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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 12, Slice 7 - "Gyantse" to "Hallel"
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 12, Slice 7 - "Gyantse" to "Hallel"" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
      paragraphs.

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not
      inserted.

(5) [root] stands for the root symbol, [oo] for infinity, and [alpha],
      [beta], etc. for greek letters.

(6) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    ARTICLE GYROSCOPE AND GYROSTAT: "... in such a manner that a point
      on the pendulum at a distance ..." ''pendulum'' amended from
      ''pedulum''.

    ARTICLE GYROSCOPE AND GYROSTAT: "Interpreted geometrically on the
      deformable hyperboloid, flattened in the plane of the focal ellipse
      ..." ''hyperboloid'' amended from ''hyperboloia''.

    ARTICLE HAEMOSPORIDIA: "... this does not represent reserve
      material, but is an excreted by-product derived from the
      haemoglobin." ''by-product'' amended from ''bye-product''.

    ARTICLE HALIFAX, GEORGE MONTAGU DUNK: "About this time he sought to
      become a secretary of state, but in vain, although he was allowed
      to enter the cabinet in 1757." ''become'' amended from ''became''.

    ARTICLE HÄLLEFLINTA: "Rocks very similar to the typical Swedish
      hälleflintas occur in Tirol, in Galicia and eastern Bohemia."
      ''similar'' amended from ''similiar?''.



          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


           VOLUME XII, SLICE VII

             Gyantse to Hallel



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


  GYANTSE                            HAHNEMANN, SAMUEL CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH
  GYGES                              HAHN-HAHN, IDA
  GYLIPPUS                           HAI
  GYLLEMBOURG-EHRENSVÄRD, CHRISTINE  HAIBAK
  GYLLENSTJERNA, JOHAN               HAIDA
  GYMKHANA                           HAIDINGER, WILHELM KARL
  GYMNASTICS AND GYMNASIUM           HAIDUK
  GYMNOSOPHISTS                      HAIFA
  GYMNOSPERMS                        HAIK
  GYMNOSTOMACEAE                     HAIL
  GYMPIE                             HAILES, DAVID DALRYMPLE
  GYNAECEUM                          HAILSHAM
  GYNAECOLOGY                        HAINAN
  GYÖNGYÖSI, ISTVÁN                  HAINAU
  GYÖR                               HAINAUT
  GYP                                HAINBURG
  GYPSUM                             HAINICHEN
  GYROSCOPE AND GYROSTAT             HAI-PHONG
  GYTHIUM                            HAIR
  GYULA-FEHÉRVÁR                     HAIR-TAIL
  H                                  HAITI
  HAAG, CARL                         HAJIPUR
  HAAKON                             HAJJ
  HAARLEM                            HAJJI KHALIFA
  HAARLEM LAKE                       HAKE, EDWARD
  HAASE, FRIEDRICH                   HAKE, THOMAS GORDON
  HAASE, FRIEDRICH GOTTLOB           HAKE
  HAAST, SIR JOHANN JULIUS VON       HAKKAS
  HABABS                             HAKLUYT, RICHARD
  HABAKKUK                           HAKODATE
  HABDALA                            HAL
  HABEAS CORPUS                      HALA
  HABERDASHER                        HALAESA
  HABINGTON, WILLIAM                 HALAKHA
  HABIT                              HALBERSTADT
  HABITAT                            HALBERT
  HABSBURG                           HALDANE, JAMES ALEXANDER
  HACHETTE, JEAN NICOLAS PIERRE      HALDANE, RICHARD BURDON
  HACHETTE, JEANNE                   HALDANE, ROBERT
  HACHETTE, LOUIS FRANÇOIS           HALDEMAN, SAMUEL STEHMAN
  HACHURE                            HALDIMAND, SIR FREDERICK
  HACIENDA                           HALE, EDWARD EVERETT
  HACKBERRY                          HALE, HORATIO
  HACKENSACK                         HALE, JOHN PARKER
  HACKET, JOHN                       HALE, SIR MATTHEW
  HACKETT, HORATIO BALCH             HALE, NATHAN
  HACKETT, JAMES HENRY               HALE, WILLIAM GARDNER
  HACKLÄNDER, FRIEDRICH WILHELM VON  HALEBID
  HACKNEY (borough of London)        HALES, JOHN (d. 1571)
  HACKNEY (riding-horse)             HALES, JOHN (1584-1656)
  HADAD                              HALES, STEPHEN
  HADDINGTON, EARL OF                HALESOWEN
  HADDINGTON                         HALEVI, JUDAH BEN SAMUEL
  HADDINGTONSHIRE                    HALÉVY, JACQUES FRANÇOIS ÉLIE
  HADDOCK                            HALÉVY, LUDOVIC
  HADDON HALL                        HALFPENNY, WILLIAM
  HADEN, SIR FRANCIS SEYMOUR         HALF-TIMBER WORK
  HADENDOA                           HALFWAY COVENANT
  HADERSLEBEN                        HALHED, NATHANIEL BRASSEY
  HADING, JANE                       HALIBURTON, THOMAS CHANDLER
  HADLEIGH                           HALIBUT
  HADLEY, ARTHUR TWINING             HALICARNASSUS
  HADLEY, JAMES                      HALICZ
  HADLEY                             HALIFAX, CHARLES MONTAGUE
  HADRAMUT                           HALIFAX, GEORGE MONTAGU DUNK
  HADRIA                             HALIFAX, GEORGE SAVILE
  HADRIAN                            HALIFAX (Canada)
  HADRIAN'S WALL                     HALIFAX (Yorkshire, England)
  HADRUMETUM                         HALISAH
  HAECKEL, ERNST HEINRICH            HALKETT, HUGH
  HAEMATITE                          HALL, BASIL
  HAEMATOCELE                        HALL, CARL CHRISTIAN
  HAEMOPHILIA                        HALL, CHARLES FRANCIS
  HAEMORRHAGE                        HALL, CHRISTOPHER NEWMAN
  HAEMORRHOIDS                       HALL, EDWARD
  HAEMOSPORIDIA                      HALL, FITZEDWARD
  HAETZER, LUDWIG                    HALL, ISAAC HOLLISTER
  HAFIZ                              HALL, SIR JAMES
  HAG                                HALL, JAMES (American judge)
  HAGEDORN, FRIEDRICH VON            HALL, JAMES (American geologist)
  HAGEN, FRIEDRICH HEINRICH VON DER  HALL, JOSEPH
  HAGEN                              HALL, MARSHALL
  HAGENAU                            HALL, ROBERT
  HAGENBACH, KARL RUDOLF             HALL, SAMUEL CARTER
  HAGENBECK, CARL                    HALL, WILLIAM EDWARD
  HAGERSTOWN                         HALL (spa of Austria)
  HAG-FISH                           HALL (town of Germany)
  HAGGADA                            HALL (of a mansion)
  HAGGAI                             HALLAM, HENRY
  HAGGARD, HENRY RIDER               HALLAM, ROBERT
  HAGGIS                             HALLÉ, SIR CHARLES
  HAGIOLOGY                          HALLE
  HAGIOSCOPE                         HALLECK, FITZ-GREENE
  HAGONOY                            HALLECK, HENRY WAGER
  HAGUE, THE                         HÄLLEFLINTA
  HAHN, AUGUST                       HALLEL



GYANTSE, one of the large towns of Tibet. It lies S.E. of Shigatse, 130
m. from the Indian frontier and 145 m. from Lhasa. Its central position
at the junction of the roads from India and Bhutan with those from
Ladakh and Central Asia leading to Lhasa makes it a considerable
distributing trade centre. Its market is the third largest in Tibet,
coming after Lhasa and Shigatse, and is especially celebrated for its
woollen cloth and carpet manufactures. Here caravans come from Ladakh,
Nepal and upper Tibet, bringing gold, borax, salt, wool, musk and furs,
to exchange for tea, tobacco, sugar, cotton goods, broadcloth and
hardware. The town is compactly built of stone houses, with wooden
balconies facing the main street, whence narrow lanes strike off into
uninviting slums, and contains a fort and monastery. In the British
expedition of 1904 Gyantse formed the first objective of the advance,
and the force was besieged here in the mission post of Changlo for some
time. The Tibetans made a night attack on the post, and were beaten off
with some difficulty, but subsequently the British attacked and stormed
the fort or jong. Under the treaty of 1904 a British trade agent is
stationed at Gyantse.



GYGES, founder of the third or Mermnad dynasty of Lydian kings, he
reigned 687-652 B.C. according to H. Geizer, 690-657 B.C. according to
H. Winckler. The chronology of the Lydian kings given by Herodotus has
been shown by the Assyrian inscriptions to be about twenty years in
excess. Gyges was the son of Dascylus, who, when recalled from
banishment in Cappadocia by the Lydian king Sadyattes--called Candaules
"the Dog-strangler" (a title of the Lydian Hermes) by the Greeks--sent
his son back to Lydia instead of himself. Gyges soon became a favourite
of Sadyattes and was despatched by him to fetch Tudo, the daughter of
Arnossus of Mysia, whom the Lydian king wished to make his queen. On the
way Gyges fell in love with Tudo, who complained to Sadyattes of his
conduct. Forewarned that the king intended to punish him with death,
Gyges assassinated Sadyattes in the night and seized the throne with the
help of Arselis of Mylasa, the captain of the Carian bodyguard, whom he
had won over to his cause. Civil war ensued, which was finally ended by
an appeal to the oracle of Delphi and the confirmation of the right of
Gyges to the crown by the Delphian god. Further to secure his title he
married Tudo. Many legends were told among the Greeks about his rise to
power. That found in Herodotus, which may be traced to the poet
Archilochus of Paros, described how "Candaules" insisted upon showing
Gyges his wife when unrobed, which so enraged her that she gave Gyges
the choice of murdering her husband and making himself king, or of being
put to death himself. Plato made Gyges a shepherd, who discovered a
magic ring by means of which he murdered his master and won the
affection of his wife (Hdt. i. 8-14; Plato, _Rep._ 359; Justin i. 7;
Cicero, _De off._ iii. 9). Once established on the throne Gyges devoted
himself to consolidating his kingdom and making it a military power. The
Troad was conquered, Colophon captured from the Greeks, Smyrna besieged
and alliances entered into with Ephesus and Miletus. The Cimmerii, who
had ravaged Asia Minor, were beaten back, and an embassy was sent to
Assur-bani-pal at Nineveh (about 650 B.C.) in the hope of obtaining his
help against the barbarians. The Assyrians, however, were otherwise
engaged, and Gyges turned to Egypt, sending his faithful Carian troops
along with Ionian mercenaries to assist Psammetichus in shaking off the
Assyrian yoke (660 B.C.). A few years later he fell in battle against
the Cimmerii under Dugdamme (called Lygdamis by Strabo i. 3. 21), who
took the lower town of Sardis. Gyges was succeeded by his son Ardys.

  See Nicolaus Damascenus, quoting from the Lydian historian Xanthus, in
  C. Müller, _Fragmenta historicorum Graecorum_, iii.; R. Schubert,
  _Geschichte der Könige von Lydien_ (1884); M. G. Radet, _La Lydie et
  le monde grec au temps de Mermnades_ (1892-1893): H. Gelzer, "Das
  Zeitalter des Gyges" (_Rhein. Mus._, 1875); H. Winckler,
  _Altorientalische Forschungen_, i. (1893); Macan's edition of
  Herodotus.     (A. H. S.)



GYLIPPUS, a Spartan general of the 5th century B.C.; he was the son of
Cleandridas, who had been expelled from Sparta for accepting Athenian
bribes (446 B.C.) and had settled at Thurii. His mother was probably a
helot, for Gylippus is said to have been, like Lysander and
Callicratidas, a _mothax_ (see HELOT). When Alcibiades urged the
Spartans to send a general to lead the Syracusan resistance against the
Athenian expedition, Gylippus was appointed, and his arrival was
undoubtedly the turning point of the struggle (414-413). Though at first
his long hair, his threadbare cloak and his staff furnished the subject
of many a jest, and his harsh and overbearing manner caused grave
discontent, yet the rapidity and decisiveness of his movements, won the
sympathy and respect of the Syracusans. Diodorus (xiii. 28-32),
probably following Timaeus, represents him as inducing the Syracusans
to pass sentence of death on the captive Athenian generals, but we need
have no hesitation in accepting the statement of Philistus (Plutarch,
_Nicias_, 28), a Syracusan who himself took part in the defence, and
Thucydides (vii. 86), that he tried, though without success, to save
their lives, wishing to take them to Sparta as a signal proof of his
success. Gylippus fell, as his father had done, through avarice;
entrusted by Lysander with an immense sum which he was to deliver to the
ephors at Sparta, he could not resist the temptation to enrich himself
and, on the discovery of his guilt, went into exile.

  Thucydides vi. 93. 104, vii.; Plutarch, _Nicias_, 19, 21, 27, 28,
  _Lysander_, 16, 17; Diodorus xiii. 7, 8, 28-32; Polyaenus i. 39. 42.
  See SYRACUSE (for the siege operations), commentaries on Thucydides
  and the Greek histories.



GYLLEMBOURG-EHRENSVÄRD, THOMASINE CHRISTINE, Baroness (1773-1856),
Danish author, was born on the 9th of November 1773, at Copenhagen. Her
maiden name was Buntzen. Her great beauty early attracted notice, and
before she was seventeen she married the famous writer Peter Andreas
Heiberg. To him she bore in the following year a son, afterwards
illustrious as the poet and critic Johan Ludvig Heiberg. In 1800 her
husband was exiled, and she obtained a divorce, marrying in December
1801 the Swedish Baron K. F. Ehrensvärd, himself a political fugitive.
Her second husband, who presently adopted the name of Gyllembourg, died
in 1815. In 1822 she followed her son to Kiel, where he was appointed
professor, and in 1825 she returned with him to Copenhagen. In 1827 she
first appeared as an author by publishing her romance of _The Polonius
Family_ in her son's newspaper _Flyvende Post_. In 1828 the same journal
contained _The Magic Ring_, which was immediately followed by _En
Hverdags historie (An Everyday Story)_. The success of this anonymous
work was so great that the author adopted until the end of her career
the name of "The Author of _An Everyday Story_." In 1833-1834 she
published three volumes of _Old and New Novels_. _New Stories_ followed
in 1835 and 1836. In 1839 appeared two novels, _Montanus the Younger_
and _Ricida_; in 1840, _One in All_; in 1841, _Near and Far_; in 1843,
_A Correspondence_; in 1844, _The Cross Ways_; in 1845, _Two
Generations_. From 1849 to 1851 the Baroness Ehrensvärd-Gyllembourg was
engaged in bringing out a library edition of her collected works in
twelve volumes. On the 2nd of July 1856 she died in her son's house at
Copenhagen. Not until then did the secret of her authorship transpire;
for throughout her life she had preserved the closest reticence on the
subject even with her nearest friends. The style of Madame
Ehrensvärd-Gyllembourg is clear and sparkling; for English readers no
closer analogy can be found than between her and Mrs Gaskell, and
_Cranford_ might well have been written by the witty Danish authoress.

  See J. L. Heiberg, _Peter Andreas Heiberg og Thomasine Gyllembourg_
  (Copenhagen, 1882), and L. Kornelius-Hybel, _Nogle Bemaerkninger om P.
  A. Heiberg og Fru Gyllembourg_ (Copenhagen, 1883).



GYLLENSTJERNA, JOHAN, COUNT (1635-1680), Swedish statesman, completed
his studies at Upsala and then visited most of the European states and
laid the foundations of that deep insight into international politics
which afterwards distinguished him. On his return home he met King
Charles X. in the Danish islands and was in close attendance upon him
till the monarch's death in 1660. He began his political career at the
diet which assembled in the autumn of the same year. An aristocrat by
birth and inclination, he was nevertheless a true patriot and demanded
the greatest sacrifices from his own order in the national interests. He
was therefore one of those who laboured most zealously for the recovery
of the crown lands. In the Upper House he was the spokesman of the
gentry against the magnates, whose inordinate privileges he would have
curtailed or abolished. His adversaries vainly endeavoured to gain him
by favour, for as court-marshal and senator he was still more hostile to
the dominant patricians who followed the adventurous policy of Magnus de
la Gardie. Thus he opposed the French alliance which de la Gardie
carried through in 1672, and consistently advocated economy in domestic
and neutrality in foreign affairs. On the outbreak of the war in 1675 he
was the most loyal and energetic supporter of the young Charles XI.,
and finally his indispensable counsellor. Indeed, it may be said, that
the political principles which he instilled into the youthful monarch
were faithfully followed by Charles during the whole of his reign. In
1679 Gyllenstjerna was appointed the Swedish plenipotentiary at the
peace congress of Lund. The alliance which he then concluded with
Denmark bound the two northern realms together in a common foreign
policy, and he sought besides to facilitate their harmonious
co-operation by every means in his power. In 1680, after bringing home
Charles XI.'s Danish bride from Copenhagen, he was appointed
governor-general of Scania (Skåne), but expired a few weeks later.

  See M. Höjer, _Öfversigt af Sveriges yttre politik under åren
  1676-1680_ (Upsala, 1875).     (R. N. B.)



GYMKHANA, a display of miscellaneous sports, originally at the military
stations of India. The word would seem to be a colloquial remodelling of
the Hindustani _gend-khana_, ball-house or racquet-court, by
substituting for _gend_ the first syllable of the English word
"gymnastics." The definition given in Yule's _Glossary_ is as follows:
"A place of public resort at a station, where the needful facilities for
athletics and games ... are provided." The name of the place was
afterwards applied to the games themselves, and the word is now used
almost exclusively in this sense. According to Yule the first use of it
that can be traced was, on the authority of Major John Trotter, at Rurki
in the year 1861, when a gymkhana was instituted there. Gymkhana sports
were invented to relieve the monotony of Indian station life, and both
officers and men from the ranks took part in them. The first meetings
consisted of promiscuous horse and pony races at catch weights. To these
were soon added a second variety, originally called the _pagol_ (funny
races), the one generally known outside India, which consisted of
miscellaneous races and competitions of all kinds, some serious and some
amusing, on horseback, on foot and on bicycles. Among these may be
mentioned the usual military sports; such as tent-pegging, lemon-cutting
and obstacle racing; rickshaw racing; tilting at the ring sack, pillion,
hurdle, egg-and-spoon, blindfold, threading-the-needle and many other
kinds of races depending upon the inventive powers of the committees in
charge.



GYMNASTICS AND GYMNASIUM, terms signifying respectively a system of
physical exercises practised either for recreation or for the purpose of
promoting the health and development of the body, and the building where
such exercises are carried on. The gymnasium of the Greeks was
originally the school where competitors in the public games received
their training, and was so named from the circumstance that these
competitors exercised naked ([Greek: gymnos]). The gymnasium was a
public institution as distinguished from the palaestra, which was a
private school where boys were trained in physical exercises, though the
term palaestra is also often used for the part of a gymnasium specially
devoted to wrestling and boxing. The athletic contests for which the
gymnasium supplied the means of training and practice formed part of the
social life of the Greeks from the earliest times. They were held in
honour of heroes and gods; sometimes forming part of a periodic
festival, sometimes of the funeral rites of a deceased chief. In course
of time the Greeks grew more attached to such sports; their free active
life, spent to a great extent in the open air, fostered the liking
almost into a passion. The victor in any athletic contest, though he
gained no money prize, was rewarded with the honour and respect of his
fellow citizens; and a victory in the great religious festivals was
counted an honour for the whole state. In these circumstances the
training of competitors for the greater contests became a matter of
public concern; and accordingly special buildings were provided by the
state, and their management entrusted to public officials. The
regulation of the gymnasium at Athens is attributed by Pausanias (i. 39.
3) to Theseus. Solon made several laws on the subject; but according to
Galen it was reduced to a system in the time of Cleisthenes. Ten
_gymnasiarchs_, one from each tribe, were appointed annually. These
performed in rotation the duties of their office, which were to maintain
and pay the persons who were training for public contests, to conduct
the games at the great Athenian festivals, to exercise general
supervision over the morals of the youths, and to adorn and keep up the
gymnasium. This office was one of the ordinary [Greek: leitourgiai]
(public services), and great expense was entailed on the holders. Under
them were ten _sophronistae_, whose duty was to watch the conduct of the
youths at all times, and especially to be present at all their games.
The practical teaching and selecting of the suitable exercises for each
youth were in the hands of the _paedotribae_ and _gymnastae_, the latter
of whom also superintended the effect on the constitution of the pupils,
and prescribed for them when they were unwell. The _aleiptae_ oiled and
rubbed dust on the bodies of the youths, acted as surgeons, and
administered the drugs prescribed. According to Galen there was also a
teacher of the various games of ball. The gymnasia built to suit these
various purposes were large buildings, which contained not merely places
for each kind of exercise, but also a stadium, baths, covered porticos
for practice in bad weather, and outer porticos where the philosophers
and men of letters read public lectures and held disputations.

The gymnasium of the Greeks did not long remain an institution
exclusively devoted to athletic exercises. It soon began to be applied
to other uses even more important. The development arose naturally
through the recognition by the Greeks of the important place in
education occupied by physical culture, and of the relation between
exercise and health. The gymnasium accordingly became connected with
education on the one hand and with medicine on the other. Due training
of the body and maintenance of the health and strength of children were
the chief part of earlier Greek education. Except the time devoted to
letters and music, the education of boys was conducted in the gymnasia,
where provision was made, as already mentioned, for their moral as well
as their physical training. As they grew older, conversation and social
intercourse took the place of the more systematic discipline.
Philosophers and sophists assembled to talk and to lecture in the
gymnasia, which thus became places of general resort for the purpose of
all less systematic intellectual pursuits, as well as for physical
exercises. In Athens there were three great public gymnasia--Academy,
Lyceum and Cynosarges--each of which was consecrated to a special deity
with whose statue it was adorned; and each was rendered famous by
association with a celebrated school of philosophy. Plato's teaching in
the Academy has given immortality to that gymnasium; Aristotle conferred
lustre on the Lyceum; and the Cynosarges was the resort of the Cynics.
Plato when treating of education devotes much consideration to
gymnastics (see especially _Rep._ iii. and various parts of _Laws_); and
according to Plato it was the sophist Prodicus who first pointed out the
connexion between gymnastics and health. Having found such exercises
beneficial to his own weak health, he formulated a method which was
adopted generally, and which was improved by Hippocrates. Galen lays the
greatest stress on the proper use of gymnastics, and throughout ancient
medical writers we find that special exercises are prescribed as the
cure for special diseases.

The Greek institution of the gymnasium never became popular with the
Romans, who regarded the training of boys in gymnastics with contempt as
conducive to idleness and immorality, and of little use from a military
point of view; though at Sparta gymnastic training had been chiefly
valued as encouraging warlike tastes and promoting the bodily strength
needed for the use of weapons and the endurance of hardship. Among the
Romans of the republic, the games in the Campus Martius, the duties of
camp life, and the enforced marches and other hardships of actual
warfare, served to take the place of the gymnastic exercises required by
the Greeks. The first public gymnasium at Rome was built by Nero and
another by Commodus. In the middle ages, though jousts and feats of
horsemanship and field sports of various kinds were popular, the more
systematic training of the body which the Greeks had associated with the
gymnasium fell into neglect; while the therapeutic value of special
exercises as understood by Hippocrates and Galen appears to have been
lost sight of. Rousseau, in his _Émile_, was the first in modern times
to call attention to the injurious consequences of such indifference,
and he insisted on the importance of physical culture as an essential
part of education. It was probably due in some measure to his influence
that F. L. Jahn and his followers in Germany, encouraged by the Prussian
minister Stein, established the _Turnplätze_, or gymnastic schools,
which played an important part during the War of Liberation, and in the
political agitations which followed the establishment of the German
confederation by the Congress of Vienna. The educational reformers
Pestalozzi and Froebel emphasized the need for systematic physical
training in any complete scheme of education.

The later development of the classical gymnasium (when it had become the
school of Intellectual culture rather than of exclusively physical
exercise), and not the original idea, has been perpetuated in the modern
use of the word in Germany, where the name "gymnasium" is given to the
highest grade of secondary school, and the association of the word with
athleticism has been entirely abandoned. On the other hand, in England,
France and elsewhere in Europe, as well as in America, the history of
the word has been precisely the reverse; the connexion of the gymnasium
with philosophy and mental culture has been dropped, and it indicates a
building exclusively intended for the practice of physical exercises.
But whereas the Greeks received training in the gymnasium for contests
which are now designated as _athletic sports_ (q.v.), gymnastics in the
modern sense is a term restricted to such exercises as are usually
practised indoors, with or without the aid of mechanical appliances, as
distinguished from sports or games practised in the open air.

It was not until near the end of the 19th century that gymnastics were
recognized in England as anything more than a recreation; their value as
a specifically therapeutic agent, or as an article in the curriculum of
elementary schools, was not realized. More recently, however,
educationists have urged with increasing insistence the need for
systematic physical training, and their views received greater attention
when evidence of deterioration in the physique of the people began to
accumulate. During the first decade of the 20th century more than one
commission reported to parliament in England in favour of more
systematic and general physical training being encouraged or even made
compulsory by public authority. Voluntary associations were formed for
encouraging such training and providing facilities for it. Gymnastics
had already for several years been an essential part of the training of
army recruits with exceedingly beneficial results, and gymnasia had been
established at Aldershot and other military centres. Physical exercises,
although not compulsory, obtained a permanent place in the code for
elementary schools in Great Britain; and much care has been taken to
provide a syllabus of exercises adapted for the improvement of the
physique of the children. These exercises are partly gymnastic and
partly of the nature of drill; they do not in most cases require the use
of appliances, and are on that account known as "free movements," which
numbers of children go through together, accompanied whenever possible
by music. On the other hand at the larger public schools and
universities there are elaborate gymnasia equipped with a great variety
of apparatus, the skilful use of which demands assiduous practice; and
this is encouraged by annual contests between teams of gymnasts
representing rival institutions.


  Gymnastic apparatus.

The appliances vary to some extent in different gymnasia, some of the
more complicated requiring a greater amount of space and involving a
larger cost than is often practicable. But where these considerations
are negligible, substantial uniformity is to be found in the equipment
of gymnasia not designed for specifically medical purposes. The
simplest, and in many respects the most generally useful, of all
gymnastic apparatus is the dumb-bell. It was in use in England as early
as the time of Elizabeth, and it has the advantage that it admits of
being exactly proportioned to the individual strength of each learner,
and can be adjusted in weight as his strength increases. The exercises
that may be performed with the dumb-bell, combined with a few simple
drill-like movements, give employment to all parts of the body and to
both sides equally. Dumb-bell exercises, therefore, when arranged
judiciously and with knowledge, are admirably suited for developing the
physique, and are extensively employed in schools both for boys and
girls. The bar-bell is merely a two-handed dumb-bell, and its use is
similar in principle. The Indian club is also in use in most gymnasia;
but the risk of overstraining the body by its unskilful handling makes
it less generally popular than the dumb-bell. All these appliances may
be, and often are, used either in ordinary schoolrooms or elsewhere
outside the gymnasium. The usual fixed sorts of apparatus, the presence
of which (or of some of them) in a building may be said to constitute it
a gymnasium, are the following: a leaping-rope; a leaping-pole; a
vaulting-horse; a horizontal bar, so mounted between two upright posts
that its height from the ground may be adjusted as desired; parallel
bars, used for exercises to develop the muscles of the trunk and arms;
the trapeze consisting of a horizontal bar suspended by ropes at a
height of 4 to 5 ft. from the ground; the bridge ladder; the plank; the
inclined plane; the mast; swinging rings; the prepared wall; the
horizontal beam.

Before the end of the 19th century the therapeutic value of gymnastics
was fully realized by the medical profession; and a number of medical or
surgical gymnasia came into existence, provided with specially devised
apparatus for the treatment of different physical defects or weaknesses.
The exercises practised in them are arranged upon scientific principles
based on anatomical and physiological knowledge; and these principles
have spread thence to influence largely the practice of gymnastics in
schools and in the army. A French medical writer enumerates seven
distinct groups of maladies, each including a number of different
complaints, for which gymnastic exercises are a recognized form of
treatment; and there are many malformations of the human body, formerly
believed to be incurable, which are capable of being greatly remedied if
not entirely corrected by regular gymnastic exercises practised under
medical direction.

The value of gymnastics both for curing defects, and still more for
promoting health and the development of normal physique, is recognized
even more clearly on the continent of Europe than in Great Britain. In
Germany the government not only controls the practice of gymnastics but
makes it compulsory for every child and adult to undergo a prescribed
amount of such physical training. In France also, physical training by
gymnastics is under state control; in Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland,
Italy, Russia, systems more or less distinct enjoy a wide popularity;
and in Finland gymnastics are practised on lines that exhibit national
peculiarities. The Finns introduce an exceptional degree of variety into
their exercises as well as into the appliances devised to assist them;
women are scarcely less expert than men in the performance of them; and
the enthusiasm with which the system is supported produces the most
beneficial results in the physique of the people. International
gymnastic contests have become a feature of the revived Olympic Games
(see ATHLETIC SPORTS), and in those held at Athens in 1906 a team of
Danish ladies took part in the competition and proved by their skilful
performance that gymnastics may be practised with as much success by
women as by men.

  The chief work on the ancient gymnastics is Krause, _Gymnastik und
  Agonistik der Hellenen_ (1841); of more recent works mention may be
  made of Jäger, _Gymnastik der Hellenen_ (1881); L. Grasberger,
  _Erziehung und Unterricht im klassischen Altertum_ (1881); J. P.
  Mahaffy, _Old Greek Education_ (1883); A. S. Wilkins, _National
  Education in Greece_ (1873); E. Paz, _Histoire de la gymnastique_
  (1886); Wickenhagen, _Antike und moderne Gymnastik_ (1891);
  Becker-Göll, _Charicles_ ii.; Brugsma, _Gymnasiorum apud Graecos
  descriptio_ (1855); Petersen, _Das Gymnasium der Griechen_ (1858). See
  also N. Laisné, _Gymnastique pratique_ (Paris, 1879); Collineau, _La
  Gymnastique_ (Paris, 1884); _L'Hygiène à l'école_ (Paris, 1889); P. de
  Coubertin, _La Gymnastique utilitaire_ (Paris, 1905); H. Nissen,
  _Rational Home Gymnastics_ (Boston, 1903).     (R. J. M.)



GYMNOSOPHISTS (Lat. _gymnosophistae_, from Gr. [Greek: gymnos,
sophistês], "naked philosophers"), the name given by the Greeks to
certain ancient Hindu philosophers who pursued asceticism to the point
of regarding food and clothing as detrimental to purity of thought. From
the fact that they often lived as hermits in forests, the Greeks also
called them _Hylobioi_ (cf. the _Vana-prasthas_ in Sanskrit writings).
Diogenes Laërtius (ix. 61 and 63) refers to them, and asserts that
Pyrrho of Elis, the founder of pure scepticism, came under their
influence, and on his return to Elis imitated their habits of life, to
what extent does not appear. Strabo (xv. 711, 714) divides them into
Brahmans and Sarmans (or Shamans). See JAINS.



GYMNOSPERMS, in Botany. The Gymnosperms, with the Angiosperms,
constitute the existing groups of seed-bearing plants or Phanerogams:
the importance of the seed as a distinguishing feature in the plant
kingdom may be emphasized by the use of the designation Spermophyta for
these two groups, in contrast to the Pteridophyta and Bryophyta in which
true seeds are unknown. Recent discoveries have, however, established
the fact that there existed in the Palaeozoic era fern-like plants which
produced true seeds of a highly specialized type; this group, for which
Oliver and Scott proposed the term Pteridospermae in 1904, must also be
included in the Spermophyta. Another instance of the production of seeds
in an extinct plant which further reduces the importance of this
character as a distinguishing feature is afforded by the Palaeozoic
genus _Lepidocarpon_ described by Scott in 1901; this lycopodiaceous
type possessed an integumented megaspore, to which the designation seed
may be legitimately applied (see PALAEOBOTANY: _Palaeozoic_).

As the name Gymnosperm (Gr. [Greek: gymnos], naked, [Greek: sperma],
seed) implies, one characteristic of this group is the absence of an
ovary or closed chamber containing the ovules. It was the English
botanist Robert Brown who first recognized this important distinguishing
feature in conifers and cycads in 1825; he established the gymnospermy
of these seed-bearing classes as distinct from the angiospermy of the
monocotyledons and dicotyledons. As Sachs says in his history of botany,
"no more important discovery was ever made in the domain of comparative
morphology and systematic botany." As Coulter and Chamberlain express
it, "the habitats of the Gymnosperms to-day indicate that they either
are not at home in the more genial conditions affected by Angiosperms,
or have not been able to maintain themselves in competition with this
group of plants."

These naked-seeded plants are of special interest on account of their
great antiquity, which far exceeds that of the Angiosperms, and as
comprising different types which carry us back to the Palaeozoic era and
to the forests of the coal period. The best known and by far the largest
division of the Gymnosperms is that of the cone-bearing trees (pines,
firs, cedars, larches, &c.), which play a prominent part in the
vegetation of the present day, especially in the higher latitudes of the
northern hemisphere; certain members of this class are of considerable
antiquity, but the conifers as a whole are still vigorous and show but
little sign of decadence. The division known as the Cycadophyta is
represented by a few living genera of limited geographical range and by
a large number of extinct types which in the Mesozoic era (see
PALAEOBOTANY: _Mesozoic_) played a conspicuous part in the vegetation of
the world. Among existing Cycadophyta we find surviving types which, in
their present isolation, their close resemblance to fossil forms, and in
certain morphological features, constitute links with the past that not
only connect the present with former periods in the earth's history, but
serve as sign-posts pointing the way back along one of the many lines
which evolution has followed.

It is needless to discuss at length the origin of the Gymnosperms. The
two views which find most favour in regard to the Coniferales and
Cycadophyta are: (1) that both have been derived from remote filicinean
ancestors; (2) that the cycads are the descendants of a fern-like stock,
while conifers have been evolved from lycopodiaceous ancestors. The line
of descent of recent cycads is comparatively clear in so far as they
have undoubted affinity with Palaeozoic plants which combined cycadean
and filicinean features; but opinion is much more divided as to the
nature of the phylum from which the conifers are derived. The
Cordaitales (see PALAEOBOTANY: _Palaeozoic_) are represented by extinct
forms only, which occupied a prominent position in the Palaeozoic
period; these plants exhibit certain features in common with the living
Araucarias, and others which invite a comparison with the maidenhair
tree (_Ginkgo biloba_), the solitary survivor of another class of
Gymnosperms, the Ginkgoales (see PALAEOBOTANY: _Mesozoic_). The Gnetales
are a class apart, including three living genera, of which we know next
to nothing as regards their past history or line of descent. Although
there are several morphological features in the three genera of Gnetales
which might seem to bring them into line with the Angiosperms, it is
usual to regard these resemblances as parallel developments along
distinct lines rather than to interpret them as evidence of direct
relationship.

  _Gymnospermae._--Trees or shrubs; leaves vary considerably in size and
  form. Flowers unisexual, except in a few cases (Gnetales) without a
  perianth. Monoecious or dioecious. Ovules naked, rarely without
  carpellary leaves, usually borne on carpophylls, which assume various
  forms. The single megaspore enclosed in the nucellus is filled with
  tissue (prothallus) before fertilization, and contains two or more
  archegonia, consisting usually of a large egg-cell and a small neck,
  rarely of an egg-cell only and no neck (_Gnetum_ and _Welwitschia_).
  Microspore spherical or oval, with or without a bladder-like extension
  of the exine, containing a prothallus of two or more cells, one of
  which produces two non-motile or motile male cells. Cotyledons two or
  several. Secondary xylem and phloem produced by a single cambium, or
  by successive cambial zones; no true vessels (except in the Gnetales)
  in the wood, and no companion-cells in the phloem.

      I. _Pteridospermae_ (see PALAEOBOTANY, PALAEOZOIC).
     II. _Cycadophyta_.
            A. Cycadales (recent and extinct).
            B. Bennettitales (see Palaeobotany: _Mesozoic_).
    III. _Cordaitales_ (see PALAEOBOTANY: _Palaeozoic_).
     IV. _Ginkgoales_ (recent and extinct).
      V. _Coniferales_.
            A. Taxaceae.
            B. Pinaceae.

  There is no doubt that the result of recent research and of work now
  in progress will be to modify considerably the grouping of the
  conifers. The family _Araucarieae_, represented by _Araucaria_ and
  _Agathis_, should perhaps be separated as a special class and a
  rearrangement of other genera more in accord with a natural system of
  classification will soon be possible; but for the present its twofold
  subdivision may be retained.

     VI. _Gnetales_.
            A. Ephedroideae.
            B. Gnetoideae.
            C. Welwitschioideae (Tumboideae).

  CYCADOPHYTA.--A. _Cycadales._--Stems tuberous or columnar, not
  infrequently branched, rarely epiphytic (Peruvian species of _Zamia_);
  fronds pinnate, bi-pinnate in the Australian genus _Bowenia_.
  Dioecious; flowers in the form of cones, except the female flowers of
  _Cycas_, which consist of a rosette of leaf-like carpels at the apex
  of the stem. Seeds albuminous, with one integument; the single embryo,
  usually bearing two partially fused cotyledons, is attached to a long
  tangled suspensor. Stems and roots increase in diameter by secondary
  thickening, the secondary wood being produced by one cambium or
  developed from successive cambium-rings.

  [Illustration: FIG. 1.--Stem of _Cycas_. F, foliage-leaf bases; S,
  scale-leaf bases.]

  The cycads constitute a homogeneous group of a few living members
  confined to tropical and sub-tropical regions. As a fairly typical and
  well-known example of the Cycadaceae, a species of the genus _Cycas_
  (e.g. _C. circinalis_, _C. revoluta_, &c.) is briefly described. The
  stout columnar stem may reach a height of 20 metres, and a diameter of
  half a metre; it remains either unbranched or divides near the summit
  into several short and thick branches, each branch terminating in a
  crown of long pinnate leaves. The surface of the stem is covered with
  rhomboidal areas, which represent the persistent bases of foliage- and
  scale-leaves. In some species of _Cycas_ there is a well-defined
  alternation of transverse zones on the stem, consisting of larger
  areas representing foliage-leaf bases, and similar but smaller areas
  formed by the bases of scale-leaves (F and S, fig. 1). The
  scale-leaves clothing the terminal bud are linear-lanceolate in form,
  and of a brown or yellow colour; they are pushed aside as the
  stem-axis elongates and becomes shrivelled, finally falling off,
  leaving projecting bases which are eventually cut off at a still lower
  level. Similarly, the dead fronds fall off, leaving a ragged petiole,
  which is afterwards separated from the stem by an absciss-layer a
  short distance above the base. In some species of _Cycas_ the
  leaf-bases do not persist as a permanent covering to the stem, but the
  surface is covered with a wrinkled bark, as in _Cycas siamensis_,
  which has a stem of unusual form (fig. 2). Small tuberous shoots,
  comparable on a large scale with the bulbils of _Lycopodium Selago_,
  are occasionally produced in the axils of some of the persistent
  leaf-bases; these are characteristic of sickly plants, and serve as a
  means of vegetative reproduction. In the genus _Cycas_ the female
  flower is peculiar among cycads in consisting of a terminal crown of
  separate leaf-like carpels several inches in length; the apical
  portion of each carpellary leaf may be broadly triangular in form, and
  deeply dissected on the margins into narrow woolly appendages like
  rudimentary pinnae. From the lower part of a carpel are produced
  several laterally placed ovules, which become bright red or orange on
  ripening; the bright fleshy seeds, which in some species are as large
  as a goose's egg, and the tawny spreading carpels produce a pleasing
  combination of colour in the midst of the long dark-green fronds,
  which curve gracefully upwards and outwards from the summit of the
  columnar stem. In _Cycas_ the stem apex, after producing a cluster of
  carpellary leaves, continues to elongate and produces more bud-scales,
  which are afterwards pushed aside as a fresh crown of fronds is
  developed. The young leaves of _Cycas_ consist of a straight rachis
  bearing numerous linear pinnae, traversed by a single midrib; the
  pinnae are circinately coiled like the leaf of a fern (fig. 3). The
  male flower of _Cycas_ conforms to the type of structure
  characteristic of the cycads, and consists of a long cone of numerous
  sporophylls bearing many oval pollen-sacs on their lower faces. The
  type described serves as a convenient representative of its class.
  There are eight other living genera, which may be classified as
  follows:--

  [Illustration: FIG. 2.--_Cycas siamensis._]

  _Classification._--A. _Cycadeae._--Characterized by (a) the
  alternation of scale- and foliage-leaves (fig. 1) on the branched or
  unbranched stem; (b) the growth of the main stem through the female
  flower; (c) the presence of a prominent single vein in the linear
  pinnae; (d) the structure of the female flower, which is peculiar in
  not having the form of a cone, but consists of numerous independent
  carpels, each of which bears two or more lateral ovules. Represented
  by a single genus, _Cycas_. (Tropical Asia, Australia, &c.).

  [Illustration: FIG. 3.--_Cycas._ Young Frond.]

  B. _Zamieae._--The stem does not grow through the female flower; both
  male and female flowers are in the form of cones. (a)
  _Stangerieae._--Characterized by the fern-like venation of the pinnae,
  which have a prominent midrib, giving off at a wide angle simple or
  forked and occasionally anastomosing lateral veins. A single genus,
  _Stangeria_, confined to South Africa, (b) _Euzamieae._--The pinnae
  are traversed by several parallel veins. _Bowenia_, an Australian
  cycad, is peculiar in having bi-pinnate fronds (fig. 5). The various
  genera are distinguished from one another by the shape and manner of
  attachment of the pinnae, the form of the carpellary scales, and to
  some extent by anatomical characters. _Encephalartos_ (South and
  Tropical Africa).--Large cones; the carpellary scales terminate in a
  peltate distal expansion. _Macrozamia_ (Australia).--Similar to
  _Encephalartos_ except in the presence of a spinous projection from
  the swollen distal end of the carpels. _Zamia_ (South America,
  Florida, &c.).--Stem short and often divided into several columnar
  branches. Each carpel terminates in a peltate head. _Ceratozamia_
  (Mexico).--Similar in habit to _Macrozamia_, but distinguished by the
  presence of two horn-like spinous processes on the apex of the
  carpels. _Microcycas_ (Cuba).--Like _Zamia_, except that the ends of
  the stamens are flat, while the apices of the carpels are peltate.
  _Dioon_ (Mexico) (fig. 4).--Characterized by the woolly scale-leaves
  and carpels; the latter terminate in a thick laminar expansion of
  triangular form, bearing two placental cushions, on which the ovules
  are situated. _Bowenia_ (Australia).--Bi-pinnate fronds; stem short
  and tuberous (fig. 5).

  [Illustration: From a photograph of a plant in Peradeniya Gardens,
  Ceylon, by Professor R. H. Yapp.

  FIG. 4.--_Dioon edule._]

  [Illustration: FIG. 5.--_Bowenia spectabilis_: frond.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 6.--_Macrozamia heteromera_. A, part of frond; B,
  single pinna.]


    Stem and leaf.

  The stems of cycads are often described as unbranched; it is true that
  in comparison with conifers, in which the numerous branches, springing
  from the main stem, give a characteristic form to the tree, the
  tuberous or columnar stem of the Cycadaceae constitutes a striking
  distinguishing feature. Branching, however, occurs not infrequently:
  in _Cycas_ the tall stem often produces several candelabra-like arms;
  in _Zamia_ the main axis may break up near the base into several
  cylindrical branches; in species of _Dioon_ (fig. 4) lateral branches
  are occasionally produced. The South African _Encephalartos_
  frequently produces several branches. Probably the oldest example of
  this genus in cultivation is in the Botanic Garden of Amsterdam, its
  age is considered by Professor de Vries to be about two thousand
  years: although an accurate determination of age is impossible, there
  is no doubt that many cycads grow very slowly and are remarkable for
  longevity. The thick armour of petiole-bases enveloping the stem is a
  characteristic Cycadean feature; in _Cycas_ the alternation of
  scale-leaves and fronds is more clearly shown than in other cycads; in
  _Encephalartos_, _Dioon_, &c., the persistent scale-leaf bases are
  almost equal in size to those of the foliage-leaves, and there is no
  regular alternation of zones such as characterizes some species of
  _Cycas_. Another type of stem is illustrated by _Stangeria_ and
  _Zamia_, also by a few forms of _Cycas_ (fig. 2), in which the fronds
  fall off completely, leaving a comparatively smooth stem. The _Cyas_
  type of frond, except as regards the presence of a midrib in each
  pinna, characterizes the cycads generally, except _Bowenia_ and
  _Stangeria_. In the monotypic genus _Bowenia_ the large fronds, borne
  singly on the short and thick stem, are bi-pinnate (fig. 5); the
  segments, which are broadly ovate or rhomboidal, have several forked
  spreading veins, and resemble the large pinnules of some species of
  _Adiantum_. In _Stangeria_, also a genus represented by one species
  (_S. paradoxa_ of South Africa), the long and comparatively broad
  pinnae, with an entire or irregularly incised margin, are very
  fern-like, a circumstance which led Kunze to describe the plant in
  1835 as a species of the fern _Lomaria_. In rare cases the pinnae of
  cycads are lobed or branched: in _Dioon spinulosum_ (Central America)
  the margin of the segments bears numerous spinous processes; in some
  species of _Encephalartos_, e.g. _E. horridus_, the lamina is deeply
  lobed; and in a species of the Australian genus _Macrozamia_, _M.
  heteromera_, the narrow pinnae are dichotomously branched almost to
  the base (fig. 6), and resemble the frond of some species of the fern
  _Schizaea_, or the fossil genus _Baiera_ (Ginkgoales). An interesting
  species of _Cycas_, _C. Micholitzii_, has recently been described by
  Sir William Thiselton-Dyer from Annam, where it was collected by one
  of Messrs Sanders & Son's collectors, in which the pinnae instead of
  being of the usual simple type are dichotomously branched as in
  _Macrozamia heteromera_. In _Ceratozamia_ the broad petiole-base is
  characterized by the presence of two lateral spinous processes,
  suggesting stipular appendages, comparable, on a reduced scale, with
  the large stipules of the Marattiaceae among Ferns. The vernation
  varies in different genera; in _Cycas_ the rachis is straight and the
  pinnae circinately coiled (fig. 3); in _Encephalartos_, _Dioon_, &c.,
  both rachis and segments are straight; in _Zamia_ the rachis is bent
  or slightly coiled, bearing straight pinnae. The young leaves arise on
  the stem-apex as conical protuberances with winged borders on which
  the pinnae appear as rounded humps, usually in basipetal order; the
  scale-leaves in their young condition resemble fronds, but the lamina
  remains undeveloped. A feature of interest in connexion with the
  phylogeny of cycads is the presence of long hairs clothing the
  scale-leaves, and forming a cap on the summit of the stem-apex or
  attached to the bases of petioles; on some fossil cycadean plants
  these outgrowths have the form of scales, and are identical in
  structure with the ramenta (paleae) of the majority of ferns.


    Flower.

  The male flowers of cycads are constructed on a uniform plan, and in
  all cases consist of an axis bearing crowded, spirally disposed
  sporophylls. These are often wedge-shaped and angular; in some cases
  they consist of a short, thick stalk, terminating in a peltate
  expansion, or prolonged upwards in the form of a triangular lamina.
  The sporangia (pollen-sacs), which occur on the under-side of the
  stamens, are often arranged in more or less definite groups or sori,
  interspersed with hairs (paraphyses); dehiscence takes place along a
  line marked out by the occurrence of smaller and thinner-walled cells
  bounded by larger and thicker-walled elements, which form a fairly
  prominent cap-like "annulus" near the apex of the sporangium, not
  unlike the annulus characteristic of the Schizaeaceae among ferns. The
  sporangial wall, consisting of several layers of cells, encloses a
  cavity containing numerous oval spores (pollen-grains). In structure a
  cycadean sporangium recalls those of certain ferns (Marattiaceae,
  Osmundaceae and Schizaeaceae), but in the development of the spores
  there are certain peculiarities not met with among the Vascular
  Cryptogams. With the exception of _Cycas_, the female flowers are also
  in the form of cones, bearing numerous carpellary scales. In _Cycas
  revoluta_ and _C. circinalis_ each leaf-like carpel may produce
  several laterally attached ovules, but in _C. Normanbyana_ the carpel
  is shorter and the ovules are reduced to two; this latter type brings
  us nearer to the carpels of _Dioon_, in which the flower has the form
  of a cone, and the distal end of the carpels is longer and more
  leaf-like than in the other genera of the _Zamieae_, which are
  characterized by shorter carpels with thick peltate heads bearing two
  ovules on the morphologically lower surface. The cones of cycads
  attain in some cases (e.g. _Encephalartos_) a considerable size,
  reaching a length of more than a foot. Cases have been recorded (by
  Thiselton-Dyer in _Encephalartos_ and by Wieland in _Zamia_) in which
  the short carpellary cone-scales exhibit a foliaceous form. It is
  interesting that no monstrous cycadean cone has been described in
  which ovuliferous and staminate appendages are borne on the same axis:
  in the Bennettitales (see PALAEOBOTANY: _Mesozoic_) flowers were
  produced bearing on the same axis both androecium and gynoecium.


    Microspores and megaspores.

