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Title: Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 93, August 9, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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[Transcriber's note: Original spelling varieties have not been
standardized. Underscores have been used to indicate
_italic_ fonts. A list of volumes and pages in "Notes and
Queries" has been added at the end.]



NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION

FOR

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

Vol IV.--No. 93. Saturday, August 9. 1851.

Price Threepence. Stamped Edition, 4_d._



CONTENTS.

                                                                Page


      NOTES:--

      Lady Hopton                                                 97

      Notes on Newspapers--The Times, by H. M. Bealby             98

      Folk Lore: Devonshire Superstitions                         98

      Minor Notes:--Curious Inscription--Glass in Windows
      formerly not a Fixture--D'Israeli: Pope and Goldsmith       99

      QUERIES:--

      On a Song in Scott's Pirate--"Fire on the Maintop"          99

      Minor Queries:--Was Milton an Anglo-Saxon Scholar?--Tale
      of a Tub--Cleopatra's Needle--Pair of Curols--Cowper
      Law--Order of Greenwich--House of Yvery--Entomological
      Query--Spenser's Portraits--Borrow's Bible in
      Spain--Dogmatism and Puppyism--A Saxon Bell-house          100

      MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--Cycle of the Moon--Cocker's
      Arithmetic--Sanskrit Elementary Books--Townley MSS.,
      &c.--"Man is born to trouble," &c.                         102

      REPLIES:--

      Bellarmin's Monstrous Paradox                              103

      The Gookins of Kent, by Edward Armstrong                   103

      Curious Monumental Inscription, by S. W. Singer            105

      The late Mr. William Hone, by Douglas Allport              105

      Plaids and Tartans                                         107

      The Caxton Memorial, by Bolton Corney                      107

      Lady Flora Hastings' Bequest, by the Marchioness of Bute   108

      Replies to Minor Queries:--Inscription on an old
      Board--Churches decorated at Christmas--Royal Library
      --Proof a Sword--Dr. Young's "Narcissa"--Circulation
      of the Blood--Dr. Elrington's Edition of Ussher--Was Stella
      Swift's Sister?--The Mistletoe--Family of Kyme--The Leman
      Baronetcy--Cure for Ague                                   109

      MISCELLANEOUS:--

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                               111

      Notices to Correspondents                                  111

      Advertisements                                             112



Notes.


LADY HOPTON.

I have thought that the following old letter, relative to a family once
of some distinction, and especially as describing a very remarkable
individual, from whom a multitude of living persons are immediately
descended, might be of sufficient interest to occupy a place in "NOTES
AND QUERIES." It has never, that I am aware of, been published; but it
has long been preserved, amongst similar papers, with the accompanying
endorsement:--"Though Mr. Ernle's letter relating to Lady Hopton and her
family contains some fabulous accounts, and is in some parts a little
unintelligible, yet it may be urged in confirmation of the truth of the
several descents therein mentioned. He was the son of Sir John Ernle,
and could not but have some general knowledge of his grandmother's
relations."

This Mr. Ernle, afterwards knighted, died A.D. 1686.

Sir Arthur Hopton lived at Witham Friary, co. Somerset, and the heroine
of this document was, according to the pedigree in Sir R. C. Hoare's
_Monastic Remains of Witham_, &c., Rachel, daughter of Edmund Hall of
Gretford, co. Lincoln, Esq. The date of Sir Arthur's death is not there
given, but he was made a K.B. in 1603.

    C. W. B.

  "I will give you as good an account as I can remember of our wise
  & good Grandmother Hopton, who I think was one Hall's daughter of
  Devonshire without title, & had an elder brother, without child,
  who said to his younger brother's wife, who was then with child,
  if she would come to his house, & lie in, he would give his estate
  to it if a daughter, & if a son it should fare never the worse: so
  she had my grandmother, & he bred her up & married her to Sir
  Arthur Hopton of Somerset: who had 4000 a year, & she as much.

  "By him she had 18 children; 10 daughters married; whose names
  were: Lady Bacon, Lady Smith, Lady Morton, Lady Bannister, & Lady
  Fettiplace; Bingham, Baskett, Cole, Thomas, & my Grandmother
  Ernle; these daughters & their children have made a numerous
  company of relations. The duke of Richmond & Lord Maynard married
  our Aunt Bannister's daughters & heirs (one to Rogers, the other
  to Bannister).[1] Fettiplace, which was also Lord Jones, his
  daughter & heiress married Lord Lumley, now Scarbro.

  [Footnote 1: ("The Lady Bannister's first husband was Mr. Rogers,
  of Brenson (_hodiè_ Bryanston) near Blandford, in Dorsetshire: by
  him she had the Dutchess of Richmond, who was heiress to him: she
  had another daughter of Sir Robt. Bannister, who married Lord
  Mainard."--_Added in another Version._)]

  "Cole's heir to Popham of Wilts: & Hungerford, & Warnford married
  Jones, & some Mackworth, & Wyndham in Wales; some Morgan, &
  Cammish, & Kern, with many others that I have forgot. The sons
  were Mr Robt Hopton, Sir Thomas, Sir Arthur. Robt had one son,
  w'ch was the Lord Hopton of great worth, who married the Lord
  Lewen's widow, and had no child: so the estate went to the
  daughters. But our Grandfather Hopton, having so good an estate,
  thought he might live as high as he pleased, & not run out: but
  one day he was going from home but c'd not, but told his Lady she
  w'd be left in great trouble, for the great debts he had made on
  his estate; & that he knew he should live but few days, & c'd not
  die in peace, to think what affliction he should leave her in: so
  she desired him to be no way concerned for his debts, for he owed
  not a penny to any one. So he died of a gangrene in his toe in a
  few days. Now she had set up an Iron-work, & paid all he owed,
  unknown to him. And she married all her daughters to great
  estates, & great families: her eldest, I think, to one Smith, who
  was a younger son, & went factor to a merchant into Spain; he had
  a very severe master & was very melancholy & walked one morning in
  Spain intending to go & sell himself a galley-slave to the Turks:
  but an old man met him, & asked him why he was so melancholy; bid
  him cheer up himself, & not go about what he intended, for his
  elder brother was dead, letters were coming to him to return home
  to his estate; bid him consider & believe what he said, & that
  when he went for England, the first house he entered, after this
  landing, he would marry the gentleman's eldest daughter: which he
  did. The Lady Hopton's way of living was very great: she had 100
  in her family; all sorts of trades; and when good servants married
  she kept the families, & bred them up to several trades. She rose
  at six of the Clock herself: went to the Iron-work, & came in
  about 9; went with all her family to prayers, & after dinner she &
  her children & grand-children went to their several works with her
  in the dining-room, where she spun the finest sheets that are.
  Every year she had all her children & grandchildren met together
  at her house; & before they went away, would know if any little or
  great animosities were between any of them; if so, she would never
  let them go, till they were reconciled."


NOTES ON NEWSPAPERS--THE TIMES.

There were sold of _The Times_ of Tuesday, Feb. 10th, 1840, containing
an account of the Royal nuptials, 30,000 copies, and the following
curious calculations were afterwards made respecting this publication.
The length of a column of _The Times_ is twenty-two inches. If every
copy of _The Times_ then printed could be cut into forty-eight single
columns, and if those forty-eight columns were tacked to each other,
they would extend 494 miles and 1,593 yards. To give some idea of the
extent of that distance, it may be sufficient to say that one of the
wheels of the mail which runs from Falmouth to London, and again from
London to Easingwold, a small town twelve miles beyond York, might run
all the way on the letter-press so printed, except the last 167 yards.
The same extent of letter-press would reach from London to Paris, and
back again from Paris to Canterbury, and a little further. The 30,000
papers, if opened out and joined together, would cover a length of
twenty-two miles and 1,280 yards; or, in other words, would reach from
_The Times_ office, in Printing-house Square, to the entrance hall in
Windsor Castle, leaving a few yards for stair carpets. It is recorded
that 20,000 copies were in the hands of the newsmen at eight o'clock in
the morning. Since 1840, the circulation of _The Times_ has greatly
increased; and what was then deemed wonderful on an extraordinary
occasion, is now exceeded daily by 8,000 copies--the present daily
circulation being about 38,000 copies, which are worked by greatly
improved machinery at the rate of between 8,000 to 10,000 per hour. On
the 2nd of last May, _The Times_ containing an account of the opening of
the Great Exhibition by the Queen, circulated to the enormous number of
52,000 copies, the largest number ever known of one daily newspaper
publication. Nothing can illustrate more forcibly than these statements
the great utility of the machinery employed in multiplying with so
miraculous a rapidity such an immense number of copies. When we look at
the great talent--the extensive arrangement--the vast amount of
information on a variety of topics--the immense circulation--the
rapidity with which it is thrown off, and the correctness of the details
of _The Times_ paper--we are constrained to pronounce it the most
marvellous political journal the world has ever seen. What would our
forefathers have said to this wonderful broadsheet, which conveys
information of the world's movements to the teeming population of the
United Kingdom, and also to the people of other and distant climes.

    H. M. BEALBY.

  North Brixton.


FOLK LORE.

_Devonshire Superstitions._--Days of the week:

      "Born on a Sunday, a gentleman;
                 Monday, fair in face;
                 Tuesday, full of grace;
                 Wednesday, sour and grum;
                 Thursday, welcome home;
                 Friday, free in giving;
                 Saturday, work hard for your living."

Tuesday and Wednesday are lucky days.

Thursday has one lucky hour, viz. the hour before the sun rises.

Friday is unlucky.

It is very unlucky to turn a featherbed on a Sunday; my housemaid says
she would not turn my bed on a Sunday on any account.

      "To sneeze on Monday hastens anger,
                    Tuesday, kiss a stranger,
                    Wednesday.
                    Thursday.

      "To sneeze on Friday, give a gift.
                    Saturday, receive a gift.
                    Sunday, before you break your fast,
          You'll see your true love before a week's past."

My informant cannot recollect the consequences of sneezing on Wednesday
and Thursday.

      "Sneeze on Sunday morning fasting,
          You'll enjoy your own true love to everlasting."

If you sneeze on a Saturday night after the candle is lighted, you will
next week see a stranger you never saw before.

A new moon seen over the right shoulder is lucky, over the left shoulder
unlucky, and straight before prognosticates good luck to the end of the
moon.

Hair and nails should always be cut during the waning of the moon.

Whatever you think of when you see a star shooting, you are sure to
have.

When you first see the new moon in the new year, take your stocking off
from one foot, and run to the next style; when you get there, between
the great toe and the next, you will find a hair, which will be the
colour of your lover's.

When you first see the new moon after mid-summer, go to a stile, turn
your back to it, and say,--

      "All hail, new moon, all hail to thee!
      I prithee good moon, reveal to me
      This night who shall my true love be:
      Who he is, and what he wears,
      And what he does all months and years."

