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Title: South-African Folk-Tales
Author: Honey, James A.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "South-African Folk-Tales" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



James A. Honeÿ, M.D.



Published, November, 1910


C. F. H. AND F. I. G.



    INTRODUCTION                                 1


    THE LOST MESSAGE                            10

    THE MONKEY'S FIDDLE                         14


    THE JACKAL AND THE WOLF                     22

    A JACKAL AND A WOLF                         24

    THE LION, THE JACKAL, AND THE MAN           25

    THE WORLD'S REWARD                          28

    THE LION AND THE JACKAL                     33

    TINK-TINKJE                                 42

    THE LION AND JACKAL                         45

    THE LION AND JACKAL                         48

    THE HUNT OF LION AND JACKAL                 53


    THE LIONESS AND THE OSTRICH                 62

    CROCODILE'S TREASON                         64

    THE STORY OF A DAM                          73

      TRIUMPH                                   79

    JACKAL AND MONKEY                           84

    LION'S SHARE                                87

    JACKAL'S BRIDE                              92

    THE STORY OF HARE                           94

    THE WHITE MAN AND SNAKE                    101


    CLOUD EATING                               105

    LION'S ILLNESS                             107

    JACKAL, DOVE, AND HERON                    109

    COCK AND JACKAL                            111

    ELEPHANT AND TORTOISE                      112


    TORTOISE HUNTING OSTRICHES                 117

    THE JUDGMENT OF BABOON                     118

    LION AND BABOON                            121

    THE ZEBRA STALLION                         122

    WHEN LION COULD FLY                        124

      HIS MOTHER                               126

    LION WHO TOOK A WOMAN'S SHAPE              129

      ON HIS BACK?                             137

    HORSE CURSED BY SUN                        138

    LION'S DEFEAT                              139

    THE ORIGIN OF DEATH                        141




      "ORIGIN OF DEATH"                        147




In presenting these stories, which are of deep interest and value to
South Africans, I hope they may prove of some value to those Americans
who have either an interest in animals or who appreciate the folklore of
other countries.

Many of these tales have appeared among English collections previous to
1880, others have been translated from the Dutch, and a few have been
written from childhood remembrance. Consequently they do not pretend to
be original or unique. Care has been taken not to spoil the ethnological
value for the sake of form or structure; and in all cases they are as
nearly like the original as a translation from one tongue to another
will allow. They are all South-African folklore tales and mainly from
the Bushmen. Some are perverted types from what were originally Bushmen
tales, but have been taken over by Hottentots or Zulus; a few are from
the Dutch. Most of these last named will show a European influence,
especially French.

Some of the animal stories have appeared in American magazines under the
author's name, but this is the first time that a complete collection has
appeared since Dr. Bleek published his stories in 1864. The object has
been to keep the stories apart from those which have a mythological or
religious significance, and especially to keep it an animal collection
free from those in which man appears to take a part.

There will be found several versions of the same story, and as far as
possible these will be put in the order of their importance in relation
to the original. The author does not pretend to be an authority on
South-African folklore, but has only a South-African-born interest in
what springs from that country of sunshine. It is a difficult task to
attempt to trace the origin of these stories, as there is no country
where there have been so many distinct and primitive races dwelling

The Bushmen seem to trace back to the earliest Egyptian days, when
dwarfs were pictured on the tombs of the kings and were a distinct race.
From then until now it has been their pride to say that before men were
men, they were; or, to put it clearer, before Africa was inhabited by
other races, they were there. As represented by some of these stories of
the Bushmen, what races have not, then, had their influence on the
folklore? According to Stow, they were a wandering primitive race of
small men, painters and sculptors, hunters and herdsmen, and withal a
race showing traces of wonderful reasoning and adaptability, with a keen
sense of justice and a store of pride. Mythological some of their
stories are, but whether this is due to the influence of the Hottentots,
a later race, it is difficult to say. And, lastly, there are the Kaffirs
spread over the whole of South Africa, domineering, but backward. The
varied influences which may have affected these stories before they
reached us show what enormous possibilities there are for error in
tracing the origin of the animal tales here presented. Bleek finds that
a greater congeniality exists between the Hottentot and European mind
than is found between the latter and any other of the black races of
Africa. Whether he means that this indicates a European origin of the
fables, I cannot say. There is no doubt in my mind that the Bushmen came
from the north and were the primitive race of south and tropical Africa,
the dwarfs of Livingstone, Stanley, and other explorers. Considering,
then, the great antiquity of this race, it naturally follows that if
these stories are not original with the Bushmen, they are at least so
modified as to bear no resemblance to Egyptian, Phoenician, or any other
ancient race which the Bushmen may have come in contact with. Herodotus
described a race on the upper Nile which corresponds with later
descriptions of the Bushmen in tropical and southern Africa.

I agree with what the _South-African Folklore Journal_ stated twenty
years or more ago, that with the "vast strides South Africa is making in
the progress of civilization, the native races will either be swept away
or so altered as to lose many of their ancient habits, customs,
traditions, or at least greatly to modify them."

Knowing that by a collection of this kind these stories could best be
preserved, and feeling that others had not read them, I began this
collection ten years ago. There is so much done now to preserve what is
still Bushmen folklore that I feel this small volume is indeed only a
small addition to the folklore world.

"South-African folklore is," the _South-African Folklore Journal_ says,
"in its very nature plain, and primitive in its simplicity; not adorned
with the wealth of palaces and precious stones to be met with in the
folklore of more civilized nations, but descriptive in great measure of
the events of everyday life, among those in a low state of civilization;
and with the exception of evidences of moral qualities, and of such
imagery as is connected with the phenomena of nature, very little that
is grand or magnificent must be looked for in it."

Bain gives a story related by a Kaffir which shows "the distribution of
animals after the creation." This story could not become typically
Kaffir until after the Kaffir came in contact with the European in the
last two or three hundred years. However, the story will serve to
illustrate the people whose stories appear in this volume and to close
the Introduction.

Teco, in Kaffir, is the Supreme Being. Teco had every description of
stock and property.

There were three nations created, viz., the Whites, the Amakosa, or
Kaffirs, and the Amalouw, or Hottentots. A day was appointed for them to
appear before the Teco to receive whatever he might apportion to each
tribe. While they were assembling, a honey bird, or honey guide, came
fluttering by, and all the Hottentots ran after it, whistling and making
the peculiar noise they generally do while following this wonderful
little bird. The Teco remonstrated with them about their behavior, but
to no purpose. He thereupon denounced them as a vagrant race that would
have to exist on wild roots and honey beer, and possess no stock

When the fine herds of cattle were brought, the Kaffirs became very much
excited--the one exclaiming, "That black and white cow is mine!" and
another, "That red cow and black bull are mine!" and so on, till at last
the Teco, whose patience had been severely taxed by their shouts and
unruly behavior, denounced them as a restless people, who would only
possess cattle.

The Whites patiently waited until they received cattle, horses, sheep,
and all sorts of property. Hence, the old Kaffir observed, "You Whites
have got everything. We Kaffirs have only cattle, while the Amalouw, or
Hottentots, have nothing."

                                                  James A. Honeÿ.

  CAMBRIDGE, MASS., June, 1910.


In the beginning there were two. One was blind, the other was always
hunting. This hunter found at last a hole in the earth from which game
proceeded and killed the young. The blind man, feeling and smelling
them, said, "They are not game, but cattle."

The blind man afterwards recovered his sight, and going with the hunter
to this hole, saw that they were cows with their calves. He then quickly
built a kraal (fence made of thorns) round them, and anointed himself,
just as Hottentots (in their native state) are still wont to do.

When the other, who now with great trouble had to seek his game, came
and saw this, he wanted to anoint himself also. "Look here!" said the
other, "you must throw the ointment into the fire, and afterwards use
it." He followed this advice, and the flames flaring up into his face,
burnt him most miserably; so that he was glad to make his escape. The
other, however, called to him: "Here, take the kirri (a knobstick), and
run to the hills to hunt there for honey."

Hence sprung the race of Bushmen.


The ant has had from time immemorial many enemies, and because he is
small and destructive, there have been a great many slaughters among
them. Not only were most of the birds their enemies, but Anteater lived
almost wholly from them, and Centipede beset them every time and at all
places when he had the chance.

So now there were a few among them who thought it would be well to hold
council together and see if they could not come to some arrangement
whereby they could retreat to some place of safety when attacked by
robber birds and animals.

But at the gathering their opinions were most discordant, and they could
come to no decision.

There was Red-ant, Rice-ant, Black-ant, Wagtail-ant, Gray-ant,
Shining-ant, and many other varieties. The discussion was a true babel
of diversity, which continued for a long time and came to nothing.

A part desired that they should all go into a small hole in the ground,
and live there; another part wanted to have a large and strong dwelling
built on the ground, where nobody could enter but an ant; still another
wanted to dwell in trees, so as to get rid of Anteater, forgetting
entirely that there they would be the prey of birds; another part seemed
inclined to have wings and fly.

And, as has already been said, this deliberation amounted to nothing,
and each party resolved to go to work in its own way, and on its own

Greater unity than that which existed in each separate faction could be
seen nowhere in the world; each had his appointed task, each did his
work regularly and well. And all worked together in the same way. From
among them they chose a king--that is to say some of the groups did--and
they divided the labor so that all went as smoothly as it possibly

But each group did it in its own way, and not one of them thought of
protecting themselves against the onslaught of birds or Anteater.

The Red-ants built their house on the ground and lived under it, but
Anteater leveled to the ground in a minute what had cost them many days
of precious labor. The Rice-ants lived under the ground, and with them
it went no better. For whenever they came out, Anteater visited them and
took them out sack and pack. The Wagtail-ants fled to the trees, but
there on many occasions sat Centipede waiting for them, or the birds
gobbled them up. The Gray-ants had intended to save themselves from
extermination by taking to flight, but this also availed them nothing,
because the Lizard, the Hunting-spider, and the birds went a great deal
faster than they.

When the Insect-king heard that they could come to no agreement he sent
them the secret of unity, and the message of Work-together. But
unfortunately he chose for his messenger the Beetle, and he has never
yet arrived at the Ants, so that they are still to-day the embodiment of
discord and consequently the prey of enemies.


Hunger and want forced Monkey one day to forsake his land and to seek
elsewhere among strangers for much-needed work. Bulbs, earth beans,
scorpions, insects, and such things were completely exhausted in his own
land. But fortunately he received, for the time being, shelter with a
great uncle of his, Orang Outang, who lived in another part of the

When he had worked for quite a while he wanted to return home, and as
recompense his great uncle gave him a fiddle and a bow and arrow and
told him that with the bow and arrow he could hit and kill anything he
desired, and with the fiddle he could force anything to dance.

The first he met upon his return to his own land was Brer Wolf. This old
fellow told him all the news and also that he had since early morning
been attempting to stalk a deer, but all in vain.

Then Monkey laid before him all the wonders of the bow and arrow that he
carried on his back and assured him if he could but see the deer he
would bring it down for him. When Wolf showed him the deer, Monkey was
ready and down fell the deer.

They made a good meal together, but instead of Wolf being thankful,
jealousy overmastered him and he begged for the bow and arrow. When
Monkey refused to give it to him, he thereupon began to threaten him
with his greater strength, and so when Jackal passed by, Wolf told him
that Monkey had stolen his bow and arrow. After Jackal had heard both of
them, he declared himself unqualified to settle the case alone, and he
proposed that they bring the matter to the court of Lion, Tiger, and the
other animals. In the meantime he declared he would take possession of
what had been the cause of their quarrel, so that it would be safe, as
he said. But he immediately brought to earth all that was eatable, so
there was a long time of slaughter before Monkey and Wolf agreed to
have the affair in court.

Monkey's evidence was weak, and to make it worse, Jackal's testimony was
against him. Jackal thought that in this way it would be easier to
obtain the bow and arrow from Wolf for himself.

And so fell the sentence against Monkey. Theft was looked upon as a
great wrong; he must hang.

The fiddle was still at his side, and he received as a last favor from
the court the right to play a tune on it.

He was a master player of his time, and in addition to this came the
wonderful power of his charmed fiddle. Thus, when he struck the first
note of "Cockcrow" upon it, the court began at once to show an unusual
and spontaneous liveliness, and before he came to the first waltzing
turn of the old tune the whole court was dancing like a whirlwind.

Over and over, quicker and quicker, sounded the tune of "Cockcrow" on
the charmed fiddle, until some of the dancers, exhausted, fell down,
although still keeping their feet in motion. But Monkey, musician as he
was, heard and saw nothing of what had happened around him. With his
head placed lovingly against the instrument, and his eyes half closed,
he played on, keeping time ever with his foot.

Wolf was the first to cry out in pleading tones breathlessly, "Please
stop, Cousin Monkey! For love's sake, please stop!"

But Monkey did not even hear him. Over and over sounded the resistless
waltz of "Cockcrow."