  The pollen-grains when mature consist of three cells, two small and
  one large cell; the latter grows into the pollen-tube, as in the
  Coniferales, and from one of the small cells two large ciliated
  spermatozoids are eventually produced. A remarkable exception to this
  rule has recently been recorded by Caldwell, who found that in
  _Microcycas Calocoma_ the body-cells may be eight or even ten in
  number and the sperm-cells twice as numerous. One of the most
  important discoveries made during the latter part of the 19th century
  was that by Ikeno, a Japanese botanist, who first demonstrated the
  existence of motile male cells in the genus _Cycas_. Similar
  spermatozoids were observed in some species of _Zamia_ by H. J.
  Webber, and more recent work enables us to assume that all cycads
  produce ciliated male gametes. Before following the growth of the
  pollen-grain after pollination, we will briefly describe the structure
  of a cycadean ovule. An ovule consists of a conical nucellus
  surrounded by a single integument. At an early stage of development a
  large cell makes its appearance in the central region of the nucellus;
  this increases in size and eventually forms three cells; the lowest of
  these grows vigorously and constitutes the megaspore (embryo-sac),
  which ultimately absorbs the greater part of the nucellus. The
  megaspore-nucleus divides repeatedly, and cells are produced from the
  peripheral region inwards, which eventually fill the spore-cavity with
  a homogeneous tissue (prothallus); some of the superficial cells at
  the micropylar end of the megaspore increase in size and divide by a
  tangential wall into two, an upper cell which gives rise to the short
  two-celled neck of the archegonium, and a lower cell which develops
  into a large egg-cell. Each megaspore may contain 2 to 6 archegonia.
  During the growth of the ovum nourishment is supplied from the
  contents of the cells immediately surrounding the egg-cell, as in the
  development of the ovum of _Pinus_ and other conifers. Meanwhile the
  tissue in the apical region of the nucellus has been undergoing
  disorganization, which results in the formation of a pollen-chamber
  (fig. 7, C) immediately above the megaspore. Pollination in cycads has
  always been described as anemophilous, but according to recent
  observations by Pearson on South African species it seems probable
  that, at least in some cases, the pollen is conveyed to the ovules by
  animal agency. The pollen-grains find their way between the
  carpophylls, which at the time of pollination are slightly apart owing
  to the elongation of the internodes of the flower-axis, and pass into
  the pollen-chamber; the large cell of the pollen-grain grows out into
  a tube (Pt), which penetrates the nucellar tissue and often branches
  repeatedly; the pollen-grain itself, with the prothallus-cells,
  projects freely into the pollen-chamber (fig. 7). The nucleus of the
  outermost (second) small cell (fig. 7, G) divides, and one of the
  daughter-nuclei passes out of the cell, and may enter the lowest
  (first) small cell. The outermost cell, by the division of the
  remaining nucleus, produces two large spermatozoids (fig. 8, a, a). In
  _Microcycas_ 16 sperm-cells are produced. In the course of division
  two bodies appear in the cytoplasm, and behave as centrosomes during
  the karyokinesis; they gradually become threadlike and coil round each
  daughter nucleus. This thread gives rise to a spiral ciliated band
  lying in a depression on the body of each spermatozoid; the large
  spermatozoids eventually escape from the pollen-tube, and are able to
  perform ciliary movements in the watery liquid which occurs between
  the thin papery remnant of nucellar tissue and the archegonial necks.
  Before fertilization a neck-canal cell is formed by the division of
  the ovum-nucleus. After the body of a spermatozoid has coalesced with
  the egg-nucleus the latter divides repeatedly and forms a mass of
  tissue which grows more vigorously in the lower part of the fertilized
  ovum, and extends upwards towards the apex of the ovum as a peripheral
  layer of parenchyma surrounding a central space. By further growth
  this tissue gives rise to a proembryo, which consists, at the
  micropylar end, of a sac; the tissue at the chalazal end grows into a
  long and tangled suspensor, terminating in a mass of cells, which is
  eventually differentiated into a radicle, plumule and two cotyledons.
  In the ripe seed the integument assumes the form of a fleshy envelope,
  succeeded internally by a hard woody shell, internal to which is a
  thin papery membrane--the apical portion of the nucellus--which is
  easily dissected out as a conical cap covering the apex of the
  endosperm. A thorough examination of cycadean seeds has recently been
  made by Miss Stopes, more particularly with a view to a comparison of
  their vascular supply with that in Palaeozoic gymnospermous seeds
  (_Flora_, 1904). The first leaves borne on the seedling axis are often
  scale-like, and these are followed by two or more larger laminae,
  which foreshadow the pinnae of the adult frond.

  [Illustration: FIG. 7.--_Zamia._ Part of Ovule in longitudinal
  section. (After Webber.)

    P,  Prothallus.
    A,  Archegonia.
    N,  Nucellus.
    C,  Pollen-chamber.
    Pt, Pollen-tube.
    Pg, Pollen-grain.
    G, Generative cell (second cell of pollen-tube).]

  [Illustration: FIG. 8.--_Zamia._ Proximal end of Pollen-tube, a, a,
  Spermatozoids from G of fig. 7; Pg, pollen-grain; c, proximal cell
  (first cell). (After Webber.)]


    Anatomy.

    Roots.

  The anatomical structure of the vegetative organs of recent cycads is
  of special interest as affording important evidence of relationship
  with extinct types, and with other groups of recent plants.
  Brongniart, who was the first to investigate in detail the anatomy of
  a cycadean stem, recognized an agreement, as regards the secondary
  wood, with Dicotyledons and Gymnosperms, rather than with
  Monocotyledons. He drew attention also to certain structural
  similarities between _Cycas_ and _Ginkgo_. The main anatomical
  features of a cycad stem may be summarized as follows: the centre is
  occupied by a large parenchymatous pith traversed by numerous
  secretory canals, and in some genera by cauline vascular bundles (e.g.
  _Encephalartos_ and _Macrozamia_). In addition to these cauline
  strands (confined to the stem and not connected with the leaves),
  collateral bundles are often met with in the pith, which form the
  vascular supply of terminal flowers borne at intervals on the apex of
  the stem. These latter bundles may be seen in sections of old stems to
  pursue a more or less horizontal course, passing outwards through the
  main woody cylinder. This lateral course is due to the more vigorous
  growth of the axillary branch formed near the base of each flower,
  which is a terminal structure, and, except in the female flower of
  _Cycas_, puts a limit to the apical growth of the stem. The vigorous
  lateral branch therefore continues the line of the main axis. The pith
  is encircled by a cylinder of secondary wood, consisting of single or
  multiple radial rows of tracheids separated by broad medullary rays
  composed of large parenchymatous cells; the tracheids bear numerous
  bordered pits on the radial walls. The large medullary rays give to
  the wood a characteristic parenchymatous or lax appearance, which is
  in marked contrast to the more compact wood of a conifer. The
  protoxylem-elements are situated at the extreme inner edge of the
  secondary wood, and may occur as small groups of narrow,
  spirally-pitted elements scattered among the parenchyma which abuts on
  the main mass of wood. Short and reticulately-pitted tracheal cells,
  similar to tracheids, often occur in the circummedullary region of
  cycadean stems. In an old stem of _Cycas_, _Encephalartos_ or
  _Macrozamia_ the secondary wood consists of several rather unevenly
  concentric zones, while in some other genera it forms a continuous
  mass as in conifers and normal dicotyledons. These concentric rings of
  secondary xylem and phloem (fig. 9) afford a characteristic cycadean
  feature. After the cambium has been active for some time producing
  secondary xylem and phloem, the latter consisting of sieve-tubes,
  phloem-parenchyma and frequently thick-walled fibres, a second cambium
  is developed in the pericycle; this produces a second vascular zone,
  which is in turn followed by a third cambium, and so on, until several
  hollow cylinders are developed. It has been recently shown that
  several cambium-zones may remain in a state of activity, so that the
  formation of a new cambium does not necessarily mark a cessation of
  growth in the more internal meristematic rings. It occasionally
  happens that groups of xylem and phloem are developed internally to
  some of the vascular rings; these are characterized by an inverse
  orientation of the tissues, the xylem being centrifugal and the phloem
  centripetal in its development. The broad cortical region, which
  contains many secretory canals, is traversed by numerous vascular
  bundles (fig. 9, c) some of which pursue a more or less vertical
  course, and by frequent anastomoses with one another form a loose
  reticulum of vascular strands; others are leaf-traces on their way
  from the stele of the stem to the leaves. Most of these cortical
  bundles are collateral in structure, but in some the xylem and phloem
  are concentrically arranged; the secondary origin of these bundles
  from procambium-strands was described by Mettenius in his classical
  paper of 1860. During the increase in thickness of a cycadean stem
  successive layers of cork-tissue are formed by phellogens in the
  persistent bases of leaves (fig. 9, pd), which increase in size to
  adapt themselves to the growth of the vascular zones. The leaf-traces
  of cycads are remarkable both on account of their course and their
  anatomy. In a transverse section of a stem (fig. 9) one sees some
  vascular bundles following a horizontal or slightly oblique course in
  the cortex, stretching for a longer or shorter distance in a direction
  concentric with the woody cylinder. From each leaf-base two main
  bundles spread right and left through the cortex of the stem (fig. 9,
  lt), and as they curve gradually towards the vascular ring they
  present the appearance of two rather flat ogee curves, usually spoken
  of as the leaf-trace girdles (fig. 9, lt). The distal ends of these
  girdles give off several branches, which traverse the petiole and
  rachis as numerous collateral bundles. The complicated girdle-like
  course is characteristic of the leaf-traces of most recent cycads, but
  in some cases, e.g. in _Zamia floridana_, the traces are described by
  Wieland in his recent monograph on American fossil cycads (_Carnegie
  Institution Publications_, 1906) as possessing a more direct course
  similar to that in Mesozoic genera. A leaf-trace, as it passes through
  the cortex, has a collateral structure, the protoxylem being situated
  at the inner edge of the xylem; when it reaches the leaf-base the
  position of the spiral tracheids is gradually altered, and the endarch
  arrangement (protoxylem internal) gives place to a mesarch structure
  (protoxylem more or less central and not on the edge of the xylem
  strand). In a bundle examined in the basal portion of a leaf the bulk
  of the xylem is found to be centrifugal in position, but internally to
  the protoxylem there is a group of centripetal tracheids; higher up in
  the petiole the xylem is mainly centripetal, the centrifugal wood
  being represented by a small arc of tracheids external to the
  protoxylem and separated from it by a few parenchymatous elements.
  Finally, in the pinnae of the frond the centrifugal xylem may
  disappear, the protoxylem being now exarch in position and abutting on
  the phloem. Similarly in the sporophylls of some cycads the bundles
  are endarch near the base and mesarch near the distal end of the
  stamen or carpel. The vascular system of cycadean seedlings presents
  some features worthy of note; centripetal xylem occurs in the
  cotyledonary bundles associated with transfusion-tracheids. The
  bundles from the cotyledons pursue a direct course to the stele of the
  main axis, and do not assume the girdle-form characteristic of the
  adult plant. This is of interest from the point of view of the
  comparison of recent cycads with extinct species (_Bennettites_), in
  which the leaf-traces follow a much more direct course than in modern
  cycads. The mesarch structure of the leaf-bundles is met with in a
  less pronounced form in the flower peduncles of some cycads. This fact
  is of importance as showing that the type of vascular structure, which
  characterized the stems of many Palaeozoic genera, has not entirely
  disappeared from the stems of modern cycads; but the mesarch bundle is
  now confined to the leaves and peduncles. The roots of some cycads
  resemble the stems in producing several cambium-rings; they possess 2
  to 8 protoxylem-groups, and are characterized by a broad pericyclic
  zone. A common phenomenon in cycads is the production of roots which
  grow upwards (apogeotropic), and appear as coralline branched
  structures above the level of the ground; some of the cortical cells
  of these roots are hypertrophied, and contain numerous filaments of
  blue-green Algae (Nostocaceae), which live as endoparasites in the
  cell-cavities.

  [Illustration: FIG. 9.--_Macrozamia._ Diagrammatic transverse section
  of part of Stem. (After Worsdell.)

    pd, Periderm in leaf-bases.
    lt, Leaf-traces in cortex.
    ph, Phloem.
    x,  Xylem.
    m,  Medullary bundles.
    c,  Cortical bundles.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 10.--_Ginkgo biloba._ Leaves.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 11.--_Ginkgo adiantoides._ Fossil (Eocene) leaf
  from the Island of Mull.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 12.--_Ginkgo biloba._ A, Male flower; B, C, single
  stamens; D, female flower.]

  GINKGOALES.--This class-designation has been recently proposed to give
  emphasis to the isolated position of the genus _Ginkgo_ (_Salisburia_)
  among the Gymnosperms. _Ginkgo biloba_, the maidenhair tree, has
  usually been placed by botanists in the Taxeae in the neighbourhood of
  the yew (_Taxus_), but the proposal by Eichler in 1852 to institute a
  special family, the _Salisburieae_, indicated a recognition of the
  existence of special characteristics which distinguish the genus from
  other members of the Coniferae. The discovery by the Japanese botanist
  Hirase of the development of ciliated spermatozoids in the pollen-tube
  of _Ginkgo_, in place of the non-motile male cells of typical
  conifers, served as a cogent argument in favour of separating the
  genus from the Coniferales and placing it in a class of its own. In
  1712 Kaempfer published a drawing of a Japanese tree, which he
  described under the name _Ginkgo_; this term was adopted in 1771 by
  Linnaeus, who spoke of Kaempfer's plant as _Ginkgo biloba_. In 1797
  Smith proposed to use the name _Salisburia adiantifolia_ in preference
  to the "uncouth" genus _Ginkgo_ and "incorrect" specific term
  _biloba_. Both names are still in common use. On account of the
  resemblance of the leaves to those of some species of _Adiantum_, the
  appellation maidenhair tree has long been given to _Ginkgo biloba_.
  _Ginkgo_ is of special interest on account of its isolated position
  among existing plants, its restricted geographical distribution, and
  its great antiquity (see PALAEOBOTANY: _Mesozoic_). This solitary
  survivor of an ancient stock is almost extinct, but a few old and
  presumably wild trees are recorded by travellers in parts of China.
  _Ginkgo_ is common as a sacred tree in the gardens of temples in the
  Far East, and often cultivated in North America and Europe. _Ginkgo
  biloba_, which may reach a height of over 30 metres, forms a tree of
  pyramidal shape with a smooth grey bark. The leaves (figs. 10 and 11)
  have a long, slender petiole terminating in a fan-shaped lamina, which
  may be entire, divided by a median incision into two wedge-shaped
  lobes, or subdivided into several narrow segments. The venation is
  like that of many ferns, e.g. _Adiantum_; the lowest vein in each half
  of the lamina follows a course parallel to the edge, and gives off
  numerous branches, which fork repeatedly as they spread in a palmate
  manner towards the leaf margin. The foliage-leaves occur either
  scattered on long shoots of unlimited growth, or at the apex of short
  shoots (spurs), which may eventually elongate into long shoots.

  [Illustration: FIG. 13.--_Ginkgo._ Apex of Ovule, and Pollen-grain.
  (After Hirase.)

    p,  Pollen-tube (proximal end).
    c,  Pollen-chamber.
    e,  Upward prolongation of megaspore.
    a,  Archegonia.
    Pg, Pollen-grain.
    Ex, Exine.]


    Flowers.

  The flowers are dioecious. The male flowers (fig. 12), borne in the
  axil of scale-leaves, consist of a stalked central axis bearing
  loosely disposed stamens; each stamen consists of a slender filament
  terminating in a small apical scale, which bears usually two, but not
  infrequently three or four pollen-sacs (fig. 12, C). The axis of the
  flower is a shoot bearing leaves in the form of stamens. A mature
  pollen-grain contains a prothallus of 3 to 5 cells (Fig. 13, Pg); the
  exine extends over two-thirds of the circumference, leaving a thin
  portion of the wall, which on collapsing produces a longitudinal
  groove similar to the median depression on the pollen-grain of a
  cycad. The ordinary type of female flower has the form of a long,
  naked peduncle bearing a single ovule on either side of the apex (fig.
  12), the base of each being enclosed by a small, collar-like rim, the
  nature of which has been variously interpreted. A young ovule consists
  of a conical nucellus surrounded by a single integument terminating as
  a two-lipped micropyle. A large pollen-chamber occupies the apex of
  the nucellus; immediately below this, two or more archegonia (fig. 13,
  a) are developed in the upper region of the megaspore, each consisting
  of a large egg-cell surmounted by two neck-cells and a canal-cell
  which is cut off shortly before fertilization. After the entrance of
  the pollen-grain the pollen-chamber becomes roofed over by a blunt
  protuberance of nucellar tissue. The megaspore (embryo-sac) continues
  to grow after pollination until the greater part of the nucellus is
  gradually destroyed; it also gives rise to a vertical outgrowth, which
  projects from the apex of the megaspore as a short, thick column (fig.
  13, e) supporting the remains of the nucellar tissue which forms the
  roof of the pollen-chamber (fig. 13, c). Surrounding the pitted wall
  of the ovum there is a definite layer of large cells, no doubt
  representing a tapetum, which, as in cycads and conifers, plays an
  important part in nourishing the growing egg-cell. The endosperm
  detached from a large _Ginkgo_ ovule after fertilization bears a close
  resemblance to that of a cycad; the apex is occupied by a depression,
  on the floor of which two small holes mark the position of the
  archegonia, and the outgrowth from the megaspore apex projects from
  the centre as a short peg. After pollination the pollen-tube grows
  into the nucellar tissue, as in cycads, and the pollen-grain itself
  (fig. 13, Pg) hangs down into the pollen-chamber; two large spirally
  ciliated spermatozoids are produced, their manner of development
  agreeing very closely with that of the corresponding cells in _Cycas_
  and _Zamia_. After fertilization the ovum-nucleus divides and
  cell-formation proceeds rapidly, especially in the lower part of the
  ovum, in which the cotyledon and axis of the embryo are
  differentiated; the long, tangled suspensor of the cycadean embryo is
  not found in _Ginkgo_. It is often stated that fertilization occurs
  after the ovules have fallen, but it has been demonstrated by Hirase
  that this occurs while the ovules are still attached to the tree. The
  ripe seed, which grows as large as a rather small plum, is enclosed by
  a thick, fleshy envelope covering a hard woody shell with two or
  rarely three longitudinal keels. A papery remnant of nucellus lines
  the inner face of the woody shell, and, as in cycadean seeds, the
  apical portion is readily separated as a cap covering the summit of
  the endosperm.


    Anatomy.

  The morphology of the female flowers has been variously interpreted by
  botanists; the peduncle bearing the ovules has been described as
  homologous with the petiole of a foliage-leaf and as a
  shoot-structure, the collar-like envelope at the base of the ovules
  being referred to as a second integument or arillus, or as the
  representative of a carpel. The evidence afforded by normal and
  abnormal flowers appears to be in favour of the following
  interpretation: The peduncle is a shoot bearing two or more carpels.
  Each ovule is enclosed at the base by an envelope or collar homologous
  with the lamina of a leaf; the fleshy and hard coats of the nucellus
  constitute a single integument. The stalk of an ovule, considerably
  reduced in normal flowers and much larger in some abnormal flowers, is
  homologous with a leaf-stalk, with which it agrees in the structure
  and number of vascular bundles. The facts on which this description is
  based are derived partly from anatomical evidence, and in part from an
  account given by a Japanese botanist, Fujii, of several abnormal
  female flowers; in some cases the collar at the base of an ovule,
  often described as an arillus, is found to pass gradually into the
  lamina of a leaf bearing marginal ovules (fig. 14, B). The occurrence
  of more than two ovules on one peduncle is by no means rare; a
  particularly striking example is described by Fujii, in which an
  unusually thick peduncle bearing several stalked ovules terminates in
  a scaly bud (fig. 14, A, b). The frequent occurrence of more than two
  pollen-sacs and the equally common occurrence of additional ovules
  have been regarded by some authors as evidence in favour of the view
  that ancestral types normally possessed a greater number of these
  organs than are usually found in the recent species. This view
  receives support from fossil evidence. Close to the apex of a shoot
  the vascular bundles of a leaf make their appearance as double
  strands, and the leaf-traces in the upper part of a shoot have the
  form of distinct bundles, which in the older part of the shoot form a
  continuous ring. Each double leaf-trace passes through four internodes
  before becoming a part of the stele; the double nature of the trace is
  a characteristic feature. Secretory sacs occur abundantly in the
  leaf-lamina, where they appear as short lines between the veins; they
  are abundant also in the cortex and pith of the shoot, in the fleshy
  integument of the ovule, and elsewhere. The secondary wood of the
  shoot and root conforms in the main to the coniferous type; in the
  short shoots the greater breadth of the medullary rays in the more
  internal part of the xylem recalls the cycadean type. The secondary
  phloem contains numerous thick-walled fibres, parenchymatous cells,
  and large sieve-tubes with plates on the radial walls; swollen
  parenchymatous cells containing crystals are commonly met with in the
  cortex, pith and medullary-ray tissues. The wood consists of
  tracheids, with circular bordered pits on their radial walls, and in
  the late summer wood pits are unusually abundant on the tangential
  walls. A point of anatomical interest is the occurrence in the
  vascular bundles of the cotyledons, scale-leaves, and elsewhere of a
  few centripetally developed tracheids, which give to the xylem-strands
  a mesarch structure such as characterizes the foliar bundles of
  cycads. The root is diarch in structure, but additional
  protoxylem-strands may be present at the base of the main root; the
  pericycle consists of several layers of cells.

  [Illustration: FIG. 14.--_Ginkgo._ Abnormal female Flowers. A,
  Peduncle; b, scaly bud; B, leaf bearing marginal ovule. (After
  Fujii.)]


    Geological history.

  This is not the place to discuss in detail the past history of
  _Ginkgo_ (see PALAEOBOTANY: _Mesozoic_). Among Palaeozoic genera there
  are some which bear a close resemblance to the recent type in the form
  of the leaves; and petrified Palaeozoic seeds, almost identical with
  those of the maidenhair tree, have been described from French and
  English localities. During the Triassic and Jurassic periods the genus
  _Baiera_--no doubt a representative of the Ginkgoales--was widely
  spread throughout Europe and in other regions; _Ginkgo_ itself occurs
  abundantly in Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks, and was a common plant in
  the Arctic regions as elsewhere during the Jurassic and Lower
  Cretaceous periods. Some unusually perfect _Ginkgo_ leaves have been
  found in the Eocene leaf-beds between the lava-flows exposed in the
  cliffs of Mull (fig. 11). From an evolutionary point of view, it is of
  interest to note the occurrence of filicinean and cycadean characters
  in the maidenhair tree. The leaves at once invite a comparison with
  ferns; the numerous long hairs which form a delicate woolly covering
  on young leaves recall the hairs of certain ferns, but agree more
  closely with the long filamentous hairs of recent cycads. The
  spermatozoids constitute the most striking link with both cycads and
  ferns. The structure of the seed, the presence of two neck-cells in
  the archegonia, the late development of the embryo, the
  partially-fused cotyledons and certain anatomical characters, are
  features common to _Ginkgo_ and the cycads. The maidenhair tree is one
  of the most interesting survivals from the past; it represents a type
  which, in the Palaeozoic era, may have been merged into the extinct
  class Cordaitales. Through the succeeding ages the Ginkgoales were
  represented by numerous forms, which gradually became more restricted
  in their distribution and fewer in number during the Cretaceous and
  Tertiary periods, terminating at the present day in one solitary
  survivor.

  CONIFERALES.--Trees and shrubs characterized by a copious branching of
  the stem and frequently by a regular pyramidal form. Leaves simple,
  small, linear or short and scale-like, usually persisting for more
  than one year. Flowers monoecious or dioecious, unisexual, without a
  perianth, often in the form of cones, but never terminal on the main
  stem.


    External features.

  The plants usually included in the Coniferae constitute a less
  homogeneous class than the Cycadaceae. Some authors use the term
  Coniferae in a restricted sense as including those genera which have
  the female flowers in the form of cones, the other genera,
  characterized by flowers of a different type, being placed in the
  Taxaceae, and often spoken of as Taxads. In order to avoid confusion
  in the use of the term Coniferae, we may adopt as a class-designation
  the name Coniferales, including both the Coniferae--using the term in
  a restricted sense--and the Taxaceae. The most striking characteristic
  of the majority of the Coniferales is the regular manner of the
  monopodial branching and the pyramidal shape. _Araucaria imbricata_,
  the Monkey-puzzle tree, _A. excelsa_, the Norfolk Island pine, many
  pines and firs, cedars and other genera illustrate the pyramidal form.
  The mammoth redwood tree of California, _Sequoia (Wellingtonia)
  gigantea_, which represents the tallest Gymnosperm, is a good example
  of the regular tapering main stem and narrow pyramidal form. The
  cypresses afford instances of tall and narrow trees similar in habit
  to Lombardy poplars. The common cypress (_Cupressus sempervirens_), as
  found wild in the mountains of Crete and Cyprus, is characterized by
  long and spreading branches, which give it a cedar-like habit. A
  pendulous or weeping habit is assumed by some conifers, e.g. _Picea
  excelsa_ var. _virgata_ represents a form in which the main branches
  attain a considerable horizontal extension, and trail themselves like
  snakes along the ground. Certain species of _Pinus_, the yews
  (_Taxus_) and some other genera grow as bushes, which in place of a
  main mast-like stem possess several repeatedly-branched leading
  shoots. The unfavourable conditions in Arctic regions have produced a
  dwarf form, in which the main shoots grow close to the ground.
  Artificially induced dwarfed plants of _Pinus_, _Cupressus_,
  _Sciadopitys_ (umbrella pine) and other genera are commonly cultivated
  by the Japanese. The dying off of older branches and the vigorous
  growth of shoots nearer the apex of the stem produce a form of tree
  illustrated by the stone pine of the Mediterranean region (_Pinus
  Pinea_), which Turner has rendered familiar in his "Childe Harold's
  Pilgrimage" and other pictures of Italian scenery. Conifers are not
  infrequently seen in which a lateral branch has bent sharply upwards
  to take the place of the injured main trunk. An upward tendency of all
  the main lateral branches, known as fastigiation, is common in some
  species, producing well-marked varieties, e.g. _Cephalotaxus
  pedunculata_ var. _fastigiata_; this fastigiate habit may arise as a
  sport on a tree with spreading branches. Another departure from the
  normal is that in which the juvenile or seedling form of shoot
  persists in the adult tree; the numerous coniferous plants known as
  species of _Retinospora_ are examples of this. The name _Retinospora_,
  therefore, does not stand for a true genus, but denotes persistent
  young forms of _Juniperus_, _Thuja_, _Cupressus_, &c., in which the
  small scaly leaves of ordinary species are replaced by the slender,
  needle-like leaves, which stand out more or less at right angles from
  the branches. The flat branchlets of _Cupressus_, _Thuja_ (arbor
  vitae), _Thujopsis dolabrata_ (Japanese arbor vitae) are
  characteristic of certain types of conifers; in some cases the
  horizontal extension of the branches induces a dorsiventral structure.
  A characteristic feature of the genus _Agathis (Dammara)_ the Kauri
  pine of New Zealand, is the deciduous habit of the branches; these
  become detached from the main trunk leaving a well-defined
  absciss-surface, which appears as a depressed circular scar on the
  stem. A new genus of conifers, _Taiwania_, has recently been described
  from the island of Formosa; it is said to agree in habit with the
  Japanese _Cryptomeria_, but the cones appear to have a structure which
  distinguishes them from those of any other genus.


    Leaves.

  With a few exceptions conifers are evergreen, and retain the leaves
  for several years (10 years in _Araucaria imbricata_, 8 to 10 in
  _Picea excelsa_, 5 in _Taxus baccata_; in _Pinus_ the needles usually
  fall in October of their third year). The larch (_Larix_) sheds its
  leaves in the autumn, in the Chinese larch (_Pseudolarix Kaempferi_)
  the leaves turn a bright yellow colour before falling. In the swamp
  cypress (_Taxodium distichum_) the tree assumes a rich brown colour in
  the autumn, and sheds its leaves together with the branchlets which
  bear them; deciduous branches occur also in some other species, e.g.
  _Sequoia sempervirens_ (redwood), _Thuja occidentalis_, &c. The leaves
  of conifers are characterized by their small size, e.g. the
  needle-form represented by _Pinus_, _Cedrus_, _Larix_, &c., the linear
  flat or angular leaves, appressed to the branches, of _Thuja_,
  _Cupressus_, _Libocedrus_, &c. The flat and comparatively broad leaves
  of _Araucaria imbricata_, _A. Bidwillii_, and some species of the
  southern genus _Podocarpus_ are traversed by several parallel veins,
  as are also the still larger leaves of _Agathis_, which may reach a
  length of several inches. In addition to the foliage-leaves several
  genera also possess scale-leaves of various kinds, represented by
  bud-scales in _Pinus_, _Picea_, &c., which frequently persist for a
  time at the base of a young shoot which has pushed its way through the
  yielding cap of protecting scales, while in some conifers the
  bud-scales adhere together, and after being torn near the base are
  carried up by the growing axis as a thin brown cap. The cypresses,
  araucarias and some other genera have no true bud-scales; in some
  species, e.g. _Araucaria Bidwillii_, the occurrence of small
  foliage-leaves, which have functioned as bud-scales, at intervals on
  the shoots affords a measure of seasonal growth. The occurrence of
  long and short shoots is a characteristic feature of many conifers. In
  _Pinus_ the needles occur in pairs, or in clusters of 3 or 5 at the
  apex of a small and inconspicuous short shoot of limited growth
  (spur), which is enclosed at its base by a few scale-leaves, and borne
  on a branch of unlimited growth in the axil of a scale-leaf. In the
  Californian _Pinus monophylla_ each spur bears usually one needle, but
  two are not uncommon; it would seem that rudiments of two needles are
  always produced, but, as a rule, only one develops into a needle. In
  _Sciadopitys_ similar spurs occur, each bearing a single needle,
  which in its grooved surface and in the possession of a double
  vascular bundle bears traces of an origin from two needle-leaves. A
  peculiarity of these leaves is the inverse orientation of the vascular
  tissue; each of the two veins has its phloem next the upper and the
  xylem towards the lower surface of the leaf; this unusual position of
  the xylem and phloem may be explained by regarding the needle of
  _Sciadopitys_ as being composed of a pair of leaves borne on a short
  axillary shoot and fused by their margins (fig. 15, A). Long and short
  shoots occur also in _Cedrus_ and _Larix_, but in these genera the
  spurs are longer and stouter, and are not shed with the leaves; this
  kind of short shoot, by accelerated apical growth, often passes into
  the condition of a long shoot on which the leaves are scattered and
  separated by comparatively long internodes, instead of being crowded
  into tufts such as are borne on the ends of the spurs. In the genus
  _Phyllocladus_ (New Zealand, &c.) there are no green foliage-leaves,
  but in their place flattened branches (phylloclades) borne in the
  axils of small scale-leaves. The cotyledons are often two in number,
  but sometimes (e.g. _Pinus_) as many as fifteen; these leaves are
  usually succeeded by foliage-leaves in the form of delicate spreading
  needles, and these primordial leaves are followed, sooner or later, by
  the adult type of leaf, except in Retinosporas, which retain the
  juvenile foliage. In addition to the first foliage-leaves and the
  adult type of leaf, there are often produced leaves which are
  intermediate both in shape and structure between the seedling and
  adult foliage. Dimorphism or heterophylly is fairly common. One of the
  best known examples is the Chinese juniper (_Juniperus chinensis_), in
  which branches with spinous leaves, longer and more spreading than the
  ordinary adult leaf, are often found associated with the normal type
  of branch. In some cases, e.g. _Sequoia sempervirens_, the fertile
  branches bear leaves which are less spreading than those on the
  vegetative shoots. Certain species of the southern hemisphere genus
  _Dacrydium_ afford particularly striking instances of heterophylly,
  e.g. _D. Kirkii_ of New Zealand, in which some branches bear small and
  appressed leaves, while in others the leaves are much longer and more
  spreading. A well-known fossil conifer from Triassic strata--_Voltzia
  heterophylla_--also illustrates a marked dissimilarity in the leaves
  of the same shoot. The variation in leaf-form and the tendency of
  leaves to arrange themselves in various ways on different branches of
  the same plant are features which it is important to bear in mind in
  the identification of fossil conifers. In this connexion we may note
  the striking resemblance between some of the New Zealand Alpine
  Veronicas, e.g. _Veronica Hectori_, _V. cupressoides_, &c. (also
  _Polycladus cupressinus_, a Composite), and some of the cypresses and
  other conifers with small appressed leaves. The long linear leaves of
  some species of _Podocarpus_, in which the lamina is traversed by a
  single vein, recall the pinnae of Cycas; the branches of some
  Dacrydiums and other forms closely resemble those of lycopods; these
  superficial resemblances, both between different genera of conifers
  and between conifers and other plants, coupled with the usual
  occurrence of fossil coniferous twigs without cones attached to them,
  render the determination of extinct types a very unsatisfactory and
  frequently an impossible task.


    Flowers.

  A typical male flower consists of a central axis bearing numerous
  spirally-arranged sporophylls (stamens), each of which consists of a
  slender stalk (filament) terminating distally in a more or less
  prominent knob or triangular scale, and bearing two or more
  pollen-sacs (microsporangia) on its lower surface. The pollen-grains
  of some genera (e.g. _Pinus_) are furnished with bladder-like
  extensions of the outer wall, which serve as aids to wind-dispersal.
  The stamens of _Araucaria_ and _Agathis_ are peculiar in bearing
  several long, and narrow free pollen-sacs; these may be compared with
  the sporangiophores of the horsetails (_Equisetum_); in _Taxus_ (yew)
  the filament is attached to the centre of a large circular distal
  expansion, which bears several pollen-sacs on its under surface. In
  the conifers proper the female reproductive organs have the form of
  cones, which may be styled flowers or inflorescences according to
  different interpretations of their morphology. In the Taxaceae the
  flowers have a simpler structure. The female flowers of the
  _Abietineae_ may be taken as representing a common type. A pine cone
  reaches maturity in two years; a single year suffices for the full
  development in _Larix_ and several other genera. The axis of the cone
  bears numerous spirally disposed flat scales (cone-scales), each of
  which, if examined in a young cone, is found to be double, and to
  consist of a lower and an upper portion. The latter is a thin flat
  scale bearing a median ridge or keel (e.g. _Abies_), on each side of
  which is situated an inverted ovule, consisting of a nucellus
  surrounded by a single integument. As the cone grows in size and
  becomes woody the lower half of the cone-scale, which we may call the
  carpellary scale, may remain small, and is so far outgrown by the
  upper half (seminiferous scale) that it is hardly recognizable in the
  mature cone. In many species of _Abies_ (e.g. _Abies pectinata_, &c.)
  the ripe cone differs from those of _Pinus_, _Picea_ and _Cedrus_ in
  the large size of the carpellary scales, which project as conspicuous
  thin appendages beyond the distal margins of the broader and more
  woody seminiferous scales; the long carpellary scale is a prominent
  feature also in the cone of the Douglas pine (_Pseudotsuga
  Douglasii_). The female flowers (cones) vary considerably in size; the
  largest are the more or less spherical cones of _Araucaria_--a single
  cone of _A. imbricata_ may produce as many as 300 seeds, one seed to
  each fertile cone-scale--and the long pendent cones, 1 to 2 ft. in
  length, of the sugar pine of California (_Pinus Lambertiana_) and
  other species. Smaller cones, less than an inch long, occur in the
  larch, _Athrotaxis_ (Tasmania), _Fitzroya_ (Patagonia and Tasmania),
  &c. In the _Taxodieae_ and _Araucarieae_ the cones are similar in
  appearance to those of the _Abietineae_, but they differ in the fact
  that the scales appear to be single, even in the young condition; each
  cone-scale in a genus of the _Taxodiinae_ (_Sequoia_, &c.) bears
  several seeds, while in the _Araucariinae_ (_Araucaria_ and _Agathis_)
  each scale has one seed. The _Cupressineae_ have cones composed of a
  few scales arranged in alternate whorls; each scale bears two or more
  seeds, and shows no external sign of being composed of two distinct
  portions. In the junipers the scales become fleshy as the seeds ripen,
  and the individual scales fuse together in the form of a berry. The
  female flowers of the Taxaceae assume another form; in _Microcachrys_
  (Tasmania) the reproductive structures are spirally disposed, and form
  small globular cones made up of red fleshy scales, to each of which is
  attached a single ovule enclosed by an integument and partially
  invested by an arillus; in _Dacrydium_ the carpellary leaves are very
  similar to the foliage leaves--each bears one ovule with two
  integuments, the outer of which constitutes an arillus. Finally in the
  yew, as a type of the family Taxeae, the ovules occur singly at the
  apex of a lateral branch, enclosed when ripe by a conspicuous red or
  yellow fleshy arillus, which serves as an attraction to animals, and
  thus aids in the dispersal of the seeds.


    Morphology of female flower.

  It is important to draw attention to some structural features
  exhibited by certain cone-scales, in which there is no external sign
  indicative of the presence of a carpellary and a seminiferous scale.
  In _Araucaria Cookii_ and some allied species each scale has a small
  pointed projection from its upper face near the distal end; the scales
  of _Cunninghamia_ (China) are characterized by a somewhat ragged
  membranous projection extending across the upper face between the
  seeds and the distal end of the scale; in the scales of _Athrotaxis_
  (Tasmania) a prominent rounded ridge occupies a corresponding
  position. These projections and ridges may be homologous with the
  seminiferous scale of the pines, firs, cedars, &c. The simplest
  interpretation of the cone of the _Abietineae_ is that which regards
  it as a flower consisting of an axis bearing several open carpels,
  which in the adult cone may be large and prominent or very small, the
  scale bearing the ovules being regarded as a placental outgrowth from
  the flat and open carpel. In _Araucaria_ the cone-scale is regarded as
  consisting of a flat carpel, of which the placenta has not grown out
  into the scale-like structure. The seminiferous scale of _Pinus_, &c.,
  is also spoken of sometimes as a ligular outgrowth from the carpellary
  leaf. Robert Brown was the first to give a clear description of the
  morphology of the Abietineous cone in which carpels bear naked ovules;
  he recognized gymnospermy as an important distinguishing feature in
  conifers as well as in cycads. Another view is to regard the cone as
  an inflorescence, each carpellary scale being a bract bearing in its
  axil a shoot the axis of which has not been developed; the
  seminiferous scale is believed to represent either a single leaf or a
  fused pair of leaves belonging to the partially suppressed axillary
  shoot. In 1869 van Tieghem laid stress on anatomical evidence as a key
  to the morphology of the cone-scales; he drew attention to the fact
  that the collateral vascular bundles of the seminiferous scale are
  inversely orientated as compared with those of the carpellary scale;
  in the latter the xylem of each bundle is next the upper surface,
  while in the seminiferous scale the phloem occupies that position. The
  conclusion drawn from this was that the seminiferous scale (fig. 15,
  B, Sc) is the first and only leaf of an axillary shoot (b) borne on
  that side of the shoot, the axis of which is suppressed, opposite the
  subtending bract (fig. 15, A, B, C, Br). Another view is to apply to
  the seminiferous scale an explanation similar to that suggested by von
  Mohl in the case of the double needle of _Sciadopitys_, and to
  consider the seed-bearing scale as being made up of a pair of leaves
  (fig. 15, A, a, a) of an axillary shoot (b) fused into one by their
  posterior margins (fig. 15, A). The latter view receives support from
  abnormal cones in which carpellary scales subtend axillary shoots, of
  which the first two leaves (fig. 15, C, l¹, l¹) are often harder and
  browner than the others; forms have been described transitional
  between axillary shoots, in which the leaves are separate, and others
  in which two of the leaves are more or less completely fused. In a
  young cone the seminiferous scale appears as a hump of tissue at the
  base or in the axil of the carpellary scale, but Celakovský, a strong
  supporter of the axillary-bud theory, attaches little or no importance
  to this kind of evidence, regarding the present manner of development
  as being merely an example of a short cut adopted in the course of
  evolution, and replacing the original production of a branch in the
  axil of each carpellary scale. Eichler, one of the chief supporters of
  the simpler view, does not recognize in the inverse orientation of the
  vascular bundles an argument in support of the axillary-bud theory,
  but points out that the seminiferous scale, being an outgrowth from
  the surface of the carpellary scale, would, like outgrowths from an
  ordinary leaf, naturally have its bundles inversely orientated. In
  such cone-scales as show little or no external indication of being
  double in origin, e.g. _Araucaria_ (fig. 15, D) Sequoia, &c., there
  are always two sets of bundles; the upper set, having the phloem
  uppermost, as in the seminiferous scale of _Abies_ or _Pinus_, are
  regarded as belonging to the outgrowth from the carpellary scale and
  specially developed to supply the ovules. Monstrous cones are fairly
  common; these in some instances lend support to the axillary-bud
  theory, and it has been said that this theory owes its existence to
  evidence furnished by abnormal cones. It is difficult to estimate the
  value of abnormalities as evidence bearing on morphological
  interpretation; the chief danger lies perhaps in attaching undue
  weight to them, but there is also a risk of minimizing their
  importance. Monstrosities at least demonstrate possible lines of
  development, but when the abnormal forms of growth in various
  directions are fairly evenly balanced, trustworthy deductions become
  difficult. The occurrence of buds in the axils of carpellary scales
  may, however, simply mean that buds, which are usually undeveloped in
  the axils of sporophylls, occasionally afford evidence of their
  existence. Some monstrous cones lend no support to the axillary-bud
  theory. In _Larix_ the axis of the cone often continues its growth;
  similarly in _Cephalotaxus_ the cones are often proliferous. (In rare
  cases the proliferated portion produces male flowers in the
  leaf-axils.) In _Larix_ the carpellary scale may become leafy, and the
  seminiferous scale may disappear. Androgynous cones may be produced,
  as in the cone of _Pinus rigida_ (fig. 16), in which the lower part
  bears stamens and the upper portion carpellary and seminiferous
  scales. An interesting case has been figured by Masters, in which
  scales of a cone of _Cupressus Lawsoniana_ bear ovules on the upper
  surface and stamens on the lower face. One argument that has been
  adduced in support of the axillary bud theory is derived from the
  Palaeozoic type _Cordaites_, in which each ovule occurs on an axis
  borne in the axil of a bract. The whole question is still unsolved,
  and perhaps insoluble. It may be that the interpretation of the female
  cone of the _Abietineae_ as an inflorescence, which finds favour with
  many botanists, cannot be applied to the cones of _Agathis_ and
  _Araucaria_. Without expressing any decided opinion as to the
  morphology of the double cone-scale of the _Abietineae_, preference
  may be felt in favour of regarding the cone-scale of the _Araucarieae_
  as a simple carpellary leaf bearing a single ovule. A discussion of
  this question may be found in a paper on the _Araucarieae_ by Seward
  and Ford, published in the Transactions of the Royal Society of London
  (1906). _Cordaites_ is an extinct type which in certain respects
  resembles _Ginkgo_, cycads and the _Araucarieae_, but its agreement
  with true conifers is probably too remote to justify our attributing
  much weight to the bearing of the morphology of its female flowers on
  the interpretation of that of the Coniferae. The greater simplicity of
  the Eichler theory may prejudice us in its favour; but, on the other
  hand, the arguments advanced in favour of the axillary-bud theories
  are perhaps not sufficiently cogent to lead us to accept an
  explanation based chiefly on the uncertain evidence of monstrosities.

  [Illustration: (C and D after Worsdell.)

  FIG. 15.--Diagrammatic treatment of:

    A, Double needle of _Sciadopitys_ (a, a, leaves; b, shoot; Br,
    bract).

    B, seminiferous scale as leaf of axillary shoot (b, shoot; Sc,
    seminiferous scale; Br, bract).

    C, seminiferous scale as fused pair of leaves (l¹, l², 1³, first,
    second and third leaves; b, shoot; Br, bract),

    D, cone-scale of _Araucaria_ (n, nucellus; i, integument; x,
    xylem).]

    [Illustration: FIG. 16.--Abnormal Cone of _Pinus rigida_. (After
    Masters.)]


    Micro-spores and megaspores.

  A pollen-grain when first formed from its mother-cell consists of a
  single cell; in this condition it may be carried to the nucellus of
  the ovule (e.g. _Taxus_, _Cupressus_, &c.), or more usually (_Pinus_,
  _Larix_, &c.) it reaches maturity before the dehiscence of the
  microsporangium. The nucleus of the microspore divides and gives rise
  to a small cell within the large cell, a second small cell is then
  produced; this is the structure of the ripe pollen-grain in some
  conifers (_Taxus_, &c.). The large cell grows out as a pollen-tube;
  the second of the two small cells (body-cell) wanders into the tube,
  followed by the nucleus of the first small cell (stalk-cell). In
  _Taxus_ the body-cell eventually divides into two, in which the
  products of division are of unequal size, the larger constituting the
  male generative cell, which fuses with the nucleus of the egg-cell. In
  _Juniperus_ the products of division of the body-cell are equal, and
  both function as male generative cells. In the _Abietineae_
  cell-formation in the pollen-grain is carried farther. Three small
  cells occur inside the cavity of the microspore; two of them collapse
  and the third divides into two, forming a stalk-cell and a larger
  body-cell. The latter ultimately divides in the apex of the
  pollen-tube into two non-motile generative cells. Evidence has lately
  been adduced of the existence of numerous nuclei in the pollen-tubes
  of the _Araucarieae_, and it seems probable that in this as in several
  other respects this family is distinguished from other members of the
  Coniferales. The precise method of fertilization in the Scots Pine was
  followed by V. H. Blackman, who also succeeded in showing that the
  nuclei of the sporophyte generation contain twice as many chromosomes
  as the nuclei of the gametophyte. Other observers have in recent years
  demonstrated a similar relation in other genera between the number of
  chromosomes in the nuclei of the two generations. The ovule is usually
  surrounded by one integument, which projects beyond the tip of the
  nucellus as a wide-open lobed funnel, which at the time of pollination
  folds inwards, and so assists in bringing the pollen-grains on to the
  nucellus. In some conifers (e.g. _Taxus_, _Cephalotaxus_, _Dacrydium_,
  &c.) the ordinary integument is partially enclosed by an arillus or
  second integument. It is held by some botanists (Celakovský) that the
  seminiferous scale of the _Abietineae_ is homologous with the arillus
  or second integument of the Taxaceae, but this view is too strained to
  gain general acceptance. In _Araucaria_ and _Saxegothaea_ the nucellus
  itself projects beyond the open micropyle and receives the
  pollen-grains direct. During the growth of the cell which forms the
  megaspore the greater part of the nucellus is absorbed, except the
  apical portion, which persists as a cone above the megaspore; the
  partial disorganization of some of the cells in the centre of the
  nucellar cone forms an irregular cavity, which may be compared with
  the larger pollen-chamber of _Ginkgo_ and the cycads. In each ovule
  one megaspore comes to maturity, but, exceptionally, two may be
  present (e.g. _Pinus sylvestris_). It has been shown by Lawson that in
  _Sequoia sempervirens_ (_Annals of Botany_, 1904) and by other workers
  in the genera that several megaspores may attain a fairly large size
  in one prothallus. The megaspore becomes filled with tissue
  (prothallus), and from some of the superficial cells archegonia are
  produced, usually three to five in number, but in rare cases ten to
  twenty or even sixty may be present. In the genus _Sequoia_ there may
  be as many as sixty archegonia (Arnoldi and Lawson) in one megaspore;
  these occur either separately or in some parts of the prothallus they
  may form groups as in the _Cupressineae_; they are scattered through
  the prothallus instead of being confined to the apical region as in
  the majority of conifers. Similarly in the _Araucarieae_ and in
  _Widdringtonia_ the archegonia are numerous and scattered and often
  sunk in the prothallus tissue. In _Libocedrus decurrens_
  (Cupressineae) Lawson describes the archegonia as varying in number
  from 6 to 24 (_Annals of Botany_ xxi., 1907). An archegonium consists
  of a large oval egg-cell surmounted by a short neck composed of one or
  more tiers of cells, six to eight cells in each tier. Before
  fertilization the nucleus of the egg-cell divides and cuts off a
  ventral canal-cell; this cell may represent a second egg-cell. The
  egg-cells of the archegonia may be in lateral contact (e.g.
  _Cupressineae_) or separated from one another by a few cells of the
  prothallus, each ovum being immediately surrounded by a layer of cells
  distinguished by their granular contents and large nuclei. During the
  development of the egg-cell, food material is transferred from these
  cells through the pitted wall of the ovum. The tissue at the apex of
  the megaspore grows slightly above the level of the archegonia, so
  that the latter come to lie in a shallow depression. In the process of
  fertilization the two male generative nuclei, accompanied by the
  pollen-tube nucleus and that of the stalk-cell, pass through an open
  pit at the apex of the pollen-tube into the protoplasm of the ovum.
  After fertilization the nucleus of the egg divides, the first stages
  of karyokinesis being apparent even before complete fusion of the male
  and female nuclei has occurred. The result of this is the production
  of four nuclei, which eventually take up a position at the bottom of
  the ovum and become separated from one another by vertical cell-walls;
  these nuclei divide again, and finally three tiers of cells are
  produced, four in each tier. In the _Abietineae_ the cells of the
  middle tier elongate and push the lowest tier deeper into the
  endosperm; the cells of the bottom tier may remain in lateral contact
  and produce together one embryo, or they may separate (_Pinus_,
  _Juniperus_, &c.) and form four potential embryos. The ripe albuminous
  seed contains a single embryo with two or more cotyledons. The seeds
  of many conifers are provided with large thin wings, consisting in
  some genera (e.g. _Pinus_) of the upper cell-layers of the
  seminiferous scale, which have become detached and, in some cases,
  adhere loosely to the seed as a thin membrane; the loose attachment
  may be of use to the seeds when they are blown against the branches of
  trees, in enabling them to fall away from the wing and drop to the
  ground. The seeds of some genera depend on animals for dispersal, the
  carpellary scale (_Microcachrys_) or the outer integument being
  brightly coloured and attractive. In some _Abietineae_ (e.g. _Pinus_
  and _Picea_)--in which the cone-scales persist for some time after the
  seeds are ripe--the cones hang down and so facilitate the fall of the
  seeds; in _Cedrus_, _Araucaria_ and _Abies_ the scales become detached
  and fall with the seeds, leaving the bare vertical axis of the cone on
  the tree. In all cases, except some species of _Araucaria_ (sect.
  _Colymbea_) the germination is epigean. The seedling plants of some
  Conifers (e.g. _Araucaria imbricata_) are characterized by a
  carrot-shaped hypocotyl, which doubtless serves as a food-reservoir.


    Anatomy.

  The roots of many conifers possess a narrow band of primary
  xylem-tracheids with a group of narrow spiral protoxylem-elements at
  each end (diarch). A striking feature in the roots of several genera,
  excluding the _Abietineae_, is the occurrence of thick and somewhat
  irregular bands of thickening on the cell-walls of the cortical layer
  next to the endodermis. These bands, which may serve to strengthen the
  central cylinder, have been compared with the netting surrounding the
  delicate wall of an inflated balloon. It is not always easy to
  distinguish a root from a stem; in some cases (e.g. _Sequoia_) the
  primary tetrarch structure is easily identified in the centre of an
  old root, but in other cases the primary elements are very difficult
  to recognize. The sudden termination of the secondary tracheids
  against the pith-cells may afford evidence of root-structure as
  distinct from stem-structure, in which the radial rows of secondary
  tracheids pass into the irregularly-arranged primary elements next the
  pith. The annual rings in a root are often less clearly marked than in
  the stem, and the xylem-elements are frequently larger and thinner.
  The primary vascular bundles in a young conifer stem are collateral,
  and, like those of a Dicotyledon, they are arranged in a circle round
  a central pith and enclosed by a common endodermis. It is in the
  nature of the secondary xylem that the Coniferales are most readily
  distinguished from the Dicotyledons and Cycadaceae; the wood is
  homogeneous in structure, consisting almost entirely of tracheids with
  circular or polygonal bordered pits on the radial walls, more
  particularly in the late summer wood. In many genera xylem-parenchyma
  is present, but never in great abundance. A few Dicotyledons, e.g.
  _Drimys_ (Magnoliaceae) closely resemble conifers in the homogeneous
  character of the wood, but in most cases the presence of large spring
  vessels, wood-fibres and abundant parenchyma affords an obvious
  distinguishing feature.