_To see a Lover in a Dream._--Pluck yarrow from a young man's grave,
saying as you do so--

      "Yarrow, sweet yarrow, the first that I have found,
      And in the name of Jesus I pluck it from the ground.
      As Joseph loved sweet Mary, and took her for his dear,
      So in a dream this night, I hope my true love will appear."

Sleep with the yarrow under the pillow.

      J. M. (4)

       *       *       *       *       *

Some time ago I was in the neighbourhood of Camelford (a small town in
Cornwall), and inquiring the name of a church I saw in the distance, was
told that its name was _Advent_, though it was generally called _Saint
Teen_. Now _Teen_ in Cornish = to light. Can this name have been applied
from any peculiar ceremonies observed here during Advent?

      J. M. (4)


Minor Notes.

_Curious Inscription._--I obtained the following inscription from a
person in the country, and you wish to make a "note" of it, it is
perfectly at your service. The arrangement of the letters is curious.

              "_Bene._
            At. ht Hiss to
           Ne LI esca Theri
       Neg ---- Ray. C. Hanged.
        F ..... Roma bvs. y. L.
      if et oli .... Fele SS. C.
       la. YB: year than. D.C.
      La Ys ---- he Go ..... th
        Erp ---- E. L F bvtn
             ows H e'st
           Urn E D T odv Sth
                E R
            Se ==== Lf.

      "An old Record.
      J. H. W......
      Birch Hill, May, 1844."

    R. H.

_Glass in Windows formerly not a Fixture._--In Brooke's _Abridgement_,
tit. "Chatteles," it appears that in the 21st Hen. VII., A.D. 1505, it
was held that though the frame-work of the windows belonged to the heir,
the _glass_ was the property of the executors, and might therefore be
removed by them, "_quar le meason est perfite sauns le glasse_." In A.D.
1599 Lord Coke informs us it was in the Common Pleas "resolved _per
totam curiam_, that glass annexed to windows by nails, or in any other
manner, could not be removed; for without glass it is no perfect house."

    J. O. M.

_D'Israeli: Pope and Goldsmith._--Mr. D'Israeli congratulates himself
with much satisfaction, in his _Essay on the Literary Character_, both
in his Preface, p. xxix., and in the text, p. 187. vol. i., in having
written _this_ immortal sentence:

  "The defects of great men are the consolation of the dunces."

--more particularly as it appears Lord Byron had "deeply _underscored_
it." Perhaps he was unaware that Pope, in a letter to Swift, Feb. 16,
1733, had said:

  "A few loose things sometimes fall from men of wit by which
  _censorious fools_ judge as ill of them as they possibly can, for
  _their own comfort_."

And that Goldsmith says:

  "The folly of others is ever most ridiculous to those who are
  themselves most foolish."--_Citizen of the World._

    JAMES CORNISH.



Queries.


ON A SONG IN SCOTT'S PIRATE--"FIRE ON THE MAINTOP."

In the 231st number of that excellent New York periodical, _The Literary
World_, published on the 5th of July, there is an article on "Steamboats
and Steamboating in the South West," in which I find the following
passage:--

  "I mentioned the _refrain_ of the firemen. Now as a particular one
  is almost invariably sung by Negroes when they have anything to do
  with or about a fire; whether it be while working at a New Orleans
  fire-engine, or crowding wood into the furnaces of a steamboat;
  whether they desire to make an extra racket at leaving, or evince
  their joy at returning to a port, it may be worth recording; and
  here it is:

      "'Fire on the quarter-deck,
        Fire on the bow,
      Fire on the gun-deck,
        Fire down below!'

  "The last line is given by all hands with great vim (_sic_) and
  volume; and as for the chorus itself, you will never meet or pass
  a boat, you will never behold the departure or arrival of one, and
  you will never witness a New Orleans fire, without hearing it."

The writer says nothing about the origin of this Negro melody, and
therefore he is, I presume, unaware of it. But many of your readers will
at once recognise the spirited lines, which when once they are read in
Walter Scott's _Pirate_, have somehow a strange pertinacity in ringing
in one's ears, and creep into a nook of the memory, from which they ever
and anon insist on emerging to the lips. The passage occurs at the end
of the fifth chapter of the third volume, where the pirates recapture
their runaway captain:--

  "They gained their boat in safety, and jumped into it, carrying
  along with them Cleveland, to whom circumstances seemed to offer
  no other refuge, and pushed off for their vessel, singing in
  chorus to their oars an _old ditty_, of which the natives of
  Kirkwall could only hear the first stanza:

      "'Thus said the Rover
        To his gallant crew,
      Up with the black flag,
        Down with the blue!
      Fire on the main-top,
        Fire on the bow,
      Fire on the gun-deck,
        Fire down below!'"

So run the lines in the original edition, but in the revised one of the
collected novels in forty-eight volumes, and in all the subsequent ones,
the first two stand thus:

      "Robin Rover
        Said to his crew."

This alteration strikes one as anything but an improvement, and it has
suggested a doubt, which I beg to apply to the numerous and
well-informed body of your readers to solve. Are these lines the
production of Walter Scott, as they are generally supposed to be; or are
they really the fragment of an old ditty? The alteration at the
commencement does not seem one that would have found favour in the eyes
of an author, but rather the effect of a prompting of memory. I believe,
indeed, the lines are inserted in the volume called _The Poetry of the
Author of the Waverley Novels_ (which I saw some years ago, but cannot
refer to at this moment), but that is not decisive.

There is a case in point, which is worth quoting on its own account. In
_Peveril of the Peak_, in the celebrated scene of the interview between
Buckingham and Fenella, where Fenella leaps from the window, and
Buckingham hesitates to follow, there is this passage:

  "From a neighbouring thicket of shrubs, amongst which his visitor
  had disappeared, he heard her chant a verse of a comic song, then
  much in fashion, concerning a despairing lover who had recourse to
  a precipice.

        "'But when he came near,
          Beholding how steep
        The sides did appear,
          And the bottom how deep;
      Though his suit was rejected
      He sadly reflected,
        That a lover forsaken
          A new love may get;
        But a neck that's once broken
          Can never be set.'"

This verse, also, if I mistake not, appears in _The Poetry of the Author
of Waverley_, and is certainly set down by almost every reader as the
production of Sir Walter. But in the sixth volume of Anderson's _Poets
of Great Britain_, at page 574. in the works of Walsh, occurs a song
called "The Despairing Lover," in which we are told that--

      "Distracted with care
      For Phyllis the fair,
      Since nothing could move her,
      Poor Damon, her lover,
      Resolves in despair
      No longer to languish,
      Nor bear so much anguish;
      But, mad with his love,
      To a precipice goes,
      Where a leap from above
      Would soon finish his woes.

      "When in rage he came there,
        Beholding how steep
      The sides did appear,
        And the bottom how deep,
      His torments projecting,
      And sadly reflecting
      That a lover forsaken,"
      &c. &c. &c.

In this instance it is shown that Sir Walter was not indebted for the
comic song to his wonderful genius, but to his stupendous memory; and it
is just possible that it may be so in the other, in which case one would
be very glad to see the remainder of the "old ditty."

    T. W.


Minor Queries.

56. _Was Milton an Anglo-Saxon Scholar?_--I have long been very curious
to know whether Milton was an Anglo-Saxon scholar. He compiled a
history of the Saxon period: had he the power of access to the original
sources? Is there any ground for supposing that he had read our Saxon
_Paradise Lost_; I mean the immortal poetry of Cædmon? If he really knew
nothing of this ancient relic, then it may well be said, that the poems
of Cædmon and of Milton afford the most striking known example of
coincident poetic imagination.

I should be extremely obliged to any of your learned correspondents who
would bring the faintest ray of evidence to bear upon this obscure
question.

The similarity of the two poems has been noticed long ago, _e.g._ by Sir
F. Palgrave in _The Archæologia_, xxiv. I know not whether he was the
first; I think Conybeare was beforehand with him.

    J. E.

  Oxford, Aug. 2. 1851.

57. _Tale of a Tub._--What is the origin of this popular phrase? It
dates anterior to the time of Sir Thomas More, an anecdote in whose
chancellorship thus illustrates it. An attorney in his court, named
Tubb, gave an account in court of a cause in which he was concerned,
which the Chancellor (who, with all his gentleness, loved a joke)
thought so rambling and incoherent, that he said at the end of Tubb's
speech, "This is _a tale of a Tubb_;" plainly showing that the phrase
was then familiarly known.

    EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

58. _Cleopatra's Needle._--When was the obelisk in Egypt first so
called? Why was it so called? What is the most popular work on Egypt for
a full description of it?

    J. B. J.

  Liverpool, July 28. 1851.

59. _Pair of Curols._--In a list of the rating of the incumbents of the
diocese of Ely, A. D. 1609, towards the support of the army, preserved
by Cole, several are returned for "a pair of curols."

  "Mr. Denham for his vicarage of Cherry Hinton to find (jointly
  with the Vicar of Impington and Caldecote) _a pair of Curols_ with
  a pike furnished."

What is the meaning of the word "Curol," supposing Cole to have used it
aright?

    E. V.

60. _Cowper Law._--Lord Mahon, in his _History of England_, second edit.
vol. ii. p. 66., in speaking of the death of the first Earl Cowper,
after saying "His memory deserves high respect," &c., adds, "And though
it seems that a by-word was current of 'Cowper law, to hang a man first
and then judge him,' I believe that it proceeded from party resentment,
rather than from any real fault;" and in a note refers to the evidence
at Lord Wintoun's trial. Is not Lord Mahon mistaken in supposing that
this saying refers to Lord Cowper? Should it not be "Cupar Law," meaning
the town of that name? I see in Lord Wintoun's trial, where his lordship
uses the expression, he adds, "as we used to say in our country." If my
supposition is correct, can any of your correspondents say how the
proverb arose?

    C. DE D.

61. _Order of Greenwich._--I have an impression of an oval
ecclesiastical seal, the matrix of which is said to have been found near
Kilkenny. The device is the Ascension of the Virgin, beneath which is a
shield charged with the royal arms; the _three_ fleur de lis in the
first and fourth quarterings showing the seal to be, comparatively
speaking, modern. The legend, in Lombardic capitals, runs as
follows:--"+ SGILLVM + GĀRDIĀNI + GRV̅WVCĒSIS +." Query, Does
"GRV̅WVCĒSIS" mean "of Greenwich?"

In the _State Papers_, temp. Hen. VIII., vol. iii. p. 285., an abbey in
Ireland is said to be of the "order of Greenewich." Query, What order
was this?

    JAMES GRAVES.

  Kilkenny, July 19. 1851.

