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Title: The Botanical Magazine, Vol. 9 - or, Flower-Garden Displayed
Author: Curtis, William Eleroy, 1850-1911
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Botanical Magazine, Vol. 9 - or, Flower-Garden Displayed" ***

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THE Botanical Magazine;
OR,
Flower-Garden Displayed:

IN WHICH

     The most Ornamental Foreign Plants, cultivated in the Open Ground,
     the Greenhouse, and the Stove, are accurately represented in their
     natural Colours.

TO WHICH ARE ADDED,

     Their Names, Class, Order, Generic and Specific Characters,
     according to the celebrated Linnæus; their Places of Growth, and
     Times of Flowering:

     TOGETHER WITH THE MOST APPROVED METHODS OF CULTURE.

A WORK

     Intended for the Use of such Ladies, Gentlemen, and Gardeners, as
     wish to become scientifically acquainted with the Plants they
     cultivate.

By _WILLIAM CURTIS_,
Author of the Flora Londinensis.

VOL. IX.

    "But softer tasks divide Florella's hours;
      "To watch the buds just op'ning on the day;
    "With welcome shade to screen the languid flowers,
      "That sicken in the summer's parching ray.

    "Oft will she stoop amidst her evening walk,
      "With tender hand each bruised plant to rear;
    "To bind the drooping lily's broken stalk,
      "And nurse the blossoms of the infant year."

                  Mrs. Barbauld.

_LONDON_:

PRINTED BY STEPHEN COUCHMAN,

For W. CURTIS, N^o 3, _St. George's Crescent_, Black-Friars-Road;
And Sold by the principal Booksellers in Great-Britain and Ireland.

M DCC XCV.



[289]

Convolvulus Linearis. Narrow-Leaved Convolvulus.

_Class and Order._

Pentandria Monogynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Corolla_ campanulata, plicata. _Stigmata_ 2. _Caps._ 2-locularis:
     loculis dispermis.

_Specific Character._

     CONVOLVULUS _linearis_ caulibus erectis fruticosis, foliis
     linearibus acutis piloso-sericeis, floribus terminalibus
     umbellato-paniculatis, calycibus pilosis.

[Illustration: N^o. 289]

The plant here represented has long been cultivated as a greenhouse
plant in this country under the name of _Convolvulus Cantabrica_, but it
differs so essentially from that plant, as figured and described by
Prof. Jacquin in his _Flora Austr._ and accords so little with the other
species described by Linnæus, that we have been induced to regard it as
a perfectly distinct species; in most points it agrees with _Convolvulus
Cneorum_, but differs in having leaves much narrower, more pointed, and
less silky.

It strikes most readily from cuttings, is a hardy greenhouse plant, and
flowers during most of the Summer, qualities which many of the modern
and more shewy greenhouse plants cannot boast.

The precise time of its introduction here, together with its particular
place of growth, we have not as yet been able satisfactorily to
ascertain.



[290]

Amaryllis Lutea. Yellow Amaryllis.

_Class and Order._

Hexandria Monogynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Corolla_ hexapetaloidea, irregularis. _Filamenta_ fauci tubi
     inserta, declinata, inæqualia proportione vel directione. _Linn.
     Fil._

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     AMARYLLIS _lutea_ spatha indivisa obtusa, flore sessili, corolla
     campanulata erecta basi breve tubulosa, staminibus erectis,
     alternis brevioribus. _Linn. Fil. Ait. Kew. v. 21. p. 415._

     COLCHICUM luteum majus. _Bauh. Pin. p. 69._

     NARCISSUS autumnalis major. The greater Autumne or Winter
     Daffodill. _Park. Parad. p. 77. 75. f. 7._

[Illustration: N^o. 290]

The Amaryllis lutea is a hardy perennial bulbous plant, a native of
Spain, and other of the more Southern parts of Europe, and was
cultivated in our Gardens in the time of Gerard, and Parkinson.

Flora, who commences her revolutionary reign, by enlivening the flower
border with the Spring Crocus, and its numerous varieties, terminates it
with flowers equally pleasing, and of similar hues; thus we have the
present plant, the Saffron Crocus, and the Colchicum, flowering nearly
at the same time, from the end of September, through October, and
sometimes part of November.

Similar as the Amaryllis is to the yellow Spring Crocus, in the colour,
and form of its flowers, it differs obviously in the number of its
stamina, the breadth of its leaves, and the size and colour of its root.

Authors describe it as varying in size, in the breadth of its leaves,
the height of its flowers, and multiplication of the Corolla.

The Dutch Florists export it under the title of yellow Colchicum,
following the name of some of the old writers.

It succeeds best in a soil moderately moist, in which it increases
considerably by offsets, and flowers to the most advantage when the
roots have remained for some few years undisturbed in the same spot.



[291]

Capparis Spinosa. The Caper Shrub.

_Class and Order._

Polyandria Monogynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 4-phyllus, coriaceus. _Petala_ 4. _Stamina_ longa. _Bacca_
     corticosa, unilocularis, pedunculata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     CAPPARIS _spinosa_ pedunculis unifloris solitariis, stipulis
     spinosis, foliis annuis, capsulis ovalibus. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab.
     ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 487._ _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 221._

     CAPPARIS _spinosa_ fructu minore, folio rotundo. _Bauh. Pin. p.
     480._

[Illustration: N^o. 291]

We are happy in having it in our power to lay before our readers a
representation of the Caper shrub, whose blossoms are rarely seen in
this country, though its flower-buds are in very general use as a
pickle; indeed, so great is their consumption, that they form a very
considerable article of commerce.

The plant grows spontaneously in the more southern parts of Europe,
especially in Italy and the Levant; in its wild state it forms a shrub
of low growth, having numerous, spreading, spinous branches, somewhat
thickly beset with smooth roundish leaves; the blossoms grow alternately
on the branches, and when the plant begins to flower, one opens
generally every other morning, but so delicate are its parts, that on a
hot summer's day it fades before noon: the petals are white; the
filaments, which are extremely numerous, are white below, and of a rich
purple above; in these the beauty of the flower chiefly consists, as in
the pistillum or pointal does its great singularity; at first view, one
would be led to conclude, that the part so conspicuous in the centre of
the flower was the style terminated by the stigma in the usual way; but
if we trace this part of the flower to a more advanced state, we shall
perceive, that what we took for the style, was merely an elongation of
the flower-stalk, and what we took for the stigma, was in reality the
germen placed on it, crowned with a minute stigma, without any
intervening style; this germen swells, turns downward, and ultimately
becomes the seed-vessel, rarely ripening in this country.

Miller observes, that these plants are with difficulty preserved in
England, for they delight to grow in crevices of rocks, and the joints
of old walls and ruins, and always thrive best in an horizontal
position; so that when they are planted either in pots or the full
ground, they rarely thrive, though they may be kept alive for many
years.

It flowers in May and June, and is usually raised from seeds.

Mr. Aiton regards it as a greenhouse plant, and informs us that it was
cultivated by Gerard in 1596.



[292]

Passerina Grandiflora. Great-Flowered Passerina.

_Class and Order._

Octandria Monogynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 0. _Cor._ 4-fida. _Stamina_ tubo imposita. _Sem._ 1.
     corticatum.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     PASSERINA _grandiflora_ glaberrima, foliis oblongis acutis concavis
     extrinsecus rugosis, floribus terminalibus sessilibus solitariis.
     _Linn. Suppl. Pl. p. 226._

[Illustration: N^o. 292]

The _Passerina_ here figured, distinguished from all the other known
species by the largeness of its flowers, is described in the _Suppl.
Pl._ of the younger Linnæus, but not enumerated in the _Hortus Kewensis_
of Mr. Aiton: it is indeed a plant recently introduced to this country
from the Cape; we saw it last Summer in great perfection, at Messrs. Lee
and Kennedy's, Hammersmith; it forms a small neat shrub, somewhat like
the _Phylica ericoides_, is a hardy greenhouse plant, flowering in May
and June, and increased without difficulty from cuttings.



[293]

Catananche Cærulea. Blue Catananche.

_Class and Order._

Syngenesia Polygamia Æqualis.

_Generic Character._

     _Recept._ paleaceum. _Cal._ imbricatus. _Pappus_ aristatus,
     caliculo 5 seto.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     CATANANCHE cærulea squamis calicis inferioribus ovatis. _Linn.
     Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 722._ _Ait. Kew. v. 3. p. 134._

     CHONDRILLA cærulea cyani capitulo. _Bauh. Pin. 130._

[Illustration: N^o. 293]

The _Catananche cærulea_ is a native of the South of France, where it
grows in hilly situations that are stony: it is a perennial herbaceous
plant, moderately hardy, and has long been cultivated in our gardens,
Mr. Aiton says, by Parkinson in 1640: Miller, who treats of it in his
Dictionary, describes it as a pretty ornament to a garden, and one that
is easily kept within bounds; there is certainly much about it to excite
our admiration, more especially in the structure of the calyx, and the
florets: the flowers, which are of a pale blue colour with a dark eye,
make their appearance from July to October.