  The abundance of petrified coniferous wood in rocks of various ages
  has led many botanists to investigate the structure of modern genera
  with a view to determining how far anatomical characters may be used
  as evidence of generic distinctions. There are a few well-marked types
  of wood which serve as convenient standards of comparison, but these
  cannot be used except in a few cases to distinguish individual genera.
  The genus _Pinus_ serves as an illustration of wood of a distinct type
  characterized by the absence of xylem-parenchyma, except such as is
  associated with the numerous resin-canals that occur abundantly in the
  wood, cortex and medullary rays; the medullary rays are composed of
  parenchyma and of horizontal tracheids with irregular ingrowths from
  their walls. In a radial section of a pine stem each ray is seen to
  consist in the median part of a few rows of parenchymatous cells with
  large oval simple pits in their walls, accompanied above and below by
  horizontal tracheids with bordered pits. The pits in the radial walls
  of the ordinary xylem-tracheids occur in a single row or in a double
  row, of which the pits are not in contact, and those of the two rows
  are placed on the same level. The medullary rays usually consist of a
  single tier of cells, but in the _Pinus_ type of wood broader
  medullary rays also occur and are traversed by horizontal
  resin-canals. In the wood of _Cypressus_, _Cedrus_, _Abies_ and
  several other genera, parenchymatous cells occur in association with
  the xylem-tracheids and take the place of the resin-canals of other
  types. In the Araucarian type of wood (_Araucaria_ and _Agathis_) the
  bordered pits, which occur in two or three rows on the radial walls of
  the tracheids, are in mutual contact and polygonal in shape, the pits
  of the different rows are alternate and not on the same level; in this
  type of wood the annual rings are often much less distinct than in
  _Cupressus_, _Pinus_ and other genera. In _Taxus_, _Torreya_
  (California and the Far East) and _Cephalotaxus_ the absence of
  resin-canals and the presence of spiral thickening-bands on the
  tracheids constitute well-marked characteristics. An examination of
  the wood of branches, stems and roots of the same species or
  individual usually reveals a fairly wide variation in some of the
  characters, such as the abundance and size of the medullary rays, the
  size and arrangement of pits, the presence of
  wood-parenchyma--characters to which undue importance has often been
  attached in systematic anatomical work. The phloem consists of
  sieve-tubes, with pitted areas on the lateral as well as on the
  inclined terminal walls, phloem-parenchyma and, in some genera,
  fibres. In the _Abietineae_ the phloem consists of parenchyma and
  sieve-tubes only, but in most other forms tangential rows of fibres
  occur in regular alternation with the parenchyma and sieve-tubes. The
  characteristic companion-cells of Angiosperms are represented by
  phloem-parenchyma cells with albuminous contents; other parenchymatous
  elements of the bast contain starch or crystals of calcium oxalate.
  When tracheids occur in the medullary rays of the xylem these are
  replaced in the phloem-region by irregular parenchymatous cells known
  as albuminous cells. Resin-canals, which occur abundantly in the
  xylem, phloem or cortex, are not found in the wood of the yew.
  _Cephalotaxus (Taxeae)_ is also peculiar in having resin-canals in the
  pith (cf. _Ginkgo_). One form of _Cephalotaxus_ is characterized by
  the presence of short tracheids in the pith, in shape like ordinary
  parenchyma, but in the possession of bordered pits and lignified walls
  agreeing with ordinary xylem-tracheids; it is probable that these
  short tracheids serve as reservoirs for storing rather than for
  conducting water. The vascular bundle entering the stem from a leaf
  with a single vein passes by a more or less direct course into the
  central cylinder of the stem, and does not assume the girdle-like
  form characteristic of the cycadean leaf-trace. In species of which
  the leaves have more than one vein (e.g. _Araucaria imbricata_, &c.)
  the leaf-trace leaves the stele of the stem as a single bundle which
  splits up into several strands in its course through the cortex. In
  the wood of some conifers, e.g. _Araucaria_, the leaf-traces persist
  for a considerable time, perhaps indefinitely, and may be seen in
  tangential sections of the wood of old stems. The leaf-trace in the
  Coniferales is simple in its course through the stem, differing in
  this respect from the double leaf-trace of _Ginkgo_. A detailed
  account of the anatomical characters of conifers has been published by
  Professor D. P. Penhallow of Montreal and Dr. Gothan of Berlin which
  will be found useful for diagnostic purposes. The characters of leaves
  most useful for diagnostic purposes are the position of the stomata,
  the presence and arrangement of resin-canals, the structure of the
  mesophyll and vascular bundles. The presence of hypodermal fibres is
  another feature worthy of note, but the occurrence of these elements
  is too closely connected with external conditions to be of much
  systematic value. A pine needle grown in continuous light differs from
  one grown under ordinary conditions in the absence of hypodermal
  fibres, in the absence of the characteristic infoldings of the
  mesophyll cell-walls, in the smaller size of the resin-canals, &c. The
  endodermis in _Pinus_, _Picea_ and many other genera is usually a
  well-defined layer of cells enclosing the vascular bundles, and
  separated from them by a tissue consisting in part of ordinary
  parenchyma and to some extent of isodiametric tracheids; but this
  tissue, usually spoken of as the pericycle, is in direct continuity
  with other stem-tissues as well as the pericycle. The occurrence of
  short tracheids in close proximity to the veins is a characteristic of
  coniferous leaves; these elements assume two distinct forms--(1) the
  short isodiametric tracheids (transfusion-tracheids) closely
  associated with the veins; (2) longer tracheids extending across the
  mesophyll at right angles to the veins, and no doubt functioning as
  representatives of lateral veins. It has been suggested that
  transfusion-tracheids represent, in part at least, the centripetal
  xylem, which forms a distinctive feature of cycadean leaf-bundles;
  these short tracheids form conspicuous groups laterally attached to
  the veins in _Cunninghamia_, abundantly represented in a similar
  position in the leaves of _Sequoia_, and scattered through the
  so-called pericycle in _Pinus_, _Picea_, &c. It is of interest to note
  the occurrence of precisely similar elements in the mesophyll of
  _Lepidodendron_ leaves. An anatomical peculiarity in the veins of
  _Pinus_ and several other genera is the continuity of the medullary
  rays, which extend as continuous plates from one end of the leaf to
  the other. The mesophyll of _Pinus_ and _Cedrus_ is characterized by
  its homogeneous character and by the presence of infoldings of the
  cell-walls. In many leaves, e.g. _Abies_, _Tsuga_, _Larix_, &c., the
  mesophyll is heterogeneous, consisting of palisade and spongy
  parenchyma. In the leaves of _Araucaria imbricata_, in which
  palisade-tissue occurs in both the upper and lower part of the
  mesophyll, the resin-canals are placed between the veins; in some
  species of _Podocarpus_ (sect. _Nageia_) a canal occurs below each
  vein; in _Tsuga_, _Torreya_, _Cephalotaxus_, _Sequoia_, &c., a single
  canal occurs below the midrib; in _Larix_, _Abies_, &c., two canals
  run through the leaf parallel to the margins. The stomata are
  frequently arranged in rows, their position being marked by two white
  bands of wax on the leaf-surface.


    Distribution.

  The chief home of the Coniferales is in the northern hemisphere, where
  certain species occasionally extend into the Arctic circle and
  penetrate beyond the northern limit of dicotyledonous trees. Wide
  areas are often exclusively occupied by conifers, which give the
  landscape a sombre aspect, suggesting a comparison with the forest
  vegetation of the Coal period. South of the tree-limit a belt of
  conifers stretches across north Europe, Siberia and Canada. In
  northern Europe this belt is characterized by such species as _Picea
  excelsa_ (spruce), which extends south to the mountains of the
  Mediterranean region; _Pinus sylvestris_ (Scottish fir), reaching from
  the far north to western Spain, Persia and Asia Minor; _Juniperus
  communis_, &c. In north Siberia _Pinus Cembra_ (Cembra or Arolla Pine)
  has a wide range; also _Abies sibirica_ (Siberian silver fir), _Larix
  sibirica_ and _Juniperus Sabina_ (savin). In the North American area
  _Picea alba_, _P. nigra_, _Larix americana_, _Abies balsamea_ (balsam
  fir), _Tsuga canadensis_ (hemlock spruce), _Pinus Strobus_ (Weymouth
  pine), _Thuja occidentalis_ (white cedar), _Taxus canadensis_ are
  characteristic species. In the Mediterranean region occur _Cupressus
  sempervirens_, _Pinus Pinea_ (stone pine), species of juniper, _Cedrus
  atlantica_, _C. Libani_, _Callitris quadrivalvis_, _Pinus montana_,
  &c. Several conifers of economic importance are abundant on the
  Atlantic side of North America--_Juniperus virginiana_ (red cedar,
  used in the manufacture of lead pencils, and extending as far south as
  Florida), _Taxodium distichum_ (swamp cypress), _Pinus rigida_ (pitch
  pine), _P. mitis_ (yellow pine), _P. taeda_, _P. palustris_, &c. On
  the west side of the American continent conifers play a still more
  striking rôle; among them are _Chamaecyparis nutkaensis_, _Picea
  sitchensis_, _Libocedrus decurrens_, _Pseudotsuga Douglasii_ (Douglas
  fir), _Sequoia sempervirens_, _S. gigantea_ (the only two surviving
  species of this generic type are now confined to a few localities in
  California, but were formerly widely spread in Europe and elsewhere),
  _Pinus Coulteri_, _P. Lambertiana_, &c. Farther south, a few
  representatives of such genera as _Abies_, _Cupressus_, _Pinus_ and
  juniper are found in the Mexican Highlands, tropical America and the
  West Indies. In the far East conifers are richly represented; among
  them occur _Pinus densiflora_, _Cryptomeria japonica_, _Cephalotaxus_,
  species of _Abies_, _Larix_, _Thujopsis_, _Sciadopitys verticillata_,
  _Pseudolarix Kaempferi_, &c. In the Himalaya occur _Cedrus deodara_,
  _Taxus_, species of _Cupressus_, _Pinus excelsa_, _Abies Webbiana_,
  &c. The continent of Africa is singularly poor in conifers. _Cedrus
  atlantica_, a variety of _Abies Pinsapo_, _Juniperus thurifera_,
  _Callitris quadrivalvis_, occur in the north-west region, which may be
  regarded as the southern limit of the Mediterranean region. The
  greater part of Africa north of the equator is without any
  representatives of the conifers; _Juniperus procera_ flourishes in
  Somaliland and on the mountains of Abyssinia; a species of
  _Podocarpus_ occurs on the Cameroon mountains, and _P. milanjiana_ is
  widely distributed in east tropical Africa. _Widdringtonia Whytei_, a
  species closely allied to _W. juniperoides_ of the Cedarberg mountains
  of Cape Colony, is recorded from Nyassaland and from N.E. Rhodesia;
  while a third species, _W. cupressoides_, occurs in Cape Colony.
  _Podocarpus elongata_ and _P. Thunbergii_ (yellow wood) form the
  principal timber trees in the belt of forest which stretches from the
  coast mountains of Cape Colony to the north-east of the Transvaal.
  _Libocedrus tetragona_, _Fitzroya patagonica_, _Araucaria
  brasiliensis_, _A. imbricata_, _Saxegothaea_ and others are met with
  in the Andes and other regions in South America. _Athrotaxis_ and
  _Microcachrys_ are characteristic Australian types. _Phyllocladus_
  occurs also in New Zealand, and species of _Dacrydium_, _Araucaria_,
  _Agathis_ and _Podocarpus_ are represented in Australia, New Zealand
  and the Malay regions.

  GNETALES.--These are trees or shrubs with simple leaves. The flowers
  are dioecious, rarely monoecious, provided with one or two perianths.
  The wood is characterized by the presence of vessels in addition to
  tracheids. There are no resin-canals. The three existing genera,
  usually spoken of as members of the Gnetales, differ from one another
  more than is consistent with their inclusion in a single family; we
  may therefore better express their diverse characters by regarding
  them as types of three separate families--(1) _Ephedroideae_, genus
  _Ephedra_; (2) _Welwitschioideae_, genus _Welwitschia_; (3)
  _Gnetoideae_, genus _Gnetum_. Our knowledge of the Gnetales leaves
  much to be desired, but such facts as we possess would seem to
  indicate that this group is of special importance as foreshadowing,
  more than any other Gymnosperms, the Angiospermous type. In the more
  heterogeneous structure of the wood and in the possession of true
  vessels the Gnetales agree closely with the higher flowering plants.
  It is of interest to note that the leaves of _Gnetum_, while typically
  Dicotyledonous in appearance, possess a Gymnospermous character in the
  continuous and plate-like medullary rays of their vascular bundles.
  The presence of a perianth is a feature suggestive of an approach to
  the floral structure of Angiosperms; the prolongation of the
  integument furnishes the flowers with a substitute for a stigma and
  style. The genus _Ephedra_, with its prothallus and archegonia, which
  are similar to those of other Gymnosperms, may be safely regarded as
  the most primitive of the Gnetales. In _Welwitschia_ also the
  megaspore is filled with prothallus-tissue, but single egg-cells take
  the place of archegonia. In certain species of _Gnetum_ described by
  Karsten the megaspore contains a peripheral layer of protoplasm, in
  which scattered nuclei represent the female reproductive cells; in
  _Gnetum Gnemon_ a similar state of things exists in the upper half of
  the megaspore, while the lower half agrees with the megaspore of
  _Welwitschia_ in being full of prothallus-tissue, which serves merely
  as a reservoir of food. Lotsy has described the occurrence of special
  cells at the apex of the prothallus of _Gnetum Gnemon_, which he
  regards as imperfect archegonia (fig. 17, C, a); he suggests they may
  represent vestigial structures pointing back to some ancestral form
  beyond the limits of the present group. The Gnetales probably had a
  separate origin from the other Gymnosperms; they carry us nearer to
  the Angiosperms, but we have as yet no satisfactory evidence that they
  represent a stage in the direct line of Angiospermic evolution. It is
  not improbable that the three genera of this ancient phylum survive as
  types of a blindly-ending branch of the Gymnosperms; but be that as it
  may, it is in the Gnetales more than in any other Gymnosperms that we
  find features which help us to obtain a dim prospect of the lines
  along which the Angiosperms may have been evolved.

  _Ephedra._--This genus is the only member of the Gnetales represented
  in Europe. Its species, which are characteristic of warm temperate
  latitudes, are usually much-branched shrubs. The finer branches are
  green, and bear a close resemblance to the stems of Equisetum and to
  the slender twigs of _Casuarina_; the surface of the long internodes
  is marked by fine longitudinal ribs, and at the nodes are borne pairs
  of inconspicuous scale-leaves. The flowers are small, and borne on
  axillary shoots. A single male flower consists of an axis enclosed at
  the base by an inconspicuous perianth formed of two concrescent leaves
  and terminating in two, or as many as eight, shortly stalked or
  sessile anthers. The female flower is enveloped in a closely fitting
  sac-like investment, which must be regarded as a perianth; within this
  is an orthotropous ovule surrounded by a single integument prolonged
  upwards as a beak-like micropyle. The flower may be described as a bud
  bearing a pair of leaves which become fused and constitute a perianth,
  the apex of the shoot forming an ovule. In function the perianth may
  be compared with a unilocular ovary containing a single ovule; the
  projecting integument, which at the time of pollination secretes a
  drop of liquid, serves the same purpose as the style and stigma of an
  angiosperm. The megaspore is filled with tissue as in typical
  Gymnosperms, and from some of the superficial cells 3 to 5 archegonia
  are developed, characterized by long multicellular necks. The
  archegonia are separated from one another, as in _Pinus_, by some of
  the prothallus-tissue, and the cells next the egg-cells (tapetal
  layer) contribute food-material to their development. After
  fertilization, some of the uppermost bracts below each flower become
  red and fleshy; the perianth develops into a woody shell, while the
  integument remains membranous. In some species of _Ephedra_, e.g. _E.
  altissima_, the fertilized eggs grow into tubular proembryos, from the
  tip of each of which embryos begin to be developed, but one only comes
  to maturity. In _Ephedra helvetica_, as described by Jaccard, no
  proembryo or suspensor is formed; but the most vigorous fertilized
  egg, after undergoing several divisions, becomes attached to a tissue,
  termed the columella, which serves the purpose of a primary suspensor;
  the columella appears to be formed by the lignification of certain
  cells in the central region of the embryo-sac. At a later stage some
  of the cells in the upper (micropylar) end of the embryo divide and
  undergo considerable elongation, serving the purpose of a secondary
  suspensor. The secondary wood of _Ephedra_ consists of tracheids,
  vessels and parenchyma; the vessels are characterized by their wide
  lumen and by the large simple or slightly-bordered pits on their
  oblique end-walls.

  [Illustration: FIG. 17.--_Gnetum Gnemon._ (After Lotsy.)

    A,  Female Flower. a, Imperfect Archegonia.
    n,  Nucellus. e, Partially developed Megaspore.
    pc, Pollen-chamber. F, Fertile half.
    i,  Integument. S, Sterile half.
    p´, Inner Perianth. pt, Pollen-tube.
    p´´, Outer Perianth. z, Zygote.
    B,  C, Megaspore. z´, Prothallus.
    a,  Imperfect Archegonia.
    e,  Partially developed Megaspore.
    F,  Fertile half.
    S,  Sterile half.
    pt, Pollen-tube.
    z,  Zygote.
    z´, Prothallus.]

  _Gnetum._--This genus is represented by several species, most of which
  are climbing plants, both in tropical America and in warm regions of
  the Old World. The leaves, which are borne in pairs at the tumid
  nodes, are oval in form and have a Dicotyledonous type of venation.
  The male and female inflorescences have the form of simple or
  paniculate spikes. The spike of an inflorescence bears whorls of
  flowers at each node in the axils of concrescent bracts accompanied by
  numerous sterile hairs (paraphyses); in a male inflorescence numerous
  flowers occur at each node, while in a female inflorescence the number
  of flowers at each node is much smaller. A male flower consists of a
  single angular perianth, through the open apex of which the
  flower-axis projects as a slender column terminating in two anthers.
  The female flowers, which are more complex in structure, are of two
  types, complete and incomplete; the latter occur in association with
  male flowers in a male inflorescence. A complete female flower
  consists of a nucellus (fig. 17, A, n), surrounded by a single
  integument (fig. 17, A, i), prolonged upwards as a narrow tube and
  succeeded by an inner and an outer perianth (fig. 17, A, p´ and p´´).
  The whole flower may be looked upon as an adventitious bud bearing two
  pairs of leaves; each pair becomes concrescent and forms a perianth,
  the apex of the shoot being converted into an orthotropous ovule. The
  incomplete female flowers are characterized by the almost complete
  suppression of the inner perianth. Several embryo-sacs (megaspores)
  are present in the nucellus of a young ovule, but one only attains
  full size, the smaller and partially developed megaspores (fig. 17, B
  and C, e) being usually found in close association with the surviving
  and fully-grown megaspore. In _Gnetum Gnemon_, as described by Lotsy,
  a mature embryo-sac contains in the upper part a large central vacuole
  and a peripheral layer of protoplasm, including several nuclei, which
  take the place of the archegonia of _Ephedra_; the lower part of the
  embryo-sac, separated from the upper by a constriction, is full of
  parenchyma. The upper part of the megaspore may be spoken of as the
  fertile half (fig. 17, B and C, F) and the lower part, which serves
  only as food-reservoir for the growing embryo, may be termed the
  sterile half (fig. 17, B and C, S). (Coulter, _Bot. Gazette_, xlvi.,
  1908, regards this tissue as belonging to the nucellus.) At the time
  of pollination the long tubular integument secretes a drop of fluid
  at its apex, which holds the pollen-grains, brought by the wind, or
  possibly to some extent by insect agency, and by evaporation these are
  drawn on to the top of the nucellus, where partial disorganization of
  the cells has given rise to an irregular pollen-chamber (fig. 17, A,
  pc). The pollen-tube, containing two generative and one vegetative
  nucleus, pierces the wall of the megaspore and then becomes swollen
  (fig. 17, B and C, pt); finally the two generative nuclei pass out of
  the tube and fuse with two of the nuclei in the fertile half of the
  megaspore. As the result of fertilization, the fertilized nuclei of
  the megaspore become surrounded by a cell-wall, and constitute
  zygotes, which may attach themselves either to the wall of the
  megaspore or to the end of a pollen-tube (fig. 17, C, z and z'); they
  then grow into long tubes or proembryos, which make their way towards
  the prothallus (C, z'), and eventually embryos are formed from the
  ends of the proembryo tubes. One embryo only comes to maturity. The
  embryo of _Gnetum_ forms an out-growth from the hypocotyl, which
  serves as a feeder and draws nourishment from the prothallus. The
  fleshy outer portion of the seed is formed from the outer perianth,
  the woody shell being derived from the inner perianth. The climbing
  species of _Gnetum_ are characterized by the production of several
  concentric cylinders of secondary wood and bast, the additional
  cambium-rings being products of the pericycle, as in _Cycas_ and
  _Macrozamia_. The structure of the wood agrees in the main with that
  of _Ephedra_.

  _Welwitschia (Tumboa)._--This is by far the most remarkable member of
  the Gnetales, both as regards habit and the form of its flowers. In a
  supplement to the systematic work of Engler and Prantl the well-known
  name _Welwitschia_, instituted by Hooker in 1864 in honour of
  Welwitsch, the discoverer of the plant, is superseded by that of
  _Tumboa_, originally suggested by Welwitsch. The genus is confined to
  certain localities in Damaraland and adjoining territory on the west
  coast of tropical South Africa. A well-grown plant projects less than
  a foot above the surface of the ground; the stem, which may have a
  circumference of more than 12 ft., terminates in a depressed crown
  resembling a circular table with a median groove across the centre and
  prominent broad ridges concentric with the margin. The thick tuberous
  stem becomes rapidly narrower, and passes gradually downwards into a
  tap-root. A pair of small strap-shaped leaves succeed the two
  cotyledons of the seedling, and persist as the only leaves during the
  life of the plant; they retain the power of growth in their basal
  portion, which is sunk in a narrow groove near the edge of the crown,
  and the tough lamina, 6 ft. in length, becomes split into narrow
  strap-shaped or thong-like strips which trail on the ground. Numerous
  circular pits occur on the concentric ridges of the depressed and
  wrinkled crown, marking the position of former inflorescences borne in
  the leaf-axil at different stages in the growth of the plant. An
  inflorescence has the form of a dichotomously-branched cyme bearing
  small erect cones; those containing the female flowers attain the size
  of a fir-cone, and are scarlet in colour. Each cone consists of an
  axis, on which numerous broad and thin bracts are arranged in regular
  rows; in the axil of each bract occurs a single flower; a male flower
  is enclosed by two opposite pairs of leaves, forming a perianth
  surrounding a central sterile ovule encircled by a ring of stamens
  united below, but free distally as short filaments, each of which
  terminates in a trilocular anther. The integument of the sterile ovule
  is prolonged above the nucellus as a spirally-twisted tube expanded at
  its apex into a flat stigma-like organ. A complete and functional
  female flower consists of a single ovule with two integuments, the
  inner of which is prolonged into a narrow tubular micropyle, like that
  in the flower of _Gnetum_. The megaspore of _Welwitschia_ is filled
  with a prothallus-tissue before fertilization, and some of the
  prothallus-cells function as egg-cells; these grow upwards as long
  tubes into the apical region of the nucellus, where they come into
  contact with the pollen-tubes. After the egg-cells have been
  fertilized by the non-motile male cells they grow into tubular
  proembryos, producing terminal embryos. The stem is traversed by
  numerous collateral bundles, which have a limited growth, and are
  constantly replaced by new bundles developed from strands of secondary
  meristem. One of the best-known anatomical characteristics of the
  genus is the occurrence of numerous spindle-shaped or branched fibres
  with enormously-thickened walls studded with crystals of calcium
  oxalate. Additional information has been published by Professor
  Pearson of Cape Town based on material collected in Damaraland in 1904
  and 1906-1907. In 1906 he gave an account of the early stages of
  development of the male and female organs and, among other interesting
  statements in regard to the general biology of _Welwitschia_, he
  expressed the opinion that, as Hooker suspected, the ovules are
  pollinated by insect-agency. In a later paper Pearson considerably
  extended our knowledge of the reproduction and gametophyte of this
  genus.

  AUTHORITIES.--General: Bentham and Hooker, _Genera Plantarum_ (London,
  1862-1883); Engler and Prantl, _Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien_
  (Leipzig, 1889 and 1897); Strasburger, _Die Coniferen und Gnetaceen_
  (Jena, 1872); _Die Angiospermen und die Gymnospermen_ (Jena, 1879);
  _Histologische Beiträge_, iv. (Jena, 1892); Coulter and Chamberlain,
  _Morphology of Spermatophytes_ (New York, 1901); Rendle, _The
  Classification of Flowering Plants_, vol. i. (Cambridge, 1904); "The
  Origin of Gymnosperms" (A discussion at the Linnean Society; _New
  Phytologist_, vol. v., 1906). Cycadales: Mettenius, "Beiträge zur
  Anatomie der Cycadeen," _Abh. k. sächs_. _Ges. Wiss._ (1860); Treub,
  "Recherches sur les Cycadées," _Ann. Bot. Jard. Buitenzorg_, ii.
  (1884); Solms-Laubach, "Die Sprossfolge der Stangeria, &c.," _Bot.
  Zeit._ xlviii. (1896); Worsdell, "Anatomy of Macrozamia," _Ann. Bot._
  x. (1896) (also papers by the same author, _Ann. Bot._, 1898, _Trans.
  Linn. Soc._ v., 1900); Scott, "The Anatomical Characters presented by
  the Peduncle of Cycadaceae," Ann. Bot. xi. (1897); Lang, "Studies in
  the Development and Morphology of Cycadean Sporangia, No. I.," Ann.
  Bot. xi. (1897); No. II., _Ann. Bot._ xiv. (1900); Webber,
  "Development of the Antherozoids of Zamia," Bot. Gaz. (1897); Ikeno,
  "Untersuchungen über die Entwickelung, &c., bei Cycas revoluta,"
  _Journ. Coll. Sci. Japan_, xii. (1898); Wieland, "American Fossil
  Cycads," Carnegie Institution Publication (1906); Stopes, "Beiträge
  zur Kenntnis der Fortpflanzungsorgane der Cycadeen," _Flora_ (1904);
  Caldwell, "Microcycas Calocoma," _Bot. Gaz._ xliv., 1907 (also papers
  on this and other Cycads in the _Bot. Gaz._, 1907-1909); Matte,
  _Recherches sur l'appareil libéro-ligneux des Cycadacées_ (Caen,
  1904). Ginkgoales: Hirase, "Études sur la fécondation, &c., de Ginkgo
  biloba," _Journ. Coll. Sci. Japan_, xii. (1898); Seward and Gowan,
  "Ginkgo biloba," _Ann. Bot._ xiv. (1900) (with bibliography); Ikeno,
  "Contribution à l'étude de la fécondation chez le Ginkgo biloba,"
  _Ann. Sci. Nat._ xiii. (1901); Sprecher, _Le Ginkgo biloba_ (Geneva,
  1907). Coniferales: "Report of the Conifer Conference" (1891) _Journ.
  R. Hort. Soc._ xiv. (1892); Beissner, _Handbuch der Nadelholzkunde_
  (Berlin, 1891); Masters, "Comparative Morphology of the Coniferae,"
  _Journ. Linn. Soc._ xxvii. (1891); ibid. (1896), &c.; Penhallow, "The
  Generic Characters of the North American Taxaceae and Coniferae,"
  _Proc. and Trans. R. Soc. Canada_, ii. (1896); Blackman,
  "Fertilization in Pinus sylvestris," _Phil. Trans._ (1898) (with
  bibliography); Worsdell, "Structure of the Female Flowers in
  Conifers," _Ann. Bot._ xiv. (1900) (with bibliography); ibid. (1899);
  Veitch, _Manual of the Coniferae_ (London, 1900); Penhallow, "Anatomy
  of North American Coniferales," _American Naturalist_ (1904); Engler
  and Pilger, _Das Pflanzenreich, Taxaceae_ (1903); Seward and Ford,
  "The Araucarieae, recent and extinct," _Phil. Trans. R. Soc._ (1906)
  (with bibliography); Lawson, "Sequoia sempervirens," _Annals of
  Botany_ (1904); Robertson, "Torreya Californica," _New Phytologist_
  (1904); Coker, "Gametophyte and Embryo of Taxodium," _Bot. Gazette_
  (1903); E. C. Jeffrey, "The Comparative Anatomy and Phylogeny of the
  Coniferales, part i. The Genus Sequoia," _Mem. Boston Nat. Hist. Soc._
  v. No. 10 (1903); Gothan, "Zur Anatomie lebender und fossiler
  Gymnospermen-Hölzer," _K. Preuss. Geol. Landes._ (Berlin, 1905) (for
  more recent papers, see _Ann. Bot., New Phytologist_, and _Bot.
  Gazette_, 1906-1909). Gnetales: Hooker, "On Welwitschia mirabilis."
  _Trans. Linn. Soc._ xxiv. (1864); Bower, "Germination, &., in Gnetum,"
  _Journ. Mic. Sci._ xxii. (1882); ibid. (1881); Jaccard, "Recherches
  embryologiques sur _l'Ephedra helvetica_," _Diss. Inaug. Lausanne_
  (1894); Karsten, "Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der Gattung Gnetum,"
  _Cohn's Beiträge_, vi. (1893); Lotsy, "Contributions to the
  Life-History of the genus Gnetum," _Ann. Bot. Jard. Buitenzorg_, xvi.
  (1899); Land, "Ephedra trifurca," _Bot. Gazette_ (1904); Pearson,
  "Some observations on Welwitschia mirabilis," _Phil. Trans. R. Soc._
  (1906); Pearson, "Further Observations on Welwitschia," _Phil. Trans.
  R. Soc._ vol. 200 (1909).     (A. C. Se.)



GYMNOSTOMACEAE, an order of Ciliate Infusoria (q.v.), characterized by a
closed mouth, which only opens to swallow food actively, and body cilia
forming a general or partial investment (rarely represented by a girdle
of membranellae), but not differentiated in different regions. With the
Aspirotrochaceae (q.v.) it formed the Holotricha of Stein.



GYMPIE, a mining town of March county, Queensland, Australia, 107 m. N.
of Brisbane, and 61 m. S. of Maryborough by rail. Pop. (1901) 11,959.
Numerous gold mines are worked in the district, which also abounds in
copper, silver, antimony, cinnabar, bismuth and nickel. Extensive
undeveloped coal-beds lie 40 m. N. at Miva. Gympie became a municipality
in 1880.



GYNAECEUM (Gr. [Greek: gynaikeion], from [Greek: gynê], woman), that
part in a Greek house which was specially reserved for the women, in
contradistinction to the "andron," the men's quarters; in the larger
houses there was an open court with peristyles round, and as a rule all
the rooms were on the same level; in smaller houses the servants were
placed in an upper storey, and this seems to have been the case to a
certain extent in the Homeric house of the Odyssey. "Gynaeconitis" is
the term given by Procopius to the space reserved for women in the
Eastern Church, and this separation of the sexes was maintained in the
early Christian churches where there were separate entrances and
accommodation for the men and women, the latter being placed in the
triforium gallery, or, in its absence, either on one side of the church,
the men being on the other, or occasionally in the aisles, the nave
being occupied by the men.



GYNAECOLOGY (from Gr. [Greek: gynê, gynaikos], a woman, and [Greek:
logos], discourse), the name given to that branch of medicine which
concerns the pathology and treatment of affections peculiar to the
female sex.

Gynaecology may be said to be one of the most ancient branches of
medicine. The papyrus of Ebers, which is one of the oldest known works
on medicine and dates from 1550 B.C., contains references to diseases of
women, and it is recorded that specialism in this branch was known
amongst Egyptian medical practitioners. The Vedas contain a list of
therapeutic agents used in the treatment of gynaecological diseases. The
treatises on gynaecology formerly attributed to Hippocrates (460 B.C.)
are now said to be spurious, but the wording of the famous oath shows
that he was at least familiar with the use of gynaecological
instruments. Diocles Carystius, of the Alexandrian school (4th century
B.C.), practised this branch, and Praxagoras of Cos, who lived shortly
after, opened the abdomen by laparotomy. While the Alexandrine school
represented Greek medicine, Greeks began to practise in Rome, and in the
first years of the Christian era gynaecologists were much in demand
(Häser). A speculum for gynaecological purposes has been found in the
ruins of Pompeii, and votive offerings of anatomical parts found in the
temples show that various gynaecological malformations were known to the
ancients. Writers who have treated of this branch are Celsus (50
B.C.-A.D. 7) and Soranus of Ephesus (A.D. 98-138), who refers in his
works to the fact that the Roman midwives frequently called to their aid
practitioners who made a special study of diseases of women. These
midwives attended the simpler gynaecological ailments. This was no
innovation, as in Athens, as mentioned by Hyginus, we find one Agnodice,
a midwife, disguising herself in man's attire so that she might attend
lectures on medicine and diseases of women. After instruction she
practised as a gynaecologist. This being contrary to Athenian law she
was prosecuted, but was saved by the wives of some of the chief men
testifying on her behalf. Besides Agnodice we have Sotira, who wrote a
work on menstruation which is preserved in the library at Florence,
while Aspasia is mentioned by Aetius as the author of several chapters
of his work. It is evident that during the Roman period much of the
gynaecological work was in the hands of women. Martial alludes to the
"_feminae medicae_" in his epigram on Leda. These women must not be
confounded with the midwives who on monuments are always described as
"obstetrices." Galen devotes the sixth chapter of his work _De locis
affectis_ to gynaecological ailments. During the Byzantine period may be
mentioned the work of Oribasius (A.D. 325) and Moschion (2nd century
A.D.) who wrote a book in Latin for the use of matrons and midwives
ignorant of Greek.

In modern times James Parsons (1705-1770) published his _Elenchus
gynaicopathologicus et obstetricarius_, and in 1755 Charles Perry
published his _Mechanical account and explication of the hysterical
passion and of all other nervous disorders incident to the sex, with an
appendix on cancers_. In the early part of the 19th century fresh
interest in diseases of women awakened. Joseph Récamier (1774-1852) by
his writings and teachings advocated the use of the speculum and sound.
This was followed in 1840 by the writings of Simpson in England and
Huguier in France. In 1845 John Hughes Bennett published his great work
on inflammation of the uterus, and in 1850 Tilt published his book on
ovarian inflammation. The credit of being the first to perform the
operation of ovariotomy is now credited to McDowell of Kentucky in 1809,
and to Robert Lawson Tait (1845-1899) in 1883 the first operation for
ruptured ectopic gestation.

  _Menstruation._--Normal menstruation comprises the escape of from 4 to
  6 oz. of blood together with mucus from the uterus at intervals of
  twenty-eight days (more or less). The flow begins at the age of
  puberty, the average age of which in England is between fourteen and
  sixteen years. It ceases between forty-five and fifty years of age,
  and this is called the menopause or climacteric period, commonly
  spoken of as "the change of life." Both the age of puberty and that of
  the menopause may supervene earlier or later according to local
  conditions. At both times the menstrual flow may be replaced by
  haemorrhage from distant organs (epistaxis, haematemesis,
  haemoptysis); this is called _vicarious menstruation_. Menstruation is
  usually but not necessarily coincident with ovulation. The usual
  disorders of menstruation are: (1) _amenorrhoea_ (absence of flow),
  (2) _dysmenorrhoea_ (painful flow), (3) _menorrhagia_ (excessive
  flow), (4) _metrorrhagia_ (excessive and irregular flow). Amenorrhoea
  may arise from physiological causes, such as pregnancy, lactation, the
  menopause; constitutional causes, such as phthisis, anaemia and
  chlorosis, febrile disorders, some chronic intoxications, such as
  morphinomania, and some forms of cerebral disease; local causes, which
  include malformations or absence of one or more of the genital parts,
  such as absence of ovaries, uterus or vagina, atresia of vagina,
  imperforate cervix, disease of the ovaries, or sometimes imperforate
  hymen. The treatment of amenorrhoea must be directed towards the
  cause. In anaemia and phthisis menstruation often returns after
  improvement in the general condition, with good food and good sanitary
  conditions, an outdoor life and the administration of iron or other
  tonics. In local conditions of imperforate hymen, imperforate cervix
  or ovarian disease, surgical interference is necessary. Amenorrhoea is
  permanent when due to absence of the genital parts. The causes of
  dysmenorrhoea are classified as follows: (1) ovarian, due to disease
  of the ovaries or Fallopian tubes; (2) obstructive, due to some
  obstacle to the flow, as stenosis, flexions and malpositions of the
  uterus, or malformations; (3) congestive, due to subinvolution,
  chronic inflammation of the uterus or its lining membrane, fibroid
  growths and polypi of the uterus, cardiac or hepatic disease; (4)
  neuralgic; (5) membranous. The foremost place in the treatment of
  dysmenorrhoea must be given to aperients and purgatives administered a
  day or two before the period is expected. By this means congestion is
  reduced. Hot baths are useful, and various drugs such as hyoscyanus,
  cannabis indica, phenalgin, ammonol or phenacetin have been
  prescribed. Medicinal treatment is, however, only palliative, and
  flexions and malpositions of the uterus must be corrected, stenosis
  treated by dilatation, fibroid growths if present removed, and
  endometritis when present treated by local applications or curetting
  according to its severity. Menorrhagia signifies excessive bleeding at
  the menstrual periods. Constitutional causes are purpura, haemophilia,
  excessive food and alcoholic drinks and warm climates; while local
  causes are congestion and displacements of the uterus, endometritis,
  subinvolution, retention of the products of conception, new growths in
  the uterus such as mucous and fibroid polypi, malignant growths,
  tubo-ovarian inflammation and some ovarian tumours. Metrorrhagia is a
  discharge of blood from the uterus, independent of menstruation. It
  always arises from disease of the uterus or its appendages. Local
  causes are polypi, retention of the products of conception, extra
  uterine gestation, haemorrhages in connexion with pregnancy, and new
  growths in the uterus. In the treatment of both menorrhagia and
  metrorrhagia the local condition must be carefully ascertained. When
  pregnancy has been excluded, and constitutional causes treated,
  efforts should be made to relieve congestion. Uterine haemostatics, as
  ergot, ergotin, tincture of hydrastis or hamamelis, are of use,
  together with rest in bed. Fibroid polypi and other new growths must
  be removed. Irregular bleeding in women over forty years of age is
  frequently a sign of early malignant disease, and should on no account
  be neglected.

  _Diseases of the External Genital Organs._--The vulva comprises
  several organs and structures grouped together for convenience of
  description (see REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM). The affections to which these
  structures are liable may be classified as follows: (1) Injuries to
  the vulva, either accidental or occurring during parturition; these
  are generally rupture of the perinaeum. (2) _Vulvitis._ Simple
  Vulvitis is due to want of cleanliness, or irritating discharges, and
  in children may result from threadworms. The symptoms are heat,
  itching and throbbing, and the parts are red and swollen. The
  treatment consists of rest, thorough cleanliness and fomentations.
  Infective vulvitis is nearly always due to gonorrhoea. The symptoms
  are the same as in simple vulvitis, with the addition of mucopurulent
  yellow discharge and scalding pain on micturition; if neglected,
  extension of the disease may result. The treatment consists of rest in
  bed, warm medicated baths several times a day or fomentations of
  boracic acid. The parts must be kept thoroughly clean and discharges
  swabbed away. Diphtheritic vulvitis occasionally occurs, and
  erysipelas of the vulva may follow wounds, but since the use of
  antiseptics is rarely seen. (3) Vascular disturbances may occur in the
  vulva, including varix, haematoma, oedema and gangrene; the treatment
  is the same as for the same disease in other parts. (4) The vulva is
  likely to be affected by a number of cutaneous affections, the most
  important being erythema, eczema, herpes, lichen, tubercle,
  elephantiasis, vulvitis pruriginosa, syphilis and kraurosis. These
  affections present the same characters as in other parts of the body.
  _Kraurosis vulvae_, first described by Lawson Tait in 1875, is an
  atrophic change accompanied by pain and a yellowish discharge; the
  cause is unknown. Pruritis vulvae is due to parasites, or to
  irritating discharges, as leucorrhoea, and is frequent in diabetic
  subjects. The hymen may be occasionally imperforate and require
  incision. Cysts and painful carunculae may occur on the clitoris. Any
  part of the vulva may be the seat of new growths, simple or malignant.

  _Diseases of the Vagina._--(1) Malformations. The vagina may be absent
  in whole or in part or may present a septum. Stenosis of the vagina
  may be a barrier to menstruation. (2) Displacements of the vagina; (a)
  cystocele, which is a hernia of the bladder into the vagina; (b)
  rectocele, a hernia of the rectum into the vagina. The cause of these
  conditions is relaxation of the tissues due to parturition. The
  palliative treatment consists in keeping up the parts by the insertion
  of a pessary; when this fails operative interference is called for.
  (3) Fistulae may form between the vagina and bladder or vagina and
  rectum; they are generally caused by injuries during parturition or
  the late stages of carcinoma. Persistent fistulae require operative
  treatment. The vagina normally secretes a thin opalescent acid fluid
  derived from the lymph serum and the shedding of squamous epithelium.
  This fluid normally contains the vagina bacillus. In pathological
  conditions of the vagina this secretion undergoes changes. For
  practical purposes three varieties of _vaginitis_ may be described:
  (a) simple catarrhal vaginitis is due to the same causes as simple
  vulvitis, and occasionally in children is important from a
  medico-legal aspect when it is complicated by vulvitis. The symptoms
  are heat and discomfort with copious mucopurulent discharge. The only
  treatment required is rest, with vaginal douches of warm unirritating
  lotions such as boracic acid or subacetate of lead. (b) Gonorrhoeal
  vaginitis is most common in adults. The patient complains of pain and
  burning, pain on passing water and discharge which is generally green
  or yellow. The results of untreated gonorrhoeal vaginitis are serious
  and far-reaching. The disease may spread up the genital passages,
  causing endometritis, salpingitis and septic peritonitis, or may
  extend into the bladder, causing cystitis. Strict rest should be
  enjoined, douches of carbolic acid (1 in 40) or of perchloride of
  mercury (1 in 2000) should be ordered morning and evening, the vagina
  being packed with tampons of iodoform gauze. Saline purgatives and
  alkaline diuretics should be given, (c) Chronic vaginitis (leucorrhoea
  or "the whites") may follow acute conditions and persist indefinitely.
  The vagina is rarely the seat of tumours, but cysts are common.

  _Diseases of the Uterus._--The uterus undergoes important changes
  during life, chiefly at puberty and at the menopause. At puberty it
  assumes the pear shape characteristic of the mature uterus. At the
  menopause it shares in the general atrophy of the reproductive organs.
  It is subject to various disorders and misplacements. (a)
  _Displacements of the Uterus._--The normal position of the uterus,
  when the bladder is empty, is that of anteversion. We have therefore
  to consider the following conditions as pathological: anteflexion,
  retroflexion, retroversion, inversion, prolapse and procidentia.
  Slight anteflexion or bending forwards is normal; when exaggerated it
  gives rise to dysmenorrhoea, sterility and reflex nervous phenomena.
  This condition is usually congenital and is often associated with
  under-development of the uterus, from which the sterility results. The
  treatment is by dilatation of the canal or by a plastic operation.
  Retroflexion is a bending over of the uterus backwards, and occurs as
  a complication of retroversion (or displacement backwards). The causes
  are (1) any cause tending to make the fundus or upper part of the
  uterus extra heavy, such as tumours or congestion, (2) loss of tone of
  the uterine walls, (3) adhesions formed after cellulitis, (4) violent
  muscular efforts, (5) weakening of the uterine supports from
  parturition. The symptoms are dysmenorrhoea, pain on defaecation and
  constipation from the pressure of the fundus on the rectum; the
  patient is often sterile. The treatment is the replacing of the uterus
  in position, where it can be kept by the insertion of a pessary;
  failing this, operative treatment may be required. Retroversion when
  pathological is rarer than retroflexion. It may be the result of
  injury or is associated with pregnancy or a fibroid. The symptoms are
  those of retroflexion with feeling of pain and weight in the pelvis
  and desire to micturate followed by retention of urine due to the
  pressure of the cervix against the base of the bladder. The uterus
  must be skilfully replaced in position; when pessaries fail to keep it
  there the operation of hysteropexy gives excellent results.

  Inversion occurs when the uterus is turned inside out. It is only
  possible when the cavity is dilated, either after pregnancy or by a
  polypus. The greater number of cases follow delivery and are acute.
  Chronic inversions are generally due to the weight of a polypus. The
  symptoms are menorrhagia, metrorrhagia and bladder troubles; on
  examination a tumour-like mass occupies the vagina. Reduction of the
  condition is often difficult, particularly when the condition has
  lasted for a long time. The tumour which has caused the inversion must
  be excised. Prolapse and procidentia are different degrees of the same
  variety of displacement. When the uterus lies in the vagina it is
  spoken of as prolapse, when it protrudes through the vulva it is
  procidentia. The causes are directly due to increased intra-abdominal
  pressure, increased weight of the uterus by fibroids, violent
  straining, chronic cough and weakening of the supporting structures of
  the pelvic floor, such as laceration of the vagina and perinaeum.
  Traction on the uterus from below (as a cervical tumour) may be a
  cause; advanced age, laborious occupations and frequent pregnancies
  are indirect causes. The symptoms are a "bearing down" feeling, pain
  and fatigue in walking, trouble with micturition and defaecation. The
  condition is generally obvious on examination. As a rule the uterus is
  easy to replace in position. A rubber ring pessary will often serve to
  keep it there. If the perinaeum is very much torn it may be necessary
  to repair it. Various operations for retaining the uterus in position
  are described. (b) _Enlargements of the Uterus_ (hypertrophy or
  hyperplasia). This condition may sometimes involve the uterus as a
  whole or may be most marked in the body or in the cervix. It follows
  chronic congestion or inflammatory prolapse, or any condition
  interfering with the circulation. The symptoms comprise local
  discomfort and sometimes dysmenorrhoea, leucorrhoea or menorrhagia.
  When the elongation occurs in the cervical portion the only possible
  treatment is amputation of the cervix. Atrophy of the uterus is normal
  after the menopause. It may follow the removal of the tubes and
  ovaries. Some constitutional diseases produce the same result, as
  tuberculosis, chlorosis, chronic morphinism and certain diseases of
  the central nervous system.

  (c) _Injuries and Diseases resultant from Pregnancy._--The most
  frequent of these injuries is laceration of the cervix uteri, which is
  frequent in precipitate labour. Once the cervix is torn the raw
  surfaces become covered by granulations and later by cicatricial
  tissue, but as a rule they do not unite. The torn lips may become
  unhealthy, and the congestion and oedema spread to the body of the
  uterus. A lacerated cervix does not usually give rise to symptoms;
  these depend on the accompanying endometritis, and include
  leucorrhoea, aching and a feeling of weight. Lacerations are to be
  felt digitally. As lacerations predispose to abortion the operation of
  trachelorraphy or repair of the cervix is indicated. Perforation of
  the uterus may occur from the use of the sound in diseased conditions
  of the uterine walls. Superinvolution means premature atrophy
  following parturition. Subinvolution is a condition in which the
  uterus fails to return to its normal size and remains enlarged.
  Retention of the products of conception may cause irregular
  haemorrhages and may lead to a diagnosis of tumour. The uterus should
  be carefully explored.

  (d) _Inflammations Acute and Chronic._--The mucous membrane lining the
  cervical canal and body of the uterus is called the endometrium. Acute
  inflammation or endometritis may attack it. The chief causes are
  sepsis following labour or abortion, extension of a gonorrhoeal
  vaginitis, or gangrene or infection of a uterine myoma. The puerperal
  endometritis following labour is an avoidable disease due to lack of
  scrupulous aseptic precautions.

  Gonorrhoeal endometritis is an acute form associated with copious
  purulent discharge and well-marked constitutional disturbance. The
  temperature ranges from 99° to 105° F., associated with pelvic pain,
  and rigors are not uncommon. The tendency is to recovery with more or
  less protracted convalescence. The most serious complications are
  extension of the disease and later sterility. Rest in bed and
  intrauterine irrigation, followed by the introduction of iodoform
  pencils into the uterine cavity, should be resorted to, while pain is
  relieved by hot fomentations and sitz baths. Chronic endometritis may
  be the sequela of the acute form, or may be septic in origin, or the
  result of chronic congestion, acute retroflection or subinvolution
  following delivery or abortion. The varieties are glandular,
  interstitial, haemorrhagic and senile. The symptoms are disturbance of
  the menstrual function, headache, pain and pelvic discomfort, and more
  or less profuse thick leucorrhoeal discharge. The treatment consists
  in attention to the general health, with suitable laxatives and local
  injections, and in obstinate cases curettage is the most effectual
  measure. The disease is frequently associated with adenomatous disease
  of the cervix, formerly called erosion. In this disease there is a new
  formation of glandular elements, which enlarge and multiply, forming a
  soft velvety areola dotted with pink spots. This was formerly
  erroneously termed ulceration. The cause is unknown. It occurs in
  virgins as well as in mothers, but it often accompanies lacerations of
  the cervix. The symptoms are indefinite pain and leucorrhoea. The
  condition is visible on inspection with a speculum. The treatment is
  swabbing with iodized phenol or curettage. The body of the uterus may
  also be the seat of adenomatous disease. Tuberculosis may attack the
  uterus; this usually forms part of a general tuberculosis.

  (e) _New Growths in the Uterus._--The uterus is the most common seat
  of new growths. From the researches of von Gurlt, compiled from the
  Vienna Hospital _Reports_, embracing 15,880 cases of tumour, females
  exceed males in the proportion of seven to three, and of this large
  majority uterine growths account for 25%. When we consider its
  periodic monthly engorgements and the alternate hypertrophy and
  involution it undergoes in connexion with pregnancy, we can anticipate
  the special proneness of the uterus to new growths. Tumours of the
  uterus are divided into benign and malignant. The benign tumours known
  as fibroids or myomata are very common. They are stated by Bayle to
  occur in 20% of women over 35 years of age, but happily in a great
  number of cases they are small and give rise to no symptoms. They are
  definitely associated with the period of sexual activity and occur
  more frequently in married women than in single, in the proportion of
  two to one (Winckel). It is doubtful if they ever originate after the
  menopause. Indeed if uncomplicated by changes in them they share in
  the general atrophy of the sexual organs which then takes place. They
  are divided according to their position in the tissues into
  intramural, subserous and submucous (the last when it has a pedicle
  forms a polypus), or as to the part of the uterus in which they
  develop into fibroids of the cervix and fibroids of the body.
  Intramural and submucous fibroids give rise to haemorrhage. The menses
  may be so increased that the patient is scarcely ever free from
  haemorrhage. The pressure of the growth may cause dysmenorrhoea, or
  pressure on the bladder and rectum may cause dysuria, retention or
  rectal tenesmus. The uterus may be displaced by the weight of the
  tumour. Secondary changes take place in fibroids, such as mucous
  degeneration, fatty metamorphosis, calcification, septic infection
  (sloughing fibroid) and malignant (sarcomatous) degeneration.

  The modes in which fibroids imperil life are haemorrhage (the
  commonest of all), septic infection, which is one of the most
  dangerous, impaction when it fits the true pelvis so tightly that the
  tumour cannot rise, twisting of the pedicle by rotation, leading to
  sloughing and intestinal and urinary obstruction. When fibroids are
  complicated by pregnancy, impaction and consequent abortion may take
  place, or a cervical myoma may offer a mechanical obstacle to delivery
  or lead to serious post partem haemorrhage. In the treatment of
  fibroids various drugs (ergot, hamamelis, hydrastis canadensis) may be
  tried to control the haemorrhage, and repose and the injection of hot
  water (120° F.) are sometimes successful, together with electrical
  treatment. Surgical measures are needed, however, in severe recurrent
  haemorrhage, intestinal obstruction, sloughing and the co-existence of
  pregnancy. An endeavour must be made if possible to enucleate the
  fibroid, or hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) may be required. The
  operation of removal of the ovaries to precipitate the menopause has
  fallen into disuse.