62. _House of Yvery._--This work is rarely to be met with in a perfect
state; but there is one plate about which there exists a doubt, viz. a
folding plate or map of the estates of John Perceval, Earl of Egmont.

It would be satisfactory perhaps to many of the readers of "NOTES AND
QUERIES," as well as to myself, to know whether any gentleman possesses
a copy of the work with such a plan.

    H. T. E.

  Clyst St. George.

63. _Entomological Query._--Can any of your botanical or entomological
correspondents help me to the name of the grub that is apt to become a
chrysalis on the _Linaria minor_ (_Antirrhinum minus_ of Linnæus)? For
yesterday, in a chalky field in Berkshire, I found several cocoons of
one particular kind on the above plant (itself not common in these
parts), and I did not see it on any other plant in the field, although I
spent some time in looking about.

    J. E.

  Oxford, July 29.

64. _Spenser's Portraits_ (Vol. iv., p. 74.).--VARRO states he is "well
acquainted with an _admirable portrait_ of the poet, bearing date 1593."
Perhaps he could give a satisfactory answer to a Query relative to the
engraved portraits of Spenser which appeared in one of the numbers of
"NOTES AND QUERIES" for last April, and which was not been yet answered.

    E. M. B.

65. _Borrow's Bible in Spain._--In the _Athenæum_ for Aug. 17, 1850, in
a review of Wallis's _Glimpses of Spain_, I find the following remark:--

  "Mr. Wallis imputes a want of judgment and of 'earnest desire' for
  the objects of his mission to Mr. Borrow _personally_, on the
  ground that he--being, as all know, sent out by the Bible Society
  to circulate the Protestant Scriptures--did not, instead of
  attempting to fulfil that special object of his mission, employ
  himself in diffusing the Roman Catholic version of the Vulgate
  set forth by the Spanish hierarchy."

It is well known that the Bible Society keeps on its shelves both the
Protestant and Roman Catholic versions of French, Italian, Portuguese,
and Spanish. Its endeavours at present are, I believe, confined to
attempting to circulate the Roman Catholic versions, on the ground that
it is impossible to circulate the more correct Protestant ones. My
Queries are:--

1. Was Mr. Borrow sent out by the Bible Society to circulate the
Protestant Scriptures?

2. Whose translation of the Vulgate was set forth by the Spanish
hierarchy?

    E. M. B.

66. _Dogmatism and Puppyism._--

  "Dogmatism is nothing but puppyism come to its full growth."

I find this quotation in a leader of _The Times_. Can you or any of your
readers inform me of its origin?

    [?]

67. _A Saxon Bell-house._--A reader of "NOTES AND QUERIES," who
subscribes himself A LOVER OF BELLS, has kindly referred me to a passage
in Hume's _History of England_, in which it is said that, according to a
statute of Athelstan, "a ceorle or husbandman who had been able to
purchase five hides of land, and had a chapel, a kitchen, a hall, and a
_bell_," was raised to the rank of a Thane. The marginal reference in
Hume is to Selden's _Titles of Honor_; and in that work the statue is
then given:

  "If a churle or a countryman so thrived that hee had fully five
  hides of his owne land, a church, and a kitchen, a bel-house, a
  borough-gate with a seate, and any distinct office in the king's
  court, then was he henceforth of equall honour or dignitie with a
  Thane."

Selden considers that the _bel-house_ was the dining-hall to which the
guests and family were summoned by the ringing of a bell. He thinks the
word corresponds with _tinello_, _tinelo_, and _tinel_, the Italian,
Spanish, and French words for a "public hall" or "dining-room,"--"so
named, because the _tin_ or tingling of a bell at the times of dinner or
supper in it were signified by it."

I beg to ask whether the existing knowledge of the details of Saxon
architecture substantiates Selden's view; and whether this bell was also
the alarum-bell of the castle, hanging in an outside turret?

Many thanks to my correspondent, and to "NOTES AND QUERIES" for the
introduction to his notice.

    ALFRED GATTY.


Minor Queries Answered.

_Cycle of the Moon._--Can any of your correspondents inform me in what
year the new moon last fell on the _1st of January_? I am no astronomer,
but I believe the moon's cycles is a period of _nineteen years_, and
that whenever the new moon falls on the 1st January, the cycle begins.

    BENBOW.

  Birmingham.

  [The above matter is made the more puzzling to all who are not
  astronomers, by the pertinacity with which popular writers persist
  in speaking of the moon's motions as if they were regular.

  There is no particular beginning to the cycle of nineteen years:
  anybody may make it begin when he pleases. What it means is this:
  that in any set of nineteen years, the new and full moons
  generally (not always) fall on the same days as in the preceding
  nineteen years. For instance, in 1831, the 14th of March was a day
  of new moon: go on nineteen years, that is, to the 14th of March,
  1850; most probably, not certainly, this must be a day of new
  moon. It happens, however, otherwise; for in 1850 the new moon is
  on the 13th. But in the Aprils of both years, the new moons are on
  the 12th; in the Junes, on the 10th. All that can be said is, that
  where any day of any year is new moon, most probably _that day
  nineteen years_ is new moon also, and certainly either the day
  before or the day after. In that cycle of nineteen years, which is
  called the cycle of the _golden number_, there is an arbitrary
  beginning, which has something to do with the new moon falling
  _near_ the 1st of January. The cycle in which we now are, began
  (that is, had the year marked 1) in 1843.

  To find the last time when the new moon fell on the 1st of January
  with certainty, would be no easy problem for any but an
  astronomer. The nearest which our correspondent can do is this.
  Take Mr. De Morgan's recently published _Book of Almanacs_, and
  turn to almanac 37. Take the day in question (Jan. 1), and from
  the first of the Roman numbers written opposite (xxx.) subtract
  one (xxix.). Look back into the new style index (p. 7.), then any
  one year which has the epact 29 is very likely to have the new
  moon on the 1st of January; epact 30 may also have it. Now, on
  looking, we find that we are not in that period of the world's
  existence at which epact 29 makes its appearance; no such thing
  has occurred since 1699, nor will occur until 1900. We are then in
  a period in which new moons on the 1st of January are
  comparatively infrequent. Our best chance is when the epact is 30,
  as in 1843: here there is a narrow miss of what we want, for it
  was new moon on the day previous, as late as seven in the evening.

  Our correspondent's notion that the moon's cycle begins with a new
  moon on the 1st of January, is probably derived from this, that
  the calendar is so contrived that for a very long period the years
  which have 1 for their golden number, have a new moon _near_ the
  1st of January, either on it, or within a day of it.]

_Cocker's Arithmetic._--At a sale of books by Messrs. Puttick and
Simpson, a copy of Cocker's _Arithmetic_ was sold for 8_l._ 10_s._, date
1678, said to be one of the only two extant. It is stated Dr. Dibdin had
never seen any edition printed in the seventeenth century, and mentions
the thirty-second as the earliest he had met with. I have in my
possession a copy bearing date 1694, seeming to be one of a further
impression of the first edition, as it gives no edition, but simply has
in the title page:

  "This impression is corrected and amended with many additions
  throughout the whole."

  "London: Printed by J. R. for T. P., and are to be sold by John
  Back, at the Black Boy on London Bridge, 1694."

Perhaps you can give me some information on the edition, if you think it
a fit subject for your valuable publication.

    E. K. JUTT.

  Frome, Somerset.

  [Mr. De Morgan, in his _Arithmetical Books_, says that the
  earliest edition he ever possessed is that of 1685: and what
  edition was not stated. The fourth edition was of 1682, the
  twentieth of 1700. The matters cited by our correspondent, which
  we have omitted, are in all, or nearly all, editions. We have
  heard of _three_ copies of the _first_ edition: one sold in Mr.
  Halliwell's sale, one in the library of the Roman Catholic College
  at Oscott, and one sold by Puttick and Simpson, as above, in April
  last: but we cannot say that these are three _different_ copies,
  though we suspect it. Our correspondent's edition is not mentioned
  by any one. The _fifty-second_ edition, by Geo. Fisher, appeared
  in 1748, according to the Catalogue of the Philosophical Society
  of Newcastle.]

_Sanskrit Elementary Books._--Will some one of your correspondents
kindly inform me what are the elementary works necessary for gaining a
knowledge of Sanskrit?

    DELTA.

  [Wilson's _Sanskrit Grammar_ (the 2nd edition), and the
  _Hitopadesa_, edited by Johnson, are the best elementary works.]

_Townley MSS., &c._--I request the favour to be informed where are the
Townley MSS.? They are quoted by Sir H. Nicolas in Scrope and Grosvenor
Rolls. Also where are the MSS. formerly _penes_ Earl of Egmont, often
quoted in the _History of the House of Yvery_? And a folio of Pedigrees
by Camden Russet?

    S. S.

  [The Townley Heraldic Collections are in the British Museum, among
  the Additional MSS., Nos. 14,829-14,832. 14,834. In the same
  collection, No. 6,226. p. 100., are Bishop Clayton's _Letters to
  Sir John Perceval, first Earl of Egmont_.]

_"Man is born to trouble," &c._--In an edition of _The Holy Bible, with_
TWENTY THOUSAND EMENDATIONS: London, 1841, I read as follows, at Job v.
7.: "For man is NOT born to trouble as the sparks fly upwards." Query 1.
Is there any authority from MSS., &c. for the insertion of the word
"not"? 2. Is this insertion occasioned by the oversight of the printer
or of the editor?

    N.

  [There is no authority for the insertion of the word "not," that
  we can find, either in MSS. or commentators. As to the oversight
  of the printer or editor we cannot speak; but are rather inclined
  to attribute that and other emendations to the second-sight of one
  of the parties concerned. Our correspondent will find Dr.
  Conquest's _emandated Bible_ ably criticised by one of the best
  Hebrew scholars of the day in the _Jewish Intelligencer_, vol. ix.
  p. 84.]



Replies.


BELLARMIN'S MONSTROUS PARADOX.

(Vol. iv., p. 45.)