It is propagated by seeds, which Miller recommends to be sown in the
Spring; the seedlings should be transplanted in the Autumn, into the
borders where they are to remain; it may also be increased by slips: the
plant requires a situation moderately dry, and is most productive of
flowers and seeds when it stands long in one spot.

In the 14th _edit._ of the _Systema Vegetab._ of Prof. Murray, mention
is made of a variety with double flowers, which we believe has not been
seen in this country.



[294]

Amaryllis Sarniensis. Guernsey Amaryllis.

_Class and Order._

Hexandria Monogynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cor._ hexapetaloidea irregularis. _Filamenta_ fauci tubi inserta
     declinata inæqualia proportione vel directione. _Linn. fil. Ait.
     Kew. p. 415._

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     AMARYLLIS _sarniensis_, petalis linearibus planis, staminibus
     pistilloque rectiusculis corolla longioribus, stigmatibus partitis
     revolutis. _Linn. fil. Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 420. Thunb. Jap. p. 131._

     LILIUM sarniense. _Dougl. Monogr. t. 1, 2._

     NARCISSUS japonicus rutilo flore. _Corn. Canad. Kæmpf. Amæn. p.
     872._

[Illustration: N^o. 294]

The Guernsey Lily, as it is most commonly called, is originally a native
of Japan; where it is described to grow by Kæmpfer and Thunberg, who
visited that island, the latter says on the hills about Nagasaki, from
thence roots are said to have been introduced to the garden of Johannes
Morinus at Paris, in which it flowered, October 1634: its introduction
to this country, which was subsequent to that date, as Dr. Douglass
relates in his _Monographia_ on this plant, "happened by a very singular
melancholy accident, of which Dr. Morison, who no doubt had it from some
persons then residing in Guernsey, gives us the following account: A
Dutch or English ship, it is uncertain which, coming from Japan, with
some of the roots of this flower on board, was cast away on the island
of Guernsey; the roots were thrown upon a sandy shore, and so by the
force of the winds and waves, were soon buried in sand; there they
remained for some years, and afterwards, to the great surprise and
admiration of the inhabitants, the flowers appeared in all their pomp
and beauty." Some of these soon made their appearance in this country:
Mr. Aiton relates, that the plant was cultivated here in 1659, by
General Lambert, at Wimbledon.

Fatal as Guernsey proved to the unfortunate mariners, it afforded the
roots of our plant a soil and situation apparently congenial to their
own; in that island they have flourished ever since, there they are
propagated in the open borders of the flower-garden with the least
possible trouble, flowering most readily, but we believe never producing
any ripe seeds; from thence most of the roots which flower with the
curious here, are yearly imported in the Autumn.

In Guernsey, the cold of the Winter is far less intense than with us;
many of those plants which we keep in our greenhouses, stand with them
in the open ground; the superior mildness of the climate enables them to
cultivate this plant with more success than we can do, even perhaps with
all the expence and trouble to which we might subject ourselves; to
such, however, whose situations may be favourable, and who may be fond
of making experiments, we recommend the perusal of Fairchild's
Directions, a practical Gardener of great ingenuity, and who appears to
have had much experience in the culture of this plant[A].

It is usual to plant the imported bulbs in pots of sand, or light loam,
as soon as they arrive, and place them in the parlour window, or
greenhouse; they blossom in September and October; the flowers, which
continue about a month in perfection, are inodorous, but make up for
that deficiency by the superior splendour of their colours: Dr. Douglass
thus describes them, each flower when in its prime looks like a fine
gold tissue wrought on a rose-coloured ground, but when it begins to
fade and decay, it looks more like a silver tissue, or what they call a
pink colour: when we look upon the flower in full sun-shine, each leaf
appears to be studded with thousands of little diamonds, sparkling and
glittering with a most surprising and agreeable lustre; but if we view
the same by candle-light, these numerous specks or spangles look more
like fine gold dust.

Both Kæmpfer and Thunberg agree, that the Japanese regard the root as
poisonous.

[Footnote A: "They love a light earth, made with dung and sand, and a
little lime rubbish with it does very well, it keeps the roots sound;
for if the earth be too stiff or wet, you may keep them for many years
before they blow. If they are in pots, they should be put in the house
in Winter, to keep them from the severe frosts, which are apt to rot the
roots. The time of moving them is when they have no leaves on the root,
that is from June to August: those that come with six leaves this year,
seldom fail blowing the next year: they need not be put in fresh earth
above once in two or three years: by this method of management I have
had the same roots blow again in four years time. The many miscarriages
that happen to the Guernsey Lily, are by letting the leaves be killed by
the fierceness of the frost in Winter, or by cutting them off, as some
people do, when they are green, which will so much weaken the plants,
that they may keep them twenty years and not have them blow; by the
above management, where there is a stock, there will be continually some
blowing.

"Miller recommends for these roots the following compost: Take a
third-part of fresh virgin earth from a pasture-ground which is light,
then put near an equal part of sea-sand, to which you should add rotten
dung and sifted lime rubbish, of each an equal quantity."

The great business in the culture of this flower, next to a proper
soil and situation, seems to consist in giving the plant as much air as
possible, and in preserving the foliage in the Winter from the injury of
frost.]



[295]

Agrostemma C[oe]li Rosa. Smooth-Leav'd Cockle, or Rose Campion.

_Class and Order._

Decandria Pentagynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 1-phyllus, coriaceus. _Petala_ 5 unguiculata: limbo obtuso
     indiviso. _Caps._ 1 locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     AGROSTEMMA _Coeli rosa_ glabra, foliis lineari-lanceolatis, petalis
     emarginatis coronatis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. p. 435._ _Ait.
     Kew. v. 2. p. 116._

     LYCHNIS segetum, Nigellastrum minus glabrum dicta, flore eleganter
     rubello. _Moris. Hist. 2. p. 543. s. 5. t. 22. f. 32._

     LYCHNIS pseudomelanthiis similis africana glabra angustifolia.
     _Herm. Leyd. 391. t. 393._

[Illustration: N^o. 295]

Mr. Aiton informs us in his _Hortus Kewensis_, that the charming annual
here figured, the liveliness of whose colours no paint can express, was
cultivated by Miller in 1739; seeing it is a plant of such beauty, and
honoured with so distinguished an appellation, it is singular that it
should not by this time have made its way more generally into our
gardens.

The Cockle of our corn-fields is an ornamental plant, the present
species resembles it; but while the plant itself is much smaller, its
flowers are proportionably larger, and their colours more vivid.

It is an annual of ready growth, a native of Sicily and the Levant,
flowering in July and August, and ripening its seeds in September and
October.

It appears to most advantage when several plants of it grow together;
the best mode, therefore, is to sow about a dozen seeds early in April
on the several spots of the flower-border where you intend they shall
remain; no other care is necessary than to keep the plants free from
weeds and vermin.

The _Agr. Coeli rosa_ of _Miller's Gard. Dict. ed. 6 4to._ is the
_coronaria_.



[296]

Sempervivum Tortuosum. Gouty Houseleek.

_Class and Order._

Dodecandria Dodecagynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 12-partitus. _Petala_ 12. _Capsulæ_ 12 polyspermæ.

_Specific Character._

     SEMPERVIVUM _tortuosum_ foliis obovatis subtus gibbis villosis,
     nectariis bilobis. _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 148._

[Illustration: N^o. 296]

We know of no figure of this plant, the first and only account of which
is to be found in the _Hort. Kew._ of Mr. Aiton; there it is
specifically described, and from thence we discover that it was
introduced from the Canary Islands, where it is a native, by Mr. Masson,
in 1779.

It is a shrubby plant of low growth, producing numerous fleshy leaves
growing thickly together, which being evergreen, and making a pretty
appearance the year through, render the plant worthy a place in all
general collections at least, of greenhouse plants; and though it cannot
vie with many of the more shewy high-priced novelties, it is an abiding
plant, not subject to casualties, while many of those are here to day
and gone to morrow.

It throws up its flowering stems, supporting numerous, starry,
stonecrop-like flowers, in July and August, and is most readily
propagated by cuttings.

It is one of those species of Houseleek which connect the genera _Sedum_
& _Sempervivum_.



[297]

Dianthus Superbus. Superb Pink.

