscript from which the text of the present volume is taken belongs
to the Public Library at {xi} Cambridge. It is a small folio and probably
coeval with its author, though hardly, as it has been supposed, his own
autograph copy[17]. It is not perfect, having suffered mutilation in
several places, but its defects are all supplied in the present work from
another MS. in the British Museum[18]. For the most liberal use of the
Cambridge manuscript, I beg leave, on the part of the Ælfric Society, to
express the sincerest thanks to the SYNDICS OF THAT UNIVERSITY.

To W. E. BUCKLEY, Esq., Fellow of Brasenose College, and Professor of
Anglo-Saxon in the University of Oxford, I return my sincere thanks for his
kindness in removing my doubts of the integrity of the text by collation
with the Bodleian manuscript; also to my greatly respected friend, the
REVEREND DANIEL ROCK, D.D., I acknowledge myself much indebted for the kind
promptness with which he at all times satisfied my inquiries respecting the
ancient observances of the Church, as well as other points of doubt, which
his deep knowledge of ecclesiastical antiquities so well qualifies him to

The second volume, containing Homilies for another year, is in preparation,
and will, it is hoped, be laid before the Members of the Society in the
course of the year 1845.

  B. T.

Notes to Introduction

[1] See also H. Whartoni Anglia Sacra, t. i. p. 125.

[2] He was abbot of Eynsham. See Biogr. Brit. Lit. p. 482, _n._ ‡

[3] Among his sources he mentions Smaragdus and Haymo: of these the former
was abbot of St. Mihiel, a monastery in the diocese of Verdun, in the
eighth century. He wrote commentaries on the Scriptures, Sermons, etc.
Haymo was bishop of Halberstadt, about the middle of the ninth century: he
compiled, from the works of the fathers, commentaries on almost every part
of the Scriptures. There was also a Haymo of Canterbury, who wrote
commentaries on the Pentateuch, Isaiah, etc., of whom see Biogr. Britan.
Lit. vol. i. p. 510. The other sources mentioned by Ælfric are too well
known to need further notice.

[4] It is right to observe, that in the MS. the texts taken from the
Gospels are frequently of very great length; these I have ventured to
abridge, presuming that all readers of the Homilies have a copy of the N.
T. either in Anglo-Saxon or English.

[5] Ælfrici Abbatis Grammatica Latino-Saxonica, cum Glossario suo ejusdem
generis. Folio. Oxon. 1659. That the author of the Grammar, the compiler of
the Homilies and the translator of the Heptateuch was the same individual,
is evident from the prefaces to those works.

[6] Published at the expense of the Historical Society of Science, in a
volume entitled 'Popular Treatises on Science written during the Middle
Ages,' edited by Thomas Wright, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., etc. etc. 8vo. 1841.
That this work is by our Ælfric is evident from his own words immediately
following his last homily: Her æfter fyligð án lytel cwyde be gearlicum
tidum, þæt nis to spelle geteald, ac elles to rædenne þam ðe hit
licað.--_Hereafter follows a little discourse concerning yearly tides,
which is not reckoned as a sermon, but is else to be read by those whom it
pleases._ MS. Cantab. p. 492.

[7] Heptateuchus, Liber Job, et Evangelium Nicodemi; Anglo-Saxonice.
Historiæ Judith Fragmentum; Dano-Saxonice. Edidit, etc. Edwardus Thwaites.
Oxon. 8vo. 1699.

[8] A Saxon Treatise concerning the Old and New Testament, written about
the time of king Edgar by Ælfricus Abbas, etc., by William L'Isle of
Wilburgham, Esquier for the King's bodie, etc. 4to. Lond. 1623.

[9] An edition of the Anglo-Saxon text of this work, with a translation by
W. E. Buckley, Esq., Fellow of Brasenose Coll. and Prof. of A.-S. in the
Univ. of Oxf., is announced for early publication by the Ælfric Society.
The ealdorman Æthelweard, son of Æthelmær, mentioned in the preface to the
Homilies and other works of Ælfric, is without doubt the chronicler of that
name, concerning whom see Literary Introd. to Lappenberg's 'History of
England under the Anglo-Saxon Kings,' p. xlv.

[10] According to the Oxford MS. of this Colloquium, it was originally
composed by Ælfric (of Canterbury or York?) and enlarged by his pupil
Ælfric Bata. It is printed in the 'Analecta Anglo-Saxonica.' For more ample
information concerning the Ælfrics the reader is referred to Mr. Wright's
interesting and useful publication, 'Biographia Britannica Literaria;
Anglo-Saxon Period,' edited for the Royal Society of Literature.

[11] The three last-mentioned works are printed, with a translation, in the
'Ancient Laws and Institutes of England.' It appears from a note at the end
of Matthew in the C.C.C.C. MS. of the Saxon Gospels, that an Ælfric was
either the translator or copier of the Gospel of St. Matthew, if not of the
four Gospels. See Notes to my edition of the Anglo-Saxon Gospels.

[12] Elfrici Homiliæ, edit. El. Elstob. (fol. Oxon. 1715.) Of this first
attempt only thirty-six pages were printed. Her second attempt was under
the title, "The English-Saxon Homilies of Ælfric, Archb. of Cant., who
flourished in the latter end of the tenth century and the beginning of the
eleventh. Being a course of Sermons collected out of the writings of the
ancient Latin Fathers, containing the Doctrines, etc. of the Church of
England before the Norman Conquest, etc. etc. Now first printed, and
translated into the language of the present times by Eliz. Elstob. fol.
Oxon. 1715." Of this only two leaves were printed. A copy of both is in the
Brit. Mus. See Biogr. Brit. Lit. p. 493. Mrs. Elstob also published
Ælfric's Homily on the birth-day of St. Gregory, with a translation. 8vo.
1709. Reprinted with some account of Mrs. Elstob in 1839.

[13] De Gestis Pontificum Anglorum, lib. iii.

[14] Fl. Wigorn. Chron. ad a. 1040.

[15] Ad ann. 1046.

[16] R. Wendover, t. i. p. 478.

[17] The handwriting, though very nearly alike, is not the same in the two
parts of the MS.; they also occasionally differ in orthography,
'middangeard,' for instance, in the first part being in the second
constantly written 'middaneard.'

[18] MS. Reg. 7. c. xii.

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           Præfatio ...............................................    1
           Præfatio, Saxonice .....................................    2
        I. De Initio Creaturæ .....................................    8
       II. De Natale Domini .......................................   28
      III. Passio Beati Stephani Protomartyris ....................   44
       IV. Assumptio S. Johannis Apostoli .........................   58
        V. Natale Innocentium Infantum ............................   76
       VI. Octabas et Circumcisio Domini ..........................   90
      VII. Epiphania Domini .......................................  104
     VIII. Dom. III. post Epiphania Domini ........................  120
       IX. In Purificatione S. Mariæ ..............................  134
        X. Dominica in Quinquagesima ..............................  152
       XI. Dominica Prima in Quadragesima .........................  166
      XII. Dominica in Media Quadragesima .........................  180
     XIII. Annunciatio S. Mariæ ...................................  192
      XIV. In Dominica Palmarum ...................................  206
       XV. Dominica S. Pascæ ......................................  220
      XVI. Dominica Prima post Pasca ..............................  230
     XVII. Dominica Secunda post Pasca ............................  238
    XVIII. In Litania Majore ......................................  244
      XIX. De Dominica Oratione ...................................  258
       XX. De Fide Catholica ......................................  274
      XXI. In Ascensione Domini ...................................  294
     XXII. In Die Sancto Pentecostes ..............................  310
    XXIII. Dominica Secunda post Pentecosten ......................  328
     XXIV. Dominica Quarta post Pentecosten .......................  338
      XXV. Nativitas S. Johannis Baptistæ .........................  350
     XXVI. Passio Apostolorum Petri et Pauli ......................  364
    XXVII. Natale S. Pauli Apostoli ...............................  384
   XXVIII. Dominica XI. post Pentecosten ..........................  402
     XXIX. Passio Beati Laurentii Martyris ........................  416
      XXX. De Assumptione Beatæ Mariæ .............................  436
     XXXI. Passio S. Bartholomæi Apostoli .........................  454
    XXXII. Decollatio S. Johannis Baptistæ ........................  476
   XXXIII. Dominica XVII. post Pentecosten ........................  490
    XXXIV. Dedicatio Ecclesiæ S. Michaelis ........................  502
     XXXV. Dominica XXI. post Pentecosten .........................  520
    XXXVI. Natale Omnium Sanctorum ................................  538
   XXXVII. Natale S. Clementis Martyris ...........................  556
  XXXVIII. Natale S. Andreæ Apostoli ..............................  576
    XXXIX. Dominica Prima in Adventum Domini ......................  600
       XL. Dominica II. in Adventum Domini ........................  608
           Notes ..................................................  621



           Præfatio ...............................................    1
           Preface ................................................    3
        I. On the Beginning of Creation ...........................    9
       II. On the Nativity of our Lord ............................   29
      III. The Passion of the Blessed Stephen Protomartyr .........   45
       IV. The Assumption of St. John the Apostle .................   59
        V. The Nativity of the Innocents ..........................   77
       VI. The Octaves and Circumcision of our Lord ...............   91
      VII. The Epiphany of the Lord ...............................  105
     VIII. The Third Sunday after the Lord's Epiphany .............  121
       IX. On the Purification of St. Mary ........................  135
        X. Shrove Sunday ..........................................  153
       XI. The First Sunday in Lent ...............................  167
      XII. Midlent Sunday .........................................  181
     XIII. The Annunciation of St. Mary ...........................  193
      XIV. For Palm Sunday ........................................  207
       XV. Easter Sunday ..........................................  221
      XVI. The First Sunday after Easter ..........................  231
     XVII. The Second Sunday after Easter .........................  239
    XVIII. On the Greater Litany ..................................  245
      XIX. On the Lord's Prayer ...................................  259
       XX. Of the Catholic Faith ..................................  275
      XXI. On the Lord's Ascension ................................  295
     XXII. On the Holy Day of Pentecost ...........................  311
    XXIII. The Second Sunday after Pentecost ......................  329
     XXIV. The Fourth Sunday after Pentecost ......................  339
      XXV. The Nativity of St. John the Baptist ...................  351
     XXVI. The Passion of the Apostles Peter and Paul .............  365
    XXVII. The Nativity of St. Paul the Apostle ...................  385
   XXVIII. The Eleventh Sunday after Pentecost ....................  403
     XXIX. The Passion of the Blessed Martyr Lawrence .............  417
      XXX. On the Assumption of the Blessed Mary ..................  437
     XXXI. The Passion of St. Bartholomew the Apostle .............  455
    XXXII. The Decollation of St. John the Baptist ................  477
   XXXIII. The Seventeenth Sunday after Pentecost .................  491
    XXXIV. Dedication of the Church of St. Michael the Archangel ..  503
     XXXV. The Twenty-first Sunday after Pentecost ................  521
    XXXVI. The Nativity of All Saints .............................  539
   XXXVII. The Nativity of St. Clement the Martyr .................  557
  XXXVIII. The Nativity of St. Andrew the Apostle .................  577
    XXXIX. The First Sunday in the Lord's Advent ..................  601
       XL. The Second Sunday in the Lord's Advent .................  609
           Notes ..................................................  621

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  p. 3. l. 15. _For_ Æthelmære _read_ Æthelmær.
  p. 6. l. 2. _For_ ormatan _read_ ormætan.

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Ego Ælfricus, alumnus Adelwoldi, benevoli et venerabilis Presulis, salutem
exopto Domno Archiepiscopo Sigerico in Domino. Licet temere vel
presumptuose, tamen transtulimus hunc codicem ex libris Latinorum, scilicet
Sancte Scripture in nostram consuetam sermocinationem, ob ædificationem
simplicium, qui hanc norunt tantummodo locutionem, sive legendo sive
audiendo; ideoque nec obscura posuimus verba, sed simplicem Anglicam, quo
facilius possit ad cor pervenire legentium vel audientium, ad utilitatem
animarum suarum, quia alia lingua nesciunt erudiri, quam in qua nati sunt.
Nec ubique transtulimus verbum ex verbo, sed sensum ex sensu, cavendo tamen
diligentissime deceptivos errores, ne inveniremur aliqua hæresi seducti seu
fallacia fuscati. Hos namque auctores in hac explanatione sumus sequuti,
videlicet Augustinum Hipponensem, Hieronimum, Bedam, Gregorium, Smaragdum,
et aliquando Haymonem; horum denique auctoritas ab omnibus catholicis
libentissime suscipitur. Nec solum Evangeliorum tractatus in isto libello
exposuimus, verum etiam Sanctorum passiones vel vitas, ad utilitatem
idiotarum istius gentis. Quadraginta sententias in isto libro posuimus,
credentes hoc sufficere posse per annum fidelibus, si integre eis a
ministris Dei recitentur in ecclesia. Alterum vero librum modo dictando
habemus in manibus, qui illos tractatus vel passiones continet quos iste
omisit; nec tamen omnia Evangelia tangimus per circulum anni, sed illa
tantummodo quibus speramus sufficere posse simplicibus ad {2} animarum
emendationem, quia seculares omnia nequeunt capere, quamvis ex ore doctorum
audiant. Duos libros in ista translatione facimus, persuadentes ut legatur
unus per annum in ecclesia Dei, et alter anno sequenti, ut non fiat tedium
auscultantibus; tamen damus licentiam, si alicui melius placet, ad unum
librum ambos ordinare. Ergo si alicui displicit, primum in interpretatione,
quod non semper verbum ex verbo, aut quod breviorem explicationem quam
tractatus auctorum habent, sive quod non per ordinem ecclesiastici ritus
omnia Evangelia tractando percurrimus; {3} condat sibi altiore
interpretatione librum, quomodo intellectui ejus placet: tantum obsecro, ne
pervertat nostram interpretationem, quam speramus ex Dei gratia, non causa
jactantiæ, nos studiose secuti valuimus interpretari. Precor modo obnixe
almitatem tuam, mitissime Pater SIGERICE, ut digneris corrigere per tuam
industriam, si aliquos nevos malignæ hæresis, aut nebulosæ fallaciæ in
nostra interpretatione repperies: et adscribatur dehinc hic codicillus tuæ
auctoritati, non utilitati nostræ despicabilis personæ. Vale in Deo
Omnipotenti jugiter. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *


Ic Ælfric munuc and mæssepreost, swa þeah waccre þonne swilcum hadum
gebyrige, wearð asend on Æþelredes dæge cyninges fram Ælfeage biscope,
Aðelwoldes æftergengan, to sumum mynstre þe is Cernel gehaten, þurh
Æðelmæres bene ðæs þegenes, his gebyrd and goodnys sind gehwær cuþe. Þa
bearn me on mode, ic truwige þurh Godes gife, þæt ic ðas boc of Ledenum
gereorde to Engliscre spræce awende; na þurh gebylde mycelre lare, ac
forþan þe ic geseah and gehyrde mycel gedwyld on manegum Engliscum bocum,
þe ungelærede menn þurh heora bilewitnysse to micclum wisdome tealdon; and
me ofhreow þæt hí ne cuþon ne næfdon þa godspellican lare on heora
gewritum, buton þam mannum anum ðe þæt Leden cuðon, and buton þam bocum ðe
Ælfred cyning snoterlice awende of Ledene on Englisc, þa synd to hæbbene.
For þisum antimbre ic gedyrstlæhte, on Gode truwiende, þæt ic ðas
gesetnysse undergann, and eac forðam þe menn behofiað godre lare swiðost on
þisum timan þe is geendung þyssere worulde, and beoð fela frecednyssa on
mancynne ærðan þe se ende becume, swa swa ure Drihten on his godspelle cwæð
to his leorning-cnihtum, "Ðonne beoð swilce {4} gedreccednyssa swilce næron
næfre ær fram frymðe middangeardes. Manega lease Cristas cumað on minum
naman, cweðende, 'Ic eom Crist,' and wyrcað fela tacna and wundra, to
bepæcenne mancynn, and eac swylce þa gecorenan men, gif hit gewurþan mæg:
and butan se Ælmihtiga God ða dagas gescyrte, eall mennisc forwurde; ac for
his gecorenum he gescyrte þa dagas." Gehwá mæg þe eaðelicor ða toweardan
costnunge acuman, ðurh Godes fultum, gif hé bið þurh boclice lare
getrymmed; forðan ðe þa beoð gehealdene þe oð ende on geleafan þurhwuniað.
Fela gedreccednyssa and earfoðnysse becumað on þissere worulde ǽr hire
geendunge, and þa synd ða bydelas þæs ecan forwyrdes on yfelum mannum, þe
for heora mándædum siððan ecelice þrowiað on ðære sweartan helle. Þonne
cymð se Antecrist, se bið mennisc mann and soð deofol, swa swa ure Hælend
is soðlice mann and God on anum hade. And se gesewenlica deofol þonne wyrcð
ungerima wundra, and cwyð þæt he sylf God beo, and wile neadian mancynn to
his gedwylde; ac his tima ne bið na langsum; forþan þe Godes grama hine
fordeð, and þeos weoruld bið siððan geendod. Crist ure Drihten gehælde
untrume and adlige, and þes deofol þe is gehaten Antecrist, þæt is gereht,
ðwyrlic Crist, aleuað and geuntrumað ða halan, and nænne ne gehælð fram
untrumnyssum, buton þam anum þe he sylf ær awyrde. He and his gingran
awyrdað manna lichaman digellice þurh deofles cræft, and gehælað hí
openlice on manna gesihþe; ac hé ne mæg nænne gehælan þe God sylf ær
geuntrumode. He neadað þurh yfelnysse þæt men sceolon bugan fram heora
Scyppendes geleafan to his leasungum, seðe is ord ælcere leasunge and
yfelnysse. Se Ælmihtiga God geðafað þam arleasan Antecriste to wyrcenne
tácna, and wundra, and ehtnysse, to feorþan healfan geare; forþan ðe on ðam
timan bið swa micel yfelnyss and þwyrnys betwux mancynne þæt hí wel wyrðe
beoð þære deoflican ehtnysse, to ecum forwyrde þam ðe him onbugað, and to
ecere myrhðe ðam þe him þurh geleafan wiðcweðað. God {6} geðafað eac þæt
his gecorenan þegenas beon aclænsade fram eallum synnum þurh ða ormætan
ehtnyssa, swa swa gold bið on fyre afandod. Þa ofslihð se deofol ðe him
wiðstandað, and hí þonne farað mid halgum martyrdome to heofenan rice. Þa
ðe his leasungum gelyfað, þam hé arað, and hí habbað syððan þa ecan susle
to edleane heora gedwyldes. Se arleasa deð þæt fyr cymð ufan swilce of
heofonum on manna gesihðe, swilce hé God Ælmihtig sy, ðe ah geweald
heofenas and eorþan. Ac þa cristenan sceolon beon þonne gemyndige hu se
deofol dyde þa ða he bæd æt Gode þæt he moste fandian Iobes. He gemacode ða
þæt fyr come ufan swilce of heofenum, and forbærnde ealle his scep út on
felda, and þa hyrdas samod, buton anum þe hit him cyðan sceolde. Ne sende
se deofol ða fyr of heofenum, þeah ðe hit ufan come; forðan þe he sylf næs
on heofonum, syððan he for his modignysse of-aworpen wæs. Ne eac se
wælhreowa Antecrist næfð þa mihte þæt he heofenlic fyr asendan mæge, ðeah
þe hé þurh deofles cræft hit swa gehiwige. Bið nu wíslicor þæt gehwa ðis
wite and cunne his geleafan, weald hwa ða micclan yrmðe gebidan sceole. Ure
Drihten bebead his discipulum þæt hí sceoldon læran and tæcan eallum þeodum
ða ðing þe he sylf him tæhte; ac þæra is nu to lyt ðe wile wel tæcan and
wel bysnian. Se ylca Drihten clypode þurh his witegan Ezechiel, "Gif þu ne
gestentst þone unrihtwisan, and hine ne manast, þæt hé fram his arleasnysse
gecyrre and lybbe, þonne swelt se arleasa on his unrihtwisnysse, and ic
wille ofgan æt ðe his blod," þæt is his lyre. "Gif ðu ðonne þone arleasan
gewarnast, and he nele fram his arleasnysse gecyrran, þu alysdest þine
sawle mid þære mynegunge, and se arleasa swylt on his unrihtwisnysse." Eft
cwæð se Ælmihtiga to þam witegan Isaiam, "Clypa and ne geswic ðu, ahefe
þine stemne swa swa byme, and cyð minum folce heora leahtras, and Iacobes
hirede heora synna." For swylcum bebodum wearð me geðuht þæt ic nære
unscyldig wið God, gif ic nolde oðrum mannum cyðan, oððe þurh {8} tungan
oððe þurh gewritu, þa godspellican soþfæstnysse þe he sylf gecwæð, and eft
halgum lareowum onwreah. For wel fela ic wat on þisum earde gelæredran
þonne ic sy, ac God geswutelað his wundra þurh ðone þe he wile. Swa swa
ælmihtig wyrhta, he wyrcð his weorc þurh his gecorenan, na swylce he
behofige ures fultumes, ac þæt we geearnion þæt ece lif þurh his weorces
fremminge. Paulus se apostol cwæð, "We sind Godes gefylstan," and swa ðeah
ne do we nan þing to Gode, buton Godes fultume. Nu bidde ic and halsige on
Godes naman, gif hwa þas boc awritan wylle, þæt he hí geornlice gerihte be
þære bysene, þylæs þe we þurh gymelease writeras geleahtrode beon. Mycel
yfel deð seðe leas writ, buton he hit gerihte, swylce he gebringe þa soðan
lare to leasum gedwylde: forþi sceal gehwa gerihtlæcan þæt þæt he ær to
woge gebigde, gif hé on Godes dome unscyldig beon wile. Quid necesse est in
hoc codice capitula ordinare, cum prediximus quod xl. sententias in se
contineat? excepto quod Æþelwerdus dux vellet habere xl. quattuor in suo


I Ælfric, monk and mass-priest, although more weakly than for such orders
is fitting, was sent, in king Æthelred's day, from bishop Ælfeah,
Æthelwold's successor, to a minster which is called Cernel, at the prayer
of Æthelmær the thane, whose birth and goodness are known everywhere. Then
it occurred to my mind, I trust through God's grace, that I would turn this
book from the Latin language into the English tongue; not from confidence
of great learning, but because I have seen and heard of much error in many
English books, which unlearned men, through their simplicity, have esteemed
as great wisdom: and I regretted that they knew not nor had not the
evangelical doctrines among their writings, those men only excepted who
knew Latin, and those books excepted which king Ælfred wisely turned from
Latin into English, which are to be had. For this cause I presumed,
trusting in God, to undertake this task, and also because men have need of
good instruction, especially at this time, which is the ending of this
world, and there will be many calamities among mankind before the end
cometh, according to what our Lord in his gospel said to his disciples,
"Then shall {5} be such tribulations as have never been from the beginning
of the world. Many false Christs shall come in my name, saying, 'I am
Christ,' and shall work many signs and wonders, to deceive mankind; and
also the elect, if it may be. And unless Almighty God shorten those days,
all mankind will perish; but for his elect he will shorten those days."
Everyone may the more easily withstand the future temptation, through God's
support, if he is strengthened by book learning, for they shall be
preserved who continue in faith to the end. Many tribulations and hardships
shall come on this world before its end, and those are the proclaimers of
everlasting perdition to evil men, who afterwards for their crimes suffer
eternally in the swart hell. Then Antichrist shall come, who is human man
and true devil, as our Saviour is truly man and God in one person. And the
visible devil shall then work innumerable miracles, and say that he himself
is God, and will compel mankind to his heresy: but his time will not be
long, for God's anger will destroy him, and this world will afterwards be
ended. Christ our Lord healed the weak and diseased, and the devil, who is
called Antichrist, which is interpreted, Opposition-Christ, weakens and
enfeebles the hale, and heals no one from diseases, save those alone whom
he himself had previously injured. He and his disciples injure men's bodies
secretly through the devil's power, and heal them openly in the sight of
men: but he may not heal those whom God himself had before afflicted. He
compels, through wickedness, men to swerve from the faith of their Creator
to his leasings, who is the author of all leasing and wickedness. Almighty
God permits the impious Antichrist to work signs, and miracles, and
persecution, for three years and a half; for in that time there will be so
much wickedness and perversity among mankind, that they will be well worthy
of devilish persecution, to the eternal perdition of those who incline unto
him, and to the eternal joy of those who by faith resist him. God also
permits that {7} his chosen servants be cleansed from all sins through
great persecutions, as gold is tried in fire. The devil slays those who
withstand him, and then, with holy martyrdom, they go to the kingdom of
heaven. Those who believe in his leasings, those he honours, and they shall
have afterwards eternal torment for reward of their sin. The impious one
will cause fire to come from above, as it were from heaven, in sight of
men, as if he were God Almighty, who rules over heaven and earth; but
Christians must then be mindful how the devil did, when he prayed to God
that he might tempt Job; he made fire to come from above, as if from
heaven, and burned all his sheep out in the field, and the shepherds also,
save one who should announce it to him. The devil sent not fire from
heaven, though it came from above; for he himself was not in heaven, after
that he, for his pride, had been cast out. Nor also hath the cruel
Antichrist the power to send down heavenly fire, though he, through the
devil's craft, may so pretend. It will now be wiser that everyone know
this, and know his belief, lest anyone have to await great misery. Our Lord
commanded his disciples that they should instruct and teach all people the
things which he had himself taught to them; but of those there are too few
who will well teach and well exemplify. The Lord also cried, through his
prophet Ezechiel, "If thou warnest not the unrighteous, and exhortest him
not, so that he turn from his wickedness and live, then shall the wicked
die in his iniquity, and I will require from thee his blood," that is, his
perdition. "But if thou warnest the wicked, and he will not turn from his
wickedness, thou shalt release thy soul with that admonition, and the
wicked shall die in his unrighteousness." Again the Almighty spake to the
prophet Isaiah, "Cry and cease thou not, raise thy voice as a trumpet, and
declare to my people their crimes, and to the family of Jacob their sins."
From such commands it appeared to me that I should not be guiltless before
God, if I would not declare to {9} other men, by tongue or by writings, the
evangelical truth, which he himself spake, and afterwards to holy teachers
revealed. Very many I know in this country more learned than I am, but God
manifests his wonders through whom he will. As an almighty worker he works
his work through his chosen, not because he has need of our aid, but that
we may earn eternal life by the performance of his work. Paul the apostle
said, "We are God's assistants," and yet we do nothing for God without the
assistance of God. Now I desire and beseech, in God's name, if anyone will
transcribe this book, that he carefully correct it by the copy, lest we be
blamed through careless writers. He does great evil who writes false,
unless he correct it; it is as though he turn true doctrine to false error;
therefore should everyone make that straight which he before bent crooked,
if he will be guiltless at God's doom. Quid necesse est in hoc codice
capitula ordinare, cum prædiximus quod xl. sententias in se contineat?
excepto quod Æthelwerdus dux vellet habere xl. quattuor in suo libro.

       *       *       *       *       *



An angin is ealra þinga, þæt is God Ælmihtig. He is ordfruma and ende: he
is ordfruma, forði þe he wæs æfre; he is ende butan ælcere geendunge,
forðan þe he bið æfre ungeendod. He is ealra cyninga Cyning, and ealra
hlaforda Hlaford. He hylt mid his mihte heofonas and eorðan, and ealle
gesceafta butan geswince, and he besceawað þa niwelnyssa þe under þyssere
eorðan sind. He awecð ealle duna {10} mid anre handa, and ne mæg nan þing
his willan wiðstandan. Ne mæg nan gesceaft fulfremedlice smeagan ne
understandan ymbe god. Maran cyððe habbað englas to Gode þonne men, and
þeah-hweðere hí ne magon fulfremedlice understandan ymbe God. Hé gesceop
gesceafta þaða he wolde; þurh his wisdom he geworhte ealle þing, and þurh
his willan hé hí ealle geliffæste. Ðeos þrynnys is án God; þæt is se Fæder
and his wisdom of him sylfum æfre acenned; and heora begra willa, þæt is se
Halga Gast: he nis na acenned, ac he gæð of þam Fæder and of þam Suna
gelice. Ðas þry hadas sindon án Ælmihtig God, se geworhte heofenas, and
eorðan, and ealle gesceafta. He gesceop tyn engla werod, þæt sind englas
and heah-englas, throni, dominationes, principatus, potestates, uirtutes,
cherubim, seraphim. Her sindon nigon engla werod: hí nabbað nænne lichaman,
ac hí sindon ealle gastas swiðe strange and mihtige and wlitige, on micelre
fægernysse gesceapene, to lofe and to wurðmynte heora Scyppende. Ðæt teoðe
werod abreað and awende on yfel. God hí gesceop ealle góde, and let hí
habban agenne cyre, swa hí heora Scyppend lufedon and filigdon, swa hí hine
forleton. Ða wæs þæs teoðan werodes ealdor swiðe fæger and wlitig
gesceapen, swa þæt hé wæs geháten Leohtberend. Þa began he to modigenne for
þære fægernysse þe he hæfde, and cwæð on his heortan þæt hé wolde and eaðe
mihte beon his Scyppende gelic, and sittan on þam norð-dæle heofenan rices,
and habban andweald and rice ongean God Ælmihtigne. Þa gefæstnode he þisne
ræd wið þæt werod þe hé bewiste, and hí ealle to ðam ræde gebugon. Ðaða hí
ealle hæfdon þysne ræd betwux him gefæstnod, þa becom Godes grama ofer hí
ealle, and hí ealle wurdon awende of þam fægeran híwe, þe hí on gesceapene
wæron, to laðlicum deoflum. And swiðe rihtlice him swa getimode, þaða he
wolde mid modignysse beon betera þonne he gesceapen wæs, and cwæð, þæt he
mihte beon þam Ælmihtigum Gode gelíc. Þa wearð he and ealle his geferan
forcuþran and wyrsan þonne ænig oðer gesceaft; and þa {12} hwile þe he
smeade hu he mihte dælan rice wið God, þa hwile gearcode se Ælmihtiga
Scyppend him and his geferum helle wíte, and hí ealle adræfde of heofenan
rices myrhðe, and let befeallan on þæt ece fyr, þe him gegearcod wæs for
heora ofermettum. Þa sona þa nigon werod, þe ðær to lafe wæron, bugon to
heora Scyppende mid ealre eaðmodnesse, and betæhton heora rǽd to his
willan. Þa getrymde se Ælmihtiga God þa nigon engla werod, and
gestaþelfæste swa þæt hí næfre ne mihton ne noldon syððan fram his willan
gebugan; ne hí ne magon nu, ne hí nellað nane synne gewyrcan, ac hi æfre
beoð ymbe þæt án, hu hi magon Gode gehyrsumian, and him gecweman. Swa
mihton eac þa oðre þe ðær feollon dón, gif hi woldon; forþi ðe God hí
geworhte to wlitegum engla gecynde, and let hí habban agenne cyre, and hí
næfre ne gebigde ne ne nydde mid nanum þingum to þam yfelan ræde; ne næfre
se yfela rǽd ne com of Godes geþance, ac com of þæs deofles, swa swa we ǽr

Nu þencð menig man and smeað hwanon deofol come; þonne wite he þæt God
gesceop to mæran engle þone þe nu is deofol: ac God ne gesceop hine na to
deofle; ac þaða he wæs mid ealle fordón and forscyldgod þurh þa miclan
up-ahefednysse and wiðerweardnysse, þa wearð he to deofle awend, seðe ǽr
wæs mære engel geworht. Ða wolde God gefyllan and geinnian þone lyre þe
forloren wæs of þam heofenlicum werode, and cwæð þæt hé wolde wyrcan mannan
of eorðan, þæt se eorðlica man sceolde geþeon and geearnian mid eadmodnysse
þa wununga on heofenan rice, þe se deofol forwyrhte mid modignysse. And God
þa geworhte ænne mannan of láme, and him on ableow gast, and hine
gelíffæste, and he wearð þa mann gesceapen on sawle and on lichaman; and
God him sette naman Adám, and he wæs þa sume hwile ánstandende. God þa hine
gebrohte on neorxna-wange, and hine þær gelogode, and him to cwæð, "Ealra
þæra þinga þe on neorxna-wange sindon þu most brucan, and hí ealle beoð þe
betæhte, buton anum treowe þe stent on middan {14} neorxna-wange: ne hrepa
þu þæs treowes wæstm, forþan ðe þu bist deadlic, gif ðu þæs treowes wæstm
geetst." Hwí wolde God swa lytles þinges him forwyrnan, þe him swa miccle
oðre þing betæhte? Gyse hu mihte Adám tocnawan hwæt hé wære, buton hé wære
gehyrsum on sumum þince his Hlaforde. Swylce God ewǽde to him, "Nast þu na
þæt ic eom þin Hlaford and þæt þu eart min þeowa, buton þu do þæt ic þe
háte, and forgáng þæt ic þe forbeode. Hwæt mæg hit þonne beon þæt þu forgán
sceole: ic ðe secge, forgang ðu anes treowes wæstm, and mid þære eaðelican
gehyrsumnysse þu geearnast heofenan rices myrhðu and þone stede þe se
deofol of-afeoll þurh ungehyrsumnesse. Gif ðu þonne ðis lytle bebód
tobrecst, þu scealt deaðe sweltan." And þa wæs Adam swa wís þæt God gelædde
to him nytenu, and deorcynn, and fugelcynn, ðaða he hí gesceapene hæfde;
and Adam him eallum naman gesceop; and swa swa hé hí þa genamode swa hí
sindon gyt gehatene. Þa cwæð God, "Nis na gedafenlic þæt þes man ana beo,
and næbbe nænne fultum; ac uton gewyrcan him gemacan, him to fultume and to
frofre." And God þa geswefode þone Adam, and þaþa he slep ða genam he an
rib of his sidan, and geworhte of ðam ribbe ænne wifman, and axode Adam hu
heo hatan sceolde. Þa cwæð Adam, "Heo is ban of minum banum, and flæsc of
minum flæsce; beo hire nama Uirago, þæt is fæmne; forðan ðe heo is of hire
were genumen." Ða sette Adam eft hire oðerne naman, Aeua, þæt is lif;
forðan ðe heo is ealra lybbendra modor.

Ealle gesceafta, heofonas and englas, sunnan and monan, steorran and
eorðan, ealle nytenu and fugelas, sǽ and ealle fixas, and ealle gesceafta
God gesceop and geworhte on six dagum; and on ðam seofoðan dæge hé geendode
his weorc, and geswac ða and gehalgode þone seofoðan dæg, forðan ðe hé on
ðam dæge his weorc geendode. And he beheold þa ealle his weorc ðe he
geworhte, and hí wæron ealle swiðe gode. Ealle ðing he geworhte buton ælcum
antimbre. He cwæð, "Geweorðe leoht," and ðærrihte wæs leoht {16} geworden.
He cwæð eft, "Geweorðe heofen," and þærrihte wæs heofen geworht, swa swa he
mid his wisdome and mid his willan hit gedihte. He cwæð eft, and het ða
eorðan þæt heo sceolde forðlædan cuce nytenu; and hé ða gesceop of ðære
eorðan eall nytencynn, and deorcynn, ealle ða ðe on feower fotum gað;
ealswa eft of wætere he gesceop fixas and fugelas, and sealde ðam fixum
sund, and ðam fugelum fliht; ac he ne sealde nanum nytene ne nanum fisce
nane sawle; ac heora blod is heora lif, and swa hraðe swa hi beoð deade,
swa beoð hí mid ealle geendode. Þaða he worhte ðone mann Adám, he ne cwæð
ná, "Geweorðe man geworht," ac he cwæð, "Uton gewyrcan mannan to ure
anlicnysse," and hé worhte ða þone man mid his handum, and him on ableow
sawle; forði is se man betera, gif hé góde geðihð, þonne ealle ða nytenu
sindon; forðan ðe hí ealle gewurðað to nahte, and se man is ece on anum
dæle, þæt is on ðære sawle; heo ne geendað næfre. Se lichama is deadlic
þurh Adames gylt, ac ðeah-hwæðere God arærð eft ðone lichaman to ecum
ðingum on domes dæg. Nu cwædon gedwolmen þæt deofol gesceope sume
gesceafta, ac hí leogað; ne mæg hé nane gesceafta gescyppan, forðan ðe he
nis na Scyppend, ac is atelic sceocca, and mid leasunge he wile beswican
and fordón þone unwaran; ac he ne mæg nænne man to nanum leahtre geneadian,
buton se mon his agenes willes to his lare gebuge. Swa hwæt swa is on
gesceaftum wiðerweardlic geþuht and mannum derige, þæt is eall for urum
synnum and yfelum geearnungum.

Þa ongeat se deofol þæt Adam and Eua wæron to ðy gesceapene þæt hi sceolon
mid eadmodnysse and mid gehyrsumnysse geearnian ða wununge on heofenan rice
ðe hé of-afeoll for his up-ahefednysse, þa nam hé micelne graman and ándan
to þam mannum, and smeade hú hé hí fordón mihte. He com ða on næddran hiwe
to þam twam mannum, ærest to ðam wife, and hire to cwæð, "Hwí forbead God
eow þæs treowes wæstm, ðe stent on middan neorxna-wange?" Þa cwæð þæt wíf,
"God us forbead þæs treowes wæstm, and cwæð þæt we {18} sceoldon deaðe
sweltan, gif we his on byrigdon." Ða cwæð se deofol, "Nis hit na swa ðu
segst, ac God wát genoh geare, gif ge of ðam treowe geetað, þonne beoð
eowere eagan geopenode, and ge magon geseon and tocnáwan ægðer ge gód ge
yfel, and ge beoð englum gelice." Næron hí blinde gesceapene, ac God hí
gesceop swa bilewite þæt hí ne cuðon nan ðing yfeles, naðor ne on gesihðe,
ne on spræce, ne on weorce. Wearð þeah þæt wíf ða forspanen þurh ðæs
deofles láre, and genam of ðæs treowes wæstme, and geæt, and sealde hire
were, and hé geæt. Ða wæron hí butu deadlice, and cuðon ægðer ge gód ge
yfel; and hí wæron ða nacode, and him ðæs sceamode. Þa com God and axode
hwi he his bebod tobræce? and adræfde hí butu of neorxna-wange, and cwæð,
"Forðan ðe ðu wære gehyrsum ðines wifes wordum, and min bebod forsawe, þu
scealt mid earfoðnyssum þe metes tilian, and seo eorðe þe is awyriged on
þinum weorce, sylð þe ðornas and bremblas. Þu eart of eorðan genumen, and
þu awenst to eorðan. Þu eart dust, and ðu awentst to duste." God him worhte
ða reaf of fellum, and hí wæron mid þam fellum gescrydde.

Ða deadan fell getacnodon þæt hí wæron ða deadlice þe mihton beon
undeadlice, gif hi heoldon þæt eaðelice Godes bebod. Ne þorfte Adam ne eal
mancynn þe him siððan ofacom næfre deaðes onbyrian, gif þæt treow moste
standan ungehrepod, and his nan man ne onbyrigde; ac sceolde Adam and his
ofspring tyman on asettum tyman, swa swa nu doð clæne nytenu, and siððan
ealle buton deaðe faran to ðan ecan life. Næs him gesceapen fram Gode, ne
hé næs genedd þæt hé sceolde Godes bebod tobrecan; ac God hine lét frigne,
and sealde him agenne cyre, swa hé wære gehyrsum, swa hé wære ungehyrsum.
Hé wearð þa deofle gehyrsum, and Gode ungehyrsum, and wearð betæht, hé and
eal mancynn, æfter ðisum lífe, into helle-wíte, mid þam deofle ðe hine
forlærde. Þa wiste God hwæðere þæt hé wæs forlæred, and smeade hu he mihte
his and ealles mancynnes eft gemiltsian.

{20} On twam þingum hæfde God þæs mannes sawle gegodod; þæt is mid
undeadlicnysse, and mid gesælðe. Þa þurh deofles swicdom and Adames gylt we
forluron þa gesælðe ure sawle, ac we ne forluron ná þa undeadlicnysse; heo
is éce, and næfre ne geendað, þeah se lichama geendige, þe sceal eft þurh
Godes mihte arisan to ecere wununge. Adam þa wæs wunigende on þisum life
mid geswince, and hé and his wíf ða bearn gestryndon, ægðer ge suna ge
dohtra; and he leofode nigon hund geara and þrittig geara, and siððan
swealt, swa swa him ær behaten wæs, for þan gylte; and his sawul gewende to

Nu smeagiað sume men hwanon him come sawul? hwæþer ðe of þam fæder, þe of
þære meder? We cweðað of heora naðrum; ac se ylca God þe gesceop Adam mid
his handum, he gescypð ælces mannes lichaman on his modor innoðe; and se
ylca seðe ableów on Adámes lichaman, and him forgeaf sawle, se ylca forgyfð
cildum sawle and líf on heora modor innoðe, þonne hí gesceapene beoð; and
he lætt hí habban agenne cyre, þonne hí geweaxene beoð, swa swa Adám hæfde.

Þa wearð þa hrædlice micel mennisc geweaxen, and wæron swiðe manega on yfel
awende, and gegremodon God mid mislicum leahtrum, and swiðost mid
forligere. Ða wearð God to þan swiðe gegremod þurh manna mándæda þæt he
cwæð þæt him ofþuhte þæt hé æfre mancynn gesceop. Ða wæs hwæþere án man
rihtwis ætforan Gode, se wæs Nóe geháten. Þa cwæð God to him, "Ic wylle
fordón eal mancynn mid wætere, for heora synnum, ac ic wylle gehealdan þe
ænne, and þin wíf, and þine þry suna, Sem, and Cham, and Iafeth, and heora
þreo wíf; forðan þe ðu eart rihtwis, and me gecweme. Wyrc þe nú ænne arc,
þreo hund fæðma lang, and fiftig fæðma wíd, and þritig fæðma heah: gehref
hit eall, and geclǽm ealle þa seamas mid tyrwan, and gá inn syððan mid
þinum híwum. Ic gegaderige in to þe of deorcynne, and of fugelcynne symble
gemacan, þæt hí eft to fostre beon. Ic wille sendan flod ofer ealne
middangeard." {22} He dyde þa swa him God bebead, and God beleac hí bynnan
þam arce, and asende rén of heofonum feowertig daga togædere, and geopenode
þær togeanes ealle wyll-springas and wæter-þeotan of þære micclan
niwelnysse. Ðæt flod weox ða and abǽr up þone arc, and hit oferstah ealle
dúna. Wearð þa ælc þing cuces adrenct, buton þam ðe binnon þam arce wæron;
of þam wearð eft ge-edstaðelod eall middangeard. Ða behét God þæt hé nolde
næfre eft eal mancynn mid wætere acwellan, and cwæð to Noe and to his
sunum, "Ic wylle settan mín wedd betwux me and eow to þisum beháte; þæt is,
þonne ic oferteo heofenas mid wólcnum, þonne bið æteowod min rénboga betwux
þam wolcnum, þonne beo ic gemyndig mines weddes, þæt ic nelle heonon-forð
mancynn mid wætere adrencan." Noe leofode on eallum his life, ær þam flode
and æfter þam flode, nigon hund geara and fiftig geara, and he þa

Ða wæs þa sume hwíle Godes ege on mancynne æfter þam flode, and wæs án
gereord on him eallum. Ða cwædon hi betwux him þæt hi woldon wyrcan ane
burh, and ænne stypel binnon þære byrig, swa heahne þæt his hrof astige up
to heofenum: and begunnon þa to wyrcenne. Ða com God þærto, þaða hí swiðost
worhton, and sealde ælcum men þe ðær wæs synderlice spræce. Þa wæron þær
swa fela gereord swa ðær manna wæron; and heora nán nyste hwæt oðer cwæð.
And hí ða geswicon þære getimbrunge, and toferdon geond ealne middangeard.

Ða siððan wearð mancynn þurh deofol beswicen, and gebiged fram Godes
geleafan, swa þæt hí worhton him anlicnyssa, sume of golde, sume of
seolfre, sume eac of stanum, sume of treowe, and sceopon him naman; þæra
manna naman þe wæron entas and yfel-dæde. Eft ðonne hí deade wæron, þonne
cwædon þa cucan þæt hí wæron godas, and wurðodon hí, and him lác offrodon;
and comon þa deoflu to heora anlicnyssum, and þæron wunodon, and to mannum
spræcon swilce hí godas wæron; and þæt beswicene mennisc feoll on {24}
cneowum to þam anlicnyssum, and cwædon, "Ge sind ure godas and we besettað
urne geleafan and urne hiht on eow." Ða asprang þis gedwyld geond ealne
middangeard, and wæs se soða Scyppend, seðe ána is God, forsewen, and
geunwurþod. Ða wæs hwæðere an mægð þe næfre ne abeah to nanum deofolgylde,
ac æfre wurðode þone soðan God. Seo mægð aspráng of Nóes eltstan suna, se
wæs gehaten Sem: he leofode six hund geara, and his sunu hatte Arfaxað, se
leofode þreo hund geara and þreo and þrittig, and his sunu hatte Salé, se
leofode feower hund geara and XXXIII.; þa gestrynde he sunu se wæs geháten
Ebér, of þam aspráng þæt Ebreisce folc, þe God lufode: and of þam cynne
comon ealle heahfæderas and witegan, þa ðe cyðdon Cristes to-cyme to þisum
life; þæt hé wolde man beon, fornean on ende þyssere worulde, for ure
alysednesse, seðe æfre wæs God mid þam healican Fæder. And þyssere mægðe
God sealde and gesette ǽ, and hé hí lædde ofer sǽ mid drium fotum, and hé
hí afedde feowertig wintra mid heofenlicum hlafe, and fela wundra on þam
folce geworhte; forþan ðe he wolde of þyssere mægðe him modor geceosan.

Ða æt nextan, þa se tima com þe God foresceawode, þa asende he his engel
Gabrihel to anum mædene of þam cynne, seo wæs María gehaten. Þa com se
engel to hire, and hí gegrette mid Godes wordum, and cydde híre, þæt Godes
Sunu sceolde beon acenned of hire, buton weres gemanan. And heo þa gelyfde
his wordum, and wearð mid cilde. Ðaða hire tíma com heo acende, and
þurhwunode mæden. Ðæt cild is tuwa acenned: he is acenned of þam Fæder on
heofonum, buton ælcere meder, and eft þaða hé man gewearð, þa wæs hé
acenned of þam clænan mædene Marían, buton ælcum eorðlicum fæder. God Fæder
geworhte mancynn and ealle gesceafta þurh ðone Sunu, and eft, ðaða we
forwyrhte wæron, þa asende hé ðone ylcan Sunu to úre alysednesse. Seo
halige moder María þa afedde þæt cild mid micelre arwurðnesse, and hit weox
swa swa oðre cild doð, buton synne anum.

{26} He wæs buton synnum acenned, and his líf wæs eal buton synnum. Ne
worhte he þeah náne wúndra openlice ǽrðan ðe hé wæs þritig wintre on þære
menniscnysse: þa siðþan geceas he him leorning-cnihtas; ærest twelf, þa we
hátað apostolas, þæt sind ærendracan. Siþþan hé geceas twá and
hund-seofontig, þa sind genemnede discipuli, þæt sind leorning-cnihtas. Ða
worhte hé fela wundra, þæt men mihton gelyfan þæt he wæs Godes Bearn. Hé
awende wæter to wine, and eode ofer sǽ mid drium fotum, and he gestilde
windas mid his hæse, and hé forgeaf blindum mannum gesihðe, and healtum and
lamum rihtne gáng, and hreoflium smeðnysse, and hælu heora lichaman; dumbum
hé forgeaf getingnysse, and deafum heorcnunge; deofolseocum and wodum hé
sealde gewitt, and þa deoflu todræfde, and ælce untrumnysse he gehælde;
deade men hé arærde of heora byrgenum to lífe; and lærde þæt folc þe hé to
com mid micclum wisdome; and cwæð þæt nán man ne mæg beon gehealden, buton
he rihtlice on God gelyfe, and he beo gefullod, and his geleafan mid godum
weorcum geglenge; he onscunode ælc unriht and ealle leasunga, and tæhte
rihtwisnysse and soðfæstnysse.

Þa nam þæt Iudeisce folc micelne ándan ongean his láre, and smeadon hú hí
mihton híne to deaðe gedón. Þa wearð án ðæra twelfa Cristes geferena, se
wæs Iudas gehaten, þurh deofles tihtinge beswicen, and hé eode to þam
Iudeiscum folce, and smeade wið hí, hu he Crist him belǽwan mihte. Þeah ðe
eal mennisc wǽre gegaderod, ne mihton hí ealle hine acwellan, gif he sylf
nolde; forði he cóm to us þæt hé wolde for ús deað þrowian, and swa eal
mancynn þa ðe gelyfað mid his agenum deaðe alysan fram helle-wite. Hé nolde
geniman ús neadunge of deofles anwealde, buton he hit forwyrhte; þa hé hit
forwyrhte genóh swiðe, þaða hé gehwette and tihte ðæra Iudeiscra manna
heortan to Cristes slege. Crist ða geðafode þæt ða wælhreowan hine genámon
and gebundon, and on róde hengene acwealdon. Hwæt ða twegen gelyfede men
hine arwurðlice bebyrigdon, and Crist on ðære hwile to {28} helle gewende,
and þone deofol gewylde, and him of-anám Adám and Euan, and heora ofspring,
þone dǽl ðe him ǽr gecwemde, and gelædde hí to heora lichaman, and arás of
deaðe mid þam micclum werede on þam þriddan dæge his þrowunge. Cóm þa to
his apostolum, and hí gefrefrode, and geond feowertigra daga fyrst him mid
wunode; and ða ylcan lare þe hé him ǽr tæhte eft ge-edlæhte, and het hí
faran geond ealne middangeard, bodigende fulluht and soðne geleafan.
Drihten ða on ðam feowerteogoðan dæge his æristes astah to heofenum,
ætforan heora ealra gesihðe, mid þam ylcan lichaman þe hé on þrowode, and
sitt on ða swiðran his Fæder, and ealra gesceafta gewylt. Hé hæfð gerymed
rihtwisum mannum infær to his rice, and ða ðe his beboda eallunga forseoð
beoð on helle besencte. Witodlice hé cymð on ende þyssere worulde mid
micclum mægenþrymme on wolcnum, and ealle ða ðe æfre sawle underfengon
arisað of deaðe him togeanes; and hé ðonne ða mánfullan deofle betæcð into
ðam ecan fyre helle susle; þa rihtwisan he læt mid him into heofonan rice,
on þam hí rixiað á on ecnysse.

Men ða leofestan, smeagað þysne cwyde, and mid micelre gymene forbugað
unrihtwysnysse, and geearniað mid godum weorcum þæt éce líf mid Gode seðe
ána on ecnysse rixað. Amen.



There is one origin of all things, that is God Almighty. He is beginning
and end: he is beginning, because he was ever; he is end without any
ending, because he is ever unended. He is King of all kings, and Lord of
all lords. He holdeth with his might heavens, and earth, and all creatures,
without toil, and he beholdeth the depths which are under this earth. He
weigheth all hills with one hand, and no thing {11} may withstand his will.
No creature may perfectly search out nor understand concerning God: greater
affinity have angels to God than men, and yet they may not perfectly
understand concerning God. He created those creatures that he would;
through his wisdom he wrought all things, and through his will he endued
them all with life. This Trinity is one God, that is, the Father, and his
Wisdom, of himself ever produced; and the Will of them both, that is, the
Holy Ghost: he is not born, but he goeth alike from the Father and from the
Son. These three persons are one Almighty God, who wrought the heavens, and
the earth, and all creatures. He created ten hosts of angels, that is
angels and archangels, throni, dominationes, principatus, potestates,
virtutes, cherubim, seraphim. Here are nine hosts of angels: they have no
body, but they are all spirits, very strong, and mighty, and beautiful,
formed with great fairness, to the praise and glory of their Creator. The
tenth host rebelled and turned to evil. God created them all good, and let
them have their own discretion, whether they would love and follow their
Creator, or would forsake him. Now the prince of the tenth host was formed
very fair and beauteous, so that he was called 'Light-bearing' (Lucifer).
Then he began to wax proud by reason of the comeliness that he had, and
said in his heart that he would and easily might be equal to his Creator,
and sit in the north part of heaven's kingdom, and have power and sway
against God Almighty. Then he confirmed this resolve with the host over
which he ruled, and they all bowed to that resolve. When they all had
confirmed this resolve among themselves, God's anger came over them all,
and they were all changed from the fair form in which they were created to
loathly devils. And very rightly it so befell him, when he would in pride
be better than he was created, and said that he might be equal to Almighty
God. Then became he and all his associates more wicked and worse than any
other creatures; and while he meditated how he might share power {13} with
God, the Almighty Creator prepared hell-torment for him and his associates,
and drove them all from the joy of heaven's kingdom, and caused them to
fall into the eternal fire that was prepared for them for their pride. Then
forthwith the nine hosts that were left bowed to their Creator with all
humbleness, and resigned their purpose to his will. Then the Almighty God
confirmed and established the nine hosts of angels, so that they never
might or would afterwards swerve from his will; nor can they now perpetrate
any sin, but they are ever meditating only how they may obey God and be
acceptable to him. So might also the others who fell have done if they had
been willing; seeing that God had made them of the beauteous nature of
angels, and let them have their own will, and would never have inclined nor
forced them in any way to that evil counsel; for the evil counsel never
came from God's conception, but came from the devil's, as we before said.

Now many a man will think and inquire, whence the devil came? be it,
therefore, known to him that God created as a great angel him who is now
the devil: but God did not create him as the devil: but when he was wholly
fordone and guilty towards God, through his great haughtiness and enmity,
then became he changed to the devil, who before was created a great angel.
Then would God supply and make good the loss that had been suffered in the
heavenly host, and said that he would make man of earth, so that the
earthly man should prosper, and merit with meekness those dwellings in the
kingdom of heaven which the devil through his pride had forfeited. And God
then wrought a man of clay, and blew spirit into him, and animated him, and
he became a man formed with soul and body; and God bestowed on him the name
of Adam, and he was for some time standing alone. God then brought him into
Paradise, and established him there, and said unto him, "Of all the things
which are in Paradise thou mayest eat, and they shall all be committed to
{15} thee, save one tree which stands in the middle of Paradise: touch thou
not the fruit of this tree; for thou shalt be mortal if thou eatest the
fruit of this tree." Why would God forbid him so little a thing, when he
had committed to him other things so great? But how could Adam know what he
was, unless he were obedient in some thing to his Lord? as if God had said
to him, "Thou knowest not that I am thy Lord, and that thou art my servant,
unless thou dost that which I command, and forgoest that which I forbid
thee. But what may it be that thou shalt forgo? I say unto thee, forgo thou
the fruit of one tree, and with that easy obedience thou shalt merit the
joys of heaven, and the place from which the devil fell through
disobedience. But if thou breakest this little commandment, thou shalt
perish by death." And then was Adam so wise that God led to him the cattle,
and brute race, and bird race, when he had created them; and Adam made
names for them all; and so as he named them are they yet called. Then said
God, "It is not fitting that this man be alone, and have no help; now let
us make him a mate for help and comfort." And God then caused Adam to
sleep, and as he slept, he took a rib from his side, and of that rib
wrought a woman, and asked Adam how she should be called. Then said Adam,
"She is bone of my bone, and flesh of my flesh; be her name Virago, that is
_female_; because she is taken from her husband." Then Adam afterwards
bestowed on her another name, Eva, that is _life_; because she is the
mother of all living.

All creatures, heavens and angels, sun and moon, stars and earth, all
beasts and birds, the sea and all fishes, and all creatures, God created
and wrought in six days; and on the seventh day he ended his work, and
ceased, and hallowed the seventh day, because on that day he ended his
work. And he beheld then all his works that he had wrought, and they were
all exceedingly good. All things he wrought without any matter. He said,
"Let there be light," and instantly {17} there was light. He said again,
"Let there be heaven," and instantly heaven was made, as he with his wisdom
and his will had appointed it. He said again, and bade the earth bring
forth all living cattle, and he then created of earth all the race of
cattle, and the brute race, all those which go on four feet; in like manner
of water he created fishes and birds, and gave the power of swimming to the
fishes, and flight to the birds; but he gave no soul to any beast, nor to
any fish; but their blood is their life, and as soon as they are dead they
are totally ended. When he had made the man Adam, he did not say, "Let man
be made," but he said, "Let us make man in our likeness," and he then made
man with his hands, and blew into him a soul; therefore is man better, if
he grow up in good, than all the beasts are; because they will all come to
naught, and man is in one part eternal, that is in the soul; that will
never end. The body is mortal through Adam's sin, but, nevertheless, God
will raise again the body to eternity on doomsday. Now the heretics say
that the devil created some creatures, but they lie; he can create no
creatures, for he is not a creator, but is a loathsome fiend, and with
leasing he will deceive and fordo the unwary; but he may not compel any man
to any crime, unless the man voluntarily incline to his teaching.
Whatsoever among things created seems pernicious and is injurious to men,
is all for our sins and evil deserts.

When the devil understood that Adam and Eve were created, that they might
with meekness and obedience merit the dwelling in the kingdom of heaven
from which he had fallen for his haughtiness, then he felt great anger and
envy towards those persons, and meditated how he might fordo them. He came
then in a serpent's form to the two persons, first to the woman, and said
to her, "Why has God forbidden you the fruit of this tree, which stands in
the middle of Paradise?" Then said the woman, "God forbade us the fruit of
the tree {19} and said, that we should perish by death, if we tasted its
fruit." Then said the devil, "It is not as thou sayest, but God knows full
well, if ye eat of that tree that your eyes will then be opened, and ye can
see and know both good and evil, and ye will be like to angels." They were
not created blind, but God created them so simple-minded that they knew
nothing evil, neither by sight, nor by speech, nor by deed. But the woman
was seduced by the devil's counsel, and took of the fruit of the tree, and
ate, and gave to her consort, and he ate. Then they both became mortal, and
knew both good and evil; and they were naked, and thereat they were
ashamed. Then came God and asked why he had broken his commandment? and
drove them both from Paradise, and said, "Because thou wast obedient to the
words of thy wife, and despisedst my commandment, thou shalt get thee food
with hardships, and the earth, which is accursed through thy deed, shall
give thee thorns and brambles. Thou art taken from earth, and thou shalt to
earth return. Thou art dust, and thou shalt turn to dust." God then wrought
for them garments of skins, and they were clothed with the skins.

The dead skins betokened that they were then mortal who might have been
immortal, if they had held that easy command of God. Neither Adam nor all
mankind that have since come from him needed ever to have tasted of death,
if that tree could have stood untouched, and no one had tasted of it; but
Adam and his offspring would have propagated at set times, as the clean
beasts now do, and afterwards, without death, have gone to eternal life. It
was not ordained him from God, nor was he compelled to break God's
commandment; for God left him free, and gave him his own choice, whether he
would be obedient, or whether he would be disobedient. Then was he to the
devil obedient, and to God disobedient, and was delivered, he and all
mankind, after this life, to hell-torment, with the devil who seduced him.
But God knew, however, that he had been seduced, and meditated how he might
again be merciful to him and all mankind.

{21} With two things had God endowed this man's soul; that is immortality
and with happiness. Then through the devil's treachery and Adam's guilt we
lost the happiness of our soul, but we lost not the immortality: that is
eternal and never ends, though the body ends, which shall again, through
God's might, arise to everlasting duration. Adam then was continuing in
this life with toil, and he and his wife begat children, both sons and
daughters; and he lived nine hundred and thirty years, and then died, as
had been promised him for that sin; and his soul went to hell.

Now some men will inquire, whence came his soul? whether from the father or
from the mother? We say, from neither of them; but the same God who created
Adam with his hands, createth every man's body in his mother's womb: and
the same who blew into Adam's body, and gave him a soul, that same giveth a
soul and life to children in their mother's womb, when they are created;
and he letteth them have their own will, when they are grown up, as Adam

Then there was rapidly a great increase of people, and very many were
turned to evil, and exasperated God with various crimes, and above all with
fornication. Then was God so exasperated through the wicked deeds of men
that he said, that he repented that he had ever created mankind.
Nevertheless, there was one man righteous before God, who was called Noah.
Then said God to him, "I will destroy all mankind with water, for their
sins, but I will preserve thee alone, and thy wife, and thy three sons,
Shem, and Ham, and Japhet, and their three wives; because thou art
righteous and acceptable unto me. Make thee now an ark, three hundred
fathoms long, and fifty fathoms wide, and thirty fathoms high: roof it all,
and smear all the seams with tar, and then go in with thy family. I will
gather in to thee of beast-kind and of bird-kind mates of each, that they
may hereafter be for foster. I will send a flood over all the earth." {23}
He did as God bade him, and God shut them within the ark, and sent rain
from heaven forty days together, and opened, to meet it, all the
well-springs and water-torrents of the great deep. The flood then waxed and
bare up the ark, and it rose above all the hills. Then was everything
living drowned, save those who were within the ark, by whom was again
established all the earth. Then God promised that he would never again
destroy all mankind with water, and said to Noah and to his sons: "I will
set my covenant betwixt me and you for this promise: that is, when I
overspread the heavens with clouds, then shall be shown my rainbow betwixt
the clouds, then will I be mindful of my covenant, that I will not
henceforth drown mankind with water." Noah lived in all his life, before
the flood and after the flood, nine hundred and fifty years, and then he

Then for some time after the flood there was fear of God among mankind, and
there was one language among them all. Then said they among themselves that
they would make a city, and a tower within that city, so high that its roof
should mount up to heaven: and they begun to work. Then came God thereto,
when they were most busily working, and gave to every man who was there a
separate speech. Then were there as many languages as there were men, and
none of them knew what other said. And they then ceased from the building,
and went divers ways over all the earth.

Then afterwards mankind was deceived by the devil, and turned from God's
belief, so that they wrought them images, some of gold, some of silver,
some also of stones, some of wood, and devised names for them; the names of
those men who were giants, and evil-doing. Afterwards when they were dead
then said the living that they were gods, and worshipped them, and offered
sacrifices to them; and the devils then came to their images, and dwelt
therein, and spake to men as though they were gods; and the deceived human
race fell on their knees to {25} those images, and said, "Ye are our gods,
and we place our belief and our hope in you." Then sprang up this error
through all the earth, and the true Creator, who alone is God, was despised
and dishonoured. There was, nevertheless, one family which had never bent
to any idol, but had ever worshipped the true God. That family sprang from
Noah's eldest son, who was called Shem: he lived six hundred years, and his
son was called Arphaxad, who lived three hundred and thirty-three years,
and his son was called Salah, who lived four hundred and thirty-three
years, when he begat a son who was called Eber, from whom sprang the Hebrew
people, whom God loved: and from that race came all the patriarchs and
prophets, those who announced Christ's advent to this life; that he would
be man before the end of this world, for our redemption, he who ever was
God with the supreme Father. And for this race God gave and established a
law, and he led them over the sea with dry feet, and he fed them forty
years with heavenly bread, and wrought many miracles among the people;
because he would choose him a mother from this race.

Then at last, when the time came that God had foreseen, he sent his angel
Gabriel to a maiden of that race, who was called Mary. Then came the angel
to her, and greeted her with God's words, and announced to her, that God's
Son should be born of her, without communion of man. And she believed his
words, and became with child. When her time was come she brought forth, and
continued a maiden. That child is twice born: he is born of the Father in
heaven, without any mother, and again, when he became man, he was born of
the pure virgin Mary, without any earthly father. God the Father made
mankind and all creatures through the Son; and again, when we were fordone,
he sent that same Son for our redemption. The holy mother Mary then
nourished that child with great veneration, and it waxed, as other children
do, without any sin.

{27} He was born without sins, and his life was all without sins. But he
wrought no miracles openly ere that he had been thirty years in a state of
man: then afterwards he chose to him disciples; first twelve, whom we call
apostles, that is messengers: after that he chose seventy-two, who are
denominated disciples, that is learners. Then he wrought many miracles,
that men might believe that he was God's Child. He turned water to wine,
and went over the sea with dry feet, and he stilled the winds by his
behest, and he gave to blind men sight, and to the halt and lame a right
gait, and to lepers smoothness and health to their bodies; to the dumb he
gave power of speech, and hearing to the deaf; to the possessed of devils
and the mad he gave sense, and drove away the devils, and every disease he
healed; dead men he raised from their sepulchres to life; and taught the
people to which he came with great wisdom; and said, that no man might be
saved, except he rightly believe in God, and be baptized, and adorn his
faith with good works; he eschewed all injustice and all leasings, and
taught righteousness and truth.

Then the Jewish people showed great envy of his doctrine, and meditated how
they might put him to death. Now was one of the twelve of Christ's
companions, who was called Judas, seduced by the instigation of the devil,
and he went to the Jewish people, and consulted with them how he might
betray Christ unto them. Though all people were gathered together they all
might not destroy him, if he himself willed it not; therefore he came to us
because he would suffer death for us, and so, by his own death, redeem all
mankind who believe from hell's torment. He would not take us forcibly from
the devil's power, unless he had forfeited it; but he forfeited it entirely
when he whetted and instigated the hearts of the Jewish men to the slaying
of Christ. Then Christ consented that the bloodthirsty ones should take
him, and bind, and, hung on a cross, slay him. Verily then two believing
men honourably buried him; and Christ, in that time, {29} went to hell, and
overcame the devil, and took from him Adam and Eve, and their offspring,
that portion which had previously been most acceptable to him, and led them
to their bodies, and arose from death with that great host on the third day
of his passion: then came to his apostles, and comforted them, and for a
space of forty days sojourned with them, and repeated the same doctrine
which he had before taught them, and bade them go over all the earth,
preaching baptism and true faith. Then, on the fortieth day of his
resurrection, the Lord ascended to heaven in sight of them all, with the
same body in which he had suffered, and sitteth on the right hand of his
Father, and governeth all creatures. He hath opened to righteous men the
entrance to his kingdom, and those who wholly despise his commandments
shall be cast down into hell. Verily he shall come at the end of this world
with great majesty, in clouds, and all those who have ever received a soul
shall arise from death towards him; and he will then deliver the wicked to
the devil, into the eternal fire of hell-torment; the righteous he will
lead with him into the kingdom of heaven, in which they shall rule to all

Men most beloved, consider this discourse, and with great care eschew
unrighteousness, and merit with good works the eternal life with God, who
alone ruleth to eternity. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *



We wyllað to trymminge eowres geleafan eow gereccan þæs Hælendes
acennednysse be ðære godspellican endebyrdnysse: hú he on ðysum dægðerlicum
dæge on soðre menniscnysse acenned wæs on godcundnysse.

Lucas se Godspellere awrát on Cristes béc, þæt on ðam {30} timan se
Romanisca casere Octauianus sette gebánn, þæt wære on gewritum asett eall
ymbhwyrft. Þeos towritennys wearð aræred fram ðam ealdormen Cyrino, of
Sirian lande, þæt ælc man ofer-heafod sceolde cennan his gebyrde, and his
áre on ðære byrig þe hé to gehyrde. Þa ferde Ioseph, Cristes foster-fæder,
fram Galileiscum earde, of ðære byrig Nazareð, to Iudeiscre byrig, seo wæs
Dauides, and wæs geciged Bethleém, forðan ðe hé wæs of Dauides mægðe, and
wolde andettan mid Marían hire gebyrde, þe wæs þa gýt bearn-eaca. Ða gelámp
hit, þaða hí on þære byrig Bethleém wícodon, þæt hire tima wæs gefylled þæt
heo cennan sceolde, and acende ða hyre frumcennedan sunu, and mid
cild-claðum bewánd, and aléde þæt cild on heora assena binne, forþan þe ðær
næs nán rymet on þam gesthuse. Þa wæron hyrdas on þam earde waciende ofer
heora eowede; and efne ða Godes engel stód on emn hí, and Godes beorhtnys
hí bescean, and hí wurdon micclum afyrhte. Ða cwæð se Godes engel to ðam
hyrdum, "Ne ondredað eow; efne ic eow bodige micelne gefean, þe becymð
eallum folce; forðan þe nu to-dæg is eow acenned Hælend Crist on Dauides
ceastre. Ge geseoð þis tácen, ge gemétað þæt cild mid cild-claðum bewunden,
and on binne geléd." Þa færlice, æfter þæs engles spræce, wearð gesewen
micel menigu heofenlices werodes God herigendra and singendra, "Gloria in
excelsis Deo, et in terra pax hominibus bone uoluntatis," þæt is on urum
gereorde, "Sy wuldor Gode on heannyssum, and on eorðan sibb mannum, þam ðe
beoð godes willan." And ða englas ða gewiton of heora gesihðe to heofonum.
Hwæt ða hyrdas þa him betweonan spræcon, "Uton faran to Bethleem, and
geseon þæt word þe us God æteowde." Hí comon ða hrædlice, and gemetton
Marían, and Ioseph, and þæt cild geled on anre binne, swa swa him se engel
cydde. Þa hyrdas soðlice oncneowon be þam worde þe him gesæd wæs be ðam
cilde, and ealle wundrodon þe þæt gehyrdon, and eac be ðam ðe þa hyrdas him
sǽdon. María soðlice heold ealle þas wórd arǽfniende {32} on hire heortan.
Ða gecyrdon þa hyrdas ongean wuldrigende and herigende God on eallum ðam
ðingum þe hí gehyrdon and gesawon, swa swa him fram þam engle gesǽd wæs.

Mine gebroðra þa leofostan, ure Hælend, Godes Sunu, euen-ece and gelic his
Fæder, seðe mid him wæs æfre buton anginne, gemedemode hine sylfne þæt he
wolde on ðisum dægðerlicum dæge, for middangeardes alysednysse beon
lichamlice acenned of þam mædene Marían. He is Ealdor and Scyppend ealra
gódnyssa and sibbe, and he foresende his acennednysse ungewunelice sibbe,
forðan ðe næfre næs swilc sibb ær þam fyrste on middangearde, swilc swa wæs
on his gebyrde-tide, swa þæt eall middangeard wæs anes mannes rice
underðeod, and eal mennisc him anum cynelic gafol ageaf. Witodlice on swa
micelre sibbe wæs Crist acenned, seðe is ure sib, forþan ðe hé geþeodde
englas and men to ánum hirede, þurh his menniscnysse. Hé wæs acenned on þæs
caseres dagum þe wæs Octauianus geháten, se gerymde Romana rice to ðan
swiðe þæt him eal middangeard to beah, and he wæs forði Augustus geciged,
þæt is geýcende his rice. Se nama gedafenað þam heofonlican Cyninge Criste,
þe on his timan acenned wæs, seðe his heofonlice rice geyhte, and ðone
hryre, þe se feallenda deofol on engla werode gewanode, mid menniscum
gecynde eft gefylde. Na þæt án þæt he ðone lyre anfealdlice gefylde, ac eac
swylce micclum geihte. Soðlice swa micel getel mancynnes becymð þurh
Cristes menniscnysse to engla werodum, swa micel swa on heofonum beláf
haligra engla æfter ðæs deofles hryre. Þæs caseres gebann, þe het ealne
middangeard awritan, getacnode swutellice þæs heofonlican Cyninges dæde, þe
to ði com on middangeard þæt he of eallum ðeodum his gecorenan gegaderode,
and heora naman on ecere eadignysse awrite. Þeos towritennys asprang fram
ðam ealdormen Cyrino: Cyrinus is gereht Yrfenuma, and he getacnode Crist,
seðe is soð yrfenuma þæs ecan Fæder; and he us forgifð þæt we mid him {34}
beon yrfenuman and efenhlyttan his wuldres. Ealle ðeoda þa ferdon þæt ælc
synderlice be him sylfum cennan sceolde, on ðære byrig þe he to hyrde. Swa
swa on ðam timan be ðæs caseres gebanne gehwilce ænlipige on heora burgum
be him sylfum cendon, swa eac nu us cyðað láreowas Cristes gebann, þæt we
ús gegadrian to his halgan gelaðunge, and on ðære ures geleafan gafol mid
estfullum mode him agifan, þæt ure naman beon awritene on lifes bec mid his

Drihten wæs acenned on þære byrig ðe is gehaten Bethleem; forðan ðe hit wæs
swa ǽr gewitegod þisum wordum, "Þu Bethleem, Iudeisc land, ne eart ðu
wacost burga on Iudeiscum ealdrum: soðlice of ðe cymð se latteow þe gewylt
Israhela ðeoda." Crist wolde on ytinge beon acenned, to ði þæt he wurde his
ehterum bedigelod. Bethleem is gereht 'Hlaf-hús,' and on hire wæs Crist, se
soða hlaf, acenned, þe be him sylfum cwæð, "Ic eom se liflica hláf, þe of
heofenum astáh, and seðe of ðam hlafe geett ne swylt hé on ecnysse." Þæs
hlafes we onbyriað þonne we mid geleafan to husle gað; forðan þe þæt halige
husel is gastlice Cristes lichama; and þurh ðone we beoð alysede fram ðam
ecan deaðe. María acende ða hire frumcennedan sunu on ðisum andweardan
dæge, and hine mid cild-claðum bewánd, and for rymetleaste on anre binne
geléde. Næs þæt cild forði gecweden hire frumcennede cild swilce heo oðer
siððan acende, ac forði þe Crist is frumcenned of manegum gastlicum
gebroðrum. Ealle cristene men sind his gastlican gebroðra, and hé is se
frumcenneda, on gife and on godcundnysse ancenned of ðam Ælmihtigan Fæder.
Hé wæs mid wacum cild-claðum bewæfed, þæt he ús forgeafe ða undeadlican
tunecan, þe we forluron on ðæs frumsceapenan mannes forgægednysse. Se
Ælmihtiga Godes Sunu, ðe heofenas befon ne mihton, wæs geled on nearuwre
binne, to ði þæt he ús fram hellicum nyrwette alysde. María wæs ða cuma
ðær, swa swa þæt godspel ús segð; and for ðæs folces geðryle wæs þæt
gesthus ðearle genyrwed.

{36} Se Godes Sunu wæs on his gesthuse genyrwed, þæt he us rume wununge on
heofonan rice forgife, gif we his willan gehyrsumiað. Ne bitt hé us nánes
ðinges to edleane his geswinces, buton ure sawle hælo, þæt we ús sylfe
clæne and ungewemmede him gegearcian, to blisse and to ecere myrhðe. Þa
hyrdas ðe wacodon ofer heora eowode on Cristes acennednysse, getacnodon ða
halgan lareowas on Godes gelaðunge, þe sind gastlice hyrdas geleaffulra
sawla: and se engel cydde Cristes acennednysse hyrdemannum, forðam ðe ðan
gastlicum hyrdum, þæt sind lareowas, is swiðost geopenod embe Cristes
menniscnysse, þurh boclice lare; and hí sceolon gecneordlice heora
underþeoddum bodian, þæt þæt him geswutelod is, swa swa ða hyrdas þa
heofenlican gesihðe gewídmærsodan. Þam lareowe gedafenað þæt hé symle wacol
sy ofer Godes eowode, þæt se ungesewenlica wulf Godes scep ne tostence.

Gelóme wurdon englas mannum æteowode on ðære ealdan ǽ, ac hit nis awriten
þæt hí mid leohte comon, ac se wurðmynt wæs þises dæges mærðe gehealden,
þæt hí mid heofenlicum leohte hí geswutelodon, ðaða þæt soðe leoht aspráng
on ðeostrum riht geþancodum, se mildheorta and se rihtwisa Drihten. Se
engel cwæð to þam hyrdum, "Ne beo ge afyrhte; efne ic bodige eow micelne
gefean, ðe eallum folce becymð, forðan þe nu to-dæg is acenned Hælend Crist
on Dauides ceastre." Soðlice hé bodade micelne gefean, seðe næfre ne
geendað; forðan þe Cristes acennednys gegladode heofenwara, and eorðwara,
and helwara. Se engel cwæð, "Nu to-dæg is eow acenned Hælend Crist on
Dauides ceastre:" Rihtlice hé cwæð on dæge, and ná on nihte, forðan ðe
Crist is se soða dæg, seðe todræfde mid his to-cyme ealle nytennysse þære
ealdan nihte, and ealne middangeard mid his gife onlihte. Þæt tácen þe se
engel ðam hyrdum sæde we sceolon symle on urum gemynde healdan, and þancian
ðam Hælende þæt he gemedemode hine sylfne to ðan þæt hé dælnimend wære ure
deadlicnysse, mid menniscum flæsce befangen, and mid wáclicum cild-claðum
bewunden. Þa fǽrlice, æfter þæs engles spræce, wearð gesewen micel menigu
heofenlices werodes {38} God herigendra and singendra, "Sy wuldor Gode on
heannyssum, and on eorðan sibb þam mannum þe beoð godes willan." An engel
bodade þam hyrdum þæs heofonlican Cyninges acennednysse, and ða færlice
wurdon æteowode fela ðusend engla, þy læs ðe wǽre geþuht anes engles
ealdordom to hwonlic to swa micelre bodunge: and hí ealle samod mid
gedremum sange Godes wuldor hleoðrodon, and godum mannum sibbe bodedon,
swutellice æteowiende þæt þurh his acennednysse men beoð gebigede to anes
geleafan sibbe, and to wuldre godcundlicere herunge. Hí sungon, "Sy wuldor
Gode on heannyssum, and on eorðan sibb mannum, ðam ðe beoð godes willan."
Ðas word geswuteliað þæt ðær wunað Godes sibb þær se goda willa bið.
Eornostlice mancynn hæfde ungeþwærnysse to englum ær Drihtnes acennednysse;
forðan ðe we wæron þurh synna ælfremede fram Gode; þa wurde we eac
ælfremede fram his englum getealde: ac siððan se heofenlica Cyning urne
eorðlican lichaman underfeng, siððan gecyrdon his englas to ure sibbe; and
ða ðe hí ærðan untrume forsawon, þa hi wurðiað nu him to geferum. Witodlice
on ðære ealdan ǽ, Loð, and Iosue, and gehwilce oðre þe englas gesawon, hí
luton wið heora, and to him gebædon, and ða englas þæt geðafodon: ac
Iohannes se Godspellere, on ðære Niwan Gecyðnysse, wolde hine gebiddan to
þam engle þe him to spræc, þa forwyrnde se engel him ðæs, and cwæð,
"Beheald þæt ðu ðas dæde ne dó; ic eom ðin efen-ðeowa, and ðinra gebroðra;
gebide ðe to Gode anum." Englas geþafodon ær Drihtnes to-cyme þæt mennisce
men him to feollon, and æfter his to-cyme þæs forwyrndon; forðan þe hí
gesáwon þæt heora Scyppend þæt gecynd underfeng þe hí ær ðan wáclic
tealdon, and ne dorston hit forseon on ús, þonne hí hit wurðiað bufon him
sylfum on ðam heofonlican Cyninge. Ne hí manna geferrædene ne forhógiað,
þonne hí feallende hí to þam menniscum Gode gebiddað. Nu we sind getealde
Godes ceaster-gewaran, and englum gelíce; uton forði hógian þæt leahtras us
ne totwæmon fram {40} ðisum micclum wurðmynte. Soðlice men syndon godas
gecigede; heald forði, ðu mann, þinne godes wurðscipe wið leahtras; forðan
þe God is geworden mann for ðe.

Þa hyrdas ða spræcon him betweonan, æfter ðæra engla fram-færelde, "Uton
gefaran to Bethleém, and geseon þæt word þe geworden is, and God us
geswutelode." Eala hú rihtlice hí andetton þone halgan geleafan mid þisum
wordum, "On frymðe wæs wórd, and þæt word wæs mid Gode, and þæt wórd wæs
God"! Word bið wisdomes geswutelung, and þæt Word, þæt is se Wisdom, is
acenned of ðam Ælmihtigum Fæder, butan anginne; forðan ðe hé wæs æfre God
of Gode, Wisdom of ðam wisan Fæder. Nis hé na geworht, forðan ðe he is God,
and na gesceaft; ac se Ælmihtiga Fæder gesceop þurh ðone Wisdom ealle
gesceafta, and hi ealle ðurh þone Halgan Gast gelíffæste. Ne mihte ure
mennisce gecynd Crist on ðære godcundlican acennednysse geseon; ac þæt ylce
Word wæs geworden flæsc, and wunode on ús, þæt we hine geseon mihton. Næs
þæt Word to flæsce awend, ac hit wæs mid menniscum flæsce befangen. Swa swa
anra gehwilc manna wunað on sawle and on lichaman án mann, swa eac Crist
wunað on godcundnysse and menniscnysse, on ánum hade án Crist. Hí cwædon,
"Uton geseon þæt word þe geworden is," forðan ðe hí ne mihton hit geseon ær
ðan ðe hit geflæschamod wæs, and to menn geworden. Nis þeahhwæðre seo
godcundnys gemenged to ðære menniscnysse, ne ðær nan twæming nys. We mihton
eow secgan ane lytle bysne, gif hit to wáclic nære; Sceawa nú on anum æge,
hú þæt hwite ne bið gemenged to ðam geolcan, and bið hwæðere án æg. Nis eac
Cristes godcundnys gerunnen to ðære menniscnysse, ac he þurhwunað þeah á on
ecnysse on anum hade untotwæmed.

Hrædlice ða comon þa hyrdas and gemetton Marian and Ioseph, and þæt cild
geléd on ðære binne. Maria wæs be Godes dihte þam rihtwisan Iosepe
beweddod, for micclum gebeorge; forðan ðe hit wæs swa gewunelic on
Iudeiscre ðeode, æfter Moyses ǽ, þæt gif ænig wimman cild hæfde {42} butan
be rihtre æwe, þæt hí man sceolde mid stanum oftorfian. Ac God asende his
engel to Iosepe, ða María eacnigende wæs, and bead þæt he hire gymene
hæfde, and þæs cildes foster-fæder wære. Þa wæs geðuht ðam Iudeiscum swilce
Ioseph þæs cildes fæder wære, ac hé næs; forðan þe hit næs nan neod þam
Ælmihtigum Scyppende þæt hé of wífe acenned wære; ac hé genam ða
menniscnysse of Marían innoðe, and forlet hí mæden na gewemmed, ac gehalgod
þurh his acennednysse. Ne oncneow heo weres gemanan, and heo acende butan
sare, and þurhwunað on mægðhade. Þa hyrdas gesawon, and oncneowon be ðam
cilde, swa swa him gesǽd wæs. Nis nan eadignys butan Godes oncnawennesse,
swa swa Crist sylf cwæð ðaða he us his Fæder betæhte, "Þæt is ece líf, þæt
hi ðe oncnawon soðne God, and ðone ðe þu asendest Hælend Crist." Hwæt ða
ealle ða ðe þæt gehyrdon micclum ðæs wundrodon, and be ðam ðe ða hyrdas
sædon. María soðlice heold ealle ðas wórd aræfniende on hire heortan. Heo
nolde widmærsian Cristes digelnesse, ac anbidode oð þæt he sylf þaða he
wolde hí geopenode. Heo cuðe Godes ǽ, and on ðæra witegena gesetnysse
rædde, þæt mæden sceolde God acennan. Þa blissode heo micclum þæt heo hit
beon moste. Hit wæs gewitegod þæt hé on ðære byrig Bethleem acenned wurde,
and heo ðearle wundrode þæt heo æfter ðære witegunge ðær acende. Heo
gemunde hwæt sum witega cwæð, "Se oxa oncneow his hlaford, and se assa his
hlafordes binne." Þa geseah heo þæt cild licgan on binne, ðær se oxa and se
assa gewunelice fodan secað. Godes heah-engel Gabrihel bodode Marían ðæs
Hælendes to-cyme on hire innoðe, and heo geseah ða þæt his bodung
unleaslice gefylled wæs. Ðyllice word María heold aræfnigende on hire
heortan. And þa hyrdas gecyrdon ongean wuldrigende and herigende God, on
eallum ðam ðingum ðe hí gehyrdon and gesáwon, swa swa him gesæd wæs.

Þyssera ðreora hyrda gemynd is gehæfd be eastan Bethleem áne mile, on Godes
cyrcan geswutelod, þam ðe ða stowe {44} geneosiað. We sceolon geefenlæcan
þysum hyrdum, and wuldrian and hérian urne Drihten on eallum ðam ðingum þe
he for ure lufe gefremode, ús to alysednysse and to ecere blisse, ðam sy
wuldor and lof mid ðam Ælmihtigum Fæder, on annysse þæs Halgan Gastes, on
ealra worulda woruld. Amen.



We will, for the confirmation of your faith, relate to you the nativity of
our Saviour, according to the order of the gospel: how he on this present
day was born in true humanity in divine nature.

Luke the Evangelist wrote in the book of Christ, that at {31} that time the
Roman emperor Octavianus made proclamation that all the world should be set
down in writing. This enrolment was set forth from Cyrenius, the governor
of Syria--that every man in general should declare his birth and his
possession in the city to which he belonged. Then Joseph, the foster-father
of Christ, went from the land of Galilee, from the city of Nazareth, to the
Jewish city, which was of David, and was called Bethlehem, because he was
of the tribe of David, and would acknowledge with Mary her birth, who was
then great with child. Then it came to pass, while they were sojourning in
the city of Bethlehem, that her time was fulfilled that she should bring
forth, and she brought forth then her firstborn son, and wrapped him in
swaddling clothes, and laid the child in their asses' bin, because there
was no room in the inn. And there were shepherds in the country watching
over their flock; and lo, the angel of God stood before them, and God's
brightness shone on them, and they were much afraid. Then said the angel of
God to the shepherds, "Fear not, lo, I announce to you great joy, which
shall come to all people; for now to-day is born to you a Saviour, Christ,
in the city of David. Ye shall see this token, ye shall find the child
wrapped in swaddling clothes, and laid in a bin." Then suddenly, after the
angel's speech, there was seen a great multitude of the heavenly host,
praising God and singing, "Gloria in excelsis Deo, et in terra pax
hominibus bonæ voluntatis," that is in our tongue, "Glory to God in the
highest, and on earth peace to men who are of good will." And the angels
then withdrew from their sight to heaven. The shepherds then spake among
themselves, "Let us go to Bethlehem, and see the word that God hath
manifested unto us." They came then quickly, and found Mary, and Joseph,
and the child laid in a bin, as the angel had announced to them. But the
shepherds understood the word that had been said to them concerning the
child, and all wondered that heard it, and also at that which the shepherds
said unto them. But Mary held {33} all these words, pondering them in her
heart. Then the shepherds returned glorifying and praising God for all the
things which they had heard and seen, as had been said to them by the

My dearest brethren, our Saviour, the Son of God, co-eternal with, and
equal to his Father, who was ever with him without beginning, vouchsafed
that he would on this present day, for the redemption of the world, be
corporally born of the Virgin Mary. He is Prince and Author of all things
good and of peace, and he sent before his birth unwonted peace, for never
was there such peace before that period in the world, as there was at the
time of his birth; so that all the world was subjected to the empire of one
man, and all mankind paid royal tribute to him alone. Verily in such great
peace was Christ born, who is our peace, because he united angels and men
to one family through his incarnation. He was born in the days of the
emperor who was called Octavianus, who extended the Roman empire to that
degree that all the world bowed to him, and he was, therefore, named
Augustus, that is, _Increasing his empire_. The name befits the heavenly
King Christ, who was born in his time, who increased his heavenly empire,
and replenished with mankind the loss which the falling devil had caused in
the host of angels. Not only did he simply supply its loss, but also
greatly increased it. Verily as great a number of mankind cometh, through
Christ's incarnation, to the hosts of angels, as there remained of holy
angels in heaven after the devil's fall. The emperor's decree, which
commanded all the world to be inscribed, betokened manifestly the deed of
the heavenly King, who came into the world that he might gather his chosen
from all nations, and write their names in everlasting bliss. This decree
sprang from the governor Cyrenius--Cyrenius is interpreted _Heir_, and he
betokened Christ, who is the true heir of the eternal Father; and he
granteth us to be heirs with him, and partakers of his glory. {35} All
nations then went that each separately might declare concerning himself, in
the city to which he belonged. As at that time, according to the emperor's
proclamation, each one singly, in their cities, declared concerning
himself, so also now do our teachers make known to us Christ's
proclamation, that we gather us to his holy congregation, and therein, with
devout mind, pay to him the tribute of our faith, that our names may be
written in the book of life with his chosen.

The Lord was born in the city which is named Bethlehem, because it was so
before prophesied in these words, "Thou Bethlehem, land of Judah, thou art
not meanest of cities among the Jewish princes, for of thee shall come the
guide that shall govern the people of Israel." Christ would be born on
journey, that he might be concealed from his persecutors. Bethlehem is
interpreted _Bread house_, and in it was Christ, the true bread, brought
forth, who saith of himself, "I am the vital bread, which descended from
heaven, and he who eateth of this bread shall not die to eternity." This
holy bread we taste when we with faith go to housel; because the holy
housel is spiritually Christ's body; and through that we are redeemed from
eternal death. Mary brought forth her firstborn son on this present day,
and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and, for want of room, laid him in a
bin. That child is not called her firstborn child because she afterwards
brought forth another, but because Christ is the firstborn of many
spiritual brothers. All christian men are his spiritual brothers, and he is
the firstborn, in grace and in godliness only-begotten of the Almighty
Father. He was wrapped in mean swaddling clothes, that he might give us the
immortal garment which we lost by the first created man's transgression.
The Almighty Son of God, whom the heavens could not contain, was laid in a
narrow bin, that he might redeem us from the narrowness of hell. Mary was
there a stranger, as the gospel tells us; and through the concourse of
people the inn was greatly crowded.

{37} The Son of God was crowded in his inn, that he might give us a
spacious dwelling in the kingdom of heaven, if we obey his will. He asks
nothing of us as reward for his toil, except our soul's health, that we may
prepare ourselves for him pure and uncorrupted in bliss and everlasting
joy. The shepherds that watched over their flock at Christ's birth,
betokened the holy teachers in God's church, who are the spiritual
shepherds of faithful souls: and the angel announced Christ's birth to the
herdsmen, because to the spiritual shepherds, that is, teachers, is chiefly
revealed concerning Christ's humanity, through book-learning: and they
shall sedulously preach to those placed under them, that which is
manifested to them, as the shepherds proclaimed the heavenly vision. It
beseemeth the teacher to be ever watchful over God's flock, that the
invisible wolf scatter not the sheep.

Oftentimes, in the ancient law, angels appeared to men, but it is not
written that they came with light, for that honour was reserved for the
greatness of this day, that they should manifest themselves with heavenly
light, when that true light sprang up in darkness to the right thinkers,
the merciful and righteous Lord. The angel said to the shepherds, "Be ye
not afraid, lo, I announce to you great joy, which shall come to all
people, for to-day is born a Saviour Christ in the city of David." Verily
he announced great joy, which shall never end; for Christ's nativity
gladdened the inhabitants of heaven, and of earth, and of hell. The angel
said, "Now to-day is born to you a Saviour Christ, in the city of David:"
rightly he said _to-day_, and not to-night, for Christ is the true day who
scattered with his advent all the ignorance of the ancient night, and
illumined all the world with his grace. The sign which the angel said to
the shepherds we ought ever to hold in our remembrance, and to thank the
Saviour that he so humbled himself that he was the partaker of our
mortality, with human flesh invested, and wrapt in mean swaddling clothes.
Then suddenly, after the angel's speech, was seen a great multitude {39} of
the heavenly host, praising God and singing, "Be glory to God in the
highest, and on earth peace to men who are of good will." An angel
announced to the shepherds the heavenly King's nativity, and suddenly
appeared many thousand angels, lest the preeminence of one angel should
seem too inadequate for so great an announcement: and they all together,
with melodious song, God's glory celebrated, and to good men announced
peace, manifestly showing that through his birth men shall be inclined to
the peace of one faith, and to the glory of divine praise. They sung, "Be
glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace to men, to those who are of
good will." These words manifest that where the peace of God dwelleth,
there is good will. But mankind had discord with angels before the Lord's
nativity; because we were through sins estranged from God; then were we
accounted estranged also from his angels: but after that the heavenly King
assumed our earthly body, his angels turned to peace with us; and those
whom they had before despised as mean they now honour as their companions.
But in the ancient law, Lot, and Joshua, and certain others who saw angels,
bowed before them, and prayed to them, and the angels allowed it: but when
John the Evangelist, in the New Testament, would pray to the angel who
spake to him, the angel forbade him, and said, "See that thou do not this
deed; I am thy fellow-servant, and of thy brethren: pray to God only."
Angels permitted, before the advent of the Lord, mortal men to fall down
before them, and after his advent forbade it; because they saw that their
Creator had assumed that nature which they had before accounted mean, and
durst not despise it in us, when they honour it above themselves in the
heavenly King. Nor despise they the fellowship of men, when falling down
they pray to the human God. Now we are accounted citizens of God, and like
to angels; let us, therefore, take care that sins do not separate us from
this great dignity. {41} Verily men are called gods; preserve, therefore,
thou man, thy dignity of a god against sins, since God became man for thee.

The shepherds then spake among themselves, after the departure of the
angels, "Let us go to Bethlehem, and see the word which is come to pass,
and that God hath revealed unto us." O how rightly they acknowledged the
holy faith with these words, "In the beginning was the word, and the word
was with God, and that word was God"! A word is the manifestation of
wisdom, and the Word, that is Wisdom, is begotten of the Almighty Father,
without beginning; for he was ever God of God, Wisdom of the wise Father.
He is not made, for he is God, and not a creature; for the Almighty Father
created all creatures through that Wisdom, and endowed them all with life
through the Holy Ghost. Our human nature could not see Christ in that
divine nativity; but that same Word became flesh and dwelt in us, that we
might see him. The Word was not turned to flesh, but it was invested with
human flesh. As every man existeth in soul and in body one man, so also
Christ existeth in divine nature and human nature, in one person one
Christ. They said, "Let us see the word that is come to pass," because they
could not see it before it was incarnate, and become man. Nevertheless, the
divine nature is not mingled with the human nature, nor is there any
separation. We might tell unto you a little simile, if it were not too
mean; Look now on an egg, how the white is not mingled with the yolk, and
yet it is one egg. Nor also is Christ's divinity confounded with human
nature, but he continueth to all eternity in one person undivided.

Then came the shepherds quickly, and found Mary, and Joseph, and the child
laid in the bin. Mary was, by God's direction, betrothed to the righteous
Joseph, for the greater security; because it was thus customary among the
Jewish people, according to the law of Moses, that if any woman {43} had a
child, save in lawful wedlock, she should be slain with stones. But God
sent his angel to Joseph, when Mary was pregnant, and commanded that he
should have care of her, and be the child's foster-father. Then it seemed
to the Jews that Joseph was father of the child, but he was not; because
the Almighty Creator had no need to be born of woman; but he took human
nature from the womb of Mary, and left her a virgin undefiled, but hallowed
through his birth. She knew no society of man, and she brought forth
without pain, and continued in maidenhood. The shepherds saw and recognized
the child, as had to them been told. (There is no happiness without
knowledge of God, as Christ himself said, when he committed us to his
Father, "That is eternal life that they acknowledge Thee, the true God, and
him whom thou hast sent, the Saviour Christ.") Now all who heard that
wondered greatly thereat, and at what the shepherds said. But Mary held all
these words, pondering them in her heart. She would not publish Christ's
mystery, but waited until he himself, when it pleased him, should divulge
it. She knew God's law, and in the book of the prophets had read, that a
virgin should give birth to God. Then she greatly rejoiced that she might
be it. It was prophesied that he should be born in the city of Bethlehem,
and she greatly wondered that, according to that prophecy, she was there
delivered. She remembered that a prophet had said, "The ox knows his
master, and the ass his master's bin." Then saw she the child lying in the
bin, where the ox and the ass usually seek food. God's archangel Gabriel
had announced to Mary the Saviour's coming into her womb, and she then saw
that his announcement was truly fulfilled. Such words Mary held, pondering
them in her heart. And the shepherds returned glorifying and praising God
for all those things which they had heard and seen, as had been told unto

The memory of these three shepherds is preserved one mile to the east of
Bethlehem, and manifested in God's church {45} to those who visit the
place. We should imitate these shepherds, and glorify and praise our Lord
for all those things which he hath done for love of us, for our redemption
and eternal bliss, to whom be glory and praise with the Almighty Father, in
unity of the Holy Ghost, world without end. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *

VII. K[=L]. JAN.


We rædað on ðære béc þe is geháten Actus Apostolorum, þǽt ða apostolas
gehádodon seofon diaconas on ðære gelaðunge þe of Iudeiscum folce to
Cristes geleafan beah, æfter his ðrowunge, and ǽriste of deaðe, and upstige
to heofenum. Þæra diacona wæs se forma STEPHANUS, þe we on ðisum dæge
wurðiað. He wæs swiðe geleafful, and mid þam Halgum Gaste afylled. Þa oðre
six wæron gecigede ðisum namum: Stephanus wæs se fyrmesta, oðer Philippus,
þridda Procorus, feorða Nicanor, fifta Timotheus, sixta Parmenen, seofoða
Nicolaus. Ðas seofon hí gecuron and gesetton on ðæra apostola gesihðe, and
hi ða mid gebedum and bletsungum to diaconum gehadode wurdon. Weox ða
dæghwonlice Godes bodung, and wæs gemenigfylld þæt getel cristenra manna
þearle on Hierusalem. Þa wearð se eadiga Stephanus mid Godes gife, and mid
micelre strencðe afylled, and worhte forebeacena and micele tácna on ðam
folce. Ða astodon sume ða ungeleaffullan Iudei, and woldon mid heora
gedwylde þæs eadigan martyres láre oferswiðan; ac hi ne mihton his wisdome
wiðstandan, ne ðam Halgum Gaste, ðe ðurh hine spræc. Þa setton hí lease
gewitan, ðe hine forlugon, and cwædon, þæt hé tállice word spræce be Moyse
and be Gode. Þæt folc wearð ða micclum astyred, and þa heafod-menn, and þa
Iudeiscan boceras, and gelæhton Stephanum, and tugon to heora geþeahte; and
ða leasan gewitan him on {46} besædon, "Ne geswicð ðes man to sprecenne
tallice word ongean þas halgan stowe and Godes ǽ. We gehyrdon hine secgan
þæt Crist towyrpð þas stowe, and towent ða gesetnysse ðe ús Moyses tæhte."
Þa beheoldon ða hine ðe on þam geðeahte sæton, and gesawon his nebwlite
swylce sumes engles ansyne. Ða cwæð se ealdor-biscop to ðam eadigan cyðere,
"Is hit swa hí secgað?" Ða wolde se halga wer Stephanus heora
ungeleaffullan heortan gerihtlæcan mid heora forðfædera gebysnunge and
gemynde, and to soðfæstnysse wege mid ealre lufe gebigan. Begann ða him to
reccenne be ðam heahfædere Abrahame, hu se heofenlica God hine geceas him
to geþoftan, and him behet, þæt ealle ðeoda on his ofspringe gebletsode
wurdon, for his gehyrsumnesse. Swa eac ðæra oðra heahfædera gemynd, mid
langsumere race, ætforan him geniwode; and hu Moyses, ðurh Godes mihte,
heora foregengan ofer ða Readan Sæ wundorlice gelædde, and hú hí siððan
feowertig geara on westene wæron, mid heofenlicum bigleofan dæghwonlice
gereordode; and hu God hí lædde to ðam Iudeiscan earde, and ða hæðenan
ðeoda ætforan heora gesihðum eallunga adwæscte; and be Dauides mærðe, þæs
mæran cyninges, and Salomones wuldre, ðe Gode þæt mære tempel arærde. Cwæð
þa æt nextan, "Ge wiðstandað þam Halgum Gaste mid stiðum swuran, and
ungeleaffulre heortan; ge sind meldan and manslagan, and ge ðone rihtwisan
Crist niðfullice acwealdon; ge underfengon ǽ on engla gesetnysse, and ge
hit ne heoldon." Hwæt ða Iudeiscan þa wurdon þearle on heora heortan
astyrode, and biton heora teð him togeanes. Se halga Stephanus wearð þa
afylled mid þam Halgum Gaste, and beheold wið heofonas weard, and geseah
Godes wuldor, and þone Hælend standende æt his Fæder swiðran; and he cwæð,
"Efne ic geseo heofenas opene, and mannes Sunu standende æt Godes swiðran."
Iudei ða, mid micelre stemne hrymende, heoldon heora earan, and anmodlice
him to scuton, and hi hine gelæhton, and of ðære byrig gelæddon to
stænenne. Þa leas-gewitan ða lédon heora {48} hacelan ætforan fotum sumes
geonges cnihtes, se wæs geciged SAULUS. Ongunnon ða oftorfian mid heardum
stanum ðone eadigan Stephanum; and hé clypode, and cwæð, "Drihten Hǽlend,
onfóh minne gast." And gebigde his cneowu, mid micelre stemne clypigende,
"Min Drihten, ne sete ðu ðas dæda him to synne." And hé mid þam worde ða
gewát to ðan Ælmihtigum Hælende, þe he on heofenan healicne standende

Se wisa Augustinus spræc ymbe ðas rædinge, and smeade hwí se halga cyðere
Stephanus cwæde þæt he gesawe mannes bearn standan æt Godes swyðran, and
nolde cweðan Godes bearn; þonne ðe is geþuht wurðlicor be Criste to
cweðenne Godes Bearn ðonne mannes Bearn. Ac hit gedafenode þæt se Hælend
swa geswutelod wære on heofenum, and swa gebodod on middangearde. Eall ðæra
Iudeiscra teona aras þurh þæt, hwí Drihten Crist, seðe æfter flæsce soðlice
is mannes Sunu, eac swilce wære gecweden Godes Sunu? forði gemunde swiðe
gedafenlice þæt godcunde gewrit, mannes Sunu standan æt Godes swiðran to
gescyndenne þæra Iudeiscra úngeleaffulnysse. Crist wæs æteowed his eadigan
cyðere Stephane on heofenum, seðe fram ungeleaffullum on middangearde
acweald wæs, and seo heofenlice soðfæstnyss be ðam cydde gecyðnysse, þone
seo eorðlice arleasnyss huxlice tælde. Hwá mæg beon rihtlice gecíged mannes
Bearn, buton Criste anum, þonne ælc man is twegra manna bearn, buton him
anum? Se eadiga Stephanus geseah Crist standan, forðan þe he wæs his
gefylsta on ðam gastlicum gefeohte his martyrdomes. Witodlice we andettað
on urum credan, þæt Drihten sitt æt his Fæder swiðran. Setl gedafenað
déman, and steall fylstendum oððe feohtendum. Nu andet ure geleafa Cristes
setl, forðan ðe hé is se soða déma lybbendra and deadra: and se eadiga
cyðere Stephanus híne geseah standende, forðan ðe he wæs his gefylsta, swa
swa we ǽr sædon. Ealra gecorenra halgena deað is deorwurðe on Godes
gesihðe; ac ðeah-hwæðere is geþuht, gif ænig todál beon mæg betwux {50}
martyrum, þæt se is healicost seðe ðone martyrdom æfter Gode astealde.
Witodlice Stephanus wæs to diacone gehádod æt ðæra apostola handum; ac hé
hí forestóp on heofenan rice mid sigefæstum deaðe; and swa se ðe wæs neoðor
on endebyrdnysse, wearð fyrmest on ðrowunge; and se ðe wæs leorning-cniht
on háde, ongann wesan láreow on martyrdome. Ðone deað soðlice þe se Hælend
gemedemode for mannum þrowian, ðone ageaf Stephanus fyrmest manna þam
Hælende. He is gecweden protomartyr, þæt is se forma cyðere, forðan ðe hé
æfter Cristes ðrowunge ærest martyrdóm geðrowode. Stephanus is Grecisc
nama, þæt is on Leden, Coronatus, þæt we cweðað on Englisc, Gewuldorbeagod;
forðan ðe hé hæfð þone ecan wuldorbeah, swa swa his nama him forewítegode.
Þa leasan gewitan, ðe hine forsædon, híne ongunnon ærest to torfienne;
forðan þe Moyses ǽ tæhte, þæt swa hwá swa oðerne to deaðe forsǽde, sceolde
wurpan ðone forman stán to ðam ðe hé ær mid his tungan acwealde. Ða reðan
Iudei wedende þone halgan stǽndon: and hé clypode, and cwæð, "Drihten, ne
sete ðu ðas dǽda him to synne."

Understandað nu, mine gebroðra, þa micclan lufe þæs eadigan weres. On deaðe
hé wæs gesett, and ðeah he bæd mid soðre lufe for his cwelleras; and betwux
ðæra stana hryre, ðaða gehwá mihte his leofostan frynd forgytan, ða betæhte
hé his fynd Gode, þus cweðende, "Drihten, ne sete þu ðas dæda him to
synne." Swiðor he besorgade þa heora synna þonne his agene wunda; swiðor
heora arleasnysse þonne his sylfes deað; and rihtlice swiðor, forðan ðe
heora arleasnysse fyligde se eca deað, and þæt ece líf fyligde his deaðe.
Saulus heold ðæra leasra gewitena reaf, and heora mod to þære stæninge
geornlice tihte. Stephanus soðlice gebigedum cneowum Drihten bæd þæt hé
Saulum alysde. Wearð ða Stephanes bén fram Gode gehyred, and Saulus wearð
alysed. Se árfæsta wæs gehyred, and se arleasa wearð gerihtwisod.

On ðyssere dæde is geswutelod hu micclum fremige þære {52} soðan lufe
gebed. Witodlice næfde Godes gelaðung Paulum to lareowe, gif se halga
martyr Stephanus swa ne bæde. Efne nú Paulus blissað mid Stephane on
heofenan rice; mid Stephane hé bricð Cristes beorhtnysse, and mid him hé
rixað. Þider ðe Stephanus forestóp, mid Saules stanum oftorfod, ðider
folgode Paulus gefultumod þurh Stephanes gebedu. Þær nis Paulus gescynd
þurh Stephanes slege, ac Stephanus gladað on Paules gefærrædene; forðan þe
seo soðe lufu on heora ægðrum blissað. Seo soðe lufu oferwann ðæra
Iudeiscra reðnysse on Stephane, and seo ylce lufu oferwreah synna
micelnysse on Paule, and heo on heora ægðrum samod geearnode heofenan rice.
Eornostlice seo soðe lufu is wylspring and ordfruma ealra godnyssa and
æðele trumnys, and se weg þe lǽt to heofonum. Se ðe færð on soðre lufe ne
mæg hé dwelian, ne forhtian: heo gewissað, and gescylt, and gelæt. Þurh þa
soðan lufe wæs þes halga martyr swa gebyld þæt he bealdlice ðæra Iudeiscra
ungeleaffulnysse ðreade, and he órsorh betwux ðam greatum hagolstanum
þurhwunode; and he for ðam stænendum welwillende gebæd, and þær to-eacan ða
heofenlican healle cucu and gewuldorbeagod inn-ferde.

Mine gebroðra, uton geefenlæcan be sumum dæle swa miccles lareowes
geleafan, and swa mæres cyðeres lufe. Uton lufian ure gebroðra on Godes
gelaðunge mid swilcum mode swa swa ðes cyðere þa lufode his fynd. Beoð
gemyndige hwæt seo sylfe Soðfæstnys on ðam halgan godspelle behét, and
hwilc wedd us gesealde. Se Hælend cwæð, "Gif ge forgyfað þam mannum þe wið
eow agyltað, þonne forgyfð eow eower Fæder eowere synna: gif ge ðonne
nellað forgyfan, nele eac eower Fæder eow forgifan eowere gyltas." Ge
gehyrað nu, mine gebroðra, þæt hit stent þurh Godes gyfe on urum agenum
dihte hu ús bið æt Gode gedémed. He cwæð, "Gif ge forgyfað, eow bið
forgyfen." Ne bepæce nán man hine sylfne: witodlice gif hwa furðon ænne man
hatað on ðisum middangearde, swa hwæt swa he to góde gedéð, eal {54} he hit
forlyst; forðan ðe se apostol Paulus ne bið geligenod, þe cwæð, "Þeah ðe ic
aspende ealle mine æhta on ðearfena bigleofan, and ðeah ðe ic minne agenne
lichaman to cwale gesylle, swa ðæt ic forbyrne on martyrdome; gif ic næbbe
ða soðan lufe, ne fremað hit me nan ðing." Be ðan ylcan cwæð se godspellere
Iohannes, "Seðe his broðor ne lufað, he wunað on deaðe." Eft hé cwæð, "Ælc
ðæra þe his broðor hatað is manslaga." Ealle we sind gebroðra þe on God
gelyfað, and we ealle cweðað, "Pater noster qui es in celis," þæt is, "Ure
Fæder þe eart on heofonum." Ne gedyrstlæce nan man be mægðhade, butan soðre
lufe. Ne truwige nan man be ælmesdædum oððe on gebedum, butan ðære
foresædan lufe; forðan ðe swa lange swa hé hylt ðone sweartan nið on his
heortan, ne mæg he mid nanum ðinge þone mildheortan God gegladian. Ac gif
he wille þæt him God milde sý, þonne hlyste hé gódes rædes, na of minum
muðe, ac of Cristes sylfes: he cwæð, "Gif ðu offrast ðine lác to Godes
weofode, and þu þær gemyndig bist þæt ðin broðor hæfð sum ðing ongean ðe,
forlæt ðærrihte ða lác ætforan ðam weofode, and gang ærest to þinum breðer,
and þe to him gesibsuma; and ðonne ðu eft cymst to ðam weofode, geoffra
ðonne ðine lác." Gif ðu ðonne þinum cristenum breðer deredest, þonne hæfð
he sum ðing ongean ðe, and þu scealt be Godes tæcunge hine gegladian, ær ðu
ðine lác geoffrige. Gif ðonne se cristena mann, þe ðin broðor is, ðe ahwar
geyfelode, þæt ðu scealt miltsigende forgifan. Ure gastlican lác sind ure
gebedu, and lofsang, and husel-halgung, and gehwilce oðre lác ðe we Gode
offriað, þa we sceolon mid gesibsumere heortan and broðerlicere lufe Gode
betæcan. Nu cwyð sum man ongean ðas rædinge, Ne mæg ic minne feond lufian,
ðone ðe ic dæghwonlice wælhreowne togeanes me geseo. Eala ðu mann, þu
sceawast hwæt ðin broðor þe dyde, and þu ne sceawast hwæt ðu Gode gedydest.
Þonne ðu micele swærran synna wið God gefremodest, hwí nelt ðu forgyfan ða
lytlan gyltas anum menn, þæt se Ælmihtiga God þe ða micclan {56} synna
forgyfe? Nu cwyst ðu eft, Micel gedeorf bið me þæt ic minne feond lufige,
and for ðone gebidde þe me hearmes cepð. Ne wiðcweðe we þæt hit micel
gedeorf ne sy; ac gif hit is hefigtyme on ðyssere worulde, hit becymð to
micelre mede on ðære toweardan. Witodlice þurh ðines feondes lufe þu bist
Godes freond; and na þæt an þæt ðu his freond sy, ac eac swilce þu bist
Godes bearn, þurh ða rædene þæt þu þinne feond lufige; swa swa Crist sylf
cwæð, "Lufiað eowere fynd, doð þam tela þe eow hatiað, þæt ge beon eoweres
Fæder cild, seðe on heofenum is." Menigfealde earfoðnyssa and hospas wolde
gehwá eaðelice forberan wið þan þæt he moste sumum rican men to bearne
geteald beon, and his yrfenuma to gewitendlicum æhtum: forberað nu
geðyldelice for ðam ecan wurðmynte, þæt ge Godes bearn getealde beon, and
his yrfenuman on heofenlicum spedum, þæt þæt se oðer forðyldigan wolde for
ateorigendlicere edwiste.

We secgað eow Godes riht; healdað gif ge willon. Gif we hit forsuwiað, ne
bið us geborgen. Cristes lufu us neadað þæt we simle þa gódan tihton, þæt
hí on gódnysse þurhwunion; and ða yfelan we mynegiað, þæt hí fram heora
yfelnessum hrædlice gecyrron. Ne beo se rihtwisa gymeleas on his anginne,
ne se yfela ortruwige ðurh his unrihtwisnysse. Ondræde se goda þæt hé
fealle; hogige se yfela þæt hé astande. Se ðe yfel sy geefenlæce hé Paules
gecyrrednysse; se ðe gód sy þurhwunige hé on gódnysse mid Stephane; forðan
ðe ne bið nán anginn herigendlic butan godre geendunge. Ælc lof bið on ende

Mine gebroðra, gyrstan-dæg gemedemode ure Drihten hine sylfne, þæt hé ðysne
middangeard þurh soðe menniscnysse geneosode: nu to-dǽg se æðela cempa
Stephanus, fram lichamlicere wununge gewitende, sigefæst to heofenum ferde.
Crist niðer-astáh, mid flæsce bewæfed; Stephanus up-astáh, þurh his blod
gewuldorbeagod. Gyrstan-dæg sungon englas "Gode wuldor on heannyssum;" nu
to-dæg hí underfengon Stephanum blissigende on heora geferrædene, mid þam
hé wuldrað and blissað á on ecnysse. Amen.



We read in the book which is called The Acts of the Apostles, that the
apostles ordained seven deacons in the congregation which, from among the
Jewish people, had turned to Christ's faith, after his passion, and
resurrection from death, and ascension to heaven. Of these deacons the
first was STEPHEN, to whom we do honour on this day. He was of great faith,
and filled with the Holy Ghost. The six others were called by these names;
Stephen was the first, the second Philip, the third Prochorus, the fourth
Nicanor, the fifth Timothy, the sixth Parmenas, the seventh Nicolas. They
chose these seven, and set them in the presence of the apostles, and they
then, with prayers and blessings, were ordained deacons. The preaching of
God waxed then daily, and the number of christian men was greatly
multiplied in Jerusalem. Then was the blessed Stephen filled with God's
grace, and with great strength, and he wrought miracles and great signs
among the people. Then arose some of the unbelieving Jews, and would with
their error quell the blessed martyr's doctrine; but they could not
withstand his wisdom, nor the Holy Ghost, who spake through him. Then they
set false witnesses, who belied him, and said that he spake blasphemous
words of Moses and of God. The people were then greatly excited, and the
elders, and the Jewish scribes, and they seized Stephen, and drew him to
their council, and {47} the false witnesses said of him, "This man ceaseth
not to speak blasphemous words against this holy place, and God's law. We
heard him say that Christ shall destroy this place, and change the usages
which Moses hath taught us." Then looked on him they who sate in the
council, and saw his countenance like the face of an angel. Then said the
chief priest to the blessed martyr, "Is it as they say?" Then would the
holy man Stephen rectify their unbelieving hearts with the example and
remembrance of their forefathers, and, with all love, incline them to the
way of truth. He began then to relate to them concerning the patriarch
Abraham, how the God of heaven chose him for associate, and promised him,
that all nations should be blessed in his offspring, for his obedience. In
like manner, in a long narrative, he renewed before them the memory of the
other patriarchs; and how Moses, through God's might, wonderfully led their
forefathers over the Red Sea, and how they afterwards were forty days in
the waste, daily fed with heavenly food; and how God led them to the Jewish
country, and wholly destroyed before their sight all the heathen nations;
and of David the great king's greatness, and of Solomon's glory, who the
great temple raised to God. At last he said, "Ye withstand the Holy Ghost
with stiff neck and unbelieving heart; ye are betrayers and murderers, and
the righteous Christ ye enviously slew; ye have received a law by the
disposition of angels, and ye have held it not." Then were the Jews greatly
disturbed in their heart, and gnashed their teeth against him. But the holy
Stephen was filled with the Holy Ghost, and looked towards heaven, and saw
the glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right of his Father; and he
said, "Behold, I see the heavens open, and the Son of man standing at the
right hand of God." Then the Jews, crying with a loud voice, held their
ears, and with one accord rushed on him, and seized him, and led him out of
the city to be stoned. The false witnesses then laid their coats before the
{49} feet of a young man who was called SAUL. They then begun to stone with
hard stones the blessed Stephen; and he cried, and said, "Lord Jesus,
receive my spirit." And he bowed his knees, crying with a loud voice, "My
Lord, place not thou these deeds to them as sin." And he then with that
word departed to the Almighty Saviour, whom he had seen standing high in

The wise Augustine spake touching this text, and inquired, why the holy
martyr Stephen said that he saw the Son of man standing at God's right
hand, and would not say the Son of God; when it seemed worthier of Christ
to be called the Son of God than the Son of man? But it was fitting that
Jesus should be so manifested in heaven, and so announced on earth. All the
malice of the Jews arose in this, Why the Lord Christ, who, after the
flesh, is truly the Son of man, should also be called the Son of God; for
the holy writ hath very properly mentioned the Son of man standing at the
right hand of God, to shame the disbelief of the Jews. Christ was
manifested in heaven to his blessed martyr Stephen, who was slain by the
unbelievers on earth; and the heavenly truth gave testimony of him, whom
earthly wickedness had shamefully calumniated. Who can rightly be called
the Son of man, save Christ only, when every man besides him is the son of
two persons? The blessed Stephen saw Christ standing, because he was his
support in the spiritual fight of his martyrdom. Verily we confess in our
creed that the Lord sits at the right hand of his Father. A seat is
befitting to a judge, and standing to one helping or fighting. Now our
creed acknowledges Christ's seat, because he is the true Judge of the
living and the dead: and the blessed martyr Stephen saw him standing,
because he was his helper, as we before said. The death of all the chosen
saints is precious in the sight of God; yet it seems, if any difference may
be between martyrs, that he is the most exalted who suffered {51} martyrdom
next to God. Now Stephen was ordained deacon at the hands of the apostles;
but he preceded them in the kingdom of heaven by a triumphant death; and so
he who was lower in order was first in suffering; and he who was a disciple
in condition was the earliest to be a doctor in martyrdom. That death
verily which Jesus vouchsafed to suffer for men, Stephen gave first of men
to Jesus. He is called protomartyr, that is the first witness, because he
first after Christ's passion suffered martyrdom. Stephen is a Greek name,
which is in Latin, _Coronatus_, and which we express in English by,
_Glory-crowned_, because he has the eternal crown of glory, as his name
foretold to him. The lying witnesses, who had falsely accused him, begun
first to stone him; because the law of Moses taught, that whosoever accused
another to death should throw the first stone against him whom he had
before slain with his tongue. The cruel Jews raging stoned the holy one,
and he cried and said, "Lord, place thou not these deeds to them as sin."

Understand now, my brethren, the great love of this blessed man. He was
placed in death, and yet he prayed with true love for his slayers; and amid
the falling of the stones, when any one might forget his dearest friends,
he commended his foes to God, thus saying, "Lord, place thou not these
deeds to them as sin." He was more afflicted on account of their sins than
of his own wounds, more for their wickedness than his own death; and
rightly more, seeing that eternal death followed their wickedness, and
eternal life followed his death. Saul held the garments of the false
witnesses, and zealously instigated their minds to the stoning. But Stephen
with bended knees besought the Lord that he would redeem Saul. Stephen's
prayer was heard, and Saul was redeemed. The pious one was heard, and the
impious justified.

By this deed is shown how greatly avails the prayer of {53} true love.
Verily the church of God would not have had Paul as a teacher, if the holy
martyr Stephen had not thus prayed. Behold, Paul now rejoices with Stephen
in the kingdom of heaven; with Stephen he enjoys the brightness of Christ,
and with him he rules. Whither Stephen preceded, stoned with the stones of
Saul, thither Paul followed, aided by the prayers of Stephen. Paul is not
there defiled through Stephen's murder, but Stephen rejoices in the
fellowship of Paul, because true love rejoices in them both. True love
overcame the cruelty of the Jews to Stephen, and the same love covered over
the greatness of his sins in Paul, and it in both of them together earned
the kingdom of heaven. Verily true love is the fountain and origin of all
goodness, and noble fortitude, and the way that leads to heaven. He who
journeys in true love cannot err nor fear: it directs, and shields, and
leads. Through true love was the holy martyr rendered so courageous that he
boldly reproved the disbelief of the Jews, and he continued tranquil amid
the great stones, and benevolently prayed for the stoners, and, in addition
thereto, entered the heavenly hall living, and crowned with glory.

My brethren, let us in some degree imitate so great a teacher's faith, and
so great a martyr's love. Let us love our brothers in God's church with
such affection as that with which this martyr loved his foes. Be mindful
what Truth itself has promised in the holy gospel, and what pledge it has
given us. Jesus said, "If ye forgive those men who sin against you, then
will your heavenly Father forgive you your sins: but if ye will not
forgive, your Father will not forgive you your sins." Ye hear now, my
brethren, that it stands, through God's grace, at our own option how we
shall be judged before God. He said, "If ye forgive, ye shall be forgiven."
Let no man deceive himself: verily if any one hate a man in this world,
whatever good he may have done, {55} he loses it all; for the apostle Paul
speaks not falsely, who says, "Though I spend all my wealth in food for the
poor, and though I give my own body to be slain, so that I burn in
martyrdom, if I have not true love, it profiteth me nothing." Concerning
the same the evangelist John said, "He who loveth not his brother
continueth in death." Again he said, "Every one who hateth his brother is a
murderer." We are all brothers who believe in God, and we all say, "Pater
noster qui es in cœlis," that is, "Our Father who art in heaven." Let no
man presume on kinship without true love. Let no man trust in alms-deeds,
or in prayers, without the aforesaid love; for so long as he holds black
malice in his heart, he cannot in any way delight the merciful God. But if
he desire that God be merciful to him, let him listen to good counsel, not
from my mouth, but from that of Christ himself: he said, "If thou offerest
thy gift at God's altar, and thou there rememberest that thy brother hath
something against thee, leave forthwith the gift before the altar, and go
first to thy brother, and reconcile thee to him, and when thou comest again
to the altar, offer then thy gift." But if thou hast injured thy christian
brother, then hath he something against thee, and thou shalt, according to
God's teaching, gladden him, ere thou offerest thy gift. But if the
christian man, who is thy brother, hath in aught done thee evil, that thou
shalt mercifully forgive. Our spiritual gifts are our prayers, and hymn,
and housel-hallowing, and every other gift that we offer to God, which we
should give to God with peaceful heart and brotherly love. Now will some
man say against this text, I cannot love my foe, whom I see daily
bloodthirsty against me. O thou man, thou seest what thy brother hath done
to thee, but thou seest not what thou hast done to God. When thou much
heavier sins hast perpetrated against God, why wilt thou not forgive one
man little offences, that the Almighty God may forgive thee great {57}
sins? Now again thou wilt say, It is a great hardship for me to love my
foe, and to pray for him who meditates harm against me. We will not gainsay
that it is a great hardship; but if it is difficult in this world, it turns
to a great reward in the one to come. Verily by love of thy foe thou art
the friend of God, and not only art thou his friend, but thou art also a
child of God, by the condition that thou love thy foe; as Christ himself
hath said, "Love your enemies, do good to those who hate you, that ye be
your Father's children, who is in heaven." Many hardships and contumelies
any one would easily endure that he might be accounted the child of some
powerful man, and his heir to transitory possessions: bear now patiently,
for the everlasting honour of being accounted children of God, and his
heirs in heavenly riches, that which the other would undergo for a frail

We tell you God's law; hold it if ye will. If we kept it in silence, we
should not be secure. Love of Christ compels us ever to stimulate the good,
that they continue in goodness; and we admonish the wicked that they may
quickly turn from their wickedness. Let not the righteous be heedless at
his beginning, nor the wicked despair through his unrighteousness. Let the
good man dread lest he fall; the wicked take care that he stand. Let him
who is wicked imitate the conversion of Paul; let him who is good persist
in goodness with Stephen; for no beginning is praiseworthy without a good
ending. All praise will be sung at the end.

My brethren, yesterday our Lord vouchsafed to visit this world in true
human nature: now to-day the noble champion Stephen, quitting his bodily
dwelling, went triumphant to heaven. Christ descended clothed with flesh;
Stephen ascended, through his blood with glory crowned. Yesterday angels
sung, "Glory to God in the highest;" now to-day they received Stephen
rejoicing in their fellowship, with whom he glorieth and rejoiceth to all
eternity. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *

{58} VI. KA[=L]. JAN.


Iohannes se Godspellere, Cristes dyrling, wearð on ðysum dæge to heofenan
rices myrhðe, þurh Godes neosunge, genumen. He wæs Cristes moddrian sunu,
and he hine lufode synderlice; na swa micclum for ðære mæglican sibbe swa
for ðære clænnysse his ansundan mægðhades. He wæs on mægðháde Gode gecoren,
and hé on ecnysse on ungewemmedum mægðhade þurhwunode. Hit is geræd on
gewyrdelicum racum þæt hé wolde wífian, and Críst wearð to his gyftum
gelaðod. Þa gelámp hit þæt æt ðam gyftum wín wearð ateorod. Se Hælend ða
het þa ðenig-men afyllan six stænene fatu mid hluttrum wætere, and he mid
his bletsunge þæt wæter to æðelum wine awende. Þis is þæt forme tácn ðe hé
on his menniscnysse openlice geworhte. Þa wearð Iohannes swa onbryrd þurh
þæt tácn, þæt hé ðærrihte his bryde on mægðhade forlét, and symle syððan
Drihtne folgode, and wearð ða him inweardlice gelufod, forðan ðe he hine
ætbræd þam flæsclicum lustum. Witodlice ðisum leofan leorning-cnihte
befæste se Hælend his modor, þaþa hé on rode hengene mancynn alysde; þæt
his clæne líf ðæs clænan mædenes Marian gymde, and heo ða on hyre swyster
suna ðenungum wunode.

Eft on fyrste, æfter Cristes upstige to heofonum, rixode sum wælhreow
casere on Romana ríce, æfter Nerone, se wæs Domicianus gehaten, cristenra
manna ehtere: se het afyllan ane cyfe mid weallendum ele, and þone mæran
godspellere þæron het bescufan; ac he, ðurh Godes gescyldnysse, ungewemmed
of ðam hatum bæðe eode. Eft ðaða se wælreowa ne mihte ðæs eadigan apostoles
bodunge alecgan, þa asende he hine on wræcsið to anum igeoðe þe is Paðmas
gecíged, þæt he ðær þurh hungres scearpnysse acwæle. Ac se Ælmihtiga Hælend
ne forlét to gymeleaste his gelufedan apostol, ac {60} geswutelode him on
ðam wræcsiðe þa toweardan onwrigenysse, be ðære hé awrat ða bóc ðe is
gehaten APOCALIPSIS: and se wælhreowa Domicianus on ðam ylcan geare wearð
acweald æt his witena handum; and hí ealle anmodlice ræddon þæt ealle his
gesetnyssa aydlode wæron. Þa wearð Nerua, swiðe arfæst man, to casere
gecoren. Be his geðafunge gecyrde se apostol ongean mid micclum wurðmynte,
seðe mid hospe to wræcsiðe asend wæs. Him urnon ongean weras and wif
fægnigende, and cweðende, "Gebletsod is se ðe com on Godes naman."