After a while Lion showed signs of fatigue, and when he had gone the
round once more with his young lion wife, he growled as he passed
Monkey, "My whole kingdom is yours, ape, if you just stop playing."

"I do not want it," answered Monkey, "but withdraw the sentence and give
me my bow and arrow, and you, Wolf, acknowledge that you stole it from

"I acknowledge, I acknowledge!" cried Wolf, while Lion cried, at the
same instant, that he withdrew the sentence.

Monkey gave them just a few more turns of the "Cockcrow," gathered up
his bow and arrow, and seated himself high up in the nearest camel thorn

The court and other animals were so afraid that he might begin again
that they hastily disbanded to new parts of the world.


Tiger (leopard) was returning home from hunting on one occasion, when he
lighted on the kraal of Ram. Now, Tiger had never seen Ram before, and
accordingly, approaching submissively, he said, "Good day, friend! What
may your name be?"

The other in his gruff voice, and striking his breast with his forefoot,
said, "I am Ram. Who are you?"

"Tiger," answered the other, more dead than alive, and then, taking
leave of Ram, he ran home as fast as he could.

Jackal lived at the same place as Tiger did, and the latter going to
him, said, "Friend Jackal, I am quite out of breath, and am half dead
with fright, for I have just seen a terrible looking fellow, with a
large and thick head, and on my asking him what his name was, he
answered, 'I am Ram.'"

"What a foolish fellow you are," cried Jackal, "to let such a nice piece
of flesh stand! Why did you do so? But we shall go to-morrow and eat it

Next day the two set off for the kraal of Ram, and as they appeared over
a hill, Ram, who had turned out to look about him, and was calculating
where he should that day crop a tender salad, saw them, and he
immediately went to his wife and said, "I fear this is our last day, for
Jackal and Tiger are both coming against us. What shall we do?"

"Don't be afraid," said the wife, "but take up the child in your arms,
go out with it, and pinch it to make it cry as if it were hungry." Ram
did so as the confederates came on.

No sooner did Tiger cast his eyes on Ram than fear again took possession
of him, and he wished to turn back. Jackal had provided against this,
and made Tiger fast to himself with a leathern thong, and said, "Come
on," when Ram cried in a loud voice, and pinching his child at the same
time, "You have done well, Friend Jackal, to have brought us Tiger to
eat, for you hear how my child is crying for food."

On these dreadful words Tiger, notwithstanding the entreaties of Jackal
to let him go, to let him loose, set off in the greatest alarm, dragged
Jackal after him over hill and valley, through bushes and over rocks,
and never stopped to look behind him till he brought back himself and
half-dead Jackal to his place again. And so Ram escaped.


Once on a time Jackal, who lived on the borders of the colony, saw a
wagon returning from the seaside laden with fish; he tried to get into
the wagon from behind, but he could not; he then ran on before and lay
in the road as if dead. The wagon came up to him, and the leader cried
to the driver, "Here is a fine kaross for your wife!"

"Throw it into the wagon," said the driver, and Jackal was thrown in.

The wagon traveled on, through a moonlight night, and all the while
Jackal was throwing out the fish into the road; he then jumped out
himself and secured a great prize. But stupid old Wolf (hyena), coming
by, ate more than his share, for which Jackal owed him a grudge, and he
said to him, "You can get plenty of fish, too, if you lie in the way of
a wagon as I did, and keep quite still whatever happens."

"So!" mumbled Wolf.

Accordingly, when the next wagon came from the sea, Wolf stretched
himself out in the road. "What ugly thing is this?" cried the leader,
and kicked Wolf. He then took a stick and thrashed him within an inch of
his life. Wolf, according to the directions of Jackal, lay quiet as long
as he could; he then got up and hobbled off to tell his misfortune to
Jackal, who pretended to comfort him.

"What a pity," said Wolf, "I have not got such a handsome skin as you


Jackal and Wolf went and hired themselves to a man to be his servants.
In the middle of the night Jackal rose and smeared Wolf's tail with some
fat, and then ate all the rest of it in the house. In the morning the
man missed the fat, and he immediately accused Jackal of having eaten
it. "Look at Wolf's tail," said the rogue, "and you will see who is the
thief." The man did so, and then thrashed Wolf till he was nearly dead.


It so happened one day that Lion and Jackal came together to converse on
affairs of land and state. Jackal, let me say, was the most important
adviser to the king of the forest, and after they had spoken about these
matters for quite a while, the conversation took a more personal turn.

Lion began to boast and talk big about his strength. Jackal had,
perhaps, given him cause for it, because by nature he was a flatterer.
But now that Lion began to assume so many airs, said he, "See here,
Lion, I will show you an animal that is still more powerful than you

They walked along, Jackal leading the way, and met first a little boy.

"Is this the strong man?" asked Lion.

"No," answered Jackal, "he must still become a man, O king."

After a while they found an old man walking with bowed head and
supporting his bent figure with a stick.

"Is this the wonderful strong man?" asked Lion.

"Not yet, O king," was Jackal's answer, "he has been a man."

Continuing their walk a short distance farther, they came across a young
hunter, in the prime of youth, and accompanied by some of his dogs.

"There you have him now, O king," said Jackal. "Pit your strength
against his, and if you win, then truly you are the strength of the

Then Jackal made tracks to one side toward a little rocky kopje from
which he would be able to see the meeting.

Growling, growling, Lion strode forward to meet the man, but when he
came close the dogs beset him. He, however, paid but little attention to
the dogs, pushed and separated them on all sides with a few sweeps of
his front paws. They howled aloud, beating a hasty retreat toward the

Thereupon the man fired a charge of shot, hitting him behind the
shoulder, but even to this Lion paid but little attention. Thereupon the
hunter pulled out his steel knife, and gave him a few good jabs. Lion
retreated, followed by the flying bullets of the hunter.

"Well, are you strongest now?" was Jackal's first question when Lion
arrived at his side.

"No, Jackal," answered Lion, "let that fellow there keep the name and
welcome. Such as he I have never before seen. In the first place he had
about ten of his bodyguard storm me. I really did not bother myself much
about them, but when I attempted to turn him to chaff, he spat and blew
fire at me, mostly into my face, that burned just a little but not very
badly. And when I again endeavored to pull him to the ground he jerked
out from his body one of his ribs with which he gave me some very ugly
wounds, so bad that I had to make chips fly, and as a parting he sent
some warm bullets after me. No, Jackal, give him the name."


Once there was a man that had an old dog, so old that the man desired to
put him aside. The dog had served him very faithfully when he was still
young, but ingratitude is the world's reward, and the man now wanted to
dispose of him. The old dumb creature, however, ferreted out the plan of
his master, and so at once resolved to go away of his own accord.

After he had walked quite a way he met an old bull in the veldt.

"Don't you want to go with me?" asked the dog.

"Where?" was the reply.

"To the land of the aged," said the dog, "where troubles don't disturb
you and thanklessness does not deface the deeds of man."

"Good," said the bull, "I am your companion."

The two now walked on and found a ram.

The dog laid the plan before him, and all moved off together, until they
afterwards came successively upon a donkey, a cat, a cock, and a goose.

These joined their company, and the seven set out on their journey.

Late one night they came to a house and through the open door they saw a
table spread with all kinds of nice food, of which some robbers were
having their fill. It would help nothing to ask for admittance, and
seeing that they were hungry, they must think of something else.

Therefore the donkey climbed up on the bull, the ram on the donkey, the
dog on the ram, the cat on the dog, the goose on the cat, and the cock
on the goose, and with one accord they all let out terrible
(threatening) noises (cryings).

The bull began to bellow, the donkey to bray, the dog to bark, the ram
to bleat, the cat to mew, the goose to giggle gaggle, and the cock to
crow, all without cessation.

The people in the house were frightened perfectly limp; they glanced
out through the front door, and there they stared on the strange sight.
Some of them took to the ropes over the back lower door, some
disappeared through the window, and in a few counts the house was empty.

Then the seven old animals climbed down from one another, stepped into
the house, and satisfied themselves with the delicious food.

But when they had finished, there still remained a great deal of food,
too much to take with them on their remaining journey, and so together
they contrived a plan to hold their position until the next day after

The dog said, "See here, I am accustomed to watch at the front door of
my master's house," and thereupon flopped himself down to sleep; the
bull said, "I go behind the door," and there he took his position; the
ram said, "I will go up on to the loft"; the donkey, "I at the middle
door"; the cat, "I in the fireplace"; the goose, "I in the back door";
and the cock said, "I am going to sleep on the bed."

The captain of the robbers after a while sent one of his men back to
see if these creatures had yet left the house.

The man came very cautiously into the neighborhood, listened and
listened, but he heard nothing; he peeped through the window, and saw in
the grate just two coals still glimmering, and thereupon started to walk
through the front door.

There the old dog seized him by the leg. He jumped into the house, but
the bull was ready, swept him up with his horns, and tossed him on to
the loft. Here the ram received him and pushed him off the loft again.
Reaching ground, he made for the middle door, but the donkey set up a
terrible braying and at the same time gave him a kick that landed him in
the fireplace, where the cat flew at him and scratched him nearly to
pieces. He then jumped out through the back door, and here the goose got
him by the trousers. When he was some distance away the cock crowed. He
thereupon ran so that you could hear the stones rattle in the dark.

Purple and crimson and out of breath, he came back to his companions.

"Frightful, frightful!" was all that they could get from him at first,
but after a while he told them.

"When I looked through the window I saw in the fireplace two bright
coals shining, and when I wanted to go through the front door to go and
look, I stepped into an iron trap. I jumped into the house, and there
some one seized me with a fork and pitched me up on to the loft, there
again some one was ready, and threw me down on all fours. I wanted to
fly through the middle door, but there some one blew on a trumpet, and
smote me with a sledge hammer so that I did not know where I landed; but
coming to very quickly, I found I was in the fireplace, and there
another flew at me and scratched the eyes almost out of my head. I
thereupon fled out of the back door, and lastly I was attacked on the
leg by the sixth with a pair of fire tongs, and when I was still running
away, some one shouted out of the house, 'Stop him, stop h--i--m!'"


Not because he was exactly the most capable or progressive fellow in the
neighborhood, but because he always gave that idea--that is why Jackal
slowly acquired among the neighbors the name of a "progressive man." The
truly well-bred people around him, who did not wish to hurt his
feelings, seemed to apply this name to him, instead of, for instance,
"cunning scamp," or "all-wise rat-trap," as so many others often dubbed
him. He obtained this name of "a progressive man" because he spoke most
of the time English, especially if he thought some of them were present
who could not understand it, and also because he could always hold his
body so much like a judge on public occasions.

He had a smooth tongue, could make quite a favorable speech, and
especially with good effect could he expatiate on the backwardness of
others. Underneath he really was the most unlettered man in the
vicinity, but he had perfect control over his inborn cunningness, which
allowed him for a long time to go triumphantly through life as a man of
great ability.

One time, for instance, he lost his tail in an iron trap. He had long
attempted to reach the Boer's goose pen, and had framed many good plans,
but when he came to his senses, he was sitting in front of the goose pen
with his tail in the iron trap, the dogs all the time coming for him.
When he realized what it meant, he mustered together all his strength
and pulled his tail, which he always thought so much of, clean off.

This would immediately have made him the butt of the whole neighborhood
had he not thought of a plan. He called together a meeting of the
jackals, and made them believe that Lion had issued a proclamation to
the effect that all jackals in the future should be tailless, because
their beautiful tails were a thorn in the eyes of more unfortunate

In his smooth way he told them how he regretted that the king should
have the barbaric right to interfere with his subjects. But so it was;
and he thought the sooner he paid attention to it the safer. Therefore
he had had his tail cut off already and he should advise all his friends
to do the same. And so it happened that once all jackals for a long time
were without tails. Later on they grew again.

It was about the same time that Tiger hired Jackal as a schoolmaster.
Tiger was in those days the richest man in the surrounding country, and
as he had had to suffer a great deal himself because he was so
untutored, he wanted his children to have the best education that could
be obtained.

It was shortly after a meeting, in which it was shown how important a
thing an education was, that Tiger approached Jackal and asked him to
come and teach his children.

Jackal was very ready to do this. It was not exactly his vocation, he
said, but he would do it to pass time and just out of friendship for his
neighbor. His and Tiger's farm lands lay next each other.

That he did not make teaching his profession and that he possessed no
degree was of no account in the eyes of Tiger.

"Do not praise my goodness so much, Cousin Jackal," laughed he. "We know
your worth well enough. Much rather would I intrust my offspring to you
than to the many so-called schoolmasters, for it is especially my wish,
as well as that of their mother, to have our children obtain a
progressive education, and to make such men and women of them that with
the same ability as you have they can take their lawful places in this

"One condition," said Jackal, "I must state. It will be very
inconvenient for me, almost impossible, to come here to your farm and
hold school. My own farm would in that case go to pieces, and that I
cannot let happen. It would never pay me."