_Class and Order._

Decandria Digynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ cylindricus, 1-phyllus: basi squamis 4. _Petala_ 5
     unguiculata. _Caps._ cylindrica, 1-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     DIANTHUS _superbus_ floribus paniculatis: squamis calycinis
     brevibus acuminatis, corollis multifido-capillaribus, caule erecto.
     _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 418._

     CARYOPHYLLUS simplex alter, flore laciniato odoratissimo. _Bauh.
     Pin. 210._

     CARYOPHYLLUS plumarius Austriacus sive superba Austriaca. The
     feathered Pinke of Austria. _Park. Parad. p. 316. 4._

[Illustration: N^o. 297]

Many of the plants of this genus diffuse an agreeable odour, which
renders them most desirable objects for the flower-garden: this quality
the present species possesses in a superior degree to most others; a few
of its flowers communicate to a nosegay a delicate and most delicious
smell, or placed in a vial of water they will even scent a small
apartment[B]: it is to be regretted, however, that the blossoms, unless
placed in water, from their extreme delicacy, flag soon after they are
gathered.

It may be doubted whether the _Dianthus superbus_ of _Miller's Dict. ed.
6. 4to._ be our plant; if it be, the description is not drawn up with
that accuracy which distinguishes his descriptions in general; the mode
of culture, however, which he recommends is strictly applicable to it,
as the plant rarely continues in vigour more than two years, and as it
is in its greatest beauty the first year of its flowering, he recommends
that young plants should be annually raised for succession from seeds,
which are plentifully produced; the seeds of this plant ought therefore
to be kept in the shops with annuals and biennials.

The _Dianthus superbus_ is a native of Germany, Switzerland, France, and
Denmark: Clusius found it growing in the moist meadows about Vienna, and
on the borders of woods adjoining to such, with some of its flowers
white, others purplish; Parkinson describes them of these two colours,
but says the most ordinary with us are pure white, which is contrary to
what we now find them: they are rarely produced before August, from
which period they will continue frequently to blossom till October.

The Spring is the best time for sowing its seeds; the plants require no
very nice or particular treatment.

[Footnote B: This fragrance has been noticed by all the old authors who
have treated of the plant: Clusius describes the flowers as _suavissimi
odoris et è longinquo nares ferientis_, of which words Parkinson's are
almost a literal translation "of a most fragrant sent, comforting the
spirits and senses afarre off."]



[298]

Origanum Dictamnus. Dittany Of Crete.

_Class and Order._

Didynamia Gymnospermia.

_Generic Character._

     _Strobilus_ tetragonus, spicatus, calyces colligens.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     ORIGANUM _Dictamnus_ foliis inferioribus tomentosis, spicis
     nutantibus. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 541._ _Ait.
     Kew. v. 2 p. 311._ Dittany of Candia.

     DICTAMNUS creticus. _Bauh. Pin. p. 222._

[Illustration: N^o. 298]

By the name of Dittany of Crete, the species of Origanum here figured,
has long been known in this country as a medicinal plant; to the
purposes of physic it still indeed continues to be applied, as imported
in a dried state from the Levant: when bruised, the whole plant gives
forth an aromatic fragrance, highly grateful; as an ornamental plant, it
has also been long, and is now, very generally cultivated in this
country. Turner, whose Herbal was printed in 1568, writes thus
concerning it, "I have sene it growynge in England in Maister Riches
gardin naturally, but it groweth no where ellis that I know of, saving
only in Candy." As at this period no idea was entertained of a
greenhouse, the plant must have been cultivated in the open ground,
where it would doubtless grow readily, if secured from the severity of
the weather, it being more hardy than many plants usually kept in
greenhouses.

This plant is at all times ornamental, but more particularly so when in
flower, in which state it appears during most of the summer and autumnal
months.

It is usually increased by cuttings, which strike readily.



[299]

Hermannia Alnifolia. Alder-Leaved Hermannia.

_Class and Order._

Monadelphia Pentandria.

_Generic Character._

     Pentagyna. _Caps._ 5-locularis. _Petala_ basi semitubulata,
     obliqua.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     HERMANNIA _alnifolia_ foliis cuneiformibus lineatis plicatis
     crenato-emarginatis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 610._
     _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 412._

     ARBUSCULA africana tricapsularis ononidis vernæ singulari folio.
     _Pluk. Mant. 14. t. 239. f. 1._

[Illustration: N^o. 299]

_Hermannia_ is a genus of plants named in honour of Dr. Paul Herman, a
Dutch Botanist of great celebrity, author of the _Paradisus Batavus_,
and other valuable works: twenty-six species are enumerated in the 13th
edition of the _Syst. Naturæ_ of Linnæus by Prof. Gmelin, and eight in
the _Hortus Kewensis_ of Mr. Aiton; most of those in the latter work are
cultivated in the nurseries near town: they form a set of the more hardy
greenhouse plants, grow readily, and flower freely; their blossoms are
for the most part yellow, and have a considerable affinity with those of
the _Mahernia_.

The present species flowers very early in the spring, from February to
May, producing a great profusion of bloom during that period; is a
native of the Cape, and was cultivated by Mr. Miller, in 1728.

It rarely ripens its seeds with us, but is readily increased by
cuttings.

The nurserymen near town regard this plant as the _grossularifolia_ of
Linnæus, calling another, equally common species, with longer and
narrower leaves, _alnifolia_, and which does not appear to be described
by Linnæus or mentioned by Mr. Aiton; our plant accords exactly with the
Linnæan description of _alnifolia_, and there is we think no doubt of
its being the _alnifolia_ of the _Hortus Kewensis_, and Mr. Miller's
_Dictionary_.



[300]

Gnaphalium Eximium. Giant Cudweed.

_Class and Order._

Syngenesia Polygamia Superflua.

_Generic Character._

     _Recept._ nudum. _Pappus_ plumosus vel capillaris. _Cal._
     imbricatus, squamis marginalibus rotundatis, scariosis, coloratis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     GNAPHALIUM _eximium_ foliis sessilibus ovatis confertis erectis
     tomentosis, corymbo sessili. _Linn. Mant. Pl. p. 573._ _Syst. Nat.
     ed. 13. Gmel._

     ELYCHRYSUM africanum foliis lanceolatis integris tomentosis
     decurrentibus, capitulus congestis ex rubello aureis. _Edw. Av. t.
     183._

[Illustration: N^o. 300]

In the summer of 1794, towards the end of July, the Gnaphalium here
figured, the most magnificent and shewy of all the species hitherto
introduced to this country, flowered in great perfection at Messrs. Lee
and Kennedy's, Hammersmith: Mr. Lee informs me, that he raised it from
seeds given him by Capt. William Paterson, author of a Narrative of four
journeys into the country of the Hottentots, and Caffraria, and who has
most laudably exerted himself in introducing many new and interesting
plants to this country; this gentleman assured Mr. Lee, that the plant
was found in a wild state, five hundred miles from the Cape, on the
borders of the Caffre country, from whence the natives bring bundles of
the dried plant to the Cape as presents; in the state the plant has long
since been imported from that fertile coast: if we mistake not, a
specimen of this sort is figured in Petiver's works, and a coloured
representation is given of it in Edwards's History of Birds, taken from
a dried plant, brought from the Cape, by Capt. Isaac Worth, in 1749.

The plants we saw were about a foot and a half high, the stalks shrubby,
and but little branched; the foliage and flowers as represented on the
plate.

Several of the Gnaphaliums it is well known are liable to be killed by
moisture, especially in the winter season; during that time, this plant
in particular, should be kept as dry as possible, and, if convenient, on
a shelf, separate from the other plants of the greenhouse; when it is
necessary to give it water, it should never come in contact with the
foliage or flowers: with these precautions it may be kept very well in a
good greenhouse, in which it should remain, even during summer.

It may be raised from seeds, and also from cuttings.



[301]

Melianthus Minor. Small Melianthus, or Honey-Flower.

_Class and Order._

Didynamia Angiospermia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-phyllus: folio inferiore gibbo. _Petala_ 4: nectario infra
     infima. _Caps._ 4-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     MELIANTHUS _minor_ stipulis geminis distinctis. _Linn. Syst.
     Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 581._ _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 368._

     MELIANTHUS africanus minor foetidus. _Comm. rar. 4. t. 4._

[Illustration: N^o. 301]

There are few flowers that do not secrete from some kind of a glandular
substance, honey, or nectar, to a greater or smaller amount; in those of
the present genus, this liquid is particularly abundant, even dropping
from the flowers of the _major_, in considerable quantity; in the
present species it flows not so copiously, but is retained in the lower
part of the blossom, and is of a dark brown colour, an unusual
phenomenon.

There are only two species of this genus described, the _major_ and the
_minor_, both of which are cultivated in our nurseries; the _major_ is
by far the most common, the most hardy, and the most ornamental plant;
its foliage indeed is peculiarly elegant: this species will succeed in
the open border, especially if placed at the foot of a wall with a south
or south-west aspect, taking care to cover the root to a considerable
depth with rotten tan in severe frosts: the _minor_ is always kept in
the greenhouse, in which, when it has acquired a certain age, it flowers
regularly in the spring, and constantly so, as far as we have observed
of the plants in Chelsea Garden; Mr. Aiton says in August, and Commelin
the summer through.