Mid þam ðe se apostol Iohannes stop into ðære byrig Ephesum, þa bær man him
togeanes anre wydewan líc to byrigenne; hire nama wæs Drusiana. Heo wæs
swiðe gelyfed and ælmesgeorn, and þa ðearfan, ðe heo mid cystigum mode
eallunga afedde, dreorige mid wópe ðam líce folgodon. Ða het se apostol ða
bære settan, and cwæð, "Min Drihten, Hælend Crist! Arære ðe, Drusiana;
aris, and gecyrr ham, and gearca ús gereordunge on þinum huse." Drusiana þa
arás swilce of slæpe awreht, and, carfull be ðæs apostoles hæse, ham

On ðam oðrum dæge eode se apostol be ðære stræt, þa ofseah he hwær sum
uðwita lædde twegen gebroðru, þe hæfdon behwyrfed eall heora yldrena
gestreon on deorwurðum gymstanum, and woldon ða tocwysan on ealles þæs
folces gesihðe, to wæfersyne, swylce to forsewennysse woruldlicra æhta. Hit
wæs gewunelic on ðam timan þæt ða ðe woldon woruld-wisdom gecneordlice
leornian, þæt hí behwyrfdon heora are on gymstanum, and ða tobræcon; oððe
on sumum gyldenum wecge, and ðone on sǽ awurpan; þilæs ðe seo smeaung þæra
æhta hí æt þære lare hremde. Þa clypode se apostol ðone uðwitan Graton him
to, and cwæð, "Dyslic bið þæt hwa woruldlice speda forhogige for manna
hérunge, and beo on Godes dome geniðerod. Ydel bið se læcedom þe ne mæg
ðone untruman gehælan; swa bið eac ydel seo lár ðe ne gehælð ðære sawle
leahtras and unðeawas. {62} Soðlice min lareow Crist sumne cniht ðe
gewilnode þæs ecan lifes þysum wordum lærde, Þæt he sceolde ealle his welan
beceapian, and þæt wurð ðearfum dælan, gif hé wolde fulfremed beon, and he
syððan hæfde his goldhord on heofenum, and ðær to-eacan þæt ece líf."
Graton ða se uðwita him andwyrde, "Þas gymstanas synd tocwysede for ydelum
gylpe, ac gif ðin láreow is soð God, gefeg ðas bricas to ansundnysse, þæt
heora wurð mæge þearfum fremian." Iohannes þa gegaderode ðæra gymstana
bricas, and beseah to heofonum, þus cweðende, "Drihten Hælend, nis ðe nan
ðing earfoðe; þu ge-edstaðelodest ðisne tobrocenan middangeard on þinum
geleaffullum, þurh tácen þære halgan rode; ge-edstaðela nu þas deorwurðan
gymstanas, ðurh ðinra engla handa, þæt ðas nytenan menn þine mihta
oncnáwon, and on þe gelyfon." Hwæt, ða færlice wurdon ða gymstanas swa
ansunde, þæt furðon nan tácen þære ærran tocwysednysse næs gesewen. Þa se
uðwita Graton samod mid þam cnihtum feoll to Iohannes fotum, gelyfende on
God. Se apostol hine fullode mid eallum his hirede, and hé ongann Godes
geleafan openlice bodian. Þa twegen gebroðra, Atticus and Eugenius, sealdon
heora gymstanas, and ealle heora æhta dældon wǽdlum, and filigdon þam
apostole, and micel menigu geleaffulra him eac to geðeodde.

Þa becom se apostol æt sumum sæle to þære byrig Pergamum, þær ða foresædan
cnihtas iú ær eardodon, and gesawon heora ðeowan mid godewebbe
gefreatewode, and on woruldlicum wuldre scinende. Ða wurdon hí mid deofles
flan þurhscotene, and dreorige on mode, þæt hí wædligende on ánum waclicum
wæfelse ferdon, and heora ðeowan on woruldlicum wuldre scinende wæron. Þa
undergeat se apostol ðas deoflican facn, and cwæð, "Ic geseo þæt eower mód
is awend, and eower andwlita, forðan ðe ge eowre speda þearfum dældon, and
mines Drihtnes lare fyligdon: gað nu forði to wuda, and heawað incre
byrðene gyrda, and gebringað to me." Hí dydon be his hæse, and hé on Godes
{64} naman ða grenan gyrda gebletsode, and hí wurdon to readum golde
awende. Eft cwæð se apostol Iohannes, "Gað to ðære sǽ-strande, and feccað
me papolstanas." Hí dydon swa; and Iohannes þa on Godes mægenðrymme hí
gebletsode, and hí wurdon gehwyrfede to deorwurðum gymmum. Þa cwæð se
apostol, "Gað to smiððan, and fandiað þises goldes and ðissera gymstana."
Hí ða eodon, and eft comon, þus cweðende, "Ealle ðas goldsmiðas secgað þæt
hí næfre ær swa clæne gold, ne swa read ne gesawon: eac ðas gym-wyrhtan
secgað þæt hi næfre swa deorwurðe gymstanas ne gemetton." Þa cwæð se
apostol him to, "Nimað þis gold, and ðas gymstanas, and farað, and bicgað
eow land-áre; forðan þe ge forluron ða heofenlican speda. Bicgað eow
pællene cyrtlas, þæt ge to lytelre hwile scinon swa swa róse, þæt ge
hrædlice forweornion. Beoð blowende and welige hwilwendlice, þæt ge ecelice
wædlion. Hwæt la, ne mæg se Ælmihtiga Wealdend þurhteon þæt hé do his
ðeowan rice for worulde, genihtsume on welan, and unwiðmetenlice scinan? Ac
he sette gecámp geleaffullum sawlum, þæt hi gelyfon to geagenne þa ecan
welan, ða ðe for his naman þa hwilwendan speda forhógiað. Ge gehældon
untruman on þæs Hælendes naman, ge afligdon deoflu, ge forgeafon blindum
gesihðe, and gehwilce uncoðe gehældon: efne nu is ðeos gifu eow ætbroden,
and ge sind earmingas gewordene, ge ðe wæron mære and strange. Swa micel
ege stod deoflum fram eow, þæt hí be eowere hæse þa ofsettan deofolseocan
forleton; nu ge ondrædað eow deoflu. Þa heofenlican æhta sind us eallum
gemæne. Nacode we wæron acennede, and nacode we gewitað. Þære sunnan
beorhtnys, and þæs monan leoht, and ealra tungla sind gemæne þam rican and
ðam heanan. Rén-scuras, and cyrcan duru, fulluht, and synna forgyfenys,
huselgang, and Godes neosung, sind eallum gemæne, earmum and eadigum: ac se
ungesæliga gytsere wile mare habban þonne him genihtsumað, þonne he furðon
orsorh ne bricð his genihtsumnysse. Se gytsere hæfð ænne lichaman, and {66}
menigfealde scrúd; he hæfð ane wambe, and þusend manna bigleofan: witodlice
þæt he for gytsunge úncyste nanum oðrum syllan ne mæg, þæt he hordað, and
nat hwam; swa swa se witega cwæð, 'On ídel bið ælc man gedrefed, seðe
hordað, and nat hwam he hit gegaderað.' Witodlice ne bið he þæra æhta
hlaford, þonne he hi dælan ne mæg; ac he bið þæra æhta ðeowa, þonne he him
eallunga þeowað; and þær to-eacan him weaxað untrumnyssa on his lichaman,
þæt hé ne mæg ǽtes oððe wǽtes brucan. Hé carað dæges and nihtes þæt his
feoh gehealden sy; hé gymð grædelice his teolunge, his gafoles, his
gebytlu; he berypð þa wánnspedigan, he fulgǽð his lustum and his plegan;
þonne færlice gewitt he of ðissere worulde, nacod and forscyldigod, synna
ana mid him ferigende; forðan þe he sceal éce wíte ðrowian."

Efne ðaða se apostol þas lare sprecende wæs, ða bær sum wuduwe hire suna
lic to bebyrgenne, se hæfde gewifod þritigum nihtum ǽr. Seo dreorige modor
þa samod mid þam licmannum rarigende hí astrehte æt þæs halgan apostoles
fotum, biddende þæt he hire sunu on Godes naman arærde, swa swa he dyde þa
wydewan Drusianam. Iohannes ða ofhreow þære meder and ðæra licmanna
dreorignysse, and astrehte his lichaman to eorðan on langsumum gebede, and
ða æt nextan arás, and eft up-ahafenum handum langlice bæd. Þaða he ðus
ðriwa gedón hæfde, ða het he unwindan þæs cnihtes líc, and cwæð, "Eala ðu
cniht, ðe þurh ðines flæsces lust hrædlice ðine sawle forlure; eala þu
cniht, þu ne cuðest ðinne Scyppend; þu ne cuðest manna Hælend; þu ne cuðest
ðone soðan freond; and forði þu beurne on þone wyrstan feond. Nu ic ageat
mine tearas, and for ðinre nytennysse geornlice bæd, þæt þu of deaðe arise,
and þisum twam gebroðrum, Attico and Eugenio, cyðe hú micel wuldor hí
forluron, and hwilc wite hí geearnodon." Mid ðam þa arás se cniht Stacteus,
and feoll to Iohannes fotum, and begann to ðreagenne þa gebroðru þe
miswende wǽron, þus cweðende, "Ic geseah þa englas, þe eower gymdon,
dreorige {68} wepan, and ða awyrigedan sceoccan blissigende on eowerum
forwyrde. Eow wæs heofenan rice gearo, and scinende gebytlu mid wistum
afyllede, and mid ecum leohte: þa ge forluron þurh unwærscipe, and ge
begeaton eow ðeosterfulle wununga mid dracum afyllede, and mid
brastligendum ligum, mid unasecgendlicum witum afyllede, and mid anðræcum
stencum; on ðam ne ablinð granung and þoterung dæges oþþe nihtes: biddað
forði mid inweardre heortan ðysne Godes apostol, eowerne lareow, þæt he eow
fram ðam ecum forwyrde arære, swa swa he me fram deaðe arærde; and he eowre
saula, þe nu synd adylegode of þære liflican béc, gelæde eft to Godes gife
and miltsunge."

Se cniht þa Stacteus, ðe of deaðe arás, samod mid þam gebroðrum, astrehte
hine to Iohannes fótswaðum, and þæt folc forð mid ealle, anmodlice biddende
þæt he him to Gode geþingode. Se apostol þa bebead ðam twam gebroðrum þæt
hi ðritig daga be hreowsunge dædbetende Gode geoffrodon, and on fæce
geornlice bædon, þæt ða gyldenan gyrda eft to þan ærran gecynde awendon,
and þa gymstanas to heora wacnysse. Æfter ðritigra daga fæce, þaþa hí ne
mihton mid heora benum þæt gold and þa gymstanas to heora gecynde awendan,
ða comon hi mid wope to þam apostole, þus cweðende, "Symle ðu tæhtest
mildheortnysse, and þæt man oðrum miltsode; and gif man oðrum miltsað, hu
micele swiðor wile God miltsian and arian mannum his hand-geweorce! Þæt þæt
we mid gitsigendum eagum agylton, þæt we nu mid wependum eagum bereowsiað."
Ða andwyrde se apostol, "Berað ða gyrda to wuda, and þa stanas to
sǽ-strande: hi synd gecyrrede to heora gecynde." Þaða hi þis gedon hæfdon,
ða underfengon hi eft Godes gife, swa þæt hi adræfdon deoflu, and blinde,
and untrume gehældon, and fela tacna on Drihtnes naman gefremedon, swa swa
hi ær dydon.

Se apostol þa gebigde to Gode ealne þone eard Asiam, se is geteald to
healfan dæle middan-eardes; and awrat ða {70} feorðan Cristes bóc, seo
hrepað swyðost ymbe Cristes godcundnysse. Ða oðre þry godspelleras,
Matheus, Marcus, Lucas, awriton æror be Cristes menniscnysse. Þa asprungon
gedwolmenn on Godes gelaðunge, and cwædon þæt Crist nære ær he acenned wæs
of Marian. Þa bædon ealle þa leod-bisceopas ðone halgan apostol þæt he þa
feorðan bóc gesette, and þæra gedwolmanna dyrstignesse adwæscte. Iohannes
þa bead ðreora daga fæsten gemænelice; and he æfter ðam fæstene wearð swa
miclum mid Godes gaste afylled, þæt he ealle Godes englas, and ealle
gesceafta, mid heahlicum mode oferstáh, and mid ðysum wordum þa
godspellican gesetnysse ongan, "In principio erat uerbum, et uerbum erat
apud Deum, et Deus erat uerbum, et reliqua:" þæt is on Englisc, "On frymðe
wæs word, and þæt word wæs mid Gode, and þæt word wæs God; þis wæs on
frymðe mid Gode; ealle ðing sind þurh hine geworhte, and nis nan þing buton
him gesceapen." And swa forð on ealre þære godspellican gesetnysse, he
cydde fela be Cristes godcundnysse, hu he ecelice butan angynne of his
Fæder acenned is, and mid him rixað on annysse þæs Halgan Gastes, á butan
ende. Feawa he awrat be his menniscnysse, forðan þe þa ðry oðre
godspelleras genihtsumlice be þam heora bec setton.

Hit gelamp æt sumum sæle þæt þa deofolgyldan þe þa gýt ungeleaffulle wǽron,
gecwædon þæt hi woldon þone apostol to heora hæðenscipe geneadian. Þa cwæð
se apostol to ðam hæðengyldum, "Gað ealle endemes to Godes cyrcan, and
clypiað ealle to eowerum godum, þæt seo cyrce afealle ðurh heora mihte;
ðonne buge ic to eowerum hæðenscipe. Gif ðonne eower godes miht þa halgan
cyrcan towurpan ne mæg, ic towurpe eower tempel þurh ðæs Ælmihtigan Godes
mihte, and ic tocwyse eower deofolgyld; and bið þonne rihtlic geðuht þæt ge
geswycon eoweres gedwyldes, and gelyfon on ðone soðan God, seðe ana is
Ælmihtig." Þa hæðengyldan ðisum cwyde geðwærlæhton, and Iohannes mid
geswæsum wordum þæt folc tihte, þæt hí ufor eodon fram þam deofles {72}
temple; and mid beorhtre stemne ætforan him eallum clypode, "On Godes naman
ahreose þis tempel, mid eallum þam deofolgyldum þe him on eardiað, þæt þeos
menigu tocnawe þæt ðis hæðengyld deofles biggeng is." Hwæt ða færlice
ahreas þæt tempel grundlunga, mid eallum his anlicnyssum to duste awende.
On ðam ylcan dæge wurdon gebigede twelf ðusend hæðenra manna to Cristes
geleafan, and mid fulluhte gehalgode.

Þa sceorede ða gyt se yldesta hæðengylda mid mycelre þwyrnysse, and cwæð
þæt he nolde gelyfan buton Iohannes attor drunce, and þurh Godes mihte ðone
cwelmbæran drenc oferswiðde. Þa cwæð se apostol, "Þeah þu me attor sylle,
þurh Godes naman hit me ne derað." Ða cwæð se hæðengylda Aristodemus, "Þu
scealt ærest oðerne geseon drincan, and ðærrihte cwelan, þæt huru ðin
heorte swa forhtige for ðam deadbærum drence." Iohannes him andwyrde, "Gif
ðu on God gelyfan wylt, ic unforhtmod ðæs drences onfó." Þa getengde se
Aristodemus to ðam heahgerefan, and genám on his cwearterne twegen ðeofas,
and sealde him ðone unlybban ætforan eallum ðam folce, on Iohannes gesihðe;
and hi ðærrihte æfter þam drence gewiton. Syððan se hæðengylda eac sealde
ðone attorbæran drenc þam apostole, and hé mid rodetacne his muð, and ealne
his lichaman gewǽpnode, and ðone unlybban on Godes naman halsode, and
siððan mid gebildum mode hine ealne gedranc. Aristodemus ða and þæt folc
beheoldon þone apostol ðreo tída dæges, and gesawon hine habban glædne
andwlitan, buton blácunge and forhtunge; and hi ealle clypodon, "An soð God
is, seðe Iohannes wurðað." Þa cwæð se hæðengylda to ðam apostole, "Gyt me
tweonað; ac gif ðu ðas deadan sceaðan, on ðines Godes naman arærst, þonne
bið min heorte geclænsod fram ælcere twynunge." Ða cwæð Iohannes,
"Aristodeme, nim mine tunecan, and lege bufon ðæra deadra manna lic, and
cweð, 'Þæs Hælendes Cristes apostol me asende to eow, þæt ge on his naman
of deaðe arison, and ælc man oncnáwe þæt {74} deað and líf ðeowiað minum
Hælende.'" He ða be ðæs apostoles hæse bær his tunecan, and alede uppon ðam
twám deadum; and hí ðærrihte ansunde arison. Þaða se hæðengylda þæt geseah,
ða astrehte he hine to Iohannes fotum, and syððan ferde to ðam heahgerefan,
and him ða wundra mid hluddre stemne cydde. Hí ða begen þone apostol
gesohton, his miltsunge biddende. Þa bead se apostol him seofon nihta
fæsten, and hi siððan gefullode; and hi æfter ðam fulluhte towurpon eall
heora deofolgyld, and mid heora maga fultume, and mid eallum cræfte arærdon
Gode mære cyrcan on ðæs apostoles wurðmynte.

Þaða se apostol wæs nigon and hund-nigontig geara, þa æteowode him Drihten
Crist mid þam oðrum apostolum, þe hé of ðisum life genumen hæfde, and cwæð,
"Iohannes, cum to me; tima is þæt þu mid ðinum gebroðrum wistfullige on
minum gebeorscipe." Iohannes þa arás, and eode wið þæs Hælendes; ac he him
to cwæð, "Nu on sunnan-dæg, mines æristes dæge, þu cymst to me:" and æfter
ðam worde Drihten gewende to heofenum. Se apostol micclum blissode on ðam
beháte, and on þam sunnan-uhtan ærwacol to ðære cyrcan com, and þam folce,
fram hancrede oð undern, Godes gerihta lærde, and him mæssan gesang, and
cwæð þæt se Hælend hine on ðam dæge to heofonum gelaðod hæfde. Het ða
delfan his byrgene wið þæt weofod, and þæt greot ut-awegan. And hé eode
cucu and gesund into his byrgene, and astrehtum handum to Gode clypode,
"Drihten Crist, ic þancige ðe þæt þu me gelaðodest to þinum wistum: þu wást
þæt ic mid ealre heortan þe gewilnode. Oft ic ðe bæd þæt ic moste to ðe
faran, ac ðu cwæde þæt ic anbidode, þæt ic ðe mare folc gestrynde. Þu
heolde minne lichaman wið ælce besmittennysse, and þu simle mine sawle
onlihtest, and me nahwar ne forlete. Þu settest on minum muðe þinre
soðfæstnysse word, and ic awrat ða lare ðe ic of ðinum muðe gehyrde, and ða
wundra ðe ic ðe wyrcan geseah. Nu ic ðe betæce, Drihten! þine bearn, ða ðe
þin gelaðung, mæden and {76} moder, þurh wæter and þone Halgan Gast, ðe
gestrynde. Onfoh me to minum gebroðrum mid ðam ðe ðu come, and me
gelaðodest. Geopena ongean me lifes geat, þæt ðæra ðeostra ealdras me ne
gemeton. Þu eart Crist, ðæs lifigendan Godes Sunu, þu þe be ðines Fæder
hæse middangeard gehældest, and us ðone Halgan Gast asendest. Þe we heriað,
and þanciað þinra menigfealdra goda geond ungeendode worulde. Amen."

Æfter ðysum gebede æteowode heofenlic leoht bufon ðam apostole, binnon ðære
byrgene, ane tid swa beorhte scinende, þæt nanes mannes gesihð þæs leohtes
leoman sceawian ne mihte; and he mid þam leohte his gast ageaf þam Drihtne
þe hine to his rice gelaðode. He gewát swa freoh fram deaðes sarnysse, of
ðisum andweardan life, swa swa he wæs ælfremed fram lichamlicere
gewemmednysse. Soðlice syððan wæs his byrgen gemet mid mannan afylled.
Manna wæs gehaten se heofenlica mete, þe feowertig geara afedde Israhela
folc on westene. Nu wæs se bigleofa gemett on Iohannes byrgene, and nan
ðing elles; and se mete is weaxende on hire oð ðisne andweardan dæg. Þær
beoð fela tacna æteowode, and untrume gehælde, and fram eallum frecednyssum
alysede, þurh ðæs apostoles ðingunge. Þæs him getiðað Drihten Crist, þam is
wuldor and wurðmynt mid Fæder and Halgum Gaste, á butan ende. Amen.



John the Evangelist, Christ's darling, was on this day, through God's
visitation, taken to the joy of the kingdom of heaven. He was the son of
Christ's maternal aunt, and he loved him particularly, not so much for the
consanguinity, as for the purity of his uncorrupted chastity. He was in
chastity chosen to God, and he ever continued in undefiled chastity. It is
read in historic narratives that he would marry, and Christ was invited to
his nuptials. Then it befell that at the nuptials wine was wanting. Jesus
then bade the serving men fill six stone vessels with pure water, and he
with his blessing turned the water to noble wine. This is the first miracle
that he openly wrought in his state of man. Now John was so stimulated by
that miracle, that he forthwith left his bride in maidenhood, and ever
afterwards followed the Lord, and was by him inwardly beloved, because he
had withdrawn himself from fleshly lusts. Verily to this beloved disciple
Jesus intrusted his mother, when, suspended on the cross, he redeemed
mankind, that his pure life might take care of the pure virgin Mary, and
that she might continue ministering to her sister's son.

Some time after, after Christ's ascension to heaven, a cruel emperor
reigned in the Roman empire, after Nero, who was called Domitian, a
persecutor of the christians. He commanded a vat to be filled with boiling
oil, and the great evangelist to be thrust therein; but he, through God's
protection, went uninjured from that hot bath. Afterwards, when the cruel
one might not suppress the preaching of the blessed apostle, he sent him
into exile to an island that is called Patmos, that he there, through
sharpness of hunger, might perish. But the Almighty Saviour did not leave
his beloved apostle to {61} neglect, but revealed to him, in that exile,
the revelation of things to come, concerning which he wrote the book which
is called APOCALYPSE: and the cruel Domitian was slain in the same year by
the hand of his senators; and they all unanimously resolved that all his
decrees should be annulled. Then was Nerva, a very honourable man, chosen
for emperor. With his consent the apostle returned with great worship, he
who with contumely had been sent into banishment. Men and women ran to meet
him, rejoicing and saying, "Blessed is he who cometh in the name of God."

As the apostle John was entering the city of Ephesus, there was borne
towards him the corpse of a widow to be buried; her name was Drusiana. She
was of great faith, and gave much in alms, and the poor, whom she had
bountifully fed, sad, with weeping, followed the corpse. Then the apostle
bade them set down the bier, and said, "My Lord, Jesus Christ! Raise thee,
Drusiana; arise, and return home, and prepare refection for us in thy
house." Drusiana then arose as if from sleep awakened, and, mindful of the
apostle's command, returned home.

On the second day the apostle going in the street, observed where a
philosopher was accompanying two brothers, who had turned all their
parents' treasure into precious gems, and would crush them in the sight of
all the people as a spectacle, in contempt as it were of worldly riches. It
was common at that time for those who would sedulously learn philosophy, to
change their property for gems, and break them in pieces; or for a wedge of
gold, and throw it into the sea; lest the contemplation of those riches
should hinder them at their study. Then the apostle called the philosopher
Graton to him, and said, "It is foolish that any one should despise worldly
riches for praise of men, and be condemned at God's doom. Vain is the
medicine that cannot heal the sick; as also is vain the doctrine that
healeth not the sins and vices of the soul. {63} Verily my teacher, Christ,
enjoined a youth who desired eternal life, in these words, That he should
sell all his wealth, and distribute the value to the poor, if he would be
perfect; and he should afterwards have his treasure in heaven, and, in
addition thereto, eternal life." The philosopher Graton him answered,
"These jewels are crushed for idle vaunt; but if thy teacher is the true
God, join the fragments to soundness, that their value may benefit the
poor." John then gathered the fragments of the jewels, and looked to
heaven, thus saying, "Lord Jesus, to thee no thing is difficult; thou didst
restore this crushed world for thy faithful, through sign of the holy rood;
restore now these precious gems, by thy angels' hands, that these ignorant
men may acknowledge thy powers, and in thee believe." Lo, then suddenly the
gems became sound, so that even no sign of their former broken condition
was seen. Then the philosopher Graton, together with the youths, fell
forthwith at the feet of John, believing in God. The apostle baptized him
with all his family, and he began openly to preach God's faith. The two
brothers, Atticus and Eugenius, gave their gems, and distributed all their
wealth to the poor, and followed the apostle, and a great multitude of
believers also joined themselves to him.

Then on a certain time the apostle came to the city of Pergamus, where the
before-mentioned youths formerly dwelt, and saw their servants decorated
with fine linen, and shining in worldly splendour. Then were they pierced
through with the devil's darts, and sad in mind, that they in poverty
should go with one miserable cloak, and their servants be shining in
worldly splendour. Then perceived the apostle the diabolical wiles, and
said, "I see that your mind and your countenance are changed, because ye
have distributed your riches to the poor, and followed my Lord's doctrine:
go now therefore to the wood, and hew a burthen of rods, and bring them to
me." They did as he had commanded, and he {65} in God's name blessed the
green rods, and they were turned to red gold. Again the apostle said, "Go
now to the sea-strand, and fetch me pebble-stones." They did so, and John
by God's majesty blessed them, and they were turned to precious gems. Then
said the apostle, "Go to the smithy, and try this gold and these gems."
They went, and came again, thus saying, "All the goldsmiths say that they
have never before seen such pure and such red gold: also the jewellers say
that they have never before met with such precious gems." Then said the
apostle to them, "Take this gold and these gems, and go and buy landed
property, seeing that ye have lost heavenly riches. Buy yourselves purple
kirtles, that ye for a little while may shine as the rose, that ye may
speedily fade. Be flourishing and rich for a season, that ye may be poor
for ever. What, may not the Almighty Ruler so act that he make his servants
powerful before the world, abounding in wealth, and incomparably to shine?
But he has placed warfare for the believing souls, that they may believe in
order to possess the eternal riches, they who for his name despise
temporary possessions. Ye healed the sick in the name of Jesus, ye drove
out devils, ye gave sight to the blind, and cured every disease. Behold,
now this gift is withdrawn from you, and ye are become poor wretches, ye
who were great and strong. The devils stood in so great awe of you, that at
your behest they forsook the possessed demoniacs; now ye yourselves dread
devils. The heavenly possessions are common to us all. Naked we were born,
and naked we depart. The brightness of the sun, and the light of the moon,
and of all the stars are common to the high and the low. Rain-showers and
the church-door, baptism and forgiveness of sins, partaking of the housel
and God's visitation, are common to all, poor and rich: but the unhappy
covetous wishes to have more than suffices him, though he enjoys not
freedom from care in his abundance. The covetous hath one body and divers
garments; he hath one belly and a {67} thousand men's sustenance; but that
which he, through the vice of avarice, cannot give to any other, he
hoardeth, and knoweth not for whom, as the prophet said, 'Vainly is every
man troubled who hoardeth, and knoweth not for whom he gathereth.' Verily
he is not lord of those possessions, when he cannot distribute them, but he
is the slave of those possessions, when he wholly serveth them; and in
addition thereto, diseases of his body increase, so that he may not enjoy
food or drink. He cares night and day that his money be preserved; he
attends greedily to his gain, his rent, his buildings; he bereaves the
indigent, he follows his lusts and his pleasure; then suddenly departs he
from this world, naked and charged with crimes, bearing with him his sins
alone; therefore shall he suffer punishment everlasting."

Behold, while the apostle was speaking this lecture, a certain widow bare
her son to be buried, who had been married thirty days before. The
afflicted mother, together with the mourners, wailing prostrated herself at
the holy apostle's feet, praying that he would, in God's name, rear up her
son, as he did the widow Drusiana. John then, pitying the grief of the
mother and the mourners, prostrated his body on the earth, in long prayer,
and at length rising up, again with up-raised hands prayed a long time.
Having done thus thrice, he bade them unwrap the corpse of the youth, and
said, "O thou youth, who through thy flesh's lust hast early lost thy soul;
O thou youth, thou knewest not thy Creator; thou knewest not the Saviour of
men; thou knewest not the true friend, and hast therefore fallen on the
worst enemy. Now I have shed my tears, and earnestly prayed for thy
sensuality, that thou mayest from death arise, and to these two brothers,
Atticus and Eugenius, declare how great glory they have lost, and what
punishment they have earned." On this the youth Stacteus arose, and fell at
the feet of John, and began to chide the brothers who had been perverted,
thus saying, "I saw the angels who had charge of you sadly {69} weeping,
and the accursed fiend rejoicing in your destruction. For you was the
kingdom of heaven ready, and shining structures filled with repasts, and
with eternal light: these ye have lost through heedlessness, and have got
for yourselves dark dwellings filled with serpents, and with crackling
flames, full of unspeakable torments and horrible stenches; in which
groaning and howling cease not day nor night: pray, therefore, with inward
heart, this apostle of God, your teacher, that he raise you from eternal
perdition, as he hath raised me from death, and that he your souls, which
are now blotted from the living book, lead back to God's grace and mercy."

The youth then, Stacteus, who had risen from death, together with the
brothers, prostrated himself in the footsteps of John, and the people with
them, all unanimously praying that he would intercede with God for them.
The apostle then commanded the two brothers that they for thirty days in
penitence should sacrifice to God by penance, and in that space should
earnestly pray that the golden rods might be turned again to their former
nature, and the gems to their worthlessness. After thirty days' space, when
they could not by their prayers restore the gold and the gems to their
nature, they came with weeping to the apostle, thus saying, "Ever hast thou
taught mercy, and that one should have mercy on another; and if one have
mercy on another, how much more will God show mercy to and pity men, his
handiwork! The sin which we have committed with covetous eyes, we now with
weeping eyes repent." Then answered the apostle, "Bear the rods to the
wood, and the stones to the sea-strand: they shall be restored to their
nature." When they had done this they again received God's grace, so that
they drove out devils, and healed the blind and the sick, and performed
many miracles, in the Lord's name, as they before had done.

The apostle then converted to God all the country of Asia, which is
accounted the half part of the world; and wrote the {71} fourth book of
Christ, which treats most of Christ's divinity. The other three
evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke, wrote rather of Christ's human state.
Then there sprung up heretics in God's church, who said that Christ was not
before he was born of Mary. Thereupon all the diocesan bishops besought the
holy apostle to compose the fourth book, and extinguish the audacity of the
heretics. John then ordered a general fast of three days; and after the
fast he was so greatly filled with the spirit of God, that he excelled all
God's angels and all creatures with his exalted mind, and began the
evangelical memorial with these words, "In principio erat verbum," etc.,
that is in English, "In the beginning was the word, and the word was with
God, and the word was God; this was in the beginning with God; all things
are made through him, and without him nothing is created." And so forth, in
all the evangelical memorial, he made known many things concerning Christ's
divinity, how he eternally without beginning was begotten of his Father,
and reigneth with him in unity of the Holy Ghost, ever without end. He
wrote few things of his human nature, because the three other evangelists
had composed their books abundantly concerning that.

It happened at a certain time, that the idolaters, who were yet
unbelieving, said that they would force the apostle to their heathenship:
whereupon the apostle said to the idolaters, "Go all together to God's
church, and call all of you to your gods that, through their might, the
church may fall down; then will I turn to your heathenship. But if the
power of your god may not cast down the holy church, I will cast down your
temple, through the might of the Almighty God, and I will crush your idol;
and it shall then seem right that ye cease from your error, and believe in
the true God, who alone is Almighty." The idolaters assented to this
proposal, and John with kind words exhorted the people to go out from the
devil's temple; and with clear voice cried {73} before them all, "In the
name of God let this temple fall down with all the idols that dwell within
it, that this multitude may know that this idolatry is the worship of the
devil." Behold then, the temple fell suddenly to the ground, with all its
idols turned to dust. On that same day twelve thousand heathens were turned
to belief in Christ, and hallowed with baptism.

But the chief idolater still refused with great perverseness, and said that
he would not believe unless John drank poison, and through God's might
overcame the deadly drink. Then said the apostle, "Though thou give me
poison, through God's name it shall not hurt me." Then said the idolater
Aristodemus, "Thou shalt first see another drink it, and instantly die,
that so at least thy heart may fear the death-bearing drink." John answered
him, "If thou wilt believe in God, I will fearless receive this drink."
Then Aristodemus went to the prefect, and took from his prison two thieves,
and gave them the poison before all the people, in the presence of John;
and they immediately after the drink died. Then the idolater gave the
venomous drink also to the apostle, and he having armed his mouth and all
his body with the sign of the rood, and exorcised the poison in God's name,
with bold heart drank it all. Aristodemus then and the people beheld the
apostle three hours of the day, and saw him having a glad countenance,
without paleness and fear: and they all cried, "There is one true God, whom
John worshippeth." Then said the idolater to the apostle, "Yet I doubt; but
if thou, in the name of thy God, wilt raise up these dead thieves, then
will my heart be cleansed from every doubt." Then said John, "Aristodemus,
take my tunic, and lay it on the corpses of the dead men, and say, 'The
apostle of Jesus Christ hath sent me to you, that ye in his name may arise
from death, and that every man may know that death and life minister to my
Saviour.'" He {75} then, at the apostle's command, bare his tunic, and laid
it on the two dead ones, and they forthwith rose up whole. When the
idolater saw that, he prostrated himself at the feet of John, and then went
to the prefect, and announced to him those miracles with a loud voice. Then
they both sought the apostle, praying for his compassion: whereupon the
apostle enjoined them a fast of seven days, and afterwards baptized them;
and after their baptism they cast down all their idols, and with the aid of
their kinsmen, and with all art, raised a great church to God in honour of
the apostle.

When the apostle was ninety-nine years old the Lord Christ appeared to him
with the other apostles, whom he had taken from this life, and said, "John,
come to me; it is time that thou with thy brethren shouldst feast at my
banquet." John then arose, and went towards Jesus. But he said to him, "Lo,
on Sunday, the day of my resurrection, thou shalt come to me:" and after
those words the Lord returned to heaven. The apostle greatly rejoiced in
that promise, and at sunrise early rising came to the church, and from
cock-crowing until the third hour, taught God's law, and sang mass to them,
and said, that the Saviour had called him to heaven on that day. He then
ordered his grave to be dug opposite the altar, and the dust to be removed;
and he went quick and whole into his grave, and with outstretched hands
cried to God, "Lord Christ, I thank thee that thou hast invited me to thy
banquet: thou knowest that with all my heart I have desired thee. Oft have
I prayed thee that I might go to thee, but thou saidst that I should abide,
that I might gain more people to thee. Thou hast preserved my body against
every pollution, and thou hast ever illumined my soul, and hast nowhere
forsaken me. Thou hast set in my mouth the word of thy truth, and I have
written down the lore which I heard from thy mouth, and the wonders which I
saw thee work. Now I commit to thee, Lord! thy {77} children, those which
thy church, maiden and mother, through water and the Holy Ghost have gained
to thee. Receive me to my brothers with whom thou camest and invitedst me.
Open towards me the gate of life, that the princes of darkness may not find
me. Thou art Christ, Son of the living God, who, at thy Father's behest,
hast saved the world, and hast sent us the Holy Ghost. Thee we praise and
thank for thy manifold benefits throughout the world eternal. Amen."

After this prayer a heavenly light appeared above the apostle, within the
grave, shining for an hour so bright, that no man's sight might look on the
rays of light; and with that light he gave up his spirit to the Lord, who
had invited him to his kingdom. He departed as joyfully from the pain of
death, from this present life, as he was exempt from bodily defilement.
Verily his grave was afterwards found filled with manna. Manna the heavenly
meat was called which for forty years fed the people of Israel in the
wilderness. Now this food was found in the grave of John, and nothing else,
and the meat is growing in it to this present day. Many miracles have there
been manifested, and sick healed, and released from all calamities through
the apostle's intercession. This hath the Lord Christ granted unto him, to
whom is glory and honour with the Father and the Holy Ghost, ever without
end. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *

V. K[=L]. JAN.


Nu to-dæg Godes gelaðung geond ealne ymbhwyrft mærsað þæra eadigra cildra
freols-tide, þe se wælhreowa Herodes for Cristes acennednysse mid arleasre
ehtnysse acwealde, swa swa us seo godspellice racu swutellice cyð.

{78} Matheus awrat, on þære forman Cristes bec, ðysum wordum be ðæs
Hælendes gebyrd-tide, and cwæð, "Þaða se Hælend acenned wæs on þære
Iudeiscan Bethleem, on Herodes dagum cyninges, efne ða comon fram east-dæle
middangeardes þry tungel-witegan to ðære byrig Hierusalem, þus befrinende,
Hwær is Iudeiscra leoda Cyning, seðe acenned is? We gesawon soðlice his
steorran on east-dǽle, and we comon to ði þæt we ús to him gebiddon. Hwæt
ða Herodes cyning þis gehyrende wearð micclum astyred, and eal seo burhwaru
samod mid him. He ða gesamnode ealle þa ealdor-biscopas, and ðæs folces
boceras, and befran hwær Cristes cenningstów wære. Hí sædon, on ðære
Iudeiscan Bethleem. Þus soðlice is awriten þurh ðone witegan Micheam, Eala
þu Bethleem, Iudeisc land, ne eart ðu nateshwón wacost burga on Iudeiscum
ealdrum: of ðe cymð se Heretoga seðe gewylt and gewissað Israhela folc. Ða
clypode Herodes þa ðry tungel-witegan on sunder-spræce, and geornlice hí
befrán to hwilces timan se steorra him ærst æteowode, and asende hí to
Bethleem, ðus cweðende, Farað ardlice, and befrínað be ðam cilde, and þonne
ge hit gemetað, cyðað me, þæt ic máge me to him gebiddan. Þa tungel-witegan
ferdon æfter þæs cyninges spræce, and efne ða se steorra, þe hí on
east-dǽle gesawon, glad him beforan, oð þæt he gestód bufon ðam gesthúse,
þær þæt cild on wunode. Hi gesáwon ðone steorran, and þearle blissodon.
Eodon ða inn, and þæt cild gemetton mid Marian his meder, and
niðerfeallende hí to him gebǽdon. Hi geopenodon heora hórdfatu, and him lác
geoffrodon, gold, and recels, and myrram. Hwæt ða God on swefne hí
gewarnode and bebead þæt hi eft ne cyrdon to ðan reðan cyninge Herode, ac
þurh oðerne weg hine forcyrdon, and swa to heora eðele becomon. Efne ða
Godes engel æteowode Iosepe, ðæs cíldes foster-fæder, on swefnum, cweðende,
'Arís, and nim þis cild mid þære meder, and fleoh to Egypta lánde, and beo
þær oð þæt ic þe eft secge: soðlice toweard is þæt Herodes smeað hú hé þæt
cild fordó.' Ioseph {80} ða arás nihtes, and þæt cild mid þære meder samod
to Egypta lánde ferede, and þær wunode oð þæt Herodes gewát; þæt seo
witegung wære gefylled, þe be ðære fare ær ðus cwæð, Of Egypta lánde ic
geclypode minne sunu."

Nu secgað wyrd-writeras þæt Herodes betwux ðisum wearð gewréged to þam
Romaniscan casere, þe ealne middangeard on þam timan geweold. Þa gewende he
to Rome, be ðæs caseres hæse, þæt he hine betealde, gif he mihte. Þa
betealde he hine swiðe geaplice, swa swa he wæs snotorwyrde to ðan swiðe,
þæt se casere hine mid maran wurðmynte ongean to Iudeiscum rice asende.
Þaþa he ham com, þa gemunde he hwæt he ær be ðan cilde gemynte, and geseah
þæt he wæs bepæht fram ðam tungel-witegum, and wearð þa ðearle gegremod.
Sende ða his cwelleras, and ofsloh ealle ða hyse-cild, þe wǽron on þære
byrig Bethleem, and on eallum hyre gemærum, fram twywintrum cilde to anre
nihte, be ðære tide þe hé geaxode æt ðam tungel-witegum. Þa wæs gefylled
Hieremias wítegung, þe ðus witegode, "Stemn is gehyred on heannysse, micel
wóp and ðoterung: Rachel beweop hire cildru, and nolde beon gefrefrod,
forðan ðe hi ne sind."

On ðam twelftan dæge Cristes acennednysse comon ða ðry tungel-witegan to
Herode, and hine axodon be ðam acennedan cilde; and þaþa hí his
cenning-stowe geaxodon, þa gewendon hí wið þæs cildes, and noldon ðone
reðan cwellere eft gecyrran, swa swa he het. Þa ne mihte he forbugan þæs
caseres hæse, and wæs ða, þurh his langsume fær, þæra cildra slege geuferod
swiðor þonne he gemynt hæfde; and hí wurdon ða on ðysum dægþerlicum dæge
wuldorfullice gemartyrode; na swa-þeah þæs geares þe Crist acenned wæs, ac
æfter twegra geara ymbryne æfter ðæs wælhreowan hamcyme.

Næs hé æðelboren, ne him naht to þam cynecynne ne gebyrode; ac mid
syrewungum and swicdome he becom to {82} ðære cynelican geðincðe; swa swa
Moyses be ðam awrát, Þæt ne sceolde ateorian þæt Iudeisce cynecynn, oþþæt
Crist sylf come. Ða com Crist on ðam timan þe seo cynelice mæigð ateorode,
and se ælfremeda Herodes þæs rices geweold. Þa wearð he micclum afyrht and
anðracode þæt his rice feallan sceolde, þurh to-cyme þæs soðan cyninges. Þa
clypode hé ða tungel-witegan on sunder-spræce, and geornlice hí befrán, on
hwilcne timan hí ærest þone steorran gesawon; forðan ðe he ondred, swa swa
hit gelamp, þæt hí eft hine ne gecyrdon. Þa het he forðy acwellan ealle ða
hyse-cild þære burhscire, fram twywintrum cilde oð anre nihte: ðohte gif he
hí ealle ofsloge, þæt se án ne ætburste þe he sohte. Ac he wæs ungemyndig
þæs halgan gewrites, ðe cwyð, "Nis nán wisdom, ne nán ræd naht ongean God."

Se swicola Herodes cwæð to ðam tungel-witegum, "Farað, and geornlice
befrinað be ðam cilde, and cyðað me, þæt ic eac mage me to him gebiddan."
Ac he cydde syððan his facenfullan syrewunge, hu he ymbe wolde, gif he hine
gemette, ðaða he ealle his efenealdan adylegode for his anes ehtnysse.
Þearflæs he syrwde ymbe Crist: ne com he forðy þæt he wolde his eorðlice
rice, oþþe æniges oðres cyninges mid riccetere him to geteon; ac to ði hé
com þæt he wolde his heofenlice rice geleaffullum mannum forgyfan. Ne com
he to ðy þæt he wære on mærlicum cynesetle ahafen, ac þæt he wære mid hospe
on rode hengene genæglod. He wolde ðeah þæs wælhreowan syrewunge mid fleame
forbugan, na forði þæt he deað forfluge, seðe sylfwilles to ðrowienne
middangearde genealæhte; ac hit wære to hrædlic, gif he ða on cild-cradole
acweald wurde, swilce ðonne his to-cyme mancynne bedíglod wære; þi
forhradode Godes engel þæs arleasan geþeaht, and bebead þæt se foster-fæder
þone heofenlican æþeling of ðam earde ardlice ferede.

Ne forseah Crist his geongan cempan, ðeah ðe he lichamlice on heora slege
andwerd nære; ac hé asende hí fram þisum {84} wræcfullum life to his ecan
rice. Gesælige hí wurdon geborene þæt hi moston for his intingan deað
þrowian. Eadig is heora yld, seoðe þa gyt ne mihte Crist andettan, and
moste for Criste þrowian. Hí wæron þæs Hælendes gewitan, ðeah ðe hí hine ða
gyt ne cuðon. Næron hí gerípode to slege, ac hi gesæliglice þeah swulton to
life. Gesælig wæs heora acennednys, forðan ðe hí gemetton þæt ece lif on
instæpe þæs andweardan lifes. Hí wurdon gegripene fram moderlicum breostum,
ac hi wurdon betæhte þærrihte engellicum bosmum. Ne mihte se mánfulla
ehtere mid nanre ðenunge þam lytlingum swa micclum fremian, swa micclum swa
hé him fremode mid ðære reðan ehtnysse hatunge. Hí sind gehátene martyra
blostman, forðan ðe hí wæron swá swá up-aspringende blostman on
middeweardan cyle ungeleaffulnysse, swilce mid sumere ehtnysse forste
forsodene. Eadige sind þa innoðas þe hí gebæron, and ða breost þe swylce
gesihton. Witodlice ða moddru on heora cildra martyrdome þrowodon; þæt
swurd ðe þæra cildra lima þurh-árn becóm to ðæra moddra heortan; and neod
is þæt hí beon efenhlyttan þæs ecan edleanes, þonne hí wæron geferan ðære
ðrowunge. Hí wæron gehwæde and ungewittige acwealde, ac hí arisað on þam
gemænelicum dome mid fullum wæstme, and heofenlicere snoternysse. Ealle we
cumað to anre ylde on þam gemænelicum æriste, þeah ðe we nu on myslicere
ylde of þyssere worulde gewiton.

Þæt godspel cweð þæt Rachel beweóp hire cildra, and nolde beon gefrefrod,
forðan þe hí ne sind. Rachel hatte Iacobes wif, ðæs heahfæderes, and heo
getacnode Godes gelaðunge, þe bewypð hire gastlican cild; ac heo nele swa
beon gefrefrod, þæt hí eft to woruldlicum gecampe gehwyrfon, þa þe æne mid
sygefæstum deaðe middangeard oferswiðdon, and his yrmða ætwundon to
wuldorbeagienne mid Criste.

Eornostlice ne breac se arleasa Herodes his cynerices mid langsumere
gesundfulnysse, ac buton yldinge him becom seo {86} godcundlice wracu, þe
hine mid menigfealdre yrmðe fordyde, and eac geswutelode on hwilcum suslum
he moste æfter forðsiðe ecelice cwylmian. Hine gelæhte unasecgendlic adl;
his lichama barn wiðutan mid langsumere hætan, and he eal innan samod
forswæled wæs, and toborsten. Him wæs metes micel lust, ac ðeah mid nanum
ætum his gyfernysse gefyllan ne mihte. He hriðode, and egeslice hweos, and
angsumlice siccetunga teah, swa þæt hé earfoðlice orðian mihte.
Wæter-seocnyss hine ofereode, beneoðan þam gyrdle, to ðan swiðe, þæt his
gesceapu maðan weollon, and stincende attor singallice of ðam toswollenum
fotum fleow. Unaberendlic gyhða ofereode ealne ðone lichaman, and
ungelyfendlic toblawennys his innoð geswencte. Him stód stíncende steam of
ðam muðe, swa þæt earfoðlice ænig læce him mihte genealæcan. Fela ðæra læca
hé acwealde; cwæð þæt hí hine gehælan mihton and noldon. Hine gedrehte
singal slæpleast, swa þæt he þurhwacole niht buton slæpe adreah; and gif hé
hwon hnáppode, ðærrihte hine drehton nihtlice gedwímor, swa þæt him ðæs
slæpes ofþuhte. Þaða hé mid swiðlicum luste his lifes gewilnode, þa hét hé
hine ferigan ofer ða eá Iordanen, ðærþær wæron gehæfde háte baðu, þe wǽron
halwende gecwedene adligendum lichaman. Wearð þa eac his læcum geðuht þæt
hí on wlacum ele hine gebeðedon. Ac ðaða hé wæs on ðissere beðunge geléd,
þa wearð se lichama eal toslopen, swa þæt his eagan wendon on gelicnysse
sweltendra manna, and hé læg cwydeleas butan andgite. Eft ðaða he com, þa
het he hine ferigan to ðære byrig Hiericho.

Þaþa he wearð his lifes orwene, þa gelaðode he him to ealle ða Iudeiscan
ealdras of gehwilcum burgum, and het hí on cwearterne beclysan, and
gelangode him to his swustur Salome and hire wer Alexandrum, and cwæð, "Ic
wát þæt ðis Iudeisce folc micclum blissigan wile mines deaðes; ac ic mæg
habban arwurðfulle líc-ðenunge of heofigendre menigu, gif ge willað minum
bebodum gehyrsumian. Swa ricene swa ic gewíte, ofsleað ealle ðas Iudeiscan
ealdras, ðe ic on {88} cwearterne beclysde, þonne beoð heora siblingas to
heofunge geneadode, þa ðe wyllað mines forðsiðes fagnian." He ða his cempan
to ðam slege genamode, and het heora ælcum fiftig scyllinga to sceatte
syllan, þæt hi heora handa fram ðam blodes gyte ne wiðbrudon. Þaða hé mid
ormætre angsumnysse wæs gecwylmed, þa het he his agenne sunu Antípatrem
arleaslice acwellan, to-eacan þam twam þe hé ær acwealde. Æt nextan, ðaða
hé gefredde his deaðes nealæcunge, þa het he him his seax aræcan to
screadigenne ænne æppel, and hine sylfne hetelice ðyde, þæt him on acwehte.
Þyllic wæs Herodes forðsið, þe mánfullice ymbe þæs heofenlican æþelinges
to-cyme syrwde, and his efen-ealdan lytlingas unscæððige arleaslice

Efne ða Godes engel, æfter Herodes deaðe, æteowode Iosepe on swefnum, on
Egypta lande, þus cweðende, "Arís, and nim þæt cild and his moder samod,
and gewend ongean to Israhela lande; soðlice hí sind forðfarene, ðaðe ymbe
þæs cildes feorh syrwdon." Hé ða arás, swa swa se engel him bebead, and
ferode þæt cild mid þære meder to Israhela lande. Þa gefrán Ioseph þæt
Archelaus rixode on Iudea lande, æfter his fæder Herode, and ne dorste his
neawiste genealæcan. Þa wearð he eft on swefne gemynegod þæt he to Galilea
gewende, forðan ðe se eard næs ealles swa gehende þam cyninge, þeah ðe hit
his rice wære. Þæt cild ða eardode on þære byrig þe is gehaten Nazareth,
þæt seo wítegung wære gefylled, þe cwæð, þæt he sceolde beon Nazarenisc
geciged. Se engel cwæð to Iosepe, "Þa sind forðfarene, þe embe ðæs cildes
feorh syrwdon." Mid þam worde he geswutelode þæt má ðæra Iudeiscra ealdra
embe Cristes cwale smeadon; ac him getimode swiðe rihtlice þæt hí mid heora
arleasan hlaforde ealle forwurdon.

Nelle we ðas race na leng teon, þylæs ðe hit eow æðryt þince; ac biddað eow
þingunge æt þysum unscæððigum martyrum. Hi sind ða ðe Criste folgiað on
hwitum gyrlum, {90} swa hwider swa hé gæð; and hí standað ætforan his
ðrymsetle, butan ælcere gewemmednysse, hæbbende heora palmtwigu on handa,
and singað þone niwan lofsang, þam Ælmihtigan to wurðmynte, seþe leofað and
rixað á butan ende. Amen.



Now to-day God's church throughout all the globe celebrates the festival of
the blessed children whom the cruel Herod, on account of the birth of
Christ, slew in impious persecution, as the evangelical narrative
manifestly makes known to us.

{79} Matthew wrote, in the first book of Christ, in these words, of the
birth-time of Jesus, and said, "When Jesus was born in the Judæan
Bethlehem, in the days of Herod the king, behold there came from the east
part of the earth three astrologers to the city of Jerusalem, thus
inquiring, Where is the King of the Jewish people, who is born? Verily we
saw his star in the east part, and we come in order that we may worship
him. Now king Herod hearing this was greatly troubled, and all the citizens
together with him. He then assembled all the chief bishops and scribes of
the people, and inquired where the birthplace of Christ might be. They
said, In the Judæan Bethlehem. Thus verily it is written by the prophet
Micah, Ah thou Bethlehem, Judæan land, thou art in no wise meanest of
cities among the Jewish princes: of thee shall come the Ruler who shall
rule and govern the people of Israel. Then Herod called the three
astrologers in separate discourse, and diligently questioned them at what
time the star had first appeared to them, and sent them to Bethlehem, thus
saying, Go instantly, and inquire concerning the child, and when ye find
it, let me know, that I may worship him. After the king's speech the
astrologers went, and lo, the star which they had seen in the east part
glided before them, till it stood over the inn in which the child was
staying. They saw the star and greatly rejoiced. They then went in, and
found the child with Mary his mother, and falling down they worshipped him.
They opened their cases of treasure and offered him gifts, gold, and
frankincense, and myrrh. Then God warned them in a dream, and commanded,
that they should not return to the cruel king Herod, but should turn
through another way, and so come to their own country. Lo, God's angel
appeared to Joseph, the child's foster-father, in a dream, saying, 'Arise,
and take this child with the mother, and flee to the land of Egypt, and be
there until I speak to thee again: for it will come to pass that Herod will
devise how he may fordo the child.' {81} Joseph then arose by night, and
conveyed the child together with the mother to the land of Egypt, and there
staid until Herod departed; that the prophecy might be fulfilled which of
old thus spake of that journey, From the land of Egypt I have called my

Now chroniclers say that in the meanwhile Herod was accused to the Roman
emperor, who at that time ruled all the earth. He therefore went, by the
emperor's command, to Rome, that he might clear himself, if he could. He
cleared himself very cunningly, as he was so sagacious, that the emperor
sent him back with great honour to the Jewish kingdom. When he came home he
remembered what he had intended concerning the child, and saw that he had
been deceived by the astrologers, and was exceedingly irritated. He then
sent his executioners, and slew all the male children that were in the city
of Bethlehem, and in all its boundaries, from the child of two years to
that of one day, according to the time which he had inquired of the
astrologers. Then was fulfilled the prophecy of Jeremiah, who thus
prophesied, "A voice is heard on high, great weeping and wailing: Rachel
wept for her children, and would not be comforted, because they are not."

On the twelfth day of Christ's birth the three astrologers came to Herod,
and informed him concerning the child that was born; and when they had
discovered his birthplace, they went to the child, and would not return to
the cruel murderer, as he had commanded. He might not then avoid the
emperor's command, and, therefore, through his long journey, the slaughter
of the children was delayed more than he had intended; and they were on
this present day gloriously martyred; not, however, in the year that Christ
was born, but after the course of two years after the return of the cruel

He was not of noble birth, nor did he belong to the royal race; but by
artifices and deception he attained to the kingly {83} dignity; as Moses
wrote concerning him, That the royal Jewish race should not decay until
Christ himself came. Now Christ came at the time that the royal family was
decayed, and the stranger Herod ruled the kingdom. Then was he greatly
afraid and terrified lest his kingdom should fall through the coming of the
true king. He called therefore the astrologers in separate converse, and
diligently questioned them at what time they first saw the star; for he
feared, as it came to pass, that they would not return to him. He therefore
commanded all the children of that district, from the age of two years to
that of one day, to be slain, that the one might not escape whom he sought.
But he was unmindful of the holy scripture, which says, "No wisdom nor any
counsel is aught against God."

The treacherous Herod said to the astrologers, "Go, and diligently inquire
concerning the child, and let me know, that I may worship him." But he
manifested afterwards his guileful artifice, how he would have done, if he
had found him, when he destroyed all those of equal age, for the
persecution of him alone. Needlessly he machinated against Christ: he came
not because he would acquire for himself his earthly kingdom, or any other
king's by violence; but he came because he would give his heavenly kingdom
to believing men. He came not that he might be exalted on a pompous throne,
but that he might with contumely be nailed hanging on a cross.
Nevertheless, he would avoid the machination of the cruel tyrant by flight,
not because he fled from death, who of his own will visited the world for
the purpose of suffering; but it would have been too early, if he had been
slain in the child's cradle, for his advent would then, as it were, be
hidden from mankind; God's angel, therefore, prevented the impious counsel,
and bade the foster-father convey the heavenly Prince forthwith from the

Christ despised not his young champions, though he was not bodily present
at their slaughter; but he sent them from {85} this miserable life to his
eternal kingdom. Blessed they were born that they might for his sake suffer
death. Happy is their age, which could not yet acknowledge Christ, and
might for Christ suffer. They were witnesses of Jesus, though they yet knew
him not. They were not ripened for slaughter, yet they blessedly died to
life. Blessed was their birth, because they found everlasting life at the
entrance of this present life. They were snatched from their mothers'
breasts, but they were instantly committed to the bosoms of angels. The
wicked persecutor could not by any service so greatly favour those little
ones, so greatly as he favoured them by the fierce hate of persecution.
They are called blossoms of martyrs, because they were as blossoms
springing up in the midst of the chill of infidelity, consumed, as it were,
by the frost of persecution. Blessed are the wombs which bare them, and the
breasts that such have sucked. Verily the mothers suffered through their
children's martyrdom; the sword that pierced their children's limbs entered
the hearts of the mothers, and it is needful that they be partakers of the
eternal reward, when they were companions of the suffering. They were slain
while little and witless, but they shall arise at the common doom in full
growth, and with heavenly wisdom. We shall all come to one age at the
common resurrection, although we now in various age depart from this world.

The gospel says, that Rachel wept for her children, and would not be
comforted, because they are not. Jacob the patriarch's wife was called
Rachel, and she betokened God's church, which weeps for her ghostly
children; but it will not so be comforted, that they again return to
temporal strife, who once by a triumphant death have overcome the world,
and escaped from its miseries to be crowned with glory with Christ.

But the impious Herod did not enjoy his kingdom in long healthfulness, for
without delay the divine vengeance came {87} upon him, which afflicted him
with manifold misery, and also manifested in what torments he must after
death eternally suffer. An unspeakable disease seized him; his body burned
without with a lasting heat, and all within he was inflamed and bursten. He
had great craving for food, but yet with no viands could he satisfy his
voracity, and fearfully rotted away, and dolefully fetched sighs, so that
he could with difficulty breathe. Dropsy came on him, beneath the girdle,
to that degree that his members swarmed with vermin, and stinking venom
ever flowed from his swollen feet. Unbearable palsies spread over his whole
body, and incredible inflation afflicted his entrails. Stinking vapour
proceeded from his mouth, so that hardly any leech could approach him. Many
of the leeches he slew; he said that they might heal him and would not.
Constant sleeplessness afflicted him, so that he passed the whole night
without sleep; and if he dozed a little, nightly phantoms immediately
tormented him, so that he repented of his sleep. As he with violent longing
desired his life, he commanded to be conveyed over the river Jordan, where
there were hot baths, which were said to be salutary to diseased bodies. It
then seemed good to his leeches that they should bathe him in lukewarm oil.
But when he was led to this bathing, the body was all relaxed, so that his
eyes turned to the likeness of dead men's, and he lay speechless, without
sense. When he came to, he commanded to be borne to the city of Jericho.

When he was hopeless of life he called to him all the Jewish elders from
every city, and ordered them to be confined in prison, and sent for his
sister Salome and her husband Alexander, and said, "I know that this Jewish
people will greatly rejoice at my death; but I may have an honourable
funeral attendance of a mourning multitude, if ye will obey my commands. As
soon as I depart, slay all the Jewish elders whom {89} I have confined in
prison, then will their relations be compelled to mourn, who will rejoice
at my departure." He then appointed his soldiers to that slaughter, and
commanded fifty shillings as reward to be given to each of them, that they
might not withdraw their hands from the shedding of blood. When he was
tormented with intense agony he wickedly commanded his own son Antipater to
be killed, in addition to the two whom he had killed previously. At last,
when he was sensible of his death's approach, he commanded them to reach
him his knife to shred an apple, and violently stabbed himself, so that it
quaked in him. Such was the death of Herod, who wickedly machinated on the
coming of the heavenly Prince, and impiously killed the innocent little
ones, his equals in age.

Lo, then, God's angel, after the death of Herod, appeared to Joseph in a
dream, in the land of Egypt, thus saying, "Arise, and take the child
together with his mother, and go again to the land of Israel; for they are
dead, who machinated against the child's life." He then arose, as the angel
had commanded him, and conveyed the child with the mother to the land of
Israel. Then Joseph learned that Archelaus reigned in Judæa after Herod his
father, and he durst not approach his presence. Then again he was
admonished in a dream that he should go to Galilee, because the country
there was not quite so near to the king, though it was in his kingdom. The
child then dwelt in the city which is called Nazareth, that the prophecy
might be fulfilled, which said, that he should be called a Nazarene. The
angel said to Joseph, "They are dead who machinated against the child's
life." With that word he manifested that more of the Jewish elders
meditated the slaying of Christ; but it befell them very rightly, that they
with their impious lord all perished.

We will not longer extend this narrative, lest it may seem tedious to you,
but will pray for the intercession of these innocent martyrs for you. They
are those who follow Christ {91} in white garments, whithersoever he goeth;
and they stand before his throne, without any impurity, having their
palm-twigs in hand, and sing the new hymn in honour of the Almighty, who
liveth and ruleth ever without end. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *

K[=L]. JA[=N].


Se Godspellere Lucas beleac þis dægþerlice godspel mid feawum wordum, ac
hit is mid menigfealdre mihte þære heofenlican gerynu afylled. He cwæð,
"Postquam consummati sunt dies octo ut circumcideretur puer, uocatum est
nomen ejus Iesus, quod uocatum est ab angelo, priusquam in utero
conciperetur." Þæt is on ure geðeode, "Æfter þan ðe wǽron gefyllede ehta
dagas Drihtnes acennednysse þæt he ymbsniden wære, þa wæs his nama geciged
Iesus, þæt is Hælend, ðam naman he wæs geháten fram ðam engle, ærðam þe hé
on innoðe geeacnod wære."

Abraham se heahfæder wæs ærest manna ymbsniden, be Godes hæse. Abraham wæs
Godes gespreca, and God to him genam geþoftrædene æfter Noes flóde swiðost,
and him to cwæð, "Ic eom Ælmihtig Drihten, gang beforan me, and beo
fulfremed. And ic sette min wed betwux me and ðe; and ic ðe þearle
gemenigfylde, and þu bist manegra þeoda fæder. Cyningas aspringað of ðe,
and ic sette min wed betwux me and ðe, and þinum ofspringe æfter ðe, þæt ic
beo ðin God and ðines ofspringes." Abraham hine astrehte eallum limum to
eorðan, and God him to cwæð, "Heald þu min wed, and þin ofspring æfter ðe
on heora mægðum. Ðis is min wed, þæt ge healdan sceolon betwux me and eow;
þæt ælc hyse-cild on eowrum cynrene beo ymbsniden: þæt tácn sy betwux me
and eow. Ælc hyse-cild, þonne hit eahta nihta {92} eald bið, sy ymbsniden,
ægðer ge æþelboren ge þeowetling; and seðe þis forgæið his sawul losað,
forðan þe hé min wed aýdlode. Ne beo ðu geciged heonon-forð Abram, ac
Abraham, forðan þe ic gesette ðe manegra þeoda fæder. Ne ðin wif ne beo
gehaten Saraí, ac beo gehaten Sarra; and ic hí gebletsige, and of hire ic
ðe sylle sunu, þone ðu gecigest Isaac; and ic sette min wed to him and to
his ofspringe on ecere fæstnunge. And æfter ðære spræce se Ælmihtiga up
gewende." On þam ylcan dæge wæs Abraham ymbsniden, and eal his hyred, and
syððan his sunu Isaac, on ðam eahtoðan dæge his acennednysse.

Abrahames nama wæs æt fruman mid fif stafum gecweden, Abram, þæt is,
'Healic fæder'; ac God geyhte his naman mid twam stafum, and gehet hine
Abraham, þæt is, 'Manegra ðeoda fæder'; forðan þe God cwæð, þæt he hine
gesette manegum ðeodum to fæder. Saraí wæs his wíf gehaten, þæt is gereht,
'Min ealdor,' ac God hi het syððan Sarra, þæt is, 'Ealdor,' þæt heo nære
synderlice hire hiredes ealdor geciged, ac forðrihte 'Ealdor'; þæt is to
understandenne ealra gelyfedra wifa moder. Hund-teontig geara wæs Abraham,
and his gebedda hund-nigontig, ærðan ðe him cild gemæne wære. Þaða him cild
com, þa com hit mid Godes foresceawunge and bletsunge to þan swiðe, þæt God
behet eallum mancynne bletsunge þurh his cynn. Ða heold Abrahames cynn
symle syððan Godes wed; and se heretoga Moyses, and eal Israhela mægð ealle
hi ymbsnidon heora cild on þam eahtoðan dæge, and him naman gesceopon, oð
þæt Crist on menniscnysse acenned wearð, seðe fulluht astealde, and ðære
ealdan ǽ getacnunge to gastlicere soðfæstnysse awende.

Wén is þæt eower sum nyte hwæt sy ymbsnidennys. God bebead Abrahame, þæt he
sceolde and his ofspring his wed healdan; þæt sum tacn wære on heora
lichaman to geswutelunge þæt hi on God belyfdon, and het þæt he náme
scearpecgedne flint, and forcurfe sumne dæl þæs felles æt {94} foreweardan
his gesceape. And þæt tacn wæs ða swa micel on geleaffullum mannum, swa
micel swa nu is þæt halige fulluht, buton ðam anum þæt nan man ne mihte
Godes rice gefaran, ærðan þe se come þe ða ealdan ǽ sette, and eft on his
andwerdnysse hí to gastlicum þingum awende: ac gehwylce halgan andbidodon
on Abrahames wununge buton tintregum, þeah on helle-wite, oðþæt se Alysend
com, þe ðone ealdan deofol gewylde, and his gecorenan to heofenan rice

Se ylca Hælend, þe nu egefullice and halwendlice clypað on his godspelle,
"Buton gehwa beo ge-edcenned of wætere and of þam Halgum Gaste, ne mæg he
faran into heofenan rice," se ylca clypode gefyrn þurh ða ealdan ǽ, "Swa
hwylc hyse-cild swa ne bið ymbsniden on þam fylmene his flæsces his sawul
losað, forðan þe he aydlode min wed." Þis tacen stód on Godes folce oð þæt
Crist sylf com, and he sylf wæs þære halgan ǽ underþeod þe he gesette, þæt
he ða alysde þe neadwislice ðære ǽ underþeodde wæron. He cwæð þæt he ne
cóme to ðy þæt he wolde þa ealdan ǽ towurpan, ac gefyllan. Þa wearð he on
þam eahtoðan dæge his gebyrd-tide lichamlice ymbsniden, swa swa he sylf ær
tæhte; and mid þam geswutelode þæt seo ealde ǽ wæs halig and gód on hire
timan, þam ðe hire gehyrsume wæron. Hit wæs gewunelic þæt þa magas sceoldon
þam cilde naman gescyppan on ðam eahtoðan dæge mid þære ymbsnidennysse, ac
hí ne dorston nænne oðerne naman Criste gescyppan þonne se heah-engel him
gesette, ærðan þe hé on his modor innoðe geeacnod wære, þæt is, IESUS, and
on urum gereorde, HÆLEND, forðan ðe he gehælð his folc fram heora synnum.

Nis nu alyfed cristenum mannum þæt hi þas ymbsnidennysse lichamlice
healdan, ac þeah-hwæðere nan man ne bið soðlice cristen, buton he ða
ymbsnidennysse on gastlicum ðeawum gehealde. Hwæt getacnað þæs fylmenes
of-cyrf on ðam gesceape, buton galnysse wanunge? Eaðe mihte þes cwyde beon
læwedum mannum bediglod, nære seo gastlice getacning. Hit ðincð ungelæredum
mannum dyselig to {96} gehyrenne; ac gif hit him dyslic þince, þonne cide
he wið God, þe hit gesette, na wið us, þe hit secgað. Ac wite gehwa to
gewissan, buton he his flæsclican lustas and galnysse gewanige, þæt he ne
hylt his cristendóm mid rihtum biggenge. Be ðysum ðinge ge habbað oft
gehyred, ac us is acumendlicere eower gebelh, þonne þæs Ælmihtigan Godes
grama, gif we his bebodu forsuwiað. Gif ge willað æfter menniscum gesceade
lybban, þonne sind ge gastlice ymbsnidene; gif ge þonne eowere galnysse
underþeodde beoð, þonne beo ge swa se witega cwæð, "Se mann ðaða he on
wurðmynte wæs he hit ne understod; he is forðy wiðmeten stuntum nytenum,
and is him gelíc geworden."

Forðy sealde God mannum gesceád, þæt hi sceoldon oncnawan heora Scyppend,
and mid biggenge his beboda þæt ece lif geearnian. Witodlice se fyrenfulla
bið earmra ðonne ænig nyten, forðan þe þæt nyten næfð nane sawle, ne næfre
ne ge-edcucað, ne þa toweardan wita ne ðrowað. Ac we ðe sind to Godes
anlicnysse gesceapene, and habbað únateorigendlice saule, we sceolon of
deaðe arísan, and agyldan Gode gescead ealra ura geðohta, and worda, and
weorca. Ne sceole we forðy sinderlice on anum lime beon ymbsnidene, ac we
sceolon ða fulan galnysse symle wanian, and ure eagan fram yfelre gesihðe
awendan, and earan from yfelre heorcnunge; urne múð fram leasum spræcum,
handa fram mándædum; ure fotwylmas fram deadbærum siðfæte, ure heortan fram
facne. Gif we swa fram leahtrum ymbsnidene beoð, þonne bið ús geset níwe
nama; swa swa se wítega Isaías cwæð, "God gecígð his ðeowan oðrum naman."
Eft se ylca wítega cwæð, "Þu bist gecíged niwum naman, þone ðe Godes múð
genemnode." Se níwa nama is 'Cristianus,' þæt is, Cristen. Ealle we sind of
Criste cristene gehátene, ac we sceolon ðone arwurðfullan naman mid æðelum
þeawum geglengan, þæt we ne beon lease cristene. Gif we ðas gastlican
ymbsnidennysse on urum ðeawum healdað, þonne sind we Abrahames cynnes,
æfter soðum geleafan; swa swa se þeoda lareow Paulus {98} cwæð to
geleaffullum, "Gif ge sind Cristes, þonne sind ge Abrahames sǽd, and æfter
behate yrfenuman." Petrus eac se apostol tihte geleaffulle wíf to
eadmodnysse and gemetfæstnysse, ðus cweðende, "Swa swa Sarra gehyrsumode
Abrahame, and hine hlaford het, ðære dohtra ge sind, wel donde and na
ondrædende ænige gedrefednysse."

Se eahtoða dæg, þe þæt cild on ymbsniden wæs, getacnode ða eahtoðan ylde
ðyssere worulde, on þære we arisað of deaðe ascyrede fram ælcere brosnunge
and gewemmednysse ures lichaman. Þæt stænene sex, þe þæt cild ymbsnað,
getacnode ðone stán ðe se apostol cwæð, "Se stán soðlice wæs Crist." He
cwæð wæs for ðære getacnunge, na for edwiste. Þurh Cristes geleafan, and
hiht, and soðe lufe, beoð singallice estfulle heortan mid dæghwonlicere
ymbsnidenysse afeormode fram leahtrum, and ðurh his gife onlihte.

We habbað oft gehyred þæt men hatað þysne dæg geares dæg, swylce þes dæg
fyrmest sy on geares ymbryne; ac we ne gemetað nane geswutelunge on
cristenum bocum, hwí þes dæg to geares anginne geteald sy. Þa ealdan
Romani, on hæðenum dagum, ongunnon þæs geares ymbryne on ðysum dæge; and ða
Ebreiscan leoda on lenctenlicere emnihte; ða Greciscan on sumerlicum
sunstede; and þa Egyptiscan ðeoda ongunnon heora geares getel on hærfeste.
Nu onginð ure gerím, æfter Romaniscre gesetnysse, on ðysum dæge, for nanum
godcundlicum gesceade, ac for ðam ealdan gewunan. Sume ure ðening-béc
onginnað on Aduentum Domini; nis ðeah þær forðy ðæs geares ord, ne eac on
ðisum dæge nis mid nánum gesceade; þeah ðe ure gerím-béc on þissere stówe
ge-edlæcon. Rihtlicost bið geðuht þæt þæs geares anginn on ðam dæge sy
gehæfd, þe se Ælmihtiga Scyppend sunnan, and mónan, and steorran, and ealra
tida anginn gesette; þæt is on þam dæge þe þæt Ebreisce folc heora geares
getel onginnað; swa swa se heretoga Moyses on ðam ælicum bocum awrát.
Witodlice God cwæð to Moysen be ðam monðe, "Þes monað is monða anginn, and
he bið fyrmest on geares {100} monðum." Nu heold þæt Ebreisce folc ðone
forman geares dæg on lenctenlicere emnihte, forðan ðe on ðam dæge wurdon
gearlice tida gesette.

Se eahteteoða dæg þæs monðes þe we hátað Martius, ðone ge hatað Hlyda, wæs
se forma dæg ðyssere worulde. On ðam dæge worhte God leoht, and merigen,
and æfen. Ða eódon þry dagas forð buton tída gemetum; forðan þe tunglan
næron gesceapene, ær on þam feorðan dæge. On ðam feorðan dæge gesette se
Ælmihtiga ealle tungla and gearlice tída, and hét þæt hí wǽron to tácne
dagum and gearum. Nu ongynnað þa Ebreiscan heora geares anginn on þam dæge
þe ealle tida gesette wæron, þæt is on ðam feorðan dæge woruldlicere
gesceapenysse; and se lareow Beda telð mid micclum gesceade þæt se dæg is
XII. K[=L], ðone dæg we freolsiað þam halgum were Benedick to wurðmynte,
for his micclum geðincðum. Hwæt eac seo eorðe cyð mid hire ciðum, þe ðonne
ge-edcuciað, þæt se tima is þæt rihtlicoste geares anginn, ðe hí on
gesceapene wæron.

Nu wígliað stunte men menigfealde wígelunga on ðisum dæge, mid micclum
gedwylde, æfter hæðenum gewunan, ongean heora cristendom, swylce hí magon
heora líf gelengan, oþþe heora gesundfulnysse, mid þam ðe hí gremiað þone
Ælmihtigan Scyppend. Sind eac manega mid swa micclum gedwylde befangene,
þæt hí cepað be ðam monan heora fær, and heora dæda be dagum, and nellað
heora ðing wanian on monan-dæg, for anginne ðære wucan; ac se monan-dæg nis
na fyrmest daga on þære wucan, ac is se oðer. Se sunnan-dæg is fyrmest on
gesceapenysse and on endebyrdnysse, and on wurðmynte. Secgað eac sume
gedwæsmenn þæt sum orfcyn sy þe man bletsigan ne sceole, and cweðað þæt hí
þurh bletsunge misfarað, and ðurh wyrigunge geðeoð, and brucað þonne Godes
gife him on teonan, buton bletsunge, mid deofles awyrigednysse. Ælc
bletsung is of Gode, and wyrigung of deofle. God gesceop ealle gesceafta,
and deofol nane {102} gesceafta scyppan ne mæg, ac he is yfel tihtend, and
leas wyrcend, synna ordfruma, and sawla bepæcend.

Þa gesceafta ðe sind þwyrlice geðuhte, hí sind to wrace gesceapene
yfel-dædum. Oft halige men wunedon on westene betwux reðum wulfum and
leonum, betwux eallum deorcynne and wurmcynne, and him nan ðing derian ne
mihte; ac hí totæron þa hyrnedan næddran mid heora nacedum handum, and þa
micclan dracan eaðelice acwealdon, buton ælcere dare, þurh Godes mihte.

Wa ðam men þe brícð Godes gesceafta, buton his bletsunge, mid deofellicum
wíglungum, þonne se ðeoda lareow cwæð, Paulus, "Swa hwæt swa ge doð on
worde, oððe on weorce, doð symle on Drihtnes naman, þancigende þam
Ælmihtigan Fæder þurh his Bearn." Nis þæs mannes cristendom naht, þe mid
deoflicum wíglungum his líf adrihð; he is gehíwod to cristenum men, and is
earm hæðengylda; swa swa se ylca apostol be swylcum cwæð, "Ic wene þæt ic
swunce on ydel, ðaða ic eow to Gode gebigde: nu ge cepað dagas and monðas
mid ydelum wíglungum."

Is hwæðere æfter gecynde on gesceapennysse ælc lichamlice gesceaft ðe eorðe
acenð fulre and mægenfæstre on fullum monan þonne on gewanedum. Swa eac
treowa, gif hí beoð on fullum monan geheawene, hí beoð heardran and
langfǽrran to getimbrunge, and swiðost, gif hí beoð unsæpige geworhte. Nis
ðis nan wíglung, ac is gecyndelic ðincg þurh gesceapenysse. Hwæt eac seo sǽ
wunderlice geþwærlæcð þæs monan ymbrene; symle hí beoð geferan on wæstme
and on wanunge. And swa swa se mona dæghwonlice feower pricon lator arist,
swa eac seo sǽ symle feower pricum lator fleowð.

Uton besettan urne hiht and ure gesælða on þæs Ælmihtigan Scyppendes
foresceawunge, seðe ealle gesceafta on ðrim ðingum gesette, þæt is on
gemete, and on getele, and on hefe. Sy him wuldor and lof á on ecnysse.



The evangelist Luke concluded the gospel of this day with few words, but
they are filled with a manifold power of the heavenly mysteries. He said,
"Postquam consummati sunt dies octo ut circumcideretur puer, vocatum est
nomen ejus Jesus, quod vocatum est ab angelo, priusquam in utero
conciperetur." That is in our tongue, "After that the eight days were
accomplished from the Lord's birth, that he should be circumcised, his name
was called Jesus, that is _Saviour_, by which name he was called by the
angel before he was conceived in the womb."

The patriarch Abraham was the first man circumcised by God's command.
Abraham spake with God, and God held converse most with him after Noah's
flood, and said, "I am the Lord Almighty; walk before me and be perfect.
And I will set my covenant betwixt me and thee, and I will exceedingly
multiply thee, and thou shalt be the father of many nations. Kings shall
spring from thee, and I will set my covenant betwixt me and thee, and thy
offspring after thee, that I am the God of thee and of thy offspring."
Abraham prostrated himself with all his limbs to the earth, and God said to
him, "Hold thou my covenant, and thy offspring after thee in their tribes.
This is my covenant, which ye shall hold betwixt me and you; that every
male child in your tribe shall be circumcised: be that a sign betwixt me
and you. Let every {93} male child, when it is eight nights old, be
circumcised, both the noble-born and the slave; and he who neglecteth this,
his soul shall perish, because he hath disregarded my covenant. Now be thou
henceforth called not Abram, but Abraham, because I will establish thee as
the father of many nations. Nor be thy wife called Sarai, but be called
Sarah; and I will bless her, and of her I will give thee a son whom thou
shalt call Isaac; and I will set my covenant with him and his offspring for
everlasting duration. And after this speech the Almighty went up." On the
same day Abraham was circumcised, and all his household, and afterwards his
son Isaac, on the eighth day from his birth.

Abraham's name was at first spoken with five letters, 'Abram,' that is
_High father_; but God increased his name with two letters, and called him
Abraham, that is _Father of many nations_: for God said that he had
appointed him for father of many nations. His wife was called Sarai, which
is interpreted, _My chief_; but God called her afterwards Sarah, that is
_Chief_; that she might not be exclusively called her family's chief, but
absolutely chief; which is to be understood, mother of all believing women.
An hundred years old was Abraham, and his consort ninety, before they had a
child between them. When a child came to them, it came so much with God's
providence and blessing, that God promised blessing to all mankind through
his kin. Then Abraham's kin ever held God's covenant; and the leader Moses,
and all the tribe of Israel, circumcised their children on the eighth day,
and gave them names, until Christ was born in human nature, who established
baptism, and changed the token of the old law to spiritual righteousness.

It is probable that some of you know not what circumcision is. God
commanded Abraham, that he and his offspring should hold his covenant; that
there might be some sign on their bodies to show that they believed in God,
and commanded him to take a sharp-edged flint, and cut off a {95} part of
the foreskin. And that token was then as great among believing men as is
now the holy baptism, excepting only that no man could go to God's kingdom,
before He came who should confirm the old law, and afterwards, by his
presence, turn it to a spiritual sense: but every holy man abode in
Abraham's dwelling, without torments, although in hell, until the Redeemer
came, who overcame the old devil, and led his chosen to the kingdom of

The same Saviour, who now awfully and salutarily cries in his gospel,
"Unless anyone be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, he cannot go to
the kingdom of heaven," the same cried of old, through the old law,
"Whatever male child shall not be circumcised in the foreskin of his flesh,
his soul shall perish, because he hath disregarded my covenant." This sign
stood among God's people until Christ himself came, and he himself was
subject to the holy law that he had established, that he might release
those who had necessarily been subjected to the old law. He said that he
came not to overthrow, but to fulfil the old law. Then on the eighth day
from his birth he was bodily circumcised, as he himself had before taught,
and thereby manifested that the old law was holy and good in its time for
those who were obedient to it. It was usual that the parents should give a
name to the child on the eighth day, with circumcision, but they durst not
give any other name to Christ than what the archangel had fixed on for him,
before he was conceived in his mother's womb, that is, JESUS, and in our
tongue, SAVIOUR, because he shall save his people from their sins.

It is not now allowed to christian men to observe circumcision bodily, but,
nevertheless, no man is truly a christian, unless he observe circumcision
in spiritual conduct. What does the amputation of the foreskin betoken but
decrease of lust? This discourse might easily be concealed from the laymen,
were it not for its spiritual signification. To unlearned men it seems
foolish to hear; but if it seems foolish {97} to him, let him chide God,
who established it, not us, who say it. But let everyone know for certain,
unless he diminish his fleshly lusts and wantonness, that he holds not his
christianity with right observance. Of this matter ye have often heard, but
to us your displeasure is more tolerable than the anger of Almighty God, if
we announce not his commandments. If ye will live according to human
reason, then are ye spiritually circumcised; but if ye will be subjected to
your libidinousness, then will ye be as the prophet said, "Man, when he was
in dignity understood it not; he is, therefore, compared with the foolish
beasts, and is become like unto them."

Therefore has God given reason to men that they might acknowledge their
Creator, and by observance of his commandments, merit eternal life. Verily
the wicked man is more miserable than any beast, because the beast has no
soul, nor will ever be quickened again, nor suffer future punishments. But
we, who are created after God's likeness, and have an unperishable soul, we
shall arise from death, and render to God an account of all our thoughts,
and words, and works. Therefore we should not merely be circumcised in one
member, but should constantly diminish foul libidinousness, and turn our
eyes from evil seeing, and ears from evil hearing; our mouth from leasing
speeches, hand from wicked deeds; our footsteps from the deadly path, our
hearts from guile. If we are thus circumcised from sins, then will a new
name be given us, as the prophet Isaiah said, "God will call his servants
by other names." Again, the same prophet said, "Thou shall be called by a
new name, which the mouth of God hath named." That new name is
'Christianus,' that is, _Christian_. We are all from Christ called
christians, but we should adorn that honourable name with exalted morals,
that we be not false christians. If we observe this spiritual circumcision
in our morals, then are we of Abraham's kin, in true faith; as the apostle
of the gentiles, Paul, said to {99} the faithful, "If ye are Christ's, then
are ye of Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the promise." Peter the
apostle also exhorted faithful women to humility and modesty, thus saying,
"As Sarah obeyed Abraham and called him lord, whose daughters ye are, well
doing and not fearing any affliction."

The eighth day, on which the child was circumcised, betokened the eighth
age of this world, in which we shall arise from death, parted from every
earthly corruption and pollution of our body. The stone knife, which
circumcised the child, betokened the stone of which the apostle said, "The
stone verily was Christ." He said _was_, meaning a type, not in substance.
Through belief, and hope, and true love of Christ, are pious hearts
cleansed, by daily circumcision, from their sins, and through his grace

We have often heard that men call this day the day of the year, as if this
day were first in the circuit of the year; but we find no explanation in
christian books, why this day is accounted the beginning of the year. The
old Romans, in heathen days, begun the circuit of the year on this day; and
the Hebrew nations on the vernal equinox; the Greeks on the summer
solstice; and the Egyptians begun their year at harvest. Now our calendar
begins, according to the Roman institution, on this day, not for any
religious reason, but from old custom. Some of our service-books begin on
the Lord's Advent; but not on that account is that the beginning of the
year, nor is it with any reason placed on this day; though our calendars,
in this place, repeat it. Most rightly it has been thought that the
beginning of the year should be observed on the day that the Almighty
Creator placed the sun, and the moon, and the stars, and the beginning of
all the seasons; that is on the day that the Hebrew people begin the
calculation of their year; as the leader Moses has written in the books of
laws. Verily God said to Moses concerning that month, "This month is the
beginning of months, and it {101} is first of the months of the year." Now
the Hebrew people held the first day of the year on the vernal equinox,
because on that day the yearly seasons were set.

The eighteenth day of the month that we call March, which ye call Hlyda,
was the first day of this world. On that day God made light, and morning,
and evening. Then three days went forth without any measure of times; for
the heavenly bodies were not created before the fourth day. On the fourth
day the Almighty fixed all the heavenly bodies, and the yearly seasons, and
commanded that they should be for a sign, for days, and for years. Now the
Hebrews begin their year on the day when all the seasons were appointed,
that is on the fourth day of the world's creation, and the doctor Beda
reckons, with great discretion, that that day is the twenty-first of March,
the day which we celebrate in honour of the holy man Benedict, for his
great excellencies. Aye, the earth also makes known by her plants, which
then return to life, that the time at which they were created is the most
correct beginning of the year.

Now foolish men practise manifold divinations on this day, with great
error, after heathen custom, against their christianity, as if they could
prolong their life or their health, while they provoke the Almighty
Creator. Many are also possessed with such great error, that they regulate
their journeying by the moon, and their acts according to days, and will
not undertake anything on Monday, because of the beginning of the week;
though Monday is not the first day in the week, but is the second. Sunday
is the first in creation, in order, and in dignity. Some foolish men also
say, that there are some kinds of animals which one should not bless; and
say that they decline by blessing, and by cursing thrive, and so enjoy
God's grace to their injury, without blessing, with the devil's
malediction. Every blessing is of God, and curse of the devil. God created
all creatures, and the devil can create no creatures, for he is an inciter
to evil, {103} and worker of falsehood, author of sins, and deceiver of

The creatures that are thought monstrous have been created for punishment
of evil deeds. Holy men often dwelt in the waste among fierce wolves and
lions, among all the beast kind and the worm kind, and nothing might harm
them; but they tore the horned serpents with their naked hands, and the
great snakes they easily slew, without any hurt, through God's might.

Woe to the man who uses God's creatures, without his blessing, with
diabolical charms, when the apostle of the gentiles, Paul, has said,
"Whatsoever ye do in word or in work, do always in the name of the Lord,
thanking the Almighty Father through his Son." That man's christianity is
naught, who passes his life in diabolical charms; he is in appearance a
christian man, and is a miserable heathen; as the same apostle said of
such, "I believe that I laboured in vain when I inclined you to God, now ye
observe days and months with vain auguries."

Every bodily creature in the creation which the earth produces, is,
however, according to nature, fuller and stronger in full moon than in
decrease. Thus trees also, if they are felled in full moon, are harder and
more lasting for building, and especially if they are made sapless. This is
no charm, but is a natural thing from their creation. The sea too agrees
wonderfully with the course of the moon; they are always companions in
their increase and waning. And as the moon rises daily four points later,
so also the sea flows always four points later.

Let us set our hope and our happiness in the providence of the Almighty
Creator, who hath placed all creatures in three things; that is in measure,
and in number, and in weight. Be to him glory and praise ever to eternity.

       *       *       *       *       *

{104} VIII. I[=D]. JAN.


Men ða leofostan, nu for feawum dagum we oferræddon þis godspel ætforan
eow, þe belimpð to ðysses dæges ðenunge, for gereccednysse ðære
godspellican endebyrdnysse; ac we ne hrepodon þone traht na swiðor þonne to
ðæs dæges wurðmynte belámp: nu wille we eft oferyrnan þa ylcan godspellican
endebyrdnysse, and be ðyssere andweardan freolstíde trahtnian.

Matheus se Godspellere cwæð, "Cum natus esset Iesus in Bethleem Iudæ, in
diebus Herodis regis, ecce Magi ab oriente uenerunt Hierosolimam, dicentes,
Ubi est qui natus est Rex Iudeorum?" et reliqua. "Þaða se Hælend acenned
wæs on þære Iudeiscan Bethleem, on Herodes dagum cyninges, efne ða comon
fram east-dæle middangeardes ðry tungel-witegan to ðære byrig Hierusalem,
þus befrínende, Hwær is Iudeiscra leoda Cyning, seðe acenned is?" etc.

Ðes dæg is gehaten Epiphania Domini, þæt is Godes geswutelung-dæg. On þysum
dæge Crist wæs geswutelod þam ðrym cyningum, ðe fram east-dæle
middangeardes hine mid þrimfealdum lacum gesohton. Eft embe geara ymbrynum
hé wearð on his fulluhte on þysum dæge middangearde geswutelod, ðaða se
Halga Gást, on culfran híwe, uppon him gereste, and þæs Fæder stemn of
heofenum hlúde swegde, þus cweðende, "Þes is min leofa Sunu, þe me wél
licað; gehyrað him." Eac on ðisum dæge he awende wæter to æðelum wine, and
mid þam geswutelode þæt he is se soða Scyppend, þe ða gesceafta awendan
mihte. For ðisum þrym ðingum is ðes freols-dæg Godes swutelung gecweden. On
ðam forman dæge his gebyrd-tide he wearð æteowed þrym hyrdum on Iudeiscum
earde, þurh ðæs engles bodunge. On ðam ylcum dæge he wearð gecydd þam ðrym
tungel-witegum on east-dæle, þurh ðone beorhtan steorran; ac on þysum dæge
{106} hí comon mid heora lacum. Hit wæs gedafenlic þæt se gesceadwisa engel
hine cydde þam gesceadwisum Iudeiscum, ðe Godes ǽ cuðon, and ðam haðenum,
þe ðæs godcundan gesceades nyston na ðurh stemne, ac ðurh tacn wære

Þa Iudeiscan hyrdas getácnodon ða gastlican hyrdas, þæt sind ða apostolas,
þe Crist geceas of Iudeiscum folce, ús to hyrdum and to lareowum. Ða
tungel-witegan, ðe wæron on hæðenscipe wunigende, hæfdon getacnunge ealles
hæðenes folces, ðe wurdon to Gode gebígede þurh ðæra apostola láre, þe
wæron Iudeiscre ðeode. Soðlice se sealm-sceop awrát be Criste, þæt hé is se
hyrn-stan þe gefegð þa twegen weallas togædere, forðan ðe he geþeodde his
gecorenan of Iudeiscum folce and þa geleaffullan of hæðenum, swilce twegen
wagas to anre gelaðunge; be ðam cwæð Paulus se apostol, "Se Hælend bodade
on his to-cyme sibbe us ðe feorran wǽron, and sibbe þam ðe gehende wǽron.
He is ure sibb, seðe dyde ægðer to anum, towurpende ða ǽrran feondscipas on
him sylfum." Þa Iudeiscan ðe on Crist gelyfdon wæron him gehéndor stówlice,
and eac ðurh cyððe þære ealdan ǽ: we wæron swiðe fyrlyne, ægðer ge stówlice
ge ðurh uncyððe; ac he us gegaderode mid ánum geleafan to ðam healicum
hyrn-stane, þæt is to annysse his gelaðunge.

Ða easternan tungel-wítegan gesáwon níwne steorran beorhtne, na on heofenum
betwux oðrum tunglum, ac wæs ángenga betwux heofenum and eorðan. Ða
undergeaton hí þæt se seldcuða tungel gebicnode þæs soðan Cyninges
acennednysse, on ðam earde ðe he oferglád; and forði comon to Iudea rice,
and þone arleasan cyning Herodem mid heora bodunge ðearle afǽrdon; forðan
ðe buton tweon seo eorðlice arleasnys wearð gescynd, þaða seo heofenlice
healicnyss wearð geopenod.

Swutol is þæt ða tungel-witegan tocneowon Crist soðne mann, ðaða hí
befrunon, "Hwær is se ðe acenned is?" Hí oncneowon hine soðne Cyning, þaða
hí cwædon, "Iudea {108} Cyning." Hí hine wurðodon soðne God, þaða hí
cwædon, "We comon to ðy þæt we us to him gebiddan." Eaðe mihte God hí
gewissian þurh ðone steorran to ðære byrig þe þæt cild on wæs, swa swa he
his acennednysse þurh ðæs steorran up-spring geswutelode; ac he wolde þæt
ða Iudeiscan boceras ða witegunge be ðam ræddon, and swa his cenning-stowe
geswutelodon, þæt hí gehealdene wæron, gif hí woldon mid þan tungel-witegum
hí to Criste gebiddan: gif hí þonne noldon, þæt hí wurdon mid þære
geswutelunge geniðerode. Þa tungel-witegan ferdon and hí gebædon, and ða
Iudeiscan boceras bæftan belifon, þe þa cenning-stowe þurh bóclic gescead

Ealle gesceafta oncneowon heora Scyppendes to-cyme, buton ðam arleasum
Iudeiscum anum. Heofonas oncneowon heora Scyppend, ðaða hí on his
acennednysse níwne steorran æteowdon. Sǽ oncneow ðaða Crist mid drium
fot-wylmum ofer hyre yða mihtelice eode. Sunne oncneow, þaþa heo on his
ðrowunge hire leoman fram mid-dæge oð nón behydde. Stanas oncneowon, ðaða
hí on his forðsiðe sticmælum toburston. Seo eorðe oncneow, ðaða heo on his
æriste eall byfode. Hell oncneow, ðaða heo hire hæftlingas unðances forlet.
And ðeah þa heard-heortan Iudei noldon for eallum ðam tacnum þone soðan
Scyppend tocnáwan, þe þa dumban gesceafta undergeaton, and mid gebicnungum
geswutolodon. Næron hí swa-ðeah ealle endemes ungeleaffulle, ac of heora
cynne wæron ægðer ge wítegan ge apostolas, and fela ðusenda gelyfedra

Þaþa ða tungel-witegan þone cyning gecyrdon, þa wearð se steorra him
ungesewen; and eft, ðaða hí to ðam cilde gecyrdon, þa gesawon hí eft ðone
steorran, and he ða hí gelædde to þam huse, þær hé inne wunode. Ne glad hé
ealne weig him ætforan, ac syððan hí comon to Iudeiscum earde, syððan he
wæs heora latteow, oð þæt he bufan Cristes gesthuse ætstod.

Herodes hæfde deofles getacnunge; and se ðe fram Gode {110} bichð to deofle
he forlyst Godes gife, þæt is his modes onlihtinge, swa swa ða
tungel-witegan ðone steorran forluron, ðaða hí ðone reðan cyning gecyrdon.
Gif he ðonne eft þone deofol anrædlice forlǽt, ðonne gemét hé eft þæs
halgan Gastes gife, þe his heortan onliht, and to Criste gelæt.

Us is eac to witenne, þæt wæron sume gedwolmen ðe cwǽdon, þæt ælc man beo
acenned be steorrena gesetnyssum, and þurh heora ymbryna him wyrd gelimpe,
and námon to fultume heora gedwylde þæt níwe steorra asprang þaþa Drihten
lichamlice acenned wearð, and cwædon þæt se steorra his gewyrd wære. Gewíte
ðis gedwyld fram geleaffullum heortum, þæt ænig gewyrd sy, buton se
Ælmihtiga Scyppend, seðe ælcum men foresceawað lif be his geearnungum. Nis
se man for steorrum gesceapen, ac ða steorran sint mannum to nihtlicere
lihtinge gesceapene. Þaða se steorra glád, and þa tungel-witegan gelædde,
and him ðæs cildes inn gebícnode, ða geswutelode he þæt he wæs Cristes
gesceaft, and rihtlice his Scyppende þenode: ac hé næs his gewyrd. Eft we
biddað þæt nán geleafful man his geleafan mid þisum gedwylde ne befyle.
Witodlice Rebecca, Isaáces wíf, acende twegen getwysan, Iacob and Esau, on
ánre tide, swa þæt Iacob heold þone yldran broðer Esau be ðam fét on ðære
cenninge, and hi næron ðeah gelice on ðeawum, ne on lifes geearnungum.
Witodlice þæt halige gewrit cwyð þæt God lufode Iacob, and hatode Esau; na
for gewyrde, ac for mislicum geearnungum. Hit gelimpð forwel oft þæt on
anre tíde acenð seo cwén and seo wyln, and ðeah geðicð se æðeling be his
gebyrdum to healicum cynesetle, and ðære wylne sunu wunað eal his líf on

Nu cweðað oft stunte men þæt hi be gewyrde lybban sceolon, swylce God hí
neadige to yfel-dædum! Ac we wyllað þyssera stuntra manna ydele leasunge
adwæscan mid deopnysse godcundra gewrita. Se Ælmihtiga Scyppend gesceop
englas þurh his godcundan mihte, and for his micclan rihtwisnysse forgeaf
him agenne cyre, þæt hí moston {112} ðurhwunian on ecere gesælðe ðurh
gehyrsumnysse, and mihton eac ða gesælða forleosan, na for gewyrde, ac for
ungehyrsumnysse. His deope rihtwisnys nolde hí neadian to naðrum, ac
forgeaf him agenne cyre; forðan ðe þæt is rihtwisnys þæt gehwylcum sy his
agen cyre geðafod. Þonne wære seo rihtwisnys awǽged, gif he hí neadunge to
his ðeowte gebigde, oððe gif he hí to yfelnysse bescufe. Ða miswendon sume
þa englas heora agenne cyre, and þurh modignysse hy sylfe to awyrigedum
deoflum geworhton.

Eft ðaða se ðrimwealdenda Scyppend mancyn geworhte, þa forgeaf hé Adame and
Euan agenne cyre, swa hi, ðurh gehyrsumnysse, á on ecnysse, butan deaðe, on
gesælðe wunodon, mid eallum heora ofspringe, swa hi, ðurh ungehyrsumnysse,
deadlice wurdon. Ac ðaþa hí Godes bebod forgægdon, and þæs awyrigedan
deofles lare gehyrsumodon, þa wurdon hi deadlice, and forscyldegode þurh
agenne cyre, hí and eall heora ofspring; and ðeah ðe næfre ne wurde syððan
mancynne gemiltsod, ðe má ðe ðam deoflum is, ðeah wære Godes rihtwisnys
eallunga untæle. Ac eft seo miccle mildheortnys ures Drihtnes us alysde
þurh his menniscnysse, gif we his bebodum mid ealre heortan gehyrsumiað.
Witodlice ða ðe nu þurh agenne cyre and deofles tihtinge God forlætað, God
forlæt hí eac to ðam ecan forwyrde.

Georne wiste se Ælmihtiga Scyppend, ærðan þe he þa gesceafta gesceope, hwæt
toweard wæs. He cuðe gewislice getel ægðer ge gecorenra engla ge gecorenra
manna, and eac ðæra modigra gasta and arleasra manna, þe ðurh heora
arleasnysse forwurðað; ac he ne forestihte nænne to yfelnysse, forðan þe he
sylf is eall gódnyss; ne hé nænne to forwyrde ne gestihte, forðan ðe he is
soð líf. He forestihte ða gecorenan to ðam ecan life, forðan ðe he wiste hí
swilce towearde, þurh his gife and agene gehyrsumnysse. He nolde
forestihtan þa arleasan to his rice, forðan ðe he wiste hí swilce towearde,
þurh heora agene forgægednysse and ðwyrnysse. {114} Healdað þis fæste on
eowerum heortum, þæt se Ælmihtiga and se Rihtwisa God nænne mann ne neadað
to syngigenne, ac he wát swa-ðeah on ǽr hwilce þurh agenne willan syngian
willað. Hwí ne sceal he ðonne rihtlice wrecan þæt yfel þæt he onscunað? He
lufað ælc gód and rihtwisnysse, forðan ðe he is gecyndelice gód and
rihtwis; and he hatað ealle ða ðe unrihtwisnysse wyrcað, and þa fordeð þe
leasunge sprecað. Witodlice þa þe on God belyfað, hi sind þurh ðone Halgan
Gást gewissode. Nis seo gecyrrednys to Gode of us sylfum, ac of Godes gife,
swa swa se apostol cwyð, "Þurh Godes gife ge sind gehealdene on geleafan."

Þa ðe ne gelyfað ðurh agenne cyre hí scoriað, na ðurh gewyrd, forðan ðe
gewyrd nis nan ðing buton leas wena; ne nan ðing soðlice be gewyrde ne
gewyrð, ac ealle ðing þurh Godes dom beoð geendebyrde, seðe cwæð þurh his
witegan, "Ic afandige manna heortan, and heora lendena, and ælcum sylle
æfter his færelde, and æfter his agenre afundennysse." Ne talige nan man
his yfelan dæda to Gode, ac talige ærest to þam deofle, þe mancyn beswác,
and to Adámes forgægednysse; ac ðeah swiðost to him sylfum, þæt him yfel
gelicað, and ne licað gód.

Bið þeah gelome ofsprincg forscyldegod þurh forðfædera mándæda, gif he mid
yfele him geefenlæhð. Gif ðonne se ofspring rihtwis bið, þonne leofað he on
his rihtwisnysse, and nateshwon his yldrena synna ne aberð. Ne sy nán man
to ðan arleas þæt hé Adam wyrige oððe Euan, ðe nu on heofenum mid Gode
rixiað, ac geearnige swiðor Godes mildheortnysse, swa þæt hé wende his
agenne cyre to his Scyppendes gehyrsumnysse and bebodum; forðan þe nan man
ne bið gehealden buton þurh gife Hælendes Cristes: þa gife he gearcode and
forestihte on ecum ræde ær middangeardes gesetnysse.

Mine gebroðra, ge habbað nu gehyred be ðan leasan wenan, þe ydele men
gewyrd hatað: uton nu fón on þæs godspelles trahtnunge, þær we hit ær
forleton. {116} Þa tungel-witegan eodon into ðæs cildes gesthuse, and hine
gemetton mid þære meder. Hí ða mid astrehtum lichaman hi to Criste gebædon,
and geopenodon heora hordfatu, and him geoffrodon þryfealde lác, gold, and
recels, and myrran. Gold gedafenað cyninge; stór gebyrað to Godes ðenunge;
mid myrran man behwyrfð deadra manna líc, þæt hí late rotian. Ðas ðrý
tungel-wítegan hí to Criste gebǽdon, and him getacnigendlice lac offrodon.
Þæt gold getacnode þæt he is soð Cyning. Se stór þæt he is soð God. Seo
myrre þæt he wæs ða deadlic; ac he þurhwunað nu undeadlic on ecnysse.

Sume gedwolmen wæron þe gelyfdon þæt hé God wære, ac hi nateshwón ne
gelyfdon þæt hé æghwær rixode: hi offrodon Criste gastlice recels, and
noldon him gold offrian. Eft wæron oðre gedwolmen ðe gelyfdon þæt he soð
Cyning wære, ac hi wiðsocon þæt he God wære: ðas, buton twyn, him offrodon
gold, and noldon offrian recels. Sume gedwolan andetton þæt he soð God wære
and soð Cyning, and wiðsocon þæt hé deadlic flæsc underfenge: þas witodlice
him brohton gold and stór, and noldon bringan myrran þære onfangenre

Mine gebroðra, uton we geoffrian urum Drihtne gold, þæt we andettan þæt hé
soð Cyning sy, and æghwær rixige. Uton him offrian stór, þæt we gelyfon þæt
hé ǽfre God wæs, seðe on þære tide man æteowde. Uton him bringan myrran,
þæt we gelyfan þæt he wæs deadlic on urum flæsce, seðe is unðrowigendlic on
his godcundnysse. He wæs deadlic on menniscnysse ær his ðrowunge, ac he bið
heonon-forð undeadlic, swa swa we ealle beoð æfter ðam gemænelicum æriste.

We habbað gesǽd embe ðas þryfealdan lac, hú hí to Criste belimpað: we
willað eac secgan hú hí to ús belimpað æfter ðeawlicum andgite. Mid golde
witodlice bið wisdom getácnod, swa swa Salomon cwæð, "Gewilnigendlic
gold-hord lið on ðæs witan muðe." Mid store bið geswutelod halig {118}
gebed, be ðam sang se sealm-scop, "Drihten, sy min gebed asend swa swa
byrnende stór on ðinre gesihðe." Þurh myrran is gehíwod cwelmbærnys ures
flæsces; be ðam cweð seo halige gelaðung, "Mine handa drypton myrran." Þam
acennedan Cyninge we bringað gold, gif we on his gesihðe mid beorhtnysse
þæs upplican wisdomes scinende beoð. Stór we him bringað, gif we ure
geðohtas ðurh gecnyrdnysse haligra gebeda on weofode ure heortan onǽlað,
þæt we magon hwæthwega wynsumlice ðurh heofenlice gewilnunge stincan.
Myrran we him offriað, gif we ða flæsclican lustas þurh forhæfednysse
cwylmiað. Myrra deð, swa we ær cwædon, þæt þæt deade flæsc eaðelice ne
rotað. Witodlice þæt deade flæsc rotað leahtorlice, þonne se deadlica
lichama ðeowað þære flowendan galnysse, swa swa se wítega be sumum cwæð,
"Ða nytenu forrotedon on heora meoxe." Þonne forrotiað þa nytenu on heora
meoxe, þonne flæsclice men on stence heora galnysse geendiað heora dagas.
Ac gif we ða myrran Gode gastlice geoffriað, þonne bið ure deadlica lichama
fram galnysse stencum ðurh forhæfednysse gehealden.

Sum ðing miccles gebícnodon þa tungel-witegan us mid þam þæt hi ðurh oðerne
weg to heora earde gecyrdon. Ure eard soðlice is neorxna-wang, to ðam we ne
magon gecyrran þæs weges ðe we comon. Se frumsceapena man and eall his
ofspring wearð adræfed of neorxena-wanges myrhðe, þurh ungehyrsumnysse, and
for ðigene þæs forbodenan bigleofan, and ðurh modignysse, ðaða he wolde
beon betera ðonne hine se Ælmihtiga Scyppend gesceop. Ac us is micel neod
þæt we ðurh oðerne weg þone swicolan deofol forbugan, þæt we moton
gesæliglice to urum eðele becuman, þe we to gesceapene wæron.

We sceolon þurh gehyrsumnysse, and forhæfednysse, and eadmodnysse,
ánmodlice to urum eðele stæppan, and mid halgum mægnum ðone eard ofgan, þe
we ðurh leahtras forluron. Rihtlice wæs se swicola Herodes fram þam
tungel-witegum bepæht, and he to Criste ne becom, forðan ðe hé {120} mid
facenfullum mode hine sohte. He getacnode þa leasan licceteras, ðe mid
híwunge God secað, and næfre ne gemetað. He is to secenne mid soðfæstre
heortan, and anrædum mode, seðe leofað and rixað mid Fæder and Halgum
Gaste, on ealra worulda woruld. Amen.



Most beloved men, a few days ago we read over this gospel before you, which
belongs to the service of this day, for the interpretation of the
evangelical narrative; but we did not touch on the exposition further than
belonged to the dignity of that day: we will now again run over the same
evangelical narrative, and expound it with regard to the present festival.

Matthew the Evangelist said, "Cum natus esset Jesus in Bethlehem Judæ, in
diebus Herodis regis, ecce Magi ab oriente venerunt Hierosolymam, dicentes,
Ubi est qui natus est Rex Judæorum?" et reliqua. "When Jesus was born in
Bethlehem of Judæa, in the days of Herod the king, behold there came from
the east part of the world three astrologers to the city of Jerusalem, thus
inquiring, Where is the King of the Jews, who is born?" etc.

This day is called the Epiphany of the Lord, that is the day of God's
manifestation. On this day Christ was manifested to the three kings, who,
with threefold offerings, sought him from the eastern part of the world.
Again, after a course of years, he was, at his baptism, manifested to the
world, when the Holy Ghost, in likeness of a dove, rested upon him, and the
voice of the Father sounded loudly from heaven, thus saying, "This is my
beloved Son who well pleaseth me; obey him." On this day also he turned
water to noble wine, and thereby manifested that he is the true Creator who
could change his creatures. For these three reasons this festival is called
the MANIFESTATION OF GOD. On the first day of his birth he was manifested
to three shepherds in the Jewish country, through the announcement of the
angel. On the same day he was made known to the three astrologers in the
East, through the bright star: for on this day they came with {107} their
offerings. It was fitting that the discreet angel should make him known to
those discreet Jews, who knew God's law, and that he should be manifested
to the heathens, who knew not the divine purpose, not through a voice, but
by a sign.

The Jewish shepherds betokened the spiritual shepherds, that is the
apostles, whom Christ chose from the Jewish people, as shepherds for us and
teachers. The astrologers, who were continuing in heathenism, betokened all
heathen people who should be turned to God through the teaching of the
apostles, who were of the Jewish nation. For the psalmist wrote concerning
Christ, that he is the corner-stone which joins the two walls together,
because he united his chosen of the Jewish people and the faithful of the
heathen, as two walls, to one church; concerning which Paul the apostle
said, "Jesus at his advent announced peace to us who were far off, and
peace to those who were at hand. He is our peace, who hath made both one,
abolishing all our former enmities in himself." The Jews who believed in
Christ were nearer to him locally, and also through knowledge of the old
law: we were very remote, both locally and through ignorance; but he
gathered us with one faith to the high corner-stone, that is to the unity
of his church.

The eastern astrologers saw a new bright star, not in heaven among other
stars, but it was solitary between heaven and earth. Then understood they
that the wondrous star indicated the birth of the true King in the country
over which it glided; and they therefore came to the kingdom of Juda, and
greatly terrified the impious king Herod by their announcement; for earthly
wickedness was without doubt confounded, when the heavenly greatness was

It is manifest that the astrologers knew Christ to be a true man, when they
inquired, "Where is he who is born?" They knew him to be a true king, when
they said, "King of {109} Juda." They worshipped him as true God, when they
said, "We come that we may adore him." Easily might God have directed them
by the star to the city in which the child was, as he had manifested his
birth by the rising of that star; but he would that the Jewish scribes
should read the prophecy concerning him, and so manifest his birth-place,
that they might be saved if, with the astrologers, they would worship
Christ: but if they would not, that they might by that manifestation be
condemned. The astrologers went and worshipped, and the Jewish scribes
remained behind, who had through book-knowledge pointed out the

All creatures acknowledged their Creator's advent, save only the impious
Jews. The heavens acknowledged their Creator, when they at his nativity
displayed a new star. The sea acknowledged him, when Christ in his might
with dry footsteps passed over its waves. The sun acknowledged him, when at
his passion he hid his beams from mid-day till the ninth hour. The stones
acknowledged him, when at his death they burst in pieces. The earth
acknowledged him, when it all trembled at his resurrection. Hell
acknowledged him, when it unwillingly released its captives. And yet the
hard-hearted Jews would not for all those signs acknowledge the true
Creator, whom the dumb creation knew, and by tokens manifested. They were
not, however, all equally unbelieving, but of their race there were both
prophets and apostles, and many thousands of believing men.

When the astrologers went to the king the star became invisible to them;
and afterwards, when they went to the child, they again saw the star, which
then led them to the house in which he was staying. It did not glide before
them all the way, but after they came to the Jewish country it was their
guide until it stopt above Christ's inn.

Herod betokens the devil; and he who inclines from God {111} to the devil
loses God's grace, that is the enlightening of his understanding, as the
astrologers lost the star when they went to the cruel king. But if he
afterwards resolutely forsake the devil, then will he again have found the
grace of the Holy Ghost, which enlightens his heart and leads to Christ.

We are also to know, that there were some heretics who said, that every man
is born according to the position of the stars, and that by their course
his destiny befalls him, and advanced in support of their error, that a new
star sprang up when the Lord was corporally born, and said that that star
was his destiny. Let this error depart from believing hearts, that there is
any destiny excepting the Almighty Creator, who provides for every man life
by his merits. Man is not created for the stars, but the stars are created
as a light by night for men. When the star glided, and led the astrologers,
and pointed out to them the Child's inn, it showed that it was Christ's
creature, and rightly ministered to its Creator: but it was not his
destiny. Again we beseech that no believing man defile his faith with this
error. Verily Rebekah, Isaac's wife, brought forth twins, Jacob and Esau,
at one time, so that Jacob held his elder brother Esau by the foot at his
birth; yet were they not alike in character, nor in the actions of their
life. Holy writ indeed says that God loved Jacob, and hated Esau; not by
destiny, but for various acts. It happens very often that the queen and the
slave bring forth at one time, and yet the prince, through his birth, grows
up for the lofty throne, and the son of the slave continues all his life in

Now foolish men often say that they must live according to destiny, as if
God compels them to evil deeds! But we will overthrow the idle leasing of
these foolish men with the deepness of the divine writings. The Almighty
Creator created angels by his divine power, and in his great righteousness
gave them their own choice, that they might {113} continue in eternal
happiness through obedience, and might also lose that happiness, not
through destiny, but for disobedience. His great righteousness would not
compel them to either, but gave them their own choice; for that is
righteousness, that to every one be allowed his own choice. For his
righteousness would be rendered vain, if he forcibly subjected them to his
service, or if he impelled them to evil. Then some angels abused their own
choice, and through pride transformed themselves to accursed devils.

Again, when the glorious Creator made mankind, he gave to Adam and Eve
their own choice, whether they, through obedience, would for ever, without
death, continue in happiness, with all their offspring, or whether, through
disobedience, they would become mortal. But when they transgressed God's
command, and obeyed the instruction of the accursed devil, then they became
mortal, and guilty through their own choice, they and all their offspring;
and although mercy should never after be shown to mankind, more than to the
devils, nevertheless, the righteousness would be infinite. But the great
mercy of our Lord hath redeemed us through his humanity, if we with all our
heart will obey his commandments. Verily those who now, through their own
choice, and the devil's instigation, forsake God, God will abandon them
also to eternal perdition.

The Almighty Father well knew, before he created his creatures, what was to
come to pass. He knew with certainty the number both of chosen angels and
of chosen men, and also of the haughty spirits and impious men, who through
their impiety perish. But he predestined no one to evil, for he himself is
all goodness; nor destined he any one to perdition, for he is true life. He
predestined the elect for eternal life, because he knew that they would be
such, through his grace and their own obedience. He would not predestine
the wicked to his kingdom, because he knew that they would be such, through
their own transgression and perversity. {115} Hold this fast in your
hearts, that the Almighty and the Righteous God compels no man to sin, but
he knows, nevertheless, beforehand who will sin through their own will. Why
then shall he not justly avenge that evil which he abominates? He loves
every good and righteousness, for he is by nature good and righteous; and
he hates all those who work unrighteousness, and fordoes those who speak
leasing. Verily those who believe in God are directed by the Holy Ghost.
The turning to God is not of ourselves, but by God's grace, as the apostle
says, "Through God's grace we are held in faith."

Those who believe not through their own choice perish, not through destiny,
for destiny is nothing but a false imagination; for nothing takes place by
destiny, but all things are ordered by the doom of God, who said through
his prophet, "I try the hearts of men, and their loins, and give to
everyone according to his course, and according to his own invention." Let
no man ascribe his evil deeds to God, but ascribe them first to the devil,
who deceived mankind, and to Adam's transgression; but above all to
himself, that evil pleases him and good pleases him not.

It often, however, happens that the offspring are condemned through the
wicked deeds of their forefathers, if they imitate them in evil. But if the
offspring are righteous, then will they live in their righteousness, and
will not in the least bear their parents' sins. Let no man be so impious
that he curse Adam or Eve, who now reign with God in heaven, but let him
rather merit God's mercy, so that he turn his own choice to the obedience
and commandments of his Creator; for no man will be saved, but through the
grace of Jesus Christ: that grace he prepared and preordained to last for
ever, before the foundation of the world.

My brothers, ye have now heard concerning the false imagination, which vain
men call destiny: let us now resume the exposition of the gospel, where we
previously left it. {117} The astrologers went into the child's inn, and
found him with his mother. They then, with outstretched bodies, worshipped
Christ, and opened their coffers, and offered to him threefold gifts, gold,
and frankincense, and myrrh. Gold befits a king; frankincense belongs to
God's service; with myrrh the corpses of the dead are prepared that they
may not soon rot. These three astrologers worshipped Christ, and offered to
him significant gifts. The gold betokened that he is a true King. The
frankincense that he is true God. The myrrh that he was then mortal; but he
now continues immortal to eternity.

There were some heretics who believed that he was God, but they in no wise
believed that he anywhere reigned: they offered frankincense to Christ
spiritually, and would not offer him gold. Again, there were other heretics
who believed that he was a true King, but they denied that he was God:
these, without doubt, offered gold to him, and would not offer
frankincense. Some heretics acknowledged that he was true God and true
King, and denied that he assumed mortal flesh: these brought him gold and
frankincense, and would not bring the myrrh of the assumed mortality.

My brothers, let us offer to our Lord gold in acknowledgment that he is a
true King, and rules everywhere. Let us offer to him frankincense, because
we believe that he ever was God, who at that time appeared man. Let us
bring him myrrh, because we believe that he was mortal in our flesh, who is
impassible in his divine nature. He was mortal in human nature before his
passion, but he is henceforth immortal, as we all shall be after the
universal resurrection.

We have said concerning these threefold gifts, how they apply to Christ: we
wish also to say how they, in a moral sense, apply to us. By gold is wisdom
betokened, as Solomon said, "A desirable gold-treasure lieth in the wise
man's mouth." With frankincense is manifested holy prayer, {119} concerning
which the psalmist sang, "Lord, be my prayer sent forth like burning
frankincense in thy sight." By myrrh is typified the mortality of our
flesh, concerning which the holy congregation says, "My hands dropt myrrh."
To the born King we bring gold, if we are shining in his sight with the
brightness of heavenly wisdom. Frankincense we bring him, if we, by
diligence of holy prayers, kindle our thoughts on the altar of our heart,
so that we may, through heavenly desire, give forth a sweetish savour.
Myrrh we offer him, if through continence we quell the lusts of the flesh.
Myrrh, as we have before said, acts so that dead flesh does not easily rot.
Verily the dead flesh rots flagitiously, when the mortal body is
subservient to overflowing lust, as the prophet said by one, "The beasts
rotted in their dung." Then the beasts rot in their dung, when fleshly men
end their days in the stench of their lust. But if we offer myrrh to God
spiritually, then will our mortal body be preserved through continence from
the stenches of lust.

The astrologers pointed out to us something great by returning another way
to their country. For our country is Paradise, to which we cannot return by
the way we came. The first-created man and all his offspring were driven
from the joy of Paradise, through disobedience, and for eating the
forbidden food, and through pride, when he would be better than the
Almighty Creator had created him. But it is greatly needful to us that we
should, by another way, avoid the treacherous devil, that we may happily
come to our country, for which we were created.

We should, by obedience, and continence, and humility, unanimously proceed
to our home, and with holy virtues require the country, which we lost
through sins. Rightly was the treacherous Herod deceived by the
astrologers, and came not to Christ; because he sought him with a guileful
{121} purpose. He betokened the false hypocrites, who in outward show seek
God, and never find him. He is to be sought with a true heart, and
steadfast mind, who liveth and ruleth with the Father and the Holy Ghost,
for ever and ever. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *


    Cum descendisset Iesus de monte secute sunt eum turbe multe: et

Matheus, se eadiga Godspellere awrát on þissere godspellican rædinge, þæt
"se Hælend niðer-eode of anre dune, and him filigde micel menigu. Efne ða
com sum hreoflig mann, and aleat wið þæs Hælendes, þus cweðende, Drihten,
gif þu wilt, þu miht me geclænsian. Se Hælend astrehte his hand, and hine
hrepode, and cwæð, Ic wylle; and sy ðu geclænsod. Þa sona wearð his hreofla
eal geclænsod, and he wæs gehæled. Ða cwæð se Hælend him to, Warna þæt þu
hit nanum menn ne secge; ac far to Godes temple, and geswutela ðe sylfne
ðam sacerde, and geoffra ðine lác, swá swá Moyses bebead him on

Se láreow Hægmon cweð on ðissere trahtnunge þæt seo dún þe se Hælend
of-astah getacnode heofenan rice, of ðam niðer-astah se Ælmihtiga Godes
Sunu, ðaða he underfeng ure gecynd, and to menniscum men geflæschamod
wearð, to ðy þæt he mancynn fram deofles anwealde alysde. He wæs
ungesewenlic and unðrowigendlic on his gecynde; þa wearð he gesewenlic on
urum gecynde, and þrowigendlic. Seo micele menigu ðe him filigde getacnode
ða geleaffullan cristenan, þe mid heora þeawa stæpum Drihtne filiað.
Witodlice we folgiað Cristes fotswaðum, gif we his gebisnungum mid godum
weorcum geefenlæcað. "Efne ða com sum hreoflig man, and aleat wið þæs
Hælendes, þus cweðende, Drihten, gif þu wilt, ðu miht me geclænsian. Se
Hælend {122} astrehte his hand, and hine hrepode, and cwæð, Ic wille; and
sy ðu geclænsod. Þa sona wearð his hreofla eal geclænsod, and he wæs

On ðissere dæde is geswutelod Godes miht, and his eadmodnys. Moyses ǽ
forbead to hrepenne ænigne hreoflan, ac se eadmoda Crist nolde hine
forseon, þeah ðe he atelic wære, and eac geswutelode þæt hé wæs Hlaford
þære ealdan ǽ, and na ðeow. Mihtiglice he mihte mid his worde hine gehælan,
buton hrepunge; ac he geswutelode þæt his hrepung is swiðe halwende
geleaffullum. Geleafful wæs se hreoflia, ðaða he cwæð, "Drihten, gif þu
wilt, ðu miht me geclænsian." Se Hælend andwyrde, "Ic wylle; and þu beo
geclænsod." Godes hæs soðlice is weorc, swa swa se sealm-wyrhta cwæð, "He
hit gecwæð, and þa gesceafta wæron geworhte. He bebead, and hí wæron

On gastlicum andgite getacnode þes hreoflia man eal mancyn, þe wæs atelice
hreoflig, mid mislicum leahtrum on þam inran menn; ac hit gebeah to Cristes
geleafan, and gleawlice undergeat þæt hit ne mihte þære sawle clænsunge
onfon, buton þurh Drihten, þe nane synne ne worhte, ne nan facn næs on his
muðe gemet. Laðlic bið þæs hreoflian lic mid menigfealdum springum and
geswelle, and mid mislicum fagnyssum; ac se inra mann, þæt is seo sawul,
bið micele atelicor, gif heo mid mislicum leahtrum begripen bið. We sceolon
rihtlice gelyfan on Crist, þæt he ure sawle fram synna fagnyssum gehælan
mæge; and we sceolon anrædlice his willan to ðære fremminge biddan. His
hand getacnað his mihte and his flæsclicnysse. Swa swa Crist mid his handa
hrepunge þone hreoflian gehælde, swa eac he alysde us fram ure sawla synnum
ðurh anfenge ures flæsces; swa swa se witega Isaias cwæð, "Soðlice he sylf
ætbræd ure adlunga, and ure sarnyssa he sylf abær."

Mid þam ðe he forbead þam gehæledum hreoflian þæt he hit nanum men ne
cydde, mid þam he sealde us bysne þæt we ne sceolon na wídmærsian ure
wel-dæda, ac we sceolon {124} onscunian, mid inweardre heortan, þone ydelan
gylp, gif we hwæt lytles to góde gedoð. Witodlice ne bið us mid nanum oðrum
edleane forgolden, gif we goód for gylpe doð, buton mid helle susle; forðan
ðe gilp is an heofod-leahter.

Seo ealde ǽ bebead þæt gehwilc hreoflig man gecome to þam sacerde, and se
sacerd sceolde hine fram mannum ascirian, gif hé soðlice hreoflig wære. Gif
he nære swutelice hreoflig, wære ðonne be his dome clæne geteald. Gif se
sacerd hine hreofligne tealde, and Godes miht hine syððan gehælde, þonne
sceolde he mid lace his clænsunge Gode ðancian. Swa sceal eac se ðe mid
heafod-leahtrum wiðinnan hreoflig bið cuman to Godes sacerde, and geopenian
his digelnysse ðam gastlican læce, and be his ræde and fultume his sawle
wunda dædbetende gelacnian. Sume men wenað þæt him genihtsumige to
fulfremedum læcedome, gif hí heora synna mid onbryrdre heortan Gode ánum
andettað, and ne ðurfon nanum sacerde geandettan, gif hí yfeles geswicað:
ac gif heora wena soð wære, ðonne nolde Drihten asendan þone ðe he sylf
gehælde to þam sacerde mid ænigre lace. For ðære ylcan gebisnunge eac hé
asende Paulum, þone ðe he sylf of heofenum gespræc, to ðam sacerde
Annanian, þus cweðende, "Ga inn to ðære ceastre, and ðær þe bið gesæd hwæt
þe gedafenað to dónne."

Ne gedyde se sacerd þone man hreofligne oððe unhreofligne, ac hé démde þæt
he sceolde beon ascyred fram manna neawiste, gif his hreofla wyrsigende
wære; oððe betwux mannum wunian, gif his hreofla godigende wære. Swa sceal
don se gastlica sacerd: he sceal gerihtlæcan Godes folc, and ðone ascyrian,
and amánsumian fram cristenum mannum, þe swa hreoflig bið on mánfullum
ðeawum þæt he oðre mid his yfelnysse besmit; be ðam cwæð se apostol Paulus,
"Afyrsiað þone yfelan fram eow, ðylǽs ðe an wannhal scep ealle ða eowde
besmite." Gif his hreofla bið godigende, þæt is gif he yfeles geswicð, and
his ðeawas ðurh Godes ege gerihtlæcð, {126} he hæbbe wununge betwux
cristenum mannum, oð þæt he full hal sy on his drohtnungum.

Se godspellere cwæð, þæt "Drihten ferde æfter ðisum to anre byrig þe is
geháten Capharnaum; þa genealæhte him to sum hundredes ealdor, biddende and
cweðende, Drihten, min cniht lið æt hám bedreda, and is yfele geðreatod.
Drihten him andwyrde, Ic cume and hine gehæle. Þa andwyrde se hundredes
ealdor, and cwæð, Drihten, ne eom ic wyrðe þæt þu innfare under minum
hrofe; ac cweð þin word, and min cniht bið gehæled. Ic eom án man geset
under anwealde, hæbbende under me cempan; and ic cweðe to ðisum, Far ðu,
and he færð; to oðrum, Cum ðu, and he cymð; to minum ðeowan, Do ðis, and he
deð. Þa wundrode se Hælend, ðaða hé ðis gehyrde, and cwæð to ðære
fyligendan menigu, Soð ic eow secge, ne gemette ic swa micelne geleafan on
Israhela ðeode. Ic secge eow to soðum, þæt manega cumað fram east-dæle and
west-dæle, and gerestað hí mid Abrahame ðam heahfædere, and Isaáce, and
Iacobe, on heofenan rice. Þa rícan bearn beoð aworpene into ðam yttrum
þeostrum, þær bið wóp and toða gebitt. Ða cwæð eft se Hælend to þam
hundredes ealdre, Far ðe hám, and getimige ðe swa swa ðu gelyfdest. And se
cniht wearð gehæled of ðære tide."