Tiger answered that it was not exactly necessary either. In spite of
their attachment to the little ones, they saw that it would probably be
to their benefit to place them for a while in a stranger's house.

Jackal then told of his own bringing up by Wolf. He remembered well how
small he was when his father sent him away to study with Wolf.
Naturally, since then, he had passed through many schools, Wolf was only
his first teacher. And only in his later days did he realize how much
good it had done him.

"A man must bend the sapling while it is still young," said he. "There
is no time that the child is so open to impressions as when he is
plastic, about the age that most of your children are at present, and I
was just thinking you would be doing a wise thing to send them away for
quite a while."

He had, fortunately, just then a room in his house that would be suited
for a schoolroom, and his wife could easily make some arrangement for
their lodging, even if they had to enlarge their dwelling somewhat.

It was then and there agreed upon. Tiger's wife was then consulted about
one thing and another, and the following day the children were to leave.

"I have just thought of one more thing," remarked Jackal, "seven
children, besides my little lot, will be quite a care on our hands, so
you will have to send over each week a fat lamb, and in order not to
disturb their progress, the children will have to relinquish the idea of
a vacation spent with you for some time. When I think they have become
used to the bit, I will inform you, and then you can come and take them
to make you a short visit, but not until then.

"It is also better," continued he, "that they do not see you for the
first while, but your wife can come and see them every Saturday and I
will see to all else."

On the following day there was an unearthly howling and wailing when the
children were to leave. But Tiger and their mother showed them that it
was best and that some day they would see that it was all for their
good, and that their parents were doing it out of kindness. Eventually
they were gone.

The first Saturday dawned, and early that morning Mrs. Tiger was on her
way to Jackal's dwelling, because she could not defer the time any

She was still a long way off when Jackal caught sight of her. He always
observed neighborly customs, and so stepped out to meet her.

After they had greeted each other, Mrs. Tiger's first question was:
"Well, Cousin Jackal, how goes everything with the small team? Are they
still all well and happy, and do they not trouble you, Cousin Jackal,
too much?"

"Oh, my goodness, no, Mrs. Tiger," answered Jackal enthusiastically,
"but don't let us talk so loud, because if they heard you, it certainly
would cause them many heartfelt tears and they might also want to go
back with you and then all our trouble would have been for nothing."

"But I would like to see them, Cousin Jackal," said Mrs. Tiger a little

"Why certainly, Mrs. Tiger," was his answer, "but I do not think it is
wise for them to see you. I will lift them up to the window one by one,
and then you can put your mind at rest concerning their health and

After Mr. and Mrs. Jackal and Mrs. Tiger had sat together for some time
drinking coffee and talking over one thing and another, Jackal took
Tiger's wife to a door and told her to look through it, out upon the
back yard. There he would show her the children one by one, while they
would not be able to see her. Everything was done exactly as Jackal had
said, but the sixth little tiger he picked up twice, because the
firstborn he had the day before prepared in pickle for their Sunday

And so it happened every Saturday until the last little tiger--which was
the youngest--had to be lifted up seven times in succession.

And when Mrs. Tiger came again the following week all was still as death
and everything seemed to have a deserted appearance on the estate. She
walked straight to the front door, and there she found a letter in the
poll grass near the door, which read thus:

     "We have gone for a picnic with the children. From there we
     will ride by Jackalsdance for New Year. This is necessary for
     the completion of their progressive education."


Saturday after Saturday did Mrs. Tiger go and look, but every time
Jackal's house seemed to look more deserted; and after a while there was
a spider's web over the door and the trail of Snake showed that he, too,
had taken up his abode there.


The birds wanted a king. Men have a king, so have animals, and why
shouldn't they? All had assembled.

"The Ostrich, because he is the largest," one called out.

"No, he can't fly."

"Eagle, on account of his strength."

"Not he, he is too ugly."

"Vulture, because he can fly the highest."

"No, Vulture is too dirty, his odor is terrible."

"Peacock, he is so beautiful."

"His feet are too ugly, and also his voice."

"Owl, because he can see well."

"Not Owl, he is ashamed of the light."

And so they got no further. Then one shouted aloud, "He who can fly the
highest will be king." "Yes, yes," they all screamed, and at a given
signal they all ascended straight up into the sky.

Vulture flew for three whole days without stopping, straight toward the
sun. Then he cried aloud, "I am the highest, I am king."

"T-sie, t-sie, t-sie," he heard above him. There Tink-tinkje was flying.
He had held fast to one of the great wing feathers of Vulture, and had
never been felt, he was so light. "T-sie, t-sie, t-sie, I am the
highest, I am king," piped Tink-tinkje.

Vulture flew for another day still ascending. "I am highest, I am king."

"T-sie, t-sie, t-sie, I am the highest, I am king," Tink-tinkje mocked.
There he was again, having crept out from under the wing of Vulture.

Vulture flew on the fifth day straight up in the air. "I am the highest,
I am king," he called.

"T-sie, t-sie, t-sie," piped the little fellow above him. "I am the
highest, I am king."

Vulture was tired and now flew direct to earth. The other birds were mad
through and through. Tink-tinkje must die because he had taken
advantage of Vulture's feathers and there hidden himself. All flew after
him and he had to take refuge in a mouse hole. But how were they to get
him out? Some one must stand guard to seize him the moment he put out
his head.

"Owl must keep guard; he has the largest eyes; he can see well," they

Owl went and took up his position before the hole. The sun was warm and
soon Owl became sleepy and presently he was fast asleep.

Tink-tinkje peeped, saw that Owl was asleep, and z-zip away he went.
Shortly afterwards the other birds came to see if Tink-tinkje were still
in the hole. "T-sie, t-sie," they heard in a tree; and there the little
vagabond was sitting.

White-crow, perfectly disgusted, turned around and exclaimed, "Now I
won't say a single word more." And from that day to this White-crow has
never spoken. Even though you strike him, he makes no sound, he utters
no cry.


Lion had now caught a large eland which lay dead on the top of a high
bank. Lion was thirsty and wanted to go and drink water. "Jackal, look
after my eland, I am going to get a drink. Don't you eat any."

"Very well, Uncle Lion."

Lion went to the river and Jackal quietly removed a stone on which Lion
had to step to reach the bank on his return. After that Jackal and his
wife ate heartily of the eland. Lion returned, but could not scale the
bank. "Jackal, help me," he shouted.

"Yes, Uncle Lion, I will let down a rope and then you can climb up."

Jackal whispered to his wife, "Give me one of the old, thin hide ropes."
And then aloud he added, "Wife, give me one of the strong, buffalo
ropes, so Uncle Lion won't fall."

His wife gave him an old rotten rope. Jackal and his wife first ate
ravenously of the meat, then gradually let the rope down. Lion seized it
and struggled up. When he neared the brink Jackal gave the rope a jerk.
It broke and down Lion began to roll--rolled the whole way down, and
finally lay at the foot near the river.

Jackal began to beat a dry hide that lay there as he howled, cried, and
shouted: "Wife, why did you give me such a bad rope that caused Uncle
Lion to fall?"

Lion heard the row and roared, "Jackal, stop beating your wife. I will
hurt you if you don't cease. Help me to climb up."

"Uncle Lion, I will give you a rope." Whispering again to his wife,
"Give me one of the old, thin hide ropes," and shouting aloud again,
"Give me a strong, buffalo rope, wife, that will not break again with

Jackal gave out the rope, and when Lion had nearly reached the top, he
cut the rope through. Snap! and Lion began to roll to the bottom. Jackal
again beat on the hide and shouted, "Wife, why did you give me such a
rotten rope? Didn't I tell you to give me a strong one?" Lion roared,
"Jackal, stop beating your wife at once. Help me instantly or you will
be sorry."

"Wife," Jackal said aloud, "give me now the strongest rope you have,"
and aside to her, "Give me the worst rope of the lot."

Jackal again let down a rope, but just as Lion reached the top, Jackal
gave a strong tug and broke the rope. Poor old Lion rolled down the side
of the hill and lay there roaring from pain. He had been fatally hurt.

Jackal inquired, "Uncle Lion, have you hurt yourself? Have you much
pain? Wait a while, I am coming directly to help you." Jackal and his
wife slowly walked away.


The Lion and the Jackal agreed to hunt on shares, for the purpose of
laying in a stock of meat for the winter months for their families.

As the Lion was by far the more expert hunter of the two, the Jackal
suggested that he (himself) should be employed in transporting the game
to their dens, and that Mrs. Jackal and the little Jackals should
prepare and dry the meat, adding that they would take care that Mrs.
Lion and her family should not want.

This was agreed to by the Lion, and the hunt commenced.

After a very successful hunt, which lasted for some time, the Lion
returned to see his family, and also to enjoy, as he thought, a
plentiful supply of his spoil; when, to his utter surprise, he found
Mrs. Lion and all the young Lions on the point of death from sheer
hunger, and in a mangy state. The Jackal, it appeared, had only given
them a few entrails of the game, and in such limited quantities as
barely to keep them alive; always telling them that they (i. e., the
Lion and himself) had been most unsuccessful in their hunting; while his
own family was reveling in abundance, and each member of it was sleek
and fat.

This was too much for the Lion to bear. He immediately started off in a
terrible fury, vowing certain death to the Jackal and all his family,
wherever he should meet them. The Jackal was more or less prepared for a
storm, and had taken the precaution to remove all his belongings to the
top of a krantz (i. e., a cliff), accessible only by a most difficult
and circuitous path, which he alone knew.

When the Lion saw him on the krantz, the Jackal immediately greeted him
by calling out, "Good morning, Uncle Lion."

"How dare you call me uncle, you impudent scoundrel," roared out the
Lion, in a voice of thunder, "after the way in which you have behaved to
my family?"

"Oh, Uncle! How shall I explain matters? That beast of a wife of mine!"
Whack, whack was heard, as he beat with a stick on dry hide, which was a
mere pretence for Mrs. Jackal's back; while that lady was preinstructed
to scream whenever he operated on the hide, which she did with a
vengeance, joined by the little Jackals, who set up a most doleful
chorus. "That wretch!" said the Jackal. "It is all her doing. I shall
kill her straight off," and away he again belabored the hide, while his
wife and children uttered such a dismal howl that the Lion begged of him
to leave off flogging his wife. After cooling down a little, he invited
Uncle Lion to come up and have something to eat. The Lion, after several
ineffectual attempts to scale the precipice, had to give it up.

The Jackal, always ready for emergencies, suggested that a reim should
be lowered to haul up his uncle. This was agreed to, and when the Lion
was drawn about halfway up by the whole family of Jackals, the reim was
cleverly cut, and down went the Lion with a tremendous crash which hurt
him very much. Upon this, the Jackal again performed upon the hide with
tremendous force, for their daring to give him such a rotten reim, and
Mrs. Jackal and the little ones responded with some fearful screams and
yells. He then called loudly out to his wife for a strong buffalo reim
which would support any weight. This again was lowered and fastened to
the Lion, when all hands pulled away at their uncle; and, just when he
had reached so far that he could look over the precipice into the pots
to see all the fat meat cooking, and all the biltongs hanging out to
dry, the reim was again cut, and the poor Lion fell with such force that
he was fairly stunned for some time. After the Lion had recovered his
senses, the Jackal, in a most sympathizing tone, suggested that he was
afraid that it was of no use to attempt to haul him up onto the
precipice, and recommended, instead, that a nice fat piece of eland's
breast be roasted and dropped into the Lion's mouth. The Lion, half
famished with hunger, and much bruised, readily accepted the offer, and
sat eagerly awaiting the fat morsel. In the mean time, the Jackal had a
round stone made red-hot, and wrapped a quantity of inside fat, or suet,
round it, to make it appear like a ball of fat. When the Lion saw it
held out, he opened his capacious mouth to the utmost extent, and the
wily Jackal cleverly dropped the hot ball right into it, which ran
through the poor old beast, killing him on the spot.

It need hardly be told that there was great rejoicing on the precipice
that night.


Lion and Jackal, it is said, were one day lying in wait for Eland. Lion
shot (with a bow) and missed, but Jackal hit and sang out, "Hah! hah!"

Lion said, "No, you did not shoot anything. It was I who hit."

Jackal answered, "Yea, my father, thou hast hit."

Then they went home in order to return when the eland was dead, and cut
it up. Jackal, however, turned back, unknown to Lion, hit his nose so
that the blood ran on the spoor of the eland, and followed their track
thus, in order to cheat Lion. When he had gone some distance, he
returned by another way to the dead eland, and creeping into its
carcass, cut out all the fat.

Meanwhile Lion followed the blood-stained spoor of Jackal, thinking
that it was eland blood, and only when he had gone some distance did he
find out that he had been deceived. He then returned on Jackal's spoor,
and reached the dead eland, where, finding Jackal in its carcass, he
seized him by his tail and drew him out with a swing.

