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Title: Peeps at Postage Stamps
Author: Johnson, Stanley Currie
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Peeps at Postage Stamps" ***

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[Illustration: PORTRAITS OF KING GEORGE V]



 PEEPS AT

 POSTAGE STAMPS

 [Illustration]

 BY

 STANLEY C. JOHNSON

 M.A., D.Sc., F.R.E.S.


 WITH
 SIXTEEN FULL-PAGE PLATES
 CONTAINING 163 SPECIMEN STAMPS
 IN BLACK AND WHITE


 A. & C. BLACK, LTD.

 4, 5 & 6 SOHO SQUARE, LONDON, W.
   1915



 OTHER VOLUMES IN THE PEEPS SERIES

 PEEPS AT MANY LANDS
 AND CITIES  57 Vols.

 PEEPS AT NATURE 12 Vols.

 PEEPS AT HISTORY  9 Vols.

 PEEPS AT GREAT RAILWAYS
 5 Vols.

 PEEPS AT MISCELLANEOUS
 SUBJECTS  14 Vols.
 Heraldry; The Heavens; British
 Army; Royal Navy, etc.

 PUBLISHED BY A. & C. BLACK, LTD.
 4, 5 & 6 SOHO SQUARE, LONDON, W.


 AGENTS

 AMERICA       THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
               64 & 66 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK

 AUSTRALASIA   OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
               205 FLINDERS LANE, MELBOURNE

 CANADA        THE MACMILLAN COMPANY OF CANADA, LTD.
               ST. MARTIN'S HOUSE, 70 BOND STREET, TORONTO

 INDIA         MACMILLAN & COMPANY, LTD.
               MACMILLAN BUILDING, BOMBAY
               309 BOW BAZAAR STREET, CALCUTTA



 CONTENTS


 CHAPTER                                PAGE

 INTRODUCTION                              1

    I. PHILATELIC TERMS EXPLAINED          2

   II. HOW TO FORM A STAMP COLLECTION      5

  III. SPECIALIZING                       18

   IV. THE STAMPS OF GREAT BRITAIN        27

    V. STAMPS WORTH FORTUNES              37

   VI. COMMON STAMPS                      42

  VII. STAMPS OF SPECIAL INTEREST         46

 VIII. FORGED STAMPS                      52

   IX. PIONEERS OF POSTAGE                59

    X. COMMEMORATIVE STAMPS               64

   XI. INTERESTING PICTURE STAMPS         72

  XII. STAMPS AND HISTORY                 77

 XIII. WAR STAMPS                         82

  XIV. SOME FAMOUS COLLECTIONS            88



 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


 1. PORTRAITS OF KING GEORGE V.                    _Frontispiece_

                                                      FACING PAGE

 2. OVERPRINTED STAMPS                                          8

 3. SOME MEMBERS OF OUR ROYAL FAMILY                           17

 4. POSTAGE STAMPS HAVING SPECIAL USES                         24

 5. SPECIMEN STAMPS                                            27

 6. SOME PENNY STAMPS OF GREAT BRITAIN                         30

 7. PORTRAITS OF SOME EUROPEAN MONARCHS                        41

 8. CURIOUS STAMPS                                             48

 9. STAMPS BEARING NATIONAL EMBLEMS                            57

 10. NOTED STATESMEN OF THE U.S.A.                             64

 11. SOME VIEW STAMPS                                          73

 12. ZOOLOGICAL STAMPS                                         80

 13. SOME HAPSBURG PORTRAITS                                   83

 14. STAMPS FROM THE GREAT WAR ZONE                            85

 15. STAMPS COMING FROM COUNTRIES WHICH NO LONGER
 HAVE SEPARATE ISSUES                                          88

 16. COMMEMORATIVE STAMPS                                      90


     [NOTE.--The other volumes in the "Peeps" Series, with few
     exceptions, contain coloured illustrations; but, in order to
     conform with the regulations of the Inland Revenue authorities, the
     pictures in the present volume are necessarily printed in black.]



POSTAGE STAMPS



INTRODUCTION


Every boy and girl--and, we might add, man and woman--should collect
stamps. Our reasons for making this statement are many.

First, stamp-collecting is a highly fascinating pursuit, which helps to
while away countless pleasant hours. On this score alone it is worth
following.

Secondly, it encourages methodical habits. We examine our stamps
carefully, we discriminate between the good and the bad specimens, we
keep a watch for minor varieties, we marshal our treasures in correct
order, and so on.

Thirdly, a vast amount of geography is learnt by collecting. The stamps
bring all sorts of out-of-the-way countries to our notice, whilst the
postmarks make us conversant with various towns.

Fourthly, we get to know of hundreds of interesting facts concerning the
currency and language used in every corner of the globe. The
inscriptions on the specimens teach us these matters.

Fifthly, stamp-collecting assists us to gain a real knowledge of
history. Ask any collector when Columbus discovered America? Who was
Prince Henry the Navigator? Over what country did King Amadeus reign?
What form of government is possessed by Paraguay? His answers will be
far more intelligent than those given by a non-collector.

But the foregoing are not the only matters which our stamps teach us.
What is the difference between an engraving and a lithograph, between
cream-laid paper and wove paper, between magenta and cerise? These and a
thousand other questions the stamp collector can answer correctly and
without hesitation.

Surely a pastime which can help us to gain so much valuable knowledge is
worth the attention of every boy and girl, as well as man and woman.



CHAPTER I

PHILATELIC TERMS EXPLAINED


ADHESIVE.--A stamp which is kept in position by moistening the gummed
under-surface. Most stamps are adhesives. Postcards, envelopes, and
wrappers which have the stamp printed on them, are not adhesives.

BLOCK.--A number of stamps not torn apart. A strip of stamps and a
number of stamps forming an odd shape are, however, not considered as
blocks.

CHALK-SURFACE.--A surface given to stamps by means of a preparation of
chalk, in order that obliterations may not be cleaned out.

COMMEMORATIVE STAMPS.--Stamps issued to remind people of bygone events.

CONTROL LETTERS.--Letters on the margin paper of sheets of stamps, for
official purposes of control.

ENTIRE.--A postcard, wrapper, or envelope complete as it has passed or
would pass through the post--_i.e._, not the stamp cut from it.

ERROR.--A stamp which contains some faulty workmanship, of whatever
kind.

FACSIMILE.--See Forgery.

FORGERY.--An unofficial stamp, one made in order to cheat. In cases
where a real stamp is given an unauthorized overprint (which see), the
stamp constitutes a forgery.

HINGES.--The papers gummed on one surface used for fixing stamps to the
album.

IMPERFORATE.--Stamps that are not provided with perforated margins to
facilitate separation.

LABEL.--Another name for a stamp.

LOCAL STAMPS.--Stamps which are available for use in some town or
special area. There are none in England at the present time. Russia and
Morocco are probably the only areas where they still exist, though
Switzerland, Turkey, Germany, China, and the United States recognized
them until within recent years.

MINT.--A term applied to an unused stamp in perfect condition, including
the gum on the back.

MOUNTS.--See Hinges.

OBLITERATION.--Marks placed on a stamp by the authorities to denote that
it has gone through the post.

OBSOLETE.--A stamp that is no longer issued by the postal authorities.

OFFICIAL STAMPS.--Those printed for use in Government offices--_i.e._,
the obsolete Inland Revenue officials of Great Britain.

OVERPRINT.--An inscription printed on the face of a stamp to alter in
some way its original use.

PERFORATED.--A frame of small holes around a stamp made in order to
facilitate separation from its neighbour.

PERFORATION, COMPOUND.--Exists when the holes are not of the same size
and distance apart around the four sides of a stamp.

PERFORATION GAUGE.--An instrument for measuring the perforations of a
stamp. Usual cost about 6d.

PHILATELIST.--Not merely a stamp collector, but one who "loves" ([Greek: philos=a lover) his stamps.

PLATE NUMBERS.--Usually spoken of in connection with the line-engraved
stamps of Great Britain. They serve to indicate the plate from which any
particular stamp was printed.

PROVISIONALS.--Stamps which are intended for temporary use whilst a
permanent issue is being prepared.

REMAINDERS.--Genuine stamps left over after the particular issue has
become obsolete. There is no objection to remainders as there is to
reprints.

REPRINTS.--Stamps printed from dies after they have become obsolete.
Many countries sell their obsolete dies, with the result that more or
less inaccurate reprints are made from them. Reprints, for philatelic
purposes, should be classed with forgeries.

ROULETTED.--The presence of a frame of small slits around a stamp in
order to facilitate separation from its neighbour.

SPECULATIVE STAMPS.--Postage stamps issued by an unscrupulous Government
for philatelic, rather than postal, purposes.

STRIP OF STAMPS.--A row of stamps joined together (compare Block).

SURCHARGE.--An overprint placed on a stamp to alter its face value.

VARIETY.--A term to describe a stamp that differs from another in some
slight way.

WATERMARK.--A thinning of the paper on which a stamp is printed so as to
create a distinctive design.



CHAPTER II

HOW TO FORM A STAMP COLLECTION


Most philatelists drift into stamp-collecting--that is to say, the start
is made unconsciously, and without any definite planning. Probably the
first specimens are obtained through the generosity of a friend who
possesses a few duplicates, or may be the letters coming regularly from
a relative living in some remote part of the world supply the earliest
treasures. But however the beginning is made, progress will be slow
unless friends are very generous or a little money is spent on buying
sufficient specimens to make a fair start. In the ordinary course, the
collector will be wise if he spends a few shillings on buying a packet
of the commoner stamps which form the basis of all collections.

The packet should cost as much as the beginner can reasonably afford,
and be composed of different stamps--that is to say, without containing
any duplicates. If four or five shillings are to be invested, as many as
four hundred varieties may be expected, whilst a thousand varieties will
usually cost about half a guinea.

Armed with such a nucleus as this, the fascinations of the pastime begin
to make themselves evident. Duplicates will quickly accumulate, and
serve to form the basis of exchanges amongst friends. Approval sheets
will invariably come to hand from dealers, and permit of additional
specimens being secured at a very cheap rate; whilst attractive bargains
will be obtained, from time to time, through the medium of
advertisements in newspapers and magazines.

But the reader may argue that stamp-collecting is a costly pastime if
every specimen must be bought. In practice it is anything but an
expensive hobby. If the writer were to sell his collection, he would
obtain about three or four times the amount he spent on forming it. The
reason for this lies in the fact that stamps seldom lose their value,
but frequently rise in price.

When a hundred or more varieties have accumulated, an album should be
procured. These may be obtained at all prices and in a bewildering
variety of patterns. Too often the young philatelist provides himself
with a voluminous album in which his tiny but growing collection appears
as a drop of water in the ocean. It is far better to buy a small, cheap
album which may serve as a temporary home until the treasures have grown
sufficiently numerous to warrant a more expensive one.

Many collectors prefer to house their stamps in a scrap-book containing
a number of fairly stout, smooth, blank leaves. In such a book as this
we are free to arrange the stamps just as fancy dictates; we can place
them close together or far apart, and we can reserve as many or as few
pages as seems desirable for each individual country. The writer's
collection is contained in two books of this description. Great Britain
fills the first fifteen pages, and the Colonies follow in alphabetical
order in the first volume. In the second volume the foreign countries
are set out in the order in which their Governments first issued
stamps--_i.e._, Brazil comes first, then the United States, then France,
Belgium, Bavaria, Spain, etc. This is, of course, a somewhat unusual
plan to follow, but it certainly has advantages.

Whilst speaking of albums, it will be well to point out that stamps
should never be fixed to more than one side of a page. If both faces are
used, the stamps will rub against each other and also catch one with
another.

Before the specimens are placed in the album, each should be carefully
examined, and cleaned, if necessary. When paper is adhering to the
backs, it should be removed. This unsticking process is easily performed
when the specimen is immersed in a bowl of hot water, but,
unfortunately, many stamps will be utterly ruined if even a trace of
moisture is allowed to come in contact with their colours. No rule can
be given as to which stamps spoil and which do not when treated with a
hot bath, but it is safe to say that valuable specimens suffer
considerably, whilst common varieties emerge from the ordeal unscathed.
Perhaps this is just a matter of natural contrariness.

To be on the safe side, however, no stamp should be plunged into hot
water. Cheap varieties may well be floated on the surface of warm water,
but the rarer kinds must not be subjected to even this treatment; they
should be placed face upwards on a sheet of wet blotting-paper, and left
until the adhering paper can be peeled off without an effort. After the
under-surface of a stamp has been cleaned, it should be pressed between
two sheets of dry blotting-paper and carefully dried. If it seems liable
to cockle or is creased in any way, it is a good plan to flatten it out
by means of a warm, though not hot, iron, the stamp being protected by
three or four thicknesses of white blotting-paper.

Fixing the stamps to the album is the next operation. On no account
should the under-surface be gummed all over and the whole stamp stuck
down to the page of the hook. The collection will need constant
rearranging, certain specimens will have to make way for more perfect
copies, and so on; this will be quite impossible unless hinges are used.
These contrivances are thin but tough pieces of paper, approximately one
by three-quarters of an inch in size, and gummed on one surface. They
cost about sixpence per thousand.

[Illustration: OVERPRINTED STAMPS

  1 Indian stamp used by Chinese Expeditionary Force
  2 Great Britain: Army Official
  3 India: On Her Majesty's Service
  4 Indian stamp used in Patiala
  5 North Borneo stamp used after institution of British Protectorate
  6 Indian stamp of 1/2 anna converted to 1/4 anna
  7 Great Britain: Inland Revenue
  8 Bulgaria: Change of value
  9 Bermuda 1s. value converted to 1/4 d.
 10 Portugal stamp surcharged "Republic"]

When a stamp is to be fixed to the album, a gummed strip is taken and
folded so that the adhesive side is turned outwards; one flap is then
moistened and stuck to the stamp and the other is moistened and stuck to
the page. The specimen is thus hinged to the album in such a way that
its underside can be inspected easily--a necessary matter when the
watermark or the quality of the paper requires examination. The hinge
should be fastened as high up on the back of the stamp as possible, but
not so high that it touches the perforated edge.

One little point needs mention. On no account should cheap hinges be
used or hinges made at home and fixed with ordinary gum. Unless the
adhesive is entirely free from acid--and ordinary or cheap gum is
not--the stamps will become discoloured and entirely ruined. The writer
laments to this day a fine set of old Queenslands which he fixed, many
years ago, by means of some cheap and nasty hinges. The stamps grow more
and more discoloured as time wears on, but the exasperating thing is
that good copies of these Australian treasures are now worth almost as
many pounds as they were pence in the days when the offending gum was
applied to their under-surface.

Some method must be adopted for the arrangement of the stamps in the
album. Beginners are apt to fix the specimens in no particular order,
merely one after the other as they come into their possession; but this
is clearly a wrong plan to follow. Either of the following methods is
worth adopting:


1. Sort out the stamps of each country according to the prices printed
on them, and then stick all the specimens of one value together, but in
order of age.

2. Sort out the stamps of each country according to their issues; then
arrange each set in the album, in ascending order of the values.

To follow either of these plans, we must know the date of issue of all
our specimens. This, of course, requires a certain amount of knowledge,
but information of such a kind comes with marvellous rapidity when once
the collector's interest has become fully aroused. As a guide, however,
a catalogue such as the one published by Messrs. Stanley Gibbons, Ltd.,
should be procured. The colour, pattern, watermark, approximate market
value and date of issue of every postage stamp may then be learnt with
certainty.

We must guard against cramping the specimens too closely together. In
order that our collection may grow naturally, space must be left for
additions which may reasonably be expected to fall into our possession.
Every distinct issue should be started on a fresh line, and room must be
allowed at the end of a country for future issues.