Þes hundredes ealdor genealæhte ðam Hælende na healfunga, ac fulfremedlice.
He genealæhte mid micclum geleafan, and mid soðre eadmodnysse, and
snotornysse, and soðre lufe. Micelne geleafan he hæfde, þaþa he cwæð,
"Drihten, cweð þin word, and min cniht bið hal." Soðlice he geswutelode
micele eadmodnysse, mid þam ðe he cwæð, "Drihten, ne eom ic wyrðe þæt þu
innfare under mine ðecene." He hæfde micele snotornysse, þaþa hé understód
þæt Crist is æghwær andweard þurh godcundnysse, seðe lichamlice betwux
mannum gesewenlic eode. Næs he bedæled þære soðan lufe, ðaða he bæd Drihten
for his ðeowan hæle. Manega oðre men bædon Drihten, sume for heora agenre
hæle, sume for heora bearna, sume for leofra freonda; {128} ac ðes ðegen
bæd for his þeowan hælðe mid soðre lufe; forðan ðe heo ne toscǽt nænne be
mæglicere sibbe. Drihten geseah ðises ðegenes menigfealdan godnysse, and
cwæð, "Ic cume, and ðinne cniht gehæle."

Iohannes se Godspellere awrát, þæt "Sum under-cyning com to Criste, and
hine bæd þæt he hám mid him siðode, and his sunu gehælde; forðan þe hé læig
æt forðsiðe. Þa cwæð se Hælend to ðam under-cyninge, Gewénd þe hám, þin
sunu leofað. He gelyfde þæs Hælendes spræce, and hám siðode. Ða comon his
ðegnas him togeanes, and cyddon þæt his sunu gesund wære. He ða befrán on
hwilcere tide he gewyrpte. Hí sædon, Gyrstan-dæg ofer midne dæg hine forlét
se fefor. Þa oncneow se fæder þæt hit wæs seo tíd on ðære ðe se Hælend him
to cwæð, Far ðe hám, þin sunu leofað. Se cyning gelyfde ða on God, and eal
his hired."

Drihten nolde gelaðod lichamlice siðian to þæs cyninges untruman bearne, ac
únandweard mid his worde hine gehælde; and he wæs gearo ungelaðod to
siðigenne lichamlice mid þam hundredes ealdre. Wel wát gehwá þæt cyning
hæfð maran mihte þonne ænig hundredes ealdor, ac se Ælmihtiga Godes Sunu
geswutelode mid þære dæde þæt we ne sceolon ða rícan, for heora riccetere
wurðian, ac for menniscum gecynde; ne we ne sceolon ða wánnspedigan for
heora hafenleaste forseon; ac we sceolon Godes anlicnysse on him wurðian.
Se eadmoda Godes Sunu wæs gearo to geneosigenne þone ðeowan mid his
andwerdnysse, and he gehælde þone æðeling mid hæse; be ðam cwæð se witega,
"Se healica Drihten sceawað þa eadmodan, and þa modigan feorran oncnæwð."

Drihten wundrode þæs hundredes ealdres geleafan, na swilce he hine ær ne
cuðe, seðe ealle ðing wát, ac he geswutelode mannum his geleafan mid
herunge þam þe he wundorlic wæs. Hwanon com se geleafa þam þegene buton of
Cristes gife, seðe hine syððan þisum wordum herede? "Soð ic eow secge, na
gemette ic swa micelne geleafan on Israhela ðeode." {130} Næs ðis gecweden
be ðam heahfæderum oððe wítegum, ac be ðam andwerdan folce, ðe ða-gyt næron
swa miccles geleafan.

Maria and Martha wæron twa geswystru swiðe on God belyfede: hí cwædon to
Criste, "Drihten, gif ðu her andwerd wære, nære ure broðer forðfaren." Þes
ðegen cwæð to Criste, "Cweð þin word, and min cniht bið hal. Ic eom man
under anwealde gesett, hæbbende under me cempan; and ic secge ðisum, Far
ðú, and he færð; to oðrum, Cum ðu, and he cymð; to minum þeowan, Do þis,
and he deð. Hu miccle swiðor miht ðu, þe Ælmihtig God eart, þurh ðine hæse
gefremman swa hwæt swa ðu wilt!" Drihten cwæð, "Ic secge eow to soðan, þæt
manega cumað fram east-dæle and west-dæle, and gerestað hí mid Abrahame þam
heahfædere, and Isaáce, and Iacobe, on heofenan rice." Þas word sind
lustbære to gehyrenne, and hí micclum ure mod gladiað, þæt manega cumað
fram east-dæle middangeardes, and fram west-dæle, to heofenan rice, and mid
þam heahfæderum on ecere myrhðe rixiað.

Þurh ða twegen dælas, east-dæl and west-dæl, sind getacnode ða feower
hwemmas ealles middangeardes, of þam beoð gegaderode Godes gecorenan of
ælcere mægðe to þæra heahfædera wununge, and ealra halgena. Þurh east-dæl
magon beon getacnode þa ðe on geogoðe to Gode bugað; forðan ðe on east-dæle
is þæs dæges angin. Þurh west-dæl sind getacnode þa ðe on ylde to Godes
ðeowdome gecyrrað; forðan ðe on west-dæle geendað se dæg.

Ðes æfterfiligenda cwyde is swiðe egefull, "Þa rícan bearn beoð awórpene
into ðam yttrum ðeostrum, þær bið wóp and toða gebitt." Ða rican bearn sind
þa Iudeiscan, on ðam rixode God ðurh ða ealdan ǽ; ac hí awurpon Crist, and
his lare forsawon; and hé awyrpð hí on ða yttran þeostru, ðær bið wóp and
toða gebitt. Fela riccra manna geðeoð Gode, swa-þeah, gif hí rihtwise beoð,
and mildheorte. Rice man wæs se heahfæder Abraham, and Dauid se mæra
cyning, and Zacheus, seðe healfe his æhta þearfum dælde, and mid {132}
healfum dæle forgeald be feowerfealdum swa hwæt swa he ær on unriht be
anfealdum reafode. Þas rican and heora gelican becumað þurh gode
gecyrrednysse to ðam ecan rice, ðe him næfre ne ateorað.

Ða sind Godes bearn gecigede, þe hine lufiað swiðor þonne þisne
middangeard; and ða sind ða rican bearn gecwedene, ðe heora heortan
wyrtruman on ðisum andwerdum life plantiað swiðor þonne on Criste: swylce
beoð on þeostru aworpene. Þæt godspel cwyð, "On þa yttran þeostru." Ða
yttran þeostru sind þæs lichaman blindnyssa wiðutan. Ða inran þeostru sind
þæs modes blindnyssa wiðinnan. Se ðe on ðisum andweardum life is wiðinnan
ablend, swa þæt he næfð nan andgit ne hóga embe Godes beboda, he bið þonne
eft wiðutan ablend, and ælces leohtes bedæled; forðan ðe he ær his lif
aspende butan Godes gemynde. Þa earman forscyldegodan cwylmiað on ecum
fyre, and swa-ðeah þæt swearte fyr him nane lihtinge ne deð. Wurmas
toslitað heora lichaman mid fyrenum toðum, swa swa Crist on his godspelle
cwæð, "Þær næfre heora wyrm ne swylt, ne heora fyr ne bið adwæsced." Þær
beoð þonne geferlæhte on anre susle, þa þe on life on mándædum geðeodde
wæron, swa þæt þa manslagan togædere ecelice on tintregum cwylmiað; and
forlígras mid forligrum, gitseras mid gytserum, sceaðan mid sceaðum, ða
forsworenan mid forsworenum, on ðam bradan fire, butan ælcere geendunge
forwurðað. Þær bið wóp and toða gebitt, forðan ðe ða eagan tyrað on ðam
micclum bryne, and ða teð cwaciað eft on swiðlicum cyle. Gif hwam twynige
be ðam gemænelicum æriste, þonne understande he þisne drihtenlican cwyde,
Þæt þær bið soð ærist, ðær ðær beoð wepende eagan and cearcigende teð.

Drihten cwæð to þam hundredes ealdre, "Far ðe hám, and getimige ðe swa swa
ðu gelyfdest; and his cniht wearð gehæled of ðære tide." Be ðisum is to
understandenne hu micclum þam cristenum men his agen geleafa fremige, þonne
oðres mannes swa micclum fremode. Witodlice, for ðæs {134} hundredes
ealdres geleafan wearð se bedreda gehæled. Geleafa is ealra mægena fyrmest;
buton þam ne mæg nán man Gode lician; and se rihtwisa leofað be his
geleafan. Uton gelyfan on þa Halgan Ðrynnysse, and on soðe Annysse, þæt se
Ælmihtiga Fæder, and his Sunu, þæt is his wisdom, and se Halga Gast, seðe
is heora begra lufu and willa, þæt hí sind þry on hadum and on namum, and
án God, on ánre godcundnysse æfre wunigende, butan angynne and ende. Amen.


    Cum descendisset Jesus de monte secutæ sunt eum turbæ multæ: et

Matthew, the blessed Evangelist, wrote in this evangelical lecture, that
"Jesus came down from a mountain, and a great multitude followed him.
Behold, there came a leprous man, and fell down before Jesus, thus saying,
Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst cleanse me. Jesus stretched forth his hand,
and touched him, and said, I will; and be thou cleansed. Then immediately
was his leprosy all cleansed, and he was healed. Then said Jesus to him,
Take care that thou say it to no man; but go to God's temple, and show
thyself to the priest, and offer thy gift, as Moses commanded for a witness
to them."

The doctor Haymo says in exposition of this, that the mountain from which
Jesus descended betokened the kingdom of heaven, from which the Almighty
Son of God came down, when he assumed our nature, and became incarnate as a
human being, in order that he might redeem mankind from the power of the
devil. He was invisible and impassible in his nature; then he became
visible in our nature, and passible. The great multitude which followed him
betokened those faithful christians, who follow the Lord with the steps of
their moral virtues. Verily we follow Christ's foot-traces, if, with good
works, we imitate his examples. "Behold, there came a leprous man, and fell
down before Jesus, thus saying, Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst cleanse me.
Jesus {123} stretched forth his hand, and touched him, and said, I will;
and be thou cleansed. Then immediately was his leprosy all cleansed, and he
was healed."

In this deed is manifested God's might, and his humility. The law of Moses
forbade to touch any leper, but the humble Christ would not despise him,
though he was loathsome; and also manifested that he was lord of the old
law, and not its slave. In his might he could have healed him with his
word, without touching; but he manifested that his touch is very salutary
to believers. The leper was a believer, when he cried, "Lord, if thou wilt,
thou canst cleanse me." Jesus answered, "I will; and be thou cleansed."
Verily God's behest is act, as the psalmist said, "He said it, and
creatures were made. He commanded, and they were created."

In a spiritual sense this leper betokened all mankind, which was foully
leprous with divers sins in the inward man; but it inclined to the belief
of Christ, and wisely conceived that it could not receive a cleansing of
the soul, save through the Lord, who wrought no sin, nor was any guile
found in his mouth. Loathsome is the body of the leper with many ulcers and
tumours, and with divers scabs; but the inward man, that is the soul, is
much more loathsome, if it be seized with divers sins. We should rightly
believe in Christ, that he may heal our soul from the ulcers of sins; and
we should steadfastly implore his will to that fulfilment. His hand
betokens his might and his incarnation. As Christ by the touch of his hands
healed the leper, so also he redeemed us from the sins of our souls by the
assumption of our flesh; as the prophet Isaiah said, "Verily he took away
our diseases, and our pains he himself bare."

When he forbade the healed leper not to make it known to any man, he
thereby gave us an example that we should not publish our good deeds, but
we should shun, with inward {125} heart, vain pride, if we do some little
good. Verily we shall be requited with no other reward, if we do good for
pride, than with hell-torment; because pride is a deadly sin.

The old law commanded that every leper should go to the priest, and that
the priest should separate him from men, if he really were leprous. If he
were not manifestly leprous, he should then, by his judgement, be accounted
clean. If the priest accounted him leprous, and God's might afterwards
healed him, that he should then, with a gift, thank God for his cleansing.
So also should he, who is leprous within with deadly sins, go to God's
priest, and open his secret to the ghostly leech, and, by his counsel and
aid, heal by penance the wounds of his soul. Some men imagine that it will
suffice for a complete cure, if, with compunction of heart, they confess
their sins to God alone, and that they need not confess to any priest, if
they cease from evil: but if their opinion were true, the Lord would not
have sent him, whom he himself had healed, with any gift to the priest. For
the same example he also sent Paul, whom he himself had spoken to from
heaven, to the priest Ananias, thus saying, "Go into the city, and there
shall be told thee what it befitteth thee to do."

The priest made not the man leprous or unleprous, but he judged that he
should be separated from the society of men, if his leprosy were growing
worse, or should continue among men, if his leprosy were growing better. So
should the ghostly priest do: he should cure God's people, and separate,
and excommunicate from christian men him who is so leprous with sinful
practices that he infects others with his wickedness; concerning which the
apostle Paul said, "Remove the evil man from you, lest one unsound sheep
infect all the flock." If his leprosy be amending, that is, if he cease
from evil, and, through dread of God, correct his ways, let him {127} have
a dwelling among christian men, until he be full sound in his conditions.

The evangelist said, that "After this the Lord went to a city which is
called Capernaum; then a certain centurion approached him, praying and
saying, Lord, my servant lieth at home bedridden, and is grievously
tormented. The Lord answered him, I will come and heal him. Then the
centurion answered, and said, Lord, I am not worthy that thou shouldst
enter under my roof; but say thy word, and my servant shall be healed. I am
a man placed under authority, having soldiers under me; and I say to this,
Go thou, and he goeth; to another, Come thou, and he cometh; to my servant,
Do this, and he doeth. Then Jesus, when he heard this, wondered, and said
to the multitude following, Verily I say unto you, I have not found so
great faith in the people of Israel. I say to you in sooth, that many shall
come from the east and the west, and shall rest with the patriarch Abraham,
and Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of heaven. The rich children shall be
cast into utter darkness, there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.
Then again said Jesus to the centurion, Go home, and betide thee as thou
hast believed. And the servant was healed from that hour."

The centurion approached Jesus not by halves, but fully. He approached with
great faith, and with true humility, and wisdom, and true love. Great faith
he had, when he said, "Lord, say thy word, and my servant shall be healed."
But he manifested great humility, when he said, "Lord, I am not worthy that
thou shouldst enter under my roof." He had great wisdom, when he understood
that Christ is everywhere present, through his divine nature, who went
bodily visible among men. He was not void of true love, when he besought
the Lord for the health of his servant. Many other men besought the Lord,
some for their own health, some for their children's, some for their dear
friends'; but this officer prayed {129} with true love for the health of
his servant, for that makes no distinction with regard to family
relationship. The Lord saw the manifold goodness of this officer, and said,
"I will come and heal thy servant."

John the Evangelist wrote that "An under-king came to Christ, and besought
him that he would go home with him and heal his son; for he lay at the
point of death. Then said Jesus to the under-king, Return home, thy son
liveth. He believed the speech of Jesus, and went home. Then came his
servants towards him, and informed him that his son was well. He then
inquired at what hour he recovered. They said, Yesterday, after mid-day,
the fever left him. Then the father knew that it was the hour at which
Jesus said to him, Go home, thy son liveth. The king then believed in God,
and all his family."

The Lord would not, invited, go bodily to the king's sick son, but absent
healed him by his word; and he was ready, uninvited, to go bodily with the
centurion. Everyone well knows that a king has greater power than any
centurion, but the Almighty Son of God manifested by that deed, that we
should not honour the rich for their riches, but for human nature; nor
should we despise the indigent for their indigence; but that we should
honour God's image in them. The humble Son of God was ready to visit the
servant by his presence, and he healed the prince with his behest; on which
the prophet said, "The Lord supreme beholdeth the humble, and knoweth the
proud from afar."

The Lord wondered at the centurion's faith, not because he knew it not
before, who knows all things, but he to whom he was wonderful manifested to
men his faith with praise. Whence came the officer's faith but of Christ's
gift, who afterwards praised him in these words? "Verily I say unto you, I
have not found so great faith in the people of Israel." {131} This was not
said of the patriarchs or prophets, but of the present people, who were not
yet of so great faith.

Mary and Martha were two sisters of great faith in God: they said to
Christ, "Lord, if thou hadst been present, our brother would not have
died." This officer said to Christ, "Say thy word, and my servant shall be
whole. I am a man placed under authority, having soldiers under me; and I
say to this, Go thou, and he goeth; to another, Come thou, and he cometh;
to my servant, Do this, and he doeth. How much more canst thou, who art
Almighty God, through thy behest, execute whatsoever thou wilt!" The Lord
said, "I say to you in sooth, that many shall come from the east and the
west, and shall rest with the patriarch Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in
the kingdom of heaven." These words are pleasant to hear, and they greatly
gladden our minds, that many shall come from the east part of the world,
and from the west part, to the kingdom of heaven, and rule with the
patriarchs in everlasting joy.

By the two parts, the east and the west, are betokened the four corners of
the whole world, from which God's chosen shall be gathered from every
people to the dwelling of the patriarchs and of all the saints. By the east
part may be betokened those who in youth incline to God; because in the
east part is the day's beginning. By the west part are betokened those who
in age turn to God's service; because in the west part the day ends.

The following sentence is very awful, "The rich children shall be cast into
utter darkness, there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth." The rich
children are the Jewish, over whom God ruled, by the old law; but they
rejected Christ, and despised his doctrine; and he casts them into utter
darkness, where there is weeping and gnashing of teeth. Many rich men,
however, thrive to God, if they are righteous and merciful. The patriarch
Abraham was a rich man, and David the great king, and Zaccheus, who gave
half his riches to the {133} poor, and with the half part compensated
fourfold for what he had before wrongfully gained. These rich and their
like come by good conversion to the everlasting kingdom, which will never
fail them.

They are called children of God who love him more than this world; and
those are called rich children who plant the root of their hearts in this
present life more than in Christ: such shall be cast into darkness. The
gospel says, "Into utter darkness." Utter darkness is the blindness of the
body without. Inward darkness is the darkness of the mind within. He who in
this present life is blinded within, so that he has no understanding, nor
heed of God's commandments, he will then be blinded without, and deprived
of every light; because he had before spent his life without remembrance of
God. The miserable guilty ones shall suffer torment in everlasting fire,
and yet that swart fire shall give them no light. Worms shall tear their
bodies with fiery teeth, as Christ said in his gospel, "There their worm
shall never die, nor their fire be quenched." There shall be associated in
one torment, those who in life were united in evil deeds, so that murderers
shall eternally be tortured together; and adulterers with adulterers, the
rapacious with the rapacious, robbers with robbers, perjurers with
perjurers, in the broad flame, without any ending, shall perish. There
shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth; for their eyes shall be tormented
in the great burning, and their teeth shall afterwards quake in the intense
cold. If any one doubt of the universal resurrection, let him understand
this divine saying, That there shall be a true resurrection, where there
shall be weeping eyes and gnashing teeth.

The Lord said to the centurion, "Go home, and betide thee as thou hast
believed; and his servant was healed from that hour." By this is to be
understood how greatly a christian man's own faith profiteth him, when that
of another man profiteth him so greatly. Verily, for the centurion's faith
was {135} the bedridden healed. Faith is of all virtues first; without it
no man may be pleasing to God; and the righteous lives by his faith. Let us
believe in the Holy Trinity, and in true Unity, that the Almighty Father,
and his Son, that is his wisdom, and the Holy Ghost who is the love and
will of them both, that they are three in person and in name, and one God,
in one Godhead ever continuing, without beginning and end. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *



    Postquam impleti sunt dies purificationis Mariæ: et reliqua.

God bebead on þære ealdan ǽ, and het Moyses, þone heretogan, þæt he hit
awrite betwux oðrum bebodum, þæt ælc wíf ðe cild gebære sceolde gebidan
feowertig daga æfter þære cenninge, swa þæt heo ne cóme into Godes temple,
ne on anum bedde mid hire were, ær ðam fyrste þe we ǽr cwædon; þæt is
feowertig daga, gif hit hyse-cild wære: gif hit þonne mæden-cild wære,
þonne sceolde heo forhabban fram ingange Godes huses hund-ehtatig daga, and
eac fram hire gebeddan; and æfter ðam fyrste gán mid lace to Godes huse,
and beran þæt cild forð mid þære láce, and syððan, mid Godes bletsunge,
genealæcan hyre gemacan. Þis wæs geset be wifum.

Nu wæs ðeah-hwæðere þæt halige mæden MARIA, Cristes moder, Godes beboda
gemyndig, and eode on ðysum dæge to Godes huse mid láce, and gebrohte þæt
cild þe heo acende, Hælend Crist, gelácod to þam Godes temple, swa swa hit
on Godes ǽ geset wæs.

Ða wæs þær, binnan þære byrig Hierusalem, sum Godes mann, and his nama wæs
Symeon; he wæs swyðe rihtwis, {136} and hæfde micelne Godes ege, and he
ge-andbidode ðone frofer, ðe behaten wæs þam folce Israhel, þæt is Cristes
to-cyme. Se Halga Gast wæs wunigende on ðæm Symeone, and he wiste genoh
georne þæt se Ælmihtiga Godes Sunu wolde to mannum cuman, and menniscnysse
underfon. Þa wæs ðes man swiðe oflyst ðæs Hælendes to-cymes, and bæd æt
Gode dæighwamlice on his gebedum, þæt he moste Crist geseon ær he deaðes
onbyrigde. Þa forðy þe he swa micele gewilnunge hæfde Cristes to-cymes, ða
com him andswaru fram þam Halgan Gaste, þæt he ne sceolde deaðes onbyrigan
ærþam ðe he Crist gesawe. And he wæs þa bliðe þæs behates, and cóm to Godes
temple, þurh myngunge ðæs Halgan Gastes. And seo halige Maria cóm ða to ðam
temple mid þam cilde, and se ealda man Symeon eode togeanes þam cilde, and
geseah þone Hælend, and hine georne gecneow, þæt he wæs Godes Sunu, Alysend
ealles middan-eardes. He hine genam ða on his earmas mid micelre
onbryrdnesse, and hine gebær into þam temple, and þancode georne Gode þæt
he hine geseon moste. He cwæð þa, "Min Drihten, ðu forlætst me nú mid sibbe
of þisum life, after þinum worde; forðon þe mine eagan gesawon þinne
Halwendan, ðone ðu gearcodest ætforan ansyne ealles folces; leoht to
onwrigennysse þeoda, and wuldor þinum folce Israhele."

Hit is awriten on Crístes béc, and gehwær on oþrum bocum, þæt fela witegan
and rihtwise men woldan geseon Cristes to-cyme, ac hit næs na him getiðod,
ac wæs getiðod þisum ealdan men; forðam þe hit is be him awriten, þæt he
cwæde dæghwamlice on his gebedum, "Ela, hwænne cymð se Hælend? Hwænne bið
he acenned? Hwænne mot ic hine geseon? Hwæðer ic mote lybban oðþæt ic hine
geseo?" And þa for ðysre gewilnunge him com andswaru, þæt he ne gesawe
deað, ærðam ðe he Crist gesawe.

Maria, Cristes moder, bær þæt cild, and se ealda Symeon eode hire togeanes,
and gecneow þæt cild ðurh onwrigenysse, and hit beclypte and bær into ðam
temple. He bær þæt {138} cild, and þæt cild bær hine. Hu bær þæt cild hine?
Þone bær se ealda Symeon on his earmum, þe ealle ðing hylt and gewylt.
Lytel he wæs ðær gesewen, ac ðeah-hwæðere he wæs swiðe micel and ormæte.
Lytel he wæs gesewen, forðan ðe he wolde gefeccan þa lytlan, and gebringan
up to his rice. Hwæt synd ða lytlan ðe he wolde habban up to his rice? Þæt
synd ða eaðmodan. Ne sohte Crist na ða modigan, þa þa micele beoð on hyra
geþance; ac ða ðe beoð lytle and eaðmode on heora heortan, þa cumað to
Godes rice; ac ðider ne mæg astigan nán modignys. Þær wæs se deofol ðe
modegode, ac his modignes hine awearp into helle grunde; forðy ne mæg ure
tyddernes ðyder astigan, gif heo modig bið, þaþa se engel ðær beon ne mihte
þaþa he modegode.

God bebead, on þære ealdan ǽ, his folce þæt hi sceoldon him offrian ælc
frumcenned hyse-cild, oþþe alysan hit ut mid fif scyllingum. Eac on heora
orfe, swa hwæt swa frumcenned wære, bringan þæt to Godes huse, and hit ðær
Gode offrian. Gif hit þonne unclæne nyten wære, þonne sceolde se hlaford
hit acwellan, oþþe syllan Gode oþer clæne nyten. We ne þurfon þas bebodu
healdan nú lichamlice, ac gástlice. Þonne on urum mode bið acenned sum ðing
gódes, and we þæt to weorce awendað, þonne sceole we þæt tellan to Godes
gyfe, and þæt Gode betæcan. Ure yfelan geðohtas oððe weorc we sceolan
alysan mid fif scyllingum; þæt is we sceolon ure yfelnysse behreowsian mid
urum fif andgitum, þæt synd gesihþ, and hlyst, and swæc, and stenc, and
hrepung. Eac swa þa unclænan nytenu getacniað ure unclænan geþohtas and
weorc, ða we sceolon symle acwellan, oððe behwyrfan mid clænum; þæt is þæt
we sceolon ure unclænnysse and ure yfelnesse symle adwæscan, and forlætan
yfel, and dón gód.

Seo eadige Maria ða geoffrode hire lác Gode mid þam cilde, swa hit on Godes
ǽ geset wæs. Hit wæs swa geset on þære ealdan ǽ þurh Godes hæse, þæt ða þe
mihton {140} ðurhteon sceoldon bringan anes geares lamb mid heora cylde,
Gode to lace, and ane culfran, oþþe ane turtlan. Gif þonne hwylc wif to ðam
unspedig wære þæt heo ðas ðing begytan ne mihte, þonne sceolde heo bringan
twegen culfran-briddas, oððe twá turtlan.

Þas læssan lác, þæt sind þa fugelas, þe wæron wannspedigra manna lác, wæron
for Criste geoffrode. Se Ælmihtiga Godes Sunu wæs swiðe gemyndig ure neoda
on eallum ðingum; na þæt an þæt he wolde mann beon for ús, ðaða he God wæs,
ac eac swylce he wolde beon þearfa for us, ðaða he rice wæs: to ðy þæt he
us forgeafe dæl on his rice, and mænsumunge on his godcundnysse. Lamb
getacnað unscæððinysse and þa maran godnysse; gif we þonne swa earme beoð
þæt we ne magon þa maran godnysse Gode offrian, þonne sceole we him bringan
twa turtlan, oþþe twegen culfran-briddas, þæt is twyfealdlic onbryrdnes
eges and lufe. On twa wisan bið se man onbryrd: ærest he him ondræt helle
wíte, and bewepð his synna, syððan he nimð eft lufe to Gode; þonne onginð
he to murcnienne, and ðincð him to lang hwænne he beo genumen of ðyses
lifes earfoðnyssum, and gebroht to ecere reste.

Lytel wæs an lamb, oððe twa turtlan, Gode to bringenne; ac hé ne sceawað na
þæs mannes lac swa swiðe swa hé sceawað his heortan. Nis Gode nan neod ure
æhta; ealle ðing sindon his, ægðer ge heofen, ge eorðe, and sǽ, and ealle
ða ðing ðe on him wuniað: ac he forgeaf eorðlice ðing mannum to brice, and
bebead him þæt hí sceoldon mid þam eorðlicum ðingum hine oncnawan þe hí ær
forgeaf, na for his neode, ac for mancynnes neode. Gif ðu oncnæwst ðinne
Drihten mid ðinum æhtum, be ðinre mæðe, hit fremeð þe sylfum to ðam ecan
life: gif ðu hine forgitst, hit hearmað þe sylfum and na Gode, and þu
ðolast ðære ecan mede. God gyrnð þa godnysse ðines modes, and na ðinra
æhta. Gif ðu hwæt dest Gode to lofe, mid cystigum mode, þonne geswutelast
ðu þa gódnysse þines modes mid þære dæde; gif þu ðonne nan {142} gód dón
nelt, Gode to wurðmynte, ðonne geswutelast ðu mid þære uncyste ðine
yfelnysse, and seo yfelnys þe fordeð wið God.

On ðære ealdan ǽ is gehwær gesett, þæt God het gelomlice þas fugelas
offrian on his lace, for ðære getacnunge þe hí getacniað. Nis nu nanum men
alyfed þæt he healde þa ealdan ǽ lichomlice, ac gehealde gehwa hí gastlice.
Culfran sind swiðe unscæððige fugelas, and bilewite, and hí lufiað annysse,
and fleoð him floccmælum. Do eac swa se cristena man; beo him únsceaðþig,
and bilewite, and lufige annysse, and broðorrædene betwux cristenum mannum;
þonne geoffrað he gastlice Gode þa culfran-briddas. Þa turtlan getacniað
clænnysse: hí sind swa geworhte, gif hyra oðer oðerne forlyst, þonne ne
secð seo cucu næfre hire oðerne gemacan. Gif ðonne se cristena man swa deð
for Godes lufon, þonne geoffrað he ða turtlan on þa betstan wisan. Ðas twa
fugel-cyn ne singað na, swa swa oðre fugelas, ac hi geomeriað, forðan þe hi
getacniað haligra manna geomerunge on ðisum life, swa swa Crist cwæð to his
apostolum, "Ge beoð geunrotsode on þisum life, ac eower unrotnys bið awend
to ecere blisse." And eft he cwæð, "Eadige beoð þa þe heora synna bewepað,
forðan ðe hi beoð gefrefrode."

Se ealda man Symeon, þe we ær embe spræcon, ne gyrnde ná þæt he moste Crist
gehyran sprecan, forðan ðe he hine gecneow þæt he God wæs, ðeah ðe he
ða-gyt on þære menniscnysse unsprecende wære. Sprecan he mihte, gif he
wolde; and ealswa wis he wæs ða, þaþa he wæs anre nihte, swa swa he wæs,
þaþa he wæs ðrittig geara; ac he wolde abídan his wæstma timan on ðære
menniscnysse, swa swa hit gecyndelic is on mancynne. Symeon cwæð þa,
"Drihten, þu forlætst me nu on sibbe of ðysum life, forðon þe míne eagan
habbað gesewen ðinne Halwendan." Se Halwenda þe he embe spræc is ure Hælend
Crist, seðe com to gehælenne ure wunda, þæt sindon ure synna. He cwæð þa
Symeon, "Ðone þu gearcodest ætforan gesihðe ealles folces." Hine {144} ne
gesawon na ealle men lichomlice, ac he is gebodod eallum mannum, gelyfe
seðe wylle. Se þe on hine gelyfð, he gesihð hine nu mid his geleafan, and
on þan ecan life mid his eagum. Symeon cwæð þa-gyt, "He is leoht to
onwrigennysse ðeoda, and wuldor þinum folce Israhel." Ealle ðas word spræc
se Symeon be ðam cilde to þam heofenlican Fæder, þe hine to mannum sende.
He is soð leoht þe todræfde þa þeostra ðises lifes, swa swa he sylf cwæð on
his godspelle, "Ic eom leoht ealles middangeardes, se ðe me fyligð, ne cymð
he na on þystrum, ac he hæfð lifes leoht." Swa swa leoht todræfð þeostra,
swa eac todræfð Cristes lufu and his geleafa ealle leahtras and synna fram
ure heortan: and he is wuldor and bliss ealles gelyfedes folces.

Þa Maria, þæt halige mæden, and þæs cildes fostor-fæder, Ioseph, wæron
ofwundrode þæra worda þe se ealda Symeon clypode be ðam cilde. And se
Symeon him ða sealde bletsunge, and witegode gyt mare be þam cilde, and
cwæð, "Þis cild is gesett manegum mannum to hryre, and manegum to æriste
and to tacne, and þam bið wiðcweden." Swa swa ða men þe on Crist gelyfað
beoð gehealdene þurh his to-cyme, swa eac þa þe nellað gelyfan on Crist
beoð twyfealdlice fordemde. Anfealdlice hi sind scyldige ðurh Adames synne,
and twyfealdlice hi beoð fordemde, þonne hí wiðsacað Cristes to-cymes, and
nellað gelyfan on ðone soðan Hælend. Ðam ungeleaffullum mannum com Crist to
hryre, and þam geleaffullum to æriste; and eac anum gehwilcum gelyfedum men
wæs Cristes to-cyme ægðer ge hryre ge ærist. Hu ðonne? He com to ðy þæt he
wolde ælc yfel towurpan, and ælc góod aræran. Nu towyrpð he on ús leahtras,
and arærð mihta. He towyrpð modignysse, and arærð eadmodnysse. He towyrpð
galnysse, and arærð clænnysse. And ealle unðeawas he towyrpð on his
gecorenum mannum, and arærð on him ealle godnysse. Ne mæg þæt gód beon
getymbrod buton þæt yfel beo ær toworpen. "To tacne com Crist, and þam is
wiðcweden." His acennednys is wundorlic tacn, forðan ðe {146} he wæs of
mædene acenned, swa swa nan oðer nis; and þæt wiðcwædon þa ungeleaffullan
men, and noldon gelyfan. And eac his æriste of deaðe, and his upstige to
heofenum, and ealle ða wundra þe he worhte, ealle hit wæron tacna, and ðam
wiðcwædon þa ungeleaffullan, and þa geleaffullan gelyfdon.

Þa cwæð se ealda Symeon to ðære eadigan Marian, "His swurd sceal ðurhgán
ðine sawle." Þæt swurd getacnode Cristes ðrowunge. Næs seo eadige Maria na
ofslegen ne gemartyrod lichomlice, ac gastlice. Ðaða heo geseh niman hyre
cild, and adrifan ísene næglas þurh þa handa and þurh ða fét, and syððan
mid spere gewundigan on ða siðan, þa wæs Cristes ðrowung hire ðrowung; and
heo wæs mare ðonne martyr, forðon þe mare wæs hyre modes þrowung þonne wære
hire lichaman, gif heo gemartyrod wære. Ne cwæð na se Symeon þæt Cristes
swurd sceolde þurhgán Marian lichaman, ac hyre sawle. Cristes swurd is her
gesett, swa swa we cwædon, for his ðrowunge. Þeah ðe Maria gelyfde þæt
Crist arisan wolde of deaðe, þeah-hwæðere eode hyre cildes þrowung swiðe
þearle into hire heortan.

Þaða se Symeon hæfde gewitegod þas witegunge be Criste, þa com þær sum
wuduwe, seo wæs Anna gehaten. "Seo leofode mid hire were seofon gear, and
syððan heo wæs wuduwe feower and hund-eahtatig geara, and þeowode Gode on
fæstenum, and on gebedum, and on clænnysse; and wæs on eallum þam fyrste
wunigende binnan þam Godes temple; and com ða to þam cilde, and witegode be
him, and andette Gode." Rihtlice swa halig wíf wæs þæs wyrðe þæt heo moste
witigian embe Crist, ðaða heo swa lange on clænnesse Gode þeowode.
Behealde, ge wíf, and understandað hu be hire awriten is. Seofon gear heo
leofode mid hire were, and siððan heo wæs wunigende on wudewan háde, oð
feower and hund-eahtatig geara, swa lybbende swa se apostol tæhte. He cwæð,
se apostol Paulus, "Seo wuduwe þe lyfað on estmettum, heo ne lyfað na, ac
heo is dead." Þeos Anna, ðe we {148} embe sprecað, ne lufude heo na
estmettas, ac lufude fæstenu. Ne lufude heo ydele spellunge, ac beeode hire
gebedu. Ne ferde heo wórigende geond land, ac wæs wunigende geþyldelice
binnan Godes temple. Gif wife getimige þæt heo hire wer forleose, ðonne
nime heo bysne be ðisre wudewan.

Ðry hadas sindon þe cyðdon gecyðnysse be Criste; þæt is mæigð-had, and
wudewan-had, and riht sinscype. Mæden is Cristes modor, and on mægð-hade
wunude Iohannes se Fulluhtere, þe embe Crist cydde, and manega oðre
to-eacan him. Widewe wæs ðeos Anna, þe we gefyrn ær embe spræcon.
Zacharias, Iohannes fæder, wæs wer; ægðer ge he ge his wíf witegodon embe
Crist. Þas ðry hadas syndon Gode gecweme, gif hi rihtlice lybbað. Mægð-had
is ægþer ge on wæpmannum ge on wífmannum. Þa habbað rihtne mægð-had þa þe
fram cild-hade wuniað on clænnysse, and ealle galnysse on him sylfum
forseoð, ægðer ge modes ge lichoman, þurh Godes fultum. Þonne habbað hi æt
Gode hundfealde mede on ðam ecan life. Widewan beoð þa þe æfter heora
gemacan on clænnysse wuniað for Godes lufon: hí habbað þonne syxtigfealde
mede æt Gode hyra geswinces. Þa ðe rihtlice healdað hyra ǽwe, and on
alyfedum timan, for bearnes gestreone, hæmed begáð, hí habbað þrittigfealde
mede for hyra gesceadwisnysse. Se ðe wile his galnysse gefyllan swa oft swa
hine lyst, þonne bið he wiðmeten nytenum and na mannum. Be þysum tæhte se
apostol Paulus, "Þa ðe wíf habbað, beon hí swilce hí nan nabbon;" forðan
ealle hyra unlustas hi sceolon gebetan sylfwylles on þyssum life, oððe
unþances æfter ðyssum life; and hí cumað siððan to ðam ecan life mid maran
earfoðnysse. Þa men þe beoð butan rihtre ǽwe, and yrnað fram anum to oðrum,
nabbað hí nænne dæl ne nane bletsunge mid Criste, buton hí ðæs geswicon and
hit gebeton. Uton fon nu on þæt godspel ðær we hit ær forleton.

Seo eadige Maria, and Ioseph, ðæs cildes fostor-fæder, {150} gecyrdon to
þære byrig Nazareth mid þam cilde; "and þæt cild weox, and wæs gestrangod,
and mid wisdome afylled, and Godes gifu wæs on him wunigende." He weox and
wæs gestrangod on þære menniscnysse, and he ne behofode nanes wæstmes ne
nanre strangunge on þære godcundnysse. He æt, and dranc, and slep, and weox
on gearum, and wæs þeah-hwæðere eal his lif butan synnum. He nære na man
geðuht, gif he mannes life ne lyfode. He wæs mid wisdome afylled, forþan ðe
he is himsylf wisdom, and on him wunað eal gefyllednys þære godcundnysse:
lichomlice Godes gifu wunude on him. Micel gifu wæs þæt ðære menniscnysse,
þæt he wæs Godes Sunu and God sylf, swa hraðe swa he ongann man to beonne.
He wæs æfre God of þam Fæder acenned, and wunigende mid þam Fæder and mid
þam Halgan Gaste: hí ðry án God untodæledlic; þry on hadum, and án God on
anre godcundnysse, and on anum gecynde æfre wunigende. Se Sunu ana
underfeng þa menniscnysse, and hæfde anginn, seðe æfre wæs. He wæs cild,
and weox on þære menniscnysse, and þrowode deað sylfwilles, and aras of
deaðe mid þam lichaman þe he ær on þrowode, and astah to heofenum, and
wunað nu æfre on godcundnysse and on menniscnysse, an Crist, ægðer ge God
ge mann, undeadlic, seðe ær his ðrowunge wæs deadlic. He þrowade, ac he ne
ðrowað heonon-forð næfre eft, ac bið æfre butan ende, eallswa éce on þære
menniscnysse swa he is on þære godcundnysse.

Wite gehwa eac þæt geset is on cyrclicum þeawum, þæt we sceolon on ðisum
dæge beran ure leoht to cyrcan, and lætan hí ðær bletsian: and we sceolon
gán siððan mid þam leohte betwux Godes husum, and singan ðone lofsang ðe
þærto geset is. Þeah ðe sume men singan ne cunnon, hi beron þeah-hwæðere
þæt leoht on heora handum; forðy on ðissum dæge wæs þæt soðe Leoht Crist
geboren to þam temple, seðe us alysde fram þystrum, and us gebrincð to þam
ecan leohte, seðe leofað and rixað á butan ende. Amen.



    Postquam impleti sunt dies purificationis Mariæ, etc.

God commanded in the old law, and bade the leader Moses write it among
other commandments, that every woman who had borne a child should wait
forty days after the birth, so that she should come neither into God's
temple, nor into a bed with her husband, before that space of time which we
have said: that is forty days, if it were a male child; but if it were a
maiden child, then she should abstain from entering God's house for eighty
days, and also from her husband; and after that space go with a gift to
God's house, and bear forth the child with the gift, and afterwards, with
God's blessing, approach her consort. This was established regarding women.

Now was, nevertheless, the holy maiden MARY, Christ's mother, mindful of
God's commands, and she went on this day to God's house with a gift, and
brought the child that she had given birth to, Jesus Christ, to be
presented to God's temple.

There was there, in the city of Jerusalem, a man of God, and his name was
Simeon; he was very righteous, and had {137} great fear of God, and he
awaited the comfort which was promised to the people of Israel, that is the
advent of Christ. The Holy Ghost was dwelling in Simeon, and he knew full
well that the Son of Almighty God would come to men, and assume human
nature. Then was this man very desirous of the advent of Jesus, and prayed
daily to God in his prayers, that he might see Christ ere he tasted of
death. Then, because he had so great desire of Christ's advent, there came
to him an answer from the Holy Ghost, that he should not taste of death ere
he had seen Christ. And he was then glad at the promise, and came to God's
temple, through admonition of the Holy Ghost. And the holy Mary came then
to the temple with the child, and the old man Simeon went towards the
child, and saw Jesus, and well knew that he was the Son of God, the
Redeemer of all the world. He took him in his arms with great feeling, and
bare him into the temple, and fervently thanked God that he was allowed to
see him. He then said, "My Lord, thou lettest me now go in peace from this
life, according to thy word; for mine eyes have seen thy Healing One, which
thou hast prepared before the face of all people; a light for the
revelation of the gentiles, and a glory to thy people Israel."

It is written in the book of Christ, and elsewhere in other books, that
many prophets and righteous men were desirous of seeing the advent of
Christ, but it was not granted to them: but it was granted to this old man;
for of him it is written, that he said daily in his prayers, "Ah! when will
the Saviour come? When will he be born? When may I see him? May I live
until I see him?" And then, for this desire, an answer came to him, that he
should not see death before he had seen Christ.

Mary, Christ's mother, bare the child, and the old Simeon went towards her,
and knew the child through revelation, and took it in his arms and bare it
into the temple. He bare {139} the child, and the child bare him. How did
the child bear him? The old Simeon bare in his arms him who preserves and
rules over all things. Little he there appeared, yet was he, nevertheless,
very great and infinite. Little he appeared, because he would fetch the
little and bring them up to his kingdom. Who are the little ones that he
would raise up to his kingdom? They are the humble. Christ sought not the
proud, those who are great in their own imagination, but those who are
little and humble in their hearts, these shall come to God's kingdom; but
thither may no pride ascend. The devil was there, who became proud, but his
pride cast him into the depth of hell; therefore our weakness may not
ascend thither, if it be proud, when the angel might not be there when he
became proud.

God, in the old law, commanded his people, that they should offer to him
every firstborn male child, or redeem it with five shillings. Of their
cattle also, to bring whatever was firstborn to God's house, and there
offer it to God. But if it were an unclean beast, then should the master
slay it, or give to God another clean beast. We need not now hold these
commands bodily, but spiritually. When in our mind something good is
brought forth and we turn it to action, then should we account that as
God's grace, and consign it to God. Our evil thoughts or actions we should
redeem with five shillings; that is, we should repent of our wickedness
with our five senses, which are, sight, and hearing, and taste, and smell,
and touch. So also as the unclean beasts betoken our unclean thoughts and
actions, these we should always kill or exchange for pure; that is, we
should always destroy our impurity and our wickedness, and forsake evil,
and do good.

The blessed Mary then offered her gift to God with the child, as it was
appointed in God's law. It was so appointed in the old law, by God's
behest, that those who could {141} accomplish it, should bring a yearling
lamb with their child, as a gift to God, and a pigeon or a turtle-dove. But
if any woman were so needy that she could not get those things, then she
should bring two young pigeons, or two turtle-doves.

These smaller gifts, that is, the birds, which were the gifts of indigent
persons, were offered for Christ. The Almighty Son of God was very mindful
of our needs in all things; not only would he for us become man when he was
God, but he would also be poor for us when he was rich, that he might give
us part in his kingdom and community in his Godhead. A lamb betokens
innocence and the greater goodness; but if we are so poor that we cannot
offer to God the greater goodness, then should we bring him two
turtle-doves or two young pigeons; that is, a twofold affection of awe and
love. In two ways is a man affected: first, he dreads hell-torment, and
bewails his sins; afterwards he again feels love to God; then he begins to
murmur, and it seems to him too long when he shall be taken from the
afflictions of this life, and brought to everlasting rest.

Little was a lamb, or two turtle-doves to bring to God; but he regards not
a man's gift so much as he regards his heart. God hath no need of our
gifts; all things are his, heaven, and earth, and sea, and all the things
which dwell in them: but he gave to men earthly things for use, and
commanded them with those earthly things to acknowledge him who first gave
them, not for His need, but for need of mankind. If thou acknowledgest thy
Lord with thy possessions, according to thy ability, it forwards thyself to
eternal life; if thou forgettest him, it harms thyself and not God, and
thou losest the everlasting meed. God desires the goodness of thy mind, and
not of thy possessions. If thou doest aught for the praise of God with
devout mind, then thou manifestest the goodness of thy mind by that deed;
but {143} if thou wilt do no good for the honour of God, then thou, by that
offence, manifestest thy wickedness, and that wickedness shall fordo thee
with God.

In the old law it is in several places mentioned, that God frequently
commanded birds to be offered to him in sacrifice, for the betokening which
they betoken. Now it is not allowed to any man to hold the old law bodily,
but let everyone hold it spiritually. Pigeons are very innocent and gentle
birds, and they love unity, and fly flockwise. Let the christian man also
do so; let him be innocent, and gentle, and love unity and fellowship among
christian men; then offers he to God spiritually the young pigeons. The
turtle-doves betoken purity: they are so created, that if one of them lose
the other, the living one never seeks to itself another mate. But if the
christian man does so for love of God, then offers he the turtle-doves in
the best manner. These two birds sing not like other birds, but they
murmur; for they betoken the groaning of holy men in this life, as Christ
said to his apostles, "Ye will be sad in this life, but your sadness will
be turned to everlasting bliss." And again he said, "Blessed are they who
bewail their sins, for they shall be comforted."

The old man Simeon, of whom we erewhile spoke, desired not that he might
hear Christ speak, for he knew him to be the Son of God, though he, in his
state of humanity, was yet without speech. He could have spoken, had he
been willing; and he was as wise when he was one day old as he was when he
was thirty years; but he would abide the time of his growth in human
nature, as is natural in mankind. Simeon then said, "Lord, thou wilt let me
now depart in peace from this life, for mine eyes have seen thy Healing
One." The Healing One of whom he spake is our Saviour Christ, who came to
heal our wounds, that is, our sins. Simeon then said, "Whom thou hast
prepared before the sight of all people." All men saw him not bodily, but
he is {145} announced to all men, let him believe who will. He who believes
in him, sees him now with his faith, and in the eternal life with his eyes.
Simeon yet said, "He is a light for the enlightening of the gentiles, and a
glory to thy people Israel." All these words concerning the child, Simeon
spake to the heavenly Father, who sent him to men. He is the true light who
scattered the darkness of this life, as he himself said in his gospel, "I
am the light of all the world; he who followeth me shall not come into
darkness, but he shall have the light of life." As light scatters darkness,
so also love and faith of Christ scatter all vices and sins from our heart;
and he is the glory and bliss of all believing people.

Then the holy maiden Mary, and Joseph, the child's foster-father, wondered
at the words which the old Simeon uttered concerning the child. And Simeon
then gave him his blessing, and prophesied yet more concerning the child,
and said, "This child is set for the fall of many men, and for the rising
of many, and for a sign, and which shall be spoken against." So as those
men who believe in Christ will be saved by his coming, so also those who
will not believe in Christ will be doubly condemned. Simply they are guilty
through Adam's sin, and doubly they will be condemned, when they deny
Christ's coming, and will not believe in the true Saviour. Christ came for
the fall of unbelieving men, and for the rising of the faithful; and also
to every believing man was Christ's coming both a fall and a rising. But
how? He came because he would cast down every evil, and rear up every good.
Now he casts down vices in us, and rears up virtues. He casts down pride,
and rears up humility. He casts down libidinousness, and rears up chastity.
And all wickedness he casts down in his chosen men, and rears up all
goodness. Good cannot be built up unless evil be previously cast down.
"Christ came for a sign, and which shall be spoken against." His birth is a
wonderful sign, {147} because he was born of a maiden, as no other is; and
against that unbelieving men spake, and would not believe. And, likewise,
his resurrection from death, and his ascension to heaven, and all the
wonders which he wrought--all these were signs, and the unbelieving spake
against them, and the faithful believed.

Then said the old Simeon to the blessed Mary, "His sword shall pierce
through thy soul." The sword betokened Christ's passion. The blessed Mary
was not slain nor martyred bodily, but spiritually. When she saw her child
taken, and iron nails driven through his hands and through his feet, and
his side afterwards wounded with a spear, then was his suffering her
suffering; and she was then more than a martyr, for her mind's suffering
was greater than her body's would have been, had she been martyred. The old
Simeon said not that Christ's sword should pierce through Mary's body, but
her soul. Christ's sword is here set, as we said, for his passion. Though
Mary believed that Christ would arise from death, her child's suffering
went, nevertheless, very deeply into her heart.

When Simeon had prophesied this prophecy concerning Christ, then came there
a widow, who was called Anna. "She had lived with her husband seven years;
and had afterwards been a widow eighty-four years, and served God with
fastings, and prayers, and with chastity; and was in all that time dwelling
within God's temple; and came then to the child, and prophesied concerning
him, and confessed to God." Rightly was so holy a woman worthy to prophesy
concerning Christ, since she had so long served God in chastity. Behold, ye
women, and understand how it is written concerning her. Seven years she had
lived with her husband, and was afterwards continuing in widowhood
eighty-four years; so living as the apostle taught. He, the apostle Paul,
said, "The widow who liveth in luxuries, she liveth not, but she is dead."
This Anna, of whom we speak, loved not luxuries, {149} but loved fasts. She
loved not idle discourses, but occupied herself in prayers. She went not
wandering through the land, but remained patiently within God's temple. If
it happen to a woman to lose her husband, let her take example by this

There are three states which bare witness of Christ: that is maidenhood,
and widowhood, and lawful matrimony. A maiden is the mother of Christ, and
in maidenhood John the Baptist continued, who testified of Christ, and many
others besides him. This Anna, of whom we before spake, was a widow.
Zacharias, the father of John, was a married man; both he and his wife
prophesied concerning Christ. These three states are agreeable to God, if
men righteously live in them. Maidenhood is both in men and in women. Those
have right maidenhood who from childhood continue in chastity, and despise
in themselves all lust, both of body and mind, through God's succour. Then
shall they have from God a hundredfold meed in the everlasting life. Widows
are those who, after the death of their consorts, live in chastity for love
of God: they shall have a sixtyfold meed from God for their tribulation.
Those who rightly hold their marriage vow, and at permitted times, and for
procreation of children, have carnal intercourse, shall have a thirtyfold
meed for their discretion. He who will satiate his libidinousness as often
as he lists, shall be compared with the beasts and not with men. Concerning
this the apostle Paul taught, "Let those who have wives be as though they
had none." For they shall atone for all their evil lusts voluntarily in
this life, or involuntarily after this life; and they shall come afterwards
to the everlasting life with more difficulty. Those men who are without a
lawful consort, and run from one to other, shall have no part and no
blessing with Christ, unless they desist and make atonement. Let us now
resume the gospel where we previously left it.

The blessed Mary, and Joseph, the child's foster-father, {151} returned to
the city of Nazareth with the child; "and the child grew, and was
strengthened, and filled with wisdom, and God's grace was dwelling within
him." He grew and was strengthened in human nature, but he required no
growth and no strengthening in his divine nature. He ate, and drank, and
slept, and grew in years, and was, nevertheless, all his life without sins.
He would not have seemed a man, if he had not lived the life of a man. He
was filled with wisdom, because he is himself wisdom, and in him dwelleth
all fullness of the divine nature: God's grace dwelt bodily within him. A
great grace was that of his human nature, that he was the Son of God and
God himself, as soon as he began to be man. He was ever God begotten of the
Father, and dwelling with the Father and with the Holy Ghost: these three
one God indivisible; three in persons, and one God in one Godhead, and in
one nature ever continuing. The Son only assumed human nature, and had a
beginning, who was ever. He was a child, and grew in human nature, and
voluntarily suffered death, and arose from death with the body in which he
before had suffered, and ascended to heaven, and continueth now for ever in
divine nature and in human nature, one Christ, both God and man, immortal,
who before his passion was mortal. He suffered, but henceforth he will
never suffer again, but will ever be without end, as eternal in his human
nature as he is in his divine nature.

Be it known also to everyone that it is appointed in the ecclesiastical
observances, that we on this day bear our lights to church, and let them
there be blessed: and that we should go afterwards with the light among
God's houses, and sing the hymn that is thereto appointed. Though some men
cannot sing, they can, nevertheless, bear the light in their hands; for on
this day was Christ, the true Light, borne to the temple, who redeemed us
from darkness and bringeth us to the Eternal Light, who liveth and ruleth
ever without end. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *


    Adsumpsit Iesus XII. discipulos suos: et reliqua.

Her is geræd on þissum godspelle, þe we nu gehyrdon of ðæs diacones muðe,
þæt "se Hælend gename onsundron his twelf leorning-cnihtas, and cwæð to
him, Efne we sceolon faran to ðære byrig Hierusalem, and þonne beoð
gefyllede ealle ða ðing þe wæron be me awritene þurh witegan. Ic sceal beon
belǽwed ðeodum, and hí doð me to bysmore, and beswingað, and syððan
ofsleað, and ic arise of deaðe on þam ðriddan dæge. Þa nyston his
leorning-cnihtas nan andgit þyssera worda. Ða gelámp hit þæt hí genealæhton
anre byrig þe is gehaten Hiericho, and ða sæt þær sum blind man be ðam
wege; and þaþa he gehyrde þæs folces fær mid þam Hælende, ða acsode he hwa
þær ferde. Hi cwædon him to, þæt þæt wære ðæs Hælendes fær. Þa begann he to
hrymenne, and cwæð, Hælend, Dauides Bearn, gemiltsa mín. Ða men, þe beforan
þam Hælende ferdon, ciddon ongean ðone blindan, þæt he suwian sceolde. He
clypode þa miccle swiðor, Hælend, Dauides Bearn, gemiltsa mín. Þa stód se
Hælend, and het lædan þone blindan to him. Þaða he genealæhte, þa acsode se
Hælend hine, Hwæt wylt ðu þæt ic þe dó? He cwæð, Drihten, þæt ic mage
geseon. And se Hælend him cwæð to, Loca nu: þin geleafa hæfð ðe gehæled.
And he ðærrihte geseah, and fyligde þam Hælende, and hine mærsode. Þa eal
þæt folc, þe þæt wundor geseh, herede God mid micelre onbryrdnysse."

Ðyses godspelles anginn hrepode ures Hælendes þrowunge, þeah-hwæðere ne
ðrowade hé na on ðysne timan; ac hé wolde feorran and lange ær cyðan his
ðrowunge his leorning-cnihtum, þæt hí ne sceoldon beon to swiðe afyrhte
þurh ða þrowunge, þonne se tima come þæt hé ðrowian wolde. Heora mód wearð
afyrht þurh Crístes segene, ac hé hí eft gehyrte mid þam worde þe hé cwæð,
"Ic arise of deaðe on þam ðriddan dæge." Þa wolde he heora geleafan
gestrangian {154} and getrymman mid wundrum. And hí ða comon to ðære stowe
þær se blinda man sæt be ðam wege, and Crist hine gehælde ætforan gesihðe
ealles þæs werodes, to ði þæt he wolde mid þam wundre hí to geleafan
gebringan. Þeah-hwæðere þa wundra þe Crist worhte, oðer ðing hí æteowdon
þurh mihte, and oðre ðing hí getacnodon þurh geryno. He worhte þa wundra
soðlice þurh godcunde mihte, and mid þam wundrum þæs folces geleafan
getrymde; ac hwæðre þær wæs oðer ðing digle on ðam wundrum, æfter gastlicum
andgite. Þes án blinda man getacnode eall mancynn, þe wearð ablend þurh
Adames gylt, and asceofen of myrhðe neoxena-wanges, and gebroht to ðissum
life þe is wiðmeten cwearterne. Nu sind we ute belocene fram ðam
heofenlican leohte, and we ne magon on ðissum life þæs ecan leohtes brucan;
ne we his na mare ne cunnon buton swa micel swa we ðurh Cristes lare on
bocum rædað. Þeos woruld, þeah ðe heo myrige hwíltidum geðuht sy, nis heo
hwæðere ðe gelicere ðære ecan worulde, þe is sum cweartern leohtum dæge.
Eal mancyn wæs, swa we ær cwædon, ablend mid geleaflæste and gedwylde; ac
þurh Cristes to-cyme we wurdon abrodene of urum gedwyldum, and onlihte þurh
geleafan. Nu hæbbe we þæt leoht on urum mode, þæt is Cristes geleafa; and
we habbað þone hiht þæs ecan lifes myrhðe, þeah ðe we gyt lichamlice on
urum cwearterne wunian.

Se blinda man sæt æt þære byrig þe is geháten Hiericho. Hiericho is gereht
and geháten 'mona.' Se mona deð ægðer ge wycxð ge wanað: healfum monðe he
bið weaxende, healfum he bið wanigende. Nu getacnað se mona ure deadlice
lif, and ateorunge ure deadlicnysse. On oðerne ende men beoð acennede, on
oþerne ende hí forðfarað. Þaða Crist com to ðære byrig Hiericho, þe ðone
monan getacnað, þa underfeng se blinda man gesihðe. Þæt is, ðaða Crist com
to ure deadlicnysse, and ure menniscnysse underfeng, þa wearð mancyn
onliht, and gesihðe underfeng. He sæt wið ðone weig; and Crist cwæð on his
godspelle, "Ic eom {156} weig, and soðfæstnys, and líf." Se man þe nan ðing
ne cann ðæs ecan leohtes, he is blind; ac gif he gelyfð on þone Hælend,
þonne sitt he wið þone weig. Gif he nele biddan þæs ecan leohtes, he sitt
ðonne blind be ðam wege unbiddende. Se ðe rihtlice gelyfð on Críst, and
geornlice bitt his sawle onlihtinge, he sitt be ðam wege biddende. Swa hwa
swa oncnæwð þa blindnysse his modes, clypige he mid inweardre heortan, swá
swá se blinda cleopode, "Hælend, Dauides Bearn, gemiltsa mín."

Seo menigu þe eode beforan ðam Hælende ciddon ðam blindan, and heton þæt he
stille wære. Seo menigu getacnað ure unlustas and leahtras þe us hremað,
and ure heortan ofsittað, þæt we ne magon us swa geornlice gebiddan, swa we
behofedon. Hit gelimpð gelomlice, þonne se man wile yfeles geswican, and
his synna gebetan, and mid eallum mode to Gode gecyrran, ðonne cumað þa
ealdan leahtras þe hé ær geworhte, and hí gedrefað his mod, and willað
gestillan his stemne, þæt he to Gode ne clypige. Ac hwæt dyde se blinda,
þaþa þæt folc hine wolde gestyllan? He hrymde ðæs ðe swiðor, oð þæt se
Hælend his stemne gehyrde, and hine gehælde. Swa we sceolon eac dón, gif us
deofol drecce mid menigfealdum geðohtum and costnungum: we sceolon hryman
swiðor and swiðor to ðam Hælende, þæt he todræfe ða yfelan costnunga fram
ure heortan, and þæt he onlihte ure mod mid his gife. Gif we ðonne
þurhwuniað on urum gebedum, þonne mage we gedon mid urum hreame þæt se
Hælend stent, seðe ær eode, and wile gehyran ure clypunge, and ure heortan
onlihtan mid godum and mid clænum geðohtum. Ne magon ða yfelan geðohtas ús
derian, gif hi ús ne liciað; ac swa ús swiðor deofol bregð mid yfelum
geðohtum, swa we beteran beoð, and Gode leofran, gif we ðone deofol forseoð
and ealle his costnunga, ðurh Godes fultum.

Hwæt is þæs Hælendes stede, oððe hwæt is his fær? He ferde ðurh his
menniscnysse, and he stod þurh þa godcundnysse. He ferde ðurh ða
menniscnysse, swa þæt he wæs {158} acenned, and ferde fram stowe to stowe,
and deað þrowade, and of deaðe arás, and astah to heofenum. Þis is his fær.
He stent ðurh ða godcundnysse; forðon ðe hé is ðurh his mihte æghwær
andweard, and ne ðearf na faran fram stowe to stowe; forðon ðe hé is on
ælcere stowe þurh his godcundnysse. Þaða he ferde, þa gehyrde he þæs
blindan clypunge; and þaþa he stod, þa forgeaf he him gesihðe; forðan þurh
ða menniscnysse he besargað ures modes blindnysse, and ðurh ða godcundnysse
he forgifð us leoht, and ure blindnysse onliht. He cwæð to ðam blindan men,
"Hwæt wilt ðu þæt ic ðe do?" Wenst ðu þæt hé nyste hwæt se blinda wolde,
seðe hine gehælan mihte? Ac he wolde þæt se blinda bæde; forðon þe hé tiht
ælcne swiðe gemaglice to gebedum: ac hwæðere he cwyð on oðre stowe, "Eower
heofenlica Fæder wat hwæs ge behofiað, ærðan ðe ge hine æniges ðinges
biddan," þeah-hwæðere wile se goda God þæt we hine georne biddon; forðan
þurh ða gebedu bið ure heorte onbryrd and gewend to Gode.

Ða cwæð se blinda, "La leof, do þæt ic mæge geseon." Ne bæd se blinda naðor
ne goldes, ne seolfres, ne nane woruldlice ðing, ac bæd his gesihðe. For
nahte he tealde ænig ðing to biddenne buton gesihðe; forðan ðeah se blinda
sum ðing hæbbe, he ne mæg butan leohte geseon þæt he hæfð. Uton forði
geefenlæcan þisum men, þe wæs gehæled fram Criste, ægðer ge on lichaman ge
on sawle: ne bidde we na lease welan, ne gewitenlice wurðmyntas; ac uton
biddan leoht æt urum Drihtne: na þæt leoht ðe bið geendod, þe bið mid þære
nihte todræfed, þæt ðe is gemæne ús and nytenum; ac uton biddan þæs leohtes
þe we magon mid englum anum geseon, þæt ðe næfre ne bið geendod. To ðam
leohte soðlice ure geleafa us sceal gebringan, swa swa Crist cwæð to ðam
blindan menn, "Lóca nu, þin geleafa ðe gehælde."

Nu smeað sum ungeleafful man, Hu mæg ic gewilnian ðæs gastlican leohtes,
þæt þæt ic geseon ne mæg? Nu cweðe ic to ðam menn, þæt ða ðing þe hé
understynt and undergytan {160} mæg, ne undergyt he ná ða ðing þurh his
lichaman, ac þurh his sawle; þeah-hwæðere ne gesihð nan man his sawle on
ðisum life. Heo is ungesewenlic, ac ðeah-hwæðere heo wissað þone
gesewenlican lichaman. Se lichama, ðe is gesewenlic, hæfð lif of ðære
sawle, þe is ungesewenlic. Gewíte þæt ungesewenlice ut, þonne fylð adune
þæt gesewenlice; forðan þe hit ne stod na ær ðurh hit sylf. Þæs lichoman
lif is seo sawul, and þære sawle lif is God. Gewite seo sawul ut, ne mæg se
muð clypian, þeah ðe hé gynige; ne eage geseon, þeah ðe hit open sy; ne nán
limn ne deð nan ðing, gif se lichama bið sawulleas. Swa eac seo sawul, gif
God hí forlæt for synnum, ne deð heo nan ðing to góde. Ne mæg nan man nan
ðing to góde gedon, butan Godes fultume. Ne bið seo synfulle sawul na mid
ealle to nahte awend, ðeah ðe heo gode adeadod sy; ac heo bið dead ælcere
duguðe and gesælðe, and bið gehealden to ðam ecan deaðe, þær þær heo æfre
bið on pinungum wunigende, and þeah-hwæðere næfre ne ateorað.

Hu mæg þe nú twynian þæs ecan leohtes, ðeah hit ungesewenlic sy, þonne þu
hæfst líf of ungesewenlicre sawle, and þe ne twynað nan ðing þæt þu sawle
hæbbe, ðeah ðu hí geseon ne mage? Se blinda, ðaða hé geseon mihte, þa
fyligde hé ðam Hælende. Se man gesihð and fylið Gode, seðe cann
understandan God, and gód weorc wyrcð. Se man gesihð and nele Gode fylian,
seðe understent God, and nele gód wyrcan. Ac uton understandan God and gód
weorc wyrcean: uton behealdan hwíder Crist gange, and him fylian; þæt is
þæt we sceolon smeagan hwæt hé tæce, and hwæt him licige, and þæt mid
weorcum gefyllan, swa swa hé sylf cwæð, "Se ðe me þenige, fylige hé me;"
þæt is, geefenlæce hé me, and onscunige ælc yfel, and lufige ælc gód, swa
swa ic do. Ne teah Crist him na to on ðisum life land ne welan, swa swa he
be him sylfum cwæð, "Deor habbað hola, and fugelas habbað nest, hwær hí
restað, and ic næbbe hwider ic ahylde min {162} heafod." Swa micel he hæfde
swa he rohte, and leofode be oðra manna æhtum, se ðe ealle ðing áh.

We rædað on Cristes bec þæt þæt folc rædde be him, þæt hí woldon hine
gelæccan, and ahebban to cyninge, þæt he wære heora heafod for worulde, swa
swa he wæs godcundlice. Þaþa Crist ongeat ðæs folces willan, ða fleah hé
anstandende to anre dúne, and his geferan gewendon to sǽ, and se Hælend wæs
up on lande. Ða on niht eode se Hælend up on ðam wætere mid drium fotum,
oðþæt he com to his leorning-cnihtum, ðær ðær hí wæron on rewute. He
forfleah þone woruldlican wurðmynt, þaþa he wæs to cyninge gecoren; ac he
ne forfleah na þæt edwit and ðone hosp, þaþa ða Iudeiscan hine woldon on
rode ahón. He nolde his heafod befon mid gyldenum cynehelme, ac mid
þyrnenum, swa swa hit gedon wæs on his þrowunge. He nolde on ðissum life
rixian hwilwendlice, seðe ecelice rixað on heofonum. Nis ðeos woruld na ure
eðel, ac is ure wræcsið; forði ne sceole we na besettan urne hiht on þissum
swicelum life, ac sceolon efstan mid godum geearnungum to urum eðele, þær
we to gesceapene wæron, þæt is to heofenan rice.

Soðlice hit is awriten, "Swa hwa swa wile beon freond þisre worulde, se bið
geteald Godes feond." Crist cwæð on sumere stowe, þæt "Se weig is swiðe
nearu and sticol, seðe læt to heofonan rice; and se is swiðe rúm and smeðe,
seðe læt to helle-wite." Se weig, seðe læt to heofenan rice, is forði nearu
and sticol, forði þæt we sceolon mid earfoðnysse geearnian urne eðel. Gif
we hine habban willað, we sceolon lufian mildheortnysse, and clænnysse, and
soðfæstnysse, and rihtwisnysse, and eadmodnysse, and habban soðe lufe to
Gode and to mannum, and dón ælmessan be ure mæðe, and habban gemet on urum
bigleofan, and gehwilce oðere halige ðing began. Þas ðing we ne magon dón
butan earfoðnyssum; ac gif we hí doð, þonne mage we mid þam geswincum, ðurh
Godes fultum, astigan ðone sticolan weg þe us gelæt to ðam ecan life. Se
weg seðe læt to forwyrde is forði brad and {164} smeðe, forði þe únlustas
gebringað þone man to forwyrde. Him bið swiðe softe, and nan geswinc þæt he
fylle his galnysse, and druncennysse, and gytsunge begange and modignysse,
and ða unstrangan berype, and dón swa hwæt swa hine lyst: ac ðas unðeawas
and oðre swilce gelædað hine butan geswince to ecum tintregum, buton he ær
his ende yfeles geswice and gód wyrce. Dysig bið se wegferenda man seðe
nimð þone smeðan weg þe hine mislæt, and forlæt ðone sticolan þe hine
gebrincð to ðære byrig. Swa eac we beoð soðlice ungerade, gif we lufiað þa
sceortan softnysse and ða hwilwendlican lustas to ðan swiðe, þæt hi us
gebringan to ðam ecan pinungum. Ac uton niman þone earfoðran weg, þæt we
her sume hwile swincon, to ðy þæt we ecelice beon butan geswince. Eaðe
mihte Crist, gif he wolde, on þisum life wunian butan earfoðnyssum, and
faran to his ecan rice butan ðrowunge, and butan deaðe; ac he nolde. Be ðam
cwæð Petrus se apostol, "Crist ðrowode for us, and sealde us bysne, þæt we
sceolon fyligan his fotswaðum;" þæt is, þæt we sceolon sum ðing þrowian for
Cristes lufon, and for urum synnum. Wel ðrowað se man, and Gode gecwemlice,
seðe winð ongean leahtras, and godnysse gefremað, swa swa he fyrmest mæg.
Se ðe nan ðing nele on ðissum life ðrowian, he sceal ðrowian unþances
wyrsan ðrowunga on þam toweardan life.

Nu genealæcð clæne tid and halig, on þære we sceolon ure gimeleaste
gebetan: cume forði gehwa cristenra manna to his scrifte, and his diglan
gyltas geandette, and be his láreowes tæcunge gebete; and tihte ælc oðerne
to góde mid godre gebysnunge, þæt eal folc cweðe be ús, swa swa be ðam
blindan gecweden wæs, ðaða his eagan wæron onlihte; þæt is, Eall folc þe
þæt wundor geseah, herede God, seðe leofað and rixað á butan ende. Amen.


    Adsumpsit Jesus XII. discipulos suos: et reliqua.

It is here read in this gospel, which we now have heard from the deacon's
mouth, that "Jesus took his twelve disciples apart, and said to them,
Behold, we shall go to the city of Jerusalem, and then shall be fulfilled
all the things that have been written of me by the prophets. I shall be
betrayed to the Gentiles, and they shall mock and scourge me, and
afterwards slay me, and I shall arise from death on the third day. But his
disciples knew not the meaning of these words. Then it came to pass that
they came near to a city which is called Jericho, and there sat a certain
blind man by the way; and when he heard the passing of the people with
Jesus, he asked who was passing there. They said to him that Jesus was
passing. Then he began to cry, and said, Jesus, Son of David, have pity on
me. The men, who were going before Jesus, chided the blind man, that he
might be silent. He cried then much louder, Jesus, Son of David, have pity
on me. Jesus then stood, and bade them lead the blind man to him. When he
came near Jesus asked him, What wilt thou that I shall do unto thee? He
said, Lord, that I may see. And Jesus said to him, Look now: thy faith hath
healed thee. And he immediately saw, and followed Jesus, and glorified him.
Then all the people who saw that miracle glorified God with great fervour."

The beginning of this gospel touched our Saviour's passion, though he did
not suffer at this time; but he would from afar and long before make known
his passion to his disciples, that they might not be too much terrified by
his passion, when the time came that he would suffer. Their mind was
terrified by Christ's saying, but he again cheered them by the words which
he spake, "I will arise from death on the third day." He would then
strengthen and confirm {155} their faith with miracles. And they came then
to the place where the blind man sat by the way, and Christ healed him
before the sight of all the multitude, to the end that, with that miracle,
he might bring them to belief. But the miracles which Christ wrought
manifested one thing by power, and another thing they betokened by mystery.
He wrought those miracles indeed through divine power, and with those
miracles confirmed the people's faith; but yet there was another hidden
thing in those miracles, in a spiritual sense. The one blind man betokened
all mankind, who were blinded through Adam's sin, and thrust from the joy
of Paradise, and brought to this life, which is compared to a prison. Now
we are shut out from the heavenly light, and we may not, in this life,
enjoy the light eternal; nor know we of it more than so much as, through
Christ's teaching, we read in books. This world, though it may sometimes
seem gay, yet is no more like the world eternal, than is some prison to the
light day. All mankind, as we before said, was blinded with lack of faith
and error; but through Christ's advent we were drawn from our errors, and
enlightened by faith. We have now the light in our mind, that is Christ's
faith; and we have a hope of the joy of everlasting life, though we yet
bodily dwell in our prison.

The blind man sat at the city which is called Jericho. Jericho is
interpreted and called _moon_. The moon both waxes and wanes: for a half
month it is waxing, for a half it is waning. Now the moon betokeneth our
mortal life and the decay of our mortality. At the one end men are born, at
the other they depart. When Christ came to the city of Jericho, which
betokeneth the moon, the blind man received sight. That is, when Christ
came to our mortality, and assumed our human nature, mankind was
enlightened, and received sight. He sat by the way; and Christ said in
{157} his gospel, "I am the way, and truth, and life." The man who knows
nothing of the eternal light is blind; but if he believes in Jesus, then
sits he by the way. If he will not pray for the light eternal, then sits he
blind by the way, without prayer. He who rightly believes in Christ, and
fervently prays for his soul's enlightening, he sits by the way praying.
Whosoever is sensible of his mind's blindness, let him cry with inward
heart, as the blind man cried, "Jesus, Son of David, have pity on me."

The multitude that went before Jesus chided the blind man, and bade him be
still. The multitude betokens our evil desires and vices, which call to us
and occupy our hearts, so that we cannot pray so fervently as we ought. It
happens frequently when a man is desirous to withdraw from evil and atone
for his sins, and with his whole mind turn to God, that his old misdeeds,
which he had previously committed, will then come and afflict his mind, and
will still his voice, that he may not cry to God. But what did the blind
man, when the people would still him? He called so much the louder, until
Jesus heard his voice and healed him. So should we do also, if the devil
trouble us with manifold thoughts and temptations: we should call louder
and louder to Jesus, that he drive the evil temptations from our hearts,
and that he enlighten our mind with his grace. But if we continue praying,
then may we with our cry incline Jesus to stand, who was before passing on,
and to hear our cry, and enlighten our hearts with good and pure thoughts.
Evil thoughts cannot harm us, if they are not pleasing to us; but the more
the devil terrifies us with evil thoughts, so much the better shall we be,
and dearer to God, if we despise the devil and all his temptations through
God's assistance.

What is Jesus's standing, or what is his passing? He passed through his
human nature, and he stood through the divine nature. He passed through
human nature, so that he {159} was born, and passed from place to place,
and suffered death, and from death arose, and ascended to heaven. This is
his passing. He stands through his divine nature; because he is, by his
power, everywhere present, and needs not go from place to place; because he
is in every place through his divine nature. When he was passing he heard
the blind man's cry; and when he stood he gave him sight; because through
his human nature he bewails the blindness of our minds, and through his
divine nature he gives us light, and enlightens our blindness. He said to
the blind man, "What wilt thou that I do to thee?" Thinkest thou that he
knew not what the blind man desired, he who could heal him? But he would
that the blind man should pray; for he exhorts everyone very urgently to
prayers: for though he says, in another place, "Your heavenly Father
knoweth what ye require, before ye pray to him for anything," yet the good
God desires that we should fervently pray to him; because by prayers is our
heart stimulated and turned to God.

Then said the blind man, "Sir, do that I may see." The blind man prayed
neither for gold, nor silver, nor any worldly things, but prayed for his
sight. For naught he accounted it to pray for anything but sight; because,
though the blind may have something, he cannot without light see that which
he has. Let us then imitate this man who was healed by Christ, both in body
and in soul: let us pray, not for deceitful riches, nor transitory honours;
but let us pray to our Lord for light: not for that light which will be
ended, which will be driven away by the night, that which is common to us
and to the brutes; but let us pray for that light which we can see with
angels only, which shall never be ended. To that light verily our faith
shall bring us, as Christ said to the blind man, "Look now: thy faith hath
healed thee."

Now some unbelieving man will ask, How may I desire the spiritual light
which I cannot see? Now to that man I say, that the things which he
understands and may {161} comprehend, he understands those things not
through his body, but through his soul; yet no man sees his soul in this
life. It is invisible, but, nevertheless, it guides the visible body. The
body, which is visible, has life from the soul, which is invisible. If that
which is invisible depart, then will the visible fall down; because it
before stood not of itself. The life of the body is the soul, and the life
of the soul is God. If the soul depart, the mouth cannot cry, though it
gape; nor the eye see, though it be open; nor will any limb do anything, if
the body be soulless. So also the soul, if God, for its sins, forsake it,
it will do nothing good. No man may do anything good without God's support.
The sinful soul will not be wholly turned to naught, though it be rendered
dead to good; but it will be dead to every excellence and happiness, and
will be preserved to eternal death, where it will be ever continuing in
torments, and yet will never perish.

How canst thou now doubt of the eternal light, though it be invisible, when
thou hast life from an invisible soul, and thou doubtest not that thou hast
a soul, though thou canst not see it? The blind man, when he could see,
followed Jesus. That man sees and follows God, who can understand God, and
does good works. That man sees and will not follow God, who understands
God, and will not do good works. But let us understand God, and do good
works: let us behold whither Christ goes, and follow him; that is, that we
should meditate on what he teaches, and what is pleasing to him, and that
with works fulfil, as he himself said, "He who will serve me, let him
follow me;" that is, let him imitate me, and shun every evil, and love
every good, as I do. Christ gained for himself in this life neither land
nor riches, as he of himself said, "The beasts have holes, and the birds
have nests, where they rest, and I have not where I may lay down {163} my
head." He had as much as he recked of, and lived on the possessions of
other men, he who owned all things.

We read in the book of Christ that the people resolved concerning him, that
they would seize him, and set him up for king, that he might be their
temporal head, as he was divinely. When Christ perceived the people's will
he fled alone to a mountain, and his companions went to the sea, and Jesus
was up on land. Then by night Jesus went on the water with dry feet, until
he came to his disciples, where they were in a ship. He fled from worldly
honour, when he was chosen king; but he fled not from reproach and scorn,
when the Jews would hang him on a cross. He would not encircle his head
with a golden crown, but with one of thorns, as it was done at his passion.
He would not reign for a while in this life, who rules eternally in heaven.
This world is not our country, but is our place of exile; therefore should
we not set our hope in this deceitful life, but should hasten with good
deserts to our country, for which we were created, that is, to the kingdom
of heaven.

Verily it is written, "Whosoever will be a friend of this world, he shall
be accounted a foe of God." Christ said in some place, that "The way is
very narrow and steep which leads to the kingdom of heaven; and it is very
wide and smooth which leads to hell-torment." The way which leads to the
kingdom of heaven is narrow and steep, in order that we should with
difficulty gain our country. If we desire to obtain it, we should love
mercy, and chastity, and truth, and righteousness, and humility, and have
true love to God and to men, and give alms according to our means, and be
moderate in our food, and observe all other holy things. These things we
cannot do without difficulties; but if we do them, then may we with those
labours, through God's support, ascend the steep way which leads us to
eternal life. The way which leads to perdition is broad and smooth, because
wicked {165} lusts bring a man to perdition. It is very soft to him and no
labour to satiate his libidinousness and drunkenness, and practise
covetousness and pride, and rob the weak, and do whatsoever he lists: but
those evil practices and others such lead him without labour to eternal
torments, unless before his end he desist from evil and do good. Foolish is
the wayfaring man who takes the smooth way that misleads him, and forsakes
the steep which brings him to the city. So also shall we be truly
inconsiderate, if we love brief voluptuousness and transitory pleasures so
greatly that they bring us to eternal torments. But let us take the more
difficult way, that we may here for some time labour, in order to be
eternally without labour. Easily might Christ, had he been willing, have
continued in this life without hardships, and gone to his everlasting
kingdom without suffering, and without death; but he would not. Concerning
which Peter the apostle said, "Christ suffered for us, and gave us an
example, that we should follow his footsteps;" that is, that we should
suffer something for love of Christ, and for our sins. Well suffers the
man, and acceptably to God, who strives against wickedness, and promotes
goodness, as he best may. He who will suffer nothing in this life, shall
suffer against his will in the life to come.

Now is a pure and holy time drawing nigh, in which we should atone for our
remissness: let, therefore, every christian man come to his confessor, and
confess his secret sins, and amend by the teaching of his instructor; and
let everyone stimulate another to good by good example, that all people may
say of us, as was said of the blind man when his eyes were enlightened;
that is, All people who saw that miracle praised God, who liveth and
reigneth ever without end. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *


    Ductus est Iesus in desertum a Spiritu: et reliqua.

Ic wolde eow trahtnian þis godspel, ðe mann nu beforan eow rædde, ac ic
ondræde þæt ge ne magon ða micelan deopnysse þæs godspelles swa
understandan swa hit gedafenlic sy. Nu bidde ic eow þæt ge beon geðyldige
on eowerum geðance, oðþæt we ðone traht mid Godes fylste oferrædan magon.

"Se Hælend wæs gelæd fram þam Halgan Gaste to anum westene, to ðy þæt he
wære gecostnod fram deofle: and he ða fæste feowertig daga and feowertig
nihta, swa þæt he ne onbyrigde ætes ne wætes on eallum þam fyrste: ac
siððan him hingrode. Þa genealæhte se costnere, and him to cwæð, Gif ðu sy
Godes Sunu, cweð to ðisum stanum þæt hi beon awende to hlafum. Ða andwearde
se Hælend, and cwæð, Hit is awriten, ne leofað se mann na be hlafe anum, ac
lyfað be eallum ðam wordum þe gað of Godes muðe. Þa genam se deofol hine,
and gesette hine uppan ðam scylfe þæs heagan temples, and cwæð, Gif ðu
Godes Sunu sy, feall nu adún: hit is awriten, þæt englum is beboden be ðe,
þæt hi ðe on hira handum ahebbon, þæt þu furðon ne ðurfe ðinne fot æt stane
ætspurnan. Þa cwæð se Hælend eft him to, Hit is awriten, Ne fanda þines
Drihtnes. Þa genam se deofol hine eft, and gesette hine uppan anre swiðe
heahre dune, and æteowde him ealles middangeardes welan, and his wuldor,
and cwæð him to, Ealle ðas ðing ic forgife ðe, gif ðu wilt feallan to minum
fotum and gebiddan þe to me. Ða cwæð se Hælend him to, Ga ðu underbæcc,
sceocca! Hit is awriten, Gehwá sceal hine gebiddan to his Drihtne anum, and
him anum ðeowian. Þa forlet se deofol hine, and him comon englas to, and
him ðenodon."

Se Halga Gast lædde þone Hælend to þam westene, to ðy þæt he wære þær
gecostnod. Nu wundrað gehwá hú se deofol dorste genealæcan to ðam Hælende,
þæt he hine costnode: {168} ac hé ne dorste Cristes fándian, gif him alyfed
nære. Se Hælend com to mancynne forði þæt he wolde ealle ure costnunga
oferswiðan mid his costnungum, and oferswiðan urne ðone ecan deað mid his
hwilwendlicum deaðe. Nu wæs he swa eadmod þæt he geðafode ðam deofle þæt he
his fandode, and he geðafode lyðrum mannum þæt hi hine ofslogon. Deofol is
ealra unrihtwisra manna heafod, and þa yfelan men sind his lima: nu
geðafode God þæt þæt heafod hine costnode, and þæt ða limu hine ahengon.

Þam deofle wæs micel twynung, Hwæt Crist wære? His líf næs na gelógod swa
swa oðra manna líf. Crist ne æt mid gyfernysse, ne he ne dránc mid
oferflowendnysse, ne his eagan ne ferdon worigende geond mislice lustas. Þa
smeade se deofol hwæt he wære; hwæðer he wære Godes Sunu, seðe manncynne
behaten wæs. Cwæð þa on his geðance, þæt he fandian wolde hwæt he wære. Ða
fæste Crist feowertig daga and feowertig nihta on án, ða on eallum þam
fyrste ne cwæð se deofol to him þæt he etan sceolde, forðan þe hé geseh þæt
him nan ðing ne hingrode. Eft, ðaða Crist hingrode æfter swa langum fyrste,
ða wende se deofol soðlice þæt he God nære, and cwæð to him, "Hwi hingrað
þe? Gif ðu Godes Sunu sy, wend þas stanas to hlafum, and et."

Eaðe mihte God, seðe awende wæter to wine, and seðe ealle gesceafta of
nahte geworhte, eaðelice he mihte awendan ða stanas to hlafum: ac he nolde
nan ðing don be ðæs deofles tæcunge; ac cwæð him to andsware, "Ne lifað na
se man be hlafe anum, ac lifað be ðam wordum ðe gað of Godes muðe." Swa swa
þæs mannes lichama leofað be hlafe, swa sceal his sawul lybban be Godes
wordum, þæt is, be Godes lare, þe he þurh wise menn on bocum gesette. Gif
se lichama næfð mete, oþþe ne mæg mete ðicgean, þonne forweornað he, and
adeadað: swa eac seo sawul, gif heo næfð þa halgan lare, heo bið þonne
weornigende and mægenleas. Þurh ða halgan lare heo bið strang and onbryrd
to Godes willan.

Þa wæs se deofol æne oferswiðed fram Criste. "And he ða hine genam, and bær
upp on þæt templ, and hine sette æt {170} ðam scylfe, and cwæð to him, Gif
ðu Godes Sunu sy, sceot adún; forðan þe englum is beboden be ðe, þæt hí ðe
on handum ahebban, þæt þu ne ðurfe ðinne fót æt stane ætspurnan." Her
begánn se deofol to reccanne halige gewritu, and he leah mid þære race;
forðan ðe hé is leas, and nan soðfæstnys nis on him; ac he is fæder ælcere
leasunge. Næs þæt na awriten be Criste þæt hé ða sæde, ac wæs awriten be
halgum mannum: hí behofiað engla fultumes on þissum life, þæt se deofol hí
costnian ne mote swa swiðe swa he wolde. Swa hold is God mancynne, þæt he
hæfð geset his englas us to hyrdum, þæt hí ne sceolon na geðafian þam reðum
deoflum þæt hí ús fordon magon. Hi moton ure afandian, ac hí ne moton us
nydan to nanum yfle, buton we hit sylfe agenes willan dón, þurh þa yfelan
tihtinge ðæs deofles. We ne beoð na fulfremede buton we beon afandode: þurh
ða fandunge we sceolon geðeon, gif we æfre wiðsacað deofle, and eallum his
larum; and gif we genealæcað urum Drihtne mid geleafan, and lufe, and godum
weorcum; gif we hwær aslidon, arisan eft þærrihte, and betan georne þæt ðær
tobrocen bið.

Crist cwæð þa to ðam deofle, "Ne sceal man fandigan his Drihtnes." Þæt wære
swiðe gilplic dǽd gif Crist scute ða adún, þeah ðe he eaðe mihte butan
awyrdnysse his lima nyðer asceotan, seðe gebigde þone heagan heofenlican
bigels; ac he nolde nan ðing dón mid gylpe; forðon þe se gylp is an
heafod-leahter; þa nolde he adún asceotan, forðon ðe he onscunode þone
gylp; ac cwæð, "Ne sceal man his Drihtnes fándian." Se man fándiað his
Drihtnes, seðe, mid dyslicum truwan and mid gylpe, sum wundorlic ðing on
Godes naman dón wile, oððe seðe sumes wundres dyslice and butan neode, æt
Gode abiddan wile. Þa wæs se deofol oðere siðe þurh Cristes geðyld

"Þa genam he hine eft, and abær hine úpp on ane dune, and ætywde him ealles
middangeardes welan and his wuldor, and cwæð to him, Ealle ðas ðing ic
forgife ðe, gif ðu wilt afeallan to minum fotum, and þe to me gebiddan."
Dyrstelice spræc se deofol her, swa swa he ær spræc, þaþa he on {172}
heofenum wæs, þaþa he wolde dælan heofonan rice wið his Scyppend, and beon
Gode gelíc; ac his dyrstignys hine awearp ða into helle; and eac nu his
dyrstignys hine geniðerode, þaða he, ðurh Cristes þrowunge, forlet mancynn
of his anwealde. He cwæð, "Þas ðing ic forgife ðe." Him ðuhte þæt he ahte
ealne middangeard; forðon ðe him ne wiðstod nan man ærðam þe Crist com þe
hine gewylde.

Hit is awriten on halgum bocum, "Eorðe and eall hire gefyllednys, and eal
ymbhwyrft and þa ðe on ðam wuniað, ealle hit syndon Godes æhta," and na
deofles. Þeah-hwæðere Crist cwæð on his godspelle be ðam deofle, þæt he
wære middangeardes ealdor, and he sceolde beon út-adræfed. He is ðæra manna
ealdor, þe lufiað þisne middangeard, and ealne heora hiht on þissum lífe
besettað, and heora Scyppend forseoð. Ealle gesceafta, sunne, and mona, and
ealle tunglan, land, and sǽ, and nytenu, ealle hí ðeowiað hyra Scyppende;
forðon þe hí farað æfter Godes dihte. Se lyðra man ána, þonne he forsihð
Godes beboda, and fullgǽð deofles willan, oððe þurh gytsunge, oþþe ðurh
leasunge, oððe ðurh graman, oððe ðurh oðre leahtras, þonne bið he deofles
ðeowa, þonne he deofle gecwemð, and þone forsihð ðe hine geworhte.

"Crist cwæð ða to ðam deofle, Ga ðu underbæcc, sceocca! Hit is awriten, Man
sceal hine gebiddan to his Drihtne, and him anum ðeowian." Quidam dicunt
non dixisse Saluatorem, "Satane, uade retro," sed tantum "Uade": sed tamen
in rectioribus et uetustioribus exemplaribus habetur, "Uade retro Satanas,"
sicut interpretatio ipsius nominis declarat; nam diabolus _Deorsum ruens_
interpretatur. Apostolo igitur Petro dicitur a X[=po], "Uade retro me," id
est, _Sequere me_. Diabolo non dicitur, _Uade retro me_, sed, "Uade retro,"
sicut jam diximus, et sic scripsit beatus Hieronimus, in una epistola. He
cwæð to ðam deofle, "Ga ðu underbæc." Deofles nama is gereht,
'Nyðer-hreosende.' Nyðer he ahreas, and underbæc he eode fram frimðe his
anginnes, þaða he wæs ascyred fram ðære heofonlican blisse; on hinder he
eode {174} eft þurh Cristes to-cyme; on hinder he sceal gán on domes dæge,
þonne he bið belocen on helle-wite on écum fyre, he and ealle his geferan;
and hí næfre siððan út-brecan ne magon.

Hit is awriten on ðære ealdan ǽ, þæt nan man ne sceal hine gebiddan to
nanum deofelgylde, ne to nanum ðinge, buton to Gode anum; forðon ðe nán
gesceaft nys wyrðe þæs wurðmyntes, buton se ana seðe Scyppend is ealra
ðinga: to him anum we sceolon ús gebiddan; he ana is soð Hlaford and soð
God. We biddað þingunga æt halgum mannum, þæt hi sceolon ús ðingian to
heora Drihtne and to urum Drihtne; ne gebidde we ná, ðeah-hwæðere, us to
him, swa swa we to Gode doð, ne hi þæt geðafian nellað; swa swa se engel
cwæð to Iohanne þam apostole, ðaða he wolde feallan to his fotum: he cwæð,
"Ne do þu hit na, þæt þu to me abuge. Ic eom Godes þeowa, swa swa ðu and
þine gebroðra: gebide ðe to Gode anum."

"Þa forlét se deofol Crist, and him comon englas to, and him ðenodon." He
wæs gecostnod swa swa mann, and æfter ðære costnunge him comon halige
englas to, and him ðenodon, swa swa heora Scyppende. Buton se deofol gesawe
þæt Crist man wære, ne gecostnode he hine; and buton he soð God wære,
noldon ða englas him ðenian. Mycel wæs ures Hælendes eaðmodnys and his
geþyld on ðisre dæde. He mihte mid anum worde besencan ðone deofol on þære
deopan nywelnysse; ac hé ne æteowde his mihte, ac mid halgum gewritum he
andwyrde ðam deofle, and sealde us bysne mid his geðylde, þæt swa oft swa
we fram ðwyrum mannum ænig ðing þrowiað, þæt we sceolon wendan ure mod to
Godes lare swiðor þonne to ænigre wrace.

On ðreo wisan bið deofles costnung: þæt is on tihtinge, on lustfullunge, on
geðafunge. Deofol tiht ús to yfele, ac we sceolon hit onscunian, and ne
geniman nane lustfullunge to ðære tihtinge: gif þonne ure mod nimð
gelustfullunge, þonne sceole we huru wiðstandan, þæt ðær ne beo nán
geðafung to ðam yfelan weorce. Seo yfele tihting is of deofle; {176} ðonne
bið oft þæs mannes mód gebiged to ðære lustfullunge, hwilon eac aslít to
ðære geðafunge; forðon þe we sind of synfullum flæsce acennede. Næs na se
Hælend on ða wisan gecostnod; forðon ðe he wæs of mædene acenned buton
synne, and næs nan ðing ðwyrlices on him. He mihte beon gecostnod þurh
tihtinge, ac nan lustfullung ne hrepede his mód. Þær næs eac nan geðafung,
forðon ðe ðær næs nan lustfullung; ac wæs ðæs deofles costnung forðy eall
wiðutan, and nan ðing wiðinnan. Ungewiss com se deofol to Criste, and
ungewiss he eode aweig; forðan þe se Hælend ne geswutulode na him his
mihte, ac oferdráf hine geðyldelice mid halgum gewritum.

Se ealda deofol gecostnode urne fæder Adám on ðreo wisan: þæt is mid
gyfernysse, and mid idelum wuldre, and mid gitsunge; and þa wearð he
oferswiðed, forðon þe he geðafode ðam deofle on eallum þam ðrim costnungum.
Þurh gyfernysse he wæs oferswiðed, þaþa he ðurh deofles lare æt ðone
forbodenan æppel. Þurh idel wuldor he wæs oferswiðed, ðaða he gelyfde ðæs
deofles wordum, ðaða he cwæð, "Swa mære ge beoð swa swa englas, gif ge of
þam treowe etað." And hí ða gelyfdon his leasunge, and woldon mid idelum
gylpe beon beteran þonne hí gesceapene wæron: ða wurdon hí wyrsan. Mid
gytsunge he wæs oferswiðed, þaþa se deofol cwæð to him, "And ge habbað
gescead ægðer ge gódes ge ýfeles." Nis na gytsung on feo anum, ac is eac on
gewilnunge micelre geðincðe.

Mid þam ylcum ðrim ðingum þe se deofol ðone frumsceapenan mann oferswiðde,
mid þam ylcan Crist oferswiðde hine, and astrehte. Þurh gyfernysse fandode
se deofol Cristes, ðaða he cwæð, "Cweð to ðysum stanum þæt hí beon to
hlafum awende, and et." Þurh idel wuldor he fandode his, þaþa he hine tihte
þæt hé sceolde sceotan nyðer of ðæs temples scylfe. Þurh gitsunge he
fandode his, ðaða he mid leasunge him behet ealles middangeardes welan, gif
he wolde feallan to his fotum. Ac se deofol wæs þa oferswiðed {178} ðurh
Crist on þam ylcum gemetum þe he ær Adam oferswiðde; þæt he gewite fram
urum heortum mid þam innfære gehæft, mid þam þe he inn-afaren wæs and us

We gehyrdon on ðisum godspelle þæt ure Drihten fæste feowertig daga and
feowertig nihta on án. Ðaða he swa lange fæste, þa geswutelode he þa
micelan mihte his godcundnysse, þurh ða he mihte on eallum ðisum andweardum
life butan eorðlicum mettum lybban, gif he wolde. Eft, ðaða him hingrode,
þa geswutelode he þæt hé wæs soð man, and forði metes behofode. Moyses se
heretoga fæste eac feowertig daga and feowertig nihta, to ði þæt he moste
underfon Godes ǽ; ac he ne fæste na þurh his agene mihte, ac þurh Godes.
Eac se witega Elias fæste ealswa lange eac þurh Godes mihte, and siððan wæs
genumen butan deaðe of ðisum life.

Nu is ðis fæsten eallum cristenum mannum geset to healdenne on ælces geares
ymbryne; ac we moton ælce dæg ures metes brucan mid forhæfednysse, ðæra
metta þe alyfede sind. Hwí is ðis fæsten þus geteald þurh feowertig daga?
On eallum geare sind getealde ðreo hund daga and fif and sixtig daga;
þonne, gif we teoðiað þas gearlican dagas, þonne beoð þær six and ðritig
teoðing-dagas; and fram ðisum dæge oð þone halgan Easter-dæg sind twa and
feowertig daga: dó þonne ða six sunnan-dagas of ðam getele, þonne beoð þa
six and ðritig þæs geares teoðing-dagas ús to forhæfednysse getealde.

Swa swa Godes ǽ ús bebyt þæt we sceolon ealle þa ðing þe us gesceotað of
úres geares teolunge Gode þa teoðunge syllan, swa we sceolon eac on ðisum
teoðing-dagum urne lichaman mid forhæfednysse Gode to lofe teoðian. We
sceolon ús gearcian on eallum ðingum swa swa Godes þenas, æfter þæs
apostoles tæcunge, on micclum geðylde, and on halgum wæccum, on fæstenum,
and on clænnysse modes and lichaman; forði læsse pleoh bið þam cristenum
men þæt he flæsces bruce, þonne he on ðissere halgan tide wífes bruce.
{180} Lætað aweg ealle saca, and ælc geflitt, and gehealdað þas tid mid
sibbe and mid soðre lufe; forðon ne bið nan fæsten Gode andfenge butan
sibbe. And doð swa swa God tæhte, tobrec ðinne hlaf, and syle ðone oþerne
dæl hungrium men, and læd into þinum huse wǽdlan, and ða earman ælfremedan
men, and gefrefra hí mid þinum godum. Þonne ðu nacodne geseo, scryd hine,
and ne forseoh ðin agen flæsc. Se mann þe fæst buton ælmyssan, hé deð
swilce hé sparige his mete, and eft ett þæt hé ǽr mid forhæfednysse
foreode; ac þæt fæsten tælð God. Ac gif ðu fæstan wille Gode to
gecwemednysse, þonne gehelp ðu earmra manna mid þam dæle ðe ðu þe sylfum
oftihst, and eac mid maran, gif ðe to onhagige. Forbúgað idele spellunge,
and dyslice blissa, and bewepað eowre synna; forðon ðe Crist cwæð, "Wá eow
þe nu hlihgað, ge sceolon heofian and wepan." Eft he cwæð, "Eadige beoð ða
ðe nu wepað, forðon ðe hi sceolon beon gefrefrode."

We lybbað mislice on twelf monðum: nu sceole we ure gymeleaste on þysne
timan geinnian, and lybban Gode, we ðe oðrum timan us sylfum leofodon. And
swa hwæt swa we doð to gode, uton dón þæt butan gylpe and idelre herunge.
Se mann þe for gylpe hwæt to góde deð, him sylfum to herunge, næfð he ðæs
nane mede æt Gode, ac hæfð his wite. Ac uton dón swa swa God tæhte, þæt ure
godan weorc beon on ða wisan mannum cuðe, þæt hí magon geseon ure gódnysse,
and þæt hí wuldrian and herigan urne Heofenlican Fæder, God Ælmihtigne,
seðe forgilt mid hundfealdum swa hwæt swa we doð earmum mannum for his
lufon, seðe leofað and rixað á butan ende on ecnysse. Amen.


    Ductus est Jesus in desertum a Spiritu: et reliqua.

I would expound to you this gospel which has just now been read before you,
but I fear that ye cannot understand the great depth of this gospel as it
is fitting. Now I pray you to be patient in your thoughts till, with God's
assistance, we can read over the text.

"Jesus was led by the Holy Ghost to a waste, in order that he might be
tempted by the devil: and he there fasted forty days and forty nights, so
that he tasted neither food nor drink in all that time: but he then
hungered. Then the tempter approached, and said to him, If thou art the Son
of God, say to these stones that they be turned to loaves. Then Jesus
answered, and said, It is written, Man liveth not by bread alone, but
liveth by all the words that go from the mouth of God. Then the devil took
him, and set him upon the summit of the lofty temple, and said, If thou art
the Son of God, fall now down: it is written, that angels are commanded
concerning thee, that they shall lift thee in their hands, that thou may
not dash thy foot on a stone. Then said Jesus again to him, It is written,
Tempt not thy Lord. Then the devil took him again, and set him upon a very
high mountain, and showed him all the wealth and glory of the world, and
said to him, All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall at my
feet, and adore me. Then said Jesus to him, Go thou behind, Satan! It is
written, Everyone shall adore his Lord alone, and him alone serve. Then the
devil left him, and angels came to him, and ministered unto him."

The Holy Ghost led Jesus to the waste, that he might there be tempted. Now
everyone will wonder how the devil durst approach Jesus to tempt him: but
he durst not tempt {169} Jesus, if it had not been allowed him. Jesus came
to mankind because he would overcome all our temptations by his
temptations, and overcome our eternal death with his temporary death. Now
he was so humble that he permitted the devil to tempt him, and he permitted
wicked men to slay him. The devil is the head of all unrighteous men, and
evil men are his limbs: now God permitted the head to tempt him, and the
limbs to crucify him.

To the devil it was a great doubt, What Christ were? His life was not
ordered like the lives of other men. Christ ate not with avidity, nor did
he drink with excess, nor did his eyes pass wandering amid various
pleasures. Then the devil meditated what he were; whether he were the Son
of God, who had been promised to mankind. He said then in his thoughts,
that he would prove what he were. When Christ was fasting forty days and
forty nights together, in all that time the devil did not say to him that
he should eat, because he saw that he hungered not. Afterwards, when Christ
hungered after so long a time, then verily the devil weened that he was not
God, and said to him, "Why hungerest thou? If thou art the Son of God, turn
these stones to loaves, and eat."

Easily might God, who turned water to wine, and he who wrought all
creatures from nothing, easily might he have turned the stones to loaves:
but he would do nothing by the devil's direction; but said to him in
answer, "Man liveth not by bread alone, but liveth by the words which go
from the mouth of God." As man's body lives by bread, so shall his soul
live by the words of God, that is, by God's doctrine, which, through wise
men, he has set in books. If the body has not food, or cannot eat food,
then it decays and dies: so likewise the soul, if it has not the holy
doctrine, it will be perishable and powerless. By the holy doctrine it will
be strong, and stimulated to God's will.

Then was the devil _once_ overcome by Christ. "And he then took him and
bare him up on the temple, and set him {171} on the summit, and said to
him, If thou art the Son of God, dart down; for it is commanded to angels
concerning thee, that they shall raise thee on their hands, that thou may
not dash thy foot against a stone." Here the devil began to expound the
holy scriptures, and he lied in his exposition; because he is false, and
there is no truth in him; but he is the father of all leasing. It was not
written of Christ what he there said, but was written of holy men: they
require the support of angels in this life, that the devil may not tempt
them so much as he would. So benevolent is God to mankind, that he has set
his angels over us as guardians, that they may not allow the fierce devils
to fordo us. They may tempt us, but they cannot compel us to any evil,
unless we ourselves do it of our own will, through the evil instigation of
the devil. We shall not be perfect unless we be tempted: through temptation
we shall thrive, if we ever resist the devil and all his precepts; and if
we draw nigh to our Lord with faith, and love, and good works; if we
anywhere slide down, arise forthwith, and earnestly mend what shall there
be broken.

Christ said to the devil, "No one shall tempt his Lord." It would have been
a very proud deed if Christ had cast himself down, though he easily might,
without injury of his limbs, have cast himself down, who bowed the high
arch of heaven; but he would do nothing in pride, because pride is a deadly
sin; so he would not cast himself down, because he would shun pride; but
said, "No one shall tempt his Lord." That man tempts his Lord, who, with
foolish confidence and with pride, will do something in the name of God, or
who will foolishly and without need pray to God for some miracle. Then was
the devil, by Christ's patience, overcome _a second time_.

"Then he took him again, and bare him up on a mountain, and showed him all
the riches of the world and its glory, and said to him, All these things
will I give thee, if thou wilt fall at my feet, and adore me."
Presumptuously spake the devil here, as he before spake, when he was in
heaven, when he {173} would share the heavenly kingdom with his Creator,
and be equal to God; but his presumption then cast him down into hell; and
now also his presumption humbled him, when he, through Christ's passion,
let mankind out of his power. He said, "These things will I give thee." It
seemed to him that he possessed all the world; because no man withstood him
before Christ came who subdued him.

It is written in holy books, "Earth and all its fullness, and all the globe
and those who dwell on it, all are God's possessions," and not the devil's.
Nevertheless, Christ said in his gospel concerning the devil, that he was
the prince of the world, and he should be driven out. He is the prince of
those men who love this world, and set all their hope in this life, and
despise their Creator. All creatures, sun, and moon, and all stars, land,
and sea, and cattle, all serve their Creator; because they perform their
course after God's direction. Wicked man alone, when he despises the
commandments of God, and fulfils the devil's will, either through
covetousness, or through leasing, or through anger, or through other sins,
then is he the devil's thrall, then is he acceptable to the devil, and
despises him who created him.

"Christ then said to the devil, Go thou behind, Satan! It is written, Man
shall adore his Lord, and serve him alone." Quidam dicunt non dixisse
Salvatorem, "Satane, vade retro," sed tantum "Vade": sed tamen in
rectioribus et vetustioribus exemplaribus habetur, "Vade retro Satanas,"
sicut interpretatio ipsius nominis declarat; nam diabolus _Deorsum ruens_
interpretatur. Apostolo igitur Petro dicitur a Christo, "Vade retro me," id
est, _Sequere me_. Diabolo non dicitur, _Vade retro me_, sed "Vade retro,"
sicut jam diximus, et sic scripsit beatus Hieronymus, in una epistola. He
said to the devil, "Go thou behind." The name of devil is interpreted,
_Falling down_. He fell down, and he went behind from the beginning of his
enterprize, when he was cut off from heavenly bliss; he went behind again
through Christ's advent; {175} he shall go behind on doomsday, when he
shall be shut up in hell in eternal fire, he and all his associates; and
they never afterwards may burst out.

It is written in the old law that no man shall worship any idol, nor
anything, save God alone; because no creature is worthy of that honour,
save him alone who is the Creator of all things: him only should we
worship; he alone is true Lord and true God. We pray for their
intercessions to holy men, that they may mediate for us with their Lord and
our Lord; still we do not worship them as we do God, nor would they permit
it; as the angel said to John the apostle, when he would fall at his feet:
he said, "Do thou it not, that thou bowest to me. I am God's servant, as
thou and thy brethren: worship God alone."

"Then the devil left Christ, and angels came to him, and ministered to
him." He was tempted as a man, and after the temptation holy angels came to
him, and ministered to him as to their Creator. Unless the devil had seen
that Christ was a man, he would not have tempted him; and unless he had
been true God, the angels would not have ministered to him. Great was our
Saviour's meekness and his patience in this deed. He might with one word
have sunk the devil into the deep abyss; but he manifested not his might,
but answered the devil with the holy scriptures, and gave us an example by
his patience, that, as often as we suffer anything from perverse men, we
should turn our mind to God's precepts rather than to any vengeance.

In three ways is temptation of the devil: that is in instigation, in
pleasure, in consent. The devil instigates us to evil, but we should shun
it, and take no pleasure in the instigation: but if our mind takes
pleasure, then should we at least withstand, so that there be no consent to
evil work. Instigation to evil is of the devil; but a man's mind is often
{177} bent to pleasure, sometimes also it lapses into consent; seeing that
we are born of sinful flesh. Not in this wise was Jesus tempted; because he
was born of a virgin without sin, and that there was nothing perverse in
him. He might have been tempted by instigation, but no pleasure touched his
mind. There was also no consent, because there was no pleasure; therefore
was the devil's temptation all without, and nothing within. Uncertain came
the devil to Christ, and uncertain he went away; seeing that Jesus
manifested not his power to him, but overcame him patiently by the holy

The old devil tempted our father Adam in three ways: that is with
greediness, with vain-glory, and with covetousness; and then he was
overcome, because he consented to the devil in all those three temptations.
Through greediness he was overcome, when, by the devil's instruction, he
ate the forbidden apple. Through vain-glory he was overcome, when he
believed the devil's words, when he said, "Ye shall be as great as angels,
if ye eat of that tree." And they then believed his leasing, and would in
their vain-glory be better than they had been created: then became they
worse. With covetousness he was overcome, when the devil said to him, "And
ye shall have the power to distinguish good from evil." Covetousness is not
alone in money, but is also in the desire of great dignity.

With the same three things with which the devil overcame the first-created
man, Christ overcame and prostrated him. Through greediness the devil
tempted Christ, when he said, "Say to these stones that they be turned to
loaves, and eat." Through vain-glory he tempted him, when he would
instigate him to dart down from the temple's summit. Through covetousness
he tempted him, when, with leasing, he promised him the wealth of all the
world, if he would fall at his feet. But the devil was overcome by Christ
by the {179} same means with which he had of yore overcome Adam; so that he
departed from our hearts made captive by the entrance at which he had
entered and made us captives.

We have heard in this gospel that our Lord fasted forty days and forty
nights together. When he had fasted so long he manifested the great power
of his godhead, by which he might, in all this present life, without
earthly food, have lived, if he had been willing. Afterwards, when he was
hungry, he manifested that he was a true man, and therefore required food.
Moses the leader fasted also forty days and forty nights, that he might
receive God's law; but he fasted not through his own power, but through
God's. The prophet Elijah also fasted as long through God's power, and was
afterwards, without death, taken from this life.

Now this fast is appointed to be held by all Christian men in the course of
every year; but we must also on each day eat our food with abstemiousness,
of those meats which are permitted. Why is this fast computed for forty
days? In every year there are reckoned three hundred and sixty-five days;
now, if we tithe these yearly days, then will there be six and thirty
tithing-days, and from this day to the holy Easter-day are two and forty
days: take then the six Sundays from that number, then there will be six
and thirty days of the year's tithing-days reckoned for our abstinence.

As God's law enjoins us that we should of all the things which accrue to us
from our yearly tillage give the tithe to God, so should we likewise on
these tithing-days tithe our body with abstinence to the praise of God. We
should prepare ourselves in all things as God's servants, according to the
apostle's teaching, with great patience, and with holy vigils, with fasts,
and with chastity of mind and body; for it is less perilous for a Christian
man to eat flesh, than at this holy tide to have intercourse with woman.
Set aside all {181} quarrels and every dispute, and hold this tide with
peace and with true love; for no fast will be acceptable to God without
peace. And do as God taught, break thy loaf, and give the second portion to
an hungry man, and lead into thy house the poor, and miserable strangers,
and comfort them with thy possessions. When thou seest one naked, clothe
him, and despise not thy own flesh. The man who fasts without alms does as
though he spares his food, and afterwards eats that which he had previously
forgone in his abstinence; but God contemns such fasting. But if thou wilt
fast to God's contentment, then help poor men with the portion which thou
withdrawest from thyself, and also with more, if it be thy pleasure. Avoid
idle discourse and foolish pleasures, and bewail your sins; for Christ
said, "Woe to you who now laugh, ye shall mourn and weep." Again he said,
"Blessed are they who now weep, for they shall be comforted."

We live diversely for twelve months: now we shall at this time repair our
heedlessness, and live to God, we who at other times have lived for
ourselves. And whatsoever good we do, let us do it without pride and vain
praise. The man who does any good for pride, to his own praise, will have
no reward with God, but will have his punishment. But let us do as God hath
taught, that our good works may be so known to men that they may see our
goodness, and glorify and praise our Heavenly Father, God Almighty, who
requites an hundredfold whatsoever we do to poor men for love of him who
liveth and reigneth ever without end to eternity. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *


    Abiit Iesus trans mare Galileæ: et reliqua.

"Se Hælend ferde ofer ða Galileiscan sǽ, þe is gehaten Tyberiadis, and him
filigde micel menigu, forðon þe hi {182} beheoldon ða tacna þe hé worhte
ofer ða untruman men. Þa astah se Hælend up on ane dune, and þær sǽt mid
his leorning-cnihtum, and wæs ða swiðe gehende seo halige Eastertid. Þa
beseah se Hælend up, and geseah þæt ðær wæs mycel mennisc toweard, and cwæð
to anum his leorning-cnihta, se wæs geháten Philippus, Mid hwam mage we
bicgan hláf ðisum folce? Þis he cwæð to fándunge þæs leorning-cnihtes: he
sylf wiste hwæt he dón wolde. Ða andwyrde Philippus, Þeah her wæron gebohte
twa hund peningwurð hlafes, ne mihte furðon hyra ælc anne bitan of ðam
gelæccan. Þa cwæð an his leorning-cnihta, se hátte Andreas, Petres broðor,
Her byrð án cnapa fif berene hlafas, and twegen fixas, ac to hwán mæg þæt
to swa micclum werode? Þa cwæð se Hælend, Doð þæt þæt folc sitte. And þær
wæs micel gǽrs on ðære stowe myrige on to sittenne. And hí ða ealle sæton,
swa swa mihte beon fíf ðusend wera. Ða genam se Hælend þa fíf hláfas, and
bletsode, and tobræc, and todælde betwux ðam sittendum: swa gelíce eac þa
fixas todælde; and hí ealle genoh hæfdon. Þaða hí ealle fulle wæron, ða
cwæð se Hælend to his leorning-cnihtum, Gaderiað þa lafe, and hí ne losion.
And hi ða gegaderodon ða bricas, and gefyldon twelf wilian mid ðære lafe.
Þæt folc, ða ðe ðis tacen geseah, cwæð þæt Crist wære soð witega, seðe wæs
toweard to ðisum middangearde."

Seo sǽ, þe se Hælend oferferde, getacnað þas andweardan woruld, to ðære com
Crist and oferferde; þæt is, he com to ðisre worulde on menniscnysse, and
ðis lif oferferde; he com to deaðe, and of deaðe aras; and astah up on ane
dune, and þær sæt mid his leorning-cnihtum, forðon ðe he astah up to
heofenum, and þær sitt nuða mid his halgum. Rihtlice is seo sǽ wiðmeten
þisre worulde, forðon ðe heo is hwíltidum smylte and myrige ón to rowenne,
hwilon eac swiðe hreoh and egeful on to beonne. Swa is þeos woruld;
hwíltidum heo is gesundful and myrige on to wunigenne, hwilon heo is eac
swiðe styrnlic, and mid mislicum þingum {184} gemenged, swa þæt heo for oft
bið swiðe unwynsum on to eardigenne. Hwilon we beoð hale, hwilon untrume;
nu bliðe, and eft on micelre unblisse; forðy is þis líf, swa swa we ær
cwædon, þære sǽ wiðmeten.

Þa se Hælend gesæt up on ðære dune, ða ahóf hé up his eagan, and geséh þæt
ðær wæs micel mennisc toweard. Ealle þa ðe him to cumað, þæt is ða ðe bugað
to rihtum geleafan, þa gesihð se Hælend, and þam hé gemiltsað, and hyra mod
onliht mid his gife, þæt hí magon him to cuman butan gedwylde, and ðam hé
forgifð ðone gastlican fodan, þæt hí ne ateorian be wege. Þaða he axode
Philippum, hwanon hí mihton hláf ðam folce gebicgan, ða geswutelode hé
Philippes nytennysse. Wel wiste Crist hwæt hé dón wolde, and he wiste þæt
Philippus þæt nyste. Ða cwæð Andreas, þæt an cnapa þær bære fif berene
hlafas and twegen fixas. Þa cwæð se Hælend, "Doð þæt þæt folc sitte," and
swa forðon swa we eow ær rehton. Se Hælend geseh þæt hungrige folc, and hé
hí mildheortlice fedde, ægðer ge þurh his gódnysse ge þurh his mihte. Hwæt
mihte seo gódnys ana, buton ðær wære miht mid þære gódnysse? His discipuli
woldon eac þæt folc fedan, ac hí næfdon mid hwam. Se Hælend hæfde þone
gódan willan to ðam fostre, and þa mihte to ðære fremminge.

Fela wundra worhte God, and dæghwamlice wyrcð; ac ða wundra sind swiðe
awácode on manna gesihðe, forðon ðe hí sind swiðe gewunelice. Mare wundor
is þæt God Ælmihtig ælce dæg fét ealne middangeard, and gewissað þa gódan,
þonne þæt wundor wære, þæt he þa gefylde fif ðusend manna mid fif hlafum:
ac ðæs wundredon men, na forði þæt hit mare wundor wære, ac forði þæt hit
wæs ungewunelic. Hwa sylð nu wæstm urum æcerum, and gemenigfylt þæt gerip
of feawum cornum, buton se ðe ða gemænigfylde ða fif hlafas? Seo miht wæs
ða on Cristes handum, and þa fif hlafas wæron swylce hit sæd wære, na on
eorðan besawen, ac gemenigfyld fram ðam ðe eorðan geworhte.

{186} Þis wundor is swiðe micel, and deop on getacnungum. Oft gehwa gesihð
fægre stafas awritene, þonne herað he ðone writere and þa stafas, and nat
hwæt hi mænað. Se ðe cann ðæra stafa gescead, he herað heora fægernysse,
and ræd þa stafas, and understent hwæt hí gemænað. On oðre wisan we
sceawiað metinge, and on oðre wisan stafas. Ne gæð na mare to metinge buton
þæt þu hit geseo and herige: nis na genóh þæt þu stafas sceawige, buton ðu
hí eac ræde, and þæt andgit understande. Swa is eac on ðam wundre þe God
worhte mid þam fif hlafum: ne bið na genóh þæt we þæs tacnes wundrian, oþþe
þurh þæt God herian, buton we eac þæt gastlice andgit understandon.

Þa fif hlafas ðe se cnapa bær getacniað þa fif béc ðe Moyses se heretoga
sette on ðære ealdan ǽ. Se cnapa ðe hi bær, and heora ne onbyrigde, wæs þæt
Iudeisce folc, ðe ða fif béc ræddon, and ne cuðe þæron nan gastlic andgit,
ærðan ðe Crist com, and þa béc geopenode, and hyra gastlice andgit onwreah
his leorning-cnihtum, and hi siððan eallum cristenum folce. We ne magon nu
ealle þa fif béc areccan, ac we secgað eow þæt God sylf hi dihte, and
Moyses hí awrát, to steore and to lare ðam ealdan folce Israhel, and eac ús
on gastlicum andgite. Þa béc wæron awritene be Criste, ac þæt gastlice
andgit wæs þam folce digle, oð þæt Crist sylf com to mannum, and geopenede
þæra boca digelnysse, æfter gastlicum andgite.

Alii euangelistæ ferunt, quia panes et pisces Dominus discipulis
distribuisset, discipuli autem ministrauerunt turbis. He tobrǽc ða fif
hlafas and sealde his leorning-cnihtum, and het beran ðam folce; forðon þe
hé tæhte him ða gastlican láre: and hí ferdon geond ealne middangeard, and
bodedon, swa swa him Crist sylf tæhte. Mid þam ðe hé tobræc ða hlafas, þa
wæron hí gemenigfylde, and weoxon him on handum; forðon ðe ða fíf béc
wurdon gastlice asmeade, and wise {188} lareowas hí trahtnodon, and setton
of ðam bocum manega oðre béc; and we mid þæra boca lare beoð dæghwonlice
gastlice gereordode.

Þa hláfas wæron berene. Bere is swiðe earfoðe to gearcigenne, and
þeah-hwæðere fet ðone mann, þonne hé gearo bið. Swa wæs seo ealde ǽ swiðe
earfoðe and digle to understandenne; ac ðeah-hwæðere, þonne we cumað to ðam
smedman, þæt is to ðære getacnunge, þonne gereordað heo ure mod, and
gestrángað mid þære diglan lare. Fif hlafas ðær wæron, and fif ðusend manna
þær wæron gereordode; forðan ðe þæt Iudeisce folc wæs underðeodd Godes ǽ,
ðe stód on fif bocum awriten. Þaða Crist axode Philippum, and he his
afandode, swa swa we ær ræddon, þa getacnode he mid þære acsunge þæs folces
nytennysse, þe wæs under ðære ǽ, and ne cuðe þæt gastlice andgit, ðe on
ðære ǽ bediglod wæs.

Ða twegen fixas getácnodon sealm-sang and ðæra witegena cwydas. An ðæra
gecydde and bodode Cristes to-cyme mid sealm-sange, and oðer mid witegunge.
Nu sind þa twa gesetnyssa, þæt is sealm-sang and witegung, swylce hí
syflinge wæron to ðam fíf berenum hlafum, þæt is, to ðam fíf ǽlicum bocum.
Þæt folc, þe ðær gereordode, sǽt úp on ðam gærse. Þæt gærs getacnode
flæsclice gewilnunge, swa swa se witega cwæð, "Ælc flæsc is gærs, and þæs
flæsces wuldor is swilce wyrta blostm." Nu sceal gehwá, seðe wile sittan æt
Godes gereorde, and brucan þære gastlican lare, oftredan þæt gærs and
ofsittan, þæt is, þæt he sceal ða flæsclican lustas gewyldan, and his
lichaman to Godes þeowdome symle gebígan.

Þær wæron getealde æt ðam gereorde fif ðusend wera; forðon þe ða menn, þe
to ðam gastlican gereorde belimpað, sceolon beon werlice geworhte, swa swa
se apostol cwæð; he cwæð, "Beoð wacole, and standað on geleafan, and
onginnað werlice, and beoð gehyrte." Ðeah gif wifmann bið werlice geworht,
and strang to Godes willan, heo bið þonne geteald to ðam werum þe æt Godes
mysan sittað. Þusend getel bið fulfremed, and ne astihð nán getel ofer þæt.
Mid {190} þam getele bið getácnod seo fulfremednys ðæra manna ðe gereordiað
heora sawla mid Godes láre.

"Se Hælend het þa gegadrian þa láfe, þæt hí losian ne sceoldon; and hí ða
gefyldon twelf wilion mid þam bricum." Ða láfe ðæs gereordes, þæt sind ða
deopnyssa ðære láre þe worold-men understandan ne magon, þa sceolon ða
lareowas gegaderian, þæt hí ne losian, and healdan on heora fætelsum, þæt
is, on heora heortan, and habban æfre gearo, to teonne forð þone wisdom and
ða lare ægðer ge ðære ealdan ǽ ge ðære niwan. Hí ða gegaderodon twelf
wilian fulle mid þam bricum. Þæt twelffealde getel getacnode þa twelf
apostolas; forðan þe hí underfengon þa digelnyssa þære láre, ðe þæt læwede
folc undergitan ne mihte.

"Þæt folc, ða þe þæt wundor geseah, cwædon be Criste, þæt he wære soð
wítega, ðe toweard wæs." Soð hí sædon, sumera ðinga: wítega hé wæs, forðan
ðe hé wiste ealle towearde þing, and eac fela ðing wítegode, ðe beoð
gefyllede butan twyn. He is witega, and he is ealra witegena witegung,
forðan ðe ealle wítegan be him witegodon, and Crist gefylde heora ealra
witegunga. Þæt folc geseah ða þæt wundor, and hí ðæs swiðe wundredon. Þæt
wundor is awriten, and we hit gehyrdon. Þæt ðe on him heora eagan gedydon,
þæt deð ure geleafa on ús. Hí hit gesawon, and we his gelyfað þe hit ne
gesawon; and we sind forði beteran getealde, swa swa se Hælend be ús on
oðre stowe cwæð, "Eadige beoð þa þe me ne geseoð, and hi hwæðere gelyfað on
me, and mine wundra mærsiað."

Þæt folc cwæð ða be Criste, þæt he wære soð witega. Nu cweðe we be Criste,
þæt he is ðæs Lifigendan Godes Sunu, seðe wæs toweard to alysenne ealne
middangeard fram deofles anwealde, and fram helle-wíte. Þæt folc ne cuðe
ðæra goda, þæt hí cwædon, þæt he God wære, ac sædon, þæt he witega wære. We
cweðað nu, mid fullum geleafan, þæt Crist is soð witega, and ealra witegena
Witega, and þæt he is soðlice ðæs Ælmihtigan Godes Sunu, ealswa mihtig swa
his Fæder, {192} mid ðam hé leofað and rixað on annysse ðæs Halgan Gastes,
á butan ende on ecnysse. Amen.


    Abiit Jesus trans mare Galileæ: et reliqua.

"Jesus went over the sea of Galilee, which is called of Tiberias, and a
great multitude followed him, because they {183} had seen the miracles
which he had wrought on the diseased men. Then Jesus went up into a
mountain, and there sat with his disciples, and the holy Easter-tide was
then very nigh. Jesus then looked up, and saw that there was a great
multitude coming, and said to one of his disciples, who was called Philip,
With what can we buy bread for this people? This he said to prove the
disciple: himself knew what he would do. Then Philip answered, Though two
hundred pennyworth of bread were bought, yet could not every one of them
get a morsel. Then said one of his disciples, who was called Andrew,
Peter's brother, Here beareth a lad five barley loaves, and two fishes, but
what is that for so great a multitude? Then said Jesus, Make the people
sit. And there was much grass on the place pleasant to sit on: and they
then all sat, about five thousand men. Then Jesus took the five loaves, and
blessed, and brake, and divided them among those sitting: in like manner
also he divided the fishes; and they all had enough. When they all were
full, Jesus said to his disciples, Gather the remainder, and let it not be
lost. And they gathered the fragments, and filled twelve baskets with the
remainder. The people, who saw this miracle, said that Christ was the true
prophet who was to come to this world."

The sea which Jesus passed over betokeneth this present world, which Christ
came to and passed over; that is he came to this world in human nature, and
passed over this life; he came to death, and from death arose; and went up
on a mountain, and there sat with his disciples, for he ascended to heaven,
and there sits now with his saints. Rightly is the sea compared to this
world, for it is sometimes serene and pleasant to navigate on, sometimes
also very rough and terrible to be on. So is this world; sometimes it is
desirable and pleasant to dwell in, sometimes also it is very rugged, and
mingled with divers things, so that it is too {185} often very unpleasant
to inhabit. Sometimes we are hale, sometimes sick; now joyful, and again in
great affliction; therefore is this life, as we before said, compared to
the sea.