The defence of Cardinal Bellarmin set up by your correspondent J. W. CT.
is not new, and is exceedingly plausible at first sight. Allow me,
however, to direct the attention of your readers to the following reply
to a similar defence, which I take from the _Sequel to Letters to M.
Gondon_, by Dr. Wordsworth, Canon of Westminster, pp. 10. 11.:

  "I would first beg leave to observe that my three reviewers, in
  their zeal to speak for Cardinal Bellarmine, have not allowed him
  to speak for himself. They seem not to have remembered that this
  very passage was severely censured in his life-time, and that in
  the _Review_ which _he_ wrote _of his own works_, by way of
  explanation, he endeavoured to set up a defence for it, which is
  _wholly at variance with their apologies_ for him. He says, 'When
  I affirmed that, if the Pope commanded a vice or forbad a virtue,
  the church would be bound to believe virtue to be evil and vice
  good, I was speaking concerning _doubtful_ acts of virtue or vice;
  for if he ordered a _manifest_ vice, or forbad a _manifest_
  virtue, it would be necessary to say with St. Peter, We must obey
  God rather than man.' Recognitio Librorum omnium Roberti
  Bellarmini ab ipso edita, Ingolstad, 1608, p. 19. 'Ubi diximus
  quod si Papa præciperet vitium aut prohiberet virtutem, Ecclesia
  teneretur credere virtutem esse malam et vitium esse bonum, locuti
  sumus de actibus _dubiis_ virtutum aut vitiorum; nam si præciperet
  _manifestum_ vitium aut prohiberet _manifestam_ virtutem, dicendum
  esset cum Petro _obedire oportet magis Deo quam hominibus_.'

  "This is his own defence; let it be received for what it is worth;
  it differs entirely from that which the reviewers make for him."

It would occupy too much of your valuable space to insert the whole of
Dr. Wordsworth's observations, which, however, every one who is desirous
of thoroughly investigating the subject, _ought_ to read and consider.

    TYRO.

  Dublin.


THE GOOKINS OF KENT.

(Vol. i., pp. 385. 492.)

In the 1st volume of the _New England Historical and Genealogical
Register_, pp. 345., &c., and in subsequent volumes, an interesting
account, by J. W. Thornton, Esq., of Boston, may be found of the
"Gookins of America," who are descendants of Sir Vincent Gookin, Knt.,
to whom your correspondents refer.

Mr. Thornton explains the omission of the descendants of Vincent and
Daniel in the pedigree found in Berry's _Kent_, p. 113., and which is
from the original visitation in Heralds' College, by the fact, that they
probably went to the co. Cork, and Daniel from thence to Virginia. He
cites undoubted proof that Daniel arrived in Virginia in November, 1621,
and was one of twenty-six patentees to whom, in 1620, King James granted
a patent of land in that colony, they having "undertaken to transport
great multitudes of persons and cattle to Virginia." In 1626 this Daniel
is described in a deed as of "Carygoline, in the county of Cork, within
the kingdom of Ireland, Esquire." In February 1630 a deed is recorded,
made by "Daniel Gookin, of Newport Newes, Virginia, the younger,
Gentleman." Upon the records of the Court of James City, held Nov. 22,
1642, Captain John Gookin is mentioned. Mr. Thornton infers that the
elder Daniel returned to Ireland, and that Daniel the younger, and
Captain John Gookin, were his sons. During the religious troubles which
arose in Virginia, Daniel, junior, and Mary his wife, left for New
England, where they arrived on May 10, 1644, and where he became, as he
had been, a person of considerable influence. He was promoted to the
rank of Major-General in the colony, and died March 19, 1686-7, æt. 75.
For further mention of him, see Carlyle's _Letters and Speeches of
Oliver Cromwell_, Let. 143. and Note; Thurloe's _State Papers_, vol. iv.
pp. 6. 440. 449.; vol. v. p. 509.; vol. vi. p. 362. He is spoken of,
says Mr. Thornton, by an authority of the time, as a "Kentish soldier."
Colonel Charles Gookin, whom Penn sent as a governor to his colony, is
described by the latter in a letter, dated London, Sept. 28, 1708, as
"of years and experience," "and of what they call a good family, his
grandfather Sir Vincent Gookin having been an early great planter in
Ireland, in King James First's and the first Charles's days." Governor
Gookin assumed his duties in Pennsylvania in 1708, and was recalled in
1717. He was never married.

In a letter dated Philadelphia, Nov. 28, 1709, Governor Gookin writes to
a grandson of Major-General Daniel Gookin, of New England: "I assure you
that the account you gave me of that part of our family settled in
America was extremely satisfactory;" and again, Nov. 22, 1710, to the
same he says: "By a letter from Ireland I am informed two of our
relatives are lately dead, viz. Robert Gookin, son of my uncle Robert,
and Augustine Gookin, eldest son of my uncle Charles." He subscribes
himself "cousin," &c.

From Mr. Thornton's account, and the remarks of your correspondent, I
think I may venture to deduce the following table:--

                                         |
             +---------------------------+------------------------+
             |                                                    |
      SIR VINCENT G., Kt.,                                     DANIEL,
      Lived at Highfield                                       who went
      House, Bitton,                                           to
      Gloucester,                                              Virginia.
      which he purchased                                       --married
      in 1627,                                                   xv.
      d. 1637, and bu.                                           |
      at Bitton.                                                 |
      --married JUDITH, dau. of xx. Wood,                        |
        d. 1642, bu. at Bitton.                                  |
                          |                                      |
                          |                                      |
         +--------+-------+-----+---------+--------+       +-----+---+
         |        |             |         |        |       |         |
      SAMUEL,  VINCENT,      FRANCES,  ROBERT.  CHARLES.  Maj.-G.  JOHN.
      buried   publishes     baptized     |        |      DANIEL,
      at       his pamphlet  at           |        |      --married
      Bitton,  in 1634,      Bitton,      |        |        Mary xx.
      1635.    left Bitton   1637.        |        |          |
               in 1646,                   |        |          |
               living in                  |        |          |
               1655.                      |        |          |
               --married                  |        |          |
                 Mary x.                  |        |          |
                   |                      |        |          |
                   |                      |        |          |
                  ROBERT,              ROBERT,   AUGUSTINE,  DANIEL,
                  conveys Bitton       d. 1710.  eldest      SAMUEL,
                  in 1646.                       son, d.     NATHANIEL,
                                                 1710.       &c., some
                                                             of whose
                                                             descendants
                                                             still live
                                                             in New
                                                             England.

    EDWARD ARMSTRONG,

      Recording Secretary of the
      Historical Society of
      Pennsylvania.

  Philadelphia, July 2. 1851.


CURIOUS MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTION.

(Vol. iv., p. 20.)

The inscription on the tombstone of Christ. Burraway, in Martham Church,
copied by your correspondent E. S. T., singular as it is, and startling
as the story attached to it seems, is not without a parallel, for we
have a similar inscription on another _mysterious mother_ of the name of
Marulla in ancient times, which is given by Boxhornius in his _Monumenta
Illustrium Virorum et Elogia_, Amst. 1638, fol. 112. He appears to have
found it on a ruined sarcophagus at Rome, of which he has given
representation, and in his Index thus refers to it:

  "Hersilus cum Marulla, quæ ei mater, soror, et sponsa fuit."

Your correspondent has not mentioned the source of his explanation of
the enigma: I presume it is traditional. The ancient inscription, it
will be seen, solves it in the last two lines. The coincidence of these
two inscriptions is not a little remarkable.

      "SENICAPRI QVICVMQVE SVBIS SACRARIA FAVNI
      HÆC LEGE ROMANA VERBA NOTATA MANV.
      HERSILVS HIC IACEO MECVM MARVLLA QVIESCIT
      QVÆ SOROR ET GENITRIX, QVÆ MIHI SPONSA FVIT
      VERA NEGAS, FRONTEMQVE TRAHIS: ENIYGMATA SPHYNGOS
      CREDIS, SVNT PYTHIO VERA MAGIS TRIPODE.
      ME PATER E NATA GENVIT, MIHI IVNGITVR ILLA,
      SIC SOROR ET CONIVNCX, SIC FVIT ILLA PARENS."

In that entertaining volume _La Sylva Curiosa de Julian de Medrano,
Cavallero Navarro_, first printed in 1583, and reprinted at Paris in
1608, a somewhat similar story is related, and the monumental
inscription in French is given. Some of these stories must surely be
apocryphal.[2]

  [Footnote 2: Stories of the same nature are told in the
  _Heptameron of the Queen of Navarre, 3me Journée, Nouvelle 30e_,
  where the scene is laid in Languedoc; and by Jeremy Taylor in his
  _Ductor Dubitantium_, B. i. C. iii. Sect. 3., who cites Comitolus
  as his authority: here the scene is laid in Venice. By others the
  scene has been placed in London, and also in Scotland. Horace
  Walpole's Postscript to his Tragedy will of course be known to
  most of your readers.]

  "Passing through the Bourbonnese country I was told, that many
  years since a young gentleman there had, by some fortuitous
  accident, lain with his own mother, who became pregnant by him.
  That some time after, a favourable opportunity offering, he went
  to the wars, and was absent from his home some fourteen or fifteen
  years. At the expiration of that time returning home, he found his
  mother well stricken in years, who had a few days previous taken
  into her service a handsome lass, who had been brought up from
  infancy in the mountains of Auvergne. This young woman being of a
  naturally affectionate disposition, seemed much attached to her
  mistress, and relieved her of all her household cares, without
  knowing how nearly they were related; for she was her daughter,
  the fruit of the intercourse with her son, now master of the
  house; notwithstanding there was no one in those parts that knew
  it. The young man seeing her virtuous, graceful, and handsome,
  became enamored of her, in so much that, although his relations
  wished him to marry a rich wife, and all that his friends
  endeavoured to divert his passion, and counselled him to bestow
  his love elsewhere, it was all to no purpose, but, preferring her
  to all others he had seen, he married her. They lived together
  many years, had several children, and were buried in the same
  tomb, without either of them having ever known that they were
  father and daughter, brother and sister! until after a lapse of
  time, a shepherd from Auvergne coming into the Bourbonnese
  country, told the history to the inhabitants of the place where
  this doubly incestuous couple lived. When I passed through the
  country I was shown the spot where they dwelt, and the church
  where they were interred; and a copy of the epitaph which was
  placed upon their tomb was given me, which was as follows:

      "'Cy gîst la fille, cy gîst le père,
      Cy gîst la soeur, cy gîst le frère,
      Cy gîst la femme et le mary,
      Et si n'y a que deux corps ici.'"

    S. W. SINGER.

  Mickleham, July 28. 1851.


THE LATE MR. WILLIAM HONE.

(Vol. iii., pp. 477. 508.; Vol. iv., p. 25.)