Lion upbraided Jackal with these words: "Why do you cheat me?"

Jackal answered: "No, my father, I do not cheat you; you may know it, I
think. I prepared this fat for you, father."

Lion said: "Then take the fat and carry it to your mother" (the
lioness); and he gave him the lungs to take to his own wife and

When Jackal arrived, he did not give the fat to Lion's wife, but to his
own wife and children; he gave, however, the lungs to Lion's wife, and
he pelted Lion's little children with the lungs, saying:

    "You children of the big-pawed one!
    You big-pawed ones!"

He said to Lioness, "I go to help my father" (the lion); but he went far
away with his wife and children.


Little Jackal one day went out hunting, when he met Lion. Lion proposed
that they should hunt together, on condition that if a small antelope
was killed it was to be Little Jackal's, and if a large one was killed
it was to be Lion's. Little Jackal agreed to this.

The first animal killed was a large eland. Lion was very glad, and said
to Little Jackal: "I will continue hunting while you go to my house and
call my children to carry the meat home."

Little Jackal replied: "Yes, I agree to that."

Lion went away to hunt. When he had gone, Little Jackal went to his own
house and called his own children to carry away the meat. He said: "Lion
takes me for a fool if he thinks I will call his children while my own
are dying with hunger."

So Little Jackal's children carried the meat to their home on the top of
a high rock, where the only way to get to their house was by means of a

Lion caught nothing more, and after a time he went home and asked his
wife where the meat was. She told him there was no meat. He said: "Did
not Little Jackal bring a message to my children to carry meat?"

His wife replied: "No, he was not here. We are still dying with hunger."

Lion then went to Little Jackal's house, but he could not get up the
rock to it. So he sat down by the water, waiting. After a time Little
Jackal went to get some water. He was close to the water when he saw
Lion. He at once ran away, and Lion ran after him. He ran into a hole
under a tree, but Lion caught his tail before he got far in. He said to
him: "That is not my tail you have hold of; it is a root of the tree. If
you do not believe me, take a stone and strike it, and see if any blood

Lion let go the tail, and went for a stone to prove what it was. While
he was gone for the stone, Little Jackal went far into the hole. When
Lion returned he could not be found. Lion lay down by the hole and
waited. After a long time Little Jackal wanted to come out. He went to
the entrance and looked round, but he could not see Lion. To make sure,
he said: "Ho, I see you, my master, although you are in hiding."

Lion did not move from the place where he lay concealed. Then Little
Jackal went out, and Lion pursued him, but he got away.

Lion watched for him, and one day, when Little Jackal was out hunting,
he came upon him in a place where he could not escape. Lion was just
about to spring upon him, when Little Jackal said softly: "Be still, do
you not see that bushbuck on the other side of the rock? I am glad you
have come to help me. Just remain here while I run round and drive him
toward you."

Lion did so, and Little Jackal made his escape.

At another time there was a meeting of the animals, and Lion was the
chief at the meeting. Little Jackal wanted to attend, but there was a
law made that no one should be present unless he had horns. So Little
Jackal took wax out of a nest of bees, and made horns for himself with
it. He fastened the horns on his head, and went to the meeting. Lion did
not know him on account of the horns. But he sat near the fire and went
to sleep, when the horns melted.

Lion looked at him and saw who it was. He immediately tried to catch
him, but Little Jackal was quick in springing away. He ran under an
overhanging rock and sang out: "Help! help! this rock is falling upon

Lion went for a pole to prop up the rock that he might get at Little
Jackal. While he was away, Little Jackal escaped.

After that they became companions again, and went hunting another time.
They killed an ox. Lion said: "I will watch it while you carry the
pieces away."

Lion gave him the breast, and said: "Take this to my wife."

Little Jackal took it to his own wife. When he returned, Lion gave him a
shin, and said: "Take this to your wife."

Little Jackal took the shin to Lion's house. Lion's wife said: "I cannot
take this because it should not come here."

Little Jackal thereupon struck Lion's wife in the face, and went back to
the place where the ox was killed. Lion gave him a large piece of meat
and said: "Take this to my wife."

Little Jackal took it to his own wife. This continued till the ox was
finished. Then they both went home. When Lion arrived at his house he
found there was weeping in his family.

His wife said: "Is it you who sent Little Jackal to beat me and my
children, and is it you who sent this shin? Did I ever eat a shin?"

When Lion heard this he was very angry and at once went to Little
Jackal's house. When he reached the rock, Little Jackal looked down and
said: "Who are you, and what is your name, and whose son are you, and
where are you from, and where are you going to, and whom do you want,
and what do you want him for?"

Lion replied: "I have merely come to see you. I wish you to let down the

Little Jackal let down a rope made of mouse skins, and when Lion climbed
a little way up, the rope broke, and he fell and was hurt. He then went


It is said, once a lioness roared, and the ostrich also roared. The
lioness went toward the place where the ostrich was. They met. The
lioness said to the ostrich, "Please to roar." The ostrich roared. Then
the lioness roared. The voices were equal. The lioness said to the
ostrich, "You are my match."

Then the lioness said to the ostrich, "Let us hunt game together." They
saw eland and made toward it. The lioness caught only one; the ostrich
killed a great many by striking them with the claw which was on his leg;
but the lioness killed only one. When they had met after the hunting
they went to the game, and the lioness saw that the ostrich had killed a
great deal.

Now, the lioness also had young cubs. They went to the shade to rest
themselves. The lioness said to the ostrich, "Get up and rip open; let
us eat." Said the ostrich, "Go and rip open; I shall eat the blood." The
lioness stood up and ripped open, and ate with the cubs. And when she
had eaten, the ostrich got up and ate the blood. They went to sleep.

The cubs played about. While they were playing, they went to the
ostrich, who was asleep. When he went to sleep he also opened his mouth.
The young lions saw that the ostrich had no teeth. They went to their
mother and said, "This fellow, who says he is your equal, has no teeth;
he is insulting you." Then the lioness went to wake the ostrich, and
said, "Get up, let us fight"; and they fought. And the ostrich said, "Go
to that side of the ant-hill, and I will go to this side of it." The
ostrich struck the ant-hill, and sent it toward the lioness. But the
second time he struck the lioness in a vulnerable spot, near the liver,
and killed her.


Crocodile was, in the days when animals still could talk, the
acknowledged foreman of all water creatures and if one should judge from
appearances one would say that he still is. But in those days it was his
especial duty to have a general care of all water animals, and when one
year it was exceedingly dry, and the water of the river where they had
lived dried up and became scarce, he was forced to make a plan to trek
over to another river a short distance from there.

He first sent Otter out to spy. He stayed away two days and brought back
a report that there was still good water in the other river, real
sea-cow holes, that not even a drought of several years could dry up.

After he had ascertained this, Crocodile called to his side Tortoise and

"Look here," said he, "I need you two to-night to carry a report to
Lion. So then get ready; the veldt is dry, and you will probably have to
travel for a few days without any water. We must make peace with Lion
and his subjects, otherwise we utterly perish this year. And he must
help us to trek over to the other river, especially past the Boer's farm
that lies in between, and to travel unmolested by any of the animals of
the veldt, so long as the trek lasts. A fish on land is sometimes a very
helpless thing, as you all know." The two had it mighty hard in the
burning sun, and on the dry veldt, but eventually they reached Lion and
handed him the treaty.

"What is going on now?" thought Lion to himself, when he had read it. "I
must consult Jackal first," said he. But to the commissioners he gave
back an answer that he would be the following evening with his advisers
at the appointed place, at the big vaarland willow tree, at the farther
end of the hole of water, where Crocodile had his headquarters.

When Tortoise and Alligator came back, Crocodile was exceedingly
pleased with himself at the turn the case had taken.

He allowed Otter and a few others to be present and ordered them on that
evening to have ready plenty of fish and other eatables for their guests
under the vaarland willow.

That evening as it grew dark Lion appeared with Wolf, Jackal, Baboon,
and a few other important animals, at the appointed place, and they were
received in the most open-hearted manner by Crocodile and the other
water creatures.

Crocodile was so glad at the meeting of the animals that he now and then
let fall a great tear of joy that disappeared into the sand. After the
other animals had done well by the fish, Crocodile laid bare to them the
condition of affairs and opened up his plan. He wanted only peace among
all animals; for they not only destroyed one another, but the Boer, too,
would in time destroy them all.

The Boer had already stationed at the source of the river no less than
three steam pumps to irrigate his land, and the water was becoming
scarcer every day. More than this, he took advantage of their
unfortunate position by making them sit in the shallow water and then,
one after the other, bringing about their death. As Lion was, on this
account, inclined to make peace, it was to his glory to take this
opportunity and give his hand to these peace-making water creatures, and
carry out their part of the contract, namely, escort them from the
dried-up water, past the Boer's farm and to the long sea-cow pools.

"And what benefit shall we receive from it?" asked Jackal.

"Well," answered Crocodile, "the peace made is of great benefit to both
sides. We will not exterminate each other. If you desire to come and
drink water, you can do so with an easy mind, and not be the least bit
nervous that I, or any one of us will seize you by the nose; and so also
with all the other animals. And from your side we are to be freed from
Elephant, who has the habit, whenever he gets the opportunity, of
tossing us with his trunk up into some open and narrow fork of a tree
and there allowing us to become biltong."

Lion and Jackal stepped aside to consult with one another, and then Lion
wanted to know what form of security he would have that Crocodile would
keep to his part of the contract.

"I stake my word of honor," was the prompt answer from Crocodile, and he
let drop a few more long tears of honesty into the sand.

Baboon then said it was all square and honest as far as he could see
into the case. He thought it was nonsense to attempt to dig pitfalls for
one another; because he personally was well aware that his race would
benefit somewhat from this contract of peace and friendship. And more
than this, they must consider that use must be made of the fast
disappearing water, for even in the best of times it was an unpleasant
thing to be always carrying your life about in your hands. He would,
however, like to suggest to the King that it would be well to have
everything put down in writing, so that there would be nothing to regret
in case it was needed.

Jackal did not want to listen to the agreement. He could not see that it
would benefit the animals of the veldt. But Wolf, who had fully
satisfied himself with the fish, was in an exceptionally peace-loving
mood, and he advised Lion again to close the agreement.

After Lion had listened to all his advisers, and also the pleading tones
of Crocodile's followers, he held forth in a speech in which he said
that he was inclined to enter into the agreement, seeing that it was
clear that Crocodile and his subjects were in a very tight place.

There and then a document was drawn up, and it was resolved, before
midnight, to begin the trek. Crocodile's messengers swam in all
directions to summon together the water animals for the trek.

Frogs croaked and crickets chirped in the long water grass. It was not
long before all the animals had assembled at the vaarland willow. In the
meantime Lion had sent out a few despatch riders to his subjects to
raise a commando for an escort, and long ere midnight these also were at
the vaarland willow in the moonlight.

The trek then was regulated by Lion and Jackal. Jackal was to take the
lead to act as spy, and when he was able to draw Lion to one side, he
said to him:

"See here, I do not trust this affair one bit, and I want to tell you
straight out, I am going to make tracks! I will spy for you until you
reach the sea-cow pool, but I am not going to be the one to await your
arrival there."

Elephant had to act as advance guard because he could walk so softly and
could hear and smell so well. Then came Lion with one division of the
animals, then Crocodile's trek with a flank protection of both sides,
and Wolf received orders to bring up the rear.

Meanwhile, while all this was being arranged, Crocodile was smoothly
preparing his treason. He called Yellow Snake to one side and said to
him: "It is to our advantage to have these animals, who go among us
every day, and who will continue to do so, fall into the hands of the
Boer. Listen, now! You remain behind unnoticed, and when you hear me
shout you will know that we have arrived safely at the sea-cow pool.
Then you must harass the Boer's dogs as much as you can, and the rest
will look out for themselves."

Thereupon the trek moved on. It was necessary to go very slowly as many
of the water animals were not accustomed to the journey on land; but
they trekked past the Boer's farm in safety, and toward break of day
they were all safely at the sea-cow pool. There most of the water
animals disappeared suddenly into the deep water, and Crocodile also
began to make preparations to follow their example. With tearful eyes he
said to Lion that he was, oh, so thankful for the help, that, from pure
relief and joy, he must first give vent to his feelings by a few
screams. Thereupon he suited his words to actions so that even the
mountains echoed, and then thanked Lion on behalf of his subjects, and
purposely continued with a long speech, dwelling on all the benefits
both sides would derive from the agreement of peace.

Lion was just about to say good day and take his departure, when the
first shot fell, and with it Elephant and a few other animals.

"I told you all so!" shouted Jackal from the other side of the sea-cow
pool. "Why did you allow yourselves to be misled by a few Crocodile

Crocodile had disappeared long ago into the water. All one saw was just
a lot of bubbles; and on the banks there was an actual war against the
animals. It simply crackled the way the Boers shot them.

But most of them, fortunately, came out of it alive.