When Jesus was sitting on the mountain, he lifted up his eyes, and saw that
there was a great multitude coming. All those who come to him, that is
those who incline to the right faith, Jesus sees, and on them he has pity,
and enlightens their understanding with his grace, that they may come to
him without error, and to these he gives ghostly food, that they may not
faint by the way. When he asked Philip, whence they could buy bread for the
people, he showed Philip's ignorance. Well Christ knew what he would do,
and he knew that Philip knew not. Then said Andrew, that a lad there bare
five barley loaves and two fishes. Then said Jesus, "Make the people sit,"
and so on, as we have before repeated it to you. Jesus saw the hungry
people, and he compassionately fed them, both by his goodness and by his
might. What could his goodness alone have done, unless there had been might
with that goodness? His disciples would also have fed the people, but they
had not wherewithal. Jesus had the good will to nourish them, and the power
to execute it.

God hath wrought many miracles and daily works; but those miracles are much
weakened in the sight of men, because they are very usual. A greater
miracle it is that God Almighty every day feeds all the world, and directs
the good, than that miracle was, that he filled five thousand men with five
loaves: but men wondered at this, not because it was a greater miracle, but
because it was unusual. Who now gives fruit to our fields, and multiplies
the harvest from a few grains of corn, but he who multiplied the five
loaves? The might was there in Christ's hands, and the five loaves were, as
it were, seed, not sown in the earth, but multiplied by him who created the

{187} This miracle is very great, and deep in its significations. Often
some one sees fair characters written, then praises he the writer and the
characters, but knows not what they mean. He who understands the art of
writing praises their fairness, and reads the characters, and comprehends
their meaning. In one way we look at a picture, and in another at
characters. Nothing more is necessary for a picture than that you see and
praise it: but it is not enough to look at characters without, at the same
time, reading them, and understanding their signification. So also it is
with regard to the miracle which God wrought with the five loaves: it is
not enough that we wonder at the miracle, or praise God on account of it,
without also understanding its spiritual sense.

The five loaves which the lad bare, betoken the five books which the leader
Moses appointed in the old law. The lad who bare them, and tasted not of
them, was the Jewish people, who read the five books, and knew therein no
spiritual signification, before Christ came, and opened the books, and
disclosed their spiritual sense to his disciples, and they afterwards to
all christian people. We cannot now enumerate to you all the five books,
but we will tell you that God himself dictated them, and that Moses wrote
them, for the guidance and instruction of the ancient people of Israel, and
of us also in a spiritual sense. These books were written concerning
Christ, but the spiritual sense was hidden from the people, until Christ
came himself to men, and opened the secrets of the books, according to the
spiritual sense.

Alii evangelistæ ferunt, quia panes et pisces Dominus discipulis
distribuisset, discipuli autem ministraverunt turbis. He brake the five
loaves and gave to his disciples, and bade them bear them to the people;
for he taught them the heavenly lore: and they went throughout all the
world, and preached, as Christ himself had taught. When he had broken the
loaves then were they multiplied, and grew in his hands; for the five books
were spiritually devised, and wise doctors {189} expounded them, and
founded on those books many other books; and we with the doctrine of those
books are daily spiritually fed.

The loaves were of barley. Barley is very difficult to prepare, and,
nevertheless, feeds a man when it is prepared. So was the old law very
difficult and obscure to understand; but, nevertheless, when we come to the
flour, that is to the signification, then it feeds and strengthens our mind
with the hidden lore. There were five loaves, and there were five thousand
men fed; because the Jewish people was subject to God's law, which stood
written in five books. When Christ asked Philip, and proved him, as we
before read, by that asking he betokened the people's ignorance, who were
under that law, and knew not the spiritual sense which was concealed in
that law.

The two fishes betokened the Psalms and the sayings of the prophets. The
one of these announced and proclaimed Christ's advent with psalm-singing,
and the other with prophecy, as if they were meat to the five barley
loaves, that is, to the five legal books. The people, who were there fed,
sat on the grass. The grass betokened fleshly desire, as the prophet said,
"Every flesh is grass, and the glory of the flesh is as the blossom of
plants." Now should everyone who will sit at God's refection, and partake
of spiritual instruction, tread and press down the grass, that is, he
should overpower his fleshly lusts, and ever dispose his body to the
service of God.

There were counted at that refection five thousand males; because those men
who belong to the spiritual refection should be manfully made, as the
apostle said; he said, "Be watchful, and stand on faith, and undertake
manfully, and be bold." Though if a woman be manly by nature, and strong to
God's will, she will be counted among the men who sit at the table of God.
Thousand is a perfect number, and no number extends beyond it. With that
number is betokened the {191} perfection of those men who nourish their
souls with God's precepts.

"Jesus then bade the remainder to be gathered, that it might not be lost;
and they filled twelve baskets with the fragments." The remainder of the
refection, that is the depth of the doctrine, which secular men may not
understand, that should our teachers gather, that it may not be lost, and
preserve in their scrips, that is, in their hearts, and have ever ready to
draw forth the wisdom and doctrine both of the old law and of the new. They
gathered then twelve baskets full of the fragments. The twelvefold number
betokened the twelve apostles; because they received the mysteries of the
doctrine, which the lay folk could not understand.

"The people, who saw that miracle, said of Christ, that he was the true
prophet who was to come." In one sense they said the truth: he was a
prophet, for he knew all future things, and also prophesied many things
which will, without doubt, be fulfilled. He is a prophet, and he is the
prophecy of all prophets, for all the prophets have prophesied of him, and
Christ has fulfilled the prophecies of them all. The people saw the
miracle, and they greatly wondered at it. That miracle is recorded, and we
have heard it. What their eyes did in them, that does our faith in us. They
saw it, and we believe it, who saw it not; and we are therefore accounted
the better, as Jesus, in another place, said of us, "Blessed are they who
see me not, and, nevertheless, believe in me, and celebrate my miracles."

The people said of Christ, that he was a true prophet. Now we say of
Christ, that he is Son of the Living God, who was to come to redeem the
whole world from the power of the devil, and from hell-torment. The people
knew not of those benefits, that they might have said that he was God, but
they said that he was a prophet. We say now, with full belief, that Christ
is a true prophet, and Prophet of all prophets, and that he is truly Son of
the Almighty God, as mighty {193} as his Father, with whom he liveth and
reigneth in unity of the Holy Ghost, ever without end to eternity. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *

VIII. K[=L]. APRI[=L].


    Missus est Gabrihel Angelas: et reliqua.

Ure se Ælmihtiga Scyppend, seðe ealle gesceafta, buton ælcon antimbre, þurh
his wisdom gesceop, and þurh his willan gelíffæste, hé gesceop mancynn to
ði þæt hí sceoldon mid gehyrsumnysse and eadmodnysse ða heofenlican
geðincðe geearnigan, þe se deofol mid ofermettum forwyrhte. Þa wearð eac se
mann mid deofles lotwrencum bepæht, swa þæt he tobræc his Scyppendes bebod,
and wearð deofle betæht, and eal his ofspring into helle-wite. Ða
ðeah-hwæðere ofðuhte ðam Ælmihtigum Gode ealles mancynnes yrmða, and smeade
hu he mihte his hand-geweorc of deofles anwealde alysan; forði him ofhreow
þæs mannes, forðon ðe hé wæs bepæht mid þæs deofles searo-cræftum. Ac him
ne ofhreow na ðæs deofles hryre; forðan ðe hé næs þurh nane tihtinge
forlæred, ac hé sylf asmeade ða up-ahefednysse þe he ðurh ahreas; and he
forði á on ecnysse wunað on forwyrde wælræw deofol.

Þa fram frymðe mancynnes cydde se Ælmihtiga God, hwilon ðurh getacnunga,
hwilon ðurh witegunga, þæt he wolde mancynn ahreddan þurh ðone þe he ealle
gesceafta mid geworhte, ðurh his agen Bearn. Nu wæron ða witegunga swiðe
menigfealdlice gesette on halgum gewritum, ærðam ðe se Godes Sunu
menniscnysse underfenge. Sume wæron eac be ðære eadigan Marian gewitegode.
An ðæra witegunga is Isaiae, se awrát betwux his witegungum, þus cweðende,
"Efne sceal mæden geeacnian on hire innoðe, and acennan Sunu, and his nama
bið gecíged Emmanuhel," þæt is gereht {194} on urum geðeode, 'God is mid
us.' Eft Ezechihel se witega geseah on his witegunge án belocen geat on
Godes huse, and him cwæð to sum engel, "Þis geat ne bið nanum menn
geopenod, ac se Hlaford ana færð inn þurh þæt geat, and eft út færð, and
hit bið belocen on ecnysse." Þæt beclysede geat on Godes huse getacnode
þone halgan mæigðhad þære eadigan Marian. Se Hlaford, ealra hlaforda
Hlaford, þæt is Crist, becom on hire innoð, and ðurh hí on menniscnysse
wearð acenned, and þæt geat bið belocen on ecnysse; þæt is, þæt Maria wæs
mæden ær ðære cenninge, and mæden on ðære cenninge, and mæden æfter ðære

Þa witegunga be Cristes acennednysse and be ðære eadigan Marian mægðhade
sindon swiðe menigfealdlice on ðære ealdan ǽ gesette, and se ðe hí asmeagan
wile, þær he hí afint mid micelre genihtsumnysse. Eac se apostol Paulus
cwæð, "Þaþa ðæra tída gefyllednys com, ða sende God Fæder his Sunu to
mancynnes alysednysse." Seo wurðfulle sánd wearð on ðisum dæge gefylled,
swa swa Cristes boc us gewissað, þus cweðende, "Godes heah-engel, Gabrihel,
wæs asend fram Gode to ðære Galileiscan byrig Nazareth, to ðam mædene þe
wæs Maria gehaten, and heo asprang of Dauides cynne, þæs maran cyninges,
and heo wæs beweddod þam rihtwisan Iosepe:" et reliqua.

Ure alysednysse anginn we gehyrdon on ðisre dægþerlican rædinge, þurh ða we
awurpon þa derigendlican ealdnysse, and we sind getealde betwux Godes
bearnum, þurh Cristes flæsclicnysse. Swiðe þæslic anginn menniscre
alysednysse wæs þæt þa se engel wearð asend fram Gode to ðam mædene, to
cyðenne Godes acennednysse þurh hí; forðan ðe se forma intinga mennisces
forwyrdes wæs, þaþa se deofol asende oðerne deofol, on næddran anlicnysse,
to ðam frumsceapenan wífe Euan, hí to beswicenne. Us becom ða deað and
forwyrd þurh wíf, and us becom eft lif and hredding þurh wimman.

Se heah-engel, þe cydde þæs Hælendes acennednysse, wæs {196} gehaten
Gabrihel, þæt is gereht, 'Godes strengð,' þone he bodode toweardne, þe se
sealm-sceop mid þisum wordum herede, "Drihten is strang and mihtig on
gefeohte." On ðam gefeohte, butan tweon, þe se Hælend deofol oferwann, and
middangeard him ætbræd.

"Maria wæs beweddod Iosepe ðam rihtwisan." Hwí wolde God beon acenned of
beweddodan mædene? For micclum gesceade, and eac for neode. Þæt Iudeisce
folc heold Godes ǽ on þam timan: seo ǽ tæhte, þæt man sceolde ælcne wimman
þe cild hæfde butan rihtre æwe stænan. Nu ðonne, gif Maria unbeweddod wære,
and cild hæfde, þonne wolde þæt Iudeisce folc, æfter Godes ǽ, mid stanum hí
oftorfian. Ða wæs heo, ðurh Godes foresceawunge, þam rihtwisan were
beweddod, and gehwá wende þæt he ðæs cildes fæder wære, ac he næs. Ac ðaða
Ioseph undergeat þæt Maria mid cilde wæs, þa wearð he dreorig, and nolde
hire genealæcan, ac ðohte þæt he wolde hí diglice forlætan. Þaða Ioseph þis
smeade, þa com him to Godes engel, and bebead him, þæt sceolde habban
gymene ægðer ge ðære meder ge þæs cildes, and cwæð, þæt þæt cild nære of
nanum men gestryned, ac wære of þam Halgan Gaste. Nis na hwæðere se Halga
Gast Cristes Fæder, ac hé is genemned to ðære fremminge Cristes
menniscnysse; forðan ðe he is Willa and Lufu þæs Fæder and þæs Suna. Nu
wearð seo menniscnys þurh þone micclan Willan gefremmed, and is
ðeah-hwæðere heora Ðreora weorc untodæledlic. Hi sind þry on hádum, Fæder,
and Sunu, and Halig Gast, and an God untodæledlic on anre godcundnysse.
Ioseph ða, swa swa him se engel bebead, hæfde gymene ægðer ge Marian ge ðæs
cildes, and wæs hyre gewita þæt heo mæden wæs, and wæs Cristes
fostor-fæder, and mid his fultume and frofre on gehwilcum ðingum him ðenode
on ðære menniscnysse.

Se engel grette Marian, and cwæð, þæt heo wære mid Godes gife afylled, and
þæt hyre wæs God mid, and heo wæs gebletsod betwux wifum. Soðlice heo wæs
mid Godes gife {198} afylled, forðon ðe hire wæs getiðod þæt heo ðone abǽr
þe astealde ealle gifa and ealle soðfæstnyssa. God wæs mid hire, forðan ðe
he wæs on hire innoðe belocen, seðe belicð ealne middangeard on his anre
handa. And heo wæs gebletsod betwux wifum, forðan ðe heo, butan wiflicre
bysnunge, mid wlite hyre mægðhádes, wæs modor þæs Ælmihtigan Godes.

Se engel gehyrte hí mid his wordum, and cwæð hire to, "Efne ðu scealt
geeacnian on ðinum innoðe, and þu acenst sunu." Oncnawað nu, þurh þas word,
soðne mannan acennedne of mædenlicum lichaman. His nama wæs Hiesus, þæt is
Hælend, forðan ðe hé gehælð ealle ða þe on hine rihtlice gelyfað. "Þes bið
mǽre, and he bið gecíged Sunu þæs Hexstan." Gelyfað nu, þurh ðas wórd, þæt
he is soð God of soðum Gode, and efen-ece his Fæder, of ðam he wæs æfre
acenned butan anginne. Crist heold Dauides cynesetl, na lichamlice ac
gastlice; forðan ðe he is ealra cyninga Cyning, and rixað ofer his
gecorenan menn, ægðer ge ofer Israhela folc ge ofer ealle oðre leodscipas,
ða ðe on rihtum geleafan wuniað; and Crist hí ealle gebrincð to his ecan
rice. Israhel is gecweden, 'God geseonde,' and Iacob is gecweden,
'Forscrencend.' Nu ða men ðe God geseoð mid heora mode þurh geleafan, and
þa ðe leahtras forscrencað, hí belimpað to Godes ríce, þe næfre ne ateorað.

Þa cwæð Maria to ðam engle, "Hú mæg þæt beon þæt ic cild hæbbe, forðan ðe
ic nanes weres ne bruce? Ic geteohode min lif on mægðhade to geendigenne:
hu mæg hit ðonne gewurðan þæt ic, butan weres gemanan, cennan scyle?" Þa
andwyrde se engel ðam mædene, "Se Halga Gast cymð ufen on ðe, and miht ðæs
Hyhstan ofersceadewað ðe." Þurh ðæs Halgan Gastes fremminge, swa swa we ær
cwædon, wearð Crist acenned on ðære menniscnysse; and Maria his modor wæs
ofersceadewed ðurh mihte þæs Halgan Gastes. Hu wæs heo ofersceadewod? Heo
wæs swa ofersceadewod þæt heo wæs geclænsod and gescyld wið ealle leahtras,
þurh {200} mihte ðæs Halgan Gastes, and mid heofenlicum gifum gefylled and

Se engel cwæð, "Þæt Halige, þe of ðe bið acenned, bið geciged Godes Sunu."
Witodlice ealle menn beoð, swa swa se witega cwæð, mid unrihtwisnysse
geeacnode, and mid synnum acennede, ac ure Hælend ana wæs geeacnod butan
unrihtwisnysse, and butan synnum acenned; and he wæs halig þærrihte swa
hraðe swa hé mann wæs, and fulfremed God, þæs Ælmihtigan Godes Sunu, on
anum hade mann and God. Ða cwæð Maria to ðam engle, "Ic eom Godes ðinen;
getimige me æfter ðinum worde." Micel eadmodnys wunode on hyre mode, þaþa
heo ðus cleopode. Ne cwæð heo na, Ic eom Godes modor, oððe, Ic eom cwen
ealles middangeardes, ac cwæð, "Ic eom Godes þinen;" swa swa us mynegað þæt
halige gewrit, þus cweðende, "Þonne ðu mære sy, geeadmed þe sylfne on
eallum ðingum, and ðu gemetst gife and lean mid Gode." Heo cwæð to ðam
engle, "Getimige me æfter ðinum worde:" þæt is, Gewurðe hit swa ðu segst,
þæt ðæs Ælmihtigan Godes Sunu becume on minne innoð, and mennisce edwiste
of me genime, and to alysednysse middangeardes forðstæppe of mé, swa swa
brydguma of his brydbedde.

Þus becom ure Hælend on Marian innoð on þissum dæge, ðe is gehaten
ANNUNTIATIO SANCTAE MARIAE, þæt is, Marian bodung-dæg gecweden; on þam dæge
bodode se heah-engel Gabrihel ðam clænum mædene Godes to-cyme to mannum
ðurh hí, and heo gelyfde þæs engles bodunge, and swa mid geleafan onfeng
God on hyre innoð, and hine bær oð middewintres mæsse-dæg, and hine ða
acende mid soðre menniscnysse, seðe æfre wæs wunigende on godcundnysse mid
his Fæder, and mid þam Halgan Gaste, hi ðry an God untodæledlic.

Nu seigð se godspellere, þæt Maria ferde, æfter þæs engles bodunge, to hire
magan Elisabeth, seo wæs Zacharian wif. Hí butu wæron rihtwise, and heoldon
Godes beboda untællice. {202} Ða wæron hí butan cilde, oðþæt hí wæron
forwerede menn. Ða com se ylca engel Gabrihel to Zacharian syx monðum ærðan
ðe hé come to Marian, and cydde þæt he sceolde be his ealdan wife sunu
habban, Iohannem ðone Fulluhtere. Þa wearð he ungeleafful þæs engles
bodungum. Se engel ða him cwæð to, "Nu ðu nylt gelyfan minum wordum, beo ðu
dumb oðþæt þæt cild beo acenned." And he ða adumbode on eallum ðam fyrste,
for his ungeleaffulnysse. "Nu com ða seo eadige Maria to his huse, and
grette his wíf, hyre magan, Elisabeth. Ða mid þam þe þæt wíf gehyrde þæs
mædenes gretinge, ða blissode þæt cild Iohannes on his modor innoðe, and
seo moder wearð afylled mid þam Halgan Gaste, and heo clypode to Marian mid
micelre stemne, and cwæð, Þu eart gebletsod betwux wifum, and gebletsod is
se wæstm þines innoðes. Hu getimode me þæt mines Drihtnes moder wolde cuman
to me? Efne mid þam þe seo stefn ðinre gretinge swegde on mínum earum, ða
blissode min cild on minum innoðe, and hoppode ongean his Drihten, þe þu
berst on ðinum innoðe."

Þæt cild ne mihte na ða-gyt mid wordum his Hælend gegretan, ac he gegrette
hine mid blissigendum mode. Heo cwæð, "Eadig eart ðu, Maria, forðon ðe þu
gelyfdest þam wordum ðe þe fram Gode gebodode wæron, and hit bið gefremmed
swa swa hit ðe gecydd wæs." Ða sang Maria þærrihte ðone lofsang þe we
singað on Godes cyrcan, æt ælcum æfensange, "Magnificat anima mea Dominum,"
and forð oð ende. Þæt is, "Min sawul mærsað Drihten:" et reliqua. Langsum
hit bið þæt we ealne þisne lofsang ofertrahtnian; ac we wyllað scortlice
oferyrnan ða digelystan word. "God awearp ða rican of setle:" þæt sind ða
modigan ðe hí onhebbað ofer heora mæðe. "And he ahof ða eadmodan;" swa swa
Crist sylf cwæð on his godspelle, "Ælc ðæra þe hine onhefð, he sceal beon
geeadmet; and se ðe hine geeadmet, he sceal beon ahafen."

"God gefylð þa hingrigendan mid his godum;" swa swa {204} he sylf cwæð,
"Eadige beoð þa þe sind ofhingrode and oflyste rihtwisnysse, forðan ðe hí
sceolon beon gefyllede mid rihtwisnysse." "He forlet ða rícan idele." Þæt
sind ða rícan, þa ðe mid modignysse þa eorðlican welan lufiað swiðor þonne
ða heofonlican. Fela riccra manna geðeoð Gode, þæra ðe swa doð swa swa hit
awriten is, "Þæs rícan mannes welan sind his sawle alysednyss." His welan
beoð his sawle alysednyss, gif hé mid þam gewitendlicum gestreonum beceapað
him þæt ece líf, and ða heofonlican welan mid Gode. Gif he ðis
forgymeleasað, and besett his hiht on ðam eorðlicum welan, þonne forlæt God
hine idelne and æmtigne, fram ðam ecum godnyssum.

"God underfeng his cnapan Israhel." Mid þam naman syndon getacnode ealle ða
þe Gode gehyrsumiað mid soðre eadmodnysse, þa he underfehð to his werode.
"Swa swa hé spræc to urum fæderum, Abrahame and his ofspringe on worulda."
God behet ðam heahfædere Abrahame, þæt on his cynne sceolde beon gebletsod
eal mancynn. Of Abrahames cynne aspráng seo gesælige Maria, and of Marían
com Crist, æfter ðære menniscnysse, and þurh Crist beoð ealle ða
geleaffullan gebletsode. Ne synd we na Abrahames cynnes flæsclice, ac
gastlice, swa swa se apostol Paulus cwæð, "Witodlice, gif ge cristene synd,
þonne beo ge Abrahames ofspring, and yrfenuman æfter beháte." Þæt æftemyste
word is ðises lofsanges, "On worulda;" forðan ðe ure behát, þe us God
behet, ðurhwunað á on worulda woruld butan ende.

Uton biddan nu þæt eadige and þæt gesælige mæden Marían, þæt heo us
geðingige to hyre agenum Suna and to hire Scyppende, Hælende Criste, seðe
gewylt ealra ðinga mid Fæder and mid þam Halgum Gaste, á on ecnysse. Amen.



    Missus est Gabrihel Angelus: et reliqua.

Our Almighty Creator, who created all creatures, without any matter through
his wisdom, and through his will animated them, he created mankind that
they might with obedience and humility merit those heavenly honours which
the devil through pride had forfeited. Then was man deceived by the devil's
wiles, so that he brake the command of his Creator, and was, with all his
offspring, delivered to the devil into hell-torment. Then, nevertheless,
the Almighty God was grieved for the miseries of all mankind, and he
meditated how he might redeem his handiwork from the power of the devil;
for he took pity on man, because he had been deceived by the wiles of the
devil. But he had no pity for the devil's fall, because he had not been
misled by any instigation, but had himself devised the presumption through
which he fell; and he therefore, to all eternity, dwelleth in perdition, a
bloodthirsty devil.

Then from the beginning of mankind the Almighty God made known, sometimes
by signs, sometimes by prophecies, that he would redeem mankind through him
with whom he had made all creatures, through his own Son. Now there were
very many prophecies recorded in the holy writings, before the Son of God
assumed human nature. Some were prophesied of the blessed Mary. One of
these prophecies is of Isaiah, who wrote, among his prophecies, thus
saying, "Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bring forth a son, and his
name shall be called Emanuel," that is interpreted in our {195} tongue,
_God is with us_. Also Ezechiel the prophet saw in his prophecy a closed
gate in the house of God, and an angel said to him, "This gate shall be
opened to no man, for the Lord only will go in by that gate, and again go
out, and it shall be shut for ever." That closed gate in the house of God
betokened the holy maidenhood of the blessed Mary. The Lord, of all lords
Lord, that is Christ, entered her womb, and through her was brought forth
in human nature, and that gate is shut for ever; that is, Mary was a virgin
before the birth, and a virgin at the birth, and a virgin after the birth.

The prophecies of the birth of Christ and the virginity of the blessed Mary
are recorded very frequently in the old law, and he who searches will there
find them in great abundance. Also the apostle Paul said, "When the
fullness of times came, then God sent his Son for the redemption of
mankind." The glorious mission was on this day fulfilled, as the book of
Christ shows us, thus saying, "The archangel of God, Gabriel, was sent from
God to the Galilean city Nazareth, to the maiden who was called Mary, and
she sprang from the race of David, the great king, and she was wedded to
the righteous Joseph," etc.

The beginning of our redemption we heard in this daily lecture, through
which we have cast off pernicious age, and are accounted among the children
of God, through Christ's incarnation. A very fitting beginning of human
redemption was that when the angel was sent from God to the virgin, to
announce the birth of God through her; because the first cause of man's
perdition was when the devil sent another devil, in likeness of a serpent,
to the first-created woman Eve, for the purpose of deceiving her. Death and
perdition befell us through a woman, and afterwards life and salvation came
to us through a woman.

The archangel, who announced the birth of Christ, was {197} called Gabriel,
which is interpreted, _God's strength_, which he announced was to come, and
which the psalmist praised in these words, "The Lord is strong and mighty
in battle." In the battle, without doubt, in which Jesus overcame the
devil, and took from him the world.

"Mary was wedded to the righteous Joseph." Why would God be born of a
wedded virgin? For a great reason, and also of necessity. The Jewish
people, at that time, held God's law: the old law directed, that every
woman who had a child out of lawful wedlock should be stoned. Now,
therefore, if Mary had been unmarried, and had a child, the Jewish people,
according to God's law, would have stoned her with stones. Therefore was
she, by the providence of God, married to that righteous man, and everyone
imagined that he was the child's father, but he was not. But when Joseph
understood that Mary was with child, he was sad, and would not approach
her, but thought that he would privily dismiss her. While Joseph was
meditating this God's angel came to him, and commanded him, that he should
have care both of the mother and of the child, and said, that the child was
of no man begotten, but was of the Holy Ghost. Yet is the Holy Ghost not
the father of Christ, but he is named to the accomplishment of Christ's
humanity; for he is the Will and Love of the Father and of the Son. Now the
humanity was effected through the Great Will, and is, nevertheless, the
indivisible work of the Three. They are three in persons, Father, and Son,
and Holy Ghost, and one God indivisible, in one Godhead. Joseph then, as
the angel had commanded him, had care both of Mary and of the child, and
was her witness that she was a virgin; and was Christ's foster-father, and
with his support and comfort served him in everything in his human state.

The angel greeted Mary, and said, that she was filled with God's grace, and
that God was with her, and she was blessed among women. Verily she was
filled with God's grace, for {199} it was permitted her to bear him who
instituted all grace and all truth. God was with her, for he was shut in
her womb who compasses the whole earth with one hand. And she was blessed
among women, for she, without female example, with the beauty of
maidenhood, was mother of the Almighty God.

The angel encouraged her with his words, and said to her, "Behold thou
shalt conceive, and thou shalt bear a Son." Acknowledge now, through these
words, a true man, born of a maiden body. His name was Jesus, that is
_Saviour_, for he shall save all those who rightly believe in him. "He
shall be great, and he shall be called the Son of the Highest." Believe
now, through these words, that he is true God of true God, and co-eternal
with his Father, of whom he was ever begotten without beginning. Christ
held David's throne, not bodily but spiritually, for he is king of all
kings, and ruleth over his chosen people, both over the people of Israel
and over all other nations which abide in the right faith; and Christ will
bring them all to his eternal kingdom. Israel is interpreted, _Seeing God_,
and Jacob is interpreted, _Withering_. Now those men who see God in their
mind, through faith, and those who wither up sins, they belong to God's
kingdom, which shall never fail.

Then said Mary to the angel, "How may that be that I have a child, for I
have known no man? I had resolved to end my life in maidenhood: how can it
then be that I, without connexion with man, shall bring forth?" Then
answered the angel to the virgin, "The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and
the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee." Through the efficacy of
the Holy Ghost, as we before said, Christ was born in human nature; and
Mary his mother was overshadowed by the power of the Holy Ghost. How was
she overshadowed? She was so overshadowed that she was purified from, and
shielded against all {201} sins, by the power of the Holy Ghost, and with
heavenly grace filled and hallowed.

The angel said, "The holy thing that shall be born of thee shall be called
the Son of God." Verily all men are, as the prophet said, conceived in
iniquity and born in sins, but our Saviour alone was conceived without
iniquity, and born without sins; and he was holy as soon as he became man,
and perfect God, the Son of the Almighty God, in one person man and God.
Then said Mary to the angel, "I am God's handmaid; let it betide me
according to thy word." Great humility dwelt in her mind, when she thus
cried. She said not, I am the mother of God, or, I am queen of the whole
world, but said, "I am God's handmaid;" as the holy writ admonishes us,
thus saying, "When thou art great, humble thyself in all things, and thou
shalt find grace and reward with God." She said to the angel, "Let it
betide me according to thy word:" that is, Be it as thou sayst, that the
Son of the Almighty God enter my womb, and receive human substance from me,
and proceed from me, for the redemption of the world, as a bridegroom from
his bride-bed.

Thus did our Saviour enter the womb of Mary on this day, which is called
Annunciatio Sanctæ Mariæ, which is interpreted, THE ANNUNCIATION-DAY OF
MARY; on which day the archangel Gabriel announced to the pure virgin the
advent of God to men through her, and she believed the angel's
announcement, and so with faith received God into her womb, and bare him
until midwinter's mass-day, and then brought him forth in true human
nature, who was ever dwelling in divine nature with his Father and the Holy
Ghost, those three one God indivisible.

Now saith the evangelist, that Mary, after the annunciation of the angel,
went to her cousin Elizabeth, who was the wife of Zacharias. They were both
righteous, and held God's {203} commandments blamelessly. They were both
childless, till they were worn-out persons. But the same angel Gabriel came
to Zacharias six months before he came to Mary, and announced that he
should have a son by his aged wife, John the Baptist. But he believed not
the annunciation of the angel. The angel then said to him, "Since thou wilt
not believe my words, be thou dumb till the child shall be born." And he
was dumb during all that time for his disbelief. "Now came the blessed Mary
to his house, and greeted his wife Elizabeth, her cousin. When the woman
heard the virgin's greeting, the child John rejoiced in his mother's womb,
and the mother was filled with the Holy Ghost, and she cried to Mary with a
loud voice, and said, Thou art blessed among women, and blessed is the
fruit of thy womb. How hath it befallen me, that the mother of my Lord
should come to me? Lo, when the voice of thy greeting sounded in mine ears,
my child rejoiced in my womb, and leaped towards his Lord, whom thou
bearest in thy womb."

The child could not yet with words greet his Lord, but he greeted him with
a rejoicing mind. She said, "Blessed art thou, Mary, for thou hast believed
the words that were announced to thee from God, and it shall be
accomplished so as it hath been declared to thee." Then forthwith Mary sang
the hymn which we sing in God's church at every evensong, "Magnificat anima
mea Dominum," and so forth to the end. That is "My soul magnifieth the
Lord," etc. It will be tedious for us to expound all this hymn, but we will
shortly run over its most obscure words. "God hath cast the mighty from
their seat:" these are the proud, who lift themselves above their degree.
"And he hath exalted the humble;" as Christ himself said in his gospel,
"Everyone who exalteth himself shall be humbled; and he who humbleth
himself shall be exalted."

"God filleth the hungry with his good things;" as he {205} himself said,
"Blessed are they who are hungry and desirous of righteousness, for they
shall be filled with righteousness." "He hath sent the rich empty away."
Those are the rich, who with pride love earthly riches more than heavenly.
Many rich men thrive to God, those who do as it is written, "The rich man's
wealth is his soul's redemption." His wealth is his soul's redemption, if
he with those transitory treasures buy for himself eternal life, and
heavenly wealth with God. If he neglect this, and place his hope in earthly
wealth, then will God send him away void and empty, from everlasting good.

"God hath received his servant Israel." By that name are betokened all
those who obey God with true humility, whom he receives into his company.
"As he spake to our fathers, Abraham and his offspring for ever." God
promised the patriarch Abraham, that in his race all mankind should be
blessed. From the race of Abraham sprang the blessed Mary, and from Mary
came Christ, according to his human nature, and through Christ shall all
the faithful be blessed. We are not of Abraham's race after the flesh, but
spiritually, as the apostle Paul said, "Verily if ye are christians, then
are ye of Abraham's offspring, and heirs according to the promise." The
last words of this hymn are "For ever;" because our promise, which God hath
promised to us, continueth for ever and ever without end.

Let us now pray the blessed and happy Virgin Mary, that she intercede for
us to her own Son and Creator, Jesus Christ, who governs all things with
the Father and the Holy Ghost, ever to eternity. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *


    Cum adpropinquasset Iesus Hierosolimis, et uenisset Bethfage ad montem
    Oliueti: et reliqua.

Cristes ðrowung wæs gerædd nu beforan ús, ac we willað eow secgan nu ǽrest
hú hé com to ðære byrig Hierusalem, and genealæhte his agenum deaðe, and
nolde ða þrowunge mid fleame forbugan.

"Se Hælend ferde to ðære byrig Hierusalem, and ðaða hé genealæhte ðære dune
Oliueti, þa sende he his twegen leorning-cnihtas, þus cweðende, Gáð to ðære
byrig þe eow ongean is, and ge gemétað þærrihte getígedne assan and his
folan samod: untygað hí, and lædað to me:" et reliqua.

Þam folce wearð cuð þæt se Hælend arærde lytle ær Lazarum of deaðe, seðe
læg stincende feower niht on byrgene: þa comon þa togeanes Criste þe
geleaffulle wæron, mid þam wurðmynte, swa we ær cwædon. Comon eac sume ða
ungeleaffullan, mid nanum wurðmynte, ac mid micclum graman, swa swa
Iohannes se Godspellere cwæð, Þæt "ða heafod-menn þæs folces smeadon betwux
him þæt hi woldon ofslean þone Lazarum, þe Crist of deaðe awrehte; forðan
ðe manega ðæs folces menn gelyfdon on þone Hælend, þurh ðæs deadan mannes
ærist." We wyllað nu fon on þone traht þissere rædinge.

Þa twegen leorning-cnihtas þe Crist sende æfter þam assan, hí getacnodon þa
láreowas þe God sende mancynne to lærenne. Twegen hí wæron, for ðære
getacnunge þe láreow habban sceal. He sceal habban lare, þæt he mage Godes
folc mid wisdome læran to rihtum geleafan, and he sceal mid godum weorcum
ðam folce wel bysnian, and swa mid þam twam ðingum, þæt is mid lare and
godre bysnunge þæt læwede folc gebige symle to Godes willan.

Se getígeda assa and his fola getacniað twa folc, þæt is Iudeisc and hæðen:
Ic cweðe, hæðen, forði þe eal mennisc wæs ða-gyt wunigende on hæðenscipe,
buton þam anum {208} Iudeiscan folce, þe heold þa ealdan ǽ on ðam timan. Hí
wæron getígede, forðan ðe eal mancyn wæs mid synnum bebunden, swa swa se
witega cwæð, "Anra gehwilc manna is gewriðen mid rapum his synna." Þa sende
God his apostolas and heora æftergengan to gebundenum mancynne, and het hí
untígan, and to him lædan. Hú untigdon hi ðone assan and þone folan? Hí
bodedon ðam folce rihtne geleafan and Godes beboda, and eac mid micclum
wundrum heora bodunge getrymdon. Þa abeah þæt folc fram deofles þeowdome to
Cristes biggencum, and wæron alysede fram eallum synnum þurh þæt halige
fulluht, and to Criste gelædde.

Assa is stunt nyten, and unclæne, and toforan oðrum nytenum ungesceadwis,
and byrðen-strang. Swa wæron men, ær Cristes to-cyme, stunte and unclæne,
ðaða hí ðeowedon deofolgyldum and mislicum leahtrum, and bugon to þam
anlicnyssum þe hi sylfe worhton, and him cwædon to, "Þu eart min God." And
swa hwilce byrðene swa him deofol on-besette, þa hí bæron. Ac ðaða Crist
com to mancynne, þa awende he ure stuntnysse to geráde, and ure unclænnysse
to clænum ðeawum. Se getemeda assa hæfde getacnunge þæs Iudeiscan folces,
þe wæs getemed under þære ealdan ǽ. Se wilda fola hæfde getacnunge ealles
oðres folces, þe wæs þa-gyt hæðen and ungetemed; ac hí wurdon getemede and
geleaffulle þaþa Crist sende his leorning-cnihtas geond ealne middangeard,
þus cweðende, "Farað geond ealne middangeard, and lærað ealle ðeoda, and
fulliað hí on naman þæs Fæder, and þæs Suna, and þæs Halgan Gastes; and
beodað þæt hi healdon ealle ða beboda þe ic eow tæhte."

Þæra assena hlaford axode, hwí hí untigdon his assan? Swa eac ða heafod-men
gehwilces leodscipes woldon þwyrlice wiðcweðan Godes bodunge. Ac ðaða hí
gesawon þæt þa bydelas gehældon, þurh Godes mihte, healte and blinde, and
dumbum spræce forgeafon, and eac ða deadan to life arærdon, þa ne mihton hí
wiðstandan þam wundrum, ac bugon ealle endemes to Gode. Cristes
leorning-cnihtas cwædon, "Se {210} Hlaford behófað þæra assena, and sent hi
eft ongean." Ne cwædon hí na Ure Hlaford, ne Ðin Hlaford, ac forðrihte,
Hlaford; forðon ðe Crist is ealra hlaforda Hlaford, ægðer ge manna ge ealra
gesceafta. Hi cwædon, "He sent hí eft ongean." We sind gemanode and
gelaðode to Godes rice, ac we ne sind na genedde. Þonne we sind gelaðode,
þonne sind we untigede; and ðonne we beoð forlætene to urum agenum cyre,
þonne bið hit swilce we beon ongean asende. Godes myldheortnys is þæt we
untigede syndon; ac gif we rihtlice lybbað, þæt bið ægðer ge Godes gifu ge
eac ure agen geornfulnyss. We sceolon symle biddan Drihtnes fultum, forðan
ðe ure agen cyre næfð nænne forðgang, buton he beo gefyrðrod þurh þone

Ne het Crist him to lædan modigne stedan mid gyldenum gerædum
gefreatewodne, ac þone wacan assan he geceas him to byrðre; forðon þe he
tæhte symle eadmodnysse, and ðurh hine sylfne þa bysne sealde, and ðus
cwæð, "Leorniað æt me, þæt ic eom liðe and swiðe eadmod, and ge gemetað
reste eowrum sawlum." Þis wæs gewitegod be Criste, and ealle ða ðing þe he
dyde, ærðan þe he to men geboren wære.

Sión is an dún, and heo is gecweden, 'Sceawung-stow;' and Hierusalem,
'Sibbe gesihð.' Siónes dohtor is seo gelaðung geleaffulra manna, þe belimpð
to ðære heofenlican Hierusalem, on þære is symle sibbe gesihð, butan ælcere
sace, to ðære us gebrincð se Hælend, gif we him gelæstað.

Cristes leorning-cnihtas ledon hyra reaf uppan þan assan, forðan þe hé
nolde on nacedum assan ridan. Reaf getacniað rihtwisnysse weorc, swa swa se
wítega cwæð, "Drihten, þine sacerdas sind ymbscrydde mid rihtwisnysse." Se
nacoda assa bið mid reafum gesadelod, ðonne se idela man bið mid wisra
láreowa mynegungum and gebisnungum to Godes handa gefrætwod; and he ðonne
byrð Crist, swa swa se apostol cwæð, "Ge sind gebohte mid micclum wurðe;
wuldriað forði, and berað God on eowrum lichaman." God we berað on urum
lichaman, forðan ðe we beoð tempel and {212} fætels þæs Halgan Gastes, gif
we us wið fule leahtras gescyldað: be ðam cwæð se ylca apostol swiðe
egeslice, "Se ðe gewemð Godes tempel, God hine fordeð." Se ðe ne bið Godes
tempel, he bið deofles tempel, and byrð swiðe swære byrðene on his bæce.

We wyllað secgan eow sum bigspell. Ne mæg nan man hine sylfne to cynge
gedon, ac þæt folc hæfð cyre to ceosenne þone to cyninge þe him sylfum
licað: ac siððan he to cyninge gehalgod bið, þonne hæfð hé anweald ofer þæt
folc, and hí ne magon his geoc of heora swuran asceacan. Swa eac gehwilc
man hæfð agenne cyre, ærðam þe hé syngige, hweðer hé wille filian deofles
willan, oððe wiðsacan. Þonne gif hé mid deofles weorcum hine sylfne bebint,
ðonne ne mæg he mid his agenre mihte hine unbindan, buton se Ælmihtiga God
mid strangre handa his mildheortnysse hine unbinde. Agenes willan and
agenre gymeleaste he bið gebunden, ac þurh Godes mildheortnysse he bið
unbunden, gif he ða alysednysse eft æt Gode geearnað.

Þæt folc ðe heora reaf wurpon under þæs assan fét, þæt sind þa martyras, þe
for Cristes geleafan sealdon heora agenne lichaman to tintregum. Sume hi
wæron on fyre forbærnde, sume on sǽ adrencte, and mid mislicum pinungum
acwealde; and sealdon us bysne þæt we ne sceolon, for nanum ehtnyssum oððe
earfoðnyssum, urne geleafan forlætan, and fram Criste bugan, ðe má ðe hí
dydon. Menig man is cristen geteald on sibbe, þe wolde swiðe hraðe wiðsacan
Criste, gif him man bude þæt man bead þam martyrum: ac his cristendom nis
na herigendlic. Ac ðæs mannes cristendom is herigendlic, seðe nele, for
nanre ehtnysse, bugan fram Criste, ne for swurde, ne for fyre, ne for
wætere, ne for hungre, ne for bendum; ac æfre hylt his geleafan mid Godes
hérungum, oð his lifes ende.

Þa ðe ðæra treowa bogas heowon, and mid þam Cristes weig gedæfton, þæt sind
þa lareowas on Godes cyrcan, þe plucciað þa cwydas ðæra apostola and heora
æftergengena, {214} and mid þam Godes folce gewisiað to Cristes geleafan,
þæt hí beon gearwe to his færelde.

Þæt folc ðe Criste beforan stóp, and þæt ðe him fyligde, ealle hí sungon,
"Osanna Filio Dauid," þæt is on urum geðeode, "Sy hǽlo Dauides Bearne." Þa
ðe Criste beforan stopon, þa sind ða heahfæderas and þa wítegan, ðe wæron
ǽr Cristes flæsclicnysse; and ða ðe him bæftan eodon, þæt sind ða ðe æfter
Cristes acennednysse to him gebugon, and dæghwamlice bugað: and ealle hí
singað ænne lofsang; forðan ðe wé and hí ealle healdað ænne geleafan, swa
swa Petrus se apostol cwæð, ðaða he spræc be ðam heahfæderum, "We gelyfað
þæt we beon gehealdene þurh Cristes gife, swa swa hí."

Hí cwædon "Dauides Bearn," forðan þe Crist is þæs mæran cyne-cynnes
Dauides, æfter þære menniscnysse. Of ðam cynne wæs seo eadige Maria his
modor. Hi sungon, "Gebletsod is se ðe com on Godes naman." Se Hælend com on
Godes naman, forðan þe se Heofenlica Fæder hine asende ús to alysednysse;
and ealle ða wundra þe hé worhte, on eallum he herede and wuldrode his
Fæder naman. "Sy hælo Dauides Bearne on heahnyssum." Þæs Hælendes to-cyme
and his ðrowung wæs halwendlic ægðer ge mannum ge englum; forðan ðe wé
geeacniað heora werod, þe se feallenda deofol gewanode; be ðam cwæð se
apostol Paulus, "Þæt sceoldon ealle heofenlice ðing and eorðlice beon
ge-edstaðelode on Criste."

Se Hælend wæs wunigende binnan ðam temple of ðisum dæge oð nu on
ðunres-dæg, and ægðer ge mid láre ge mid wundrum þæt folc tihte to
soðfæstnysse and to rihtum geleafan. Þa namon ða heafod-men ándan ongean
his láre, and syrwedon mid micelre smeaunge, hu hi mihton hine to deaðe
gebringan. Ne mihte se deað him genealæcan, gif he sylf nolde, ac he com to
mannum to ði þæt he wolde beon gehyrsum his Fæder oð deað, and mancynn
alysan fram ðam ecan deaðe mid his hwilwendlicum deaðe. Þeah-hwæðere {216}
ne nydde he na þæt Iudeisce folc to his cwale, ac deofol hí tihte to ðam
weorce, and God þæt geðafode, to alysednysse ealles geleaffulles mancynnes.

We habbað oft gesæd, and gít secgað, þæt Cristes rihtwisnys is swa micel,
þæt he nolde niman mancyn neadunga of ðam deofle, buton he hit forwyrhte.
He hit forwyrhte ðaða he tihte þæt folc to Cristes cwale, þæs Ælmihtigan
Godes; and ða þurh his unscæððigan deað wurdon we alysede fram ðam ecan
deaðe, gif we us sylfe ne forpærað. Þa getimode ðam reðan deofle swa swa
deð þam grædigan fisce, þe gesihð þæt ǽs, and ne gesihð ðone angel ðe on
ðam æse sticað; bið þonne grædig þæs æses, and forswylcð þone angel forð
mid þam æse. Swa wæs þam deofle: he geseh ða menniscnysse on Criste, and na
ða godcundnysse: ða sprytte he þæt Iudeisce folc to his slege, and gefredde
ða þone angel Cristes godcundnysse, þurh ða hé wæs to deaðe aceocod, and
benǽmed ealles mancynnes þara ðe on God belyfað.

Næs na Cristes ðrowung gefremmed on þisum dæge, ac ða feower godspelleras
awriton his ðrowunga on feower gesetnyssum; þa ane we rædað nu to-dæg, and
ða oðre on ðisre wucan. Þa Iudei genámon hine on frige-æfen, and heoldon
hine ða niht, and ðæs on merigen hí hine gefæstnodon on rode mid feower
nægelum, and mid spere gewundedon. And ða embe nón-tid, þaþa hé forðferde,
þa comon twegen gelyfede men, Ioseph and Nichodemus, and bebyrigdon his líc
ær æfene, on niwere ðryh, mid deorwyrðum reafum bewunden. And his líc læg
on byrgene þa sæter-niht and sunnan-niht; and seo godcundnys wæs on ðære
hwile on helle, and gewrað þone ealdan deofol, and him of-anam Adám, þone
frumsceapenan man, and his wíf Euan, and ealle ða ðe of heora cynne Gode ǽr
gecwemdon. Þa gefredde se deofol þone angel þe he ǽr grædelice forswealh.
And Crist arás of deaðe on þone easterlican sunnan-dæg, þe nu bið on seofon
nihtum; be ðam is gelimplicor þonne mare to reccenne þonne nu sy: ac uton
nu sprecan be ðyses dæges wurðmynte.

{218} Se gewuna stent on Godes cyrcan, þurh lareowas geset, þæt gehwær on
Godes gelaðunge se sacerd bletsian sceole palm-twigu on ðisum dæge, and hí
swa gebletsode ðam folce dælan; and sceolon ða Godes þeowas singan ðone
lofsang, þe þæt Iudeisce folc sang togeanes Criste, þaþa he genealæhte his
ðrowunge. We geeuenlæcað þam geleaffullum of ðam folce mid þisre dæde,
forðan ðe hi bæron palm-twigu mid lofsange togeanes þam Hælende. Nu sceole
we healdan urne palm, oðþæt se sangere onginne ðone offring-sáng, and
geoffrian þonne Gode ðone palm, for ðære getacnunge. Palm getacnað syge.
Sygefæst wæs Crist þaþa he ðone micclan deofol oferwann, and us generede:
and we sceolon beon eac sygefæste þurh Godes mihte, swa þæt we ure
unðeawas, and ealle leahtras, and ðone deofol oferwinnan, and ús mid godum
weorcum geglencgan, and on ende ures lifes betæcan Gode ðone palm, þæt is,
ure sige, and ðancian him georne, þæt we, ðurh his fultum, deoful
oferwunnon, þæt he us beswican ne mihte.

Synfulra manna deað is yfel and earmlic, forðan ðe hí farað of ðisum
scortan life to ecum pinungum: and rihtwisra manna deað is deorwyrðe, forði
ðonne hí geendiað ðis geswincfulle líf, þonne beoð hí gebrohte to ðam ecan
life, and bið þonne swylce heora ende beo anginn; forðan ðe hí ne beoð na
deade, ac beoð awende of deaðe to life. Se lichama, ðe is þære sawle reaf,
anbidað þæs micclan domes; and ðeah he beo to duste formolsnod, God hine
arærð, and gebrincð togædere sawle and lichaman to ðam ecan life; and bið
þonne gefylled Cristes behát, ðe ðus cwæð, "Þonne scínað ða rihtwisan swa
swa sunne on heora Fæder ríce," seðe leofað and rixað á butan ende on
ecnysse. Amen.

Circlice ðeawas forbeodað to secgenne ænig spel on þam þrym swig-dagum.


    Cum adpropinquasset Jesus Hierosolymis, et venisset Bethfage ad montem
    Oliveti: et reliqua.

Christ's passion has just been read before us, but we will first say to you
how he came to the city of Jerusalem, and approached his own death, and
would not by flight avoid his passion.

"Jesus went to the city of Jerusalem, and when he approached the mount of
Olives, he sent two of his disciples, thus saying, Go to the town which is
before you, and ye shall straightways find an ass tied and its foal also:
untie them, and lead them to me," etc.

It was known to the people that Christ a little before had raised Lazarus
from death, who had lain stinking four nights in the grave: then those, who
were believing, came to meet Christ with the honours which we have already
mentioned. Some also who believed not came, with no honours, but with great
wrath, as John the Evangelist said, That "the chief priests of the people
consulted among themselves how they should slay Lazarus, whom Christ had
raised from the dead; because many men of the people believed in Jesus, by
reason of the dead man's rising." We will now proceed to the exposition of
this text.

The two disciples whom Christ sent after the ass betokened the teachers
whom God sends to instruct mankind. They were two, because of the character
which a teacher should have. He should have learning, that he may with
wisdom instruct God's people in true belief, and he should, by good works,
give good example to the people, and so, with those two things, that is,
with learning and good example, ever incline the lay folk to God's will.

The tied ass and its foal betoken two people, that is, the Jewish and the
heathen: I say, heathen, because all mankind was yet continuing in
heathenism, save only the Jews, {209} who observed the old law at that
time. They were tied; for all mankind was bound with sins, as the prophet
said, "Every man is bound with the ropes of his sins." Then God sent his
apostles and their successors to bound mankind, and bade untie, and lead
them to him. How untied they the ass and the foal? They preached to the
people right belief and God's commandments, and also by many miracles
confirmed their preaching. The people then inclined from the service of the
devil to the worship of Christ, and were freed from all sins, through holy
baptism, and led to Christ.

An ass is a foolish beast, and unclean, and stupid, compared with other
beasts, and strong for burthens. So were men, before Christ's advent,
foolish and unclean, while they ministered to idols, and divers sins, and
bowed to the images, which they themselves had wrought, and said to them,
"Thou art my God." And whatsoever burthen the devil set on them they bare.
But when Christ came to mankind, then turned he our foolishness to reason,
and our uncleanness to pure morals. The tamed ass betokened the Jewish
people, who were tamed under the old law. The wild foal betokened all other
people, who were heathen and untamed; but they became tamed and believing
when Christ sent his disciples over the whole earth, thus saying, "Go over
all the earth, and teach all nations, and baptize them in the name of the
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost; and command that they hold
all the precepts which I have taught you."

The master of the asses asked, why they untied his asses? In like manner
the chief men of every people would perversely oppose the preaching of God.
But when they saw that the preachers, through God's might, healed the halt
and the blind, and gave speech to the dumb, and also raised the dead to
life, then could they not withstand those miracles, but all at last
inclined to God. Christ's disciples said, "The {211} Lord hath need of the
asses, and sends for them." They did not say Our Lord, nor Thy Lord, but
simply, The Lord; for Christ is Lord of all lords, both of men and of all
creatures. They said, "He sends for them." We are exhorted and invited to
God's kingdom, but we are not forced. When we are invited, then are we
untied; and when we are left to our own election, then is it as though we
are sent for. It is God's mercy that we are untied; but if we live rightly,
that will be both God's grace and our own zeal. We should constantly pray
for the Lord's support; seeing that our own election has no success, unless
it be promoted by the Almighty.

Christ did not command them to lead to him a proud steed adorned with
golden trappings, but the mean ass he chose to bear him; for he ever taught
humility, and in himself gave the example, and thus said, "Learn of me, who
am meek and very humble, and ye shall find rest for your souls." This was
prophesied of Christ, and all the things which he did before he was born as

Sion is a hill, and it is interpreted, _A place of contemplation_; and
Jerusalem, _Sight of peace_. The daughter of Sion is the congregation of
believing men, who belong to the heavenly Jerusalem, in which is ever _a
sight of peace_, without any strife, to which Jesus will bring us, if we
follow him.

Christ's disciples laid their garments upon the ass, because he would not
ride on a naked ass. Garments betoken works of righteousness, as the
prophet said, "Lord, thy priests are clothed with righteousness." The naked
ass is saddled with garments, when the simple man is equipped to the hand
of God with the exhortations and examples of wise instructors; and he then
bears Christ, as the apostle said, "Ye are bought with great price; glorify
therefore, and bear God on your bodies." We bear God on our bodies, because
we are a temple and shrine of the Holy Ghost, if we {213} guard ourselves
against foul sins: of which the same apostle said very awfully, "He who
defiles the temple of God, God will fordo him." He who is not a temple of
God is a temple of the devil, and bears a very heavy burthen on his back.

We will say to you a parable. No man may make himself a king, for the
people have the option to choose him for king who is agreeable to them: but
after that he has been hallowed as king, he has power over the people, and
they may not shake his yoke from their necks. In like manner every man has
his own choice, before he sins, whether he will follow the devil's will, or
withstand it. Then if he bind himself with the works of the devil, he
cannot by his own power unbind himself, unless the Almighty God unbind him
with the strong hand of his mercy. Of his own will and his own heedlessness
he is bound, but through God's mercy he will be unbound, if he afterwards
merit his liberation of God.

The people who cast their garments under the feet of the ass, are the
martyrs, who for Christ's faith gave their own bodies to torments. Some
were burnt in fire, some drowned in the sea, and slain with divers
tortures; and gave us an example, that we should not, for any persecutions
or hardships, forsake our faith, and incline from Christ, any more than
they did. Many a man is accounted a christian in peace, who would very
quickly deny Christ, if he were sentenced to that to which the martyrs were
sentenced: but his christianity is not praiseworthy. But that man's
christianity is praiseworthy, who will not, for any persecution, incline
from Christ, neither for sword, nor for fire, nor for water, nor for
hunger, nor for bonds; but ever holds his faith with the praises of God to
his life's end.

Those who hewed branches of trees, and with them prepared Christ's way, are
the teachers in God's church, who cull the sayings of the apostles and
their successors, and with {215} them direct God's people to the faith of
Christ, that they may be prepared for his way.

The people who walked before Christ, and those who followed him, all sung
"Osanna Filio David," that is, in our tongue, "Hail, Son of David." Those
who walked before Christ, are the patriarchs and prophets, who were before
Christ's incarnation; and those who went after him, are those who inclined
to Christ after his birth, and daily incline to him: and all these sing one
hymn; because we and they all hold one faith, as Peter the apostle said,
when he spake of the patriarchs, "We believe that we shall be saved by
Christ's grace, as well as they."

They said, "Son of David," because Christ is, according to his human
nature, of the great race of David. Of that race was the blessed Mary his
mother. They sung, "Blessed is he who is come in the name of God." Jesus
came in the name of God, for the Heavenly Father sent him for our
redemption; and in all the miracles which he wrought, he praised and
glorified his Father's name. "Hail, Son of David, in the highest." The
Saviour's advent and his passion were salutary both to men and angels;
because we increase their host which the fallen devil had diminished;
concerning which the apostle Paul said, "That all heavenly and earthly
things should be re-established in Christ."

Jesus was staying in the temple from this day till now on Thursday, and
both with doctrine and with miracles stimulated the people to truth and to
right faith. Then the chief men became envious of his doctrine, and
machinated with great deliberation how they might bring him to death. Death
could not have approached him, if he himself had not willed it, but he came
to men because he would be obedient to his Father till death, and redeem
mankind from eternal death by his temporary death. Yet did he not compel
the Jewish {217} people to slay him, but the devil instigated them to the
work, and God consented to it, for the redemption of all believing mankind.

We have often said, and yet say, that the justice of Christ is so great,
that he would not forcibly have taken mankind from the devil, unless he had
forfeited them. He forfeited them when he instigated the people to the
slaying of Christ, the Almighty God; and then through his innocent death we
were redeemed from eternal death, if we do not destroy ourselves. Then it
befell the cruel devil as it does the greedy fish, which sees the bait, and
sees not the hook which sticks in the bait; then is greedy after the bait
and swallows up the hook with the bait. So it was with the devil: he saw
the humanity in Christ, and not the divinity: he then instigated the Jewish
people to slay him, and then felt the hook of Christ's divinity, by which
he was choked to death, and deprived of all mankind who believe in God.

Christ's passion did not take place on this day, but the four evangelists
recorded his sufferings in four narratives: one we read now to-day, and the
others in this week. The Jews took him on Friday evening, and held him that
night, and on the morrow fixed him on a cross with four nails, and with a
spear wounded him. And then about the ninth hour, when he departed, there
came two believing men, Joseph and Nicodemus, and buried his corpse before
evening in a new tomb, enwrapt in precious garments. And his corpse lay in
the sepulchre the Saturday night and Sunday night; and the Divinity was
during that while in hell, and bound the old devil, and took from him Adam,
the first-created man, and his wife Eve, and all those of their race who
had before given pleasure to God. Then was the devil sensible of the hook
which he had before greedily swallowed. And Christ arose from death on the
Easter-Sunday, which will now be in seven days, of which it is more fitting
then to speak more fully than it is now: but let us now speak of the
dignity of this day.

{219} The custom exists in God's church, by its doctors established, that
everywhere in God's congregation the priest should bless palm-twigs on this
day, and distribute them so blessed to the people; and God's servants
should then sing the hymn which the Jewish people sang before Christ, when
he was approaching to his passion. We imitate the faithful of that people
with this deed, for they bare palm-twigs with hymn before Jesus. Now we
should hold our palm until the singer begins the offering-song, and then
offer to God the palm for its betokening. Palm betokens victory. Victorious
was Christ when he overcame the great devil and rescued us: and we should
also be victorious through God's might, so that we overcome our evil
practices, and all sins, and the devil, and adorn ourselves with good
works, and at the end of our life deliver the palm to God, that is, our
victory, and thank him fervently, that we, through his succour, have
overcome the devil, so that he could not deceive us.

The death of sinful men is evil and miserable, because they pass from this
short life to everlasting torments: and the death of righteous men is
precious, for when they end this life of tribulation they will be brought
to the life eternal, and then will their end be as a beginning; for they
will not be dead, but will be turned from death to life. The body, which is
the garment of the soul, will await the great doom, and though it be rotted
to dust, God will raise it, and will bring together soul and body to
eternal life; and then will Christ's promise be fulfilled, who thus said,
"Then shall the righteous shine as the sun in their Father's kingdom," who
liveth and ruleth ever without end to eternity. Amen.

Church customs forbid any sermon to be said on the three still days.

       *       *       *       *       *


Oft ge gehyrdon embe ðæs Hælendes ærist, hú hé on ðisum dæge of deaðe arás;
ac we willað eow myngian, þæt hit ne gange eow of gemynde.

"Þaða Crist bebyrged wæs, þa cwædon þa Iudeiscan to heora ealdormenn
Pilate, La leof, se swica ðe her ofslegen is, cwæð gelomlice, þaþa hé on
lífe wæs, þæt hé wolde arisan of deaðe on þam ðriddan dæge:" et reliqua.

We cweðað nu, gif hwá his lic forstæle, nolde he hine unscrydan, forðan ðe
stalu ne lufað nane yldinge. Crist wearð æteowed on ðam ylcan dæge Petre,
and oðrum twam his leorning-cnihtum, and hí gefrefrode. "Þa æt nextan com
se Hælend to his leorning-cnihtum, þær hí gegaderode wæron, and cwæð him
to, Sy sibb betwux eow; ic hit eom, ne beo ge na afyrhte. Þa wurdon hí
afærede, and wendon þæt hit sum gast wære. Ða cwæð he him to, Hwí sind ge
afærede, and mislice ðencað be me? Sceawiað mine handa and mine fét, þe
wæron mid næglum þurhdrifene. Grapiað and sceawiað: gif ic gast wære, ðonne
næfde ic flæsc and ban:" et reliqua.

Se Hælend wearð þa gelomlice ætíwed his leorning-cnihtum, and hí gewissode
to ðære lare and to ðam geleafan, hú hí eallum mancynne tæcan sceoldon; and
on ðam feowertigoðan dæge his æristes hé astáh lichamlice to heofonum to
his Fæder. Ac we habbað nú micele maran endebyrdnysse þære Cristes bec
gesǽd þonne ðis dægðerlice godspel behæfð, for trymminge eowres geleafan.
Nu wylle we eow gereccan þæs dægþerlican godspelles traht, æfter ðæs halgan
papan Gregories trahtnunge.

Mine gebroðra þa leofostan, ge gehyrdon þæt þa halgan wíf, þe Drihtne on
life filigdon, comon to his byrgene mid þære deorwyrðan sealfe, and þone ðe
hí lufedon on lífe þam hí woldon deadum mid menniscre gecneordnysse ðenian.
Ac {222} ðeos dǽd getacnað sum ðing to dónne on Godes gelaðunge. We ðe
gelyfað Cristes æristes, we cumað gewislice to his byrgene mid deorwyrðre
sealfe, gif we beoð gefyllede mid bræðe haligra mihta, and gif we mid
hlysan godra weorca urne Drihten secað. Þa wíf ðe ða sealfe brohton, hi
gesawon englas; forðan ðe ða geseoð þa heofonlican englas, þa þe mid bræðum
godra weorca gewilniað þæs upplican færeldes. Se engel awylte þæt hlíd of
ðære ðryh; na þæt hé Criste útganges rymde, ac he geswutelode mannum þæt hé
arisen wæs. Se ðe com deaðlic to ðisum middangearde, acenned þurh
beclysedne innoð þæs mædenes, se ylca, butan twéon, ðaða hé arás undeaðlic,
mihte belocenre ðríh faran of middangearde. Se engel sæt on ða swiðran
healfe ðære byrgene. Seo swiðre hand getacnað þæt ece líf, and seo wynstre
ðis andwearde líf. Rihtlice sæt se engel on ða swiðran hand, forðon þe he
cydde þæt se Hælend hæfde ða oferfaren ða brosnunga ðises andweardan lifes,
and wæs ða wunigende on ecum ðingum undeaðlic. Se bydel wæs ymbscryd mid
scinendum reafe, forðan ðe he bodade þa blisse þisre freols-tíde, and ure
mærða. Hwæðer cweðe we, ðe ure ðe ðæra engla? We cweðað soðlice, ægðer ge
ure ge heora. Þæs Hælendes ærist is ure freols-tíd and bliss, forðan ðe he
gelædde us mid his æriste to ðære undeadlicnysse þe we to gesceapene wæron.
His ærist wæs þæra engla bliss, forðon ðe God gefylð heora getel, þonne he
ús to heofonum gebrincð.

Se engel gehyrte ða wíf, þus cweðende, "Ne beo ge afyrhte:" swilce he swa
cwæde, Forhtian ða ðe ne lufiað engla to-cyme; beon ða ofdrædde þa þe sint
ofsette mid flæsclicum lustum, and nabbað nænne hiht to engla werode. Hwi
forhtige ge, ge ðe geseoð eowre geferan? "His wlite wæs swilce líget, and
his reaf swa hwít swa snáw." Soðlice on lígette is óga, and on snáwe liðnys
þære beorhtnysse. Rihtlice wæs se bydel Cristes æristes swa gehíwod; forðan
þonne he sylf cymð to ðam micclan dome, þonne bið he swiðe egeful ðam
synfullum, and swiðe liðe þam rihtwisum. {224} He cwæð, "Ge secað þone
Hælend: hé arás: nis hé her." He næs ða lichamlice on ðære byrgene, seðe
æghwær bið þurh his godcundan mihte. Þær lǽig þæt reaf bæftan þe he mid
bewunden wæs, forðon ðe hé ne rohte þæs eorðlican reafes, syððan he of
deaðe arás. Þeah man deadne mannan mid reafe bewinde, ne arist þæt reaf na
ðe hraðor eft mid þam men, ac he bið mid þam heofenlicum reafe gescryd
æfter his æriste.

Wel is gecweden be ðam Hælende, þæt he wolde cuman togeanes his geferon on
Galilea. Galilea is gecweden 'Oferfæreld.' Se Hælend wæs ða afaren fram
ðrowunge to ǽriste, fram deaðe to life, fram wite to wuldre. And gif we
farað fram leahtrum to halgum mægnum, þonne mote we geseon ðone Hælend
æfter urum færelde of ðisum life. Twa líf sind soðlice: þæt án we cunnon,
þæt oðer us wæs uncuð ær Cristes to-cyme. Þæt án líf is deadlic, þæt oðer
undeadlic. Ac se Hælend com and underfeng þæt án líf, and geswutelode þæt
oðer. Þæt án líf he æteowde mid his deaðe, and þæt oðer mid his æriste. Gif
he us deadlicum mannum ærist and þæt ece líf behete, and þeah-hwæðere nolde
hit þurh hine sylfne geswutelian, hwa wolde þonne his behatum gelyfan? Ac
ðaða he man beon wolde, ða gemedemode hé hine sylfne eac to deaðe agenes
willan, and he arás of deaðe þurh his godcundan mihte, and geswutelode þurh
hine sylfne þæt þæt he us behét.

Nu cwyð sum man on his geðance, 'Eaðe mihte he arisan of deaðe, forðan ðe
he is God: ne mihte se deað hine gehæftan.' Gehyre se mann þe þis smeað
andsware his smeagunge. Crist forðferde ana on ðam timan, ac he ne arás na
ana of deaðe, ac arás mid micclum werede. Se godspellere Matheus awrát on
Cristes béc, þæt manega halige menn, ðe wæron on ðære ealdan ǽ forðfarene,
þæt hí arison mid Criste; and þæt sædon gehwilce wíse láreowas, þæt hi
habbað gefremod heora ærist to ðam ecan lífe, swa swa we ealle dón sceolon
on ende þisre worulde. Þa láreowas cwædon, {226} þæt ða aræredan menn næron
soðlice gewitan Cristes æristes, gif hí næron ecelice arærde. Nu sind
adwæscede ealle geleaflystu, þæt nan man ne sceal ortruwian be his agenum
æriste, þonne se godspellere awrát þæt fela arison mid Criste, ðe wæron
anfealde men, ðeah ðe Crist God sy.

Nu cwæð Gregorius se trahtnere, þæt him come to gemynde, hu ða Iudeiscan
clypodon be Criste, þaða he wæs on ðære rode gefæstnod. Hí cwædon, "Gif he
sy Israhela cyning, þonne astige he nu of ðære rode, and we gelyfað on
hine." Gif he ða of ðære rode astige, and nolde heora hosp forberan, þonne,
butan tweon, ne sealde he us nane bysne his geðyldes: ac he abád hwon, and
forbær heora hosp, and hæfde geðyld. Ac se ðe nolde of ðære rode abrecan,
se arás of ðære byrgene. Mare wundor wæs, þæt hé of deaðe arás, þonne he
cucu of ðære rode abræce. Mare miht wæs, þæt he ðone deað mid his æriste
tobræc, þonne he his líf geheolde, of ðære rode astigende. Ac ðaða hí
gesawon þæt he ne astah of ðære rode for heora hospum, ac ðæron deaðes
gebád, þa gelyfdon hí þæt he oferswiðed wære, and his nama adwæsced: ac hit
gelamp swa, þæt of ðam deaðe asprang his nama geond ealne middangeard. Þa
wearð hyra bliss awend to ðam mæstan sare; forðan ðe heora sorh bið

Þas ðing getacnode se stranga Samson, se hæfde fæhðe to ðam folce ðe is
gehaten Philistei. Ða getimode hit þæt he becom to heora byrig þe wæs Gaza
gehaten: þa wæron ða Philistei swiðe bliðe, and ymbsæton ða burh. Ac se
stranga Samson arás on midre nihte, and gelæhte ða burh-geatu, and abær hi
uppon ane dune, to bismere his gefaan. Se stranga Samson getacnode Crist,
seo burh Gaza getacnode helle, and ða Philistei hæfdon Iudeisces folces
getacnunge, þe besæton Cristes byrgene. Ac se Samson nolde gan ydel of ðære
byrig, ac he abær ða gatu up to ðære dune; forðon þe {228} ure Hælend Crist
tobræc helle-gatu, and generode Adam, and Euan, and his gecorenan of heora
cynne, and freolice of deaðe arás, and hí samod, and astah to heofonum. Þa
mánfullan he lét bæftan to ðam ecum witum. And is nu helle-geat belocen
rihtwisum mannum, and æfre open unrihtwisum.

Ungesælig wæs þæt Iudeisce folc, þæt hí swa ungeleaffulle wæron. Ealle
gesceafta oncneowon heora Scyppend, buton ðam Iudeiscum anum. Heofonas
oncneowon Cristes acennednysse; forðan ðaða hé acenned wæs, þa wearð
gesewen níwe steorra. Sǽ oncneow Crist, ðaða hé eode mid drium fotum uppon
hire yðum. Eorðe oncneow, þaþa heo eal bifode on Cristes æriste. Seo sunne
oncneow, þaþa heo wearð aðystrod on Cristes ðrowunge fram mid-dæge oð nón.
Stanas oncneowon, þaþa hí toburston on heora Scyppendes forðsiðe. Hell
oncneow Crist, ðaða heo forlét hyre hæftlingas út, þurh ðæs Hælendes
hergunge. And ða heardheortan Iudei ðeah þurh ealle ða tacna noldon gebugan
mid geleafan to ðam mildheortan Hælende, seðe wile eallum mannum gehelpan
on hine gelyfendum. Ac uton we gelyfan þæt God Fæder wæs æfre butan
anginne, and æfre wæs se Sunu of ðam Fæder acenned; forðan ðe he is se
Wisdom and Miht ðe se Fæder ealle gesceafta þurh gesceop; and hí ealle
wurdon gelíffæste þurh ðone Halgan Gast, seðe is Willa and Lufu þæs Fæder
and þæs Suna; hí ðry án God untodæledlic, on ánre godcundnysse wunigende,
hí ealle gelíce mihtige; forðan swa hwæt swa læsse bið and unmihtigre, þæt
ne bið na God. Ac se Fæder sende ðone Sunu to ure alysednysse, and he ána
underfeng ða menniscnysse, and þrowode deað be his agenum willan, and arás
of deaðe on ðisum dæge, and astah to heofonum on ðam feowertigeðan dæge his
æristes, ætforan manegra manna gesihðe, and rixað mid þam Ælmihtigan Fæder
and ðam Halgum Gaste, nú and á on ecnysse. Amen.


Ye have often heard concerning the Saviour's resurrection, how he on this
day arose from death; but we will remind you, that it may not pass from
your memory.

"When Christ was buried, the Jews said to their governor Pilate, O Sir, the
deceiver, who hath here been slain, said oftentimes, while he was living,
that he would arise from death on the third day," etc.

We say now, if any one had stolen his corpse, he would not have stript him,
for theft loves no delay. Christ appeared on the same day to Peter and to
two others his disciples, and comforted them. "Then at last Jesus came to
his disciples, where they were assembled, and said to them, Peace be unto
you; it is I, be ye not afraid. Then they were afraid, and weened it were a
ghost. Then said he to them, Why are ye afraid, and think divers things of
me? Behold my hands and my feet, that were pierced with nails. Grasp and
behold: if I were a ghost, I should not have flesh and bones," etc.

Jesus then frequently appeared to his disciples, and directed them to
doctrine and to faith, how they should teach all mankind; and on the
fortieth day of his resurrection he ascended bodily to heaven to his
Father. But we have now said much more of the tenour of the book of Christ
than this present day's gospel requires for the confirmation of your faith.
We will now give you the explanation of this day's gospel, according to the
exposition of the holy pope Gregory.

My dearest brothers, ye have heard that the holy women, who followed the
Lord in life, came with precious ointment to his sepulchre, and him whom
they had loved in life they would when dead serve with human devotion. But
this deed {223} betokens something to be done in God's church. We who
believe in the resurrection of Christ come assuredly to his sepulchre with
precious ointment, if we are filled with the breath of holy virtues, and if
we with the fame of good works seek our Lord. The women who brought the
ointment saw angels; for they see the heavenly angels, who with the breath
of good works yearn after the upward journey. The angel rolled the lid from
the tomb; not that he would make way for Christ's departure, but he would
manifest to men that he was risen. He who came mortal to this world, born
of the closed womb of the virgin, he, without doubt, might, when he arose
immortal, though in a closed tomb, depart from the world. The angel sat on
the right side of the sepulchre. The right hand betokens the eternal life,
and the left this present life. Rightly sat the angel on the right hand,
for he manifested that Jesus had surmounted the corruptions of this present
life, and was then dwelling immortal in eternity. The messenger was clad in
a shining garment, because he announced the happiness of this
festival-tide, and our glories. But we ask, ours or the angels? We say
verily, both ours and theirs. The resurrection of Jesus is our
festival-tide, for by his resurrection he led us to the immortality for
which we were created. His resurrection was bliss to the angels, because
God fills up their number when he brings us to heaven.

The angel cheered the women, thus saying, "Be ye not afraid:" as if he had
said thus, Let those fear who love not the advent of angels; let those be
terrified who are beset with fleshly lusts, and have no joy in the host of
angels. Why fear ye, ye who see your companions? "His countenance was like
lightning, and his raiment as white as snow." Verily in lightning is
terror, and in snow the mildness of brightness. Rightly was the messenger
of Christ's resurrection so figured; for when he himself shall come to the
great doom, he will be very awful to the sinful, and very mild {225} to the
righteous. He said, "Ye seek Jesus: he is risen: he is not here." He was
not then bodily in the sepulchre, who is everywhere through his divine
power. There lay the garment behind in which he had been wrapt, for he
recked not of an earthly garment, after he had arisen from death. Though a
dead man be wrapt in a garment, that garment does not the sooner rise again
with the man, but he will be clad with the heavenly garment after his

It is well said of Jesus, that he would meet his companions in Galilee.
Galilee is interpreted, _Passing over_. Jesus passed over from passion to
resurrection, from death to life, from torment to glory. And if we pass
from sins to holy virtues, then may we see Jesus after our passage from
this life. For there are two lives: the one we know, the other was unknown
to us before Christ's advent. The one life is mortal, the other immortal.
But Jesus came and assumed the one life, and made manifest the other. The
one life he manifested by his death, and the other by his resurrection. If
he to us mortal men had promised resurrection and life eternal, and yet had
not been willing to manifest them in himself, who would have believed in
his promises? But when he would become man, then he also voluntarily
humbled himself to death, and he arose from death through his divine power,
and manifested in himself that which he had promised to us.

Now will some man say in his thoughts, 'Easily might he arise from death,
because he is God: death could not hold him captive.' Let the man who
imagines this hear an answer to his imagination. Christ departed at that
time alone, but he arose not from death alone, but arose with a great host.
The evangelist Matthew wrote in the book of Christ, that many holy men, who
had died in the old law, arose with Christ; and all wise doctors have said
that they have effected their resurrection to eternal life, as we all shall
do at the end of this world. Those doctors said, that the raised men would
{227} not truly have been witnesses of Christ's resurrection, if they had
not been raised for ever. Now are extinguished all infidelities, so that no
man may despair of his own resurrection, when the evangelist wrote that
many arose with Christ, who were simple men, although Christ be God.

Now said the expounder Gregory, that it came to his mind, how the Jews
cried out concerning Christ, when he was fastened on the cross. They said,
"If he be the king of Israel, then let him now descend from the cross, and
we will believe in him." If he had then descended from the cross, and would
not have borne their mockery, he had certainly not given us any example of
his patience: but he remained a while, and bare their mockery, and had
patience. But he who would not break from the cross, arose from the
sepulchre. A greater miracle it was, that he arose from death, than that he
living should have broken from the cross. A greater miracle it was, that he
brake death in pieces, through his resurrection, than that he should have
preserved his life by descending from the cross. But when they saw that he
descended not from the cross, for their mockery, but thereon awaited death,
they believed that he was vanquished and his name extinguished: but it so
fell out, that from death his name sprang forth over the whole earth. Then
was their joy turned to the greatest pain; for their sorrow shall be

The strong Samson betokened these things, who had enmity to the people
called Philistines. Then it befell that he came to their city which was
called Gaza: whereupon the Philistines were very joyful, and surrounded the
city. But the strong Samson arose at midnight, and took the city gates, and
bare them up on a hill, in derision of his foes. The strong Samson
betokened Christ, the city of Gaza betokened hell, and the Philistines were
a token of the Jewish people, who beset the sepulchre of Christ. But Samson
would not go empty-handed from the city, but he {229} bare the gates up to
the hill; for our Saviour Christ brake the gates of hell, and delivered
Adam, and Eve, and his chosen of their kin, and joyfully from death arose,
and they with him, and ascended to heaven. The wicked he left behind to
eternal torments. And now is the gate of hell shut to righteous men, and
ever open to the unrighteous.

Unhappy was the Jewish people, that they were so unbelieving. All creatures
acknowledged their Creator, save only the Jews. Heaven acknowledged the
birth of Christ; for when he was born a new star was seen. The sea
acknowledged Christ, when he went with dry feet on its waves. Earth
acknowledged him, when it all trembled at Christ's resurrection. The sun
acknowledged him, when it was darkened at Christ's passion from mid-day to
the ninth hour. The stones acknowledged him, when they burst asunder at
their Creator's departure. Hell acknowledged Christ, when it let forth its
captives, through the harrowing of Jesus. And yet the hardhearted Jews,
through all these signs, would not incline with faith to the merciful
Jesus, who will help all men who believe in him. But let us believe that
God the Father was ever without beginning, and that the Son was ever
begotten of the Father; for he is the Wisdom and Power through which the
Father hath created all creatures; and they were all quickened by the Holy
Ghost who is the Will and Love of the Father and of the Son; these three
one God indivisible, existing in one Godhead, all equally powerful; for
whatsoever is less and less powerful, that is not God. But the Father sent
the Son for our redemption, and he alone assumed human nature, and suffered
death of his own will, and arose from death on this day, and ascended to
heaven on the fortieth day after his resurrection, before the sight of many
men, and ruleth with the Almighty Father and the Holy Ghost, now and ever
to eternity. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *


    Cum esset sero die illo una sabbatorum: et reliqua.

"Æfter ðæs Hælendes ǽriste wæron his discipuli belocene on anum huse for
ðæs Iudeiscan folces ógan:" et reliqua.

Nu cwyð se godspellere Iohannes, þæt se Hælend worhte fela oðre tacna on
gesihðe his leorning-cnihta, þe næron gesette on Cristes béc. Þas wundra
sind awritene to ði þæt ge sceolon gelyfan þæt se Hælend is Godes Sunu, and
ge sceolon habban þæt ece líf þurh ðone geleafan.

Nu trahtnað se papa Gregorius ðis godspel, and cwyð, þæt gehwá wundrað hu
se Hælend become in to his apostolum, and wæron ðeah-hwæðere ða dura
belocene. Nu cwyð eft se halga Gregorius, þæt Cristes lichama com inn,
beclysedum durum, seðe wearð acenned of ðam mædene Marian beclysedum
innoðe. Hwilc wundor is þæt se Hælend mid ecum lichaman come inn, belocenum
durum, seðe mid deadlicum lichaman wearð acenned of beclysedum innoðe þæs

We rædað on ðære bec ðe is geháten Actus Apostolorum, þæt þa heafod-men
Iudeisces folces gebrohton Cristes apostolas on cwearterne: þa on niht com
him to Godes engel, and lædde hí út of ðam cwearterne, and stód on merigen
þæt cweartern fæste belocen. God mæig dón ealle ðing: nu sceole we wundrian
his mihte, and eac gelyfan. Þone lichaman he æteowde to grapigenne, þone ðe
he inn-brohte beclysedum durum. His lichama wæs grapigendlic, and
ðeah-hwæðere unbrosnigendlic; he æteowde hine grapigendlicne and
unbrosnigendlicne, forðan ðe his lichama wæs þæs ylcan gecyndes ðe he ǽr
wæs, ac wæs hwæðere þeah oðres wuldres.

Se Hælend cwæð to him, "Beo sibb betwux eow." For sibbe com Crist to
mannum, and sibbe he bead and tæhte, and nis nan ðing him gecweme þe bið
butan sibbe gedón. {232} "Swa swa min Fæder sende me swa sende ic eow. Se
Fæder lufað þone Sunu, ac ðeah-hwæðere he sende hine to ðrowunge for manna
alysednysse." Crist lufode eac his apostolas, and ðeah-hwæðere ne sette he
hí to cynegum, ne to ealdormannum, ne to woruldlicere blisse; ac tosende hí
geond ealne middangeard, to bodigenne fulluht and ðone geleafan ðe he sylf
tæhte. Þa bododon hí swa lange oð þæt þa ðweoran hí ofslogon, and hí ferdon
sigefæste to heora Drihtne.

Crist bleow on ða apostolas, and cwæð, "Onfoð Haligne Gast." Tuwa com se
Halga Gast ofer ða apostolas; nu ǽne, and eft oðre siðe æfter Cristes
upstige. Crist ableow þone Halgan Gast ofer ða apostolas, ða-gyt wunigende
on eorðan, for ðære getacnunge, þæt ælc cristen mann sceal lufian his
nextan swa swa hine sylfne. Eft siððan he to heofenum astáh, he sende þone
ylcan Gast on fyres híwe ofer ða apostolas, to ði þæt we sceolon lufian God
ofer ealle oðre ðing. An is se Halga Gast, þeah ðe he tuwa become ofer ða
apostolas. Swa is eac án lufu, and twá bebodu, þæt we sceolon lufian God
and men. Ac we sceolon geleornian on mannum hu we magon becuman to Godes
lufe, swa swa Iohannes se apostol cwæð, "Se ðe ne lufað his broðor, þone ðe
hé gesihð, hu mæg he lufian God, þone ðe he ne gesihð lichamlice?" Ær ðam
fyrste wæs se Halga Gast wunigende on ðam apostolum, ac hí næron to ðan
swiðe onbryrde, þæt hí mihton swa bealdlice Godes geleafan bodian, swa swa
hí siððan mihton, þurh gife ðæs Halgan Gastes. Hí sæton beclysede, for ógan
Iudeisces folces, on anum huse; ac syððan hí wæron gefyllede mid þam Halgum
Gaste, hí wurdon swa gehyrte, and swa cene, þæt hí bodedon freolice Godes
naman reðum cynegum and wælreowum.

Crist cwæð to ðam apostolum, "Þæra manna synna þe ge forgyfað, þæra beoð
forgifene; and ðam ðe ge ofteoð þa forgifenysse, ðam bið oftogen." Þisne
anweald forgeaf Crist þam apostolum and eallum bisceopum, gif hí hit on
riht healdað. Ac gif se bisceop deð be his agenum willan, and wile {234}
bíndan þone únscyldigan, and þone scyldigan alysan, þonne forlyst hé ða
mihte ðe him God forgeaf. Þam mannum he sceal dón synna forgifenysse, þe hé
gesihð þæt beoð onbryrde ðurh Godes gife, and þam he sceal aheardian þe
náne behreowsunge nabbað heora misdæda. Crist arærde of deaðe þone
stincendan Lazarum, and þaþa hé cucu wæs, þa cwæð hé to his
leorning-cnihtum, "Tolysað his bendas, þæt hé gán mæge." Þa alysdon hí þæs
ge-edcucedan mannes bendas, þe Crist arærde to life. Forði sceolon ða
láreowas ða unbindan fram heora synnum þa ðe Crist gelíffæst þurh
onbryrdnysse. Ælc synful man þe his synna bediglað, he lið dead on byrgene;
ac gif he his synna geandett þurh onbryrdnysse, þonne gæð he of þære
byrgene, swa swa Lazarus dyde, þaða Crist hine arisan het: þonne sceal se
lareow hine unbindan fram ðam ecum wíte, swa swa ða apostoli lichamlice
Lazarum alysdon. Ac se læweda mann sceal him ondrædan þæs bisceopes cwyde,
þeah hé unscyldig sy; þylæs ðe he ðurh modignysse scyldig weorðe.

Ne getimode þam apostole Thome unforsceawodlice, þæt he ungeleafful wæs
Cristes æristes, ac hit getimode þurh Godes forsceawunge; forðan ðurh his
grapunge we sind geleaffulle. Mare ús fremode his tweonung þonne ðæra oðra
apostola geleaffulnys; forðan ðaða hé wæs gebroht to geleafan mid ðære
grapunge, þa wearð seo twynung þurh þæt ús ætbroden. Eaðe mihte Crist
arisan of deaðe butan dolhswaðum, ac to ði he heold þa dolhswaðu, þæt he
wolde mid þam þa twynigendan getrymman. He cwæð to Thoman, "Þu gelyfst,
forðan ðe ðu me gesawe." He geseah ðone lichaman and þa dolhswaðu, and he
gelyfde þæt he wæs God, seðe arærde þone lichaman of deaðe. Swiðe blissiað
þas wórd ús þe her æfterfiliað, "Gesælige beoð þa þe me ne gesawon, and
þeah on me gelyfað." Mid ðam cwyde sind þa ealle getacnode þe Crist on
lichaman ne gesawon, and ðeah-hwæðere hine healdað on heora mode þurh
geleafan. Se gelyfð soðlice on God, seðe mid weorcum begæð þæt þæt hé {236}
gelyfð. Se ðe andet þæt hé God cunne, and yfele weorc begæð, þonne wiðsæcð
he God mid þam weorcum. Se geleafa þe bið butan godum weorcum, se is dead.
Þis sind ðæra apostola word, undernimað hí mid carfullum mode.

We sprecað embe ærist. Nu sind sume men þe habbað twynunge be æriste, and
ðonne hi geseoð deadra manna bán, þonne cweðað hí, Hu magon ðas bán beon
ge-edcucode? Swilce hí wíslice sprecon! Ac we cweðað þær-togeanes, þæt God
is Ælmihtig, and mæg eal þæt he wile. He geworhte heofonas and eorðan and
ealle gesceafta butan antimbre. Nu is geðuht þæt him sy sumera ðinga
eaðelicor to arærenne ðone deadan of ðam duste, þonne him wære to wyrcenne
ealle gesceafta of nahte: ac soðlice him sind ealle ðing gelice eaðe, and
nán ðing earfoðe. He worhte Adam of láme. Nu ne mage we asmeagan hú hé of
ðam láme flæsc worhte, and blod bán and fell, fex and næglas. Men geseoð
oft þæt of anum lytlum cyrnele cymð micel treow, ac we ne magon geseon on
þam cyrnele naðor ne wyrtruman, ne rinde, ne bógas, ne leaf: ac se God þe
forðtihð of ðam cyrnele treow, and wæstmas, and leaf, se ylca mæg of duste
arǽran flæsc and bán, sina and fex, swa swa he cwæð on his godspelle, "Ne
sceal eow beon forloren an hǽr of eowrum heafde."

Se apostol Paulus cwæð, þæt we sceolon arisan of deaðe on ðære ylde þe
Crist wæs þaða he ðrowade, þæt is embe þreo and ðritig geara. Þeah cild
forðfare, oððe forwerod man, þeah-hwæðere hí cumað to þære ylde ðe we ær
cwædon; hæfð þeah gehwá his agenne wæstm, þe he on þissum life hæfde, oððe
habban sceolde, gif he his gebide. Gif hwá alefed wære, oððe limleas on
þissum life, he bið þonne swa hit awriten is, þæt "Ealle ða þe to Godes
rice gebyrigað, nabbað naðor ne womm ne awyrdnysse on heora lichaman." Hwæt
sceole we smeagan embe ða oðre þe gewítað to ðam ecum forwyrde, hwæðer hí
alefede beon oððe limlease, þonne hí beoð on ecere susle wunigende?

Hit bið þonne swa swa Crist cwæð, þæt "Nan wer ne {238} wifað, ne wif ne
ceorlað, ne team ne bið getymed, ne hí deaðes ne abyrigað siððan, ac beoð
englum gelice, þonne hí mid englum wuniað." Ne him ne lyst nanre galnysse,
ne hí næfre siððan synna ne gewyrceað. Ne bið þær sorh, ne sár, ne nan
gedreccednys, ac bið fulfremed sib and singal bliss, and beoð cuðe ge ða þe
ær cuðe wæron ge ða þe uncuðe wæron, wunigende on broðorlicre lufe mid Gode
á on ecnysse. Amen.


    Cum esset sero die illo una sabbatorum: et reliqua.

"After the resurrection of Jesus his disciples were shut in a house for
dread of the Jews," etc.

Now says the evangelist John, that Jesus wrought many other miracles in the
sight of his disciples, which have not been recorded in the book of Christ.
These miracles are written to the end that ye may believe that Jesus is the
Son of God, and that ye may have eternal life through that belief.

Now the pope Gregory, expounding this gospel, says, that everyone wonders
how Jesus came in to his apostles, and yet the doors were shut. But again
St. Gregory says, that Christ's body came in, the doors being closed, which
was born of the Virgin Mary, of a closed womb. What wonder is it, that
Jesus with an everlasting body came in, the doors being closed, who with a
mortal body was born of the closed womb of the virgin?

We read in the book which is called The Acts of the Apostles, that the
chief men of the Jewish people brought Christ's apostles into prison: then
by night God's angel came to them, and led them out of the prison, and on
the morrow the prison stood fast shut up. God can do all things: therefore
we should wonder at his might, and also believe. He showed the body to be
touched which he had brought in, the doors being closed. His body was
tangible, and, nevertheless, incorruptible; he showed himself tangible and
incorruptible, for his body was of the same nature that it before was, but
was yet of another glory.

Jesus said to them, "Peace be among you." For peace Christ came to men, and
peace he enjoined and taught, and nothing is to him acceptable which is
done without peace. {233} "As my Father sent me so I send you. The Father
loveth the Son, but yet he sendeth him to suffering for the redemption of
men." Christ also loved his apostles, and yet he established them not as
kings, nor as governors, nor in worldly bliss; but he sent them over all
the earth, to preach baptism and the faith which he himself had taught.
They preached until the wicked slew them, and they went triumphant to their

Christ blew on the apostles, and said, "Receive the Holy Ghost." Twice came
the Holy Ghost over the apostles; once now, and again another time at
Christ's ascension. Christ blew the Holy Ghost over the apostles, while yet
continuing on earth, for a token that every christian man should love his
neighbour as himself. Again, after he had ascended to heaven, he sent the
Holy Ghost in semblance of fire over the apostles, to the end that we
should love God above all other things. The Holy Ghost is one, though he
came twice over the apostles. So there is also one love, and two
commandments, that we should love God and men. But we should learn in men
how we may come to the love of God, as John the apostle said, "He who
loveth not his brother, whom he seeth, how can he love God, whom he seeth
not bodily?" Before that time the Holy Ghost was dwelling in the apostles,
but they were not stimulated to that degree, that they could boldly preach
God's faith, as they could afterwards, through the grace of the Holy Ghost.
They sat, for fear of the Jewish people, shut in a house; but after they
were filled with the Holy Ghost, they were so encouraged, and so bold, that
they freely proclaimed the name of God to fierce and bloodthirsty kings.

Christ said to the apostles, "Those men's sins which ye forgive, they shall
be forgiven; and those from whom ye withdraw forgiveness, from them it
shall be withdrawn." This power Christ gave to the apostles and to all
bishops, if they righteously hold it. But if the bishop act by his own
will, {235} and will bind the innocent, and loose the guilty, then loses he
the power which God gave him. To those men he shall grant forgiveness of
sins, whom he sees that they are stimulated by God's grace, and to those he
shall be obdurate who have no repentance of their misdeeds. Christ raised
from death the stinking Lazarus, and when he was quickened, he said to his
disciples, "Loose his bands, that he may go." They loosed the bands of the
requickened man, whom Christ had raised to life. Therefore should our
teachers unbind from their sins those whom Christ quickens by stimulation.
Every sinful man who conceals his sins, lies dead in the sepulchre; but if
he confess his sins through stimulation, then he goes from the sepulchre,
as Lazarus did, when Christ bade him arise: then shall the teacher unbind
him from the eternal punishment, as the apostles bodily unbound Lazarus.
But the layman shall stand in awe of the bishop's word, though he be
guiltless; lest he become guilty through pride.

It happened to the apostle Thomas not unprovidentially, that he was
unbelieving of Christ's resurrection, but it happened by the providence of
God; for through his touching we are believing. Of greater benefit to us
was his doubt than the faith of the other apostles; for when he was brought
to belief by that touching, doubt was thereby taken from us. Easily might
Christ have arisen from death without scars, but he held the scars, because
he would thereby confirm the doubtful. He said to Thomas, "Thou believest,
because thou hast seen me." He saw the body and the scars, and he believed
that he was God, who had raised the body from death. Greatly gladden us the
words which here follow, "Blessed are they who have not seen me, and yet
believe in me." By that saying are betokened all those who have not seen
Christ in the body, and, nevertheless, hold him in their mind through
faith. For he believes in God, who by works practises that which he
believes. He who acknowledges that {237} he knows God, and performs evil
works, denies God by those works. Faith without good works is dead. These
are the words of the apostles, receive them with careful mind.

We will speak concerning the resurrection. Now there are some men who have
doubt of the resurrection, and when they see the bones of dead men, they
say, How can these bones be again quickened? as if they speak wisely! But
we say against them, that God is Almighty, and can do all that he will. He
wrought heaven and earth and all creatures without matter. Now it seems
that it is somewhat easier to him to raise the dead from the dust, than it
was to him to make all creatures from naught: but truly to him are all
things alike easy, and nothing difficult. He wrought Adam of loam. Now we
cannot investigate how of that loam he made flesh and blood, bones and
skin, hair and nails. Men often see that of one little kernel comes a great
tree, but in the kernel we can see neither root, nor rind, nor boughs, nor
leaves: but the same God who draws forth from the kernel tree, and fruits,
and leaves, may from dust raise flesh and bones, sinews and hair, as he
said in his gospel, "There shall not be lost to you one hair of your head."

The apostle Paul said, that we should arise from death at the age that
Christ was when he suffered, that is about three and thirty years. Though a
child depart, or a worn-out man, they will, nevertheless, come to the age
we before said; yet will everyone have his own growth, which he had in this
life, or should have had, if he had awaited it. If any one be maimed, or
limbless in this life, he will be as it is written, that "All those who
belong to God's kingdom, shall have neither blemish nor hurt on their
bodies." What shall we suppose concerning those others who depart to
everlasting perdition, whether they are maimed or limbless, when they are
dwelling in eternal torment?

It will then be as Christ said, that "No man taketh to {239} wife, nor
woman to husband, nor family is begotten, nor taste they of death, but will
be like unto the angels, when they dwell with angels." No libidinousness
will give them pleasure, nor will they ever perpetrate sins. No sorrow nor
pain will be there, nor no affliction, but there will be perfect peace and
continual bliss, and there will be known both those who were known before
and those who were unknown, dwelling in brotherly love with God ever to
eternity. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *


    Dixit Iesus discipulis suis, Ego sum pastor bonus: et reliqua.

Þis godspel, þe nú geræd wæs, cwyð, þæt se Hælend cwæde be him sylfum, "Ic
eom gód hyrde: se góda hyrde sylð his agen líf for his sceapum. Se hyra,
seðe nis riht hyrde, he gesihð þone wulf cuman, and he forlæt ða scép and
flyhð; and se wulf sum gelæcð and ða oðre tostencð," et reliqua.

Crist is goód gecyndelice, and soðlice nis nan ðing gód butan Gode anum.
Gif ænig gesceaft is gód, þonne is seo gódnys of ðam Scyppende, seðe is
healice gód. He cwæð, "Se góda hyrde sylð his agen líf for his sceapum."
Ure Alysend is se góda hyrde, and we cristene men sind his scép, and he
sealde his agen líf for ure alysednysse. He dyde swa swa he manede, and mid
þam he geswutelode hwæt he bebead. Gód hyrde wæs Petrus, and gód wæs
Paulus, and góde wæron ða apostoli, ðe hyra líf sealdon for Godes folce and
for rihtum geleafan; ac heora gódnys wæs of ðam heafde, þæt is Crist, ðe is
heora heafod, and hí sind his lima.

Ælc bisceop and ælc láreow is to hyrde gesett Godes folce, þæt hí sceolon
þæt folc wið ðone wulf gescyldan. Se wulf {240} is deofol, þe syrwð ymbe
Godes gelaðunge, and cepð hu he mage cristenra manna sawla mid leahtrum
fordón. Þonne sceal se hyrde, þæt is se bisceop oððe oðer láreow,
wiðstandan þam reðan wulfe mid láre and mid gebedum. Mid lare he sceal him
tæcan, þæt hi cunnon hwæt deofol tæchð mannum to forwyrde, and hwæt God
bebýt to gehealdenne, for begeate þæs ecan lifes. He sceal him
fore-gebiddan, þæt God gehealde þa strángan, and gehæle ða untruman. Se bið
to strángum geteald, seþe wiðstent deofles lare; se bið untrum, seðe on
leahtrum fylð. Ac se láreow bið unscyldig, gif he þæt folc mid lare
gewissað, and him wið God geðingað. Þa twa ðing he sceal ðam folce dón, and
eac mid his agenum oðrum gehelpan; and gif hit swa getímað, his agen líf
syllan for ðæs folces hreddinge.

"Se hyra flihð þonne he ðone wulf gesihð." Se is hyra and na hyrde, seðe
bið begripen on woruld-ðingum, and lufað þone wurðmynt and ða
ateorigendlican edlean, and næfð inweardlice lufe to Godes sceapum. He cepð
þæra sceatta, and blissað on ðam wurðmynte, and hæfð his mede for ðisum
life, and bið bescyred þære ecan mede. Nast ðu hwá bið hyra, hwá hyrde,
ærðam ðe se wulf cume; ac se wulf geswutelað mid hwilcum mode he gymde þæra
sceapa. Se wulf cymð to ðam sceapum, and sume hé abitt, sume hé tostencð,
þonne se reða deofol tihð þa cristenan men, sume to forlígre, sume hé
ontent to gytsunge, sume hé arærð to modignysse, sume hé þurh graman
totwæmð, and mid mislicum costnungum gastlice ofslihð. Ac se hyra ne bið
naðor ne mid ware ne mid lufe astyred, ac flyhð, forðan þe hé smeað embe ða
woruldlican hyðða, and lǽt to gymeleaste þære sceapa lyre. Ne flyhð he na
mid lichaman, ac mid mode. He flyhð, forðan þe hé geseh unrihtwisnysse and
suwade. Hé flyhð forðan ðe he is hyra, and ná hyrde, swilce hit swa
gecweden sy, Ne mæg se standan ongean fræcednyssa þæra sceapa, seðe ne gymð
þæra sceapa mid lufe, ac {242} tylað his sylfes; þæt is þæt hé lufað þa
eorðlican gestreon, and na Godes folc.

Wulf bið eac se unrihtwisa rica, ðe bereafað þa cristenan, and ða eadmodan
mid his riccetere ofsitt: ac se hyra, oððe se médgylda ne gedyrstlæcð þæt
he his unrihtwisnysse wiðstande, þæt he ne forleose his wurðmynt, and ða
woruldlican gestreon ðe he lufað swiðor ðonne þa cristenan menn. Be ðisum
awrát se wítega Ezechiel, þus cweðende, "Ge hyrdas, gehyrað Godes word:
Mine scép sint tostencte ðurh eowre gymeleaste, and sind abítene. Ge cariað
embe eowerne bigleofan, and ná embe þæra sceapa; forði ic wille ofgán ða
scép æt eowrum handum; and ic do þæt ge geswícað þære wícan, and ic wylle
ahreddan mine eowde wið eow. Ic sylf wylle gadrian mine scép þe wæron
tostencte, and ic wylle hi healdan on genihtsumere læse: þæt þæt losode þæt
ic wylle sécan and ongean lædan; þæt þæt alefed wæs, þæt ic gehæle; þæt
untrume ic wylle getrymman, and þæt strange gehealdan, and ic hí læswige on
dome and on rihtwisnysse."

Þas word spræc God þurh ðone wítegan Ezechiel, be láreowum and be his
folce. Ge sceolon beon geornfulle to eower agenre ðearfe, þeah hit swa
getimige þæt se láreow gimeleas beo, and doð swa swa Crist tæhte, "Gif se
láreow wel tǽce and yfele bysnige, doð swa swa he tæcð, and na be ðam þe hé
bysnað." Se Hælend cwæð be him, "Ic eom gód hyrde, and ic oncnawe mine
scép, and hí oncnawað me." Þæt is, ic lufige hí, and hí lufiað me. Se ðe ne
lufað soðfæstnysse, ne oncneow he na gyt God. Ac behealde ge hwæðer ge sind
Godes scép, hwæðer ge hine gyt oncneowon, hwæðer ge mid soðfæstnysse hine
lufiað. Hé cwæð, "Swa swa min Fæder oncnǽwð me, and ic oncnáwe hine, and ic
sylle min agen lif for minum sceapum." He oncnǽwð his Fæder ðurh hine
sylfne, and we oncnawað þurh hine. Mid þære lufe þe hé wolde for mancynne
sweltan, mid þære hé cyðde hú micclan hé lufað his Fæder. He cwæð, "Ic
hæbbe oðre scép þe ne sind na of ðisre eowde, and ða ic sceal lædan, {244}
and hi gehyrað mine stemne, and sceal beon án eowd, and án hyrde."

Þis hé spræc on Iudea-lande: ðær wæs án eowd of ðam mannum þe on God
belyfdon on ðam leodscipe. Þa oðre scép syndon þa þe of eallum oðrum eardum
to Gode búgað; and Crist hí gebrincð ealle on ánre eowde on ðam ecan life.
Manega sind hyrdas under Criste, and ðeah-hwæðere he is ána heora ealra
Hyrde, seðe leofað and rixað mid Fæder and mid Halgum Gaste, á on ecnysse.


    Dixit Jesus discipulis suis, Ego sum pastor bonus: et reliqua.

This gospel, which has now been read, says, that Jesus said of himself, "I
am the good shepherd: the good shepherd giveth his own life for his sheep.
The hireling, who is not the right shepherd, seeth the wolf coming, and he
forsaketh the sheep and fleeth; and the wolf teareth one, and scattereth
the others," etc.

Christ is good by nature, and in sooth there is nothing good, save God
only. If any creature is good, then is its goodness of the Creator, who is
supremely good. He said, "The good shepherd giveth his own life for his
sheep." Our Redeemer is the good shepherd, and we christian men are his
sheep, and he gave his own life for our redemption. He did as he exhorted,
and he thereby manifested what he enjoined. A good shepherd was Peter, and
good was Paul, and good were the apostles, who gave their lives for God's
people and for the right faith; but their goodness was of the head, which
is Christ, who is their head, and they are his limbs.

Every bishop and every teacher is placed as a shepherd over God's people,
that they may shield the people against {241} the wolf. The wolf is the
devil, who lies in ambush about God's church, and watches how he may fordo
the souls of christian men with sins. Then shall the shepherd, that is, the
bishop or other teacher, withstand the fierce wolf with doctrine and with
prayers. With doctrine he shall teach them, that they may know what the
devil teaches for men's perdition, and what God commands to be observed for
the attainment of everlasting life. He shall pray for them, that God may
preserve the strong and heal the weak. He is to be accounted strong who
withstands the precepts of the devil; he is weak who falls into sins. But
the teacher will be guiltless, if he direct the people with doctrine, and
mediate for them with God. These two things he shall do for the people, and
also help others with his own; and if it so happen, give his own life for
the saving of the people.

"The hireling fleeth when he seeth the wolf." He is a hireling and not a
shepherd, who is engaged in worldly things, and loves dignity and
perishable rewards, and has no inward love for God's sheep. He takes heed
of treasures, and rejoices in dignity, and has his reward in this life, and
will be cut off from the everlasting reward. Thou knowest not who is a
hireling, who a shepherd, before the wolf comes; but the wolf makes
manifest in what manner he watches the sheep. The wolf comes to the sheep,
and some he devours, some he scatters, when the fierce devil instigates
christian men, some to adultery, some he inflames to covetousness, some he
lifts up to pride, some through anger he divides, and with divers
temptations spiritually slays: for the hireling is excited neither by care
nor love, but flees, because he considers worldly advantages, and leaves
unheeded the loss of the sheep. He flees not with body, but with mind. He
flees because he saw iniquity and held silence. He flees because he is a
hireling and not a shepherd, as though it were so said, He cannot stand
against the perils of the sheep, who guardeth not the sheep with love, but
provideth {243} for himself; that is, he loves worldly gain, and not God's

The unrighteous powerful man also is a wolf, who robs christians, and
oppresses the humble with his power: for the hireling, or the mercenary,
dares not withstand his unrighteousness lest he lose his dignity, and the
worldly gain which he loves more than christian men. Concerning this the
prophet Ezechiel wrote, thus saying, "Ye shepherds, hear the word of God:
My sheep are scattered through your heedlessness, and are devoured. Ye care
for your own sustenance, and not for that of the sheep; therefore I will
require the sheep at your hands, and I will cause you to depart from the
fold, and I will deliver my flock from you. I myself will gather my sheep
that were scattered, and I will feed them in an abundant pasture: that
which was lost I will seek and bring again; that which was maimed I will
heal; the sick I will strengthen, and feed the strong, and I will pasture
them in judgement and in righteousness."

These words spake God through the prophet Ezechiel, concerning teachers and
concerning his people. Ye should be zealous for your own need (though it so
happen that the teacher be heedless), and do as Christ taught, "If the
teacher teach well, and give evil example, do as he teacheth, and not
according to his example." Jesus says of himself, "I am a good shepherd,
and I know my sheep, and they know me." That is, I love them, and they love
me. He who loves not truth, he yet knows not God. But consider whether ye
are God's sheep, whether ye yet know him, whether ye with truth love him.
He said, "As my Father knoweth me, I also know him, and I give my own life
for my sheep." He knows his Father through himself, and we know him through
him. With that love with which he would die for mankind, he manifested how
greatly he loves his Father. He said, "I have other sheep which are not of
this fold, and those I {245} shall bring, and they will hear my voice, and
there shall be one fold and one shepherd."

This he spake in the land of Juda: there was a fold of men who believed in
God in that nation. The other sheep are those of all other countries who
incline to God; and Christ will bring them all to one fold in eternal life.
Many are the shepherds under Christ, and yet he alone is Shepherd of them
all, who liveth and ruleth with the Father and with the Holy Ghost ever to
eternity. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *


Ðas dagas synd gehatene LETANIAE, þæt sint, GEBED-DAGAS. On ðisum dagum we
sceolon gebiddan ure eorðlicra wæstma genihtsumnysse, and us sylfum
gesundfulnysse and sibbe, and, þæt gýt mare is, ure synna forgyfenysse.

We rædað on bócum, þæt ðeos gehealdsumnys wurde arǽred on ðone timan ðe
gelámp on anre byrig, ðe Uigenna is gecweden, micel eorð-styrung, and
feollon cyrcan and hús, and comon wilde beran and wulfas, and abíton ðæs
folces micelne dǽl, and þæs cynges botl wearð mid heofonlicum fyre
forbærned. Þa bead se biscop Mamertus ðreora daga fæsten, and seo
gedreccednys ða geswac; and se gewuna ðæs fæstenes ðurhwunað gehwær on
geleaffulre gelaðunge.

Hí namon þa bysne ðæs fæstenys æt ðam Niniueiscan folce. Þæt folc wæs swiðe
fyrenful: þa wolde God hí fordón, ac hí gegladodon hine mid heora
behreowsunge. God spræc to anum wítegan, se wæs Ionas geháten, "Far to ðære
byrig Niniuen, and boda ðær ða word þe ic þe secge. Þa wearð se wítega
afyrht, and wolde forfleon Godes gesihðe, ac hé ne mihte. Ferde ða to sǽ,
and stah on scip. Ðaða þa scypmen comon ut on sǽ, þa sende him God to
micelne {246} wind and hreohnysse, swa þæt hí wæron órwene heora lífes. Hi
ða wurpon heora waru oforbord, and se wítega læg and slép. Hi wurpon ða tán
betweox him, and bædon þæt God sceolde geswutulian hwanon him þæt ungelimp
become. Þa com ðæs wítegan tá upp. Hi axodon hine, Hwæt hé wære, oððe hú hé
faran wolde? He cwæð, þæt hé wære Godes ðeow, seðe gesceop sǽ and lánd, and
þæt hé fleon wolde of Godes gesihðe. Hí cwædon, Hú do we ymbe ðe? Hé
andwyrde, Weorpað me oforbord, þonne geswicð þeos gedreccednys. Hí ða swa
dydon, and seo hreohnys wearð gestilled, and hí offrodon Gode heora lác,
and tugon forð."

God ða gegearcode ænne hwǽl, and hé forswealh þone wítegan, and abǽr hine
to ðam lande þe he tó sceolde, and hine ðær út-aspáw. Þa com eft Godes wórd
to ðam wítegan, and cwæð, "Arís nu, and ga to ðære mycelan byrig Niniuén,
and boda swa swa ic ðe ær sæde." He ferde, and bodode, þæt him wæs Godes
grama ónsigende, gif hí to Gode bugan noldon. Ða arás se cyning of his
cynesetle, and awearp his deorwyrðe reaf, and dyde hæran to his lice, and
axan uppan his heafod, and bead þæt ælc man swa dón sceolde; and ægðer ge
men ge ða sucendan cild and eac ða nytenu ne onbyrigdon nanes ðinges binnan
ðrim dagum. Þa, ðurh þa gecyrrednysse, þæt hí yfeles geswicon, and ðurh þæt
strange fæsten, him gemildsode God, and nolde hi fordón, swa swa he ǽr þa
twa burhwara Sodomam and Gomorram, for heora leahtrum, mid heofonlicum fyre

We sceolon eac on ðissum dagum begán ure gebedu, and fyligan urum haligdome
ut and inn, and ðone Ælmihtigan God mid geornfulnysse herian. We wyllað nu
þis godspel eow gereccan, þe her nu geræd wæs: "Quis uestrum habebit
amicum:" et reliqua. "Se Hælend cwæð to his leorning-cnihtum, Hwilc eower
is þe hæfð sumne freond, and gæð him to on middere nihte, and cwyð": et

{248} Se halga Augustinus trahtnode þis godspel, and cwæð, þæt seo niht
getacnode þa nytennysse þisre worulde. Þeos woruld is afylled mid
nytennysse. Nu sceal forði gehwá arisan of ðære nytennysse, and gan to his
frynd, þæt is, þæt he sceal gebugan to Criste mid ealre geornfulnysse, and
biddan þæra ðreora hlafa, þæt is, geleafan þære Halgan Ðrynnysse. Se
Ælmihtiga Fæder is God, and his Sunu is Ælmihtig God, and se Halga Gast is
Ælmihtig God; na ðry Godas, ac hí ealle án Ælmihtig God untodæledlic. Þonne
ðu becymst to ðisum ðrym hlafum, þæt is, to andgite ðære Halgan Ðrynnysse,
þonne hæfst ðu on ðam geleafan líf and fódan ðinre sawle, and miht oðerne
cuman eac mid ðam fedan, þæt is, ðu miht tæcan ðone geleafan oðrum frynd þe
þe ðæs bitt. He cwæð, 'cuma,' forðan ðe we ealle sind cuman on ðisum life,
and ure eard nis na her; ac we sind her swilce wegferende menn; án cymð,
oðer færð; se bið acenned, se oðer forðfærð and rymð him setl. Nu sceal
gehwá forði gewilnian þæs geleafan þære Halgan Ðrynnysse, forðan ðe se
geleafa hine gebrincð to ðam ecan life.

We wyllað eft embe ðone geleafan swiðor sprecan, forðan ðe ðises godspelles
traht hæfð gódne tige. Se hiredes ealdor, þe wæs on his reste gebroht mid
his cildum, is Crist, þe sitt on heofonum mid his apostolum, and mid
martyrum, and mid eallum þam halgum, þe he on ðisum life gefette. We
sceolon clypigan to Criste, and biddan ðæra ðreora hlafa. Þeah hé ús
þærrihte ne getiðige, ne sceole we forði þære bene geswican. He elcað, and
wyle hwæðere forgyfan. Þi hé elcað, þæt we sceolon beon oflyste, and
deorwyrðlice healdan Godes gife. Swa hwæt swa man eaðelice begyt, þæt ne
bið na swa deorwyrðe swa þæt þæt earfoðlice bið begyten. Se Hælend cwæð,
"Gif he ðurhwunað cnucigende, þonne arist se hiredes ealdor, for ðæs oðres
onhrope, and him getiðað þæs ðe he bitt, na for freondrædene, ac for his
unstilnysse." Þi he cwæð, "Na for freondrædene," forðan ðe nán man nære
wyrðe ne þæs geleafan ne ðæs ecan lifes, gif Godes mildheortnys nære {250}
ðe mare ofer manncynne. Nu sceole we cnucian, and hryman to Criste, forðan
ðe hé wile us tiðian, swa swa he sylf cwæð, "Biddað, and eow bið forgifen;
secað, and ge gemetað; cnuciað, and eow bið geopenod." Ælc ðæra ðe
geornlice bitt, and þære bene ne geswicð, þam getiðað God þæs ecan lifes.

He cwæð þa oðer bigspel. "Hwilc fæder wile syllan his cilde stán, gif hit
hine hlafes bitt? oþþe næddran, gif hit fisces bitt? oððe þone wyrm
ðrowend, gif hit æges bitt?" God is ure Fæder þurh his mildheortnysse, and
se fisc getacnað geleafan, and þæt æig ðone halgan hiht, se hláf ða soðan
lufe. Þas ðreo ðing forgifð God his gecorenum; forðan ðe nan man ne mæg
habban Godes rice, butan he hæbbe ðas ðreo ðing. He sceal rihtlice gelyfan,
and habban hiht to Gode, and soðe lufe to Gode and to mannum, gif he wile
to Godes rice becuman. Se fisc getacnað geleafan, forðan ðe his gecynd is,
swa hine swiðor ða yða wealcað, swa he strengra bið, and swiðor batað. Swa
eac se geleaffulla man, swa he swiðor bið geswenct for his geleafan, swa se
geleafa strengra bið, þær ðær hé æltæwe bið. Gif hé abryð on ðære ehtnysse,
he ne bið þonne geleafa, ac bið híwung. Þæt æig getacnað hiht, forði ðe
fugelas ne tymað swa swa oðre nytenu, ac ærest hit bið æig, and seo modor
siððan mid hihte bret þæt æig to bridde. Swa eac ure hiht ne becom na gyt
to ðam ðe he hopað, ac is swilce hé sy æig. Þonne he hæfð þæt him behaten
is, he bið fugel. Hláf getacnað þa soðan lufe, seo is ealra mægna mæst, swa
swa se hláf bið ealra metta fyrmest. Micel mægen is geleafa, and micel is
se soða hiht; þeah-hwæðere seo lufu hi oferswið, forðan ðe heo bið á on
ecnysse, and ða oðre twa geendiað. We gelyfað nu on God, and we hopiað to
him: eft þonne we becumað to his ríce, swa swa he us behet, þonne bið se
geleafa geendod, forðan ðe we geseoð þonne þæt we nu gelyfað. Ure hiht bið
eac geendod, forðan ðe we beoð hæbbende ðæs ðe we ær hopedon; ac seo lufu
ne ateorað næfre: nu is heo forði heora selest.

{252} Seo næddre is geset on ðam godspelle ongean ðone fisc. On næddran
híwe beswác se deofol Adam; and æfre hé winð nu ongean urne geleafan: ac
seo gescyldnys is æt urum Fæder gelang. Se wyrm ðrowend, þe is geset ongean
þæt æig, is ættren, and slihð mid þam tægle to deaðe. Þa ðing ðe we geseoð
on ðisum lífe, ða sind ateorigendlice; þa ðe we ne geseoð, and us sind
behátene, hi sind éce: strece ðærto þinne hiht, and anbida oðþæt ðu hi
hæbbe. Ne loca ðu underbæc; ondræd þe ðone ðrowend þe geǽttrað mid þam
tægle. Se man locað underbæc, þe geortruwað Godes mildheortnysse; þonne bið
his hiht geættrod mid þæs ðrowendes tægle. Ac we sceolon æigðer ge on
earfoðnyssum, ge on gelimpe and on ungelimpe, cweðan, swa swa se witega
cwæð, "Ic herige minne Drihten on ælcne tíman." Getimige ús tela on
lichaman, getimige ús untela, symle we sceolon þæs Gode ðancian, and his
naman bletsian; þonne bið ure hiht gehealden wið þæs wyrmes slege.

Stán is gesett ongean ðone hláf, forðan ðe heardmodnys is wiðerræde soðre
lufe. Heardheort bið se mann, ðe nele þurh lufe oðrum fremigan, þær ðær hé
mæg. Þæt godspel cwæð, "Gif ge cunnon, þa ðe yfele sind, syllan ða gódnysse
eowrum bearnum, hu micele swiðor wile eower Heofonlica Fæder forgyfan gódne
gast him biddendum." Hwæt sind ða gód þe men syllað heora cildum?
Hwilwendlice gódnyssa, swylce swa þæt godspel hrepode, hláf, and fisc, and
æig. Góde sind þas ðing be heora mæðe, forðan ðe se eorðlica lichama
behofað þæs fodan. Nu ge, gleawe men, nellað syllan eowrum cildum næddran
for fisce, nele eac ure Heofonlica Fæder us syllan þæs deofles geleaflæste,
gif we hine biddað þæt he ús sylle soðne geleafan. And ðu nelt syllan ðinum
bearne þrowend for ǽge, nele eac God us syllan orwenysse for hihte. And ðu
nelt ðinum bearne syllan stán for hláfe, nele eac God us syllan
heardheortnysse for soðre lufe. Ac se goda Heofonlica Fæder forgifð us
geleafan, and {254} hiht, and ða soðan lufe, and deð þæt we habbað gódne
gast, þæt is, gódne willan.

Us is to smeagenne þæt word þe he cwæð, "Ge ðe sind yfele." Yfele we sind,
ac we habbað gódne Fæder. We habbað gehyred urne naman, "Ge ðe synt yfele."
Ac hwá is ure Fæder? Se Ælmihtiga God. And hwilcera manna Fæder is he?
Swutelice hit is gesǽd, yfelra manna. And hwilc is se Fæder? Be ðam þe is
gecweden, "Nis nan man gód butan Gode anum." Se ðe æfre is gód, he brincð
us yfele to gódum mannum, gif we bugað fram yfele, and doð gód. Gód wæs se
man gesceapen Adam, ac ðurh his agenne cyre, and deofles tihtinge, he wearð
yfel, and eal his ofspring. Se ðe synful bið, he bið yfel, and nán man nis
on lífe butan sumere synne. Ac ure góda Fæder us geclænsað and gehælð, swa
swa se witega cwæð, "Drihten, gehæl me, and ic beo gehæled; geheald þu me,
and ic beo gehealden."

Se ðe gód beon wile, clypige to ðam þe æfre is gód, þæt he hine gódne
gewyrce. Se man hæfð gold, þæt is gód be his mæðe: he hæfð land and welan,
þa sint góde. Ac ne bið se man gód þurh ðas ðing, butan he mid þam gód
wyrce, swa swa se witega cwæð, "He aspende his ðing, and todælde ðearfum,
and his rihtwisnys wunað á on worulde." He gewanode his feoh and geihte his
rihtwisnysse. He gewanode þæt he forlætan sceal, and þæt bið geiht þæt þæt
he habban sceal on ecnysse. Þu herast ðone mancgere ðe begytt gold mid
leade, and nelt herigan ðone ðe begytt rihtwisnysse and heofonan rice mid
brosnigendlicum feo. Se ríca and se ðearfa sind wegferende on ðisre
worulde. Nu berð se ríca swære byrðene his gestreona, and se ðearfa gæð
æmtig. Se ríca berð mare þonne he behófige to his formettum, se oðer berð
æmtigne pusan. Forði sceal se ríca dælan his byrðene wið þone ðearfan,
þonne wanað he ða byrðene his synna, and ðam þearfan gehelpð. Ealle we sind
Godes þearfan; uton forði oncnawan þa ðearfan þe us biddað, þæt {256} God
oncnawe us, þonne we hine biddað ure neoda. Hwæt sind þa ðe us biddað?
Earme men, and tiddre, and deadlice. Æt hwam biddað hí? Æt earmum mannum,
and tiddrum, and deadlicum. Butan þam æhtum, gelice sind þa þe ðær biddað,
and ðaðe hí ætbiddað. Hú mihtu for sceame æniges ðinges æt Gode biddan, gif
ðu forwyrnst ðinum gelícan þæs ðe ðu foreaðelice him getiðian miht? Ac se
ríca besihð on his pællenum gyrlum, and cwyð, 'Nis se loddere mid his
tættecon mín gelíca.' Ac se apostol Paulus hine nebbað mid þisum wordum,
"Ne brohte we nán ðing to ðisum middangearde, ne we nán ðing heonon mid ús
lædan ne magon."

Gif ríce wíf, and earm acennað togædere, gangon hí aweig; nast ðu hwæðer
bið þæs rícan wífan cild, hwæðer þæs earman. Eft, gif man openað deaddra
manna byrgynu, nast ðu hwæðer beoð þæs rícan mannes bán, hwæðer þæs
ðearfan. Ac seo gytsung is ealra yfelra ðinga wyrtruma; and þa ðe fyligað
þære gytsunge, hí dweliað fram Godes geleafan, and hi befeallað on mislice
costnunga and derigendlice lustas, ðe hi besencað on forwyrd. Oðer is þæt
hwá ríce beo, gif his yldran him æhta becwædon; oðer is, gif hwá þurh
gytsunge ríce gewurðe. Þises mannes gytsung is gewreht wið God, na ðæs
oðres æht, gif his heorte ne bið ontend mid þære gytsunge. Swilcum mannum
bebead se apostol Paulus, "Bebeodað þam ricum þæt hí ne modigan, ne hí ne
hópian on heora ungewissum welan; ac beon hí rice on godum weorcum, and
syllan Godes ðearfum mid cystigum mode, and God him forgylt mid hundfealdum
swa hwæt swa he deð þam earman for his lufon."

Se ríca and se þearfa sind him betwynan nyd-behefe. Se welega is geworht
for ðan ðearfan, and se ðearfa for þan welegan. Þam spedigum gedafenað þæt
he spende and dæle; ðam wædlan gedafenað þæt he gebidde for ðane dælere. Se
earma is se weg þe læt us to Godes rice. Mare sylð se {258} ðearfa þam
rícan þonne he æt him nime. Se ríca him sylð þone hláf ðe bið to meoxe
awend, and se ðearfa sylð þam rícan þæt éce líf: na hé swa-ðeah, ac Crist,
seðe þus cwæð, "Þæt þæt ge doð anum ðearfan on mínum naman, þæt ge doð me
sylfum," seðe leofað and rixað mid Fæder and mid Halgum Gaste á butan ende.


These days are called LITANIÆ, that is, PRAYER-DAYS. On these days we
should pray for abundance of our earthly fruits, and health for ourselves,
and peace, and, what is yet more, forgiveness of our sins.

We read in books, that this observance was established at the time when
there happened in a city, which is called Vienna, a great earthquake, and
churches and houses fell, and there came wild bears and wolves, and
devoured a large portion of the people, and the king's palace was burnt
with heavenly fire. Then the bishop Mamertus commanded a fast of three
days, and the affliction ceased; and the custom of the fast continues
everywhere in the faithful church.

They took the example of the fast from the people of Nineveh. That people
was very sinful: then would God destroy them, but they appeased him with
their penitence. God spake to a prophet who was called Jonah, "Go to the
city of Nineveh, and announce there the words which I say to thee. Then was
the prophet afraid, and would flee from God's presence, but he could not.
He went to the sea, and entered a ship. When the shipmen came out to sea,
God {247} sent to them a great wind and tempest, so that they were hopeless
of their lives. They therefore cast their wares overboard, and the prophet
lay and slept. They then cast lots among them, and prayed that God would
manifest to them whence that affliction came upon them. Then the prophet's
lot came up. They asked him who he was, or how he would go? He said that he
was a servant of God, who created sea and land, and that he would flee from
God's presence. They said, How shall we do regarding thee? He answered,
Cast me overboard, then will this affliction cease. They then did so, and
the tempest was stilled, and they offered their gifts to God, and went on
their course."

God then prepared a whale, and it swallowed up the prophet, and bare him to
the land to which he should go, and there vomited him out. Then again came
the word of God to the prophet, and said, "Arise now, and go to the great
city Nineveh, and preach as I before said to thee." He went and preached,
that God's anger was about to descend on them, if they would not incline to
God. Then, the king arose from his throne, and cast off his precious robes,
and put sackcloth on his body, and ashes upon his head, and commanded that
every man should so do; and that both men and sucking children and also the
cattle should not taste of anything within three days. Then through that
conversion, that they desisted from evil, and through that strict fast, God
had mercy on them, and would not destroy them, as he had before, for their
crimes, burnt the inhabitants of the two cities, Sodom and Gomorrah, with
heavenly fire.

We also on these days should offer up our prayers, and follow our relics
out and in, and with fervour praise Almighty God. We will now expound to
you this gospel which has just been read: "Quis vestrum habebit amicum": et
reliqua. "Jesus said to his disciples, Which of you who hath a friend, and
goeth to him at midnight, and saith," etc.