Having been acquainted with Mr. Hone, when a bookseller in the Strand
(the firm, I think, was Hone and Bone), who published several catalogues
of scarce works in poetry and the drama, I feel some interest in the
question raised upon his religious principles. It was no doubt this
avocation which gave to Mr. Hone that extensive circle of information,
which enabled him to conduct those amusing publications, _The Every-day
Book_, _The Year Book_, and _The Table Book_. In what way my
schoolfellow Charles Lamb became acquainted with Mr. Hone I know not;
but I frequently heard him speak of his misfortunes, and I was witness
to his endeavours to relieve his difficulties, by requesting his
acquaintance to visit the coffee-house which Mrs. Hone opened in
Gracechurch Street. I may communicate hereafter some information upon
the intimacy which existed between Charles Lamb and Mr. Hone; my present
note being confined to some more extensive and interesting pieces of
information relative to Mr. Hone's conversion from infidelity to the
pure principles of Christianity, than are furnished by MR. WILLIAM
BARTON. For this purpose I transcribe a letter of Mr. Hone's,
descriptive of his conversion, the cause which led to it, and his
earnest desire to impress upon the public mind his sincerity in the
change which had taken place. A more touching picture of real
conviction, and of a renewed state of mind, is not perhaps upon record,
and cannot too extensively be made known. The letter appeared a few
years ago in the _Churchman's Penny Magazine_, vol. ii. p. 154., with
the initials "T. H."

  "Dear Sir,

  "Your kindness towards me, and the desire you express of becoming
  serviceable to me, require that I should be explicit as regards
  the circumstances under which we met, a little time ago, and have
  since conversed on. I think my statement should be in writing, and
  hence this letter.

  "It has pleased the Almighty, to have dealings with me for several
  years, until, by His Holy Spirit, I have been brought from
  darkness to light; to know HIM, through faith in Christ; to rest
  in His love, as in the cleft of a rock, safe from the storms and
  afflictions of the world. To acquaint all who ever heard of my
  name, with this mighty change of heart, has long been my desire;
  and it seems to me, that I ought not to exercise my restored
  faculties without tendering their first fruits as an humble
  offering to the promotion of His cause, by testifying of His great
  mercy. It has been my frequent and earnest prayer to God to enable
  me to do this, as His doing; to seek nothing but honour to His
  holy name, and in the fear of Him, and Him only, without regard to
  the praise or dispraise of man--come from what quarter it may--to
  have my soul possessed in patience; to wait and be still, as a
  mere instrument in His hands, made willing in the day of His
  power, to do His work. If it be His work, He will bless it: I pray
  that it may be. Now, in this matter, and in this view of it,
  self-seeking and personal gratification are out of the question.
  The desire to engage in it is the most earnest wish of my heart;
  but my heart was submitted to God, and in submission to Him, it
  seeks to do His will, to do the will of my Saviour, as my Lord and
  my God, who has done all things for me, and will do all things
  well. I believe He has put the desire into my heart to do this
  homage to His sovereignty, as a subject of His kingdom. To do it
  has been the ruling purpose of my mind: as an instance of it, let
  me mention, that I have been frequently asked by autograph
  collectors to write something in their albums. For the last two
  years I have done nothing in this way, till the 3rd of last month,
  a lady having brought in her album the night before, I remembered
  it was my birth-day, and wrote the following lines:

      "'The proudest heart that ever beat
        Hath been subdued in me;
      The wildest will that ever rose
      To scorn Thy cause, and aid Thy foes,
        Is quell'd, my God, by Thee.

      "'Thy will, and not my will, be done;
        My heart be ever Thine:
      Confessing Thee, the mighty Word,
      My Saviour Christ, my God, my Lord,
        Thy Cross shall be my sign.'

  "These lines, I thought, would be ill placed among contributions
  of different import: I therefore wrote them at the end of my
  Bible, and put some others, of a religious and kindly admonitory
  tendency, in the lady's album. Not even in the albums can I write
  without manifesting, that to please is less my object than to
  acknowledge the goodness of God. Well, then, my dear Sir, in this
  respect you may gather, in some degree, how it is with me, and how
  God has wrought upon my mind, and operates upon it to the end I
  speak of. When His hand struck me as for death, it was in a house
  of prayer, and whilst being carried from the place in men's arms
  as for dead, He lifted my heart to His throne of grace. During the
  loneliness of what seemed to be my dying bed, and the discomfort
  of my awful infirmity, and the ruin of my house, and family, and
  property, He was with me, and comforted me; and hitherto He has
  helped me, and I bless His holy name; my faith in Him is unshaken,
  and He keeps me constantly to himself; and despite of worldly
  affections, and nature's fear, I depend on Him and the workings of
  His providence, that He will never leave me nor forsake me. It has
  never entered my mind, even as a shadow, that I can do anything
  for Him; but what He enables me to do, I will do to His glory. In
  the dark seasons of the hidings of His face, I would wait on Him
  who waited for me while I resisted the drawings of His love; and
  when I sit in the light of His countenance, I would stand up and
  magnify His name before the people. And now, that He has
  wonderfully raised me up, after a long season of calamity, to the
  power of using my pen, I pray that He may direct it to tell of His
  mercy to me, and by what way He has brought me to acknowledge Him,
  'the Lord our righteousness,' 'God blessed for ever,' at all
  times, and in all places, where there may be need of it. I trust I
  may never be ashamed to declare His Name; but readily exemplify,
  by His help, the courage and obedience of a Christian man, and, as
  a good soldier of Christ, fight the good fight with the sword of
  the Spirit.

  "May God grant me grace to do His will, is my humble supplication.
  I am,

      "Dear Sir,

      "Yours most sincerely,

      "WM. HONE."

The foregoing letter may perhaps be considered too pharasaical; but when
is added to it the following note by Mr. Hone, relating the afflictions
which had overtaken him, and well nigh overwhelmed him, it cannot appear
surprising that when he sought comfort and relief from where alone they
are to be found, his heart overflowed with thankfulness and praise.

I find the subjoined notice to his readers in Hone's _Table Book_, vol.
ii. p. 737.:--

  "Note.

  "Under severe affliction I cannot make up this sheet as I wish.
  This day week my second son was brought home with his skull
  fractured. To-day intelligence has arrived to me of the death of
  my eldest son.

  "The necessity I have been under of submitting recently to a
  surgical operation on myself, with a long summer of sickness to
  every member of my family, and accumulated troubles of earlier
  origin, and of another nature, have prevented me too often from
  satisfying the wishes of readers, and the claims of
  correspondents. I crave that they will be pleased to receive this
  as a general apology, in lieu of particular notices, and in the
  stead of promises to effect what I can no longer hope to
  accomplish, and forbear to attempt.

      "WM. HONE.

      "December 12. 1827."

    J. M. G.

  Worcester.

Mr. Hone, whose friendship I enjoyed for some years, became toward the
latter part of his life a devout and humble Christian, and member of the
dissenting church under the pastorate of the Rev. Thomas Binney, to
which also several members of his family[3] belonged. Meeting him
accidentally, about ten years since, in Great Bell Alley, London Wall,
he led me to a small bookshop, kept I think by one of his daughters, and
showed me part of a pamphlet he was then engaged upon, relative to _his
own_ religious life and experience, as I understood him. This, I
believe, has never appeared, though he published in 1841 _The early Life
and Conversion of William Hone_, of Ripley[4], his father.

  [Footnote 3: "His wife, four daughters, and a son-in-law."]

  [Footnote 4: London: T. Ward and Co. 8vo. pp. 48.]

At p. 46. of this interesting narrative, he subjoins an extract from a
new edition of Simpson's _Plea for Religion_, printed for Jackson and
Walford, describing the happy change which had taken place in his own
mind. To this account, written, as Mr. Hone says, "by a very dear friend
who knows me intimately," he sets his affirmation; so that there can be
no doubt of its accuracy.

A Life of William Hone, by one who could treat it philosophically, would
be so deeply interesting, that I am surprised it has never been
undertaken. "The history of my three days' trials in Guildhall," says
he, "may be dug out from the journals of the period: the history of my
mind and heart, my scepticism, my atheism, and God's final dealings with
me, remains to be written. If my life be prolonged a few months, the
work may appear in my lifetime." This was written June 3, 1841. Was any
progress, and what, made in it?

Who so fit to "gather up the fragments," as his late pastor, Mr. Binney,
the deeply thoughtful author of one of our best biographies extant, the
_Life of Sir T. F. Buxton_?

    DOUGLAS ALLPORT.

  [The concluding words of our correspondent are calculated to
  mislead our readers. _The Life_ of Sir T. F. Buxton is by his son;
  whereas Mr. Binney's is merely a _sketch of his character_, with
  that of other eminent individuals, published, we believe, in a
  small pamphlet.]


PLAIDS AND TARTANS.

(Vol. iv., pp. 7. 77.)

I can assure A LOWLANDER that the reviewer's story is quite true, it
being gathered from Sir John Sinclair, who, in a letter to Mr.
Pinkerton, dated in May, 1796, says:

  "It is well known that the philibeg was invented by an Englishman
  in Lochabar, about sixty years ago, who naturally thought his
  workmen would be more active in that light petticoat than in the
  belted plaid; and that it was more decent to wear it than to have
  no clothing at all, which was the case with some of those employed
  by him in cutting down the woods in Lochabar."--See Pinkerton's
  _Correspondence_, vol. i. p. 404.

I never understood that there was any presumed antiquity about the
philibeg or kilt. In the _Encyclopædia Britannica_ it is described as a
"modern substitute" for the lower part of the plaid.

Presuming, that I have settled this point, I will pass to the original
Query of a JUROR, p. 7., still quoting Pinkerton:

  "There is very little doubt but that the 'Tartan' passed from
  Flanders (whence all our articles came) to the Lowlands in the
  fifteenth century, and thence to the Highlands. It is never
  mentioned before the latter part of that century. It first occurs
  in the accompts of James III., 1474, and seems to have passed from
  England; for the 'rouge tartarin' in the statutes of the Order of
  the Bath in the time of Edward IV. (apud Upton de Re Milit.) is
  surely red tartan, or cloth with red stripes of various shades."

Again--

  "As to the plaid, there is no reason to believe it more ancient
  than the philibeg. In the sixteenth century Fordun (lib. ii. cap.
  9.) only mentions the Highland people as 'amictu deformis,' a term
  conveying the idea of a vague savage dress of skins.

  "In the book of dress printed at Paris in 1562, the Highland chief
  is in the Irish dress wearing a mantle. The woman is dressed in
  sheep and deer skins. Lesley, in 1570, is the first who mentions
  the modern Highland dress, but represents the tartan as even then
  being exclusively confined to the use of people of rank.

  "Buchanan, 1580, mentions the plaids, but says they are _brown_;
  even as late as 1715 the remote Highlanders were only clothed in a
  long coat buttoned down to the mid-leg; this information was
  derived from the minister of Mulmearn (father of the Professor
  Ferguson), who said 'that those Highlanders who joined the
  Pretender from the most remote parts, were not dressed in
  party-coloured tartans, and had neither plaid nor philibeg.'"

So much for the assumed antiquity of the Scottish national costume. More
interesting matter on this subject will be found in Pinkerton's
_Correspondence_, vol. i. pp. 404-410.

    BLOWEN.


THE CAXTON MEMORIAL.

(Vol. iv., pp. 33. 69.)