The _Melianthus minor_ grows to the height of three, four, or five feet;
its stem, which is shrubby, during the flowering season is apt to
exhibit a naked appearance, having fewer leaves on it at that period,
and those not of their full size; but this, perhaps, may in some degree
be owing to the plant's being placed at the back of others.

The foliage when bruised has an unpleasant smell.

It is a native of the Cape, and, according to Mr. Aiton, was cultivated
by the Duchess of Beaufort, in 1708; is propagated readily by cuttings.



[302]

Mimosa Myrtifolia. Myrtle-Leaved Mimosa.

_Class and Order._

Polyandria Monogynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Flores_ mere masculi reliquis intersiti. _Cal._ 5-dentatus. _Cor._
     5-fida aut 0. _Stamina_ 4-locularis. _Legumen. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed.
     13. Gmel._

_Specific Character._

     MIMOSA _myrtifolia_ foliis ovato-lanceolatis obliquis undulatis
     acuminatis margine cartilagineis: primordialibus pinnatis. _Smith
     Trans. Linn. Soc. v. 1. p. 252._

[Illustration: N^o. 302]

The seeds of this species of Mimosa having been sent over in plenty,
with some of the first vegetable productions of New South-Wales, and
growing readily, the plant has been raised by many cultivators in this
country; Mr. Hoy, gardener to the Duke of Northumberland, produced a
specimen of it in flower at a meeting of the Linnean Society in 1790; it
is a shrub of quick growth, and a ready blower: a plant of it in the
stove of Chelsea-Garden has this year (May 10, 1795) produced ripe pods,
and perfect seeds. In the greenhouse, where it flowers from February to
April, the blossoms go off without shewing any tendency to produce
fruit.

It is first described by Dr. Smith, in the Transactions of the Linnean
Society; the leaves in the plants that have fallen under our notice have
not accorded exactly with those he has described, having neither been of
a glaucous green colour, according to the usual acceptation of that
term, nor very much undulated; and though those of an individual plant
may have presented such an appearance, we are persuaded they do not do
so generally when growing and in good health.

The foliage is usually edged with red, and the flowers are fragrant.



[303]

Erica Ampullacea. Flask Heath.

_Class and Order._

Octandria Monogynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 4-phyllus. _Cor._ 4-fida. _Filamenta_ receptaculo inserta.
     _Antheræ_ apice bifidæ, pertusæ. _Caps._ 4-locularis, 4-valvis,
     polysperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     ERICA _ampullacea_ foliis ciliatis mucronatis, bractæis coloratis,
     floribus umbellatis subquaternis erecto-patentibus, stylo exserto.

[Illustration: N^o. 303]

The Erica here figured has some affinity in the form of its flowers to
the _E. ventricosa_, as these in their shape resemble a flask or bottle,
especially of that kind in which water is usually kept, we have named it
_ampullacea_; it is of very modern introduction.

On the 11th of June 1784, we had the pleasure to see a small plant of
this species in flower, with Mr. Williams, Nurseryman, Turnham-Green, an
unwearied and ingenious cultivator of this beautiful tribe of plants in
particular, the richness of whose collection will appear in the
subsequent list; by him it was raised from Cape seeds, though not more
than the height of ten inches, it produced eighteen branches, most of
which put forth flowers at their summits; we counted sixty-six blossoms
on this small plant.

The leaves are short, linear, somewhat triangular, rigid, edged with
fine crooked hairs, very visible when magnified, and terminating in a
mucro or point, on the older branches recurved and mostly eight-rowed;
each branch is usually terminated by four or five flowers, at first
growing closely together, and covered so strongly with a glutinous
substance, as to look as if varnished, and which is so adhesive as to
catch ants and small flies; as the flowering advances, they separate
more widely from each other, and finally a young branch grows out of the
centre from betwixt them; the true calyx is composed of four lanceolate
leaves, sitting close to and glued as it were to the corolla; besides
these, there are several other leaves, which might be mistaken for those
of the calyx, but which may with more propriety be called Bracteæ or
Floral-leaves; some of these, like the calyx, are wholly red, others red
and green mixed together, and broader than the leaves of the plant; the
flowers are about an inch and a quarter in length, inflated below, and
contracted above into a long narrow neck, dilating again so as to form a
kind of knob, in which the antheræ are contained, just below the limb,
which divides into four somewhat ovate obtuse segments, the upper side
of these segments is of a very pale flesh colour, the under side of them
as well as the dilated part just below them bright red, the body of the
flower flesh colour, marked with eight longitudinal stripes, of a deeper
hue; filaments eight, antheræ within the tube; style projecting about
the eighth of an inch beyond the corolla; stigma, a round glutinous
head.

The flowers as they decay become of a deeper red colour, and finally
pale brown, still retaining their form and appearing to
advantage;--hitherto the plant has produced no seeds here, is increased
with difficulty either by cuttings or layers, but with most certainty in
the latter way.

       *       *       *       *       *

A Catalogue of Heaths, cultivated and sold by Richard Williams, at his
Nursery, _Turnham-Green, Middlesex_.

  ERICA.

  * abietina.
    albens.
  * ampullacea.
    arborea.
    ---- var. squarrosa.
    articularis.
    australis.
    baccans.
  * Banksii.
    canescens.
    capitata.
    caffra.
    cernua.
  * cerinthoides.
    cinerea.
    ---- var. fl. albo.
    ciliaris.
  * coccinea.
    comosa.
    ---- var. fl. rubro.
  * conspicua.
    corifolia.
  * cruenta.
    cubica.
  * curviflora.
    denticulata.
  * discolor.
  * elata.
    empetrifolia.
  * fascicularis.
  * formosa.
    fucata.
  * grandiflora.
  * halicacaba.
    herbacea.
    incarnata.
    incana.
    lateralis.
    lutea.
  * mammosa.
    ---- var. fl. purp.
    margaritacea.
    ---- var. fl. rubro.
    marifolia.
    mediterranea.
  * Massoni.
    minima.
  * monadelphia.
  * Monsoniana.
    mucosa.
    multiflora.
    ---- var. fl. albo.
  * muscari.
  * nudiflora.
    parviflora.
  * Pattersoni.
    persoluta.
    ---- var. fl. rubro.
  * Petiveri.
    physodes.
  * pinifolia.
    planifolia.
  * Plukenetii.
    pubescens.
    pyramidalis.
    quadriflora.
    ramentacea.
    regerminans.
    scoparia.
  * sessiliflora.
  * simpliciflora.
  * Sparrmanni.
  * spicata.
    stricta.
    taxifolia.
    Tetralix.
    ---- var. fl. albo.
    thymifolia.
    triflora.
    ---- var. fl. albo.
  * tubiflora.
    umbellata.
    urceolaris.
    vagans.
  * ventricosa.
  * versicolor.
  * verticillata.
  * vestita.
    virgata.
    vulgaris.
    ---- var. fl. albo.

N.B. _Those marked with an asterisk have tubular flowers._



[304]

Hermannia Lavendulifolia. Lavender-Leaved Hermannia.

_Class and Order._

Monadelphia Pentandria.

_Generic Character._

     Pentagyna. _Caps._ 5-locularis. _Petala_ basi semitubulata,
     obliqua.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     HERMANNIA _lavendulifolia_ foliis lanceolatis obtusis integerrimis.
     _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 611._ _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p.
     413._

     HERMANNIA frutescens folio Lavendulæ latiore et obtuso flore parvo
     aureo Boerh. _Dill. Hort. Elth. t. 147._

[Illustration: N^o. 304]

The _Hermannia_ here figured is a plant of humble growth, forming a
small bushy shrub, a foot or a foot and a half in height, and producing
numerous flowers thinly scattered over the branches, the greatest part
of the summer; it is this disposition which it has of flowering so
freely, that renders it a desirable plant for the greenhouse, in which
it is commonly kept, and of which it is an old inhabitant.

Dillenius has figured it in his admirable work the _Hortus Elthamensis_,
published in 1732; hence we learn that it was cultivated in Mr.
Sherard's celebrated garden at Eltham prior to that date.

It is a native of the Cape, and is readily increased by cuttings.



[305]

Amaryllis Equestris. Barbadoes Amaryllis, or Lily.