As to the stamps which ought and which ought not to be admitted into the
album, a great deal could be written. In the first case, it is well to
rule out every specimen which is not perfect in every detail. Torn
stamps are almost worthless--even though they may be copies of
rarities--and on no account should a place be found for them in the
collection. There is no need to throw them away or get rid of them; they
might well be allotted a home in a minor album. Not only torn stamps,
but copies which have lost two or three teeth of the perforated edge,
copies which have been heavily postmarked, copies which are dirty or
discoloured, and copies which have served for revenue and not for postal
purposes--all these should be kept out of the collection.

Concerning the stamps which have been cut out of entires--that is to
say, from postcards, letter-cards, wrappers, and impressed envelopes--a
difference of opinion exists among experts. Some say that they ought not
to be included, whilst others urge their inclusion. Without a doubt,
these stamps are interesting; and as they serve for purely postal uses,
there seems no reason why they should not be allowed a home in the
collection. Perhaps the collector should be advised not to seek after
specimens of this nature, but that is quite another thing to excluding
them rigorously.

There are many kinds of stamps which do not serve for franking letters
in the usual way, but as their functions are purely postal, a position
in the album should be awarded them. Among such stamps as these may be
mentioned the "Postage Due" issue which Great Britain put into use early
in 1914. These labels serve the purpose of indicating and at the same
time checking the fees which are levied on letters and parcels that have
been insufficiently prepaid. It is interesting to note, that though our
authorities have only issued stamps of this nature recently, foreign
countries have used them for close on half a century. Such stamps from
abroad may be recognized by the inscriptions which they bear--"A
Percevoir," "A Payer," "Te Betalen," "Deficit," "Segnatasse," "Too
Late," etc.

Another kind of stamp which should be accepted is the "Parcels Post"
label. Though we at home have no special labels for this particular
service, many Continental countries use them, notably Belgium and the
United States. Then there are the "Express Delivery" stamps of the
United States, Canada, Italy, etc. The purpose of these labels is
sufficiently explained by the wording on the United States stamp:
"Secures Immediate Delivery at any Post Office." A fourth stamp of
special usage is the newspaper stamp. Though many of our home railways
employ these labels, there are no Governmental varieties. Abroad,
however, we find a number of countries use them--the newspaper stamps of
Hungary and Spain being fairly common.

There is one kind of postage stamp, however, that should not be extended
a welcome in the usual way--we have in mind the specimens known as
"local" stamps. These special labels--they are mostly obsolete--came
chiefly from Germany, Russia, Switzerland, and China, and were used by
private companies which possessed certain postal privileges. As a rule
the operations of these bodies were carried out in small areas (hence
"local" stamps), usually in out-of-the-way districts where the ordinary
postal arrangements did not penetrate. Genuine obliterated stamps of
this class possess a certain amount of interest, and in some cases
command high prices; but as there were so many varieties, and as it is
difficult to discriminate between the genuine and the fictitious,
collectors are well advised to leave them all alone. Undoubtedly a
number of the carrying companies went on printing and selling their
stamps to collectors long after the postal rights were taken from them.
This fact alone should make the cautious philatelist hesitate before
purchasing specimens known as "locals."

More dangerous than the "locals" are the commemorative stamps which
certain impecunious Governments issue with the idea of attracting
philatelists.[1] These stamps invariably bear exquisite designs, and are
usually current for a limited period. Their appearance is heralded with
much beating of drums, and the idea is carefully spread abroad that only
the earliest purchasers will be able to secure copies. As a rule these
labels are printed in millions, and are often sold to large buyers
under face value. The proceeds go towards making the country solvent, or
in providing for palatial postal headquarters. Of course, such stamps
can hardly be considered postage stamps, as the number used for postal
service is but a minute fraction of the whole issue. It is on these
grounds that the wise collector should refuse to treasure up labels, the
main purpose of which is to amass money for an unscrupulous Government.

[1] Some commemorative stamps are, of course, issued in a purely
legitimate way, and must not be confused with the above.

The objection to commemorative, or perhaps it would be better to say
speculative, stamps disappears in cases where the specimens have been
through the post. Such labels have franked letters or parcels, and have
thus fulfilled the conditions which we demand of genuine used stamps.
Unfortunately, this fact has been noted by at least one Government, and
in order that its gaudy labels should not be shunned by the collector,
it has had some thousands of unused copies specially cancelled in the
hope that the obliterations will serve to make them more acceptable.
Undoubtedly some of the stamps marked in this way are very attractive;
but, of course, they are not postage stamps in any sense, and can thus
make no appeal to the philatelist.

A third group of undesirable stamps comes from South America. About
thirty years ago a Mr. Seebeck, of New York, entered into an agreement
with Ecuador, Honduras, Salvador, and Nicaragua, to supply each of these
republics with new stamp-dies once a year on condition that the old
dies should be handed to him as they fell out of use. As soon as a set
of dies became superseded, he printed from the plates and flooded the
market with unused copies. The Seebeck issues, needless to say, are of
little interest.

Seebeck is not the only man who has printed from discarded dies; there
are, in fact, many types of stamps on the market which have been
produced from obsolete plates. Such stamps are known as "reprints," and
are worthless except as curiosities. Perhaps the best-known reprints are
those bearing the inscription "Heligoland"; but as these labels emanate
from the Government printing works at Berlin, and have never been to
this little island, it is clear that they have served no genuine postal
purpose.

Reprints are difficult to distinguish from the original stamps, but as a
rule slight differences in colour prove sufficient clues to their
identity. Often the correct kind of paper and watermark are unobtainable
by those who print them, and then the merest novice may detect their
origin with the aid of a catalogue.

There are so many undesirable stamps to be found on the market in an
unused condition that the beginner may feel that the safest plan will be
to confine his attentions to obliterated varieties alone. There is much
reason in such an argument, but it is not altogether a wise course to
follow. Unused specimens, as long as they are issued for genuine postal
purposes by reputable countries, are more sought after than those which
have been obliterated, and their value is more likely to rise in the
future.

One matter which often puzzles the novice is how to decide whether two
particular stamps are similar or different. If there is the slightest
variation in--(_a_) Design; (_b_) method employed of printing; (_c_)
colour; (_d_) method employed for separating the individual stamps;
(_e_) texture of paper; (_f_) watermark--then the two stamps may be
looked upon as being different, and both should be placed in the album.
Certain stamps bear designs on their reverse side--_i.e._, the horn on
early issues of Sweden. Copies both with and without the design should
be added to the collection. The addition of advertising matter on the
reverse side (see New Zealand issues), however, does not constitute a
difference. In the case of recent Belgian stamps which bear the
inscription, "Not to be delivered on Sunday," in both French and
Flemish, specimens with and without the label should not both be given a
home in the collection. Lastly, it may be well to point out that stamps,
on paper of various textures, which have been cut from entires, should
not be considered as individual varieties, seeing that most Governments
are prepared to impress any letters, cards, etc., that may be supplied
to them, and varieties of such stamps must be, on this account,
unlimited.

When the collector has amassed a number of good duplicates, it will be a
wise plan for him to join one of the many exchange clubs. In this way he
will be able to turn his surplus stamps into specimens for the
collection. The working of these organizations is simple. Each member
sends a sheet of his own stamps, with prices marked on them, to the
secretary of the club, who places them all in a portfolio which is
forwarded to each member in turn. When a member receives the portfolio,
he selects specimens at will from any of the sheets, but he generally
endeavours to balance his own takings with the takings of all the
members from his sheet.

[Illustration: SOME MEMBERS OF OUR ROYAL FAMILY

 1 Prince Albert in 1851
 2 Queen Victoria
 3 Queen Alexandra
 4 Edward VII
 5 George V
 6 Queen Mary
 7 Prince of Wales]

Another and perhaps better way of enriching one's collection is open to
the philatelist who is able to obtain quantities of the medium class
British and Colonial stamps. Briefly, the method is to insert an
advertisement in a journal, which enjoys an overseas circulation, to the
effect that for every hundred stamps sent of the reader's country, a
hundred or more well-mixed British and Colonials will be despatched by
the advertiser in return. The writer used to make it a practice of
inserting some such notice as this two or three times every season, and
the plan invariably brought in many valuable additions to his
collection. Suitable mediums are the _Overseas Daily Mail_, the _Boy's
Own Paper_ (in the Boy's Own Column), _The Philatelic Journal of
America_, and _L'Écho de la Timbrologie_.

Before closing this chapter, it may be well to give some hints on how to
value one's collection. Possessed of a stamp catalogue, the philatelist
can easily jot down the price of every stamp in his album, and so
arrive at the total catalogue value. But this figure will be much above
the price a dealer would give for the treasures. The catalogue value of
a stamp is the selling price. What we want to know is the buying
price--a very different matter.

To get an approximate idea of the value which a collection would
realize, we should calculate as follows:

1. Nothing for all stamps catalogued at 1d. or 2d.

2. One penny each for stamps marked 3d. or 4d. each.

3. Three-halfpence to twopence each for stamps marked 5d. to 8d.

4. Quarter catalogue value for stamps quoted between 9d. and 4s.

5. Half catalogue value for other stamps, except for rarities, which
often command full catalogue figures.

None but first-class specimens, and, in the case of used stamps, only
those which have served postally, should be taken into consideration.



CHAPTER III

SPECIALIZING


As a rule it takes but a few months for the young collector to discover
that he much prefers the stamps of one particular country, or group of
countries, to any of the others figuring in his album. When such a
preference manifests itself, it is a good plan to specialize in the
favoured country or group. By this we do not mean to say that the
general collection should be discontinued, or even neglected, but merely
that special attention be given to the stamps which have made the
greater appeal to the philatelist.

Some countries are better suited to specializing than others.
Undoubtedly Great Britain holds the premier position. Not only does it
stand first from patriotic motives, but the plate numbers and plate
letters which the earlier issues bore, the control letters which later
issues bear, and the colour varieties known to exist amongst certain of
the current values, all help to make it a country full of interest.

Among the Colonies there is much scope for the specialist, notably in
Queensland, South Australia, India--if the Native States be
excepted--Canada, including the specimens issued by the various
provinces prior to 1864, and the Transvaal.

In other parts of the world we may single out the United States,
Portugal, the Argentine Republic, the Spanish Colonies, together with
the subsequent occupation of certain of them by the United States, and
the French Colonies. Of the latter only used specimens should be
collected, as unused copies of any of the Dependencies may be bought at
face value in Paris--a matter which largely robs the labels of their
interest.

But the specialist need not necessarily confine himself to a country, or
even a group of countries. In this connection the following divisions
may be suggested:

1. Stamps issued owing to wars.

2. Edwardian stamps.

3. Parcels post stamps.

4. Commemorative stamps, as long as they are not issued for speculative
purposes.

5. The line-engraved stamps of Great Britain (see following chapter).

Just as certain countries or groups present exceptional chances for
specializing, so others offer but poor opportunities. In cases where the
issues are few, or where the stamps are high priced, the path of the
specialist is beset with difficulties, and should not be followed.

The first need of the collector who intends to pay particular attention
to an individual group of stamps is a blank album containing about two
dozen pages. Into this volume should be gathered the specimens bearing
on the chosen section as they are obtained. Less formality and
regularity will be called for when placing the stamps in this book than
was demanded in the general collection; in other words, the stamps need
not be ranged so precisely according to age and value. Whatever method
is adopted should be used rather for contrasting and comparing minor
details than for showing complete issues. In the stamps of Great
Britain, for instance, we should not place, say, the Edwardian issue in
two or three methodical rows, the halfpenny first, followed by the
penny, then the three-halfpenny, and so on, up to the one pound. We
should group together the varieties of, say, the threepenny, which
include such shades as purple on yellow, purple on lemon, deep purple on
lemon, dull purple on yellow, and which are found perforated 14, also 15
by 14. When placed side by side, these various shades and perforations
will show up clearly; but if scattered over two or three pages of the
album, their meaning will be lost entirely.

It is clear that the specialist must know a good deal more about his
stamps than was demanded of the general collector. In the first place,
he must be able to distinguish one form of printing from another. For
his benefit it may be well to mention that the chief processes employed
in printing stamps are (1) Typography, (2) Lithography, and (3)
Engraving.

Typography, or surface-printing, is the process employed in the
production of our current British stamps. A die is cut with the design
standing out in relief--_i.e._, the portions which are to receive the
ink are raised. From this die a number of identical moulds are taken and
ranged side by side. They are then clamped together and placed in an
electro bath which deposits a layer of copper upon the moulds. When the
coating is deemed sufficiently thick, the electrical action is arrested,
the moulds are removed, and the copper plate reveals a number of
replicas of the original die.

Lithography is a process which results from etching on stone. A piece of
stone possessing a flat surface is taken, and the design drawn in ink
upon it either by hand or some mechanical means. The surface of the
stone is then flooded with a weak acid, which eats away the unprotected
parts, but leaves untouched the parts covered by the greasy lithograph
ink. The stone is then sponged with water, and printer's ink, also
greasy, applied. This latter adheres only to the lines made by the
lithographic process, with the result that impressions of the design may
be transferred to paper. Lithography, it should be added, is only
suitable in cases where comparatively few copies are needed, or where a
temporary issue must be printed expeditiously. It is a process which
demands but little capital outlay, a fact which has made it a favourite
means of stamp-producing among the poorer republics of South America.
With forgers, too, it has gained favour in their work of imitating
genuine stamps.

Engraving, known variously under the name of copper-plate printing,
engraving in _taille-douce_, and line-engraving, produces the finest
stamps figuring in our collections. The process is worked much on the
lines detailed for typography, but the main difference is that in the
latter the design is printed by the raised parts of the block, whilst in
the former the recessed parts produce the lines which form the design.

In addition to the above, the following occasional methods of producing
stamps may be registered:

1. By the use of ordinary printer's type. (Examples may be found among
the earliest issues, as in the case of the first stamps of British
Guiana.)

2. By photographic means. (Example--the Mafeking stamps bearing the head
of Baden-Powell.)

3. By means of rubber hand-stamps. (Example--first issue of New
Republic, South Africa.)

4. Embossing. (Example--the current British stamped penny and halfpenny
envelopes.)

After the various styles of printing have been recognized, the
specialist must study the papers used in stamp-production. The chief
varieties are--

1. WOVE.--This paper possesses no patterns of any kind, but under the
microscope appears to have a number of porous marks. It is used for the
current British stamps.

2. GRANITE.--A variety of wove, used fairly frequently. It may be
distinguished by the short, tiny, coloured hairs which are impressed
upon the paper.

3. LAID.--This paper possesses a number of parallel ribs, which can only
be seen when the stamp is held up to the light.

4. QUADRILLED.--A paper bearing vertical and horizontal watermark lines
of a somewhat obvious character.

The various methods used for separating stamps is the next matter for
study. In the earliest times postmasters used ordinary scissors for
detaching one stamp from another. The specimens so treated are styled
"imperforate." The use of scissors was clearly an awkward way of
performing what is now a simple matter, and it is well known that from
the outset the need for a more expeditious method was felt. As a
consequence many people gave the question of stamp-separating their
attention, with the result that, eight years after the advent of the
first postage adhesive, Henry Archer patented the rouletting machine,
which cut slits along the margins of the stamps. The slits served the
same purpose as the perforation holes in the stamps of to-day, but the
drawback to this pioneer method was that in pulling one copy from
another the labels were likely to become torn. Between 1848 and 1854
Archer tried many systems for separating stamps, and, in the latter
year, perfected a machine for perforating instead of rouletting the
margins of adhesives.

Most stamps are now described as "perf. 13, 14, or 15," which means that
within the space of 2 centimetres a specimen contains 13, 14, or 15
holes. A stamp catalogued as "perf. 15 X 14"--_e.g._, British fourpenny
bright orange, Edward issue--has fifteen holes per 2 centimetres along
the top and bottom edges, and fourteen holes along either side. As a
difference of perforation often makes a considerable difference in the
market value of a stamp, every philatelist should possess a gauge for
measuring the holes; these are obtainable from dealers at a cost of
sixpence each.