{249} Saint Augustine expounded this gospel, and said, that the night
betokened the ignorance of this world. This world is filled with ignorance.
Now therefore should everyone arise from that ignorance, and go to his
friend, that is, he should incline to Christ with all fervour, and pray for
the three loaves, that is, belief in the Holy Trinity. The Almighty Father
is God, and his Son is Almighty God, and the Holy Ghost is Almighty God;
not three Gods, but they all one Almighty God indivisible. When thou comest
to those three loaves, that is, to an understanding of the Holy Trinity,
then hast thou, in that belief, life and food for thy soul, and mayest
therewith feed another stranger also, that is, thou mayest teach the faith
to another friend who shall ask it of thee. He said a 'stranger,' because
we are all strangers in this life, and our country is not here; but we are
here as wayfaring men; one comes, another goes; this is born, the other
departs and yields up his seat to him. Now therefore should everyone desire
faith in the Holy Trinity, for that faith will bring him to everlasting

We will again speak more concerning faith, because the exposition of this
gospel has a good deduction. The master of the family, who was gone to rest
with his children, is Christ, who sits in heaven with his apostles, and
with martyrs, and with all the saints whom he fetched in this life. We
should call to Christ, and pray for the three loaves. Though he do not
forthwith grant them to us, we should not on that account desist from
prayer. He delays, and yet will give. He delays, that we may be desirous,
and dearly hold the grace of God. Whatsoever a man gets easily is not so
precious as that which is gotten with difficulty. Jesus said, "If he
continue knocking, the master of the family will arise, because of the
other's importunity, and grant him what he asks, not for friendship, but
for his clamour." He said, "Not for friendship," because no man were worthy
either of that faith, or of eternal life, if God's mercy were not the {251}
greater towards mankind. We should knock, and call to Christ, because he
will give to us, as he himself said, "Ask, and it shall be given to you;
seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened to you." To everyone
who fervently asks, and ceases not from prayer, God will grant everlasting

He then said another parable. "What father will give his child a stone, if
he ask for bread? or a serpent, if he ask for a fish? or a scorpion, if he
ask for an egg?" God is our Father through his mercy, and the fish betokens
faith, and the egg holy hope, the bread true love. These three things God
gives to his chosen; for no man can have God's kingdom, unless he have
these three things. He must rightly believe, and have hope in God, and true
love to God and to men, if he will come to God's kingdom. The fish betokens
faith, because its nature is, that the more it is tossed by the waves, the
stronger it is, and the more vigorously it strikes. In like manner the
believing man, the more he is afflicted for his faith, the stronger will be
his faith, wherever it is sound. If it sink under persecution, it is then
not faith, but is hypocrisy. The egg betokens hope, seeing that birds teem
not like other animals, but first it is an egg, and the mother then with
hope cherishes the egg to a young bird. In like manner our hope comes not
yet to that which it hopes, but is, as it were, an egg. When it has that
which is promised it, it is a bird. Bread betokens true love, which of all
virtues is greatest, as bread is of all food the principal. Faith is a
great virtue, and a great virtue is true hope; yet love excels them,
forasmuch as it is ever to eternity, and the other two will end. We now
believe in God, and we hope in him: but after we come to his kingdom, as he
has promised us, then will faith be ended, for we shall then see what we
now believe. Our hope will also be ended, because we shall be in possession
of what we had previously hoped for; but love will never decay: therefore
is it the most excellent of them.

{253} The serpent is placed in the gospel in opposition to the fish. In a
serpent's form the devil deceived Adam; and he is now ever striving against
our faith: but our protection is in the hand of our Father. The scorpion,
which is set in opposition to the egg, is venomous, and stings with its
tail to death. Those things which we see in this life are perishable; those
which we see not, and which are promised to us are eternal: stretch thereto
thy hope, and wait until thou have them. Look not behind; dread the
scorpion which envenoms with its tail. The man looks behind, who despairs
of God's mercy; then is his hope envenomed by the scorpion's tail. But we
should both in difficulties, and in chances and in mischances, say as the
prophet said, "I will praise the Lord at every time." Betide us good in
body, betide us evil, we ought ever to thank God, and bless his name; then
will our hope be preserved from the scorpion's sting.

A stone is set in opposition to bread, because hardness of mind is contrary
to true love. Hardhearted is the man who will not through love promote the
welfare of others where he can. The gospel says, "If ye can, who are evil,
give to your children what is good, how much more will your Heavenly Father
give a good spirit to those asking him?" What are the good things that men
give to their children? Transitory goods, such as the gospel touched on,
bread, and fish, and an egg. These things are good in their degree, because
the earthly body requires food. Now ye, prudent men, will not give your
children a serpent for a fish, nor also will your Heavenly Father give us
the devil's unbelief, if we pray to him to give us true faith. And thou
wilt not give thy child a scorpion for an egg, nor also will God give us
despair for hope. And thou wilt not give thy child a stone for bread, nor
also will God give us hardheartedness for true love. But the good Heavenly
Father will give us faith, and hope, and {255} true love, and will cause us
to have a good spirit, that is, good will.

We have to consider the words which he said, "Ye who are evil." We are
evil, but we have a good Father. We have heard our name, "Ye who are evil."
But who is our Father? The Almighty God. And of what men is he the Father?
It is manifestly said, of evil men. And of what kind is the Father? Of whom
it is said, "No one is good save God only." He who ever is good will bring
us who are evil to be good men, if we will eschew evil and do good. The man
Adam was created good, but by his own election and the instigation of the
devil, he and all his offspring became evil. He who is sinful is evil, and
there is no man in life without some sin. But our good Father will cleanse
and heal us, as the prophet said, "Lord, heal me, and I shall be healed;
preserve thou me, and I shall be preserved."

Let him who desires to be good call to him who ever is good, that he make
him good. A man has gold, that is good in its kind: he has land and riches,
they are good. But the man is not good through these things, unless he do
good with them, as the prophet said, "He distributed his wealth, and
divided it among the poor, and his righteousness continueth for ever." He
diminished his money, and increased his righteousness. He diminished that
which he must leave, and that will be increased which he shall have to
eternity. Thou praisest the merchant who gets gold for lead, and wilt not
praise him who gets righteousness and the kingdom of heaven for perishable
money. The rich and the poor are wayfarers in this world. The rich now
bears the heavy burthen of his treasures, and the poor goes empty. The rich
bears more provisions for his journey than he requires, the other bears an
empty scrip. Therefore should the rich share his burthen with the poor;
then will he lessen the burthen of his sins, and help the poor. We are all
God's poor; let us therefore acknowledge the poor who ask of us, that God
{257} may acknowledge us, when we ask our needs of him. Who are those that
ask of us? Men poor, and feeble, and mortal. Of whom ask they? Of men poor,
and feeble, and mortal. Except the possessions, alike are those who ask and
those of whom they ask. How canst thou for shame ask anything of God, if
thou refuse to thy fellow that which thou canst most easily grant him? But
the rich looks on his purple garments, and says, 'The wretch with his rags
is not my fellow.' But the apostle Paul beards him with these words, "We
brought nothing to this world, nor may we take with us anything hence."

If a rich woman, and a poor one bring forth together, let them go away;
thou knowest not which is the rich woman's child, which the poor one's.
Again, if we open the graves of dead men, thou knowest not which are the
rich man's bones, which the poor one's. But covetousness is of all evil
things the root, and those who follow covetousness swerve from God's faith,
and fall into divers temptations, and pernicious lusts, which sink them
into perdition. It is one thing, that a man be rich, if his parents have
bequeathed him possessions; another thing, if any one become rich through
covetousness. The covetousness of the latter is accused before God, not the
other's wealth, if his heart be not inflamed with covetousness. For such
men the apostle Paul enjoined, "Enjoin the rich that they be not proud, and
that they hope not in their uncertain wealth; but let them be rich in good
works, and give to God's poor with bountiful spirit, and God will requite
them an hundredfold for whatsoever they do for the poor for love of him."

The rich and the poor are needful to each other. The wealthy is made for
the poor, and the poor for the wealthy. It is incumbent on the affluent,
that he scatter and distribute; on the indigent it is incumbent, that he
pray for the distributor. The poor is the way that leads us to the kingdom
of God. The poor gives to the rich more than he {259} receives from him.
The rich gives him bread that will be turned to ordure, and the poor gives
to the rich everlasting life: yet not he, but Christ, who thus said, "That
which ye do for the poor in my name, that ye do for myself," who liveth and
reigneth with the Father and the Holy Ghost ever without end. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *



Se Hælend Crist, syððan he to ðisum life cóm, and man wearð geweaxen, þaða
hé wæs ðritig wintra eald on þære menniscnysse, þa begánn he wundra to
wyrcenne, and geceas ða twelf leorning-cnihtas, þa ðe we apostolas hatað.
Þa wæron mid him æfre syððan, and he him tæhte ealne þone wisdom ðe on
halgum bocum stent, and þurh hí ealne cristendom astealde. Þa cwædon hi to
ðam Hælende, "Léóf, tæce ús hu we magon us gebiddan." Ða andwyrde se
Hælend, and þus cwæð, "Gebiddað eow mid þisum wordum to minum Fæder and to
eowrum Fæder, Gode Ælmihtigum: Pater noster, þæt is on Englisc, Þu, ure
Fæder, þe eart on heofonum, Sy þín nama gehalgod. Cume ðín ríce. Sy ðín
wylla on eorðan swa swa on heofonum. Syle ús to-dæg urne dæghwamlican hláf.
And forgyf us ure gyltas, swa swa we forgyfað ðam þe wið us agyltað. And ne
lǽd ðu na us on costnunge. Ac alys us fram yfele. Sy hit swa."

God Fæder Ælmihtig hæfð ænne Sunu gecyndelice and menige gewiscendlice.
Crist is Godes Sunu, swa þæt se Fæder hine gestrynde of him sylfum, butan
ælcere meder. Næfð se Fæder nænne lichaman, ne he on ða wisan his Bearn ne
gestrynde þe menn doð: ac his Wisdom, þe hé mid ealle gesceafta geworhte,
se is his Sunu, se is æfre of ðam Fæder, and mid þam Fæder, God of Gode,
ealswa mihtig swa se Fæder. We men sind Godes bearn, forðon þe hé us {260}
geworhte; and eft, ðaða we forwyrhte wæron, he sende his agen Bearn us to
alysednysse. Nu sind we Godes bearn, and Crist is ure broðer, gif we ðam
Fæder onriht gehyrsumiað, and mid eallum mode hine weorðiað. Crist is ure
heafod, and we sind his lima: he is mid ure menniscnysse befangen, and he
hæfð urne lichaman, þone ðe hé of ðam halgan mædene Marían genam; forði we
magon cuðlice to him clypian, swa swa to urum breðer, gif we ða
broðerrædene swa healdað swa swa he us tæhte; þæt is, þæt we ne sceolon na
geðafian þæt deofol mid ænigum unðeawum us gewéme fram Cristes

Witodlice se man þe deofle geefenlæcð, se bið deofles bearn, na þurh gecynd
oððe þurh gesceapenysse, ac ðurh þa geefenlæcunge and yfele geearnunga. And
se man ðe Gode gecwemð, he bið Godes bearn, na gecyndelice, ac þurh
gesceapenysse and ðurh gode geearnunga, swa swa Crist cwæð on his
godspelle, "Se ðe wyrcð mines Fæder willan seðe is on heofonum, he bið min
broðer, and min moder, and min sweoster." Forði nu ealle cristene men,
ægðer ge ríce ge heane, ge æðelborene ge unæðelborene, and se hlaford, and
se ðeowa, ealle hí sind gebroðra, and ealle hí habbað ænne Fæder on
heofonum. Nis se welega na betera on ðisum naman þonne se ðearfa. Eallswa
bealdlice mót se ðeowa clypigan God him to Fæder ealswa se cyning. Ealle we
sind gelice ætforan Gode, buton hwá oðerne mid godum weorcum forðeo. Ne
sceal se ríca for his welan þone earman forseón; forðan oft bið se earma
betera ætforan Gode þonne se ríca. God is ure Fæder, þi we sceolon ealle
beon gebroðru on Gode, and healdan þone broðerlican bend unforedne; þæt is,
ða soðan sibbe, swa þæt ure ælc oðerne lufige swa swa hine sylfne, and
nanum ne gebeode þæt þæt he nelle þæt man him gebeode. Se ðe ðis hylt, he
bið Godes bearn, and Crist, and ealle halige men ðe Gode geðeoð, beoð his
gebroðru and his gesweostru.

We cweðað, "Pater noster qui es in celis," þæt is, "Ure {262} Fæder ðe eart
on heofonum;" forðan þe God Fæder is on heofonum, and he is æghwar, swa swa
he sylf cwæð, "Ic gefylle mid me sylfum heofonas and eorðan." And eft þæt
halige godspel be him þus cwyð, "Heofon is his þrymsetl, and eorðe is his
fot-sceamul." We wendað ús eastweard þonne we us gebiddað, forðan ðe ðanon
arist seo heofen: na swilce on east-dæle synderlice sy his wunung, and
forlæte west-dæl, oððe oðre dælas, se þe æghwar is andweard, na ðurh rymyt
þære stowe, ac þurh his mægenðrymmes andweardnysse. Þonne we wendað ure neb
to east-dæle, þær seo heofen arist, seoðe is ealra lichomlicra ðinga
oferstigende, þonne sceal ure mód beon mid þam gemyngod, þæt hit beo gewend
to ðam hehstan and þam fyrmestan gecynde, þæt is, God. We sceolon eac
witan, þæt se synfulla is eorðe geháten, and se rihtwisa is heofen geháten;
forðan þe on rihtwisum mannum is Godes wunung, and se goda man bið þæs
Halgan Gastes templ. Swa eac ðær-togeanes se fordóna man bið deofles templ,
and deofles wunung: forði þonne swa micel is betwux gódum mannum and
yfelum, swa micel swa bið betwux heofenan and eorðan.

Seofon gebédu sint on þam Pater noster. On þam twam formum wordum ne synd
nane gebedu, ac sind herunga: þæt is, "Ure Fæder þe eart on heofonum." Þæt
forme gebéd is, "Sanctificetur nomen tuum:" þæt is, "Sy ðin nama gehalgod."
Nis þæt na swá to understandenne, swylce Godes nama ne sy genoh halig, seðe
æfre wæs halig, and æfre bið, and hé us ealle gebletsað and gehalgað: ac
þis word is swá to understandenne, þæt his nama sy on us gehalgod, and he
us þæs getiðige, þæt we moton his naman mid urum muðe gebletsian, and he us
sylle þæt geðánc, þæt we magon understandan þæt nan ðing nis swa halig swa
his nama.

Þæt oðer gebéd is, "Adueniat regnum tuum:" þæt is, on urum gereorde, "Cume
ðin ríce." Æfre wæs Godes ríce, and æfre bið: ac hit is swá to
understandenne, þæt his ríce beo ofer ús, and he on us rixige, and we him
mid ealre {264} gehyrsumnysse underþeodde syn, and þæt ure ríce beo us
gelǽst and gefylled, swa swa Crist us behét, þæt he wolde ús éce ríce
forgyfan, þus cweðende, "Cumað, ge gebletsode mines Fæder, and gehabbað þæt
ríce þæt eow gegearcod wæs fram anginne middangeardes." Þis bið ure ríce,
gif we hit nu geearniað; and we beoð Godes ríce, þonne Crist ús betæcð his
Fæder on domes dæge, swa swa þæt hálige gewrit cwyð, "Cum tradiderit regnum
Patri suo:" þæt is, "Þonne hé betæcð ríce his Fæder." Hwæt is þæt ríce þæt
hé betæcð his Fæder, buton ða halgan menn, ægðer ge weras ge wíf, þa þe hé
alysde fram helle-wíte mid his agenum deaðe? Þa he betæcð his agenum Fæder
on ende þisre worulde, and hí beoð þonne Godes ríce, and mid Gode on
ecnysse rixiað, ægðer ge mid sawle ge mid lichaman, and beoð þonne gelice

Þæt ðridde gebéd is, "Fiat uoluntas tua sicut in celo et in terra:" þæt is,
"Geweorðe þín willa on eorðan swa swa on heofonum." Þæt is, Swa swa englas
on heofonum þe gehyrsumiað, and mid eallum gemete to ðe geðeodað, swa eac
menn þe on eorðan sind, and of eorðan geworhte, beon hí ðinum willan
gehyrsume, and to ðe mid ealre geornfulnysse geðeodan. On þam mannum
soðlice gewyrð Godes willa, þe to Godes willan gewyrceað. Ure sawul is
heofonlic, and ure lichama is eorðlic. Nu bidde we eac mid þisum wordum,
þæt Godes willa geweorðe, ægðer ge on ure sawle ge on urum lichaman, þæt
ægðer him gehyrsumige, and he ægðer gehealde and gescylde, ge ure sawle ge
urne lichaman, fram deofles costnungum.

Þæt feorðe gebéd is, "Panem nostrum cotidianum da nobis hodie:" þæt is, on
urum gereorde, "Syle us nu to-dæg urne dæghwamlican hláf." Þæt is on ðrim
andgitum to understandenne: þæt hé us sylle fodan urum lichaman, and sylle
eac ure sawle þone gastlican hláf. Se gastlica hláf is Godes bebod, þæt we
sceolon smeagan dæghwamlice, and mid weorce {266} gefyllan; forðan swa swa
se lichama leofað be lichamlicum mettum, swa sceal seo sawul lybban be
Godes láre, and be gastlicum smeagungum. Hraðe se lichama aswint and
forweornað, gif him bið oftogen his bigleofa: swa eac seo sawul forwyrð,
gif heo næfð þone gastlican bigleofan, þæt sind Godes beboda, on þam heo
sceal geðeon and beon gegódad. Eac se gastlica hláf is þæt halige husel,
mid þam we getrymmað urne geleafan; and ðurh ðæs halgan husles þýgene ús
beoð ure synna forgyfene, and we beoð gestrangode ongean deofles costnunge.
Þi we sceolon gelomlice mid þam gastlican gereorde ure sawle geclænsian and
getrymman. Ne sceal þeah se ðe bið mid healicum synnum fordón, gedyrstlæcan
þæt he Godes husel þicge, buton he his synna ær gebete: gif he elles deð,
hit bið him sylfum to bealowe geðyged. Se hláf getacnað ðreo ðing, swa swa
we cwædon. An is þæs lichaman bígleofa; oðer is ðære sawle; ðridde is þæs
halgan husles ðygen. Þyssera ðreora ðinga we sceolon dæghwamlice æt urum
Drihtne biddan.

Þæt fifte gebéd is, "Et dimitte nobis debita nostra, sicut et nos
dimittimus debitoribus nostris:" þæt is, "Forgif us ure gyltas, swa swa we
forgifað þam mannum þe wið us agyltað." We sceolon dón swa swa we on ðisum
wordum behatað; þæt is, þæt we beon mildheorte us betwynan, and, for ðære
micclan lufe Godes, forgyfan ðam mannum þe wið us agyltað, þæt God Ælmihtig
forgyfe us ure synna. Gif we ðonne nellað forgyfan þa lytlan gyltas ðæra
manna þe us gegremedon, þone nele eac God us forgyfan ure synna mycele and
manega: swa swa Crist sylf cwæð, "Þonne ge standað on eowrum gebédum,
forgyfað swa hwæt swa ge habbað on eowrum mode to ænigum men, and eower
Fæder, þe on heofonum is, forgyfð eow eowre synna. Gif ge þonne nellað
forgyfan mid inweardre heortan þam ðe eow gremiað, þonne eac eower Fæder,
ðe on heofonum is, nele eow forgyfan eowre synna; ac he hæt eow gebindan,
and on cwearterne settan, þæt is on helle-wíte; and eow ðær deofol
getintregað, oðþæt ge habban ealle eowre gyltas geðrowade, oðþæt {268} ge
cumon to anum feorðlincge." Is hwæðere getæht, æfter Godes gesetnysse, þæt
wise men sceolon settan steore dysigum mannum, swa þæt hi þæt dysig and ða
unðeawas alecgan, and þeah ðone man lufigan swa swa agenne broðor.

Þæt sixte gebéd is, "Et ne nos inducas in temptationem:" þæt is, "Ne
geðafa, ðu God, þæt we beon gelædde on costnunge." Oðer is costnung, oðer
is fandung. God ne costnað nænne mannan; ac hwæðere nán man ne cymð to
Godes ríce, buton he sy afandod: forði ne sceole we na biddan þæt God ure
ne afandige, ac we sceolon biddan þæt God us gescylde, þæt we ne abreoðon
on ðære fandunge. Deofol mót ælces mannes afandigan, hwæðer he aht sy, oððe
naht; hwæðer he God mid inweardlicre heortan lufige, oððe he mid híwunge
fáre. Swa swa man afandað gold on fyre, swa afandað God þæs mannes mod on
mislicum fandungum, hwæðer hé ánræde sy. Genoh wel wát God hu hit getimað
on þære fandunge; ac hwæðere se man næfð na mycele geðincðe, buton he
afandod sy. Þurh ða fandunge he sceal geðeon, gif he þam costnungum
wiðstent. Gif he fealle, he eft astande: þæt is, gif he agylte, he hit
georne gebete, and syððan geswíce; forði ne bið nán bót naht, buton þær beo
geswicenes. Se man þe gelomlice wile syngian, and gelomlice betan, he
gremað God; and swa he swiðor syngað swa he deofle gewyldra bið, and hine
þonne God forlæt, and he færð swa him deofol wissað, swa swa tobrocen scíp
on sǽ, þe swa færð swa hit se wind drifð. Se goda man swa he swiðor afandod
bið swa he rotra bið, and near Gode, oðþæt hé mid fulre geðincðe færð of
ðisum life to ðam ecan life. And se yfela swa he oftor on ðære fandunge
abryð, swa he forcuðra bið, and deofle near, oðþæt he færð of ðisum life to
ðam ecan wite, gif he ær geswican nolde, þaþa he mihte and moste. Forði
anbidað God oft þæs yfelan mannes, and læt him fyrst, þæt he his mándæda
geswice, and his mód to Gode gecyrre ær his ende, gif he wile. Gif he þonne
nele, þæt {270} he beo butan ælcere ladunge swiðe rihtlice to deofles handa
asceofen. Forði is nu selre cristenum mannum, þæt hi mid earfoðnyssum and
mid geswince geearnian þæt éce ríce and ða écan blisse mid Gode and mid
eallum his halgum, ðonne hi mid softnysse and mid yfelum lustum geearnian
þa ecan tintrega mid eallum deoflum on helle-wíte.

Þæt seofoðe gebéd is, "Set libera nos a malo:" þæt is, "Ac alys us fram
yfele:" alys us fram deofle and fram eallum his syrwungum. God lufað us,
and deofol us hatað. God us fett and gefrefrað, and deofol us wile ofslean,
gif he mót; ac him bið forwyrned þurh Godes gescyldnysse, gif we us sylfe
nellað fordón mid unðeawum. Forði we sceolon forbugan and forseon þone
lyðran deoful mid eallum his lotwrencum, forðan ðe him ne gebyrað naht to
ús, and we sceolon lufian and filigan urum Drihtne, seðe us lǽt to ðam ecan

Seofon gebédu, swa swa we ær sædon, beoð on ðam Pater noster. Þa ðreo
forman gebédu beoð us ongunnene on ðysre worulde, ac hí beoð á ungeendode
on þære toweardan worulde. Seo halgung þæs mæran naman Godes ongann ús
mannum þaþa Crist wearð geflæschamod mid ure menniscnysse; ac seo ylce
halgung wunað on ecnysse, forðan ðe we on ðam ecan life bletsiað and
herigað æfre Godes naman. And God rixað nu, and his ríce stent æfre butan
ende, and Godes willa bið gefremod on ðisum life ðurh góde menn: se ylca
willa wunað á on ecnysse. Þa oðre feower gebédu belimpað to ðisum life, and
mid þisum life geendiað.

On ðisum lífe we behófiað hláfes, and láre, and husel-ganges. On þam
toweardan lífe we ne behófiað nanes eorðlices bigleofan, forðan ðe we þonne
mid þam heofonlicum mettum beoð gereordode. Her we behófiað láre and
wisdomes. On ðam heofonlican life beoð ealle ful wíse, and on gastlicre
lare full geráde, þa ðe nu, þurh wísra manna láre, beoð Godes bebodum
underþeodde. And her we behófiað ðæs halgan husles {272} ðygene for ure
beterunge, soðlice on ðære heofonlican wununge we habbað mid us Cristes
lichaman, mid þam he rixað on ecnysse.

On þyssere worulde we biddað ure synna forgyfenysse, and na on þære
toweardan. Se man ðe nele his synna behreowsian on his life, ne begyt he
nane forgyfenysse on ðam toweardan. And on ðisum life we biddað þæt God us
gescylde wið deofles costnunga, and us alyse fram yfele. On ðam ecan life
ne bið nán costnung ne nán yfel; forði ðær ne cymð nán deofol ne nán yfel
mann, ðe us mæge dreccan oððe derian. Þær beoð geþwære sawul and lichama,
þe nu on ðisum life him betweonan winnað. Ðær ne bið nán untrumnys, ne
geswinc, ne wana nanre gódnysse, ac Crist bið mid ús eallum, and ús ealle
ðing deð, butan edwite, mid ealre blisse.

Crist gesette þis gebéd, and swa beleac mid feawum wordum, þæt ealle ure
neoda, ægðer ge gastlice ge lichamlice, ðæron sind belocene; and þis gebéd
he gesette eallum cristenum mannum gemænelice. Ne cwyð na on ðam gebéde,
'Min Fæder, þu ðe eart on heofonum,' ac cwyð, "Ure Fæder;" and swa forð
ealle ða word ðe þær-æfter fyligað sprecað gemænelice be eallum cristenum
mannum. On ðam is geswutelod hu swiðe God lufað ánnysse and geþwærnysse on
his folce. Æfter Godes gesetnysse ealle cristene men sceoldon beon swa
geðwære swilce hit án man wære: forði wa ðam men þe ða annysse tobrycð. Swa
swa we habbað on anum lichaman manega lima, and hi ealle ánum heafde
gehyrsumiað, swa eac we sceolon manega cristene men Criste on ánnysse
gehyrsumian; forðon þe he is ure heafod, and we synd his lima. We magon
geseon on urum agenum lichaman hú ælc lim oðrum þenað. Þa fét berað ealne
ðone lichaman, and ða eagan lædað ða fét, and þa handa gearciað ðone
bigleofan. Hraðe lið þæt heafod adúne, gif þa fét hit ne feriað; and hraðe
ealle ða lima togædere forweorðað, gif þa handa ne doð þone bigleofan þam
muðe. Swa eac se ríca man, þe sitt on his heahsetle, hraðe geswicð he his
{274} gebeorscipes, gif ða ðeowan geswicað ðæra teolunga. Beo se ríca
gemyndig þæt he sceal ealra ðæra góda þe him God alænde agyldan gescead hu
he ða atuge.

Se bið ðin hand oððe ðin fót, seðe þe ðine neoda deð. Se bið þin eage, seðe
þe wisdom tæcð, and on rihtne weg þe gebrincð. Se ðe þe múndað swa swa
fæder, he bið swylce hé ðin heafod sy. Ealswa wel behófað þæt heafod þæra
oðera lima, swa swa ða lima behófiað þæs heafdes. Gif án lim bið untrum,
ealle ða oðre þrowiað mid þam anum. Swa we sceolon eac, gif bið an ure
geferena on sumre earfoðnysse, ealle we sceolon his yfel besárgian, and
hógian embe ða bote, gif we hit gebetan magon. And on eallum ðingum we
sceolon healdan sibbe and annysse, gif we willað habban þa micclan geðincðe
þæt we beon Godes bearn, seðe on heofonum is, on ðære he rixað mid eallum
his halgum on ealra worulda woruld on ecnysse. Amen.



Jesus Christ, after he came to this life, and was grown to manhood, when he
was thirty years old in his human nature, began to work miracles, and chose
the twelve disciples whom we call apostles. These were afterwards always
with him, and he taught them all the wisdom which stands in holy books, and
through them established all christianity. Then said they to Jesus, "Sir,
teach us how we may pray." Jesus answered, and thus said, "Pray in these
words to my Father and your Father, God Almighty: Pater noster, that is in
English, Thou, our Father, which art in heaven, hallowed be thy name. Thy
kingdom come. Be thy will on earth as in heaven. Give us to-day our daily
bread. And forgive us our trespasses as we forgive them who trespass
against us. And lead thou us not into temptation. But deliver us from evil.
So be it."

God, the Father Almighty, has one Son naturally, and many adoptively.
Christ is the Son of God, seeing that the Father begot him of himself
without any mother. The Father has no body, nor begot he his Son in that
wise which men do: but his Wisdom, with which he wrought all creatures, is
his Son, who is ever of the Father and with the Father, God of God, as
mighty as the Father. We men are children of God, because he made us; and
afterwards, when we were undone, {261} he sent his own Son for our
redemption. Now are we children of God, and Christ is our brother, if we
will duly obey the Father, and with all our mind worship him. Christ is our
head, and we are his limbs: he is invested with our humanity, and he has
our body, which he received of the holy maiden Mary; therefore may we
manifestly cry to him, as to our brother, if we so observe our brotherhood
as he has taught us; that is, that we should not allow the devil with any
evil practices to seduce us from the brotherhood of Christ.

Verily the man who imitates the devil is a child of the devil, not by
nature nor by creation, but by that imitation and evil deserts. And the man
who makes himself acceptable to God is a child of God, not naturally, but
by creation and by good deserts, as Christ said in his gospel, "He who
doeth the will of my Father who is in heaven, he is my brother, and my
mother, and my sister." Now therefore all christian men, whether high or
low, noble or ignoble, and the lord, and the slave, are all brothers, and
have all one Father in heaven. The wealthy is not better on that account
than the needy. As boldly may the slave call God his Father as the king. We
all are alike before God, unless any one excel another in good works. The
rich for his wealth is not to despise the poor; for the poor is before God
often better than the rich. God is our Father, therefore should we all be
brothers in God, and hold the brotherly bond unbroken; that is, true peace,
so that each of us love other as himself, and command to no one that which
he would not another should command to him. He who observes this is a child
of God, and Christ, and all holy persons who thrive to God, are his
brothers and his sisters.

We say, "Pater noster qui es in cœlis," that is, "Our {263} Father which
art in heaven;" for God the Father is in heaven, and he is everywhere, as
he himself said, "I fill with myself heaven and earth." And again, the holy
gospel says thus concerning him, "Heaven is his throne, and earth is his
footstool." We turn eastward when we pray, because from thence the heaven
rises; not as though his dwelling be particularly in the east part, and
that he forsakes the west or other parts, who is everywhere present, not
through the space of the place, but by the presence of his majesty. When we
turn our face to the east part, where the heaven rises, which rises over
all bodily things, then should our mind be thereby admonished that it turn
to the highest and first nature, that is, God. We should also know that the
sinful is called earth, and the righteous is called heaven; for in
righteous men is a dwelling-place of God, and the good man is a temple of
the Holy Ghost. So also, on the other hand, the wicked man is a temple of
the devil, and an habitation of the devil: therefore there is as great a
difference between good and evil men as there is between heaven and earth.

In the Pater noster are seven prayers. In the first two words are no
prayers, but praises: that is, "Our Father which art in heaven." The first
prayer is, "Sanctificetur nomen tuum:" that is, "Hallowed be thy name."
This is not to be so understood as if the name of God were not sufficiently
holy, who ever was holy, and ever will be, and who blesses and hallows us
all: but these words are thus to be understood, that his name be hallowed
in us, and that he grant us that we may bless his name with our mouth, and
give us the thought that we may understand that nothing is so holy as his

The second prayer is, "Adveniat regnum tuum:" that is, in our tongue, "Thy
kingdom come." Ever was God's kingdom, and ever will be: but it is so to be
understood, that his kingdom be over us, and he reign in us, and that we
{265} with all obedience be subject to him, and that our kingdom be
realized and fulfilled to us, as Christ has promised to us, that he would
give us an eternal kingdom, thus saying, "Come, ye blessed of my Father,
and possess the kingdom that was prepared for you from the beginning of the
world." This will be our kingdom, if we now will merit it; and we shall be
God's kingdom, when Christ delivers us to his Father on doomsday, as the
holy writ says, "Cum tradiderit regnum Patri suo:" that is, "When he shall
deliver the kingdom to his Father." What is the kingdom that he shall
deliver to his Father, but those holy persons, both men and women, which he
redeemed from hell-torment by his own death? These he will deliver to his
own Father at the end of this world, and they will then be God's kingdom,
and will reign with God for ever, both with soul and with body, and will
then be like unto angels.

The third prayer is, "Fiat voluntas tua sicut in cœlo et in terra:" that
is, "Thy will be done on earth as in heaven." That is, As the angels in
heaven obey thee, and in every way attach themselves to thee, so also may
men, who are on earth and formed of earth, be obedient to thy will, and
with all fervour attach themselves to thee. In those men verily God's will
is done, who work according to God's will. Our soul is heavenly, and our
body is earthly. Now, with these words, we also pray that God's will be
done both in our soul and in our body, that both may obey him, and that he
may preserve and shield both our soul and our body from the temptations of
the devil.

The fourth prayer is, "Panem nostrum quotidianum da nobis hodie:" that is,
in our tongue, "Give us to-day our daily bread." This is to be understood
in three senses: that he give us food for our body, and give ghostly bread
to our soul. The ghostly bread is the commandment of God, on which we
should daily meditate, and with works fulfil; for as {267} the body lives
by bodily meats, so shall the soul live by the precepts of God, and by
ghostly meditations. The body quickly wastes away and decays, if its
sustenance is withdrawn from it; in like manner the soul perishes, if it
has not ghostly sustenance, that is, God's commandments, on which it shall
thrive and be cherished. The ghostly bread is also the holy housel, with
which we confirm our belief; and through partaking of the holy housel our
sins will be forgiven us, and we shall be strengthened against the
temptations of the devil. Therefore should we frequently cleanse and
confirm our soul with ghostly refection. Yet may not he who is polluted
with deadly sins dare to partake of God's housel, unless he first atone for
his sins: if he do otherwise, he will partake of it to his own injury. The
bread, as we said, betokens three things. One is sustenance of the body;
the second, of the soul; the third is the partaking of the holy housel. For
these three things we should pray daily to the Lord.

The fifth prayer is, "Et dimitte nobis debita nostra, sicut et nos
dimittimus debitoribus nostris:" that is, "Forgive us our trespasses, as we
forgive those men who trespass against us." We should do as we promise in
these words, that is, we should be merciful to each other, and, for the
great love of God, forgive those men who trespass against us, that God
Almighty may forgive us our sins. But if we will not forgive the little
trespasses of those men who have angered us, then will not God forgive us
our great and many sins: as Christ himself said, "When ye stand at your
prayers, forgive whatever ye have in your mind against any man, and your
Father, which is in heaven, will forgive you your sins. But if ye will not,
with inward heart, forgive those who anger you, then your Father, which is
in heaven, will not forgive you your sins; but he will command you to be
bound and set in prison, that is, in hell-torment; and there the devil will
torture you, until ye shall have suffered for all your trespasses, until ye
{269} come to one farthing." It is, however, taught, according to the book
of God, that wise men should institute correction for foolish men, so that
they lay aside their folly and their evil practices, and should,
nevertheless, love the man as their own brother.

The sixth prayer is, "Et ne nos inducas in tentationem:" that is, "Permit
not, thou, O God, that we be led into temptation." One thing is temptation,
another thing is trial. God tempts no man, but, nevertheless, no man comes
to the kingdom of God, unless he has been tried: therefore we should not
pray that God try us not, but we should pray to God to shield us, so that
we sink not under trial. The devil may try every man, whether he be aught
or naught; whether he love God with inward heart, or act with hypocrisy. As
a man tries gold in the fire, so God tries the mind of man in divers
trials, whether he be steadfast. God knows full well, how it befalls in
trial; but yet a man will have no great honour, unless he have been tried.
By trial he shall flourish, if he withstand temptations. If he fall, let
him rise again: that is, if he sin, let him earnestly atone for it, and
cease therefrom afterwards; for no atonement will avail, if there be not
cessation. The man who frequently sins and frequently atones, angers God;
and the more he sins the more he will be subject to the devil, and God will
then forsake him, and he will go as the devil shall direct him, as a
shattered ship at sea, which goes as the wind drives it. The good man the
more he is tried the more cheerful he will be, and the nearer to God, until
with full honour he shall go from this life to the life eternal. And the
evil man, the oftener he sinks under trial, the more wicked he will be, and
the nearer to the devil, until he goes from this life to eternal torment,
if he would not cease previously, when he could and might. God therefore
often awaits the evil man, and leaves him time, that he may cease from his
wicked deeds, and before his end turn his mind to God, if he will. But if
he will not, that he be, {271} without any exculpation, very justly be
thrust into the hand of the devil. Therefore is it now better for christian
men, that with hardships and toil they earn the everlasting kingdom and
eternal bliss with God and with all his saints, than that they by softness
and evil lusts earn eternal tortures with all the devils in hell-torment.

The seventh prayer is, "Sed libera nos a malo:" that is, "But deliver us
from evil:" deliver us from the devil and from all his wiles. God loves us,
and the devil hates us. God feeds and comforts us, and the devil will slay
us if he may; but he will be prevented through the protection of God, if we
will not fordo ourselves with evil practices. Therefore should we eschew
and despise the vicious devil with all his devices, for there behoves him
nothing for us, and we should love and follow our Lord, who will lead us to
everlasting life.

In the Pater noster there are, as we before said, seven prayers. The first
three prayers are begun by us in this world, but they will ever be unended
in the world to come. The hallowing of the great name of God began with us
men when Christ became incarnate with our humanity; but the same hallowing
will continue to eternity, because in the life eternal we shall ever bless
and praise the name of God. And God reigns now, and his kingdom stands for
ever, without end, and the will of God will be fulfilled in this life by
good men: the same will will continue to all eternity. The other four
prayers belong to this life, and with this life end.

In this life we require bread, and instruction, and partaking of the
housel. In the life to come we require no earthly food, for we shall then
be nourished with heavenly meats. Here we require instruction and wisdom.
In the heavenly life all will be full wise, and in ghostly lore full
skilled, those who now, through the precepts of wise men, are obedient to
the commandments of God. And here we require to partake of the {273} holy
housel for our amendment, for in the heavenly dwelling we shall have the
body of Christ with us, with which he reigns to eternity.

In this world we pray for forgiveness of our sins, and not in that to come.
The man who will not repent of his sins in this life, will obtain no
forgiveness in that to come. And in this life we pray God to shield us
against the temptations of the devil, and to deliver us from evil. In the
life eternal there will be no temptation and no evil; for there will come
no devil nor evil man who may trouble or hurt us. There will be in concord
soul and body, which now in this life strive with each other. There will be
no sickness, no toil, no lack of any goodness, but Christ will be with us
all, and will do all things for us, without reproach, with all alacrity.

Christ instituted this prayer, and so confined it within a few words, that
all our needs, both ghostly and bodily, are therein included; and this
prayer he instituted for all christian men in common. He says not in that
prayer, 'My Father, which art in heaven,' but says, "Our Father;" and so
forth all the words which follow speak universally of all christian men.
Herein is manifested how much God loves unity and concord among his people.
According to the book of God all christian men should be so united as
though they were one man: wo therefore to the man who breaks that unity
asunder. So as we have in one body many limbs, and they all obey one head,
so also we many christian men should obey Christ in unity; for he is our
head, and we are his limbs. We may see in our own bodies how each limb
serves another. The feet bear the whole body, and the eyes lead the feet,
and the hands prepare the sustenance. Soon will the head lie down, if the
feet bear it not; and soon will all the limbs perish together, if the hands
put not the sustenance to the mouth. In like manner the rich man, who sits
on his high seat, will soon discontinue his feasting, if the servants {275}
discontinue their toils. Let the rich be mindful that of all the good
things which God has lent him, he shall render an account how he employed

He is thy hand or thy foot, who supplieth thy wants. He is thine eye who
teacheth thee wisdom, and bringeth thee into the right way. He who
protecteth thee as a father is, as it were, thy head. As the head requireth
the other members, so these members require the head. If one limb be
diseased, all the others suffer with that one. So also should we, if one of
our fellows be in any distress, all lament his evil, and meditate
concerning its reparation, if we can repair it. And in all things we should
hold peace and unity, if we will have the great distinction of being
children of God, who is in heaven, in which he ruleth with all his saints,
through all ages, to eternity. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *



Ælc cristen man sceal æfter rihte cunnan ægðer ge his Pater noster ge his
Credan. Mid þam Pater nostre he sceal hine gebiddan, mid ðam Credan he
sceal his geleafan getrymman. We habbað gesæd embe þæt Pater noster, nu we
wyllað secgan eow þone geleafan þe on ðam Credan stent, swa swa se wísa
Augustinus be ðære Halgan Þrynnysse trahtnode.

An Scyppend is ealra ðinga, gesewenlicra and ungesewenlicra; and we sceolon
on hine gelyfan, forðon ðe hé is soð God and ána Ælmihtig, seðe næfre ne
ongann ne anginn næfde; ac he sylf is anginn, and he eallum gesceaftum
anginn and ordfruman forgeaf, þæt hí beon mihton, and þæt hí hæfdon agen
gecynd, swa swa hit þære godcundlican fadunge {276} gelicode. Englas he
worhte, þa sind gastas, and nabbað nænne lichaman. Menn he gesceop mid
gaste and mid lichaman. Nytenu and deor, fixas and fugelas he gesceop on
flæsce butan sáwle. Mannum he gesealde uprihtne gang; ða nytenu he lét gán
alotene. Mannum he forgeaf hláf to bigleofan, and þam nytenum gærs.

Nu mage ge, gebroðru, understandan, gif ge wyllað, þæt twa ðing syndon: án
is Scyppend, oðer is gesceaft. He is Scyppend seðe gesceop and geworhte
ealle ðing of nahte. Þæt is gesceaft þæt se soða Scyppend gesceop. Þæt sind
ærest heofonas, and englas þe on heofonum wuniað, and syððan þeos eorðe mid
eallum ðam ðe hire on eardiað, and sǽ mid eallum ðam þe hyre on swymmað. Nu
ealle ðas ðing synd mid anum naman genemnode, gesceaft. Hi næron æfre
wunigende, ac God hi gesceop. Þa gesceafta sind fela. An is se Scyppend þe
hi ealle gesceop, se ana is Ælmihtig God. He wæs æfre, and æfre he bið
þurhwunigende on him sylfum and ðurh hine sylfne. Gif he ongunne and anginn
hæfde, butan tweon ne mihte he beon Ælmihtig God; soðlice þæt gesceaft ðe
ongann and gesceapen is, næfð nane godcundnysse; forði ælc edwist þætte God
nys, þæt is gesceaft; and þæt þe gesceaft nis, þæt is God.

Se God wunað on Ðrynnysse úntodæledlic, and on ánnysse ánre Godcundnysse,
soðlice oðer is se Fæder, oðer is se Sunu, oðer is se Halga Gast; ac
þeah-hwæðere ðæra ðreora is án Godcundnys, and gelíc wuldor, and efen-ece
mægenðrymnys. Ælmihtig God is se Fæder, Ælmihtig God is se Sunu, Ælmihtig
God is se Halga Gast; ac þeah-hwæðere ne sind ðry Ælmihtige Godas, ac án
Ælmihtig God. Ðry hí sind on hadum and on naman, and án on Godcundnysse.
Þry, forði þe se Fæder bið æfre Fæder, and se Sunu bið æfre Sunu, and se
Halga Gast bið æfre Halig Gast; and hyra nán ne awent næfre of ðam ðe he
is. Nu habbað ge gehyred þa Halgan Þrynnysse; ge sceolon eac gehyran ða
soðan Annysse.

{278} Soðlice se Fæder, and se Sunu, and se Halga Gast, habbað áne
Godcundnysse, and án gecynd, and án weorc. Ne worhte se Fæder nán ðing ne
ne wyrcð, butan ðam Suna, oððe butan þam Halgan Gaste. Ne heora nán ne
wyrcð nán ðing butan oðrum; ac him eallum is án weorc, and án rǽd, and án
willa. Æfre wæs se Fæder, and æfre wæs se Sunu, and æfre wæs se Halga Gast
án Ælmihtig God. Se is Fæder, seðe nis naðer ne geboren ne gesceapen fram
nanum oðrum. Se is Fæder geháten, forðan ðe he hæfð Sunu, ðone ðe he of him
sylfum gestrynde, butan ælcre meder. Se Fæder is God of nanum Gode. Se Sunu
is God of ðam Fæder Gode. Se Halga Gast is God forðstæppende of ðam Fæder
and of ðam Suna. Þas word sind sceortlice gesæde, and eow is neod þæt we hi
swutelicor eow onwreon.

Hwæt is se Fæder? Ælmihtig Scyppend, na geworht ne acenned, ac hé sylf
gestrynde Bearn him sylfum efen-ece. Hwæt is se Sunu? He is ðæs Fæder
Wisdom, and his Word, and his Miht, þurh ðone se Fæder gesceop ealle ðing
and gefadode. Nis se Sunu na geworht ne gesceapen, ac he is acenned.
Acenned he is, and þeah-hwæþere he is efen-eald and efen-ece his Fæder. Nis
na swa on his acennednysse swa swa bið on ure acennednysse. Þonne se mann
sunu gestrynð, and his cild acenned bið, þonne bið se fæder mara, and se
sunu læssa. Hwí swa? Forði þonne se sunu wyxð, þonne ealdað se fæder. Ne
fintst þu na gelice on mannum fæder and sunu. Ac ic ðe sylle bysne, hu ðu
Godes acennednysse þy bet understandan miht. Fyr acenð of him beorhtnysse,
and seo beorhtnys is efen-eald þam fyre. Nis na þæt fyr of ðære
beorhtnysse, ac seo beorhtnys is of ðam fyre. Þæt fyr acenð þa beorhtnysse,
ac hit ne bið næfre butan ðære beorhtnysse. Nu ðu gehyrst þæt seo beorhtnys
is ealswa eald swa þæt fyr þe heo of cymð; geðafa nu forði þæt God mihte
gestrynan ealswa eald Bearn, and ealswa ece swa he sylf is. Se ðe mæg
understandan þæt ure Hælend Crist is on ðære Godcundnysse ealswa eald swa
his Fæder, {280} hé ðancige þæs Gode, and blissige. Seðe understandan ne
mæg, he hit sceal gelyfan, þæt he hit understandan mæge; forðan þæs witegan
word ne mæg beon aídlod, ðe þus cwæð, "Buton ge hit gelyfan, ne mage ge hit
understandan." Nu habbað ge gehyred þæt se Sunu is of ðam Fæder butan ælcum
anginne; forðan ðe he is þæs Fæder Wisdom, and he wæs æfre mid þam Fæder,
and æfre bið.

Uton nu gehyran be ðan Halgan Gaste, hwæt he sý. He is se Willa and seo
soðe Lufu þæs Fæder and þæs Suna, ðurh ðone sind ealle ðing gelíffæste and
gehealdene, be ðam is þus gecweden, "Godes Gast gefylð ealne ymbhwyrft
middangeardes, and he hylt ealle ðing, and he hæfð ingehýd ælces
gereordes." Nis hé geworht, ne gesceapen, ne acenned, ac hé is
forðstæppende, þæt is ofgangende, of ðam Fæder and of ðam Suna, þam hé is
gelic and efen-ece. Nis se Halga Gast na Sunu, forðan ðe hé nis na acenned,
ac hé gæð of ðam Fæder and of ðam Suna gelice; forðan ðe hé is heora beigra
Willa and Lufu. Crist cwæð þus be him on his godspelle, "Se Frofor-gást, þe
ic eow asendan wille, Gast ðære soðfæstnysse, ðe of minum Fæder gæð, he cyð
gecyðnysse be me." Þæt is, He is min gewita þæt ic eom Godes Sunu. And eac
se rihta geleafa us tæcð, þæt we sceolon gelyfan on ðone Halgan Gast: he is
se liffæstenda God, se gæð of ðam Fæder and of ðam Suna. Hu gæð hé of him?
Se Sunu is þæs Fæder Wisdom, æfre of ðam Fæder; and se Halga Gast is heora
beigra Willa, æfre of him bám. Is forði þonne án Fæder, seðe æfre is Fæder,
and án Sunu, seðe æfre bið Sunu, and án Halig Gast, seðe æfre is Halig

Æfre wæs se Fæder, butan anginne; and æfre wæs se Sunu mid þam Fæder,
forðan ðe he is þæs Fæder Wisdom; æfre wæs se Halga Gast, seðe is heora
beigra Willa and Lufu. Nis se Fæder of nanum oðrum, ac he wæs æfre. Se Sunu
is acenned of ðam Fæder, ac he wæs æfre on ðæs Fæder {282} bosme, forðan ðe
he is his Wisdom, and he is of ðam Fæder eal þæt he is. Æfre wæs se Halga
Gast, forðan ðe he is, swa we ǽr cwædon, Willa and soð Lufu þæs Fæder and
ðæs Suna; soðlice willa and lufu getacniað an ðing: þæt þæt þu wylt, þæt ðu
lufast; and þæt þæt ðu nelt, þæt ðu ne lufast.

Seo sunne ðe ofer us scinð is lichamlic gesceaft, and hæfð swa-ðeah ðreo
agennyssa on hire: an is seo lichamlice edwist, þæt is ðære sunnan trendel;
oðer is se leoma oððe beorhtnys æfre of ðære sunnan, seoðe onliht ealne
middangeard; þridde is seo hætu, þe mid þam leoman cymð to ús. Se leoma is
æfre of ðære sunnan, and æfre mid hire; and ðæs Ælmihtigan Godes Sunu is
æfre of ðam Fæder acenned, and æfre mid him wunigende; be ðam cwæð se
apostol, þæt he wære his Fæder wuldres beorhtnys. Ðære sunnan hætu gæð of
hire and of hire leoman; and se Halga Gast gæð æfre of ðam Fæder and of þam
Suna gelice; be ðam is þus awriten, "Nis nán þe hine behydan mæge fram his

Fæder, and Sunu, and Halig Gast ne magon beon togædere genamode, ac hí ne
beoð swa-þeah nahwár totwæmede. Nis se Ælmihtiga God na ðryfeald, ac is
Ðrynnys. God is se Fæder, and se Sunu is God, and se Halga Gast is God: na
ðry Godas, ac hí ealle ðry án Ælmihtig God. Se Fæder is eac wisdom of nanum
oðrum wisdome. Se Sunu is wisdom of ðam wisan Fæder. Se Halga Gast is
wisdom. Ac ðeah-hwæðere hí sind ealle ætgædere án wisdom. Eft se Fæder is
soð lufu, and se Sunu is soð lufu, and se Halga Gast is soð lufu; and hí
ealle ætgædere án God and án soð lufu. Eac swilce is se Fæder gast and
halig, and se Sunu is gast and halig untwylice; þeah-hwæðere se Halga Gast
is synderlice geháten Halig Gast, þæt þæt hí ealle ðry sind gemænelice.

Swa micel gelicnys is on ðyssere Halgan Ðrynnysse, þæt se Fæder nis na mare
þonne se Sunu on ðære Godcundnysse; {284} ne se Sunu nis na mare þonne se
Halgan Gast; ne nan heora án nis na læsse þonne eall seo Ðrynnys. Swa hwær
swa heora án bið, þær hí beoð ealle ðry, æfre án God untodæledlic. Nis
heora nán máre þonne oðer, ne nán læssa ðonne oðer; ne nán beforan oðrum,
ne nán bæftan oðrum; forðan swa hwæt swa læsse bið þonne God, þæt ne bið na
God; þæt þæt lator bið, þæt hæfð anginn, ac God næfð nán anginn. Nis na se
Fæder ana Ðrynnys, oððe se Sunu Ðrynnys, oððe se Halga Gast Ðrynnys, ac þas
ðry hadas sindon án God on anre Godcundnysse. Þonne ðu gehyrst nemnan þone
Fæder, þonne understenst ðu þæt he hæfð Sunu. Eft, þonne þu cwyst Sunu, þu
wast, butan tweon, þæt he hæfð Fæder. Eft, we gelyfað þæt se Halga Gast is
ægðer ge ðæs Fæder ge ðæs Suna Gast.

Ne bepæce nán man hine sylfne, swa þæt he secge oððe gelyfe þæt ðry Godas
syndon; oððe ænig hád on þære Halgan Þrynnysse sy unmihtigra þonne oðer.
Ælc ðæra þreora is God, þeah-hwæðere hí ealle án God; forðan ðe hí ealle
habbað án gecynd, and áne godcundnysse, and áne edwiste, and án geðeaht,
and án weorc, and áne mægenðrymnysse, and gelíc wuldor, and efen-ece ríce.
Is hwæðere se Sunu ana geflæschamod and geboren to men, of ðam halgan
mædene Marian. Ne wearð se Fæder mid menniscnysse befangen, ac hwæðere hé
asende his Sunu to ure alysednysse, and him æfre mid wæs, ægðer ge on life
ge on ðrowunge, and on his æriste, and on his upstige. Eac eal Godes
gelaðung andet, on ðam rihtum geleafan, þæt Crist is acenned of ðam clænan
mædene Marian, and of ðam Halgan Gaste. Nis se Halga Gast þeah-hwæðere
Cristes Fæder; ne nán cristen man þæt næfre ne sceal gelyfan: ac se Halga
Gast is Willa þæs Fæder and ðæs Suna; forði þonne swiðe rihtlice is awriten
on urum geleafan, þæt Cristes menniscnys wearð gefremmed þurh ðone Halgan

Beheald þas sunnan mid gleawnysse, on ðære is, swa we ær cwædon, hætu and
beorhtnys; ac seo hætu drygð, and {286} seo beorhtnys onlyht. Oðer ðing deð
seo hætu, and oðer seo beorhtnys; and ðeah ðe hí ne magon beon totwæmde:
belimpð, hwæðere ðeah, seo hæðung to ðære hætan, and seo onlihting belimpð
to ðære beorhtnysse. Swa eac Crist ana underfeng ða menniscnysse, and na se
Fæder, ne se Halga Gast: þeah-hwæðere hí wæron æfre mid him on eallum his
weorcum and on ealre his fare.

We sprecað ymbe God, deaðlice be Undeaðlicum, tyddre be Ælmihtigum,
earmingas be Mildheortum; ac hwá mæg weorðfullice sprecan be ðam ðe is
únasecgendlic? He is butan gemete, forðy ðe he is æghwær. He is butan
getele, forðon ðe he is æfre. He is butan héfe, forðon þe he hylt ealle
gesceafta butan geswince; and he hí ealle gelogode on þam ðrim ðingum, þæt
is on gemete, and on getele, and on héfe. Ac wite ge þæt nán man ne mæg
fullice embe God sprecan, þonne we furðon þa gesceafta þe he gesceop ne
magon asmeagan, ne areccan. Hwá mæg mid wordum ðære heofenan freatewunge
asecgan? Oððe hwá ðære eorðan wæstmbærnysse? Oððe hwá herað genihtsumlice
ealra tida ymbhwyrft? Oððe hwá ealle oðre ðing, þonne we furðon þa
lichomlican ðing, þe we onlociað, ne magon fullice befón mid ure gesihðe?
Efne ðu gesihst ðone mannan beforan ðe, ac on ðære tide þe ðu his neb
gesihst, þu ne gesihst na his hricg. Ealswa, gif ðu sumne clað sceawast, ne
miht ðu hine ealne togædere geseon, ac wenst abutan, þæt ðu ealne hine
geseo. Hwylc wundor is, gif se Ælmihtiga God is unasecgendlic and
unbefangenlic, seðe æghwær is eall, and nahwar todæled?

Nu smeað sum undeopðancol man, hu God mæge beón æghwær ætgædere, and nahwar
todæled. Beheald þas sunnan, hu heage heo astihð, and hu heo asent hyre
leoman geond ealne middangeard, and hu heo onliht ealle ðas eorðan þe
mancynn on-eardað. Swa hraðe swa heo up-asprincð on ærne merigen, heo scinð
on Hierusalem, and on Romebyrig, and on ðisum earde, and on eallum eardum
ætgædere; and {288} hwæðere heo is gesceaft, and gæð be Godes dihte. Hwæt
wenst ðu hu miccle swiðor is Godes andweardnys, and his miht, and his
neosung æghwær. Him ne wiðstent nan ðing, naðer ne stænen weall ne bryden
wáh, swa swa hi wiðstandað þære sunnan. Him is nan ðing digle ne uncuð. Þu
gesceawast ðæs mannes neb, and God sceawað his heortan. Godes gast afandað
ealra manna heortan; and ða ðe on hine gelyfað and hine lufiað, þa he
clænsað and gegladað mid his neosunge, and ðæra ungeleaffulra manna heortan
he forbyhð and onscunað.

Wite eac gehwá, þæt ælc man hæfð þreo ðing on him sylfum untodæledlice and
togædere wyrcende, swa swa God cwæð, þaþa hé ærest mann gesceop. He cwæð,
"Uton gewyrcean mannan to ure gelicnysse." And hé worhte ða Adám to his
anlicnysse. On hwilcum dæle hæfð se man Godes anlicnysse on him? On þære
sawle, na on ðam lichaman. Þæs mannes sawl hæfð on hire gecynde þære Halgan
Þrynnysse anlicnysse; forðan þe heo hæfð on hire ðreo ðing, þæt is gemynd,
and andgit, and willa. Þurh þæt gemynd se man geðencð þa ðing ðe he
gehyrde, oþþe geseah, oþþe geleornode. Þurh þæt andgit he understént ealle
ða ðing ðe he gehyrð oððe gesihð. Of ðam willan cumað geðohtas, and word,
and weorc, ægðer ge yfele ge gode. An sawul is, and an líf, and an edwist,
seoðe hæfð þas ðreo ðing on hire togædere wyrcende untodæledlice; forði þær
þæt gemynd bið þær bið þæt andgit and se willa, and æfre hí beoð togædere.
Þeah-hwæðere nis nan ðæra ðreora seo sawul, ac seo sawul þurh þæt gemynd
gemanð, þurh þæt andgit heo understent, þurh ðone willan heo wile swa hwæt
swa hire licað; and heo is hwæðere án sawl and án líf. Nu hæfð heo forði
Godes anlicnysse on hire, forðan ðe heo hæfð þreo ðing on hire
untodæledlice wyrcende. Is hwæðere se man án man, and na ðrynnys: God
soðlice, Fæder and Sunu and Hálig Gast, þurhwunað on ðrynnysse hada, and on
annysse anre godcundnysse. Nis na se man on ðrynnysse {290} wunigende, swa
swa God, ac he hæfð hwæðere Godes anlicnysse on his sawle þurh ða ðreo ðing
þe we ær cwædon.

Arrius hatte an gedwolman, se flát wið ænne bisceop þe wæs genemned
Alexander, wís and riht-gelyfed. Þa cwæð se gedwolman þæt Crist, Godes
Sunu, ne mihte na beon his Fæder gelic, ne swa mihtig swa he; and cwæð, þæt
se Fæder wære ær se Sunu, and nam bysne be mannum, hu ælc sunu bið gingra
þonne se fæder on ðisum life. Þa cwæð se halga bisceop Alexander him
togeanes, "God wæs æfre, and æfre wæs his Wisdom of him acenned, and se
Wisdom is his Sunu, ealswa mihtig swa se Fæder." Þa begeat se gedwola þæs
caseres fultum to his gedwylde, and cwæð gemót ongean ðone bisceop, and
wolde gebigan eal þæt folc to his gedwyldum. Þa wacode se bisceop ane niht
on Godes cyrcan, and clypode to his Drihtne, and ðus cwæð, "Ðu Ælmihtiga
God, dém rihtne dóm betwux me and Arrium." Hi comon ða þæs on mergen to ðam
gemote. Þa cwæð se gedwola to his geferum, þæt he wolde gán embe his neode
forð. Þaða he to gange cóm and he gesǽt, þa gewand him út eall his
innewearde æt his setle, and he sæt þær dead. Þa geswutulode God þæt he wæs
swa geæmtogod on his innoðe swa swa he wæs ǽr on his geleafan. He wolde dón
Crist læssan þonne he is, and his godcundnysse wurðmynt wanian; þa wearð
him swa bysmorlic deað geseald swa swa he wel wyrðe wæs.

Oðer gedwolman wæs se hatte Sabellius. He cwæð, þæt se Fæder wære, þaþa he
wolde, Fæder; and eft, ðaða he wolde, he wære Sunu; and eft, ðaða he wolde,
wære Hálig Gast; and wære forði án God. Þa forwearð eac þes gedwola mid his

Nu eft þæt Iudeisce folc ðe Crist ofslogon, swa swa hé sylf wolde and
geðafode, secgað þæt hí willað gelyfan on þone Fæder, and na on ðone Sunu
ðe hyra magas ofslogon. Heora geleafa is naht, and hi forði losiað. For ure
alysednysse Crist geðafode þæt hí hine ofslogon. Hit ne mihte {292} eal
mancynn gedón, gif he sylf nolde; ac se Halga Fæder gesceop and geworhte
mancyn þurh his Sunu, and he wolde eft þurh ðone ylcan us alysan fram
helle-wíte, ðaða we forwyrhte wæron. Buton ælcere ðrowunge he mihte us
habban, ac him ðuhte þæt unrihtlic. Ac se deofol forwyrhte hine sylfne,
ðaða hé tihte þæt Iudeisce folc to ðæs Hælendes slege, and we wurdon
alysede, þurh his unscyldigan deað, fram ðam ecan deaðe.

We habbað þone geleafan ðe Crist sylf tæhte his apostolum, and hi eallum
mancynne; and ðone geleafan God hæfð mid manegum wundrum getrymmed and
gefæstnod. Ærest Crist ðurh hine sylfne dumbe and deafe, healte and blinde,
wode and hreoflige gehælde, and ða deadan to lífe arærde: syððan, þurh his
apostolas and oðre halige men, þas ylcan wundra geworhte. Nu eac on urum
timan, gehwær þær halige men hí restað, æt heora deadum banum God wyrcð
fela wundra, to ði þæt he wile folces geleafan mid þam wundrum getrymman.
Ne wyrcð God na þas wundra æt nanes Iudeisces mannes byrgene, ne æt nanes
oðres gedwolan, ac æt riht-gelyfedra manna byrgenum, ða ðe gelyfdon on ða
Halgan Ðrynnysse, and on soð Annysse anre Godcundnysse.

Wite gehwá eac, þæt nan man ne mot beon tuwa gefullod; ac gif se man æfter
his fulluhte aslide, we gelyfað þæt he mæge beon gehealden, gif he his
synna mid wope behreowsiað, and be lareowa tæcunge hí gebet. We sceolon
gelyfan þæt ælces mannes sawul bið þurh God gesceapen, ac hwæðere heo ne
bið na of Godes agenum gecynde. Þæs mannes lichaman antimber bið of ðam
fæder and of ðære meder, ac God gescypð þone lichaman of ðam antimbre, and
asent on þone lichaman sawle. Ne bið seo sawl nahwar wunigende ǽror, ac God
hí gescypð þærrihte, and beset on ðone lichaman, and læt hí habban agenne
cyre, swa heo syngige swa heo synna forbuge. Þeah-hwæðere heo behófað æfre
Godes fultumes, þæt heo mæge synna forbugan, and eft to hyre Scyppende
gecuman þurh gode geearnunga; forðon ðe nan man ne deð butan Gode nan ðing
to góde.

{294} Eac we sceolon gelyfan þæt ælc lichama ðe sawle underfeng sceal
arisan on domes dæge mid þam ylcum lichaman þe he nu hæfð, and sceal onfón
edlean ealra his dæda: þonne habbað ða gódan ece líf mid Gode, and he sylð
þa méde ælcum be his geearnungum. Þa synfullan beoð on helle-wite á
ðrowigende, and heora wite bið eac gemetegod ælcum be his ge-earnungum.
Uton forði geearnian þæt ece líf mid Gode þurh ðisne geleafan, and ðurh
gode geearnunga, seðe þurhwunað on Ðrynnysse án Ælmihtig God áá on ecnysse.



Every christian man should by right know both his Pater noster and his
Creed. With the Pater noster he should pray, with the Creed he should
confirm his faith. We have spoken concerning the Pater noster, we will now
declare to you the faith which stands in the Creed, according to the wise
Augustine's exposition of the Holy Trinity.

There is one Creator of all things, visible and invisible; and we should
all believe in him, for he is true and God alone Almighty, who never either
began or had beginning; but he is himself beginning, and he to all
creatures gave beginning and origin, that they might be, and that they
might have their own nature, so as it seemed good to the divine
dispensation. {277} Angels he created, which are spirits, and have no body.
Men he created with spirit and with body. Cattle and other beasts, fishes
and birds he created in flesh without soul. To men he gave an upright gait;
the cattle he let go bending downwards. To men he gave bread for
sustenance, and to the cattle grass.

Now, brethren, ye may understand, if ye will, that there are two things:
one is the Creator, the other is the creature. He is the Creator who
created and made all things of naught. That is a creature which the true
Creator created. These are, first, heaven, and the angels which dwell in
heaven; and then this earth with all those which inhabit it, and sea with
all those that swim in it. Now all these things are named by one name,
creature. They were not always existing, but God created them. The
creatures are many. The Creator, who created them all, is one, who alone is
Almighty God. He was ever, and ever he will continue in himself and through
himself. If he had begun and had origin, without doubt he could not be
Almighty God; for the creature that began and is created, has no divinity;
therefore every substance that is not God is a creature; and that which is
not a creature is God.

God exists in Trinity indivisible, and in unity of one Godhead, for the
Father is one, the Son is one, the Holy Ghost is one; and yet of these
three there is one Godhead, and like glory, and coeternal majesty. The
Father is Almighty God, the Son is Almighty God, the Holy Ghost is Almighty
God; but yet there are not three Almighty Gods, but one Almighty God. They
are three in persons and in name, and one in Godhead. Three, because the
Father will be ever Father, and the Son will be ever Son, and the Holy
Ghost will be ever Holy Ghost; and neither of them will ever change from
what he is. Ye have now heard concerning the Holy Trinity; ye shall also
hear concerning the true Unity.

{279} Verily the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost, have one Godhead,
and one nature, and one work. The Father created nothing nor creates,
without the Son, or without the Holy Ghost. Nor does one of them anything
without the others; but they have all one work, and one counsel, and one
will. The Father was ever, and the Son was ever, and the Holy Ghost was
ever One Almighty God. He is the Father, who was neither born of nor
created by any other. He is called Father, because he has a Son, whom he
begot of himself, without any mother. The Father is God of no God. The Son
is God of God the Father. The Holy Ghost is God proceeding from the Father
and from the Son. These words are shortly said, and it is needful for you
that we more plainly expound them.

What is the Father? The Almighty Creator, not created nor born, but he
himself begot a Child coeternal with himself. What is the Son? He is the
Wisdom of the Father, and his Word, and his Might, through whom the Father
created and disposed all things. The Son is neither made nor created, but
he is begotten. He is begotten, and yet he is coeval and coeternal with his
Father. It is not with his birth as it is with our birth. When a man begets
a son, and his child is born, the father is greater and the son less. Why
so? Because when the son waxes the father grows old. Thou findest not among
men father and son alike. But I will give thee an example, whereby thou
mayest the better understand the birth of God. Fire begets brightness of
itself, and the brightness is coeval with the fire. The fire is not of the
brightness, but the brightness is of the fire. The fire begets the
brightness, and it is never without the brightness. Now thou hearest that
the brightness is as old as the fire of which it comes; allow therefore
that God might beget a Child as old and as eternal as he himself is. Let
him who can understand that our Saviour Christ is in the Godhead as old as
his {281} Father, thank God therefore and rejoice. He who cannot understand
it shall believe it, that he may understand it; for the word of the prophet
may not be rendered void, who thus spake, "Unless ye believe it ye cannot
understand it." Ye have now heard that the Son is of the Father without any
beginning; for he is the Wisdom of the Father, and he was ever with the
Father, and ever will be.

Let us now hear concerning the Holy Ghost, what he is. He is the Will and
the true Love of the Father and of the Son, through whom all things are
quickened and preserved, concerning whom it is thus said, "The Spirit of
God filleth all the circumference of earth, and he holdeth all things, and
he hath knowledge of every speech." He is not made, nor created, nor
begotten, but he is proceeding, that is going from, the Father and from the
Son, with whom he is equal and coeternal. The Holy Ghost is not a son, for
he is not begotten, but he proceeds from the Father and from the Son; for
he is the Will and Love of them both. Christ spake of him thus in his
gospel, "The Spirit of comfort whom I will send unto you, the Spirit of
truth, which proceedeth from my Father, will bear testimony concerning me."
That is, He is my witness that I am the Son of God. And the right faith
also teaches us, that we should believe in the Holy Ghost: he is the
quickening God, who proceeds from the Father and from the Son. How proceeds
he from him? The Son is the Wisdom of the Father, ever of the Father; and
the Holy Ghost is the Will of them both, ever of them both. There is
therefore one Father, who is ever Father; and one Son, who is ever Son; and
one Holy Ghost, who is ever Holy Ghost.

Ever was the Father, without beginning; and ever was the Son with the
Father, for he is the Wisdom of the Father; ever was the Holy Ghost, who is
the Will and Love of them both. The Father is of no other, for he was ever.
The Son is begotten of the Father, for he was ever in the bosom of {283}
the Father, for he is his Wisdom, and he is of the Father all that he is.
Ever was the Holy Ghost, for he is, as we before said, the Will and true
Love of the Father and of the Son; for will and love betoken one thing:
that which thou wilt thou lovest; and that which thou wilt not, thou lovest

The sun which shines over us is a bodily creature, and has, nevertheless,
three properties in itself: one is the bodily substance, that is the sun's
orb; the second is the beam or brightness ever of the sun, which illumines
all the earth; the third is the heat, which with the beam comes to us. The
beam is ever of the sun, and ever with it; and the Son of Almighty God is
ever of the Father begotten, and ever with him existing, of whom the
apostle said, that he was the brightness of his Father's glory. The heat of
the sun proceeds from it and from its beam; and the Holy Ghost proceeds
ever from the Father and from the Son equally; of whom it is thus written,
"There is no one who may hide himself from his heat."

Father, and Son, and Holy Ghost, may not be named together, but yet they
are nowhere separated. The Almighty God is not threefold, but is Trinity.
The Father is God, and the Son is God, and the Holy Ghost is God: not three
Gods, but they all three one Almighty God. The Father is also Wisdom of no
other wisdom. The Son is Wisdom of the wise Father. The Holy Ghost is
Wisdom. But yet they are all together one Wisdom. Again, the Father is true
Love, and the Son is true Love, and the Holy Ghost is true Love; and they
all together one God and one true Love. In like manner the Father is ghost
and holy, and the Son is ghost and holy undoubtedly; nevertheless the Holy
Ghost is specially called Holy Ghost, that which they all three are in

There is so great likeness in this Holy Trinity, that the Father is no
greater than the Son in the Godhead; nor is the {285} Son greater than the
Holy Ghost; nor is one of them less than the whole Trinity. Wheresoever one
of them is, there they are all three, ever one God indivisible. No one of
them is greater than other, nor one less than other, nor one before other,
nor one after other; for whatsoever is less than God, that is not God; that
which is later has beginning, but God has no beginning. The Father alone is
not Trinity, nor is the Son Trinity, nor the Holy Ghost Trinity, but these
three persons are one God in one Godhead. When thou hearest the Father
named, then thou wilt understand that he has a Son. Again, when thou
sayest, Son, thou knowest, without doubt, that he has a Father. Again, we
believe that the Holy Ghost is the Spirit both of the Father and of the

Let no man deceive himself so as to say or to believe that there are three
Gods, or that any person in the Holy Trinity is less mighty than other.
Each of the three is God, yet they are all one God; for they all have one
nature, and one Godhead, and one substance, and one counsel, and one work,
and one majesty, and like glory, and coeternal rule. But the Son alone was
incarnate and born to man of the holy maiden Mary. The Father was not
invested with human nature, but yet he sent his Son for our redemption, and
was ever with him, both in life and in passion, and at his resurrection,
and at his ascension. Also all the church of God confesses, according to
true faith, that Christ was born of the pure maiden Mary, and of the Holy
Ghost. Yet is not the Holy Ghost the Father of Christ; never shall any
christian man believe that: but the Holy Ghost is the Will of the Father
and of the Son; therefore is it very rightly written in our belief, that
Christ's humanity was accomplished by the Holy Ghost.

Behold the sun with attention, in which there is, as we before said, heat
and brightness; but the heat dries, and the {287} brightness gives light.
The heat does one thing, and the brightness another; and though they cannot
be separated, the heating, nevertheless, belongs to the heat, and the
giving light to the brightness. In like manner Christ alone assumed human
nature, and not the Father, nor the Holy Ghost: they were, nevertheless,
ever with him in all his works and in all his course.

We speak of God, mortals of the Immortal, feeble of the Almighty, miserable
beings of the Merciful; but who may worthily speak of that which is
unspeakable? He is without measure, because he is everywhere. He is without
number, for he is ever. He is without weight, for he holds all creatures
without toil; and he disposed them all in three things, that is in measure,
and in number, and in weight. But know ye that no man can speak fully
concerning God, when we cannot even investigate or reckon the creatures
which he has created. Who by words can tell the ornaments of heaven? Or who
the fruitfulness of earth? Or who shall adequately praise the circuit of
all the seasons? Or who all other things, when we cannot even fully
comprehend with our sight the bodily things on which we look? Behold thou
seest the man before thee, but at the time thou seest his face, thou seest
not his back. So also if thou lookest at a cloth, thou canst not see it all
together, but turnest it about, that thou mayest see it all. What wonder is
it, if the Almighty God is unspeakable and incomprehensible, who is
everywhere all, and nowhere divided?

Now some shallow-thinking man will inquire, how God can be everywhere at
once, and nowhere divided. Behold this sun, how high he ascends, and how he
sends his beams over all the world, and how he enlightens all this earth
which mankind inhabit. As soon as he rises up at early morn, he shines on
Jerusalem, and on Rome, and on this country, and on all countries at once;
and yet he is a creature, and goes {289} by God's direction. How much
ampler then is God's presence, and his might, and his visitation
everywhere! Him nothing withstands, neither stone wall nor broad barrier,
as they withstand the sun. To him nothing is hidden or unknown. Thou seest
a man's face, but God seeth his heart. The spirit of God tries the hearts
of all men; and those who believe in him and love him he purifies and
gladdens with his visitation, and the hearts of unbelieving men he passes
by and shuns.

Let everyone also know that every man has three things in himself
indivisible and working together, as God said when he first created man. He
said, "Let us make man in our own likeness." And he then made Adam in his
own likeness. In which part has man the likeness of God in him? In the
soul, not in the body. The soul of man has in its nature a likeness to the
Holy Trinity; for it has in it three things, these are memory, and
understanding, and will. By the memory a man thinks on the things which he
has heard, or seen, or learned. By the understanding he comprehends all the
things which he hears or sees. Of the will come thoughts, and words, and
works, both evil and good. There is one soul, and one life, and one
substance, which has these three things in it working together inseparably;
for where memory is there is understanding and will, and they are ever
together. Yet is none of these three the soul, but the soul through the
memory reminds, through the understanding comprehends, through the will it
wills whatsoever it likes; and it is, nevertheless, one soul and one life.
It has therefore God's likeness in itself, because it has three things in
it inseparably working. Yet is the man one man, and not a trinity: but God,
Father and Son and Holy Ghost, exists in a trinity of persons and in the
unity of one Godhead. Man exists not {291} in trinity as God, but he has,
nevertheless, the likeness of God in his soul, by reason of the three
things of which we have before spoken.

There was a heretic called Arius, who disputed with a bishop who was named
Alexander, a wise and orthodox man. The heretic said, that Christ the Son
of God could not be equal to his Father, nor so mighty as he; and said,
that the Father was before the Son, and took example from men, how every
son is younger than his father in this life. Then said the holy bishop
Alexander in opposition to him, "God was ever, and ever was his Wisdom of
him begotten, and the Wisdom is his Son, as mighty as his Father." Then the
heretic got the emperor's support to his heresy, and proclaimed a synod
against the bishop, and would bend all the people to his heresies. Then the
bishop watched one night in God's church, and cried to his Lord, and thus
said, "Thou Almighty God, judge right judgement between me and Arius." On
the morrow they came to the synod. The heretic then said to his companions,
that he would go forth for his need. When he came to the place and sat, all
his entrails came out, while he was sitting, and he sat there dead. Thus
God manifested that he was as void in his inside as he had before been in
his belief. He would make Christ less than he is, and diminish the dignity
of his Godhead; when a death was given him as ignominious as he was well
worthy of.

There was another heretic who was called Sabellius. He said, that the
Father was, whenever he would, Father; and again, when he would, he was
Son; and again, when he would, was Holy Ghost; and was therefore one God.
Then this heretic also perished with his heresy.

Now again, the Jewish people who slew Christ, as he himself would and
permitted, say that they will believe in the Father, and not in the Son
whom their forefathers slew. Their belief is naught, and they will
therefore perish. For our redemption Christ permitted them to slay him. All
{293} mankind could not have done it, if he himself had not willed it; but
the Holy Father created and made mankind through his Son, and he would
afterwards through the same redeem us from hell-torment, when we were
undone. Without any passion he might have had us, but that seemed to him
unjust. But the devil undid himself, when he instigated the Jewish people
to the slaying of Jesus, and we were redeemed by his innocent death from
the eternal death.

We have the belief that Christ himself taught to his apostles, and they to
all mankind; and that belief God has confirmed and established by many
miracles. First Christ by himself healed dumb and deaf, halt and blind, mad
and leprous, and raised the dead to life: after, by his apostles and other
holy men, he wrought the same miracles. Now also in our time, everywhere
where holy men rest, at their dead bones God works many miracles, because
he will with those miracles confirm people's faith. God works not these
miracles at any Jewish man's sepulchre, nor at any other heretic's, but at
the sepulchres of orthodox men, who believed in the Holy Trinity, and in
the true Unity of one Godhead.

Let everyone know also, that no man may be twice baptized; but if a man err
after his baptism, we believe that he may be saved, if with weeping he
repent of his sins, and, according to the teaching of his instructors,
atone for them. We are to believe that the soul of every man is created by
God, but yet it is not of God's own nature. The matter of a man's body is
from the father and from the mother, but God creates the body from the
matter, and sends a soul into the body. The soul is nowhere existing
previously, but God creates it forthwith, and sets it in the body, and lets
it have its own election, whether it shall sin, whether it shall eschew
sins. Nevertheless it ever needs God's support, that it may eschew sins,
and again come to its Creator through good deserts; for no man doeth
anything good without God.

{295} We are also to believe that every body which has received a soul
shall arise at doomsday with the same body that he now has, and shall
receive the reward of all his deeds: then will the good have eternal life
with God, and he will give a meed to everyone according to his deserts. The
sinful will be ever suffering in hell-torment, and their torment will also
be measured to everyone according to his deserts. Let us therefore merit
eternal life with God through this faith, and through good deserts, who
existeth in Trinity One Almighty God ever to eternity. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *


    Primum quidem sermonem feci: et reliqua.

Lucas se Godspellere ús manode on ðisre pistol-rædinge, þus cweðende, "Se
Hælend, middangeardes Alysend, æteowde hine sylfne cucenne his gingrum,
æfter his þrowunge and his æriste, on manegum ðrafungum, geond feowertig
daga, and him to spræc ymbe Godes rice, samod mid him reordigende: and
bebead him þæt hi of ðære byrig Hierusalem ne gewiton, ac þæt hi ðær
anbidedon his Fæder behátes, he cwæð, þe ge of minum muðe gehyrdon. Forðan
ðe Iohannes se Fulluhtere gefullode on wætere, and ge beoð gefullode on ðam
Halgan Gaste nu æfter feawum dagum. Eornostlice seo gegaderung his
leorning-cnihta cwæð ða ánmodlice, Drihten leof, wilt ðu nu gesettan ende
þysre worulde? He him andwyrde, Nis na eow to gewitenne ða tíd oððe ða
hand-hwile þe min Fæder gesette þurh his mihte: ac ge underfoð þæs Halgan
Gastes mihte, and ge beoð mine gewitan on Iudea lande, and on eallum
middangearde, oð þæt endenexte land. And hé lædde hí ða út of ðære byrig up
to anre dune ðe is gecweden mons Oliueti, and hi gebletsode up-ahafenum
handum. Þa mid þære bletsunge ferde hé to {296} heofonum, him on
locigendum; and þæt heofonlice wolcn leat wið his, and hine genam fram
heora gesihðum."

"Ðaða hi up to heofonum starigende stodon, ða gesawon hi ðær twegen englas
on hwitum gerelan, þus cweðende, Ge Galileisce weras, hwi stande ge ðus
starigende wið heofenas weard? Se Hælend, þe is nu genumen of eowrum
gesihðum to heofonum, swa he cymð eft swa swa ge gesawon þæt he to heofonum
astáh. Hi ða gecyrdon to ðære byrig Hierusalem mid micelre blisse, and
astigon upp on ane upfleringe, and þær wunedon oð Pentecosten on gebedum
and on Godes herungum, oðþæt se Halga Gast him to com, swa swa se æðela
Cyning him ær behét."

"On ðyssere geferrædene wæron Petrus and Iohannes, Iacob and Andreas,
Philippus and Thomas, Bartholomeus and Matheus, se oðer Iacob and Simon, se
oðer Iudas and Maria þæs Hælendes modor, and gehwilce oðre, ægðer ge weras
ge wíf. Eal seo menigu wæs an hund manna and twentig, anmodlice on gebedum

Se Hælend tæhte ða halgan lare his leorning-cnihtum ær his ðrowunge, and
æfter his æriste he wæs wunigende betwux him þas feowertig daga, fram ðære
halgan Easter-tide oð þisne dægðerlican dæg, and on manegum wisum ðrafode
and afandode his gingran, and ge-edlæhte þæt þæt he ær tæhte, to fulre lare
and rihtum geleafan. He gereordode hine æfter his æriste, na forði þæt he
syððan eorðlices bigleofan behófode, ac to ði þæt he geswutelode his soðan
lichaman. He æt þurh mihte, na for neode. Swa swa fyr fornimð wæteres
dropan, swa fornam Cristes godcundlice miht ðone geðigedan mete. Soðlice
æfter ðam gemænelicum æriste ne behófiað ure lichaman nanre strangunge
eorðlicra metta, ac se Hælend us deð ealle ure neoda mid heofenlicum
ðingum, and we beoð mid wuldre gewelgode, and mihtige to gefremmenne swa
hwæt swa us licað, and we beoð ful swyfte to farenne geond ealle
wídgylnyssa Godes rices.

{298} He behét his gingrum nu and gelome þæt he wolde him sendan þone
Halgan Gast, and þus cwæð, "Þonne he cymð he eow tiht and gewissað to
eallum ðam ðingum ðe ic eow sæde." Þa com se Halga Gast on fyres hiwe to
ðam halgum hyrede on þam endleoftan dæge Cristes upstiges, and hi ealle
onælde mid úndergendlicum fyre, and hí wurdon afyllede mid þære heofonlican
láre, and cuðon ealle woruldlice gereord, and bodedon unforhtlice geleafan
and fulluht ricum and reðum.

Se halga heap befrán Crist, hwæðer he wolde on ðam timan þisne middangeard
geendian. He ða cwæð him to andsware, "Nis na eower mǽð to witenne þone
timan, þe min Fæder þurh his mihte gesette." He cwæð eac on oðre stowe,
"Nát nán man ðone dæg ne ðone timan ðysre worulde geendunge, ne englas, ne
nan halga, buton Gode anum." Þeah-hwæðere, be ðam tacnum þe Crist sæde, we
geseoð þæt seo geendung is swiðe gehende, þeah ðe heo us uncuð sy.

Þa apostoli wæron gewitan Cristes weorca, forðan ðe hí bodedon his
ðrowunge, and his ærist, and upstige, ærst Iudeiscre ðeode, and syððan
becom heora stemn to ælcum lande, and heora word to gemærum ealles
ymbhwyrftes; forðan ðe hí awriton Cristes wundra, and ða bec þurhwuniað on
cristenre ðeode, ægðer ge ðær þær ða apostoli lichamlice bodedon, ge þær
ðær hí na ne becomon.

Ealle gesceafta ðeniað heora Scyppende. Þaþa Crist acenned wæs, þa sende
seo heofen niwne steorran, ðe bodade Godes acennednysse. Eft, ðaða he to
heofonum astah, þa abeah þæt heofonlice wolcn wið his, and hine underfeng:
na þæt þæt wolcn hine ferede, forðan ðe he hylt heofona ðrymsetl, ac he
siðode mid þam wolcne of manna gesihðum. Þær wæron ða gesewene twegen
englas on hwitum gyrelum. Eac swilce on his acennednysse wæron englas
gesewene; ac þæt halige godspel ne ascyrde hu hi gefreatwode wæron; forðan
ðe God com to us swiðe eadmod. On his upstige wæron gesewene englas mid
hwitum gyrlum geglengede. Bliss is {300} getacnod on hwitum reafe, forðon
ðe Crist ferde heonon mid micelre blisse and mid micclum ðrymme. On his
acennednysse wæs geðuht swilce seo Godcundnys wære geeadmet, and on his
upstige wæs seo menniscnys ahafen and gemærsod. Mid his upstige is adylegod
þæt cyrographum ure geniðerunge, and se cwyde ure brosnunge is awend.

Þaða Adam agylt hæfde, þa cwæð se Ælmihtiga Wealdend him to, "Þu eart
eorðe, and þu gewenst to eorðan. Ðu eart dust, and þu gewenst to duste." Nu
to-dæg þæt ylce gecynd ferde unbrosnigendlic into heofenan rice. Þa twegen
englas sædon þæt Crist cymð swa swa he uppferde, forðan ðe he bið gesewen
on ðam micclum dome on menniscum hiwe, þæt his slagan hine magon oncnawan,
þe hine ær to deaðe gedydon, and eac ða ðe his lare forsawon, þæt hi ðonne
rihtlice onfón þæt ece wite mid deofle. Þæt halige gewrit cwyð, "Tollatur
impius ne uideat gloriam Dei:" "Sy ðam arleasan ætbroden seo gesihð Godes
wuldres." Ne geseoð þa arleasan Cristes wuldor, ðe hine ær on life
forsawon, ac hi geseoð þonne egefulne þone ðe hi eadmodne forhygedon.

Recumbentibus undecim discipulis: et reliqua. We habbað nu geræd Lucas
gesetnysse embe Cristes upstige; nu wende we ure smeagunge to ðam oðrum
godspellere Marcum, þe cwæð on ðisum dægðerlicum godspelle, þæt se Hælend
æteowde hine sylfne his apostolum and cidde him, forðan ðe hi noldon æt
fruman gelyfan his æristes of deaðe, ðaða hit him gecydd wæs. Þa cwæð se
Wealdend to his gingrum, "Farað geond ealne middangeard, and bodiað godspel
eallum gesceafte: seðe gelyfð and bið gefullod, se bið gehealden; se ðe ne
gelyfð, he bið genyðerod. Ðas tacnu fyligað þam mannum þe gelyfað," etc.
Þis godspel is nu anfealdlice gesǽd, ac we willað nu, æfter Gregories
trahtnunge, þa digelnysse eow onwreón.

Ðæra apostola tweonung be Cristes æriste næs na swa swiðe heora
ungeleaffulnys, ac wæs ure trumnys. Læs us {302} fremodon þa ðe hraðe
gelyfdon, ðonne ða þe twynigende wæron; forðan ðe hi sceawedon and grapodon
ða dolhswaðu Cristes wunda, and swa adræfdon ealle twynunga fram ure
heortan. Þa ðreade se Hælend his leorning-cnihta twynunge, ðaða hé
lichamlice hí forlætan wolde, to ði þæt hí gemyndige wæron ðæra worda þe hé
on his siðe him sæde. He cwæð þa, "Farað geond ealne middangeard, and
bodiað godspel eallum gesceafte." Godspel is us to gehyrenne, and ðearle
lufigendlic, þæt we moton forbugan helle-wite and ða hreowlican tintrega
þurh ðæs Hælendes menniscnysse, and becuman to engla werode þurh his
eadmodnysse. He cwæð, "Bodiað eallum gesceafte:" ac mid þam naman is se
mann ána getacnod. Stanas sind gesceafta, ac hí nabbað nan líf, ne hí ne
gefredað. Gærs and treowa lybbað butan felnysse; hí ne lybbað na ðurh
sawle, ac ðurh heora grennysse. Nytenu lybbað and habbað felnysse, butan
gesceade: hí nabbað nan gescead, forðan ðe hí sind sawullease. Englas
lybbað, and gefredað, and tosceadað. Nu hæfð se mann ealra gesceafta sum
ðing. Him is gemæne mid stanum, þæt he beo wunigende; him is gemæne mid
treowum, þæt he lybbe; mid nytenum, þæt he gefrede; mid englum, þæt he
understande. Nu is se mann gecweden 'eall gesceaft,' forðan ðe he hæfð sum
ðing gemæne mid eallum gesceafte. Þæt godspel bið gebodad eallum gesceafte,
þonne hit bið ðam menn anum gebodad, forðan ðe ealle eorðlice þing sind
gesceapene for ðam men anum, and hí ealle habbað sume gelicnysse to ðam
men, swa swa we ær sædon.

"Se ðe gelyfð, and bið gefullod, he bið gehealden; and se ðe ne gelyfð, he
bið geniðerod." Se geleafa bið soð seðe ne wiðcwyð mid þweorum ðeawum þæt
þæt he gelyfð; be ðam cwæð Iohannes se apostol, "Se ðe cwyð þæt he God
cunne, and his beboda ne hylt, he is leas." Eft cwyð se apostol Iacobus,
"Se geleafa ðe bið butan godum weorcum, se bið dead." Eft he cwæð, "Hwæt
fremað þe þæt ðu hæbbe geleafan, gif ðu næfst ða godan weorc? Ne mæg {304}
se geleafa ðe gehealdan butan ðam weorcum. Deoflu gelyfað, ac hí forhtiað."
Þa deoflu gesawon Crist on ðisum life on ðære menniscnysse, ac hi feollon
to his fotum, and hrymdon, and cwædon, "Þu eart Godes Sunu, forði ðu come
þæt ðu woldest us fordón." Se man ðe nele gelyfan on God, ne nænne Godes
ege næfð, he bið wyrsa þonne deofol. Se ðe gelyfð, and hæfð ege, and nele
ðeah-hwæðere gód wyrcan, se bið þonne deoflum gelic.

In quodam tractu, qui estimatur S[=ci] Hilarii fuisse, sic inuenimus
scriptum, sicut Anglice hic interpretauimus, et ad testimonium ipsam
Latinitatem posuimus: "Demones credunt et contremescunt; qui autem non
credit, et non contremescit demonibus deterior est: qui autem credit, et
contremescit, et ueritatem operibus non agit demonibus similis est." Se ðe
rihtlice gelyfð, and rihtlice his lif leofað, and mid Godes ege gód weorc
begæð oð ende his lifes, se bið gehealden, and he hæfð ece líf mid Gode,
and mid eallum his halgum. Drihten cwæð, þa ðe gelyfað, him fyligað þas
tacnu, "On minum naman hí adræfað deoflu; hí sprecað mid niwum gereordum;
hí afyrsiað næddran; and ðeah ðe hí unlybban drincan, hit him ne derað; hí
settað heora handa ofer adlige men, and him bið tela."

Þas wundra wæron nyd-behefe on anginne cristendomes, forðan ðurh ða tacna
wearð þæt hæðene folc gebiged to geleafan. Se man ðe plantað treowa oððe
wyrta, swa lange he hí wæterað oðþæt hí beoð ciðfæste; syððan hí growende
beoð he geswycð þære wæterunge: swa eac se Ælmihtiga God, swa lange he
æteowde his wundra ðam hæðenum folce, oðþæt hí geleaffulle wæron: syððan se
geleafa sprang geond ealne middangeard, siððan geswicon ða wundra. Ac
ðeah-hwæðere Godes gelaðung wyrcð gyt dæghwamlice þa ylcan wundra gastlice
þe ða apostoli ða worhton lichamlice. Þonne se preost cristnað þæt cild,
þonne adræfð he ðone deofol of ðam cilde; forðan ðe ælc hæðen man bið
deofles, ac þurh {306} þæt halige fulluht he bið Godes, gif he hit gehylt.
Se ðe forlæt bysmorlice spellunga, and talu, and derigendlice gaffetunga,
and gebysegað his muð mid Godes herungum and gebedum, he sprecð þonne mid
niwum gereordum. Se ðe ungeradum oððe ungeðyldigum styrð, and þa biternysse
his heortan gestilð, he afyrsað þa næddran, forðan ðe he adwæscð þa
yfelnyssa his modes. Se ðe bið forspanen to forligre, and ðeah-hwæðere ne
bið gebiged to ðære fremminge, he drincð unlybban, ac hit him ne derað, gif
he mid gebédum to Gode flihð. Gif hwa bið geuntrumod on his anginne, and
asolcen fram godre drohtnunge, gif hine hwa ðonne mid tihtinge and
gebisnungum godra weorca getrymð and arærð, þonne bið hit swilce he sette
his handa ofer untrumne and hine gehæle.

Þa gastlican wundra sind maran þonne þa lichamlican wæron, forðan ðe ðas
wundra gehælað þæs mannes sawle, ðe is ece, and ða ærran tacna gehældon
þone deadlican lichaman. Þa ærran wundra worhton ægðer ge góde men ge
yfele. Yfel wæs Iudas, ðe Crist belæwde, þeah he worhte wundra æror ðurh
Godes naman. Be swylcum mannum cwæð Crist on oðre stowe, "Ic secge eow,
manega cweðað to me on ðam micclan dæge, Drihten, Drihten, la hú ne
witegode we on ðinum naman, and we adræfdon deoflo of wodum mannum, and we
micele mihta on þinum naman gefremedon? Þonne andette ic him, Ne can ic
eow: gewitað fram me, ge unrihtwise wyrhtan." Mine gebroðru, ne lufige ge
ða wundra þe magon beon gemæne godum and yfelum, ac lufiað þa tacna þe sind
sinderlice godra manna, þæt synd soðre lufe and arfæstnysse tacna. Næfð se
yfela ða soðan lufe, ne se góda nys hyre bedæled. Þas tacna sind digle and
unpleolice, and hí habbað swa miccle maran edlean æt Gode, swa micclum swa
heora wuldor is læsse mid mannum. Se Wealdenda Drihten, æfter ðisum wordum,
wæs genumen to heofonum, and sitt on ða swiðran hand his Fæder.

We rædað on ðære ealdan ǽ, þæt twegen Godes men, {308} Enoh and Helias,
wæron ahafene to heofonum butan deaðe: ac hí elciað ongean ðone deað, and
mid ealle ne forfleoð. Hí sind genumene to lyftenre heofenan na to
rodorlicere, and drohtniað on sumum diglan earde mid micelre strencðe
lichaman and sawle, oðþæt hi eft ongean cyrron, on ende þisre worulde,
togeanes Antecriste, and deaðes onfoð. Ure Ælmihtiga Alysend ne elcode na
ongean þone deað, ac he hine oferswiðde mid his æriste, and geswutulode his
wuldor þurh his upstige to ðam yfemystan þrymsetle.

We rædað be ðam witegan Heliam, þæt englas hine feredon on heofonlicum
cræte, forðan ðe seo untrumnys his gecyndes behofode sumes byrðres. Ure
Alysend Crist næs geferod mid cræte ne ðurh engla fultum; forðan se ðe
ealle ðing geworhte, he wæs geferod mid his agenre mihte ofer ealle
gesceafta. Se ærra man Enoh wæs geferod to lyftenre heofonan, and Helias
wæs mid cræte up-awegen; ac se Ælmihtiga Hælend næs gefered ne awegen, ac
he ðurhferde ða roderlican heofonan þurh his agene mihte.

Us is to smeagenne hu seo clænnys wæs ðeonde geond þa geferedan ðenas, and
þurh ðone astigendan Hælend. Enoh wæs geferod, seðe wæs mid hæmede
gestryned, and mid hæmede wæs strynende. Helias wæs on cræte geferod, seðe
wæs þurh hæmed gestryned, ac he ne strynde þurh hæmed, forðan ðe he wunade
on his life butan wife. Se Hælend astah to heofonum, seðe næs mid hæmede
gestryned, ne he sylf strynende næs; forðan ðe he is ord and anginn ealra
clænnyssa, and him is seo clænnys swiðe lufigendlic mægen, þæt he
geswutulode ðaða he geceas him mæden-mann to meder. And eall se halga heap
ðe him fyligde wæs on clænnysse wunigende, swa swa he cwæð sumum godspelle,
"Se ðe to me cymð, ne mæg he beon min leorning-cniht, buton he his wif

Se godspellere Marcus awrát on ðisum godspelle, þæt ure Drihten, æfter his
upstige, sæte on his Fæder swiðran hand; and se forma martyr Stephanus
cwæð, þæt he gesawe {310} heofonas opene, and ðone Hælend standan on his
Fæder swiðran. Nu cwyð se trahtnere, "Þæt rihtlice is gecweden, þæt he sæte
æfter his upstige, forðan ðe deman gedafnað setl." Crist is se soða dema,
þe demð and toscæt ealle ðing, nu and eac on ðam endenextan dæge. Se martyr
hine geseah standan, forðan ðe hé wæs his gefylsta on ðære ðrowunge his
martyrdomes, and ðurh his gife he wæs gebyld ongean ða reðan ehteras, ðe
hine wælhreowlice stændon.

Se ende is ðises godspelles, Þæt Cristes apostoli "ferdon and bodedon
gehwær, Drihtne samod wyrcendum, and ða spræce getrymmendum mid
æfterfyligendum tacnum." Þa apostoli, þæt sind Godes bydelas, toferdon
geond ealne middangeard. Petrus bodade on Iudea-lande, Paulus on hæðenum
folce, Andreas on Scithia, Iohannes on Asia, Bartholomeus on India, Matheus
on Ethiopia, and swa heora gehwilc on his dæle, and Godes miht him wæs mid,
to gefremminge heora bodunga and ungerimra tacna; forðan ðe Crist cwæð, "Ne
mage ge nán ðing dón butan me." Eft he cwæð, "Ic beo mid eow eallum dagum,
oð þisre worulde geendunge," seðe lyfað and rixað mid þam Ælmihtigan Fæder
and ðam Halgum Gaste á on ecnysse. Amen.


    Primum quidem sermonem feci: et reliqua.

Luke the Evangelist has informed us in this epistolary reading, thus
saying, "Jesus, the Redeemer of the world, showed himself living to his
disciples, after his passion and his resurrection, by many reproofs, for
forty days, and spake to them concerning the kingdom of God, eating and
drinking together with them: and commanded them that they should not depart
from the city of Jerusalem, but that they should await there the promise of
his Father which (he said) ye have heard from my mouth. For John the
Baptist baptized with water, and ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost
now after a few days. The assembly of his disciples therefore said
unanimously, Beloved Lord, wilt thou now put an end to this world? He
answered them, It is not for you to know the time or the moment which my
Father hath appointed through his might: but ye shall receive the might of
the Holy Ghost, and ye shall be my witnesses in Judea, and in all the
world, unto the uttermost land. And he led them then out of the city up to
a hill which is called the mount of Olives, and blessed them with uplifted
hands. Then after {297} that blessing he went to heaven, they looking on;
and a heavenly cloud descended towards him, and took him from their sight."

"While they stood gazing up to heaven, they saw there two angels in white
garments, thus saying, Ye Galilean men, why stand ye thus gazing towards
heaven? Jesus, who is now taken from your sight to heaven, shall so come
again as ye have seen that he ascended to heaven. They then returned to the
city of Jerusalem with great joy, and went up on an upper flooring, and
there stayed till Pentecost in prayers and in praises of God, until the
Holy Ghost came to them, as the noble King had before promised them."

"In this fellowship were Peter and John, James and Andrew, Philip and
Thomas, Bartholomew and Matthew, the other James and Simon, the other Judas
and Mary the mother of Jesus, and several others, both men and women. The
whole multitude was an hundred and twenty persons, unanimously continuing
in prayers."

Jesus taught the holy lore to his disciples before his passion, and after
his resurrection he was continuing among them these forty days, from the
holy Easter-tide until this present day, and in many ways reproved and
tried his disciples, and repeated that which he had before taught, for the
perfection of doctrine and right faith. He ate and drank after his
resurrection, not because he then had need of earthly food, but because he
would manifest his true body. He ate through power, not for need. As fire
consumes drops of water, so did the divine power of Christ consume the
received meat. Verily after the universal resurrection our bodies will
require no strengthening of earthly meats, for Jesus will supply all our
needs with heavenly things, and we shall be enriched with glory, and mighty
to execute whatsoever is pleasing to us, and we shall be full swift to go
through all the immensities of the kingdom of God.

{299} He promised to his disciples then and frequently that he would send
to them the Holy Ghost, and thus said, "When he comes he will stimulate and
direct you to all the things which I have said unto you." Then came the
Holy Ghost in semblance of fire to the holy company on the eleventh day
after Christ's ascension, and inflamed them all with innoxious fire, and
they were filled with heavenly lore, and knew all worldly tongues, and
fearlessly preached faith and baptism to the powerful and cruel.

The holy company asked Christ, whether he would at that time put an end to
this world. He said to them in answer, "It is not for you to know the time
which my Father hath through his power appointed." He said also in another
place, "No man knoweth the day or the time of the ending of this world, nor
the angels, nor any saint, save God only." Yet by the tokens which Christ
mentioned, we see that the ending is very near at hand, though it be
unknown to us.

The apostles were witnesses of Christ's works, for they preached his
passion, and his resurrection, and ascension, first to the Jewish people,
and afterwards their voice came to every land, and their words to the
boundaries of the whole globe; for they recorded the miracles of Christ,
and the books exist among christian people, both where the apostles bodily
preached, and where they did not come.

All creatures serve their Creator. When Christ was born, heaven sent forth
a new star, which announced the birth of God. Again, when he ascended to
heaven, the heavenly cloud bowed down towards him, and received him: not
that the cloud bare him, for he holds the throne of heaven, but he passed
with the cloud from the sight of men. There were seen two angels in white
garments. In like manner at his birth angels were seen; but the holy gospel
has not explained how they were adorned; for God came to us very humble. At
his ascension were seen angels adorned with white garments. Joy is
betokened by white garments, for {301} Christ departed hence with great joy
and with great majesty. At his birth it seemed as though the Godhead were
humbled, and at his ascension humanity was exalted and magnified. With his
ascension is annulled the writ of our condemnation, and the sentence of our
destruction is abrogated.

When Adam had sinned, the Almighty Ruler said to him, "Thou art earth, and
thou shalt to earth return. Thou art dust, and thou shalt return to dust."
Now to-day that same nature went incorruptible into the kingdom of heaven.
The two angels said that Christ would come as he ascended, because at the
great doom he will be seen in human form, that his slayers may recognize
him whom they formerly put to death, and also that those who despised his
precepts may then justly receive eternal punishment with the devil. Holy
writ says, "Tollatur impius ne videat gloriam Dei:" "Be the sight of God's
glory taken away from the impious." The impious will not see the glory of
Christ, whom they had before despised in life, but they will then see him
awful whom humble they had contemned.

Recumbentibus undecim discipulis: et reliqua. We have now read the
narrative of Luke concerning Christ's ascension; we will now turn our
consideration to the other evangelist Mark, who said in the present day's
gospel, that Jesus appeared to his apostles, and chid them, because they
would not at first believe his resurrection from death, when it was
announced to them. Then said the Lord to his disciples, "Go over all the
world, and preach the gospel to every creature: he who believeth and is
baptized shall be saved; he who believeth not shall be damned. These signs
shall follow those men who believe," etc. This gospel is here now simply
said, but we will now unfold its mysteries to you, according to the
exposition of Gregory.

The apostles' doubt as to the resurrection of Christ was not so much their
lack of faith, but was our confirmation. Less {303} have benefited us those
who quickly believed than those who were doubting; for they beheld and
touched the scars of Christ's wounds, and so drove out all doubts from our
hearts. Jesus then reproved his disciples for their doubt, when he would
bodily leave them, that they might be mindful of the words which he said to
them on his way. He said, "Go over all the world, and preach the gospel to
every creature." The gospel is for us to hear and exceedingly loving, that
we may avoid hell-torment and cruel tortures through the incarnation of
Jesus, and come to the host of angels through his humility. He said,
"Preach to every creature:" but by that name is man alone betokened. Stones
are creatures, but they have no life, nor have they sense. Grass and trees
live without feeling; they live not by a soul, but by their greenness.
Beasts live and have feeling without reason; they have no reason, because
they are soulless. Angels live, and have sense, and use reason. Now man has
something of all creatures. He has in common with the stones, that he is
existing; he has in common with the trees, that he lives; with the beasts,
that he has sense; with angels, that he understands. Man is therefore
called 'every creature,' because he has something in common with every
creature. The gospel is preached to every creature, when it is preached to
man alone; for all earthly things are created for man alone, and they all
have some likeness to man, as we before said.

"He who believeth, and is baptized, shall be saved; and he who believeth
not shall be damned." That faith is true which gainsays not by wicked
practices that which it believes; of which spake John the apostle; "He who
saith that he knoweth God, and holdeth not his commandments, is a liar."
Again, the apostle James says, "The faith which is without good works is
dead." Again, he said, "What profiteth it thee that thou have faith, if
thou hast not good works? Faith {305} cannot save thee without works. The
devils believe, but they tremble." The devils saw Christ in this life, in
his human state, but they fell at his feet, and cried, and said, "Thou art
the Son of God, therefore thou art come that thou mightest fordo us." The
man who will not believe in God, nor has any awe of God, is worse than a
devil. He who believes, and has awe, and, nevertheless, will not do good,
is like unto a devil.

In quodam tractu, qui æstimatur Sancti Hilarii fuisse, sic invenimus
scriptum, sicut Anglice hic interpretavimus, et ad testimonium ipsam
Latinitatem posuimus: "Dæmones credunt et contremescunt; qui autem non
credit, et non contremescit dæmonibus deterior est: qui autem credit, et
contremescit, et veritatem operibus non agit, dæmonibus similis est." He
who rightly believes, and rightly lives his life, and with awe of God
practises good works to the end of his life, shall be saved, and shall have
everlasting life with God, and with all his saints. The Lord said, these
signs shall follow those who believe in him, "In my name they shall cast
out devils; they shall speak with new tongues; they shall drive away
serpents; and though they drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them;
they shall set their hands over sick men, and it shall be well with them."

These wonders were needful at the beginning of christianity, for by these
signs was the heathen folk inclined to faith. The man who plants trees or
herbs, waters them so long until they have taken root; when they are
growing he ceases from watering: so also the Almighty God so long showed
his miracles to the heathen folk, until they were believing: when faith had
sprung up over all the world, then miracles ceased. But, nevertheless,
God's church still works daily the same miracles spiritually which the
apostles then wrought bodily. When the priest christens the child, then
casts he out the devil from that child; for every heathen man is the
devil's, but through the holy baptism he is God's, {307} if he observe it.
He who forsakes opprobrious speeches and calumnies, and injurious
scoffings, and busies his mouth with the praises of God and with prayers,
speaks then in new tongues. He who corrects thoughtlessness or impatience,
and stills the bitterness of his heart, drives away serpents, for he
extinguishes the evilnesses of his mind. He who is allured to fornication,
but yet is not induced to its accomplishment, drinks a deadly drink, but it
shall not hurt him, if with prayers he flees to God. If any-one be weakened
in his purpose, and slothful for good living, then if any-one, with
exhortation and examples of good works, strengthen and raise him up, it
will be as though he set his hand over the sick and heal him.

The spiritual miracles are greater than the bodily ones were, for these
miracles heal a man's soul, which is eternal, but the former signs healed
the mortal body. The former miracles were wrought both by good men and by
evil. Judas, who betrayed Christ, was evil, though he had previously
wrought miracles in the name of God. Of such men Christ in another place
said, "I say unto you, many will say to me on that great day, Lord, Lord,
lo! have we not prophesied in thy name, and have driven devils out of mad
men, and have performed great miracles in thy name? Then will I profess to
them, I know you not: depart from me, ye unrighteous doers." My brothers,
love not those miracles which may be common to the good and to the evil,
but love those signs which are exclusively good men's, which are the signs
of true love and of piety. The evil has not true love, nor is the good
devoid of it. These signs are mysterious and not perilous, and they have so
much the greater reward with God as their glory is less with men. The
Omnipotent Lord, after these words, was taken to heaven, and sits on the
right hand of his Father.

We read in the old law, that two men of God, Enoch and {309} Elijah, were
lifted up to heaven without death: but they await death, and will by no
means escape from it. They are taken to the aërial heaven, not to the
ethereal, and continue in some secret dwelling-place with great strength of
body and soul, until they shall return again, at the end of this world,
against Antichrist, and shall receive death. Our Almighty Redeemer waited
not for death, but he overcame it with his resurrection, and manifested his
glory by his ascension to the highest throne.

We read of the prophet Elijah, that angels conveyed him in a heavenly
chariot, because the infirmity of his nature required some supporter. Our
Redeemer Christ was not conveyed in a chariot nor by angels' help; for he
who wrought all things was borne by his own might over all creatures. The
first-mentioned man, Enoch, was conveyed to the aërial heaven, and Elijah
was borne up in a chariot; but the Almighty Saviour was not conveyed nor
borne, but he passed through the ethereal heaven by his own might.

We have to consider how chastity was cherished by the ministers who were
thus conveyed, and by the ascending Jesus. Enoch was conveyed, who was
begotten by coition, and who begot by coition. Elijah was conveyed in a
chariot, who was begotten by coition, but he begot not by coition, for he
continued during his life without a wife. Jesus ascended to heaven, who was
not begotten by coition, nor did he himself beget; for he is the origin and
beginning of all chastities, and to him chastity is a very amiable virtue,
which he manifested when he chose him a maiden for mother. And all the holy
company which followed him was living in chastity, as he says in one of his
gospels, "He who comes to me, may not be my disciple, unless he hate his

The evangelist Mark wrote in this gospel, that our Lord, after his
ascension, sat on the right hand of his Father; and the first martyr,
Stephen, said that he saw the heavens open, {311} and Jesus standing on his
Father's right. Now says the expounder, "That is rightly said, that he sat
after his ascension, because a seat is befitting a judge." Christ is the
true Judge, who will judge and decide all things, now, and also on the last
day. The martyr saw him standing, for he was his supporter in the suffering
of his martyrdom, and through his grace he was rendered bold against the
fierce persecutors, who cruelly stoned him.

The end of this gospel is, that Christ's apostles "went and preached
everywhere, the Lord working with them, and confirming the word with signs
following." The apostles, that is, God's preachers, went over all the
world. Peter preached in Judea, Paul among the heathen folk, Andrew in
Scythia, John in Asia, Bartholomew in India, Matthew in Ethiopia, and so
each of them in his part, and the might of God was with them, for the
efficacy of their preaching and of numberless signs; for Christ said, "Ye
can do nothing without me." Again he said, "I will be with you on all days,
until the ending of this world," who liveth and reigneth with the Almighty
Father and the Holy Ghost ever to eternity. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *


Fram ðam halgan easterlican dæge sind getealde fiftig daga to þysum dæge,
and þes dæg is geháten Pentecostes, þæt is, se fifteogoða dæg ðære
easterlican tide. Þes dæg wæs on ðære ealdan ǽ gesett and gehalgod. God
bebead Moyse, on Egypta-lande, þæt hé and eall Israhela folc sceoldon
offrian æt ælcum híwisce Gode an lamb anes geares, and mearcian mid þam
blode rode-tacn on heora gedyrum and oferslegum, ða on ðære nihte ferde
Godes engel, and acwealde on ælcum huse ðæs Egyptiscan folces þæt
frumcennyde cild and þæt {312} leofoste. And Israhela folc ferde on ðære
ylcan nihte of ðam leodscipe, and God hí lædde ofer ða Readan sǽ mid drium
fotum. Þa tengde se Pharao æfter mid mycelre fyrde. Ðaða he com on middan
ðære sǽ, þa wæs þæt Godes folc up-agán, and God ða besencte ðone Pharao and
eal his werod. Ða bebead God Moyse and þam folce þæt hí heoldon ða tid mid
micelre arwurðnysse, on ælces geares ymbrene. Þa wæs seo tid þam folce
geset to Easter-tide, forðan ðe God hí hredde wið heora fynd, and heora
ehteras fordyde. Þa þæs ymbe fiftig daga sette God þam folce ǽ, and wæs
gesewen Godes wuldor upp on anre dune þe is geháten Synáy. Þær com micel
leoht, and egeslic sweg, and blawende byman. Þa clypode God þone Moysen him
to, and he wæs mid Gode feowertig daga, and awrát ða ealdan ǽ be Godes
dihte. Þa wæs se dæg PENTECOSTES geháten on ðære Ealdan Gesetnysse.

Þæt geoffrode lámb getacnode Cristes slege, seðe unscæððig wæs his Fæder
geoffrod for ure alysednysse. Nu is his ðrowung and his ærist ure
Easter-tíd, forðan ðe he us alysde fram deofles þeowdome, and ure ehteras
beoð besencte þurh þæt halige fulluht, swa swa wæs Pharao mid his leode on
ðære Readan sǽ. Þas fiftig daga fram ðam easterlican dæge sind ealle
gehalgode to anre mærsunge, and þes dægðerlica dæg is ure Pentecostes, þæt
is, se fifteogoða dæg fram ðam Easter-dæge. On ðam ealdan Pentecosten sette
God ǽ ðam Israhela folce, and on ðisum dæge com se Halga Gast on fyres hiwe
to Godes hirede; forði ealswa þæt lamb getacnode Cristes ðrowunge, swa eac
seo ealde ǽ getacnode godspel-bodunge under Godes gife. Þreo tida sind on
ðysre worulde: án is seo ðe wæs butan ǽ; oðer is seo ðe wæs under ǽ; seo
ðridde is nu æfter Cristes to-cyme. Þeos tíd is gecweden 'under Godes
gife.' We ne sind na butan ǽ, ne we ne moton healdan Moyses ǽ lichamlice,
ac Godes gifu ús gewissað to his willan, gif we gemyndige beoð Cristes
bebodum and ðæra apostola lare.

{314} Hit is gereht on ðyssere pistol-rædinge, hu se Halga Gast on ðisum
dæge com to ðam geleaffullan heape Cristes hyredes. Lucas se Godspellere
awrát on ðære béc 'Actus Apostolorum,' þæt "se halga hyred wæs wunigende
ánmodlice on gebedum on anre upflora, æfter Cristes upstige, anbidigende
his behates; þa on ðisum dæge, þe is Pentecostes gecweden, com færlice
micel sweg of heofonum and gefylde ealle ða upfleringe mid fyre; and wæs
æteowed bufon heora ælcum swylce fyrene tungan, and hí wurdon ða ealle
gefyllede mid þam Halgum Gaste, and ongunnon to sprecenne mid mislicum
gereordum, be ðam þe se Halga Gast him tæhte. Þa wæron gegaderode binnan
ðære byrig Hierusalem eawfæste weras of ælcere ðeode ðe under heofonum
eardiað; and þa apostoli spræcon to ðæs folces gegaderunge, and heora ælc
oncneow his agen gereord."

"Ða wearð seo menigu swiðe ablicged, and mid wundrunge cwædon, La hú, ne
sind þas ðe her sprecað Galileisce? And ure ælc gehyrde hu hi spræcon urum
gereordum, on ðam ðe we acennede wæron! We gehyrdon hí sprecan Godes mærða
mid urum gereordum. La hwæt ðis beon sceole? Þa cwædon ða Iudeiscan mid
hospe, Þas men sindon mid muste fordrencte. Þa andwyrde Petrus, Hit is
undern-tíd; hu mihte we on ðysre tide beon fordrencte? Ac ðæs witegan cwyde
Ioheles is nu gefylled. God cwæð þurh ðæs witegan muð, þæt he wolde his
Gast asendan ofer mennisc flæsc; and manna bearn sceolon witigian, and ic
sylle mine forebeacn ufan of heofonum, and mine tácna niðer on eorðan. Wite
ge soðlice þæt Crist arás of deaðe, and on ure gewitnysse astah to
heofonum, and sitt æt his Fæder swiðran, swa swa Dauid be him witegode, þus
cweðende, Drihten cwæð to minum Drihtne, Site to minre swiðran, oðþæt ic
alecge ðine fynd under þinum fot-scamele. Þa þæt folc ðis gehyrde, ða
wurdon hí onbryrde, and cwædon to ðam apostolon, La leof, hwæt is us to
donne? Þa andwyrde Petrus, Behreowsiað eowre synna, and underfoð fulluht on
Cristes naman, and eowre synna beoð {316} adylegode, and ge underfoð þone
Halgan Gast. Þa underfengon hi his lare, and bugon to fulluhte on ðam dæge
ðreo ðusend manna. Þa wæron ealle on annysse mid þam apostolum, and
beceapodon heora æhta, and þæt feoh betæhton ðam apostolum, and hi dældon
ælcum be his neode."

"Eft on oðre bodunge gelyfdon fif ðusend wera on Crist, and wearð eall seo
geleaffulle menigu swa anmod swilce hí ealle hæfdon ane heortan and ane
sawle; ne heora nan næfde synderlice æhta, ac him eallum wæs gemæne heora
ðing, ne ðær næs nán wædla betwux him. Þa ðe land-are hæfdon hi hit
beceapodon, and þæt wurð brohton to ðæra apostola fotum: hí ða dældon ælcum
be his neode."

"Þa worhte God fela tacna on ðam folce ðurh ðæra apostola handa, swa þæt hi
gelogodon ða untruman be ðære stræt þær Petrus forð eode, and swa hraðe swa
his sceadu hi hreopode, hi wurdon gehælede fram eallum untrumnyssum. Þa arn
micel menigu to of gehendum burgum, and brohton heora untruman and ða
deofol-seocan, and hí ealle wurdon gehælede æt ðæra apostola handum. Hi
setton heora handa ofer gelyfede men, and hí underfengon þone Halgan Gast."

"Þa wæs sum ðegen, Annanias geháten, and his wíf Saphíra: hí cwædon him
betweonan, þæt hí woldon bugan to ðæra apostola geferrædene. Namon ða to
ræde, þæt him wærlicor wære, þæt hí sumne dæl heora landes wurðes æthæfdon,
weald him getimode. Com ða se ðegen mid feo to ðam apostolum. Þa cwæð
Petrus, Annania, deofol bepæhte ðine heortan, and ðu hæfst alogen þam
Halgan Gaste. Hwí woldest ðu swician on ðinum agenum? Ne luge ðu na mannum,
ac Gode. Þa hé þas word gehyrde, þa feol hé adúne and gewát. Þaða he
bebyrged wæs, þa com his wif Saphíra, and nyste hu hire were gelumpen wæs.
Ða cwæð Petrus, Sege me, beceapode ge ðus micel landes? Heo andwyrde, Gea,
leof, swa micel. Eft ða cwæð Petrus, Hwí gewearð inc swa, þæt gyt dorston
fandian Godes? Heo feoll ðærrihte and gewát, and hí man {318} bebyrigde to
hyre were. Þa wearð micel ege on Godes gelaðunge and on eallum þe þæt

Þa apostoli siððan, ærðam ðe hi toferdon, gesetton Iacobum, þe wæs geháten
Rihtwís, on Cristes setle, and eal seo geleaffulle gelaðung him
gehyrsumode, æfter Godes tæcunge. He ða gesæt þæt setl ðritig geara, and
æfter him Symeon, þæs Hælendes mæg. Æfter ðære gebysnunge wurdon arærede
munec-líf mid þære gehealdsumnysse, þæt hi drohtnian on mynstre, be heora
ealdres dihte, on clænnesse, and him beon heora æhta eallum gemæne, swa ða
apostoli hit astealdon.

Ge gehyrdon lytle ǽr, on ðisre rædinge, þæt se Halga Gast com ofer ða
apostolas on fyrenum tungum, and him forgeaf ingehyd ealra gereorda; forðan
ðe se eadmoda heap geearnode æt Gode þæt iú ǽr þæt modige werod forleas.
Hit getimode æfter Noes flode, þæt entas woldon aræran ane burh, and ænne
stypel swa heahne, þæt his hrof astige oð heofon. Þa wæs an gereord on
eallum mancynne, and þæt weorc wæs begunnen ongean Godes willan. God eac
forði hí tostencte, swa þæt he forgeaf ælcum ðæra wyrhtena seltcuð gereord,
and heora nán ne cuðe oðres spræce tocnawan. Hí ða geswicon ðære
getimbrunge, and toferdon geond ealne middangeard; and wæron siððan swa
fela gereord swa ðæra wyrhtena wæs. Nu eft on ðisum dæge, þurh ðæs Halgan
Gastes to-cyme, wurdon ealle gereord ge-anlæhte and geðwære; forðan ðe eal
se halga heap Cristes hyredes wæs sprecende mid eallum gereordum; and eac
þæt wunderlicor wæs, ðaða heora án bodade mid anre spræce, ælcum wæs
geðuht, ðe ða bodunge gehyrde, swilce he spræce mid his gereorde, wæron hí
Ebreisce, oððe Grecisce, oððe Romanisce, oððe Egyptisce, oððe swa hwilcere
ðeode swa hí wæron þe ða lare gehyrdon. On ðysre geferrædene geearnode
heora eadmodnys þas mihte, and ðæra enta modignys geearnode gescyndnysse.

Se Halga Gast wæs æteowod ofer ða apostolas on fyres {320} hiwe, and ofer
Criste, on his fulluhte, on anre culfran anlicnysse. Hwí ofer Criste on
culfran hiwe? Hwí ofer Cristes hirede on fyres gelicnysse? On bocum is
gerædd be ðam fugelcynne þæt his gecynd is swiðe bilewite, and unscæððig,
and gesibsum. Se Hælend is ealles mancynnes dema, ac he ne com na to
demenne mancynn, swa swa he sylf cwæð, ac to gehælenne. Gif he ða wolde
deman mancynn, ðaða he ærest to middangearde com, hwa wurde þonne
gehealden? Ac he nolde mid his to-cyme ða synfullan fordeman, ac wolde to
his rice gegaderian. Ærest he wolde us mid liðnysse styran, þæt he siððan
mihte on his dome us gehealdan. Forði wæs se Halga Gast on culfran
anlicnysse gesewen bufan Criste, forðan ðe hé wæs drohtnigende on ðisre
worulde mid bilewitnysse, and unscæððignysse, and gesibsumnysse. He ne
hrymde, ne he biterwyrde næs, ne he sace ne astyrede, ac forbær manna
yfelnysse þurh his liðnysse. Ac se ðe on ðam ærran to-cyme liðegode, þam
synfullum to gecyrrednysse, se demð stiðne dom þam receleasum æt ðam
æfteran to-cyme.

Se Halga Gast wæs gesewen on fyrenum tungum bufon ðam apostolon, forðan ðe
hé dyde þæt hi wæron byrnende on Godes willan, and bodigende ymbe Godes
rice. Fyrene tungan hí hæfdon, ðaða hí mid lufe Godes mærða bodedon, þæt
ðæra hæðenra manna heortan, ðe cealde wæron þurh geleaflæste and flæsclice
gewilnunga, mihton beon ontende to ðam heofenlicum bebodum. Gif se Halga
Gast ne lærð þæs mannes mód wiðinnan, on idel beoð þæs bydeles word wiðutan
geclypode. Fyres gecynd is þæt hit fornimð swa hwæt swa him gehende bið:
swa sceal se láreow dón, seðe bið mid þam Halgan Gaste onbryrd, ærest on
him sylfum ælcne leahter adwæscan, and siððan on his underðeoddum.

On culfran anlicnysse and on fyres hiwe wæs Godes Gast æteowod; forðan ðe
hé deð þæt ða beoð bilewite on unscæððignysse, and byrnende on Godes
willan, þe he mid his gife gefylð. Ne bið seo bilewitnys Gode gecweme butan
{322} snoternysse, ne seo snoternys butan bilewitnysse; swa swa gecweden is
be ðam eadigan Iób, þæt he wæs bilewite and rihtwis. Hwæt bið rihtwisnys
butan bilewitnysse? Oððe hwæt bið bilewitnys butan rihtwisnysse? Ac se
Halga Gast, ðe tæhð rihtwisnysse and bilewitnysse, sceolde beon æteowod
ægðer ge on fyre ge on culfran, forðan ðe hé deð þæra manna heortan ðe hé
onliht mid his gife, þæt hi beoð liðe þurh unscæððignysse, and onælede ðurh
lufe and snoternysse. God is, swa swa Paulus cwæð, fornymende fyr. He is
únasecgendlic fyr, and ungesewenlic. Be ðam fyre cwæð se Hælend, "Ic com to
ði þæt ic wolde sendan fyr on eorðan, and ic wylle þæt hit byrne." He sende
ðone Halgan Gast to eorðan, and he mid his blæde onælde eorðlicra manna
heortan. Þonne byrnð seo eorðe, þonne ðæs eorðlican mannes heorte bið
ontend to Godes lufe, seoðe ær wæs ceald þurh flæsclice lustas.

Nis na se Halga Gast wunigende on his gecynde, swa swa hé gesewen wæs,
forðan ðe he is ungesewenlic; ac for ðære getacnunge, swa we ær cwædon, he
wæs æteowod on culfran, and on fyre. He is gehaten on Greciscum gereorde,
Paraclitus, þæt is, Frofor-gast, forði ðe he frefrað þa dreorian, þe heora
synna behreowsiað, and sylð him forgyfenysse hiht, and heora unrotan mód
geliðegað. He forgyfð synna, and he is se weg to forgyfenysse ealra synna.
He sylð his gife ðam ðe he wile. Sumum men he forgifð wisdom and spræce,
sumum gód ingehyd, sumum micelne geleafan, sumum mihte to gehælenne
untruman, sumum witegunge, sumum toscead godra gasta and yfelra; sumum he
forgifð mislice gereord, sumum gereccednysse mislicra spræca. Ealle ðas
ðing deð se Halga Gast, todælende æghwilcum be ðam ðe him gewyrð; forðam ðe
he is Ælmihtig Wyrhta, and swa hraðe swa he þæs mannes mod onliht, he hit
awent fram yfele to gode. He onlihte Dauides heortan, ðaða he on iugoðe
hearpan lufode, and worhte hine to psalm-wyrhtan. Amos hatte sum
hryðer-hyrde, þone awende se Halga Gast to mærum {324} witegan. Petrus wæs
fiscere, þone awende se ylca Godes Gast to apostole. Paulus ehte cristenra
manna, þone he geceas to lareowe eallum ðeodum. Matheus wæs tollere, þone
he awende to godspellere. Þa apostoli ne dorston bodian þone soðan
geleafan, for ógan Iudeisces folces; ac siððan hí wæron onælede þurh ðone
Halgan Gast, hí forsawon ealle lichamlice pinunga, and orsorhlice Godes
mærða bodedon.