_Class and Order._

Hexandria Monogynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cor._ hexapetaloidea, irregularis. _Filamenta_ fauci tubi inserta,
     declinata, inæqualia proportione vel directione. _Linn. fil._

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     AMARYLLIS _equestris_ spatha subbiflora, pedicellis erectis spatha
     brevioribus, tubo siliformi horizontali, limbo oblique patulo
     sursum curvo, fauce, pilosa. _Linn. fil. Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 417._

     AMARYLLIS dubia _Linn. Am. Ac. 8. p. 254_.

     LILIUM americanum puniceo flore Belladonna dictum. _Herm. Par. Bat.
     p. 194. cum fig._

[Illustration: N^o. 305]

Mr. Aiton, in his _Hortus Kewensis_, has inserted this species of
Amaryllis, as named and described by the younger Linnæus; he informs us,
that it is a native of the West-Indies, and was introduced by Dr.
William Pitcairn, in 1778: as its time of flowering is not mentioned, we
may presume, that it had not blossomed in the royal garden when the
publication before mentioned first made its appearance; it no doubt has
since, as we have seen it in that state in the collections of several
Nurserymen, particularly those of Mr. Grimwood and Mr. Colvill.

It flowers towards the end of April.

The flowering stem rises above the foliage, to the height of about a
foot or more, produces from one to three flowers, similar to, but not
quite so large as those of the Mexican Amaryllis, to which it is nearly
related; it differs however from that plant essentially in this, that
the lower part of the flower projects further than the upper, which
gives to its mouth that obliquity which Linnæus describes.

The spatha is composed of two leaves, which standing up at a certain
period of the plant's flowering like ears, give to the whole flower a
fancied resemblance of a horse's head; whether Linnæus derived his name
of _equestris_ from this circumstance or not, he does not condescend to
inform us.

Mr. Aiton regards it as a greenhouse plant; like those of many of the
Ixias, however, the bulbs are of the more tender kind.

It is propagated by offsets, but not very readily.



[306]

Othonna Pectinata. Wormwood-Leaved Othonna.

_Class and Order._

Syngenesia Polygamia Necessaria.

_Generic Character._

     _Recept._ nudum. _Pappus_ subnullus, _Cal._ 1-phyllus multifidus
     subcylindricus.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     OTHONNA _pectinata_ foliis pinnatifidis: laciniis linearibus
     parallelis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 793._ _Ait.
     Kew. v. 3. p. 276._

     JACOBÆA africana frutescens, foliis absinthii umbelliferi incanis.
     _Comm. hort. 2. p. 137. t. 69._

[Illustration: N^o. 306]

The _Othonna pectinata_ is a native of Africa, a long-established and
common plant in greenhouses, having been cultivated by Mr. Miller, in
1731; it recommends itself chiefly on account of its foliage, which
forms a pleasing contrast to the darker greens of other plants.

It flowers in May and June, is moderately hardy, and readily increased
by cuttings.

In many collections we meet with old plants of it three or four feet
high; formerly, when greenhouse plants were few in numbers and the
houses large, it might be proper to keep such; but now there is not that
necessity, especially since the vast accession of plants from the Cape
and New-Holland, made within these few years.



[307]

Hermannia Althæifolia. Marsh-Mallow-Leaved Hermannia.

_Class and Order._

Monadelphia Pentandria.

_Generic Character._

     Pentagyna. _Caps._ 5-locularis. _Petala_ basi semitubulata,
     obliqua.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     HERMANNIA _althæifolia_ foliis ovatis crenatis plicatis tomentosis,
     calycibus florentibus campanulatis angulatis, stipulis oblongis
     foliaceis. _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 411._

     HERMANNIA _althæifolia_ foliis ovatis plicatis crenatis tomentosis.
     _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 610._

     HERMANNIA capensis althææ folio. _Pet. Gaz. 53. t. 34. f. 2._

     KETMIA africana frutescens foliis mollibus et incanis. _Comm. hort.
     2. p. 151. t. 79._

[Illustration: N^o. 307]

The _Hermannia althæifolia_, a native of the Cape, is a plant of much
larger growth than the _lavendulifolia_, rising to the height, if
suffered to do so, of three, four, or more feet; its blossoms are
proportionably large, and of a deep yellow colour, inclined to orange.

It is a plant of free growth, much disposed to produce flowers during
most of the summer months; hence it is kept very generally in
collections of greenhouse plants: is propagated readily by cuttings.

Was cultivated by Mr. Miller, in 1728. _Ait. Kew._

Our readers will see, that the specific description of Linnæus has been
altered in the _Hortus Kewensis_, and that it now comprizes all the
striking features of the plant.



[308]

Verbena Aubletia. Rose Vervain.

_Class and Order._

Diandria Monogynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cor._ infundibuliformis subæqualis curva. _Calycis_ unico dente
     truncato. _Semina_ 2 s. 4 nuda (_Stam._ 2 s. 4.)

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     VERBENA _Aubletia_ tetrandra, spicis laxis solitariis, foliis
     trifidis incisis. _Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 33._

     VERBENA _Aubletia_ tetrandra, spicis solitariis, coroliis
     fasciculatis, foliis cordatis inciso-serratis. _Linn. Syst.
     Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 66._ _Suppl. Pl. p. 86._

     BUCHNERA canadensis _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 13. p. 478._

     VERBENA _Aubletia_. _Jacq. hort. v. 2. p. 82. t. 176._

     OBLETIA _Journ. de Rozier introd. 1. p. 367. t. 2._

[Illustration: N^o. 308]

It has fallen to the lot of this plant to have an unusual degree of
attention bestowed on it by various botanists, and after being regarded
as a distinct genus by several, to be finally classed with the
_Verbena_; in the _Supplementum Plantarum_ of the younger Linnæus it is
minutely described.

We learn from the _Hortus Kewensis_ of Mr. Aiton that it is a native of
North-America, introduced by Mons. Richard in 1774, and that it flowers
in June and July.

The extreme brilliancy of its colours renders it a very ornamental
greenhouse plant, it seldom grows above the height of two feet; in
favourable seasons ripens its seeds readily, by which it is usually
propagated, being a biennial.



[309]

Pelargonium Echinatum. Prickly-Stalked Geranium.

_Class and Order._

Monadelphia Heptandria.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-partitus: lacinia suprema definente in tubulum capillarem
     nectariferum secus pendunculum decurrentem. _Cor._ 5 petala
     irregularis. _Filamenta_ 10, inæqualia, quorum 3 raro 5 castrata.
     _Fructus_ 5 coccus, rostratus: _rostra_ spiralia, introrsum
     barbata.

_Specific Character._

     PERLARGONIUM _echinatum_ caule carnoso, stipulis spinescentibus,
     foliis cordato-subrotundis 3-5 lobis, floribus umbellatis, umbellis
     subseptemfloris.

[Illustration: N^o. 309]

This singular and most beautiful species of Pelargonium, recently
introduced to this country, this Summer flowered with Mr. Colvill,
Nurseryman, in the King's-Road, Chelsea, from one of whose plants our
figure and description have been taken.

Stalk green, surface smooth and somewhat glossy, fleshy, beset with
spines which bend back and terminate in brownish somewhat weak points;
these appear to have been primarily the stipulæ, which become thus
fleshy and rigid, and from this circumstance not altogether peculiar to
this species, it takes the name of _echinatum_; the leaves stand on long
footstalks, are somewhat heart-shaped, mostly roundish, divided into
three or five lobes, veiny, soft, and downy, especially on the under
side, which is of a much lighter colour than the upper, the flowering
stem proceeds from the summit of the stalk, and is a foot or more in
height; as it advances it throws out its branches, or peduncles,
ultimately about five in number, each of which has a leaf at its base,
similar to the other leaves of the plant, but smaller, and terminates in
an umbel of seven or eight flowers; as the umbels blossom in succession,
a period of several months usually intervenes betwixt the blowing of the
first and the last; when the flower is expanded, the hindmost leaf of
the calyx continues upright, the others are reflexed as in other species
of this genus, they are all beset with fine long hairs; the three
lowermost petals are pure white, with a little gibbosity at the base of
each, the two uppermost are marked each with three irregular spots, of a
rich purple colour, inclining to carmine, the two lowermost spots
narrowest and of the deepest colour; of the stamina there are six
filaments which have antheræ, and four of which have none; stigma red,
divided into five parts, and a little longer than the fertile filaments.

In its habit this plant resembles somewhat the _Pelargonium
cordifolium_, is a native of the Cape, flowers from May to September, in
favourable seasons has produced seeds here, but is more usually
increased by cuttings.

Varies with petals of a rich purple colour, in which the spots are
similar, though not so conspicuous.



[310]

Erinus Alpinus. Alpine Erinus.

_Class and Order._

Didynamia Angiospermia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-phyllus. _Cor._ Limbus 5-fidus æqualis. _Caps._
     2-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     ERINUS _alpinus_ floribus racemosis, foliis spathulatis. _Linn.
     Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 570._ _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 357._

     AGERATUM serratum alpinum. _Bauh. pin. 221._

[Illustration: N^o. 310]

The _Erinus alpinus_ is a native of Switzerland, Germany, and France;
inhabiting the more mountainous parts of those countries.