We said at the commencement of this chapter that Great Britain offered
the greatest opportunities to the specialist. Let us now see how the
stamps of our own country should be treated in a specialized collection.
First of all, it should be the aim of the philatelist to procure not
merely one specimen of any particular label, but specimens in pairs
and in blocks of four or more. Individual copies of the early penny
black are worth about two shillings, but four copies in one block would
fetch as much as ten to twelve shillings; also a fine copy on a postal
wrapper would be much more valuable than a loose specimen. The moral,
therefore, is clear: we should never separate costly stamps nor tear
them from their envelopes. Young collectors seem to dislike the plan of
admitting entire envelopes to their albums, but this is a prejudice
which should be overcome.

[Illustration: POSTAGE STAMPS HAVING SPECIAL USES

 1 Canada: Registered Letter Fee Stamp
 2 Belgium: Parcels Post Stamp
 3 U.S.A.: Parcels Post Stamp
 4 Italy: Unpaid Tax Stamp
 5 India: Telegraph stamp
 6 Germany: Official stamp
 7 Austria: Stamp for franking newspapers
 8 Sweden: Official stamp
 9 Spain: War-tax stamp levied on letters]

An ideal first page for a special collection of British stamps would
show a whole wrapper bearing a nice copy of the penny black, then the
individual stamp in pairs or blocks, followed by a somewhat similar
arrangement affecting the sister stamp--the twopenny blue.

The page should not be crowded with specimens, but much space ought to
be given up to explanatory written matter. At the head of the page, for
instance, the following might be neatly printed: "Line-Engraved Stamps.
Issued May 1st, 1840." Elsewhere room might be found for the statement
that the adhesives given on the page were engraved by Mr. Frederick
Heath, and printed by the famous firm of Perkins, Bacon and Co.; whilst
below each stamp the particular watermark, paper, and method of
separation should be mentioned. Nor should the notes end here; any
little piece of postal information which may be discovered should be
added to swell the interest of the collection. As an example of such
matter, we may quote the following recipe for making red obliterating
ink, which was sent to every postmaster in the kingdom when the penny
black was first issued:

 Take 1 lb. printer's red ink,
      1 pint linseed oil,
    1/2 pint of the droppings of sweet oil,
      And well mix.

Another early stamp which will well repay attention is the perforated
penny red with control letters in the four corners. This specimen bears
various plate numbers, from 71 to 225 (Nos. 75, 77,[2] 126, 128
excepted). The collector will do well to seek out a copy of each number
and arrange them in numerical order on three or four pages of the album.
The distinctive numbers are to be found on either side of the head,
hidden among the filigree lines. No. 225, it may be said, is somewhat
difficult to obtain, but all the others are fairly common.

[2] Plate No. 77 is supposed to have been rejected as unfit for use. An
unused copy, however, figures in the Tapling Collection in the British
Museum.

"Plate reconstructing" is another favourite work of the specialist. Let
us first explain that many of the early British stamps contained various
letters in the four corners. In a sheet of 240 stamps, the specimens
found in the first row were all lettered A, in the lower left-hand
corner, those in the second row B, in the third row C, and so on
throughout the twenty rows. In the right-hand lower corner the first
stamp of every row was lettered A, the second B, and so on until the
twelfth stamp bore the letter L. The following diagram will make the
arrangement quite clear:

[Illustration: SPECIMEN STAMPS

  1   Imperforated stamp
  2   A perforated stamp
  3   A rouletted stamp
  4   A line-engraved stamp
  5   A lithographed stamp
  6   A surface-printed stamp
  7   An embossed stamp
  8 }
  9 } Three of the best known rarities
 10 }]

 Row 1. AA, AB, AC, AD, AE, AF, ... AL.
  "  2. BA, BB, BC, BD, BE, BF, ... BL.
  "  3. CA, CB, CC, CD, CE, CF, ... CL.
  "  4. DA, DB, DC, DD, DE, DF, ... DL.
  "  5. EA, EB, EC, ED, EE, EF, ... EL.
    .       .       .       .       .
  " 20. TA, TB, TC, TD, TE, TF, ... TL.

The work of plate reconstructing consists in obtaining one stamp of each
of the combinations of letters, placing them in their correct positions
as given above, and so remaking a whole sheet of stamps.

Such is the way in which a specialist's collection should be managed.
Our remarks have been directed more particularly to the stamps of Great
Britain, but the suggestions apply equally well to any country which the
philatelist may select for particular study.



CHAPTER IV

THE STAMPS OF GREAT BRITAIN


So far these talks have dealt almost entirely with ways and means of
stamp-collecting, but now our attention must be centred on the stamps
themselves. We naturally turn to the issues of Great Britain, the first
specimen to be considered being the "penny black," bearing a portrait in
profile of Victoria the Good. Not only was this stamp the first to be
issued within our kingdom, but it was also the pioneer stamp, of the
whole world. It is thus one of the most interesting labels which can
figure among the treasures of any collection.

To Sir Rowland Hill, the promoter of the penny postage and other postal
reforms, belongs the credit of first suggesting that the postage on a
letter should be prepared by means of an adhesive label. Not only may he
be called the inventor of postage stamps, but he also sketched in rough
the design which was used for the first stamp. To him, also, was
entrusted the work of arranging for the issue of this novel label.

On August 17, 1839, Parliament sanctioned the use of adhesive stamps,
and immediately afterwards the Lords of the Treasury asked the public to
suggest suitable designs. Nearly 3,000 drawings were submitted, but none
were considered satisfactory. It was then that Hill made the rough
sketch mentioned above.

Many were the difficulties which Hill had to overcome, but probably the
most perplexing was how to get the stamps printed. We must remember that
in those early days colour-printing was a slow and tedious process, and
there were very few firms who could be entrusted with the work. After
much consideration, Sir Rowland went to a Fleet Street house of printers
named Perkins, Bacon and Co., and asked them whether they could
undertake the task of producing the proposed adhesive stamps. Their
reply is sufficiently interesting to be given in full.

                             "69, FLEET STREET,
                                 "LONDON,
                                     "_December 3, 1839_.

"SIR,

"We have given the subject you mentioned yesterday afternoon all the
attention the time would allow, and beg to say as the result that we
would engrave steel dies of the size you gave us, containing work of any
conceivable value as to cost and quality, transfer them to any number of
plates that could possibly be wanted, and print them in any numbers per
day, at a charge of eightpence per thousand stamps, exclusive of paper,
which, we understand, would be supplied us; and, assuming that the
numbers wanted would be very large, we have only named a fair price for
the printing, and have considered the plates and dies, which ought to be
very costly in the first instance, as given in without charge. You are
probably aware that, having prepared the original die, we could insure
perfect 'facsimiles' of it for a century.

"Our charge would not exceed what we have named above, nor be less than
sixpence per thousand; but what relative position it would take between
these two extremes would depend upon the exact size of the stamp, and
the number which the paper would allow us to put upon one plate.

"We could prepare everything so as to commence printing in a month. Our
present belief is that we could print 41,600 labels per day, or double
that number in a day and night, from each press employed upon the work.

                 "We are, sir, very respectfully,
                     "Your humble servants,
                         "PERKINS, BACON, AND PETCH."

The Perkins' firm was entrusted with the printing; instructions were
also given them to elaborate the rough sketch made by Hill. They called
upon a then noted engraver, Frederick Heath, to complete the design
which has since become world-famous. He engraved the head and the
lettering, but the beautiful curves forming the background of the stamp
were "engine-turned" by means of a Rose engine, a contrivance consisting
of a series of moving wheels which produced curved lines in geometric
pattern.

The stamp proved a great success, thanks to the energies of Hill and the
assistance of the printers; but it had one great fault--it was printed
with a fast ink, which enabled dishonest people to wash out the
obliterations and use the cleaned copies a second time. As a result, the
black specimens were superseded in less than nine months by red ones
printed with a fugitive ink. The short life of the first stamp has, of
course, much to do with its present high price.

The dies used for the black impressions were employed for the red
pennies, so that the two stamps are identical in all respects but
colour. Gradually, as years passed along, slight changes were
introduced. First, the small check letters in the lower angles were
substituted by large letters, then perforated edges were provided,
whilst in 1854 the whole of the dies were re-engraved. Stamps printed
from the old and the new plates may be distinguished fairly easily. In
die I. the nose is straight, there is little shading around the eye,
and the lobe of the ear terminates with an upward curl. In die II the
nose is slightly rounded, the eye is surrounded by much shading, and the
lobe of the ear finishes without any upward curl.

[Illustration: SOME PENNY STAMPS OF GREAT BRITAIN

  1 1841 issue
  2 1854 issue
  3 1858 issue
  4 1880 issue
  5 1881 issue
  6 1902 issue
  7 1911 issue
  8 1912 issue
  9 1912 issue
 10 Envelope stamp
 11 Letter-card stamp
 12 Envelope stamp]

The black and red penny stamps were line engraved (_cf_. previous
chapter). The only other stamps printed in this style were the twopenny
blue, issued concurrently with the penny black; the halfpenny rose; and
the three-halfpenny red rose, both issued on October 1, 1870.

It seems somewhat remarkable, in these days when we have thirteen
different stamps of values lower than a shilling, that in the early
years the country was able to carry on its postal arrangements with but
a penny and a twopenny stamp. That there was need for specimens of
higher value seems certain, as the inland registration fee was a
shilling, and the postal rates abroad were surprisingly high. In 1847
the letter rate for the United States was lowered to a shilling, and for
France to tenpence; consequently, the time seemed appropriate for
introducing three new stamps--a shilling, a tenpenny, and a sixpenny.

Though the line-engraved stamps had proved extremely satisfactory, there
were certain high officials who claimed that these labels were by no
means proof against dishonest practices. It was partly to please these
dissentients that the three new values bore the familiar head of Queen
Victoria in cameo relief. The innovation was almost if not a complete
bar to forgery, also to the removal of obliterations by people of
questionable character; but it made printing a slow and expensive
process. Hitherto a sheet of stamps had been printed by one movement of
the machine, but every embossed stamp needed a separate pressing. There
were twenty-four stamps of these three new values on a sheet, which
meant that instead of one action completing the sheet, twenty-four
actions were required.

Some of these old stamps are to be found with the impression of another
partly overlapping; this is due to the fact that the machines were fed
by hand, and unless the workman placed the paper in exact position one
stamp was bound to fall partly on to its neighbour.

One curious feature of the tenpenny and shilling stamps must be
mentioned. Into the paper on which these adhesives were printed was
introduced a number of silk threads in such a way that each stamp bore
two portions of the thread. The silken lines ran either horizontally or
vertically across each specimen, and made counterfeiting an almost
impossible task. The sixpenny value was provided with a watermark as a
safeguard.

The cameo stamps gained but little popularity, and were current less
than ten years. Of the sixpenny specimen, we know that 6,659,920 copies
were printed, and of them, 2,941,640 were destroyed after their
withdrawal, probably about as many copies as are sold of our current
penny stamps on an ordinary weekday.

On July 31, 1855, a fourpenny stamp was introduced. It was produced
neither by the line-engraved process nor by the embossing method. A
system of typography, or surface-printing (see p. 21), had long been
used on the Continent, and it was this process which was employed for
the printing of the new fourpenny value. Messrs. De La Rue and Co. were
entrusted with the work.

The fourpenny surface-printed stamp proved very successful, and was
followed by other values--the shilling green, the threepenny rose, the
sixpenny lilac, and the ninepenny straw colour. Many of these early
stamps bore minor distinguishing marks, and consequently command high
prices. A very dark shade of the shilling green is worth £65 in an
unused condition, the threepenny rose, with a white dot on either side
of the word "Postage," has changed hands for £40, whilst the ninepenny
straw colour, with a fine white line drawn across the exterior angles of
the square spaces for the corner letters, is catalogued as high as £30.
Specimens of these values should be carefully examined to see if they
happen to be the rare kinds.

The surface-printed stamps issued between 1862 and 1881 bore angular
check letters as well as plate numbers, and therefore prove of
exceptional interest to those of us who wish to specialize in the stamps
of our own Kingdom. Unused copies should be carefully preserved with the
original gum on the backs, as their prices advance with every season.
The used copies, also, prove a good investment.

In 1881 (July 12) the well-known penny lilac, with a large head of
Victoria, was issued, and continued in use until the accession of King
Edward. The stamps sold during the first five months had fourteen white
dots in each corner, but afterwards the number, for some unaccountable
reason, was increased to sixteen. The early variety, needless to say,
commands a much greater price than the later one. The two stamps are
easily confused, but a careful examination of our copies will soon tell
us whether each used specimen is worth a fraction of a farthing or a
sixpenny piece. Some time after the accession of King Edward the writer
went into a post office and bought two dozen penny stamps. The clerk who
served him half apologized for still selling the old specimens bearing
the Queen's head. On reaching home, however, the adhesives were
carefully examined, and found to be the rare "fourteen dot" variety,
worth, unused, about four shillings apiece. It is hardly necessary to
add that the block, intact, has found a home in the writer's collection.

The next stamps to attract attention are those of King Edward. At first
sight there appears to be one variety of each value, with the exception
of the halfpenny and the fourpenny, which are both found in two obvious
varieties. On closer examination, however, the Edwardian stamps will be
found to possess many minor but interesting differences. In the first
case, most of the values were printed in turn by the firm of De La Rue,
by Harrison and Son, also by the Government at Somerset House, and each
set of impressions shows marked variations in colour. The most
interesting Edwardian differences, however, are due to varieties of
paper. In 1905 the authorities came to the conclusion that the then
current stamps were not sufficiently protective against fraud. It was
easy enough, they said, to compound an obliteration ink for use in the
post offices which could not be cleaned away; but, as postage stamps
were also used in increasing numbers for revenue purposes, it was also
necessary to make the stamps of such colours that they could not be
cleaned of even ordinary writing-ink. As a consequence, the labels on
the usual paper were gradually superseded by specimens printed on a
specially prepared "chalk-surface" paper. When this paper is wetted, the
chalky glaze breaks up, and the coloured design is ruined. This
innovation provides a complete check to the practices of fraudulent
"stamp cleaners," but makes it almost impossible for collectors to
remove the paper backing which disfigures many of their treasures.

"The easiest way to find out whether a stamp is printed on ordinary
unsurfaced or on chalk-surfaced paper," says Mr. F. J. Melville in "King
Edward VII. Stamps," "is to draw a small silver coin across one of the
perforations or a piece of the marginal paper adhering to the stamp. If
a black line appears where the silver has touched the paper, it
indicates a chalk surface."

A third minor variety of the Edwardian stamps must be recorded. In
certain of the halfpenny and penny values the large crown watermark is
found inverted. Such specimens were not, as might be expected, the
result of faulty printing, they were made especially for the stamp
booklets, which have grown so popular since their introduction in 1903.
The plates from which the booklet stamps were printed were divided into
four panes, each of sixty labels. Each pane consisted of ten rows of six
stamps surrounded by a fringe of blank paper. The panes were cut
vertically down the centre and then along every second horizontal row.
This gave ten blocks of six stamps, five coming from the left of the
vertical cut and five from the right. Now, it was necessary to have a
strip of edging paper on the left of each block for the binding-pins of
the booklet to pass through; consequently, the stamps placed on the
right of the vertical cut were inverted. As the watermark was not
similarly turned round, the specimens in 50 per cent. of the booklets
were provided with inverted crowns.