Þyses dæges wurðmynt is to mærsigenne, forðan ðe se Ælmihtiga God, þæt is
se Halga Gast, gemedemode hine sylfne þæt he wolde manna bearn on ðisre
tide geneosian. On Cristes acennednysse wearð se Ælmihtiga Godes Sunu to
menniscum men gedon, and on ðisum dæge wurdon geleaffulle men godas, swa
swa Crist cwæð, "Ic cwæð, Ge sind godas, and ge ealle sind bearn þæs
Hehstan." Þa gecorenan sind Godes bearn, and eac godas, na gecyndelice, ac
ðurh gife þæs Halgan Gastes. An God is gecyndelice on ðrim hadum, Fæder,
and his Sunu, þæt is his Wisdom, and se Halga Gast, seðe is heora begra
Lufu and Willa. Heora gecynd is untodæledlic, æfre wunigende on anre
Godcundnysse. Se ylca cwæð þeah-hwæðere be his gecorenum, "Ge sint godas."
Þurh Cristes menniscnysse wurdon menn alysede fram deofles ðeowte, and ðurh
to-cyme þæs Halgan Gastes, mennisce men wurdon gedone to godum. Crist
underfeng menniscnysse on his to-cyme, and men underfengon God þurh
neosunge þæs Halgan Gastes. Se man ðe næfð Godes Gast on him nis hé Godes.
Ælces mannes weorc cyðað hwilc gast hine wissað. Godes Gast wissað symble
to halignysse and gódnysse; deofles gast wissað to leahtrum and to

Se Halga Gast becom tuwa ofer ða apostolas. Crist ableow ðone Halgan Gast
upon ða apostolas ǽr his upstige, þus cweðende, "Onfoð Haligne Gast." Eft,
on ðisum dæge, asende se Ælmihtiga Fæder and se Sunu heora begra Gast to
ðam geleaffullan heape, on ðysre worulde wunigende. Se Hælend ableow his
Gast on his gingran, for ðære getacnunge {326} þæt hí and ealle cristene
men sceolon lufigan heora nehstan swa swa hí sylfe. He sende eft, swa swa
hé ǽr behet, ðone ylcan Gast of heofonum, to ði þæt we sceolon lufian God
ofer ealle oðre ðing. An is se Halga Gast, þeah ðe he tuwa become ofer ða
apostolas. Swa is eac án lufu and twa bebodu, Þæt we sceolon lufian God and
menn. Ac we sceolon leornian on mannum hu we magon becuman to Godes lufe,
swa swa Iohannes se apostol cwæð, "Se ðe ne lufað his broðor, ðone ðe he
gesihð, hu mæg hé lufian God, þone þe he ne gesihð lichamlice?"

We wurðiað þæs Halgan Gastes to-cyme mid lofsangum seofon dagas, forðan ðe
he onbryrt ure mód mid seofonfealdre gife, þæt is, mid wisdome and andgyte,
mid geðeahte and strencðe, mid ingehyde and arfæstnysse, and he us gefylð
mid Godes ege. Se ðe þurh gode geearnunga becymð to ðissum seofonfealdum
gifum þæs Halgan Gastes, he hæfð þonne ealle geðincðe. Ac se ðe wile to
ðisre geðincðe becuman, he sceal gelyfan on ða Halgan Ðrynnysse, and on
Soðe Annysse, þæt se Fæder, and his Sunu, and heora begra Gast syndon ðry
on hadum, and án God untodæledlic, on anre Godcundnysse wunigende. Þysne
geleafan getacnodon ða ðreo ðusend þe ærest gebugon to geleafan, æfter ðæs
Halgan Gastes to-cyme. Swa swa ða ðreo þusend wæron án werod, swa is seo
Halige Ðrynnys án God. And þæt werod wæs swa ánmod swilce him eallum wære
án heorte and án sawul; forðan ðe þære Halgan Þrynnysse is án godcundnyss,
and án gecynd, and án willa, and án weorc unascyrigendlice.

Þa geleaffullan brohton heora feoh, and ledon hit æt ðæra apostola foton.
Mid þam is geswutelod þæt cristene men ne sceolon heora hiht besettan on
woroldlice gestreon, ac on Gode anum. Se gítsere ðe beset his hiht on his
goldhord, he bið swa swa se apostol cwæð, "þam gelíc þe deofolgyld begæð."

Hi heoldon þæt gold unwurðlice, forðan ðe seo gitsung næfde nænne stede on
heora heortan: forði hí dydon heora {328} ðing him gemæne, þæt hí on soðre
sibbe butan gytsunge beon mihton. Hí setton heora handa ofer geleaffulle
men, and him com to se Halga Gast ðurh heora biscepunge. Biscopas sind þæs
ylcan hádes on Godes gelaðunge, and healdað þa gesetnysse on heora
biscepunge, swa þæt hí settað heora handa ofer gefullude menn, and biddað
þæt se Ælmihtiga Wealdend him sende ða seofonfealdan gife his Gastes, seðe
leofað and rixað á butan ende. Amen.


From the holy day of Easter are counted fifty days to this day, and this
day is called Pentecost, that is, the fiftieth day of Easter-tide. This day
was in the old law appointed and hallowed. God commanded Moses in Egypt,
that he and all the people of Israel should offer, for every household, a
lamb of one year to God, and mark with the blood the sign of the cross on
their door-posts and lintels, as on that night God's angel went and slew in
every house of the Egyptian folk the firstborn child and the dearest. And
the people of {313} Israel went on the same night from the nation, and God
led them over the Red sea with dry feet. Pharaoh then hastened after them
with a great army. When he came into the middle of the sea, the people of
God were gone up, and God then sank Pharaoh and all his host. God then
commanded Moses and the people that they should keep that tide with great
reverence in the circuit of every year. The tide was then appointed to the
people for Easter-tide, because God had saved them from their foes, and
destroyed their persecutors. Then fifty days after this God appointed a law
for the people, and the glory of God was seen on a hill which is called
Sinai. There came a great light, and an awful sound, and blowing trumpets.
Then God called Moses to him, and he was with God forty days, and wrote
down the old law by God's direction. Then was the day called PENTECOST in
the Old Testament.

The offered lamb betokened the slaying of Christ, who innocent was offered
to his Father for our redemption. Now is his passion and his resurrection
our Easter-tide, because he redeemed us from the thraldom of the devil, and
our persecutors are sunk by the holy baptism, as Pharaoh was with his
people in the Red sea. These fifty days from the day of Easter are all
hallowed to one celebration, and this present day is our Pentecost, that
is, the fiftieth day from Easter-day. On the old Pentecost God appointed a
law to the people of Israel, and on this day the Holy Ghost came in
semblance of fire to God's company; for as the lamb betokened the passion
of Christ, so also the old law betokened the preaching of the gospel under
the grace of God. There are three periods in this world: one is that which
was without law; the second is that which was under the law; the third is
now after the advent of Christ. This period is called 'under God's grace.'
We are not without law, nor may we hold bodily the law of Moses, but God's
grace directs us to his will, if we be mindful of Christ's commandments and
of the precepts of the apostles.

{315} It is related in this epistolary lesson, how the Holy Ghost on this
day came to the faithful company of Christ's followers. Luke the Evangelist
wrote in the book 'The Acts of the Apostles,' that "the holy company was
living unanimously in prayers on an upper floor, after Christ's ascension,
awaiting his behest; when, on this day, which is called Pentecost, there
came suddenly a great sound from heaven, and filled all the upper flooring
with fire, and there appeared above each of them as it were fiery tongues,
and they were then all filled with the Holy Ghost, and begun to speak with
divers tongues, according as the Holy Ghost taught them. Then there were
gathered within the city of Jerusalem pious men of every nation dwelling
under heaven; and the apostles spake to the gathering of people, and every
of them recognized his own tongue."

"Then was the multitude greatly amazed, and with wonder said, Lo, are not
these which here speak Galileans? And each of us hath heard how they speak
in our tongues, in which we were born! We have heard them declare the
glories of God in our tongues. Lo, what should this be? Then said the Jews
in mockery, These men are drunken with new wine. But Peter answered, It is
the third hour; how might we at this time be drunken? But the saying of the
prophet Joel is now fulfilled. God spake through the prophet's mouth, that
he would send his spirit over human flesh, and the children of men shall
prophesy, and I will give my foretokens from heaven above, and my signs on
earth beneath. For know ye that Christ arose from death, and in our sight
ascended to heaven, and sitteth on his Father's right, as David had
prophesied concerning him, thus saying, The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit on
my right until I lay thy foes under thy footstool. When the people heard
this they were stimulated, and said to the apostles, Alas! what have we to
do? Then Peter answered, Repent of your sins, and receive baptism in the
name of Christ, and your sins shall be blotted out, and ye {317} shall
receive the Holy Ghost. They then received his doctrine, and there
submitted to baptism on that day three thousand men. And they were all in
unity with the apostles, and sold their possessions, and delivered the
money to the apostles, and they distributed to each according to his need."

"Again, at another preaching, five thousand men believed in Christ, and all
the believing multitude was as unanimous as if they all had one heart and
one soul; not one of them had separate possessions, but their things were
common to them all, nor was there any poor person among them. Those who had
land-property sold it, and brought the worth to the feet of the apostles:
they then distributed it to each according to his need."

"Then God wrought many signs among the people by the hands of the apostles,
so that they placed the sick along the street where Peter passed, and as
his shadow touched them, they were healed of all sicknesses. Then ran a
great multitude from the neighbouring towns, and brought their sick and
those possessed with devils, and they were all healed at the hands of the
apostles. They set their hands on believing men, and they received the Holy

"Then was a thane, called Ananias, and his wife Sapphira: they said between
themselves, that they would incline to the fellowship of the apostles. They
then resolved, that it would be safer to withhold a portion of the worth of
their land, in case aught befell them. The thane then came with the money
to the apostles. Then said Peter, Ananias, the devil hath cheated thy
heart, and thou hast lied to the Holy Ghost. Why wouldst thou deceive in
thine own? Thou hast not lied to men, but to God. When he had heard these
words, he fell down and departed. When he was buried, his wife Sapphira
came, and knew not how it had befallen her husband. Then Peter said, Tell
me, sold ye thus much land? She answered, Yes, sir, so much. Again said
Peter, Why have ye so done, that ye durst tempt God? She {319} straightways
fell down and departed, and they buried her by her husband. Then there was
great fear in God's church, and on all those who heard of it."

The apostles afterwards, before they separated, set James, who was called
Righteous, on the seat of Christ, according to God's instruction. He sat on
that seat thirty years, and after him Simeon, the kinsman of Jesus. From
that example monastic life arose with abstinence, so that they live in a
monastery, according to the direction of their principal, in chastity, and
their possessions are common to them all, as the apostles established it.

Ye heard a little before, in this lesson, that the Holy Ghost came over the
apostles as fiery tongues, and gave them knowledge of all languages; for
the humble company merited of God that which long of yore the proud host
had lost. It happened after Noah's flood, that giants would raise up a
city, and a tower so high, that its roof should ascend to heaven. There was
then one language among all mankind, and the work was begun against the
will of God. God therefore scattered them, so that he gave to each of the
workmen an unknown language, and not one of them could understand another's
speech. They then ceased from the building, and went divers ways over all
the world; and there were afterwards as many languages as there were
workmen. Now again, on this day, through the advent of the Holy Ghost, all
languages became united and concordant; for all the holy company of
Christ's followers were speaking in all languages; and also, what was more
wonderful, when one of them preached in one tongue, it seemed to everyone
who heard the preaching as though he spake in his language, whether they
were Hebrews, or Greeks, or Romans, or Egyptians, or of whatsoever nation
they might be who heard that doctrine. In this fellowship their humility
gained them this power, and the pride of the giants gained shame.

The Holy Ghost appeared over the apostles in semblance {321} of fire, and
over Christ, at his baptism, in likeness of a dove. Why over Christ in
semblance of a dove? Why over the followers of Christ in likeness of fire?
In books it is read concerning that kind of birds that its nature is very
meek, and innocent, and peaceful. The Saviour is the Judge of all mankind,
but he came not to judge mankind, as he himself said, but to save. If he
then would have judged mankind, when he first came on earth, who would have
been saved? But he would not by his advent condemn the sinful, but would
gather them to his kingdom. He would first with gentleness direct us, that
he might afterwards preserve us at his judgement. Therefore was the Holy
Ghost seen in likeness of a dove above Christ, because he was living in
this world in meekness, and innocence, and peacefulness. He cried not out,
nor was he inclined to bitterness, nor did he stir up strife, but endured
man's wickedness through his meekness. But he who at his first advent
mitigated, for the conversion of the sinful, will deem stern doom to the
reckless at his second advent.

The Holy Ghost was seen as fiery tongues above the apostles; for he
effected that they were burning in God's will, and preaching of God's
kingdom. They had fiery tongues when with love they preached the greatness
of God, that the hearts of the heathen men, which were cold through
infidelity and fleshly desires, might be kindled to the heavenly commands.
If the Holy Ghost teach not a man's mind within, in vain will be the words
of the preacher proclaimed without. It is the nature of fire to consume
whatsoever is near to it: so shall the teacher do, who is inspired by the
Holy Ghost, first extinguish every sin in himself, and afterwards in those
under his care.

In likeness of a dove and in semblance of fire was the Spirit of God
manifested; for he causes those to be meek in innocence, and burning in the
will of God, whom he fills with his grace. Meekness is not pleasing to God
without wisdom, {323} nor wisdom without meekness; as it is said by the
blessed Job, that he was meek and righteous. What is righteousness without
meekness? Or what is meekness without righteousness? But the Holy Ghost,
who teaches both righteousness and meekness, should be manifested both as
fire and as a dove, for he causes the hearts of those men whom he
enlightens with his grace to be meek through innocence, and kindled by love
and wisdom. God is, as Paul said, a consuming fire. He is a fire
unspeakable and invisible. Concerning that fire Jesus said, "I come because
I would send fire on earth, and I will that it burn." He sent the Holy
Ghost on earth, and he by his inspiration kindled the hearts of earthly
men. Then burns the earth, when the earthly man's heart is kindled to love
of God, which before was cold through fleshly lusts.

The Holy Ghost is not in his nature existing as he was seen, for he is
invisible; but for the sign, as we before said, he appeared as a dove and
as fire. He is called in the Greek tongue Παρακλητος, that is, Comforting
Spirit, because he comforts the sad, who repent of their sins, and gives
them hope of forgiveness, and alleviates their sorrowful minds. He forgives
sins, and he is the way to forgiveness of all sins. He gives his grace to
whom he will. To one man he gives wisdom and eloquence, to one good
knowledge, to one great faith, to one power to heal the sick, to one
prophetic power, to one discrimination of good and evil spirits; to one he
gives divers tongues, to one interpretation of divers sayings. The Holy
Ghost does all these things, distributing to everyone as to him seems good;
for he is the Almighty Worker, and as soon as he enlightens the mind of a
man, he turns it from evil to good. He enlightened the heart of David, when
in youth he loved the harp, and made him to be a psalmist. There was a
cow-herd called Amos, whom the Holy Ghost turned to a great prophet. Peter
was a fisher, whom the {325} same Spirit of God turned to an apostle. Paul
persecuted christian men, whom he chose for instructer of all nations.
Matthew was a toll-gatherer, whom he turned to an evangelist. The apostles
durst not preach the true faith, for fear of the Jewish folk; but after
that they were fired by the Holy Ghost, they despised all bodily tortures,
and fearlessly preached the greatness of God.

The dignity of this day is to be celebrated, because Almighty God, that is
the Holy Ghost, himself vouchsafed to visit the children of men at this
time. At the birth of Christ the Almighty Son of God became human man, and
on this day believing men became gods, as Christ said; "I said, Ye are
gods, and ye are all children of the Highest." The chosen are children of
God, and also gods, not naturally, but through grace of the Holy Ghost. One
God is naturally in three persons, the Father, and his Son, that is, his
Wisdom, and the Holy Ghost, who is the Love and Will of them both. Their
nature is indivisible, ever existing in one Godhead. The same has,
nevertheless, said of his chosen, "Ye are gods." Through Christ's humanity
men were redeemed from the thraldom of the devil, and through the coming of
the Holy Ghost human men were made gods. Christ received human nature at
his advent, and men received God through visitation of the Holy Ghost. The
man who has not in him the Spirit of God is not God's. Every man's works
show what spirit directs him. The Spirit of God ever directs to holiness
and goodness; the spirit of the devil directs to sins and deeds of

The Holy Ghost came twice over the apostles. Christ blew the Holy Ghost on
the apostles before his resurrection, thus saying, "Receive the Holy
Ghost." Again, on this day, the Almighty Father and the Son sent the Spirit
of both to the faithful company dwelling in this world. Jesus blew his
Spirit on his disciples for a sign that they and all christian {327} men
should love their neighbours as themselves. He sent afterwards, as he had
before promised, the Holy Ghost from heaven, to the end that we should love
God above all other things. The Holy Ghost is one, though he came twice
over the apostles. So also there is one love and two commandments, That we
should love God and men. But we should learn by men how we may come to the
love of God, as John the apostle said, "He who loveth not his brother, whom
he seeth, how can he love God, whom he seeth not bodily?"

We celebrate the advent of the Holy Ghost with hymns for seven days,
because he stimulates our mind with a sevenfold gift, that is, with wisdom
and understanding, with counsel and strength, with knowledge and piety, and
he fills us with awe of God. He who through good deserts attains to these
sevenfold gifts of the Holy Ghost will have all honour. But he who will
attain to this honour shall believe in the Holy Trinity, and in True Unity,
that the Father, and his Son, and the Spirit of them both are three in
persons, and one God indivisible, existing in one Godhead. This faith was
betokened by the three thousand who first inclined to belief, after the
advent of the Holy Ghost. As those three thousand were one company, so is
the Holy Trinity one God. And that company was as unanimous as though they
all had one heart and one soul; for of the Holy Trinity there is one
Godhead, and one nature, and one will, and one work inseparable.

The faithful brought their money, and laid it at the feet of the apostles.
By this is manifested that christian men should not set their delight in
worldly treasure, but in God alone. The covetous who sets his delight in
his gold-hoard, is, as the apostle said, "like unto him who practiseth

They held the gold as worthless, because covetousness had no place in their
hearts: they made their goods in common, {329} that they might be in true
peace without covetousness. They set their hands over believing men, and
the Holy Ghost came to them through their bishoping. Bishops are of the
same order in God's church, and hold that institution in their bishoping,
so that they set their hands over baptized men, and pray the Almighty Ruler
to send them the sevenfold gift of his Spirit, who liveth and reigneth ever
without end. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *


    Homo quidam erat diues: et reliqua.

Se Wealdenda Drihten sæde ðis bígspell his gingrum, þus cweðende, "Sum
welig man wæs mid purpuran and godewebbe geglenged, and dæghwamlice mærlice
leofode. Þa læg sum wædla at his geate, and his nama wæs Lazarus, se wæs
lic-ðrowere:" et reliqua.

Þis godspel is nu anfealdlice gesǽd. Se halga papa Gregorius us onwreah ða
digelnysse ðisre rædinge. He cwæð, "Ne sæde þæt halige godspel þæt se ríca
reafere wære, ac wæs uncystig and modegode on his welum." Be ðisum is to
smeagenne, hu se beo gewitnod þe oðerne berypð, þonne se bið to helle
fordemed se his agen nolde for Godes lufon syllan. Ðises mannes uncyst and
up-ahefednys hine besencte on cwycsusle, forðan ðe he næfde nane
mildheortnysse, þæt he mid his gestreone his agene sawle alysde. Nu wenað
sume menn þæt nan pleoh ne sy on deorwurðum gyrlum; ac gif hit gylt nære,
þonne ne geswutulode þæt halige godspel swa gewislice be ðam rican, þæt he
wære mid purpuran and mid godewebbe geglencged. Ne cepð nan man deorwyrðra
reafa buton for ydelum gylpe, soðlice þæt he sy toforan oðrum mannum þurh
his glencge geteald. Drihten on oðre stowe herede {330} Iohannem ðone
Fulluhtere for ðære teartnysse his reafes, forðan ðe hé wæs mid olfendes
hærum gescryd, wáclice and stiðlice.

Þaða se Hælend spræc be ðam rican, þa cwæð he, "Sum rice man wæs." Eft be
ðam wædlan, "Sum ðearfa wæs geháten Lazarus." Cuð is eow þæt se rica bið
namcuðre on his leode þonne se þearfa; þeah-hwæðere ne nemde se Hælend þone
welegan, ac ðone wædlan; forðan ðe him is cuð þæra eadmodra manna naman
ðurh gecorennysse, ac he ne cann ða modigan ðurh heora aworpennysse. Sume
beladunge mihte se rica habban his uncyste, gif se reoflia wædla ne læge
ætforan his gesihðe: eac wære ðam earman leohtre on mode, gif he ðæs rican
mannes welan ne gesawe. Mislice angsumnyssa he forbær, ðaða he næfde ne
bigleofan, ne hælðe, ne hætera, and geseah ðone rican halne and
deorweorðlice geglencgedne brucan his estmettas. Genoh wære þam wædlan his
untrumnys, þeah ðe he wiste hæfde; and eft him wære genoh his hafenleast,
ðeah ðe he gesundful wære. Ac seo menigfealde earfoðnys wæs his sawle
clænsung, and ðæs rican uncyst and up-ahefednys wæs his geniðerung; forðon
ðe he geseah ðæs oðres yrmðe, and hine mid toðundenum mode forseah. Ac ðaða
he wæs fram mannum forsewen, ða genealæhton ða hundas, and his wunda
geliccedon. Hundes liccung gehælð wunda.

Þa gelamp hit þæt se wædla gewát, and englas ferodon his sawle to ðæs
heahfæderes wununge Abrahámes; and ðæs rican gast æfter forðsiðe wearð on
helle besenct; and he ða ðone wolde habban him to mundboran, þam ðe he
nolde ǽr his cruman syllan. He bæd þa Abraham mid earmlicre stemne þæt
Lazarus moste his tungan drypan; ac him næs getiðod ðære lytlan lisse,
forðan ðe Lazarus ne moste ǽr on life hedan ðæra crumena his mysan. His
tungan he mænde swiðost, forðan ðe hit is gewunelic þæt ða welegan on heora
gebeorscipe begað derigendlice gafetunge; þa wæs seo tunge, ðurh
rihtwisnysse edlean, teartlicor gewítnod for his {332} gegafspræce. Se
heahfæder Abraham him cwæð to, "Ðu, mín bearn, beo ðe gemyndig þæt ðu
underfenge welan on ðinum life, and Lazarus yrmðe." Þes cwyde is swiðor to
ondrædenne þonne to trahtnigenne. Ðam rican wæs forgolden mid ðam
hwilwendlicum spedum, gif he hwæt to gode gefremode; and ðam ðearfan wæs
forgolden mid ðære yrmðe, gif he hwæt to yfle gefremode. Þa underfeng se
welega his gesælðe to edleane to sceortum brice, and þæs ðearfan hafenleast
aclænsode his lytlan gyltas. Hine geswencte seo wædlung, and afeormode;
þone oðerne gewelgode his genihtsumnys, and bepæhte.

Ic bidde eow, men ða leofostan, ne forseo ge Godes ðearfan, ðeah ðe hi
tallice hwæt gefremman; forðan ðe heora yrmð afeormað þæt þæt seo gehwæde
oferflowendnys gewemð. Háwiað be gehwilcum, forðan ðe oft getimað yfelum
teala for life. Se heahfæder cwæð to ðam welegan, "Betwux us and eow is
gefæstnod micel ðrosm; þeah hwa wille fram ús to eow, he ne mæg; ne eac
fram eow to ús." Mid micelre geornfulnysse gewilniað þa wiðercoran þæt hi
moton of ðære susle ðe hi on cwylmiað, ac seo fæstnung ðære hellican
clysinge ne geðafað þæt hi æfre ut-abrecon. Eac ða halgan beoð mid heora
Scyppendes rihtwisnysse swa afyllede, þæt hi nateshwon ne besargiað ðæra
wiðercorenra yrmðe; forðan ðe hi geseoð þa fordónan swa micclum fram him
geælfremode, swa micclum swa hi beoð fram heora leofan Drihtne ascofene.

Siððan se rica wearð orwene his agenre alysednysse, ða beárn him on mod his
gebroðra gemynd; forðan ðe ðæra wiðercorenra wite tiht for wel oft heora
mod unnytwurðlice to lufe, swilce hi þonne lufian heora siblingas, ðe ǽr on
life ne hi sylfe ne heora magas ne lufedon. Ne lufað se hine sylfne seðe
hine mid synnum bebint. He oncneow Lazarum, ðone ðe he ǽr forseah, and he
gemunde his gebroðra, ða ðe he bæftan forlet; forðan ðe se ðearfa nære
fullice gewrecen on ðam rican, gif he on his wite hine ne oncneowe; and eft
{334} nære his wite fulfremed on ðam fyre, buton he ða ylcan pinunga his
siblingum gewende.

Þa synfullan geseoð nu hwiltidum ða gecorenan on wuldre, ðe hi forsawon on
worulde, þæt seo angsumnys heora modes ðe mare sy: and ða rihtwisan symle
geseoð ða unrihtwisan on heora tintregum cwylmigende, þæt heora bliss ðe
mare sy, and lufu to heora Drihtne, þe hi ahredde fram deofles anwealde,
and fram ðam mánfullum heape. Ne astyrað þæra rihtwisra gesihð him nænne
ógan, ne heora wuldor ne wanað; forðan ðe ðær ne bið nán besargung ðæra
mánfulra yrmðe, ac heora tintrega becymð þam gecorenum to maran blisse, swa
swa on metinge bið forsewen seo blace anlicnys, þæt seo hwite sy beorhtre
gesewen. Þa gecorenan geseoð symle heora Scyppendes beorhtnysse, and forði
nis nan ðing on gesceaftum him bediglod.

Se welega nolde on life gehyran ðone lareow Moysen, ne Godes witegan: ða
wende he eac þæt his gebroðra hí woldon forseon, swa swa he dyde, and
gyrnde forði þæt Lazarus hí moste warnigan, þæt hí ne becomon to his susle.
Se heahfæder him andwyrde, "Gif hi forseoð Moyses ǽ and ðæra witegena
bodunga, nellað hí gelyfan, þeah hwá of deaðe arise." Þa ðe forgimeleasiað
þa eaðelican beboda þære ealdan ǽ, hu willað hí ðonne gehyrsumian þam
healicum bebodum Cristes lare, ðe of deaðe arás?

Ic bidde eow, mine gebroðra, þæt ge beon gemyndige ðæs Lazares reste and
ðæs rican wite, and doð swa swa Crist sylf tæhte, "Tiliað eow freonda on
Godes ðearfum, þæt hí on eowrum geendungum onfon eow into ecum
eardung-stowum." Manega Lazaras ge habbað nu licgende æt eowrum gatum,
biddende eowre oferflowendnysse. Ðeah ðe hí syn wáclice geðuhte,
þeah-hwæðere hí beoð eft eowre ðingeras wið ðone Ælmihtigan. Soðlice we
sceoldon beodan þam ðearfum þæt hí us biddað, forðan ðe hí beoð ure
mundboran, þa ðe nu wædligende æt us bigleofan wilniað. Ne sceole we
forseon {336} heora wácnysse, forðan ðe Criste bið geðenod þurh ðearfena
anfenge, swa swa he sylf cwæð, "Me hingrode, and ge me gereordodon; me
ðyrste, and ge me scencton; ic wæs nacod, and ge me scryddon."

Nu cweð se halga Gregorius, þæt sum arwurðe munuc wæs on ðam earde
Licaonia, swiðe eawfæst, his nama wæs Martirius. Se ferde, be his abbudes
hæse, to sumum oðrum mynstre, on his ærende: ða gemette he be wege sumne
lic-ðrowere licgende eal tocínen, and nahte his feðes geweald: cwæð þæt he
wolde genealæcan his hulce, gif he mihte. Þa ofhreow ðam munece þæs
hreoflian mægenleast, and bewand hine mid his cæppan and bær to
mynstreweard. Þa wearð his abbude geswutelod hwæne he bær, and hrymde mid
micelre stemne, and cwæð, "Yrnað, yrnað, and undoð þæs mynstres geat
ardlice, forðan ðe ure broðor Martyrius berð þone Hælend on his bæce." Þaða
se munuc genealæhte ðæs mynstres geate, þa wánd se of his swuran þe wæs
hreoflig geðuht, and wearð gesewen on Cristes gelicnysse. Ða beseah se
munuc up, and beheold hu he to heofonum astah. Þa cwæð se Hælend mid ðam
upstige, "Martíri, ne sceamode ðe mín ofer eorðan, ne me ne sceamað þin on
heofonum." Þa efste se abbud wið þæs muneces, and neodlice cwæð, "Broðor
min, hwær is se ðe ðu feredest?" He cwæð, "Gif ic wiste hwæt he wære, ic
wolde licgan æt his fotum. Þaða ic hine bær ne gefredde ic nanre byrðene
swærnysse." Hu mihte hé gefredan æniges hefes swærnysse, ðaða he ðone
ferode ðe hine bær? Nu cweð se halga Gregorius, þæt se Hælend ða geseðde
ðone cwyde þe he sylf cwæð, "Þæt þæt ge doð þearfum on minum naman, þæt ge
doð me sylfum."

Hwæt is on menniscum gecynde swa mærlic swa Cristes menniscnys? and hwæt is
atelicor geðuht on menniscum gecynde þonne is ðæs hreoflian líc, mid
toðundennesse, and springum, and reocendum stence? Ac se ðe is arwurðful
ofer ealle gesceafta, he gemedemode hine sylfne þæt he wære gesewen on ðam
atelican híwe, to ði þæt we sceolon besargian {338} menniscra manna yrmðe,
and be ure mihte gefrefrian, for lufe ðæs mildheortan and ðæs eadmodan
Hælendes; þæt he us getiðige wununge on his rice to ecum life, seðe us
ahredde fram deofles hæftnydum; seðe rixað on ecnysse mid þam Ælmihtigan
Fæder and þam Halgan Gaste, hi ðry on anre Godcundnysse wunigende, butan
anginne and ende, á on worulde. Amen.


    Homo quidam erat dives: et reliqua.

The Sovereign Lord spake this parable to his disciples, thus saying, "There
was a certain rich man adorned with purple and fine linen, and daily lived
sumptuously. A certain poor man lay at his gate, and his name was Lazarus,
who was a leper," etc.

This gospel is now simply said. The holy pope Gregory has revealed to us
the mystery of this text. He said, "The holy gospel did not express that
the rich man was a robber, but that he was parsimonious, and exulted in his
wealth." By this it is to be considered how he will be punished who
bereaves another, when he is condemned to hell, who would not give his own
for love of God. This man's parsimony and pride sank him into quick
torment, because he had no compassion, so that with his treasure he might
have redeemed his own soul. Now some men will imagine that there is no
peril in precious garments, but if there were no sin, the holy gospel would
not have so evidently manifested with respect to the rich man, that he was
adorned with purple and with fine linen. No man heeds precious garments
save for vain pride, verily that he may through his splendour be accounted
before other men. The Lord in another place praised John {331} the Baptist
for the rudeness of his garment, because he was clothed with camel's hair,
poorly and ruggedly.

When Jesus spake of the rich man he said, "There was a certain rich man."
Again, of the poor man, "There was a certain poor man called Lazarus." It
is known to you that a rich man is more known by name among his people than
a poor one; nevertheless Jesus named not the wealthy man, but the needy
one; because the names of humble men are known to him through election, but
he knows not the proud through their rejection. Some excuse the rich man
might have had for his parsimony, if the leprous beggar had not lain before
his sight: the mind of the poor man would also have been easier, if he had
not seen the rich man's wealth. Divers afflictions he endured, seeing that
he had neither nourishment, nor health, nor garments, and saw the rich man,
hale and sumptuously decorated, enjoying his luxuries. For the beggar his
infirmity had been enough, though he had had food; and again, his indigence
had been enough for him, although he had been healthful. But the manifold
hardship was the cleansing of his soul, and the parsimony and pride of the
rich man were his condemnation; because he saw the other's misery, and with
inflated mind despised him. But when he was despised of men, the dogs
approached, and licked his wounds. The licking of a dog heals wounds.

It then happened that the beggar died, and angels bare his soul to the
dwelling of the patriarch Abraham; and the rich man's spirit after death
was sunk into hell; and he then wished to have him for protector, to whom
he would not before give his crumbs. He then bade Abraham with piteous
voice, that Lazarus might moisten his tongue; but that little favour was
not granted him, because Lazarus might not before in life gather the crumbs
of his table. He particularly complained of his tongue, because it is usual
that the wealthy in their feasting practise pernicious scoffing; therefore
was his tongue, through righteous retribution, more harshly punished {333}
for his scoffing speech. The patriarch Abraham said to him, "My son, be
thou mindful that thou receivedst riches in thy life, and Lazarus misery."
This saying is rather to be feared than expounded. The rich man was
requited with transitory prosperity, if he did aught of good; and the poor
man was requited with misery, if he had perpetrated aught of evil. Then the
wealthy man received his happiness in reward for short enjoyment, and the
indigence of the needy one cleansed away his little sins. Poverty afflicted
and purified him; his abundance enriched and deceived the other.

I pray you, men most beloved, despise not God's poor, though they
perpetrate anything reprehensible; because their misery cleanses that which
a little superfluity corrupts. Observe each one, for good often befalls the
evil for life. The patriarch said to the wealthy man, "Betwixt us and you
is fixed a great vapour; though any-one will pass from us to you, he
cannot; nor also from you to us." With great eagerness the wicked desire to
pass from the torment in which they suffer, but the fastening of the
hellish enclosure never allows them to break out. Also the holy are so
filled with their Creator's righteousness, that they in no wise lament the
misery of the wicked; because they see the fordone ones as greatly
estranged from them, as they are thrust away from their beloved Lord.

When the rich man became hopeless of his own deliverance, the remembrance
of his brothers entered into his mind; for the punishment of the wicked
very often uselessly stimulates their minds to love, so that they then love
their relatives, who before in life loved neither themselves nor their
kinsmen. He loves not himself who binds himself with sins. He recognized
Lazarus, whom he had before despised, and he remembered his brothers, whom
he had left behind; for the needy one would not have been fully avenged on
the rich, if {335} he in his punishment had not recognized him; and again,
his punishment would not have been complete in the fire, unless he had
expected the same torments for his relatives.

The sinful will now sometimes see the chosen in glory, whom they in the
world despised, that the affliction of their minds may be the greater: and
the righteous will ever see the unrighteous suffering in their torments,
that their bliss and love to their Lord may be the greater, who rescued
them from the power of the devil, and from the wicked band. That spectacle
will excite no terror to the righteous, nor will their glory wane; for
there will be no sorrowing for the misery of the wicked, but their torments
will turn to the greater bliss of the chosen, as in a picture a dark
likeness is provided, that the white may appear the brighter. The chosen
will constantly see their Creator's brightness, and therefore there is
nothing in creation concealed from him.

The rich man would not in life hear the teacher Moses, or God's prophets:
then he thought that his brothers would also despise them as he did, and
desired therefore that Lazarus might warn them, so that they came not to
his torment. The patriarch answered him, "If they despise the law of Moses
and the preachings of the prophets, they will not believe, though one arose
from death." Those who neglect the easy commandments of the old law, how
will they obey the sublime commandments of Christ's doctrine, who arose
from death?

I pray you, my brethren, that ye be mindful of Lazarus's rest and of the
rich man's punishment, and do as Christ himself taught, "Gain to yourselves
friends among God's poor, that they at your end may receive you into
eternal dwelling-places." Many Lazaruses ye have now lying at your gates,
begging for your superfluity. Though they are esteemed as vile, they will,
nevertheless, be hereafter your interceders with the Almighty. Verily we
ought to enjoin the poor to pray for us, because they will be our
protectors, who, now begging, desire sustenance of us. We should not
despise their {337} vileness, for Christ himself is served through
reception of the poor, as he himself said, "I was hungry, and ye fed me; I
was thirsty, and ye gave me to drink; I was naked, and ye clothed me."

Now says the holy Gregory, there was a reverend monk in the country of
Lycaonia, very pious, his name was Martyrius. He went by order of his abbot
to some other monastery, on his errand, when he found a leper lying by the
way all chapped, and having no power of his feet: he said he wished to
reach his hut, if he could. Then the monk was grieved for the helplessness
of the leper, and he wrapt him in his cloak and bare him towards his
monastery. Then it was disclosed to his abbot whom he was bearing, and he
cried with a loud voice, and said, "Run, run, and undo the gate of the
monastery quickly, for our brother Martyrius bears Jesus on his back." When
the monk had reached the gate of the monastery, he who seemed a leper
quitted his neck, and appeared in the likeness of Christ. The monk then
looked up, and beheld how he ascended to heaven. Then said Jesus, while
ascending, "Martyrius, thou wast not ashamed of me on earth, nor will I be
ashamed of thee in heaven." Then the abbot hastened towards the monk, and
eagerly said, "My brother, where is he whom thou didst carry?" He said, "If
I had known who he was, I would have lain at his feet. When I bore him I
felt no heaviness of any burthen." How could he feel the heaviness of any
weight, when he carried one who bore him? Now says the holy Gregory, Jesus
verified the saying which he himself said, "That which ye do for the poor
in my name, that ye do for myself."

What is there in human nature so glorious as the humanity of Christ, and
what is esteemed more foul in human nature than the carcase of the leper,
with tumours, and ulcers, and reeking stench? But he who is to be venerated
above all creatures, vouchsafed to appear in that foul form, to the end
that we might pity the misery of human beings, and {339} according to our
power comfort them, for love of the merciful and humble Jesus; that he may
grant us a dwelling in his kingdom to eternal life, who rescued us from the
devil's thraldom; who reigneth to eternity with the Almighty Father and the
Holy Ghost, those three existing in one Godhead, without beginning and end,
ever to eternity. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *


Ðæt hálige godspel us segð, þæt "gerefan and synfulle men genealæhton ðam
Hælende, and woldon his lare gehyran. Þa ceorodon ða sunder-halgan and ða
boceras Iudeiscre ðeode, forðan ðe se Hælend underfeng ða synfullan, and
him mid gereordode. Þa sæde se Hælend ðam Iudeiscum bocerum ðis bigspel,
Hwilc eower hæfð hund-teontig sceapa:" et reliqua.

Þas word sind digle, ac se trahtnere Gregorius us geopenode þæt gastlice
andgit. Mine gebroðra þa leofostan, ge gehyrdon on ðyssere godspellican
rædinge, þæt ða synfullan genealæhton to ðæs Hælendes spræce, and eac to
his gereorde; and ða Iudeiscan boceras mid héte þæt tældon: ac heora tál
næs na of rihtwisnysse, ac of niðe. Hi wæron untrume, ðeah ðe hi ðæs ne
gymdon. Þa wolde se heofenlica læce mid geswæsum bigspelle þæt geswell
heora heortan welwyllendlice gelacnian, and ðus cwæð, "Hwilc eower hæfð
hund-teontig sceapa, and gif he forlysð án ðæra sceapa, ðonne forlæt he ða
nigon and hund-nigontig on westene, and gæð secende þæt án ðe him losode?"
Hundfeald getel is fulfremed, and se Ælmihtiga hæfde hund-teontig sceapa,
ðaða engla werod and mancynn wæron his æhta: ac him losode án sceap, ðaða
se frumsceapena mann Adam syngigende forleas neorxena-wanges bigwiste. Þa
forlet se Ælmihtiga Godes Sunu eal engla werod on heofonum, and ferde to
eorðan, and sohte þæt {340} án sceap ðe him ætwunden wæs. Ðaða he hit
gemette, he hit bær on his exlum to ðære eowde blissigende. Þaða he
underfeng ure mennisce gecynd, and ure synna abær, þa wæs þæt dweligende
sceap ongean fered on his halgum exlum. Ðæra sceapa hlaford com ham,
afundenum sceape; forðan ðe Crist, æfter ðære ðrowunge, ðe he mancyn mid
alysde, arás of deaðe, and astah to heofonum blissigende.

He gelaðode his frynd and his nehgeburas. His frynd sind engla heapas,
forðan ðe hi healdað on heora staðelfæstnysse singallice his willan. Hi
sind eac his nehgeburas, forðan ðe hi brucað þære wulderfullan beorhtnysse
his gesihðe on heora andweardnysse. He cwæð, "Blissiað mid me, forðan ðe ic
gemette min forlorene sceap." Ne cwæð he, 'Blissiað mid þam sceape,' ac
'mid me,' forðan ðe ure alysednys soðlice is his bliss; and ðonne we beoð
to ðære heofonlican eardung-stowe gelædde, þonne gefylle we ða micclan
mærsunge his gefean. He cwæð, "Ic secge eow, mare bliss bið on heofonum be
anum synfullan men, gif he his synna mid dǽdbote behreowsað, ðonne sy be
nigon and hund-nigontig rihtwisum ðe nanre behreowsunge ne behofiað." Þis
is to smeagenne, hwi sy mare bliss be gecyrredum synfullum, þonne be
unscyldigum rihtwisum.

We habbað gelomlice gesewen, þæt gehwylce gebroðra, ðe ne befeollon on
healice gyltas, þæt hí ne beoð ealles swa carfulle to beganne ða
earfoðlican drohtnunge, swilce hi orsorge beon, forðan ðe hi ða healican
leahtras ne gefremedon; and gehwilce oðre ðe oncnawað þa swæran gyltas ðe
hi on geogoðe adrugon, beoð mid micelre sarnysse onbryrde. Hi forseoð
alyfedlice ðing and gesewenlice, and mid wope gewilniað þa ungesewenlican
and ða heofonlican. Hí forseoð hí sylfe, and geeadmettað on eallum ðingum;
and forði ðe hí dweligende fram heora Scyppende gewiton, hí willað geinnian
ða æftran hinðe mid þam uferan gestreonum. Mare bliss bið on heofonum be
ðam gecyrredum synfullum, ðurh swilce drohtnunga, þonne sy be ðam asolcenum
þe truwað be him sylfum þæt he {342} lytle and feawa gyltas gefremode, and
eac hwonlice carað ymbe Godes beboda and his sawle ðearfe. Maran lufe nimð
se heretoga on gefeohte to ðam cempan, þe æfter fleame his wiðerwinnan
ðegenlice oferwinð, þonne to ðam þe mid fleame ne ætwánd, ne ðeah on nanum
gecampe naht ðegenlices ne gefremode. Ealswa se yrðling lufað ðone æcer, ðe
æfter ðornum and bremelum genihtsume wæstmas agifð, swiðor þonne he lufige
ðone ðe ðornig næs, ne wæstmbære ne bið. Sind ðeah-hwæðere forwel mænige
rihtwise unscyldige wið heafod-leahtras, and habbað hwæðere ealswa stiðe
drohtnunge swylce hi mid eallum synnum geancsumede wæron. Þam ne mæg nan
dǽdbeta beon geefenlæht, forðan ðe hí sind rihtwise and behreowsigende. Be
ðam is to smeagenne hu micclum se rihtwisa mid eadmodre heofunge God
gegladige, gif se unrihtwisa mid soðre dǽdbote hine gegladian mæg.

Drihten rehte ða-gyt oðer bígspel be tyn scyllingum, and ðæra án losode and
wearð gemet. Þæt bígspel getacnað eft nigon engla werod. To ðam teoðan
werode wæs mancyn gesceapen; forðan ðe þæt teoðe wearð mid modignysse
forscyldigod, and hi ealle to awyrgedum deoflum wurdon awende, and of ðære
heofonlican blisse to helle suslum bescofene. Nu sind ða nigon heapas
genemnede, angeli, archangeli, uirtutes, potestates, principatus,
dominationes, throni, cherubin, seraphin. Þæt teoðe forwearð. Þa wæs
mancynn gesceapen to ge-edstaðelunge ðæs forlorenan heapes.

Angeli sind gecwedene Godes bodan; archangeli, healice bodan; uirtutes,
mihta, ðurh ða wyrcð God fela wundra. Potestates sind ánwealdu, ðe habbað
anweald ofer ða awyrgedan gastas, þæt hi ne magon geleaffulra manna heortan
swa micclum costnian swa hi willað. Principatus sind ealdorscipas, ðe ðæra
godra engla gymað, and hi be heora dihte ða godcundlican gerynu gefyllað.
Dominationes sind hlafordscypas gecwedene, forðan ðe him gehyrsumiað oðra
engla werod mid micelre underðeodnysse. Throni sind þrymsetl, þa beoð
gefyllede mid swa micelre gife ðære Ælmihtigan {344} Godcundnysse, þæt se
Eallwealdenda God on him wunað, and ðurh hi his domas tosceat. Cherubin is
gecweden gefyllednys ingehydes, oððe gewittes: hi sind afyllede mid gewitte
swa miccle swiðor, swa hi gehendran beoð heora Scyppende, ðurh wurðscipe
heora geearnunga. Seraphim sind gecwedene byrnende, oððe, onælende: hi sind
swa miccle swiðor byrnende on Godes lufe, swa micclum swa hi sind to him
geðeodde; forðan ðe nane oðre englas ne sind betweonan him and ðam
Ælmihtigan Gode. Hi sind byrnende na on fyres wisan, ac mid micelre lufe
þæs Wealdendan Cyninges. Godes rice bið gelogod mid engla weredum and
geðungenum mannum, and we gelyfað þæt of mancynne swa micel getel astige
þæt uplice rice, swa micel swa on heofonum beláf haligra gasta æfter ðam
hryre ðæra awyrgedra gasta.

Nigon engla werod þær wæron to lafe, and þæt teoðe forferde. Nu bið eft seo
micelnys geðungenra manna swa micel swa ðæra staðelfæstra engla wæs; and we
beoð geendebyrde to heora weredum, æfter urum geearnungum. Menige
geleaffulle men sind þe habbað lytel andgit to understandenne ða deopnysse
Godes lare, and willað þeah-hwæðere oðrum mannum mid arfæstnysse cyðan ymbe
Godes mærða, be heora andgites mæðe: þas beoð geendebyrde to englum, þæt
is, to Godes bydelum. Þa gecorenan ðe magon asmeagan Godes digelnysse, and
oðrum bodian mid gastlicre lare, hi beoð getealde to heah-englum, þæt is to
healicum bodum. Þa halgan, ðe on life wundra wyrceað, beoð geendebyrde
betwux ðam heofenlicum mihtum þe Godes tacna gefremmað. Sind eac sume
gecorene menn ðe aflyað þa awyrgedan gastas fram ofsettum mannum, ðurh
mihte heora bena: hwærto beoð þas geendebyrde buton to ðam heofenlicum
anwealdum, be gewyldað þa feondlican costneras? Þa gecorenan ðe ðurh
healice geearnunga þa læssan gebroðru oferstigað mid ealdorscipe, þa habbað
eac heora dæl betwux ðam heofenlicum ealderdomum. Sume beoð swa geðungene
þæt hí wealdað mid heora hlafordscipe ealle uncysta and leahtras on him
sylfum, swa þæt hi {346} beoð godas getealde ðurh ða healican clænnysse: be
ðam cwæð se Ælmihtiga to Moysen, "Ic ðe gesette, þæt þu wære Pharaones
god." Þas Godes ðegnas, þe beoð on swa micelre geðincðe on gesihðe þæs
Ælmihtigan þæt hi sind godas getealde, hwider gescyt ðonne heora
endebyrdnysse, buton to ðam werode ðe sind hlafordscipas gecwedene? forðan
ðe him oðre englas underðeodde beoð.

On sumum gecorenum mannum, ðe mid micelre gimene on andweardum life
drohtniað, bið Godes Gastes gifu swa micel, þæt he on heora heortan swilce
on ðrimsetle sittende toscǽt and démð wundorlice oðra manna dæda. Hwæt sind
þas buton ðrymsetl heora Scyppendes, on ðam ðe he wunigende mannum démð?
Seo soðe lufu is gefyllednys Godes ǽ, and se ðe on his ðeawum hylt Godes
lufe and manna, he bið þonne cherubim rihtlice geháten; forðan ðe eal
gewitt and ingehyd is belocen on twam wordum, þæt is Godes lufu and manna.
Sume Godes ðeowan sind onælede mid swa micelre gewilnunge heora Scyppendes
neawiste, þæt hi forseoð ealle woruldlice ymbhydignysse, and mid byrnendum
mode ealle ða ateorigendlican geðincðu oferstigað, and mid ðam micclan
bryne ðære heofenlican lufe oðre ontendað, and mid larlicre spræce
getrymmað. Hu magon ðas beon gecigede buton seraphim, þonne hi ðurh ðone
micclan bryne Godes lufe sind toforan oðrum eorðlicum his neawiste

Nu cweð se eadiga Gregorius, "Wa ðære sawle ðe orhlyte hyre lif adrihð þæra
haligra mihta," þe we nu sceortlice eow gerehton. Ac seo ðe bedæled is þam
godnyssum, heo geomrige and gewilnige þæt se cystiga Wealdend þurh his gife
hí geðeode þam hlyte his gecorenra. Nabbað ealle menn gelice gife æt Gode,
forðan ðe he forgifð ða gastlican geðincðu ælcum be his gecneordnyssum. Se
ðe læssan gife hæbbe, ne ándige he on ðam foreðeondum, forðan ðe ða halgan
ðreatas ðæra eadigra engla sind swa geendebyrde, þæt hi sume mid
underþeodnysse oðrum hyrsumiað, and sume mid oferstigendre wurðfulnysse ðam
oðrum sind foresette.

{348} Micel getel is ðæra haligra gasta, þe on Godes rice eardiað, be ðam
cwæð se witega Daniel, "Þusend ðusenda ðenodon þam Heofonlican Wealdende,
and ten ðusend siðan hundfealde ðusenda him mid wunodon." Oðer is ðenung,
oðer is mid-wunung. Þa englas ðeniað Gode þe bodiað his willan
middangearde, and ða ðing gefyllað þe him liciað. Ða oðre werod, þe him mid
wuniað, brucað þære incundan embwlátunge his godcundnysse, swa þæt hí
nateshwon fram his andweardnysse asende ne gewitað. Soðlice ða ðe to us
asende becumað, swa hí gefremmað heora Scyppendes hæse wiðutan, þæt hi
ðeah-hwæðere næfre ne gewitað fram his godcundan myrhðe; forðam ðe God is
æghwær, þeah ðe se engel stowlic sy. Nis se Ælmihtiga Wealdend stowlic,
forðan ðe he is on ælcere stowe, and swa hwider swa se stowlica engel
flihð, he bið befangen mid his andwerdnysse.

Hi habbað sume synderlice gife fram heora Scyppende, and ðeah-hwæðere heora
wurðscipe him bið eallum gemæne, and þæt þæt gehwilc on him sylfum be dæle
hæfð, þæt he hæfð on oðrum werode fulfremodlice; be ðam cwæð se
sealm-wyrhta, "Drihten, ðu ðe sitst ofer cherubin, geswutela ðe sylfne."

We sædon litle ær on ðisre rædinge, þæt þæs Ælmihtigan ðrymsetl wære betwux
ðam werode ðe sind throni gecigede: ac hwá mæg beon eadig, buton he his
Scyppendes wununge on him sylfum hæbbe? Seraphim sind ða gastas gecigede,
ðe beoð on Drihtnes lufe byrnende, and ðeah-hwæðere eal þæt heofonlice
mægen samod beoð onælede mid his lufe. Cherubim is gecweden gefyllednys
ingehydes oððe gewittes, and ðeah hwilc engel is on Godes andwerdnysse ðe
ealle ðing nyte? Ac forði is gehwilc ðæra weroda þam naman geciged, ðe ða
gife getacnað þe he fulfremedlicor underfeng.

Ac uton suwian hwæthwega be ðam digelnyssum ðæra heofenlicra
ceastergewarena, and smeagan be us sylfum, and geomrian mid behreowsunge
ure synna, þæt we, ðurh Drihtnes mildheortnysse, ða heofonlican wununge,
swa swa he us behét, {350} habban moton. He cwæð on sumere stowe, "On mines
Fæder huse sind fela wununga;" forðan gif sume beoð strengran on
geearnungum, sume rihtwisran, sume mid maran halignysse geglengede, þæt
heora nan ne beo geælfremod fram ðam micclan huse, þær ðær gehwilc onfehð
wununge be his geearnungum.

Se miltsienda Drihten cwæð, þæt micel blis wære on heofonum be anum
dǽdbetan; ac se ylca cwæð þurh his witegan, "Gif se rihtwisa gecyrð fram
his rihtwisnysse, and begæð unrihtwisnysse arleaslice, ealle his
rihtwisnysse ic forgyte; and gif se arleasa behreowsað his arleasnysse, and
begæð rihtwisnysse, ne gemune ic nanra his synna." Behreowsigendum mannum
he miltsað, ac hé ne behét þam elcigendum gewiss líf oð merigen. Nis forði
nanum synfullum to yldigenne agenre gecyrrednysse, ðylæs ðe he mid
sleacnysse forleose ða tíd Godes fyrstes. Smeage gehwilc man his ærran
dæda, and eac his andweardan drohtnunge, and fleo to ðam mildheortan Deman
mid wópe, ða hwile ðe he anbidað ure betrunge, seðe is rihtwis and
mildheort. Soðlice behreowsað his gedwyld seðe ne ge-edlæhð þa ærran dæda;
be ðam cwæð se Hælend to ðam gehæledan bedredan, "Efne nu ðu eart gehæled,
ne synga ðu heonon-forð, þylæs ðe ðe sum ðing wyrse gelimpe."

Geleaffullum mannum mæg beon micel truwa and hopa to ðam menniscum Gode
Criste, seðe is ure Mundbora and Dema, seðe leofað and rixað mid Fæder, on
annysse þæs Halgan Gastes, on ealra worulda woruld. Amen.


The holy gospel tells us, that "publicans and sinners approached Jesus, and
desired to hear his doctrine. Then the pharisees and the scribes of the
Jewish people murmured, because Jesus received the sinful, and ate and
drank with them. Then said Jesus to the Jewish scribes this parable, Which
of you hath an hundred sheep," etc.

These words are obscure, but the expounder Gregory has opened to us the
ghostly meaning. My dearest brothers, ye have heard in this evangelical
lesson, that the sinful approached to the speech of Jesus, and also to his
refection; and the Jewish scribes censured that with heat; but their
censure was not from righteousness, but from envy. They were sick, though
they observed it not. Then would the heavenly leech with a pleasant parable
benevolently heal the swelling of their hearts, and thus said, "Which of
you hath an hundred sheep, and if he lose one of the sheep, then leaveth he
[not] the ninety and nine in the waste, and goeth seeking the one that he
lost?" An hundredfold number is perfect, and the Almighty had an hundred
sheep, when the host of angels and mankind were his possessions: but he
lost one sheep, when the first-created man Adam through sin lost the food
of Paradise. Then the Almighty Son of God left all the host of angels in
heaven, and went to earth, and sought that one {341} sheep that had escaped
from him. When he had found it, he bare it on his shoulders to the flock
rejoicing. When he assumed our human nature, and bare our sins, then was
the wandering sheep brought back on his holy shoulders. The master of the
sheep came home, having found his sheep; for Christ after his passion,
whereby he redeemed mankind, arose from death, and ascended to heaven

He invited his friends and his neighbours. His friends are companies of
angels, because they in their steadfastness constantly observe his will.
They are also his neighbours, because they enjoy the glorious brightness of
his sight in their presence. He said, "Rejoice with me, for I have found my
lost sheep." He said not, 'Rejoice with the sheep,' but 'with me,' because
our redemption is truly his joy; and when we are led to the heavenly
dwelling-place, we then complete the great celebration of his gladness. He
said, "I say unto you, there is more joy in heaven over one sinful man, if
he rue his sins with repentance, than there is over ninety and nine
righteous, who need no repentance." This is to be investigated, why there
is more joy over a converted sinner, than over the innocent righteous.

We have frequently seen that those brethren, who have not fallen into
deadly sins, are not altogether so careful to practise a hard course of
life, as though they were careless because they had not perpetrated deadly
sins; and that others who acknowledge the grievous sins that they have
committed in youth, are pricked with great affliction. They despise
permitted and visible things, and with weeping desire those invisible and
heavenly. They despise and humble themselves in all things; and because
through error they have departed from their Creator, they desire to repair
the consequent injury with heavenly gains. Greater joy there will be in
heaven over the converted sinner, through such endurances, than over a
remiss one who is confident in himself, that he has perpetrated little
{343} and few sins, and at the same time cares but little about God's
commandments and his soul's need. Greater love a general feels in battle
for the soldier who after flight boldly overcomes his adversary, than for
him who never took to flight, nor yet in any conflict performed any deed of
valour. In like manner the husbandman loves the field which after thorns
and brambles yields abundant fruits, more than he loves that which was not
thorny nor is fruitful. There are, nevertheless, very many righteous
guiltless of deadly sins, and yet practise as severe a course of life as
though they were troubled with all sins. With these can no penitent sinner
be compared, because they are righteous and repentant. By this is to be
judged how greatly the righteous with humble lamentation gladdens God, if
the unrighteous with true penitence can gladden him.

The Lord yet said another parable concerning ten shillings, and of which
one was lost and was found. That parable again betokens the nine hosts of
angels. Instead of the tenth host mankind was created; for the tenth had
been found guilty of pride, and thrust from heavenly bliss to hell
torments. There are now nine companies, named, angeli, archangeli,
virtutes, potestates, principatus, dominationes, throni, cherubim,
seraphim. The tenth perished. Then was mankind created to supply the place
of the lost company.

Angeli are interpreted, God's messengers; archangeli, high messengers;
virtutes, powers, by which God works many miracles. Potestates are powers
which have power over the accursed spirits, that they may not tempt the
hearts of believing men so much as they desire. Principatus are authorities
which have charge of the good angels, and they by their direction fulfil
the divine mysteries. Dominationes are interpreted, lordships, because the
other hosts of angels obey them with great subjection. Throni are thrones
which are filled with such great grace of the Almighty Godhead, that the
{345} All-powerful God dwells on them, and through them decides his dooms.
Cherubim are interpreted, fullness of knowledge or understanding: they are
filled with so much the more understanding as they are nearer to their
Creator through the worthiness of their deserts. Seraphim are interpreted
burning, or inflaming: they are so much the more burning in love of God as
they are associated with him; for there are no other angels between them
and the Almighty God. They are burning, not in wise of fire, but with great
love of the Powerful King. God's kingdom is composed of hosts of angels and
of religious men, and we believe that of mankind as great a number will
ascend to that sublime realm as there remained of holy spirits in heaven
after the fall of the accursed spirits.

Nine hosts of angels were left, and the tenth perished. Now the multitude
of religious men will be as great as was that of the steadfast angels; and
we shall be annexed to their hosts, according to our deserts. Many faithful
men there are who have little intellect to understand the deepness of God's
lore, and will, nevertheless, with piety declare to other men concerning
the glories of God, according to the measure of their intellect: these will
be annexed to the angels, that is, to God's messengers. The chosen, who can
investigate the mysteries of God, and preach with ghostly lore to others,
will be numbered with the archangels, that is, with the high messengers.
The holy, who work wonders in life, will be disposed among the heavenly
powers who execute God's miracles. There are also some chosen men who drive
out the accursed spirits from men possessed, by power of their prayers:
whereto shall these be annexed except to the heavenly powers, who control
the fiendlike tempters? Those chosen ones, who through high deserts excel
their humbler brethren in authority, will have their portion also among the
heavenly princes. Some there are so pious that they control with their
authority all vices and sins in themselves, so that they are accounted
{347} gods through their exalted purity: of these the Almighty said to
Moses, "I will set thee that thou be Pharaoh's god." These servants of God,
who are in so great honour in the sight of the Almighty that they are
accounted gods, to what order are they assigned, unless to the host which
is called lordships? for to them other angels are subordinate.

In some chosen men, who live with great heedfulness in the present life,
the grace of God's Spirit is so great, that he, sitting on their hearts as
it were on a throne, decides and judges wondrously the deeds of other men.
What are these but thrones of their Creator, on which abiding he judges
men? True love is the completion of God's law, and he who in his moral
conduct holds love of God and of men, will be rightly called cherubim; for
all understanding and knowledge is contained in two words, namely, love of
God and of men. Some servants of God are inflamed with so great a desire
for the presence of their Creator, that they despise all worldly care, and
with burning mind rise above all perishing honours, and with the great heat
of heavenly love enkindle others, and with instructive speech confirm them.
How may these be called but seraphim, when through the great heat of love
of God they are before other mortals nearest to his presence?

Now says the blessed Gregory, "Woe to the soul that passes its life devoid
of the holy virtues," which we have just shortly explained to you. But let
the soul which is deprived of those excellences mourn, and desire that the
bountiful Ruler will, through his grace, associate it to the lot of his
chosen. All men have not like grace from God, for he gives ghostly honours
to every one according to his endeavours. Let him who has less grace envy
not those more excellent, because the holy companies of blessed angels are
so ordered, that some in subordination obey others, and some with
transcending dignity are set before others.

{349} Great is the number of the holy spirits which dwell in God's kingdom,
of whom the prophet Daniel said, "Thousand thousands ministered to the
Heavenly Ruler, and ten thousand times hundredfold thousands dwelt with
him." One thing is ministry, another is, co-dwelling. Those angels minister
to God who announce his will to the world, and perform the things which are
pleasing to him. The other hosts, that dwell with him, enjoy the closest
contemplation of his Godhead, so that they on no account, sent forth,
withdraw from his presence. But those who are sent to us so execute their
Creator's behest without, that they, nevertheless, depart never from his
divine joy; for God is everywhere, though the angel be local. The Almighty
Ruler is not local, for he is in every place, and whithersoever the local
angel flieth, he will be surrounded with His presence.

Some of them have especial grace from their Creator, and yet their dignity
is common to all, and that which each one has in himself partially, he has
in another host perfectly; of which the psalmist said, "Lord, thou who
sittest above the cherubim, manifest thyself."

We said a little before in this lesson, that the throne of the Almighty was
among the host which are called throni: but who may be happy, unless he
have his Creator's dwelling in himself? Seraphim the spirits are called who
are burning with love of the Lord, and yet all the heavenly power together
is inflamed with his love. Cherubim is interpreted fullness of knowledge or
understanding, and yet what angel is there in God's presence who knows not
all things? But each of those hosts is therefore called by the name which
betokens the gift that it has more perfectly received.

But let us cease a little from speaking of the mysteries of the heavenly
inhabitants, and meditate on ourselves, and bewail with repentance our
sins, that we, through the Lord's mercy, may, as he has promised us, attain
to the heavenly {351} dwelling. He said in some place, "In my Father's
house are many dwellings," for if some be stronger in deserts, some more
righteous, some adorned with greater holiness, none of them may be
estranged from the great house, where everyone shall receive a dwelling
according to his deserts.

The merciful Lord said, that there was great joy in heaven for one
penitent; but the Same said through his prophet, "If the righteous turn
from his righteousness, and impiously commit unrighteousness, all his
righteousness I will forget; and if the impious repent of his impiety, and
do righteousness, I will not remember any of his sins." To repentant men he
is merciful, but to the procrastinating he promises not certain life till
the morrow. No sinner ought therefore to procrastinate his own repentance,
lest he by remissness lose the time of God's respite. Let every man
meditate on his former deeds, and also on his present conduct, and fly to
the merciful Judge with weeping, while he, who is righteous and merciful,
awaits our bettering. He truly repents of his sins who repeats not his
former deeds; concerning which Jesus said to the healed bedridden, "Behold,
now thou art healed, sin not henceforth, lest something worse befall thee."

Believing men may have great trust and hope to the human God Christ, who is
our Protector and Judge, who liveth and reigneth with the Father, in unity
of the Holy Ghost, for ever and ever. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *



Se godspellere Lucas awrát on Cristes béc be acennednysse Iohannes ðæs
Fulluhteres, þus cweðende, "Sum eawfæst {352} Godes ðegen wæs geháten
Zacharias, his gebedda wæs geciged Elisabeth. Hí butu wæron rihtwise
ætforan Gode, on his bebodum and rihtwisnyssum forðstæppende butan tále.
Næs him cild gemæne:" et reliqua.

"Eal his reaf wæs awefen of olfendes hǽrum, his bigleofa wæs stiðlic; ne
dranc he wines drenc, ne nanes gemencgedes wætan, ne gebrowenes: ofet hine
fedde, and wude-hunig, and oðre waclice ðigena."

"On ðam fifteoðan geare ðæs caseres rices Tyberii com Godes word ofer
Iohannem, on ðam westene; and he ferde to folces neawiste, and bodade
Iudeiscum folce fulluht on synna forgyfenysse, swa swa hit awriten is on
Isaies witegunge."

Cristes fulluht he bodade toweard eallum geleaffullum, on ðam is synna
forgyfenys þurh ðone Halgan Gást. Iohannes eac be Godes dihte fullode ða ðe
him to comon ðæra Iudeiscra ðeoda, ac his fulluht ne dyde nánre synne
forgyfenysse, forðan ðe he wæs Godes bydel, and na God. He bodade mannum
þæs Hælendes to-cyme mid wordum, and his halige fulluht mid his agenum
fulluhte, on ðam he gefullode ðone unsynnian Godes Sunu, ðe nánre synne
forgyfenysse ne behófade.

Rihtlice weorðað Godes gelaðung ðisne dæg þæs mæran Fulluhteres
gebyrd-tide, for ðam manegum wundrum ðe gelumpon on his acennednysse. Godes
heah-engel Gabrihel bodade ðam fæder Zacharían his acennednysse, and his
healican geðincðu, and his mærlican drohtnunge. Þæt cild on his modor
innoðe oncneow Marian stemne, Godes cynnestran; and on innoðe ða-gyt
beclysed, mid wítigendlicre fægnunge getácnode þone halwendan to-cyme ures
Alysendes. On his acennednysse he ætbræd þære meder hire unwæstmbærnysse,
and þæs fæder tungan his nama unbánd, þe mid his agenre geleafleaste
adumbod wæs.

Ðreora manna gebyrd-tide freolsað seo halige gelaðung: ðæs Hælendes, seðe
is God and mann, and Iohannes his bydeles, and ðære eadigan Marian his
moder. Oðra gecorenra {354} manna, ðe ðurh martyrdom, oððe þurh oðre halige
geearnunga, Godes rice geferdon, heora endenextan dæg, seðe hí æfter
gefyllednysse ealra earfoðnyssa sigefæste to ðam ecan life acende, we
wurðiað him to gebyrd-tide; and ðone dæg, ðe hí to ðisum andweardan life
acennede wæron, we lætað to gymeleaste, forðan ðe hí comon hider to
earfoðnyssum, and costnungum, and mislicum fræcednyssum. Se dæg bið
gemyndig Godes ðeowum ðe ða halgan, æfter gewunnenum sige, asende to ecere
myrhðe fram eallum gedreccednyssum, and se is heora soðe acennednys; na
wóplic, swa swa seo ærre, ac blissigendlic to ðam ecum life. Ac us is to
wurðigenne mid micelre gecnyrdnysse Cristes gebyrd-tide, ðurh ða us com

Iohannes is geendung ðære ealdan ǽ and anginn ðære níwan, swa swa se Hælend
be him cwæð, "Seo ealde ǽ and wítegan wæron oð Iohannes to-cyme." Siððan
ongann godspel-bodung. Nu for his micclan halignysse is gewurðod his
acennednys, swa swa se heah-engel behet his fæder mid ðisum wordum, "Manega
blissiað on his gebyrd-tide." María, Godes cynnestre, nis nanum oðrum
gelic, forðan ðe heo is mæden and modor, and ðone abǽr ðe hí and ealle
gesceafta gesceop: is heo forði wel wyrðe þæt hire acennednys arwurðlice
gefreolsod sy.

Þa magas setton ðam cilde naman, Zacharias, ac seo modor him wiðcwæð mid
wordum, and se dumba fæder mid gewrite; forðan ðe se engel, ðe hine cydde
toweardne, him gesceop naman be Godes dihte, IOHANNES. Ne mihte se dumba
fæder cyðan his wife hu se engel his cilde naman gesette, ac, ðurh Godes
Gastes onwrigenysse, se nama hire wearð cuð. Zacharias is gereht, 'Gemindig
Godes;' and Iohannes, 'Godes gifu;' forðan ðe he bodade mannum Godes gife,
and Crist toweardne, þe ealne middangeard mid his gife gewissað. He wæs
asend toforan Drihtne, swa swa se dægsteorra gæð beforan ðære sunnan, swa
swa bydel ætforan deman, swa swa seo Ealde Gecyðnys ætforan ðære Niwan;
{356} forðan ðe seo ealde ǽ wæs swilce sceadu, and seo Niwe Gecyðnys is
soðfæstnys ðurh ðæs Hælendes gife.

Anes geares cild hí wæron, Crist and Iohannes. On ðisum dæge acende seo
unwæstmbære moder ðone mæran witegan Iohannem, se is gehérod mid þisum
wordum, ðurh Cristes muð, "Betwux wifa bearnum ne arás nan mærra man ðonne
is Iohannes se Fulluhtere."

On middes wintres mæsse-dæge acende þæt halige mæden Maria þone Heofenlican
Æðeling, se nis geteald to wifa bearnum, forðon ðe he is Godes Sunu on ðære
Godcundnysse, and Godes and mædenes Bearn ðurh menniscnysse. Iohannes
forfleah folces neawiste on geogoðe, and on westene mid stiðre drohtnunge
synna forbeah. Se Hælend betwux synfullum unwemme fram ælcere synne
ðurhwunode. Se bydel gebigde on ðam timan micelne heap Israhela ðeode to
heora Scyppende mid his bodunge. Drihten dæghwamlice of eallum ðeodum to
his geleafan, ðurh onlihtinge ðæs Halgan Gastes, ungerim sawla gebigð.

Þæt halige godspel cwyð be ðam Fulluhtere, þæt he forestope ðam Hælende on
gaste and on mihte þæs witegan Helian; forðan ðe he wæs his forrynel æt ðam
ærran to-cyme, swa swa Helias bið æt ðam æftran togeanes Antecriste. Nis
butan getacnunge þæt ðæs bydeles acennednys on ðære tide wæs gefremod ðe se
woruldlica dæg wanigende bið, and on Drihtnes gebyrd-tide weaxende bið. Þas
getacnunge onwreah se ylca Iohannes mid ðisum wordum, "Criste gedafenað þæt
he weaxe, and me þæt ic wanigende beo." Iohannes wæs hraðor mannum cuð þurh
his mærlican drohtnunga, þonne Crist wære, forðan ðe hé ne æteowde his
godcundan mihte, ærðam ðe hé wæs ðritig geara on ðære menniscnysse. Þa wæs
he geðuht ðam folce þæt hé witega wære, and Iohannes Crist. Hwæt ða Crist
geswutelode hine sylfne ðurh miccle tacna, and his hlisa weox geond ealne
middangeard, þæt he soð God wæs, seðe wæs ærðan witega geðuht. Iohannes
soðlice wæs wanigende on his hlisan, forðan ðe he {358} wearð oncnawen
witega, and bydel ðæs Heofonlican Æðelinges, seðe wæs lytle ær Crist
geteald mid ungewissum wenan. Þas wanunge getacnað se wanigenda dæg his
gebyrd-tide, and se ðeonda dæg ðæs Hælendes acennednysse gebícnað his
ðeondan mihte æfter ðære menniscnysse.

Fela witegan mid heora witegunge bodedon Drihten toweardne, sume feorran
sume neán, ac Iohannes his to-cyme mid wordum bodade, and eac mid fingre
gebicnode, ðus cweðende, "Loca nu! Efne her gæð Godes Lamb, seðe ætbret
middangeardes synna." Crist is manegum naman genemned. He is Wisdom
geháten, forðan ðe se Fæder ealle gesceafta þurh hine geworhte. He is Word
gecweden, forðan þe word is wisdomes geswutelung. Be ðam Worde ongann se
godspellere Iohannes þa godspellican gesetnysse, ðus cweðende, "On frymðe
wæs Word, and þæt Word wæs mid Gode, and þæt Word wæs God." He is Lamb
geháten, for ðære unscæððignysse lambes gecyndes; and wæs unscyldig, for
ure alysednysse, his Fæder liflic onsægednys, on lambes wisan geoffrod. He
is Leo geciged of Iudan mægðe, Dauides wyrtruma, forðan ðe he, ðurh his
godcundlican strencðe, þone miclan deofol mid sige his ðrowunge oferswiðde.

Se halga Fulluhtere, ðe we ymbe sprecað, astealde stiðlice drohtnunge,
ægðer ge on scrude ge on bígwiste, swa swa we hwene æror rehton; forðan ðe
se Wealdenda Hælend þus be him cweðende wæs, "Fram Iohannes dagum Godes
rice ðolað neadunge, and ða strecan-mód hit gegripað." Cuð is gehwilcum
snoterum mannum, þæt seo ealde ǽ wæs eaðelicre þonne Cristes Gesetnys sy,
forðan ðe on ðære næs micel forhæfednys, ne ða gastlican drohtnunga þe
Crist siððan gesette, and his apostoli. Oðer is seo gesetnys ðe se cyning
bytt ðurh his ealdormenn oððe gerefan, oðer bið his agen gebann on his
andweardnysse. Godes rice is gecweden on ðisre stowe seo hálige gelaðung,
þæt is eal cristen folc, þe sceal mid neadunge and strecum mode þæt
heofonlice rice geearnian. {360} Hu mæg beon butan strece and neadunge, þæt
gehwá mid clænnysse þæt gále gecynd þurh Godes gife gewylde? Oððe hwá
gestilð hatheortnysse his modes mid geðylde, butan earfoðnysse? oððe hwá
awent modignysse mid soðre eadmodnysse? oððe hwá druncennysse mid
syfernysse? oððe hwá gitsunge mid rúmgifulnysse, butan strece? Ac se ðe his
ðeawas mid anmodnysse, þurh Godes fultum, swa awent, he bið ðonne to oðrum
menn geworht; oðer he bið þurh gódnysse, and se ylca ðurh edwiste, and he
gelæcð ðonne ðurh strece þæt heofenlice rice.

Twa forhæfednysse cynn syndon, án lichamlic, oðer gastlic. An is, þæt gehwá
hine sylfne getemprige mid gemete on ǽte and on wæte, and werlice ða
oferflowendlican ðygene him sylfum ætbrede. Oðer forhæfednysse cynn is
deorwurðre and healicre, ðeah seo oðer gód sy: styran his modes styrunge
mid singalre gemetfæstnysse, and campian dæghwamlice wið leahtras, and hine
sylfne ðreagian mid styrnysse ðære gastlican steore, swa þæt hé ða reðan
deor eahta heafod-leahtra swilce mid isenum midlum gewylde. Deorwyrðe is
þeos forhæfednys, and wulderfull ðrowung on Godes gesihðe, ða yfelan
geðohtas and unlustas mid agenre cynegyrde gestyran, and fram
derigendlicere spræce, and pleolicum weorce hine sylfne forhabban, swa swa
fram cwylmbærum mettum. Se ðe ðas ðing gecneordlice begæð, he gripð
untweolice þæt behátene ríce mid Gode and eallum his halgum. Micel strec
bið, þæt mennisce menn mid eadmodum geearnungum ða heofenlican myrhðe
begytan, ðe ða heofenlican englas ðurh modignysse forluron.

Us gelustfullað gyt furður to sprecenne be ðan halgan were Iohanne, him to
wurðmynte and ús to beterunge. Be him awrát se witega Isaias, þæt he is
"stemn clypigendes on westene, Gearciað Godes weig, doð rihte his paðas.
Ælc dene bið gefylled, and ælc dún bið geeadmet, and ealle wohnyssa beoð
gerihte, and scearpnyssa gesmeðode." Se witega hine het stemn, forðan ðe he
forestóp Criste, ðe is Word {362} gehaten: na swilc word swa menn sprecað,
ac he is ðæs Fæder Wisdom, and word bið wisdomes geswutelung. Þæt Word is
Ælmihtig God, Sunu mid his Fæder. On ælcum worde bið stemn gehyred, ǽr þæt
word fullice gecweden sy. Swa swa stemn forestæpð worde, swa forestóp
Iohannes ðam Hælende on middangearde; forðan ðe God Fæder hine sende
ætforan gesihðe his Bearnes, þæt he sceolde gearcian and dæftan his weig.
Hwæt ða Iohannes to mannum clypode þas ylcan word, "Gearciað Godes weig."
Se bydel ðe bodað rihtne geleafan and gode weorc, he gearcað þone weig
cumendum Gode to ðæra heorcnigendra heortan.

Godes weg bið gegearcod on manna heortan, þonne hí ðære Soðfæstnysse spræce
eadmodlice gehyrað, and gearuwe beoð to Lifes bebodum; be ðam cwæð se
Hælend, "Se ðe me lufað, he hylt min bebod, and min Fæder hine lufað, and
wit cumað to him, and mid him wuniað." His paðas beoð gerihte, þonne ðurh
gode bodunge aspringað clæne geðohtas on mode ðæra hlystendra. Dena
getácniað þa eadmodan, and dúna ða modigan. On Drihtnes to-cyme wurdon dena
afyllede, and dúna geeadmette, swa swa he sylf cwæð, "Ælc ðæra ðe hine
onhefð bið geeadmet, and se ðe hine geeadmet bið geuferod." Swa swa wæter
scyt of ðære dúne, and ætstent on dene, swa forflihð se Halga Gast modigra
manna heortan, and nimð wununge on ðam eadmodan, swa swa se witega cwæð,
"On hwam gerest Godes Gast buton on ðam eadmodan?" Ðwyrnyssa beoð gerihte,
þonne ðwyrlicra manna heortan, þe beoð ðurh unrihtwisnysse hócas awegde,
eft ðurh regol-sticcan ðære soðan rihtwisnysse beoð geemnode. Scearpnyssa
beoð awende to smeðum wegum, ðonne ða yrsigendan mod, and unliðe gecyrrað
to manðwærnysse, þurh ongyte ðære upplican gife.

Langsumlic bið us to gereccenne, and eow to gehyrenne ealle ða deopnyssa
ðæs mæran Fulluhteres bodunge: hu he ða heardheortan Iudeiscre ðeode mid
stearcre ðreale and {364} stiðre myngunge to lífes wege gebigde, and æfter
his ðrowunge hellwarum Cristes to-cyme cydde, swa swa he on life mancynne
agene alysednysse mid hludre stemne bealdlice bodade.

Uton nu biddan ðone Wealdendan Hælend, þæt he, ðurh his ðæs mæran
Forryneles and Fulluhteres ðingunge, ús gemiltsige on andweardum lífe, and
to ðam ecan gelæde, ðam sy wuldor and lóf mid Fæder and Halgum Gaste á on
ecnysse. Amen.



The evangelist Luke wrote in the book of Christ concerning the birth of
John the Baptist, thus saying, "There was a {353} certain pious servant of
God called Zacharias, his wife was called Elizabeth. They were both
righteous before God, walking forth in his commandments and righteousnesses
without blame. They had no child in common," etc.

"All his garment was woven of camel's hair, his food was coarse; he drank
not drink of wine, nor of any mixed or prepared fluid: fruit fed him and
wood-honey, and other common things.

"In the fifteenth year of the reign of the emperor Tiberius, the word of
God came upon John, in the waste, and he went into the presence of people,
and preached to the Jewish folk baptism for the forgiveness of sins, as it
is written in the prophecy of Isaiah."

The baptism of Christ to come he preached to all believers, in which is
forgiveness of sins through the Holy Ghost. John also, by God's direction,
baptized those who came to him of the Jewish nations, but his baptism
wrought no forgiveness of sin, for he was God's messenger, and not God. He
announced to men the advent of Jesus with words, and His holy baptism with
his own baptism, with which he baptized the sinless Son of God, who needed
no forgiveness of sin.

Rightly does God's church honour this day, the birth-tide of the great
Baptist, for the many wonders which happened at his birth. God's archangel
Gabriel announced his birth to Zacharias his father, and his high honours,
and his illustrious life. The child in his mother's womb knew the voice of
Mary, the parent of God; and in the womb yet closed, betokened with
prophetic joy the salutary advent of our Redeemer. At his birth he removed
from his mother her barrenness, and his name unbound the tongue of his
father, who by his own want of belief had been made dumb.

The holy church celebrates the birth-tide of three persons,--of Jesus, who
is God and man, and of John his messenger, and of the blessed Mary his
mother. Of other chosen {355} persons, who, through martyrdom, or through
other holy merits, have gone to the kingdom of God, we celebrate as their
birth-tide their last day, which, after the fulfilment of all their
labours, brought them forth victorious to eternal life; and the day on
which they were born to this present life we let pass unheeded, because
they came hither to hardships, and temptations, and divers perils. The day
is memorable to the servants of God which sends his saints, after victory
won, to eternal joy from all afflictions, and which is their true birth;
not tearful as the first, but exulting in eternal life. But the birth-tide
of Christ is to be celebrated with great care, through which came our

John is the ending of the old law and the beginning of the new, as Jesus
said of him, "The old law and the prophets were till the coming of John."
Afterwards began the gospel-preaching. Now, on account of his great
holiness, his birth is honoured, as the archangel promised his father with
these words, "Many shall rejoice in his birth-tide." Mary, the parent of
God, is like to none other, for she is maiden and mother, and bare him who
created her and all creatures: therefore is she well worthy that her birth
should be honourably celebrated.

The relatives bestowed on the child the name of Zacharias, but the mother
contradicted them by words, and the dumb father by writing; because the
angel who had announced that he was to come, had, by God's direction, given
him the name of JOHN. The dumb father could not have informed his wife how
the angel had bestowed a name on his child, but by revelation of the Spirit
of God the name was known to her. Zacharias is interpreted, 'Mindful of
God;' and John, 'God's grace;' because he preached to men the grace of God,
and that Christ was to come, who directs all the earth with his grace. He
was sent before the Lord, as the day-star goes before the sun, as the
beadle before the judge, as the Old Testament before the New; for the Old
Law was {357} as a shadow, and the New Testament is truth through the grace
of Jesus.

They were children of the same year, Christ and John. On this day the
barren mother brought forth the great prophet John, who is praised in these
words by the mouth of Christ, "Among the children of men there hath not
arisen a greater man than is John the Baptist."

On the mass-day of midwinter the holy maiden Mary brought forth the
Heavenly Prince, who is not numbered with the children of men, because he
is the Son of God in his Godhead, and the Son of God and of a maiden by his
human nature. John fled from the presence of people in his youth, and in
the waste, with austere life-course, avoided sin. Jesus continued among the
sinful pure from every sin. The crier inclined, at that time, a great body
of the people of Israel to their Creator by his announcement. The Lord
daily inclines souls without number of all nations to his faith, through
enlightening of the Holy Ghost.

The holy gospel says of the Baptist, that he preceded Jesus in spirit and
in power of the prophet Elias; because he was his forerunner at his first
advent, as Elias will be at the second against Antichrist. It is not
without signification that the birth of the crier was completed on the day
when the worldly day is waning, and that it is waxing on the birth-tide of
the Lord. This signification the same John revealed in these words, "It is
befitting Christ that he wax, and me that I be waning." John was sooner
known to men, through his illustrious life-course, than Christ was, for He
manifested not his divine power, ere that he had been thirty years in human
nature. Then it seemed to the people that he was a prophet, and that John
was Christ. But Christ manifested himself by many great miracles, and his
fame waxed through all the world, that he was true God, who before that had
seemed a prophet. But John was waning in his fame, for he was {359}
acknowledged a prophet, and the proclaimer of the Heavenly Prince, who a
little before had by uncertain supposition been accounted Christ. The
waning day of his birth-tide betokens this waning, and the increasing day
of the birth of Jesus signifies his increasing power according to his human

Many prophets by their prophecy announced the Lord to come, some from afar
some near, but John announced his advent by words, and also with his finger
signified it, thus saying, "Look now! Behold here goeth the Lamb of God,
who shall take away the sins of the world." Christ is named by many names.
He is called Wisdom, because the Father wrought all things through him. He
is called Word, because a word is the manifestation of wisdom. The
evangelist John began the evangelical memorial with the Word, thus saying,
"In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was
God." He is called Lamb, from the innocence of the lamb's nature; and was
guiltless, for our redemption, offered a living sacrifice to his Father in
the manner of a lamb. He is called the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root
of David, because, through his godly strength he overcame the great devil
by the victory of his passion.

The holy Baptist of whom we are speaking, established a rigid life-course,
both in raiment and in food, as we have mentioned a little before; for the
Mighty Jesus was thus saying of him, "From the days of John the kingdom of
God suffereth compulsion, and the violent seize it." It is known to every
intelligent man, that the old law was easier than the Institute of Christ
is, for in it there was no great continence nor the ghostly courses which
Christ and his apostles afterwards established. One thing is the institute
which the king ordains through his nobles or officials, another is his own
edict in his presence. The holy church is in this place called God's
kingdom, that is, all christian people, who shall with force and violence
earn the heavenly kingdom. {361} How can it be without violence and
compulsion, that any one by chastity overcomes libidinous nature through
God's grace? Or who shall still the frenzy of his mind with patience,
without difficulty? or who shall exchange pride for true humility? or who
drunkenness for soberness? or who covetousness for munificence, without
violence? But he who, through God's support, so changes his ways with
steadfastness, will then be made another man; another he will be in
goodness, and the same in substance, and he will then by violence seize the
heavenly kingdom.

There are two kinds of continence, one bodily, the other ghostly. One is,
that everyone govern himself with moderation in food and in drink, and
manfully remove from himself superfluous aliment. The second kind of
continence is more precious and exalted,--though the other is good,--to
guide the agitation of his mind with constant moderation, and fight daily
against sins, and chastise himself with the sternness of ghostly
correction, so that he restrain the fierce beast of the eight capital sins
as it were with iron bonds. Precious is this continence and glorious
suffering in the sight of God, to govern evil thoughts and sinful pleasures
with our own sceptre, and to abstain from injurious speech and perilous
work, as from death-bearing meats. He who sedulously performs these things,
seizes undoubtedly the promised kingdom with God and all his saints. Great
violence it is through which human beings with humble merits obtain that
heavenly joy, which the heavenly angels lost through pride.

It delights us to speak yet further of the holy man John, for his honour
and our bettering. Of him the prophet Isaiah wrote, that he is "the voice
of one crying in the waste, Prepare the way of God, make right his paths.
Every valley shall be filled, and every hill shall be lowered, and all
crookednesses shall be straightened, and sharpnesses smoothed." The prophet
called himself a voice, because he preceded {363} Christ, who is called the
Word: not such a word as men speak, but he is the Wisdom of the Father, and
a word is the manifestation of wisdom. The Word is Almighty God, the Son
with his Father. In every word the voice is heard before the word is fully
spoken. As the voice precedes the word, so did John precede Jesus on earth;
for God the Father sent him before the sight of his Son, that he might
prepare and make ready his way. But John cried these same words to men,
"Prepare the way of God." The crier who announces right belief and good
works, prepares the way for the coming God to the heart of the hearkeners.

The way of God is prepared in the heart of men, when they humbly hear the
speech of Truth, and are ready to the commandments of Life; of whom Jesus
said, "He who loveth me holdeth my commandment, and my Father loveth him,
and we will come to him, and will dwell with him." His paths shall be
straight, when, through good preaching, pure thoughts spring up in the mind
of the listeners. Valleys betoken the humble, and hills the proud. At the
Lord's advent valleys shall be filled, and hills lowered, as he himself
said, "Everyone of them who exalteth himself shall be humbled, and he who
humbleth himself shall be exalted." As water rushes from the hill and
stands in the valley, so flees the Holy Ghost from the heart of proud men,
and takes his dwelling in the humble, as the prophet said, "In whom resteth
the Spirit of God but in the humble?" Crookednesses shall be straight, when
the hearts of perverse men, which are agitated by the hooks of
unrighteousness, are again made even by the ruling-rods of true
righteousness. Sharpnesses shall be turned to smooth ways, when angry and
ungentle minds turn to gentleness through infusion of the heavenly grace.

Tedious it would be for us to recount and for you to hear all the depths of
the great Baptist's preaching: how with strong reproof and severe
admonition he inclined the {365} hard-hearted of the Jewish people to the
way of life, and after his suffering announced Christ's advent to the
inhabitants of hell, as he in life had with loud voice boldly preached
their own redemption to mankind.

Let us now pray the Powerful Saviour, that he, through the mediation of the
great Forerunner and Baptist, be merciful to us in the present life, and
lead us to the life eternal, to whom be glory and praise with the Father
and the Holy Ghost, ever to eternity. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *

III. K[=AL]. I[=UL].


    Venit Iesus in partes Cæsareae Philippi: et reliqua.

Matheus se Godspellere awrát on ðære godspellican gesetnysse, ðus cweðende,
"Drihten com to anre burhscire, ðe is geciged Cesarea Philippi, and befrán
his gingran hu menn be him cwyddedon. Hí andwyrdon, Sume menn cweðað þæt ðu
sy Iohannes se Fulluhtere, sume secgað þæt ðu sy Helías, sume Hieremias,
oððe sum oðer witega. Se Hælend ða cwæð, Hwæt secge ge þæt ic sy? Petrus
him andwyrde, Þu eart Crist, ðæs lifigendan Godes Sunu. Drihten him cwæð to
andsware, Eadig eart ðu, Simon, culfran bearn, forðan ðe flæsc and blod þe
ne onwreah ðisne geleafan, ac min Fæder seðe on heofonum is. Ic ðe secge,
þæt þu eart stænen, and ofer ðysne stán ic timbrige mine cyrcan, and helle
gatu naht ne magon ongean hí. Ic betæce ðe heofonan rices cæge; and swa
hwæt swa ðu bintst on eorðan, þæt bið gebunden on heofonum; and swa hwæt
swa ðu unbintst ofer eorðan, þæt bið unbunden on heofonum."

Beda se trahtnere us onwrihð þa deopnysse ðysre rædinge, and cwyð, þæt
Philippus se fyðerríca ða buruh Cesarea getimbrode, and on wurðmynte þæs
caseres Tiberii, ðe he under {366} rixode, ðære byrig naman gesceop,
'Cesaream,' and for his agenum gemynde to ðam naman geyhte, 'Philippi,' ðus
cweðende, 'Cesarea Philippi,' swilce seo burh him bám to wurðmynte swa
genemned wære.

Þaða se Hælend to ðære burhscire genealæhte, þa befrán hé, hu woruld-menn
be him cwyddedon: na swilce hé nyste manna cwyddunga be him, ac hé wolde,
mid soðre andetnysse ðæs rihtan geleafan, adwæscan ðone leasan wenan
dweligendra manna. His apostoli him andwyrdon, "Sume men cwyddiað þæt ðu sy
Iohannes se Fulluhtere, sume secgað þæt ðu sy Helias, sume Hieremias, oððe
án ðæra witegena." Drihten ða befrán, "Hwæt secge ge þæt ic sy?" swylce he
swa cwæde, 'Nu woruld-menn ðus dwollice me oncnawað, ge ðe godas sind, hu
oncnawe ge me?' Se trahtnere cwæð 'godas,' forðan ðe se soða God, seðe ana
is Ælmihtig, hæfð geunnen ðone wurðmynt his gecorenum, þæt hé hí godas
gecigð. Him andwyrde se gehyrsuma Petrus, "Ðu eart Crist, þæs lifigendan
Godes Sunu." He cwæð 'þæs lifigendan Godes,' for twæminge ðæra leasra goda,
ða ðe hæðene ðeoda, mid mislicum gedwylde bepæhte, wurðodon.

Sume hí gelyfdon on deade entas, and him deorwurðlice anlicnyssa arærdon,
and cwædon þæt hí godas wæron, for ðære micelan strencðe ðe hí hæfdon: wæs
ðeah heora líf swiðe mánfullic and bysmurfull; be ðam cwæð se witega, "Ðæra
hæðenra anlicnyssa sind gyldene and sylfrene, manna handgeweorc: hí habbað
dumne muð and blinde eagan, deafe earan and ungrapigende handa, fét butan
feðe, bodig butan life." Sume hí gelyfdon on ða sunnan, sume on ðone monan,
sume on fyr, and on manega oðre gesceafta: cwædon þæt hí for heora
fægernysse godas wæron.

Nu todælde Petrus swutelice ðone soðan geleafan, ðaða he cwæð, "Þu eart
Crist, ðæs lifigendan Godes Sunu." Se is lybbende God þe hæfð líf and
wununge ðurh hine sylfne, butan anginne, and seðe ealle gesceafta þurh his
agen Bearn, þæt is, his Wisdom, gesceop, and him eallum líf forgeaf ðurh
{368} ðone Halgan Gast. On ðissum ðrym hádum is an Godcundnys, and án
gecynd, and án weorc untodæledlice.

Drihten cwæð to Petre, "Eadig eart ðu, culfran sunu." Se Halga Gast wæs
gesewen ofer Criste on culfran anlicnysse. Nu gecigde se Hælend Petrum
culfran bearn, forðan ðe he wæs afylled mid bilewitnysse and gife ðæs
Halgan Gastes. He cwæð, "Ne onwreah ðe flæsc ne blod þisne geleafan, ac min
Fæder seðe on heofenum is." Flæsc and blod is gecweden, his flæsclice mæið.
Næfde he þæt andgit ðurh mæglice lare, ac se Heofenlica Fæder, ðurh ðone
Halgan Gast, ðisne geleafan on Petres heortan forgeaf.

Drihten cwæð to Petre, "Þu eart stænen." For ðære strencðe his geleafan,
and for anrædnysse his andetnysse he underfencg ðone naman, forðan ðe he
geðeodde hine sylfne mid fæstum mode to Criste, seðe is 'stán' gecweden
fram ðam apostole Paule. "And ic timbrige mine cyrcan uppon ðisum stane:"
þæt is, ofer ðone geleafan ðe ðu andetst. Eal Godes gelaðung is ofer ðam
stane gebytlod, þæt is ofer Criste; forðan ðe he is se grundweall ealra
ðæra getimbrunga his agenre cyrcan. Ealle Godes cyrcan sind getealde to
anre gelaðunge, and seo is mid gecorenum mannum getimbrod, na mid deadum
stanum; and eal seo bytlung ðæra liflicra stana is ofer Criste gelogod;
forðan ðe we beoð, þurh ðone geleafan, his lima getealde, and hé ure ealra
heafod. Se ðe ne bytlað of ðam grundwealle, his weorc hryst to micclum

Se Hælend cwæð, "Ne magon helle gatu naht togeanes minre cyrcan." Leahtras
and dwollic lár sindon helle gatu, forðan ðe hí lædað þone synfullan swilce
ðurh geat into helle wite. Manega sind ða gatu, ac heora nan ne mæg ongean
ða halgan gelaðunge, ðe is getimbrod uppon ðam fæstan stane, Criste; forðan
ðe se gelyfeda, þurh Cristes gescyldnysse, ætwint ðam frecednyssum ðæra
deoflicra costnunga.

He cwæð, "Ic ðe betæce heofonan rices cæge." Nis seo cæig gylden, ne
sylfren, ne of nanum antimbre gesmiðod, ac is se anweald þe him Crist
forgeaf, þæt nan man ne cymð {370} into Godes rice, buton se halga Petrus
him geopenige þæt infær. "And swa hwæt swa ðu bintst ofer eorðan, þæt bið
gebunden on heofonum; and swa hwæt swa ðu unbintst ofer eorðan, þæt bið
unbunden on heofenan." Þisne anweald he forgeaf nu Petre, and eac syððan,
ǽr his upstige, eallum his apostolum, ðaða he him on-ableow, ðus cwæðende,
"Onfoð Haligne Gast: ðæra manna synna þe ge forgyfað, beoð forgyfene; and
ðam ðe ge forgifenysse ofunnon, him bið oftogen seo forgyfenys."

Nellað ða apostoli nænne rihtwisne mid heora mansumunge gebindan, ne eac
ðone mánfullan miltsigende unbindan, butan he mid soðre dǽdbote gecyrre to
lifes wege. Þone ylcan andweald hæfð se Ælmihtiga getiðod biscopum and
halgum mæsse-preostum, gif hí hit æfter ðære godspellican gesetnysse
carfullice healdað. Ac forði is seo cæig Petre sinderlice betæht, þæt eal
ðeodscipe gleawlice tocnáwe, þæt swa hwá swa oðscyt fram annysse ðæs
geleafan ðe Petrus ða andette Criste, þæt him ne bið getiðod naðor ne synna
forgyfenys ne infær þæs heofenlican rices.


We wyllað æfter ðisum godspelle eow gereccan ðæra apostola drohtnunga and
geendunge, mid scortre race; forðan ðe heora ðrowung is gehwær on Engliscum
gereorde fullice geendebyrd.

Æfter Drihtnes upstige wæs Petrus bodigende geleafan ðam leodscipum ðe sind
gecwedene Galatia, Cappadocia, Bithinia, Asia, Italia. Syððan, ymbe tyn
geara fyrst, hé gewende to Romebyrig, bodigende godspel; and on ðære byrig
hé gesette his biscop-setl, and ðær gesæt fif and twentig geara, lærende ða
Romaniscan ceastregewaran Godes mærða, mid micclum tacnum. His wiðerwinna
wæs on eallum his færelde sum drý, se wæs Simon geháten. Þes drý wæs mid
{372} ðam awyrgedum gaste to ðam swyðe afylled, þæt he cwæð þæt he wære
Crist, Godes Sunu, and mid his drycræfte ðæs folces geleafan amyrde.

Þa gelámp hit þæt man ferede anre wuduwan suna líc ðær Petrus bodigende
wæs. He ða cwæð to ðam folce and to ðam drý, "Genealǽcað ðære bære, and
gelyfað þæt ðæs bodung soð sy, ðe ðone deadan to life arærð." Hwæt ða Simon
wearð gebyld þurh deofles gast, and cwæð, "Swa hraðe swa ic þone deadan
arǽre, acwellað minne wiðerwinnan Petrum." Þæt folc him andwyrde, "Cucenne
we hine forbærnað." Simon ða mid deofles cræfte dyde þæt ðæs deadan líc
styrigende wæs. Þa wende þæt folc þæt he geedcucod wære. Petrus ða ofer
eall clypode, "Gif he geedcucod sy, sprece to ús, and astande; onbyrige
metes, and ham gecyrre." Þæt folc ða hrymde hlúddre stemne, "Gif Simon ðis
ne deð, hé sceal þæt wite ðolian ðe hé ðe gemynte." Simon to ðisum wordum
hine gebealh and fleonde wæs, ac þæt folc mid ormǽtum edwite hine gehæfte.

Se Godes apostol ða genealæhte ðam lice mid aðenedum earmum, ðus biddende,
"Ðu, leofa Drihten, ðe ús sendest to bodigenne ðinne geleafan, and ús
behete þæt we mihton, ðurh ðinne naman, deoflu todræfan, and untrume
gehælan, and ða deadan aræran, arǽr nu ðisne cnapan, þæt ðis folc oncnáwe
þæt nan God nys buton ðu ana, mid ðinum Fæder, and ðam Halgan Gaste." Æfter
ðisum gebede arás se deada, and gebígedum cneowum to Petre cwæð, "Ic geseah
Hælend Crist, and hé sende his englas forð for ðinre bene, þæt hí me to
life gelæddon." Þæt folc ða mid anre stemne clypigende cwæð, "An God is ðe
Petrus bodað:" and woldon forbǽrnan ðone drý, ac Petrus him forwyrnde;
cwæð, þæt se Hælend him tæhte ðone regol, þæt hí sceoldon yfel mid góde

Simon, ðaða he ðam folce ætwunden wæs, getígde ænne ormǽtne ryððan innan
ðam geate þær Petrus inn hæfde, þæt {374} he fǽrlice hine abítan sceolde.
Hwæt ða Petrus cóm, and ðone ryððan untígde mid ðisum bebode, "Yrn, and
sege Simone, þæt he leng mid his drycræfte Godes folc ne bepæce, ðe hé mid
his agenum blode gebohte." And hé sona getengde wið þæs drýs, and hine on
fleame gebrohte. Petrus wearð æfterweard þus cweðende, "On Godes naman ic
ðe bebeode, þæt ðu nænne toð on his lice ne gefæstnige." Se hund, ðaða hé
ne moste his lichaman derian, totær his hæteru sticmælum of his bæce, and
hine dráf geond ða weallas, ðeotende swa swa wulf, on ðæs folces gesihðe.
He ða ætbærst ðam hunde, and to lángum fyrste siððan, for ðære sceame, næs
gesewen on Romana-byrig.

Syððan eft on fyrste he begeat sumne ðe hine bespræc to ðam casere Nerone,
and gelámp ða þæt se awyrgeda ehtere þone deofles ðen his freondscipum
geðeodde. Mid ðam ðe hit ðus gedón wæs, ða æteowde Crist hine sylfne Petre
on gastlicere gesihðe, and mid ðyssere tihtinge hine gehyrte, "Se drý Simon
and se wælhreowa Nero sind mid deofles gaste afyllede, and syrwiað ongean
ðe; ac ne beo ðu afyrht; ic beo mid þe, and ic sende minne ðeowan Paulum ðe
to frofre, se stæpð to merigen into Romana-byrig, and gýt mid gastlicum
gecampe winnað ongean ðone drý, and hine awurpað into helle grunde: and gýt
siððan samod to minum rice becumað mid sige martyrdomes."

Non passus est Paulus, quando uinctus Romam perductus est, sed post aliquot
annos, quando sponte illuc iterum reuersus est. Þis gelámp swa soðlice. On
ðone oðerne dæg com Paulus into ðære byrig, and heora ægðer oðerne mid
micelre blisse underfeng, and wæron togædere bodigende binnan ðære byrig
seofon monðas þam folce lifes weig. Beah ða ungerim folces to cristendome
þurh Petres lare; and eac ðæs caseres gebedda Libia, and his heah-gerefan
wíf Agrippina wurdon swa gelyfede þæt hí forbugon heora wera neawiste. Þurh
Paules bodunge gelyfdon ðæs caseres ðegnas and {376} híredcnihtas, and
æfter heora fulluhte noldon gecyrran to his hírede.

Simon se drý worhte ða ærene næddran, styrigende swylce heo cucu wære; and
dyde þæt ða anlicnyssa ðæra hæðenra hlihhende wæron and styrigende; and he
sylf wearð færlice upp on ðære lyfte gesewen. Þær-to-geanes gehælde Petrus
blinde, and healte, and deofol-seoce, and ða deadan arærde, and cwæð to ðam
folce þæt hí sceoldon forfleon þæs deofles drýcræft, ðylæs ðe hí mid his
lotwrencum bepæhte wurdon. Þa wearð ðis ðam casere gecydd, and he het ðone
drý him to gefeccan, and eac ða apostolas. Simon bræd his hiw ætforan ðam
casere, swa þæt he wearð færlice geðuht cnapa, and eft hárwenge; hwíltidum
on wimmannes hade, and eft ðærrihte on cnihthade.

Þa Nero þæt geseah, ða wende hé þæt he Godes Sunu wære. Petrus cwæð þæt hé
Godes wiðersaca wære, and mid leasum drýcræfte forscyldigod, and cwæð þæt
he wære gewiss deofol on menniscre edwiste. Simon cwæð, "Nis na gedafenlic
þæt ðu, cyning, hlyste anes leases fisceres wordum; ac ic ðisne hosp leng
ne forbere: nu ic beode minum englum þæt hí me on ðisum fiscere gewrecon."
Petrus cwæð, "Ne ondræde ic ðine awyrgedan gastas, ac hí weorðað afyrhte
þurh mines Drihtnes geleafan." Nero cwæð, "Ne ondrætst ðu ðe, Petrus,
Simones mihta, ðe mid wundrum his godcundnysse geswutelað?" Petrus cwæð,
"Gif he godcundnysse hæbbe, ðonne secge he hwæt ic ðence, oððe hwæt ic dón
wylle." Nero cwæð, "Sege me, Petrus, on sundor-spræce hwæt ðu ðence." He ða
leat to ðæs caseres eare, and het him beran diglice berenne hláf; and he
bletsode ðone hláf, and tobræc, and bewand on his twam slyfum, ðus
cweðende, "Sege nu, Simon, hwæt ic ðohte, oððe cwæde, oþþe gedyde." He ða
gebealh hine, forðan þe he ne mihte geopenian Petres digelnysse, and dyde
þa mid drýcræfte þæt ðær comon micele hundas, and ræsdon wið Petres weard;
ac Petrus æteowde ðone gebletsodan hláf ðam hundum, and hí ðærrihte of
heora {378} gesihðe fordwinon. He ða cwæð to ðam casere, "Simon me mid his
englum geðiwde, nu sende he hundas to me; forðan ðe he næfð godcundlice
englas, ac hæfð hundlice." Nero cwæð, "Hwæt is nu, Simon? Ic wene wit sind
oferswiðde." Simon andwyrde, "Þu goda cyning, nat nán man manna geðohtas
buton Gode anum." Petrus andwyrde, "Untwylice þu lihst þæt þu God sy, nu ðu
nast manna geðohtas."

Þa bewende Nero hine to Paulum, and cwæð, "Hwí ne cwest ðu nán word? Oððe
hwa teah ðe? oððe hwæt lærdest ðu mid þinre bodunge?" Paulus him andwyrde,
"La leof, hwæt wille ic ðisum forlorenum wiðersacan geandwyrdan? Gif ðu
wilt his wordum gehyrsumian, þu amyrst ðine sawle and eac ðinne cynedom. Be
minre lare, þe ðu axast, ic ðe andwyrde. Se Hælend, þe Petrum lærde on his
andweardnysse, se ylca me lærde mid onwrigenysse; and ic gefylde mid Godes
lare fram Hierusalem, oðþæt ic com to Iliricum. Ic lærde þæt men him
betweonan lufodon and geárwurðedon. Ic tæhte ðam rícan, þæt hí ne onhofon
hí, ne heora hiht on leasum welan ne besetton, ac on Gode anum. Ic tæhte
ðam medeman mannum, þæt hí gehealdene wæron on heora bigwiste and scrude.
Ic bebead þearfum, þæt hí blissodon on heora hafenleaste. Fæderas ic
manode, þæt hí mid steore Godes eges heora cild geðeawodon. Þam cildum ic
bead, þæt hí gehyrsume wæron fæder and meder to halwendum mynegungum. Ic
lærde weras, þæt hí heora ǽwe heoldon, forðan þæt se wer gewitnað on
æwbræcum wife, þæt wrecð God on ǽwbræcum were. Ic manode ǽwfæste wíf, þæt
hí heora weras inweardlice lufodon, and him mid ege gehyrsumodon, swa swa
hlafordum. Ic lærde hlafordas, þæt hí heora ðeowum liðe wæron; forðan ðe hí
sind gebroðru for Gode, se hlaford and se ðeowa. Ic bebead ðeowum mannum,
þæt hí getreowlice, and swa swa Gode heora hlafordum þeowdon. Ic tæhte
eallum geleaffullum mannum, þæt hí wurðian ænne God Ælmihtigne and
ungesewenlicne. Ne leornode ic ðas lare æt nanum eorðlicum menn, ac Hælend
{380} Crist of heofonum me spræc to, and sende me to bodigenne his láre
eallum ðeodum, ðus cweðende, 'Far ðu geond þas woruld, and ic beo mid þe;
and swa hwæt swa ðu cwyst oþþe dest, ic hit gerihtwisige.'" Se casere wearð
þa ablicged mid þisum wordum.

Simon cwæð, "Ðu góda cyning, ne understenst ðu ðisra twegra manna
gereonunge ongean me. Ic com Soðfæstnys, ac ðas ðweorigað wið me. Hát nu
aræran ænne heahne torr, þæt ic ðone astige; forðan ðe mine englas nellað
cuman to me on eorðan betwux synfullum mannum: and ic wylle astigan to
minum fæder, and ic bebeode minum englum, þæt hi ðe to minum rice
gefeccan." Nero ða cwæð, "Ic wylle geseon gif ðu ðas behát mid weorcum
gefylst;" and het ða ðone torr mid micclum ofste on smeðum felda aræran,
and bebead eallum his folce þæt hi to ðyssere wæfersyne samod comon. Se drý
astah ðone torr ætforan eallum ðam folce, and astrehtum earmum ongann
fleogan on ða lyft.

Paulus cwæð to Petre, "Broðer, þu wære Gode gecoren ær ic, ðe gedafnað þæt
þu ðisne deofles ðen mid ðinum benum afylle; and ic eac mine cneowu gebige
to ðære bene." Þa beseah Petrus to ðam fleondan drý, þus cweðende, "Ic
halsige eow awirigede gastas, on Cristes naman, þæt ge forlæton ðone drý ðe
ge betwux eow feriað;" and ða deoflu þærrihte hine forleton, and he
feallende tobærst on feower sticca. Þa feower sticca clifodon to feower
stanum, ða sind to gewitnysse ðæs apostolican siges oð þisne andweardan
dæg. Petres geðyld geðafode þæt ða hellican fynd hine up geond þa lyft sume
hwile feredon, þæt he on his fylle þy hetelicor hreosan sceolde; and se ðe
lytle ær beotlice mid deoflicum fiðerhaman fleon wolde, þæt he ða færlice
his feðe forlure. Him gedafenode þæt hé on heannysse ahafen wurde, þæt hé
on gesihðe ealles folces hreosende ða eorðan gesohte.

Hwæt ða, Nero bebead Petrum and Paulum on bendum gehealdan, and ða sticca
Simones hreawes mid wearde {382} besettan: wende þæt hé of deaðe on ðam
ðriddan dæge arisan mihte. Petrus cwæð, "Ðes Simon ne ge-edcucað ǽr ðam
gemǽnum æriste, ac he is to ecum witum geniðerod." Se Godes wiðerwinna ða,
Nero, mid geðeahte his heah-gerefan Agrippan, het Paulum beheafdian, and
Petrum on rode ahón. Paulus ða, be ðæs cwelleres hæse, underbeah swurdes
ecge, and Petrus rode-hengene astah. Þaða hé to ðære rode gelæd wæs, he
cwæð to ðam cwellerum, "Ic bidde eow, wendað min heafod adúne, and
astreccað mine fét wið heofonas weard: ne eom ic wyrðe þæt ic swa hangige
swa min Drihten. He astah of heofonum for middangeardes alysednysse, and
wæron forði his fét niðer awende. Me he clypað nu to his rice; awendað
forði mine fótwelmas to ðan heofonlican wege." And ða cwelleras him ða þæs

Þa wolde þæt cristene folc ðone casere acwellan, ac Petrus mid þisum wordum
hí gestilde: "Mín Drihten for feawum dagum me geswutelode þæt ic sceolde
mid þysre ðrowunge his fótswaðum fylian: nu, mine bearn, ne gelette ge
minne weg. Mine fét sind nu awende to ðam heofenlican life. Blissiað mid
me; nu to-dæg ic onfó minre earfoðnysse edlean." He wæs ða biddende his
Drihten mid þisum wordum: "Hælend mín, ic ðe betæce ðine scep, þe ðu me
befæstest: ne beoð hi hyrdelease þonne hí ðe habbað." And hé mid þisum
wordum ageaf his gast.

Samod hí ferdon, Petrus and Paulus, on ðisum dæge, sigefæste to ðære
heofonlican wununge, on þam syx and þrittegoðan geare æfter Cristes
ðrowunge, mid þam hí wuniað on ecnysse. Igitur Hieronimus et quique alii
auctores testantur, quod in una die simul Petrus et Paulus martirizati

Æfter heora ðrowunge þærrihte comon wlitige weras, and uncuðe eallum folce:
cwædon þæt hi comon fram Hierusalem, to ðy þæt hi woldon ðæra apostola líc
bebyrian; and swa dydon mid micelre arwurðnysse, and sædon þam folce, þæt
{384} hí micclum blissian mihton, forðan ðe hi swylce mundboran on heora
neawiste habban moston.

Wite ge eac þæt ðes wyrresta cyning Nero rice æfter cwale þisra apostola
healdan ne mót. Hit gelámp ða þæt eal ðæs wælhreowan caseres folc samod
hine hatode, swa þæt hi ræddon anmodlice þæt man hine gebunde, and oð deað
swunge. Nero, ðaða he ðæs folces ðeaht geacsode, wearð to feore afyrht, and
mid fleame to wuda getengde. Þa sprang þæt word þæt hé swa lange on ðam
holte on cyle and on hungre dwelode, oðþæt hine wulfas totæron.

Þa gelámp hit æfter ðam, þæt Grecas gelæhton ðæra apostola lichaman, and
woldon east mid him lædan. Þa færinga gewearð micel eorð-styrung, and þæt
Romanisce folc ðyder onette, and ða líc ahreddan, on ðære stowe ðe is
geháten Catacumbas; and hí ðær heoldon oðer healf gear, oðþæt ða stowa
getimbrode wæron, ðe hí siððan on aléde wæron, mid wuldre and lófsangum.
Cuð is geond ealle ðeodscipas þæt fela wundra gelumpon æt ðæra apostola
byrgenum, ðurh ðæs Hælendes tiðe, ðam sy wuldor and lóf á on ecnysse. Amen.



    Venit Jesus in partes Cæsareæ Philippi: et reliqua.

Matthew the Evangelist wrote in the evangelical Testament, thus saying,
"The Lord came to a district, which is called Cæsarea Philippi, and asked
his disciples how men spake concerning him. They answered, Some men say
that thou art John the Baptist; some men say that thou art Elias; some
Jeremias, or some other prophet. Jesus then said, What say ye that I am?
Peter answered him, Thou art Christ, Son of the living God. The Lord said
to him in answer, Blessed art thou, Simon, son of a dove, for flesh and
blood hath not revealed to thee this belief, but my Father who is in
heaven. I say to thee, thou art of stone, and on this stone I will build my
church, and the gates of hell may not aught against it. I will commit to
thee the key of the kingdom of heaven, and whatsoever thou shalt bind on
earth, that shall be bound in heaven; and whatsoever thou shalt unbind on
earth, that shall be unbound in heaven."

Beda the expositor reveals to us the mystery of this reading, and says,
that Philip the tetrarch built the city of Cæsarea, and, in honour of the
emperor Tiberius, under whom {367} he governed, devised for the city the
name of Cæsarea, and in memorial of himself added to the name, 'Philippi,'
thus saying, 'Cæsarea Philippi,' as though the city were so named in honour
of them both.

When Jesus drew near to the district, he asked, how the men of the world
spake of him: not as though he knew not the speeches of men concerning him,
but he would, by a true confession of the right belief, destroy the false
imagination of erring men. His apostles answered him, "Some men say that
thou art John the Baptist, some say that thou art Elias, some Jeremias, or
one of the prophets." The Lord then asked, "What say ye that I am?" as if
he had thus said, 'Now the men of the world thus erroneously know me, how
do ye, who are gods, know me?' The expositor said 'gods,' because the true
God, who alone is Almighty, has granted that dignity to his chosen, that he
calls them gods. The obedient Peter answered him, "Thou art Christ, Son of
the living God." He said 'of the living God,' in distinction from the false
gods, which the heathen nations, by various error deceived, worshipped.

Some of them believed in dead giants, and raised precious idols to them,
and said that they were gods, on account of the great strength they had:
yet were their lives very criminal and opprobrious; of whom the prophet
said, "The idols of the heathen are of gold and of silver, men's handiwork:
they have a dumb mouth and blind eyes, deaf ears and unhandling hands, feet
without pace, body without life." Some of them believed in the sun, some in
the moon, some in fire, and in many other creatures: they said that on
account of their fairness they were gods.

Now Peter manifestly distinguished the true belief, when he said, "Thou art
Christ, Son of the living God." He is the living God who has life and
existence through himself, without beginning, and who created all creatures
through his own Son, that is, his Wisdom, and to them all gave life {369}
through the Holy Ghost. In these three persons is one Godhead, and one
nature, and one work indivisibly.

The Lord said to Peter, "Blessed art thou, son of a dove." The Holy Ghost
appeared over Christ in likeness of a dove. Now Jesus called Peter the
child of a dove, because he was filled with meekness and with the grace of
the Holy Ghost. He said, "Neither flesh nor blood hath revealed unto thee
this belief, but my Father who is in heaven." His fleshly condition is
called flesh and blood. He had not that intelligence through parental love,
but the Heavenly Father gave this belief into Peter's heart through the
Holy Ghost.

The Lord said to Peter, "Thou art of stone." For the strength of his
belief, and for the steadfastness of his profession he received that name,
because he had attached himself with firm mind to Christ, who is called
'stone' by the apostle Paul. "And I will build my church upon this stone:"
that is, on that faith which thou professest. All God's church is built on
that stone, that is, upon Christ; for he is the foundation of all the
fabrics of his own church. All God's churches are accounted as one
congregation, and that is constructed of chosen men, not of dead stones;
and all the building of those living stones is founded on Christ; for we,
through that belief, are accounted his limbs, and he is the head of us all.
He who builds not from that foundation, his work falls to great perdition.

Jesus said, "The gates of hell may not aught against my church." Sins and
erroneous doctrine are the gates of hell, because they lead the sinful, as
it were through a gate, into hell-torment. Many are the gates, but none of
them can do aught against the holy church, which is built upon that fast
stone, Christ; for the faithful man, through the protection of Christ,
avoids the perils of diabolical temptations.

He said, "I will commit to thee the key of the kingdom of heaven." That key
is not of gold nor of silver, nor forged of any substance, but is the power
which Christ gave him, {371} that no man shall come into God's kingdom,
unless the holy Peter open to him the entrance. "And whatsoever thou shalt
bind on earth, that shall be bound in heaven; and whatsoever thou shalt
unbind on earth, that shall be unbound in heaven." This power he then gave
to Peter and likewise afterwards, ere his ascension, to all his apostles,
when he blew on them, thus saying, "Receive the Holy Ghost: the sins of
those men which ye forgive shall be forgiven; and from those to whom ye
refuse forgiveness, forgiveness shall be withdrawn."

The apostles will not bind any righteous man with their anathema, nor also
mercifully unbind the sinful, unless he with true repentance return to the
way of life. The same power has the Almighty granted to bishops and holy
mass-priests, if they carefully hold it according to the evangelical
volume. But the key is especially committed to Peter, that every people may
with certainty know, that whosoever deviates from the unity of the faith
which Peter then professed to Christ, to him will be granted neither
forgiveness of sins nor entrance into the kingdom of heaven.


We will after this gospel relate to you the lives and end of those apostles
in a short narrative, because their passion is everywhere fully set forth
in the English tongue.

After the Lord's ascension Peter was preaching the faith to the nations
which are called Galatia, Cappadocia, Bithynia, Asia, Italy. Afterwards,
after a space of ten years, he returned to Rome, preaching the gospel; and
in that city he set his episcopal seat, and there sat five and twenty
years, teaching the Roman citizens the glories of God, with many miracles.
His adversary in all his course was a certain magician, who was called
Simon. This magician was filled {373} with the accursed spirit to that
degree, that he said that he was Christ, the Son of God, and with his magic
corrupted the faith of the people.

Then it happened that the corpse of a widow's son was borne where Peter was
preaching. He said to the people and to the magician, "Draw near to the
bier, and believe that his preaching is true who raises the dead to life."
Simon was hereupon emboldened by the spirit of the devil, and said, "As
soon as I shall have raised the dead, kill my adversary Peter." The people
answered him, "We will burn him alive." Simon then, through the devil's
craft, made the corpse of the dead to move. The people then imagined that
he was restored to life: but Peter cried above all, "If he be restored to
life, let him speak to us, and stand up; let him taste food, and return
home." The people then exclaimed with loud voice, "If Simon do this not, he
shall undergo the punishment which he devised for thee." Simon at these
words was angry, and was fleeing away, but the people with unmeasured
reproach seized on him.

The apostle of God then drew near to the corpse with outstretched arms,
thus praying, "Thou, beloved Lord, who hast sent us to preach thy faith,
and hast promised us that we might, through thy name, drive away devils,
and heal the sick, and raise up the dead, raise up now this lad, that this
people may know that there is no God but thou alone, with thy Father and
the Holy Ghost." After this prayer the dead rose up, and with bended knees
said to Peter, "I saw Jesus Christ, and he sent his angels forth at thy
prayer, that they might lead me to life." The people then crying with one
voice said, "There is one God that Peter preaches:" and would burn the
magician, but Peter forbade them, saying, that Jesus had taught them the
rule, that they should requite evil with good.

Simon, when he had escaped from the people, tied a huge mastiff within the
gate where Peter had his dwelling, that he {375} might suddenly devour him.
But Peter came and untied the mastiff with this injunction, "Run, and say
to Simon, that he no longer with his magic deceive God's people, whom he
bought with his own blood." And he forthwith hastened towards the magician,
and put him to flight. Peter afterwards thus spake, "In the name of God I
command thee that thou fasten no tooth on his body." The dog, when he might
not hurt his body, tore his garments piecemeal from his back, and, howling
like a wolf, drove him along the walls, in sight of the people. He then
escaped from the dog, and for a long time after, for shame, was not seen in

After a time he got some one to speak of him to the emperor Nero, and it
happened that the accursed persecutor associated the devil's minister in
his friendship. When this had taken place, Christ appeared to Peter in a
ghostly vision, and encouraged him with this incitement, "The magician
Simon and the cruel Nero are filled with the spirit of the devil, and
machinate against thee, but be thou not afraid; I will be with thee, and I
will send my servant Paul for thy comfort, who shall enter into Rome
to-morrow, and ye shall fight in ghostly conflict against the magician, and
shall cast him into the abyss of hell, and ye shall afterwards together
come to my kingdom with the triumph of martyrdom."

Non passus est Paulus, quando vinctus Romam perductus est, sed post aliquot
annos, quando sponte illuc iterum reversus est. This in sooth so happened.
On the next day Paul came into the city, and each of them received the
other with great joy, and they were together seven months preaching within
the city the way of life to the people. People without number then inclined
to christianity through the teaching of Peter; and also Livia the emperor's
consort, and the wife of his chief officer, Agrippina, were so imbued with
the faith, that they eschewed the intercourse of their husbands. Through
the preaching of Paul the servants and domestics of the {377} emperor
believed, and after their baptism would not return to his family.

Simon the magician then wrought a brazen serpent, moving as if it were
alive, and made the idols of the heathens laughing and moving; and he
himself suddenly appeared up in the air. On the other hand Peter healed the
blind, and the halt, and the possessed of devils, and raised up the dead,
and said to the people that they should flee from the magic of the devil,
lest they should be deceived by his wiles. This was then made known to the
emperor, and he commanded the magician to be fetched to him, and also the
apostles. Simon changed his appearance before the emperor, so that he
suddenly seemed a boy, and afterwards a hoary man; sometimes in a woman's
person, and again instantly in childhood.

When Nero saw that, he imagined that he was the Son of God. Peter said that
he was God's adversary, and guilty of false magic, and said that he was
certainly the devil in human substance. Simon said, "It is not fitting that
thou, king, shouldst listen to the words of a false fisher; but I will no
longer bear this contumely: I will now command my angels to avenge me on
this fisher." Peter said, "I fear not thy accursed spirits, but they will
become terrified through the faith of my Lord." Nero said, "Fearest thou
not, Peter, the powers of Simon, who manifests to thee his divinity by
miracles? " Peter said, "If he have divinity, then let him say what I
think, or what I will do." Nero said, "Tell me, Peter, in speech apart,
what thou thinkest." He then bent to the emperor's ear, and ordered a
barley loaf to be privately brought to him; and he blessed the loaf, and
brake, and wrapt it in his two sleeves, thus saying, "Say now, Simon, what
I thought, or said, or did." He was then wroth, for he could not open
Peter's secret, and caused by magic large dogs to come, and rush towards
Peter; but Peter showed the blessed bread to the dogs, and they
straightways vanished from their {379} sight. He then said to the emperor,
"Simon threatened me with his angels, now he sends dogs to me; because he
has not divine angels, but has doglike." Nero said, "What is now, Simon? I
ween we are overcome." Simon answered, "Thou good king, no one knows men's
thoughts but God alone." Peter answered, "Undoubtedly thou liest that thou
art God, now thou knowest not men's thoughts."

Nero then turned to Paul, and said, "Why sayest thou no word? Or who has
taught thee? or what hast thou taught with thy preaching?" Paul answered
him, "O sir, why shall I answer this lost adversary? If thou wilt obey his
words, thou wilt injure thy soul, and also thy kingdom. Concerning my
teaching, which thou askest, I will answer thee. Jesus, who while present
taught Peter, the same by revelation taught me; and I have filled with the
precepts of God from Jerusalem until I came to Illyricum. I taught that men
should love and honour each other. I taught the rich not to exalt
themselves, nor to place their hope in false wealth, but in God alone. I
taught men of moderate means to be frugal in their food and clothing. I
enjoined the poor to rejoice in their indigence. Fathers I exhorted to
bring up their children in the fear of God. Children I enjoined to be
obedient to the salutary admonitions of father and mother. I taught
husbands to keep inviolate their wedlock, because that which a man punishes
in an adulterous wife, God will avenge in an adulterous husband. I exhorted
pious wives inwardly to love their husbands, and with awe obey them as
masters. I taught masters to be kind to their servants; because they are
brothers before God, the master and the servant. I commanded serving men
faithfully and as God to serve their masters. I taught all believing men to
worship one God Almighty and invisible. I learned not this lore of any
earthly man, but {381} Jesus Christ spake to me from heaven, and sent me to
preach his doctrine to all nations, thus saying, 'Go thou throughout the
world, and I will be with thee, and whatsoever thou sayest or doest, I will
justify it.'" The emperor was then astonished at these words.

Simon said, "Thou good king, thou understandest not the plot of these two
men against me. I am the Truth, but these thwart me. Command now a high
tower to be raised, that I may ascend it; for my angels will not come to me
on earth among sinful men: and I will ascend to my father, and I will
command my angels to fetch thee to my kingdom." Nero then said, "I will see
if thou fulfillest these promises by deeds;" and then bade the tower be
raised with great haste on the smooth field, and commanded all his people
to come together to this spectacle. The magician then ascended the tower
before all the people, and with outstretched arms began to fly in the air.

Paul said to Peter, "Brother, thou wast chosen of God before me, to thee it
is fitting that thou cast down this minister of the devil with thy prayers;
and I will also bend my knees to that prayer." Peter then looked towards
the flying magician, thus saying, "I conjure you, accursed spirits, in the
name of Christ, to forsake the magician whom ye bear betwixt you;" and the
devils instantly forsook him, and he falling brake into four pieces. The
four pieces clave to four stones, which are for witness of the apostolic
triumph to this day. Peter's patience allowed the hellish fiends to bear
him somewhile up through the air, that in his fall he might descend the
more violently; and that he, who menacingly a little before would fly with
devilish wings, might suddenly lose his footing. It was befitting him to be
raised up on high, that, in the sight of all the people, falling down, he
might seek the earth.

Nero then commanded Peter and Paul to be held in bonds, and the pieces of
Simon's carcase to be guarded by a watch: {383} he weened that he could
arise from death on the third day. Peter said, "This Simon will not be
requickened before the general resurrection, but he is condemned to
everlasting torments." Then God's adversary, Nero, with the counsel of his
chief officer Agrippa, commanded Paul to be beheaded, and Peter hanged on a
cross. Paul then, at the executioner's command, bowed his neck under the
sword's edge, and Peter ascended the cross. While he was being led to the
cross, he said to the executioners, "I beseech you, turn my head down, and
stretch my feet towards heaven: I am not worthy to hang as my Lord. He
descended from heaven for the redemption of the world, and therefore were
his feet turned downwards. He now calls me to his kingdom; turn therefore
my foot-soles to the heavenly way." And the executioners granted him this.