Whatever be the fate of _The Caxton Memorial_, as suggested by myself,
the proposition is clear of interested motives. I neither aspire to the
honours of a patron, nor to the honours of editorship. To revive the
memory of the man, and to illustrate the literature of the period, are
my sole objects.

I have to thank MR. BOTFIELD for his polite information. I was aware of
the meeting of the 9th of July 1849, but not aware that the proposal of
a _statue of Caxton_ had been entertained at so early a date. The
proceedings of the meeting, as reported in _The Times_, were confined to
the question of subscriptions: on the statue question there is not the
slightest hint.

The advocacy of a _fictitious statue_ by so eminent an antiquary as MR.
BOTFIELD, and the assurance which he gives that this object has been
under consideration for at least two years, make it the more imperative
on me to state my objections to it; and this I shall do with reference
to his own arguments.

A maxim of the illustrious sir William Jones very apposite to the point
in dispute, has floated in my memory from early life. It is this: "The
best monument that can be erected to a man of literary talents is a good
edition of his works." Such a man was William Caxton; and on this
principle I would proceed. He would then owe the extension of his fame
to the admirable art which he so successfully practised.

In the opinion of MR. BOTFIELD, the expense attendant on my project
would be "fatal to its success." Now, as the Shakespeare Society prints
at the rate of four volumes for a subscription of 1_l._, the committee
of the _Caxton Memorial_ could surely produce one volume for 10_s._
6_d._ I should not advise any attempt at splendour. Paper such as Caxton
would have chosen, a clear type, and extreme accuracy of text, are more
important objects. Competent editors would soon offer their services;
and, proud to have their names associated with so desirable an
enterprise, would perform their parts with correspondent care and
ability. Besides, it is easier to collect subscriptions, when you can
promise a substantial return.

To the other objections of MR. BOTFIELD, I shall reply more briefly. The
biography of Caxton by Lewis is a very _scarce_ book; and, in the
opinion of Dibdin, "among the dullest of all biographical memoirs." As
to that by MR. KNIGHT, only one fourth part of it relates to Caxton. In
the _Typographical antiquities_ we certainly have "copious extracts from
his works;" but they are mixed up with much superfluity of disquisition.
Whether such a memorial would be "hidden in a bookcase," must depend on
the taste of the possessor. It would be _accessible_ in the four
quarters of the globe--which is as much as can be said of other books,
and more than can be said of a statue.

I cannot admit the propriety of viewing Caxton as a mere printer. By
continental writers he is more correctly appreciated. M. de la Serna
calls him "homme de lettres, artiste renommé," etc.; and M. Suard
observes, "dans presque tous les ouvrages imprimés par lui, il a inséré
quelques lignes qui toujours attestent la pureté des intentions dont il
était animé."

The advocates of a _fictitious statue_ of Caxton have been apprized of
my intention, and if certain estimable antiquaries should prove to be of
the number, they must consider my opposition as the consequence of
general principles.

It should be the object of antiquaries to illustrate "the _history_ of
former times"--as we read in a royal charter--not to substitute fiction
for history. Now, it is admitted by MR. BOTFIELD that there is "no
authentic portrait of Caxton." How then, he must allow me to ask, can it
be assumed that the _picture by Maclise is truthful_? It may be much
otherwise. Modern artists are no guides for antiquaries.

It is with statues as it is with medals. The first and most obvious use
of them, as Addison remarks of the latter objects, is "the showing us
the _faces_" of eminent persons. Even Horace Walpole, who has misled so
many with regard to Caxton, has expressed himself very forcibly on the
value of _real_ portraits. If a statue fail in that particular, it is
worthless; and should my own project find no favour with the public--a
fountain by day--or, a light by night--or, an inscribed obelisk--or,
even an inscribed tablet--would be far preferable as a monument.

If the dean of St. Paul's should resolve to place in other hands the sum
which has been collected for this purpose, he may justly insist on the
proper application of it; and as the Society of Arts may be induced to
take charge of it, I must remind them of the circumstance under which
the subscriptions were formerly obtained. It was assumed that a likeness
of Caxton had been preserved. I transcribe from _The Times_:--

  "The meeting, [12 June, 1847] appeared to have been gratified with
  what they had seen and heard, and he [lord Morpeth] had only now
  to say to them, and to their fellow-countrymen in every part of
  the world, 'Subscribe.' (Applause.)

  "A miniature portrait of Caxton, painted upon enamel by Mr. Bone,
  was handed to lord Morpeth, who stated that it had been copied
  from a likeness of Caxton, in an old illuminated MS."

His lordship was misinformed as to the authenticity of the portrait, it
being copied from the Lambeth Ms.--but that circumstance does not affect
the argument.

It is manifest, therefore, that a _fictitious statue_ of Caxton,
objectionable as it would be on other accounts, would also be very like
a breach of faith with the original subscribers.

    BOLTON CORNEY.


LADY FLORA HASTINGS' BEQUEST.

(Vol. iii., pp. 443. 522.; Vol. iv., p. 44.)

  [MR. E. P. RICHARDS presents his compliments to the Editor of
  "NOTES AND QUERIES," and will thank him to insert the
  accompanying statement by the Marchioness of Bute, in respect to
  the lines said to have been written by her sister, Lady Flora
  Hastings, in the next number of his paper.

  Cardiff, Aug. 5. 1851.]

A friend has copied and sent to me a passage in the paper named "NOTES
AND QUERIES," of Saturday, July 19. 1851, No. 90. page 44.

The passage refers to my sister, Lady Flora Hastings, and a poem
ascribed to her. If it were a matter solely of literary nature, I should
not have interfered; considering the point in debate may not be
interesting to a very extended circle of persons. But I feel it is a
duty not to allow an undeserved imputation to rest on any one,
especially on one styled a "Christian lady." Probably no person but
myself can place the debated question beyond doubt. I do not know who
the "Christian lady" or who ERZA may be; but the lines entitled "Lady
Flora Hastings' Bequest" are not by Lady Flora Hastings. She solemnly
bequeathed _all_ her papers and manuscripts to me, and those verses are
not amongst them; else they should have been included in the volume of
her poems which I published. Moreover, Lady Flora Hastings never parted
with her Bible till, by my brother's desire, I had warned her on the
authority of the physicians that _any_ hour might close her existence on
earth. She was then unable to read it to herself. It was to _me_ (not to
my brother, as stated by CHARLOTTE ELIZABETH) that she confided the book
and the message for our mother; and when she did so, she was too weak in
body to have committed the simple words of the message to paper. I was
with her night and day for many days before she gave the gift and
message to my care, and she died in my arms. She could not have composed
any verses, or written a word, or dictated a sentence, without my
knowledge, for more than a week before she died.

    S. F. C. BUTE AND DUMFRIES.

  Largo House, Fife, July 30. 1851.


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Inscription on an old Board_ (Vol. iii., p. 240.).--I would suggest
that the 31st chapter of Genesis may solve this riddle. We have in the
latter part of that chapter the account of a covenant entered into
between Jacob and Laban, and we are there told that a pillar was erected
as a witness between them of this covenant; Jacob calling it Galeed,
also Mizpah. May not the inscription on the board be a token of some
covenant of the same kind; and may it not have been placed on a pillar,
or on some conspicuous place on the exterior of the house, or over the
mantel in some room of the house (this latter being suggested in the
article describing the board)? If I am correct, the name of the person
who did "indite" the inscription should be one which, if not spelt
exactly like Galeed or Mizpah, would in sound resemble the one or the
other.

    H. H. B.

  Monte Cavallo, South Carolina.

_Churches decorated at Christmas_ (Vol. iii., p. 118.).--In the
Episcopal churches of our country this custom is religiously observed;
the foliage of the holly, cedar, and pine being chiefly used for this
purpose at the south, together with artificial flowers. At Easter also
most of the _same_ churches are decorated, though some are not; and at
that season natural flowers are also used for the purpose, mingled with
the evergreen foliage of the trees mentioned above.

    H. H. B.

  Monte Cavallo, South Carolina.

_Royal Library_ (Vol. iv., p. 69.).--The letter addressed by King George
IV. to the Earl of Liverpool, referred to in the above page, will be
found in the _Gentleman's Magazine_ for February, 1823, page 161. It is
dated from the Pavilion, Brighton, on the 15th of the preceding month.

The Committee, in their Parliamentary Report, state that the king had
accompanied his munificent _donation_ of this library to the public,
"with the _gift_ of a valuable selection of coins and medals;" and they
close their Report in the following words:

  "The Committee would not do justice to the sentiments with which
  they are affected, if they failed to express in the strongest
  terms the gratitude they feel, in common with the nation, _for the
  act of munificent liberality_ which has brought this subject under
  their consideration, and for the disposition which is so strongly
  evinced by that act, on the part of his Majesty, of promoting, by
  the best means, the science and literature of the country."

Would all this have been said, if the value of the library, in "pounds
sterling" was, as has been alleged, to be made good by the country to
its late owner?

When urging that this library, containing about 65,000 volumes, might
have been preserved at Whitehall, or in some other part of Westminster,
as a _distinct_ collection, it may be stated, that on its removal to the
Museum, 21,000 duplicates were found in the united libraries, but that
"it was not considered advisable _to part with more_ than 12,000; which
should be taken from books in the Museum." Why should not the Museum
have _retained_ its duplicates, leaving those in the royal library for
the benefit of readers in another part of the metropolis? Was the
expense of a separate establishment the great obstacle?

    J. H. M.

_Proof of a Sword_ (vol. iv., p. 39.).--ENSIS asks, "What is the usual
test of a good blade?" The proof by striking on the surface of smooth
water, is not uncommon in India; though, in my opinion, it is a very
inefficient one, and there is no doubt that "the Toledo blades in the
Crystal Palace" would stand it as well as any others of moderate
goodness. "The Toledo blades that _roll_ up in a circle" can be as
easily made in England as in Spain, but they are useless toys: there is
an English one in the Exhibition, Class viii., Case 200., which fits
into the circular Toledo scabbard placed above it; but they are only
curious to the uninitiated. What, then, is an efficient proof? I reply,
first strike the flat side of the blade on an iron table (by means of a
machine) with a force of 300 to 400 lbs., and then on the edge and back
over a round piece of hard wood with a force of 400 to 500 lbs.: after
which thrust the point as hard as possible against a thick iron plate
and through a cuirass, without turning or breaking it, and bend so as to
reduce the length in the proportion of about one inch and a half to a
foot. When thus proved, a sword may be relied on, and the operation may
be seen every day at 27. Pall Mall.

    HENRY WILKINSON.