  (f) _Malignant Disease of the Uterus._--The varieties of malignant
  disease met with in the uterus are sarcoma, carcinoma and
  chorion-epithelioma malignum. Sarcomata may occur in the body and in
  the neck. They occur at an earlier age than carcinomata. Marked
  enlargement and haemorrhage are the symptoms. The differential
  diagnosis is microscopic. Extirpation of the uterus is the only chance
  of prolonging life. The age at which women are most subject to
  carcinoma (cancer) of the uterus is towards the decline of sexual
  life. Of 3385 collected cases of cancer of the uterus 1169 occurred
  between 40 and 50, and 856 between 50 and 60. In contradistinction to
  fibroid tumours it frequently arises after the menopause. It may be
  divided into cancer of the body and cancer of the neck (cervix).
  Cancer of the neck of the uterus is almost exclusively confined to
  women who have been pregnant (Bland-Sutton). Predisposing causes may
  be injuries during delivery. The symptoms which induce women to seek
  medical aid are haemorrhage, foetid discharge, and later pain and
  cachexia. An unfortunate belief amongst the public that the menopause
  is associated with irregular bleeding and offensive discharges has
  prevented many women from seeking medical advice until too late. It
  cannot be too widely understood that cancer of the cervix is in its
  early stages a purely local disease, and if removed in this stage
  usually results in cure. So important is the recognition of this fact
  in the saving of human life that at the meeting of the British Medical
  Association in April 1909 the council issued for publication a special
  appeal to medical practitioners, midwives and nurses, and directed it
  to be published in British and colonial medical and nursing journals.
  It will be useful to quote here a part of the appeal directed to
  midwives and nurses: "Cancer may occur at any age and in a woman who
  looks quite well, and who may have no pain, no wasting, no foul
  discharge and no profuse bleeding. To wait for pain, wasting, foul
  discharge or profuse bleeding is to throw away the chance of
  successful treatment. The early symptoms of cancer of the womb
  are:--(1) bleeding which occurs after the change of life, (2) bleeding
  after sexual intercourse or after a vaginal douche, (3) bleeding,
  slight or abundant, even in young women, if occurring between the
  usual monthly periods, and especially when accompanied by a
  bad-smelling or watery blood-tinged discharge, (4) thin watery
  discharge occurring at any age." On examination the cervix presents
  certain characteristic signs, though these may be modified according
  to the variety of cancer present. Hard nodules or definite loss of
  substance, extreme friability and bleeding after slight manipulation,
  are suspicious. Epithelial cancer of the cervix may assume a
  proliferating ulcerative type, forming the well-known "cauliflower"
  excrescence. The treatment of cancer of the cervix is free removal at
  the earliest possible moment. Cancer of the body of the uterus is rare
  before the 45th year. It is most frequent at or subsequent to the
  menopause. The majority of the patients are nulliparae (Bland-Sutton).
  The signs are fitful haemorrhages after the menopause, followed by
  profuse and offensive discharges. The uterus on examination often
  feels enlarged. The diagnosis being made, hysterectomy (removal of the
  uterus) is the only treatment. Cancer of the body of the uterus may
  complicate fibroids. Chorion-epithelioma malignum (deciduoma) was
  first described in 1889 by Sänger and Pfeiffer. It is a malignant
  disease presenting microscopic characters resembling decidual tissue.
  It occurs in connexion with recent pregnancy, and particularly with
  the variety of abortion termed hydatid mole. In many cases it destroys
  life with a rapidity unequalled by any other kind of growth. It
  quickly ulcerates and infiltrates the uterine tissues, forming
  metastatic growths in the lung and vagina. Clinically it is recognized
  by the occurrence after pregnancy of violent haemorrhages, progressive
  cachexia and fever with rigors. Recent suggestions have been made as
  to chorion-epithelioma being the result of pathological changes in the
  lutein tissue of the ovary. The growth is usually primary in the
  uterus, but may be so in the Fallopian tubes and in the vagina. A few
  cases have been recorded unconnected with pregnancy. The virulence of
  chorion-epithelioma varies, but in the present state of our knowledge
  immediate removal of the primary growth along with the affected organ
  is the only treatment.

  _Diseases of the Fallopian Tubes._--The Fallopian tubes or oviducts
  are liable to inflammatory affections, tuberculosis, sarcomata,
  cancer, chorion-epithelioma and tubal pregnancy. Salpingitis
  (inflammation of the oviducts) is nearly always secondary to septic
  infection of the genital tract. The chief causes are septic
  endometritis following labour or abortion, gangrene of a myoma,
  gonorrhoea, tuberculosis and cancer of the uterus; it sometimes
  follows the specific fevers. When the pus escapes from the tubes into
  the coelom it sets up pelvic peritonitis. When the inflammation is
  adjacent to the ostium it leads to the matting together of the tubal
  fimbriae and glues them to an adjacent organ. This seals the ostium.
  The occluded tube may now have an accumulation of pus in it
  (pyosalpinx). When in consequence of the sealing of the ostium the
  tube becomes distended with serous fluid it is termed hydrosalpinx.
  Haematosalpinx is a term applied to the non-gravid tube distended with
  blood; later the tubes may become sclerosed. Acute septic salpingitis
  is ushered in by a rigor, the temperature rising to 103°, 104° F.,
  with severe pain and constitutional disturbance. The symptoms may
  become merged in those of general peritonitis. In chronic disease
  there is a history of puerperal trouble followed by sterility, with
  excessive and painful menstruation. Acute salpingitis requires
  absolute rest, opium suppositories and hot fomentations. With urgent
  symptoms removal of the inflamed adnexa must be resorted to. Chronic
  salpingitis often renders a woman an invalid. Permanent relief can
  only be afforded by surgical intervention. Tuberculous salpingitis is
  usually secondary to other tuberculous infections. The Fallopian tubes
  may be the seat of malignant disease. This is rarely primary. By far
  the most important of the conditions of the Fallopian tubes is tubal
  pregnancy (or ectopic gestation). It is now known that fertilization
  of the human ovum by the spermatozoon may take place even when the
  ovum is in its follicle in the ovary, for oosperms have been found in
  the ovary and Fallopian tubes as well as in the uterus. Belief in
  ovarian pregnancy is of old standing, and had been regarded as
  possible but unproved, no case of an early embryo in its membranes in
  the sac of an ovary being forthcoming, until the remarkable case
  published by Dr Catherine van Tussenboek of Amsterdam in 1899
  (Bland-Sutton). Tubal pregnancy is most frequent in the left tube; it
  sometimes complicates uterine pregnancy; rarely both tubes are
  pregnant. When the oosperm lodges in the ampulla or isthmus it is
  called tubal gestation; when it is retained in the portion traversing
  the uterine wall it is called tubo-uterine gestation. Wherever the
  fertilized ovum remains and implants its villi the tube becomes turgid
  and swollen, and the abdominal ostium gradually closes. The ovum in
  this situation is liable to apoplexy, forming tubal mole. When the
  abdominal ostium remains pervious the ovum may escape into the
  coelomic cavity (tubal abortion); death from shock and haemorrhage
  into the abdominal cavity may result. When neither of these
  occurrences has taken place the ovum continues to grow inside the
  tube, the rupture of the distended tube usually taking place between
  the sixth and the tenth week. The rupture of the tube may be
  intraperitoneal or extraperitoneal. The danger is death from
  haemorrhage occurring during the rupture, or adhesions may form, the
  retained blood forming a haematocele. The ovum may be destroyed or may
  continue to develop. In rare cases rupture may not occur, the tube
  bulging into the peritoneal cavity; and the foetus may break through
  the membranes and lie free among the intestines, where it may die,
  becoming encysted or calcified. The tubal placenta possesses foetal
  structures, the true decidua forming in the uterus. The signs
  suggestive of tubal pregnancy before rupture are missed periods,
  pelvic pains and the presence of an enlarged tube. When rupture takes
  place it is attended in both varieties with sudden and severe pain and
  more or less marked collapse, and a tumour may or may not be felt
  according to the situation of the rupture. There is a general "feeling
  of something having given way." If diagnosed before rupture, the sac
  must be removed by abdominal section. In intraperitoneal rupture
  immediate operation affords the only chance of saving life. In
  extraperitoneal rupture the foetus may occasionally remain alive until
  full term and be rescued by abdominal section, if the condition is
  recognized, or a false labour may take place, accompanied by death of
  the foetus.

  _Diseases of the Ovaries and Parovarium._--The ovaries undergo
  striking changes at puberty, and again at the menopause, after which
  there is a gradual shrinkage. One or both may be absent or malformed,
  or they are subject to displacements, being either undescended,
  contained in a hernia or prolapsed. Either of these conditions, if a
  source of pain, may necessitate their removal. The ovary is also
  subject to haemorrhage or apoplexy. Acute inflammations (oöphorites)
  are constantly associated with salpingitis or other septic conditions
  of the genital tract or with an attack of mumps. The relation of
  oöphoritis to mumps is at present unknown. Acute oöphoritis may
  culminate in abscess but more usually adhesions are formed. The
  surgical treatment is that of pyosalpinx. Chronic inflammation may
  follow acute or be consequent on pelvic cellulitis. Its constant
  features are more or less pain followed by sterility. The ovary may be
  the seat of tuberculosis, which is generally secondary to other
  lesions. Suppuration and abscess of the ovary also occur.
  Perioöphoritis, or chronic inflammation in the neighbourhood, may also
  involve the gland. The cause of cirrhosis of the ovaries is unknown,
  though it may be associated with cirrhotic liver. The change is met
  with in women between 20 and 40 years of age, the ovaries being in a
  shrunken, hard, wrinkled condition. Under ovarian neuralgia are
  grouped indefinite painful symptoms occurring frequently in neurotic
  and alcoholic subjects, and often worse during menstruation. The
  treatment, whether local or operative, is usually unsatisfactory. The
  ovary is frequently the seat of tumours, dermoids and cysts. Cysts may
  be simple, unilocular or multilocular, and may attain an enormous
  size. The largest on record was removed by Dr Elizabeth Reifsnyder of
  Shanghai, and contained 100 litres of fluid, and the patient
  recovered. The operation is termed ovariotomy. Dermoid cysts
  containing skin, bones, teeth and hair, are of frequent growth in the
  ovary, and have attained the weight of from 20 to 40 kilogrammes. In
  one case a girl weighed 27 kilogrammes and her tumour 44 kilogrammes
  (Keen). Papillomatous cysts also occur in the ovary. Parovarian and
  Gärtnerian cysts are found, and adenomata form 20% of all ovarian
  cysts. Occasionally the tunic of peritoneum surrounding the ovary
  becomes distended with serous fluid. This is termed ovarian hydrocele.
  Ovarian fibroids occur, and malignant disease (sarcoma and carcinoma)
  is fairly frequent, sarcoma being the most usual ovarian tumour
  occurring before puberty. Carcinoma of the ovary is rarely primary,
  but it is a common situation for secondary cancer to that of the
  breast, gall-bladder or gastro-intestinal tract. The treatment of all
  rapidly-growing tumours of the ovary is removal.

  _Diseases of the Pelvic Peritoneum and Connective Tissue._--Women are
  excessively liable to peritoneal infections. (1) Septic infection
  often follows acute salpingitis and may give rise to pelvic
  peritonitis (perimetritis), which may be adhesive, serous or purulent.
  It may follow the rupture of ovarian or dermoid cysts, rupture of the
  uterus, extra uterine pregnancy or extension from pyosalpinx. The
  symptoms are severe pain, fever, 103° F. and higher, marked
  constitutional disturbances, vomiting, restlessness, even delirium.
  The abdomen is fixed and tympanitic. Its results are the formation of
  adhesions causing abnormal positions of the organs, or chronic
  peritonitis may follow. The treatment is rest in bed, opium, hot
  stupes to the abdomen and quinine. (2) Epithelial infections take
  place in the peritoneum in connexion with other malignant growths. (3)
  Hydroperitoneum, a collection of free fluid in the abdominal cavity,
  may be due to tumours of the abdominal viscera or to tuberculosis of
  the peritoneum. (4) Pelvic cellulitis (parametritis) signifies the
  inflammation of the connective tissue between the folds of the broad
  ligament (mesometrium). The general causes are septic changes
  following abortion, delivery at term (especially instrumental
  delivery), following operations on the uterus or salpingitis. The
  symptoms are chill followed by severe intrapelvic pain and tension,
  fever 100° to 102° F. There may be nausea and vomiting, diarrhoea,
  rectal tenseness and dysuria. If consequent on parturition the lochia
  cease or become offensive. On examination there is tenderness and
  swelling in one flank and the uterus becomes fixed and immovable in
  the exudate as if embedded in plaster of Paris. The illness may go to
  resolution if treated by rest, opium, hot stupes or icebags and
  glycerine tampons, or may go on to suppuration forming pelvic abscess,
  which signifies a collection of pus between the layers of the broad
  ligament. The pus in a pelvic abscess may point and escape through the
  walls of the vagina, rectum or bladder. It occasionally points in the
  groin. If the pus can be localized an incision should be made and the
  abscess drained. The tumours which arise in the broad ligament are
  haematocele, solid tumours (as myomata, lipomata and sarcomata), and
  echinnococcus colonies (hydatids).

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Albutt, Playfair and Eden, _System of Gynaecology_
  (1906); McNaughton Jones, _Manual of Diseases of Women_ (1904);
  Bland-Sutton and Giles, _Diseases of Women_ (1906); C. Lockyer,
  "Lutein Cysts in association with Chorio-Epithelioma," _Journal of
  Obstetrics and Gynaecology_ (January, 1905); W. Stewart McKay,
  _History of Ancient Gynaecology_; Hart and Barbour, _Diseases of
  Women_; Howard Kelly, _Operative Gynaecology_.     (H. L. H.)



GYÖNGYÖSI, ISTVÁN [STEPHEN] (1620-1704), Hungarian poet, was born of
poor but noble parents in 1620. His abilities early attracted the notice
of Count Ferencz Wesselényi, who in 1640 appointed him to a post of
confidence in Fülek castle. Here he remained till 1653, when he married
and became an assessor of the judicial board. In 1681 he was elected as
a representative of his county at the diet held at Soprony (Oedenburg).
From 1686 to 1693, and again from 1700 to his death in 1704, he was
deputy lord-lieutenant of the county of Gömör. Of his literary works the
most famous is the epic poem _Murányi Venus_ (Caschau, 1664), in honour
of his benefactor's wife Maria Szécsi, the heroine of Murány. Among his
later productions the best known are _Rózsa-Koszorú_, or Rose-Wreath
(1690), _Kemény-János_ (1693), _Cupidó_ (1695), _Palinodia_ (1695) and
_Chariklia_ (1700).

  The earliest edition of his collected poetical works is by Dugonics
  (Pressburg and Pest, 1796); the best modern selection is that of
  Toldy, entitled _Gyöngyösi István válogatott poétai munkái_ (Select
  poetical works of Stephen Gyöngyösi, 2 vols., 1864-1865).



GYÖR (Ger. _Raab_), a town of Hungary, capital of a county of the same
name, 88 m. W. of Budapest by rail. Pop. (1900) 27,758. It is situated
at the confluence of the Raab with the Danube, and is composed of the
inner town and three suburbs. Györ is a well-built town, and is the seat
of a Roman Catholic bishop. Amongst its principal buildings are the
cathedral, dating from the 12th century, and rebuilt in 1639-1654; the
bishop's palace; the town hall; the Roman Catholic seminary for priests
and several churches. There are manufactures of cloth, machinery and
tobacco, and an active trade in grain and horses. Twenty miles by rail
W. S. W. of the town is situated Csorna, a village with a
Premonstratensian abbey, whose archives contain numerous valuable
historical documents.

Györ is one of the oldest towns in Hungary and occupies the site of the
Roman _Arabona_. It was already a place of some importance in the 10th
century, and its bishopric was created in the 11th century. It was a
strongly fortified town which resisted successfully the attacks of the
Turks, into whose hands it fell by treachery in 1594, but they retained
possession of it only for four years. Montecucculi made Györ a
first-class fortress, and it remained so until 1783, when it was
abandoned. At the beginning of the 19th century, the fortifications were
re-erected, but were easily taken by the French in 1809, and were again
stormed by the Austrians on the 28th of June 1849.

About 11 m. S.E. of Györ on a spur of the Bakony Forest lies the famous
Benedictine abbey of Pannonhalma (Ger. _St Martinsberg_; Lat. _Mons
Sancti Martini_), one of the oldest and wealthiest abbeys of Hungary. It
was founded by King St Stephen, and the original deed from 1001 is
preserved in the archives of the abbey. The present building is a block
of palaces, containing a beautiful church, some of its parts dating from
the 12th century, and lies on a hill 1200 ft. high. The church has a
tower 130 ft. high. In the convent there are a seminary for priests, a
normal school, a gymnasium and a library of 120,000 vols. The chief
abbot has the rank of a bishop, and is a member of the Upper House of
the Hungarian parliament, while in spiritual matters he is subordinate
immediately to the Roman curia.



GYP, the pen name of SIBYLLE GABRIELLE MARIE ANTOINETTE RIQUETI DE
MIRABEAU, Comtesse de Martel de Janville (1850-   ) French writer, who
was born at the château of Koetsal in the Morbihan. Her father, who was
the grandson of the vicomte de Mirabeau and great-nephew of the orator,
served in the Papal Zouaves, and died during the campaign of 1860. Her
mother, the comtesse de Mirabeau, in addition to some graver
compositions, contributed to the _Figaro_ and the _Vie parisienne_,
under various pseudonyms, papers in the manner successfully developed by
her daughter. Under the pseudonym of "Gyp" Madame de Martel, who was
married in 1869, sent to the _Vie parisienne_, and later to the _Revue
des deux mondes_, a large number of social sketches and dialogues,
afterwards reprinted in volumes. Her later work includes stories of a
more formal sort, essentially differing but little from the shorter
studies. The following list includes some of the best known of Madame de
Martel's publications, nearly seventy in number: _Petit Bob_ (1882);
_Autour du mariage_ (1883); _Ce que femme veut_ (1883); _Le Monde à
côté_ (1884), _Sans voiles_ (1885); _Autour du divorce_ (1886); _Dans le
train_ (1886); _Mademoiselle Loulou_ (1888); _Bob au salon_ (1888-1889);
_L'Education d'un prince_ (1890); _Passionette_ (1891); _Ohé! la grande
vie_ (1891); _Une Élection à Tigre-sur-mer_ (1890), an account of
"Gyp's" experiences in support of a Boulangist candidate; _Mariage
civil_ (1892); _Ces bons docteurs_ (1892); _Du haut en bas_ (1893);
_Mariage de chiffon_ (1894); _Leurs âmes_ (1895); _Le Coeur d'Ariane_
(1895); _Le Bonheur de Ginette_ (1896); _Totote_ (1897); _Lune de miel_
(1898); _Israël_ (1898); _L'Entrevue_ (1899); _Le Pays des champs_
(1900); _Trop de chic_ (1900); _Le Friquet_ (1901); _La Fée_ (1902); _Un
Mariage chic_ (1903); _Un Ménage dernier cri_ (1903); _Maman_ (1904);
_Le Coeur de Pierrette_ (1905). From the first "Gyp," writing of a
society to which she belonged, displayed all the qualities which have
given her a distinct, if not pre-eminent, position among writers of her
class. Those qualities included an intense faculty of observation, much
skill in innuendo, a mordant wit combined with some breadth of humour,
and a singular power of animating ordinary dialogues without destroying
the appearance of reality. Her Parisian types of the spoiled child, of
the precocious schoolgirl, of the young bride, and of various masculine
figures in the gay world, have become almost classical, and may probably
survive as faithful pictures of luxurious manners in the 19th century.
Some later productions, inspired by a violent anti-Semitic and
Nationalist bias, deserve little consideration. An earlier attempt to
dramatize _Autour du mariage_ was a failure, not owing to the audacities
which it shares with most of its author's works, but from lack of
cohesion and incident. More successful was _Mademoiselle Ève_ (1895),
but indeed "Gyp's" successes are all achieved without a trace of
dramatic faculty. In 1901 Madame de Martel furnished a sensational
incident in the Nationalist campaign during the municipal elections in
Paris. She was said to have been the victim of a kidnapping outrage or
piece of horseplay provoked by her political attitude, but though a most
circumstantial account of the outrages committed on her and of her
adventurous escape was published, the affair was never clearly explained
or verified.



GYPSUM, a common mineral consisting of hydrous calcium sulphate, named
from the Gr. [Greek: gypsos], a word used by Theophrastus to denote not
only the raw mineral but also the product of its calcination, which was
employed in ancient times, as it still is, as a plaster. When
crystallized, gypsum is often called selenite, the [Greek: selênitês] of
Dioscorides, so named from [Greek: selênê], "the moon," probably in
allusion to the soft moon-like reflection of light from some of its
faces, or, according to a legend, because it is found at night when the
moon is on the increase. The granular, marble-like gypsum is termed
alabaster (q.v.).

Gypsum crystallizes in the monoclinic system, the habit of the crystals
being usually either prismatic or tabular; in the latter case the broad
planes are parallel to the faces of the clinopinacoid. The crystals may
become lenticular by curvature of certain faces. In the characteristic
type represented in fig. 1, f represents the prism, l the hemi-pyramid
and P the clinopinacoid. Twins are common, as in fig. 2, forming in some
cases arrow-headed and swallow-tailed crystals. Cleavage is perfect
parallel to the clinopinacoid, yielding thin plates, often
diamond-shaped, with pearly lustre; these flakes are usually flexible,
but may be brittle, as in the gypsum of Montmartre. Two other cleavages
are recognized, but they are imperfect. Crystals of gypsum, when
occurring in clay, may enclose much muddy matter; in other cases a large
proportion of sand may be mechanically entangled in the crystals without
serious disturbance of form; whilst certain crystals occasionally
enclose cavities with liquid and an air-bubble. Gypsum not infrequently
becomes fibrous. This variety occurs in veins, often running through
gypseous marls, with the fibres disposed at right angles to the
direction of the vein. Such gypsum when cut and polished has a pearly
opalescence, or satiny sheen, whence it is called satin-spar (q.v.).

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

Gypsum is so soft as to be scratched even by the finger-nail (H = 1.5 to
2). Its specific gravity is about 2.3. The mineral is slightly soluble
in water, one part of gypsum being soluble, according to G. K. Cameron,
in 372 parts of pure water at 26° C. Waters percolating through gypseous
strata, like the Keuper marls, dissolve the calcium sulphate and thus
become permanently hard or "selenitic." Such water has special value for
brewing pale ale, and the water used by the Burton breweries is of this
character; hence the artificial dissolving of gypsum in water for
brewing purposes is known as "burtonization." Deposits of gypsum are
formed in boilers using selenitic water.

Pure gypsum is colourless or white, but it is often tinted, especially
in the alabaster variety, grey, yellow or pink. Gypsum crystallizes with
two molecules of water, equal to about 21% by weight, and consequently
has the formula CaSO4.2H2O. By exposure to strong heat all the water may
be expelled, and the substance then has the composition of anhydrite
(q.v.). When the calcination, however, is conducted at such a
temperature that only about 75% of the water is lost, it yields a white
pulverulent substance, known as "plaster of Paris," which may readily be
caused to recombine with water, forming a hard cement. The gypsum
quarries of Montmartre, in the north of Paris, were worked in Tertiary
strata, rich in fossils. Gypsum is largely quarried in England for
conversion into plaster of Paris, whence it is sometimes known as
"plaster stone," and since much is sent to the Staffordshire potteries
for making moulds it is also termed "potter's stone." The chief workings
are in the Keuper marls near Newark in Nottinghamshire, Fauld in
Staffordshire and Chellaston in Derbyshire. It is also worked in Permian
beds in Cumberland and Westmorland, and in Purbeck strata near Battle in
Sussex.

Gypsum frequently occurs in association with rock-salt, having been
deposited in shallow basins of salt water. Much of the calcium in
sea-water exists as sulphate; and on evaporation of a drop of sea-water
under the microscope this sulphate is deposited as acicular crystals of
gypsum. In salt-lagoons the deposition of the gypsum is probably
effected in most cases by means of micro-organisms. Waters containing
sulphuretted hydrogen, on exposure to the air in the presence of
limestone, may yield gypsum by the formation of sulphuric acid and its
interaction with the calcium carbonate. In volcanic districts gypsum is
produced by the action of sulphuric acid, resulting from the oxidation
of sulphurous vapours, on lime-bearing minerals, like labradorite and
augite, in the volcanic rocks: hence gypsum is common around solfataras.
Again, by the oxidation of iron-pyrites and the action of the resulting
sulphuric acid on limestone or on shells, gypsum may be formed; whence
its origin in most clays. Gypsum is also formed in some cases by the
hydration of anhydrite, the change being accompanied by an increase of
volume to the extent of about 60%. Conversely gypsum may, under certain
conditions, be dehydrated or reduced to anhydrite.

Some of the largest known crystals of selenite have been found in
southern Utah, where they occur in huge geodes, or crystal-lined
cavities, in deposits from the old salt-lakes. Fine crystals, sometimes
curiously bent, occur in the Permian rocks of Friedrichroda, near Gotha,
where there is a grotto called the Marienglashöhle, close to
Rheinhardsbrunn. Many of the best localities for selenite are in the New
Red Sandstone formation (Trias and Permian), notably the salt-mines of
Hall and Hallein, near Salzburg, and of Bex in Switzerland. Excellent
crystals, usually of a brownish colour arranged in groups, are often
found in the brine-chambers and the launders used in salt-works.
Selenite also occurs in fine crystals in the sulphur-bearing marls of
Girgenti and other Sicilian localities; whilst in Britain very bold
crystals are yielded by the Kimeridge clay of Shotover Hill near Oxford.
Twisted crystals and rosettes of gypsum found in the Mammoth Cave,
Kentucky, have been called "oulopholites" ([Greek: oulos], "woolly";
[Greek: phôleos], "cave").

In addition to the use of gypsum in cement-making, the mineral finds
application as an agricultural agent in dressing land, and it has also
been used in the manufacture of porcelain and glass. Formerly it was
employed, in the form of thin cleavage-plates, for glazing windows, and
seems to have been, with mica, called _lapis specularis_. It is still
known in Germany as _Marienglas_ and _Fraueneis_. Delicate
cleavage-plates of gypsum are used in microscopic petrography for the
determination of certain optical constants in the rock-forming minerals.
     (F. W. R.*)



GYROSCOPE AND GYROSTAT. These are scientific models or instruments
designed to illustrate experimentally the dynamics of a rotating body
such as the spinning-top, hoop and bicycle, and also the precession of
the equinox and the rotation of the earth.

The gyroscope (Gr. [Greek: gyros], ring, [Greek: skopein], to see) may
be distinguished from the gyrostat ([Greek: gyros], and [Greek:
statikos], stationary) as an instrument in which the rotating wheel or
disk is mounted in gimbals so that the principal axis of rotation
always passes through a fixed point (fig. 1). It can be made to imitate
the motion of a spinning-top of which the point is placed in a smooth
agate cup as in Maxwell's dynamical top (figs. 2, 3). (_Collected
Works_, i. 248.) A bicycle wheel, with a prolongation of the axle placed
in a cup, can also be made to serve (fig. 4).

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

The gyrostat is an instrument designed by Lord Kelvin (_Natural
Philosophy_, § 345) to illustrate the more complicated state of motion
of a spinning body when free to wander about on a horizontal plane, like
a top spun on the pavement, or a hoop or bicycle on the road. It
consists essentially of a massive fly-wheel concealed in a metal casing,
and its behaviour on a table, or with various modes of suspension or
support, described in Thomson and Tait, _Natural Philosophy_, serves to
illustrate the curious reversal of the ordinary laws of statical
equilibrium due to the _gyrostatic domination_ of the interior invisible
fly-wheel, when rotated rapidly (fig. 5).

The toy shown in figs. 6 and 7, which can be bought for a shilling, is
acting as a gyroscope in fig. 6 and a gyrostat in fig. 7.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.]

[Illustration: FIG. 4.]

The gyroscope, as represented in figs. 2 and 3 by Maxwell's dynamical
top, is provided with screws by which the centre of gravity can be
brought into coincidence with the point of support. It can then be used
to illustrate Poinsot's theory of the motion of a body under no force,
the gyroscope being made kinetically unsymmetrical by a setting of the
screws. The discussion of this movement is required for Jacobi's
theorems on the allied motion of a top and of a body under no force
(Poinsot, _Théorie nouvelle de la rotation des corps_, Paris, 1857;
Jacobi, _Werke_, ii. Note B, p. 476).

To imitate the movement of the top the centre of gravity is displaced
from the point of support so as to give a preponderance. When the motion
takes place in the neighbourhood of the downward vertical, the bicycle
wheel can be made to serve again mounted as in fig. 8 by a stalk in the
prolongation of the axle, suspended from a universal joint at O; it can
then be spun by hand and projected in any manner.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.]

[Illustration: FIG. 6.]

[Illustration: FIG. 7.]

[Illustration: FIG. 8.]

[Illustration: FIG. 9.]

The first practical application of the gyroscopic principle was invented
and carried out (1744) by Serson, with a spinning top with a polished
upper plane surface for giving an artificial horizon at sea, undisturbed
by the motion of the ship, when the real horizon was obscured. The
instrument has been perfected by Admiral Georges Ernest Fleuriais (fig.
9), and is interesting theoretically as showing the correction required
practically for the rotation of the earth. Gilbert's barogyroscope is
devised for the same purpose of showing the earth's rotation; a
description of it, and of the latest form employed by Föppl, is given in
the _Ency. d. math. Wiss._, 1904, with bibliographical references in the
article "Mechanics of Physical Apparatus." The rotation of the fly-wheel
is maintained here by an electric motor, as devised by G. M. Hopkins,
and described in the _Scientific American_, 1878. To demonstrate the
rotation of the earth by the constancy in direction of the axis of a
gyroscope is a suggestion that has often been made; by E. Sang in 1836,
and others. The experiment was first carried out with success by
Foucault in 1851, by a simple pendulum swung in the dome of the
Pantheon, Paris, and it has been repeated frequently (_Mémoires sur le
pendule_, 1889).

A gyroscopic fly-wheel will preserve its original direction in space
only when left absolutely free in all directions, as required in the
experiments above. If employed in steering, as of a torpedo, the
gyroscope must act through the intermediary of a light relay; but if
direct-acting, the reaction will cause precession of the axis, and the
original direction is lost.

The gyrostatic principle, in which one degree of freedom is suppressed
in the axis, is useful for imparting steadiness and stability in a
moving body; it is employed by Schlick to mitigate the rolling of a ship
and to maintain the upright position of Brennan's monorail car.

Lastly, as an application of gyroscopic theory, a stretched chain of
fly-wheels in rotation was employed by Kelvin as a mechanical model of
the rotary polarization of light in an electromagnetic field; the
apparatus may be constructed of bicycle wheels connected by short links,
and suspended vertically.


  _Theory of the Symmetrical Top._

  1. The physical constants of a given symmetrical top, expressed in
  C.G.S. units, which are employed in the subsequent formulae, are
  denoted by M, h, C and A. M is the weight in grammes (g) as given by
  the number of gramme weights which equilibrate the top when weighed in
  a balance; h is the distance OG in centimetres (cm.) between G the
  centre of gravity and O the point of support, and Mh may be called the
  preponderance in g.-cm.; Mh and M can be measured by a spring balance
  holding up in a horizontal position the axis OC in fig. 8 suspended at
  O. Then gMh (dyne-cm. or ergs) is the moment of gravity about O when
  the axis OG is horizontal, gMh sin [theta] being the moment when the
  axis OG makes an angle [theta] with the vertical, and g = 981 (cm./s²)
  on the average; C is the moment of inertia of the top about OG, and A
  about any axis through O at right angles to OG, both measured in
  g-cm.².

  To measure A experimentally, swing the top freely about O in small
  plane oscillation, and determine the length, l cm., of the equivalent
  simple pendulum; then

    (1) l = A/Mh, A = Mhl.

  Next make the top, or this simple pendulum, perform small conical
  revolutions, nearly coincident with the downward vertical position of
  equilibrium, and measure n, the mean angular velocity of the conical
  pendulum in radians / second; and T its period in seconds; then

    (2) 4[pi]²/T² = n² = g/l = gMh/A;

  and f = n/2[pi] is the number of revolutions per second, called the
  _frequency_, T = 2[pi]/n is the period of a revolution, in seconds.


    Steady motion of the top.

  2. In the popular explanation of the steady movement of the top at a
  constant inclination to the vertical, depending on the composition of
  angular velocity, such as given in Perry's _Spinning Tops_, or
  Worthington's _Dynamics of Rotation_, it is asserted that the moment
  of gravity is always generating an angular velocity about an axis OB
  perpendicular to the vertical plane COC´ through the axis of the top
  OC´; and this angular velocity, compounded with the resultant angular
  velocity about an axis OI, nearly coincident with OC´, causes the axes
  OI and OC´ to keep taking up a new position by moving at right angles
  to the plane COC´, at a constant precessional angular velocity, say µ
  rad./sec., round the vertical OC (fig. 4).

  If, however, the axis OC´ is prevented from taking up this
  precessional velocity, the top at once falls down; thence all the
  ingenious attempts--for instance, in the swinging cabin of the
  Bessemer ship--to utilise the gyroscope as a mechanical directive
  agency have always resulted in failure (_Engineer_, October 1874),
  unless restricted to actuate a light relay, which guides the
  mechanism, as in steering a torpedo.

  An experimental verification can be carried out with the gyroscope in
  fig. 1; so long as the vertical spindle is free to rotate in its
  socket, the rapidly rotating wheel will resist the impulse of tapping
  on the gimbal by moving to one side; but when the pinch screw prevents
  the rotation of the vertical spindle in the massive pedestal, this
  resistance to the tapping at once disappears, provided the friction of
  the table prevents the movement of the pedestal; and if the wheel has
  any preponderance, it falls down.

  Familiar instances of the same principles are observable in the
  movement of a hoop, or in the steering of a bicycle; it is essential
  that the handle of the bicycle should be free to rotate to secure the
  stability of the movement.

  The bicycle wheel, employed as a spinning top, in fig. 4, can also be
  held by the stalk, and will thus, when rotated rapidly, convey a
  distinct muscular impression of resistance to change of direction, if
  brandished.


    Elementary demonstration of the condition of steady motion.

  3. A demonstration, depending on the elementary principles of
  dynamics, of the exact conditions required for the axis OC´ of a
  spinning top to spin steadily at a constant inclination [theta] to the
  vertical OC, is given here before proceeding to the more complicated
  question of the general motion, when [theta], the inclination of the
  axis, is varying by nutation.

  It is a fundamental principle in dynamics that if OH is a vector
  representing to scale the angular momentum of a system, and if Oh is
  the vector representing the axis of the impressed couple or torque,
  then OH will vary so that the velocity of H is represented to scale by
  the impressed couple Oh, and if the top is moving freely about O, Oh
  is at right angles to the vertical plane COC´, and

    (1) Oh = gMh sin [theta].

  In the case of the steady motion of the top, the vector OH lies in the
  vertical plane COC´, in OK suppose (fig. 4), and has a component OC =
  G about the vertical and a component OC´ = G´, suppose, about the axis
  OC; and G´ = CR, if R denotes the angular velocity of the top with
  which it is spun about OC´.

  If µ denotes the constant precessional angular velocity of the
  vertical plane COC´ the components of angular velocity and momentum
  about OA are µ sin [theta] and Aµ sin [theta], OA being perpendicular
  to OC´ in the plane COC´; so that the vector OK has the components

    (2) OC´ = G´, and C´K = Aµ sin[theta],

  and the horizontal component

    (3) CK = OC´ sin[theta] - C´K cos[theta]
           = G´ sin[theta] - Aµ sin[theta] cos[theta].

  The velocity of K being equal to the impressed couple Oh,

    (4) gMh sin[theta] = µ·CK = sin [theta] (G´µ - Aµ² cos [theta]),

  and dropping the factor sin[theta],

    (5) Aµ² cos[theta] - G´µ + gMh = 0, or Aµ² cos[theta] - CRµ + An² = 0,

  the condition for steady motion.

  Solving this as a quadratic in µ, the roots µ1, µ2 are given by
                                 _                                 _
                 G´             |                4A²n²              |
    (6) µ1, µ2 = -- sec [theta] |1 ± [root] (1 - ----- cos [theta]) |;
                 2A             |_                G´²              _|

  and the minimum value of G´ = CR for real values of µ is given by

         G´²                   CR
    (7) -----   = cos [theta], -- = 2[root](cos [theta]);
        4A²n²                  An

  for a smaller value of R the top cannot spin steadily at the
  inclination [theta] to the upward vertical.

  Interpreted geometrically in fig. 4

    (8) µ = gMh sin [theta]/CK = An²/KN, and µ = C´K/A sin [theta] = KM/A,

    (9) KM·KN = A²n²,

  so that K lies on a hyperbola with OC, OC´ as asymptotes.


    Constrained motion of the gyroscope.

  4. Suppose the top or gyroscope, instead of moving freely about the
  point O, is held in a ring or frame which is compelled to rotate about
  the vertical axis OC with constant angular velocity µ; then if N
  denotes the couple of reaction of the frame keeping the top from
  falling, acting in the plane COC', equation (4) § 3 becomes modified
  into

    (1) gMh sin [theta] - N = µ·CK = sin [theta] G´µ - Aµ² cos [theta],

    (2) N = sin [theta] (Aµ² cos [theta] - G´µ + gMh)
          = A sin[theta] cos [theta] (µ - µ1)(µ - µ2);

  and hence, as µ increases through µ2 and µ1, the sign of N can be
  determined, positive or negative, according as the tendency of the
  axis is to fall or rise.

  When G´ = CR is large, µ2 is large, and

    (3) µ1 [~=] gMh/G´ = An²/CR,

  the same for all inclinations, and this is the precession observed in
  the spinning top and centrifugal machine of fig. 10 This is true
  accurately when the axis OC' is horizontal, and then it agrees with
  the result of the popular explanation of § 2.

  [Illustration: FIG. 10.]

  If the axis of the top OC´ is pointing upward, the precession is in
  the same direction as the rotation, and an increase of µ from µ1 makes
  N negative, and the top rises; conversely a decrease of the procession
  µ causes the axis to fall (Perry, _Spinning Tops_, p. 48).

  If the axis points downward, as in the centrifugal machine with upper
  support, the precession is in the opposite direction to the rotation,
  and to make the axis approach the vertical position the precession
  must be reduced.


    Centrifugal machine.

  This is effected automatically in the Weston centrifugal machine (fig.
  10) used for the separation of water and molasses, by the friction of
  the indiarubber cushions above the support; or else the spindle is
  produced downwards below the drum a short distance, and turns in a
  hole in a weight resting on the bottom of the case, which weight is
  dragged round until the spindle is upright; this second arrangement is
  more effective when a liquid is treated in the drum, and wave action
  is set up (_The Centrifugal Machine_, C. A. Matthey).

  Similar considerations apply to the stability of the whirling bowl in
  a cream-separating machine.

  We can write equation (1)

    (4) N = An² sin [theta] - µ·CK = (A^n² - KM·KN) sin [theta]/A,

  so that N is negative or positive, and the axis tends to rise or fall
  according as K moves to the inside or outside of the hyperbola of free
  motion. Thus a tap on the axis tending to hurry the precession is
  equivalent to an impulse couple giving an increase to C´K, and will
  make K move to the interior of the hyperbola and cause the axis to
  rise; the steering of a bicycle may be explained in this way; but K1
  will move to the exterior of the hyperbola, and so the axis will fall
  in this second more violent motion.

  Friction on the point of the top may be supposed to act like a tap in
  the direction opposite to the precession; and so the axis of a top
  spun violently rises at first and up to the vertical position, but
  falls away again as the motion dies out. Friction considered as acting
  in retarding the rotation may be compared to an impulse couple tending
  to reduce OC´, and so make K and K1 both move to the exterior of the
  hyperbola, and the axis falls in both cases. The axis may rise or fall
  according to the direction of the frictional couple, depending on the
  shape of the point; an analytical treatment of the varying motion is
  very intractable; a memoir by E. G. Gallop may be consulted in the
  _Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc._, 1903.

  The earth behaves in precession like a large spinning top, of which
  the axis describes a circle round the pole of the ecliptic of mean
  angular radius [theta], about 23½°, in a period of 26,000 years, so
  that R/µ = 26000 × 365; and the mean couple producing precession is

    (5) CRµ sin [theta] = CR² sin 23½°/(26000 × 365),

  one 12 millionth part of ½CR², the rotation energy of the earth.

  5. If the preponderance is absent, by making the C·G coincide with O,
  and if Aµ is insensible compared with G´,

    (1) N = -G´µ sin [theta],

  the formula which suffices to explain most gyroscopic action.


    Gyroscopic action of railway wheels.

  Thus a carriage running round a curve experiences, in consequence of
  the rotation of the wheels, an increase of pressure Z on the outer
  track, and a diminution Z on the inner, giving a couple, if a is the
  gauge,

    (2) Za = G´µ,

  tending to help the centrifugal force to upset the train; and if c is
  the radius of the curve, b of the wheels, C their moment of inertia,
  and v the velocity of the train,

    (3) µ = v/c, G´ = Cv/b,

    (4) Z = Cv²/abc (dynes),

  so that Z is the fraction C/Mab of the centrifugal force Mv²/c, or
  the fraction C/Mh of its transference of weight, with h the height of
  the centre of gravity of the carriage above the road. A Brennan
  carriage on a monorail would lean over to the inside of the curve at
  an angle [alpha], given by

    (6) tan [alpha] = G´µ/gMh = G´v/gMhc.

  The gyroscopic action of a dynamo, turbine, and other rotating
  machinery on a steamer, paddle or screw, due to its rolling and
  pitching, can be evaluated in a similar elementary manner
  (Worthington, _Dynamics of Rotation_), and Schlick's gyroscopic
  apparatus is intended to mitigate the oscillation.

  6. If the axis OC in fig. 4 is inclined at an angle [alpha] to the
  vertical, the equation (2) § 4 becomes

    (1) N = sin [theta] (Aµ² cos [theta] - G´µ) + gMh sin ([alpha] -
      [theta]).

  Suppose, for instance, that OC is parallel to the earth's axis, and
  that the frame is fixed in the meridian; then [alpha] is the
  co-latitude, and µ is the angular velocity of the earth, the square of
  which may be neglected; so that, putting N = 0, [alpha] - [theta] = E,

    (2) gMh sin E - G´µ sin ([alpha] - E) = 0,

                   G´µ sin [alpha]         G´µ
    (3) tan E = --------------------- [~=] --- sin [alpha].
                gMh + G´µ cos [alpha]      gMh


    The barogyroscope.

  This is the theory of Gilbert's barogyroscope, described in Appell's
  _Mécanique rationnelle_, ii. 387: it consists essentially of a rapidly
  rotated fly-wheel, mounted on knife-edges by an axis perpendicular to
  its axis of rotation and pointing east and west; spun with
  considerable angular momentum G´, and provided with a slight
  preponderance Mh, it should tilt to an angle E with the vertical, and
  thus demonstrate experimentally the rotation of the earth.


    Foucault's gyroscope.

  In Foucault's gyroscope (_Comptes rendus_, 1852; Perry, p. 105) the
  preponderance is made zero, and the axis points to the pole, when free
  to move in the meridian.

  Generally, if constrained to move in any other plane, the axis seeks
  the position nearest to the polar axis, like a dipping needle with
  respect to the magnetic pole. (_A gyrostatic working model of the
  magnetic compass_, by Sir W. Thomson. British Association Report,
  Montreal, 1884. A. S. Chessin, St Louis Academy of Science, January
  1902.)


    Gyroscopic horizon.

  A spinning top with a polished upper plane surface will provide an
  artificial horizon at sea, when the real horizon is obscured. The
  first instrument of this kind was constructed by Serson, and is
  described in the _Gentleman's Magazine_, vol. xxiv., 1754; also by
  Segner in his _Specimen theoriae turbinum_ (Halae, 1755). The inventor
  was sent to sea by the Admiralty to test his instrument, but he was
  lost in the wreck of the "Victory," 1744. A copy of the Serson top,
  from the royal collection, is now in the Museum of King's College,
  London. Troughton's Nautical Top (1819) is intended for the same
  purpose.

  The instrument is in favour with French navigators, perfected by
  Admiral Fleuriais (fig. 9); but it must be noticed that the horizon
  given by the top is inclined to the true horizon at the angle E given
  by equation (3) above; and if µ1 is the precessional angular velocity
  as given by (3) § 4, and T = 2[pi]/µ, its period in seconds,

                µ            T cos lat         T cos lat
    (4) tan E = -- cos lat = ---------, or E = ---------,
                µ1             86400             8[pi]

  if E is expressed in minutes, taking µ = 2[pi]/86400; thus making the
  true latitude E nautical miles to the south of that given by the top
  (_Revue maritime_, 1890; _Comptes rendus_, 1896).

  This can be seen by elementary consideration of the theory above, for
  the velocity of the vector OC´ of the top due to the rotation of the
  earth is

    (5) µ·OC´ cos lat = gMh sin E = µ1·OC´ sin E,

              µ               T cos lat
      sin E = -- cos lat, E = ---------,
              µ1                8[pi]

  in which 8[pi] can be replaced by 25, in practice; so that the
  Fleuriais gyroscopic horizon is an illustration of the influence of
  the rotation of the earth and of the need for its allowance.

  [Illustration: FIG. 11.]


    Euler's coordinate angles.

  7. In the ordinary treatment of the general theory of the gyroscope,
  the motion is referred to two sets of rectangular axes; the one Ox,
  Oy, Oz fixed in space, with Oz vertically upward and the other OX, OY,
  OZ fixed in the rotating wheel with OZ in the axis of figure OC.

  The relative position of the two sets of axes is given by means of
  Euler's unsymmetrical angles [theta], [phi], [psi], such that the
  successive turning of the axes Ox, Oy, Oz through the angles (i.)
  [psi] about Oz, (ii.) [theta] about OE, (iii.) [phi] about OZ, brings
  them into coincidence with OX, OY, OZ, as shown in fig. 11,
  representing the _concave_ side of a spherical surface.

  The component angular velocities about OD, OE, OZ are

    (1) [.[psi]] sin [theta], .[theta], .[phi] + .[psi] cos [theta];

  so that, denoting the components about OX, OY, OZ by P, Q, R,

    (2) P =  .[theta] cos [phi] + .[psi] sin [theta] sin [phi],
        Q = -.[theta] sin [phi] + .[psi] sin [theta] cos [phi],
        R =              .[phi] + .[psi] cos [theta].

  Consider, for instance, the motion of a fly-wheel of preponderance Mh,
  and equatoreal moment of inertia A, of which the axis OC is held in a
  light ring ZCX at a constant angle [gamma] with OZ, while OZ is held
  by another ring zZ, which constrains it to move round the vertical Oz
  at a constant inclination [theta] with constant angular velocity µ, so
  that

    (3) .[theta] = 0, .[psi] = µ;

    (4) P = µ sin [theta] sin [phi],
        Q = µ sin [theta] cos [phi],
        R = .[phi] + µ cos [theta].

  With CXF a quadrant, the components of angular velocity and momentum
  about OF, OY, are

    (5) P cos [gamma] - R sin [gamma], Q, and A(P cos [gamma]
      - R sin [gamma]), AQ,

  so that, denoting the components of angular momentum of the fly-wheel
  about OC, OX, OY, OZ by K or G´, h1, h2, h3,

    (6) h1 = A(P cos [gamma] - R sin [gamma]) cos [gamma] + K sin [gamma],

    (7) h2 = AQ,

    (8) h3 = -A(P cos [gamma] - R sin [gamma]) sin [gamma]
      + K cos [gamma];

  and the dynamical equation

        dh3
    (9) --- - h1Q + h2P = N,
        dt

  with K constant, and with preponderance downward

    (10) N = gMh cos zY sin [gamma]
           = gMh sin [gamma] sin [theta] cos [phi],

  reduces to

           d²[phi]
    (11) A ------- sin [gamma]
             dt²

      + Aµ² sin [gamma] sin² [theta] sin [phi] cos [phi]
      + Aµ² cos [gamma] sin [theta] cos [theta] cos [phi]
      - (Kµ + gMh) sin [theta] cos [phi] = 0.

  The position of relative equilibrium is given by

    (12) cos [phi] = 0, and sin [phi]

        Kµ + gMh - Aµ² cos [gamma] cos [theta]
      = --------------------------------------.
             Aµ² sin [gamma] sin [theta]

  For small values of µ the equation becomes

           d²[phi]
    (13) A ------- sin [gamma] - (Kµ + gMh) sin [theta] cos [phi] = 0,
             dt²

  so that [phi] = ½[pi] gives the position of stable equilibrium, and
  the period of a small oscillation is 2[pi] [root]{A sin [gamma]/(Kµ +
  gMh) sin [theta]}.

  In the general case, denoting the periods of vibration about [phi] =
  ½[pi], -½[pi], and the sidelong position of equilibrium by 2[pi]/(n1,
  n2, or n3), we shall find

                sin [theta]
    (14) n1² = ------------- {gMh + Kµ - Aµ² cos ([gamma] - [theta])},
               A sin [gamma]

                sin [theta]
    (15) n2² = ------------- {-gMh - Kµ + Aµ² cos ([gamma] + [theta])},
               A sin [gamma]

    (16) n3 = n1 n2/µ sin [theta].

  The first integral of (11) gives

             /d[phi]\²
    (17) ½A ( ------ ) sin [gamma]
             \  dt  /

      + ½Aµ² sin [gamma] sin² [theta] sin² [phi]
      - Aµ² cos [gamma] sin [theta] cos [theta] sin [phi]
      + (Kµ + gMh) sin [theta] sin [phi] - H = 0,

  and putting tan (¼[pi] + ½[phi]) = z, this reduces to

         dz
    (18) -- = n [root]Z
         dt

  where Z is a quadratic in z², so that z is a Jacobian elliptic
  function of t, and we have

    (19) tan (¼[pi] + ½[phi]) = C(tn, dn, nc, or cn)nt,

  according as the ring ZC performs complete revolutions, or oscillates
  about a sidelong position of equilibrium, or oscillates about the
  stable position of equilibrium [phi] = ±½[pi].

  Suppose Oz is parallel to the earth's axis, and µ is the diurnal
  rotation, the square of which may be neglected, then if Gilbert's
  barogyroscope of § 6 has the knife-edges turned in azimuth to make an
  angle ß with E. and W., so that OZ lies in the horizon at an angle
  E.ß.N., we must put [gamma] = ½[pi], cos [theta] = sin [alpha] sin ß;
  and putting [phi] = ½[pi] - [delta] + E, where [delta] denotes the
  angle between Zz and the vertical plane Z[zeta] through the zenith
  [zeta],

    (20) sin [theta] cos [delta] = cos [alpha], sin [theta] sin [delta]
      = sin [alpha] cos ß;

  so that equations (9) and (10) for relative equilibrium reduce to

    (21) gMh sin E = KQ = Kµ sin [theta] cos [phi]
      = Kµ sin [theta] sin ([delta] - E),

  and will change (3) § 6 into

                 Kµ sin [alpha] cos ß
    (22) tan E = --------------------,
                 gMh + Kµ cos [alpha]

  a multiplication of (3) § 6 by cos ß (Gilbert, _Comptes rendus_,
  1882).