Then would the christian people slay the emperor, but Peter stilled them
with these words: "My Lord a few days ago manifested to me that I should
follow his footsteps with this suffering: now, my children, hinder not my
way. My feet are now turned to the heavenly life. Rejoice with me; now
to-day I shall receive the reward of my tribulation." He was then praying
his Lord with these words: "My Saviour, I commit to thee thy sheep, which
thou didst entrust to me: they will not lack a shepherd when they have
thee." And with these words he gave up his ghost.

Together they went, Peter and Paul, on this day, triumphant to the heavenly
dwelling, in the six and thirtieth year after Christ's passion, with whom
they continue to eternity. Igitur Hieronymus et quique alii auctores
testantur, quod in una die simul Petrus et Paulus martyrizati sunt.

Immediately after their passion there came beauteous men, and unknown to
all the people: they said that they came from Jerusalem, that they might
bury the bodies of the apostles; and so did with great honour, and said to
the people, that {385} they might greatly rejoice at having such patrons in
their proximity.

Know ye also that this worst of kings, Nero, could not hold his realm after
the death of these apostles. It befell that all the people together of the
cruel emperor hated him, so that they resolved unanimously to bind and
scourge him to death. When Nero heard of the people's counsel he was
mortally afraid, and hastened in flight to the wood. Then the rumour sprang
up that he continued so long in the wood, in cold and hunger, until wolves
tore him in pieces.

It happened after that, that Greeks seized the bodies of the apostles, and
would take them with them eastward. There then was suddenly a great
earthquake, and the Roman people hastened thither, and rescued the bodies,
in the place which is called the Catacombs, and they preserved them there a
year and a half, until the places were built in which they were afterwards
laid, with glory and hymns. It is known among all nations that many wonders
happened at the tombs of those apostles, through permission of Jesus, to
whom be glory and praise ever to eternity. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *

II. KA[=L]. JUL.


Godes gelaðung wurðað þisne dæg ðam mæran apostole PAULE to wurðmynte,
forðam ðe he is gecweden ealra ðeoda láreow: þurh soðfæste lare wæs
ðeah-hwæðere his martyrdóm samod mid ðam eadigan Petre gefremmed. Hé wæs
fram cildháde on ðære ealdan ǽ getogen, and mid micelre gecnyrdnysse on
ðære begriwen wæs. Æfter Cristes ðrowunge, ðaða se soða geleafa aspráng
þurh ðæra apostola bodunge, ða ehte he cristenra manna þurh his nytennysse,
and sette on cwearterne, and eac wæs on geðafunge æt ðæs forman cyðeres
{386} Stephanes slege: nis ðeah-hwæðere be him geræd, þæt hé handlinga
ænigne man acwealde.

"He nam ða gewrit æt ðam ealdor-biscopum to ðære byrig Damascum, þæt hé
moste gebindan ða cristenan ðe hé on ðære byrig gemette, and gelædan to
Hierusalem. Þa gelamp hit on þam siðe þæt him com færlice to micel leoht,
and hine astrehte to eorðan, and he gehyrde stemne ufan þus cweðende,
Saule, Saule, hwí ehtst ðu mín? Yfel bið ðe sylfum þæt ðu spurne ongean ða
gáde. He ða mid micelre fyrhte andwyrde þære stemne, Hwæt eart ðu, leof
Hlaford? Him andwyrde seo clypung þære godcundan stemne, Ic eom se Hælend
þe ðu ehtst: ac arís nu, and far forð to ðære byrig; þær ðe bið gesǽd hwæt
ðe gedafenige to donne. Hé arás ða, ablendum eagum, and his geferan hine
swa blindne to ðære byrig gelæddon. And he ðær andbidigende ne onbyrigde
ætes ne wætes binnan ðreora daga fæce."

"Wæs ða sum Godes ðegen binnan ðære byrig, his nama wæs Annanías, to ðam
spræc Drihten ðysum wordum, Annanía, arís, and gecum to minum ðeowan
Saulum, se is biddende minre miltsunge mid eornestum mode. He andwyrde ðære
drihtenlican stemne, Min Hælend, hu mæg ic hine gesprecan, seðe is ehtere
ðinra halgena, ðurh mihte ðæra ealdor-biscopa? Drihten cwæð, Far swa ic ðe
sæde, forðan ðe hé is me gecoren fætels, þæt hé tobere minne naman ðeodum,
and cynegum, and Israhela bearnum; and he sceal fela ðrowian for minum
naman. Annanías ða becom to ðam gecorenan cempan, and sette his handa him
on-uppan mid þisre gretinge, Saule, min broðor, se Hælend, þe ðe be wege
gespræc, sende me wið ðín, þæt þu geseo, and mid þam Halgan Gaste gefylled
sy. Þa, mid ðisum wordum, feollon swylce fylmena of his eagum, and he
ðærrihte gesihðe underfeng, and to fulluhte beah. Wunode ða sume feawa daga
mid þam Godes ðeowum binnan ðære byrig, and mid micelre bylde þam Iudeiscum
bodade, þæt Crist, ðe hí wiðsocon, is ðæs Ælmihtigan Godes Sunu. Hí wurdon
swiðlice {388} ablicgede, and cwædon, La hú, ne is ðes se wælhreowa ehtere
cristenra manna: húmeta bodað he Cristes geleafan? Saulus soðlice micclum
swyðrode, and ða Iudeiscan gescende, mid anrædnysse seðende, þæt Crist is
Godes Sunu."

"Hwæt ða, æfter manegum dagum gereonodon ða Iudeiscan, hú hí ðone Godes
cempan acwellan sceoldon, and setton ða weardas to ælcum geate ðære
ceastre. Paulus ongeat heora syrwunge, and ða cristenan hine genamon, and
on anre wilian aleton ofer ðone weall. And he ferde ongean to Hierusalem,
and hine gecuðlæhte to ðam halgan heape Cristes hiredes, and him cydde hú
se Hælend hine of heofenum gespræc. Syððan, æfter sumum fyrste, com clypung
of ðam Halgan Gaste to ðam geleaffullan werode, þus cweðende, Asendað
Paulum and Barnaban to ðam weorce ðe ic hí gecoren hæbbe. Se halga heap ða,
be Godes hæse and gecorennysse, hí asendon to lærenne eallum leodscipum be
Cristes to-cyme for middangeardes alysednysse."

"Barnabas wæs ða Paules gefera æt ðære bodunge to langum fyrste. Ða æt
nextan wearð him geðuht þæt hi ontwa ferdon, and swa dydon. Paulus wearð þa
afylled and gefrefrod mid þæs Halgan Gastes gife, and ferde to manegum
leodscipum, sawende Godes sæd. On sumere byrig he wæs twelf monað, on
sumere twa gear, on sumere ðreo, and gesette biscopas, and mæsse-preostas,
and Godes ðeowas; ferde siððan forð to oðrum leodscipe, and dyde swa
gelice. Asende þonne eft ongean ærend-gewritu to ðam geleaffullum ðe he ær
tæhte, and hí swa mid þam gewritum tihte and getrymde to lifes wege."

We willað nu mid sumere scortre trahtnunge þas rædinge oferyrnan, and
geopenian, gif heo hwæt digles on hyre hæbbende sy. Paulus ehte cristenra
manna, na mid niðe, swa swa ða Iudeiscan dydon, ac he wæs midspreca and
bewerigend þære ealdan ǽ mid micelre anrædnysse: wende þæt Cristes geleafa
wære wiðerwinna ðære ealdan gesetnysse: ac se Hælend ðe gesette ða ealdan ǽ
mid mislicum {390} getacnungum, se ylca eft on his andweardnysse hí awende
to soðfæstnysse æfter gastlicre getacnunge. Þa nyste Paulus ða gastlican
getacnunge ðære ǽ, and wæs forði hyre forespreca, and ehtere Cristes
geleafan. God Ælmihtig, þe ealle ðing wát, geseah his geðanc, þæt hé ne
ehte geleaffulra manna ðurh andan, ac ðurh ware ðære ealdan ǽ, and hine ða
gespræc of heofonum, ðus cweðende, "Saule, hwí ehtst ðu mín? Ic eom seo
Soðfæstnys ðe ðu werast; geswic ðære ehtnysse: derigendlic bið ðe þæt þu
spurne ongean þa gáde. Gif se oxa spyrnð ongean ða gáde, hit dereð him
sylfum; swa eac hearmað þe ðin gewinn togeanes me." He cwæð, "Hwí ehtst ðu
mín?" forðan ðe he is cristenra manna heafod, and besargað swa hwæt swa his
lima on eorðan ðrowiað, swa swa he ðurh his witegan cwæð, "Se ðe eow
hrepað, hit me bið swa egle swylce he hreppe ða seo mines eagan." He wearð
astreht, þus cweðende, "Hwæt eart ðu, Hlaford?" His modignes wearð astreht,
and seo soðe eadmodnys wearð on him aræred. He feoll unrihtwis, and wearð
aræred rihtwis. Feallende he forleas lichamlice gesihðe, arisende he
underfeng his modes onlihtinge. Þry dagas he wunode butan gesihðe, forðan
ðe he wiðsóc Cristes ærist on ðam ðriddan dæge.

Annanias is gereht, on Hebreiscum gereorde, 'scép.' Þæt bilewite scép ða
gefullode ðone arleasan Saulum, and worhte hine arfæstne Paulum. He
gefullode ðone wulf and geworhte to lambe. He awende his naman mid ðeawum;
and wæs ða soðfæst bydel Godes gelaðunge, seðe ær mid reðre ehtnysse hi
geswencte. He wolde forfleon syrewunge Iudeiscre ðeode, and geðafode þæt
hine man on anre wilian ofer ðone weall nyðer alét: na þæt hé nolde for
Cristes geleafan deað þrowian, ac forði he forfleah ðone ungeripedan deað,
forðan ðe he sceolde ærest menigne mann mid his micclum wisdome to Gode
gestrynan, and syððan mid micelre geðincðe to martyrdome his swuran
astreccan. Micele maran witu he ðrowode siððan for Cristes naman, ðonne he
ǽr his gecyrrednysse {392} cristenum mannum gebude. Saulus se arleasa
beswáng ða cristenan, ac æfter ðære gecyrrednysse wæs se arfæsta Paulus for
Cristes naman oft beswungen. Æne hé wæs gestæned oð deað, swa þæt ða
ehteras hine for deadne leton, ac ðæs on merigen hé arás, and ferde ymbe
his bodunge. He wæs gelomlice on mycelre frecednysse, ægðer ge on sǽ ge on
lánde, on westene, betwux sceaðum, on hungre and on ðurste, and on manegum
wæccum, on cyle, and on næcednysse, and on manegum cwearternum: swa hé
onette mid þære bodunge, swylce hé eal mennisc to Godes ríce gebringan
wolde: ægðer ge mid láre, ge mid gebedum, ge mid gewritum hé symle tihte to
Godes willan. He wæs gelæd to heofonan oð ða ðriddan fleringe, and þær hé
geseh and gehyrde Godes digelnysse, ða hé ne moste nanum men cyðan. Hé
besargode mid wope oðra manna synna, and eallum geleaffullum hé æteowde
fæderlice lufe. Mid his hand-cræfte he teolode his and his geferena
forðdæda, and ðær-to-eacan nis nan ðing tocnawen on soðre eawfæstnysse þæt
his lareowdom ne gestaðelode. Þa oðre apostoli, be Godes hæse, leofodon be
heora láre unpleolice; ac ðeah-hwæðere Paulus ana, seðe wæs on
woruld-cræfte teld-wyrhta, nolde ða alyfdan bigleofan onfón, ac mid agenre
teolunge his and his geferena neode foresceawode. His lára and his
drohtnunga sind ús unasmeagendlice, ac se bið gesælig þe his mynegungum mid
gecneordnysse gehyrsumað.


Dixit Simon Petrus ad Iesum: et reliqua.

"He forlét ealle woruld-ðing, and ðam Hælende anum folgode," swa swa ðis
godspel cwyð, ðe ge nú æt ðisre ðenunge gehyrdon.

"On ðære tíde cwæð Petrus se apostol to ðam Hælende, Efne we forleton ealle
woruld-ðing, and ðe ánum fyligað: hwæt dest ðu us þæs to leane?" et

Micel truwa hwearftlode on Petres heortan: he ána spræc {394} for ealne
ðone heap, "We forleton ealle ðing." Hwæt forlet Petrus? He wæs fiscere,
and mid ðam cræfte his teolode, and ðeah hé spræc mid micelre bylde, "We
forleton ealle ðing." Ac micel he forlét, and his gebroðru, ðaða hí
forleton ðone willan to agenne. Þeah hwá forlæte micele æhta, and ne forlæt
ða gitsunge, ne forlæt he ealle ðing. Petrus forlet lytle ðing, scripp and
net, ac he forlet ealle ðing, ðaða he, for Godes lufon, nan ðing habban
nolde. He cwæð, "We fyligað ðe." Nis na fulfremedlic fela æhta to
forlætenne, buton he Gode folgige. Soðlice ða hæðenan uðwitan fela ðinga
forleton, swa swa dyde Socrates, seðe ealle his æhta behwyrfde wið anum
gyldenum wecge, and syððan awearp ðone wecg on wídre sǽ, þæt seo gitsung
ðæra æhta his willan ne hrémde, and abrude fram ðære woruldlican lare ðe he
lufode: ac hit ne fremede him swa gedón, forðan ðe he ne fyligde Gode, ac
his agenum willan, and forði næfde ða heofenlican edlean mid þam apostolum,
þe ealle woruld-ðing forsawon for Cristes lufon, and mid gehyrsumnysse him

Petrus ða befrán, "Hwæt sceal us getimian? We dydon swa swa ðu us hete,
hwæt dest ðu us to edleane? Se Hælend andwyrde, Soð ic eow secge, þæt ge ðe
me fyligað sceolon sittan ofer twelf dómsetl on ðære edcynninge, ðonne ic
sitte on setle mines mægenðrymmes; and ge ðonne demað twelf Israhela
mægðum." Edcynninge he het þæt gemænelice ærist, on ðam beoð ure lichaman
ge-edcynnede to unbrosnunge, þæt is to ecum ðingum. Tuwa we beoð on ðisum
life acennede: seo forme acennednys is flæsclic, of fæder and of meder; seo
oðer acennednys is gastlic, ðonne we beoð ge-edcennede on ðam halgan
fulluhte, on ðam us beoð ealle synna forgyfene, ðurh ðæs Halgan Gastes
gife. Seo ðridde acennednys bið on ðam gemænelicum æriste, on ðam beoð ure
lichaman ge-edcennede to unbrosnigendlicum lichaman.

On ðam æriste sittað þa twelf apostoli mid Criste on heora {396} domsetlum,
and demað þam twelf mæigðum Israhela ðeode. Þis twelffealde getel hæfð
micele getacnunge. Gif ða twelf mægða ána beoð gedemede æt ðam micclum
dome, hwæt deð þonne seo ðreotteoðe mæigð, Leui? Hwæt doð ealle ðeoda
middangeardes? Wenst ðu þæt hí beoð asyndrode fram ðam dome? Ac ðis
twelffealde getel is geset for eallum mancynne ealles ymbhwyrftes, for ðære
fulfremednysse his getacnunge. Twelf tida beoð on ðam dæge, and twelf
monðas on geare; twelf heahfæderas sind, twelf witegan, twelf apostoli; and
ðis getel hæfð maran getacnunge ðonne ða ungelæredan undergitan magon. Is
nu forði mid ðisum twelffealdum getele ealles middangeardes ymbhwyrft

Þa apostoli and ealle ða gecorenan ðe him geefenlæhton beoð deman on ðam
micclum dæge mid Criste. Þær beoð feower werod æt ðam dome, twa gecorenra
manna, and twa wiðercorenra. Þæt forme werod bið þæra apostola and heora
efenlæcendra, þa ðe ealle woruld-ðing for Godes naman forleton: hí beoð ða
demeras, and him ne bið nan dóm gedemed. Oðer endebyrdnys bið geleaffulra
woruld-manna: him bið dóm gesett, swa þæt hi beoð asyndrede fram gemanan
ðæra wiðercorenra, þus cweðendum Drihtne, "Cumað to me, ge gebletsode mines
Fæder, and onfoð þæt ríce ðe eow is gegearcod fram frymðe middangeardes."
An endebyrdnys bið þæra wiðercorenra, þa þe ciððe hæfdon to Gode, ac hí ne
beeodon heora geleafan mid Godes bebodum: ðas beoð fordemede. Oðer
endebyrdnys bið þæra hæðenra manna, þe nane cyððe to Gode næfdon: þisum bið
gelæst se apostolica cwyde, "Ða ðe butan Godes ǽ syngodon, hí eac losiað
butan ælcere ǽ." To ðisum twam endebyrdnyssum cweð þonne se rihtwisa Dema,
"Gewitað fram me, ge awyrigedan, into ðam ecum fyre, þe is gegearcod deofle
and his awyrgedum gastum."

Þæt godspel cwyð forð gyt, "Ælc ðæra ðe forlæt, for {398} minum naman,
fæder oððe moder, gebroðru oððe geswystru, wíf oððe bearn, land oððe
gebytlu, be hundfealdum him bið forgolden, and he hæfð ðær-to-eacan þæt ece
líf." Hundfeald getel is fulfremed, and se ðe forlæt ða ateorigendlican
ðing for Godes naman, he underfehð þa gastlican mede be hundfealdum æt
Gode. Ðes cwyde belimpð swyðe to munuchádes mannum, ða ðe for heofenan
ríces myrhðe forlætað fæder, and moder, and flæsclice siblingas. Hí
underfoð manega gastlice fæderas and gastlice gebroðru, forðan ðe ealle þæs
hádes menn, ðe regollice lybbað, beoð him to fæderum and to gebroðrum
getealde, and þær-to-eacan hí beoð mid edleane þæs ecan lifes gewelgode. Þa
ðe ealle woruld-ðing be Godes hæse forseoð, and on gemænum ðingum bigwiste
habbað, hí beoð fulfremede, and to ðam apostolum geendebyrde. Ða oðre ðe
ðas geðincðe nabbað, þæt hi ealle heora æhta samod forlætan magon, hí dón
þonne ðone dæl for Godes naman ðe him to onhagige, and him bið be
hundfealdum écelice geleanod swa hwæt swa hí be anfealdum hwilwendlice

Micel todál is betwux þam gecyrredum mannum: sume hí geefenlæcað þam
apostolum, sume hí geefenlæcað Iudan, Cristes belǽwan, sume Annanian and
Saphiran, sume Giezi. Þa ðe ealle gewitendlice ðing to ðæra apostola
efenlæcunge forseoð, for intingan þæs écan lifes, hí habbað lóf and ða écan
edlean mid Cristes apostolum. Se ðe betwux munecum drohtnigende, on
mynstres æhtum mid fácne swicað, he bið Iudan gefera, ðe Crist belæwde, and
his wite mid hellwarum underfehð. Se ðe mid twyfealdum geðance to
mynsterlicre drohtnunge gecyrð, and sumne dæl his æhta dælð, sumne him
sylfum gehylt, and næfð nænne truwan to ðam Ælmihtigan, þæt he him
foresceawige andlyfene and gewǽda and oðere neoda, he underfehð þone
awyrgedan cwyde mid Annanian and Saphiran, þe swicedon on heora agenum
æhtum, and mid færlicum deaðe ætforan ðam apostolum steorfende {400}
afeollon. Se ðe on muneclicere drohtnunge earfoðhylde bið, and gyrnð ðæra
ðinga ðe hé on woruldlicere drohtnunge næfde, oððe begitan ne mihte, buton
twyn him genealæhð se hreofla Giezi, þæs witegan cnapan, and þæt þæt he on
lichaman geðrowade, þæt ðrowað þes on his sawle. Se cnapa folgode ðam mæran
witegan Eliseum: þa com him to sum rice mann of þam leodscipe þe is Siria
geháten, his nama wæs Náámán, and he wæs hreoflig. Þa becom hé to ðam Godes
witegan Eliseum, on Iudea lande, and he ðurh Godes mihte fram ðære coðe
hine gehælde. Þa bead he ðam Godes menn, for his hælðe, deorwurðe sceattas.
Se witega him andwyrde, "Godes miht þe gehælde, na ic. Ne underfó ic ðin
feoh: ðanca Gode ðinre gesundfulnysse, and brúc ðinra æhta." Náámán ða
gecyrde mid ealre his fare to his agenre leode.

Þa wæs ðæs witegan cnapa, Gyezi, mid gitsunge undercropen, and of-arn, ðone
ðegen Náámán ðus mid wordum liccetende, "Nu færlice comon tweigra witegena
bearn to minum lareowe: asend him twa scrud and sum pund." Se ðegen him
andwyrde, "Waclic bið him swa lytel to sendenne; ac genim feower scrud and
twa pund." He ða gewende ongean mid þam sceattum, and bediglode his fær wið
þone witegan. Se witega hine befrán, "Hwanon come ðu, Giezi?" He andwyrde,
"Leof, næs ic on nanre fare." Se witega cwæð, "Ic geseah, ðurh Godes Gást,
þa se ðegen alyhte of his cræte, and eode togeanes ðe, and ðu name his
sceattas on feo and on reafe. Hafa ðu eac forð mid ðam sceattum his
hreoflan, ðu and eal ðin ofspring on ecnysse." And hé gewende of his
gesihðe mid snaw-hwitum hreoflan beslagen.

Is nu forði munuchádes mannum mid micelre gecnyrdnysse to forbugenne ðas
yfelan gebysnunga, and geefenlæcan þam apostolum, þæt hí, mid him and mid
Gode, þæt éce líf habban moton. Amen.



The church of God celebrates this day in honour of the great Apostle PAUL,
for he is called the teacher of all nations: though his martyrdom, for true
doctrine, was accomplished with the blessed Peter's. He had from childhood
been bred up in the old law, and by great diligence was therein deeply
imbued. After Christ's passion, when the true faith had sprung up through
the preaching of the apostles, he persecuted christian men through his
ignorance, and set them in prison, and was also consenting to the slaying
of the first {387} martyr Stephen: it is not, however, read of him that he
killed any man with his own hands.

"He took then letters of the high priests for the city of Damascus, that he
might bind the christians that he found in the city, and lead them to
Jerusalem. Then it happened on the journey that a great light came suddenly
on him, and prostrated him on the earth, and he heard a voice from above
thus saying, Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me? Evil will it be to thee
to spurn against the goad. He then in great fright answered the voice, Who
art thou, dear Lord? The calling of the divine voice answered him, I am
Jesus whom thou persecutest: but arise now, and go forth to the city; there
shall it be said unto thee what it befitteth thee to do. He arose then with
blinded eyes, and his companions led him thus blind to the city. And there
abiding he tasted neither meat nor drink for a space of three days."

"There was then a servant of God within the city, his name was Ananias, to
whom the Lord spake in these words, Ananias, arise, and go to my servant
Saul, who is praying for my mercy with earnest mind. He answered the divine
voice, My Saviour, how may I speak to him who is the persecutor of thy
saints, through the power of the chief priests? The Lord said, Go as I have
said to thee, for he is to me a chosen vessel, to bear my name to nations,
and to kings, and to the children of Israel; and he shall suffer much for
my name. Ananias went then to the chosen champion, and set his hands upon
him with this greeting, Saul, my brother, Jesus, who spake to thee on the
way, hath sent me to thee, that thou mayest see, and be filled with the
Holy Ghost. Then with these words there fell as it were films from his
eyes, and he straightways received sight, and submitted to baptism. He
continued then some few days with the servants of God within the city, and
with great boldness preached to the Jews, that Christ, whom they had
denied, is the Son of Almighty God. They were greatly astonished, and said,
What! is not this {389} the cruel persecutor of christian men: how
preacheth he the faith of Christ? But Saul increased much in strength, and
shamed the Jews, with steadfastness verifying that Christ is the Son of

"Then after many days the Jews deliberated how they might kill the champion
of God, and set wards at every gate of the city. Paul got knowledge of
their machination, and the christians took him, and let him down over the
wall in a basket. And he went again to Jerusalem, and announced himself to
the holy fellowship of Christ's family, and made known to them how Jesus
had spoken to him from heaven. After some time a voice came from the Holy
Ghost, to the faithful company, thus saying, Send Paul and Barnabas to the
work for which I have chosen them. The holy fellowship then, by God's
command and election, sent them to teach all countries concerning the
coming of Christ for the redemption of the world."

"Thus was Barnabas Paul's companion in preaching for a long time, when at
last it seemed good to them to go apart, and they did so. Paul was then
filled and comforted with the grace of the Holy Ghost, and went to many
countries, sowing God's seed. In one city he was twelve months, in one two
years, in one three, and appointed bishops, and mass-priests, and servants
of God; he went afterwards to another country, and did in like manner. But
he sent back letters to those whom he before had taught, and so by those
letters stimulated and confirmed them in the way of life."

We will now run over this reading with a short exposition, and explain any
obscurity there may be contained in it. Paul persecuted christian men, not
with hate, as the Jews did, but he was a partizan and defender of the old
law with great steadfastness: he thought that the faith of Christ was an
adversary to the old covenant: but Jesus who had established the old law by
divers miracles, the same afterwards by his {391} presence changed it to
truth, according to its ghostly signification. Now Paul knew not the
ghostly signification of that law, and was therefore its advocate, and a
persecutor of the faith of Christ. God Almighty, who knows all things, saw
his thoughts, that he did not persecute faithful men from rancour, but for
the defence of the old law, and spake to him from heaven, thus saying,
"Saul, why persecutest thou me? I am the Truth which thou defendest; cease
from persecution: hurtful will it be to thee to spurn against the goad. If
the ox spurneth against the goad, it hurteth himself; so also harmeth thee
thy warfare against me." He said, "Why persecutest thou me?" because he is
the head of christian men, and bewails whatsoever his limbs suffer on
earth, as he said through his prophet, "He who toucheth you, it shall be to
me as painful as if he touched the sight of my eye." He was prostrated,
thus saying, "Who art thou, Lord?" His pride was prostrated, and true
humility was raised up in him. He fell unrighteous, and was raised
righteous. Falling he lost bodily sight, rising he received his mind's
enlightening. Three days he continued without sight, because he had denied
the resurrection of Christ on the third day.

Ananias signifies in the Hebrew tongue, _sheep_. The gentle sheep then
baptized the impious Saul, and made him the pious Paul. He baptized the
wolf and made him a lamb. He changed his name with his character; and he
was then a true proclaimer of God's church, who had before afflicted it
with fierce persecution. He would flee from the machination of the Jewish
people, and consented to be let down in a basket over the wall: not because
he would not suffer death for the faith of Christ, but because he would
flee from immature death; for he had first to gain many a man to God by his
great wisdom, and afterwards with great honour stretch out his neck to
martyrdom. Much greater torments he suffered afterwards for Christ's name,
than he had ordered for {393} christian men before his conversion. Saul the
impious scourged the christians, but after his conversion the pious Paul
for the name of Christ was often scourged. Once he was stoned almost to
death, so that his persecutors left him for dead, but in the morning he
arose and went about his preaching. He was frequently in great peril, both
by sea and by land, in the waste, among thieves, from hunger and from
thirst, and from many watchings, from cold, and from nakedness, and from
many prisons: he so hastened with his preaching, as though he would bring
all mankind to God's kingdom: as well with precepts as with prayers and
with letters, he ever stimulated to the will of God. He was led to heaven
as far as the third flooring, and there he saw and heard God's secret,
which he might not make known to any man. He bewailed with weeping the sins
of other men, and to all the faithful he showed fatherly love. By his
handicraft he toiled for his own and his companions' support, and in
addition thereto there was nothing known in true piety which his
instruction did not confirm. The other apostles lived, by God's command, by
their teaching, free from danger; but, nevertheless, Paul alone, who by
worldly craft was a tent-wright, would not receive the sustenance allowed,
but by his own toil provided for his own and his companions' need. His
precepts and his acts are to us inscrutable, but happy will he be who obeys
his admonitions with diligence.


    Dixit Simon Petrus ad Jesum: et reliqua.

"He forsook all worldly things, and followed Jesus only," as this gospel
says, which ye now at this service have heard.

"At that time Peter the apostle said to Jesus, Behold we have left all
worldly things, and follow thee only: what wilt thou do for us in reward
thereof?" etc.

Great trust revolved in the heart of Peter: he alone spake {395} for the
whole company, "We have forsaken all things." What did Peter forsake? He
was a fisher, and by that craft provided for himself, and yet he spake with
great boldness, "We have forsaken all things." But he and his brothers
forsook much, when they forsook the will to possess. Though any one forsake
great possessions, and forsake not avarice, he forsakes not all things.
Peter forsook little things, scrip and net, but he forsook all things,
when, for love of God, he would have nothing. He said, "We follow thee." It
is not complete to forsake many possessions, unless a man follow God. For
the heathen philosophers forsook many things, as Socrates did, who
exchanged all his possessions for a wedge of gold, and then cast the wedge
into the wide sea, that desire of possessions might not obstruct his will,
and draw it from the worldly lore that he loved: but it profited him not so
to do, because he did not follow God, but his own will, and had not
therefore heavenly reward with the apostles, who, for love of Christ,
despised all worldly things, and with obedience followed him.

Peter then asked, "What shall become of us? We have done as thou
commandedst us, what wilt thou do for us in reward? Jesus answered, Verily
I say unto you, that ye who follow me shall, at the regeneration, sit on
twelve judgement-seats, when I shall sit on the seat of my majesty; and ye
then shall judge the twelve tribes of Israel." He called the common
resurrection, regeneration, at which our bodies will be regenerated to
incorruption, that is to eternity. Twice we are born in this life: the
first birth is fleshly, of father and of mother; the second birth is
ghostly, when we are regenerated at the holy baptism, in which all our sins
will be forgiven us, through grace of the Holy Ghost. The third birth is at
the common resurrection, at which our bodies will be regenerated to
incorruptible bodies.

At the resurrection the twelve apostles will sit with Christ {397} on their
judgement-seats, and will judge the twelve tribes of the people of Israel.
This twelvefold number has great signification. If the twelve tribes only
will be judged at the great doom, what then will the thirteenth tribe,
Levi, do? What will do all the nations of the world? Thinkest thou that
they will be sundered from the doom? But this twelvefold number is set for
all mankind of all the orb, for the perfectness of its signification. There
are twelve hours in the day, and twelve months in the year; there are
twelve patriarchs, twelve prophets, twelve apostles; and this number has a
greater import than the unlearned may understand. By this twelvefold number
therefore the orb of the whole earth is now signified.

The apostles and all the chosen who imitated them will be judges on the
great day with Christ. There will be four assemblages at the great doom,
two of chosen men, and two of rejected. The first assemblage will be of the
apostles and their imitators, who forsook all worldly things for the name
of God: they will be the judges, and to them shall no judgement be judged.
The second class will be of faithful men of this world: on them will doom
be set, so that they will be sundered from the fellowship of the rejected,
the Lord thus saying, "Come to me, ye blessed of my Father, and receive the
kingdom which is prepared for you from the beginning of the world." One
class will be of those rejected, who had knowledge of God, but did not
cultivate their faith with God's commandments: these will be condemned. The
other class is of those heathen men, who have had no knowledge of God: on
these will be fulfilled the apostolic sentence, "Those who have sinned
without God's law, shall perish also without any law." To these two classes
the righteous Judge will then say, "Depart from me, ye accursed, into the
everlasting fire, which is prepared for the devil and his accursed

The gospel says yet further, "Everyone who forsaketh, {399} for my name,
father or mother, brothers or sisters, wife or children, land or dwellings,
shall be requited an hundredfold, and he shall have, in addition thereunto,
everlasting life." An hundredfold number is perfect, and he who forsakes
perishable things for the name of God, will receive from God ghostly meed
an hundredfold. This saying is especially applicable to men of monastic
order, who, for the joy of heaven's kingdom, forsake father, and mother,
and fleshly relations. They receive many ghostly fathers and ghostly
brothers, for all men of that order, who live after rule, are accounted as
their fathers and brothers, and, in addition thereto, they will be enriched
with the reward of everlasting life. Those who, at God's behest, despise
all worldly things, and have their subsistence in common, are perfect, and
will be classed with the apostles. Others, who have not the merit of being
able to forsake all their possessions together, let them then give, for the
name of God, what portion it may please them, and they will be eternally
rewarded an hundredfold for whatsoever they singly and temporarily

There is a great difference among converted men: some imitate the apostles,
some imitate Judas the betrayer of Christ, some Ananias and Sapphira, some
Gehazi. Those who, in imitation of the apostles, despise all transitory
things for the sake of everlasting life, shall have praise and everlasting
reward with Christ's apostles. He who, living among monks, guilefully
deceives in the property of the monastery, will be the companion of Judas,
who betrayed Christ, and will receive his punishment with the inmates of
hell. He who with twofold thoughts turns to monastic life, and bestows one
part of his property, holds one to himself, and has no trust in the
Almighty, that he will provide for him food and garments and other needs,
will receive the accursed sentence with Ananias and Sapphira, who deceived
in their own property, and fell dying with sudden death before the
apostles. {401} He who in monastic life is ill-inclined, and yearns for the
things which he had not in worldly life nor could obtain, without doubt to
him approximates the leper Gehazi, the prophet's servant, and that which he
suffered in body, this suffers in his soul. The servant followed the great
prophet Elisha: then there came to him a rich man of the nation which is
called Syria, his name was Naaman, and he was leprous. He came then to
God's prophet, Elisha, in Judea, and he, through God's might, healed him
from that disease. He then offered to the man of God, for his health,
precious treasures. The prophet answered him, "God's might hath healed
thee, not I. I will not receive thy money: thank God for thy health, and
enjoy thy possessions." Naaman then returned with all his company to his
own people.

Then was the prophet's servant, Gehazi, beguiled by avarice, and he ran
off, the officer Naaman thus deceiving by words, "Now suddenly the sons of
two prophets are come to my master: send him two garments and a pound." The
officer answered him, "It will be mean to send him so little; but take four
garments and two pounds." He then returned with the treasures, and
concealed his journey from the prophet. The prophet asked him, "Whence
comest thou, Gehazi?" He answered, "Sir, I was on no journey." The prophet
said, "I saw through the Spirit of God, that the officer alighted from his
chariot, and went towards thee, and thou tookest his treasures in money and
in raiment. Have also henceforth with the treasures his leprosy, thou and
all thy offspring for ever." And he turned from his sight stricken with
snow-white leprosy.

Now it is therefore for monastic men to shun with great care these evil
examples, and to imitate the apostles, that they, with them and with God,
may have everlasting life. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *


    Cum adpropinquaret Iesus Hierusalem: et reliqua.

"On sumere tide wæs se Hælend farende to Hierusalem: ðaða he genealæhte
þære ceastre and hé hí geseah, ða weop hé ofer hí:" et reliqua.

Gregorius se trahtnere cwæð, þæt se Hælend beweope ðære ceastre
toworpennysse, ðe gelamp æfter his ðrowunge, for ðære wrace heora mándæda,
þæt hí ðone heofenlican Æðeling mánfullice acwellan woldon. He spræc mid
woplicre stemne, na to ðam weorc-stánum, oððe to ðære getimbrunge, ac spræc
to ðam ceastergewarum, þa hé mid fæderlicere lufe besargode, forðan ðe hé
wiste heora forwyrd hrædlice toweard. Feowertig geara fyrst Godes
mildheortnys forlét ðam wælhreowum ceastergewarum to behreowsunge heora
mándæda, ac hí ne gymdon nanre dædbote, ac maran mándæda gefremedon, swa
þæt hí oftorfodon mid stanum ðone forman Godes cyðere Stephanum, and
Iacobum, Iohannes broðer, beheafdodon. Eac ðone rihtwisan Iacobum hí
ascufon of ðam temple, and acwealdon, and ehtnysse on ða oðre apostolas
setton. Seo Godes gelaðung, þe on ðære byrig, æfter Cristes ðrowunge, under
þam rihtwisan Iacobe drohtnigende wæs, ferde eal samod of ðære byrig to
anre wíc wið ða éá Iordanen; forðan ðe him com to Godes hǽs, þæt hi
sceoldon fram ðære mánfullan stowe faran, ærðam ðe seo wracu come. God ða
oncneow þæt ða Iudeiscan nanre dǽdbote ne gymdon, ac má and má heora
mándæda geyhton: sende him ða to Romanisc folc, and hí ealle fordyde.

Uespasianus hatte se casere, ðe on ðam dagum geweold ealles middangeardes
cynedomes. Sé asende his sunu Titum to oferwinnenne ða earman Iudeiscan. Þa
gelámp hit swa þæt hí wæron gesamnode binnan ðære byrig Hierusalem, six
hund ðusend manna, swylce on anum cwearterne beclysede; and hí wurdon ða
utan ymbsette mid Romaniscum here swa lange þæt ðær fela ðusenda mid hungre
wurdon acwealde; and for ðære menigu man ne mihte hí bebyrigan, ac awurpon
{404} ða líc ofer ðone weall. Sume ðeah for mæiglicre sibbe hí bebyrigan
woldon, ac hí hrædlice for mægenleaste swulton. Gif hwa hwæt lytles æniges
bigwistes him sylfum gearcode, him scuton sona to reaferas, and ðone mete
him of ðam muðe abrudon. Sume hí cuwon heora gescý, sume heora hætera, sume
streaw, for ðære micclan angsumnysse ðæs hatan hungres. Hit nis na
gedafenlic þæt we on ðisum halgan godspelle ealle ða sceamlican yrmðu
gereccan þe gelumpon ðam ymbsettum Iudeiscum, ærðan ðe hi on hand gán
woldon. Wearð ða se mæsta dæl ðæra arleasra mid þam bysmerlicum hungre
adyd, and þa lafe ðæs hungres ofsloh se Romanisca here, and ða burh
grundlunga towurpon, swa þæt ðær ne beláf stán ofer stáne, swa swa se
Hælend ǽr mid wope gewítegode. Þæra cnapena ðe binnan syxtyne geara ylde
wæron, hund-nigontig ðusenda hí tosendon to gehwylcum leodscipum to ðeowte,
and on ðam earde ne beláf nan ðing ðæs awyrgedan cynnes. Seo burh wearð
syððan on oðre stówe getimbrod, and mid ðam Sarasceniscum gesett.

Se Hælend geswutelode for hwilcum intingan ðeos tostencednys þære byrig
gelumpe, ðaða hé cwæð, "Forðan þe ðu ne oncneowe ðone timan ðinre
geneosunge." He geneosode ða buruhware ðurh his menniscnysse, ac hí næron
his gemyndige, naðor ne ðurh lufe ne þurh ege. Be ðære gymeleaste spræc se
witega mid ceorigendre stemne, ðus cweðende, "Storc and swalewe heoldon
ðone timan heora to-cymes, and þis folc ne oncneow Godes dóm." Drihten cwæð
to ðære byrig, "Gif þu wistest hwæt þe toweard is, þonne weope ðu mid me.
Witodlice on ðisum dæge þu wunast on sibbe, ac ða toweardan wraca sind nu
bediglode fram ðinum eagum." Seo buruhwaru wæs wunigende on woruldlicere
sibbe, þaþa heo orsorhlice wæs underðeodd flæsclicum lustum, and hwonlice
hógode ymbe ða toweardan yrmða, ðe hyre ða-gyt bediglode wæron. Gif heo
ðære yrmðe forewittig wære, ne mihte heo mid orsorgum mode ðære
gesundfulnysse andweardes lifes brucan.

{406} Drihten adræfde of ðam temple ða cýpmen, þus cweðende, "Hit is
awriten, þæt min hús is gebed-hús, and ge hit habbað gedon sceaðum to
screafe." Þæt tempel wæs Gode gehalgod, to his ðenungum and lofsangum, and
to gebedum ðam geleaffullum; ac ða gytsigendan ealdor-biscopas geðafedon
þæt ðær cyping binnan gehæfd wære. Drihten, ðaða he þæt unriht geseah, he
worhte áne swipe of rápum, and hí ealle mid gebeate út-ascynde. Þeos
todræfednys getacnode ða toweardan toworpennysse ðurh þone Romaniscan here,
and se hryre gelámp swyðost þurh gyltas ðæra ealdor-biscopa ðe, binnan ðam
temple wunigende, mid gehywedre halignysse þæs folces lác underfengon, and
ðæra manna ehton ðe butan lace þæt tempel gesohton. Hwæt wæs þæt tempel
buton swylce sceaðena scræf, þaþa ða ealdor-biscopas mid swylcere gytsunge
gefyllede wæron, and ða leaslican ceapas binnan ðam Godes huse geðafedon?
Hit is on oðrum godspelle awriten, þæt ðær sæton myneteras, and ðær wæron
gecype hryðeru, and scép, and culfran. On ðam dagum, æfter gesetnysse ðære
ealdan ǽ, man offrode hryðeru, and scép, and culfran, for getacnunge
Cristes ðrowunge: ða tihte seo gitsung þa sacerdas þæt man ðillic orf þær
to ceape hæfde, gif hwá feorran come, and wolde his lác Gode offrian, ðæt
hé on gehendnysse to bicgenne gearu hæfde. Drihten ða adræfde ðillice cypan
of ðam halgan temple, forðan ðe hit næs to nanum ceape aræred, ac to

"Him ða to genealæhton blinde and healte, and he hi gehælde, and wæs
lærende þæt folc dæghwomlice binnan ðam temple." Se mildheorta Drihten, ðe
læt scinan his sunnan ofer ða rihtwisan and unrihtwisan gelice, and sent
renas and eorðlice wæstmas gódum and yfelum, nolde ofteon his lare þam
ðwyrum Iudeiscum, forðan ðe manega wæron góde betwux þam yfelan, þe mid
ðære lare gebeterode wæron, þeah ðe ða þwyran hyre wiðcwædon. Hé eac mid
wundrum ða lare getrymde, þæt ða gecorenan ðy geleaffulran wæron: and ða
wiðercorenan nane beladunge nabbað, forðan ðe hí ne {408} ðurh godcunde
tacna, ne þurh líflice lare, þam soðfæstan Hælende gelyfan noldon. Nu cwyð
se eadiga Gregorius, þæt heora toworpennys hæfð sume gelicnysse to
gehwilcum þwyrlicum mannum, þe blissiað on yfel-dædum, and on ðam wyrstan
ðingum fægniað. Swilcera manna besargað se mildheorta Drihten dæghwomlice,
seðe ða þa losigendlican buruhware mid tearon bemǽnde. Ac gif hí oncneowon
ða geniðerunge þe him onsihð, hí mihton hí sylfe mid sarigendre stemne

Soðlice ðære losigendlican sawle belimpð þes æfterfiligenda cwyde, "On
ðysum dæge þu wunast on sibbe, ac seo towearde wracu is nu bediglod fram
ðinum eagum." Witodlice seo ðwyre sawul is on sibbe wunigende on hire dæge,
þonne heo on gewitendlicere tide blissað, and mid wurðmyntum bið up-ahafen,
and on hwilwendlicum bricum bið ungefoh, and on flæsclicum lustum bið
tolysed, and mid nanre fyrhte þæs toweardan wites ne bið geegsod, ac
bedygelað hire sylfre ða æfterfiligendan yrmða; forðan gif heo embe ða
smeað, þonne bið seo woruldlice bliss mid þære smeagunge gedrefed. Heo hæfð
ðonne sibbe on hire dæge, ðonne heo nele ða andweardan myrhðe gewǽcan mid
nánre care þære toweardan ungesælðe, ac gæð mid beclysedum eagum to ðam
witnigendlicum fyre. Seo sawul ðe on ðas wisan nu drohtnað, heo is to
geswencenne ðonne ða rihtwisan blissiað; and ealle ða ateorigendlican ðing,
þe heo nu to sibbe and blisse talað, beoð hire ðonne to byternysse and to
ceaste awende; forðan ðe heo micele sace wið hí sylfe hæfð, hwí heo ða
geniðerunge, ðe heo ðonne ðolað, nolde ær on life mid ænigre carfulnysse
foresceawian. Be ðam is awriten, "Eadig bið se man þe symle bið
forhtigende; and soðlice se heardmoda befylð on yfel." Eft on oðre stowe
mynegað þæt halige gewrit, "On eallum ðinum weorcum beo ðu gemyndig þines
endenextan dæges, and on ecnysse ðu ne syngast."

Seo halige ræding cwyð, "Se tyma cymð þæt ðine fynd ðe ymbsittað mid
ymbtrymminge, and ðe on ælce healfe {410} genyrwiað, and to eorðan þe
astreccað, and ðine bearn samod ðe on ðe sind." Þæra sawla fynd sind ða
hellican gastas þe besittað þæs mannes forðsið, and his sawle, gif heo
fyrenful bið, to ðære geferrǽdene heora agenre geniðerunge mid micelre
angsumnysse lædan willað. Þa deoflu æteowiað þære synfullan sawle ægðer ge
hyre yfelan geðohtas, and ða derigendlican spræca, and ða mánfullan dæda,
and hí mid mænigfealdum ðreatungum geangsumiað, þæt heo on ðam forðsiðe
oncnáwe mid hwilcum feondum heo ymbset bið, and ðeah nán ut-fær ne gemet,
hu heo ðam feondlicum gastum oðfleon mage. To eorðan heo bið astreht ðurh
hire scylda oncnawennysse, ðonne se lichama þe heo on leofode to duste bið
formolsnod. Hire bearn on deaðe hreosað, ðonne ða únalyfedlican geðohtas,
ðe heo nu acenð, beoð on ðære endenextan wrace eallunga toworpene, swa swa
se sealm-sceop be ðam gyddigende sang, "Nellað ge getruwian on
ealdormannum, ne on manna bearnum, on ðam nis nan hǽl. Heora gast gewit,
and hí to eorðan gehwyrfað, and on ðam dæge losiað ealle heora geðohtas."

Soðlice on ðam godspelle fyligð, "And hí ne forlǽtað on ðe stán ofer
stáne." Þæt ðwyre mod, þonne hit gehýpð yfel ofer yfele, and þwyrnysse ofer
þwyrnysse, hwæt deð hit buton swilce hit lecge stán ofer stáne? Ac ðonne
seo sawul bið to hire witnunge gelæd, ðonne bið eal seo getimbrung hire
smeagunge toworpen; forðan ðe heo ne oncneow ða tíd hire geneosunge. On
manegum gemetum geneosað se Ælmihtiga God manna sawla; hwiltidum mid lare,
hwilon mid wundrum, hwilon mit untrumnyssum; ac gif heo ðas geneosunga
forgymeleasað, ðam feondum heo bið betæht on hire geendunge, to ecere
witnunge, þam ðe heo ǽr on life mid healicum leahtrum gehyrsumode. Þonne
beoð ða hire witneras on ðære hellican susle, ða ðe ǽr mid mislicum lustum
hi to ðam leahtrum forspeonon.

Drihten eode into ðam temple, and mid swipe ða cypan ut-adræfde. Þa cypmen
binnon ðam temple getacnodon {412} unrihtwise láreowas on Godes gelaðunge.
Ðær wæron gecype oxan, and scép, and culfran, and þær sæton myneteras. Oxa
teolað his hlaforde, and se lareow sylð oxan on Godes cyrcan, gif he begæð
his hlafordes teolunga, þæt is, gif he bodað godspel his underðeoddum, for
eorðlicum gestreonum, and na for godcundre lufe. Mid sceapum he mangað, gif
he dysigra manna herunga cepð on arfæstum weorcum. Be swylcum cwæð se
Hælend, "Hi underfengon edlean heora weorca;" þæt is se hlisa idelre
herunge, ðe him gecweme wæs.

Se láreow bið culfran cypa, þe nele ða gife, ðe him God forgeaf butan his
geearnungum, oðrum mannum butan sceattum nytte dón; swa swa Crist sylf
tæhte, "Butan ceape ge underfengon ða gife, syllað hí oðrum butan ceape."
Se ðe mid gehywedre halignysse him sylfum teolað on Godes gelaðunge, and
nateshwón ne carað ymbe Cristes teolunge, se bið untwylice mynet-cypa
getalod. Ac se Hælend todræfð swylce cypan of his huse, ðonne hé mid
geniðerunge fram geferrædene his gecorenra hí totwæmð.

"Min hús is gebed-hús, and ge hit habbað gedón sceaðum to scræfe." Hit
getímað forwel oft þæt ða ðwyran becumað to micclum háde on Godes
gelaðunge, and hí ðonne gastlice ofsleað mid heora yfelnysse heora
underðeoddan, ða ðe hí sceoldon mid heora benum gelíffæstan. Hwæt sind
ðyllice buton sceaðan? Anes gehwilces geleaffulles mannes mód is Godes hús,
swa swa se apostol cwæð, "Godes tempel is halig, þæt ge sind." Ac þæt mód
ne bið na gebed-hús, ac sceaðena scræf, gif hit forlysð unscæððignysse and
bilewitnysse soðre halignysse, and mid ðwyrlicum geðohtum hógað oðrum dara.

"And he wæs tæcende dæghwomlice binnan ðam temple." Crist lærde ða þæt folc
on his andweardnysse, and he lærð nu dæghwomlice geleaffulra manna mód mid
godcundre láre smeaðancellice, þæt hí yfel forbugon and gód gefremman. Ne
bið na fulfremedlic þam gelyfedan þæt hé yfeles geswice, buton hé gód
gefremme. Se eadiga Gregorius cwæð, "Mine gebroðru, ic wolde eow ane lytle
race gereccan, seo mæig ðearle eower mód getimbrian, gif ge mid gymene hí
gehyran {414} wyllað. Sum æðelboren mann wæs on ðære scire Ualeria, se wæs
geháten Crisaurius, se wæs swa micclum mid leahtrum afylled swa micclum swa
hé wæs mid eorðlicum welum gewelgod. He wæs toðunden on modignysse, and his
flæsclicum lustum underðeod, and mid ungefohre gytsunge ontend. Ac ðaða God
gemynte his yfelnysse to geendigenne, ða wearð hé geuntrumod, and to
forðsiðe gebroht. Þa on ðære ylcan tide þe hé geendian sceolde, ða beseah
hé up, and stodon him abutan swearte gastas, and mid micclum ðreate him
onsigon, þæt hí his sawle on ðam forðsiðe mid him to hellicum clysungum
gegripon. He ongánn ða bifian and blácian, and ungefohlice swætan, and mid
micclum hreame fyrstes biddan, and his sunu Maximus, ðone ic geseah munuc
syððan, mid gedrefedre stemne clypode, and cwæð, Min cild, Maxime, gehelp
min; onfoh me on ðinum geleafan: næs ic ðe derigende on ænigum ðingum. Se
sunu ða Maximus mid micclum heofe gedrefed, him to cóm. Hé wand þa swa swa
wurm; ne mihte geðolian þa egeslican gesihðe ðæra awyrgedra gasta. Hé wende
hine to wage, ðær hi him ætwæron; he wende eft ongean, þær hé hí funde.
Þaða hé swa swiðe geancsumod his sylfes órwene wæs, ða hrymde hé mid
micelre stemne, and ðus cwæð, Lætað me fyrst oð to merigen, huru-ðinga
fyrst oð to merigen: ac mid ðisum hreame ða blacan fynd tugon ða sawle of
ðam lichaman, and awég gelæddon." Be ðam is swutol, þæt seo gesihð him
wearð æteowod for oðra manna beterunge, na for his agenre. La hwæt fremode
him, ðeah ðe hé on forðsiðe þa sweartan gastas gesawe, ðonne he ne moste
þæs fyrstes habban ðe he gewilnode? Ac uton we beon carfulle, þæt ure tima
mid ydelnysse ús ne losige, and we ðonne to wel-dædum gecyrran willan,
ðonne us se deað to forðsiðe geðreatað.

Þu, Ælmihtiga Drihten, gemiltsa us synfullum, and urne forðsið swa gefada,
þæt we, gebettum synnum, æfter ðisum frecenfullum life, ðinum halgum
geferlæhte beon moton. Sy ðe lóf and wuldor on ealra worulda woruld. Amen.


    Cum adpropinquaret Jesus Hierusalem: et reliqua.

"On a time Jesus was going to Jerusalem: when he came near to the city and
saw it, he wept over it," etc.

Gregory the expounder said, that Jesus bewailed the overthrow of the city,
which happened after his passion, in vengeance of their crimes, because
they would sinfully slay the heavenly Prince. He spake with weeping voice,
not to the work-stones, nor to the building, but spake to the inhabitants,
whom he bewailed with fatherly love, because he knew that their destruction
was speedily to take place. A space of forty years the mercy of God left
the cruel inhabitants for repentance of their crimes, but they cared for no
penitence, but perpetrated greater crimes, so that they slew with stones
Stephen, the first martyr of God, and beheaded James, the brother of John.
The righteous James also they thrust from the temple, and slew, and raised
persecution against the other apostles. The congregation of God which,
after Christ's passion, was continuing in the city under the righteous
James, went all together from the city to a village on the river Jordan;
for God's command had come to them, that they should go from the wicked
place, ere the vengeance came. God knew then that the Jews cared for no
penitence, but more and more increased their crimes: he therefore sent to
them the Roman people, and they ruined them all.

Vespasian the emperor was called, who in those days ruled the kingdom of
the whole world. He sent his son Titus to conquer the miserable Jews. It
then so happened that they were assembled within the city of Jerusalem, six
hundred thousand men, enclosed as it were in a prison; and they were
surrounded without by the Roman army so long that many thousands were
killed by hunger; and they could not bury them by reason of the number, but
cast the corpses over the {405} wall. Some, however, would bury them for
the sake of kinship, but they soon died from weakness. If any one had
provided any little sustenance for himself, robbers would suddenly rush on
him, and pull the meat from his mouth. Some chewed their shoes, some their
garments, some straw, for the great anguish of hot hunger. It is not
fitting that we, in this holy gospel, recount all the shameful miseries
which befell the besieged Jews before they would yield. The greater part of
the wicked ones was then destroyed by the ignominious famine, and the Roman
host slew the leavings of the famine, and razed the city to the ground, so
that there remained not stone over stone, as Jesus had erewhile with
weeping prophesied. Of boys who were within sixteen years of age, they sent
ninety thousand to all nations in slavery, and in the country there
remained nothing of the accursed race. The city was afterwards built in
another place, and peopled with Saracens.

Jesus showed for what cause this dispersion of the city happened, when he
said, "Because thou knewest not the time of thy visitation." He visited the
inhabitants in his humanity, but they were not mindful of him, neither by
love nor by fear. Of that heedlessness the prophet spake with lamenting
voice, thus saying, "The stork and the swallow keep the time of their
coming, and this people knew not the doom of God." The Lord said to the
city, "If thou knewest what is to befall thee, then wouldst thou weep with
me. Verily on this day thou dwellest in peace, for the vengeances to come
are now hidden from thine eyes." The inhabitants were dwelling in worldly
peace, while they were heedlessly subservient to fleshly lusts, and little
thought of the miseries to come, which were yet hidden from them. If they
had been foreknowing of that misery, they could not with heedless mind have
enjoyed the prosperity of the present life.

{407} The Lord drove the chapmen from the temple, thus saying, "It is
written, that my house is a house of prayer, and ye have made it a den for
thieves." The temple was hallowed to God, for his services, and songs of
praise, and prayers of the faithful; but the covetous high-priests allowed
chapping to be held therein. The Lord, when he saw that wickedness, made a
scourge of ropes, and with beating hurried them all out. This dispersion
betokened the future destruction by the Roman army, and the ruin happened
chiefly through the sins of the high-priests, who, dwelling within the
temple, with pretended holiness received the people's offerings, and
persecuted those men who sought the temple without offerings. What was that
temple but, as it were, a den of thieves, when the chief priests were
filled with such covetousness, and allowed false bargains within the house
of God? It is written in another gospel, that there sat moneyers, and there
were oxen for sale, and sheep, and doves. In those days, according to the
institute of the old law, they offered oxen, and sheep, and doves, in token
of Christ's passion: then covetousness stimulated the priests to have such
animals there for sale, that, if any one came from afar, and would offer
his gift to God, he might have it ready at hand to buy. The Lord then drove
such chapmen from the holy temple, because it was not raised for any
trading, but for prayers.

"Then the blind and the halt drew near unto him, and he healed them, and
was teaching the folk daily within the temple." The merciful Lord, who lets
his sun shine over the righteous and unrighteous alike, and sends rains and
earthly fruits to the good and evil, would not withdraw his instruction
from the perverse Jews, because many were good among the evil, who were
bettered by that instruction, although the perverse opposed it. He also
confirmed his instruction by miracles, that the chosen might be the more
believing: and the rejected shall have no excuse, because they neither by
divine {409} signs, nor by vital lore, would believe in the true Saviour.
Now the blessed Gregory says, that their desolation has some likeness to
all perverse men, who exult in evil deeds, and rejoice in the worst things.
Such men the merciful Lord bewails daily, who then the perishing townsfolk
with tears bemoaned. But if they knew the condemnation that hangs over
them, they would themselves lament with sorrowing voice.

Verily this following sentence applies to the perishing soul, "On this day
thou dwellest in peace, for the vengeance to come is now hidden from thine
eyes." The perverse soul is indeed dwelling in peace in its day, when in
transient time it rejoices, and is exalted with dignities, and in temporary
enjoyments is immoderate, and is dissolved in fleshly lusts, and is awed by
no fear of future punishment, but hides from itself the miseries following
after; because if it reflect on them, then will worldly bliss be troubled
by that reflection. It has then peace in its day, when it will not afflict
the present mirth with any care for the future unhappiness, but goes with
closed eyes to the penal fire. The soul which in this wise now lives, shall
be afflicted when the righteous rejoice; and all the perishable things,
which it now accounts as peace and bliss, shall then be turned for it to
bitterness and strife; for it will have great contention with itself, why
it would not before in life with any carefulness foresee the condemnation
which it then is suffering. Concerning which it is written, "Blessed is the
man who is ever fearing; and verily the hardened shall fall into evil."
Again in another place holy writ admonishes, "In all thy works be thou
mindful of thy last day, and in eternity thou wilt not sin."

The holy lesson says, "The time cometh that thy foes shall encompass thee
with a leaguer, and shall straiten thee on {411} every side, and shall
prostrate thee to earth, together with thy children which are in thee." The
foes of the soul are the hellish spirits which beset a man's departure, and
with great tribulation will lead his soul, if it be sinful, to the
fellowship of their own damnation. The devils show to the sinful soul its
evil thoughts, and pernicious speeches, and wicked deeds, and with manifold
reproaches afflict it, that on its departure it may know by what foes it is
beset, and yet find no outlet whereby it may flee from the hostile spirits.
To earth it shall be prostrated by a knowledge of its sins, when the body
in which it lived shall be rotted to dust. Its children shall fall in
death, when the unallowed thoughts, which it now gives birth to, shall, in
the last vengeance, be wholly rendered vain, as the psalmist melodiously
sang, "Trust not in princes, nor in the children of men, in whom there is
no health. Their spirit departs, and they return to earth, and in that day
all their thoughts perish."

Verily in the gospel it follows, "And they shall not leave in thee stone
over stone." The perverse mind, when it heaps evil over evil, and
perversity over perversity, what does it, but as though it lay stone over
stone? But when the soul shall be led to its punishment, then will all the
structure of its cogitation be overthrown; for it knew not the time of its
visitation. In many ways the Almighty God visits the souls of men;
sometimes with instruction, sometimes with miracles, sometimes with
diseases; but if it neglect these visitations, it will be at its end
delivered for eternal punishment to fiends, whom it had previously with
deadly sins obeyed in life. Then shall those be its tormentors in
hell-torment, who had before allured it by divers pleasures to those sins.

The Lord went into the temple, and with a scourge drove out the chapmen.
The chapmen within the temple betokened {413} unrighteous teachers in God's
church. There were for sale oxen, and sheep, and doves, and there sat
moneyers. The ox toils for his lord, and the teacher sells oxen in God's
church, if he perform his Lord's tillage, that is, if he preach the gospel
to those under his care, for earthly gains, and not for godly love. With
sheep he traffics, if he seek after the praises of foolish men in pious
works. Of such Jesus said, "They have received the reward of their works;"
that is the fame of idle praise, which was pleasing to them.

The teacher is a chapman of doves, who will not without money give for use
of other men, the gift which God, without his deserts, has given to him; as
Christ himself taught, "Without price ye have received the gift, give it to
others without price." He who with assumed holiness toils for himself in
God's church, and cares nothing for Christ's tillage, will undoubtedly be
accounted a money-chapman. But Jesus will drive such chapmen from his
house, when, with condemnation, he shall separate them from the fellowship
of his chosen.

"My house is a prayer-house, and ye have made it a den for thieves." It
happens too often that the perverse come to great dignity in God's church,
and they then, with their evilness, spiritually slay those placed under
their care, whom they ought with their prayers to quicken. What are such
but thieves? The mind of every believing man is a house of God, as the
apostle said, "The temple of God is holy, which ye are." But the mind will
be no prayer-house, but a den of thieves, if it lose the innocence and
meekness of true holiness, and with perverse thoughts meditate harm to

"And he was teaching daily within the temple." Christ then taught the
people in his presence, and he now daily teaches the minds of believing men
with godly lore, by meditation, to eschew evil and perform good. It is not
perfect for the believing man to cease from evil, unless he performs good.
The blessed Gregory said, "My brothers, I would relate to you a little
narrative, which may greatly edify your minds, if ye with heedfulness will
hear it. There was a {415} certain nobleman in the province of Valeria, who
was called Chrysaurius, who was as much filled with sins as he was enriched
with earthly riches. He was inflated with pride, and a slave to his fleshly
lusts, and inflamed with excessive covetousness. But when God designed to
put an end to his wickedness, he became sick, and brought to departure
hence. Then at the very time that he should die, he looked up, and there
stood about him swart spirits, and in a great company descended on him,
that they might snatch his soul, on its departure, with them to the
barriers of hell. He began then to tremble and grow pale, and incredibly to
sweat, and with great cry to pray for a respite, and with troubled voice
called his son Maximus, whom I afterwards saw as a monk, and said, My
child, Maximus, help me; receive me in thy faith: I have not in any way
been hurtful to thee. The son Maximus then, troubled with great sorrowing,
came to him. He was then turning like a worm; he could not endure the
dreadful sight of the accursed spirits. He turned himself to the wall,
there they were present to him; he turned back again, there he found them.
When he, so greatly afflicted, was hopeless of himself, he cried with a
loud voice, and thus said, Grant me a respite till to-morrow, at least a
respite till to-morrow: and with this cry the black fiends drew the soul
from the body, and led it away." From this it is manifest, that the vision
was shown to him for the bettering of other men, not for his own. Alas,
what did it profit him, though, on his departure, he saw the swart spirits,
when he might not have the respite which he desired? But let us be careful,
that our time escape not from us in vanity, and we turn to good deeds, when
death urges us to departure.

Thou, Almighty Lord, have mercy on us sinful, and so order our departure,
that we, having atoned for our sins, may, after this perilous life, be
associated with thy saints. To thee be praise and glory for ever and ever.

       *       *       *       *       *



On Decies dæge, þæs wælhreowan caseres, wæs se halga biscop Sixtus on
Romana byrig drohtnigende. Ða færlice het hé his gesihum, ðone biscop mid
his preostum samod geandwerdian. Sixtus ða unforhtmod to his preostum
clypode, "Mine gebroðra, ne beo ge afyrhte, cumað, and eower nan him ne
ondræde ða scortan tintregunga. Þa halgan martyras geðrowodon fela pinunga,
þæt hí orsorge becomon to wulder-beage þæs ecan lifes." Þa andwyrdon his
twegen diaconas, Felicissimus and Agapitus, "Ðu, ure fæder, hwider fare we
butan ðe?" On ðære nihte wearð se biscop mid his twám diaconum hrædlice to
ðam reðum ehtere gebroht. Se casere Decius him cwæð to, "Geoffra ðine lác
ðam undeadlicum godum, and beo ðu þæra sacerda ealdor." Se eadiga Sixtus
him andwyrde, "Ic symle geoffrode, and gýt offrige mine lác ðam Ælmihtigan
Gode, and his Suna, Hælendum Criste, and ðam Halgum Gaste, hluttre
onsægednysse and ungewemmede." Decius cwæð, "Gebeorh ðe and ðinum preostum,
and geoffra. Soðlice gif ðu ne dest, þu scealt beon eallum oðrum to bysne."
Sixtus soðlice andwyrde, "Hwene ær ic ðe sæde, þæt ic symle geoffrige ðam
Ælmihtigum Gode." Decius ða cwæð to his cempum, "Lædað hine to ðam temple
Martis, þæt he ðam gode Marti geoffrige: gif he nelle offrian, beclysað
hine on ðam cwearterne Mamortini." Þa cempan hine læddon to ðam
deofolgylde, and hine ðreatodon þæt he ðære deadan anlicnysse his lác
offrian sceolde. Þaða he ðæs caseres hæse forseah, and ðam deofolgylde
offrian nolde, ða gebrohton hi hine mid his twam diaconum binnan ðam
blindan cwearterne.

Þa betwux ðam com LAURENTIUS, his erce-diacon, and ðone halgan biscop mid
ðisum wordum gespræc, "Ðu, mín fæder, hwider siðast ðu butan ðinum bearne?
Þu halga {418} sacerd, hwider efst ðu butan ðinum diacone? Næs ðin gewuna
þæt ðu butan ðinum diacone Gode geoffrodest. Hwæt mislicode ðe, min fæder,
on me? Geswutela ðine mihte on ðinum bearne, and geoffra Gode þone ðe ðu
getuge, þæt þu ðy orsorglicor becume to ðam æðelan wulder-beage." Þaða se
eadiga Laurentius mid þisum wordum and ma oðrum bemǽnde þæt he ne moste mid
his lareowe ðrowian, ða andwyrde se biscop, "Min bearn, ne forlæte ic ðe,
ac ðe gerist mara campdom on ðinum gewinne. We underfoð, swa swa ealde men,
scortne ryne þæs leohtran gewinnes; soðlice þu geonga underfehst miccle
wulderfulran sige æt ðisum reðan cyninge. Min cild, geswic ðines wopes:
æfter ðrim dagum ðu cymst sigefæst to me to ðam ecum life. Nim nu ure
cyrcan maðmas, and dæl cristenum mannum, be ðan ðe ðe gewyrð."

Se erce-diacon ða, Laurentius, be ðæs biscopes hæse ferde and dælde þære
cyrcan maðmas preostum, and ælðeodigum ðearfum, and wudewum, ælcum be his
neode. He com to sumere wudewan, hire nama wæs Quiriaca, seo hæfde behyd on
hire hame preostas and manega læwede cristenan. Ða se eadiga Laurentius
ðwoh heora ealra fét, and ða wudewan fram hefigtimum heafod-ece gehælde.
Eac sum ymesene man mid wope his fét gesohte, biddende his hæle. Laurentius
ða mearcode rode-tacen on ðæs blindan eagan, and he ðærrihte beorhtlice
geseah. Se erce-diacon ða-gyt geaxode má cristenra manna gehwær, and hí ær
his ðrowunge mid gastlicere sibbe and mid fót-ðweale geneosode.

Þaða hé ðanon gewende, ða wæs his láreow Sixtus mid his twam diaconum of
ðam cwearterne gelædd, ætforan ðam casere Decium. He wearð þa geháthyrt
ongean ðone halgan biscop, ðus cweðende, "Witodlice we beorgað ðinre ylde:
gehyrsuma urum bebodum, and geoffra ðam undeaðlicum godum." Se eadiga
biscop him andwyrde, "Ðu earming, beorh ðe sylfum, and wyrc dædbote for
ðæra halgena blode {420} ðe ðu agute." Se wælhreowa cwellere mid gebolgenum
mode cwæð to his heah-gerefan, Ualeriane, "Gif ðes bealdwyrda biscop
acweald ne bið, siððan ne bið ure ege ondrædendlic." Ualerianus him
andwyrde, "Beo he heafde becorfen. Hat hí eft to ðæs godes temple Martis
gelǽdan, and gif hí nellað to him gebigedum cneowum gebiddan, and heora lác
offrian, underfón hí beheafdunge on ðære ylcan stowe." Þæs caseres cempan
hine læddon to ðam deofolgylde mid his twam diaconum: ða beseah se biscop
wið ðæs temples, and ðus cwæð, "Þu dumba deofolgyld, þurh ðe forleosað
earme menn þæt ece lif: towurpe ðe se Ælmihtiga Godes Sunu." Þa mid þam
worde tobærst sum dæl ðæs temples mid færlicum hryre. Laurentius ða clypode
to ðam biscope, "Þu halga fæder, ne forlǽt ðu me, forðan ðe ic aspende ðære
cyrcan maðmas swa swa ðu me bebude." Hwæt ða cempan ða hine gelæhton,
forðan ðe hí gehyrdon hine be ðam cyrclicum madmum sprecan. Sixtus ða
soðlice underhnáh swurdes ecge, and his twegen diaconas samod, Felicissimus
and Agapitus, ætforan ðam temple, on ðam sixtan dæge þyses monðes.

Laurentius witodlice wearð siððan gebroht to ðam casere, and se reða
cwellere hine ða befrán, "Hwær sind ðære cyrcan madmas ðe ðe betæhte
wæron?" Se eadiga Laurentius mid nanum worde him ne geandwyrde. On ðam
ylcan dæge betæhte se Godes feond ðone halgan diacon his heah-gerefan
Ualeriane, mid ðysum bebode, "Ofgang ða madmas mid geornfulnysse, and hine
gebig to ðam undeadlicum godum." Se gerefa ða hine betæhte his gingran, ðæs
nama wæs Ypolitus, and he hine beclysde on cwearterne mid manegum oðrum. Þa
gemette hé on ðam cwearterne ænne hæðenne man, se wæs ðurh micelne wóp
ablend. Ða cwæð he him to, "Lucille, gif ðu gelyfst on Hælend Crist, he
onliht ðine eagan." He andwyrde, "Æfre ic gewilnode þæt ic on Cristes naman
gefullod wære." Laurentius him to cwæð, "Gelyfst ðu mid ealre heortan?" He
andwyrde mid wope, "Ic {422} gelyfe on Hælend Crist, and ðam leasum
deofolgyldum wiðsace." Ypolitus mid geðylde heora wordum heorcnode. Se
gesæliga Laurentius tæhte ða ðam blindan soðne geleafan ðære Halgan
Þrynnysse, and hine gefullode. Lucillus æfter ðam fulluht-bæðe mid beorhtre
stemne clypode, "Sy gebletsod se Eca God, Hælend Crist, ðe me ðurh his
diacon onlihte. Ic wæs blind bám eagum, nu ic beorhtlice leohtes bruce."
Witodlice ða fela oðre blinde mid wope comon to ðam eadigan diacone, and hé
asette his handa ofer heora eagan, and hí wurdon onlihte.

Se tún-gerefa Ypolitus cwæð ða to ðam diacone, "Geswutela me ðære cyrcan
madmas." Laurentius cwæð, "Eala ðu Ypolite, gif ðu gelyfst on God Fæder,
and on his Sunu Hælend Crist, ic ðe geswutelige ða madmas, and þæt ece líf
behate." Ypolitus cwæð, "Gif ðu ðas word mid weorcum gefylst, ðonne do ic
swa ðu me tihst." Laurentius ða halgode fant, and hine gefullode. Soðlice
Ypolitus æfter ðam fulluht-bæðe wæs clypigende mid beorhtre stemne, "Ic
geseah unscæððigra manna sawla on Gode blissigan." And he mid tearum to ðam
eadigan diacone cwæð, "Ic halsige ðe on ðæs Hælendes naman, þæt eal min
híwræden gefullod wurðe." Witodlice Laurentius mid bliðum mode him ðæs
getiðode, and nigontyne wera and wifa his híwisces mid wuldre gefullode.

Æfter ðisum sende se heah-gerefa, and bebead Ypolite þæt he Laurentium to
ðæs cynges cafer-tune gelædde. Ypolitus þæt bebod mid eadmodre spræce cydde
ðam eadigan Laurentie. He cwæð, "Uton faran, forðan ðe me and ðe is wuldor
gegearcod." Hi ða hrædlice comon, and unforhte him ætforan stodon. Þa cwæð
Ualerianus to ðam halgan cyðere, "Awurp nu ðine anwilnysse, and agif ða
madmas." Se Godes cyðere him andwyrde, "On Godes ðearfum ic hí aspende, and
hí sind ða ecan madmas, ðe næfre ne beoð gewanode." Se gerefa cwæð, "Hwæt
fagettest ðu mid wordum? Geoffra ðine lác urum gudum, and forlǽt ðone {424}
drycræft ðe ðu on getruwast." Laurentius cwæð, "For hwilcum ðingum neadað
se deofol eow þæt ge cristene men to his biggengum ðreatniað? Gif hit riht
sy þæt we to deoflum us gebiddon swiðor þonne to ðam Ælmihtigan Gode, deme
ge hwá þæs wurðmyntes wurðe sy, se ðe geworht is, oððe se ðe ealle ðing
gesceop." Se casere ða andwyrde, "Hwæt is se ðe geworht is, oððe hwæt is se
ðe geworhte?" Godes cyðere cwæð, "Se Ælmihtiga Fæder ures Hælendes is
Scyppend ealra gesceafta, and ðu cwyst þæt ic me gebiddan sceole to dumbum
stanum, ða ðe sind agrafene ðurh manna handa." Hwæt se casere ða hine
gebealh, and het on his gesihðe ðone diacon unscrydan, and wælhreowlice
swingan, and se casere sylf clypode, "Ne hyrw ðu ure godas." Se eadiga
Laurentius on ðam tintregum cwæð, "Witodlice ic ðancige minum Gode, þe me
gemedemode to his halgum; and ðu, earming, eart geancsumod on ðinre
gewitleaste." Decius cwæð to ðam cwellerum, "Arærað hine upp, and æteowiað
his gesihðum eal þæt wita-tól." Þa wurdon hrædlice forðaborene isene
clutas, and isene clawa, and isen bedd, and leadene swipa and oðre gepilede
swipa. Þa cwæð se casere, "Geoffra ðine lác urum godum, oððe þu bist mid
eallum ðisum pinung-tólum getintregod." Se eadiga diacon cwæð, "Þu
ungesæliga, þas estmettas ic symle gewilnode: hí beoð me to wuldre, and ðe
to wite." Se casere cwæð, "Geswutela us ealle ða mánfullan ðine gelican,
þæt ðeos burh beo geclænsod; and ðu sylf geoffra urum godum, and ne truwa
ðu nateshwon on ðinum gold-hordum." Þa cwæð se halga martyr, "Soðlice ic
truwige, and ic eom orsorh be minum hordum." Decius andwyrde, "Wenst ðu la
þæt þu beo alysed mid ðinum hordum fram ðisum tintregum?" and het ða mid
gramlicum mode þæt þa cwelleras mid stearcum saglum hine beoton. Witodlice
Laurentius on ðam gebeate clypode, "Þu earming, undergyt huru nu þæt ic
sígrige be Cristes madmum, and ic ðine tintregu naht ne gefrede." Decius
cwæð, "Lecgað ða isenan clutas hate glowende to {426} his sidan." Se eadiga
martyr ða wæs biddende his Drihten, and cwæð, "Hælend Crist, God of Gode,
gemiltsa þinum ðeowan, forðan ðe ic gewreged ðe ne wiðsoc, befrinen ic ðe
geandette." Þa het se casere hine aræran, and cwæð, "Ic geseo þæt ðu, ðurh
ðinne drycræft, ðas tintregan gebysmerast; ðeah-hwæðere ne scealt ðu me
gebysmrian. Ic swerige ðurh ealle godas and gydena, þæt þu scealt
geoffrian, oððe ic ðe mid mislicum pinungum acwelle." Laurentius ða
bealdlice clypode, "Ic on mines Drihtnes naman nateshwon ne forhtige for
ðinum tintregum, ðe sind hwilwendlice: ne ablin ðu þæt ðu begunnen hæfst."

Þa wearð se casere mid swyðlicere hátheortnysse geyrsod, and het ðone
halgan diacon mid leadenum swipum langlice swingan. Laurentius ða clypode,
"Hælend Crist, þu ðe gemedemodest þæt ðu to menniscum menn geboren wære,
and us fram deofles ðeowte alysdest, onfoh minne gást." On ðære ylcan tide
him com andswaru of heofonum, þus cweðende, "Gyt ðu scealt fela gewinn
habban on ðinum martyrdome." Decius ða geháthyrt clypode, "Romanisce weras,
gehyrde ge ðæra deofla frofor on ðisum eawbræcum, ðe ure godas geyrsode ne
ondræt, ne ða asmeadan tintregan? Astreccað hine, and mid gepiledum swipum
swingende geangsumiað." Laurentius ða astreht on ðære hengene, mid
hlihendum muðe ðancode his Drihtne, "Drihten God, Fæder Hælendes Cristes,
sy ðu gebletsod, þe us forgeafe ðine mildheortnysse; cyð nu ðine
arfæstnysse, þæt ðas ymbstandendan oncnawon þæt ðu gefrefrast ðine ðeowan."
On ðære tide gelyfde án ðæra cempena, ðæs nama wæs Romanus, and cwæð to ðam
Godes cyðere, "Laurentie, ic geseo Godes engel standende ætforan ðe mid
hand-claðe, and wipað ðine swatigan limu. Nu halsige ic ðe, þurh God, þæt
þu me ne forlæte." Þa wearð Decius mid facne afylled, and cwæð to his
heah-gerefan, "Me ðincð þæt we sind ðurh drycræft oferswiðde." And he het
ða alysan ðone diacon of ðære hengene, and betæcan ðam tún-gerefan Ypolite,
and nyste ða-gýt þæt hé cristen wæs.

{428} Þa betwux ðam brohte se gelyfeda cempa Romanus ceacfulne wæteres, and
mid wope ðæs halgan Laurenties fét gesohte, fulluhtes biddende. Laurentius
ða hrædlice þæt wæter gehalgode, and ðone geleaffullan ðegen gefullode.
Þaða Decius þæt geaxode, ða het he hine wǽdum bereafian, and mid stearcum
stengum beatan. Romanus ða ungeaxod clypode on ðæs caseres andwerdnysse,
"Ic eom cristen." On ðære ylcan tide het se reða cwellere hine underhnígan
swurdes ecge. Eft on ðære ylcan nihte, æfter ðæs cempan martyrdome, ferde
Decius to ðam hatum baðum wið þæt botl Salustii, and het ðone halgan
Laurentium him to gefeccan. Þa ongann Ypolitus sarlice heofian, and cwæð,
"Ic wylle mid ðe siðian, and mid hluddre stemne hryman, þæt ic cristen eom,
and mid þe licgan." Laurentius cwæð, "Ne wep ðu, ac swiðor suwa and blissa,
forðan ðe ic fare to Godes wuldre. Eft æfter lytlum fyrste, ðonne ic ðe
clypige, gehyr mine stemne, and cum to me."

Decius ða het gearcian eal þæt pinung-tól ætforan his dómsetle, and
Laurentius him wearð to gelæd. Decius cwæð, "Awurp ðone truwan ðines
drycræftes, and gerece ús ðine mægðe." Se eadiga Laurentius andwyrde,
"Æfter menniscum gebyrde ic eom Hispanienscis, Romanisc fostor-cild, and
cristen fram cild-cradole, getogen on ealre godcundre ǽ." Decius andwyrde,
"Soðlice is seo ǽ godcundlic ðe ðe swa gebylde þæt ðu nelt ure godas
wurðian, ne ðu nanes cynnes tintregan þe ne ondrætst." Laurentius cwæð, "On
Cristes naman ne forhtige ic for ðinum tintregum." Se wælhreowa casere ða
cwæð, "Gif ðu ne offrast urum godum, eall ðeos niht sceal beon aspend on ðe
mid mislicum pinungum." Laurentius cwæð, "Næfð min niht nane
forsworcennysse, ac heo mid beorhtum leohte scinð." Þa het se wælhreowa mid
stanum ðæs halgan muð cnucian. Hwæt ða Laurentius wearð gestrangod ðurh
Godes gife, and mid hlihendum muðe cwæð, "Sy ðe lóf, Drihten, forðan ðe ðu
eart ealra ðinga God." Decius cwæð to ðam cwellerum, {430} "Ahebbað þæt
isene bed to ðam fyre, þæt se modiga Laurentius hine ðæron gereste." Hí
ðærrihte hine wædon bereafodon, and on ðam heardan bedde astrehton, and mid
byrnendum gledum þæt bed undercrammodon, and hine ufan mid isenum geaflum

Decius cwæð ða to þam Godes cyðere, "Geoffra nu urum godum." Laurentius
andwyrde, "Ic offrige me sylfne ðam Ælmihtigan Gode on bræðe wynsumnysse;
forðan þe se gedrefeda gast is Gode andfenge onsægednys." Soðlice ða
cwelleras tugon ða gleda singallice under þæt bedd, and wið-ufan mid heora
forcum hine ðydon. Ða cwæð Laurentius, "Eala ge ungesæligan, ne undergyte
ge þæt eowre gleda nane hǽtan minum lichaman ne gedoð, ac swiðor célinge?"
He ða eft mid þam wlitegostan nebbe cwæð, "Hælend Crist, ic ðancige ðe þæt
ðu me gestrangian wylt." He ða beseah wið þæs caseres, þus cweðende, "Efne
ðu, earming, bræddest ænne dæl mines lichaman, wend nu þone oðerne, and
et." He cwæð ða eft, "Hælend Crist, ic ðancige ðe mid inweardre heortan,
þæt ic mót faran into ðinum rice." And mid þysum worde hé ageaf his gast,
and mid swylcum martyrdome þæt uplice rice geferde, on ðam he wunað mid
Gode á on ecnysse. Þa forlét se wælhreowa casere ðone halgan lichaman uppon
ðam isenan hyrdle, and tengde mid his heahgerefan to ðam botle Tyberianum.

Ypolitus ða bebyrigde ðone halgan lichaman mid micelre arwurðnysse on ðære
wudewan leger-stowe Quiriace, on ðysum dægðerlicum dæge. Witodlice æt ðære
byrgene wacode micel menigu cristenra manna mid swiðlicere heofunge. Se
halga sacerd Iustinus ða him eallum gemæssode and gehuslode. Æfter ðisum
gecyrde Ypolitus to his hame, and mid Godes sibbe his hywan gecyste, and hí
ealle gehuslode. Þa færlice, mid ðam ðe hé gesæt, comon ðæs caseres cempan,
and hine gelæhton, and to ðam cwellere gelæddon. Hine befrán ða Decius mid
smercigendum muðe, "Hwæt la, eart ðu to dry awend, forðan ðe ðu bebyrigdest
Laurentium?" {432} He andwyrde, "Þæt ic dyde na swa swa dry, ac swa swa
cristen." Decius ða yrsigende het mid stanum his muð cnucian, and hine
unscrydan, and cwæð, "La hú, nære ðu geornful biggenga ura goda? and nu ðu
eart swa stunt geworden þæt furðon ðe ne sceamað ðinre næcednysse."
Ypolitus andwyrde, "Ic wæs stunt, and ic eom nu wís and cristen. Þurh
nytenysse ic gelyfde on þæt gedwyld þe ðu gelyfst." Decius cwæð, "Geoffra
ðam godum ðylæs ðe ðu þurh tintrega forwurðe, swa swa Laurentius." He
andwyrde, "Eala gif ic moste ðam eadigan Laurentium geefenlæcan!" Decius
cwæð, "Astreccað hine swa nacodne, and mid stiðum saglum beatað." Þaða hé
langlice gebeaten wæs, þa ðancode he Gode. Decius cwæð, "Ypolitus gebysmrað
eowre stengas; swingað hine mid gepiledum swipum." Hi ða swa dydon, oðþæt
hí ateorodon. Ypolitus clypode mid hluddre stemne, "Ic eom cristen."
Eornostlice se reða casere, ðaða he ne mihte mid nanum pinungum hine
geweman fram Cristes geleafan, ða het he his heah-gerefan þæt hé mid
wælhreawum deaðe hine acwellan sceolde.

On ðam ylcan dæge asmeade Ualerianus his æhta, and gemette nygontyne wera
and wifa his híwisces, ðe wæron æt ðæs eadigan Laurenties handum gefullode.
To ðam cwæð Ualerianus, "Sceawiað eowre ylde, and beorgað eowrum feore,
ðylæs ðe ge samod losian mid eowrum hlaforde Ypolite." Hi ða anmodlice
andwyrdon, "We wilniað mid urum hlaforde clænlice sweltan, swiðor ðonne
unclænlice mid eow lybban." Þa wearð Ualerianus ðearle geháthyrt, and het
lædan Ypolitum of ðære ceastre mid his hiwum. Ða se eadiga Ypolitus gehyrte
his hired, and cwæð, "Mine gebroðra, ne beo ge dreorige ne afyrhte, forðan
ðe ic and ge habbað ænne Hlaford, God Ælmihtigne." Soðlice Ualerianus het
beheafdian on Ypolitus gesihðe ealle his hiwan, and hine sylfne het tigan
be ðam fotum to ungetemedra horsa swuran, and swa teon geond ðornas and
bremelas: and he ða mid þam tige his gast ageaf on ðam ðreotteoðan dæge
{434} þises monðes. On ðære ylcan nihte gegaderode se halga Iustinus heora
ealra lic, and bebyrigde.

Eornostlice æfter ðæra halgena ðrowunge, ferde Decius on gyldenum cræte and
Ualerianus samod to heora hæðenum gylde, þæt hí ða cristenan to heora
mánfullum offrungum geðreatodon. Ða wearð Decius færlice mid feondlicum
gaste awéd, and hrymde, "Eala ðu, Ypolite, hwider tihst ðu me gebundenne
mid scearpum racenteagum?" Ualerianus eac awéd hrymde, "Eala ðu,
Laurentius, unsoftlice tihst ðu me gebundenne mid byrnendum racenteagum."
And he ðærrihte swealt. Witodlice Decius egeslice awedde, and binnon ðrym
dagum mid deoflicre stemne singallice hrymde, "Ic halsige ðe, Laurentius,
ablín hwæthwega ðæra tintregena." Hwæt ða, la asprang micel heofung and
sarlic wóp on ðam hame, and ðæs caseres wíf hét út-alædan ealle ða
cristenan ðe on cwearterne wæron, and Decius on ðam ðriddan dæge mid
micclum tintregum gewát.

Soðlice seo cwén Triphonia gesohte ðæs halgan sacerdes fét Iustines mid
biterum tearum, and hire dohtor Cyrilla samod, biddende þæs halgan
fulluhtes. Iustinus ða mid micelre blisse hí underfeng, and him bebead
seofon dagena fæsten, and hí syððan mid þam halgum fulluht-bæðe fram eallum
heora mándædum aðwoh. Þaða þæs caseres ðegnas gehyrdon þæt seo cwén
Triphonia and Decius dohtor Cyrilla to Cristes geleafan, and to ðam
halwendum fulluhte gebogene wæron, hí ða mid heora wifum gesohton ðone
halgan sacerd, and bædon miltsunge and fulluhtes. Se eadiga Iustinus, ðisum
gewordenum, rædde wið þa cristenan hwæne hí to bisceope ceosan woldon on
Sixtes setle. Hi ða anmodlice sumne arwurðfulne wer gecuron, ðæs nama wæs
Dionisius, ðone gehadode se bisceop Maximus, of ðære byrig Ostiensis, to
ðam Romaniscum bisceop-setle, wið wurðmynte.

Uton nu biddan mid eadmodre stemne ðone halgan Godes cyðere Laurentium, þæs
freols-tíd geswutelað þes andwerda dæg ealre geleaffulre gelaðunge, þæt he
us ðingige wið ðone {436} Heofenlican Cyning, for ðæs naman he ðrowode mid
cenum mode menigfealde tintregu, mid ðam he orsorhlice on ecnysse wuldrað.

{417} AUGUST X.


In the time of Decius, the cruel emperor, the holy bishop Sixtus was
dwelling in Rome. Then he suddenly commanded his counts to bring the bishop
together with his priests before him. Sixtus then with fearless mind called
to his priests, "My brothers, be ye not afraid, come, and let none of you
dread short torments. The holy martyrs suffered many tortures, that they
might fearless come to the glory-crown of everlasting life." His two
deacons, Felicissimus and Agapetus, then answered, "Thou, our father,
whither shall we go without thee?" On that night the bishop with his two
deacons was quickly brought to the cruel persecutor. The emperor Decius
said to him, "Offer thy gift to the immortal gods, and be thou the chief of
the priests." The blessed Sixtus answered him, "I have ever offered and
will yet offer my gift to the Almighty God, and his Son, Jesus Christ, and
to the Holy Ghost, in pure and unpolluted sacrifice." Decius said, "Take
heed for thyself and thy priests, and offer; for if thou dost not, thou
shalt be an example to all others." But Sixtus answered, "A little before I
said to thee, that I always offer to Almighty God." Decius then said to his
soldiers, "Lead him to the temple of Mars, that he may offer to the god
Mars: if he will not offer, shut him in the prison Mamortinum." The
soldiers led him to the temple, and urged him to offer his gift to the dead
image. When he despised the emperor's command, and would not offer to the
idol, they brought him with his two deacons into the dark prison.

Then among them came his archdeacon LAWRENCE, and spake to the holy bishop
in these words, "Thou, my father, whither goest thou without thy child?
Thou holy priest, {419} whither hastenest thou without thy deacon? It was
not thy wont to offer to God without thy deacon. What has displeased thee,
my father, in me? Show thy power on thy child, and offer to God him whom
thou hast trained up, that thou the less sorrowfully attain to the noble
crown of glory." When the blessed Lawrence had, with these words and others
more, lamented that he might not suffer with his teacher, the bishop
answered, "My child, I forsake thee not, but thee befits a greater struggle
in thy conflict. We, as old men, shall undergo the short course of a
lighter conflict: but thou, a young man, wilt undergo a much more glorious
triumph from this cruel king. My child, cease thy weeping: after three days
thou wilt come to me triumphant to everlasting life. Take thou our church's
treasures, and distribute to christian men, as it may seem good unto thee."

The archdeacon Lawrence then, at the bishop's command, went and distributed
the church's treasures to priests, and poor strangers, and widows, to each
according to his need. He came to a widow, whose name was Quiriaca, who had
hidden in her dwelling priests and many lay christians. Then the blessed
Lawrence washed the feet of them all, and healed the widow of a wearisome
headache. A blind man also with weeping sought his feet, praying for his
cure. Lawrence then marked the sign of the rood on the blind man's eyes,
and he straightways saw brightly. The archdeacon heard yet of more
christian men elsewhere, and before his passion visited them with ghostly
peace and with foot-washing.

When he returned thence, his teacher Sixtus with his two deacons was led
from the prison, before the emperor Decius. He was then exasperated against
the holy bishop, thus saying, "Verily we have regard for thy age: obey our
commands, and offer to the immortal gods." The holy bishop answered him,
"Thou wretch, have regard for thyself, and make atonement for the blood of
the saints which thou hast {421} shed." The bloodthirsty executioner with
wrathful mind said to his chief officer Valerianus, "If this audacious
bishop be not slain, awe for us will be no longer formidable." Valerianus
answered him, "Let his head be cut off. Order them again to the temple of
the god, and if they will not pray to him with bended knees, and offer
their gifts, let them suffer decapitation on the same place." The emperor's
soldiers led him to the temple with his two deacons: then the bishop looked
towards the temple, and thus said, "Thou dumb idol, through thee miserable
men lose everlasting life: may the Almighty Son of God overthrow thee!"
Then at that word a part of the temple burst asunder with a sudden fall.
Lawrence then cried to the bishop, "Thou holy father, forsake me not, for I
have distributed the church's treasures as thou commandedst." At this the
soldiers seized him, for they heard him speak of the church's treasures.
Sixtus then sank under the sword's edge, and his two deacons with him,
Felicissimus and Agapetus, before the temple, on the sixth day of this

But Lawrence was afterwards brought to the emperor, and the fierce
executioner asked him, "Where are the church's treasures which were
committed to thee?" The blessed Lawrence answered him not a word. On the
same day the foe of God committed the holy deacon to his chief officer
Valerianus, with this command, "Exact the treasures with importunity, and
make him bow to the immortal gods." The officer then committed him to his
junior, whose name was Hippolytus, and he shut him in a prison with many
others. He found in the prison a heathen man, who was blind through great
weeping. He said to him, "Lucillus, if thou wilt believe in Jesus Christ,
he will enlighten thine eyes." He answered, "I have ever desired to be
baptized in the name of Christ." Lawrence said to him, "Believest thou with
all thy heart?" He answered with weeping, "I believe in Jesus {423} Christ,
and renounce the false idols." Hippolytus with patience listened to their
words. The blessed Lawrence then taught the blind man true belief in the
Holy Trinity, and baptized him. Lucillus, after the baptismal bath, cried
with clear voice, "Blessed be the Eternal God, Jesus Christ, who has
enlightened me through his deacon. I was blind with both eyes, now I
clearly enjoy the light." Then there came many other blind with weeping to
the blessed deacon, and he set his hand over their eyes, and they were

The town-reeve, Hippolytus, said to the deacon, "Show me the church's
treasures." Lawrence answered, "O thou Hippolytus, if thou wilt believe in
God the Father, and in his Son Jesus Christ, I will show thee the
treasures, and promise thee everlasting life." Hippolytus said, "If thou
wilt indeed fulfil those words, I will do as thou exhortest me." Lawrence
then hallowed a font, and baptized him. Verily Hippolytus, after the
baptismal bath, cried with a clear voice, "I saw the souls of innocent men
rejoicing in God." And he said with tears to the blessed deacon, "I beseech
thee, in the name of Jesus, that all my household might be baptized."
Lawrence granted him this with cheerful mind, and with glory baptized
nineteen men and women of his family.

After this the chief officer sent, and commanded Hippolytus to lead
Lawrence to the king's court. Hippolytus with humble speech made known that
command to the blessed Lawrence. He said, "Let us go, for glory is prepared
for me and for thee." They went quickly, and stood fearless before him.
Then said Valerianus to the holy martyr, "Cast away now thy obstinacy, and
give up the treasures." The martyr of God answered him, "On God's poor I
have spent them, and they are the everlasting treasures which will never be
diminished." The officer said, "Why playest thou with words? Offer thy gift
to our gods, and forsake the magic {425} in which thou trustest." Lawrence
said, "For what reason does the devil compel you to urge christian men to
his worship? If it be right that we should pray to devils rather than to
the Almighty God, judge which is worthy of that honour, he who is made, or
he who created all things." The emperor then answered, "What is he who is
made, or what is he who made?" God's martyr said, "The Almighty Father of
our Saviour is the Creator of all creatures, and thou sayest that I shall
pray to dumb stones, which are carved by the hands of men." The emperor was
then wroth, and commanded the deacon to be unclothed in his sight, and
cruelly scourged, and the emperor himself cried, "Insult not our gods." The
blessed Lawrence said in torments, "Verily I thank my God, who has
vouchsafed to number me with his holy; and thou, wretch, art afflicted in
thy foolishness." Decius said to the executioners, "Raise him up, and
manifest to his sight all the torture-tools." Then were quickly brought
forth iron plates, and iron claws, and an iron bed, and leaden whips, and
other leaded whips. Then said the emperor, "Offer thy gift to our gods, or
thou shalt be tortured with all these torture-tools." The blessed deacon
said, "Thou unblessed, these luxuries I have ever desired; they will be to
me a glory, and to thee a torment." The emperor said, "Declare to us all
the wicked thy like, that this city may be cleansed; and do thou thyself
offer to our gods, and trust thou in no wise to thy treasures." Then said
the holy martyr, "Verily I trust, and I am careless for my treasures."
Decius answered, "Thinkest thou then that thou wilt be redeemed by thy
treasures from these torments?" and then in angry mood commanded the
executioners to beat him with stout clubs. But Lawrence, during the
beating, cried, "Thou wretch, know at least that I triumph regarding
Christ's treasures, and I feel not thy torments." Decius said, "Lay the
{427} iron plates glowing hot to his side." The blessed martyr then was
praying to his Lord, and said, "Saviour Christ, God of God, have mercy on
thy servant, for, accused, I denied thee not; questioned, I acknowledged
thee." Then the emperor commanded him to be raised, and said, "I see that
thou, through thy magic, mockest these torments; nevertheless thou shalt
not mock me. I swear by all the gods and goddesses, that thou shalt offer,
or I will slay thee by divers tortures." Lawrence then boldly cried, "I, in
the name of my Lord, in no wise fear thy torments, which are transitory:
cease thou not from what thou hast begun."

Then was the emperor excited with violent fury, and commanded the holy
deacon to be scourged a long time with leaden whips. Lawrence then cried,
"Saviour Christ, thou who hast vouchsafed to be born a mortal man, and hast
redeemed us from the devil's thraldom, receive my spirit." At the same time
an answer came to him from heaven, thus saying, "Yet thou shalt have much
affliction in thy martyrdom." Decius then furious cried, "Roman men, heard
ye the comfort of the devils to this impious, who dreads not our irritated
gods, nor the devised torments? Stretch him, and, scourging with leaded
whips, afflict him." Lawrence then, stretched on the cross, with laughing
mouth thanked his Lord, "Lord God, Father of Jesus Christ, be thou blessed,
who hast given us thy mercy; manifest now thy favour, that these standing
about may know that thou comfortest thy servants." At that time one of the
soldiers, whose name was Romanus, believed, and said to the martyr of God,
"Lawrence, I see God's angel standing before thee with a hand-cloth, and
wiping thy sweating limbs. I now beseech thee, through God, that thou
forsake me not." Then was Decius filled with guile, and said to his chief
officer, "Methinks that we are overcome by magic." And he then ordered the
holy deacon to be loosened from the cross, and delivered to the town-reeve
Hippolytus, and knew not yet that he was a christian.

{429} Then meanwhile the believing soldier Romanus brought a jugful of
water, and with weeping sought the feet of the holy Lawrence, craving
baptism. Lawrence then quickly hallowed the water, and baptized the
believing servant. When Decius heard of it, he ordered him to be stript of
his garments and beaten with stout staves. Romanus then unasked cried in
the emperor's presence, "I am a christian." At the same time the fierce
executioner ordered him to fall under the sword's edge. Again, on the same
night, after the soldier's martyrdom, Decius went to the hot baths,
opposite the house of Sallust, and commanded the holy Lawrence to be
fetched to him. Then Hippolytus began sorely to lament, and said, "I will
go with thee, and with loud voice cry that I am a christian, and lie with
thee." Lawrence said, "Weep not, but rather be silent and rejoice, for I go
to God's glory. After a little time hence, when I call, hear my voice, and
come to me."

Decius then commanded all the torture-tools to be prepared, before his
doom-seat, and Lawrence was led to him. Decius said, "Cast away trust in
thy magic, and recount to us of thy family." The blessed Lawrence answered,
"According to human birth I am Spanish, a Roman foster-child, and a
christian from my cradle, trained up in all divine law." Decius answered,
"In sooth the law is divine, which has so emboldened thee that thou wilt
not worship our gods, nor dreadest any kind of torment." Lawrence said, "In
the name of Christ I fear not for thy torments." The cruel emperor then
said, "If thou offerest not to our gods, all this night shall be spent on
thee with divers tortures." Lawrence said, "My night has no darkness, but
shines with bright light." Then the cruel one commanded the mouth of the
saint to be struck with stones. But Lawrence was strengthened through the
grace of God, and said with laughing mouth, "Lord, be to thee praise, for
thou of all things art God." Decius said to the executioners, "Raise the
iron bed to the {431} fire, that the proud Lawrence may rest thereon." They
straightways bereft him of his garments, and stretched him on the hard bed,
and filled the bed underneath with burning coals, and from above pierced
him with iron forks.

Decius said to the martyr of God, "Offer now to our gods." Lawrence
answered, "I will offer myself to the Almighty God, in the odour of
pleasantness; for the afflicted spirit is an acceptable sacrifice to God."
But the executioners drew the burning coals constantly under the bed, and
from above pierced him with their forks. Then said Lawrence, "O ye
unblessed, understand ye not that your glowing embers cause no heat to my
body, but rather cooling?" He then again with the most beautiful
countenance said, "Saviour Christ, I thank thee that thou wilt strengthen
me." He then looked towards the emperor, thus saying, "Behold, thou,
wretch, hast roasted one part of my body, turn now the other, and eat." He
then said again, "Saviour Christ, I thank thee with inward heart, that I
may go into thy kingdom." And with these words he gave up his ghost, and
with such martyrdom went to the realm on high, in which he dwelleth with
God through all eternity. The cruel emperor then left the holy body on the
iron hurdle, and with his chief officer hastened to the house of Tiberius.

Hippolytus then buried the holy body with great reverence in the
burial-place of the widow Quiriaca, on this present day. But at the grave
there watched a great many christian men with great lamentation. The holy
priest Justin celebrated mass to and houseled them all. After this
Hippolytus returned to his home, and with God's peace kissed his family,
and houseled them all. Then suddenly, while he was sitting, the emperor's
soldiers came, and seized him, and led him to the executioner. Decius then
asked him with smiling mouth, "What, art thou turned magician, since thou
hast buried {433} Lawrence?" He answered, "I did not that as a magician,
but as a christian." Decius then in wrath ordered his mouth to be stricken
with stones, and him to be stript, and said, "How, wast thou not a diligent
worshiper of our gods? and now thou art become so foolish that thou art not
ashamed of thy nakedness." Hippolytus answered, "I was foolish, and I am
now wise and a christian. Through ignorance I believed in the error in
which thou believest." Decius said, "Offer to the gods, lest, as Lawrence,
thou perish by torments." He answered, "O, if I might imitate the blessed
Lawrence!" Decius said, "Stretch him thus naked, and beat him with strong
clubs." When he had long been beaten he thanked God. Decius said,
"Hippolytus mocks your staves, scourge him with leaded whips." They then
did so, till they were worn out. Hippolytus cried with a loud voice, "I am
a christian." So the fierce emperor, when he could not, by any torments,
seduce him from belief in Christ, commanded his chief officer to slay him
by the most cruel death.

On the same day Valerianus took an account of his property, and found
nineteen men and women of his family, who had been baptized at the hands of
the blessed Lawrence. To them said Valerianus, "Consider your age, and have
regard for your life, lest ye perish together with your lord Hippolytus."
They unanimously answered, "We desire to die purely with our lord, rather
than to live impurely with you." Then was Valerianus greatly irritated, and
ordered Hippolytus to be led from the city with his household. The blessed
Hippolytus then cheered his household, and said, "My brothers, be ye not
sad nor afraid, for I and ye have one Lord, God Almighty." So Valerianus
ordered, in the sight of Hippolytus, all his domestics to be beheaded, and
himself he ordered to be tied by the feet to the necks of untamed horses,
and so to be drawn through thorns and brambles: and he with that binding
gave up his ghost on the thirteenth day of {435} this month. On the same
night the holy Justin gathered the bodies of them all and buried them.

But after the passion of those saints, Decius and Valerianus went together
in a golden chariot to their temple, that they might force the christians
to their wicked offerings. Then became Decius suddenly frantic with a
fiendlike spirit, and cried, "O thou, Hippolytus, whither drawest thou me
bound with sharp chains?" Valerianus also frantic cried, "O thou, Lawrence,
unsoftly thou drawest me bound with burning chains." And he forthwith died.
But Decius became horribly frantic, and for three days, with fiendlike
voice, constantly cried, "I beseech thee, Lawrence, cease somewhat of those
torments." Hereupon great lamentation and sore weeping arose in the
dwelling, and the emperor's wife ordered all the christians who were in
prison to be led out, and on the third day Decius in great torments

But the queen Tryphonia, together with her daughter Cyrilla, sought the
feet of the holy priest Justin with bitter tears, praying for holy baptism.
Justin then with great joy received them, and enjoined them a fast of seven
days, and afterwards, by the holy baptismal bath, washed them from all
their sins. When the emperor's thanes heard that the queen Tryphonia and
the daughter of Decius, Cyrilla, had turned to the faith of Christ and to
the salutary baptism, they with their wives sought the holy priest, and
prayed for mercy and baptism. The blessed Justin, these things being done,
took counsel with the christians, whom they would choose for bishop in the
chair of Sixtus. They then unanimously chose a venerable man whose name was
Dionysius, whom the bishop Maximus, of the city of Ostia, consecrated to
the Roman episcopal see with honour.

Let us now pray with humble voice the holy martyr of God, Lawrence, whose
festival this present day makes known to all the faithful church, that he
intercede for us with the {437} Heavenly King, for whose name he suffered
with bold mind many torments, with whom he free from care glorieth to
eternity. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *



Hieronimus se halga sacerd awrát ænne pistol be forðsiðe þære eadigan
MARIAN, Godes cennestran, to sumum halgan mædene, hyre nama wæs Eustochium,
and to hyre meder Paulam, seo wæs gehalgod wydewe. To þysum twam wifmannum
awrát se ylca Hieronimus, menigfealde traht-bec, forðan ðe hi wæron haliges
lifes men, and swiðe gecneordlæcende on boclicum smeagungum. Þes Hieronimus
wæs halig sacerd, and getogen on Hebreiscum gereorde, and on Greciscum, and
on Ledenum fulfremedlice; and he awende ure bibliothecan of Hebreiscum
bocum to Leden spræce. He is se fyrmesta wealhstod betwux Hebreiscum, and
Grecum, and Ledenwarum. Twa and hund-seofontig boca þære ealdan ǽ and þære
niwan he awende on Leden to anre Bibliothecan, buton oðrum menigfealdum
traht-bocum ðe he mid gecneordum andgite deopðancollice asmeade. Ða æt
nextan he dihte þisne pistol to þære halgan wydewan Paulam, and to þam
Godes mædene Eustochium, hyre dehter, and to eallum þam mædenlicum werode,
þe him mid drohtnigende wæron, þus cweðende:

Witodlice ge neadiað me þæt ic eow recce hu seo eadige Maria, on ðisum
dægðerlicum dæge to heofonlicere wununge genumen wæs, þæt eower mædenlica
heap hæbbe þas lac Ledenre spræce, hu þes mæra freolsdæg geond æghwylces
geares ymbryne beo aspend mid heofonlicum lofe, and mid gastlicere blisse
gemærsode sy, þylæs þe eow on hand {438} becume seo lease gesetnys ðe þurh
gedwolmen wide tosawen is, and ge þonne þa gehiwedan leasunge for soðre
race underfon.

Soðlice fram anginne þæs halgan godspelles ge geleornodon hu se heah-engel
Gabriel þam eadigan mædene Marian þæs heofonlican Æðelinges acennednysse
gecydde, and þæs Hælendes wundra, and þære gesæligan Godes cennestran
þenunge, and hyre lifes dæda on þam feower godspellicum bocum geswutollice
oncneowon. Iohannes se Godspellere awrát on Cristes þrowunge, þæt he sylf
and Maria stodon mid dreorigum mode wið ðære halgan rode, þe se Hælend on
gefæstnod wæs. Ða cwæð he to his agenre meder, "Ðu fæmne, efne her is þin
sunu." Eft he cwæð to Iohanne, "Loca nu, her stent þin modor." Syððan, of
þam dæge, hæfde se Godspellere Iohannes gymene þære halgan Marian, and mid
carfulre þenunge, swa swa agenre meder, gehyrsumode.

Drihten, þurh his arfæstnysse, betæhte þæt eadige mæden his cennestran þam
clænan men Iohanne, seðe on clænum mægðhade symle wunode; and he forðy
synderlice þam Drihtne leof wæs, to ðan swiðe, þæt he him þone deorwurðan
maðm, ealles middangeardes cwéne, betæcan wolde; gewislice þæt hire
clænesta mægðhád þam clænan men geþeod wære mid gecwemre geferrædene on
wynsumre drohtnunge. On him bám wæs an miht ansundes mægðhades, ac oðer
intinga on Marian; on hire is wæstmbære mægðhád, swa swa on nanum oðrum.
Nis on nanum oðrum men mægðhád, gif þær bið wæstmbærnys; ne wæstmbærnys,
gif þær bið ansund mægðhád. Nu is forði gehalgod ægðer ge Marian mægðhád ge
hyre wæstmbærnys þurh þa godcundlican acennednysse; and heo ealle oðre
oferstihð on mægðhade and on wæstmbærnysse. Ðeah-hwæðere, þeah heo
synderlice Iohannes gymene betæht wære, hwæðere heo drohtnode gemænelice,
æfter Cristes upstige, mid þam apostolicum werode, infarende and utfarende
betwux him, and hi ealle mid micelre arwurðnysse and lufe hire þenodon, and
heo him {440} cuðlice ealle þing ymbe Cristes menniscnysse gewissode;
forðan þe heo fram frymðe gewislice þurh þone Halgan Gast hi ealle
geleornode, and mid agenre gesihðe geseah; þeah ðe þa apostoli þurh þone
ylcan Gast ealle þing undergeaton, and on ealre soðfæstnysse gelærede
wurdon. Se heah-engel Gabriel hi ungewemmede geheold, and heo wunode on
Iohannes and on ealra þæra apostola gymene, on þære heofonlican scole, embe
Godes ǽ smeagende, oðþæt God on þysum dæge hi genam to ðam heofonlican
þrymsetle, and hi ofer engla weredum geufrode.

Nis geræd on nanre bec nan swutelre gewissung be hire geendunge, buton þæt
heo nu to-dæg wuldorfullice of þam lichaman gewát. Hyre byrigen is swutol
eallum onlociendum oð þysne andweardan dæg, on middan þære dene Iosaphat.
Seo dene is betwux þære dune Sion and þam munte Oliueti, and seo byrigen is
æteowed open and emtig, and þær on-uppon on hire wurðmynte is aræred mære
cyrce mid wundorlicum stán-geweorce. Nis nanum deadlicum men cuð hú, oððe
on hwylcere tide hyre halga lichama þanon gebroden wære, oððe hwider he
ahafen sy, oððe hwæðer heo of deaðe arise: cwædon þeah gehwylce lareowas,
þæt hyre Sunu, seðe on þam þriddan dæge mihtilice of deaðe arás, þæt he eac
his moder lichaman of deaðe arærde, and mid undeadlicum wuldre on heofonan
rice gelogode. Eac swa gelice forwel menige lareowas on heora bocum setton,
be ðam ge-edcucedum mannum þe mid Criste of deaðe arison, þæt hi ecelice
arærede synd. Witodlice hi andetton þæt ða aræredan men næron soðfæste
gewitan Cristes æristes, buton hi wæron ecelice arærede. Ne wiðcweðe we be
þære eadigan Marian þa ecan æriste, þeah, for wærscipe gehealdenum
geleafan, us gedafenað þæt we hit wenon swiðor þonne we unrædlice hit
geseþan þæt ðe is uncuð buton ælcere fræcednysse.

We rædað gehwær on bocum, þæt forwel oft englas comon to godra manna
forðsiðe, and mid gastlicum lofsangum heora sawla to heofonum gelæddon.
And, þæt gyt swutollicor is, {442} men gehyrdon on þam forðsiðe wæpmanna
sang and wifmanna sang, mid micclum leohte and swetum breðe: on ðam is cuð
þæt þa halgan men þe to Godes rice þurh gode geearnunga becomon, þæt hi on
oðra manna forðsiðe heora sawla underfoð, and mid micelre blisse to reste
gelædað. Nu gif se Hælend swilcne wurðmynt on his halgena forðsiðe oft
geswutelode, and heora gastas mid heofonlicum lofsange to him gefeccan het,
hu miccle swiðor wenst þu þæt he nu to-dæg þæt heofonlice werod togeanes
his agenre meder sendan wolde, þæt hi mid ormætum leohte and
unasecgendlicum lofsangum hi to þam þrymsetle gelæddon þe hire gegearcod
wæs fram frymðe middangeardes.

Nis nan twynung þæt eall heofonlic þrym þa mid unasecgendlicere blisse hire
to-cymes fægnian wolde. Soðlice eac we gelyfað þæt Drihten sylf hire
togeanes come, and wynsumlice mid gefean to him on his þrymsetle hi
gesette: witodlice he wolde gefyllan þurh hine sylfne þæt he on his ǽ
bebead, þus cweðende, "Arwurða þinne fæder and þine moder." He is his agen
gewita þæt he his Fæder gearwurðode, swa swa he cwæð to þam Iudeiscum, "Ic
arwurðige minne Fæder, and ge unarwurðiað me." On his menniscnysse he
arwurðode his moder, þaða he wæs, swa swa þæt halige godspel segð, hire
underðeod on his geogoðhade. Micele swiðor is to gelyfenne þæt he his modor
mid unasecgendlicere arwurðnysse on his rice gewurðode, þaða he wolde æfter
ðære menniscnysse on þysum life hyre gehyrsumian.

Ðes symbel-dæg oferstihð unwiðmetenlice ealra oðra halgena mæsse-dagas swa
micclum swa þis halige mæden, Godes modor, is unwiðmetenlic eallum oðrum
mædenum. Ðes freolsdæg is us gearlic, ac he is heofonwarum singallic. Be
ðysre heofonlican cwéne upstige wundrode se Halga Gast on lofsangum, ðus
befrinende, "Hwæt is ðeos ðe her astihð swilce arisende dæg-rima, swa
wlitig swa móna, swa gecoren swa sunne, and swa egeslic swa fyrd-truma?" Se
Halga Gast wundrode, forðan ðe he dyde þæt eal heofonwaru {444} wundrode
ðysre fæmnan upfæreldes. Maria is wlitigre ðonne se móna, forðan ðe heo
scinð buton æteorunge hire beorhtnysse. Heo is gecoren swa swa sunne mid
leoman healicra mihta, forðan ðe Drihten, seðe is rihtwisnysse sunne, hí
geceas him to cennestran. Hire fær is wiðmeten fyrdlicum truman, forðan ðe
heo wæs mid halgum mægnum ymbtrymed, and mid engla þreatum.

Be ðissere heofonlican cwéne is gecweden gyt þurh ðone ylcan Godes Gast: he
cwæð, "Ic geseah ða wlitegan swilce culfran astigende ofer streamlicum
riðum, and unasecgendlic bræð stemde of hire gyrlum; and, swa swa on
lengctenlicere tide, rosena blostman and lilian hi ymtrymedon." Ðæra rosena
blostman getacniað mid heora readnysse martyrdom, and ða lilian mid heora
hwitnysse getacniað ða scinendan clænnysse ansundes mægðhádes. Ealle ða
gecorenan ðe Gode geþugon ðurh martyrdom oððe þurh clænnysse, ealle hi
gesiðodon mid þære eadigan cwéne; forðan ðe heo sylf is ægðer ge martyr ge
mæden. Heo is swa wlitig swa culfre, forðan ðe heo lufode ða bilewitnysse,
þe se Halga Gast getacnode, ðaða he wæs gesewen on culfran gelicnysse ofer
Criste on his fulluhte. Oðre martyras on heora lichaman þrowodon martyrdom
for Cristes geleafan, ac seo eadige Maria næs na lichamlice gemartyrod, ac
hire sawul wæs swiðe geangsumod mid micelre þrowunge, þaða heo stod dreorig
foran ongean Cristes rode, and hire leofe cild geseah mid isenum næglum on
heardum treowe gefæstnod. Nu is heo mare þonne martyr, forðan ðe heo
ðrowode þone martyrdom on hire sawle ðe oðre martyras ðrowodon on heora
lichaman. Heo lufode Crist ofer ealle oðre men, and forðy wæs eac hire
sarnys be him toforan oðra manna, and heo dyde his deað hire agenne deað,
forðan ðe his ðrowung swa swa swurd ðurhferde hire sawle.

Nis heo nanes haliges mægnes bedæled, ne nanes wlites, ne nanre
beorhtnysse; and forðy heo wæs ymbtrymed mid rosan and lilian, þæt hyre
mihta wæron mid mihtum {446} underwriðode, and hire fægernys mid clænnysse
wlite wære geyht. Godes gecorenan scinað on heofonlicum wuldre ælc be his
geðingcðum; nu is geleaflic þæt seo eadige] cwén mid swa micclum wuldre and
beorhtnysse oðre oferstige, swa micclum swa hire geðincðu oðra halgena
unwiðmetenlice sind.

Drihten cwæð ær his upstige, þæt on his Fæder huse sindon fela wununga:
soðlice we gelyfað þæt he nu to-dæg þa wynsumestan wununge his leofan meder
forgeafe. Godes gecorenra wuldor is gemetegod be heora geearnungum, and nis
hwæðere nán ceorung ne ánda on heora ænigum, ac hí ealle wuniað on soðre
lufe and healicere sibbe, and ælc blissað on oðres geðincðum swa swa on his

Ic bidde eow, blissiað on ðyssere freols-tide: witodlice nu to-dæg þæt
wuldorfulle mæden heofonas astah, þæt heo unasecgendlice mid Criste ahafen
on ecnysse rixige. Seo heofenlice cwén wearð to-dæg generod fram ðyssere
mánfullan worulde. Eft ic cweðe, fægniað forðan ðe heo becom orsorhlice to
ðam heofonlicum botle. Blissige eal middangeard, forðan ðe nu to-dæg us
eallum is ðurh hire geearnunga hǽl geyht. Þurh ure ealdan modor Euan us
wearð heofonan rices geat belocen, and eft ðurh Marian hit is us geopenod,
þurh þæt heo sylf nu to-dæg wuldorfullice inn-ferde.

God ðurh his witegan us bebead þæt we sceolon hine herian and mǽrsian on
his halgum, on ðam he is wundorlic: micele swiðor gedafenað þæt we hine on
ðisre mæran freols-tide his eadigan meder mid lofsangum and wurðfullum
herungum wurðian sceolon; forðan ðe untwylice eal hire wurðmynt is Godes
herung. Uton nu forði mid ealre estfulnysse ures modes ðas mæran
freols-tide wurðian, forðan ðe þæt siðfæt ure hǽle is on lofsangum ures
Drihtnes. Þa ðe on mæigðháde wuniað blission hí, forðan ðe hí geearnodon
þæt beon þæt hí heriað: habbon hí hóge þæt hí syn swilce þæt hí wurðfullice
herigan magon. Þa ðe on clænan wudewanháde sind, herion hí and arwurðion,
forðan ðe swutol is þæt hí ne magon beon clæne buton ðurh Cristes gife,
seoðe wæs {448} fulfremedlice on Marian ðe hí herigað. Herigan eac and
wurðian ða ðe on sinscipe wuniað, forðan ðe ðanon flewð eallum mildheortnys
and gifu þæt hí herigan magon. Gif hwa synful sy, he andette, and nalǽs
herige, ðeah ðe ne beo wlitig lóf on ðæs synfullan muðe; hwæðere ne geswice
hé ðære herunge, forðan ðe ðanon him is beháten forgyfenys.

Þes pistol is swiðe menigfeald ús to gereccenne, and eow swiðe deop to
gehyrenne. Nu ne onhagað ús na swiðor be ðam to sprecenne, ac we wyllað
sume oðre trimminge be ðære mæran Godes meder gereccan, to eowre
gebetrunge. Soðlice Maria is se mæsta frofer and fultum cristenra manna,
þæt is forwel oft geswutelod, swa swa we on bocum rædað.

Sum man wæs mid drycræfte bepæht, swa þæt hé Criste wiðsóc, and wrát his
hand-gewrit þam awyrgedan deofle, and him mannrædene befæste. His nama wæs
Theophilus. He ða eft syððan hine beðohte, and ða hellican pinunge on his
mode weolc; and ferde ða to sumere cyrcan þe wæs to lofe ðære eadigan
Marian gehalgod, and ðær-binnan swa lange mid wope and fæstenum hire
fultumes and ðingunge bæd, oðþæt heo sylf mid micclum wuldre him to com,
and cwæð, þæt heo him geðingod hæfde wið þone Heofenlican Deman, hire
agenne Sunu.

We wyllað eac eow gereccan be geendunge ðæs arleasan Godes wiðersacan

Sum halig biscop wæs Basilius geháten, se leornode on anre scole, and se
ylca Iulianus samod. Þa gelamp hit swa þæt Basilius wearð to biscope
gecoren to anre byrig ðe is geháten Cappadocia, and Iulianus to casere,
þeah ðe he æror to preoste bescoren wære. Iulianus ða ongann to lufigenne
hæðengyld, and his cristendome wiðsóc, and mid eallum mode hæðenscipe
beeode, and his leode to ðan ylcan genydde. Þa æt suman cyrre tengde hé to
fyrde ongean Perscisne leodscipe, and gemette ðone biscop, and cwæð him to,
"Eala, ðu Basili, nu ic hæbbe ðe oferðogen on uðwitegunge." Se biscop him
andwyrde, "God forgeafe þæt ðu uðwitegunge {450} beeodest:" and hé mid þam
worde him bead swylce lác swa he sylf breac, þæt wæron ðry berene hlafas,
for bletsunge. Þa het se wiðersaca onfon ðæra hlafa, and agifan ðam biscope
togeanes gærs, and cwæð, "He bead ús nytena fódan, underfo hé gærs to
leanes." Basilius underfeng þæt gærs, ðus cweðende, "Eala ðu casere,
soðlice we budon ðe ðæs ðe we sylfe brucað, and ðu us sealdest to edleane
ungesceadwisra nytena andlyfene, na us to fódan, ac to hospe." Se Godes
wiðersaca hine ða gehathyrte, and cwæð, "Þonne ic fram fyrde gecyrre ic
towurpe ðas burh, and hi gesmeðige, and to yrðlande awende, swa þæt heo bið
cornbære swiðor þonne mannbære. Nis me uncuð þin dyrstignys, and ðissere
burhware, ðe ðurh ðine tihtinge ða anlicnysse, ðe ic arærde and me to
gebæd, tobræcon and towurpon." And hé mid ðisum wordum ferde to Persciscum

Hwæt ða Basilius cydde his ceastergewarum ðæs reðan caseres ðeowrace, and
him selost rædbora wearð, þus cweðende, "Mine gebroðra, bringað eowre
sceattas, and uton cunnian, gif we magon, ðone reðan wiðersacan on his
geancyrre gegladian." Hi ða mid glædum mode him to brohton goldes, and
seolfres, and deorwurðra gimma ungerime hypan. Se bisceop ða underfeng ða
madmas, and bebead his preostum and eallum ðam folce, þæt hí heora lác
geoffrodon binnon ðam temple ðe wæs to wurðmynte ðære eadigan Marian
gehalgod, and het hí ðær-binnon andbidigan mid ðreora daga fæstene, þæt se
Ælmihtiga Wealdend, þurh his moder ðingrædene towurpe þæs unrihtwisan
caseres andgit. Þa on ðære ðriddan nihte ðæs fæstenes geseah se bisceop
micel heofenlic werod on ælce healfe ðæs temples, and on middan ðam werode
sæt seo heofenlice cwén Maria, and cwæð to hire ætstandendum, "Gelángiað me
ðone martyr Mercurium, þæt he gewende wið ðæs arleasan wiðersacan Iulianes,
and hine acwelle, seðe mid toðundenum mode God minne Sunu forsihð." Se
halga cyðere Mercurius gewǽpnod hrædlice {452} cóm, and be hyre hæse ferde.
Þa eode se bisceop into ðære oðre cyrcan, þær se martyr inne læig, and
befrán ðone cyrcweard hwær ðæs halgan wæpnu wæron? He swór þæt hé on
æfnunge æt his heafde witodlice hí gesawe. And he ðærrihte wende to S[=ca]
Marian temple, and ðam folce gecydde his gesihðe, and ðæs wælhreowan
forwyrd. Þa eode hé eft ongean to ðæs halgan martyres byrgenne, and funde
his spere standan mid blode begleddod.

Þa æfter ðrim dagum com án ðæs caseres ðegna, Libanius hatte, and gesohte
ðæs bisceopes fét, fulluhtes biddende, and cydde him and ealre ðære
buruhware þæs arleasan Iulianes deað: cwæð þæt seo fyrd wícode wið ða ea
Eufraten, and seofon weard-setl wacodon ofer ðone casere. Þa com ðær
stæppende sum uncuð cempa, and hine hetelice ðurhðyde, and ðærrihte of hyra
gesihðum fordwán; and Iulianus ða mid anðræcum hreame forswealt. Swa wearð
seo burhwaru ahred þurh S[=ca] Marian wið ðone Godes wiðersacan. Þa bead se
bisceop ðam ceastergewarum hyra sceattas, ac hi cwædon þæt hi uðon ðæra
laca þam undeadlican Cyninge, ðe hi swa mihtelice generede, micele bet
ðonne ðam deadlican cwellere. Se bisceop ðeah nydde þæt folc þæt hi ðone
ðriddan dæl þæs feos underfengon, and he mid þam twam dælum þæt mynster

Gif hwá smeage hu ðis gewurde, þonne secge we, þæt ðes martyr his líf
adreah on læwedum hade; ða wearð he ðurh hæðenra manna ehtnysse for Cristes
geleafan gemartyrod; and cristene men syððan his halgan lichaman binnon ðam
temple wurðfullice gelógedon, and his wæpna samod. Eft, ðaða seo halige
cwén hine asende, swa swa we nú hwene ǽr sædon, þa ferde his gast
swyftlice, and mid lichamlicum wæpne ðone Godes feond ofstáng, his
weard-setlum onlocigendum.

Mine gebroðra ða leofostan, uton clypigan mid singalum benum to ðære halgan
Godes meder, þæt heo ús on urum {454} nydþearfnyssum to hire Bearne
geðingige. Hit is swiðe geleaflic þæt he hyre miceles ðinges tiðian wylle,
seðe hine sylfne gemedemode þæt he ðurh hí, for middangeardes alysednysse,
to menniscum men acenned wurde, seðe æfre is God butan anginne, and nu
ðurhwunað, on anum hade, soð man and soð God, á on ecnysse. Swa swa gehwilc
man wunað on sawle and on lichaman án mann, swa is Crist, God and mann, án
Hælend, seðe leofað and rixað mid Fæder and Halgum Gaste on ealra worulda
woruld. Amen.



Jerome the holy priest wrote an epistle on the decease of the blessed MARY,
the mother of God, to a holy maiden, whose name was Eustochium, and to her
mother Paula, who was a hallowed widow. To these two women the same Jerome
wrote several treatises; for they were persons of holy life, and very
diligent in book-studies. This Jerome was a holy priest, and instructed in
the Hebrew tongue, and in Greek and Latin perfectly; and he turned our
library of Hebrew books into the Latin speech. He is the first interpreter
betwixt the Hebrews, and Greeks, and Latins. Seventy-two books of the old
and of the new law he turned into Latin, to one 'Bibliotheca,' besides many
other treatises which he profoundly devised with diligent understanding.
Then at last he composed this epistle to the holy widow Paula, and to the
maiden of God, Eustochium, her daughter, and to all the maidenly company
who were living with them, thus saying:

Verily ye compel me to relate to you how the blessed Mary, on this present
day was taken to the heavenly dwelling, that your maidenly society may have
this gift in the Latin speech, how this great festival, in the course of
every year, is passed with heavenly praise, and celebrated with ghostly
bliss, lest the false account should come to your {439} hand which has been
widely disseminated by heretics, and ye then receive the feigned leasing
for a true narrative.