It is a very desirable little plant for the decoration of rock work,
growing in close tufts, and producing numerous flowers of a lively
purple colour during most of the summer months.

Is increased without difficulty by parting its roots in Autumn, or from
seed; in the winter some plants of it should be kept in pots under a
frame or hand-glass, as it is liable to be injured by wet and frost.

Was cultivated here by Mr. Miller in 1759.



[311]

Robinia Hispida. Rough-Stalk'd Robinia, or Rose Acacia.

_Class and Order._

Diadelphia Decandria.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 4-fidus. Legumen gibbum elongatum.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     ROBINIA _hispida_ racemis axillaribus, foliis impari pinnatis,
     caule inermi hispido. _Linn. Mant. p. 668. Ait. Kew. v. 3. p. 53._

     ROBINIA racemis axillaribus, pedicellis unifloris, foliis impari
     pinnatis, caule inermi. _Jacq. Amer. 211. t. 179. f. 101._

     PSEUDO ACACIA hispida floribus roseis. _Catesb. Carol. 3. p. 20. t.
     20._

[Illustration: N^o. 311]

There are few trees or shrubs which have contributed more to adorn our
plantations, and shrubberies, than those of this genus, nine species of
which are enumerated in the _Hort. Kew._ of Mr. Aiton, most of these are
natives either of North-America, or Siberia: the present species, an
inhabitant of Carolina, is perhaps the most ornamental of the whole: its
large pendant bunches of rose-coloured flowers load the branches in May
and June, and sometimes a second crop will be produced late in the
season, these with us usually fall off without producing any
seed-vessels.

This shrub is not disposed to grow very tall in America, it is most
prudent indeed to keep it humble, to the height of four or five feet,
and to plant it in a sheltered part of the garden, as its branches are
liable to be broken by high winds: Marshall (_Arb. Amer._) describes it
as spreading much from its running roots; we have not observed it to do
so in any great degree here; it is propagated by layers, by cuttings of
the roots, and by grafting; it is of ready growth, disposed to blow even
when young, and not nice as to soil, or situation; the flowers afford a
good example of the class Diadelphia, they are large and beautiful, but
without scent.

Was cultivated by Mr. Miller in 1758. _Ait. Kew._



[312]

Linum Flavum. Yellow Flax.

_Class and Order._

Pentandria Pentagynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-phyllus. _Petala_ 5. _Caps._ 5-valvis 10 locularis. _Sem._
     solitaria.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     LINUM _flavum_ calycibus subserrato-scabris lanceolatis
     subsessilibus, panicula ramis dichotomis. _Linn. Sp. Pl. v. 1. ed.
     3. p. 399._ _Mant. p. 360._ _Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p.
     303._ _Jacq. Fl. Austr. v. 3. t. 214._

     LINUM sylvestre latifolium luteum. _Bauh. pin. 214._

     LINUM sylvestre III. latifolium. _Clus. hist. 1. p. 317._

[Illustration: N^o. 312]

There is a considerable similarity betwixt the representation of the
present plant and that of the _Linum arboreum_ figured on the 234th
plate of this work, they are nevertheless two species widely differing,
the _flavum_ being a hardy herbaceous perennial, a native of Germany,
the _arboreum_ a greenhouse shrub from the Levant, both possessing
considerable beauty, and highly worthy a place in all collections of
ornamental plants.

The _Linum flavum_ is not mentioned either in the Dictionary of Mr.
Miller, or the Hortus Kewensis of Mr. Aiton, and as far as our knowledge
extends was a stranger in this country, till we raised it the year
before last from seeds sent us by Mr. Daval, of Orbe in Switzerland;
Clusius gives us a representation of it in flower, and Prof. Jacquin
another much superior; according to the latter, it grows by the sides of
hedges and among shrubs in mountainous situations, and rarely exceeds a
foot in height.

From the little experience we have had of this plant, it appears to be
easy of culture, and to succeed best in a soil moderately stiff and
moist; the flowers expand most in a morning when the sun shines, and
continue in succession during June, July, and part of August; it appears
as if it would ripen its seeds in my garden; these vegetate freely: the
plant may also be increased by parting its roots in autumn, or by
cuttings of the young shoots.



[313]

Daphne Cneorum. Trailing Daphne.

_Class and Order._

Octandria Monogynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 0. _Cor._ 4-fida corallacea marcescens stamina includens,
     _Bacca_ 1-sperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     DAPHNE _Cneorum_ floribus congestis terminalibus sessilibus, foliis
     lanceolatis nudis mucronatis. _Linn. Syst. Veget. ed. 14._ _Murr.
     p. 371._ _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 26._

     THYMELEÆ affinis facie externa. _Bauh. pin. 463._

     CNEORUM. _Matth. hist. 46._ _Clus. hist. 89, 90. f. 1._

[Illustration: N^o. 313]

This charming little shrub is a native of Switzerland and Austria:
Clusius informs us that it grows in great abundance on many of the
mountains near Vienna, so much so that women gather it when in flower
and sell it in the markets; its beautiful and fragrant blossoms come
forth in April and May, the principal season for its flowering, but it
frequently blows during most of the Summer, and even in the Autumn; it
varies with white blossoms.

It is extremely hardy, thrives remarkably well in road sand in almost
any situation; is propagated by seeds, which very rarely ripen with us,
by layers, and by grafting it on the stock of the Mezereon, whereby it
acquires an elevation superior to what it has naturally.



[314]

Genista Triquetra. Triangular-Stalk'd Genista.

_Class and Order._

Diadelphia Decandria.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 2-labiatus: 2/3. _Vexillum_ oblongum a pistillo
     staminibusque deorsum reflexum.

_Specific Character._

     GENISTA _triquetra_ foliis ternatis, summis simplicibus, ramis
     triquetris procumbentibus. _L'Herit. Stirp. nov. t. 88._ _Ait. Kew.
     v. 3. p. 14._

[Illustration: N^o. 314]

Mons. L'Heritier, author of many modern publications in Botany,
distinguished for their accuracy and elegance, was the first who
described and figured this species of Genista, a native of Corsica, and
cultivated here by John Ord, Esq. as long since as the year 1770.

It is a hardy, evergreen, trailing shrub, producing a vast profusion of
bloom; which renders it eminently conspicuous in May and June; its
flowers are rarely succeeded by seed-vessels, so that it is usually
propagated by layers.

When tied up properly, and carefully trained to stake, it may vie with
most of our ornamental shrubs: for covering a wall, or paling, where the
situation is not too shady, it probably would succeed very well, at
least it is deserving of trial.



[315]

Pelargonium Ceratophyllum. Horn-Leaved Crane's Bill.

_Class and Order._

Monadelphia Heptandria.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-partitus: lacinia suprema definente in tubulum capillarem,
     nectariferum, secus pendunculum decurrentem. _Cor._ 5-petala,
     irregularis. _Filam._ 10 inæqualia, quorum 3 raro 5 castrata.
     _Fructus_ 5-coccus, rostratus, rostra spiralia introrsum barbata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     PELARGONIUM _ceratophyllum_ umbellis multifloris, foliis remote
     pinnatis carnosis teretibus, laciniis canaliculatis obsolete
     trifidis. _L'Herit. Geran. n. 50. t. 13._ _Ait. Kew. v. 2 p. 422._

[Illustration: N^o. 315]

Mr. Aiton informs us that this species of Pelargonium, which is one of
the more fleshy kinds, is a native of the South-West Coast of Africa,
and was introduced to the Royal Garden at Kew by Mr. Anthony Hove in
1786.

It flowers during most of the Summer months, and ripens its seeds, by
which it may be increased, as also by cuttings; it is found to be more
tender than many others, and more liable to be injured by damps, and
hence it will require a treatment more applicable to a dry stove plant.



[316]

Polygala Chamæbuxus. Box-Leaved Milk-Wort.

_Class and Order._

Diadelphia Octandria.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-phyllus: foliolis 2 majoribus alæformibus, ante
     maturitatem seminis coloratis. _Caps._ obcordata, 2-locularis.
     _Sem._ solitaria.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     POLYGALA _Chamæbuxus_ floribus sparsis: carinæ apice subrotundo,
     foliis lanceolatis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 639._
     _Ait. Kew. v. 3. p. 4._ _Jacq. Fl. Austr. v. 3. p. 19. t. 233._

     CHAMÆBUXUS flore coluteæ. _Bauh. Pin. 471._

     ANONYMOS flore Coluteæ. _Clus. Hist. p. 105. f._

     POLYGALOIDES procumbens foliis duris ovatis nervo aristato. _Hall.
     Hist. n. 345._

[Illustration: N^o. 316]

Clusius, in his _Hist. Pl. rar._ gives an accurate description and good
figure of the present plant, before unnoticed (as he observes) by any
author; it has since been particularly described by Haller and Jacquin;
the former makes a distinct genus of it, by the name of _Polygaloides_.