The stamps of King George require but little mention. When first issued
they caused considerable adverse comment, owing to their poor design and
inferior gum. The earliest dies of the halfpenny and penny values were
re-engraved at least twice, but not until the small head was replaced by
the larger profile bust could they be considered even passable. As a
whole, the Georgian first issue may be now considered fairly attractive
in pattern and colour; but the Mother Country has yet much to learn in
the matter of stamp designing from her young Dependencies, notably
Canada.



CHAPTER V

STAMPS WORTH FORTUNES


What a curious thing it is that some stamps--mere scraps of paper--cost
over a sovereign apiece to buy! It is still more wonderful, however,
that quite a number sell for over £100 each, whilst a select few command
prices running into four figures. Probably the reader will never possess
any of the more costly rarities, and as likely as not he will never see
copies of them, unless he has access to the Tapling or other public
collections; but, none the less, it is interesting for him to know of
them, of their prices, and their peculiarities.

Among the stamps of Great Britain there are a fair number which are
worth between £30 and £100 each. In the previous chapter we spoke of the
deep green shilling of 1862, which sells at £65 in an unused condition,
and the ninepenny straw, catalogued at £30 when used. To these we may
add the famous £5 orange of 1882, worth about £100 when unused, and the
£1 brown-lilac, also of 1882, which varies between £90 and £100. Neither
of these labels were in currency for more than two years. This fact,
coupled with their high face value, readily explains why collectors are
so eager to possess them.

There have been three different brown-lilac £1 stamps, all issued within
a few years of each other, so the collector is advised to note their
descriptions carefully. The valuable type referred to above measures
1-1/8 by 1-3/8 inches, and is watermarked with an anchor. Of the
remaining two types, one has a watermark consisting of three crowns
(worth £12 unused), and the other has the watermark known as the three
orbs (worth £20 unused). Both these stamps have the top and bottom sides
much longer than the vertical sides. Other £1 values, in various colours
and designs, command good prices, and should be carefully preserved, if
only for speculative purposes.

Were the question to be put, "Which is the rarest stamp in the world?"
probably the answer would be, more often than not, "The twopenny 'Post
Office' Mauritius." Though it is not the rarest, it is probably the
best-known philatelic treasure, and the one which collectors covet
beyond all others. Just how much it is worth would be difficult to say;
we do know, however, that the copy which figures in King George's
Collection was sold at auction in 1904 for £1,450. Were it placed on the
market to-day, it is safe to say that it would change hands at a higher
figure--probably a much higher figure.

The twopenny and the penny "Post Office" Mauritius have an interesting
history. The officials of this little island in the Indian Ocean decided
in the year 1847 to follow the lead of the Mother Country and issue
stamps. Whilst waiting for supplies to come from England, they
commissioned a local watchmaker to engrave two dies, one for a penny and
one for a twopenny stamp. The watchmaker took a small piece of sheet
copper and engraved upon it, side by side, the two dies, and a
neighbouring printer took off 500 impressions--that is to say, 1,000
stamps in all. Instead of cutting into the copper the words "Post Paid,"
the engraver scratched the inscription "Post Office" by mistake, with
the result that his dies were soon discarded. The stock of stamps was
quickly used up, for just as the labels were issued, a ball was being
arranged at the Government House, and numerous invitations were sent out
by post. About twenty-two copies only are known to exist, and most of
these have been discovered on the communications which, nearly seventy
years ago, summoned the Governor's friends to the long-forgotten
festivities.

The rarest stamp in the world is usually considered to be the one cent
(1856) of British Guiana. A single specimen only of this variety is
known, the owner being Monsieur de la Renotière, a celebrated collector
of Paris. To say that this treasure is worth its weight in gold is to
understate its value by a great deal, for specialists claim that £2,000
would not buy it.

One would suppose that so costly a square inch of paper would have a
prepossessing appearance or claims to artistic merit, but the unique
specimen is said to be ugly, of a dullish magenta colour, and not in the
best of condition. The design is a ship, around which the motto "Damus
petimusque vicissim"[3] is written, together with the words "British
Guiana, Postage One Cent."

[3] We give and we ask in turn.

Another very rare British Guiana stamp is the sorry-looking two cents of
1851. Having more the appearance of an obliteration stamp than a postal
adhesive, this specimen bears the name of the colony and the value, two
cents, in a circle. It was printed at short notice by the proprietors of
the _Royal Gazette_, and was intended to serve for a new rate of
letter-carrying which applied to the town of Georgetown alone.
Apparently the new charge failed to serve its purpose, and was withdrawn
after a brief space of time. Very few copies were made use of, and those
which still exist are worth about £600 each.

From the Hawaiian Islands comes another valuable stamp, also of poor
design: it is the two cents (1851), black on bluish paper. This adhesive
was printed at Honolulu, and served mainly for franking the letters
which the American missionaries sent home to their relations in the
States. The issue suffered an untimely fate, for no sooner had the
stamps been put into circulation than a serious fire devastated the
quarter of the town in which the post office was situated and destroyed
almost all the stock in hand. A round dozen copies are known to exist.
One reposes in the Tapling Collection at the British Museum, but the
authorities have removed it from the show-cases, where it used to lie,
and placed it under lock and key in the Cracherode Room. It may be well
to add that it can be inspected on request. Its value is probably £800
or more.

If we turn to the United States, many rarities will be found, but none
are so much sought after as the issues known as the "Postmaster Stamps."
For the want of a better term these adhesives have been called "locals,"
but they must not be confused with the worthless labels spoken of in
Chapter II.

[Illustration: PORTRAITS OF SOME EUROPEAN MONARCHS

  1 King George V
  2 Albert
  3 Nicholas II
  4 Peter
  5 Victor Emanuel III
  6 Christian X
  7 Gustav V
  8 Manoel
  9 Franz Josef I
 10 Alfonso XIII
 11 Wilhelmina]

Each postmaster in the early years of the States designed and printed
his own stamps, and some weird and curious effects were produced as a
result of this arrangement. The master at Milbury, then a tiny place in
Massachusetts, issued a two cents label (1847) which was no exception in
the matter of design. Milbury was such a small town that the demand for
this two cents stamp was insignificant, and consequently to-day copies
are worth quite £300.

Another local stamp--more highly priced on the Continent than in
England--is the ten centimes "Double Geneva." This curiosity was issued
by the Canton of Geneva before Switzerland possessed a regular supply of
adhesives. The stamp is composed of two sections, each bearing the value
five centimes, but a narrow strip of paper joins them together and bears
the value ten centimes. The idea was that, in its entirety, the stamp
would frank a letter anywhere within the Canton of Geneva, but if cut in
halves, the postage was only sufficient for letters circulating within
any individual commune. A complete "Double Geneva" is worth £80 odd
unused, but a halved copy may be procured for a £5 note.

Before concluding this chapter on rarities, some mention must be made
of the triangular "Capes." Curiously enough, everybody has heard of
these stamps, whether they are collectors or not, and every
non-collector who happens to possess a copy nourishes the idea that some
day a huge fortune may be realized by selling the valued possession.
Granted that the specimen is not a forgery, which it very well may be,
the stamp is perhaps worth no more than five shillings, for this is the
market price of the fourpenny blue, 1855--the stamp most frequently met.

There are two valuable triangular "Capes," however, namely, the
fourpenny red and the penny blue, both of 1861. The origin of these
stamps is as follows: In making up the dies for printing some penny and
fourpenny stamps, a block of the penny stamp was accidentally placed in
the plate of the fourpenny value, whilst a fourpenny block found its way
into the penny plate. As a result of this mistake, one stamp on each
sheet which was printed bore the wrong colour for its value. Gibbons
catalogues the blue penny at £85, and the vermilion fourpenny at £95.



CHAPTER VI

COMMON STAMPS


Probably the twelve commonest stamps which have ever been issued are the
following:

     1. Great Britain, Queen, 1d. lilac, 1881.

     2. Great Britain, King Edward, 1d. scarlet, 1902.

     3. Germany, 1880, 10 pfennig (without the final "e") rose.

     4. Germany, 1889, 10 pfennig rose.

     5. Austria, 5 kr., Francis Joseph, 1857, red.

     6. Austria, 5 kr. rose, 1883, double-headed eagle.

     7. Austria, 5 kr., Francis Joseph, 1890, red.

     8. Belgium, 10 c., Leopold II., 1885, rose.

     9. Belgium, 5 c., arms, 1893, green.

     10. France, 15 c., Mercury and Commerce, blue, 1877.

     11. France, 5 c., Mercury, etc., green, 1877.

     12. Hungary, 5 kr., numeral on envelope, rose, 1875.

From the above list it will be seen that all but three of the adhesives
are of the penny value, or its foreign equivalent. The presence of the
French three-halfpenny (15 c.) stamp is due to the fact that, for many
years, this was the rate charged for letters circulating within the
Republic.

Of these stamps the Queen's head of Great Britain enjoyed the longest
life, whilst the two French specimens took second and third place, they
having a prosperous run of sixteen years to their credit.

Whilst speaking of the length of currency enjoyed by stamps, it may be
well to say that, of all the adhesive specimens issued throughout the
world, the large fivepenny green, New South Wales, remained unchanged
for a longer period than any other; whilst the Queen Victoria penny
embossed envelope, with a light pink stamp--not, of course, an
adhesive--was current still longer, being on sale from 1841 to 1902.
Neither of these labels, it should be added, may be reckoned among the
commonest varieties.

Of each of the twelve stamps mentioned in the list above prodigious
numbers must have been issued. Just how many copies of each were used
for franking letters cannot be gauged, but by turning to the postal
records published annually by Great Britain some idea may be obtained of
their colossal totals. During the year 1913 the General Post Office
dealt with--

 3,298,300,000 letters.

   899,000,000 postcards.

 1,079,000,000 halfpenny packets.

   202,300,000 newspapers.

   130,200,000 parcels.

Of the letters, postcards, and halfpenny packets, it seems fair to
assume that three-quarters were franked by halfpenny and penny stamps in
the proportion, probably, of two of the former to one of the latter. In
other words, roughly 1,500,000,000 penny stamps and 2,500,000,000
halfpenny stamps were used in Great Britain during the year 1913 alone.
As the life of our British stamps averages a trifle over ten years, we
must multiply the huge figures by ten to obtain a rough estimate of the
individual copies which are likely to be printed of these two stamps.

Looked at from the point of view of use, the dozen adhesives mentioned
above have undoubtedly scored heavily; but if they be examined from the
artistic point of view, little can be said in their favour. The lilac
head of Victoria, it is true, is a fine dignified stamp; whilst the two
French specimens, depicting Mercury and Commerce, are pleasing. The
remainder, however, can claim but little respect, either on the score of
design or workmanship. Truly the commonest labels seem to be the least
beautiful!

What can we do with our accumulations of valueless stamps? is a question
often asked by the young philatelist. A good plan is to collect the
various shades of colour and minute variations of design, which are sure
to creep into issues that extend over a lengthy period. In this way an
interesting assembly of stamps may be secured which might, in time,
prove extremely valuable to a collector who specialized. The Georgian
stamps of Great Britain, for instance, though they have only been in use
a few years, already show numerous variations in design and colour, and
thus lend themselves to such work. The halfpenny is known in two or
three shades of green; there are at least two different engravings of
the penny; the twopenny varies in shade from dark to light orange;
whilst the threepenny may be found in dull purple and also vivid purple.

Another good plan is to make what might be called a type collection,
with the aid of the accumulations of common stamps. Such a collection
should comprise (_a_) specimens of all known perforations from eight to
sixteen; (_b_) cases of varied perforations--_i.e._, one gauge for the
vertical, another for the horizontal sides; (_c_) stamps separated by
other means than perforations; (_d_) stamps of every shade of the
spectrum, arranged in a line and gradually merging from red through
orange, yellow, green, blue, and indigo to violet; (_e_) labels printed
by different processes; (_f_) labels printed on all the commoner forms
of paper; (_g_) stamps mounted face downwards to reveal the watermarks,
etc.

A third form of collection, which helps to use up the valueless stamps,
is a historical collection. In such a gathering as we have here in mind,
it becomes possible to trace out, by means of postage labels, such
interesting matters as the genealogical tables of royal families, the
changes which certain Governments have undergone, lists of succession,
etc.



CHAPTER VII

STAMPS OF SPECIAL INTEREST


Most stamps as they repose in their rows on the pages of the album look
very sober, matter-of-fact, little squares of paper. Some appear
travel-stained, others are in the pink of condition, but all have
undergone an experience--we are speaking of the used copies--which,
could it be related, would make reading matter of a highly interesting
nature. One specimen which lies in the album did duty, say, in the
backwoods of the United States; another carried a letter across the
snowfields of Siberia; a third franked correspondence in the unsettled
land of Mexico; and a fourth brought a message from the battlefields of
Belgium and Northern France. Viewed in this light, every obliterated
specimen which figures in our collection is a curiosity.

There are, however, other kinds of curious stamps which are worth
discussing. Who, for instance, would ever dream that a stamp could cause
serious disturbance among a whole race of some millions of people? Yet
this is what happened quite recently in India. The offending stamp was
the two annas, bearing a profile portrait of King George. The trouble
can be related briefly. The label showed the King attractively arrayed,
and bearing a number of decorations, one of them being the elephant
which denotes an Indian order. Unfortunately, the engraving was a trifle
indistinct, and instead of the creature appearing as an elephant, as it
should have done, it seemed to be an exact representation of a pig. Now,
the latter animal is considered a most unclean thing by all faithful
Mohammedans, and the people of this religious creed were not slow to
suppose that somebody in power had placed the animal on the King's
breast merely to insult them. Had it not been for the tactful assurances
made by the authorities, and the early substitution of another stamp
more carefully engraved, the results would probably have been of a
serious character.

Another curious stamp is the Connell label, emanating from the colony of
New Brunswick. Connell was the postmaster-in-chief of this British
dependency. On one occasion he was requested to journey to New York to
place a contract with a firm of stamp printers. What possessed him
nobody knows. Instead of directing that Queen Victoria's portrait should
appear on all the stamps to be engraved, he ordered that the five cents
value should bear his features, which, to be candid, were not at all
attractive. In due course the stamps arrived, but the authorities, on
discovering Connell's audacity, issued a proclamation declaring the
label to be worthless. The postmaster, so history tells us, became
angry, and rather than appear before a prosecuting council retired
hastily to the States. The Connell stamp, needless to say, is a rare
curiosity, and few copies are known to exist. It is perhaps a little
doubtful, however, whether the label can be reckoned as an authentic
postage stamp, seeing that its use never received official sanction.

Vanity seems to play an important part in the lives of people--at least,
this is the testimony which many of our stamps bear out. Some men like
Connell crave for such notoriety as a postage stamp can afford them, but
there are others--crowned heads--who will not allow their features to be
portrayed upon the labels of their country, lest the obliteration marks
may render them grotesque.

Among conceited Kings of recent times, King Ferdinand of Sicily stands
out pre-eminently in the minds of philatelists. He possessed something
of the Connell weakness, for he evinced a keen desire to have his head
portrayed upon the stamps of his little kingdom; but running counter
with this desire was a strong fear lest the marks of the postal
obliterator should disfigure his none too prepossessing countenance. In
the end, he thought of a kind of compromise. He called in one of the
best engravers of the day and commanded him to execute a fine series of
adhesives bearing his profile. When the issue was ready, Ferdinand
provided the postal authorities with obliterating stamps, each of which
consisted of a circular framework of lines, surrounding an empty space.
The idea was that the lines should deface the edges of the stamp, but
that the empty space should save his profile from disfigurement. What
happened to his overworked officials who chanced to bring their
obliterators down upon the royal countenance by mistake is too awful to
contemplate!