Shortly after, they say, Crocodile received his well-earned reward, when
he met a driver with a load of dynamite. And even now when the Elephant
gets the chance he pitches them up into the highest forks of the trees.


There was a great drought in the land; and Lion called together a number
of animals so that they might devise a plan for retaining water when the
rains fell.

The animals which attended at Lion's summons were Baboon, Leopard,
Hyena, Jackal, Hare, and Mountain Tortoise.

It was agreed that they should scratch a large hole in some suitable
place to hold water; and the next day they all began to work, with the
exception of Jackal, who continually hovered about in that locality, and
was overheard to mutter that he was not going to scratch his nails off
in making water holes.

When the dam was finished the rains fell, and it was soon filled with
water, to the great delight of those who had worked so hard at it. The
first one, however, to come and drink there, was Jackal, who not only
drank, but filled his clay pot with water, and then proceeded to swim
in the rest of the water, making it as muddy and dirty as he could.

This was brought to the knowledge of Lion, who was very angry and
ordered Baboon to guard the water the next day, armed with a huge
knobkirrie. Baboon was concealed in a bush close to the water; but
Jackal soon became aware of his presence there, and guessed its cause.
Knowing the fondness of baboons for honey, Jackal at once hit upon a
plan, and marching to and fro, every now and then dipped his fingers
into his clay pot, and licked them with an expression of intense relish,
saying, in a low voice to himself, "I don't want any of their dirty
water when I have a pot full of delicious honey." This was too much for
poor Baboon, whose mouth began to water. He soon began to beg Jackal to
give him a little honey, as he had been watching for several hours, and
was very hungry and tired.

After taking no notice of Baboon at first, Jackal looked round, and
said, in a patronizing manner, that he pitied such an unfortunate
creature, and would give him some honey on certain conditions, viz.,
that Baboon should give up his knobkirrie and allow himself to be bound
by Jackal. He foolishly agreed; and was soon tied in such a manner that
he could not move hand or foot.

Jackal now proceeded to drink of the water, to fill his pot, and to swim
in the sight of Baboon, from time to time telling him what a foolish
fellow he had been to be so easily duped, and that he (Jackal) had no
honey or anything else to give him, excepting a good blow on the head
every now and then with his own knobkirrie.

The animals soon appeared and found poor Baboon in this sorry plight,
looking the picture of misery. Lion was so exasperated that he caused
Baboon to be severely punished, and to be denounced as a fool.

Tortoise hereupon stepped forward, and offered his services for the
capture of Jackal. It was at first thought that he was merely joking;
but when he explained in what manner he proposed to catch him, his plan
was considered so feasible that his offer was accepted. He proposed
that a thick coating of "bijenwerk" (a kind of sticky black substance
found on beehives) should be spread all over him, and that he should
then go and stand at the entrance of the dam, on the water level, so
that Jackal might tread upon him and stick fast. This was accordingly
done and Tortoise posted there.

The next day, when Jackal came, he approached the water very cautiously,
and wondered to find no one there. He then ventured to the entrance of
the water, and remarked how kind they had been in placing there a large
black stepping-stone for him. As soon, however, as he trod upon the
supposed stone, he stuck fast, and saw that he had been tricked; for
Tortoise now put his head out and began to move. Jackal's hind feet
being still free he threatened to smash Tortoise with them if he did not
let him go. Tortoise merely answered, "Do as you like." Jackal thereupon
made a violent jump, and found, with horror, that his hind feet were now
also fast. "Tortoise," said he, "I have still my mouth and teeth left,
and will eat you alive if you do not let me go." "Do as you like,"
Tortoise again replied. Jackal, in his endeavors to free himself, at
last made a desperate bite at Tortoise, and found himself fixed, both
head and feet. Tortoise, feeling proud of his successful capture, now
marched quietly up to the top of the bank with Jackal on his back, so
that he could easily be seen by the animals as they came to the water.

They were indeed astonished to find how cleverly the crafty Jackal had
been caught; and Tortoise was much praised, while the unhappy Baboon was
again reminded of his misconduct when set to guard the water.

Jackal was at once condemned to death by Lion; and Hyena was to execute
the sentence. Jackal pleaded hard for mercy, but finding this useless,
he made a last request to Lion (always, as he said, so fair and just in
his dealings) that he should not have to suffer a lingering death.

Lion inquired of him in what manner he wished to die; and he asked that
his tail might be shaved and rubbed with a little fat, and that Hyena
might then swing him round twice and dash his brains out upon a stone.
This, being considered sufficiently fair by Lion, was ordered by him to
be carried out in his presence.

When Jackal's tail had been shaved and greased, Hyena caught hold of him
with great force, and before he had fairly lifted him from the ground,
the cunning Jackal had slipped away from Hyena's grasp, and was running
for his life, pursued by all the animals.

Lion was the foremost pursuer, and after a great chase Jackal got under
an overhanging precipice, and, standing on his hind legs with his
shoulders pressed against the rock, called loudly to Lion to help him,
as the rock was falling, and would crush them both. Lion put his
shoulders to the rock, and exerted himself to the utmost. After some
little time Jackal proposed that he should creep slowly out, and fetch a
large pole to prop up the rock, so that Lion could get out and save his
life. Jackal did creep out, and left Lion there to starve and die.


There was a frightful drought. The rivers after a while dried up and
even the springs gave no water.

The animals wandered around seeking drink, but to no avail. Nowhere was
water to be found.

A great gathering of animals was held: Lion, Tiger, Wolf, Jackal,
Elephant, all of them came together. What was to be done? That was the
question. One had this plan, and another had that; but no plan seemed of

Finally one of them suggested: "Come, let all of us go to the dry river
bed and dance; in that way we can tread out the water."

Good! Everyone was satisfied and ready to begin instantly, excepting
Rabbit, who said, "I will not go and dance. All of you are mad to
attempt to get water from the ground by dancing."

The other animals danced and danced, and ultimately danced the water to
the surface. How glad they were. Everyone drank as much as he could, but
Rabbit did not dance with them. So it was decided that Rabbit should
have no water.

He laughed at them: "I will nevertheless drink some of your water."

That evening he proceeded leisurely to the river bed where the dance had
been, and drank as much as he wanted. The following morning the animals
saw the footprints of Rabbit in the ground, and Rabbit shouted to them:
"Aha! I did have some of the water, and it was most refreshing and
tasted fine."

Quickly all the animals were called together. What were they to do? How
were they to get Rabbit in their hands? All had some means to propose;
the one suggested this, and the other that.

Finally old Tortoise moved slowly forward, foot by foot: "I will catch

"You? How? What do you think of yourself?" shouted the others in

"Rub my shell with pitch,[1] and I will go to the edge of the water and
lie down. I will then resemble a stone, so that when Rabbit steps on me
his feet will stick fast."

"Yes! Yes! That's good."

And in a one, two, three, Tortoise's shell was covered with pitch, and
foot by foot he moved away to the river. At the edge, close to the
water, he lay down and drew his head into his shell.

Rabbit during the evening came to get a drink. "Ha!" he chuckled
sarcastically, "they are, after all, quite decent. Here they have placed
a stone, so now I need not unnecessarily wet my feet."

Rabbit trod with his left foot on the stone, and there it stuck.
Tortoise then put his head out. "Ha! old Tortoise! And it's you, is it,
that's holding me. But here I still have another foot. I'll give you a
good clout." Rabbit gave Tortoise what he said he would with his right
fore foot, hard and straight; and there his foot remained.

"I have yet a hind foot, and with it I'll kick you." Rabbit drove his
hind foot down. This also rested on Tortoise where it struck.

"But still another foot remains, and now I'll tread you." He stamped his
foot down, but it stuck like the others.

He used his head to hammer Tortoise, and his tail as a whip, but both
met the same fate as his feet, so there he was tight and fast down to
the pitch.

Tortoise now slowly turned himself round and foot by foot started for
the other animals, with Rabbit on his back.

"Ha! ha! ha! Rabbit! How does it look now? Insolence does not pay after
all," shouted the animals.

Now advice was sought. What should they do with Rabbit? He certainly
must die. But how? One said, "Behead him"; another, "Some severe

"Rabbit, how are we to kill you?"

"It does not affect me," Rabbit said. "Only a shameful death please do
not pronounce."

"And what is that?" they all shouted.

"To take me by my tail and dash my head against a stone; that I pray and
beseech you don't do."

"No, but just so you'll die. That is decided."

It was decided Rabbit should die by taking him by his tail and dashing
his head to pieces against some stone. But who is to do it?

Lion, because he is the most powerful one.

Good! Lion should do it. He stood up, walked to the front, and poor
Rabbit was brought to him. Rabbit pleaded and beseeched that he couldn't
die such a miserable death.

Lion took Rabbit firmly by the tail and swung him around. The white skin
slipped off from Rabbit, and there Lion stood with the white bit of skin
and hair in his paw. Rabbit was free.


[1] Black beeswax.


Every evening Jackal went to the Boer's kraal. He crept through the
sliding door and stole a fat young lamb. This, clever Jackal did several
times in succession. Boer set a wip[2] for him at the door. Jackal went
again and zip--there he was caught around the body by the noose. He
swung and swayed high in the air and couldn't touch ground. The day
began to dawn and Jackal became uneasy.

On a stone kopje, Monkey sat. When it became light he could see the
whole affair, and descended hastily for the purpose of mocking Jackal.
He went and sat on the wall. "Ha, ha, good morning. So there you are
hanging now, eventually caught."

"What? I caught? I am simply swinging for my pleasure; it is enjoyable."

"You fibber. You are caught in the wip."

"If you but realized how nice it was to swing and sway like this, you
wouldn't hesitate. Come, try it a little. You feel so healthy and strong
for the day, and you never tire afterwards."

"No, I won't. You are caught."

After a while Jackal convinced Monkey. He sprang from the kraal wall,
and freeing Jackal, adjusted the noose around his own body. Jackal
quickly let go and began to laugh, as Monkey was now swinging high in
the air.

"Ha, ha, ha," he laughed. "Now Monkey is in the wip."

"Jackal, free me," he screamed.

"There, Boer is coming," shouted Jackal.

"Jackal, free me of this, or I'll break your playthings."

"No, there Boer is coming with his gun; you rest a while in the noose."

"Jackal, quickly make me free."

"No, here's Boer already, and he's got his gun. Good morning." And with
these parting words he ran away as fast as he could. Boer came and saw
Monkey in the wip.

"So, so, Monkey, now you are caught. You are the fellow who has been
stealing my lambs, hey?"

"No, Boer, no," screamed Monkey, "not I, but Jackal."

"No, I know you; you aren't too good for that."

"No, Boer, no, not I, but Jackal," Monkey stammered.

"Oh, I know you. Just wait a little," and Boer, raising his gun, aimed
and shot poor Monkey dead.


[2] _Wip_: A Dutch word for springle, consisting of a bent green stick,
to which a noose is attached at one end; the trap is delicately adjusted
by a cross stick, which when trod on releases the bent bough, pulling
the noose quickly around the animal and into the air.


Lion and Jackal went together a-hunting. They shot with arrows. Lion
shot first, but his arrow fell short of its aim; but Jackal hit the
game, and joyfully cried out, "It has hit."

Lion looked at him with his two large eyes; Jackal, however, did not
lose his countenance, but said, "No, uncle, I mean to say that you have
hit." Then they followed the game, and Jackal passed the arrow of Lion
without drawing the latter's attention to it. When they arrived at a
crossway, Jackal said: "Dear uncle, you are old and tired; stay here."
Jackal went then on a wrong track, beat his nose, and, in returning, let
the blood drop from it like traces of game. "I could not find anything,"
he said, "but I met with traces of blood. You had better go yourself to
look for it. In the meantime I shall go this other way."

Jackal soon found the killed animal, crept inside of it, and devoured
the best portion; but his tail remained outside, and when Lion arrived,
he got hold of it, pulled Jackal out, and threw him on the ground with
these words: "You rascal!"

Jackal rose quickly again, complained of the rough handling, and asked,
"What have I now done, dear uncle? I was busy cutting out the best

"Now let us go and fetch our wives," said Lion, but Jackal entreated his
dear uncle to remain at the place because he was old. Jackal then went
away, taking with him two portions of the flesh, one for his own wife,
but the best part for the wife of Lion. When Jackal arrived with the
flesh, the children of Lion, seeing him, began to jump, and clapping
their hands, cried out: "There comes cousin with flesh!" Jackal threw,
grumbling, the worst portion to them, and said, "There, you brood of the
big-eyed one!" Then he went to his own house and told his wife
immediately to break up the house, and to go where the killed game was.
Lioness wished to do the same, but he forbade her, and said that Lion
would himself come to fetch her.