It is an elegant little evergreen shrub of low growth, rarely exceeding
a foot in height, with leaves like those of box, producing flowers from
May to October, but most plentifully in May and June; each flower stands
on a peduncle proceeding from a kind of triphyllous cup, formed of
floral leaves, the true calyx is composed of three leaves, which are
nearly white; the two outermost petals, similar to the wings of a
papilionaceous flower, are also white, or nearly so; the third petal
which forms a kind of tube and contains the eight stamina with the
pistillum, is white at the base, but yellow towards the extremity, where
it changes by degrees to a bright bay colour: both Clusius and Jacquin
observed a variety of this plant, in which the calyx and wings were of a
beautiful purple; this variety, we believe, has not yet been introduced
to this country: the common sort was cultivated in the garden at Oxford,
in 1658.

Miller describes it as a plant difficult of cultivation; it is not now
regarded as such; both Clusius and Jacquin describe it as having
creeping roots; such plants are generally increased without difficulty,
and so is this; planted in bog earth on a shady border, it thrives
extremely well, and spawns much, so that there is no necessity for
having recourse to its seeds. It grows spontaneously on the Alps of
Austria and Switzerland.



[317]

Ononis Fruticosa. Shrubby Rest-Harrow.

_Class and Order._

Diadelphia Decandria.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-partitus: laciniis linearibus. _Vexillum_ striatum.
     _Legumen_ turgidum sessile. _Filamenta_ connata absque fissura.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     ONONIS _fruticosa_ foliis sessilibus ternatis lanceolatis serratis,
     stipulis vaginalibus, pedunculis subtrifloris. _Linn. Syst.
     Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 653._ _Ait. Kew. 24._

     ONONIS purpurea verna præcox frutescens, flore rubro amplo. _Moris.
     Hist. 2. p. 170._

[Illustration: N^o. 317]

This charming little shrub, highly deserving of being more generally
known, is a native of the South of France; and was cultivated here by
Miller in 1748.

In favourable situations, it produces blossoms in great profusion during
most of the Summer, and ripens seed in abundance: the situation it
affects is dry and sandy, but it is a shrub by no means nice, as to soil
or place of growth, and so hardy as to have borne the severity of last
Winter, 1795, without injury.

In the collections about town we frequently find it in pots, kept with
greenhouse plants.

It is said to vary with white flowers.

The best mode of raising it is from seed.



[318]

Anthericum Liliastrum. Savoy Anthericum, or St. Bruno's Lily.

_Class and Order._

Hexandria Monogynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cor._ 6-petala, patens. _Caps._ ovata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     ANTHERICUM _Liliastrum_ foliis planis, scapo simplicissimo,
     corollis campanulatis, staminibus declinatis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab.
     ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 330._ _Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 449._

     HEMEROCALLIS floribus patulis secundis. _Hall. Hist. n. 1230._

     PHALANGIUM magno flore. _Bauh. Pin. 29._

     PHALANGIUM Allobrogicum majus. _Clus. cur. app. alt._

     PHALANGIUM Allobrogicum. The Savoye Spider-wort. _Park. Parad. p.
     150. tab. 151. f. 1._

[Illustration: N^o. 318]

Botanists are divided in their opinions respecting the genus of this
plant; Linnæus considers it as an _Anthericum_, Haller and Miller make
it an _Hemerocallis_.

It is a native of Switzerland, where, Haller informs us, it grows
abundantly in the Alpine meadows, and even on the summits of the
mountains; with us it flowers in May and June.

It is a plant of great elegance, producing on an unbranched stem about a
foot and a half high, numerous flowers of a delicate white colour, much
smaller but resembling in form those of the common white lily,
possessing a considerable degree of fragrance, their beauty is
heightened by the rich orange colour of their antheræ; unfortunately
they are but of short duration.

Miller describes two varieties of it differing merely in size.

A loamy soil, a situation moderately moist, with an eastern or western
exposure, suits this plant best; so situated, it will increase by its
roots, though not very fast, and by parting of these in the autumn, it
is usually propagated.

Parkinson describes and figures it in his _Parad. Terrest._ observing
that "divers allured by the beauty of its flowers, had brought it into
these parts."



[319]

Anagallis Monelli. Italian Pimpernel.

_Class and Order._

Pentandria Monogynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cor._ rotata. _Caps._ circumscissa 1-locularis, polysperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     ANAGALLIS _Monelli_, foliis lanceolatis caule erecto. _Linn. Syst.
     Veget. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 196._ _Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 201._

     ANAGALLIS coerulea foliis binis ternisve ex adverso nascentibus.
     _Bauh. Pin. 552._

     ANAGALLIS tenuifolia Monnelli. _Clus. app. alt._

[Illustration: N^o. 319]

In Italy and Spain, where this plant grows spontaneously, it is an
annual, producing seed in abundance; with us (as far at least as we have
observed) it produces no seed, but like the _Senecio elegans_, and some
other annuals, is renewed, and rendered perennial by cuttings, which
strike freely, and by which the plant requires to be renovated once or
twice in a season; though described as growing with an upright stem, it
requires to be tied up to a stick; and if this be neatly and dexterously
done, its brilliant azure flowers springing from every side of the stem,
render it a charming ornament for the greenhouse or window: it flowers
during most of the year.

Clusius called it _Anagallis Monnelli_, the first knowledge he had of
the plant being from his friend Johannes Monnellus.

On the same plant we find the leaves grow two, three, or four together,
with flowers corresponding.



[320]

Lobelia Cardinalis. Scarlet Lobelia, or Cardinal's Flower.

_Class and Order._

Syngenesia Monogamia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-fidus. _Cor._ 1-petala, irregularis. _Caps._ infera 2, s.
     3-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     LOBELIA _cardinalis_ caule erecto, foliis lato-lanceolatis
     serratis, racemo terminali secundo. _Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14._
     _Murr. p. 801._ _Ait. Kew. v. 3. p. 284._

     RAPUNTIUM galeatum virginianum, coccineo flore majore. _Moris.
     Hist. 2. p. 466. s. 5. t. 5. f. 54._

     TRACHELIUM Americarum flore ruberrimo, sive Planta Cardinalis. The
     rich crimson Cardinal's Flower. _Park. Parad. p. 356. t. 355._

[Illustration: N^o. 320]

This species of _Lobelia_, so eminently distinguished for the richness
of its scarlet blossoms, is a native of the colder as well as warmer
parts of North-America. Parkinson, who cultivated it in 1629, informs us
that he received plants of it from France for his garden, and that "it
groweth neere the river of Canada, where the French plantation in
America is seated."

It is a hardy herbaceous plant, growing in favourable situations to the
height of three or four feet; the main spike of flowers which terminates
the stalk, is often a foot in length; by the time that most of its
flowers are blown, side branches shoot out, and flower; so that the
plant continues in bloom six weeks or two months: if the Autumn prove
favourable, the plant with us produces plenty of seed in the open
ground; to insure its ripening, some place pots of it, when blowing, in
the greenhouse or stove.

Beautiful and hardy as this plant is, and long as it has been introduced
to this country, we do not find it generally in gardens; we attribute
this to its having, in a greater degree than many other plants, a
partiality for a particular soil; in certain districts, where the soil
is stiff and moist, it grows as freely as any weed, in other soils it is
perpetually going off: it is also one of those plants whose roots
require to be often parted; if this be done every Autumn, and they be
planted in a stiff loam, the situation somewhat moist and shady, this
very desirable plant may be had to grow and blossom in perfection.

It flowers from the latter end of July to October.

Is increased by parting its roots, by cuttings of the stalk and from
seed.



[321]

Cotyledon Orbiculata. Round-Leaved Navel-Wort.

_Class and Order._

Decandria Pentagynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-fidus. _Cor._ 1-petala. _Squamæ_ nectariferæ 5 ad basin
     germinis. _Caps._ 5.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     COTYLEDON _orbiculata_ foliis orbiculatis carnosis planis
     integerrimis, caule fruticoso. _Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14._ _Murr. p.
     428._ _Ait. Kew. var. [delta] v. 2. p. 106._

     COTYLEDON africanum frutescens incanum orbiculatis foliis. _Herm.
     Lugd. 349. t. 551._ _Moris. Hist. 3. p. 474. s. 12. t. 7 f. 39._

[Illustration: N^o. 321]

The _Cotyledon orbiculata_ is one of our oldest succulents, being
introduced as long since as 1690, by Mr. Bentick[C]: it still retains a
place in most collections, deservedly indeed, for it has every claim to
our notice; its appearance is magnificent, the glaucous colour of its
foliage highly pleasing, its flowers large and of long duration; it
blows freely, grows rapidly, is easily increased by cuttings, and will
succeed in a house or window, with the common treatment of an African
Geranium.