[Illustration: CURIOUS STAMPS

1 Belgium (Brussels) St. Michael encountering Satan

2 Stamp holding record for length of currency

3 Belgian stamp with two Dominical labels

4 Stamp of King Edward issued at the time of his death

5 Spanish stamps with face value of 1-40th of a penny

6 Orange Free State stamp indicating British occupation

7 Austrian stamp overprinted for use in Constantinople

8 King Manoel's stamps overprinted for Republican use

9 Local stamp

10 Indian stamp showing King George wearing the Elephant (Order of
India)]

Not only do some stamps betray the weaknesses of individuals, but others
reveal the characters of nations. Let us look for a moment at the stamps
of Belgium. Each is provided with a small label which bears the words,
"Not to be delivered on Sunday." This label is very insignificant, and
stamp collectors have seen it so often that they are apt to pass it by
unnoticed. But this tiny strip of paper has a deep underlying purpose.
The Belgians, as a nation, are sharply divided on matters of religion
into two great bodies. The Roman Catholic section objects to having its
letters delivered on Sundays, whilst the section of Freethinkers can
see no harm in a postal delivery on the day which we in England set
apart for rest. The Belgians are a tolerant race, however, and the
matter has been settled by providing each stamp with what has been
called a Dominical label. The Catholics use the label with the stamps
they buy, but the Freethinkers detach them. The postmen are instructed
to deliver letters on Sundays only when the footnote is missing from the
stamps.

Another curious stamp is the twopenny plum colour King Edward issue of
Great Britain. Who has ever heard of this adhesive? Who has ever seen
it? The chances are that few collectors know that such a stamp ever
existed, yet a used copy figures in the collection of King George.

The story relating to this stamp is as follows: In the early months of
the year 1910 it was decided to change both the pattern and colour of
the twopenny green and carmine. A rather attractive design was selected
instead, and eventually printed in a hue which the authorities called
"Tyrian plum." Some thousands of these labels were printed and held
ready for issue, but just as they were to be placed on sale, the sad and
unexpected death of King Edward took place. Rather than issue a new
stamp after the King's demise, the whole stock was gathered together and
burned. A few copies, however, were preserved for record purposes, and
one at least was stuck to an envelope addressed to our present
Sovereign, and posted at the East Strand Post Office.

The V.R. penny black is another stamp of the Home Country which every
philatelist should know about. It is a famous label, not because it has
ever made history or fulfilled any important mission, but because people
have grown to look upon it as a rare form of the ordinary penny black.
In reality the V.R. stamps never attained to the dignity of a postal
label, for, although intended for official use, the authorities decided
at the last moment not to make the issue, and destroyed the stock. A
certain number of copies leaked out, and found their way into
collectors' albums, and these command a fair price.

Of late there has been a great increase all over the world in the
picturesque type of stamp, and these have provided a fairly large crop
of pictorial "inexactitudes." As an example, two adhesives of the
well-known United States Columbian issue may be mentioned, seeing that
they have evoked many a smile among philatelists. The stamps in question
are the one and the two cents values. The former portrays Columbus
sighting land, whilst the latter reveals the famous traveller in the act
of landing. As is well known, an interval of but twenty-four hours
separated the two events, yet in the first picture Columbus appears
clean-shaven, whilst in the latter he possesses a beard of ample and
stately proportions!

Another interesting picture stamp of the United States is the one dollar
value of the Omaha issue. The stamp bears the title of "Western Cattle
in Storm," but those of us who know the canvasses of MacWhirter will
recognize it as a reproduction of his painting, "The Vanguard." Mr. F.
J. Melville, a noted philatelist, says in "Chats on Postage Stamps" that
the United States Post Office "literally cribbed" MacWhirter's picture,
apparently without permission or any sort of payment.

Many stamps possess particular interest owing to some speciality in
manner of production. Just now a semi-perforated adhesive is becoming
popular. Its upright sides are imperforated, but top and bottom the
usual perforation marks are present. Such specimens are manufactured in
rolls--not in sheets--for special use in automatic machines. They come
largely from the United States and the Union of South Africa, and are,
of course, only available in the penny and halfpenny, or equivalent,
values. These semi-perforated stamps are of undoubted interest to-day,
though the time may not be far distant when they will completely oust
the usual perforated type.



CHAPTER VIII

FORGED STAMPS


Stamps are forged for two purposes, first to cheat philatelists, and
second to cheat the postal authorities. The former kind of trade is
fairly lucrative, but in England, at any rate, the production of
fictitious stamps for postal uses seldom enjoys more than a short-lived
success.

The forger hardly ever takes up his abode in the Home Country, for the
pains and penalties awaiting him, when apprehended, are severe. He far
prefers a Continental existence, where he can work his printing-press in
obscurity. His unsavoury wares, however, are made to circulate in
England just as much as abroad, and the novice must be ever on his guard
in consequence.

Some forgers possess elaborate and costly plant, and have the means of
turning out labels printed quite as well as the originals. But most
people in this dishonest trade are handicapped for capital, and have to
rely on the cheaper processes--usually lithography--in the production of
their forgeries. It is here that a knowledge of the various means of
printing stamps proves so valuable to the collector. A specimen, say, of
a line-engraved stamp produced by lithography immediately excites
suspicion, and a close examination shows it to be an undoubted
counterfeit.

The watermark is another stumbling-block with the stamp faker of small
means. He has no opportunity of procuring paper impressed with all the
various watermarks, and so he often prints on ordinary paper, and trusts
to the philatelist's ignorance or lack of examining powers. Of course,
the beginner is often caught by such practices, but it is really
wonderful how soon a serious collector grows to know at sight the real
and the unreal.

An ingenious trick of the forger in a small way of business consists in
transforming a common stamp into a valuable one. His work is not very
arduous, and his apparatus costs but a few pence. All he needs is an
aptitude for drawing, a few paints, brushes, and some chemicals. He
selects, first of all, an issue where the stamps all bear an identical
design and are printed in the same colour, the value, and perhaps an
additional word or two, only being printed in a distinctive colour. His
choice of stamp is by no means limited, for in Queen Victoria's time it
was a favourite arrangement with many Colonies for the head and
ornamentation to be printed in a shade of purple and the name of the
colony and the price to vary on each value.

The forger takes a nice copy of the halfpenny, and cleans out the price
and any features which make the stamp distinctive, by means of
chemicals; then he fills in the blank areas with the particular
lettering--using, of course, the correct colour--of a high-priced stamp.
His work takes but a few minutes, and in this time he can transform a
label worth, say, a penny into one catalogued at, perhaps, ten
shillings. This form of faking is particularly dangerous, because such
distinguishing marks as perforations, watermark, and quality of paper,
are correct in every detail.

The length to which some forgers will go is positively amazing. A few
years back a case came to light where one of these rogues regularly used
real stamp-paper on which to print his worthless imitations. His plan
was to buy a whole sheet of low-priced unused stamps, to remove all the
printing by chemical means, and then to print on the blank paper so
obtained a complete sheet of high-priced stamps. Of course, he had to
select his paper and his stamps with care, but this was a matter simple
enough. It is interesting to point out that the home authorities, seeing
the possibility of such practices, have made it a rule to use one
watermark for adhesives of low value and another for those of high
value.

What is the best way to tell whether a specimen is a forgery? This is a
question often asked. The first test is the watermark, but sufficient
has been said already to show that too much faith must not be placed on
this detail, especially as we may add that a very respectable imitation
may be produced by painting the back of the label with oil. The next
point to note is the perforation. These marks must be shaped in a
business-like way, and be of the correct number as indicated by the
catalogues. The third point is the printing, and the fourth the colour
of the ink used. Lastly, the design should be compared with an identical
stamp known to be genuine. Beyond such simple tests as these the
collector needs to exercise ordinary common sense in arriving at a
conclusion. If, say, a specimen is nice and fresh, and the catalogue
tells us that it is at least fifty years old, a certain amount of
suspicion might not be out of place.

It is not always a simple matter to know whether a stamp is a forgery or
not. Cases are on record where the postal authorities themselves have
been unable to distinguish between the real and the unreal. Some years
ago the shilling value of Great Britain was counterfeited and used for
postal purposes not once or twice, but some thousands of times, and
never an atom of suspicion was excited. The case is recorded by Mr. F.
J. Melville in his work, "Chats on Postage Stamps," in the following
words:

"A romantic forgery, and one of almost colossal magnitude, was
discovered in 1898. About that time a large quantity of British one
shilling stamps--those of the 1865 type in green, with large uncoloured
letters in the corners--came on the market, though, as they had been
used on telegram forms, they ought to have been destroyed; probably the
guilty parties relied on this official practice, not always honoured in
observance, as offering a security against not merely the tracing of the
offence, but the discovering of the fraud itself.

"Anyhow, after a lapse of twenty-six years, it was found that amongst
these one shilling stamps there was a large proportion of forgeries
(purporting to be from Plate V.), all used on July 23, 1872, at the
Stock Exchange Telegraph Office, London, E.C. More recent discoveries
show that the fraud was continued over twelve months, and, as an
indication of the precautions taken by the forgers, Plate VI. (which
came into use in March, 1872) was duly imitated, although the change of
the small figures was a detail probably never noticed by members of the
general public.

[Illustration: STAMPS BEARING NATIONAL EMBLEMS

 1 New South Wales           5 Sweden        9 Switzerland
 2 Belgium                   6 Russia       10 Turkey
 3 Mauritius                 7 Italy        11 Brazil
 4 Japan                     8 Bosnia]

"According to calculations based on the average numbers used on several
days, the Post Office must have lost about £50 a day during the period
mentioned above. Who were the originators and perpetrators of the fraud
will probably never be known; possibly a stockbroker's clerk (or a small
'syndicate' of these gentlemen), or, more probably, a clerk in the Post
Office itself. It was an ingenious fraud, well planned, and cleverly
carried out at a minimum of risk, and but for the market for old stamps
it would never have been discovered."

For purposes of reference, we give below a list of the stamps which have
been most frequently copied, together with hints on how to detect the
forgeries. (G. = genuine; F. = forgery.)

ALSACE AND LORRAINE.--G., the points of the network in the background
turned up; F. has them turned down. The "P" of word "Postes" farther
from margin in G. than F. Used copies more likely to be G. than unused.

BELGIUM.--One centime, Leopold, 1861. F., yellowish paper instead of
white. The word "Postes" has no outline round each letter in F.
Obliterated specimens often F.

BRAZIL.--The early issues, with numerals in centre of filigree work
often imitated. Paper too thick in F.

GERMANY.--Nearly all the rarer stamps have been copied; specimens should
be accepted with caution.

CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.--Triangular issues, 1853-1864. G. has knee of "Hope"
rounded; F., angular. If top line of knee produced to border, it cuts
through the centre of the letter "S." in "Postage," in G. but through
letter "O" in F.

CYPRUS.--The line-engraved Great Britain issue with overprint. In this
case forged overprints have been added to genuine stamps. Forgeries have
the "C" in "Cyprus" thicker than the other letters, also the "Y" set
higher than other letters. The extreme length from "C" to "S" is seldom
accurate, as given in catalogues, in F.

FRANCE.--The five francs, 1869. F. perforated 13; G. perforated 13-1/2.
Also F. has dots in corner of frame, not rounded as in G.

MAURITIUS.--Many of the earlier issues F.

NEVIS.--The shilling green, 1861. In G. ink seems to stand up from
paper, but flat in F. The lines on woman's arm are straight in G., but
in dots in F.

NEW SOUTH WALES.--The stamps known as "Sydney Views" have been largely
copied. The large fivepenny, sixpenny, eightpenny, and shilling often
had unusually wide margins when perforated. The faker has trimmed off
the tooth edges, and called the stamps the rare imperforated specimens.

NOVA SCOTIA.--Some of the fine early issues have been lithographed in
F., while the G. were engraved.

STATES OF THE CHURCH.--These stamps have been largely reprinted from
original dies. Only stamps on original envelopes should be accepted by
the novice.

PORTUGAL.--Many of the surcharged issues have been forged; the
overprinted words being imitations.

SEDAN.--No genuine stamps ever existed; all were spurious.

SIERRA LEONE, 1872-1881.--A type of stamp that is representative of many
others. F. lithographed, with the delicate lines on the face as heavy as
those constituting the background.

UNITED STATES.--Early issues often had a grille--_i.e._, an embossed
series of lines to prevent removal of obliteration without being
noticed. F. seldom have grille.



CHAPTER IX

PIONEERS OF POSTAGE


In a previous chapter we spoke of the penny black of 1840 as the first
postage label to be given to the world. The reader must not suppose from
this remark that the appearance of the stamp coincided with the
commencement of an organized postal system in Great Britain. Such a
thing as a post was known to exist in this country as far back as the
year 1609, but not until some thirty years later were its operations
extended to the public in general.

Across the sea, in France, the idea of letter-carrying was also
developing in this period of stress and struggle. In the year when
Cromwell was installed as "Protector," a Comte de Villayer was
permitted to place pillar-boxes in the thoroughfares of Paris and
provide the inhabitants with a local postal service. Villayer seems to
have been greatly concerned as to the best method of collecting the
postage on the letters placed in his charge until the idea of issuing a
wrapper bearing some distinctive design occurred to him. These paper
bands were placed on sale in a number of shops, and cost two sous
apiece. Each letter had to be wrapped in one of them, which Villayer's
men tore off prior to effecting delivery. The system is of unusual
interest to philatelists, because the ornamental wrapper devised by this
Frenchman supplies us with the origin from which postage stamps sprang.

At home the business of letter-carrying was growing with considerable
rapidity, considering how troublous were these times. Villayer's
counterpart in London was a man named Dockwra. He organized a system of
depots throughout the city for receiving correspondence. People took
their letters to these depots, paid the postage in actual coin, and an
attendant franked the communications by means of a hand stamp. This was
a device exactly similar to the obliterating stamps seen to-day on the
counters of our post offices. Dockwra's hand stamp bore a triangular
design bearing the curious legend, "Post Payd, Peny."

We now know the history of the first stamped wrapper, the first franking
stamp, and the first adhesive stamp. At this point we will speak of the
first stamped envelope. The "Mulready," as this pioneer envelope was
called, owed its origin to Sir Rowland Hill and his co-workers. The
penny black adhesive label was considered to be too great an innovation
by Sir Rowland's followers, and, as a sort of compromise, it was decided
to issue a stamped envelope as an alternative to the penny adhesive. The
two were placed on sale at the same moment, and, curiously enough, the
adhesive immediately proved a tremendous success, whilst the Mulready
only received slight favours. This happened in spite of the fact that
the authorities were confident that the stamped envelope would prove the
more popular of the two.

The Mulready was a curious, if not weird, production. The design covered
half of the face of the envelope, and consisted of Britannia surrounded
by people and animals treated symbolically. The paper used for the
envelope bore the silk threads spoken of in an earlier chapter.

The Mulready deserved a better fate. All the comic papers at the time
reproduced grotesque imitations of it; every wit used it disparagingly,
and in all ways it became a butt for humour. Perhaps the best-known
caricatures of this unfortunate envelope were those produced by Doyle, a
boy of fifteen. Though his drawings never received postal sanction, they
are often sold by stamp dealers and treasured by collectors as
curiosities.

Before leaving the Mulready, we must admit that two other envelopes
claim to be older than this production of Sir Rowland Hill. The first is
the special-letter cover, which was issued to members of Parliament in
January, 1840, and the second, the New South Wales embossed envelope of
1838. Of the former we need only say that its use was merely of a
private nature, whilst of the latter our knowledge is very imperfect and
hardly trustworthy.

The first postcard was issued by Germany in comparatively recent times;
its use was suggested by Dr. von Stephan, a high authority in postal
matters. The pioneer letter-card emanated from the Kingdom of Belgium,
and bore a red ten centimes stamp with the head of Leopold II.