  Changing the sign of K or h and E and denoting the revolutions/second
  of the gyroscope wheel by F, then in the preceding notation, T
  denoting the period of vibration as a simple pendulum,

                 Kµ sin [alpha] cos ß       F sin [alpha] cos ß
    (23) tan E = -------------------- = ---------------------------,
                 gMh - Kµ cos [alpha]   86400 A/T²C - F cos [alpha]

  so that the gyroscope would reverse if it were possible to make F cos
  [alpha] > 86400 A/T²C (Föppl, _Münch. Ber_, 1904).

  A gyroscopic pendulum is made by the addition to it of a fly-wheel,
  balanced and mounted, as in Gilbert's barogyroscope, in a ring movable
  about an axis fixed in the pendulum, in the vertical plane of motion.

  As the pendulum falls away to an angle [theta] with the upward
  vertical, and the axis of the fly-wheel makes an angle [phi] with the
  vertical plane of motion, the three components of angular momentum are

    (24) h1 = K cos [phi], h2 = A .[theta] + K sin [phi], h3 = A .[phi],

  where h3 is the component about the axis of the ring and K of the
  fly-wheel about its axis; and if L, M´, N denote the components of the
  couple of reaction of the ring, L may be ignored, while N is zero,
  with P = 0, Q = [.[theta]], R = 0, so that

    (25) M´ = h2 = A :[theta] + K .[phi] cos [phi],

    (26) 0 = h3 - h1 .[theta] = A :[phi] - K .[theta] cos [phi].

  For the motion of the pendulum, including the fly-wheel,

    (27) MK² :[theta] = gMH sin [theta] - M´
                      = gMH sin [theta] - A :[theta] - K .[phi] cos [phi].

  If [theta] and [phi] remain small,

    (28) A :[phi] = K .[theta], A .[phi] = K([theta] - [alpha]),

    (29) (MK² + A) :[theta] + (K²/A) ([theta] - [alpha]) - gMH[theta] = 0;

  so that the upright position will be stable if K² > gMHA, or the
  rotation energy of the wheel greater than ½A/C times the energy
  acquired by the pendulum in falling between the vertical and
  horizontal position; and the vibration will synchronize with a simple
  pendulum of length

    (30) (MK² + A)/[(K²/gA) - MH].

  This gyroscopic pendulum may be supposed to represent a ship among
  waves, or a carriage on a monorail, and so affords an explanation of
  the gyroscopic action essential in the apparatus of Schlick and
  Brennan.


    General motion of the top.

  8. Careful scrutiny shows that the steady motion of a top is not
  steady absolutely; it reveals a small nutation superposed, so that a
  complete investigation requires a return to the equations of unsteady
  motion, and for the small oscillation to consider them in a
  penultimate form.

  In the general motion of the top the vector OH of resultant angular
  momentum is no longer compelled to lie in the vertical plane COC´
  (fig. 4), but since the axis Oh of the gravity couple is always
  horizontal, H will describe a curve in a fixed horizontal plane
  through C. The vector OC´ of angular momentum about the axis will be
  constant in length, but vary in direction; and OK will be the
  component angular momentum in the vertical plane COC´, if the planes
  through C and C´ perpendicular to the lines OC and OC´ intersect in
  the line KH; and if KH is the component angular momentum perpendicular
  to the plane COC´, the resultant angular momentum OH has the three
  components OC´, C´K, KH, represented in Euler's angles by

    (1) KH = A d[theta]/dt, C´K = A sin [theta] d[psi]/dt, OC´ = G´.

  Drawing KM vertical and KN parallel to OC´, then

    (2) KM = A d[psi]/dt, KN = CR - A cos [theta] d[psi]/dt
           = (C - A)R + A d[phi]/dt

  so that in the spherical top, with C = A, KN = A d[phi]/dt.

  The velocity of H is in the direction KH perpendicular to the plane
  COC´, and equal to gMh sin [theta] or An² sin [theta], so that if a
  point in the axis OC´ at a distance An² from O is projected on the
  horizontal plane through C in the point P on CK, the curve described
  by P, turned forwards through a right angle, will be the hodograph of
  H; this is expressed by

    (3) An² sin [theta] e^{([psi] + ½[pi])i}
      = iAn² sin [theta] e^{[psi]i} = d/dt ([rho]e^{[pi]i})

  where [rho]e[varpi]i is the vector CH; and so the curve described by P
  and the motion of the axis of the top is derived from the curve
  described by H by a differentiation.

  Resolving the velocity of H in the direction CH,

    (4) d·CH/dt = An² sin [theta] sin KCH = An² sin [theta] KH/CH,

    (5) d·½CH²/dt = A²n²sin [theta] d[theta]/dt.

  and integrating

    (6) ½CH² = A²n²(E - cos [theta]),

    (7) ½OH² = A²n²(F - cos [theta]),

    (8) ½C´H² = A²n²(D - cos [theta]),

  where D, E, F are constants, connected by

    (9) F = E + G²/2A²n² = D + G´²/2A²n².

  Then

    (10) KH² = OH² - OK²,

    (11) OK² sin² [theta] = CC´² = G² - 2GG´ cos [theta] + G´²,

    (12) A² sin² [theta] (d[theta]/dt)²
      = 2A²n²(F - cos [theta]) sin² [theta] - G² + 2GG´ cos [theta] - G´²;

  and putting cos [theta] = z,

    (13) (dz/dt)² = 2n²(F - z) (1 - z²) - (G² - 2GG´z + G´²)/A²
                  = 2n²(E - z)(1-z²) - (G´ - Gz)²/A²
                  = 2n²(D - z)(1-z²) - (G - G´z)²/A²
                  = 2n² Z suppose.

  Denoting the roots of Z = 0 by z1, z2, z3, we shall have them arranged
  in the order

    (14) z1 > 1 > z2 > z > z3 > -1.

    (15) (dz/dt)² = 2n²(z1 - z)(z2 - z)(z - z3).

                _z
               /         /
    (16) nt =  |   dz/ \/(2Z),
              _/z3


  an elliptic integral of the first kind, which with

                   /z1 - z3             z2 - z3
    (17) m = n \  / -------, [kappa]² = -------,
                \/     2                z1 - z2

  can be expressed, when normalized by the factor [root](z1 - z3)/2, by
  the inverse elliptic function in the form

                _z
               /          [root](z1 - z3)dz
    (18) mt =  |   ---------------------------------
              _/z3 [root][4(z1 - z)(z2 - z)(z - z3)]

                         / z - z3              /z2 - z               /z1 - z
            = sn^(-1)\  / ------- = cn^(-1)\  / ------- = dn^(-1)\  / -------.
                      \/  z2 - z3           \/  z2 - z3           \/  z1 - z3

    (19) z - z3 = (z2 - z3)sn²mt, z2 - z = (z2 - z3)cn²mt,
         z1 - z = (z1 - z3)dn²mt.

    (20) z = z2sn²mt + z3cn²mt.

  Interpreted dynamically, the axis of the top keeps time with the beats
  of a simple pendulum of length

    (21) L = l/½(z1 - z3),

  suspended from a point at a height ½(z1 + z3)l above 0, in such a
  manner that a point on the pendulum at a distance

    (22) ½(z1 - z3)l = l²/L

  from the point of suspension moves so as to be always at the same
  level as the centre of oscillation of the top.

  The polar co-ordinates of H are denoted by [rho], [varpi] in the
  horizontal plane through C; and, resolving the velocity of H
  perpendicular to CH,

    (23) [rho] d[~omega]/dt = An² sin [theta] cos KCH.

    (24) [rho]² d[~omega]/dt = An² sin [theta] CK

                             = An² (G´ - G cos [theta])
                       _               _
                      / G´ - Gz dt    /   (G´ - Gz)/2An    dz
    (25) [~omega] = ½ | ------- -- =  |   ------------- ----------,
                     _/  E - z  A    _/z3     E - z     [root](2Z)

  an elliptic integral, of the third kind, with pole at z = E; and then

  (26) [~omega] - [psi] = KCH = tan^(-1) KH/CH

                A sin [theta] d[theta]/dt             [root](2Z)
     = tan^(-1) ------------------------- = tan^(-1) ------------,
                   G´ - G cos [theta]                (G´ - Gz)/An

  which determines [psi].

  Otherwise, from the geometry of fig. 4,

    (27) C´K sin [theta] = OC - OC´ cos [theta],

    (28) A sin² [theta] d[psi]/dt = G - G´ cos [theta],
                  _                _               _
                 / G - G´z dt     / G - G´ dt     / G + G´ dt
    (29) [psi] = | ------- -- = ½ | ------ -- + ½ | ------ --,
                _/  1 - z² A     _/  1 - z A     _/  1 + z A

  the sum of two elliptic integrals of the third kind, with pole at z =
  ±1; and the relation in (25) (26) shows the addition of these two
  integrals into a single integral, with pole at z = E.

  The motion of a sphere, rolling and spinning in the interior of a
  spherical bowl, or on the top of a sphere, is found to be of the same
  character as the motion of the axis of a spinning top about a fixed
  point.

  The curve described by H can be identified as a Poinsot herpolhode,
  that is, the curve traced out by rolling a quadric surface with centre
  fixed at O on the horizontal plane through C; and Darboux has shown
  also that a deformable hyperboloid made of the generating lines, with
  O and H at opposite ends of a diameter and one generator fixed in OC,
  can be moved so as to describe the curve H; the tangent plane of the
  hyperboloid at H being normal to the curve of H; and then the other
  generator through O will coincide in the movement with OC´, the axis
  of the top; thus the Poinsot herpolhode curve H is also the trace made
  by rolling a line of curvature on an ellipsoid confocal to the
  hyperboloid of one sheet, on the plane through C.

  Kirchhoff's _Kinetic Analogue_ asserts also that the curve of H is the
  projection of a tortuous elastica, and that the spherical curve of C´
  is a hodograph of the elastica described with constant velocity.

  Writing the equation of the focal ellipse of the Darboux hyperboloid
  through H, enlarged to double scale so that O is the centre,

    (30) x²/[alpha]² + y²/ß² + z²/O = 1,

  with [alpha]² + [lambda], ß² + [lambda], [lambda] denoting the squares
  of the semiaxes of a confocal ellipsoid, and [lambda] changed into µ
  and [nu] for a confocal hyperboloid of one sheet and of two sheets.

    (31) [lambda] > O > µ > -ß² > [nu] > -[alpha]²,

  then in the deformation of the hyperboloid, [lambda] and [nu] remain
  constant at H; and utilizing the theorems of solid geometry on
  confocal quadrics, the magnitudes may be chosen so that

    (32) [alpha]² + [lambda] + ß² + µ + [nu] = OH² = ½k²(F - z)
      = [rho]² + OC².

    (33) [alpha]² + µ = ½k²(z1 - z) = [rho]² - [rho]1²,

    (34) ß² + µ = ½k²(z2 - z) = [rho]² - [rho]2²,

    (35) µ = ½k²(z3 - z) = [rho]² - [rho]3²,

    (36) [rho]1² < 0 < [rho]2² < [rho]² < [rho]3²,

    (37) F = z1 + z2 + z3,

    (38) [lambda] - 2µ + [nu] = k²z, [lambda] - [nu] = k²,

          [lambda] - µ     1 + z       µ - [nu]      1 - z
    (39) --------------- = -----,  --------------- = -----
         [lambda] - [nu]     2     [lambda] - [nu]     2

  with z = cos [theta], [theta] denoting the angle between the
  generating lines through H; and with OC = [delta], OC´ = [delta]´, the
  length k has been chosen so that in the preceding equations

    (40) [delta]/k = G/2An, [delta]´/k = G´/2An;

  and [delta], [delta]´, k may replace G, G´, 2An; then

           2Z     1   /d[theta]\²    4KH²
    (41) ------ = -- ( -------- )  = ----,
         1 - z²   n²  \   dt   /      k²

  while from (33-39)

           2Z      4([alpha]² + µ)(ß² + µ)µ
    (42) ------ = --------------------------,
         1 - z²   k²(µ - [lambda])(µ - [nu])

  which verifies that KH is the perpendicular from O on the tangent
  plane of the hyperboloid at H, and so proves Darboux's theorem.

  Planes through O perpendicular to the generating lines cut off a
  constant length HQ = [delta], HQ´ = [delta]´, so the line of curvature
  described by H in the deformation of the hyperboloid, the intersection
  of the fixed confocal ellipsoid [lambda] and hyperboloid of two sheets
  [nu], rolls on a horizontal plane through C and at the same time on a
  plane through C´ perpendicular to OC´.

  Produce the generating line HQ to meet the principal planes of the
  confocal system in V, T, P; these will also be fixed points on the
  generator; and putting

    (43) (HV, HT, HP,)/HQ = D/(A, B, C,),

  then

    (44) Ax² + By² + Cz² = D[delta]²

  is a quadric surface with the squares of the semiaxes given by HV·HQ,
  HT·HQ, HP·HQ, and with HQ the normal line at H, and so touching the
  horizontal plane through C; and the direction cosines of the normal
  being

    (45) x/HV, y/HT, z/HP,

    (46) A²x² + B²y² + C²z² = D²[delta]²,

  the line of curvature, called the polhode curve by Poinsot, being the
  intersection of the quadric surface (44) with the ellipsoid (46).

  There is a second surface associated with (44), which rolls on the
  plane through C´, corresponding to the other generating line HQ´
  through H, so that the same line of curvature rolls on two planes at a
  constant distance from O, [delta] and [delta]´; and the motion of the
  top is made up of the combination. This completes the statement of
  Jacobi's theorem (_Werke_, ii. 480) that the motion of a top can be
  resolved into two movements of a body under no force.

  Conversely, starting with Poinsot's polhode and herpolhode given in
  (44) (46), the normal plane is drawn at H, cutting the principal axes
  of the rolling quadric in X, Y, Z; and then

    (47) [alpha]² + µ = x·OX, ß² + µ = y·OY, µ = z·OZ,

  this determines the deformable hyperboloid of which one generator
  through H is a normal to the plane through C; and the other generator
  is inclined at an angle [theta], the inclination of the axis of the
  top, while the normal plane or the parallel plane through O revolves
  with angular velocity d[psi]/dt.

  The curvature is useful in drawing a curve of H; the diameter of
  curvature D is given by

             dp²          ½k²sin³ [theta]         ½D    ¼k²
    (48) D = --- = -----------------------------, -- = -----.
             dp    [delta] - [delta]´ cos[theta]  p    KM·KN

  The curvature is zero and H passes through a point of inflexion when
  C´ comes into the horizontal plane through C; [psi] will then be
  stationary and the curve described by C´ will be looped.

  In a state of steady motion, z oscillates between two limits z2 and z3
  which are close together; so putting z2 = z3 the coefficient of z in Z
  is

                             GG´         (OM cos[theta] + ON)(OM + ON cos [theta])
    (49) 2Z1z3 + z²3 = -1 + ----  = -1 + -----------------------------------------,
                            A²n²                          OM·ON

                 OM² + ON²                   OM² + ON²
    (50) 2z1z3 = --------- cos [theta], z1 = ---------,
                   OM·ON                      2OM·ON

                      OM² - 2OM·ON cos [theta] + ON²    MN²
    (51) 2(z1 - z3) = ------------------------------ = -----.
                                  OM·ON                OM·ON

  With z2 = z3, [kappa] = [omicron], K = ½[pi]; and the number of beats
  per second of the axis is

          m      n       /z1 - z3        MN         n
    (52) ---- = ---- \  / ------- = ------------- -----,
         [pi]   [pi]  \/     2      [root](OM·ON) 2[pi]

  beating time with a pendulum of length

                  l        4OM·ON
    (53)  L = ---------- = ------ l.
              ½(z1 - z3)     MN²

  The wheel making R/2[pi] revolutions per second,

             beats/second            MN        n    C    MN
    (54)  ------------------  = -------------  -- = -- . ---,
          revolutions/second    [root](OM·ON)  R    A    OC´

  from (8) (9) § 3; and the apsidal angle is

           ½[pi]   Aµ n               ON         2[root](OM·ON)           ON
    (55) µ ----- = --·--·½[pi] = ------------- · -------------- · ½[pi] = -- [pi],
             m     An m          [root](OM·ON)         MN                 MN

  and the height of the equivalent conical pendulum [lambda] is given by

         [lambda]    g    n²   OM   KC    OL
    (56) -------- = --- = -- = -- = --- = ---,
             l      lµ²   µ²   ON   KC´   OC´

  if OR drawn at right angles to OK cuts KC´ in R, and RL is drawn
  horizontal to cut the vertical CO in L; thus if OC² represents l to
  scale, then OL will represent [lambda].

  9. The gyroscope motion in fig. 4 comes to a stop when the rim of the
  wheel touches the ground; and to realize the motion when the axis is
  inclined at a greater angle with the upward vertical, the stalk is
  pivoted in fig. 8 in a lug screwed to the axle of a bicycle hub,
  fastened vertically in a bracket bolted to a beam. The wheel can now
  be spun by hand, and projected in any manner so as to produce a
  desired gyroscopic motion, undulating, looped, or with cusps if the
  stalk of the wheel is dropped from rest.

  As the principal part of the motion takes place now in the
  neighbourhood of the lowest position, it is convenient to measure the
  angle [theta] from the downward vertical, and to change the sign of z
  and G.

  Equation (18) § 8 must be changed to

                               _z3
                   /z3 - z1   /    [root](z3 - z1)dz
    (1) mt = nt   / ------- = |    -----------------,
                \/     2     _/z       [root](4Z)


    (2) Z = (z - F)(1 - z²) - (G²- 2GG´z + G´²) / 2A²n²
          = (z - D)(1 - z²) - (G - G´z)² / 2A²n²
          = (z - E)(1 - z²) - (G´- Gz)² / 2A²n²
          = (z3 - z)(z - z2)(z - z1),

    (3) 1 > z3 > z > z2 > -1, D, E > z1,

    (4) z1 + z2 + z3 = F = D - G´² / 2A²n² = E - G²/2A²n²,

  and expressed by the inverse elliptic function

                       /z3 - z              /z - z2              /z - z1
    (5) mt = sn^(-1)  / ------- = cn^(-1)  / ------- = dn^(-1)  / -------,
                    \/  z3 - z2          \/  z3 - z2          \/  z3 - z1

    (6) z = z2sn²mt + z3cn²mt, [kappa]² = (z3 - z2)/(z3 - z1),

  Equation (25) and (29) § 8 is changed to
                      _                _
                     / G´- Gz  dt     / G´-GE dt   Gt
    (7) [~omega] = ½ | ------- -- = ½ | ----- -- - --,
                    _/  z - E  A     _/  z-E  A    2A
                 _                _               _
                / G´z - G dt     / G´ + G dt     / G´ - G dt
    (8) [psi] = | ------- -- = ½ | ------ -- - ½ | ------ --,
               _/  1 - z² A     _/ 1 - z  A     _/ 1 + z  A

  while [psi] and [varpi] change places in (26).

  The Jacobian elliptic parameter of the third elliptic integral in (7)
  can be given by [nu], where

                _z3     /                _z3   _z2
               /   [root](z3 - z1)      /     /
    (9) [nu] = |   --------------- dz = |   + |   = K + (1 - f)Ki´,
              _/E     [root](4Z)       _/z2  _/E

  where f is a real fraction,

                      _E
                     /   [root](z3 - z1)
    (10) (1 - f)K´ = |   --------------- dz,
                    _/z1   [root](-4Z)

                _E    /
               /   [root](z3 - z1)
    (11) fK´ = |   --------------- dz,
              _/z1   [root](-4Z)

                         / E - z1             / z2 - E             / z3 - E
             = sn^(-1)  / ------- = cn^(-1)  / ------- = dn^(-1)  / -------,
                      \/  z2 - z1          \/  z2 - z1          \/  z3 - z1

  with respect to the comodulus [kappa]´.

  Then, with z = E, and

    (12) 2Z{E} = -{(G´- GE)/An}²,

  if II denotes the apsidal angle of [~omega], and T the time of a single
  beat of the axle, up or down,

                    _z3
              GT   /  [root](-2Z_E)     dz
    (13) II + -- = |  ------------- ----------,
             2A   _/z2    z - E     [root](2Z)

                 = ½[pi]f + KznfK´,

  in accordance with the theory of the complete elliptic integral of the
  third kind.

  Interpreted geometrically on the deformable hyperboloid, flattened in
  the plane of the focal ellipse, if OQ is the perpendicular from the
  centre on the tangent HP, AOQ = amfK´, and the eccentric angle of P,
  measured from the minor axis, is am(1 - f)K´, the eccentricity of the
  focal ellipse being the comodulus [kappa]´.

  A point L is taken in QP such that

    (14) QL/OA = znfK´,

    (15) QV, QT, QP = OA(zs, zc, zd)fK´;

  and with

    (16) mT = K, m/n = [root](z3 - z1)/2 = OA/k,

         GT    G     k     QH
    (17) -- = --- · -- K = -- K,
         2A   2An   OA     OA

                       QL + QH              HL
    (18) II = ½[pi]f + ------- K = ½[pi]f + -- K.
                         OA                 OA

  By choosing for f a simple rational fraction, such as ½, 1/3, ¼, 1/5,
  ... an algebraical case of motion can be constructed (_Annals of
  Mathematics_, 1904).

  Thus with G´ - GE = 0, we have E = z1 or z2, never z3; f = 0 or 1;
  and P is at A or B on the focal ellipse; and then

    (19) [~omega] = -pt, p = G/2A,

                               n[root](2Z)
    (20) [psi] + pt = tan^(-1) -----------,
                                2p(z - E)

    (21) sin [theta] exp ([psi] + pt)i
      = i[root][(-z2 - z3)(z - z1)] + [root][(z3 - z)(z - z2)],

           1 + z2z3     /-z2 - z3    G    p      G´
      z1 = --------,   / -------- = --- = -- = -----, or
           z2 + z3   \/      2      2An   n    2Anz1

    (22) sin [theta] exp ([psi] + pt)i =
      i[root][(-z1 - z3)(z - z2)] + [root][(z3 - z)(z - z1)],

           1 + z1z3     /-z1 - z3    G    p      G´
      z2 = --------,   / -------- = --- = -- = -----.
           z1 + z3   \/      2      2An   n    2Anz2

  Thus z2 = 0 in (22) makes G´ = 0; so that if the stalk is held out
  horizontally and projected with angular velocity 2p about the vertical
  axis OC without giving any spin to the wheel, the resulting motion of
  the stalk is like that of a spherical pendulum, and given by

                                             / /2p²            \
    (23) sin [theta] exp ([psi] + pt)i = i  / ( --- cos [theta] )
                                          \/   \ n²            /

           / /                 p²            \
      +   / ( sin² [theta] - 2 -- cos [theta] ),
        \/   \                 n²            /

      = i sin [alpha] [root](sec [alpha] cos [theta])
        + [root][(sec [alpha] + cos [theta])(cos [alpha] - cos [theta])],

  if the axis falls in the lowest position to an angle [alpha] with the
  downward vertical.

  With z3 = 0 in (21) and z2 = -cos ß, and changing to the upward
  vertical measurement, the motion is given by

    (24) sin [theta] e^([psi]i)
      = e^(int) [root]½ cos ß[[root](1 - cos ß cos [theta])
      + i[root](cos ß cos [theta] - cos² [theta])],

  and the axis rises from the horizontal position to a series of cusps;
  and the mean precessional motion is the same as in steady motion with
  the same rotation and the axis horizontal.

  The special case of f = ½ may be stated here; it is found that

         p                           /(1 + x)([kappa] - x)       /(1 - x)([kappa] + x)
    (25) -- exp ([~omega] - pt)i =  / -------------------- + i  / --------------------,
         a                        \/           2              \/            2

    (26) [rho]² = a² ([kappa] - x²),

    (27) ½[lambda]² sin [theta] exp ([psi] - pt)i

                                /(1 - x)([kappa] + x)
      = (L - 1 + [kappa] - x)  / --------------------
                             \/           2

                                 /(1 + x)([kappa] - x)
      + i(L - 1 + [kappa] + x)  / --------------------
                              \/           2

    (28) L = ½(1 - [kappa]) + [lambda]p/n,

  so that p = 0 and the motion is made algebraical by taking L = ½(1 -
  [kappa]).

  The stereoscopic diagram of fig. 12 drawn by T. I. Dewar shows these
  curves for [kappa] = 15/17, 3/5, and 1/3 (cusps).

  10. So far the motion of the axis OC' of the top has alone been
  considered; for the specification of any point of the body, Euler's
  third angle [phi] must be introduced, representing the angular
  displacement of the wheel with respect to the stalk. This is given by

        d[phi]               d[psi]
    (1) ------ + cos [theta] ------ = R,
          dt                   dt

        d([phi] + [psi])    /    C \            G´ + G
    (2) ---------------- = ( 1 - -- ) R + ------------------,
               dt           \    A /      A(1 + cos [theta])

        d([phi] - [psi])    /    C \           G´ - G
        ---------------- = ( 1 - -- ) R + ------------------.
               dt           \    A /      A(1 - cos [theta])

  It will simplify the formulas by cancelling a secular term if we make
  C = A, and the top is then called a _spherical top_; OH becomes the
  axis of instantaneous angular velocity, as well as of resultant
  angular momentum.

  When this secular term is restored in the general case, the axis OI of
  angular velocity is obtained by producing Q´H to I, making

        HI    A - C  HI    A - C
    (3) --- = -----, --- = -----,
        Q´H     C    Q´I     A

  and then the four vector components OC´, C´K, KH, HI give a resultant
  vector OI, representing the angular velocity [omega], such that

    (4) OI/Q´I = [omega]/R.

  [Illustration: FIG. 12.]

  The point I is then fixed on the generating line Q´H of the deformable
  hyperboloid, and the other generator through I will cut the fixed
  generator OC of the opposite system in a fixed point O´, such that IO´
  is of constant length, and may be joined up by a link, which
  constrains I to move on a sphere.

  In the spherical top then,
                           _                               _
                          / G´ + G dt                     / G´ - G dt
    (5) ½([phi] + [psi])= | ------ --, ½([phi] - [psi]) = | ------ --
                         _/  1 + z 2A                    _/ 1 - z  2A

  depending on the two elliptic integrals of the third kind, with pole
  at z = ±1; and measuring [theta] from the downward vertical, their
  elliptic parameters are:--

                _[oo]
               /   [root](z3 - z1)dz
    (6)  v1 =  |   ----------------- = f1K´i,
              _/1      [root](4Z)

                _-1
               /    [root](z3 - z1)dz
    (7)  v2 =  |    ----------------- = K + (1 - f2)K´i
              _/[oo]   [root](4Z)

                    _[oo]
                   /   [root](z3 - z1)dz
    (8)  f1K´ =  |   -----------------
                  _/1     [root](-4Z)

                  /z3 - z1             /1 - z3             /1 - z2
      = sn^(-1)  / ------- = cn^(-1)  / ------ = dn^(-1)  / --------,
               \/  1 - z1           \/  1 - z1          \/  1 - z1

                       _-1
                      /   [root](z3 - z1)dz
    (9) (1 - f2)K´ =  |   -----------------
                     _/z1    [root](-4Z)

                              /-1 - z1             /1 + z2
                   = sn^(-1) / ------- = cn^(-1)  / -------
                           \/  z2 - z1          \/  z2 - z1

                                                   /1 + z3
                                       = dn^{-1}  / -------
                                                \/  z3 - z1

  Then if v´ = K + (1 - f´)K´i is the parameter corresponding to z = D,
  we find

    (10) f = f2 - f1, f´ = f2 + f1,

    (11) v = v1 + v2, v´ = v1 - v2.

  The most symmetrical treatment of the motion of any point fixed in the
  top will be found in Klein and Sommerfeld, Theorie des Kreisels, to
  which the reader is referred for details; four new functions, [alpha],
  ß, [gamma], [delta], are introduced, defined in terms of Euler's
  angles, [theta], [psi], [phi], by

    (12) [alpha] = cos ½[theta] exp ½([phi] + [psi]i),

    (13) ß       = i sin ½[theta] exp ½(-[phi] + [psi])i,

    (14) [gamma] = i sin ½[theta] exp ½([phi] - [psi])i,

    (15) [delta] = cos ½[theta] exp ½(-[phi] - [psi])i.

  Next Klein takes two functions or co-ordinates [lambda] and [Lambda],
  defined by

                    x + yi   r + z
    (16) [lambda] = ------ = ------,
                    r - z    x - yi

  and [Lambda] the same function of X, Y, Z, so that [lambda], [Lambda]
  play the part of stereographic representations of the same point (x,
  y, z) or (X, Y, Z) on a sphere of radius r, with respect to poles in
  which the sphere is intersected by Oz and OZ.

  These new functions are shown to be connected by the bilinear relation

                        [alpha][Lambda] + ß
    (17) [lambda] = --------------------------,
                    [gamma][Lambda] + [delta]'

      [alpha][delta] - ß[gamma] = 1,

  in accordance with the annexed scheme of transformation of
  co-ordinates--

           |      [Xi]      |    [Eta]  |        [Zeta]
    -------+----------------+-----------+--------------------------
     [xi]  |    [alpha]²    |     ß²    |       2[alpha]ß
    -------+----------------+-----------+--------------------------
    [eta]  |    [gamma]²    |  [delta]² |     2[gamma][delta]
    -------+----------------+-----------+--------------------------
    [zeta] | [alpha][gamma] |  ß[delta] | [alpha][delta] + ß[gamma]

  where

    (18) [xi] = x + yi,  [eta] = -x + yi,  [zeta] = -z,
         [Xi] = X + Yi,  [Eta] = -X + Yi,  [Zeta] = -Z;

  and thus the motion in space of any point fixed in the body defined by
  [Lambda] is determined completely by means of [alpha], ß, [gamma],
  [delta]; and in the case of the symmetrical top these functions are
  elliptic transcendants, to which Klein has given the name of
  _multiplicative elliptic functions_; and

    (19) [alpha][delta] = cos² ½[theta], ß[gamma] = -sin² ½[theta],
         [alpha][delta] - ß[gamma] = 1, [alpha][delta] + ß[gamma]
           = cos [theta],
         [root](-4[alpha]ß[gamma][delta]) = sin [theta];

  while, for the motion of a point on the axis, putting [Lambda] = 0, or
  [infinity],

    (20) [lambda] = ß/[delta] = i tan ½[theta]e^{[psi]i}, or
         [lambda] = [alpha]/[gamma] = -i cot ½[theta]e^{[psi]i},

  and

    (21) [alpha]ß = ½i sin [theta]e^([psi]i),
         [alpha][gamma] = ½i sin  [theta]e^([psi]i),

  giving orthogonal projections on the planes GKH, CHK; and

                 dß   d[alpha]      [rho]
    (22) [alpha] -- - --------ß = n ---- e^([~omega]i),
                 dt      dt           k

  the vectorial equation in the plane GKH of the herpolhode of H for a
  spherical top.

  When f1 and f2 in (9) are rational fractions, these multiplicative
  elliptic functions can be replaced by algebraical functions, qualified
  by factors which are exponential functions of the time t; a series of
  quasi-algebraical cases of motion can thus be constructed, which
  become purely algebraical when the exponential factors are cancelled
  by a suitable arrangement of the constants.

  Thus, for example, with f = 0, f´ = 1, f1 = ½, f2 = ½, as in (24) § 9,
  where P and P´ are at A and B on the focal ellipse, we have for the
  spherical top

    (23) (1 + cos [theta]) exp ([phi] + [psi] - qt)i
         = [root](sec ß - cos [theta]) [root](cos ß - cos [theta])
         + i([root]sec ß + [root] cos ß)[root]cos [theta],

    (24) (1 - cos [theta]) exp ([phi] - [psi] - q´t)i
         = [root](sec ß - cos [theta])[root](cos ß - cos [theta])
         + i([root]sec ß - [root]cos ß) [root]cos [theta],

    (25) q, q´ = n[root](2 sec ß) ± n[root](2 cos ß);

  and thence [alpha], ß, [gamma], [delta] can be inferred.

  The physical constants of a given symmetrical top have been denoted in
  § 1 by M, h, A, C, and l, n, T; to specify a given state of general
  motion we have G, G´ or CR, D, E, or F, which may be called the
  dynamical constants; or [kappa], v, w, v1, v2, or f, f´, f1, f2, the
  analytical constants; or the geometrical constants, such as [alpha],
  ß, [delta], [delta]´, k of a given articulated hyperboloid.

  There is thus a triply infinite series of a state of motion; the
  choice of a typical state can be made geometrically on the
  hyperboloid, flattened in the plane of the local ellipse, of which
  [kappa] is the ratio of the semiaxes [alpha] and ß, and am(1 - f) K´
  is the eccentric angle from the minor axis of the point of contact P
  of the generator HQ, so that two analytical constants are settled
  thereby; and the point H may be taken arbitrarily on the tangent line
  PQ, and HQ´ is then the other tangent of the focal ellipse; in which
  case [theta]3 and [theta]2 are the angles between the tangents HQ,
  HQ´, and between the focal distances HS, HS´, and k² will be HS·HS´,
  while HQ, HQ´ are [delta], [delta]´. As H is moved along the tangent
  line HQ, a series of states of motion can be determined, and drawn
  with accuracy.

  11. Equation (5) § 3 with slight modification will serve with the same
  notation for the steady rolling motion at a constant inclination
  [alpha] to the vertical of a body of revolution, such as a disk, hoop,
  wheel, cask, wine-glass, plate, dish, bowl, spinning top, gyrostat, or
  bicycle, on a horizontal plane, or a surface of revolution, as a coin
  in a conical lamp-shade.

  [Illustration: FIG. 13.]

  The point O is now the intersection of the axis GC´ with the vertical
  through the centre B of the horizontal circle described by the centre
  of gravity, and through the centre M of the horizontal circle
  described by P, the point of contact (fig. 13). Collected into a
  particle at G, the body swings round the vertical OB as a conical
  pendulum, of height AB or GL equal to g/µ² = [lambda], and GA would be
  the direction of the thread, of tension gM(GA/GL) dynes. The reaction
  with the plane at P will be an equal parallel force; and its moment
  round G will provide the couple which causes the velocity of the
  vector of angular momentum appropriate to the steady motion; and this
  moment will be gM·Gm dyne-cm. or ergs, if the reaction at P cuts GB in
  m.

  Draw GR perpendicular to GK to meet the horizontal AL in R, and draw
  RQC´K perpendicular to the axis Gz, and KC perpendicular to LG.

  The velocity of the vector GK of angular momentum is µ times the
  horizontal component, and

    (1) horizontal component / Aµ sin [alpha] = KC/KC´,

  so that

    (2) gM·Gm = Aµ² sin [alpha](KC/KC´),

        A    KC´       g
    (3) -- = --- -------------- Gm = GQ·Gm.
        M    KC  µ² sin [alpha]

  The instantaneous axis of rotation of the case of a gyrostat would be
  OP; drawing GI parallel to OP, and KK´ parallel to OG, making tan
  K´GC´ = (A/C) tan IGC'1; then if GK represents the resultant angular
  momentum, K´K will represent the part of it due to the rotation of the
  fly-wheel. Thus in the figure for the body rolling as a solid, with
  the fly-wheel clamped, the points m and Q move to the other side of G.
  The gyrostat may be supposed swung round the vertical at the end of a
  thread PA´ fastened at A´ where Pm produced cuts the vertical AB, and
  again at the point where it crosses the axis GO. The discussion of the
  small oscillation superposed on the state of steady motion requisite
  for stability is given in the next paragraph.


    General motion of a gyrostat rolling on a plane.

  12. In the theoretical discussion of the general motion of a gyrostat
  rolling on a horizontal plane the safe and shortest plan apparently is
  to write down the most general equations of motion, and afterwards to
  introduce any special condition.

  Drawing through G the centre of gravity any three rectangular axes Gx,
  Gy, Gz, the notation employed is

    u, v, w,    the components of linear velocity of G;
    p, q, r,    the components of angular velocity about the axes,
    h1, h2, h3, the components of angular momentum;
    [theta]1, [theta]2, [theta]3, the components of angular velocity of
                  the coordinate axes;
    x, y, z,    the co-ordinates of the point of contact with the
                  horizontal plane;
    X, Y, Z,    the components of the reaction of the plane;
    [alpha], ß, [gamma], the direction cosines of the downward vertical.

  The geometrical equations, expressing that the point of contact is at
  rest on the plane, are

    (1) u - ry + qz = 0,

    (2) v - pz + rx = 0,

    (3) w - qx + py = 0.

  The dynamical equations are

    (4) du/dt - [theta]3v + [theta]2w = g[alpha] + X/M,

    (5) dv/dt - [theta]1w + [theta]2u = gß + Y/M,

    (6) dw/dt - [theta]2u + [theta]1v = g[gamma] + Z/M,

  and

    (7) dh1/dt - [theta]3h2 + [theta]2h3 = yZ - zY,

    (8) dh2/dt - [theta]1h3 + [theta]3h1 = zX - xZ,

    (9) dh3/dt - [theta]2h1 + [theta]1h2 = xY - yX.

  In the special case of the gyrostat where the surface is of revolution
  round Gz, and the body is kinetically symmetrical about Gz, we take Gy
  horizontal and Gzx through the point of contact so that y = 0; and
  denoting the angle between Gz and the downward vertical by [theta]
  (fig. 13)

    (10) [alpha] = sin[theta], ß = 0, [gamma] = cos[theta].

  The components of angular momentum are

    (11) h1 = Ap, h2 = Aq, h3 = Cr + K,

  where A, C denote the moment of inertia about Gx, Gz, and K is the
  angular momentum of a fly-wheel fixed in the interior with its axis
  parallel to Gz; K is taken as constant during the motion.

  The axis Gz being fixed in the body,

    (12) [theta]1 = p, [theta]2 = q = -d[theta]/dt,
         [theta]3 = p cot [theta].

  With y = 0, (1), (2), (3) reduce to

    (13) u = -qz, v = pz - rx, w = qx;

  and, denoting the radius of curvature of the meridian curve of the
  rolling surface by [rho],

         dx                    d[theta]
    (14) -- = [rho] cos[theta] --------  = -q [rho] cos[theta],
         dt                       dt

         dz                     d[theta]
         -- = -[rho] sin[theta] -------- = q [rho] sin[theta];
         dt                        dt

  so that

         du     dq
    (15) -- = - -- z - q²[rho] sin[theta],
         dt     dt

         dv   dp     dr
    (16) -- = -- z - -- x + pq[rho] sin[theta] + qr[rho] sin[theta],
         dt   dt     dt

         dw   dq
    (17) -- = -- x - q²[rho] cos[theta].
         dt   dt

  The dynamical equations (4)...(9) can now be reduced to

         X      dq
    (18) -- = - -- z - p²z cot[theta] + q²(x - [rho] sin[theta])
         M      dt

         + prx cot[theta] - g sin[theta],

         Y    dp     dr
    (19) -- = -- z - -- x - pq(x + z cot[theta] - [rho] sin[theta])
         M    dt     dt

         + qrp cos[theta],

         Z    dq
    (20) -- = -- x + q²(z - [rho] cos[theta]) + p²z - prx - g cos[theta],
         M    dt

                 dp
    (21) -zY = A -- - Apq cot[theta] + qh3,
                 dt

                      dq
    (22) -zX - xZ = A -- + Ap² cot [theta] - ph3,
                      dt

              dh3     dr          d
    (23) xY = --- = C -- = -Cq --------.
              dt      dt       d[theta]

  Eliminating Y between (19) and (23),

          /C    \  dr      dp
    (24) (-- + x²) -- - xz -- + pqx(x + z cot[theta] - [rho] sin[theta])
          \M    /  dt      dt

         - qrx[rho] cos[theta] = 0,

         /C    \     dr            dp
    (A) (-- + x²) -------- - xz -------- - px(x + z cot[theta]
         \M    /  d[theta]      d[theta]

        - [rho] sin[theta]) + rx[rho] cos[theta] = 0.

  Eliminating Y between (19) and (21)

          /A    \  dp      dr A                     h3
    (25) (-- + z²) -- - xz -- -- -pq cot[theta] + q --
          \M    /  dt      dt M                     M

    - pqz(x + z cot[theta] - [rho] sin[theta]) + qrz[rho] cos[theta] = 0,

               dr       /A    \     dp      A                 h3
    (B) -xz -------- + (-- + z²) -------- + -- p cot[theta] - --
            d[theta]    \M    /  d[theta]   M                 M

     + pz(x + z cot[theta] - [rho] sin[theta]) + rz[rho] cos[theta] = 0.

  In the special case of a gyrostat rolling on the sharp edge of a
  circle passing through G, z = 0, [rho] = 0, (A) and (B) reduce to

              / C     \     dr       / 1    1 \    dh3
    (26) p = ( --- + 1 ) -------- = ( --- + -- ) --------,
              \Mx²    /  d[theta]    \Mx²   C /  d[theta]

            dp                     h3  d·p sin[theta]   h3sin [theta]
    (27) -------- + p cot[theta] = --, -------------- = -------------;
         d[theta]                  A      d[theta]            A

           d²h3         dh3                   CMx²
    (28) --------- + -------- cot[theta] = ----------,
         d[theta]²   d[theta]              A(Mx² + C)

  a differential equation of a hypergeometric series, of the form of
  Legendre's zonal harmonic of fractional order n, given by

    (29) n(n + 1) = CMx²/A(Mx² + C).

  For a sharp point, x = 0, [rho] = 0, and the previous equations are
  obtained of a spinning top.

  The elimination of X and Z between (18) (20) (22), expressed
  symbolically as

    (30) (22) - z(18) + x(20) = 0,

  gives

         /A           \  dq     h3    /A      \
    (C) ( -- + x² + z² ) -- - p -- + ( -- + z² ) p² cot [theta] + p²xz
         \M           /  dt     M     \M      /

        + q²[rho](x cos[theta] - z sin[theta]) - prx(x + z cot[theta])
        - g(x cos[theta] - z sin[theta]) = 0,

  and this combined with (A) and (B) will lead to an equation the
  integral of which is the equation of energy.

  13. The equations (A) (B) (C) are intractable in this general form;
  but the restricted case may be considered when the axis moves in
  steady motion at a constant inclination [alpha] to the vertical; and
  the stability is secured if a small nutation of the axis can be
  superposed.

  It is convenient to put p = [Omega] sin [theta], so that [Omega] is
  the angular velocity of the plane Gzx about the vertical; (A) (B) (C)
  become

          /C     \     dr                     d[Omega]
    (A*) ( -- + x²) --------  - xz sin[theta] --------
          \M     /  d[theta]                  d[theta]

         - [Omega]x(x sin[theta] - 2z cos[theta]
         - [rho] sin²[theta]) + rx[rho] cos[theta] = 0,

                dr       /A     \             d[Omega]   h3            /A     \
    (B*) -xz -------- + ( -- + z²) sin[theta] -------- - -- + 2[Omega]( -- + z²) cos [theta]
             d[theta]    \M     /             d[theta]   M             \M     /

         + [Omega]z sin[theta](x - [rho] sin[theta]) - rz[rho] cos[theta] = 0,

          /A          \  dq                                              h3
    (C*) ( -- + x² + z²) -- + q²p(x cos[theta] - z sin[theta]) - [Omega] -- sin [theta]
          \M          /  dt                                              M

                  /A     \
      + [Omega]² ( -- + z²) sin [theta] cos [theta] + [Omega]²xz sin²[theta]
                  \M     /

      - [Omega]rx(x sin [theta] + z cos [theta]) - g(x cos [theta] - z sin [theta]) = 0.

  The steady motion and nutation superposed may be expressed by

    (1) [theta] = [alpha] + L, sin [theta] = sin[alpha] + L cos[alpha],
        cos[theta] = cos[alpha] - L sin [alpha],
        [Omega] = µ + N, r = R + Q,

  where L, N, Q are small terms, involving a factor e^(nti), to express
  the periodic nature of the nutation; and then if a, c denote the mean
  value of x, z, at the point of contact

    (2) x = a + L[rho] cos[alpha], z = c - L[rho] sin[alpha],

    (3) x sin [theta] + z cos [theta] = a sin [alpha] + c cos [alpha]
        + L(a cos [alpha] - c sin [alpha]),

    (4) x cos [theta] - z sin [theta] = a cos [alpha] - c sin [alpha]
        - L(a sin [alpha] + c cos [alpha] - [rho]).

  Substituting these values in (C*) with dq/dt = -d²[theta]/dt² = n²L,
  and ignoring products of the small terms, such as L², LN, ...

           /A          \                /CR + K   CQ\
    (C**) ( -- + a² + c²) Ln² - (µ + N)( ------ + -- )(sin[alpha] + L cos[alpha])
           \M          /                \  M      M /

                   /A                           \
      + (µ² + 2µN)( -- + c² - 2L[rho]c sin[alpha]) (sin [alpha] cos[alpha] + L cos[alpha])
                   \M                           /

      + (µ² + 2µN) [ac - L[rho](a sin [alpha] - c sin[alpha])] (sin² [alpha] + L sin 2[alpha])
      - (µ + N)(R + Q)(a + L[rho]cos[alpha])[a sin [alpha] + c cos[alpha]
      + L(a cos[alpha] - c sin [alpha])] - g(a cos[alpha] - c sin[alpha])
      + gL(a sin[alpha] + c cos[alpha] - [rho]) = 0,

  which is equivalent to

           CR + K                  /A     \
    (5) -µ ------ sin[alpha] + µ² ( -- + c²) sin [alpha] cos [alpha]
             M                     \M     /

        + µ² ac sin²[alpha] - µRa(a sin[alpha] + c cos[alpha])
        - g(a cos[alpha] - c sin[alpha]) = 0,

  the condition of steady motion; and

    (6) DL + EQ + FN = 0,

  where

             /A          \         CK + K
    (7) D = ( -- + a² + c²) n² - µ ------ cos[alpha]
             \M          /           M

          - 2µ²[rho]c sin²[alpha] cos[alpha]

                /A     \
          + µ² ( -- + c²) cos [alpha] - µ²[rho](a sin [alpha]
                \M     /

          - c cos[alpha]) sin²[alpha] + µ²ac sin 2[alpha]
          - µR[rho] cos [alpha](a sin [alpha] + c cos[alpha])
          - µRa(a cos [alpha] - c sin[alpha])
          + g(a sin[alpha] + c cos[alpha] - [rho]),

               C
    (8) E = -µ -- sin [alpha] - µa(a sin [alpha] + c cos [alpha]),
               M

              CR + K                   /A     \
    (9) F = - ------ sin [alpha] + 2µ ( -- + c²) sin [alpha] cos [alpha]
                M                      \M     /

            + 2µac sin² [alpha] - Ra(a sin [alpha] + c cos [alpha]).

  With the same approximation (A*) and (B*) are equivalent to

           /C     \  Q                  N
    (A**) ( -- + a²) -- - ac sin [alpha]--
           \M     /  L                  L

          - µa(a sin [alpha] + 2c cos [alpha] - [rho] sin² [alpha])
          + Ra[rho] cos [alpha] = 0,

              Q     /A     \             N    CR + K       /A     \
    (B**) -ac -- + ( -- + c²) sin [alpha]-- - ------ + 2µ ( -- + c²) cos [alpha]
              L     \M     /             L      M          \M     /

          + µc sin [alpha](a - [rho] sin [alpha])
          - Rc[rho] cos [alpha] = 0.

  The elimination of L, Q, N will lead to an equation for the
  determination of n², and n² must be positive for the motion to be
  stable.

  If b is the radius of the horizontal circle described by G in steady
  motion round the centre B,

    (10) b = v/µ = (cP - aR)/µ = c sin [alpha] - aR/µ,

  and drawing GL vertically upward of length [lambda] = g/µ², the height
  of the equivalent conical pendulum, the steady motion condition may be
  written

    (11) (CR + K)µ sin[alpha] - µ² sin[alpha] cos[alpha]
         = -gM(a cos[alpha] - c sin[alpha])
           + M(µ²c sin[alpha] - µRa) (a sin[alpha] + c cos[alpha])
         = gM[b[lambda]^(-1) (a sin [alpha] + c cos [alpha])
           - a cos [alpha] + c sin [alpha]]
         = gM·PT,

  LG produced cuts the plane in T.

  Interpreted dynamically, the left-hand side of this equation
  represents the velocity of the vector of angular momentum about G, so
  that the right-hand side represents the moment of the applied force
  about G, in this case the reaction of the plane, which is parallel to
  GA, and equal to gM·GA/GL; and so the angle AGL must be less than the
  angle of friction, or slipping will take place.

  Spinning upright, with [alpha] = 0, a = 0, we find F = 0, Q = 0, and

            CR + K      /A     \
    (12)  - ------ + 2µ( -- + c²) - Rcp = 0,
              M         \M     /

          /A     \         CR + K      /A     \
    (13) ( -- + c²) n² = µ ------ - µ²( -- + c²) + µR[rho]c - g(c - [rho]),
          \M     /           M         \M     /

          /A     \²        /CK + R          \²     /A     \
    (14) ( -- + c²) n² = ¼( ------ + Rc[rho] ) - g( -- + c²) (c - [rho]),
          \M     /         \  M             /      \M     /

  Thus for a top spinning upright on a rounded point, with K = 0, the
  stability requires that

    (15) R > 2k´ [root]{g(c - [rho])}/(k² + c[rho]),

  where k, k´ are the radii of gyration about the axis Gz, and a
  perpendicular axis at a distance c from G; this reduces to the
  preceding case of § 3 (7) when [rho] = 0.

  Generally, with [alpha] = 0, but a ± 0, the condition (A) and (B)
  becomes

          /C    \  Q
    (16) ( - + a²) -- = 2µac - Ra[rho],
          \M    /  L

             Q    CR + K                /A     \
         -ac -- = ------ + Rc[rho] - 2µ( -- + a²),
             L      M                   \M     /

  so that, eliminating Q/L,
            _                          _
           |  /A     \  /C     \        |      /C     \  /CR + K\    C
    (17) 2 | ( -- + c²)( -- + a²) - a²c²| µ = ( -- + a²)( ------ ) + -- Rc[rho],
           |_ \M     /  \M     /       _|      \M     /  \  M   /    M

  the condition when a coin or platter is rolling nearly flat on the
  table.

  Rolling along in a straight path, with [alpha] = ½[pi], c = 0, µ = 0,
  E = 0; and

    (18) N/L = (CR + K)/A,

              /A     \
    (19) D = ( -- + a²) n² + g(a - [rho]),
              \M     /

               CR + K
         F = - ------ - Ra²,
                 M

                      /A     \
                     ( -- + a²) n² + g(a - [rho])
         N      D     \M     /
    (20) -- = - -- = ----------------------------,
         L      F          /C     \      K
                          ( -- + a²) R + -
                           \M     /      M
                                   _                  _
          /A     \       (CR + K) |  /C     \      K   |
    (21) ( -- + a²) n² = -------- | ( -- + a²) R + --  | - g(a - [rho]).
          \M     /           A    |_ \M     /      M  _|

  Thus with K = 0, and rolling with velocity V = Ra, stability
  requires

         V²       a - [rho]        A  a - [rho]
    (22) -- > ---------------- > ½ -- ---------,
         2g     C   / C     \      C    C
              2 -- ( --- + 1 )         --- + 1
                A   \Ma²    /          Ma²

  or the body must have acquired velocity greater than attained by
  rolling down a plane through a vertical height 1/2(a - [rho])A/C.