_Dr. Young's "Narcissa"_ (Vol. iv., p. 22.).--In reply to W. F. S. of
Surbiton it appears, from the most authentic biographical accounts of
Dr. Young, that he had not any daughters, and only one son; and that the
Narcissa of the _Night Thoughts_ was a daughter of his wife (Lady
Elizabeth Lee), by her former husband, Colonel Lee. The writer in the
_Evangelical Magazine_ must therefore have written in ignorance of these
facts when he termed Narcissa Dr. Young's daughter: or he may have
spoken, in a loose way, of the daughter-in-law as the daughter.

    J. M.

_Circulation of the Blood_ (Vol. ii., p. 475.).--Having recently had
occasion to look into the works of Bede, I have found, in lib. iv., _De
Elementis Philosophiæ_, the passage which was the subject of my Query.
Though not strictly in accordance with the established fact of the
circulation of the blood, it will yet be allowed to be a near
approximation to it. It is as follows:--

  "Sanguine in epate generato, per venas ad omnia transit membra,
  calore quorum digestus, in eorum similitudinem transit:
  superfluitas, vero, partim per sudorem exit, alia vero pars ad
  epar revertitur, ibi decocta cum urina exit descendens, sedimenque
  vocatur; sed si in fundo sit urinæ dicitur hypostasis; si in
  medio, eneortim: si in summo nephile."--_Bedæ Opera_, vol. ii. p.
  339., ed. Basiliæ, MDLXIII.

    J. MN.

_Dr. Elrington's Edition of Ussher_ (Vol. iii., p. 496.; Vol. iv., p.
10.).--There is still some obscurity about the publication of the
remaining volumes of this important work, notwithstanding DR. TODD'S
prompt communication on the subject. He speaks of the 14th volume half
printed off, and asks for information which may assist him in completing
it; and then announces that highly desirable addition, viz. an Index,
which is to form the 17th volume; but of the projected contents of vols.
xv. and xvi., he says nothing.[5]

  [Footnote 5: Vols. xv. and xvi., consisting of Letters to and from
  Archbishop Ussher, were published early in 1849.]

In spite of Dr. Elrington's rejection of the _Body of Divinity_ (which
is doubtless what DR. TODD refers to under the name of the _System of
Theology_), I would still venture to plead for at least an uniform
edition of it; for there is surely much force in the testimony of Dr. N.
Bernard (as quoted by Mr. Goode), that, whilst the Archbishop was
"indeed displeased at the publishing of it, without his knowledge, but
hearing of some good fruit which hath been reaped by it, he hath
_permitted it_."

  "Several other editions, therefore," (Mr. Goode adds) "were
  published in his lifetime; and being thus published with his
  _permission_, must of course be considered as in all important
  points of doctrine representing his views."--_Effects of Infant
  Baptism_, pp. 312, 313.

Possibly some of your correspondents might be able to throw light on
this point.

It will scarcely be travelling out of the record to entreat that the
Index may be printed on anything but the dazzling milled paper, which
everybody I should think must detest.

    C. W. B.

_Was Stella Swift's Sister?_ (Vol. iii., p. 450.).--J. H. S. will find
this question raised in the _The closing Years of Dean Swift's Life_, by
W. R. Wilde, M.R.I.A.:--

  "That Stella was the daughter of Sir Wm. Temple appears more than
  probable; but that Swift was his son, and consequently her half
  brother, remains to be proved. It has, it is true, been often
  surmised, from the date of Orrery's book to the present time, but
  we cannot discover in the supposition anything but vague
  conjecture."

Mr. Wilde, however, proceeds to quote in favour of the opinion from an
article in _The Gentleman's and London Magazine_, pp. 555. to 560.,
Dublin. Printed for John Exshaw, Nov. 1757.

It is signed _C. M. P. G. N. S. T. N. S._

    †

_The Mistletoe_ (Vol. ii., pp. 163. 214.).--The mistletoe is common on
almost every tree of our Southern forests; it is abundant on all the
varieties of the oak, and grows most luxuriously on the trees near our
watercourses. I have seen some of our deciduous trees looking almost as
green in winter as when clothed in their own foliage in summer, in
consequence of the quantity of mistletoe growing upon them.

    H. H. B.

  Monte Cavallo, South Carolina.

_Family of Kyme_ (Vol. iv., p. 23.).--The match of Kyme with Cicely,
second daughter of Edward the Fourth, and widow of John, Lord Welles,
is mentioned by Anderson, Yorke, Brooke, and Vincent; but these writers
agree that she had no issue by this marriage.

BOLD is probably aware that there are a few descents of the family of
Kyme of Stickford, coming down to the latter end of the sixteenth
century, to be found in a "Visitation of Lincolnshire," Harl. MS. No.
1550., fo. 60. b.

The following notice of some supposed descendants of the ancient family
of Kyme, is given in Thompson's _History of Boston_, 4to. Lond. 1820,
pp. 173. to 176.:

  "Richmond Rochford, or Kyme Tower.

  "At what time this estate passed from the Kyme family has not been
  ascertained: it fell into the hands of the crown by sequestration,
  in consequence of some political transgression of its owner, and
  is now the property of the Dean and Chapter of Westminster. The
  descendants of the ancient owners, however, continued to occupy
  the estate as tenants, until 1816.[6]

    [Footnote 6: Adlard Kyme was tenant 1709.]

  "The tower is situated about two miles east of Boston.... An old
  house adjoining the Tower was taken down a few years since: in
  this house were several old portraits, said to be of the Kyme
  family: there were also three coats of arms, with different
  bearings, but with this same motto: 'In cruce nostra salus.'"

If BOLD will communicate his address to the editor of "NOTES AND
QUERIES," I will with much pleasure forward to him some further
information respecting the descendants of the Kymes of Kyme Tower.

    LLEWELLYN.

_The Leman Baronetcy_ (Vol. iv., p. 58.).--In answer to your
correspondent H. M., I beg to state that Sir Edward Leman, Baronet,
resides at Nottingham. He tried his right as to the baronetcy at the
Canongate Court in Edinburgh, in the year 1842, and was gazetted as the
legal baronet and rightful descendant of Sir Tanfeild Leman, who
succeeded Sir William Lenten of Northaw. I have the original gazette and
a certified court copy of the proceedings on the occasion, which I shall
be happy to show your correspondent, with all other information and
papers relative to the Leman family, if he will favour me with his
address.

    J. R.

  39. Windmill Street, Haymarket.

_Cure for Ague_ (Vol. iv., p. 53.).--The benefit derived by your
correspondent E. S. TAYLOR from the snuff of a candle, was owing to the
minute quantity of creosote contained in each dose. Dr. Elliotson tried
the same nauseous remedy with partial success at St. Thomas's Hospital,
some years since.

    J. N. T.



Miscellaneous.


BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES

WANTED TO PURCHASE.

BUDDEN'S LIFE OF ARCHBISHOP MORTON, 1607.

THOMAS LYTE'S ANCIENT BALLADS AND SONGS. 12mo. 1827.

DODWELL (HENRY, M.A.), DISCOURSE PROVING FROM SCRIPTURES THAT THE SOUL
IS A PRINCIPLE NATURALLY MORTAL, &c.

REFLECTIONS ON MR. BURCHET'S MEMOIRS; or, Remarks on his Account of
Captain Wilmot's Expedition to the West Indies, by Colonel Luke
Lillingston, 1704.

GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE. Vol. I. 1731.

NEW ENGLAND JUDGED, NOT BY MAN'S BUT BY THE SPIRIT OF THE LORD, &c. By
George Bishope. 1661. 4to. Wanted from p. 150. to the end.

REASON AND JUDGMENT, OR SPECIAL REMARQUES OF THE LIFE OF THE RENOWNED
DR. SANDERSON, LATE LORD BISHOP OF LINCOLN. 1663. Sm. 4to. Wanted from
p. 90. to the end.

TRISTRAM SHANDY. 12mo. Tenth Edition. Wanted Vol. VII.

MALLAY, ESSAI SUR LES EGLISES ROMAINES ET BYZANTINES DU PUY DE DOME. 1
Vol. folio. 51 Plates.

AN ACCOUNT OF THE REMAINS OF THE WORSHIP OF PRIAPUS, to which is added a
Discourse thereon, as connected with the Mystic Theology of the
Ancients. London, 1786. 4to. By R. Payne Knight.

CH. THILLON'S (Professor of Halle) NOUVELLE COLLECTION DES APOCRYPHES,
AUGMENTÉ, &c. Leipsic, 1832.

COURS DE PHILOSOPHIE POSITIVE, par Auguste Compte. 6 Vols. 8vo.

SOCIAL STATICS, by Herbert Spencer. 8vo.

THE JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE. The back numbers.

THE DAPHNIS AND CHLOE OF LONGUS, translated by _Amyot_ (French).

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA. The part of the 7th edition edited by Prof.
Napier, containing the Art. MORTALITY.

OBSERVATIONS ON THE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE ON HEALTH AND MORTALITY, by
Arthur S. Thomson, M.D. (A Prize Thesis.)

REPORT ON THE BENGAL MILITARY FUND, by F. G. P. Neison. Published in
1849.

THREE REPORTS, by Mr. Griffith Davies, Actuary to the _Guardian_, viz.:

      Report on the Bombay Civil Fund, published 1836.
      ---- ---- ---- Bengal Medical Retiring Fund, published 1839.
      ---- ---- ---- Bengal Military Fund, published 1844.

OBSERVATIONS ON THE MORTALITY AND PHYSICAL MANAGEMENT OF CHILDREN, by
Mr. Roberton, Surgeon, London, 1827.

  [Star symbol] Letters, stating particulars and lowest price,
  _carriage free_, to be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND
  QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.


Notices to Correspondents.

_We are this week unavoidably compelled to request the indulgence of our
readers for the omission of our usual_ Notes on Books, Sales,
Catalogues, &c., _and our acknowledgment of_ Replies Received.

NOTES AND QUERIES IN AMERICA. _Our present Number contains several
communications from America. The gratification which we experienced in
receiving in these communications proof of our increasing circulation,
and consequently of our extended usefulness, was greatly increased by
the kind manner in which our Transatlantic brethren expressed themselves
(in the private notes which they addressed to us) as to the favourable
manner in which our paper has been received in the United States. To be
the means of promoting in any degree increased intercommunication
between the different members of the great literary brotherhood of
England and America is surely a matter of which we may justly feel
proud._

E. S. T. _We fully agree in the propriety of the suggestion so kindly
made by our correspondent, and should be glad to see it carried out--but
we fear it is quite impracticable._

_Copies of our_ Prospectus, _according to the suggestion of_ T. E. H.,
_will be forwarded to any correspondent willing to assist us by
circulating them._

VOLS. I., II., _and_ III., _with very copious Indices, may still be had,
price 9s. 6d. each, neatly bound in cloth._

NOTES AND QUERIES _is published at noon on Friday, so that our country
Subscribers may receive it on Saturday. The subscription for the Stamped
Edition is 10s. 2d. for Six Months, which may be paid by
Post-office Order drawn in favour of our Publisher,_ MR. GEORGE BELL,
186. Fleet Street; _to whose care all communications for the Editor
should be addressed._



SOCIETY OF ARTS, ADELPHI, LONDON.--PHILOSOPHICAL TREATISES on the
various Departments of the GREAT EXHIBITION, which shall set forth the
peculiar Advantages to be derived from each by the Arts, Manufactures,
and Commerce of the Country.