Having discussed the earliest forms of postal stationery, it will be
interesting to examine certain of the adhesive stamps which claim
notoriety on account of their positions as pioneers. The first stamp of
all, as we have said before, was the penny black of Great Britain, but
the earliest issue of foreign stamps (_i.e._, omitting those of Great
Britain) dates from the year 1843, and came from Brazil. The labels are
not attractive in appearance; they are large, and bear large numerals
surrounded by a circular background of filigree work. They have been
nicknamed, not inappropriately, the bull's eye stamps of Brazil. The
stamps remained in currency but one year, and are, therefore, rare.

It is rather curious to think that Brazil--a republic not usually
associated with progressive measures--should have been, with Great
Britain, the only country to issue stamps for nine whole years after
their introduction. In short, no other Government issued adhesives until
the January of 1849. On the first of that month, however, both Belgium
and France provided stamps for the convenience of their people. The
Belgian stamp consisted of two varieties--the ten centimes, dark brown,
and the twenty centimes, blue, both bearing a head and shoulder
engraving of Leopold I. In France one label was issued; it bore the
value of ten centimes, in dark brown, and was ornamented with the head
of Ceres. These three specimens were, therefore, the first adhesives to
receive recognition on the Continent.

It is pleasing to note how Brazil, Belgium, and France, all imitated
Great Britain in the colour and values of their first issues; it is also
an interesting coincidence that the earliest labels of all these
countries, Great Britain included, were extremely short-lived.

The first colonial stamps were the two Mauritius "line-engravings,"
which were described at length in the chapter dealing with rare
specimens.

The first picture stamp is often taken to be the large Congo adhesive
bearing a view of the port of Matadi, whilst sometimes pride of place is
awarded to the Columbus ship stamp of the Argentine Republic. In reality
neither of these can claim the honour of being the forerunner of our
picture issues, an honour which rightly belongs to the early "Sydney
Views" of New South Wales. These latter stamps are extremely scarce, and
change ownership for from £5 to £10 a copy.

Turning now to the stamps of our Mother Country, the penny black may be
again mentioned as being the first adhesive to bear the head of Queen
Victoria. King Edward was first revealed to us philatelically by the
halfpenny, penny, twopence-halfpenny, and sixpenny values of Great
Britain--these four stamps being issued on the same day, January 1,
1902. King George's earliest stamp was the twopence-halfpenny label
issued by the Union of South Africa.



CHAPTER X

COMMEMORATIVE STAMPS


In recent times it has become fashionable, in certain countries, to
celebrate national events by means of special issues of stamps. The idea
is a very acceptable one so long as it is not abused. Unfortunately,
however, we must say that many countries do abuse this interesting way
of commemorating their historic achievements. The consolidation of an
empire, the discovery of a continent, the centenary of a great victory,
are all matters of history which we are glad to see recorded in the
pages of the stamp album; but when a series of labels is issued to
acquaint the world of the death of an unheard-of poet, or the erection
of an obscure post office, then we can only surmise that the stamps were
printed more for philatelic than postal purposes.

[Illustration: NOTED STATESMEN OF U.S.A.

 1 Washington  5 Franklin      9 Zachary Taylor
 2 Franklin    6 Grant        10 Jackson
 3 Lincoln     7 Washington   11 Jefferson
 4 Webster     8 Washington]

Commemorative stamps coming from most European countries, also the
British Colonies, may usually be accepted for collecting purposes, but
those which hail from one or other of the South American republics
should be purchased with caution. Some of these Governments simply cast
around for events to celebrate, hoping that each new issue will help to
swell the national exchequer in no little measure.

Probably the first celebration issue of any country was the penny
envelope of Great Britain, bearing a blue stamp, which appeared on July
2, 1890. The occasion was the jubilee of the "Uniform Penny Postage," an
event which was celebrated by a festival held in the South Kensington
Museum.

The envelope is undoubtedly attractive. Beyond the familiar profile
portrait of Queen Victoria, and an artistic rendering of her coat of
arms, it bears a picture of the North Mail coach making for Highgate in
1790 at eight miles an hour. In contrast to this antiquated method of
locomotion we are also shown the North Mail railway express approaching
Carlisle at forty-eight miles an hour. Two other figures, one a
letter-carrier of 1840, and the other a postman of 1890, complete the
ornamentation.

This envelope, and a correspondence-card enclosed within it, which
appropriately bears a portrait of Sir Rowland Hill, was sold by post
offices on the one day only for sixpence. Though it is a curiosity worth
obtaining, there is little demand for it, and dealers are glad to supply
copies even now at the original price.

Among the stamps of our Colonies, those of Newfoundland have always been
attractive; but probably the set which was issued to celebrate the four
hundredth anniversary of the discovery of the island by Jean Cabot is
the most interesting of all. Cabot, it will be remembered, though born
in Genoa, settled in Bristol as a merchant. In 1497 he was commissioned
by Henry VII. to search for undiscovered lands. He set out with two
small ships, and sighted first Newfoundland, then Cape Breton Isle, and
afterwards Nova Scotia. In 1498 he died.

From Newfoundland to Canada is not a great distance. To this British
Dominion we are indebted for two fine commemorative sets. The first,
that of 1897, was issued in honour of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee,
and the second to celebrate the tercentenary of the founding of Quebec.
This town, on the St. Lawrence River, owes its origin to Jacques
Cartier, a Frenchman born at St. Malo. Cartier sailed from his native
port in 1534 accompanied by two small vessels of twenty tons apiece. He
landed on the Gaspé shores and claimed the territory for French
sovereignty. His stay was of short duration, for we read that in 1535 he
again set out from St. Malo, and this time sailed up the mouth of the
St. Lawrence and landed at a little native settlement, which afterwards
received the name of Quebec. (_Kebek_ is the Indian for "The Rock.") We
are bound to state that little came of Cartier's exploits, for not until
Champlain visited the district many years later, with the dual purpose
of spreading Christianity and opening up commerce, did the French
settlement prosper.

The pictures on the stamps are of interest. The 1 cent portrays both
Cartier and Champlain; the 5 cents gives a picture of the latter's
house; the 7 cents introduces Montcalm and Wolfe; the 10 cents reveals
Quebec in 1700; the 15 cents depicts Champlain's departure for the
interior, then an almost unknown world; whilst the 20 cents is inscribed
"Cartier's arrival before Quebec."

Another set of commemorative stamps comes from Barbados, its object
being to celebrate the heroic exploits of Nelson--the Battle of
Trafalgar in particular. The tragedy which was enacted on board the
_Victory_, almost, if we may so express it, at the moment of victory,
the mournful journey to England, the lying-in-state at Greenwich, and
the funeral in St. Paul's Cathedral, are all too well known to need
description; but it is less well known that Horatio Nelson spent many of
his early years of seamanship in the West Indies, and particularly in
and around the Barbados. It is on this account that a fine monument has
been erected to his memory in this Colony, and a set of stamps was
issued to mark the unveiling.

Australasia has not given us many celebration stamps, but those which
have come from the Antipodes are extremely interesting. What could be
more stirring than the design on the three-halfpenny 1901 khaki stamp of
New Zealand? It was issued to mark the departure of troops on their way
to the fighting-line in South Africa.

Another interesting set of stamps was provided some twenty years ago by
New South Wales to remind the world that it had been a colony for just
over a century. One of the values bears a portrait of Captain Cook, who
discovered the Colony in 1770; whilst another reveals, appropriately
enough, the features of Captain Arthur Phillips, the founder of the
first convict settlement on these Australian shores. Up till the time of
Phillips our prisoners had been banished to America, but after the war,
which gained for the New England States their independence, this outlet
was closed to our exiles, and fresh fields were found in New South
Wales.

Probably no event in history has received more attention on the part of
stamp producers than the discoveries of Columbus. The Argentine Republic
was, we believe, the first country to honour the memory of this intrepid
explorer by the issue of postal labels, but to the United States must be
awarded the credit of issuing the finest set of Columbian stamps. This
series of postal adhesives is probably one of the grandest collections
of historical stamps that has ever been produced, and, fortunately, the
lower values are cheap, and easily obtained.

Other commemorative stamps of the United States have been
issued--namely, the Omaha, the Pan-American, the Buffalo, and the Panama
Exhibition stamps; but though some of them are exceedingly attractive in
design, none of them can compare with the Columbus issue in point of
interest.

Another intrepid explorer to receive recognition by means of an issue of
stamps was Vasco da Gama. To mention his name recalls to mind the
wonderful and perilous journey which he was the first to make around the
southern point of Africa, and thence to India. Vasco was fortunate in
living in Portugal at a time when this kingdom was at the height of its
fame and prosperity. Financed by the then King, Manoel, he left Lisbon
on July 8, 1497, with four vessels manned by 160 men. He took four long
months to reach the island of St. Helena, and whilst rounding the Cape
the trials of this brave band of men were terrible in the extreme.
Calicut, in India, was reached on May 20, 1498, and after a short and
none too pleasant stay among the unfriendly natives, a start for home
was made. On returning to Portugal Vasco da Gama received a tremendous
ovation from the King and the people.

The Portuguese stamps issued in 1898 to celebrate the fourth centenary
of the discovery of the route to India bear very attractive pictures.

Three events of interest have given rise to special stamps in Italy:
(_a_) The fiftieth anniversary of the freedom of Sicily; (_b_) the
jubilee of the kingdom of Italy; and (_c_) the festivities to
commemorate the completion of the Venice Campanile.

To appreciate the meaning of the first two events, we must remember that
the present kingdom of Italy was, less than sixty years ago, a number of
little states, each contending against its neighbour. Sicily, one of the
conflicting areas, was ruled by Ferdinand II. of Spain, a man noted for
the harsh and tyrannical rule which he inflicted on his subjects. In
answer to an appeal from the men of Sicily, Garibaldi sailed from Genoa
with 1,000 followers, landed at Marsala on May 11, 1860, and took
Palermo soon afterwards. The people were jubilant at his success, and
Ferdinand was quickly deposed. Sicily joined Sardinia, and Victor
Emmanuel reigned over the two territories.

In the same year, Central Italy, Southern Italy, the Papal States, and
Naples, all joined the kingdom of Emmanuel and, in February, 1861, the
first Parliament of all the Italian States was held at Turin. It was
this event that was celebrated by the Italian Jubilee stamps.

The third event which the Italian stamps commemorated was the completion
of the new Campanile in Venice. The old monument collapsed on the square
of St. Mark's some ten years ago, and a new erection of similar design
to the original one has been built in its place.

A very attractive series of stamps was placed on sale throughout
Austria in 1908 to commemorate the sixtieth year of the reign of Franz
Joseph I. The labels are particularly interesting, as they reveal to us
many Austrian rulers about whom our history books have much to say. They
are as follows:

1 heller: Karl VI. Best known, perhaps, as the father of Maria Theresa.

2 heller: Maria Theresa.

3 heller: Joseph II. A great reformer, but a very harsh ruler.

5, 10, 25, 30, and 35 heller: Franz Joseph I.

6 heller: Leopold II. Brother and successor to Joseph II. Pacified the
Netherlands and Hungary which his elder brother had inflamed.

12 heller: Franz I. Assisted Napoléon in his campaign against Russia,
and later joined with other countries to break Napoleon's power.

20 heller: Ferdinand. Was persuaded to abdicate in favour of Franz
Joseph, as he was too weak to rule in such troublous times.

The last commemorative stamps of which we shall speak were issued in
1913 by Russia to honour the House of Romanoff. The adhesives are
printed in attractive colours, with bold designs, indicative of Russian
art. The heads revealed to us in this striking portrait-gallery are
those of Nicholas II., Peter I., Alexander II., Alexander III., Peter
II., Katherine II., Nicholas I., Alexander I., Alexei Michaelovitch,
Paul I., Elizabeth and Michael Feodorovitch.

Many other celebration stamps have appeared from time to time in various
countries; notice of them may be found in any postage stamp catalogue.



CHAPTER XI

INTERESTING PICTURE STAMPS


That the picture stamps reposing in our collections are highly
instructive as well as interesting needs little argument. We can sit in
an armchair and learn the geography of half the world by means of the
stamps bearing maps; we may wander, mentally, as far as the Antipodes,
thanks to the stamps bearing views; we may learn about the birds of the
air and the beasts of the forests from the stamps bearing animals.
Matters of architecture, heraldry, local customs, mythology, and
history, are other subjects which we may become acquainted with from our
postage adhesives.

Perhaps the most interesting labels are those which portray the natural
wonders of the wide-world. Let us turn first of all to the specimens
from New Zealand. What delightful views the 1898 stamps give of Mount
Cook, Lake Wakatipu, Mount Ruapehu, Lake Taupo, the Pink Terrace of
Rotomahana and Milford Sound--names which to many of us are mere places
mentioned in dry geography manuals, but here revealed in all their
glory!

From New Zealand let us wander to Tasmania. On these pages of our
album we find interesting pictures of Lake Marion, Mount Wellington, the
town of Hobart, Russell Falls, Lake St. Clair, and the waterfalls of
Dilston.

[Illustration: SOME VIEW STAMPS

 1 Lake Taupo and Mount Ruapehu    6 Mount Wellington
 2 Llandovery Falls                7 Table Bay and Mountains
 3 Sydney Harbour                  8 View of Deboj
 4 A View in Costa Rica            9 Pass of Narenta
 5 A Turkish View]

Curious though it may seem, waterfalls are favourite subjects for stamp
ornamentation. We have Niagara on the 5 cents United States value of
1901; the Llandovery Falls on the 1d. 1900, Jamaica; the Kaieteur Falls
on the 10 cents 1898 of British Guiana; the Stanley Falls and the
Inkissi Falls on the 1894 Congo issue; also the Victoria Falls on the
1905 issue of British South Africa. Were we to place these picture
stamps and others representing similar subjects side by side on a page
by themselves in our collection, we should have quite a fine array of
the world's most noted waterfalls.

Perhaps next to waterfalls, mountain views claim most popularity on
postage labels. Besides those mentioned already, we have Mount Kini
Balou on the 18 cents 1894, North Borneo; Table Mountain on the 1d.
1900, Cape of Good Hope; the Leon mountains on various Nicaraguan
issues; Popocatepetl on the 1 peso 1899, Mexico; Mount Konaluanui on the
2 cent 1894, Hawaii, and others.

Historic buildings are, as one would expect, frequently represented in
our collections. A most interesting stamp is the Chinese label bearing a
view of the Temple of Heaven, a sacred edifice erected to the memory of
Confucius, to which the Emperor repairs periodically and prays for the
favour of Heaven. The Kremlin and Winter Palace, both well-known Russian
buildings, figure on the stamps of the Tsar. The Grecian adhesives
reveal pictures of the Acropolis, including the Parthenon and Stadium;
the Egyptian adhesives show a sphinx and the Pyramids; a Dominican
adhesive bears a picture representing the Mausoleum of Columbus; whilst
a recent issue from Turkey, celebrating the recapture of Adrianople,
bears a fine view of the Mosque of Selim.

Of curious things our stamps provide us in plenty. A Newfoundland
adhesive shows an iceberg; a Toga stamp, a breadfruit-tree; a Tasmanian
stamp, Tasman's Arch; a Kedah stamp, a sheaf of rice; a North Borneo
stamp, a sago palm; a Columbian stamp, an American execution; a Bahamas
stamp, a staircase; another Toga stamp, a prehistoric trilith; a
Canadian stamp, a map of the British possessions; a Roumanian stamp, a
picture of the Queen nursing a wounded soldier; a Portuguese stamp, the
vision of St. Anthony; a Liberian stamp, a coffee plantation; a United
States stamp, an aeroplane; and a Peruvian stamp, a suspension bridge.

The Toga trilith, it may be well to explain, is an erection composed of
three large blocks of stone placed together like door-posts and a
lintel, and standing by themselves. It may be compared with the
monuments at Stonehenge, or the Druidical monoliths to be seen at
Carnac, in Brittany.