When Jackal, with his wife and children, arrived in the neighborhood of
the killed animal, he ran into a thorn bush, scratched his face so that
it bled, and thus made his appearance before Lion, to whom he said, "Ah!
what a wife you have got. Look here, how she scratched my face when I
told her that she should come with us. You must fetch her yourself; I
cannot bring her." Lion went home very angry. Then Jackal said, "Quick,
let us build a tower." They heaped stone upon stone, stone upon stone,
stone upon stone; and when it was high enough, everything was carried to
the top of it. When Jackal saw Lion approaching with his wife and
children, he cried out to him:

"Uncle, whilst you were away we have built a tower, in order to be
better able to see game."

"All right," said Lion; "but let me come up to you."

"Certainly, dear uncle; but how will you manage to come up? We must let
down a thong for you."

Lion tied the thong around his body and Jackal began drawing him up, but
when nearly to the top Jackal cried to Lion, "My, uncle, how heavy you
are!" Then, unseen by Lion, he cut the thong. Lion fell to the ground,
while Jackal began loudly and angrily to scold his wife, and then said,
"Go, wife, fetch me a new thong"--"an old one," he said aside to her.

Lion again tied himself to the thong, and, just as he was near the top,
Jackal cut the thong as before; Lion fell heavily to the bottom,
groaning aloud, as he had been seriously hurt.

"No," said Jackal, "that will never do: you must, however, manage to
come up high enough so that you may get a mouthful at least." Then aloud
he ordered his wife to prepare a good piece, but aside he told her to
make a stone hot, and to cover it with fat. Then he drew Lion up once
more, and complaining how heavy he was to hold, told him to open his
mouth, and thereupon threw the hot stone down his throat. Lion fell to
the ground and lay there pleading for water, while Jackal climbed down
and made his escape.


Jackal, it is said, married Hyena, and carried off a cow belonging to
the ants, to slaughter her for the wedding; and when he had slaughtered
her, he put the cowskin over his bride; and when he had fixed a pole (on
which to hang the flesh), he placed on the top of the pole (which was
forked) the hearth for the cooking, in order to cook upon it all sorts
of delicious food. There came also Lion, and wished to go up. Jackal,
therefore, asked his little daughter for a thong with which he could
pull Lion up; and he began to pull him up; and when his face came near
to the cooking-pot, he cut the thong in two, so that Lion tumbled down.
Then Jackal upbraided his little daughter with these words: "Why do you
give me such an old thong?" And he added, "Give me a fresh thong." She
gave him a new thong, and he pulled Lion up again, and when his face
came near the pot, which stood on the fire, he said, "open your mouth."
Then he put into his mouth a hot piece of quartz which had been boiled
together with the fat, and the stone went down, burning his throat. Thus
died Lion.

There came also the ants running after the cow, and when Jackal saw them
he fled. Then they beat the bride in her brookaross dress. Hyena,
believing that it was Jackal, said:

"You tawny rogue! have you not played at beating long enough? Have you
no more loving game than this?"

But when she had bitten a hole through the cowskin, she saw that they
were other people; then she fled, falling here and there, yet made her


Once upon a time the animals made a kraal and put some fat in it. They
agreed that one of their number should remain to be the keeper of the
gate. The first one that was appointed was the coney (imbila). He agreed
to take charge, and all the others went away. In a short time the coney
fell asleep, when the inkalimeva (a fabulous animal) went in and ate all
the fat. After doing this, he threw a little stone at the coney.

The coney started up and cried out: "The fat belonging to all the
animals has been eaten by the inkalimeva."

It repeated this cry several times, calling out very loudly. The animals
at a distance heard it, they ran to the kraal, and when they saw that
the fat was gone they killed the coney.

They put fat in the kraal a second time, and appointed the muishond
(ingaga) to keep the gate. The muishond consented, and the animals went
away as before. After a little time the inkalimeva came to the kraal,
bringing some honey with it. It invited the keeper of the gate to eat
honey, and while the muishond was enjoying himself the inkalimeva went
in and stole all the fat. It threw a stone at the muishond, which caused
him to look up.

The muishond cried out: "The fat belonging to all the animals has been
eaten by the inkalimeva."

As soon as the animals heard the cry, they ran to the kraal and killed
the muishond.

They put fat in the kraal a third time, and appointed the duiker
(impunzi) to be the keeper of the gate. The duiker agreed, and the
others went away. In a short time the inkalimeva made its appearance. It
proposed to the duiker that they should play hide and look for. The
duiker agreed to this. Then the inkalimeva hid itself, and the duiker
looked for it till he was so tired that he lay down and went to sleep.
When the duiker was asleep, the inkalimeva ate up all the fat.

Then it threw a stone at the duiker, which caused him to jump up and cry
out: "The fat belonging to all the animals has been eaten by the

The animals, when they heard the cry, ran to the kraal and killed the

They put fat in the kraal the fourth time, and appointed the bluebuck
(inputi) to be the keeper of the gate. When the animals went away, the
inkalimeva came as before.

It said: "What are you doing by yourself?"

The bluebuck answered: "I am watching the fat belonging to all the

The inkalimeva said: "I will be your companion. Come, let us scratch
each other's heads."

The bluebuck agreed to this. The inkalimeva sat down and scratched the
head of the other till he went to sleep. Then it arose and ate all the
fat. When it had finished, it threw a stone at the bluebuck and awakened

The bluebuck saw what had happened and cried out: "The fat belonging to
all the animals has been eaten by the inkalimeva."

Then the animals ran up and killed the bluebuck also.

They put fat in the kraal the fifth time, and appointed the porcupine
(incanda) to be the keeper of the gate. The animals went away, and the
inkalimeva came as before.

It said to the porcupine, "Let us run a race against each other."

It let the porcupine beat in this race.

Then it said, "I did not think you could run so fast, but let us try
again." They ran again, and it allowed the porcupine to beat the second
time. They ran till the porcupine was so tired that he said, "Let us
rest now."

They sat down to rest, and the porcupine went to sleep. Then the
inkalimeva rose up and ate all the fat. When it had finished eating, it
threw a stone at the porcupine, which caused him to jump up.

He called out with a loud voice, "The fat belonging to all the animals
has been eaten by the inkalimeva."

Then the animals came running up and put the porcupine to death.

They put fat in the kraal the sixth time, and selected the hare
(umvundla) to be the keeper of the gate. At first the hare would not

He said, "The coney is dead, and the muishond is dead, and the duiker is
dead, and the bluebuck is dead, and the porcupine is dead, and you will
kill me also."

They promised him that they would not kill him, and after a good deal of
persuasion he at last agreed to keep the gate. When the animals were
gone he laid himself down, but he only pretended to be asleep.

In a short time the inkalimeva went in, and was just going to take the
fat when the hare cried out: "Let the fat alone."

The inkalimeva said, "Please let me have this little bit only."

The hare answered, mocking, "Please let me have this little bit only."

After that they became companions. The hare proposed that they should
fasten each other's tail, and the inkalimeva agreed. The inkalimeva
fastened the tail of the hare first.

The hare said, "Don't tie my tail so tight."

Then the hare fastened the tail of the inkalimeva.

The inkalimeva said, "Don't tie my tail so tight," but the hare made no
answer. After tying the tail of the inkalimeva very fast, the hare took
his club and killed it. The hare took the tail of the inkalimeva and ate
it, all except a little piece which he hid in the fence.

Then he called out, "The fat belonging to all the animals has been eaten
by the inkalimeva."

The animals came running back, and when they saw that the inkalimeva was
dead they rejoiced greatly. They asked the hare for the tail, which
should be kept for the chief.

The hare replied, "The one I killed had no tail."

They said, "How can an inkalimeva be without a tail?"

They began to search, and at length they found a piece of the tail in
the fence. They told the chief that the hare had eaten the tail.

He said, "Bring him to me!"

All the animals ran after the hare, but he fled, and they could not
catch him. The hare ran into a hole, at the mouth of which the animals
set a snare, and then went away. The hare remained in the hole for many
days, but at length he managed to get out without being caught.

He went to a place where he found a bushbuck (imbabala) building a hut.
There was a pot with meat in it on the fire.

He said to the bushbuck, "Can I take this little piece of meat?"

The bushbuck answered, "You must not do it."

But he took the meat and ate it all. Afterwards he whistled in a
particular manner, and there fell a storm of hail which killed the
bushbuck. Then he took the skin of the bushbuck, and made for himself a

After this the hare went into the forest to procure some weapons to
fight with. While he was cutting a stick the monkeys threw leaves upon
him. He called to them to come down and beat him. They came down, but he
killed them all with his weapons.


A white man, it is said, met Snake upon whom a large stone had fallen
and covered her so that she could not rise. The White Man lifted the
stone off Snake, but when he had done so, she wanted to bite him. The
White Man said, "Stop! let us both go first to some wise people." They
went to Hyena, and the White Man asked him, "Is it right that Snake
should want to bite me, when I helped her as she lay under a stone and
could not rise?"

Hyena (who thought he would get his share of the White Man's body) said,
"If you were bitten what would it matter?"

Then Snake wanted to bite him, but the White Man said again, "Wait a
little, and let us go to other wise people, that I may hear whether this
is right."

They went and met Jackal. The White Man said to Jackal, "Is it right
for Snake to want to bite me, when I lifted up the stone which lay upon

Jackal replied, "I do not believe that Snake could be covered by a stone
so she could not rise. Unless I saw it with my two eyes, I would not
believe it. Therefore, come let us go and see the place where you say it
happened whether it can be true."

They went, and arrived at the place where it had happened. Jackal said,
"Snake, lie down, and let thyself be covered."

Snake did so, and the White Man covered her with the stone; but although
she exerted herself very much, she could not rise. Then the White Man
wanted again to release Snake, but Jackal interfered, and said, "Do not
lift the stone. She wanted to bite you, therefore she may rise by

Then they both went away and left Snake under the stone.


A Dutchman was walking by himself and saw Snake lying under a large
stone. Snake implored his help; but when she had become free she said,
"Now I shall eat you."

The Man answered, "That is not right. Let us first go to Hare."

When Hare had heard the affair, he said, "It is right."

"No," said the Man, "let us ask Hyena."

Hyena declared the same, saying, "It is right."

"Now let us ask Jackal," said the Man in his despair.

Jackal answered very slowly and considerately, doubting the whole
affair, and demanding to see first the place, and whether the Man was
able to lift the stone. Snake lay down, and the Man, to prove the truth
of his account, put the stone again over her.

When she was fast, Jackal said, "Now let her lie there."


Jackal and Hyena were together, it is said, when a white cloud rose.
Jackal descended upon it, and ate of the cloud as if it were fat.

When he wanted to come down, he said to Hyena, "My sister, as I am going
to divide with thee, catch me well." So she caught him, and broke his
fall. Then she also went up and ate there, high up on the top of the

When she was satisfied, she said, "My greyish brother, now catch me
well." The greyish rogue said to his friend, "My sister, I shall catch
thee well. Come therefore down."

He held up his hands, and she came down from the cloud, and when she was
near, Jackal cried out (painfully jumping to one side), "My sister, do
not take it ill. Oh me! Oh me! A thorn has pricked me and sticks in me."
Thus she fell down from above, and was sadly hurt.

Since that day, it is said that Hyena's hind feet have been shorter and
smaller than the front ones.


Lion, it is said, was ill, and they all went to see him in his
suffering. But Jackal did not go, because the traces of the people who
went to see him did not turn back. Thereupon, he was accused by Hyena,
who said, "Though I go to look, yet Jackal does not want to come and
look at the man's sufferings."

Then Lion let Hyena go, in order that she might catch Jackal; and she
did so, and brought him.

Lion asked Jackal: "Why did you not come here to see me?"

Jackal said, "Oh, no! when I heard that my uncle was so very ill, I went
to the witch (doctor) to consult him, whether and what medicine would be
good for my uncle against the pain. The doctor said to me, 'Go and tell
your uncle to take hold of Hyena and draw off her skin, and put it on
while it is still warm. Then he will recover.' Hyena is one who does not
care for my uncle's sufferings."

Lion followed his advice, got hold of Hyena, drew the skin over her
ears, whilst she howled with all her might, and put it on.


Jackal, it is said, came once to Dove, who lived on the top of a rock,
and said, "Give me one of your little ones."

Dove answered, "I shall not do anything of the kind."

Jackal said, "Give me it at once! Otherwise, I shall fly up to you."
Then she threw one down to him.

He came back another day and demanded another little one, and she gave
it to him. After Jackal had gone, Heron came, and asked, "Dove, why do
you cry?"

Dove answered him, "Jackal has taken away my little ones; it is for this
that I cry." He asked her, "In what manner did he take them?" She
answered him, "When he asked me I refused him; but when he said, 'I
shall at once fly up, therefore give me it,' I threw it down to him."

Heron said, "Are you such a fool as to give your young ones to Jackal,
who cannot fly?" Then, with the admonition to give no more, he went

Jackal came again, and said, "Dove, give me a little one." Dove refused,
and told him that Heron had told her that he could not fly up. Jackal
said, "I shall catch him."