  On a sharp edge, with [rho] = 0, a thin uniform disk or a thin ring
  requires

    (23) V²/2g > a/6 or a/8.

  The gyrostat can hold itself upright on the plane without advance when
  R = 0, provided

    (24) K²/AM - g(a - [rho]) is positive.

  For the stability of the monorail carriage of § 5 (6), ignoring the
  rotary inertia of the wheels by putting C = 0, and replacing K by G´
  the theory above would require

         G´  /     G´\
    (25) -- ( aV + -- ) > gh.
         A   \     A /

  For further theory and experiments consult Routh, _Advanced Rigid
  Dynamics_, chap. v., and Thomson and Tait, _Natural Philosophy_, §
  345; also Bourlet, _Traité des bicycles_ (analysed in Appell,
  _Mécanique rationnelle_, ii. 297, and Carvallo, _Journal de l'école
  polytechnique_, 1900); Whipple, _Quarterly Journal of Mathematics_,
  vol. xxx., for mathematical theories of the bicycle, and other bodies.


    Gyrostatic chain.

  14. Lord Kelvin has studied theoretically and experimentally the
  vibration of a chain of stretched gyrostats (_Proc. London Math.
  Soc._, 1875; J. Perry, _Spinning Tops_, for a diagram). Suppose each
  gyrostat to be equivalent dynamically to a fly-wheel of axial length
  2a, and that each connecting link is a light cord or steel wire of
  length 2l, stretched to a tension T.

  Denote by x, y the components of the slight displacement from the
  central straight line of the centre of a fly-wheel; and let p, q, 1
  denote the direction cosines of the axis of a fly-wheel, and r, s, 1
  the direction cosines of a link, distinguishing the different bodies
  by a suffix.

  Then with the previous notation and to the order of approximation
  required,

    (1) [theta]1 = -dq/dt, [theta]2 = dp/dt,

    (2) h1 = A[theta]1, h2 = A[theta]2, h3 = K,

  to be employed in the dynamical equations

    (3) dh1/dt - [theta]3 h2 + [theta]2 h3 = L, ...

  in which [theta]3 h1 and [theta]3 h2 can be omitted.

  For the kth fly-wheel

    (4) -A :q_k + K .p_k = Ta(q_k - s_k) + Ta[q_k - s_(k+1)],

    (5) A :p_k + K .q_k = -Ta(p_k - r_k) - Ta[p_k - r_(k+1)];

  and for the motion of translation

    (6) M :x_k = T[r_(k+1) - r_k], M :y_k = T[s(k+1) - s_k];

  while the geometrical relations are

    (7) x_(k+1) - x_k = a [p_(k+1) + p_k] + 2lr_(k+1),

    (8) y_(k+1) - y_k = a [q_(k+1) + q_k] + 2ls_(k+1).

  Putting

    (9) x + yi = w, p + qi = [~omega], r + si = [sigma],

  these three pairs of equations may be replaced by the three equations

    (10) A :[~omega]_k - K .[~omega]_ki + 2Ta[~omega]_k
         - Ta([sigma]_(k+1) + [sigma]_k) = 0,

    (11) M :[~omega]_k - T([sigma]_(k+1) - [sigma]_k) = 0,

    (12) w_(k+1) - w_k - a([~omega]_(k+1) +
         [~omega]_k - 2l[sigma]_(k+1) = 0.

  For a vibration of circular polarization assume a solution

    (13) w_k, [~omega]_k, [sigma]_k = (L, P, Q) exp (nt + kc)i,

  so that c/n is the time-lag between the vibration of one fly-wheel and
  the next; and the wave velocity is

    (14) U = 2(a + l)n/c.

  Then

    (15) P(-An² + Kn + 2Ta) - QTa[e^(ci) + 1] = 0,

    (16) -LMn² - QT[e^(ci) - 1] = 0,

    (17) L[e^(ci) - 1] -Pa[e^(ci) + 1] - 2Qle^(ci) = 0,

  leading, on elimination of L, P, Q, to

                 (2 Ta + Kn - An²) (1 - Mn²l/T) - Mn²
    (18) cos c = ------------------------------------,
                        2Ta + Kn - An² + Mna²

                     M  n² 2Ta(a + l) + KNl - An²l
    (19) 2 sin² ½c = -- --------------------------.
                     T    2Ta + Kn - An² + Mn²a²

  With K = 0, A = 0, this reduces to Lagrange's condition in the
  vibration of a string of beads.

  Putting

    (20) [rho] = M/2(a + l),   the mass per unit length of the chain,

    (21) [kappa] = K/2(a + l), the gyrostatic angular momentum per unit
                                 length,

    (22) [alpha] = A/2(a + l), the transverse moment of inertia per unit
                                length,

    (23) 1/2c = (a + l)n/U,

  equation (19) can be written

    (24) {sin (a + l)n/U}²

                 [rho]                Ta + [kappa]nl - [alpha]n²l
    = (a + l)²n² ----- ----------------------------------------------------------,
                   T   Ta + [kappa]n(a + l) - [alpha]n²(a + l) + [rho]n²a²(a + l)

          /    (a + l)n    \²
    (25) ( ---------------  )
          \ sin (a + l)n/U /

         T     T + ([kappa]n - [alpha]n²) (1 + l/a) + [rho]n²a(a + l)
     = ----- . ------------------------------------------------------.
       [rho]                T + ([kappa]n - an²)l/a

  In a continuous chain of such gyrostatic links, with a and l
  infinitesimal,

                T    /         [kappa]n - [alpha]n²      \
    (26) U² = ----- ( 1 + ------------------------------  )
              [rho]  \    T + ([kappa]n - [alpha]n² l/a) /

  for the vibration of helical nature like circular polarization.

  Changing the sign of n for circular polarization in the opposite
  direction

                 T    /         [kappa]n + [alpha]n²      \
    (27) U´² = ----- ( 1 - ------------------------------  ).
               [rho]  \    T - ([kappa]n + [alpha]n² l/a) /

  In this way a mechanical model is obtained of the action of a
  magnetized medium on polarized light, [kappa] representing the
  equivalent of the magnetic field, while [alpha] may be ignored as
  insensible (J. Larmor, _Proc. Lond. Math. Soc._, 1890; _Aether and
  Matter_, Appendix E).

  We notice that U² in (26) can be positive, and the gyrostatic chain
  stable, even when T is negative, and the chain is supporting a thrust,
  provided [kappa]n is large enough, and the thrust does not exceed

    (28) ([kappa]n - an²)(1 + l/a);

  while U'² in (27) will not be positive and the straight chain will be
  unstable unless the tension exceeds

    (29) ([kappa]n + [alpha]n²)(1 + l/a).

  15. _Gyrostat suspended by a Thread._--In the discussion of the small
  vibration of a single gyrostat fly-wheel about the vertical position
  when suspended by a single thread of length 2l = b, the suffix k can
  be omitted in the preceding equations of § 14, and we can write

    (1) A :[~omega] - K .[~omega]i + Ta[~omega] - Ta[sigma] = 0,

    (2) M :w + T[sigma] = 0, with T = gM,

    (3) w - a[~omega] - b[sigma] = 0.

  Assuming a periodic solution of these equations

    (4) w, [~omega], [sigma], = (L, P, Q) exp nti,

  and eliminating L, P, Q, we obtain

    (5) (-An² + Kn + gMa)(g - n²b) - gMn²a² = 0,

  and the frequency of a vibration in double beats per second is
  n/2[pi], where n is a root of this quartic equation.

  For upright spinning on a smooth horizontal plane, take b = [oo] and
  change the sign of a, then

    (6) An² - Kn + gMa = 0,

  so that the stability requires

    (7) K² > 4gAMa.

  Here A denotes the moment of inertia about a diametral axis through
  the centre of gravity; when the point of the fly-wheel is held in a
  small smooth cup, b = 0, and the condition becomes

    (8) (A + Ma²)n² - Kn + gMa = 0,

  requiring for stability, as before in § 3,

    (9) K² > 4g(A + M²)Ma.

  For upright spinning inside a spherical surface of radius b, the sign
  of a must be changed to obtain the condition at the lowest point, as
  in the gyroscopic horizon of Fleuriais.

  For a gyrostat spinning upright on the summit of a sphere of radius b,
  the signs of a and b must be changed in (5), or else the sign of g,
  which amounts to the same thing.

  Denoting the components of horizontal displacement of the point of the
  fly-wheel by [xi], [eta], then

    (10) br = [xi], bs = [eta], b[sigma] = [xi] + [eta]i = [lambda]
        (suppose),

    (11) [omega] = [alpha][~omega] + [lambda].

  If the point is forced to take the motion ([xi], [eta], [zeta]) by
  components of force X, Y, Z, the equations of motion become

    (12) -A :q + K .p = Ya - Zaq,

    (13) A :p + K .q = -Xa + Zap,

    (14) M :w = X + Yi, M( :[zeta] - g) = Z;

  so that

    (15) A :[~omega] - K .[~omega]i + gMa[~omega] + Ma :w
         = Ma[~omega] :[zeta],

  or

    (16) (A + Ma²) :[~omega] - K .[~omega]i + gMa[~omega] + Ma[lambda] =
         Ma[~omega] :[zeta].

  Thus if the point of the gyrostat is made to take the periodic motion
  given by [lambda] = R exp nti, [zeta] = 0, the forced vibration of the
  axis is given by [~omega] = P exp nti, where

    (17) P{-(A + Ma²)n² + Kn + gMa} - RMn²a = 0;

  and so the effect may be investigated on the Fleuriais gyroscopic
  horizon of the motion of the ship.

  Suppose the motion [lambda] is due to the suspension of the gyrostat
  from a point on the axis of a second gyrostat suspended from a fixed
  point.

  Distinguishing the second gyrostat by a suffix, then [lambda] =
  b[~omega]1, if b denotes the distance between the points of suspension
  of the two gyrostats; and the motion of the second gyrostat influenced
  by the reaction of the first, is given by

    (18) (A1 + M1h1²) :[~omega]1 - K1 .[~omega]1 i
         = -g(M1h1 + Mb)[~omega]1 - b(X + Yi)
         = -g(M1h1 + Mb)[~omega]1 - Mb(a :[~omega] + :[lambda]);

  so that, in the small vibration,

          R   /                                    \
    (19)  -- ( -(A1 + M1h1²)n² + K1n + g(M1h1 + Mb) ) = Mn²b(aP + R),
          b   \                                    /

    (20) R { -(A1 + M1h1² + Mb²)n² + K1n + g(M1h1 + Mb)} - PMn²ab² = 0.

  Eliminating the ratio of P to R, we obtain

    (21) { -(A + Ma²)n² + Kn + gMa}
         × {-(A1 + M1h1² + Mb²)n² + K1n + g (M1h1 + Mb)} - M²n^4a²b² = 0,

  a quartic for n, giving the frequency n/2[pi] of a fundamental
  vibration.

  Change the sign of g for the case of the gyrostats spinning upright,
  one on the top of the other, and so realize the gyrostat on the top of
  a gyrostat described by Maxwell.

  In the gyrostatic chain of § 14, the tension T may change to a limited
  pressure, and U² may still be positive, and the motion stable; and so
  a motion is realized of a number of spinning tops, superposed in a
  column.

  16. _The Flexure Joint._--In Lord Kelvin's experiment the gyrostats
  are joined up by equal light rods and short lengths of elastic wire
  with rigid attachment to the rod and case of a gyrostat, so as to keep
  the system still, and free from entanglement and twisting due to pivot
  friction of the fly-wheels.

  When this gyrostatic chain is made to revolve with angular velocity n
  in relative equilibrium as a plane polygon passing through Oz the axis
  of rotation, each gyrostatic case moves as if its axis produced was
  attached to Oz by a flexure joint. The instantaneous axis of resultant
  angular velocity bisects the angle [pi] - [theta], if the axis of the
  case makes an angle [theta] with Oz, and, the components of angular
  velocity being n about Oz, and -n about the axis, the resultant
  angular velocity is 2n cos½([pi] - [theta]) = 2n sin½[theta]; and the
  components of this angular velocity are

    (1) -2n sin ½[theta] sin ½[theta] = -n(1-cos[theta]), along the axis,
  and

    (2) -2n sin ½[theta] cos ½[theta] = -n sin [theta], perpendicular to
  the axis of the case. The flexure joint behaves like a pair of equal
  bevel wheels engaging.

  The component angular momentum in the direction Ox is therefore

    (3) L = -An sin [theta] cos [theta] - Cn (1 - cos [theta]) sin [theta]
          + K sin [theta],

  and Ln is therefore the couple acting on the gyrostat.

  If [alpha] denotes the angle which a connecting link makes with Oz,
  and T denotes the constant component of the tension of a link parallel
  to Oz, the couple acting is

    (4) Ta cos [theta]_k(tan [alpha]_(k+1) + tan [alpha]_k)
        - 2T[alpha]sin[theta]_k,

  which is to be equated to Ln, so that

    (5) -An² sin [theta]_k cos [theta]_k
          - Cn(1 - cos [theta]_k) sin [theta]_k
          + Kn sin [theta]_k
          - T[alpha] cos [theta]_k(tan [alpha]_(k+1) + tan [alpha]_k)
          + 2T[alpha] sin [theta]_k = 0.

  In addition

    (6) Mn²[chi]_k + T(tan [alpha]_(k+1) - tan [alpha]_k) = 0,

  with the geometrical relation

    (7) [chi]_(k+1) - [chi]_k - [alpha](sin [theta]_(k+1) + sin [theta]_k)
          - 2l sin{k + 1} = 0.

  When the polygon is nearly coincident with Oz, these equations can be
  replaced by

    (8) (-An² + Kn + 2Ta)[theta]_k - Ta([alpha]_(k+1) + [alpha]_k) = 0,

    (9) Mn²x_k + T([alpha]_(k+1) - [alpha]_k) = 0,

    (10) x_(k+1) - x_k - a([theta]_(k+1) + [theta]_k) - 2la_k = 0,

  and the rest of the solution proceeds as before in § 14, putting

    (11) x_k, [theta]_k, [alpha]_k = (L, P, Q) exp cki.

  A half wave length of the curve of gyrostats is covered when ck =
  [pi], so that [pi]/c is the number of gyrostats in a half wave, which
  is therefore of wave length 2[pi](a + l)/c.

  A plane polarized wave is given when exp cki is replaced by exp (nt +
  ck)i, and a wave circularly polarized when w, [~omega], [sigma] of §
  14 replace this x, [theta], [alpha].

  _Gyroscopic Pendulum._--The elastic flexure joint is useful for
  supporting a rod, carrying a fly-wheel, like a gyroscopic pendulum.

  Expressed by Euler's angles, [theta], [phi], [psi], the kinetic energy
  is

    (12) T = ½A( .[theta]² + sin² [theta] .[psi]²)
           + ½C´(1 - cos [theta])² .[psi]²
           + ½C( .[phi] + .[psi] cos [theta])²,

  where A refers to rod and gyroscope about the transverse axis at the
  point of support, C´ refers to rod about its axis of length, and C
  refers to the revolving fly-wheel.

  The elimination of .[psi] between the equation of conservation of
  angular momentum about the vertical, viz.

    (13) A sin² [theta] .[psi] - C´(1 - cos [theta]) cos [theta] .[psi] +
  C( .[phi] +  .[psi] cos [theta]) cos [theta] = G, a constant, and the
  equation of energy, viz.

    (14) T - gMh cos [theta] = H, a constant, with [theta] measured from
  the downward vertical, and

    (15) .[phi] + .[psi] cos [theta] = R, a constant, will lead to an
  equation for d[theta]/dt, or dz/dt, in terms of cos [theta] or z, the
  integral of which is of hyperelliptic character, except when A = C´.

  In the suspension of fig. 8, the motion given by .[phi] is suppressed
  in the stalk, and for the fly-wheel .[phi] gives the rubbing angular
  velocity of the wheel on the stalk; the equations are now

    (16) T = ½A( .[theta]² + sin² [theta] .[psi]²)
           + ½C´ cos² [theta] .[psi]² + ½CR² = H + gMh cos [theta],

    (17) A sin² [theta][.[psi]] + C´ cos² [theta] .[psi] + CR cos [theta]
           = G,

  and the motion is again of hyperelliptic character, except when A =
  C´, or C´ = 0. To realize a motion given completely by the elliptic
  function, the suspension of the stalk must be made by a smooth ball
  and socket, or else a Hooke universal joint.

  Finally, there is the case of the general motion of a top with a
  spherical rounded point on a smooth plane, in which the centre of
  gravity may be supposed to rise and fall in a vertical line. Here

    (18) T = ½(A + Mh² sin² [theta]) .[theta]² + ½A sin² [theta] .[psi]²
           + ½CR² = H - gMh cos [theta],

  with [theta] measured from the upward vertical, and

    (19) A sin² [theta] .[psi] + CR cos [theta] = G,

  where A now refers to a transverse axis through the centre of gravity.
  The elimination of [.[psi]] leads to an equation for z, = cos [theta],
  of the form

          /dz\²     g        Z            g  (z1 - z)(z2 - z)(z3 - z)
    (20) ( -- ) = 2 -- -------------- = 2 -- ------------------------,
          \dt/      h  1 - z² + A/Mh²     h      (z4 - z)(z - z5)

  with the arrangement

    (21) z1, z4 > / > z2 > z > z3 > - / > z5;

  so that the motion is hyperelliptic.

  AUTHORITIES.--In addition to the references in the text the following
  will be found useful:--_Ast. Notices_, vol. i.; _Comptes rendus_,
  Sept. 1852; Paper by Professor Magnus translated in Taylor's _Foreign
  Scientific Memoirs_, n.s., pt. 3, p. 210; _Ast. Notices_, xiii.
  221-248; _Theory of Foucault's Gyroscope Experiments_, by the Rev.
  Baden Powell, F.R.S.; _Ast. Notices_, vol. xv.; articles by Major J.
  G. Barnard in _Silliman's Journal_, 2nd ser., vols. xxiv. and xxv.; E.
  Hunt on "Rotatory Motion," _Proc. Phil. Soc. Glasgow_, vol. iv.; J.
  Clerk Maxwell, "On a Dynamical Top," _Trans. R.S.E._ vol. xxi.; _Phil.
  Mag._ 4th ser. vols. 7, 13, 14; _Proc. Royal Irish Academy_, vol.
  viii.; Sir William Thomson on "Gyrostat," _Nature_, xv. 297; G. T.
  Walker, "The Motion of a Celt," _Quar. Jour. Math._, 1896; G. T.
  Walker, _Math. Ency._ iv. 1, xi. 1; Gallop, _Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc._
  xii. 82, pt. 2, 1903, "Rise of a Top"; Price's _Infinitesimal
  Calculus_, vol. iv.; Worms, _The Earth and its Mechanism_; Routh,
  _Rigid Dynamics_; A. G. Webster, _Dynamics_ (1904); H. Crabtree,
  _Spinning Tops and Gyroscopic Motion_ (1909). For a complete list of
  the mathematical works on the subject of the Gyroscope and Gyrostat
  from the outset, Professor Cayley's Report to the British Association
  (1862) on the _Progress of Dynamics_ should be consulted. Modern
  authors will be found cited in Klein and Sommerfeld, _Theorie des
  Kreisels_ (1897), and in the _Encyclopädie der mathematischen
  Wissenschaften_.     (G. G.)



GYTHIUM, the harbour and arsenal of Sparta, from which it was some 30 m.
distant. The town lay at the N.W. extremity of the Laconian Gulf, in a
small but fertile plain at the mouth of the Gythius. Its reputed
founders were Heracles and Apollo, who frequently appear on its coins:
the former of these names may point to the influence of Phoenician
traders, who, we know, visited the Laconian shores at a very early
period. In classical times it was a community of _perioeci_, politically
dependent on Sparta, though doubtless with a municipal life of its own.
In 455 B.C., during the first Peloponnesian War, it was burned by the
Athenian admiral Tolmides. In 370 B.C. Epaminondas besieged it
unsuccessfully for three days. Its fortifications were strengthened by
the tyrant Nabis, but in 195 B.C. it was invested and taken by Titus and
Lucius Quintius Flamininus, and, though recovered by Nabis two or three
years later, was recaptured immediately after his murder (192 B.C.) by
Philopoemen and Aulus Atilius and remained in the Achaean League until
its dissolution in 146 B.C. Subsequently it formed the most important of
the Eleutherolaconian towns, a group of twenty-four, later eighteen,
communities leagued together to maintain their autonomy against Sparta
and declared free by Augustus. The highest officer of the confederacy
was the general ([Greek: stratêgos]), who was assisted by a treasurer
([Greek: tamias]), while the chief magistrates of the several
communities bore the title of ephors ([Greek: ephoroi]).

Pausanias (iii. 21 f.) has left us a description of the town as it
existed in the reign of Marcus Aurelius, the agora, the Acropolis, the
island of Cranae (Marathonisi) where Paris celebrated his nuptials with
Helen, the Migonium or precinct of Aphrodite Migonitis (occupied by the
modern town of Marathonisi or Gythium), and the hill Larysium (Koumaro)
rising above it. The numerous remains extant, of which the theatre and
the buildings partially submerged by the sea are the most noteworthy,
all belong to the Roman period.

The modern town is a busy and flourishing port with a good harbour
protected by Cranae, now connected by a mole with the mainland: it is
the capital of the prefecture ([Greek: nomos]) of [Greek: Lakônikê] with
a population in 1907 of 61,522.

  See G. Weber, _De Gytheo et Lacedaemoniorum rebus navalibus_
  (Heidelberg, 1833); W. M. Leake, _Travels in the Morea_, i. 244 foll.;
  E. Curtius, _Peloponnesos_, ii. 267 foll. Inscriptions: Le
  Bas-Foucart, _Voyage archéologique_, ii. Nos. 238-248 f.;
  Collitz-Bechtel, _Sammlung d. griech. Dialekt-Inschriften_, iii. Nos.
  4562-4573; _British School Annual_, x. 179 foll. Excavations: [Greek:
  A. Skias, Praktika tês Arch. Hetaireias], 1891, 69 foll.     (M. N. T.)



GYULA-FEHÉRVÁR (Ger. _Karlsburg_), a town of Hungary, in Transylvania,
in the county of Alsó-Feliér, 73 m. S. of Kolozsvár by rail. Pop. (1900)
11,507. It is situated on the right bank of the Maros, on the outskirts
of the Transylvanian Erzgebirge or Ore Mountains, and consists of the
upper town, or citadel, and the lower town. Gyula-Fehérvár is the seat
of a Roman Catholic bishop, and has a fine Roman Catholic cathedral,
built in the 11th century in Romanesque style, and rebuilt in 1443 by
John Hunyady in Gothic style. It contains among other tombs that of John
Hunyady. Near the cathedral is the episcopal palace, and in the same
part of the town is the Batthyaneum, founded by Bishop Count Batthyány
in 1794. It contains a valuable library with many incunabula and old
manuscripts, amongst which is one of the _Nibelungenlied_, an
astronomical observatory, a collection of antiquities, and a mineral
collection. Gyula-Fehérvár carries on an active trade in cereals, wine
and cattle.

Gyula-Fehérvár occupies the site of the Roman colony _Apulum_. Many
Roman relics found here, and in the vicinity, are preserved in the
museum of the town. The bishopric was founded in the 11th century by
King Ladislaus I. (1078-1095). In the 16th century, when Transylvania
separated from Hungary, the town became the residence of the
Transylvanian princes. From this period dates the castle, and also the
buildings of the university, founded by Gabriel Bethlen, and now used as
barracks. After the reversion of Transylvania in 1713 to the Habsburg
monarchy the actual strong fortress was built in 1716-1735 by the
emperor Charles VI., whence the German name of the town.



H The eighth symbol in the Phoenician alphabet, as in its descendants,
has altered less in the course of ages than most alphabetic symbols.
From the beginning of Phoenician records it has consisted of two
uprights connected by transverse bars, at first either two or three in
number. The uprights are rarely perpendicular and the cross bars are not
so precisely arranged as they are in early Greek and Latin inscriptions.
In these the symbol takes the form of two rectangles [symbol] out of
which the ordinary H develops by the omission of the cross bars at top
and bottom. It is very exceptional for this letter to have more than
three cross bars, though as many as five are occasionally found in N.W.
Greece. Within the same inscription the appearance of the letter often
varies considerably as regards the space between and the length of the
uprights. When only one bar is found it regularly crosses the uprights
about the middle. In a few cases the rectangle is closed at top and
bottom but has no middle cross bar [symbol]. The Phoenician name for the
letter was Heth (Het). According to Semitic scholars it had two values,
(1) a glottal spirant, a very strong _h_, (2) an unvoiced velar spirant
like the German _ch_ in _ach_. The Greeks borrowed it with the value of
the ordinary aspirate and with the name [Greek: êta]. Very early in
their history, however, most of the Greeks of Asia Minor lost the
aspirate altogether, and having then no further use for the symbol with
this value they adopted it to represent the long _e_-sound, which was
not originally distinguished by a different symbol from the short sound
(see E). With this value its name has always been [Greek: êta] in Greek.
The alphabet of the Asiatic Greeks was gradually adopted elsewhere. In
official documents at Athens H represented the rough breathing or
aspirate ' till 403 B.C.; henceforth it was used for [eta]. The Western
Greeks, however, from whom the Romans obtained their alphabet, retained
their aspirate longer than those of Asia Minor, and hence the symbol
came to the Romans with the value not of a long vowel but of the
aspirate, which it still preserves. The Greek aspirate was itself the
first or left-hand half of this letter |-, while the smooth breathing '
was the right-hand portion -|. At Tarentum |- is found for H in
inscriptions. The Roman aspirate was, however, a very slight sound which
in some words where it was etymologically correct disappeared at an
early date. Thus the cognate words of kindred languages show that the
Lat. _anser_ "goose" ought to begin with _h_, but nowhere is it so
found. In none of the Romance languages is there any trace of initial or
medial _h_, which shows that vulgar Latin had ceased to have the
aspirate by 240 B.C. The Roman grammarians were guided to its presence
by the Sabine forms where _f_ occurred; as the Sabines said _fasena_
(sand), it was recognised that the Roman form ought to be _harena_, and
so for _haedus_ (goat), _hordeum_ (barley), &c. Between vowels _h_ was
lost very early, for _ne-hemo_ (no man) is throughout the literature
_nemo_, _bi-himus_ (two winters old) _bimus_. In the Ciceronian age
greater attention was paid to reproducing the Greek aspirates in
borrowed words, and this led to absurd mistakes in Latin words, mistakes
which were satirized by Catullus in his epigram (84) upon Arrius, who
said _chommoda_ for _commoda_ and _hinsidias_ for _insidias_. In Umbrian
_h_ was often lost, and also used without etymological value to mark
length, as in _comohota_ (= Lat. _commota_), a practice to which there
are some doubtful parallels in Latin.

In English the history of _h_ is very similar to that in Latin. While
the parts above the glottis are in position to produce a vowel, an
aspirate is produced without vibration of the vocal chords, sometimes,
like the pronunciation of Arrius, with considerable effort as a reaction
against the tendency to "drop the h's." Though _h_ survives in Scotland,
Ireland and America as well as in the speech of cultivated persons, the
sound in most of the vulgar dialects is entirely lost. Where it is not
ordinarily lost, it disappears in unaccented syllables, as "_Give it
'im_" and the like. Where it is lost, conscious attempts to restore it
on the part of uneducated speakers lead to absurd misplacements of _h_
and to its restoration in Romance words when it never was pronounced, as
_humble_ (now recognized as standard English), _humour_ and even
_honour_.     (P. Gi.)



HAAG, CARL (1820-   ), a naturalized British painter, court painter to
the duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, was born in Bavaria, and was trained
in the academies at Nuremburg and Munich. He practised first as an
illustrator and as a painter, in oil, of portraits and architectural
subjects; but after he settled in England, in 1847, he devoted himself
to water colours, and was elected associate of the Royal Society of
Painters in Water Colours in 1850 and member in 1853. He travelled much,
especially in the East, and made a considerable reputation by his firmly
drawn and carefully elaborated paintings of Eastern subjects. Towards
the end of his professional career Carl Haag quitted England and
returned to Germany.

  See _A History of the "Old Water-Colour" Society, now the Royal
  Society of Painters in Water Colours_, by John Lewis Roget (2 vols.,
  London, 1891).



HAAKON (Old Norse _Hákon_), the name of several kings of Norway, of whom
the most important are the following:--

HAAKON I., surnamed "the Good" (d. 961), was the youngest son of Harald
Haarfager. He was fostered by King Aethelstan of England, who brought
him up in the Christian religion, and on the news of his father's death
in 933 provided him with ships and men for an expedition against his
half-brother Erik, who had been proclaimed king. On his arrival in
Norway Haakon gained the support of the landowners by promising to give
up the rights of taxation claimed by his father over inherited real
property. Erik fled, and was killed a few years later in England. His
sons allied themselves with the Danes, but were invariably defeated by
Haakon, who was successful in everything he undertook except in his
attempt to introduce Christianity, which aroused an opposition he did
not feel strong enough to face. He was killed at the battle of Fitje in
961, after a final victory over Erik's sons. So entirely did even his
immediate circle ignore his religion that a court skald composed a poem
on his death representing his welcome by the heathen gods into Valhalla.

HAAKON IV., surnamed "the Old" (1204-1263), was declared to be the son
of Haakon III., who died shortly before the former's birth in 1204. A
year later the child was placed under the protection of King Inge, after
whose death in 1217 he was chosen king; though until 1223 the church
refused to recognize him, on the ground of illegitimacy, and the Pope's
dispensation for his coronation was not gained until much later. In the
earlier part of his reign much of the royal power was in the hands of
Earl Skule, who intrigued against the king until 1239, when he proceeded
to open hostility and was put to death. From this time onward Haakon's
reign was marked by more peace and prosperity than Norway had known for
many years, until in 1263 a dispute with the Scottish king concerning
the Hebrides, a Norwegian possession, induced Haakon to undertake an
expedition to the west of Scotland. A division of his army seems to have
repulsed a large Scottish force at Largs (though the later Scottish
accounts claim this battle as a victory), and, having won back the
Norwegian possessions in Scotland, Haakon was wintering in the Orkneys,
when he was taken ill and died on the 15th of December 1263. A great
part of his fleet had been scattered and destroyed by storms. The most
important event in his reign was the voluntary submission of the
Icelandic commonwealth. Worn out by internal strife fostered by Haakon's
emissaries, the Icelandic chiefs acknowledged the Norwegian king as
overlord in 1262. Their example was followed by the colony of Greenland.

HAAKON VII. (1872-   ), the second son of Frederick VIII., king of
Denmark, was born on the 3rd of August 1872, and was usually known as
Prince Charles of Denmark. When in 1905 Norway decided to separate
herself from Sweden the Norwegians offered their crown to Charles, who
accepted it and took the name of Haakon VII., being crowned at Trondhjem
in June 1906. The king married Maud, youngest daughter of Edward VII.,
king of Great Britain, their son, Prince Olav, being born in 1903.



HAARLEM, a town of Holland in the province of North Holland, on the
Spaarne, having a junction station 11 m. by rail W. of Amsterdam. It is
connected by electric and steam tramways with Zandvoort, Leiden,
Amsterdam and Alkmaar. Pop. (1900) 65,189. Haarlem is the seat of the
governor of the province of North Holland, and of a Roman Catholic and a
Jansenist bishopric. In appearance it is a typical Dutch town, with
numerous narrow canals and quaintly gabled houses. Of the ancient city
gates the Spaarnewouder or Amsterdam gate alone remains. Gardens and
promenades have taken the place of the old ramparts, and on the south
the city is bounded by the Frederiks and the Flora parks, between which
runs the fine avenue called the Dreef, leading to the Haarlemmer Hout or
wood. In the Frederiks Park is a pump-room supplied with a powerful
chalybeate water from a spring, the Wilhelminabron, in the Haarlemmer
Polder not far distant, and in connexion with this there is an
orthopaedic institution adjoining. In the great market place in the
centre of the city are gathered together the larger number of the most
interesting buildings, including the quaint old Fleshers' Hall, built by
Lieven de Key in 1603, and now containing the archives; the town hall;
the old Stadsdoelen, where the burgesses met in arms; the Groote Kerk,
or Great Church; and the statue erected in 1856 to Laurenz Janszoon
Koster, the printer. The Great Church, dedicated to St Bavo, with a
lofty tower (255 ft.), is one of the most famous in Holland, and dates
from the end of the 15th and the beginning of the 16th centuries. Its
great length (460 ft.) and the height and steepness of its vaulted
cedar-wood roof (1538) are very impressive. The choir-stalls and screen
(1510) are finely carved, and of further interest are the ancient pulpit
sounding-board (1432), some old stained glass, and the small models of
ships, copies dating from 1638 of yet earlier models originally
presented by the Dutch-Swedish Trading Company. The church organ was
long considered the largest and finest in existence. It was constructed
by Christian Müller in 1738, and has 4 keyboards, 64 registers and 5000
pipes, the largest of which is 15 in. in diameter and 32 ft. long. Among
the monuments in the church are those of the poet Willem Bilderdyk (d.
1831) and the engineer Frederik Willem Conrad (d. 1808), who designed
the sea-sluices at Katwyk. In the belfry are the _damiaatjes_, small
bells presented to the town, according to tradition, by William I.,
count of Holland (d. 1222), the crusader. The town hall was originally a
palace of the counts of Holland, begun in the 12th century, and some old
13th-century beams still remain; but the building was remodelled in the
beginning of the 17th century. It contains a collection of antiquities
(including some beautiful goblets) and a picture gallery which, though
small, is celebrated for its fine collection of paintings by Frans Hals.
The town library contains several _incunabula_ and an interesting
collection of early Dutch literature. At the head of the scientific
institutions of Haarlem may be placed the Dutch Society of Sciences
(_Hollandsche Maatschappij van Wetenschappen_), founded in 1752, which
possesses valuable collections in botany, natural history and geology.
Teyler's Stichting (i.e. foundation), enlarged in modern times, was
instituted by the will of Pieter Teyler van der Hulst (d. 1778), a
wealthy merchant, for the study of theology, natural science and art,
and has lecture-theatres, a large library, and a museum containing a
physical and a geological cabinet, as well as a collection of paintings,
including many modern pictures, and a valuable collection of drawings
and engravings by old masters. The Dutch Society for the Promotion of
Industry (_Nederlaandsche Maatschappij ter Bevordering van Nijverheid_),
founded in 1777, has its seat in the Pavilion Welgelegen, a villa on the
south side of the Frederiks Park, built by the Amsterdam banker John
Hope in 1778, and afterwards acquired by Louis Bonaparte, king of
Holland. The colonial museum and the museum of industrial art were
established in this villa by the society in 1871 and 1877 respectively.
Besides these there are a museum of ecclesiastical antiquities, chiefly
relating to the bishopric of Haarlem; the old weigh-house (1598) and the
orphanage for girls (1608), originally an almshouse for old men, both
built by the architect Lieven de Key of Ghent.

The staple industries of Haarlem have been greatly modified in the
course of time. Cloth weaving and brewing, which once flourished
exceedingly, declined in the beginning of the 16th century. A century
later, silk, lace and damask weaving were introduced by French refugees,
and became very important industries. But about the close of the 18th
century this remarkable prosperity had also come to an end, and it was
not till after the Belgian revolution of 1830-1831 that Haarlem began to
develop the manufactures in which it is now chiefly engaged. Cotton
manufacture, dyeing, printing, bleaching, brewing, type-founding, and
the manufacture of tram and railway carriages are among the more
important of its industries. One of the printing establishments has the
reputation of being the oldest in the Netherlands, and publishes the
oldest Dutch paper, _De Opragte Haarlemmer Courant_. Market-gardening,
especially horticulture, is extensively practised in the vicinity, so
that Haarlem is the seat of a large trade in Dutch bulbs, especially
hyacinths, tulips, fritillaries, spiraeas and japonicas.

Haarlem, which was a prosperous place in the middle of the 12th century,
received its first town charter from William II., count of Holland and
king of the Romans, in 1245. It played a considerable part in the wars
of Holland with the Frisians. In 1492 it was captured by the insurgent
peasants of North Holland, was re-taken by the duke of Saxony, the
imperial stadholder, and deprived of its privileges. In 1572 Haarlem
joined the revolt of the Netherlands against Spain, but on the 13th of
July 1573, after a seven months' siege, was forced to surrender to
Alva's son Frederick, who exacted terrible vengeance. In 1577 it was
again captured by William of Orange and permanently incorporated in the
United Netherlands.

  See Karl Hegel, _Städte und Gilden_ (Leipzig, 1891); Allan,
  _Geschiedenis en beschrijving van Haarlem_ (Haarlem, 1871-1888).



HAARLEM LAKE (Dutch _Harlemmer Meer_), a commune of the province of
North Holland, constituted by the law of the 16th of July 1855. It has
an area of about 46,000 acres, and its population increased from 7237 in
1860 to 16,621 in 1900. As its name indicates, the commune was formerly
a lake, which is said to have been a relic of a northern arm of the
Rhine which passed through the district in the time of the Romans. In
1531 the Haarlemmer Meer had an area of 6430 acres, and in its vicinity
were three smaller sheets of water--the Leidsche Meer or Leiden Lake,
the Spiering Meer, and the Oude Meer or Old Lake, with a united area of
about 7600 acres. The four lakes were formed into one by successive
inundations, whole villages disappearing in the process, and by 1647 the
new Haarlem Lake had an area of about 37,000 acres, which a century
later had increased to over 42,000 acres. As early as 1643 Jan
Adriaanszoon Leeghwater proposed to endike and drain the lake; and
similar schemes, among which those of Nikolaas Samuel Cruquius in 1742
and of Baron van Lijnden van Hemmen in 1820 are worthy of special
mention, were brought forward from time to time. But it was not till a
furious hurricane in November 1836 drove the waters as far as the gates
of Amsterdam, and another on Christmas Day sent them in the opposite
direction to submerge the streets of Leiden, that the mind of the nation
was seriously turned to the matter. In August 1837 the king appointed a
royal commission of inquiry; the scheme proposed by the commission
received the sanction of the Second Chamber in March 1839, and in the
following May the work was begun. A canal was first dug round the lake
for the reception of the water and the accommodation of the great
traffic which had previously been carried on. This canal was 38 m. in
length, 123-146 ft. wide, and 8 ft. deep, and the earth which was taken
out of it was used to build a dike from 30 to 54 yds. broad containing
the lake. The area enclosed by the canal was rather more than 70 sq. m.,
and the average depth of the lake 13 ft. 1½ in., and as the water had no
natural outfall it was calculated that probably 1000 million tons would
have to be raised by mechanical means. This amount was 200 million tons
in excess of that actually discharged. Pumping by steam-engines began in
1848, and the lake was dry by the 1st of July 1852. At the first sale of
the highest lands along the banks on the 16th of August 1853, about £28
per acre was paid; but the average price afterwards was less. The whole
area of 42,096 acres recovered from the waters brought in 9,400,000
florins, or about £780,000, exactly covering the cost of the enterprise;
so that the actual cost to the nation was only the amount of the
interest on the capital, or about £368,000. The soil is of various
kinds, loam, clay, sand and peat; most of it is sufficiently fertile,
though in the lower portions there are barren patches where the scanty
vegetation is covered with an ochreous deposit. Mineral springs occur
containing a very high percentage (3.245 grams per litre) of common
salt; and in 1893 a company was formed for working them. Corn, seeds,
cattle, butter and cheese are the principal produce. The roads which
traverse the commune are bordered by pleasant-looking farm-houses built
after the various styles of Holland, Friesland or Brabant. Hoofddorp,
Venneperdorp or Nieuw Vennep, Abbenes and the vicinities of the
pumping-stations are the spots where the population has clustered most
thickly. The first church was built in 1855; in 1877 there were seven.
In 1854 the city of Leiden laid claim to the possession of the new
territory, but the courts decided in favour of the nation.



HAASE, FRIEDRICH (1827-   ), German actor, was born on the 1st of
November 1827, in Berlin, the son of a valet to King Frederick William
IV., who became his godfather. He was educated for the stage under
Ludwig Tieck and made his first appearance in 1846 in Weimar, afterwards
acting at Prague (1849-1851) and Karlsruhe (1852-1855). From 1860 to
1866 he played in St Petersburg, then was manager of the court theatre
in Coburg, and in 1869 (and again in 1882-1883) visited the United
States. He was manager of the Stadt Theater in Leipzig from 1870 to
1876, when he removed to Berlin, where he devoted his energies to the
foundation and management of the Deutsches Theater. He finally retired
from the stage in 1898. Haase's aristocratic appearance and elegant
manner fitted him specially to play high comedy parts. His chief rôles
were those of Rocheferrier in the _Partie Piquet_; Richelieu; Savigny in
_Der feiner Diplomat_, and der Fürst in _Der geheime Agent_. He is the
author of _Ungeschminkte Briefe and Was ich erlebte 1846-1898_ (Berlin,
1898).

  See Simon, _Friedrich Haase_ (Berlin, 1898).



HAASE, FRIEDRICH GOTTLOB (1808-1867), German classical scholar, was born
at Magdeburg on the 4th of January 1808. Having studied at Halle,
Greifswald and Berlin, he obtained in 1834 an appointment at
Schulpforta, from which he was suspended and sentenced to six years'
imprisonment for identifying himself with the _Burschenschaften_
(students' associations). Having been released after serving one year of
his sentence, he visited Paris, and on his return in 1840 he was
appointed professor at Breslau, where he remained till his death on the
16th of August 1867. He was undoubtedly one of the most successful
teachers of his day in Germany, and exercised great influence upon all
his pupils.

  He edited several classic authors: Xenophon ([Greek: Lakedaimoniôn
  politeia], 1833); Thucydides (1840); Velleius Paterculus (1858);
  Seneca the philosopher (2nd ed., 1872, not yet superseded); and
  Tacitus (1855), the introduction to which is a masterpiece of
  Latinity. His _Vorlesungen über lateinische Sprachwissenschaft_ was
  published after his death by F. A. Eckstein and H. Peter (1874-1880).
  See C Bursian, _Geschichte der klassischen Philologie in Deutschland_
  (1883); G. Fickert, _Friderici Haasii memoria_ (1868), with a list of
  works; T. Oelsner in _Rübezahl (Schlesische Provinzialblätter)_, vii.
  Heft 3 (Breslau, 1868).



HAAST, SIR JOHANN FRANZ JULIUS VON (1824-1887), German and British
geologist, was born at Bonn on the 1st of May 1824. He received his
early education partly in that town and partly in Cologne, and then
entered the university at Bonn, where he made a special study of geology
and mineralogy. In 1858 he started for New Zealand to report on the
suitability of the colony for German emigrants. He then became
acquainted with Dr von Hochstetter, and rendered assistance to him in
the preliminary geological survey which von Hochstetter had undertaken.
Afterwards Dr Haast accepted offers from the governments of Nelson and
Canterbury to investigate the geology of those districts, and the
results of his detailed labours greatly enriched our knowledge with
regard to the rocky structure, the glacial phenomena and the economic
products. He discovered gold and coal in Nelson, and he carried on
important researches with reference to the occurrence of _Dinornis_ and
other extinct wingless birds (Moas). His _Geology of the Provinces of
Canterbury and Westland, N.Z._, was published in 1879. He was the
founder of the Canterbury museum at Christchurch, of which he became
director, and which he endeavoured to render the finest collection in
the southern hemisphere. He was surveyor-general of Canterbury from 1861
to 1871, and professor of geology at Canterbury College. He was elected
F.R.S. in 1867; and he was knighted for his services at the time of the
colonial exhibition in London in 1887. He died at Wellington, N.Z., on
the 15th of August 1887.



HABABS (AZ-HIBBEHS), a nomadic pastoral people of Hamitic stock, living
in the coast region north-west of Massawa. Physically they are Beja, by
language and traditions Abyssinians. They were Christians until the 19th
century, but are now Mahommedans. Their sole wealth consists in cattle.



HABAKKUK, the name borne by the eighth book of the Old Testament "Minor
Prophets." It occurs twice in the book itself (i. 1, iii. 1) in titles,
but nowhere else in the Old Testament. The meaning of the name is
uncertain. If Hebrew, it might be derived from the root [Hebrew: habak]
(to embrace) as an intensive term of affection. It has also been
connected more plausibly with an Assyrian plant name, _[h)]ambakuku_
(Delitzsch, _Assyrisches Handwörterbuch_, p. 281). The Septuagint has
[Greek: Ambakoum]. Of the person designated, no more is known than may
be inferred from the writing which bears his name. Various legends are
connected with him, of which the best known is given in the Apocryphal
story of "Bel and the Dragon" (v. 33-39); but none of these has any
historic value.[1]

The book itself falls into three obvious parts, viz. (1) a dialogue
between the prophet and God (i. 2-ii. 4); (2) a series of five woes
pronounced on wickedness (ii. 5-ii. 20); (3) a poem describing the
triumphant manifestation of God (iii.). There is considerable difficulty
in regard to the interpretation of (1), on which that of (2) will turn;
while (3) forms an independent section, to be considered separately.

In the dialogue, the prophet cries to God against continued violence and
injustice, though it is not clear whether this is done _within_ or _to_
Israel (i. 2-4). The divine answer declares that God raises up the
Chaldaeans, whose formidable resources are invincible (i. 5-11). The
prophet thereupon calls God's attention to the tyranny which He
apparently allows to triumph, and declares his purpose to wait till an
answer is given to his complaint (i. 12-ii. 2). God answers by demanding
patience, and by declaring that the righteous shall live by his
faithfulness (ii. 3-4).

The interpretation of this dialogue which first suggests itself is that
the prophet is referring to wickedness _within_ the nation, which is to
be punished by the Chaldaeans as a divine instrument; in the process,
the tyranny of the instrument itself calls for punishment, which the
prophet is bidden to await in patient fidelity. On this view of the
dialogue, the subsequent woes will be pronounced against the Chaldaeans,
and the date assigned to the prophecy will be about 600 B.C., i.e. soon
after the battle of Carchemish (605 B.C.), when the Chaldaean victory
over Egypt inaugurated a period of Chaldaean supremacy which lasted till
the Chaldaeans themselves were overthrown by Cyrus in 538 B.C. Grave
objections, however, confront this interpretation, as is admitted even
by such recent defenders of it as Davidson and Driver. Is it likely that
a prophet would begin a complaint against Chaldaean tyranny (admittedly
central in the prophecy) by complaining of that wickedness of his
fellow-countrymen which seems partly to justify it? Are not the terms of
reference in i. 2 f. and 1. 12 f. too similar for the supposition that
two distinct, even contradictory, complaints are being made (cf.
"wicked" and "righteous" in i. 4 and i. 13, interchanged in regard to
Israel, on above theory)? And if i. 5-11 is a genuine _prophecy_ of the
raising up of the Chaldaeans, whence comes that long experience of their
rule required to explain the _detailed_ denunciation of their tyranny?
To meet the last objection, Davidson supposes i. 5-11 to be really a
reference to the past, prophetic in form only, and brings down the whole
section to a later period of Chaldaean rule, "hardly, one would think,
before the deportation of the people under Jehoiachin in 597" (p. 49).
Driver prefers to bisect the dialogue by supposing i. 2-11 to be written
at an earlier period than i. 12 f. (p. 57). The other objections,
however, remain, and have provoked a variety of theories from Old
Testament scholars, of which three call for special notice. (1) The
first of these, represented by Giesebrecht,[2] Nowack and Wellhausen,
refers i. 2-4 to Chaldaean oppression of Israel, the same subject being
continued in i. 12 f. Obviously, the reference to the Chaldaeans as a
divine instrument could not then stand in its present place, and it is
accordingly regarded as a misplaced earlier prophecy. This is the
minimum of critical procedure required to do justice to the facts. (2)
Budde, followed by Cornill, also regards i. 2-4 as referring to the
oppression of Israel by a foreign tyrant, whom, however, he holds to be
Assyria. He also removes i. 5-11 from its present place, but makes it
part of the divine answer, following ii. 4. On this view, the Chaldaeans
are the divine instrument for punishing the tyranny of the Assyrians, to
whom the following woes will therefore refer. The date would fall
between Josiah's reformation (621) and his death (609). This is a
plausible and even attractive theory; its weakness seems to lie in the
absence of any positive evidence in the prophecy itself, as is
illustrated by the fact that even G. A. Smith, who follows it, suggests
"Egypt from 608-605" as an alternative to Assyria (p. 124). (3) Marti
(1904) abandons the attempt to explain the prophecy as a unity, and
analyses it into three elements, viz. (a) The original prophecy by
Habakkuk, consisting of i. 5-10, 14 f., belonging to the year 605, and
representing the emergent power of the Chaldaeans as a divine scourge of
the faithless people; (b) Woes against the Chaldaeans, presupposing not
only tyrannous rule over many peoples, but the beginning of their
decline and fall, and therefore of date about 540 B.C. (ii. 5-19); (c) A
psalm of post-exilic origin, whose fragments, i. 2-4, 12 a, 13, ii. 1-4,
have been incorporated into the present text from the margins on which
they were written, its subject being the suffering of the righteous.
Each of these three theories[3] encounters difficulties of detail; none
can be said to have secured a dominant position. The great variety of
views amongst competent critics is significant of the difficulty of the
problem, which can hardly be regarded as yet solved; this divergence of
opinion perhaps points to the impossibility of maintaining the unity of
chs. i. and ii., and throws the balance of probability towards some such
analysis as that of Marti, which is therefore accepted in the present
article.

In regard to the poem which forms the third and closing chapter of the
present book of Habakkuk, there is much more general agreement. Its most
striking characteristic lies in the superscription ("A prayer of
Habakkuk the prophet, set to Shigionoth"), the subscription ("For the
chief musician, on my stringed instruments"), and the insertion of the
musical term "Selah" in three places (v. 3, 9, 13). These liturgical
notes make extremely probable the supposition that the poem has been
taken from some collection like that of our present book of Psalms,
probably on the ground of the authorship asserted by the superscription
there attached to it. It cannot, however, be said that the poem itself
supports this assertion, which carries no more intrinsic weight than
the Davidic titles of the Psalms. The poem begins with a prayer that God
will renew the historic manifestation of the exodus, which inaugurated
the national history and faith; a thunderstorm moving up from the south
is then described, in which God is revealed (3-7); it is asked whether
this manifestation, whose course is further described, is against nature
only (8-11); the answer is given that it is for the salvation of Israel
against its wicked foes (12-15); the poet describes the effect in terror
upon himself (16) and declares his confidence in God, even in utter
agricultural adversity (17-19). As Wellhausen says (p. 171): "The poet
appears to believe that in the very act of describing enthusiastically
the ancient deed of deliverance, he brings home to us the new; we are
left sometimes in doubt whether he speaks of the past to suggest the new
by analogy, or whether he is concerned directly with the future, and
simply paints it with the colours of the past." In any case, there is
nothing in this fine poem to connect it with the conception of the
Chaldaeans as a divine instrument. It is the nation that speaks through
the poet (cf. v. 14), but at what period of its post-exilic history we
have no means of inferring.