  The Council offer, in the name of the Society, the large MEDAL and
  25_l._ for the best, and the Society's small Medal and 10_l._ for
  the second best, Treatise on the Objects exhibited in the Section
  of Raw Materials and Produce.

  A large Medal and 25_l._ for the best, and a small Medal and
  10_l._ for the second best, Treatise on the Objects exhibited in
  the Section of Machinery.

  A large Medal and 25_l._ for the best, and a small Medal and
  10_l._ for the second best, Treatise on the Objects exhibited in
  the Section of Manufactures.

  A large Medal and 25_l._ for the best, and a small Medal and
  10_l._ for the second best, Treatise on the Objects exhibited in
  the Section of Fine Arts.

  Each Treatise must occupy, as nearly as possible, eighty pages of
  the size of the Bridgwater Treatises.

  The Society will also award its large Medal and 25 guineas for the
  best General Treatise upon the Exhibition, treated Commercially,
  Politically, and Statistically; and small Medals for the best
  Treatises on any Special Object or Class of Objects exhibited.

  The successful Treatises are to be the Property of the Society;
  and should the Council see fit, they will cause the same to be
  printed and published, awarding to the Author the net amount of
  any profit which may arise from the publication after the payment
  of the expenses.

  The Competing Treatises are to be written on foolscap paper,
  signed with a motto in the usual manner, and delivered at the
  Society's House on or before the THIRTIETH OF NOVEMBER, 1851,
  addressed to George Grove, Esq., Secretary, from whom additional
  particulars may be learned.

      By order of the Council,
      GEORGE GROVE, Sec.
      Adelphi, June 1. 1851.


THE PRIMÆVAL ANTIQUITIES OF ENGLAND ILLUSTRATED BY THOSE OF DENMARK.

  THE PRIMÆVAL ANTIQUITIES OF DENMARK.

  By J. J. A. WORSAAE, Member of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of
  Copenhagen. Translated and applied to the illustration of similar
  Remains in England, by WILLIAM J. THOMS, F. S. A., Secretary of
  the Camden Society. With numerous Woodcuts. 8vo. 10_s._ 6_d._

    "The best antiquarian handbook we have ever met with--so clear is
    its arrangement, and so well and so plainly is each subject
    illustrated by well-executed engravings.... It is the joint
    production of two men who have already distinguished themselves as
    authors and antiquarians."--_Morning Herald._

    "A book of remarkable interest and ability.... Mr. Worsaae's book
    is in all ways a valuable addition to our literature.... Mr. Thoms
    has executed the translation in flowing and idiomatic English, and
    has appended many curious and interesting notes and observations
    of his own."--_Guardian._

    "The work, which we desire to commend to the attention of our
    readers, is signally interesting to the British antiquary. Highly
    interesting and important work."--_Archæological Journal._

  See also the _Gentleman's Magazine_ for February 1850.

  Oxford: JOHN HENRY PARKER, and 337. Strand, London.


Now ready, Price 25_s._, Second Edition, revised and corrected.

      Dedicated by Special Permission to
      THE (LATE) ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY.

  PSALMS AND HYMNS FOR THE SERVICE OF THE CHURCH. The words selected
  by the Very Rev. H. H. MILMAN, D.D., Dean of St. Paul's. The Music
  arranged for Four Voices, but applicable also to Two or One,
  including Chants for the Services, Responses to the Commandments,
  and a Concise SYSTEM OF CHANTING, by J. B. SALE, Musical
  instructor and Organist to Her Majesty. 4to., neat, in morocco
  cloth, price 25_s._ To be had of Mr. J. B. SALE, 21. Holywell
  Street, Millbank, Westminster, on the receipt of a Post Office
  Order for that amount; and, by order, of the principal Booksellers
  and Music Warehouses.

    "A great advance on the works we have hitherto had, connected
    with our Church and Cathedral Service."--_Times._

    "A collection of Psalm Tunes certainly unequalled in this
    country."--_Literary Gazette._

    "One of the best collections of tunes which we have yet seen.
    Well merits the distinguished patronage under which it
    appears."--_Musical World._

    "A collection of Psalms and Hymns, together with a system of
    Chanting of a very superior character to any which has hitherto
    appeared."--_John Bull._

  Also, lately published,

  J. B. SALE'S SANCTUS, COMMANDMENTS and CHANTS as performed at the
  Chapel Royal St. James, price 2_s._

  C. LONSDALE, 26. Old Bond Street.


Just published,

  GOTHIC ORNAMENTS. By J. K. COLLING, Architect. In 2 vols. royal
  4to., price 7_l._ 10_s._, in appropriate cloth binding, containing
  209 Plates, nearly 50 of which illustrate the existing finely
  painted and gilt decorations of the Cathedrals and Churches of the
  Middle Ages. The work may be also had in numbers, price 3_s._, or
  in parts, together or separately.

    "The completion of this elaborate work affords us an opportunity
    of doing justice to its great merits. It was necessary to the
    appreciation of the characteristics and the beauties of Gothic
    architecture, that some more extensive series of illustrations
    should be given to the world. Until the appearance of this work,
    that of Pugin was the only one of any importance and
    accuracy."--_Architectural Quarterly Review._

    "'The Gothic Ornaments' constitutes a gorgeous work, illustrated
    by gold and colour, giving correct ideas of the magnificence of
    the original examples, of which the unilluminated works afford but
    a scanty conception."--_Civil Engineer and Architect's Journal._

  London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.


CUTTINGS FROM OLD NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES.

  For disposal, price Two Guineas, a very entertaining Collection of
  rare OLD NEWSPAPER AND MAGAZINE CUTTINGS, curious Exhibition
  Bills, Prints, &c., relating to Kentish Town, Camden Town, Somers'
  Town, and other parts of ST. PANCRAS, and appropriate to
  illustrate Wiswould and Ingpen's projected history of that highly
  interesting parish.

  Also numerous old newspaper Cuttings, Prints, ancient Handbills,
  &c., illustrative of the history of Fleet Street, Holborn Hill,
  and various other parts of the WARD OF FARRINGDON WITHOUT. Price
  Two Guineas.

  Collections relating to all the English Counties, to Remarkable
  Events, and to Celebrated Characters, are likewise for disposal.

  Apply to MR. FENNELL, 1. Warwick Court, Gray's Inn.

  N. B. All the Cuttings are carefully dated.


Just published,

  THE CATALOGUE OF A CHOICE AND VALUABLE COLLECTION OF RARE AND
  CURIOUS BOOKS, forming part of the extensive stock of F. BUTSCH,
  at Augsburg, and comprising many unrivalled specimens of early
  Typography, first editions of the Greek and Roman Classics; rare
  Bibles; books printed upon vellum; works with woodcuts; early
  Voyages and Travels; old Romances and popular Tales in all
  languages; Ballads in form of broadsheets: original Pamphlets of
  the Reformers; works on Music; Autograph Manuscripts of eminent
  Musicians; an almost unknown Bull of Pius II., printed by Fust and
  Schoffer in the year 1461, &c. &c.

  Can be had GRATIS (or postage free for six stamps) of D. NUTT,
  270. Strand, London.


THE TRAVELLER'S JOY. Published in Five Sections, each Section being
perfect in itself, in handsome cloth binding, 1_s._ each.

  "The description appear to contain all that is necessary to point
  out, in a satisfactory manner, the peculiar interest, historical
  or otherwise, of each locality, without being overburdened with
  the superfluous details usually dragged in to swell the volume of
  local guide-books; and the style in which they are written is, in
  spirit and adaptation to the large and mixed class to which they
  are addressed, inferior to none of Mr. Knight's popular
  publications."--_The Times_, June 25, 1851.

  London: CHARLES KNIGHT, 90. Fleet Street.


Just published, with Twelve Engravings, and Seven Woodcuts, royal 8vo.
10_s._, cloth,

  THE SEVEN PERIODS OF ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE DEFINED AND ILLUSTRATED.
  An Elementary Work, affording at a single glance a comprehensive
  view of the History of English Architecture, from the Heptarchy to
  the Reformation. By EDMUND SHARPE, M.A., Architect.

    "Mr. Sharpe's reasons for advocating changes in the nomenclature
    of Rickman are worthy of attention, coming from an author who has
    entered very deeply into the analysis of Gothic architecture, and
    who has, in his 'Architectural Parallels,' followed a method of
    demonstration which has the highest possible
    value."--_Architectural Quarterly Review._

    "The author of one of the noblest architectural works of modern
    times. His 'Architectural Parallels' are worthy of the best days
    of art, and show care and knowledge of no common kind. All his
    lesser works have been marked in their degree by the same careful
    and honest spirit. His attempt to discriminate our architecture
    into periods and assign to it a new nomenclature, is therefore
    entitled to considerable respect."--_Guardian._

  London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.



Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, August 9. 1851.



      [List of volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries", Vol. I-IV]

      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. I.                                   |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. II.                                  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1- 15 | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17- 32 | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33- 48 | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49- 64 | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65- 79 | PG # 22126  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81- 96 | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. III.                                 |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |   1- 15 | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  |  17- 31 | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  |  33- 47 | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  |  49- 78 | PG # 15641  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 |  81- 95 | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 |  97-111 | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-440 | PG # 36835  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 84 | June  7, 1851     | 441-472 | PG # 37379  |
      | Vol. III No. 85 | June 14, 1851     | 473-488 | PG # 37403  |
      | Vol. III No. 86 | June 21, 1851     | 489-511 | PG # 37496  |
      | Vol. III No. 87 | June 28, 1851     | 513-528 | PG # 37516  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. IV.                                  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 88  | July  5, 1851     |   1- 15 | PG # 37548  |
      | Vol. IV No. 89  | July 12, 1851     |  17- 31 | PG # 37568  |
      | Vol. IV No. 90  | July 19, 1851     |  33- 47 | PG # 37593  |
      | Vol. IV No. 91  | July 26, 1851     |  49- 79 | PG # 37778  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 92  | August  2, 1851   |  81- 94 | PG # 38324  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]            | PG # 13536  |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850    | PG # 13571  |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851    | PG # 26770  |
      +-----------------------------------------------+-------------+





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