If mythology be of interest, the stamps of Greece will prove attractive.
This country offers some capital pictures of gladiators, disc-throwers,
wrestlers; of Hermes, Apollo, Atlas, Iris, Pallas Athene; of ancient
chariots, vases; as well as tableaux representing such incidents as
"Atlas offering the apples of Hesperides to Hercules," and "The struggle
between Hercules and Antæus."

Ships, some noted and others merely curious, figure on many labels. We
have an Atlantic schooner on a Newfoundland stamp; a native canoe on a
Papuan stamp; a Nile steamboat on an Egyptian stamp; a dhow on a Borneo
stamp; the flagship of Columbus on a Grenada stamp; Cabot's ship, the
_Matthew_, leaving the Avon, and Guy's ship, the _Endeavour_, on
Newfoundland stamps; and the _Hohenzollern_, the German Emperor's yacht,
on the unattractive stamps of the German colonies.

Of animals there are far too many for individual mention, but the
following are some of those depicted in our "philatelic zoo": A
kangaroo, zebra, dromedary, camel, platypus, elephant, hippopotamus,
lizard, giraffe, dog, gnu, codfish, springbok, seal, egret, parrot,
wryneck, emu, lyre bird, ptarmigan, chimpanzee, boar, rhinoceros, honey
bear, ourang-outang, stag, argus pheasant, panther, crocodile, and kiwi.

Some entire issues of stamps are particularly interesting if they be
considered solely from the pictorial standpoint. Probably the Bosnian
issue of 1906 is the finest in this matter. The scenes represented in
this attractive collection are--

     1 heller: View of Deboj.

     2 heller: View of Mostar.

     3 heller: Plima Tower at Jaice.

     5 heller: Pass of Narenta, with view of the Prenj.

     6 heller: Ramatae.

     10 heller: Road in the Valley of Vrba.

     20 heller: Old bridge at Mostar.

     25 heller: Sarajevo.

     30 heller: Animal carrying letters on passes.

     35 heller: Pavilion at Jezero.

     40 heller: Mail waggon with horses.

     45 heller: Market at Sarajevo.

     50 heller: Mail motor-waggon.

     1 kreutzer: The Carsija at Sarajevo.

     2 kreutzer: The Lucas Tower at Jaice.

Sarajevo, it will be remembered, was the scene of the assassination of
the Austrian Archduke, in 1914, whilst other places shown in the above
pictures have come to our notice through the despatches bearing on the
great European War.

How can we make the most of all these interesting and beautiful picture
stamps? Quite a good plan is to build up a collection devoted to these
attractive labels alone, arranging them not according to their
countries, but according to the subject represented by them. For
instance, there are sufficient stamps portraying animals to permit of a
zoological section, arranged in scientific groups--mammals, birds,
reptiles, etc. Of course, a good deal of written explanations should be
provided with each adhesive. The Greek stamp representing Atlas might be
followed by a brief account of the arduous duties imposed upon this
unfortunate hero; the Toga stamp with the trilith might be accompanied
by the short note given a few paragraphs above; whilst the stamps
bearing geographical features might have little sketch-maps placed
underneath them so that their exact positions may be learnt. If this
plan be followed, the picture stamps will become extremely fascinating,
and our store of general knowledge enhanced considerably.



CHAPTER XII

STAMPS AND HISTORY


What a wealth of history is recalled by a glance through the pages of
our stamp albums! The romantic changes which France has undergone, the
efforts made by Germany for securing a wider empire, the ups and downs
of Spain, the gradual growth of Italy, and a hundred other indications
of progress and decay are all reflected therein.

Let us take, first of all, the case of Germany. In the earliest years
we find stamps issued by a multitude of little States--_i.e._, Baden,
Bavaria, Bergedorf, Brunswick, Hanover, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Odenburg,
Prussia, Saxony, etc.--whilst the towns of Hamburg, Bremen, and Lubeck
also had individual postal rights of their own. The first step of
consolidation came on January 1, 1868, when most of the above
authorities joined what was called the North German Confederation, and
nearly all of the separate units ceased to issue stamps. The
Confederation adhesives were current from 1868 to 1871--that is, until
the German Empire sprang into being. When the Franco-German War of
1870-1871 placed the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine under Prussian
rule, special German stamps were sold in the captured territory. As they
bore values in centimes, they were withdrawn as soon as "groschens" and
"kreuzers" became generally current. A less important instance of
Prussian absorption occurred on August 9, 1890, when the labels of
Heligoland bearing a portrait of Queen Victoria were replaced by the
regular German stamps. Further Teutonic progress is made evident by the
numerous colonial issues which this kingdom has placed on sale since
1897. Lastly, may be mentioned the adhesives bearing the familiar effigy
of "Germania," overprinted for use in Belgium.

The stamps of Spain are also interesting. The first issue (January 1,
1850) bore very crude portraits of the unscrupulous Queen Isabella II.
Various sets, all of them highly inartistic, were issued between 1850
and 1868. In the latter year a revolution occurred, and the Queen was
deposed, a republic being instituted instead of the monarchy. Isabella's
stamps were temporarily overprinted with the words "HABILITADO POR LA
NACION," and when the stock was exhausted, a new design, bearing an
allegorical head typifying Liberty and Spain, became current. The
republic did not last long, for the claims to the throne of the Duke of
Aosta were considered well founded, and he was crowned King in 1872.
Amadeus, as he was called, figured on the stamps for a brief twelve
months. These were stormy times. Unable to cope with them, he abdicated,
and the republic was reinstated, the new stamps bearing first an
allegorical figure of Peace and then of Justice. But even the
representative Government was short-lived. The people once more turned
to the House of Bourbon, and Alfonso XII. became King. He reigned ten
years, and was then succeeded by his son, Alfonso XIII., the present
ruling Sovereign.

The Italian adhesives are no less interesting. We have already indicated
the manner in which Modena, Naples, Parma, Romagna, the Roman States,
Sicily, Tuscany, and Sardinia joined together to form the Kingdom of
Italy, and elected the King of Sardinia to be the new Sovereign. This
latter was Victor Emmanuel II. He was succeeded by his son, Humbert I.,
who fell by the assassin's hand whilst riding on the outskirts of Milan
in 1900. The present King, a fine example of soldier and statesman, is
Victor Emmanuel III.

Probably no stamps reveal greater matters of historical importance than
those of our neighbour, France. When adhesives were first issued by this
country a republic was in power, and so an allegorical head, that of
Ceres, embellished the new labels. In 1852 Louis Napoléon became
President of the Republic, and, being a man who loved notoriety, he
placed his bust upon the ten and twenty-five centimes values. Later on,
as is known to all, he became Napoléon III.,[4] Emperor of the French,
and the wording on the adhesives was changed from REPUB. FRANC. to
EMPIRE FRANC. Later on, in 1863, to mark the successes which the French
won over the Austrians, the head of Napoléon was encircled in a laurel
crown. The final stage was reached in October, 1870, when the Germans
gained an almost crushing victory over the French. As a result, the
Empire fell, and a republic once more ruled over the country. The head
of the Emperor was removed from the stamps, and Ceres again appeared
upon them. Thus the adhesives of France plainly indicate the changing
course taken by the Government of our neighbour across the Channel.

[4] As there was no Napoléon II., readers may wonder why the above
monarch received the title of Napoléon III. The reason is a highly
amusing one. The draft of the proclamation issued by the Government
announcing his ascendancy to the throne commenced with the following
words: "VIVE NAPOLÉON!!!" The printer took the three exclamation marks
to be the figures III, and his press accordingly reproduced the mistake
some thousands of times over. Before the error was discovered, Paris and
the other great towns had been placarded with the incorrect imprints.
There was no time to lose, so the Emperor, much to the amusement of his
courtiers, agreed to take the title of Napoléon III.

[Illustration: ZOOLOGICAL STAMPS

 1  Dromedary             5   Quetzal         9 Springbok and Gnu
 2  Kangaroo              6   Tiger          10 Emu
 3  Giraffe               7   Panther        11 Malay Stag
 4  Anteater              8   Swan]

If we turn to the stamps of Portugal, a most interesting array of
monarchs will be revealed. Queen Maria figures upon the earliest stamps,
but after two years of currency her portrait gave place to that of King
Pedro V., which in turn was followed by a representation of King Luiz.
In 1889 King Carlos ascended the throne, and his effigy was given on the
issues of 1892 and 1895. The assassination of Carlos and his elder son,
which shocked the whole world, resulted in the appearance of King
Manoel's features upon the stamps printed between 1908 and 1910. The
events which marred his short and stormy reign are known to all, and in
1910 he took up his abode in England. Afterwards a republic sprang up,
and the present adhesives bear the imprint of Liberty.

If we leave Europe and examine the stamps of the remaining four
continents, many other events of great historical bearing will be
revealed. The labels of the Transvaal, for instance, tell of two British
occupations and two republics; the Egyptian labels show Turkish
influence followed by a British protectorate; the early United States
labels hint at the war which was waged to put down slavery; whilst the
Cuban labels indicate Spanish occupation, followed first by the
protection of the United States, and then by the creation of an
independent republic. The adhesives of the Central and South American
republics are worthy of special note, as they point to insurrections,
wars, provisional governments, and troublous times in general. But no
matter where we turn in our albums, interesting landmarks of the world's
history will be revealed by our treasured labels.



CHAPTER XIII

WAR STAMPS


Among the most interesting stamps which figure in our collections are
those which owe their origin to the stern necessities of war. Stamps
which fall into this division are of two main classes: those needed for
the use of troops fighting outside their own territory, and those called
into being by the subjugation of the enemy's country.

The Great War of Europe, as the conflict of 1914-15 has been called, has
naturally provided many additions to the list of war stamps.

1. Germany has overprinted its own labels with the word "Belgien," and
these are of some rarity when in a used condition.

2. Many of the German colonial issues have been overprinted with words
suggesting British or French occupation. We have, for instance, the Togo
yacht stamps bearing the inscription "Anglo-French Occupation," and the
Samoa yacht labels stamped with the letters "G.R.I."

[Illustration: SOME HAPSBURG PORTRAITS

 1 Karl VI        4 Franz Josef I in 1908   7 Ferdinand
 2 Maria Theresa  5 Leopold II              8 Franz Josef in 1884
 3 Joseph II      6 Franz I                 9 Franz Josef in 1878]

3. In cases where the German colonial issues have run short in the
conquered settlements we find that labels of British or French origin
have been pressed into service--for instance, New Zealand stamps have
been overprinted for use in Samoa.

All these classes of war labels permit of many interesting varieties,
but, whenever possible, used specimens should be preferred to those
which have not passed through the post. We make this statement because
certain belligerent countries endeavoured to replenish their exchequers
by the sale, to philatelists, of uncancelled copies.

The stamps used by troops who are fighting outside their own territory
are probably the most valuable of war labels. The British Expeditionary
Force in France and Belgium was at the outset provided with ordinary
English postal adhesives. These adhesives, when bearing such postmarks
as "Army Base Post Office, France," or the ordinary cancel marks of
Ostend, Boulogne, Paris, etc., are extremely valuable. When the British
stamps ran short, letters were franked by postmarks alone, and these are
well worth collecting. The circular and rectangular marks bearing the
word "Passed by Censor" are also interesting.

Communications coming from the Fleet bear cancel marks formed by a
number of concentric rings. The varieties of this postal mark should be
prized.

In all cases the complete envelope or card must be placed in the
collection intact, and not just the cut-out postmark.

Probably the most carefully planned army postal service is that
possessed by our Indian troops. Adhesive stamps are generally used on
correspondence, the ordinary Indian issues, overprinted with the letters
I.E.F. being employed.

From a Field Service Manual[5] on "Posts and Telegraphs," we have been
able to glean a few details respecting the organization and
establishment of the Indian military post offices. In times of peace a
stock of tents and equipment, sufficient for the supply of three base
post offices, fifty first-class field post offices, ten second-class
field post offices, and for the supervising staff, is kept in store at
Lahore in the charge of the Postal Department of the Punjab.

[5] Quoted from _Stamp Collecting_, December 5, 1914.

On the outbreak of war the military postal service is organized by the
Director-General of Posts and Telegraphs in India according to the
requirements of the Army authorities.

The supervising staff is selected by him from a roll of European
volunteers for such service maintained in his office, the full war
establishment consisting of six Directors or Deputy Directors, eighteen
Assistant Directors, twenty-four Inspectors, and fifty Postmasters. The
rest of the establishment is selected by the Postmaster-General of the
Punjab.

One Director or Deputy Director, two Assistant Directors, and four
Inspectors constitute the normal postal personnel of an expeditionary
force. They wear the ordinary field service uniform of the Indian Army
according to their respective ranks, distinguished by the word "Post" on
the shoulder straps.

[Illustration: STAMPS FROM THE "GREAT WAR" ZONE

 1  Russia         6 Union of South Africa     11 Prussia
 2  Belgium        7 France                    12 Bavaria
 3  Montenegro     8 Luxembourg                13 Austria
 4  Great Britain  9 Portugal                  14 Turkey
 5  Egypt         10 Servia]

The following extracts from the Indian Army Order, No. 619, dated
November 10, 1913, are of interest:

     "7. The Director or Deputy Director, or, in his absence, the
     Postmaster-General under whose orders he is to work, should, on
     receipt of the first intimation that a force is to be mobilized,
     take the earliest opportunity to consult the General Officer
     appointed to command the force as to the postal requirements of the
     force in respect of the number of field post offices, the classes
     of postal business to be undertaken, the establishment to be
     provided, etc. As far as possible, the wishes of the General
     Officer commanding should be carried out.

     "23. The Director-General will arrange that the treasury nearest to
     the base office is supplied with about ten times its normal supply
     of ordinary postage stamps (including postcards and envelopes), and
     that a sufficient stock is maintained throughout the campaign. The
     base post office should thus be in a position to supply at once the
     postage stamps required in field post offices. If there is no
     treasury at hand, a sufficient supply of postage stamps of all
     descriptions must be kept at the base post office. The base post
     office will be supplied with an iron safe, or two, if necessary.

     "24. The requisite stamps, scales, bags, and other articles of
     stock sufficient for six months' requirements, will be furnished to
     the base post office for its own use, and for distribution, under
     the orders of the Director or Deputy Director, to field post
     offices. Section 5 B shows the books, forms, stamps, etc., required
     for field post offices. All books, forms, and articles of stock
     should be packed in the prescribed mule trunks, each of which, when
     packed, should not exceed one maund in weight. The books, forms,
     and stamps required by the base post office will be the same as
     those used by a head office in India performing the same classes of
     business; but in addition to the ordinary stamps it will be
     supplied with a special 'postage cancelled' stamp."

Another form of war stamp is the charity stamps; these have been issued
by various countries in order to collect money for Red Cross and other
funds. The labels serve for ordinary postal work, but as a rule cost a
halfpenny or penny above face value. A charge of three-halfpence, for
instance, is made for a penny stamp, a penny of the sum being
appropriated by the postal authorities, and a halfpenny being remitted
to the Red Cross Fund. So far, France, Monaco, Belgium, Russia, Austria,
and Hungary have printed charity labels, and other countries have such
issues in contemplation. It may be mentioned that various bogus charity
stamps appearing to emanate from Belgium have reached this country from
Holland and elsewhere; all such labels, therefore, should be accepted
with caution.

War stamps date back, at least, to the time of the Crimea. In this
campaign the British forces instituted a military post office at
Constantinople with branch offices at Balaclava and Scutari. No special
stamps were given to the soldiers, the current British penny reds being
used. The postmarks, however, were distinctive, and it is therefore
possible to distinguish between the red labels used in the ordinary way
at home and those used by the Expeditionary Force. The distinctive
postmarks were:

1. A crown placed between two stars, with straight bars above and below,
the whole forming an oval.

2. A star placed between two noughts; then as No. 1.

As few people know of this rare and interesting form of obliteration, it
is quite possible to come across specimens when buying the penny reds in
quantities for reconstructing plates.