So when Heron came to the banks of the water, Jackal asked him: "Brother
Heron, when the wind comes from this side, how will you stand?" He
turned his neck towards him and said, "I stand thus, bending my neck on
one side." Jackal asked him again, "When a storm comes and when it
rains, how do you stand?" He said to him: "I stand thus, indeed, bending
my neck down."

Then Jackal beat him on his neck, and broke his neck in the middle.

Since that day Heron's neck is bent.


Cock, it is said, was once overtaken by Jackal, and caught. Cock said to
Jackal, "Please, pray first (before you kill me), as the white man

Jackal asked, "In what manner does he pray? Tell me."

"He folds his hands in praying," said Cock. Jackal folded his hands and
prayed. Then Cock spoke again: "You ought not to look about you as you
do. You had better shut your eyes." He did so; and Cock flew away,
upbraiding at the same time Jackal with these words, "You rogue! do you
also pray?"

There sat Jackal, speechless, because he had been outdone.


Two powers, Elephant and Rain, had a dispute. Elephant said, "If you say
that you nourish me, in what way is it that you say so?" Rain answered,
"If you say that I do not nourish you, when I go away, will you not
die?" And Rain then departed.

Elephant said, "Vulture! cast lots to make rain for me."

Vulture said, "I will not cast lots."

Then Elephant said to Crow, "Cast lots!" who answered, "Give the things
with which I may cast lots." Crow cast lots and rain fell. It rained at
the lagoons, but they dried up, and only one lagoon remained.

Elephant went a-hunting. There was, however, Tortoise, to whom Elephant
said, "Tortoise, remain at the water!" Thus Tortoise was left behind
when Elephant went a-hunting.

There came Giraffe, and said to Tortoise, "Give me water!" Tortoise
answered, "The water belongs to Elephant."

There came Zebra, who said to Tortoise, "Give me water!" Tortoise
answered, "The water belongs to Elephant."

There came Gemsbok, and said to Tortoise, "Give me water!" Tortoise
answered, "The water belongs to Elephant."

There came Wildebeest, and said, "Give me water!" Tortoise said, "The
water belongs to Elephant."

There came Roodebok, and said to Tortoise, "Give me water!" Tortoise
answered, "The water belongs to Elephant."

There came Springbok, and said to Tortoise, "Give me water!" Tortoise
said, "The water belongs to Elephant."

There came Jackal, and said to Tortoise, "Give me water!" Tortoise said,
"The water belongs to Elephant."

There came Lion, and said, "Little Tortoise, give me water!" When little
Tortoise was about to say something, Lion got hold of him and beat him;
Lion drank of the water, and since then the animals drink water.

When Elephant came back from the hunting, he said, "Little Tortoise, is
there water?" Tortoise answered, "The animals have drunk the water."
Elephant asked, "Little Tortoise, shall I chew you or swallow you down?"
Little Tortoise said, "Swallow me, if you please!" and Elephant
swallowed him whole.

After Elephant had swallowed Little Tortoise, and he had entered his
body, he tore off his liver, heart, and kidneys. Elephant said, "Little
Tortoise, you kill me."

So Elephant died; but little Tortoise came out of his dead body, and
went wherever he liked.


Giraffe and Tortoise, they say, met one day. Giraffe said to Tortoise,
"At once I could trample you to death." Tortoise, being afraid, remained
silent. Then Giraffe said, "At once I could swallow you." Tortoise said,
in answer to this, "Well, I just belong to the family of those whom it
has always been customary to swallow." Then Giraffe swallowed Tortoise;
but when the latter was being gulped down, he stuck in Giraffe's throat,
and as the latter could not get it down, he was choked to death.

When Giraffe was dead, Tortoise crawled out and went to Crab (who is
considered as the mother of Tortoise), and told her what had happened.
Then Crab said:

    "The little Crab! I could sprinkle it under its arm with Boochoo,[3]
    The crooked-legged little one, I could sprinkle under its arm."

Tortoise answered its mother and said:

    "Have you not always sprinkled me,
    That you want to sprinkle me now?"

Then they went and fed for a whole year on the remains of Giraffe.


[3] (In token of approval, according to a Hottentot custom.)


One day, it is said, the Tortoises held a council how they might hunt
Ostriches, and they said, "Let us, on both sides, stand in rows near
each other, and let one go to hunt the Ostriches, so that they must flee
along through the midst of us." They did so, and as they were many, the
Ostriches were obliged to run along through the midst of them. During
this they did not move, but, remaining always in the same places, called
each to the other, "Are you there?" and each one answered, "I am here."
The Ostriches hearing this, ran so tremendously that they quite
exhausted their strength, and fell down. Then the Tortoises assembled
by-and-by at the place where the Ostriches had fallen, and devoured


One day, it is said, the following story happened:

Mouse had torn the clothes of Itkler (the tailor), who then went to
Baboon, and accused Mouse with these words:

"In this manner I come to thee: Mouse has torn my clothes, but will not
know anything of it, and accuses Cat; Cat protests likewise her
innocence, and says, 'Dog must have done it'; but Dog denies it also,
and declares Wood has done it; and Wood throws the blame on Fire, and
says, 'Fire did it'; Fire says, 'I have not, Water did it'; Water says,
'Elephant tore the clothes'; and Elephant says, 'Ant tore them.' Thus a
dispute has arisen among them. Therefore, I, Itkler, come to thee with
this proposition: Assemble the people and try them in order that I may
get satisfaction."

Thus he spake, and Baboon assembled them for trial. Then they made the
same excuses which had been mentioned by Itkler, each one putting the
blame upon the other.

So Baboon did not see any other way of punishing them, save through
making them punish each other; he therefore said,

"Mouse, give Itkler satisfaction."

Mouse, however, pleaded not guilty. But Baboon said, "Cat, bite Mouse."
She did so.

He then put the same question to Cat, and when she exculpated herself,
Baboon called to Dog, "Here, bite Cat."

In this manner Baboon questioned them all, one after the other, but they
each denied the charge. Then he addressed the following words to them,
and said,

              "Wood, beat Dog.
              Fire, burn Wood.
              Water, quench Fire.
              Elephant, drink Water.
    Ant, bite Elephant in his most tender parts."

They did so, and since that day they cannot any longer agree with each

Ant enters into Elephant's most tender parts and bites him.

              Elephant swallows Water.
              Water quenches Fire.
              Fire consumes Wood.
              Wood beats Dog.
              Dog bites Cat.
              And Cat bites Mouse.

Through this judgment Itkler got satisfaction and addressed Baboon in
the following manner:

"Yes! Now I am content, since I have received satisfaction, and with all
my heart I thank thee, Baboon, because thou hast exercised justice on my
behalf and given me redress."

Then Baboon said, "From to-day I will not any longer be called Jan, but
Baboon shall be my name."

Since that time Baboon walks on all fours, having probably lost the
privilege of walking erect through this foolish judgment.


Baboon, it is said, once worked bamboos, sitting on the edge of a
precipice, and Lion stole upon him. Baboon, however, had fixed some
round, glistening, eye-like plates on the back of his head. When,
therefore, Lion crept upon him, he thought, when Baboon was looking at
him, that he sat with his back towards him, and crept with all his might
upon him. When, however, Baboon turned his back towards him, Lion
thought that he was seen, and hid himself. Thus, when Baboon looked at
him, he crept upon him.[4] When he was near him Baboon looked up, and
Lion continued to creep upon him. Baboon said (aside), "Whilst I am
looking at him he steals upon me, whilst my hollow eyes are on him."

When at last Lion sprung at him, he lay (quickly) down upon his face,
and Lion jumped over him, falling down the precipice, and was dashed to


[4] Whilst Baboon did this, Lion came close upon him.


The Baboons, it is said, used to disturb the Zebra Mares in drinking.
But one of the Mares became the mother of a foal. The others then helped
her to suckle (the young stallion), that he might soon grow up.

When he was grown up and they were in want of water, he brought them to
the water. The Baboons, seeing this, came, as they formerly were used to
do, into their way, and kept them from the water.

While the Mares stood thus, the Stallion stepped forward, and spoke to
one of the Baboons, "Thou gum-eater's child!"

The Baboon said to the Stallion, "Please open thy mouth, that I may see
what thou livest on." The Stallion opened his mouth, and it was milky.

Then the Stallion said to the Baboon, "Please open thy mouth also, that
I may see." The Baboon did so, and there was some gum in it. But the
Baboon quickly licked some milk off the Stallion's tongue. The Stallion
on this became angry, took the Baboon by his shoulders, and pressed him
upon a hot, flat rock. Since that day the Baboon has a bald place on his

The Baboon said, lamenting, "I, my mother's child, I, the gum-eater, am
outdone by this milk-eater!"


Lion, it is said, used once to fly, and at that time nothing could live
before him. As he was unwilling that the bones of what he caught should
be broken into pieces, he made a pair of White Crows watch the bones,
leaving them behind at the kraal whilst he went a-hunting. But one day
Great Frog came there, broke the bones in pieces, and said, "Why can men
and animals live no longer?" And he added these words, "When he comes,
tell him that I live at yonder pool; if he wishes to see me, he must
come there."

Lion, lying in wait (for game), wanted to fly up, but found he could not
fly. Then he got angry, thinking that at the kraal something was wrong,
and returned home. When he arrived he asked, "What have you done that I
cannot fly?" Then they answered and said, "Some one came here, broke the
bones into pieces, and said, 'If he want me, he may look for me at
yonder pool!'" Lion went, and arrived while Frog was sitting at the
water's edge, and he tried to creep stealthily upon him. When he was
about to get hold of him, Frog said, "Ho!" and, diving, went to the
other side of the pool, and sat there. Lion pursued him; but as he could
not catch him he returned home.

From that day, it is said, Lion walked on his feet, and also began to
creep upon (his game); and the White Crows became entirely dumb since
the day that they said, "Nothing can be said of that matter."


It is said that when Lion and Gurikhoisip (the Only man), together with
Baboon, Buffalo, and other friends, were playing one day at a certain
game, there was a thunderstorm and rain at Aroxaams. Lion and
Gurikhoisip began to quarrel. "I shall run to the rain-field," said
Lion. Gurikhoisip said also, "I shall run to the rain-field." As neither
would concede this to the other, they separated (angrily). After they
had parted, Lion went to tell his Mother those things which they had
both said.

His Mother said to him, "My son! that Man whose head is in a line with
his shoulders and breast, who has pinching weapons, who keeps white
dogs, who goes about wearing the tuft of a tiger's tail, beware of him!"
Lion, however, said, "Why need I be on my guard against those whom I
know?" Lioness answered, "My Son, take care of him who has pinching
weapons!" But Lion would not follow his Mother's advice, and the same
morning, when it was still pitch dark, he went to Aroxaams, and laid
himself in ambush. Gurikhoisip went also that morning to the same place.
When he had arrived he let his dogs drink, and then bathe. After they
had finished they wallowed. Then also Man drank; and, when he had done
drinking, Lion came out of the bush. Dogs surrounded him as his Mother
had foretold, and he was speared by Gurikhoisip. Just as he became aware
that he was speared, the Dogs drew him down again. In this manner he
grew faint. While he was in this state, Gurikhoisip said to the Dogs,
"Let him alone now, that he may go and be taught by his Mother." So the
Dogs let him go. They left him, and went home as he lay there. The same
night he walked towards home, but whilst he was on the way his strength
failed him, and he lamented:

    "Mother! take me up!
    Grandmother! take me up! Oh me! Alas!"

At the dawn of day his Mother heard his wailing, and said--

"My Son, this is the thing which I have told thee:

    "'Beware of the one who has pinching weapons,
    Who wears a tuft of tiger's tail,
    Of him who has white dogs!
    Alas! thou son of her who is short-eared,
    Thou, my short-eared child!
    Son of her who eats raw flesh,
    Thou flesh-devourer;
    Son of her whose nostrils are red from the prey,
    Thou with blood-stained nostrils!
    Son of her who drinks pit-water,
    Thou water-drinker!'"


Some Women, it is said, went out to seek roots and herbs and other wild
food. On their way home they sat down and said, "Let us taste the food
of the field." Now they found that the food picked by one of them was
sweet, while that of the others was bitter. The latter said to each
other, "Look here! this Woman's herbs are sweet." Then they said to the
owner of the sweet food, "Throw it away and seek for other." So she
threw away the food, and went to gather more. When she had collected a
sufficient supply, she returned to join the other Women, but could not
find them. She went therefore down to the river, where Hare sat lading
water, and said to him, "Hare, give me some water that I may drink." But
he replied, "This is the cup out of which my uncle (Lion) and I alone
may drink."

She asked again: "Hare, draw water for me that I may drink." But Hare
made the same reply. Then she snatched the cup from him and drank, but
he ran home to tell his uncle of the outrage which had been committed.