Our estimate of the theological teaching of this book will naturally be
influenced by the particular critical theory which is adopted. The
reduction of the book to four originally independent sections requires
that the point of each be stated separately. When this is done, it will,
however, be found that there is a broad unity of subject, and of natural
development in its treatment, such as to some extent justifies the
instinct or the judgment of those who were instrumental in effecting the
combination of the separate parts. (1) The poem (iii.), though possibly
latest in date,[4] claims first consideration, because it avowedly moves
in the circle of primitive ideas, and supplicates a divine intervention,
a direct and immediate manifestation of the transcendent God. He is
conceived as controlling or overcoming the forces of nature; and though
an earlier mythology has supplied some of the ideas, yet, as with the
opening chapters of Genesis, they are transfigured by the moral purpose
which animates them, the purpose to subdue all things that could
frustrate the destiny of God's anointed (v. 13). The closing verses
strike that deep note of absolute dependence on God, which is the glory
of the religion of the Old Testament and its chief contribution to the
spirit of the Gospels. (2) The prophecy of the Chaldaeans as the
instruments of the divine purpose involves a different, yet related,
conception of the divine providence. The philosophy of history, by which
Hebrew prophets could read a deep moral significance into national
disaster and turn the flank of resistless attack, became one of the most
important elements in the nation's faith. If the world-powers were hard
as flint in their dealings with Israel, the people of God were steeled
to such moral endurance that each clash of their successive onsets
kindled some new flame of devotion. Through the Chaldaeans God worked a
work which required centuries of life and literature to disclose its
fulness (i. 5). (3) When we turn from this view of the Chaldaeans to the
denunciation of their tyranny in "taunt songs" (ii. 5-20), we have
simply a practical application of the doctrine of divine government. God
being what He is, at once moral and all-powerful, the immoral life is
doomed to overthrow, whether the immorality consist in grasping
rapacity, proud self-aggrandizement, cruel exaction, exulting triumph or
senseless idolatry. (4) Yet, because the doom so often tarries, there
arises the problem of the suffering of the innocent and the upright. How
can God look down with tolerance that seems favour on so much that
conflicts with His declared will and character? This is the great
problem of Israel, finding its supreme expression for all time in the
book of Job (q.v.). In that book the solution of the problem of innocent
suffering lies hidden from the sufferer, even to the end, for he is not
admitted with the reader to the secret of the prologue; it is the
practical solution of faithfulness resting on faith which is offered to
us. So here, with the principle of ii. 4, "the righteous shall live by
his faithfulness." The different application of these words in the New
Testament to "faith" is well known (Rom. i. 17; Gal. iii. 11; Heb. x.
38) though the difference is apt to be exaggerated by those who forget
how much of the element of [Hebrew: emuna]: lies in Paul's conception of
[Greek: pistis]. In G. A. Smith's words, "as Paul's adaptation, 'the
just shall live by faith,' has become the motto of evangelical
Christianity, so we may say that Habakkuk's original of it has been the
motto and the fame of Judaism: 'the righteous shall live by his
faithfulness.'"

  The Hebrew text of this impressive and varied book is unfortunately
  corrupt in many places; even so cautious a critic as Driver accepts or
  favourably notices eighteen textual emendations in the three chapters,
  and suspects the text in at least seven other cases. For the
  interpretation of the book in detail, the English reader will find
  Driver's commentary (1906) the most useful.

  References to earlier literature will be found in the following
  noteworthy studies of recent date: Davidson, "Nahum, Habakkuk and
  Zephaniah," in _Cambridge Bible_ (1896); Nowack, _Die kleinen
  Propheten_ (Hdkr.) (1897); Wellhausen, _Die kleinen Propheten_^3
  (1898); G. A. Smith, "The Book of the Twelve Prophets," in _The
  Expositor's Bible_, vol. ii. (1898); Driver, article "Habakkuk" in
  Hastings' _Dictionary of the Bible_, vol. ii. pp. 269-272 (1900);
  Budde, article "Habakkuk" in _Ency. Biblica_, vol. ii., c. 1921-1928
  (1901); Stevenson, "The Interpretation of Habakkuk," in _The
  Expositor_ (1902), pp. 388-401; Peake, _The Problem of Suffering in
  the Old Testament_ (1904), pp. 4-11 and app. A, "Recent Criticism of
  Habakkuk"; Marti, _Dodekapropheton_ (K. H. C.) (1904); Driver, "Minor
  Prophets," vol. ii., in _Century Bible_ (1906); Duhm, _Das Buch
  Habakkuk_ (Text, Übersetzung und Efklärung), 1906 (regards the book as
  a unity belonging to the time of Alexander the Great). Max L. Margolis
  discusses the anonymous Greek version of Habakkuk iii. in a volume of
  _Old Test. and Semitic Studies: in Memory of William Rainey Harper_
  (Chicago, 1908).     (H. W. R.*)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] These legends are collected in Hastings, D. B. vol. ii. p. 272.
    He is the watchman of Is. xxi. 6 (cf. Hab. ii. 1); the son of the
    Shunammite (2 Kings iv. 16); and is miraculously lifted by his hair
    to carry his own dinner to Daniel in the lions' den (_supra_).

  [2] Followed by Peake in _The Problem of Suffering_, pp. 4 f., 151
    f., to whose appendix (A) reference may be made for further details
    of recent criticism.

  [3] For the less probable theories of Rothstein, Lauterburg, Happel
    and Peiser (amongst others), cf. Marti's _Commentary_, pp. 328 f. and
    332. Stevenson (_The Expositor_, 1902) states clearly the
    difficulties for those who regard ch. i. as a unity. He sees two
    independent sections, 2-4 + 12-13, and 5-11 + 14-17.

  [4] Earlier, however, than Ps. lxxvii. 17-20, which is drawn from it.



HABDALA (lit. "separation"), a Hebrew term chiefly appropriated to
ceremonies at the conclusion of Sabbath and festivals, marking the
separation between times sacred and secular. On the Saturday night the
ceremony consists of three items: (a) benediction over a cup of wine
(common to many other Jewish functions); (b) benediction over a lighted
taper, of which possibly the origin is utilitarian, as no light might be
kindled on the Sabbath day, but the rite may be symbolical; and (c)
benediction over a box of sweet-smelling spices. The origin of the
latter has been traced to the bowl of burning spice which in Talmudic
times was introduced after each meal. But here too symbolic ideas must
be taken into account. Both the light and the spices would readily fit
into the conception of the Sabbath "Over-soul" of the mystics. (I. A.)



HABEAS CORPUS, in English law, a writ issued out of the High Court of
Justice commanding the person to whom it is directed to bring the body
of a person in his custody before that or some other court for a
specified purpose.

There are various forms of the writ, of which the most famous is that
known as _habeas corpus ad subjiciendum_, the well-established remedy
for violation of personal liberty. From the earliest records of the
English law no free man could be detained in custody except on a
criminal charge or conviction or for a civil debt. That right is
expressed in the Great Charter in the words: "_Nullus liber homo
capiatur vel imprisonetur aut dissaisietur aut utlagetur, aut exuletur
aut aliquo modo destruatur nec super eum ibimus nec super eum mittemus,
nisi per legale judicium parium suorum, vel per legem terrae._"[1] The
writ is a remedial mandatory writ of right existing by the common law,
i.e. it is one of the extraordinary remedies--such as _mandamus_,
_certiorari_ and prohibitions, which the superior courts may grant.
While "of right," it is not "of course," and is granted only on
application to the High Court or a judge thereof, supported by a sworn
statement of facts setting up at least a probable case of illegal
confinement. It is addressed to the person in whose custody another is
detained, and commands him to bring his prisoner before the court
immediately after the receipt of the writ, together with the day and
cause of his being taken and detained, to undergo and receive (_ad
subjiciendum et recipiendum_) whatsoever the court awarding the writ
"may consider of concerning him in that behalf."

It is often stated that the writ is founded on the article of the Great
Charter already quoted; but there are extant instances of the issue of
writs of _habeas corpus_ before the charter. Other writs having somewhat
similar effect were in use at an early date, e.g. the writ _de odio et
atiâ_, used as early as the 12th century to prevent imprisonment on
vexatious appeals of felony, and the writ of mainprise (_de
manucaptione_), long obsolete if not abolished in England but which it
was attempted to use in India so late as 1870. In the ease of
imprisonment on accusation of crime the writ issued from the court of
king's bench (or from the chancery), and on its return the court judged
of the legality of the imprisonment, and discharged the prisoner or
admitted him to bail or remanded him to his former custody according to
the result of the examination.

By the time of Charles I. the writ was fully established as the
appropriate process for checking illegal imprisonment by inferior courts
or by public officials. But it acquired its full and present
constitutional importance by legislation.

In Darnel's case (1627) the judges held that the command of the king was
a sufficient answer to a writ of _habeas corpus_. The House of Commons
thereupon passed resolutions to the contrary, and after a conference
with the House of Lords the measure known as the Petition of Right was
passed (1627, 3 Car. I. c. i.) which, inter alia, recited (s. 5) that,
contrary to the Great Charter and the good laws and statutes of the
realm, divers of the king's subjects had of late been imprisoned without
any cause shown, and when they were brought up on _habeas corpus ad
subjiciendum_, and no cause was shown other than the special command of
the king signified by the privy council, were nevertheless remanded to
prison, and enacted "that no freeman in any such manner as is before
mentioned be imprisoned or detained." The Petition of Right was
disregarded in Selden's case (1629), when it was successfully returned
to a _habeas corpus_ that Selden and others were committed by the king's
special command "for notable contempts against the king and his
government and for stirring up sedition against him."[2] This led to
legislation in 1640 by which, after abolishing the Star Chamber, the
right to a _habeas corpus_ was given to test the legality of commitments
by command or warrant of the king or the privy council.[3]

The reign of Charles II. was marked by further progress towards securing
the freedom of the subject from wrongful imprisonment. Lord Clarendon
was impeached, _inter alia_, for causing many persons to be imprisoned
against law and to be conveyed in custody to places outside England. In
1668 a writ of _habeas corpus_ was issued to test the legality of an
imprisonment in Jersey. Though the authority of the courts had been
strengthened by the Petition of Right and the act of 1640, it was still
rendered insufficient by reason of the insecurity of judicial tenure,
the fact that only the chancellor (a political as well as a legal
officer) and the court of king's bench had undoubted right to issue the
writ, and the inability or hesitation of the competent judges to issue
the writ except during the legal term, which did not cover more than
half the year. A series of bills was passed through the Commons between
1668 and 1675, only to be rejected by the other House. In Jenkes's case
(1676) Lord Chancellor Nottingham refused to issue the writ in vacation
in a case in which a man had been committed by the king in council for a
speech at Guildhall, and could get neither bail nor trial. In 1679, but
rather in consequence of Lord Clarendon's arbitrary proceedings[4] than
of Jenkes's case, a fresh bill was introduced which passed both Houses
(it is said the upper House by the counting of one stout peer as ten)
and became the famous Habeas Corpus Act of 1679 (31 Car. II. c. 2). The
passing of the act was largely due to the experience and energy of Lord
Shaftesbury, after whom it was for some time called. The act, while a
most important landmark in the constitutional history of England, in no
sense creates any right to personal freedom, but is essentially a
procedure act for improving the legal mechanism by means of which that
acknowledged right may be enforced.[5] It declares no principles and
defines no rights, but is for practical purposes worth a hundred
articles guaranteeing constitutional liberty.[6]

In the manner characteristic of English legislation the act is limited
to the particular grievances immediately in view and is limited to
imprisonment for criminal or supposed criminal matters, leaving
untouched imprisonment on civil process or by private persons. It
recites that great delays have been used by sheriffs and gaolers in
making returns of writs of _habeas corpus_ directed to them; and for the
prevention thereof, and the more speedy relief of all persons imprisoned
for criminal or supposed criminal matters, it enacts in substance as
follows: (1) When a writ of _habeas corpus_ is directed to a sheriff or
other person in charge of a prisoner, he must within 3, 10 or 20 days,
according to the distance of the place of commitment, bring the body of
his prisoner to the court, with the true cause of his detainer or
imprisonment--unless the commitment was for treason or felony plainly
expressed in the warrant of commitment. (2) If any person be committed
for any crime--unless for treason or felony plainly expressed in the
warrant--it shall be lawful for such person or persons (other than
persons convicted or in execution by legal process) _in time of
vacation_, to appeal to the lord chancellor as a judge, who shall issue
a _habeas corpus_ returnable immediately, and on the return thereof
shall discharge the prisoner on giving security for his appearance
before the proper court--unless the party so committed is detained upon
a legal process or under a justice's warrant for a non-bailable offence.
Persons neglecting for two terms to pray for a _habeas corpus_ shall
have none in vacation. (3) Persons set at large on _habeas corpus_ shall
not be recommitted for the same offence unless by the legal order and
process of the court having cognizance of the case. (4) A person
committed to prison for treason or felony shall, if he requires it, in
the first week of the next term or the first day of the next session of
oyer and terminer, be indicted in that term or session or else admitted
to bail, unless it appears on affidavit that the witnesses for the crown
are not ready; and if he is not indicted and tried in the second term or
session after commitment, or if after trial he is acquitted, he shall be
discharged from imprisonment. (5) No inhabitant of England (except
persons contracting, or, after conviction for felony, electing to be
transported) shall be sent prisoner to Scotland, Ireland, Jersey, &c.,
or any place beyond the seas. Stringent penalties are provided for
offences against the act. A judge delaying _habeas corpus_ forfeits £500
to the party aggrieved. Illegal imprisonment beyond seas renders the
offender liable in an action by the injured party to treble costs and
damages to the extent of not less than £500, besides subjecting him to
the penalties of _praemunire_ and to other disabilities. "The great rank
of those who were likely to offend against this part of the statute
was," says Hallam, "the cause of this unusual severity." Indeed as early
as 1591 the judges had complained of the difficulty of enforcing the
writ in the case of imprisonment at the instance of magnates of the
realm. The effect of the act was to impose upon the judges under severe
sanction the duty of protecting personal liberty in the case of criminal
charges and of securing speedy trial upon such charges when legally
framed; and the improvement of their tenure of office at the revolution,
coupled with the veto put by the Bill of Rights on excessive bail, gave
the judicature the independence and authority necessary to enable them
to keep the executive within the law and to restrain administrative
development of the scope or penalties of the criminal law; and this
power of the judiciary to control the executive, coupled with the
limitations on the right to set up "act of state" as an excuse for
infringing individual liberty is the special characteristic of English
constitutional law.

It is to be observed that neither at common law nor under the act of
1679 was the writ the appropriate remedy in the case of a person
convicted either on indictment or summarily. It properly applied to
persons detained before or without trial or sentence; and for convicted
persons the proper remedy was by writs of error or _certiorari_ to
which a writ of _habeas corpus_ might be used as ancillary.

As regards persons imprisoned for debt or on civil process the writ was
available at common law to test the legality of the detention: but the
practice in these cases is unaffected by the act of 1679, and is of no
present interest, since imprisonment on civil process is almost
abolished. As regards persons in private custody, e.g. persons not _sui
juris_ detained by those not entitled to their guardianship or lunatics,
or persons kidnapped, _habeas corpus ad subjiciendum_ seems not to have
been the ordinary common law remedy. The appropriate writ for such cases
was that known as _de homine replegiando_. The use of this writ in most
if not all criminal cases was forbidden in 1553; but it was used in the
17th century in a case of kidnapping (Designy's case, 1682), and against
Lord Grey for abducting his wife's sister (1682), and in the earl of
Banbury's case to recover his wife (1704). The latest recorded instance
of its use is Trebilcock's case (1736), in which a ward sought to free
himself from the custody of his guardian.

Since that date the _habeas corpus ad subjiciendum_ has been used in
cases of illegal detention in private custody. In 1758 questions arose
as to its application to persons in naval or military custody, including
pressed men, which led to the introduction of a bill in parliament and
to the consultation by the House of Lords of the judges (see Wilmot's
_Opinions_, p. 77). In the same year the writ was used to release the
wife of Earl Ferrers from his custody and maltreatment, and was
unsuccessfully applied for by John Wilkes to get back his wife, who was
separated from him by mutual agreement. But perhaps the most interesting
instances of that period are the case of the negro Somerset (1771), who
was released from a claim to hold him as a slave in England: and that of
the Hottentot Venus (1810), where an alien woman on exhibition in
England was brought before the court by Zachary Macaulay in order to
ascertain whether she was detained against her will.

The experience of the 18th century disclosed defects in the procedure
for obtaining liberty in cases not covered by the act of 1679. But it
was not till 1816 that further legislation was passed for more
effectually securing the liberty of the subject. The act of 1816 (56
Geo. III. c. 100), does not touch cases covered by the act of 1679. It
enacts (1) that a writ of _habeas corpus_ shall be issued in vacation
time in favour of a person restrained of his liberty otherwise than for
some criminal or supposed criminal matter (except persons imprisoned for
debt or by civil process); (2) that though the return to the writ be
good and sufficient in law, the judge shall examine into the truth of
the facts set forth in such return, and if they appear doubtful the
prisoner shall be bailed; (3) that the writ shall run to any port,
harbour, road, creek or bay on the coast of England, although not within
the body of any county. The last clause was intended to meet doubts on
the applicability of _habeas corpus_ in cases of illegal detention on
board ship, which had been raised owing to a case of detention on a
foreign ship in an English port.

It will appear from the foregoing statement that the issue and
enforcement of the writ rests on the common law as strengthened by the
acts of 1627, 1640, 1679 and 1816, and subject also to the regulations
as to procedure contained in the _Crown Office Rules_, 1906. The effect
of the statutes is to keep the courts always open for the issue of the
writ. It is available to put an end to all forms of illegal detention in
public or private custody. In the case of the Canadian prisoners (1839)
it was used to obtain the release of persons sentenced in Canada for
participating in the rebellion of 1837, who were being conveyed
throughout England in custody on their way to imprisonment in another
part of the empire, and it is matter of frequent experience for the
courts to review the legality of commitments under the Extradition Acts
and the Fugitive Offenders Act 1881, of fugitives from the justice of a
foreign state or parts of the king's dominions outside the British
Islands.

In times of public danger it has occasionally been thought necessary to
"suspend" the Habeas Corpus Act 1679 by special and temporary
legislation. This was done in 1794 (by an act annually renewed until
1801) and again in 1817, as to persons arrested and detained by his
majesty for conspiring against his person and government. The same
course was adopted in Ireland in 1866 during a Fenian rising. It has
been the practice to make such acts annual and to follow their
expiration by an act of indemnity. In cases where martial law exists the
use of the writ is _ex hypothesi_ suspended during conditions amounting
to a state of war within the realm or the British possession affected
(e.g. the Cape Colony and Natal during the South African War), and it
would seem that the acts of courts martial during the period are not the
subject of review by the ordinary courts. The so-called "suspension of
the Habeas Corpus Act" bears a certain similarity to what is called in
Europe "suspending the constitutional guarantees" or "proclaiming a
state of siege," but "is not in reality more than suspension of one
particular remedy for the protection of personal freedom."

  There are various other forms of the writ according to the purpose for
  which it is granted. Thus _habeas corpus ad respondendum_ is used to
  bring up a prisoner confined by the process of an inferior court in
  order to charge him in another proceeding (civil or criminal) in the
  superior court or some other court. As regards civil proceedings, this
  form of the writ is now rarely used, owing to the abolition of arrest
  on mesne process and the restriction of imprisonment for debt, or in
  execution of a civil judgment. The right to issue the writ depends on
  the common law, supplemented by an act of 1802. It is occasionally
  used for the purpose of bringing a person in custody for debt or on a
  criminal charge before a criminal court to be charged in respect of a
  criminal proceeding: but the same result may be obtained by means of
  an order of a secretary of state, made under s. 11 of the Prison Act
  1898, or by the written order of a court of criminal jurisdiction
  before which he is required to take his trial on indictment (Criminal
  Law Amendment Act 30 & 31 Vict. c. 35, s. 10.)

  Other forms are _ad satisfaciendum_; _ad faciendum et recipiendum_, to
  remove into a superior court proceedings under which the defendant is
  in custody: _ad testificandum_, where a prisoner is required as a
  witness, issued under an act of 1804 (s. 11), which is in practice
  replaced by orders under s. 11 of the Prison Act 1898 (_supra_) or the
  order of a judge under s. 9 of the Criminal Procedure Act 1853: and
  _ad deliberandum et recipias_, to authorize the transfer from one
  custody to another for purposes of trial, which is in practice
  superseded by the provisions of the Prison Acts 1865, 1871 and 1898,
  and the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1867 (_supra_).

  The above forms are now of little or no importance; but the procedure
  for obtaining them and the forms of writ are included in the _Crown
  Office Rules_ 1906.

  _Ireland._--The common law of Ireland as to the writs of _habeas
  corpus_ is the same as that in England. The writ has in past times
  been issued from the English court of king's bench into Ireland; but
  does not now so issue. The acts of 1803 and 1816 already mentioned
  apply to Ireland. The Petition of Right is not in terms applicable to
  Ireland. The Habeas Corpus Act 1679 does not apply to Ireland; but its
  equivalent is supplied by an act of 1781-1782 of the Irish parliament
  (21 & 22 Geo. III. c. 11). Sec. 16 contains a provision empowering the
  chief governor and privy council of Ireland by a proclamation under
  the great seal of Ireland to suspend the act during such time only as
  there shall be an actual invasion or rebellion in Ireland; and it is
  enacted that during the currency of the proclamation no judge or
  justices shall bail or try any person charged with being concerned in
  the rebellion or invasion without an order from the lord lieutenant or
  lord deputy and senior of the privy council. In Ireland by an act of
  1881 the Irish executive was given an absolute power of arbitrary and
  preventive arrest on suspicion of treason or of an act tending to
  interfere with the maintenance of law and order: but the warrant of
  arrest was made conclusive. This act continued by annual renewals
  until 1906, when it expired.

  _Scotland._--The writ of _habeas corpus_ is unknown to Scots law, nor
  will it issue from English courts into Scotland. Under a Scots act of
  1701 (c. 6) provision is made for preventing wrongous imprisonment and
  against undue delay in trials. It was applied to treason felony in
  1848. The right to speedy trial is now regulated by s. 43 of the
  Criminal Procedure Scotland Act 1887. These enactments are as to
  Scotland equivalent to the English Act of 1679. Under the Court of
  Exchequer Scotland Act 1856 (19 & 20 V. c. 56) provision is made for
  bringing before the court of session persons and proceedings before
  inferior courts and public officers--which is analogous to the powers
  to issue _habeas corpus_ in such cases out of the English court of
  exchequer (now the revenue side of the king's bench division).

  _British Possessions._--The act of 1679 expressly applies to Wales,
  Berwick-on-Tweed, Jersey and Guernsey, and the act of 1816 also
  extends to the Isle of Man. The court of king's bench has also issued
  the writ to the king's foreign dominions beyond seas, e.g. to St
  Helena, and so late as 1861 to Canada (Anderson's case 1861, 30
  L.J.Q.B. 129). In consequence of the last decision it was provided by
  the Habeas Corpus Act 1862 that no writ of _habeas corpus_ should
  issue out of England by authority of any court or judge "into any
  colony or foreign dominion of the crown where the crown has a lawfully
  established court of justice having authority to grant or issue the
  writ and to ensure its due execution in the 'colony' or dominion" (25
  & 26 V. c. 20). The expression "foreign dominion" is meant to apply to
  places outside the British Islands, and does not include the Isle of
  Man or the Channel Islands (see _re Brown_ [1864], 33 L.J.Q.B. 193).

  In Australasia and Canada and in most if not all the British
  possessions whose law is based on the common law, the power to issue
  and enforce the writ is possessed and is freely exercised by colonial
  courts, under the charters or statutes creating and regulating the
  courts. The writ is freely resorted to in Canada, and in 1905, 1906,
  two appeals came to the privy council from the dominion, one with
  reference to an extradition case, the other with respect to the right
  to expel aliens.

  Under the Roman-Dutch law as applied in British Guiana the writ was
  unknown and no similar process existed (2nd report of West Indian law
  commissioners). But by the Supreme Court Ordinance of 1893 that court
  possesses (_inter alia_) all the authorities, powers and functions
  belonging to or incident to a superior court of record in England,
  which appears to include the power to issue the writ of _habeas
  corpus_. Under the Roman-Dutch law as applied to South Africa free
  persons appear to have a right to release under a writ _de libero
  homine exhibendo_, which closely resembles the writ of _habeas
  corpus_, and the procedure described as "manifestation" used in the
  kingdom of Aragon (Hallam, _Middle Ages_, vol. ii., c. iv.). The writ
  of _habeas corpus_ has not been formally adopted or the Habeas Corpus
  Acts formally extended to South Africa; but in the Cape Colony, under
  the charter of justice and colonial legislation, the supreme court on
  petition grants a remedy equivalent to that obtained in England by
  writ of _habeas corpus_; and the remedy is sometimes so described
  (_Koke_ v. _Balie_, 1879, 9 Buchanan, 45, 64, arising out of a rising
  in Griqualand). During and after the South African War of 1899-1902
  many attempts were made by this procedure to challenge or review the
  sentences of courts martial; see _re Fourie_ (1900). 18 _Cape Rep._ 8.

  The laws of Ceylon being derived from the Roman-Dutch law, the writ of
  _habeas corpus_ is not indigenous: but, under s. 49 of the Supreme
  Court Ordinance 1889, the court or a judge has power to grant and
  issue "mandates in the nature of writs of _habeas corpus_." The
  chartered high courts in India have power to issue and enforce the
  writ of _habeas corpus_. The earliest record of its use was in 1775,
  when it was directed to Warren Hastings. It has been used to test the
  question whether Roman Catholic religious orders could enter India,
  and in 1870 an attempt was made thereby to challenge the validity of a
  warrant in the nature of a _lettre de cachet_ issued by the viceroy
  (Ind. L. Rep. 6 Bengal, 392, 456, 498), and it has also been applied
  to settle controversies between Hindus and missionaries as to the
  custody of a young convert (_R._ v. _Vaughan_, 1870, 5 Bengal, 418),
  and between a Mahommedan husband and his mother-in-law as to the
  custody of a girl-wife (_Khatija Bibi_, 1870, 5 Bengal, 557).

_United States._--Before the Declaration of Independence some of the
North American colonies had adopted the act of 1679; and the federal and
the other state legislatures of the United States have founded their
procedure on that act. The common law as to the writ of _habeas corpus_
has been inherited from England, and has been generally made to apply to
commitments and detentions of all kinds. Difficult questions, unknown to
English law, have arisen from the peculiar features of the American
state-system. Thus the constitution provides that "the privilege of the
writ of _habeas corpus_ shall not be suspended unless when, in cases of
rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it"; and it has
been the subject of much dispute whether the power of suspension under
this provision is vested in the president or the congress. The weight of
opinion seems to lean to the latter alternative. Again, conflicts have
arisen between the courts of individual states and the courts of the
union. It seems that a state court has no right to issue a _habeas
corpus_ for the discharge of a person held under the authority of the
federal government. On the other hand, the courts of the union issue the
writ only in those cases in which the power is expressly conferred on
them by the constitution.

  AUTHORITIES.--Paterson, _Liberty of the Subject_ (1877); Short and
  Mellor, _Crown Practice_ (1890); American: Church on _Habeas Corpus_
  (2nd ed. 1893).     (W. F. C.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] See Hallam, _Const. Hist._ vol. i., c. vii. (12th ed.) p. 384.

  [2] Hallam, _Const. Hist._ vol. ii., c. viii. (12th ed.) p. 2.

  [3] _Ibid._ c. ix. (12th ed.) p. 98.

  [4] _Ibid._ vol. iii., c. xiii. (12th ed.) p. 12.

  [5] Dicey, _Law of the Constitution_ (6th ed.), p. 217.

  [6] Dicey, Law of the Constitution (6th ed.), p. 195.



HABERDASHER, a name for a tradesman who sells by retail small articles
used in the making or wearing of dress, such as sewing cottons or silks,
tapes, buttons, pins and needles and the like. The sale of such articles
is not generally carried on alone, and a "haberdashery counter" usually
forms a department of drapers' shops. The word, found in Chaucer, and
even earlier (1311), is of obscure origin; the suggestion that it is
connected with an Icelandic _haprtask_, "haversack," is, according to
the _New English Dictionary_, impossible. _Haperlas_ occurs in an early
Anglo-French customs list, which includes articles such as were sold by
haberdashers, but this word may itself have been a misspelling of
"haberdash." The obscurity of origin has left room for many conjectures
such as that of Minsheu that "haberdasher" was perhaps merely a
corruption of the German _Habt ihr das?_ "Have you that?" or _Habe das,
Herr_, "Have that, sir," used descriptively for a general dealer in
miscellaneous wares. The Haberdashers' Company is one of the greater
Livery Companies of the City of London. Originally a branch of the
mercers, the fraternity took over the selling of "small wares," which
included not only articles similar to those sold as "haberdashery" now,
but such things as gloves, daggers, glass, pens, lanterns, mousetraps
and the like. They were thus on this side connected with the Milliners.
On the other hand there was early a fusion with the old gild of the
"Hurers," or cap makers, and the hatters, and by the reign of Henry VII.
the amalgamation was complete. There were long recognized two branches
of the haberdashers, the haberdashers of "small wares," and the
haberdashers of hats (see further LIVERY COMPANIES). The haberdashers
are named, side by side with the _capellarii_, in the White Book (_Liber
Albus_) of the city of London (see _Munimenta Gildhallae Londiniensis_,
ed. H. T. Riley, Rolls Series, 12, 1859-1862), and a haberdasher forms
one of the company of pilgrims in the _Canterbury Tales_ (Prologue,
361).



HABINGTON, WILLIAM (1605-1654), English poet, was born at Hendlip Hall,
Worcestershire, on the 4th of November 1605. He belonged to a well-known
Catholic family. His father, Thomas Habington (1560-1647), an antiquary
and historical scholar, had been implicated in the plots on behalf of
Mary queen of Scots; his uncle, Edward Habington, was hanged in 1586 on
the charge of conspiring against Elizabeth in connexion with Anthony
Babington; while to his mother, Mary Habington, was attributed the
revelation of the Gunpowder Plot. The poet was sent to the college at St
Omer, but, pressure being brought to bear on him to induce him to become
a Jesuit, he removed to Paris. He married about 1632 Lucy, second
daughter of Sir William Herbert, first Baron Powys. This lady he had
addressed in the volume of lyrical poems arranged in two parts and
entitled _Castara_, published anonymously in 1634. In 1635 appeared a
second edition enlarged by three prose characters, fourteen new lyrics
and eight touching elegies on his friend and kinsman, George Talbot. The
third edition (1640) contains a third part consisting of a prose
character of "A Holy Man" and twenty-two devotional poems. Habington's
lyrics are full of the far-fetched "conceits" which were fashionable at
court, but his verse is quite free from the prevailing looseness of
morals. Indeed his reiterated praises of Castara's virtue grow
wearisome. He is at his best in his reflective poems on the uncertainty
of human life and kindred topics. He also wrote a _Historie of Edward
the Fourth_ (1640), based on notes provided by his father; a
tragi-comedy, _The Queene of Arragon_ (1640), published without his
consent by his kinsman, the earl of Pembroke, and revived at the
Restoration; and six essays on events in modern history, _Observations
upon History_ (1641). Anthony à Wood insinuated that during the
Commonwealth the poet "did run with the times, and was not unknown to
Oliver the usurper." He died on the 30th of November 1654.

  The works of Habington have not been collected. _The Queene of
  Arragon_ was reprinted in Dodsley's "Old Plays," vol. ix. (1825);
  _Castara_ was edited by Charles Elton (1812), and by E. Arber with a
  compact and comprehensive introduction (1870) for his "English
  Reprints."



HABIT (through the French from Lat. _habitus_, from _habere_, to have,
hold, or, in a reflective sense, to be in a certain condition; in many
of the English senses the French use _habitude_, not _habit_), condition
of body or mind, especially one that has become permanent or settled by
custom or persistent repetition, hence custom, usage. In botany and
zoology the term is used both in the above sense of instinctive action
of animals and tendencies of plants, and also of the manner of growth
or external appearance of a plant or animal. From the use of the word
for external appearances comes its use for fashion in dress, and hence
as a term for a lady's riding dress and for the particular form of
garment adopted by the members of a religious order, like "cowl" applied
as the mark of a monk or nun.



HABITAT (a French word derived from _habiter_, Lat. _habitare_, to
dwell), in botany and zoology, the term for the locality in which a
particular species of plants or animals thrives.



HABSBURG, or HAPSBURG, the name of the famous family from which have
sprung the dukes and archdukes of Austria from 1282, kings of Hungary
and Bohemia from 1526, and emperors of Austria from 1804. They were also
Roman emperors and German kings from 1438 to 1806, and kings of Spain
from 1516 to 1700, while the minor dignities held by them at different
times are too numerous to mention.

The name Habsburg, a variant of an older form, Habichtsburg (hawk's
castle), was taken from the castle of Habsburg, which was situated on
the river Aar not far from its junction with the Rhine. The castle was
built about 1020 by Werner, bishop of Strassburg, and his brother,
Radbot, the founder of the abbey of Muri. These men were grandsons of a
certain Guntram, who, according to some authorities, is identical with a
Count Guntram who flourished during the reign of the emperor Otto the
Great, and whose ancestry can be traced back to the time of the
Merovingian kings. This conjecture, however, is extremely problematical.
Among Radbot's sons was one Werner, and Werner and his son Otto were
called counts of Habsburg, Otto being probably made landgrave of upper
Alsace late in the 11th or early in the 12th century. At all events
Otto's son Werner (d. 1167), and the latter's son Albert (d. 1199), held
this dignity, and both landgraves increased the area of the Habsburg
lands. Albert became count of Zürich and protector of the monastery of
Säckingen, and obtained lands in the cantons of Unterwalden and Lucerne;
his son Rudolph, having assisted Frederick of Hohenstaufen, afterwards
the emperor Frederick II., against the emperor Otto IV., received the
county of Aargau. Both counts largely increased their possessions in the
districts now known as Switzerland and Alsace, and Rudolph held an
influential place among the Swabian nobility. After his death in 1232
his two sons, Albert and Rudolph, divided his lands and founded the
lines of Habsburg-Habsburg and Habsburg-Laufenburg. Rudolph's
descendants, counts of Habsburg-Laufenburg, were soon divided into two
branches, one of which became extinct in 1408 and the other seven years
later. Before this date, however, Laufenburg and some other districts
had been sold to the senior branch of the family, who thus managed to
retain the greater part of the Habsburg lands.

Rudolph's brother Albert (d. 1239), landgrave of Alsace, married Hedwig
of Kyburg (d. 1260), and from this union there was born in 1218 Rudolph,
the founder of the greatness of the house of Habsburg, and the first of
the family to ascend the German throne. Through his mother he inherited
a large part of the lands of the extinct family of Zähringen; he added
in other ways to his possessions, and was chosen German king in
September 1273. Acting vigorously in his new office, he defeated and
killed his most formidable adversary, Ottakar II., king of Bohemia, in
1278, and in December 1282 he invested his sons, Albert and Rudolph,
with the duchies of Austria and Styria, which with other lands had been
taken from Ottakar. This was an event of supreme moment in the history
of the Habsburgs, and was the first and most important stage in the
process of transferring the centre of their authority from western to
eastern Europe, from the Rhine to the Danube. On Rudolph's death in July
1291 the German crown passed for a time away from the Habsburgs, but in
July 1298 it was secured by his son, Albert, whose reign, however, was
short and uneventful. But before 1308, the year of Albert's death, the
long and troubled connexion of the Habsburgs with Bohemia had already
begun. In 1306 Wenceslas III., the last Bohemian king of the
P[vr]myslide dynasty, was murdered. Seizing the opportunity and
declaring that the vacant kingdom was an imperial fief, King Albert
bestowed it upon his eldest son, Rudolph, and married this prince to
Elizabeth, widow of Wenceslas II. and stepmother of Wenceslas III. But
Rudolph died in 1307, and his father's attempt to keep the country in
his own hands was ended by his murder in 1308.

Albert's successor as German king was Henry of Luxemburg (the emperor
Henry VII.), and this election may be said to initiate the long rivalry
between the houses of Habsburg and Luxemburg. But the immediate enemy of
the Habsburgs was not a Luxemburg but a Wittelsbach. Without making any
definite partition, Albert's five remaining sons spent their time in
governing their lands until 1314, when one of them, Frederick called the
Fair, forsook this comparatively uneventful occupation and was chosen by
a minority of the electors German king in succession to Henry VII. At
the same time the Wittelsbach duke of Bavaria, Louis, known to history
as the emperor Louis the Bavarian, was also chosen. War was inevitable,
and the battle of Mühldorf, fought in September 1322, sealed the fate of
Frederick. Louis was victorious: his rival went into an honourable
captivity, and the rising Habsburg sun underwent a temporary eclipse.

For more than a century after Frederick's death in 1330 the Habsburgs
were exiles from the German throne. But they were not inactive. In 1335
his two surviving brothers, Albert and Otto, inherited Carinthia and
part of Carniola by right of their mother, Elizabeth; in 1363 Albert's
son Rudolph received Tirol; and during the same century part of Istria,
Trieste and other districts were acquired. All King Albert's six sons
had died without leaving male issue save Otto, whose family became
extinct in 1344, and Albert, the ancestor of all the later Habsburgs. Of
Albert's four sons two also left no male heirs, but the remaining two,
Albert III. and Leopold III., were responsible for a division of the
family which is of some importance. By virtue of a partition made upon
their brother Rudolph's death in 1365 Albert and his descendants ruled
over Austria, while Leopold and his sons took Styria, Carinthia and
Tirol, Alsace remaining undivided as heretofore.

Towards the middle of the 15th century the German throne had been
occupied for nearly a hundred years by members of the Luxemburg family.
The reigning emperor Sigismund, who was also king of Hungary and
Bohemia, was without sons, and his daughter Elizabeth was the wife of
Albert of Habsburg, the grandson and heir of Duke Albert III., who had
died in 1395. Sigismund died in December 1437, leaving his two kingdoms
to his son-in-law, who was crowned king of Hungary in January 1438 and
king of Bohemia in the following June. Albert was also chosen and
crowned German king in succession to Sigismund, thus beginning the long
and uninterrupted connexion of his family with the imperial throne, a
connexion which lasted until the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in
1806. He did not, however, enjoy his new dignities for long, as he died
in October 1439 while engaged in a struggle with the Turks. Albert left
no sons, but soon after his death one was born to him, called Ladislaus,
who became duke of Austria and king of Hungary and Bohemia. Under the
guardianship of his kinsman, the emperor Frederick III., the young
prince's reign was a troubled one, and when he died unmarried in 1457
his branch of the family became extinct, and Hungary and Bohemia passed
away from the Habsburgs, who managed, however, to retain Austria.

Leopold III., duke of Carinthia and Styria, who was killed in 1386 at
the battle of Sempach, had four sons, of whom two only, Frederick and
Ernest, left male issue. Frederick and his only son, Sigismund, confined
their attention mainly to Tirol and Alsace, leaving the larger destinies
of the family in the hands of Ernest of Carinthia and Styria (d. 1424)
and his sons, Frederick and Albert and after the death of King Ladislaus
in 1457 these two princes and their cousin Sigismund were the only
representatives of the Habsburgs. In February 1440 Frederick of Styria
was chosen German king in succession to his kinsman Albert. He was a
weak and incompetent ruler, but a stronger and abler man might have
shrunk from the task of administering his heterogeneous and unruly
realm. Although very important in the history of the house of Habsburg,
Frederick's long reign was a period of misfortune, and the motto which
he assumed, A.E.I.O.U. (_Austriae est imperare orbi universo_), seemed
at the time a particularly foolish boast. He acted as guardian both to
Ladislaus of Hungary, Bohemia and Austria, and to Sigismund of Tirol,
and in all these countries his difficulties were increased by the
hostility of his brother Albert. Having disgusted the Tirolese he gave
up the guardianship of their prince in 1446, while in Hungary and
Bohemia he did absolutely nothing to establish the authority of his
ward; in 1452 the Austrians besieged him in Vienna Neustadt and
compelled him to surrender the person of Ladislaus, thus ending even his
nominal authority. When the young king died in 1457 the Habsburgs lost
Hungary and Bohemia, but they retained Austria, which, after some
disputing, Frederick and Albert divided between themselves, the former
taking lower and the latter upper Austria. This arrangement was of short
duration. In 1461 Albert made war upon his brother and forced him to
resign lower Austria, which, however, he recovered after Albert's death
in December 1463. Still more unfortunate was the German king in
Switzerland. For many years the Swiss had chafed under the rule of the
Habsburgs; during the reign of Rudolph I. they had shown signs of
resentment as the kingly power increased; and the struggle which had
been carried on for nearly two centuries had been almost uniformly in
their favour. It was marked by the victory of Morgarten over Duke
Leopold I. in 1315, and by that of Sempach over Leopold III. in 1386, by
the conquest of Aargau at the instigation of the emperor Sigismund early
in the 15th century, and by the final struggle for freedom against
Frederick III. and Sigismund of Tirol. Taking advantage of some
dissensions among the Swiss, the king saw an opportunity to recover his
lost lands, and in 1443 war broke out. But his allies, the men of
Zürich, were defeated, and when in August 1444 some French mercenaries,
who had advanced to his aid, suffered the same fate at St Jakob, he was
compelled to give up the struggle. A few years later Sigismund became
involved in a war with the same formidable foemen; he too was worsted,
and the "Perpetual Peace" of 1474 ended the rule of the Habsburgs in
Switzerland. This humiliation was the second great step in the process
of removing the Habsburgs from western to eastern Europe. In 1453, just
after his coronation as emperor at Rome, Frederick legalized the use of
the title archduke, which had been claimed spasmodically by the
Habsburgs since 1361. This title is now peculiar to the house of
Habsburg.

The reverses suffered by the Habsburgs during the reign of Frederick
III. were many and serious, but an improvement was at hand. The emperor
died in August 1493, and was followed on the imperial throne by his son
Maximilian I., perhaps the most versatile and interesting member of the
family. Before his father's death Maximilian had been chosen German
king, or king of the Romans, and had begun to repair the fortunes of his
house. He had married Mary, daughter and heiress of Charles the Bold,
duke of Burgundy; he had driven the Hungarians from Vienna and the
Austrian archduchies, which Frederick had, perforce, allowed them to
occupy; and he had received Tirol on the abdication of Sigismund in
1490. True it is that upon Mary's death in 1482 part of her inheritance,
the rich and prosperous Netherlands, held that her husband's authority
was at an end, while another part, the two Burgundies and Artois, had
been seized by the king of France; nevertheless, after a protracted
struggle the German king secured almost the whole of Charles the Bold's
lands for his son, the archduke Philip, the duchy of Burgundy alone
remaining in the power of France after the conclusion of the peace of
Senlis in 1493. Maximilian completed his work by adding a piece of
Bavaria, Görz and then Gradiska to the Habsburg lands.

After Sigismund's death in 1496 Maximilian and Philip were the only
living male members of the family. Philip married Joanna, daughter of
Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, and died in 1506 leaving two sons,
Charles and Ferdinand. Charles succeeded his father in the Netherlands;
he followed one grandfather, Ferdinand, as king of Spain in 1516, and
when the other, Maximilian, died in 1519 he became the emperor Charles
V., and succeeded to all the hereditary lands of the Habsburgs. But
provision had to be made for Ferdinand, and in 1521 this prince was
given the Austrian archduchies, Austria, Styria, Carinthia and Carniola;
in the same year he married Anne, daughter of Wladislaus, king of
Hungary and Bohemia, and when his childless brother-in-law, King Louis,
was killed at the battle of Mohacs in August 1526 he claimed the two
kingdoms, both by right of his wife and by treaty. After a little
trouble Bohemia passed under his rule, but Hungary was more
recalcitrant. A long war took place between Ferdinand and John Zapolya,
who was also crowned king of Hungary, but in 1538 a treaty was made and
the country was divided, the Habsburg prince receiving the western and
smaller portion. However, he was soon confronted with a more formidable
foe, and he spent a large part of his subsequent life in defending his
lands from the attacks of the Turks.

The Habsburgs had now reached the summit of their power. The prestige
which belonged to Charles as head of the Holy Roman Empire was backed by
the wealth and commerce of the Netherlands and of Spain, and by the
riches of the Spanish colonies in America. In Italy he ruled over
Sardinia, Naples and Sicily, which had passed to him with Spain, and the
duchy of Milan, which he had annexed in 1535; to the Netherlands he had
added Friesland, the bishopric of Utrecht, Gröningen and Gelderland, and
he still possessed Franche-Comté and the fragments of the Habsburg lands
in Alsace and the neighbourhood. Add to this Ferdinand's inheritance,
the Austrian archduchies and Tirol, Bohemia with her dependent
provinces, and a strip of Hungary, and the two brothers had under their
sway a part of Europe the extent of which was great, but the wealth and
importance of which were immeasurably greater. Able to scorn the rivalry
of the other princely houses of Germany, the Habsburgs saw in the kings
of the house of Valois the only foemen worthy of their regard.

When Charles V. abdicated he was succeeded as emperor, not by his son
Philip, but by his brother Ferdinand. Philip became king of Spain,
ruling also the Netherlands, Franche-Comté, Naples, Sicily, Milan and
Sardinia, and the family was definitely divided into the Spanish and
Austrian branches. For Spain and the Spanish Habsburgs the 17th century
was a period of loss and decay, the seeds of which were sown during the
reign of Philip II. The northern provinces of the Netherlands were lost
practically in 1609 and definitely by the treaty of Westphalia in 1648;
Roussillon and Artois were annexed to France by the treaty of the
Pyrenees in 1659, while Franche-Comté and a number of towns in the
Spanish Netherlands suffered a similar fate by the treaty of Nijmwegen
in 1678. Finally Charles II., the last Habsburg king of Spain, died
childless in November 1700, and his lands were the prize of the War of
the Spanish Succession. The Austrian Habsburgs fought long and valiantly
for the kingdom of their kinsman, but Louis XIV. was too strong for
them, and by the peace of Rastatt Spain passed from the Habsburgs to the
Bourbons. However, the Austrian branch of the family received in 1714
the Italian possessions of Charles II., except Sicily, which was given
to the duke of Savoy, and also the southern Netherlands, which are thus
often referred to as the Austrian Netherlands; and retained the duchy of
Mantua, which it had seized in 1708.

Ferdinand I., the founder of the line of the Austrian Habsburgs,
arranged a division of his lands among his three sons before his death
in 1564. The eldest, Maximilian II., received Austria, Bohemia and
Hungary, and succeeded his father as emperor; he married Maria, a
daughter of Charles V., and though he had a large family his male line
became extinct in 1619. The younger sons were Ferdinand, ruler of Tirol,
and Charles, archduke of Styria. The emperor Maximilian II. left five
sons, two of whom, Rudolph and Matthias, succeeded in turn to the
imperial throne, but, as all the brothers were without male issue, the
family was early in the 17th century threatened with a serious crisis.
Rudolph died in 1612, the reigning emperor Matthias was old and ill, and
the question of the succession to the Empire, to the kingdoms of
Hungary and Bohemia, and to the hereditary lands of the Habsburgs became
acute. Turning to the collateral branches of the family, the sons of the
archduke Ferdinand were debarred from the succession owing to their
father's morganatic marriage with Philippine Welser, and the only hope
of the house was in the sons of Charles of Styria. To prevent the
Habsburg monarchy from falling to pieces the emperor's two surviving
brothers renounced their rights, and it was decided that Ferdinand, a
son of Charles of Styria, should succeed his cousin Matthias. The
difficulties which impeded the completion of this scheme were gradually
overcome, and the result was that when Matthias died in 1619 the whole
of the lands of the Austrian Habsburgs was united under the rule of the
emperor Ferdinand II. Tirol, indeed, a few years later was separated
from the rest of the monarchy and given to the emperor's brother, the
archduke Leopold, but this separation was ended when Leopold's son died
in 1665.

The arbitrary measures which followed Ferdinand's acquisition of the
Bohemian crown contributed to the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War, but
in a short time the Bohemians were subdued, and in 1627, following a
precedent set in 1547, the emperor declared the throne hereditary in the
house of Habsburg. The treaty of Westphalia which ended this war took
comparatively little from the Habsburgs, though they ceded Alsace to
France; but the Empire was greatly weakened, and its ruler was more than
ever compelled to make his hereditary lands in the east of Europe the
base of his authority, finding that he derived more strength from his
position as archduke of Austria than from that of emperor. Ferdinand
III. succeeded his father Ferdinand II., and during the long reign of
the former's son, Leopold I., the Austrian, like the Spanish, Habsburgs
were on the defensive against the aggressive policy of Louis XIV., and
in addition they had to withstand the assaults of the Turks. In two ways
they sought to strengthen their position. The unity of the Austrian
lands was strictly maintained, and several marriages kept up a close and
friendly connexion with Spain. A series of victories over the sultan
during the later part of the 17th century rolled back the tide of the
Turkish advance, and the peace of Karlowitz made in 1699 gave nearly the
whole of Hungary to the Habsburgs. Against France Austria was less
successful, and a number of humiliations culminated in 1714 in the
failure to secure Spain, to which reference has already been made.

The hostility of Austria and France, or rather of Habsburg and Bourbon,
outlived the War of the Spanish Succession. In 1717 Spain conquered
Sardinia, which was soon exchanged by Austria for Sicily; other
struggles and other groupings of the European powers followed, and in
1735, by the treaty of Vienna, Austria gave up Naples and Sicily and
received the duchies of Parma and Piacenza. These surrenders were
doubtless inevitable, but they shook the position of the house of
Habsburg in Italy. However, a domestic crisis was approaching which
threw Italian affairs into the shade. Charles VI., who had succeeded his
brother, Joseph I., as emperor in 1711, was without sons, and his prime
object in life was to secure the succession of his elder daughter, Maria
Theresa, to the whole of his lands and dignities. But in 1713, four
years before the birth of Maria Theresa, he had first issued the famous
_Pragmatic Sanction_, which declared that the Habsburg monarchy was
indivisible and that in default of male heirs a female could succeed to
it. Then after the death of his only son and the birth of Maria Theresa
the emperor bent all his energies to securing the acceptance of the
Pragmatic Sanction. Promulgated anew in 1724, it was formally accepted
by the estates of the different Habsburg lands; in 1731 it was
guaranteed by the imperial diet. By subordinating every other interest
to this, Charles at length procured the assent of the various powers of
Europe to the proposed arrangement; he married the young princess to
Francis Stephen, duke of Lorraine, afterwards grand-duke of Tuscany, and
when he died on the 20th of October 1740 he appeared to have realized
his great ambition. With the emperor's death the house of Habsburg,
strictly speaking, became extinct, its place being taken by the house of
Habsburg-Lorraine, which sprang from the union of Maria Theresa and
Francis Stephen; and it is interesting to note that the present
Habsburgs are only descended in the female line from Rudolph I. and
Maximilian I.