Other war stamps are--(1) The Alsace and Lorraine issue, which was
printed primarily for military use during the Franco-German campaign;
(2) the overprinted issues of Peru, used during the occupation of this
republic by Chilian forces; (3) the Egyptian issue overprinted with the
word "Soudan," at the time when Lord Kitchener was carrying on the
Soudan campaign; (4) the V.R.I. issues of the Transvaal; (5) the Italian
issues bearing the overprint "Lybia," current during the Italian-Turkish
War; and (6) the many issues which resulted from the Balkan War of 1912.

Before concluding this chapter, it may be well to speak of the Spanish
stamps of 1874-1879, and 1898-99, which bear the inscription, "Impuesto
de Guerra." These labels were not war stamps in the ordinary sense, but
stamps issued to collect a war-tax. After the Carlist War, the
insurrection of Cartagena, the Civil War in Cuba, and the
Spanish-American War, the Government decided to impose a war-tax upon a
number of articles, such as letters, telegrams, theatre tickets and
railway tickets. The stamps bearing the above inscription were therefore
issued to facilitate the collection of these taxes. When the used copies
have done postal duty they may be looked upon as postage stamps, but
collectors should avoid purchasing specimens which served for theatre,
railway, and the various other uses.



CHAPTER XIV

SOME FAMOUS COLLECTIONS


The ardent philatelist is not only interested in his own collection, but
is ever keen on inspecting those of other people. A great treat,
therefore, for the reader who lives in London, or who is staying in the
great metropolis, is a visit to the British Museum, where the famous
Tapling Collection is stored. To find one's way about the vast
treasure-house in Bloomsbury is no easy matter, but the stamp exhibits
will be quickly located if the visitor, on entering, takes the first
public turning to the right and then the first on the left. The cases
are placed about half-way down the King's Library, on the right-hand
side.

[Illustration: STAMPS COMING FROM COUNTRIES WHICH NO LONGER HAVE
SEPARATE ISSUES

 1  Victoria              4  Cape of Good Hope       7  Heligoland
 2  States of the Church  5  Natal                   8  New South Wales
 3  South Australia       6  South African Republic  9  Queensland]

The collection is housed in three separate cupboards, and the stamps are
arranged under glass in frames. It may be well to add that the position
is not a very good one from the point of view of lighting, and, unless
the visitor goes during the brightest part of the day, he will lose much
of the enjoyment on this account.

It is difficult to say which are the most interesting specimens in the
collection, for nearly all the great rarities are present. The issues of
Great Britain, however, are very complete, and should, therefore, be
examined with care. Not only are there copies of the "penny blacks" and
"twopenny blues," sufficient to delight the heart of any very advanced
collector, but there are also copies of the most valuable early
surface-printed specimens. Some of the essays--_i.e._, stamps made for
purposes of trial--are extremely interesting. These issues, naturally,
do not fall into the ordinary collector's possession, but here they are
to be inspected in hundreds. There are, for instance, about twenty-five
essays, in different colours, of the penny with Queen Victoria's head,
which was issued in lilac. There are also countless specimens of the
complete 1884 issue in various shades from crimson to blue, whilst the
tenpenny value of 1890 is shown in half a dozen different combinations
of colour. A very curious essay to be seen here is a penny line-engraved
stamp bearing a profile of Prince Consort. Apparently, this tentative
label never received official sanction, as the people of Great Britain
might have considered the innovation a slight to the Queen they loved.

Among the entires of Great Britain there are many long-forgotten
treasures, such as the penny-farthing postcard, the twopenny card, and
the South Kensington Jubilee cards.

Of colonial stamps there are some particularly complete sets of early
issues. The "Sydney Views" of New South Wales are shown in whole panes
of twenty-five, the triangular Capes are given in numbers, whilst the
array of early Mauritius adhesives is not to be surpassed. The postcards
of Ceylon are also worthy of mention.

It should be pointed out that some of the greatest rarities have been
removed from the ordinary cases and placed in the Cracherode Room,
where, however, they can still be viewed at leisure. The whole
collection is said to be worth £100,000, was bequeathed to the Trustees
of the Museum by the late Mr. T. K. Tapling, M.P., and has been in their
hands since 1891. No stamps have been added to the collection since it
came into the Trustees' possession, so that specimens of a later date
are conspicuous by their absence.

Another fine collection of stamps is possessed by the postal authorities
in Newgate Street, but, unfortunately, no facilities are given for
public inspection. The labels in this collection are in an unused
condition, and consist largely of the specimens which are sent out by
every country belonging to the Universal Postal Union. This collection
also contains a number of trial and "imprimatur" sheets of British
stamps.

[Illustration: COMMEMORATIVE STAMPS

 1 U.S.A.: Columbus issue

 2 U.S.A.: Columbus issue

 3 Canada: Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee

 4 Canada: Penny Postage to Colonies

 5 Roumania: Twenty-fifth Anniversary of the Establishment of the Kingdom

 6 Portuguese India: Vasco da Gama Celebration

 7 Switzerland: Jubilee of Postal Union

 8 U.S.A.: Jamestown Exhibition issue

 9 Italy: Fiftieth year of Kingdom]

King George's collection is probably one of the most interesting in the
world. It is a private collection, and therefore not on view; but
sections of it, however, have been exhibited from time to time. Mr. F.
J. Melville, who is well acquainted with its contents, tells us in
"Chats on Postage Stamps" (p. 312) that--

"The collection contains the original sketch of W. Mulready, R.A., for
the famous envelopes and letter-sheets of 1840, to which reference has
been made. Then there is the historic pair of sketches in water-colours,
roughly executed by Sir Rowland Hill to show the approximate appearance
of the penny stamp in black and the twopenny stamp in blue.

"All the Victorian surface-printed series are shown imperforate,
including the 3d., with reticulated background; 3d., plate 3 ("dot");
4d., in lake, watermarked "small garter"; 6d., plate 1 on safety paper,
and plate 3 with hair-lines; 9d., plate 3, with hair-lines, and plate 5;
10d., plate 2; 1s., plate 1 on safety paper; plate 3 with hair-lines, 4
in an unissued colour--lilac; 2s., plate 3; 10s., £1, and £5, on blue
paper.

"Of the ordinary stamps of King Edward's reign, the Royal collection
contains several essays and proofs of great interest. A photograph of a
stamp made up from Herr Füchs's original sketch of King Edward's head,
enclosed in the newly designed frame and border, deservedly comes first,
and bears the late King's written approval: from this, temporary
copper-plates were engraved so that the effect might be noted, and three
proofs therefrom are included. Unfortunately, the final result did not
come up to the anticipated standard, and there was some talk about
having a fresh design prepared after the style of the then new Transvaal
stamps, but this fell through on the ground of expense; proofs of this
also are in the collection, together with various colour-trials of the
penny value, as adopted."

The King's collection also contains specimens of--(_a_) The unissued
Tyrian-plum twopenny, Great Britain; (_b_) Mauritius penny red, post
office; (_c_) British Guiana, many of the 1860-1862 issues; (_d_) some
very fine stamps of Nevis, Hongkong, Grenada, Trinidad, and Bermuda.


OTHER FAMOUS COLLECTORS.

 Monsieur la Rénotière, of Paris.
 The late Lord Crawford.
 Mr. Henry Duveen.
 King Manoel of Portugal.
 The late Judge Philbrick.
 Earl of Kintore.
 Mr. Henry J. Crocker, of San Francisco.

BILLING AND SONS, LTD., PRINTERS, GUILDFORD, ENGLAND

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AND OTHER SIMILAR BOOKS

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 =Europe in Pictures=
 =How other People Live=
 =Beasts and Birds=
 =Gardens in their Seasons=
 =Pictures of British History=
 =More Pictures of British History=
 =Pictures of Famous Travel.=

_NOTE.--These volumes are also to be had in cloth at =2s.= each._


Large crown 8vo., cloth, with frontispiece.

 =Eric; or, Little by Little=
 =St. Winifred's; or, The World of School=
 =Julian Home: a Tale of College Life=

=Scott's Waverley Novels.= _See also list at the end of this Catalogue._


PRICE 1/6 NET EACH

RED CAP TALES FROM SCOTT

Large crown 8vo., cloth, each containing 8 full page illustrations in
colour.

 =Waverley=
 =Guy Mannering=
 =Rob Roy=
 =The Pirate, and A Legend of Montrose=
 =The Antiquary=
 =Ivanhoe=
 =Fortunes of Nigel=
 =Quentin Durward=

     =How to Use the Microscope.= A Guide for the Novice. Containing 20
     full-page illustrations from photo-micrographs, etc.

     =Life and Legends of other Lands: Norse and Lapp= Containing 12
     full-page illustrations in colour.


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 =Delhi and the Durbar=
 =Denmark=
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 =Egypt, Ancient=
 =England=
 =Finland=
 =Florence=
 =France=
 =Germany=
 =Greece=
 =Holland=
 =Holy Land=
 =Hungary=
 =Iceland=
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 =Ireland=
 =Italy=
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 =Java=
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 =Korea=
 =London=
 =Montenegro=
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 =Newfoundland=
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 =New Zealand=
 =Norway=
 =Panama=
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 =Portugal=
 =Rome=
 *=Russia=
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 =South Africa=
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 =Sweden=
 *=Switzerland=
 =Turkey=
 =Wales=

*_Also to be had in French at _=2s.= _net each. See "Les Beaux Voyages"
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 =Wild Flowers and their Wonderful Ways=
 =Common British Beetles=


PEEPS AT HISTORY

Each containing 8 full-page illustrations in colour, and 20 line
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PEEPS AT INDUSTRIES

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OTHER "PEEPS" VOLUMES

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 =Peeps at Architecture=
 =Peeps at Heraldry=
 =Peeps at Great Men: Sir Walter Scott=
 =Peeps at Royal Palaces of Great Britain=
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 =Peeps at Great Steamship Lines: The P. and O.=


"HOMES OF MANY LANDS" SERIES

=India.= Containing 12 full-page illustrations in colour.

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BEAUTIFUL BRITAIN

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 =Killarney=
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 =Peak Country=
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 =Indes=
 =Indo-Chine=
 =Japon=
 =Maroc=
 =Russie=
 =Tunisie=


PRICE 2/= EACH

=SCOTT'S WAVERLEY NOVELS.= _See also list at the end of this Catalogue._

="PICTURES OF MANY LANDS" SERIES.= _See list on page 1 of this
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PRICE 2/6 NET EACH

Containing 16 full-page illustrations from photographs. =What the Other
Children do=


BIBLIOTHÈQUE ROUGE EN COULEURS

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 =Les Contes de ma Grand'mère=
 =Éric=

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 =Stories of Old.=  (_Small crown 4to._)
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 =Stories from Waverley.= _2nd Series._
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 Large crown 8vo., cloth.

 =The Open Book of Nature: A Book of Nature Study for Young
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 =The Alps.=  24 full-page illustrations from photographs

 =The Holy Land.=  (_Not illustrated_)

 CONTES ET NOUVELLES

 BEAUTIFUL BOOKS IN FRENCH FOR YOUNG PEOPLE.

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 =Voyages de Gulliver=


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 =The Tiger=

 Large crown 8vo., cloth, illustrated.

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 =Tales of St. Austin's=
 =The Head of Kay's=
 =Mike: A Public School Story=
 =The Gold Bat=
 =Psmith in the City=
 =The Pothunters=
 =A Prefect's Uncle=
 =The White Feather=
 *=The First Voyages of Glorious Memory= (_Hakluyt_)
 *=Nipping Bear=
 *=The Adventures of Don Quixote=
 *=Park's Travels in the Interior of Africa=
 *=By a Schoolboy's Hand=
 *=Exiled from School=
 *=From Fag to Monitor=
 =The Sea Monarch=
 *=The Scouts of Seal Island=
 *=Cook's Voyages and Discoveries=
 =Dana's Two Years Before the Mast=
 *=The Divers=
 =Stories from Waverley=
 *=The Life of St. Paul=
 *=The Book of Celtic Stories=
 *=The Book of London=
 *=The Book of Stars=
 *=Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress=
 *=Children's Book of Gardening=
 =The Feats of Foozle=
 =Now and Then=
 =The Right Sort=
 =God's Lantern-Bearers=
 *=The Kinsfolk and Friends of Jesus=

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 _Continued on next page._


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 *=Jack Haydon's Quest=
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 =The Saints in Story=
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 =The Mystery of Markham=
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 =Tales of Greyhouse=
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 *=Eric; or, Little by Little=
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 *=The Bull of the Kraal=
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 =Tangerine: A Child's Letters from Morocco=
 *=Willy Wind, and Jock and the Cheeses=
 *=Life of Sir Walter Scott=
 =Scott's Poetical Works=
 =Scott's Waverley Novels.= _See also list at the end of this Catalogue._

* With illustrations in colour.


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 =Through the Telescope=
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Demy 4to. (oblong), cloth gilt.

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PRICE 5/= EACH

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 =Russian Wonder Tales=
 =Tales from "The Earthly Paradise"=
 =Gulliver's  Travels  into  Several Remote Nations of the World=
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PRICE 6d. EACH

Demy 8vo., picture paper covers.

 *=Eric; or, Little by Little=
 *=St. Winifred's; or, The World of School=
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 =Scott's Waverley Novels.= _See also list following_

 *_These may be had bound together in cloth cover for_ =2s. 6d.=


THE WAVERLEY NOVELS

By SIR WALTER SCOTT

The Authentic Editions of Scott are published solely by A. and C. BLACK,
who purchased along with the copyright the interleaved set of the
Waverley Novels in which Sir Walter Scott noted corrections and
improvements almost to the day of his death. The under-noted editions
have been collated word for word with this set, and many inaccuracies,
some of them ludicrous, corrected.

LIST OF THE NOVELS

 =Waverley=
 =Guy Mannering=
 =The Antiquary=
 =Rob Roy=
 =Old Mortality=
 =Montrose, and Black Dwarf=
 =The Heart of Midlothian=
 =The Bride of Lammermoor=
 =Ivanhoe=
 =The Monastery=
 =The Abbot=
 =Kenilworth=
 =The Pirate=
 =The Fortunes of Nigel=
 =Peveril of the Peak=
 =Quentin Durward=
 =St. Ronan's Well=
 =Redgauntlet=
 =The Betrothed, etc.=
 =The Talisman=
 =Woodstock=
 =The Fair Maid of Perth=
 =Anne of Geierstein=
 =Count Robert of Paris=
 =The Surgeon's Daughter, etc.=

_For Details regarding Editions and Prices see below._


LIST OF EDITIONS OF THE WAVERLEY NOVELS

 =New Popular Edition.= 25 Volumes. Price =6d.= per Volume.
 =The Portrait Edition.= 25 Volumes. Price =1/-= net per Volume.
 =Victoria Edition.= 25 Volumes. Price =1/6= per Volume.
 =Two Shilling Edition.= 25 Volumes. Price =2/-= per Volume.
 =Standard Edition.= 25 Volumes. Price =2/6= per Volume.
=Dryburgh Edition.= 25 Volumes. Price =3/6= per Volume.

PUBLISHED BY A. AND C. BLACK, 4, 5 AND 6 SOHO SQUARE, LONDON, W.


Transcriber's Notes: Hyphenation has been standardized, e.g.,
"watermarks." Typographical errors have been corrected as follows:

Page 25 - "separtaion" replaced with "separation"

Figure after page 48, missing parenthesis added

Page 71 - Accent on Napoléon for consistency.

Note: some books are listed twice in the back with different prices,
e.g. "Eric; or, Little by Little".





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