The Woman meanwhile replaced the cup and went away. After she had
departed Lion came down, and, seeing her in the distance, pursued her on
the road. When she turned round and saw him coming, she sang in the
following manner:

    "My mother, she would not let me seek herbs,
    Herbs of the field, food from the field. Hoo!"

When Lion at last came up with the Woman, they hunted each other round a
shrub. She wore many beads and arm-rings, and Lion said, "Let me put
them on!" So she lent them to him, but he afterwards refused to return
them to her.

They then hunted each other again round the shrub, till Lion fell down,
and the Woman jumped upon him, and kept him there. Lion (uttering a form
of conjuration) said:

    "My Aunt! it is morning, and time to rise;
    Pray, rise from me!"

She then rose from him, and they hunted again after each other round the
shrub, till the Woman fell down, and Lion jumped upon her. She then
addressed him:

    "My Uncle! it is morning, and time to rise;
    Pray, rise from me!"

He rose, of course, and they hunted each other again, till Lion fell a
second time. When she jumped upon him he said:

    "My Aunt! it is morning, and time to rise;
    Pray, rise from me!"

They rose again and hunted after each other. The Woman at last fell
down. But this time when she repeated the above conjuration, Lion said:

"Hè Kha! Is it morning, and time to rise?"

He then ate her, taking care, however, to leave her skin whole, which he
put on, together with her dress and ornaments, so that he looked quite
like a woman, and then went home to her kraal.

When this counterfeit woman arrived, her little sister, crying, said,
"My sister, pour some milk out for me." She answered, "I shall not pour
you out any." Then the Child addressed their Mother: "Mama, do pour out
some for me." The Mother of the kraal said, "Go to your sister, and let
her give it to you!" The little Child said again to her sister, "Please,
pour out for me!" She, however, repeated her refusal, saying, "I will
not do it." Then the Mother of the kraal said to the little One, "I
refused to let her (the elder sister) seek herbs in the field, and I do
not know what may have happened; go therefore to Hare, and ask him to
pour out for you."

So then Hare gave her some milk; but her elder sister said, "Come and
share it with me." The little Child then went to her sister with her
bamboo (cup), and they both sucked the milk out of it. Whilst they were
doing this, some milk was spilt on the little one's hand, and the elder
sister licked it up with her tongue, the roughness of which drew blood;
this, too, the Woman licked up.

The little Child complained to her Mother: "Mama, sister pricks holes in
me and sucks the blood." The Mother said, "With what Lion's nature your
sister went the way that I forbade her, and returned, I do not know."

Now the Cows arrived, and the elder sister cleansed the pails in order
to milk them. But when she approached the Cows with a thong (in order to
tie their fore-legs), they all refused to be milked by her.

Hare said, "Why do not you stand before the Cow?" She replied, "Hare,
call your brother, and do you two stand before the Cow." Her husband
said, "What has come over her that the Cows refuse her? These are the
same Cows she always milks." The Mother (of the kraal) said, "What has
happened this evening? These are Cows which she always milks without
assistance. What can have affected her that she comes home as a woman
with a Lion's nature?"

The elder daughter then said to her Mother, "I shall not milk the
Cows." With these words she sat down. The Mother said therefore to Hare,
"Bring me the bamboos, that I may milk. I do not know what has come over
the girl."

So the Mother herself milked the cows, and when she had done so, Hare
brought the bamboos to the young wife's house, where her husband was,
but she (the wife) did not give him (her husband) anything to eat. But
when at night time she fell asleep, they saw some of the Lion's hair,
which was hanging out where he had slipped on the Woman's skin, and they
cried, "Verily! this is quite another being. It is for this reason that
the Cows refused to be milked."

Then the people of the kraal began to break up the hut in which Lion lay
asleep. When they took off the mats, they said (conjuring them), "If
thou art favourably inclined to me, O Mat, give the sound 'sawa'"
(meaning, making no noise).

To the poles (on which the hut rested) they said, "If thou art
favourably inclined to me, O Pole, thou must give the sound 'gara.'"

They addressed also the bamboos and the bed-skins in a similar manner.

Thus gradually and noiselessly they removed the hut and all its
contents. Then they took bunches of grass, put them over the Lion, and
lighting them, said, "If thou art favourably inclined to me, O Fire,
thou must flare up, 'boo boo,' before thou comest to the heart."

So the Fire flared up when it came towards the heart, and the heart of
the Woman jumped upon the ground. The Mother (of the kraal) picked it
up, and put it into a calabash.

Lion, from his place in the fire, said to the Mother (of the kraal),
"How nicely I have eaten your daughter." The Woman answered, "You have
also now a comfortable place!"

Now the Woman took the first milk of as many Cows as had calves, and put
it into the calabash where her daughter's heart was; the calabash
increased in size, and in proportion to this the girl grew again inside

One day, when the Mother (of the kraal) went out to fetch wood, she said
to Hare, "By the time that I come back you must have everything nice
and clean." But during her Mother's absence, the girl crept out of the
calabash, and put the hut in good order, as she had been used to do in
former days, and said to Hare, "When Mother comes back and asks, 'Who
has done these things?' you must say, 'I, Hare, did them.'" After she
had done all, she hid herself on the stage.

When the Mother of the kraal came home, she said, "Hare, who has done
these things? They look just as they used when my daughter did them."
Hare said, "I did the things." But the Mother would not believe it, and
looked at the calabash. Seeing it was empty, she searched the stage and
found her daughter. Then she embraced and kissed her, and from that day
the girl stayed with her Mother, and did everything as she was wont in
former times; but she now remained unmarried.


The Sun, it is said, was one day on earth, and the men who were
travelling saw him sitting by the wayside, but passed him without
notice. Jackal, however, who came after them, and saw him also sitting,
went to him and said, "Such a fine little child is left behind by the
men." He then took Sun up, and put it into his awa-skin (on his back).
When it burnt him, he said, "Get down," and shook himself; but Sun stuck
fast to his back, and burnt Jackal's back black from that day.


It is said that once Sun was on earth, and caught Horse to ride it. But
it was unable to bear his weight, and therefore Ox took the place of
Horse, and carried Sun on its back. Since that time Horse is cursed in
these words, because it could not carry Sun's weight:

    "From to-day thou shalt have a (certain) time of dying.
    This is thy curse, that thou hast a (certain) time of dying.
    And day and night shalt thou eat,
    But the desire of thy heart shall not be at rest,
    Though thou grazest till morning and again until sunset.
    Behold, this is the judgment which I pass upon thee," said Sun.

Since that day Horse's (certain) time of dying commenced.


The wild animals, it is said, were once assembled at Lion's. When Lion
was asleep, Jackal persuaded Little Fox to twist a rope of ostrich
sinews, in order to play Lion a trick. They took ostrich sinews, twisted
them, and fastened the rope to Lion's tail, and the other end of the
rope they tied to a shrub. When Lion awoke, and saw that he was tied up,
he became angry, and called the animals together. When they had
assembled, Lion said (using this form of conjuration)--

    "What child of his mother and father's love,
    Whose mother and father's love has tied me?"

Then answered the animal to whom the question was first put--

    "I, child of my mother and father's love,
    I, mother and father's love, I have not done it."

All answered the same; but when he asked Little Fox, Little Fox said--

    "I, child of my mother and father's love,
    I, mother and father's love, have tied thee!"

Then Lion tore the rope made of sinews, and ran after Little Fox. But
Jackal said:

    "My boy, thou son of lean Mrs. Fox, thou wilt never be caught."

Truly Lion was thus beaten in running by Little Fox.


The Moon, it is said, sent once an Insect to Men, saying, "Go thou to
Men, and tell them, 'As I die, and dying live, so ye shall also die, and
dying live.'" The Insect started with the message, but whilst on his way
was overtaken by the Hare, who asked: "On what errand art thou bound?"
The Insect answered: "I am sent by the Moon to Men, to tell them that as
she dies, and dying lives, they also shall die, and dying live." The
Hare said, "As thou art an awkward runner, let me go" (to take the
message). With these words he ran off, and when he reached Men, he said,
"I am sent by the Moon to tell you, 'As I die, and dying perish, in the
same manner ye shall also die and come wholly to an end.'" Then the Hare
returned to the Moon, and told her what he had said to Men. The Moon
reproached him angrily, saying, "Darest thou tell the people a thing
which I have not said?" With these words she took up a piece of wood,
and struck him on the nose. Since that day the Hare's nose is slit.


The Moon dies, and rises to life again. The Moon said to the Hare, "Go
thou to Men, and tell them, 'Like as I die and rise to life again, so
you also shall die and rise to life again.'" The Hare went to the Men,
and said, "Like as I die and do not rise to life again, so you shall
also die, and not rise to life again." When he returned the Moon asked
"What hast thou said?" "I have told them, 'Like as I die and do not rise
to life again, so you shall also die and not rise to life again.'"
"What," said the Moon, "hast thou said that?" And she took a stick and
beat the Hare on his mouth, which was slit by the blow. The Hare fled,
and is still fleeing.


The Moon, on one occasion, sent the Hare to the earth to inform Men that
as she (the Moon) died away and rose again, so mankind should die and
rise again. Instead, however, of delivering this message as given, the
Hare, either out of forgetfulness or malice, told mankind that as the
Moon rose and died away, so Man should die and rise no more. The Hare,
having returned to the Moon, was questioned as to the message delivered,
and the Moon, having heard the true state of the case, became so enraged
with him that she took up a hatchet to split his head; falling short,
however, of that, the hatchet fell upon the upper lip of the Hare, and
cut it severely. Hence it is that we see the "Hare-lip." The Hare, being
duly incensed at having received such treatment, raised his claws, and
scratched the Moon's face; and the dark spots which we now see on the
surface of the Moon are the scars which she received on that occasion.


The Moon, they say, wished to send a message to Men, and the Hare said
that he would take it. "Run, then," said the Moon, "and tell Men that as
I die and am renewed, so shall they also be renewed." But the Hare
deceived Men, and said, "As I die and perish, so shall you also."


God (Unknlunkuln) arose from beneath (the seat of the spiritual world,
according to the Zulu idea), and created in the beginning men, animals,
and all things. He then sent for the Chameleon, and said, "Go,
Chameleon, and tell Men that they shall not die." The Chameleon went,
but it walked slowly, and loitered on the way, eating of a shrub called

When it had been away some time, God sent the Salamander after it,
ordering him to make haste and tell Men that they should die. The
Salamander went on his way with this message, outran the Chameleon, and,
arriving first where the Men were, told them that they must die.


    Geschiedenis van
      Zuid Afrika              Geo. McCall Theal

    Kafir Folk-lore            Geo. McCall Theal   1882

    African Native
      Literature               S. W. Koelle        1854

    South African
      Folk-lore Journal
      Hottentot Fables
      and Tales                W. H. I. Bleek      1864

    An expedition of
      Discovery into
      the Interior of
      Africa                   James Alexander     1838

    South Africa a
      Century Ago              Anna Barnard        1901

    An account of travels
      into the interior of
      South Africa             John Barrow         1802

    Travels in South
      Africa                   John Campbell       1816

    The Childhood of Man       Leo Frobenius       1909

    Travels and Adventure
      in Eastern Africa        Nathaniel Isaacs    1836

    Narrative of Discovery
      and Adventure
      in Africa                Jameson, etc.       1830

    Voyage dans L'intérieur
      de l'Afrique             F. Le Vaillant      1796

    Missionary Travels
      and Researches in
      South Africa             D. Livingstone      1858

    Scenes in Africa           Capt. Marryat       1851

    Missionary Labors
      and Scenes in
      South Africa             R. Moffat           1845

    A New Gazetteer
      of the Asia,
      Africa, etc.,
      Continents               J. Morse            1802

    South African Native       S. A. Native Races
      Races                    Committee           1909

    Researches into
      the Physical
      History of
      Mankind                  J. C. Prichard      1841

    Memorials of
      South Africa             B. Shaw             1841

    Wanderings and
      Adventures in
      the Interior of
      South Africa             A. Stedman          1835

    Notes on the
      Bushmen                  E. & D. Bleek       1909

    Africa                     K. Johnston         1878

    A Voyage to the
      Cape of Good
      Hope                     A. Sparrmann        1785

    Travels in South
      Africa                   Henry Lichtenstein  1800

    The Dwarfs of
      Mount Atlas              R. G. Haliburton    1891

    The Native Races
      of South Africa          G. W. Stow          1905

    Description du
      Cap de Bonne
      Esperance                Pierre Kolbe        1741

    Specimens of Dialects      John Clarke         1849

Transcriber's Note:

Puncutation has been standardised.

Chapter headings in the Contents do not always match the headings
in the body of the book.

Both Folk-lore and Folklore appear in the text.

  Page 24
  Wolf's tale," said the rogue
  Wolf's tail," said the rogue

  Page 38
  Paragraph inserted before "It is also better,"

  Page 150
  Voyage dans l'Interieur
  Voyage dans l'Intérieur

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