Verily from the beginning of the holy gospel ye have learned how the
archangel Gabriel declared to the blessed Mary the birth of the Heavenly
Prince, and the miracles of Jesus, and the ministry of the blessed mother
of God and the deeds of her life ye have manifestly known from the four
evangelical books. John the Evangelist wrote that, at Christ's passion, he
himself and Mary stood with sorrowing mind opposite the holy rood, on which
Jesus was fastened. Then said he to his own mother, "Thou woman, behold,
here is thy son." Again he said to John, "Look now, here standeth thy
mother." Afterwards, from that day, the Evangelist John had charge of the
holy Mary, and with careful ministry obeyed her as his mother.

The Lord, through his piety, committed the blessed maiden his mother to the
chaste man John, who had ever lived in pure virginity; and on that account
he was especially dear to the Lord, so much so that he would commit to him
that precious treasure, the queen of the whole world: no doubt, that her
most pure virginity might be associated with that chaste man with grateful
fellowship in pleasant converse. In them both was one virtue of unbroken
chastity, but a second attribute in Mary; in her is fruitful virginity, so
as in no other. In no other person is there virginity, if there be
fruitfulness; nor fruitfulness, if there be perfect virginity. Therefore
now are hallowed both the virginity of Mary and her fruitfulness through
the divine birth; and she excels all others in virginity and in
fruitfulness. Nevertheless, though she was especially committed to the care
of John, yet she lived in common, after Christ's ascension, with the
apostolic company, going in and going out among them, and they all with
great piety and love ministered to her, and she fully {441} informed them
of all things touching Christ's humanity; for she had from the beginning
accurately learned them through the Holy Ghost, and seen them with her own
sight; though the apostles understood all things through the same Ghost,
and were instructed in all truth. The archangel Gabriel held her
uncorrupted, and she continued in the care of John and of all the apostles,
in the heavenly company, meditating on God's law, until God, on this day,
took her to the heavenly throne, and exalted her above the hosts of angels.

There is not read in any book any more manifest information of her end, but
that she on this day gloriously departed from the body. Her sepulchre is
visible to all beholders to this present day, in the midst of the valley of
Jehosaphat. The valley is between Mount Sion and the mount of Olives, and
the sepulchre appears open and empty, and thereupon is raised, in her
honour, a large church, with wondrous stone-work. To no mortal man is it
known how, or at what time her holy body was brought from thence, or
whither it be borne, or whether she arose from death: though some doctors
say, that her Son, who on the third day mightily from death arose, that he
also raised his mother's body from death, and placed it with immortal glory
in the kingdom of heaven. In like manner very many doctors have set in
their books concerning the requickened men who arose from death with
Christ, that they are raised for ever. They profess verily that those
raised men would not have been true witnesses of Christ's resurrection,
unless they had been raised for ever. Nor do we deny the eternal
resurrection of the blessed Mary, though for caution, preserving our
belief, it befits us that we rather hope it, than rashly assert what is
unknown without any danger.

We read here and there in books, that very often angels came at the
departure of good men, and with ghostly hymns led their souls to heaven.
And, what is yet more certain, {443} men, at their departure, have heard
the song of men and women, with a great light and sweet odour: by which is
known that those holy men who through good deserts come to God's kingdom,
that they, at the departure of other men, receive their souls, and with
great joy lead them to rest. Now if Jesus has often showed such honour at
the death of his saints, and has commanded their souls to be conducted to
him with heavenly hymn, how much rather thinkest thou he would now to-day
send the heavenly host to meet his own mother, that they with light
immense, and unutterable hymns might lead her to the throne which was
prepared for her from the beginning of the world.

There is no doubt that all the heavenly host then with unspeakable bliss
would rejoice in her advent. Verily we also believe that the Lord himself
came to meet her, and benignly with delight placed her by him on his
throne: for he would fulfil in himself what he had in his law enjoined,
thus saying, "Honour thy father and thy mother." He is his own witness that
he honoured his Father, as he said to the Jews, "I honour my Father, and ye
dishonour me." In his human state he honoured his mother, when he was, as
the holy gospel says, subjected to her in his youth. Much more is it to be
believed that he honoured his mother with unspeakable veneration in his
kingdom, when he would, according to human nature, obey her in this life.

This festival excels incomparably all other saints' mass-days, as much as
this holy maiden, the mother of God, is incomparable with all other
maidens. This feast-day to us is yearly, but to heaven's inmates it is
perpetual. At the ascension of this heavenly queen the Holy Ghost in hymns
uttered his wonder, thus inquiring, "What is this that here ascends like
the rising dew of morn, as beauteous as the moon, as choice as the sun, and
as terrible as a martial band?" The Holy Ghost wondered, for he caused all
{445} heaven's inmates to wonder at the ascension of this woman. Mary is
more beauteous than the moon, for she shines without decrease of her
brightness. She is choice as the sun with beams of holy virtues, for the
Lord, who is the sun of righteousness, chose her for his mother. Her course
is compared to a martial band, for she was surrounded with heavenly powers
and with companies of angels.

Of this heavenly queen it is yet said by the same Spirit of God, "I saw the
beauteous one as a dove mounting above the streaming rills, and an
ineffable fragrance exhaled from her garments; and, so as in the
spring-tide, blossoms of roses and lilies encircled her." The blossoms of
roses betoken by their redness martyrdom, and the lilies by their whiteness
betoken the shining purity of inviolate maidenhood. All the chosen who have
thriven to God through martyrdom or through chastity, they all journeyed
with the blessed queen; for she is herself both martyr and maiden. She is
as beauteous as a dove, for she loved meekness, which the Holy Ghost
betokened, when he appeared in likeness of a dove over Christ at his
baptism. Other martyrs suffered martyrdom in their bodies for Christ's
faith, but the blessed Mary was not bodily martyred, but her soul was
sorely afflicted with great suffering, when she stood sad before Christ's
rood, and saw her dear child fastened with iron nails on the hard tree.
Therefore is she more than a martyr, for she suffered that martyrdom in her
soul which other martyrs suffered in their bodies. She loved Christ above
all other men, and, therefore, was her pain also for him greater than other
men's, and she made his death as her own death, for his suffering pierced
her soul as a sword.

She is void of no holy virtue, nor any beauty, nor any brightness; and
therefore was she encircled with roses and lilies, that her virtues might
be supported by virtues, and her {447} fairness increased by the beauty of
chastity. God's chosen shine in heavenly glory, each according to his
merits; it is therefore credible that the blessed] queen with so much glory
and brightness excels others, as much as her merits are incomparable with
those of the other saints.

The Lord said before his ascension, that in his Father's house are many
dwellings: therefore we believe that he now to-day gave to his mother the
most pleasant dwelling. The glory of God's chosen is measured by their
deserts, and yet there is no murmuring nor envy in any of them, but they
all dwell in true love and profound peace, and each rejoices in another's
honours as in his own.

I pray you, rejoice in this festival: verily now to-day that glorious
maiden ascended to heaven, that she, ineffably exalted with Christ, may for
ever reign. The heavenly queen was to-day snatched from this wicked world.
Again I say, rejoice that she, void of sorrow, is gone to the heavenly
mansion. Let all earth be glad, for now to-day, through her deserts,
happiness is increased to us all. Through our old mother Eve the gate of
heaven's kingdom was closed against us, and again, through Mary it is
opened to us, by which she herself has this day gloriously entered.

God has commanded us through his prophets, that we should praise and
magnify him in his saints, in whom he is wonderful: much more fitting is it
that we, on this great festival of his blessed mother, should worship him
with hymns and honourable praises; for undoubtedly all honour to her is
praise of God. Let us now, therefore, with all the devotion of our mind
honour this great festival, for the way of our salvation is in hymns to our
Lord. Let those who continue in maidenhood rejoice, for they have attained
to be that which they praise: let them have care that they be such that
they may praise worthily. Let those who are in pure widowhood praise and
honour her, for it is manifest that they cannot be pure but through grace
of Christ, which was {449} perfect in Mary whom they praise. Let those also
who are in wedlock praise and honour her, for thence flow mercy and grace
to all that they may praise her. If any one be sinful, let him confess, and
not the less praise, though praise be not beautiful in the mouth of the
sinful; yet let him not cease from praise, for thence is promised to him

This epistle is very complex for us to expound, and very deep for you to
hear. It does not now seem good to us to speak more concerning it, but we
will relate for your bettering some other edifying matter of the great
mother of God. Verily Mary is the greatest comfort and support of christian
men, which is very often manifested, as we read in books.

Some man was so deluded by magic that he denied Christ, and wrote his
chirograph to the accursed devil, and entered into a compact with him. His
name was Theophilus. He afterwards bethought himself, and revolved in his
mind the torment of hell; and went then to a church that was hallowed to
the praise of the blessed Mary, and therein so long with weeping and fasts
prayed for her aid and intercession, till she herself with great glory came
to him, and said, that she had interceded for him with the Heavenly Judge,
her own Son.

We will also relate to you concerning the end of the impious adversary of
God, Julian.

There was a certain bishop named Basilius, who had learned in a school
together with this same Julian. It so happened that Basilius was chosen to
be bishop of a place called Cappadocia, and Julian to be emperor, though he
earlier had been shorn for a priest. Julian then began to love idolatry,
and renounced his christianity, and with all his mind cultivated
heathenism, and compelled his people to the same. Then at a certain time he
went on an expedition against the Persian nation, and met the bishop, and
said to him, "O thou Basilius, I have now excelled thee in philosophy." The
bishop answered, "God has granted to you to cultivate philosophy:" {451}
and with that word he offered him such a gift as he himself partook of,
that was three barley loaves, for a blessing. Then the apostate commanded
the loaves to be received, and grass to be given to the bishop in return,
and said, "He has offered us the food of beasts, let him receive grass in
reward." Basilius received the grass, thus saying, "O thou emperor, verily
we have offered to thee what we ourselves partake of, and thou hast given
us in reward the sustenance of irrational beasts, not as food for us but as
insult." The adversary of God then became angry, and said, "When I return
from the expedition I will overthrow this city, and level it, and turn it
to arable land, so that it shall be cornbearing rather than manbearing. Thy
audacity and that of these citizens is not unknown to me, who at thy
instigation brake and cast down the image which I had raised and prayed
to." And with these words he went to the Persian territory.

Hereupon Basilius made known to his fellow-citizens the cruel emperor's
threat, and was a most excellent counsellor to them, thus saying, "My
brothers, bring your treasures, and let us endeavour, if we can, to gladden
the cruel apostate on his return." They then with glad mind brought to him
of gold, and silver, and precious gems an immense heap. Thereupon the
bishop received the treasures, and commanded his priests and all the people
to offer their gifts within the temple that was hallowed to the honour of
the blessed Mary, and bade them therein abide, with a fast of three days,
that the Almighty Ruler, through his mother's intercession, might turn to
naught the resolve of the unrighteous emperor. Then on the third night of
the fast the bishop saw a great heavenly host on each side of the temple,
and in the midst of the host sat the heavenly queen Mary, and said to her
attendants, "Bring to me the martyr Mercurius, that he may go against the
impious apostate Julian, and slay him, who with inflated mind despises God
my Son." The holy martyr Mercurius {453} came armed speedily, and went by
her command. The bishop then went into the other church, in which the
martyr lay, and asked the churchward, where the weapons of the saint were?
He swore that he certainly saw them at his head in the evening. And he
straightways returned to St. Mary's temple, and made known to the people
what he had seen, and the destruction of the tyrant. He then went again to
the holy martyr's sepulchre, and found his spear standing stained with

Then after three days came one of the emperor's officers called Libanius,
and sought the bishop's feet, praying for baptism, and informed him and all
the citizens of the death of the impious Julian: he said that the army was
encamped on the river Euphrates, and seven watches watched over the
emperor. Then came there walking an unknown warrior, and violently pierced
him through, and straightways vanished from their sight; and Julian then
with a horrible cry expired. So were the citizens saved through St. Mary
from the adversary of God. Then the bishop offered their treasures to the
citizens, but they said, that they would give those gifts to the Immortal
King, who had so powerfully saved them, much rather than to the mortal
murderer. The bishop, nevertheless, compelled the people to receive a third
part of the money, and with the two parts endowed the monastery.

If any one ask how this happened, we say, that this martyr had spent his
life in a lay condition, when, through the persecution of heathen men, for
belief in Christ, he was martyred; and christian men afterwards honourably
deposited his holy body within the temple, together with his weapons.
Afterwards, when the holy queen sent him, as we have said a little before,
his spirit swiftly went, and with a bodily weapon stabbed the foe of God,
while his guards were looking on.

My dearest brothers, let us call with constant prayers to the holy mother
of God, that she may intercede for us in {455} our necessities with her
Son. It is very credible that he will grant much to her, who vouchsafed
through her to be born a human being for the redemption of the world, who
is ever God without beginning, and now exists, in one person, true man and
true God, ever to eternity. So as every man exists in soul and body one
man, so is Christ, God and man, one Saviour, who liveth and reigneth with
the Father and the Holy Ghost for ever and ever. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *



Wyrd-writeras secgað þæt ðry leodscipas sind gehátene India. Seo forme
India lið to ðæra Silhearwena rice, seo oðer lið to Medas, seo ðridde to
ðam micclum garsecge; þeos ðridde India hæfð on anre sidan þeostru, and on
oðere ðone grimlican garsecg. To ðyssere becóm Godes apostol BARTHOLOMEUS,
and eode into ðam temple to ðam deofolgylde Astaroð, and swa swa ælðeodig
ðær wunade. On ðam deofolgylde wunade swilc deofol ðe to mannum þurh ða
anlicnysse spræc, and gehælde untruman, blinde and healte, þa ðe he sylf ǽr
awyrde. He derode manna gesihðum, and heora lichaman mid mislicum
untrumnyssum awyrde, and andwyrde him ðurh ða anlicnysse, þæt hi him heora
lác offrian sceoldon, and he hi gehælde; ac he him ne heolp mid nanre hæle,
ac ðaða hi to him bugon, ða geswac he ðære lichamlican gedreccednysse,
forðan ðe he ahte ða heora sawla. Þa wendon dysige men þæt he hí gehælde,
ðaða he ðære dreccednysse geswac.

Þa mid þam ðe se apostol into ðam temple eode, ða adumbode se deofol
Astaroð, and ne mihte nanum ðæra ðe hé {456} awyrde gehelpan, for ðæs
halgan Godes ðegnes neawiste. Þa lagon ðær binnan ðam temple fela adligra
manna, and dæghwomlice þam deofolgylde offrodon; ac þaða hí gesawon þæt he
heora helpan ne mihte, ne nanum andwyrdan, þa ferdon hí to gehendre byrig,
þær ðær oðer deofol wæs gewurðod, þæs nama wæs Berið, and him offrodon, and
befrunon, hwi heora god him andwyrdan ne mihte? Se deofol ða Berið
andwyrde, and cwæð, "Eower god is swa fæste mid isenum racenteagum gewriðen
þæt he ne gedyrstlæcð þæt he furðon orðige oððe sprece syððan se Godes
apostol Bartholomeus binnan þæt tempel becom." Hí axodon, "Hwæt is se
Bartholomeus?" Se deofol andwyrde, "He is freond þæs Ælmihtigan Godes, and
ði he com to ðyssere scire þæt he aidlige ealle ða hæðengyld þe ðas
Indiscan wurðiað." Hí cwædon, "Sege us his nebwlite, þæt we hine oncnawan
magon." Berið him andwyrde, "He is blæcfexede and cyrps, hwit on lichaman,
and he hæfð steape eagan, and medemlice nosu, and side beardas, hwon
hárwencge, medemne wæstm, and is ymbscryd mid hwitum oferslype, and binnan
six and twentig geara fæce: næs his reaf hórig ne tosigen, ne his scos
forwerode. Hund siðon he bigð his cneowa on dæge, and hund siðon on nihte,
biddende his Drihten. His stemn is swylce ormæte byme, and him farað mid
Godes englas, ðe ne geðafiað þæt him hunger derige, oððe ænig ateorung.
Æfre he bið anes modes, and glæd þurhwunað. Ealle ðing he foresceawað and
wát, and ealra ðeoda gereord he cann. Nu iu he wát hwæt ic sprece be him,
forðan ðe Godes englas him ðeowiað, and ealle ðing cyðað. Þonne ge hine
secað, gif he sylf wyle, ge hine gemetað; gif he nele, soðlice ne finde ge
hine. Ic bidde eow þæt ge hine geornlice biddon þæt he hider ne gewende,
þelæs ðe Godes englas ðe him mid synd me gebeodon þæt hi minum geferan
Astaroð gebudon." And se deofol mid þisum wordum suwode.

Hi gecyrdon ongean, and sceawodon ælces ælðeodiges mannes andwlitan and
gyrlan, and hi nateshwon, binnan {458} twegra daga fæce, hine ne gemetton.
Þa betwux ðisum hrymde sum wód mann ðurh deofles gast, and cwæð, "Eala ðu
Godes apostol, Bartholomee, ðine gebedu geancsumiað me, and ontendað." Se
apostol ða cwæð, "Adumba, ðu unclæna deofol, and gewit of ðam menn." And
ðærrihte wearð se mann geclænsod fram ðam fulan gaste, and gewittiglice
spræc, seðe for manegum gearum awedde.

Þa geaxode se cyning Polimius be ðam witseocum menn, hu se apostol hine
fram ðære wódnysse ahredde, and het hine to him gelangian, and cwæð, "Min
dohtor is hreowlice awed: nu bidde ic ðe þæt þu hí on gewitte gebringe, swa
swa ðu dydest Seustium, seðe for manegum gearum mid egeslicere wódnysse
gedreht wæs." Þaða se apostol þæt mæden geseah mid heardum racenteagum
gebunden, forðan ðe heo bát and totær ælcne ðe heo geræcan mihte, and hire
nan man genealæcan ne dorste, ða het se apostol hí unbindan. Þa ðenas him
andwyrdon, "Hwa dearr hi hreppan?" Bartholomeus andwyrde, "Ic hæbbe
gebunden ðone feond þe hi drehte, and ge gýt hi ondrædað. Gað to and
unbindað hi, and gereordigað, and on ærne merigen lǽdað hí to me." Hi ða
dydon be ðæs apostoles hæse, and se awyrigeda gast ne mihte na leng hi

Þa ðæs on merigen se cyning Polimius gesymde gold, and seolfor, and
deorwurðe gymmas, and pællene gyrlan uppan olfendas, and sohte ðone
apostol, ac he hine nateshwon ne gemette. Eft ðæs on merigen com se apostol
into ðæs cyninges bure, beclysedre dura, and hine befrán, "Hwi sohtest ðu
me mid golde, and mid seolfre, and mid deorwurðum gymmum and gyrlum? Þas
lác behofiað þa ðe eorðlice welan secað; ic soðlice nanes eorðlices
gestreones, ne flæsclices lustes ne gewilnige; ac ic wille þæt þu wite þæt
ðæs Ælmihtigan Godes Sunu gemedemode hine sylfne þæt hé ðurh mædenlicne
innoð acenned wearð, seðe geworhte heofonas and eorðan and ealle gesceafta;
and he hæfde anginn on ðære menniscnysse, seðe næfre ne ongann on {460}
godcundnysse, ac he sylf is anginn, and eallum gesceaftum, ægðer ge
gesewenlicum ge ungesewenlicum, anginn forgeaf. Þæt mæden ðe hine gebær
forhogode ælces weres gemanan, and ðam Ælmihtigan Gode hire mægðhad behet.
Hire com to Godes heah-engel Gabriel, and hire cydde þæs heofonlican
Æðelinges to-cyme on hire innoð, and heo his wordum gelyfde, and swa mid
þam cilde wearð."

Se apostol ða þam cyninge bodade ealne cristendom, and middangeardes
alysednysse ðurh ðæs Hælendes to-cyme, and hu he ðone hellican deofol
gewylde, and him mancynnes benæmde, and cwæð, "Drihten Crist, seðe ðurh his
unscyldigan deað þone deofol oferswiðde, sende us geond ealle ðeoda, þæt we
todræfdon deofles ðenas, ða ðe on anlicnyssum wuniað, and þæt we ða hæðenan
ðe hi wurðiað of heora anwealde ætbrudon. Ac we ne underfoð gold ne
seolfor, ac forseoð, swa swa Crist forseah; forðan ðe we gewilniað þæt we
rice beon on his rice, on ðam næfð adl, ne untrumnyss, ne unrotnyss, ne
deað, nænne stede, ac þær is ece gesælð and eadignys, gefea butan ende mid
ecum welum. Forði ic ferde to eowerum temple, and se deofol ðe eow ðurh ða
anlicnysse geandwyrde, ðurh Godes englas ðe me sende, is gehæft. And gif ðu
to fulluhte gebihst, ic do þæt þu ðone deofol gesihst, and gehyrst mid
hwilcum cræfte he is geðuht þæt he untrumnysse gehæle. Se awyrigeda deofol,
siððan he ðone frumsceapenan mann beswác, syððan he hæfde anweald on
ungelyfedum mannum, on sumum maran, on sumum læssan: on ðam maran ðe swiðor
syngað, on ðam læssan ðe hwonlicor syngað. Nu deð se deofol mid his
lotwrencum þæt ða earman men geuntrumiað, and tiht hí þæt hí sceolon
gelyfan on deofolgyld: þonne geswicð he ðære gedreccednysse, and hæfð heora
sawla on his anwealde; þonne hí cweðað to ðære deofollican anlicnysse, Þu
eart min god. Ac ðes deofol, ðe binnan eowrum temple wæs, is gebunden, and
ne mæg nateshwón andwyrdan ðam þe him to gebiddað. Gif ðu wylt afandian þæt
ic soð secge, ic hate hine faran into ðære {462} anlicnysse, and ic do þæt
he andet þis ylce, þæt he is gewriðen, and nane andsware syllan ne mæg."

Þa andwyrde se cyning, "Nu to-merigen hæfð þis folc gemynt þæt hí heora lác
him offrion, ðonne cume ic ðærto, þæt ic geseo ðas wunderlican dæda."
Witodlice on ðam oðrum dæge com se cyning mid þære burhware to ðam temple,
and ða hrymde se deofol mid egeslicere stemne ðurh ða anlicnysse, and cwæð,
"Geswicað, earme, geswicað eowra offrunga, ðelæs ðe ge wyrsan pinunge
ðrowion ðonne ic. Ic eom gebunden mid fyrenum racenteagum fram Cristes
englum, ðone ðe ða Iudeiscan on róde ahéngon: wendon þæt se deað hine
gehæftan mihte; he soðlice ðone deað oferswyðde, and urne ealdor mid
fyrenum bendum gewrað, and on ðam ðriddan dæge sigefæst arás, and sealde
his rode-tácen his apostolum, and tosende hí geond ealle ðeoda. An ðæra is
her, ðe me gebundenne hylt. Ic bidde eow þæt ge me to him geðingion, þæt ic
mote faran to sumere oðre scire."

Þa cwæð se apostol Bartholomeus, "Þu unclæna deofol, andette hwá awyrde ðas
untruman menn." Se unclæna gast andwyrde, "Ure ealdor, swa gebunden swa he
is, sent us to mancynne, þæt we hí mid mislicum untrumnyssum awyrdon; ærest
heora lichaman, forðan ðe we nabbað nænne anweald on heora sawlum, buton hi
heora lác us geoffrion. Ac ðonne hí for heora lichaman hælðe us offriað,
þonne geswice we ðæs lichaman gedreccednysse, forðan ðe we habbað syððan
heora sawla on urum gewealde. Þonne bið geðuht swilce we hi gehælon, ðonne
we geswicað þæra awyrdnyssa. And menn us wurðiað for godas, þonne we
soðlice deoflu sind, þæs ealdres gingran ðe Crist þæs mædenes Sunu gewrað.
Fram ðam dæge þe his apostol Bartholomeus hider com, ic eom mid byrnendum
racenteagum ðearle fornumen, and forði ic sprece ðe he me het; elles ic ne
dorste on his andwerdnysse sprecan, ne furðon ure ealdor."

Þa cwæð se apostol, "Hwi nelt ðu gehælan ðas untruman, swa swa ðin gewuna
wæs?" Se sceocca andwyrde, "Þonne {464} we manna lichaman derigað, buton we
ðære sawle derian magon, ða lichaman þurhwuniað on heora awyrdnysse."
Bartholomeus cwæð, "And hú becume ge to ðære sawle awyrdnysse?" Se deofol
andwyrde, "Þonne hí gelyfað þæt we godas sind, and us offriað, þonne forlǽt
se Ælmihtiga God hí, and we ðonne forlǽtað ðone lichaman ungebrocodne, and
cepað ðære sawle þe ús to gebeah, and heo ðonne on ure anwealde bið."

Þa cwæð se apostol to eallum ðam folce, "Efne nu ge habbað gehyred hwilc
ðes god is ðe ge wendon þæt eow gehælde; ac gehyrað nu ðone soðan God,
eowerne Scyppend, þe on heofonum eardað; and ne gelyfe ge heonon-forð on
idele anlicnyssa: and gif ge willað þæt ic eow to Gode geðingige, and þæt
ðas untruman hælðe underfon, towurpað þonne ðas anlicnysse, and tobrecað.
Gif ge ðis doð, þonne halgige ic ðis tempel on Cristes naman, and eow ðær
on-innan mid his fulluhte fram eallum synnum aðwea." Þa het se cyning ða
anlicnysse towurpan. Hwæt þæt folc ða caflice mid rapum hi bewurpon, and
mid stengum awegdon; ac hi ne mihton for ðam deofle þa anlicnysse styrian.

Þa het se apostol tolysan ða rapas, and cwæð to ðam awyrgedan gaste ðe hire
on sticode, "Gyf ðu wylle þæt ic ðe on niwelnysse ne asende, gewit of
ðyssere anlicnysse, and tobrec hí, and far to westene, þær nan fugel ne
flyhð, ne yrðling ne erað, ne mannes stemn ne swegð." He ðærrihte út-gewát,
and sticmælum tobræc ða anlicnysse, and ealle ða græftas binnon ðam temple
tobrytte. Þæt folc ða mid anre stemne clypode, "An Ælmihtig God is, ðone ðe
Bartholomeus bodað." Se apostol ða astrehte his handa wið heofonas weard,
þus biddende, "Þu Ælmihtiga God, on ðam ðe Abraham gelyfde, and Isaac, and
Iacob; þu ðe asendest ðinne ancennedan Sunu, þæt he us alysde mid his
deorwurðan blode fram deofles ðeowdome, and hæfð us geworht ðe to bearnum;
þu eart unacenned Fæder, he is Sunu of ðe æfre acenned, and se Halga Gast
is æfre forðstæppende of ðe and of ðinum {466} Bearne, se forgeaf us on his
naman ðas mihte, þæt we untrume gehælon, and blinde onlihton, hreoflige
geclænsian deoflu aflian, deade aræran, and cwæð to ús, Soð ic eow secge,
Swa hwæt swa ge biddað on minum naman æt minum Fæder, hit bið eow getiðod.
Nu bidde ic on his naman þæt þeos untrume menigu sy gehæled, þæt hi ealle
oncnawon þæt ðu eart ana God on heofonan, and on eorðan, and on sǽ, þu ðe
hælðe ge-edstaðelast ðurh ðone ylcan urne Drihten, seðe mid ðe and mid þam
Halgan Gaste leofað and rixað on ealra worulda woruld." Mid þam ðe hí
andwyrdon, "Amen," þa wearð eall seo untrume menigu gehæled: and ðær com ða
fleogende Godes engel scinende swa swa sunne, and fleah geond ða feower
hwemmas þæs temples, and agrof mid his fingre rode-tacn on ðam fyðerscytum
stánum, and cwæð, "Se God ðe me sende cwæð, Þæt swa swa ðas untruman synd
gehælede fram eallum coðum, swa he geclænsode þis templ fram þæs deofles
fulnyssum, ðone ðe se apostol het to westene gewitan. And God bebead me þæt
ic ðone deofol eowrum gesihðum ær æteowige. Ne beo ge afyrhte þurh his
gesihðe, ac mearciað rode-tacen on eowrum foreheafdum, and ælc yfel gewit
fram eow."

And se engel ða æteowde þam folce ðone awyrigedan gast on ðyssere
gelicnysse. He wearð ða æteowod swylce ormæte Silhearwa, mid scearpum
nebbe, mid sidum bearde. His loccas hangodon to ðam anccleowum, his eagan
wæron fyrene spearcan sprengende; him stód swæflen líg of ðam muðe, he wæs
egeslice gefiðerhamod, and his handa to his bæce gebundene. Þa cwæð se
Godes engel to ðam atelican deofle, "Forðan ðe ðu wære gehyrsum ðæs
apostoles hæsum, and tobræce þas deofellican anlicnysse, nu æfter his
behate ic ðe unbinde, þæt þu fare to westene, þær ðær nanes mannes
drohtnung nis; and ðu þær wunige oð þone micclan dom." And se engel hine ða
unband, and he mid hreowlicere wánunge aweg-gewát, and nawar siððan ne
æteowde. Se engel ða, him eallum onlocigendum, fleah to heofonum.

{468} Hwæt ða se cyning Polimius, mid his wife and his twam sunum, and mid
ealre his leode, gelyfde on ðone soðan God, and wearð gefullod, and awearp
his cynehelm samod mid his purpuran gyrlum, and nolde ðone Godes apostol
forlætan, Æfter ðisum gesamnodon gehwylce ðwyrlice wiðercoran, and wrehton
ðone cyning to his breðer Astrigem, se wæs cyning on oðrum leodscipe, and
cwædon, "Þin broðer is geworden anes dryes folgere, se geagnað him ure
tempel, and ure godas tobrycð." Þa wearð se cyning Astriges gehathyrt, and
sende ðusend gewæpnodra cempena, þæt hi ðone apostol gebundenne to him
bringan sceoldon. Þaða se apostol him to gelæd wæs, ða cwæð se cyning, "Hwí
amyrdest ðu minne broðor mid þinum drycræfte?" Bartholomeus andwyrde, "Ne
amyrde ic hine, ac ic hine awende fram hæðenum gylde to ðam soðan Gode." Se
cyning him to cwæð, "Hwí towurpe ðu ure godas?" He andwyrde, "Ic sealde ða
mihte ðam deoflum, þæt hí tocwysdon ða idelan anlicnysse þe hí on wunodon,
þæt þæt mennisce folc fram heora gedwyldum gecyrde, and on ðone ecan God
gelyfde." Þa cwæð se cyning, "Swa swa ðu dydest minne broðor his god
forlætan, and on ðinne god gelyfan, swa do ic eac ðe forlætan ðinne god,
and on minne gelyfan." Þa andwyrde se apostol, "Ic æteowode þone god ðe ðin
broðor wurðode him gebundenne, and ic het þæt he sylf his anlicnysse
tobræce. Gif ðu miht ðis dón minum Gode, þonne gebigst ðu me to ðines godes
biggengum: gif ðu ðonne þis minum Gode dón ne miht, ic tobryte ealle ðine
godas, and ðu ðonne gelyf on ðone soðan God þe ic bodige."

Mid þam ðe hí ðis spræcon, þa cydde sum man þam cyninge þæt his mæsta god
Baldað feolle, and sticmælum toburste. Se cyning ða totær his purpuran
reaf, and het mid stiðum saglum ðone apostol beatan, and siððan beheafdian.
And he ða on ðisum dæge swa gemartyrod to ðam ecan life gewát. Witodlice
æfter ðisum com se broðor mid his folce, and ðone halgan lichaman mid
wulderfullum lofsangum {470} aweg ferodon, and getimbrodon mynster
wundorlicere micelnysse, and on ðam his halgan reliquias arwurðlice
gelogedon. Eornostlice on ðam þrittigoðan dæge, se cyning Astriges, ðe ðone
apostol ofslean het, wearð mid feondlicum gaste gegripen, and egeslice
awedde: swa eac ealle ða ðwyran hæðengyldan, þe ðone apostol mid niðe to
ðam cyninge gewregdon, aweddon samod mid him, and urnon hí and he to his
byrgene, and ðær wedende swulton. Þa aspráng micel óga and gryre ofer ealle
ða ungeleaffullan, and hi ða gelyfdon, and gefullode wurdon æt ðæra
mæssepreosta handum, ðe se apostol ǽr gehádode. Þa onwreah se apostol
Bartholomeus be ðam geleaffullan cyninge Polimius, þæt he biscophád
underfenge; and ða Godes ðeowan and þæt geleaffulle folc hine anmodlice to
ðam háde gecuron. Hit gelamp ða, æfter ðære hádunge, þæt he worhte fela
tácna on Godes naman, ðurh his geleafan, and ðurhwunode twentig geara on
ðam biscopdome, and on godre drohtnunge; and fulfremedum geðincðum gewát to
Drihtne, þam is wurðmynt and wuldor á on worulde.

We magon niman bysne be ðære apostolican lare, þæt nan cristen mann ne
sceal his hæle gefeccan buton æt ðam Ælmihtigan Scyppende, ðam ðe
gehyrsumiað lif and deað, untrumnys and gesundfulnys, seðe cwæð on his
godspelle, þæt án lytel fugel ne befylð on deað butan Godes dihte. He is
swa mihtig, þæt he ealle ðing gediht and gefadað butan geswince; ac he
beswincgð mid untrumnyssum his gecorenan, swa swa he sylf cwæð, "Þa ðe ic
lufige, ða ic ðreage and beswinge." For mislicum intingum beoð cristene men
geuntrumode, hwilon for heora synnum, hwilon for fandunge, hwilon for Godes
wundrum, hwilon for gehealdsumnysse gódra drohtnunga, þæt hí ðy eadmodran
beon; ac on eallum ðisum þingum is geðyld nyd-behefe. Hwilon eac þurh Godes
wrace becymð þam arleasan menn swiðe egeslic yfel, swa þæt his wite onginð
on ðyssere worulde, and his sawul gewit to ðam ecum witum for his
wælhreawnysse; swa swa {472} Herodes ðe ða unscæððigan cild acwealde on
Cristes acennednysse, and manega oðre to-eacan him. Gif se synfulla bið
gebrocod for his unrihtwisnysse, þonne gif he mid geðylde his Drihten
herað, and his miltsunge bitt, he bið ðonne aðwogen fram his synnum ðurh ða
untrumnysse, swa swa horig hrægl þurh sapan. Gif he rihtwis bið, he hæfð
þonne maran geðincðe þurh his brocunge, gif he geðyldig bið. Se ðe bið
ungeþyldig, and mid gealgum mode ceorað ongean God on his untrumnysse, he
hæfð twyfealde geniðerunge, forðan ðe he geycð his synna mid þære ceorunge,
and ðrowað naðelæs.

God is se soða læce, þe ðurh mislice swingla his folces synna gehælð. Nis
se woruld-læce wælhreow, ðeah ðe he þone gewundodan mid bærnette, oððe mid
ceorfsexe gelácnige. Se læce cyrfð oððe bærnð, and se untruma hrymð,
þeah-hwæðere ne miltsað he þæs oðres wánunge, forðan gif se læce geswicð
his cræftes, þonne losað se forwundoda. Swa eac God gelácnað his gecorenra
gyltas mid mislicum brocum; and þeah ðe hit hefigtyme sy ðam ðrowigendum,
þeah-hwæðere wyle se góda Læce to ecere hælðe hine gelácnigan. Witodlice se
ðe náne brocunge for ðisum life ne ðrowað, he færð to ðrowunge. For agenum
synnum bið se mann geuntrumod, swa swa Drihten cwæð to sumum bedridan, ðe
him to geboren wæs, "Min bearn, ðe synd þine synna forgifene: aris nu, and
ber ham ðin leger-bed."

For fandunge beoð sume menn geuntrumode, swa swa wæs se eadiga Iob, ðaða he
wæs rihtwis, and Gode gehyrsum. Þa bæd se deofol, þæt he his fandigan
moste, and he ða anes dæges ealle his æhta amyrde, and eft hine sylfne mid
þam mæstan broce geuntrumode, swa þæt him weollon maðan geond ealne ðone
lichaman. Ac se geðyldiga Iob, on eallum ðisum ungelimpum, ne syngode mid
his muðe, ne nan ðing stuntlices ongean God ne spræc, ac cwæð, "God me
forgeaf ða æhta, and hí eft æt me genam; sy his nama gebletsod." God eac ða
hine gehælde, and his æhta mid twyfealdum him {474} forgeald. Sume menn
beoð geuntrumode for Godes tácnum, swa swa Crist cwæð be sumum blindan men,
ðaða his leorning-cnihtas hine axodon, for hwæs synnum se mann wurde swa
blind acenned. Þa cwæð se Hælend, þæt he nære for his agenum synnum, ne for
his maga, blind geboren, ac forði þæt Godes wundor þurh hine geswutelod
wære. And he þærrihte mildheortlice hine gehælde, and geswutelode þæt he is
soð Scyppend, ðe ða ungesceapenan eahhringas mid his halwendan spatle

For gehealdsumnysse soðre eadmodnysse beoð forwel oft Godes gecorenan
geswencte, swa swa Paulus se apostol be him sylfum cwæð, "Me is geseald
sticels mines lichaman, and se sceocca me gearplæt, þæt seo micelnys Godes
onwrigenyssa me ne onhebbe; forðan ic bæd þriwa minne Drihten, þæt he
afyrsode þæs sceoccan sticels fram me; ac hé me andwyrde, Paule, ðe
genihtsumað min gifu. Soðlice mægen bið gefremod on untrumnysse. Nu
wuldrige ic lustlice on minum untrumnyssum, þæt Cristes miht on me wunige."

Se cristena mann ðe on ænigre þissere gelicnysse bið gebrocod, and he ðonne
his hælðe secan wyle æt unalyfedum tilungum, oððe æt wyrigedum galdrum,
oþþe æt ænigum wiccecræfte, ðonne bið he ðam hæðenum mannum gelíc, þe ðam
deofolgylde geoffrodon for heora lichaman hælðe, and swa heora sawla
amyrdon. Se ðe geuntrumod beo, bidde his hæle æt his Drihtne, and
geðyldelice þa swingla forbere; loc hú lange se soða læce hit foresceawige,
and ne beceapige na ðurh ænigne deofles cræft mid his sawle ðæs lichaman
gesundfulnysse; bidde eac góddra manna bletsunge, and æt halgum reliquium
his hæle gesece. Nis nanum cristenum menn alyfed þæt he his hæle gefecce æt
nanum stane, ne æt nanum treowe, buton hit sy halig rode-tacen, ne æt nanre
stowe, buton hit sy halig Godes hus: se ðe elles deð, he begæð untwylice
hæðengild. We habbað hwæðere þa bysne on halgum bocum, þæt mot se ðe wile
mid soðum læcecræfte his lichaman getemprian, swa swa dyde se wítega
Isaias, þe {476} worhte ðam cyninge Ezechie cliðan to his dolge, and hine

Se wisa Augustinus cwæð, þæt unpleolic sy þeah hwá læce-wyrte ðicge; ac þæt
hé tælð to unalyfedlicere wíglunge, gif hwá ða wyrta on him becnitte, buton
he hí to ðam dolge gelecge. Þeah-hwæðere ne sceole we urne hiht on
læce-wyrtum besettan, ac on ðone Ælmihtigan Scyppend, þe ðam wyrtum ðone
cræft forgeaf. Ne sceal nan man mid galdre wyrte besingan, ac mid Godes
wordum hí gebletsian, and swa ðicgan.

Wite ðeah-hwæðere gehwá, þæt nan man butan earfoðnyssum ne becymð to ðære
ecan reste, þaða Crist sylf nolde his agen rice butan micelre earfoðnysse
astigan: swa eac his apostoli, and ða halgan martyras mid heora agenum
feore þæt heofonlice rice beceapodon: syððan eac halige andetteras, mid
micelre drohtnunge on Godes ðeowdome, and þurh miccle forhæfednyssa and
clænnysse, halige wurdon. Hwæt wylle we endemenn ðyssere worulde, gif we
for urum synnum gebrocode beoð, buton herian urne Drihten, and eadmodlice
biddan, þæt he us þurh ða hwilwendlican swingla to ðam ecan gefean gelæde?
Sy him wuldor and lof on ealra worulda woruld. Amen.



Historians say that there are three nations called India. The first India
lies towards the Ethiopians' realm, the second lies towards the Medes, the
third on the great ocean; this third India has on one side darkness, and on
the other the grim ocean. To this came the apostle of God BARTHOLOMEW, and
went into the temple to the idol Ashtaroth, and as a stranger there
remained. In the idol dwelt a devil such that he spake to men through the
image, and healed the sick, the blind and the halt, whom he had himself
previously afflicted. He injured men's sight, and afflicted their bodies
with divers diseases, and answered them through the image, that they should
offer to him their gifts, and he would heal them; but he helped them not
with any healing, but when they bowed to him, he ceased from the bodily
affliction, for he then possessed their souls. Then foolish men thought
that he healed them, when he ceased from afflicting them.

When the apostle went into the temple, the devil Ashtaroth became dumb, and
could not help any of those whom he had {457} afflicted, for the presence
of the holy servant of God. There lay there within the temple many sick
men, and offered daily to the idol; but when they saw that he could not
help them, nor answer any one, they went to a neighbouring city, where
another devil was worshiped, whose name was Berith, and offered to him, and
asked, why their god could not answer them? The devil Berith then answered,
and said, "Your god is so fast bound with iron chains, that he dares not
even breathe or speak since God's apostle Bartholomew came within the
temple." They asked, "Who is Bartholomew?" The devil answered, "He is a
friend of the Almighty God, and he is come to this province that he may
render vain all the idols which these Indians worship." They said,
"Describe to us his countenance, that we may know him." Berith answered
them, "He has fair and curling locks, is white of body, and has deep eyes
and moderate sized nose, and ample beard, somewhat hoary, a middling
stature, and is clad in a white upper garment, and is within six and twenty
years old: his raiment is not dirty nor threadbare, nor are his shoes worn
out. A hundred times he bows his knees by day, and a hundred times by
night, praying to his Lord. His voice is as an immense trumpet, and God's
angels go with him, who allow not hunger to hurt him, nor any faintness. He
is ever of one mind, and continues glad. All things he foresees and knows,
and he understands the tongues of all nations. Now long ago he knows what I
am saying of him, for God's angels minister and make known all things to
him. When ye seek him, if he himself will, ye will find him; if he will
not, verily ye will find him not. I pray you that ye earnestly beseech him
not to come hither, lest God's angels who are with him command to me what
they have commanded to my companion Ashtaroth." And with these words the
devil was silent.

They turned back, and beheld the countenance and garments of every man,
and, during a space of two days, they {459} did not find him. Then in the
meanwhile some madman cried through the devil's spirit, and said, "O thou
apostle of God, Bartholomew, thy prayers torment and exasperate me." The
apostle then said, "Be dumb, thou unclean devil, and depart from the man."
And straightways the man was cleansed from the foul spirit, and spake
rationally, who had been mad for many years.

Then the king Polymius heard of the maniac, how the apostle had saved him
from that madness, and he commanded him to be fetched to him, and said, "My
daughter is cruelly frantic: now I beseech thee to bring her to her wits,
as thou didst Seustius, who for many years had been afflicted with dreadful
madness." When the apostle saw the maiden bound with hard chains (because
she bit and tore everyone whom she could reach, and no man durst approach
her), he ordered her to be unbound. The servants answered him, "Who dares
to touch her?" Bartholomew answered, "I have bound the fiend that tormented
her, and ye yet fear her. Go to and unbind her, and give her to eat, and
to-morrow early lead her to me." They did then as the apostle ordered, and
the accursed spirit could no longer torment her.

Then on the morrow the king Polymius loaded gold, and silver, and precious
gems, and purple garments upon camels, and sought the apostle, but he found
him not. On the morrow the apostle came into the king's bower, the door
being closed, and asked him, "Why soughtest thou me with gold, and with
silver, and with precious gems, and garments? These gifts those require who
seek earthly wealth; but I desire no earthly treasure, nor fleshly
pleasure; but I wish thee to know that the Son of Almighty God vouchsafed
to be born of a maidenly womb, who wrought heaven and earth and all
creatures; and he had beginning in humanity who never began in his divine
nature, for he is himself beginning, {461} and to all creatures, both
visible and invisible, gave beginning. The maiden who bare him despised
every man's fellowship, and to the Almighty God promised her maidenhood. To
her came God's archangel, Gabriel, and announced to her the advent of the
Heavenly Prince into her womb, and she believed his words, and so was with

The apostle then preached to the king all christianity, and the redemption
of the world through the advent of Jesus, and how he overcame the hellish
devil, and deprived him of mankind, and said, "The Lord Christ, who through
his innocent death overpowered the devil, has sent us among all nations, to
drive away the devil's ministers, who dwell in images, and to withdraw the
heathen who worship them from their power. But we receive not gold nor
silver, but despise, as Christ despised them; for we desire to be rich in
his kingdom, in which neither sickness, nor infirmity, nor sadness, nor
death, has any place, but there is eternal happiness and bliss, joy without
end with eternal riches. Therefore came I to your temple, and the devil,
who answered you through the image, is made captive by the angels of God
who sent me. And if thou consentest to be baptized, I will cause thee to
see the devil, and to hear by what craft he appears to heal sickness. The
accursed devil, after that he had deceived the first-created man, had power
over unbelieving men, over some greater, over some less: on those greater
who sin more, on those less who sin in less degree. Now the devil by his
wiles causes miserable men to fall sick, and instigates them to believe in
an idol: then ceases he from afflicting them, and has their souls in his
power; then they say to the image, Thou art my god. But the devil, which
was within your temple, is bound, and cannot answer those who pray to him.
If thou wilt prove whether I speak truth, I will command {463} him to go
into the image, and I will make him confess the same, that he is bound and
can give no answer."

Then the king answered, "Now to-morrow this folk has designed to offer him
their gifts, then will I come thereto, that I may see these wonderful
deeds." So on the second day the king with the citizens came to the temple,
and then the devil cried with terrific voice through the image, and said,
"Cease, ye miserable, cease your offerings, lest ye suffer worse torment
than I. I am bound with fiery chains by the angels of Christ, whom the Jews
hanged on a cross: they thought that death might hold him captive; but he
overcame death, and bound our prince with fiery chains, and on the third
day arose victorious, and gave his rood-sign to his apostles, and sent them
among all nations. One of them is here, who holds me bound. I pray you that
ye intercede for me to him, that I may go to some other province."

Then said the apostle Bartholomew, "Thou unclean devil, confess who has
afflicted these sick men." The unclean spirit answered, "Our prince, bound
as he now is, sent us to mankind, that we might afflict them with divers
infirmities; first their bodies, for we have no power over their souls,
unless they offer us their gifts. But when they for their bodies' health
offer to us, then cease we from afflicting the body, for we have then their
souls in our power. Then it seems as though we heal them, when we cease
from those afflictions. And men worship us for gods, while we truly are
devils, disciples of the chief whom Christ, the maiden's Son, has bound.
From the day on which his apostle Bartholomew came hither, I am grievously
tormented with burning chains, and therefore I speak what he has commanded
me; else I durst not speak in his presence, nor even our chief."

Then said the apostle, "Why wilt thou not heal the sick, as thy custom
was?" The devil answered, "When we injure {465} the bodies of men, unless
we can injure the soul, the bodies continue in their affliction."
Bartholomew said, "And how come ye to the affliction of the soul?" The
devil answered, "When they believe that we are gods, and offer to us, then
the Almighty God forsakes them, and we then leave the body undiseased, and
attend to the soul that has bowed to us, and which is then in our power."

Then said the apostle to all the people, "Lo, now ye have heard what sort
of god this is that ye thought healed you; but hear now the true God your
Creator, who dwells in heaven; and believe not henceforth in vain images:
and if ye will that I intercede for you with God, and that these sick
receive health, overthrow and break this image. If this ye do, then will I
hallow this temple in the name of Christ, and therein wash you with his
baptism from all sins." The king then commanded the image to be cast down.
The people then promptly cast ropes about it, and plied it with poles, but
they could not, for the devil, stir the image.

Then the apostle commanded the ropes to be loosed, and said to the accursed
spirit which staid in it, "If thou wilt that I send thee not into the
abyss, depart from this image, and break it, and go to the waste, where no
bird flies, nor husbandman ploughs, nor voice of man sounds." He forthwith
came out, and brake the image piecemeal, and crushed all the carvings
within the temple. The people then with one voice cried, "There is one
Almighty God, whom Bartholomew preaches." The apostle then stretched out
his hand towards heaven, thus praying, "Thou Almighty God, in whom Abraham
believed, and Isaac, and Jacob; thou who hast sent thine only begotten Son,
that he might redeem us with his precious blood from the devil's thraldom,
and hath made us to be thy children; thou art the unbegotten Father, he is
the Son ever of thee begotten, and the Holy Ghost is {467} ever proceeding
from thee and thy Son, who hath given us in his name this power, to heal
the sick, and give light to the blind, cleanse lepers, drive out devils,
raise the dead, and hath said unto us, Verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye
pray for in my name, of my Father, it shall be granted unto you. Now I pray
in his name that this sick multitude be healed, that they all may know that
thou alone art God in heaven, and on earth, and on sea, thou who restorest
health through the same our Lord, who with thee and with the Holy Ghost
liveth and reigneth for ever and ever." While they were answering "Amen,"
all the sick multitude was healed: and there came then flying God's angel
shining as the sun, and flew over the four corners of the temple, and
graved with his finger the sign of the cross on the four-cornered stones,
and said, "The God who sendeth me said, That so as these sick are healed
from all diseases, so hath he cleansed this temple from the devil's
foulness, whom the apostle hath commanded to retire to the waste. And God
hath bidden me that I first make manifest the devil to your sights. Be ye
not afraid at the sight of him, but mark the sign of the rood on your
foreheads, and every evil shall depart from you."

And the angel then showed to the people the accursed spirit in this
likeness. He appeared as an immense Ethiop, with sharp visage and ample
beard. His locks hung to his ancles, his eyes were scattering fiery sparks;
sulphureous flame stood in his mouth, he was frightfully feather-clad, and
his hands were bound to his back. Then said God's angel to the hideous
devil, "Because thou wast obedient to the apostle's commands, and didst
break the diabolical image, now, according to his promise, I will unbind
thee, that thou mayest go to the waste, there where no man's converse is;
and there dwell until the great doom." And the angel then unbound him, and
he with woful lamentation went away, and nowhere afterwards appeared. The
angel then, all looking on him, flew to heaven.

{469} Then the king Polymius, with his wife and his two sons, and with all
his people, believed in the true God, and was baptized, and cast away his
crown together with his purple garments, and would not let God's apostle
depart. After this all the perverse and reprobate assembled, and accused
the king to his brother Astryges, who was king in another country, and
said, "Thy brother is become the follower of a magician, who appropriates
to himself our temples, and breaks our gods." Then was the king Astryges
enraged, and sent a thousand armed soldiers, that they might bring the
apostle to him bound. When the apostle was led to him, the king said, "Why
hast thou corrupted my brother with thy magic?" Bartholomew answered, "I
have not corrupted him, but I have turned him from heathenism to the true
God." The king said to him, "Why hast thou cast down our gods?" He
answered, "I gave that power to the devils, that they might crush the vain
image in which they dwelt, that mankind might turn from their errors, and
believe in the true God." Then said the king, "So as thou hast made my
brother forsake his god and believe in thy god, so also will I make thee
forsake thy god and believe in mine." Then answered the apostle, "The god
that thy brother worshiped I showed to him bound, and I commanded that he
should himself break his image. If thou canst do this to my God, then wilt
thou incline me to the worship of thy god; but if thou canst not do this to
my God, I will break all thy gods, and do thou then believe in the true God
whom I preach."

While he was saying this, some man announced to the king that his greatest
god Baldath had fallen, and burst asunder piecemeal. The king then tore his
purple robe, and commanded the apostle to be beaten with stiff clubs, and
afterwards beheaded. And he on this day, so martyred, departed to the
eternal life. But after this the brother came with his people and bore away
the holy body with glorious {471} hymns, and built a monastery of wondrous
greatness, and in that honourably placed his holy remains. But on the
thirtieth day the king Astryges, who had commanded the apostle to be slain,
was seized with a fiendlike spirit, and dreadfully became frantic: so also
the perverse idolaters, who through envy had accused the apostle to the
king, became frantic together with him, and they and he ran to his grave,
and there raving died. Then sprang up great dread and horror over all the
unbelieving, and they then believed and were baptized at the hands of the
mass-priests whom the apostle had before ordained. Then the apostle
Bartholomew revealed respecting the believing king Polymius, that he should
receive the episcopal order; and the servants of God and the believing
people chose him unanimously to that order. It happened then, after the
ordination, that he wrought many miracles in the name of God through his
belief, and continued twenty years in the episcopal office, and in good
course of life; and in full dignity departed to the Lord, to whom is honour
and glory for ever and ever.

We may take example by the apostolic doctrine, that no christian man shall
fetch his salvation save from the Almighty Creator, whom life and death,
sickness and health obey, who hath said in his gospel, that a little bird
falls not in death without God's direction. He is so mighty, that he
directs and orders without toil; but he scourges his chosen with diseases,
as he himself said, "Those whom I love I chastise and scourge." For divers
causes are christian men afflicted with disease, sometimes for their sins,
sometimes for trial, sometimes for God's miracles, sometimes for
preservation of good courses, that they may be the humbler; but in all
these things patience is needful. Sometimes also through God's vengeance
comes very dreadful evil to the impious man, so that his punishment begins
in this world, and his soul departs to eternal punishments for his cruelty;
as Herod who slew the {473} innocent children at the birth of Christ, and
many others besides him. If the sinful be afflicted with disease for his
unrighteousness, then if he with patience praise his Lord, and pray for his
mercy, he shall be washed from his sins by that sickness, as a foul garment
by soap. If he be righteous, he shall have greater honour through his
sickness, if he be patient. He who is impatient, and with froward mind
murmurs against God in his sickness, shall have double condemnation, for he
increases his sins by that murmuring, and suffers nevertheless.

God is the true leech, who by divers afflictions heals the sins of his
people. The world's leech is not cruel, though he cure the wounded with
burning or with the amputation-knife. The leech cuts or burns, and the
patient cries, yet has he no mercy on the other's moaning, for if the leech
desist from his craft, then will the wounded perish. So also God cures the
sins of his chosen with divers diseases; and though it be wearisome to the
sufferer, yet will the good Leech cure him to everlasting health. But he
who suffers no sickness in this life, he goes to suffering. For his own
sins a man is afflicted with disease, as the Lord said to one bedridden,
who was borne to him, "My son, thy sins are forgiven thee: arise now, and
bear home thy sick-bed."

For trial are some men afflicted with disease, as was the blessed Job, when
he was righteous and obedient to God. Then the devil prayed that he might
try him, and he in one day destroyed all his possessions, and afterwards
afflicted himself with the greatest disease, so that worms rolled over all
his body. But the patient Job, in all these calamities, sinned not with his
mouth, nor spake anything foolish against God, but said, "God gave me
possessions, and afterwards took them from me; be his name blessed." God
also then healed him, and restored him his possessions twofold. Some {475}
men are afflicted for the miracles of God, as Christ said of some blind
man, when his disciples asked him, for whose sins the man was thus born
blind. Then said Jesus, that he was born blind not for his own nor for his
parents' sins, but because that God's miracles might be manifested through
him. And he forthwith mercifully healed him, and manifested that he is the
true Creator, who opened the unshapen eye-rings with his salutary spittle.

For preservation of true humility are God's chosen very often afflicted, as
Paul the apostle said of himself, "To me is given a goad of my body, and
the devil buffeteth me, that the greatness of God's revelations may not
exalt me; for I thrice besought my Lord to remove the devil's goad from me;
but he answered me, Paul, my grace will suffice thee. Verily power is
promoted in weakness. I now glorify joyfully in my weaknesses, that
Christ's might may dwell in me."

The christian man, who in any of this like is afflicted, and he then will
seek his health at unallowed practices, or at accursed enchantments, or at
any witchcraft, then will he be like to those heathen men, who offered to
an idol for their bodies' health, and so destroyed their souls. Let him who
is sick pray for his health to his Lord, and patiently endure the stripes;
let him behold how long the true Leech provides, and buy not, through any
devil's craft, with his soul, his body's health; let him also ask the
blessing of good men, and seek his health at holy relics. It is not allowed
to any christian man to fetch his health from any stone, nor from any tree,
unless it be the holy sign of the rood, nor from any place, unless it be
the holy house of God: he who does otherwise, undoubtedly commits idolatry.
We have, nevertheless, examples in holy books, that he who will may cure
his body with true leechcraft, as the prophet Isaiah did, who wrought {477}
for the king Hezekiah a plaster for his sore, and cured him.

The wise Augustine said, that it is not perilous, though any one eat a
medicinal herb; but he reprehends it as an unallowed charm, if any one bind
those herbs on himself, unless he lay them on a sore. Nevertheless we
should not set our hope in medicinal herbs, but in the Almighty Creator,
who has given that virtue to those herbs. No man shall enchant a herb with
magic, but with God's words shall bless it, and so eat it.

Let every one, however, know, that no man comes to the eternal rest without
tribulations, when Christ himself would not ascend to his own kingdom
without great tribulation: so also his apostles, and the holy martyrs with
their own lives bought the heavenly kingdom: afterwards also holy
confessors with great perseverance in God's service, and through great
privations and chastity became holy. What shall we, the end-men of this
world, desire, if for our sins we are with sickness afflicted, but to
praise our Lord, and humbly pray that he through transient stripes lead us
to everlasting joy? To him be glory and praise for ever and ever. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *



    Misit Herodes et tenuit Iohannem: et reliqua.

Marcus se Godspellere awrát on Cristes béc be ðam mæran Fulluhtere Iohanne,
þæt "se wælhreowa cyning Herodes hine gehæfte, and on cwearterne sette, for
his broðor wife Herodiaden:" et reliqua.

Þes Iohannes wæs se mærosta mann, swa swa Crist be him cyðnysse gecydde. He
cwæð, "Betwux wifa bearnum ne {478} arás nán mærra man þonne Iohannes se
Fulluhtere." Nu hæbbe ge oft gehyred be his mæran drohtnunge and be his
ðenunge, nu wylle we embe ðises godspelles trahtnunge sume swutelunge eow

Þes Herodes, ðe Iohannem beheafdian hét, and on ðæs Hælendes ðrowunge
Pilate ðam ealdormenn geðafode, and hine to his dome betæhte, wæs ðæs oðres
Herodes sunu, ðe on ðam timan rixode ðe Crist geboren wæs; ac hit wæs swa
gewunelic on ðam timan þæt rice menn sceopon heora bearnum naman be him
sylfum, þæt hit wære geðuht þæs ðe mare gemynd þæs fæder, ðaða se sunu, his
yrfenuma, wæs geciged þæs fæder naman. Se wælhreowa fæder Herodes læfde fif
suna, þry he hét acwellan on his feorh-adle, ærðan ðe he gewite. Þa wearð
he hreowlice and hrædlice dead æfter ðam ðe he ða cild acwealde for Cristes
acennednysse. Þa feng Archelaus his sunu to rice. Ða embe tyn geara fyrst
wearð hé ascofen of his cynesetle, forðan þe þæt Iudeisce folc wrehton his
modignysse to ðam casere, and he ða hine on wræcsið asende. Þa dælde se
casere þæt Iudeisce rice on feower, and sette ðærto feower gebroðra: ða
sind gecwedene æfter Greciscum gereorde, tetrarche, þæt sind, fyðerrican.
Fyðerrica bið se ðe hæfð feorðan dæl rices. Þa wæs án ðyssera gebroðra
Philippus geháten, se gewifode on ðæs cyninges dehter Arethe, Arabiscre
ðeode, seo hatte Herodias. Þa æfter sumum fyrste wurdon hí ungesome,
Philippus and Arethe, and he genam ða dohtor of his aðumme, and forgeaf hí
his breðer Herode; forðan ðe he wæs furðor on hlisan and on mihte. Herodes
ða awearp his riht æwe, and forligerlice mánfulles sinscipes breac.

Þa on ðam timan bodade Iohannes se Fulluhtere Godes rihtwisnysse eallum
Iudeiscum folce, and þreade ðone Herodem, for ðam fulan sinscipe.
Aecclesiastica historia ita narrat: Þa geseah Herodes þæt eal seo Iudeisce
meniu arn to Iohannes lare, and his mynegungum geornlice {480}
gehyrsumodon, þa wearð hé afyrht, and wende þæt hí woldon for Iohannes lare
his cynedom forseon, and wolde ða forhradian, and gebrohte hine on
cwearterne on anre byrig þe is gecweden Macherunta. Hwæt ða Iohannes asende
of ðam cwearterne twegen leorning-cnihtas to Criste, and hine befrán, þus
cweðende, "Eart ðu se ðe toweard is, oþþe we oðres andbidian sceolon?"
Swilce hé cwæde, Geswutela me, gyf ðu sylf wylle nyðer-astigan to hellwarum
for manna alysednysse, swa swa ðu woldest acenned beon for manna
alysednysse; oððe gif ic sceole cyðan ðinne to-cyme hellwarum, swa swa ic
middangearde þe toweardne bodade, geswutela. Hwæt ða se Hælend on ðære
ylcan tide, swa swa Lucas se godspellere awrát, gehælde manega untruman
fram mislicum coðum, and wodum mannum gewitt forgeaf, and blindum gesihðe;
and cwæð syððan to Iohannes ærendracum, "Farað nu to Iohanne, and cyðað him
þa ðing þe ge gesawon and gehyrdon. Efne nu blinde geseoð, and ða healtan
gað, and hreoflige men synd geclænsode, deafe gehyrað, and ða deadan
arisað, and ðearfan bodiað godspel; and se bið eadig þe on me ne bið
geæswicod." Swylce hé cwæde to Iohanne, Þyllice wundra ic wyrce, ac
swa-ðeah ic wylle deaðe sweltan for mancynnes alysednysse, and ðe sweltende
æfterfyligan, and se bið gesælig þe mine wundra nu herað, gif he minne deað
ne forsihð, and for ðam deaðe ne geortruwað þæt ic God eom. Þus onwreah se
Hælend Iohanne þæt he wolde hine sylfne gemedemian to deaðe, and syððan
hellwara geneosian.

Þa betwux ðisum gelamp þæt Herodes, swa we ǽr cwædon, his witan gefeormode
on ðam dæge þe he geboren wæs; forðan ðe hi hæfdon on ðam timan micele
blisse on heora gebyrd-tidum. Seo dohtor ða, swa swa we ǽr sædon, plegode
mid hire mædenum on ðam gebeorscipe, him eallum to gecwemednysse, and se
fæder ða mid aðe behét, þæt he wolde hire forgyfan swa hwæs swa heo
gewilnode. Þreo arleasa scylda we gehyrdon,--ungesælige mærsunge his
gebyrd-tide, and ða unstæððigan hleapunge þæs mædenes, and ðæs fæder {482}
dyrstigan aðsware. Þam ðrim ðingum us gedafenað þæt we wiðcweðon on urum
ðeawum. We ne moton ure gebyrd-tide to nanum freols-dæge mid idelum
mærsungum awendan, ne ure acennednysse on swilcum gemynde habban; ac we
sceolon urne endenextan dæg mid behreowsunge and dǽdbote forhradian, swa
swa hit awriten is, "On eallum ðingum beo ðu gemyndig þines endenextan
dæges, and þu ne syngast on ecnysse." Ne ús ne gedafenað þæt we urne
lichaman, ðe Gode is gehalgod on ðam halwendan fulluhte, mid unþæslicum
plegan and higleaste gescyndan; forðan ðe ure lichaman sind Godes lima, swa
swa Paulus cwæð, "And he bebead, þæt we sceolon gearcian ure lichaman
líflice onsægednysse, and halige, and Gode andfenge." Se lichama bið líflic
onsægednys ðe wið heafod-leahtras bið gescyld, and ðurh halige mægnu Gode
bið andfenge and halig. God sylf forbyt ælcne að cristenum mannum, þus
cweðende, "Ne swera ðu þurh heofenan, forðan ðe heo is Godes þrymsetl. Ne
swera ðu þurh eorðan, forðan ðe heo is Godes fotsceamol. Ne swera þu ðurh
ðin agen heafod, forðan ðe ðu ne miht wyrcan an hǽr þines feaxes hwít oððe
blacc. Ic secge eow, Ne swerige ge þurh nan þing, ac beo eower spræc ðus
geendod, Hit is swa ic secge, oþþe hit nis swa. Swa hwæt swa ðær mare bið
þurh að, þæt bið of ðam yfelan."

Crist sylf gefæstnode his spræce, þaða hé spræc to anum Samaritaniscan wífe
mid ðisum worde, "Crede mihi:" þæt is, "Gelyf me." Þeah-hwæðere gif we hwær
unwærlice swerion, and se að ús geneadige to wyrsan dæde, þonne bið us
rǽdlicor þæt we ðone maran gylt forbugon, and ðone að wið God gebétan.
Witodlice Dauid swor þurh God þæt he wolde þone stuntan wer Nabal ofslean,
and ealle his ðing adylegian; ac æt ðære forman þingunge þæs snoteran wifes
Abigail, hé awende his swúrd into ðære sceaðe, and hérode ðæs wifes
snoternysse, ðe him forwyrnde þone pleolican mannsliht. Herodes swór þurh
stuntnysse þæt he wolde ðære hleapendan dehter forgyfan swa hwæt swa heo
bæde: þa forðam ðe he {484} nolde fram his gebeorum beon gecweden mánswara,
ðone beorscipe mid blode gemencgde, and ðæs mæran witegan deað þære lyðran
hoppystran hire glíges to mede forgeaf. Micele selre him wære þæt he ðone
að tobræce, þonne he swylcne witegan acwellan hete.

On eallum ðingum we sceolon carfullice hógian, gif we awar, þurh deofles
syrwunge, on twam frecednyssum samod befeallað, þæt we symle ðone maran
gylt forfleon þurh útfære þæs læssan, swa swa deð se ðe his feondum ofer
sumne weall ætfleon wile, ðonne cepð hé hwær se weall unhehst sy, and ðær
oferscyt. Witodlice Herodes, ðaðe he nolde, þurh Iohannes mynegunge, þone
unclænan sinscipe awendan, ða wearð hé to manslihte befeallen; and wæs seo
læsse synn intinga þære maran, þæt he for his fulan forlígre, ðe he georne
wiste þæt Gode andsæte wæs, ðæs wítegan blod ageat, þe he wiste þæt Gode
gecweme wæs. Þis is se cwyde þæs godcundlican domes, be ðam þe is gecweden,
"Se ðe derað, derige he gyt swyðor; and se ðe on fulnyssum wunað, befyle
hine gyt swyðor." Þes cwyde gelamp þam wælhreowan Herode. Nu is oðer cwyde
be gódum mannum sceortlice gecweden, "Se ðe halig is, beo he gyt swyðor
gehalgod." Þis gelamp þam Fulluhtere Iohanne, se ðe wæs halig þurh
menigfealde geearnunga; and he wæs gyt swyðor gehalgod, ðaða he ðurh
soðfæstnysse bodunge becom to sigefæstum martyrdome.

Herodes híwode hine sylfne unrótne, ða seo dohtor hine þæs heafdes bæd; ac
hé blissode on his digelnyssum, forðan ðe heo þæs mannes deað bæd ðe hé ǽr
acwellan wolde, gif hé intingan hæfde. Witodlice gif þæt cild bǽde þæs
wífes heafod, mid micclum graman hé wolde hire wiðcweðan. Næs Iohannes mid
ehtnysse geneadod þæt he Criste wiðsoce, ac ðeah he sealde his líf for
Criste, ðaða he wæs for soðfæstnysse gemartyrod. Crist sylf cwæð, "Ic eom
soðfæstnys." Iohannes wæs Cristes forrynel on his acennednysse and on his
bodunge, on fulluhte, on ðrowunge, and hine to hellwarum {486} mid
deorwurðum deaðe forestóp. Þaða he beheafdod wæs, ða comon his
leorning-cnihtas, and his halige líc ferodon to anre byrig seo is gecweden
Sebaste, and hi ðær hine gelédon. Þæt hálige heafod wearð on Hierusalem

Sume gedwolmenn cwædon þæt þæt heafod sceolde abláwan ðæs cyninges wíf
Herodiaden, ðe he fore acweald wæs, swa þæt heo ferde mid windum geond
ealle woruld; ac hí dwelodon mid þære segene, forðan ðe heo leofode hire
líf oð ende æfter Iohannes slege. Soðlice Iohannes heafod wearð syððan
geswutelod twam easternum munecum, þe mid gebedum ða burh geneosodon, and
hi ðanon þone deorwurðan maðm feredon to sumere byrig þe is Edissa geháten;
and se Ælmihtiga God þurh þæt heafod ungerime wundra geswutelode. His bán,
æfter langum fyrste, wurdon gebrohte to ðære mæran byrig Alexandria, and
þær mid micclum wurðmynte gelogode.

Nu is to besceawigenne húmeta se Ælmihtiga God, be his gecorenan and ða
gelufedan ðenas, þa ðe he to ðam ecan life forestihte, geðafað þæt hí mid
swa micclum witum beon fornumene and tobrytte on ðisum andweardan lífe. Ac
se apostol Paulus andwyrde be ðisum, and cwæð, þæt "God þreað and beswingð
ælcne ðe he underfehð to his rice, and swa hé forsewenlicor bið gewitnod
for Godes naman, swa his wuldor bið mare for Gode." Eft cwæð se ylca
apostol on oðre stowe, "Ne sind na to wiðmetenne ða þrowunga þyssere tide
ðam toweardan wuldre þe bið on ús geswutelod."

Nu cwyð se trahtnere, þæt nán wilde deor, ne on fyðerfotum ne on
creopendum, nis to wiðmetenne yfelum wife. Hwæt is betwux fyðerfotum reðre
þonne leo? oððe hwæt is wælhreowre betwux næddercynne ðonne draca? Ac se
wisa Salomon cwæð, þæt selre wære to wunigenne mid leon and dracan þonne
mid yfelan wífe and oferspræcum. Witodlice Iohannes on westene wunade
betwux eallum deorcynne ungederod, and betwux dracum, and aspidum, and
eallum {488} wyrmcynne, and hí hine ondredon. Soðlice seo awyrigede
Herodias mid beheafdunge hine acwealde, and swa mǽres mannes deað to gife
hire dehter hleapunge underfeng. Danihel se witega læg seofan niht betwux
seofan leonum on anum seaðe ungewemmed, ac þæt awyrigede wíf Gezabel beswác
ðone rihtwisan Naboð to his feore, þurh lease gewitnysse. Se witega Ionas
wæs gehealden unformolten on ðæs hwæles innoðe ðreo niht, and seo swicole
Dalila þone strangan Samson mid olæcunge bepæhte, and besceorenum fexe his
feondum belæwde. Eornostlice nis nan wyrmcynn ne wilddeora cynn on
yfelnysse gelíc yfelum wífe.

Se wyrdwritere Iosephus awrát, on ðære cyrclican gereccednysse, þæt se
wælhreowa Herodes lytle hwile æfter Iohannes deaðe rices weolde, ac wearð
for his mándædum ærest his here on gefeohte ofslegen, and he sylf siððan of
his cynerice ascofen, and on wræcsið asend, swiðe rihtwisum dome, ðaða he
nolde hlystan Iohannes láre to ðam ecan life, þæt hé eac hrædlice his
hwilwendan cynedom mid hospe forlure. Augustinus se wisa ús manað mid þisum
wordum, and cwyð, "Besceawiað, ic bidde eow, mine gebroðra, mid gleawnysse
hú wræcfull ðis andwyrde líf is; and ðeah ge ondrædað eow þæt ge hit to
hrædlice forlæton. Ge lufiað þis líf, on ðam þe ge mid geswince wuniað; ðu
hógast embe ðine neode; ðu yrnst, and byst geancsumod; þu erast, and sæwst,
and eft gegaderast; þu grinst, and bæcst; þu wyfst, and wæda tylast, and
earfoðlice wast ealra ðinra neoda getel, ægðer ge on sǽ ge on lande, and
scealt ealle þas foresædan ðing, and eac ðin agen líf mid earfoðnysse
geendian. Leorniað nu forði, þæt ge cunnon þæt ece líf geearnian, on ðam ðe
ge nán ðyssera geswinca ne ðrowiað, ac on ecnysse mid Gode rixiað."

On ðisum lífe we ateoriað, gif we ús mid bígleofan ne ferciað; gif we ne
drincað, we beoð mid þurste fornumene; gif we to lange waciað, we ateoriað;
gif we lange standað, we beoð gewæhte, and þonne sittað; eft, gif we to
lange {490} sittað, ús slapað ða lima. Sceawiað eac æfter ðisum, þæt nán
stede nis ures lichaman: cildhád gewit to cnihtháde, and cnihthád to
geðungenum wæstme; se fulfremeda wæstm gebyhð to ylde, and seo yld bið mid
deaðe geendod. Witodlice ne stent ure yld on nanre staþolfæstnysse, ac swa
micclum swa se lichama wext swa micclum beoð his dagas gewanode. Gehwær is
on urum lífe ateorung, and werignys, and brosnung ðæs lichaman, and
ðeah-hwæðere wilnað gehwá þæt he lange lybbe. Hwæt is lange lybban buton
lange swincan? Feawum mannum gelimpð on ðisum dagum, þæt he gesundfull
lybbe hund-eahtatig geara, and swa hwæt swa he ofer ðam leofað, hit bið him
geswinc and sárnyss, swa swa se wítega cwæð, "Yfele sind ure dagas," and
ðæs þe wyrsan þe we hí lufiað. Swa olæcð þes middangeard forwel menige, þæt
hí nellað heora wræcfulle líf geendian. Soð líf and gesælig þæt is, þonne
we arisað of deaðe, and mid Criste rixiað. On ðam life beoð gode dagas, na
swa-ðeah manega dagas, ac án, se nát nænne upspring ne nane geendunge, ðam
ne fyligð merigenlic dæg, forðan ðe him ne forestóp se gysternlica; ac se
án dæg bið ece æfre ungeendod butan ælcere nihte, butan gedreccednyssum,
butan eallum geswincum, þe we hwene ǽr on ðyssere rædinge tealdon. Þes dæg
and þis líf is beháten rihtwisum cristenum, to ðam us gelæde se mildheorta
Drihten, seðe leofað and rixað mid Fæder and mid Halgum Gaste á butan ende.



    Misit Herodes et tenuit Johannem: et reliqua.

Mark the Evangelist wrote in the book of Christ concerning the great
Baptist John, that "the cruel king Herod bound him, and set him in prison,
for the sake of his brother's wife Herodias," etc.

This John was the greatest man, as Christ bore witness concerning him. He
said, "Among the children of women {479} there hath not arisen any greater
man than John the Baptist." Now ye have often heard of his great course and
of his ministry, now we will relate to you some explanation touching the
exposition of this gospel.

This Herod, who commanded John to be beheaded, and agreed with Pilate the
ealdorman in the suffering of Jesus, and delivered him to his judgement,
was the son of the other Herod, who reigned at the time when Christ was
born; for it was usual at that time for rich men to give their children
names after themselves, that it might seem the greater remembrance of the
father, when the son, his heir, was called by his father's name. The cruel
father, Herod, left five sons; three he commanded to be slain in his last
illness, ere he departed. Then he died miserably and suddenly after he had
slain the children on account of the birth of Christ; when Archelaus his
son succeeded to the kingdom. Then after a space of ten years he was driven
from his throne, because the Jewish people complained of his pride to the
emperor, and he then sent him into exile. The emperor then divided the
Jewish kingdom into four, and placed therein four brothers, who, according
to the Greek tongue, are called 'tetrarchs,' that is, _rulers over a
fourth_. A tetrarch is he who has a fourth part of a kingdom. One of these
brothers was called Philip, who took to wife the daughter of the king
Arethe, of an Arabian people, who was called Herodias. Then after some time
they, Philip and Arethe, were at variance, and he took his daughter from
his son-in-law, and gave her to his brother Herod; because he was greater
in fame and in power. Herod then cast off his lawful wife, and adulterously
lived in criminal union.

Then at that time John the Baptist preached God's righteousness to all the
Jewish people, and reproved Herod for that foul union. Ecclesiastica
Historia ita narrat: When Herod saw that all the Jewish multitude ran to
John's teaching, and zealously obeyed his admonitions, he was afraid, {481}
and imagined that through John's teaching they would despise his
government, and would anticipate them, and brought him into prison in a
town which is called Machæruntia. John sent then two disciples from the
prison to Christ, and inquired of him, thus saying, "Art thou he who is to
come, or are we to await another?" As though he had said, Manifest to me
whether thou thyself wilt descend to the inmates of hell for the redemption
of men, as I have preached to the world that thou wast to come,--manifest.
Jesus then, at the same time as the evangelist Luke wrote, was healing many
sick from divers diseases, and giving reason to insane men, and sight to
the blind, and said then to John's messengers, "Go now to John, and make
known to him the things which ye have seen and heard. Behold now blind see,
and the halt go, and lepers are cleansed, deaf hear, and the dead arise,
and poor preach the gospel; and he is happy who shall not be offended in
me." As though he had said to John, Such wonders I work, and yet will I
perish by death for the redemption of mankind, and follow thee dying, and
happy shall he be who now praiseth my wonders, if he despise not my death,
and on account of that death doubt not that I am God. Thus Jesus revealed
to John that he himself would vouchsafe to die, and afterwards visit the
inmates of hell.

Then meanwhile it befell that Herod, as we before said, feasted his
councillors on the day on which he was born; for at that time they had
great rejoicing on their birth-tides. The daughter then, as we before said,
played with her maidens at the feast, to the pleasure of them all, and the
father then promised on oath that he would give her whatsoever she desired.
Of three impious sins we have heard,--the unholy celebration of his
birth-tide, and the giddy dancing of the maiden, and the father's
presumptuous oath. These {483} three things it befitteth us to oppose in
our conduct. We may not with vain celebrations turn our birth-tide to any
holyday, nor have our birth in such remembrance; but we should anticipate
our last day with penitence and penance, so as it is written, "In all
things be thou mindful of thy last day, and thou wilt sin not to eternity."
It is not fitting to us to pollute our body, which is hallowed to God in
the salutary baptism, with indecent and foolish play; for our bodies are
limbs of God, as St. Paul said, "And he enjoined, that we should prepare
our bodies as a living and holy sacrifice, and acceptable to God." The body
is a living sacrifice which is shielded against deadly sins, and through
holy virtues is acceptable to God and holy. God himself forbids every oath
to christian men, thus saying, "Swear thou not by heaven, for it is God's
throne. Swear thou not by earth, for it is God's footstool. Swear thou not
by thine own head, for thou canst not make one hair of thy locks white or
black. I say unto you, swear ye not by anything, but be your speech thus
ended, It is as I say, or it is not so. Whatsoever there is more by oath,
that is of evil."

Christ himself confirmed his speech, when he spake to a Samaritan woman
with these words, "Crede mihi," that is, "Believe me." Yet if we anywhere
heedlessly swear, and the oath compel us to a worse deed, then will it be
more advisable for us to avoid the greater guilt, and atone to God for the
oath. David, for example, swore by God that he would slay the foolish man
Nabal, and destroy all his things; but at the first intercession of the
prudent woman Abigail, he returned his sword into the sheath, and praised
the woman's prudence, who forbade him that perilous murder. Herod through
folly swore that he would give the dancing daughter whatsoever she might
ask: then, because he would {485} not be called a perjurer by his guests,
he stained the feast with blood, and gave the death of the great prophet to
the lewd dancer in reward of her play. Much better for him had it been to
have broken the oath, than to have commanded such a prophet to be slain.

In all things we should carefully consider, if we anywhere, through the
devil's machinations, fall at once into two perils, that we always flee
from the greater guilt by the outlet of the less, as he does who will flee
from his foes over a wall, then observes he where the wall is lowest, and
there darts over. But Herod, when he would not, through John's
remonstrance, turn from the unclean connexion, fell into murder, and the
smaller sin was the cause of the greater, so that he for his foul adultery,
which he well knew was hateful to God, shed the prophet's blood, who he
knew was acceptable to God. This is the sentence of the divine judgement,
by which it is said, "Let him who injureth, injure yet more; and let him
who liveth in foulness, defile himself yet more." This sentence befell the
cruel Herod. Now there is another sentence shortly said concerning good
men, "Let him who is holy be yet more hallowed." This befell the Baptist
John, who was holy through manifold deserts; and was yet more hallowed,
when he through the preaching of truth came to triumphant martyrdom.

Herod feigned himself sad, when the daughter prayed him for the head; but
he rejoiced in secret, because she prayed for the death of that man whom he
would before have slain, if he had had a pretext. But if the child had
prayed for the woman's head, he would with great anger have refused her.
John was not by persecution compelled to deny Christ, but, nevertheless, he
gave his life for Christ, when he was martyred for truth. Christ himself
said, "I am the truth." John was Christ's forerunner in his birth, and in
his preaching, in baptism, in suffering, and in his precious death preceded
him {487} to hell. When he was beheaded, his disciples came, and bare his
holy body to a city which is called Sebastia, and they laid him there. The
holy head was buried at Jerusalem.

Some heretics said that the head blew the king's wife Herodias, for whom he
had been slain, so that she went with winds over all the world; but they
erred in that saying, for she lived to the end of her life after the
slaying of John. But John's head was afterwards manifested to two eastern
monks, who with prayers visited that city, and they bare the precious
treasure thence to a city which is called Edessa; and the Almighty God,
through that head, manifested innumerable miracles. His bones after a long
time were brought to the great city of Alexandria, and there with great
honour deposited.

Now it is to be considered why the Almighty God allows that his chosen and
his beloved servants, whom he has predestined to eternal life, be destroyed
with so many pains, and broken in this present life. But the apostle Paul
has answered concerning this, and said, that "God correcteth and chastiseth
every one whom he receiveth into his kingdom, and the more ignominiously he
is tortured for the name of God, so much shall his glory be greater before
God." Again, the same apostle said in another place, "The sufferings of
this life are not to be compared with the future glory which will be
manifested in us."

Now says the expositor, that no wild beast, neither among the four-footed
nor the creeping, is to be compared with an evil woman. What among the
four-footed is fiercer than a lion? or what among the serpent-kind is more
cruel than a dragon? But the wise Solomon said, that it were better to
dwell with lion and dragon than with an evil and loquacious woman. Now John
had dwelt in the waste unhurt among all the beast-kind, and among serpents,
and asps, and all the {489} worm-kind, and they dreaded him. But the
accursed Herodias slew him by beheading, and received the death of so great
a man as a gift for her daughter's dancing. Daniel the prophet lay seven
nights among seven lions in one den uninjured, but the accursed woman
Jezabel betrayed the righteous Naboth to his death by false witness. The
prophet Jonah was preserved unconsumed in the belly of the whale for three
nights, and the treacherous Dalila deceived the strong Samson with
flattery, and, his locks being shorn, betrayed him to his foes. Verily
there is no worm-kind nor wild beast-kind like in evilness to an evil

The historian Josephus wrote in the ecclesiastical history, that the cruel
Herod, a little while after the death of John, ruled his kingdom, but first
for his wicked deeds his army was slain in battle, and himself afterwards
driven from his kingdom, and sent into exile, by a very righteous
judgement, when he would not listen to John's exhortations to eternal life,
that he suddenly with disgrace should lose his transitory kingdom. The wise
Augustine exhorts us with these words, and says, "Consider, I pray you, my
brethren, with understanding, how wretched is this present life, and yet ye
dread leaving it too speedily. Ye love this life in which ye exist with
toil; thou carest about thy need; thou runnest, and art filled with
anxiety; thou ploughest, and sowest, and afterwards gatherest; thou
grindest, and bakest; thou weavest and preparest garments, and hardly
knowest the number of all thy needs, both on sea and on land, and shalt end
all these aforesaid things, and also thy life with tribulation. Learn now,
therefore, that ye may be able to earn the eternal life, in which ye will
suffer none of these toils, but with God will reign to eternity."

In this life we faint, if we sustain not ourselves with food; if we drink
not, we are destroyed by thirst; if we watch too long, we faint; if we
stand long, we are fatigued, and then sit; again, if we sit too long, our
limbs sleep. Consider {491} also after this, that there is no stability of
our body: childhood passes to boyhood, and boyhood to full growth; full
growth bows to age, and age is ended by death. Verily our age stands on no
stability, but so much as the body grows so greatly are its days
diminished. Everywhere in our life are faintness and weariness, and decay
of the body, and yet every one desires that he may live long. What is to
live long but long to toil? It happens to few men in these days to live
eighty years in health, and whatsoever he lives over that, it is toil to
him and pain, as the prophet said, "Evil are our days," and the worse that
we love them. So this world flatters very many, that they are unwilling to
end this life of exile. A true and blessed life it will be, when we from
death arise and reign with Christ. In that life will be good days, yet not
many days, but one, which knows no rise nor no ending, which no tomorrow
follows, because no yesterday preceded it; but the one day will for ever be
unended without any night, without afflictions, without all the toils,
which we a little before in this lecture recounted. This day and this life
are promised to righteous christians, to whom may the merciful Lord lead
us, who liveth and reigneth with the Father and the Holy Ghost ever without
end. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *


    Ibat Iesus in ciuitatem quæ uocatur Naim: et reliqua.

Ure Drihten ferde to sumere byrig seo is geháten Naim, and his gingran
samod, and genihtsum menigu. Þaða he genealæhte þam port-geate, þa ferede
man anes cnihtes líc to byrgene: et reliqua.

Beda se trahtnere cwæð, þæt seo burh Naim is gereht, {492} 'yðung' oððe
'styrung.' Se deada cniht, ðe on manegra manna gesihðe wæs geferod,
getácnað gehwylcne synfulne mannan þe bið mid healicum leahtrum on ðam
inran menn adydd, and bið his yfelnys mannum cuð. Se cniht wæs áncenned
sunu his meder, swa bið eac gehwilc cristen man gastlice ðære halgan
gelaðunge sunu, seo is ure ealra modor, and ðeah-hwæðere ungewemmed mæden;
forðan ðe hire team nis ná lichamlic ac gastlic. Gehwilc Godes ðeow, þonne
he leornað, he bið bearn gecweden: eft, þonne he oðerne lærð, he bið modor,
swa swa se apostol Paulus be ðam aslidenum mannum cwæð, "Ge synd mine
bearn, ða ðe ic nu oðre siðe geeacnige, oðþæt Crist beo on eow geedníwod."
Þæt port-geat getácnað sum lichamlic andgit þe menn ðurh syngiað. Se mann
ðe tosæwð ungeþwærnysse betwux cristenum mannum, oððe seðe sprecð
unrihtwisnysse on heannysse ðurh his muðes geat, he bið dead geferod. Se ðe
behylt wimman mid galre gesihðe and fulum luste, ðurh his eagena geat, hé
geswutelað his sawle deað. Se ðe idele spellunge, oððe tállice word
lustlice gehyrð, þonne macað hé his eare him sylfum to deaðes geate. Swa is
eac be ðam oðrum andgitum to understandenne.

Se Hælend wearð astyred mid mildheortnysse ofer ðære meder, þæt he us
bysene sealde his arfæstnysse; and he ðone deadan syððan arærde, þæt he us
to his geleafan getrymede. He genealæhte and hreopode þa bǽre, and þa
bǽrmenn ætstodon. Seo bǽr ðe þone deadan ferode is þæt orsorge ingehyd þæs
orwenan synfullan. Soðlice ða byrðeras, ðe hine to byrgenne feredon, synd
olæcunga lyffetyndra geferena, þe mid olæcunge and geættredum swæsnyssum
þone synfullan tihtað and heriað, swa swa se wítega cwæð, "Se synfulla bið
geherod on his lustum, and se unrihtwisa bið gebletsod: þonne he bið mid
idelum hlisan and lyffetungum befángen, þonne bið hit swylce he sy mid
sumere mold-hypan ofhroren." Be swylcum cwæð se Hælend to ánum his
gecorenan, ðaða hé wolde his fæder líc bebyrian: he cwæð, "Geðafa þæt ða
{494} deadan bebyrion heora deadan: far ðu, and boda Godes rice." Witodlice
ða deadan bebyriað oðre deadan, þonne gehwilce synfulle menn oðre heora
gelícan mid derigendlicere herunge geólæcað, and mid gegaderodum hefe þære
wyrstan lyffetunge ofðriccað. Be swylcum is gecweden on oðre stowe,
"Lyffetyndra tungan gewriðað manna sawla on synnum."

Mid þam ðe Drihten hrepode ða bære, ða ætstodon þa bǽrmenn. Swa eac, gif
ðæs synfullan ingehyd bið gehrepod mid fyrhte þæs upplican domes, þonne
wiðhæfð he ðam unlustum and ðam leasum lyffeterum, and clypigendum Drihtne
to ðam ecan life cáflice geandwyrt, swylce he of deaðe arise. Drihten cwæð
to ðam cnihte, "Ic secge ðe, Aris, and he ðærrihte gesǽt and spræc, and se
Hælend betæhte hine his meder." Se ge-edcucoda sitt, þonne se synfulla mid
godcundre onbryrdnysse cucað. He sprecð, þonne he mid Godes herungum his
muð gebysgað, and mid soðre andetnysse Godes mildheortnysse secþ. He bið
his meder betæht, þonne he bið þurh sacerda ealdordóm gemǽnscipe ðære
halgan gelaðunge geferlæht. Þæt folc wearð mid micclum ege ablicged; forðan
swa swa mann fram marum synnum gecyrð to Godes mildheortnysse, and his
ðeawas æfter Godes bebodum gerihtlæcð, swa má manna beoð gecyrrede ðurh his
gebysnunge to Godes herunge.

Þæt folc cwæð þæt mære witega arás betwux ús, and þæt God his folc
geneosode. Soð hí sædon be Criste, þæt he mære witega is; ac he is witegena
Witega, and heora ealra witegung; forðan ðe ealle be him witegodon, and he
ðurh his to-cyme heora ealra witegunge gefylde. We cweðað nu mid maran
geleafan, þæt he is mære witega, forðan ðe he wát ealle ðing, and eac fela
witegode, and he is soð God of soðum Gode, Ælmihtig Sunu of ðam Ælmihtigan
Fæder, seðe his folc geneosode þurh his menniscnysse, and fram deofles
ðeowte alysde.

We rædað gehwær on bocum, þæt se Hælend fela deade to lífe arærde, ac
ðeah-hwæðere nis nán godspell gesett be {496} heora nanum buton ðrim anum.
An is þes cniht þe we nu embe spræcon, oðer wæs anes ealdormannes dohtor,
þridde wæs Lazarus, Marthan broðer and Marian. Þyssera ðreora manna ærist
getácnað þæt ðryfealde ærist synfullra sawla. Þære sawle deað is þreora
cynna: án is yfel geðafung, oðer is yfel weorc, ðridda is yfel gewuna. Ðæs
ealdormannes dohtor læig æt forðsiðe, and se fæder gelaðode ðone Hælend
þærto, forðan ðe he wæs on ðam timan þær on neawiste. Heo ða forðferde
ærðan ðe he hire to come. Þaða he com, ða genam hé hí be ðære hánda, and
cwæð, "Þu mæden, ic secge ðe, Arís. And heo ðærrihte arás, and metes bæd."

Þis mæden ðe inne læg on deaðe geswefod, getácnað þære synfullan sawle
deað, ðe gelustfullað on yfelum lustum digellice, and ne bið gyt mannum
cuð, þæt heo þurh synna dead is; ac Crist geswutelode þæt hé wolde swa
synfulle sawle gelíffæstan, gif hé mid geornfullum gebedum to gelaðod bið,
þaða he arærde þæt mæden binnan ðam huse, swa swa digelne leahter on
menniscre heortan lutigende. Nu syndon oðre synfulle þe gelustfulliað on
derigendlicum lustum mid geðafunge, and eac heora yfelnysse mid weorcum
cyðað; swilce getácnode se deada cniht, ðe wæs on þæs folces gesihðe
geférod. Swilce synfulle arærð Crist, gif hí heora synna behreowsiað, and
betæcð hí heora meder, þæt is, þæt he hi geferlæcð on annysse his

Sume synfulle men geðafiað heora lustum, and ðurh yfele dæda mannum cyðað
heora synna, and eac gewunelice syngigende hí sylfe gewemmað: þyllice
getácnode Lazarus, þe læg on byrgene feower niht fule stincende. Witodlice
Godes nama is Ælmihtig, forðan ðe hé mæg ealle ðing gefremman. He mæg ða
synfullan sawle ðurh his gife geliffæstan, ðeah ðe heo on gewunelicum
synnum fule stince, gif heo mid carfulre drohtnunge Godes mildheortnysse
secð; ac swa mare wund swa heo maran læcedomes behófað. Þæt geswutelode se
Hælend, þaþa hé mid leohtlicere stemne þæt mæden arærde {498} on feawra
manna gesihðe; forðan ðe hé ne geðafode þæt ðæra má manna inne wære, buton
se fæder, and seo modor, and his ðry leorning-cnihtas: and he cwæð ða, "Þu
mæden, Arís."

Swa bið eac se digla deað ðære sawle eaþelicor to arǽrenne, þe on geðafunge
digelice syngað, þonne synd ða openan leahtras to gehælenne. Þone cniht he
arærde on ealles folces gesihðe, and mid þysum wordum getrymede, "Þu cniht,
ic secge ðe, Arís." Þa diglan gyltas man sceal digelice betan, and ða
openan openlice, þæt ða beon getimbrode þurh his behreowsunge, ðe ǽr wæron
þurh his mándæda geæswicode.

Drihten ðaða he Lazarum stincendne arærde, ða gedrefde he hine sylfne, and
tearas ageat, and mid micelre stemne clypode, "Lazare, ga forð:" ða he
geswutelode þæt se ðe swiðe langlice and gewunelice syngode, þæt he eac mid
micelre behreowsunge and wope sceal his yfelan gewunan to Godes
rihtwisnysse gewéman. Nis nán synn swa micel þæt man ne mæge gebétan, gif
he mid inneweardre heortan be ðæs gyltes mæðe on soðre dǽdbote þurhwunað.
Is þeah-hwæðere micel smeagung be anum worde þe Crist cwæð: he cwæð, "Ælc
synn and tál bið forgífen behreowsigendum mannum, ac þæs Halgan Gastes tál
ne bið næfre forgífen. Þeah ðe hwá cweðe tállic word ongean me, him bið
forgífen, gif he deð dǽdbote; soðlice se ðe cweð word ongan ðone Halgan
Gast, ne bið hit him forgífen on ðyssere worulde, ne on ðære towerdan." Nis
nán synna forgífenys buton ðurh ðone Halgan Gast. An Ælmihtig Fæder is, se
gestrynde ænne Sunu of him sylfum. Nis se Fæder gehæfd gemænelice Fæder
fram ðam Suna and þam Halgan Gaste, forðan ðe hé nis heora begra sunu. Se
Halga Gast soðlice is gemænelice gehæfd fram ðam Fæder and þam Suna, forðan
ðe hé is heora begra Gast, þæt is heora begra Lufu and Willa, þurh ðone
beoð synna forgyfene. Witodlice ðære Halgan Ðrynnysse weorc is æfre
untodæledlic, þeah-hwæðere {500} belimpð ælc forgífenys to ðam Halgan
Gaste, swa swa seo acennednys belimpð to Criste ánum.

Hí ne magon beon togædere genemnede, Fæder, and Sunu, and Halig Gast, ac hí
ne beoð mid ænigum fæce fram him sylfum awar totwæmede. On eallum weorcum
hí beoð togædere, þeah ðe to ðam Fæder synderlice belimpe þæt he Bearn
gestrynde, and to ðam Suna belimpe seo acennednys, and to þam Halgan Gaste
seo forðstæppung. Se Sunu is ðæs Fæder Wisdom æfre of ðam Fæder acenned; se
Halga Gast nis na acenned, forðan ðe he nis na sunu, ac he is heora begra
Lufu and Willa, æfre of him bám forðstæppende, þurh ðone we habbað synna
forgyfenysse, swa swa we habbað þurh Crist alysednysse; and þeah-hwæðere on
ægðrum weorce is seo Halige Þrynnys wyrcende untodæledlice.

Se cwyð tál ongean ðone Halgan Gast, seðe mid unbehreowsigendre heortan
þurhwunað on mándædum, and forsihð þa forgyfenysse ðe stent on ðæs Halgan
Gastes gife: þonne bið his scyld unalysendlic, forðan ðe he sylf him belicð
þære forgífenysse weg mid his heardheortnysse. Behreowsigendum bið
forgífen, forseondum næfre. Uton we biddan þone Ælmihtigan Fæder, seðe us
þurh his wisdom geworhte, and þurh his Halgan Gast geliffæste, þæt he ðurh
ðone ylcan Gast us do ure synna forgyfenysse, swa swa he us ðurh his ænne
áncennedan Sunu fram deofles ðeowte alysde.

Sy lof and wuldor þam ecan Fæder, seðe næfre ne ongann, and his ánum
Bearne, seðe æfre of him is, and þam Halgan Gaste, seðe æfre is of him bám,
hi ðry án Ælmihtig God untodæledlic, á on ecnysse rixigende. Amen.


    Ibat Jesus in civitatem quae vocatur Naim: et reliqua.

Our Lord went to a city which is called Nain, and his disciples with him,
and a copious multitude. When he approached the port-gate, the corpse of a
young man was borne to the grave, etc.

Beda the expositor said, that the city of Nain is interpreted {493}
'inundation' or 'agitation.' The dead youth, who was borne in sight of many
men, betokens every sinful man who in the inward man is fordone with deadly
sins, and his evilness is known to men. The youth was the only-born son of
his mother, so is also every christian man spiritually a son of the holy
church, which is the mother of us all, and, nevertheless, an undefiled
maiden; for her family is not bodily but spiritual. Every servant of God,
when he learns, is called a child: afterwards, when he teaches another, he
is a mother, as the apostle Paul said of the fallen men, "Ye are my
children, whom I now a second time conceive, until Christ is renewed in
you." The port-gate betokens some bodily sense through which men sin. The
man that sows dissension among christian men, or who speaks unrighteousness
in high places through his mouth's gate, he is borne dead. He who beholds a
woman with libidinous eye and foul lust, through his eyes' gate, manifests
his soul's death. He who with delight hears idle discourse or contumelious
words, makes his ear a gate of death to himself. So is it also to be
understood of the other senses.

Jesus was moved with compassion for the mother, that he might give us an
example of his piety; and he afterwards raised the dead, that he might
confirm us to his faith. He approached and touched the bier, and the
biermen stood still. The bier which bare the dead is the heedless mind of
the hopeless sinful. But the bearers, who bare him to the grave, are the
blandishments of flattering companions, who with blandishment and envenomed
suavities stimulate and praise the sinful, as the prophet said, "The sinful
is praised in his lusts, and the unrighteous is blessed: when he is
surrounded by empty fame and flatteries, then is it as though he were
overwhelmed by a mould-heap." Of such Jesus said to one of his chosen, when
he would bury his father's corpse: he said, "Allow the dead to bury their
dead: go thou, and {495} preach God's kingdom." Verily the dead bury other
dead, when sinful men court others their like with pernicious praise, and
oppress with the accumulated weight of the worst flattery. Of such it is
said in another place, "The tongues of flatterers bind the souls of men in

When the Lord touched the bier, the biermen stood still. So also, if the
mind of the sinful is touched by fear of the heavenly doom, then he
withstands evil lusts and false flatteries, and to the Lord calling to
eternal life promptly answers, as if he had arisen from death. The Lord
said to the youth, "I say unto thee, Arise. And he forthwith sat and spake,
and Jesus delivered him to his mother." The requickened sits, when the
sinful with divine stimulation quickens. He speaks, when he employs his
mouth with God's praises, and with true confession seeks God's mercy. He is
delivered to his mother, when through the priest's authority he is
associated in communion of the holy church. The folk was astonished with
great awe; for so as a man turns from great sins to God's mercy, and
corrects his conduct after God's commandments, so more men will be turned
through his example to the praise of God.

The folk said, "That a great prophet hath arisen among us," and, "That God
hath visited his folk." Truly they said of Christ, that he is a great
prophet; for he is a Prophet of prophets, and the prophecy of them all; for
they all prophesied of him, and by his advent he fulfilled the prophecy of
them all. We say now with great faith, that he is a great prophet, for he
knows all things, and also prophesied many, and he is true God of true God,
Almighty Son of the Almighty Father, who visited his folk through his
humanity, and relieved them from the thraldom of the devil.

We read everywhere in books, that Jesus raised many dead to life, but yet
there is no gospel composed of any of them {497} save three only. One is
the youth of whom we have just spoken, the second was an ealdorman's
daughter, the third was Lazarus, the brother of Martha and Mary. The
resurrection of these three persons betokens the threefold resurrection of
sinful souls. The soul's death is of three kinds: one is evil assent, the
second is evil work, the third is evil habit. The ealdorman's daughter lay
at the point of death, and the father called Jesus thereto, because he was
at that time there in the neighbourhood. She had departed before he came to
her. When he came, he took her by the hand, and said, "Thou maiden, I say
unto thee, Arise. And she straightways arose, and asked for meat."

This maiden, who lay therein sleeping in death, betokens the death of the
sinful soul, which delights secretly in evil pleasures, and it is not yet
known to men, that it, through sins, is dead; but Christ manifested that he
would quicken so sinful a soul, if with fervent prayers he be thereto
called, when he raised the maiden within the house, like as secret sin
lurking in the human heart. Now there are other sinful, who delight in
pernicious lusts by assent, and also manifest their evilness by works; such
the dead youth betokened, who was borne in sight of the people. Such
sinners Christ raises, if they repent of their sins, and delivers them to
their mother, that is, he associates them in the unity of his church.

Some sinful men assent to their lusts, and by evil deeds manifest their
sins to men, and also habitually sinning defile themselves: such Lazarus
betokened, who lay four days foully stinking in the sepulchre. Verily God's
name is Almighty, for he can accomplish all things. He can through his
grace quicken the sinful soul, though it foully stink in habitual sins, if
with careful conduct it seek God's mercy; but the more it is wounded so
much more medicament does it require. That Jesus manifested, when with
clear voice he raised the maiden in sight of few persons; for he allowed
{499} not more persons to be therein than the father, and the mother, and
his three disciples: and he said then, "Thou maiden, Arise."

So also is the secret death of the soul, which sins secretly by assent,
easier to raise than open vices are to be healed. He raised the youth in
sight of all the people, and confirmed by these words, "Thou youth, I say
unto thee, Arise." Secret sins shall be expiated secretly, and open openly,
that those may be edified by his repentance, who had ere been seduced by
his sins.

The Lord when he raised the stinking Lazarus was troubled and shed tears,
and with a loud voice cried, "Lazarus, go forth:" he then manifested that
he who has very long and habitually sinned, shall also with great
repentance and weeping turn his evil habits to God's righteousness. There
is no sin so great that a man may not expiate it, if, with inward heart,
according to the degree of the sin, he continue in true penitence. There
is, nevertheless, great disquisition concerning one sentence which Christ
said: he said, "Every sin and calumny shall be forgiven to repenting men,
but calumny of the Holy Ghost shall never be forgiven. Though any one speak
a calumnious word against me, he shall be forgiven, if he do penance; but
he who says a word against the Holy Ghost, shall not be forgiven in this
world nor in that to come." There is no forgiveness of sins but through the
Holy Ghost. There is one Almighty Father, who begot a Son of himself. The
Father is not called Father in common from the Son and the Holy Ghost, for
the latter is not the son of them both. But the Holy Ghost is called in
common from the Father and the Son, for he is the Spirit of them both, that
is the Love and Will of them both, through whom sins are forgiven. Verily
the work of the Holy Trinity {501} is ever indivisible, yet all forgiveness
belongs to the Holy Ghost, as birth belongs to Christ alone.

They may not be named together, Father, and Son, and Holy Ghost, but they
are not by any space anywhere separated from themselves. In all works they
are together, though to the Father it exclusively belongs that he begot a
Son, and to the Son belongs birth, and to the Holy Ghost procession. The
Son is the Wisdom of the Father ever begotten of the Father; the Holy Ghost
is not begotten, for he is not a son, but is the Love and Will of them
both, ever proceeding from them both, through whom we have forgiveness of
sins, as through Christ we have redemption; and yet in either work is the
Holy Trinity working indivisibly.

He speaks calumny against the Holy Ghost, who with unrepenting heart
continues in deeds of wickedness, and despises the forgiveness which stands
in the grace of the Holy Ghost: then shall his sin be unredeemable, for he
himself besets the way of forgiveness with his hardheartedness. The
repenting shall be forgiven, the despising never. Let us pray to the
Almighty Father, who hath through his Wisdom made us, and through his Holy
Spirit quickened us, that he through the same Spirit grant us forgiveness
of our sins, as, through his only begotten Son, he has redeemed us from the
thraldom of the devil.

Be praise and glory to the eternal Father who never began, and to his only
Son who ever is of him, and to the Holy Ghost who ever is of them both,
those three one Almighty God indivisible, reigning ever to eternity. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *

{502} III. K[=AL]. OCTOB.


Manegum mannum is cuð seo halige stów S[=ce] Michaheles, on þære dúne þe is
geháten Garganus. Seo dún stent on Campania landes gemæron, wið þa sǽ
Adriaticum, twelf mila on upstige fram anre byrig þe is geháten Sepontina.
Of ðære stowe wearð aræred þises dæges freols geond geleaffulle gelaðunge.
Þær eardode sum þurhspedig mann Garganus geháten: of his gelimpe wearð seo
dún swa gecíged. Hit gelámp, þaþa seo ormæte micelnyss his orfes on ðære
dune læswede, þæt sum modig fearr wearð ángencga, and þære heorde-drafe
oferhógode. Hwæt se hláford þa Garganus gegaderode micele menigu his
in-cnihta, and ðone fearr gehwær on ðam westene sohte, and æt nextan hine
gemette standan uppon ðam cnolle þære healican dune, æt ánes scræfes
inngange; and he ða mid graman wearð astyred, hwí se fearr ángenga his
heorde forsáwe, and gebende his bogan, and mid geættrode flan hine
ofsceotan wolde; ac seo geættrode flá wende ongean swilce mid windes blæde
aðrawen, and þone ðe hi sceat þærrihte ofsloh.

His magas ða and nehgeburas wurdon þearle þurh ða dæde ablicgede, and heora
nán ne dorste ðam fearre genealæcan. Hí ða heora biscop rǽdes befrunon,
hwæt him be ðam to donne wære. Se biscop ða funde him to rǽde, þæt hí mid
þreora daga fæstene, swutelunge þæs wundres æt Gode bædon. Þa on ðære
ðriddan nihte þæs fæstenes æteowde se heah-engel Michahel hine sylfne þam
biscope on gastlicere gesihðe, þus cweðende, "Wislice ge dydon, þæt ge to
Gode sohton þæt þæt mannum digle wæs. Wite ðu gewislice, þæt se mann ðe mid
his agenre flán ofscoten wæs, þæt hit is mid minum willan gedón. Ic eom
Michahel se heah-engel Godes Ælmihtiges, and ic symle on his gesihðe
wunige. Ic secge ðe, þæt ic ða stowe þe se fearr geealgode synderlice
lufige, {504} and ic wolde mid þære gebícnunge geswutelian þæt ic eom ðære
stowe hyrde; and ealra ðæra tácna ðe ðær gelimpað, ic eom sceawere and
gymend." And se heah-engel mid þisum wordum to heofonum gewát.

Se biscop rehte his gesihðe þam burhwarum, and hi ða syððan gewunelice
þider sohton, and þone lifigendan God and his heah-engel Michahel geornlice
bædon. Twá dura hí gesawon on ðære cyrcan, and wæs seo suþ duru sume dæle
mare, fram ðære lagon stapas to ðam west-dæle; ac hí ne dorston þæt halige
hús mid ingange geneosian, ac dæghwomlice geornlice æt ðære dura hí

Þa on ðære ylcan tíde Neapolite, þe wæron ða-gyt on hæðenscipe wunigende,
cwædon gefeoht togeanes þære burhware Sepontiniscre ceastre, þe þa halgan
stowe wurðodon, and togeanes Beneuentanos. Hí ða, mid heora biscopes
mynegungum gelærde, bædon þreora daga fæc, þæt hi binnon þam ðrim dagum mid
fæstene þæs heah-engles Michaheles fultum bædon. Þa hæðenan eac swilce mid
lacum and offrungum heora leasra goda gecneordlice múnde and gescyldnysse

Efne ða on ðære nihte þe þæt gefeoht on merigen toweard wæs, æteowde se
heah-engel Michahel hine sylfne ðam biscope, and cwæð, þæt he heora bena
gehyrde, and his fultum him behét, and het þæt hí ane tíd ofer undern hí
getrymedon ongean heora fynd. Hí ða on merigen bliðe and orsorge, þurh ðæs
engles behát, and mid truwan his fultumes, ferdon togeanes ðam hæðenum. Þa
sona on anginne þæs gefeohtes wæs se múnt Garganus bifigende mid ormætre
cwacunge, and micel liget fleah of ðære dúne swilce flán wið þæs hæðenan
folces, and þæs múntes cnoll mid þeosterlicum genipum eal oferhangen wæs.
Hwæt ða hæðenan ða forhtmode fleames cepton, and gelice hí wurdon mid þam
fyrenum {506} flanum ofscotene, gelice mid þæra cristenra wæpnum hindan
ofsette, oðþæt hi heora burh Neapolim sámcuce gesohton. Soðlice ða ðe ða
frecednyssa ætflugon, oncneowon þæt Godes engel ðam cristenum to fultume
becom, and hí ðærrihte heora swuran Criste underþeoddon, and mid his
geleafan gewæpnode wurdon. Witodlice þæs wæles wæs geteald six hund manna
mid þam fyrenum flanum ofsceotene. Þa cristenan ða sigefæste mid micelre
bylde and blisse hám gecyrdon, and ðam Ælmihtigan Gode and his heah-engle
Michahele heora behát to ðam temple gebrohton. Þa gesawon hí ætforan ðære
cyrcan norð-dura, on þam marmanstane, swilce mannes fótlæsta fæstlice on
ðam stane geðyde, and hí ða undergeaton þæt se heah-engel Michahel þæt
tácen his andwerdnysse geswutelian wolde. Hi ða sona ðær-ofer cyrcan
arǽrdon and weofod, þam heah-engle to lofe, ðe him on þam stede fylstende

Þa wearð micel twynung betwux ðære burhware be ðære cyrcan, hwæðer hí
inn-eodon, oððe hí halgian sceoldon. Hwæt hí ða on þam east-dæle ðære stowe
cyrcan arærdon, and þam apostole Petre to wurðmynte gehalgodon, and
þær-binnan S[=ce] Marian, and Iohanne ðam Fulluhtere weofod asetton. Þa æt
nextan sende se biscop to ðam papan, and hine befrán, hú him embe þæs
heah-engles getimbrunge to dónne wære. Se papa þisum ærende ðus geandwyrde,
"Gif mannum alyfed is þæt hi ða cyrcan ðe se heah-engel sylf getimbrode
halgian moton, þonne gebyrað seo halgung on ðam dæge þe hé eow sige
forgeaf, þurh unnan ðæs Ælmihtigan. Gif ðonne hwæt elles þam heah-engle
gelicige, axiað his willan on þam ylcan dæge." Þaða ðeos andswaru þam
biscope gecydd wæs, þa bead hé his ceastergewarum þreora daga fæsten, and
bǽdon þa Halgan Þrynnysse þæt him wurde geswutelod sum gewiss beácn embe
heora twynunge. Se heah-engel ða Michahel, on ðære ðriddan nihte þæs
fæstenes, cwæð to ðam biscope on swefne, "Nis eow nan neod þæt ge ða cyrcan
halgion þe ic getimbrode. Ic sylf hi getimbrode {508} and gehalgode. Ac gað
eow into ðære cyrcan unforhtlice, and me ætstandendum geneosiað þa stowe
æfter gewunan mid gebedum; and þu þær to-merigen mæssan gesing, and þæt
folc æfter godcundum ðeawe to husle gange; and ic þonne geswutelige hú ic
ða stowe ðurh me sylfne gehalgode."

Hi ða sona þæs on merigen ðider mid heora offrungum bliðe comon, and mid
micelre ánrædnysse heora bena on ðam suþ-dæle inn-eodon. Efne ða hí gesawon
an láng portic on ðam norð-dæle astreht for nean to ðam marmanstane þe se
engel onstandende his fótlæste æteowde. On ðam east-dæle wæs gesewen micel
cyrce to ðære hí stæpmælum astigon. Seo cyrce mid hire portice mihte fif
hund manna eaðelice befón on hire rymette: and þær stód, gesett wið middan
þæs suð-wages, arwurðe weofod, mid readum pælle gescrydd. Næs þæt hús æfter
manna gewunan getimbrod, ac mid mislicum torrum gehwemmed, to gelicnysse
sumes scræfes. Se hróf eac swylce hæfde mislice heahnysse: on sumere stowe
hine man mihte mid heafde gerǽcan, on sumere mid handa earfoðlice. Ic
gelyfe þæt se heah-engel mid þam geswutelode þæt he micele swiðor sohte and
lufode þære heortan clænnysse þonne ðæra stána frætwunge. Þæs muntes cnoll
wiðutan is sticmælum mid wuda oferwexen, and eft sticmælum mid grenum felda

Soðlice æfter ðære mæssan and ðam halgan husel-gange gecyrde gehwá mid
micclum gefean to his agenum. Se biscop ða ðær Godes ðeowas gelogode,
sangeras, and ræderas, and sacerdas, þæt hi dæghwomlice ðær Godes þenunge
mid þæslicere endebyrdnysse gefyldon; and him ðær mynsterlic botl timbrian
hét. Nis þeah-hwæðere nan mann to ðam dyrstig þæt hé on nihtlicere tide
binnan ðære cyrcan cuman durre, ac on dǽgrede, þa Godes þeowas þær-binnan
Godes lof singað. Of ðam hróf-stane on norþ-dæle þæs halgan weofodes yrnð
dropmælum swiðe hluttor wæter, and wered, þæt gecigdon ða ðe on þære stowe
wunodon, stillam, þæt is, {510} dropa. Þær is ahangen sum glæsen fǽt mid
sylfrenne racenteage, and þæs wynsuman wætan onfehð. Þæs folces gewuna is,
þæt hí æfter þam halgan husel-gange stæpmælum to ðam fæte astigað, and þæs
heofonlican wætan onbyriað. Se wæta is swiðe wynsum on swæcce, and swiðe
hálwende on hrepunge. Witodlice forwel menige æfter langsumum fefere and
mislicum mettrumnyssum, þurh ðises wætan þigene hrædlice heora hæle brucað.
Eac swilce on oðrum gemete, ungerime untruman þær beoð oft and gelome
gehælede, and menigfealde wundra þurh ðæs heah-engles mihte ðær beoð
gefremode; and ðeah swiðost on þysum dæge, ðonne þæt folc of gehwilcum
leodscipe þa stowe geneosiað, and þæs engles andwerdnyss mid sumum gemete
ðær swiðost bið, þæt ðæs apostoles cwyde beo lichamlice gefylled, þæt þæt
hé gastlice gecwæð: he cwæð, þæt "englas beoð to ðening-gastum fram Gode
hider on worulde asende, þæt hi beon on fultume his gecorenum, þæt hi ðone
ecan eðel onfón mid him."


    Accesserunt ad Iesum discipuli dicentes, Quis putas maior in regno
    cœlorum: et reliqua.

Þis dægþerlice godspell cwyð, þæt "Drihtnes leorning-cnihtas to him
genealæhton, þus cweðende, La leof, hwá is fyrmest manna on heofenan rice?
Se Hælend him ða to clypode sum gehwǽde cild:" et reliqua.

Hægmon trahtnað þis godspell, and segð, hú ðæs caseres tolleras axodon
Petrus ðone apostol, ðaða hi geond ealne middangeard ðam casere toll
gegaderodon; hi cwædon, "Wyle eower láreow Crist ænig toll syllan? Þa cwæð
Petrus, þæt he wolde. Þa mid þam ðe Petrus wolde befrínan þone Hælend, þa
forsceat se Hælend hine, ðe ealle ðing wát, þus cweðende, Hwæt ðincð þe,
Petrus, æt hwam nimað eorðlice cynegas gafol oððe toll, æt heora
gesiblingum, oþþe æt ælfremedum? Petrus cwæð, Æt ælfremedum. {512} Se
Hælend cwæð, Hwæt la synd heora siblingas frige? Þe lǽs ðe we hí æswicion,
ga to ðære sǽ, and wurpe út ðinne angel, and þone fisc ðe hine hraðost
forswelhð, geopena his muð, þonne fintst þu ðær-on ænne gyldenne wecg: nim
ðone, and syle to tolle for me and for ðe."

Þa for ðam intingan þe hé cwæð, "Syle for me and for ðe," wendon þa
apostolas þæt Petrus wære fyrmest, and axodon ða ðone Hælend, "Hwá wære
fyrmest manna on heofonan rice?" Þa wolde se Hælend heora dwollican
geþohtas mid soðre eadmodnysse gehælan, and cwæð, þæt hí ne mihton becuman
to heofonan rice, buton hí wæron swa eadmode, and swa unscæððige swa þæt
cild wæs ðe he him to clypode. Bilewite cild ne gewilnað oðra manna æhta,
ne wlitiges wifes; þeah ðe hit beo gegremod, hit ne hylt langsume
ungeþwærnysse to ðam ðe him derode, ne hit ne híwað mid wordum, þæt hit
oðer ðence, and oðer sprece. Swa eac sceolon Godes folgeras, þæt synd þa
cristenan, habban þa unscæððignysse on heora mode þe cild hæfð on ylde.

Se Hælend cwæð, "Soð ic eow secge, Ne becume ge to heofonan rice, buton ge
beon awende, and gewordene swa swa lyttlingas." Ne bebead he his gingrum
þæt hí on lichaman cild wæron, ac þæt hí heoldon bilewitra cildra
unscæððignysse on heora þeawum. On sumere stowe he cwæð, þaða him man to
bær cild to bletsigenne, and his gingran þæt bemændon, "Geðafiað þæt ðas
cild to me cumon; swilcera is soðlice heofonan rice." Be ðisum manode se
apostol Paulus his underðeoddan, and cwæð, "Ne beo ge cild on andgite, ac
on yfelnyssum: beoð on andgite fulfremede." Se Hælend cwæð, "Swa hwá swa
hine sylfne geeadmet, swa swa ðis cild, he bið fyrmest on heofonan rice."
Uton habban ða soðan eadmodnysse on urum life, gif we willað habban ða
healican geðincðe on Godes rice; swa swa se Hælend cwæð, "Ælc ðæra ðe hine
onhefð bið geeadmet, and se ðe hine geeadmet, he bið aháfen." Se hæfð
bilewites cildes unscæððignysse, þe him sylfum mislicað to ði þæt he Gode
gelicige; {514} and he bið swa micele wlitegra ætforan Godes gesihðe, swa
he swiðor ætforan him sylfum eadmodra bið. "Se ðe underfehð ænne swilcne
lyttling on minum naman, hé underfehð me sylfne." Eallum Godes ðearfum man
sceall wel-dǽda þenian, ac ðeah swiðost þam eadmodum and liðum, þe mid
heora lífes ðeawum Cristes bebodum geþwæriað; forðam him bið geðenod mid
his ðearfena þenunge, and hé sylf bið underfangen on heora anfenge.

He cwæð eac on oðre stowe, "Se ðe wítegan underfehð, he hæfð wítegan mede;
se ðe rihtwisne underfehð, he hæfð rihtwises mannes edlean." Þæt is, Se ðe
witegan, oððe sumne rihtwisne Godes ðeow underfehð, and him for Godes lufon
bigwiste foresceawað, þonne hæfð he swa micele mede his cystignysse æt
Gode, swilce hé him sylf wítega wære, oþþe rihtwis Godes þeow. "Se ðe
geǽswicað anum ðyssera lyttlinga, ðe on me gelyfað, selre him wære þæt him
wære getiged án ormæte cwyrnstán to his swuran, and he swa wurde on deoppre
sǽ besenced." Se ǽswicað oðrum þe hine on Godes dæle beswicð, þæt his sawul
forloren beo. Se cwyrnstán þe tyrnð singallice, and nænne færeld ne
ðurhtihð, getácnað woruld-lufe, ðe on gedwyldum hwyrftlað, and nænne stæpe
on Godes wege ne gefæstnað. Be swylcum cwæð se witega, "Þa arleasan turniað
on ymbhwyrfte." Se ðe genealæhð halgum háde on Godes gelaðunge, and siððan
mid yfelre tihtinge oþþe mid leahterfullre drohtnunge oðrum yfele bysnað,
and heora ingehyd towyrpð, þonne wære him selre þæt he on woruldlicere
drohtnunge ana losode, þonne hé on halgum híwe oðre mid him þurh his
ðwyrlican þeawas to forwyrde getuge.

"Wá middangearde for ǽswicungum." Middangeard is her gecweden þa ðe þisne
ateorigendlican middangeard lufiað swiðor þonne þæt ece líf, and mid
mislicum swicdomum hí sylfe and oðre forpærað. "Neod is þæt æswicunga
cumon, ðeah-hwæðere wá ðam menn ðe hi ofcumað." Þeos woruld is swa mid
gedwyldum afylled, þæt heo ne mæg beon butan {516} ǽswicungum, and þeah wá
ðam menn ðe oðerne æt his æhtum, oððe æt his feore beswicð, and ðam bið
wyrs, þe mid yfelum tihtingum oþres mannes sawle to ecum forwyrdum beswicð.
"Gif ðin hand oððe ðin fót þe ǽswicige, ceorf of þæt lim, and awurp fram
ðe." Þis is gecweden æfter gastlicere getácnunge, na æfter lichamlicere
gesetnysse. Ne bebead God nanum menn þæt he his lima awyrde. Seo hánd
getácnað urne nydbehefan freond, þe us dæghwomlice mid weorce and fultume
ure neode deð; ac ðeah, gif swilc freond us fram Godes wege gewémð, þonne
bið us selre þæt we his flæsclican lufe fram ús aceorfon, and mid twǽminge
awurpon, þonne we, þurh his yfelan tihtinge, samod mid him on ece forwyrd
befeallon. Ealswa is be ðam fét and be ðam eagan. Gif hwilc sibling þe bið
swa deorwurðe swa ðin eage, and oðer swa behefe swa ðin hand, and sum swa
geðensum swilce ðin agen fót, gif hi ðonne þe þwyrlice tihtað to ðinre
sawle forwyrde, þonne bið þe selre þæt þu heora geðeodrædene forbúge, þonne
hi ðe forð mid him to ðam ecan forwyrde gelædon. "Behealdað þæt ge ne
forseon ænne of þysum lytlingum." Se ðe bepæhð ænne Godes þeowena, he
geǽbiligð ðone Hlaford, swa swa he sylf þurh his witegan cwæð, "Se ðe eow
hrepað, hit bið me swa egle swilce hé hreppe mines eagan séo."

"Ic secge eow þæt heora englas symle geseoð mines Fæder ansyne seðe on
heofonum is." Mid þisum wordum is geswutelod þæt ælcum geleaffullum men is
engel to hyrde geset, þe hine wið deofles syrwunge gescylt, and on halgum
mægnum gefultumað, swa swa se sealm-scóp be gehwilcum rihtwisum cwæð, "God
bebead his englum be ðe, þæt hi ðe healdon, and on heora handum hebban,
þelǽs ðe ðu æt stane þinne fót ætspurne." Micel wurðscipe is cristenra
manna, þæt gehwilc hæbbe fram his acennednysse him betæhtne engel to
hyrdrædene, swa swa be ðam apostole Petre awriten is, þaða se engel hine of
ðam cwearterne gelædde, and he to his geferum becom, and cnucigende
inganges bæd. Þa cwædon þa {518} geleaffullan, "Nis hit na Petrus þæt ðær
cnucað, ac is his engel." Þa englas soðlice ðe God gesette to hyrdum his
gecorenum, hí ne gewitað næfre fram his andweardnysse; forðan ðe God is
æghwær, and swa hwider swa ða englas fleoð, æfre hí beoð binnan his
andwerdnysse, and his wuldres brucað. Hi bodiað ure weorc and gebedu þam
Ælmihtigan, þeah ðe him nán ðing digle ne sy, swa swa se heah-engel
Raphahel cwæð to ðam Godes menn, Tobían, "Þaða ge eow gebædon, ic offrode
eower gebedu ætforan Gode."

Seo Ealde Æ ús sægð, þæt heah-englas sind gesette ofer gehwilce leodscipas,
þæt hi ðæs folces gymon, ofer ða oðre englas, swa swa Moyses, on ðære
fiftan béc ðære Ealdan Æ, þysum wordum geswutelode, "Þaða se healica God
todælde and tostencte Adames ofspring, þa sette he ðeoda gemæru æfter
getele his engla." Þisum andgite geþwærlæcð se witega Danihel on his
witegunge. Sum Godes engel spræc to Danihele embe ðone heah-engel þe
Perscisce ðeode bewiste, and cwæð, "Me com to se heah-engel, Greciscre
þeode ealdor, and nis heora nán mín gefylsta, buton Michahel, Ebreisces
folces ealdor. Efne nú Michahel, án ðæra fyrmestra ealdra, com me to
fultume, and ic wunode ðær wið þone cyning Persciscre ðeode." Mid þisum
wordum is geswutelod hú micele care ða heah-englas habbað heora ealdordomes
ofer mancynn, ðaða he cwæð, þæt Michahel him come to fultume.

Is nu geleaflic þæt se heah-engel Michahel hæbbe gymene cristenra manna,
seðe wæs ðæs Ebreiscan folces ealdor, þa hwile ðe hí on God belyfdon; and
þæt he geswutelode, þaða he him sylfum cyrcan getimbrode betwux geleaffulre
ðeode, on ðam munte Gargano, swa swa we hwene ǽr ræddon. Þæt is gedón be
Godes fadunge, þæt se mǽra heofonlica engel beo singallice cristenra manna
gefylsta on eorðan, and þingere on heofonum to ðam Ælmihtigan Gode, seðe
leofað and rixað á on ecnysse. Amen.



To many men is known the holy place of St. Michael, on the mountain which
is called Garganus. The mountain stands on the borders of the land of
Campania, towards the Adriatic sea, twelve miles in ascent from a town
which is called Sepontina. From that place originated this day's festival
throughout the faithful church. There dwelt a very rich man called
Garganus: from his adventure the mountain was so named. It happened when
the immense multitude of his cattle was grazing on the mountain, that an
unruly bull wandered alone and despised the drove. Hereupon the master
Garganus gathered a great many of his household servants, and sought the
bull everywhere i