When suffered to grow, it will become a shrub of considerable size; but
this is not necessary for its flowering, as young and small plants are
disposed to throw out blossoms, which is not the case with a plant
extremely similar to, and often confounded with it, viz. the _Crassula
Cotyledon_, whose foliage indeed scarcely differs from our plant but in
being finely dotted.

It is a native of the Cape, and flowers from June or July to September.

In the _Hort. Kew._ of Mr. Aiton, four varieties are enumerated,
differing chiefly in the form of their foliage.

[Footnote C: Ait. Kew.]



[322]

Manulea Tomentosa. Woolly Manulea.

_Class and Order._

Didynamia Angiospermia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-partitus. _Cor._ limbo 5-partito, subulato: laciniis
     superioribus 4 magis connexis. _Caps._ 2-locularis, polysperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     MANULEA _tomentosa_ foliis tomentosis, caulibus foliosis,
     pedunculis multifloris. _Linn. Mant. 420. Syst. Veget. ed. 14._
     _Murr. p. 569._ _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 356._

     SELAGO _tomentosa_ foliis obovatis crenatis, caule prostrato,
     racemis ramosis. _Linn. Amoen. Acad. v. 6. p. 90._ _Sp. Pl. ed. 3.
     p. 877._

     PLANTA _Pluk. Phyt. 319. f. 2._

[Illustration: N^o. 322]

Linnæus describes this plant in the _Amoenitates Academicæ_ under the
name of _Selago tomentosa_, by which name he continues to call it in the
third edition of the _Spec. Pl._ in his _Mantissa_ he describes it more
minutely, and changes it to the Genus _Manulea_, first established by
him in the said work; he observes, that in this species the corolla is
more regular than in the others.

Mr. Aiton regards it as a biennial, its stalk is a foot or a foot and a
half high, and woolly, its branches are opposite, not alternate as
Linnæus describes them; in this perhaps they may vary; leaves opposite,
sessile, obovate, narrowing to the base, toothed on the edge, edge
rolled back a little in the young leaves, flowers grow in a long
thyrsus, from two to five proceed from one common short peduncle; they
are at first lemon-coloured, or greenish yellow, finally deep orange;
Linnæus says the whole of the plant except the corolla is woolly, the
tube of that even is hairy, the segments are smooth, with their edges
rolled back, the upper part of the tube in which the stamina are
included is dilated somewhat, as is also the lower part, so that it is
narrowest in the middle. The flowers which make their appearance from
May to November are usually succeeded by seeds, by which the plant is
propagated.

It is a native of the Cape, and, according to Mr. Aiton, was introduced
by Mr. Masson, in 1774.

The blossoms have a singular but unpleasant smell, not perceivable at a
distance.

The variety of pleasant colours so conspicuous in the flowers, renders
this rare plant desirable to such as aim at a general collection.



[323]

Rubus Odoratus. Flowering Raspberry.

_Class and Order._

Icosandria Polygynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-fidus. _Petala_ 5. _Bacca_ composita acinis monospermis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     RUBUS _odoratus_ foliis simplicibus palmatis, caule inermi
     multifolio multifloro. _Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 475._
     _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 210._

     RUBUS odoratus. _Corn. Canad. 149. t. 150._

[Illustration: N^o. 323]

Botanists and Gardeners have given to this species of Rubus the name of
_flowering_, not because it is the only one which produces flowers, but
from its being regarded for its flowers merely; they indeed are so
shewy, and so plentifully produced, that the plant has long been thought
to merit a place in most shrubberies; to the various inhabitants of
which, both in the largeness and elegant form of its leaves, and the
colour of its blossoms, it forms a pleasing contrast.

It is extremely hardy, and easily propagated by suckers; the only care
which it requires, is to keep it within proper bounds: young plants of
it produce the largest and finest flowers.

It blossoms from June to September, is a native of different and distant
parts of North-America, and was cultivated here by Mr. Miller, in 1739.

Cornutus, who first figured and described this plant, gave it the name
of _odoratus_, on account of the fragrance of its foliage; his words are
"elegantissimi hujus folia fragrantissima sunt, paremque agrimonio
odorato spirant odorem;" the fruit, rarely produced with us, he
observes, is like the common Raspberry, but not so pleasant.



[324]

Antirrhinum Triphyllum. Three-Leaved Toad-Flax.

_Class and Order._

Didynamia Angiospermia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-phyllus. _Cor._ basis deorsum prominens nectarifera.
     _Caps._ 2-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     ANTIRRHINUM _triphyllum_ foliis ternis ovatis. _Linn. Syst.
     Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 555._ _Ait. Kew._

     LINARIA triphylla minor lutea. _Bauh. Pin. 212._

     LINARIA triphylla coerulea. _Bauh. Pin. 212._

     LINARIA hispanica. _Clus. Hist. 1. p. 320._

     LINARIA valentina. Tode Flaxe of Valentia. _Park. Par. p. 268._

[Illustration: N^o. 324]

The _Antirrhinum triphyllum_, so called from the leaves growing by
threes on the stalk (a character, by the bye, not very constant) was
cultivated by Parkinson, and described by him in his _Parad. terr._ He
appears to have been a stranger to the particoloured variety now so
generally cultivated as an ornamental annual in our gardens; in its wild
state the flowers of this _Antirrhinum_ are of a yellow hue, with little
or no purple in them, such indeed are frequently produced from seeds
sown in our gardens.

It is a hardy annual, a native of Spain and Sicily, a plant of ready
growth, requiring the common treatment of annuals sown in the Spring,
and much disposed indeed to come up spontaneously where it has once
grown; in sowing its seeds, care should be taken to preserve the produce
of such flowers as have the most purple in them.



INDEX.


     In which the Latin Names of the Plants contained in the _Ninth
     Volume_ are alphabetically arranged.

  _Pl._
   295  Agrostemma Coeli rosa.
   290  Amaryllis lutea.
   294  ---- sarniensis.
   305  ---- equestris.
   319  Anagallis Monelli.
   324  Antirrhinum triphyllum.
   318  Anthericum Liliastrum.
   293  Catananche coerulea.
   291  Capparis spinosa.
   321  Cotyledon orbiculata.
   289  Convolvulus linearis.
   313  Daphne Cneorum.
   297  Dianthus superbus.
   303  Erica ampullacea.
   310  Erinus alpinus.
   314  Genista triquetra.
   300  Gnaphalium eximium.
   299  Hermannia alnifolia.
   304  ---- lavendulifolia.
   307  ---- althæifolia.
   312  Linum flavum.
   320  Lobelia Cardinalis.
   322  Manulea tomentosa.
   301  Melianthus minor.
   302  Mimosa myrtifolia.
   317  Ononis fruticosa.
   298  Origanum Dictamnus.
   306  Othonna pectinata.
   292  Passerina grandiflora.
   309  Pelargonium echinatum.
   315  ---- ceratophyllum.
   316  Polygala chamæbuxus.
   311  Robinia hispida.
   323  Rubus odoratus.
   296  Sempervivum tortuosum.
   308  Verbena Aubletia.



INDEX.


     In which the English Names of the Plants contained in the _Ninth
     Volume_ are alphabetically arranged.

  _Pl._
   290  Amaryllis yellow.
   294  ---- Guernsey.
   305  ---- Barbadoes.
   318  Anthericum Savoy.
   291  Caper Shrub.
   293  Catananche blue.
   295  Cockle smooth-leaved.
   289  Convolvulus narrow-leaved.
   315  Crane's-bill horn-leaved.
   300  Cudweed giant.
   313  Daphne trailing.
   298  Dittany of Crete.
   310  Erinus alpine.
   312  Flax yellow.
   303  Heath flask.
   299  Hermannia alder-leaved.
   304  ---- lavender-leaved.
   307  ---- marshmallow-leaved.
   296  Houseleek gouty.
   314  Genista triangular-stalked.
   309  Geranium prickly-stalked.
   320  Lobelia scarlet.
   322  Manulea woolly.
   301  Melianthus small.
   316  Milk-wort box-leaved.
   302  Mimosa myrtle-leaved.
   321  Navel-wort round-leaved.
   306  Othonna wormwood-leaved.
   292  Passerina great-flowered.
   319  Pimpernel Italian.
   297  Pink superb.
   323  Raspberry flowering.
   317  Rest-harrow shrubby.
   311  Robinia rough-stalked.
   324  Toad-flax three-leaved.
   308  Vervain rose.





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