GENEALOGICAL TABLE OF THE HOUSE OF HABSBURG-LORRAINE.

                 Maria Theresa (1717-1780) = Francis I., emperor (1708-1765).
                                           |
           +-------------------+-----------+----------------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
           |                   |                            |                                                                                                   |
  Joseph II., emperor   Leopold II., emperor   Maximilian, elector of Cologne                                                                                   |
      (1741-1790).          (1747-1792).               (1756-1801).                                                                                             |
                                                                                                                                                                |
           +--------------------+--------------------+--------------+-------------+-------------+------------+--------------+-------------+--------------+      |
           |                    |                    |              |             |             |            |              |             |              |      |
  Francis II., emperor    Ferdinand III.,         Charles        Leopold        Joseph        Antony        John          Rainer        Louis         Rudolph   |
  (1768-1835).         grand-duke of Tuscany     (1771-1847).  (1772-1795).  (1776-1847).  (1780-1835).  (1782-1859).  (1783-1853).  (1784-1864).  (1788-1831). |
              |            (1769-1824).              |                            |                                         |                                   |
              |           (see below.)               |                            |              +-------------+------------+-+------------+-----------+        |
              |                                      |                            |              |             |              |            |           |        |
         +----+-----------------+                    |                          Joseph        Leopold        Ernest      Sigismund      Rainer      Henry       |
         |                      |                    |                        (1833-1905).  (1823-1898).  (1824-1899).  (1826-1891).  (b. 1827).  (1828-1891).  |
    Ferdinand I.         Francis Charles             |                            |                                                                             |
  emperor of Austria     (1802-1878).                |                            |                                                                             |
     (1793-1875).               |                    +-------------------+    Joseph Augustus                                                 +-----------------+
                                |                                        |      (b. 1872).                                                    |
         +------------------+---+---------------+--------------+         |           |                                                        |
         |                  |                   |              |         |        +--+--------------+                                         |
    Francis Joseph,      Maximilian,      Charles Louis   Louis Victor   |        |                 |                                         |
  emperor of Austria   emperor of Mexico   (1833-1896).    (b. 1842).    |  Joseph Francis      Ladislaus                          Ferdinand, duke of Modena
      (b. 1830).          (1832-1867).           |                       |  (b. 1895).          (b. 1901).                               (1754-1806).
         |                                       |                       |                                                                    |
      Rudolph           +-----------------+------+--------+              +--+----------------+---------------+                +---------------+-----------+
    (1858-1889).        |                 |               |                 |                |               |                |               |           |
               Francis Ferdinand        Otto          Ferdinand          Albert,      Charles Ferdinand   William        Francis IV.     Maximilian   Ferdinand
                   (b. 1863).        (1865-1906).    Charles Louis   duke of Teschen     (1818-1874).    (1827-1894).   duke of Modena     Joseph    (1781-1850).
                                          |           (b. 1868).      (1817-1895).            |                           (1779-1846).  (1782-1863).
                                          |                                                   |                               |
                               +----------+-----------+                                       |                               |
                               |                      |                                       |                               |
                      Charles Francis Joseph   Maximilian Eugene           +------------------+-+-----------+              +--+-----------+
                         (b. 1887).               (b. 1895).               |                    |           |              |              |
                                                                       Frederick        Charles Stephen   Eugene      Francis V.,     Ferdinand
                                                                    duke of Teschen        (b. 1860).    (b. 1863).  duke of Modena  (1821-1849).
                                                                       (b. 1856).               |                     (1819-1875).
                                                                          |                     |
                                                                          |               +-----+---------+------------+
                                                                          |               |               |            |
                                                                       Albert       Charles Albert   Leo Charles     William
                                                                      (b. 1897).     (b. 1888).       (b. 1893).    (b. 1895).


                                                                                     TUSCANY.

                                                                      Ferdinand III., grand-duke of Tuscany
                                                                                    (1769-1824).
                                                                                         |
                                                                       Leopold II., grand-duke of Tuscany
                                                                                    (1797-1870).
                                                                                         |
                                           +------------------------+--------------------+----------+--------------------+
                                           |                        |                               |                    |
                                     Ferdinand IV.          Louis Salvator                  Charles Salvator    John Nepomuck Salvator
                                 grand-duke of Tuscany         (b. 1847).                      (1839-1892).           (1852-1891).
                                       (b. 1835).                                                   |
                                           |                                               +--------+-------------+----------------+
                  +--------------------+---+--------------+-----------------+              |                      |                |
                  |                    |                  |                 |       Leopold Salvator       Francis Salvator  Albert Salvator
          Leopold Ferdinand    Joseph Ferdinand   Peter Ferdinand   Henry Ferdinand     (b. 1863).             (b. 1866).      (1871-1896).
                                   (b. 1872).         (b. 1874).        (b. 1878).         |                      |
                                                          |                                |         +----------+-+--------+-----------+
                                                  +-------+----+                           |         |          |          |           |
                                                  |            |                           |  Francis Charles  Hubert    Theodore    Clement
                                               Godfrey      George                         |     Salvator     Salvator   Salvator    Salvator
                                              (b. 1902).   (b. 1905).                      |    (b. 1893).    (b. 1894). (b. 1899). (b. 1904).
                                                                                           |
                                                                            +--------------+-----------+--------------+
                                                                            |              |           |              |
                                                                      Rainer Charles    Leopold     Antony     Francis Joseph
                                                                         (b. 1895).    (b. 1897).  (b. 1901).    (b. 1905).

Immediately after the death of Charles the Pragmatic Sanction was
forgotten. A crowd of claimants called for various parts of the Habsburg
lands; Frederick the Great, talking less but acting more, invaded and
conquered Silesia, and it seemed likely that the dissolution of the
Habsburg monarchy would at no long interval follow the extinction of the
Habsburg race. A Wittelsbach prince, Charles Albert, elector of Bavaria,
the emperor Charles VII., and not Francis Stephen, was chosen emperor in
January 1742, and by the treaty of Breslau, made later in the same year,
nearly all Silesia was formally surrendered to Prussia. But the worst
was now over, and when in 1748 the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, which
practically confirmed the treaty of Breslau, had cleared away the dust
of war, Maria Theresa and her consort were found to occupy a strong
position in Europe. In the first place, in September 1745, Francis had
been chosen emperor; then the imperial pair ruled Hungary and Bohemia,
although the latter kingdom was shorn of Silesia; in spite of French
conquests the Austrian Netherlands remained in their hands; and in Italy
Francis had added Tuscany to his wife's heritage, although Parma and
Piacenza had been surrendered to Spain and part of Milan to the king of
Sardinia. The diplomatic _volte-face_ and the futile attempts of Maria
Theresa to recover Silesia which followed this treaty belong to the
general history of Europe.

The emperor Francis I. died in 1765 and was succeeded by his son Joseph
II., an ambitious and able prince, whose aim was to restore the
Habsburgs and the Empire to their former great positions in Europe, and
whose pride did not prevent him from learning from Frederick the Great,
the despoiler of his house. His projects, however, including one of
uniting Bavaria with Austria, which was especially cherished, failed
completely, and when he died in February 1790 he left his lands in a
state of turbulence which reflected the general condition of Europe. The
Netherlands had risen against the Austrians, and in January 1790 had
declared themselves independent; Hungary, angered by Joseph's despotic
measures, was in revolt, and the other parts of the monarchy were hardly
more contented. But the 18th century saw a few successes for the
Habsburgs. In 1718 a successful war with Turkey was ended by the peace
of Passarowitz, which advanced the Austrian boundary very considerably
to the east, and although by the treaty of Belgrade, signed twenty-one
years later, a large part of this territory was surrendered, yet a
residuum, the banate of Temesvar, was permanently incorporated with
Hungary. The struggle over the succession to Bavaria, which was
concluded in 1779 by the treaty of Teschen, was responsible for adding
Innviertel, or the quarter of the Inn, to Austria; the first partition
of Poland brought eastern Galicia and Lodomeria, and in 1777 the sultan
ceded Bukovina. Joseph II. was followed by his brother, Leopold II., who
restored the Austrian authority in the Netherlands, and the latter by
his son Francis II., who resigned the crown of the Holy Roman Empire in
August 1806, having two years before taken the title of emperor of
Austria as Francis I.

Before the abdication of the emperor Francis in 1806 Austria had met and
suffered from the fury of revolutionary France, but the cessions of
territory made by her at the treaties of Campo Formio (1797), of
Lunéville (1801) and of Pressburg (1805) were of no enduring importance.
This, however, cannot be said for the treaties of Paris and of Vienna,
which in 1814 and 1815 arranged the map of Europe upon the conclusion of
the Napoleonic wars. These were highly favourable to the Habsburgs. In
eastern and central Europe Austria regained her former position, the
lands ceded to Bavaria and also eastern Galicia, which had been in the
hands of Russia since 1809, being restored; she gave up the Austrian
Netherlands, soon to be known as Belgium, to the new kingdom of the
Netherlands, and acquiesced in the arrangement which had taken from her
the Breisgau and the remnant of the Habsburg lands upon the Rhine. In
return for these losses Austria became the dominant power In Italy. A
mass of northern Italy, including her former possessions in Milan and
the neighbourhood, and also the lands recently forming the republic of
Venice, was made into the kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia, and this owned
the emperor of Austria as king. Across the Adriatic Dalmatia was added
to the Habsburg monarchy, the population of which, it has been
estimated, was increased at this time by over four millions.

The illiberal and oppressive character of the Austrian rule in Italy
made it very unpopular; it was hardly less so in Hungary and Bohemia,
and the advent of the year 1848 found the subject kingdoms eager to
throw off the Habsburg yoke. The whole monarchy was quickly in a state
of revolution, in the midst of which the emperor Ferdinand, who had
succeeded his father Francis in 1835, abdicated, and his place was taken
by his young nephew Francis Joseph. The position of the Habsburg
monarchy now seemed desperate. But it was strong in its immemorial
tradition, which was enough to make the efforts of the Frankfort
parliament to establish German unity under Prussian hegemony abortive;
it was strong also in the general loyalty to the throne of the imperial
army; and its counsels were directed by statesmen who knew well how to
exploit in the interests of the central power the national rivalries
within the monarchy. With the crushing of the Hungarian revolt by the
emperor Nicholas I. of Russia in 1849 the monarchy was freed from the
most formidable of its internal troubles; in 1850 the convention of
Olmütz restored its influence in Germany.

Though the _status quo_ was thus outwardly re-established, the
revolutions of 1848 had really unchained forces which made its
maintenance impossible. In Germany Prussia was steadily preparing for
the inevitable struggle with Austria for the mastery; in France Napoleon
III. was preparing to pose as the champion of the oppressed
nationalities which had once more settled down sullenly under the
Habsburg yoke. The alliance of the French emperor and the king of
Sardinia, and the Italian war of 1859 ended in the loss of Lombardy to
the Habsburgs. Seven years later the crushing defeat of Königgrätz not
only ended their long rule in Italy, based on the tradition of the
medieval empire, by leading to the cession of Venetia to the new Italian
kingdom, but led to their final exclusion from the German confederation,
soon to become, under the headship of Prussia, the German empire.

By the loss of the predominance in Germany conceded to it by the
treaties of Vienna, and by the shifting of its "centre of gravity"
eastward, the Habsburg monarchy, however, perhaps gained more than it
lost. One necessary result, indeed, was the composition (_Ausgleich_)
with Hungary in 1867, by which the latter became an independent state
(Francis Joseph being crowned king at Pest in June 1867) bound to the
rest of the monarchy only by the machinery necessary for the carrying
out of a common policy in matters of common interest. This at least
restored the loyalty of the Hungarians to the Habsburg dynasty; it is
too soon yet to say that it secured permanently the essential unity of
the Habsburg monarchy. By the system of the Dual Monarchy the rest of
the Austrian emperor's dominions (Cis-Leithan) were consolidated under a
single central government, the history of which has been mainly that of
the rival races within the empire struggling for political predominance.
Since the development of the constitution has been consistently in a
democratic direction and the Slavs are in a great majority, the tendency
has been for the German element--strong in its social status and
tradition of predominance--to be swamped by what it regards as an
inferior race; and a considerable number of Austrian "Germans" have
learned to look not to their Habsburg rulers, but to the power of the
German empire for political salvation. The tendency eastwards of the
monarchy was increased when in 1878 the congress of Berlin placed Bosnia
and Herzegovina under Austrian rule. Old ambitions were now revived at
the expense of the Ottoman empire, the goal of which was the port of
Salonica; and not the least menacing aspect of the question of the near
East has been that the rivalry of Italy and the Habsburg monarchy has
been transferred to the Balkan peninsula. Yet, in spite of internal
dissensions arising out of questions fundamentally insoluble, and in
spite of the constant threat of external complications that may lead to
war, the Habsburg monarchy as the result of the changes in the 19th and
20th centuries is seemingly stronger than ever. The shadow of universal
claims to empire and sonorous but empty titles have vanished, but so
have the manifold rivalries and entanglements which accompanied the
Habsburg rule in Italy and the Netherlands and Habsburg preponderance in
Germany. The monarchy is stronger because its sphere is more defined;
because as preserving the _pax Romana_ among the jostling races of
eastern Europe, it is more than ever recognized as an essential element
in the maintenance of European peace, and is recognized as necessary and
beneficial even by the ambitious and restless nationalities that chafe
under its rule.

A few words must be said about the cadet branches of the Habsburg
family. When, in 1765, Francis I. died and Joseph II. became emperor,
the grand-duchy of Tuscany passed by special arrangement not to Joseph,
but to his younger brother Leopold. Then in 1791, after Leopold had
succeeded Joseph as emperor, he handed over the grand-duchy to his
second son, Ferdinand (1769-1824). In 1801 this prince was deposed by
Napoleon and Tuscany was seized by France. Restored to the Habsburgs in
the person of Ferdinand in 1814, it remained under his rule, and then
under that of his son Leopold (1797-1870), until the rising of 1859,
when the Austrians were driven out and the grand-duchy was added to the
kingdom of Sardinia. A similar fate attended the duchy of Modena, which
had passed to the Habsburgs through the marriage of its heiress Mary
Beatrice of Este (d. 1829) with the archduke Ferdinand (1754-1806),
brother of the emperor Leopold II. From 1814 to 1846 this duchy was
governed by Ferdinand's son, Duke Francis IV., and from 1846 to 1859 by
his grandson, Francis V. This family became extinct on the death of
Francis V. in 1875.

In addition to his successor Francis II., and to Ferdinand, grand-duke
of Tuscany, the emperor Leopold II. had eight sons, five of whom,
including the archduke John (1782-1859), who saw a good deal of service
during the Napoleonic Wars and was chosen regent (_Reichsverweser_) of
Germany in 1848, have now no living male descendants. Thus the existing
branches of the family are descended from Leopold's five other sons. The
descendants of Leopold, the dispossessed grand-duke of Tuscany, were in
1909 represented by his son, Ferdinand (b. 1835), who still claimed the
title of grand-duke of Tuscany, and his son and grandsons; by the
numerous descendants of the archduke Charles Salvator (1830-1892); and
by the archduke Louis Salvator (b. 1847), a great traveller and a
voluminous writer. The grand-duke's fourth son was the archduke John
Nepomuck Salvator, who, after serving in the Austrian army, resigned all
his rights and titles and under the name of Johann Orth took command of
a sailing vessel. He is supposed to have been drowned off the coast of
South America in 1891, but reports of his continued existence were
circulated from time to time after that date. Of the emperor Leopold's
other sons the archduke Charles, perhaps the most distinguished soldier
of the family, left four sons, including Albert, duke of Teschen
(1817-1895), who inherited some of his father's military ability.
Charles's family was in 1909 represented by his grandsons, the sons of
the archduke Charles Ferdinand (1818-1874). The archduke Joseph
(1776-1847), palatine of Hungary, was represented by a grandson, Joseph
Augustus (b. 1872), and the archduke Rainer (1783-1853), viceroy of
Lombardy-Venetia, by a son Rainer (b. 1827), and by several grandsons.

The eldest and reigning branch of the family was in 1909 represented by
the emperor Francis Joseph, whose father was the archduke Francis
Charles (1802-1878), and whose grandfather was the emperor Francis II.
Francis Joseph's only son Rudolph died in 1889; consequently the heir to
the Habsburg monarchy was the emperor's nephew Francis Ferdinand (b.
1863), the eldest of the three sons of his brother Charles Louis
(1833-1896). In 1875 Francis Ferdinand inherited the wealth of the Este
family and took the title of archduke of Austria-Este; in 1900 he
contracted a morganatic marriage with Sophia, countess of Chotek,
renouncing for his sons the succession to the monarchy. Thus after
Francis Ferdinand this would pass to the sons of his brother, the
archduke Otto (1865-1906). One of the emperor's three brothers was
Maximilian, emperor of Mexico from 1863 to 1867.

With the exception of Charles V. the Habsburgs have produced no
statesmen of great ability, while several members of the family have
displayed marked traces of insanity. Nevertheless they secured, and for
over 350 years they kept, the first place among the potentates of
Europe; a dignity in origin and theory elective becoming in practice
hereditary in their house. This position they owe to some extent to the
tenacity with which they have clung to the various lands and dignities
which have passed into their possession, but they owe it much more to a
series of fortunate marriages and opportune deaths. The union of
Maximilian and Mary of Burgundy, of Philip the Handsome and Joanna of
Spain, of Ferdinand and Anna of Hungary and Bohemia; the death of
Ottakar of Bohemia, of John, the only son of Ferdinand and Isabella of
Spain, of Louis of Hungary and Bohemia--these are the corner-stones upon
which the Habsburg monarchy has been built.

  For the origin and early history of the Habsburgs see G. de Roo,
  _Annales rerum ab Austriacis Habsburgicae gentis principibus a
  Rudolpho I. usque ad Carolum V. gestarum_ (Innsbruck, 1592, fol.); M.
  Herrgott, _Genealogia diplomatica augustae gentis Habsburgicae_
  (Vienna, 1737-1738); E. M. Fürst von Lichnowsky, _Geschichte des
  Hauses Habsburg_ (Vienna, 1836-1844); A. Schulte, _Geschichte der
  Habsburger in den ersten drei Jahrhunderten_ (Innsbruck, 1887); T. von
  Liebenau, _Die Anfänge des Hauses Habsburg_ (Vienna, 1883); W. Merz,
  _Die Habsburg_ (Aarau, 1896); W. Gisi, _Der Ursprung der Häuser
  Zähringen und Habsburg_ (1888); and F. Weihrich, _Stammtafel zur
  Geschichte des Hauses Habsburg_ (Vienna, 1893). For the history of the
  Habsburg monarchy see Langl, _Die Habsburg und die denkwürdigen
  Stätten ihrer Umgebung_ (Vienna, 1895); and E. A. Freeman, _Historical
  Geography of Europe_ (1881). Two English books on the subject are J.
  Gilbart-Smith, _The Cradle of the Hapsburgs_ (1907); and A. R. and E.
  Colquhoun, _The Whirlpool of Europe, Austria-Hungary and the
  Hapsburgs_ (1906).     (A. W. H.*)



HACHETTE, JEAN NICOLAS PIERRE (1769-1834), French mathematician, was
born at Mézières, where his father was a bookseller, on the 6th of May
1769. For his early education he proceeded first to the college of
Charleville, and afterwards to that of Reims. In 1788 he returned to
Mézières, where he was attached to the school of engineering as
draughtsman to the professors of physics and chemistry. In 1793 he
became professor of hydrography at Collioure and Port-Vendre. While
there he sent several papers, in which some questions of navigation were
treated geometrically, to Gaspard Monge, at that time minister of
marine, through whose influence he obtained an appointment in Paris.
Towards the close of 1794, when the École Polytechnique was established,
he was appointed along with Monge over the department of descriptive
geometry. There he instructed some of the ablest Frenchmen of the day,
among them S. D. Poisson, F. Arago and A. Fresnel. Accompanying Guyton
de Morveau in his expedition, earlier in the year, he was present at the
battle of Fleurus, and entered Brussels with the French army. In 1816,
on the accession of Louis XVIII., he was expelled from his chair by
government. He retained, however, till his death the office of professor
in the faculty of sciences in the École Normale, to which he had been
appointed in 1810. The necessary royal assent was in 1823 refused to the
election of Hachette to the Académie des Sciences, and it was not till
1831, after the Revolution, that he obtained that honour. He died at
Paris on the 16th of January 1834. Hachette was held in high esteem for
his private worth, as well as for his scientific attainments and great
public services. His labours were chiefly in the field of descriptive
geometry, with its application to the arts and mechanical engineering.
It was left to him to develop the geometry of Monge, and to him also is
due in great measure the rapid advancement which France made soon after
the establishment of the École Polytechnique in the construction of
machinery.

  Hachette's principal works are his _Deux Supplements à la Géométrie
  descriptive de Monge_ (1811 and 1818); _Éléments de géométrie à trois
  dimensions_ (1817); _Collection des épures de géométrie_, &c. (1795
  and 1817); _Applications de géométrie descriptive_ (1817); _Traité de
  géométrie descriptive_, &c. (1822); _Traité élémentaire des machines_
  (1811); _Correspondance sur l'École Polytechnique_ (1804-1815). He
  also contributed many valuable papers to the leading scientific
  journals of his time.

  For a list of Hachette's writings see the _Catalogue of Scientific
  Papers of the Royal Society of London_; also F. Arago, _Oeuvres_
  (1855); and Silvestre, _Notice sur J. N. P. Hachette_ (Bruxelles,
  1836).



HACHETTE, JEANNE, French heroine. Jeanne Lainé, or Fourquet, called
Jeanne Hachette, was born about 1454. We have no precise information
about her family or origin. She is known solely for her act of heroism
which on the 27th of June 1472 saved Beauvais when it was on the point
of being taken by the troops of Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy. The
town was defended by only 300 men-at-arms, commanded by Louis de
Balagny. The Burgundians were making an assault, and one of their number
had actually planted a flag upon the battlements, when Jeanne, axe in
hand, flung herself upon him, hurled him into the moat, tore down the
flag, and revived the drooping courage of the garrison. In gratitude for
this heroic deed, Louis XI. instituted a procession in Beauvais called
the Procession of the Assault, and married Jeanne to her chosen lover
Colin Pilon, loading them with favours.

  See Georges Vallat, _Jeanne Hachette_ (Abbeville, 1898).



HACHETTE, LOUIS CHRISTOPHE FRANÇOIS (1800-1864), French publisher, was
born at Rethel in the Ardennes on the 5th of May 1800. After studying
three years at a normal school with the view of becoming a teacher, he
was in 1822 on political grounds expelled from the seminary. He then
studied law, but in 1826 he established in Paris a publishing business
for the issue of works adapted to improve the system of school
instruction, or to promote the general culture of the community. He
published manuals in various departments of knowledge, dictionaries of
modern and ancient languages, educational journals, and French, Latin
and Greek classics annotated with great care by the most eminent
authorities. Subsequently to 1850 he, in conjunction with other
partners, published a cheap railway library, scientific and
miscellaneous libraries, an illustrated library for the young, libraries
of ancient literature, of modern foreign literature, and of modern
foreign romance, a series of guide-books and a series of dictionaries of
universal reference. In 1855 he also founded _Le Journal pour tous_, a
publication with a circulation of 150,000 weekly. Hachette also
manifested great interest in the formation of mutual friendly societies
among the working classes, in the establishment of benevolent
institutions, and in other questions relating to the amelioration of the
poor, on which subjects he wrote various pamphlets; and he lent the
weight of his influence towards a just settlement of the question of
international literary copyright. He died on the 31st of July 1864.



HACHURE (French for "hatching"), the term for the conventional lines
used in hill or mountain shading upon a map (q.v.) to indicate the slope
of the surface, the depth of shading being greatest where the slope is
steepest. The method is less accurate than that of contour lines, but
gives an indication of the trend and extent of a range or mountain
system, especially upon small-scale maps.



HACIENDA (O. Span, _facienda_, from the Latin, meaning "things to be
done"), a Spanish term for a landed estate. It is commonly applied in
Spanish America to a country estate, on which stock-raising,
manufacturing or mining may be carried on, usually with a dwelling-house
for the owner's residence upon it. It is thus used loosely for a country
house.



HACKBERRY, a name given to the fruit of _Celtis occidentalis_, belonging
to the natural botanical order _Ulmaceae_, to which also belongs the elm
(_Ulmus_). It is also known under the name of "sugar-berry,"
"beaver-wood" and "nettle-tree." The hackberry tree is of middle size,
attaining from 60 to 80 ft. in height (though sometimes reaching 130
ft.), and with the aspect of an elm. The leaves are ovate in shape, with
a very long taper point, rounded and usually very oblique at the base,
usually glabrous above and soft-pubescent beneath. The soft filmy
flowers appear early in the spring before the expansion of the leaves.
The fruit is oblong, about half to three-quarters of an inch long, of a
reddish or yellowish colour when young, turning to a dark purple in
autumn. This tree is distributed through the deep shady forests
bordering river banks from Canada (where it is very rare) to the
southern states. The fruit has a sweetish and slightly astringent taste,
and is largely eaten in the United States. The seeds contain an oil like
that of almonds. The bark is tough and fibrous like hemp, and the wood
is heavy, soft, fragile and coarse-grained, and is used for making
fences and furniture. The root has been used as a dye for linens.



HACKENSACK, a town and the county-seat of Bergen county, New Jersey,
U.S.A., on the Hackensack river, 13 m. N. of Jersey City. Pop. (1890),
6004; (1900), 9443, of whom 2009 were foreign-born and 515 were negroes;
(1905) 11,098; (1910) 14,050. It is served by the New York, Susquehanna
& Western, and the New Jersey & New York railways, both being controlled
by the Erie Company; and indirectly by the West Shore (at Bogota, ½ m.
S.E.). Electric lines connect Hackensack with Newark, Passaic and
Paterson, and with New York ferries. The town extends from the low bank
of the river W. to the top of a ridge, about 40 ft. higher up, from
which there are good views to the S. and E. Hackensack is principally a
residential town, though there are a number of manufacturing
establishments in and near it. Silk and silk goods and wall-paper are
the principal manufactures. In 1905 the value of the town's factory
product was $1,488,358, an increase of 90.3% since 1900. There are an
historic mansion-house and an interesting old Dutch church, both erected
during the 18th century; and a monument marks the grave of General Enoch
Poor (1736-1780), an officer in the War of Independence, who was born at
Andover, Mass., entered the Continental Army from New Hampshire, and
took part in the campaign against Burgoyne, in the battle of Monmouth
and in General Sullivan's expedition against the Iroquois. Hackensack
was settled by the Dutch about 1640, and was named after the Hackensack
Indians, a division of the Unami Delawares, who lived in the valleys of
the Hackensack and Passaic rivers, and whose best-known chief was
Oritany, a friend of the whites. Hackensack is coextensive with the
township of New Barbadoes, first incorporated with considerably larger
territory in 1693.



HACKET, JOHN (1592-1670), bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, was born in
London and educated at Westminster and Trinity College, Cambridge. On
taking his degree he was elected a fellow of his college, and soon
afterwards wrote the comedy of _Loiola_ (London, 1648), which was twice
performed before James I. He was ordained in 1618, and through the
influence of John Williams (1582-1650) became rector in 1621 of Stoke
Hammond, Bucks, and Kirkby Underwood, Lincolnshire. In 1623 he was
chaplain to James, and in 1624 Williams presented him to the livings of
St Andrew's, Holborn, and Cheam, Surrey. When the so-called
"root-and-branch bill" was before parliament in 1641, Hacket was
selected to plead in the House of Commons for the continuance of
cathedral establishments. In 1645 his living of St Andrew's was
sequestered, but he was allowed to retain the rectory of Cheam. On the
accession of Charles II. his fortunes improved; he frequently preached
before the king, and in 1661 was consecrated bishop of Lichfield and
Coventry. His best-known book is the excellent biography of his patron,
Archbishop Williams, entitled _Scrinia reserata: a Memorial offered to
the great Deservings of John Williams, D.D._ (London, 1693).



HACKETT, HORATIO BALCH (1808-1875), American biblical scholar, was born
in Salisbury, Massachusetts, on the 27th of December 1808. He was
educated at Phillips-Andover Academy, at Amherst College, where he
graduated as valedictorian in 1830, and at Andover Theological Seminary,
where he graduated in 1834. He was adjunct professor of Latin and Greek
Languages and Literature at Brown University in 1835-1838 and professor
of Hebrew Literature there in 1838-1839, was ordained to the Baptist
ministry in 1839--he had become a Baptist at Andover as the result of
preparing a paper on baptism in the New Testament and the Fathers--and
in 1839-1868 he was professor of Biblical literature and interpretation
in Newton Theological Institution where his most important work was the
introduction of the modern German methods of Biblical criticism, which
he had learned from Moses Stuart at Andover and with which he made
himself more familiar in Germany (especially under Tholuck at Halle) in
1841. He travelled in Egypt and Palestine in 1852, and in 1858-1859 in
Greece, becoming proficient in modern Greek. From 1870 until his death
in Rochester, New York, on the 2nd of November 1875, he was professor of
Biblical literature and New Testament exegesis in the Rochester
Theological Seminary. He was a great teacher but a greater critical and
exegetical scholar.

  He wrote _Christian Memorials of the War_ (1864); an English version
  of Winer's _Grammar of the Chaldee Language_ (1844); _Exercises in
  Hebrew Grammar_ (1847); and various articles on the Semitic language
  and literature in periodicals; but his best-known work was in general
  commentary on the Bible and translation, and in the special text study
  of the New Testament. Under these two headings fall: _Illustrations of
  Scripture; suggested by a Tour through the Holy Land_ (1855); the
  American revision, with Ezra Abbot, of Smith's _Dictionary of the
  Bible_, to the British edition of which he had contributed about
  thirty articles; _Commentary on the Original Text of the Acts of the
  Apostles_ (1852; 2nd edition, 1858), for many years the best English
  commentary; _Notes on the Greek Text of the Epistle of Paul to
  Philemon_, and a _Revised Version_ of Philemon, both published in
  1860; the English versions, in Schaff's edition of Lange's
  _Commentaries_, of Van Oosterzee's _Philemon_ and Braune's
  _Philippians_; and for the American Bible Union Version of the Bible
  he translated the books of Ruth and Judges, and aided T. J. Conant in
  editorial revision; and he was one of the American translators for the
  English Bible revision.

  See _Memorials of Horatio Batch Hackett_ (Rochester, N.Y., 1876),
  edited by G. H. Whittemore.



HACKETT, JAMES HENRY (1800-1871), American actor, was born in New York.
After an unsuccessful entry into business, in 1826 he went on the stage,
where he soon established a reputation as a player of eccentric
character parts. As Falstaff he was no less successful in England than
in America. At various times he went into management, and he was the
author of _Notes and Comments on Shakespeare_ (1863).

His son, JAMES KETELTAS HACKETT (1869-   ), born at Wolfe Island,
Ontario, and educated at the College of the City of New York, also
became an actor. He came into prominence at the Lyceum in Daniel
Frohman's company, and afterwards had considerable success in romantic
parts. As a manager he stood outside the American syndicate of theatres,
and organized several companies to play throughout the United States. In
1897 he married Mary Mannering, the Anglo-American actress.



HACKLÄNDER, FRIEDRICH WILHELM VON (1816-1877), German novelist and
dramatist, was born at Burtscheid near Aix-la-Chapelle on the 1st of
November 1816. Having served an apprenticeship in a commercial house, he
entered the Prussian artillery, but, disappointed at not finding
advancement, returned to business. A soldier's life had a fascination
for him, and he made his début as an author with _Bilder aus dem
Soldatenleben im Frieden_ (1841). After a journey to the east, he was
appointed secretary to the crown prince of Württemberg, whom he
accompanied on his travels. _Wachtstubenabenteuer_, a continuation of
his first work, appeared in 1845, and it was followed by _Bilder aus dem
Soldatenleben im Kriege_ (1849-1850). As a result of a tour in Spain in
1854, appeared _Ein Winter in Spanien_ (1855). In 1857 he founded, in
conjunction with Edmund von Zoller, the illustrated weekly, _Über Land
und Meer_. In 1859 Hackländer was appointed director of royal parks and
public gardens at Stuttgart, and in this post did much towards the
embellishment of the city. In 1859 he was attached to the headquarters
staff of the Austrian army during the Italian war; in 1861 he was raised
to an hereditary knighthood in Austria; in 1864 he retired into private
life, and died on the 6th of July 1877. Hackländer's literary talent is
confined within narrow limits. There is much in his works of lively,
adventurous and even romantic description, but the character-drawing is
feeble and superficial.

  Hackländer was a voluminous writer; the most complete edition of his
  works is the third, published at Stuttgart in 1876, in 60 volumes.
  There is also a good selection in 20 volumes (1881). Among his novels,
  _Namenlose Geschichten_ (1851); _Eugen Stillfried_ (1852); _Krieg und
  Frieden_ (1859), and the comedies _Der geheime Agent_ (1850) and
  _Magnetische Kuren_ (1851) may be specially mentioned. His
  autobiography appeared in 1878 under the title, _Der Roman meines
  Lebens_ (2 vols.). See H. Morning, _Erinnerungen an F. W. Hackländer_
  (1878).



HACKNEY, a north-eastern metropolitan borough of London, England,
bounded W. by Stoke Newington and Islington, and S. by Shoreditch,
Bethnal Green and Poplar, and extending N. and E. to the boundary of the
county of London. Pop. (1901), 219,272. It is a poor and populous
district, in which the main thoroughfares are Kingsland Road, continued
N. as Stoke Newington Road and Stamford Hill; Mare Street, continued
N.W. as Clapton Road to join Stamford Hill; and Lea Bridge Road running
N.E. towards Walthamstow and Low Leyton. The borough includes the
districts of Clapton in the north, Homerton in the east, and Dalston and
part of Kingsland in the west. On the east lies the open flat valley of
the Lea, which flows in several branches, and is bordered, immediately
outside the confines of the borough, by the extensive reservoirs of the
East London water-works. In these low lands lie the Hackney Marshes (338
acres; among several so-called marshes in the Lea valley), and the
borough also contains part of Victoria Park and a number of open spaces
collectively called the Hackney Commons, including Mill Fields, Hackney
Downs, London Fields, &c. The total area of open spaces exceeds 500
acres. The tower of the ancient parish church of St Augustine, with the
chapel of the Rowe family, still stands, and is the only historic
building of importance. Among institutions are the German hospital,
Dalston, Metropolitan hospital, Kingsland Road, and Eastern Fever
hospital, Homerton; and the Hackney polytechnic institute, with which is
incorporated the Sir John Cass institute. Cass (1666-1718), a merchant
of the city of London, also a member of parliament and sheriff,
bequeathed £1000 for the foundation of a free school; in 1732 the
bequest was increased in accordance with an unfinished codicil to his
will; and the income provided from it is now about £6000, some 250 boys
and girls being educated. The parliamentary borough of Hackney comprises
north, central and south divisions, each returning one member; and the
northern division includes the metropolitan borough of Stoke Newington.
The metropolitan borough of Hackney includes part of the Hornsey
parliamentary division of Middlesex. The borough council consists of a
mayor, 10 aldermen and 60 councillors. Area, 3288.9 acres.

In the 13th century the name appears as _Hackenaye_ or _Hacquenye_, but
no certain derivation is advanced. Roman and other remains have been
found in Hackney Marshes. In 1290 the bishop of London was lord of the
manor, which was so held until 1550, when it was granted to Thomas, Lord
Wentworth. In 1697 it came into the hands of the Tyssen family.
Extensive property in the parish also belonged to the priory of the
Knights Hospitallers of St John of Jerusalem at Clerkenwell. From the
16th to the early 19th century there were many fine residences in
Hackney. The neighbourhood of Hackney had at one time an evil reputation
as the haunt of highwaymen.



HACKNEY (from Fr. _haquenée_, Lat. _equus_, an ambling horse or mare,
especially for ladies to ride; the English "hack" is simply an
abbreviation), originally a riding-horse. At the present day, however,
the hackney (as opposed to a thoroughbred) is bred for driving as well
as riding (see HORSE: _Breeds_). From the hiring-out of hackneys, the
word came to be associated with employment for hire (so "a hack," as a
general term for "drudge"), especially in combination, e.g.
hackney-chair, hackney-coach, hackney-boat. The hackney-coach, a coach
with four wheels and two horses, was a form of hired public conveyance
(see CARRIAGE).



HADAD, the name of a Syrian deity, is met with in the Old Testament as
the name of several human persons; it also occurs in compound forms like
Benhadad and Hadadezer. The divinity primarily denoted by it is the
storm-god who was known also as Ramman, Bir and Dadda. The Syrian kings
of Damascus seem to have habitually assumed the title of Benhadad, or
son of Hadad (three of this name are mentioned in Scripture), just as a
series of Egyptian monarchs are known to have been accustomed to call
themselves sons of Amon-Ra. The word Hadadrimmon, for which the inferior
reading Hadarrimmon is found in some MSS. in the phrase "the mourning of
(or at) Hadadrimmon" (Zech. xii. 11), has been a subject of much
discussion. According to Jerome and all the older Christian
interpreters, the mourning for something that occurred at a place called
Hadadrimmon (Maximianopolis) in the valley of Megiddo is meant, the
event alluded to being generally held to be the death of Josiah (or, as
in the Targum, the death of Ahab at the hands of Hadadrimmon); but more
recently the opinion has been gaining ground that Hadadrimmon is merely
another name for Adonis (q.v.) or Tammuz, the allusion being to the
mournings by which the Adonis festivals were usually accompanied (Hitzig
on Zech. xii. 11, Isa. xvii. 8; Movers, _Phönizier_, i. 196). T. K.
Cheyne (_Encycl. Bibl._ s.v.) points out that the Septuagint reads
simply Rimmon, and argues that this may be a corruption of Migdon
(Megiddo), in itself a corruption of Tammuz-Adon. He would render the
verse, "In that day there shall be a great mourning in Jerusalem, as the
mourning of the women who weep for Tammuz-Adon" (_Adon_ means lord).



HADDINGTON, EARL OF, a Scottish title bestowed in 1627 upon Thomas
Hamilton, earl of Melrose (1563-1637). Thomas, who was a member of the
great family of Hamilton, being a son of Thomas Hamilton of Priestfield,
was a lawyer who became a lord of session as Lord Drumcairn in 1592. He
was on very friendly terms with James VI., his legal talents being
useful to the king, and he was one of the eight men who, called the
Octavians, were appointed to manage the finances of Scotland in 1596.
Having also become king's advocate in 1596, Hamilton was entrusted with
a large share in the government of his country when James went to London
in 1603; in 1612 he was appointed secretary of state for Scotland, and
in 1613 he was created Lord Binning and Byres. In 1616 he became lord
president of the court of session, and three years later was created
earl of Melrose, a title which he exchanged in 1627 for that of earl of
Haddington. After the death of James I. the earl resigned his offices of
president of the court of session and secretary of state, but he served
Charles I. as lord privy seal. He died on the 29th of May 1637.
Haddington, who was both scholarly and wealthy, left a large and
valuable collection of papers, which is now in the Advocates' library at
Edinburgh. James referred familiarly to his friend as _Tam o' the
Cowgate_, his Edinburgh residence being in this street.

The earl's eldest son THOMAS, the 2nd earl (1600-1640), was a covenanter
and a soldier, being killed by an explosion at Dunglass castle on the
30th of August 1640. His sons, THOMAS (d. 1645) and JOHN (d. 1669),
became respectively the 3rd and 4th earls of Haddington, and John's
grandson THOMAS (1679-1735) succeeded his father CHARLES (c. 1650-1685),
as 6th earl in 1685, although he was not the eldest but the second son.
This curious circumstance arose from the fact that when Charles married
Margaret (d. 1700), the heiress of the earldom of Rothes, it was agreed
that the two earldoms should be left separate; thus the eldest son John
became earl of Rothes while Thomas became earl of Haddington. Thomas was
a supporter of George I. during the rising of 1715, and was a
representative peer for Scotland from 1716 to 1734. He died on the 28th
of November 1735.

The 6th earl was a writer, but in this direction his elder son, CHARLES,
Lord Binning (1697-1732), is perhaps more celebrated. After fighting by
his father's side at Sheriffmuir in 1715 and serving as member of
parliament for St Germans, Binning died at Naples on the 27th of
December 1732. His eldest son, THOMAS (c. 1720-1794), became the 7th
earl in 1735, and the latter's grandson THOMAS (1780-1858) became the
9th earl in 1828. The 9th earl had been a member of parliament from 1802
to 1827, when he was made a peer of the United Kingdom as Baron Melros
of Tyninghame, a title which became extinct upon his death. In 1834 he
became lord-lieutenant of Ireland under Sir Robert Peel, leaving office
in the following year, and in Peel's second administration (1841-1846)
he served as first lord of the admiralty and then as lord privy seal.
When he died without sons on the 1st of December 1858 the earldom
passed to his kinsman, GEORGE BAILLIE (1802-1870), a descendant of the
6th earl. This nobleman took the name of Baillie-Hamilton, and his son
GEORGE (b. 1827) became 11th earl of Haddington in 1870.

  See _State Papers of Thomas, Earl of Melrose_, published by the
  Abbotsford Club in 1837, and Sir W. Fraser, _Memorials of the Earls of
  Haddington_ (1889).



HADDINGTON, a royal, municipal and police burgh, and county town of
Haddingtonshire, Scotland. Pop. (1901), 3993. It is situated on the
Tyne, 18 m. E. of Edinburgh by the North British railway, being the
terminus of a branch line from Longniddry Junction. Five bridges cross
the river, on the right bank of which lies the old and somewhat decayed
suburb of Nungate, interesting as having contained the Giffordgate,
where John Knox was born, and where also are the ruins of the
pre-Reformation chapel of St Martin. The principal building in the town
is St Mary's church, a cruciform Decorated edifice in red sandstone,
probably dating from the 13th century. It is 210 ft. long, and is
surmounted by a square tower 90 ft. high. The nave, restored in 1892, is
used as the parish church, but the choir and transepts are roofless,
though otherwise kept in repair. In a vault is a fine monument in
alabaster, consisting of the recumbent figures of John, Lord Maitland of
Thirlestane (1545-1595), chancellor of Scotland, and his wife. The
laudatory sonnet composed by James VI. is inscribed on the tomb. In the
same vault John, duke of Lauderdale (1616-1682), is buried. In the choir
is the tombstone which Carlyle erected over the grave of his wife, Jane
Baillie Welsh (1801-1866), a native of the town. Other public edifices
include the county buildings in the Tudor style, in front of which
stands the monument to George, 8th marquess of Tweeddale (1787-1876),
who was such an expert and enthusiastic coachman that he once drove the
mail from London to Haddington without taking rest; the corn exchange,
next to that of Edinburgh the largest in Scotland; the town house, with
a spire 150 ft. high, in front of which is a monument to John Home, the
author of _Douglas_; the district asylum to the north of the burgh; the
western district hospital; the Tenterfield home for children; the free
library and the Knox Memorial Institute. This last-named building was
erected in 1879 to replace the old and famous grammar school, where John
Knox, William Dunbar, John Major and possibly George Buchanan and Sir
David Lindsay were educated. John Brown (1722-1787), a once celebrated
dissenting divine, author of the _Self-Interpreting Bible_, ministered
in the burgh for 36 years and is buried there; his son John the
theologian (1754-1832), and his grandson Samuel (1817-1856), the
chemist, noted for his inquiries into the atomic theory, were natives.
Samuel Smiles (1812-1904), author of _Character, Self-Help_ and other
works, was also born there, and Edward Irving was for years mathematical
master in the grammar school. In Hardgate Street is "Bothwell Castle,"
the town house of the earl of Bothwell, where Mary Queen of Scots rested
on her way to Dunbar. The ancient market cross has been restored. The
leading industries are the making of agricultural implements,
manufactures of woollens and sacking, brewing, tanning and
coach-building, besides corn mills and engineering works.

The burgh is the retail centre for a large district, and its grain
markets, once the largest in Scotland, are still of considerable
importance. Haddington was created a royal burgh by David I. It also
received charters from Robert Bruce, Robert II. and James VI. In 1139 it
was given as a dowry to Ada, daughter of William de Warenne, earl of
Surrey, on her marriage to Prince Henry, the only son of David I. It was
occasionally the residence of royalty, and Alexander II. was born there
in 1198. Lying in the direct road of the English invaders, the town was
often ravaged. It was burned by King John in 1216 and by Henry III. in
1244. Fortified in 1548 by Lord Grey of Wilton, the English commander,
it was besieged next year by the Scots and French, who forced the
garrison to withdraw. So much slaughter had gone on during that period
of storm and stress that it was long impossible to excavate in any
direction without coming on human remains. The town has suffered much
periodically from floods. One of the most memorable of these occurred on
the 4th of October 1775, when the Tyne rose 8 ft. 9 in. above its bed
and inundated a great part of the burgh. An inscription in the centre of
the town records the event and marks the point to which the water rose.

  There are many interesting places within a few miles of Haddington.
  Five miles E. is Whittingehame House, and 5 m. N.E. is the thriving
  village of East Linton (pop. 919). About 2½ m. N. lies Athelstaneford
  (locally, Elshinford), so named from the victory of Hungus, king of
  the Picts, in the 8th century over the Northumbrian Athelstane. On a
  hill near Drem, 3½ m. N. by W., are traces of a Romano-British
  settlement, and the remains of the priest's house of the Knights
  Templars, to whom the barony once belonged. On the coast is the pretty
  village of Aberlady on a fine bay, and in the neighbourhood are some
  of the finest golf links in Scotland, such as Luffness, Gullane,
  Archerfield and Muirfield. On Gosford Bay is Gosford House, an
  18th-century mansion, the seat of the earl of Wemyss. At Gladsmuir, 3½
  m. W. of Haddington, alleged by some to have been the birthplace of
  George Heriot. Principal Robertson was minister and wrote most of his
  _History of Scotland_. Of the old seat of the Douglases at Longniddry
  few traces remain, and in the chapel, now in ruins, at the eastern end
  of the village, John Knox is said to have preached occasionally. At
  Gifford, 4 m. to the S., John Witherspoon (1722-1794), president of
  the College of New Jersey (Princeton), and Charles Nisbet (1736-1804),
  president of Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pennsylvania, were born. A
  little to the south of Gifford are Yester House, a seat of the
  marquess of Tweeddale, finely situated in a park of old trees, and the
  ruins of Yester Castle. The cavern locally known as Hobgoblin Hall is
  described in _Marmion_, and is associated with all kinds of
  manifestations of the black art. Lennoxlove, 1½ m. to the S., a seat
  of Lord Blantyre, was originally called Lethington, and for a few
  centuries was associated with the Maitlands. Amisfield, adjoining
  Haddington on the N.E., is another seat of the earl of Wemyss.



HADDINGTONSHIRE, or _East Lothian_, a south-eastern county of Scotland,
bounded N. by the Firth of Forth, N.E. by the North Sea, E., S.E. and S.
by Berwickshire, and S.W. and W. by Edinburghshire. It covers an area of
171,011 acres, or 267 sq. m. Its sea-coast measures 41 m. The Bass Rock
and Fidra Isle belong to the shire, and there are numerous rocks and
reefs off the shore, especially between Dunbar and Gullane Bay. Broadly
speaking, the northern half of the shire slopes gently to the coast, and
the southern half is hilly. Several of the peaks of the Lammermuirs
exceed 1500 ft., and the more level tract is broken by Traprain Law
(724) in the parish of Prestonkirk, North Berwick Law (612), and
Garleton Hill (590) to the north of the county town. The only important
river is the Tyne, which rises to the south-east of Borthwick in
Mid-Lothian, and, taking a generally north-easterly direction, reaches
the sea just beyond the park of Tynninghame House, after a course of 28
m., for the first 7 m. of which it belongs to its parent shire. It is
noted for a very fine variety of trout, and salmon are sometimes taken
below the linn at East Linton. The Whiteadder rises in the parish of
Whittingehame, but, flowing towards the south-east, leaves the shire and
at last joins the Tweed near Berwick. There are no natural lakes, but in
the parish of Stenton is found Pressmennan Loch, an artificial sheet of
water of somewhat serpentine shape, about 2 m. in length, with a width
of some 400 yds., which was constructed in 1819 by damming up the ravine
in which it lies. The banks are wooded and picturesque, and the water
abounds with trout.

  _Geology._--The higher ground in the south, including the Lammermuir
  Hills, is formed by shales, greywackes and grits of Ordovician and
  Silurian age; a narrow belt of the former lying on the north-western
  side of the latter, the strike being S.W. to N.E. The granitic mass of
  Priestlaw and other felsitic rocks have been intruded into these
  strata. The lower Old Red Sandstone has not been observed in this
  county, but the younger sandstones and conglomerates fill up ancient
  depressions in the Silurian and Ordovician, such as that running
  northward from Oldhamstocks towards Dunbar and the valley of
  Lauderdale. A faulted-in tract of the same formation, about 1 m. in
  breadth, runs westward from Dunbar to near Gifford. Carboniferous
  rocks form the remainder of the county. The Calciferous Sandstone
  series, shales, thin limestones and sandstones, is exposed on the
  south-eastern coast; but between Gifford and North Berwick and from
  Aberlady to Dunbar it is represented by a great thickness of volcanic
  rocks consisting of tuffs and coarse breccias in the lower beds, and
  of porphyritic and andesitic lavas above. These rocks are well exposed
  on the coast, in the Garleton Hills and Traprain Law; the latter and
  North Berwick Law are volcanic necks or vents. The Carboniferous
  Limestone series which succeeds the Calciferous Sandstone consists of
  a middle group of sandstones, shales, coals and ironstones, with a
  limestone group above and below. The coal-field is synclinal in
  structure, Port Seton being about the centre; it contains ten seams of
  coal, and the area covered by it is some 30 sq. m. Glacial boulder
  clay lies over much of the lower ground, and ridges of gravel and sand
  flank the hills and form extensive sheets. Traces of old raised
  sea-beaches are found at several points along the coast. At North
  Berwick, Tynninghame and elsewhere there are stretches of blown sand.
  Limestone is worked at many places, and hematite was formerly obtained
  from the Garleton Hills.

_Climate and Agriculture._--Though the county is exposed to the full
sweep of the east wind during March, April and May, the climate is on
the whole mild and equable. The rainfall is far below the average of
Great Britain, the mean for the year being 25 in., highest in midsummer
and lowest in spring. The average temperature for the year is 47°.5 F.,
for January 38° and for July 59°. Throughout nearly the whole of the
19th century East Lothian agriculture was held to be the best in
Scotland, not so much in consequence of the natural fertility of the
soil as because of the enterprise of the cultivators, several of whom,
like George Hope of Fenton Barns (1811-1876), brought scientific farming
almost to perfection. Mechanical appliances were adopted with
exceptional alacrity, and indeed some that afterwards came into general
use were first employed in Haddington. Drill sowing of turnips dates
from 1734. The threshing machine was introduced by Andrew Meikle
(1719-1811) in 1787, the steam plough in 1862, and the reaping machine
soon after its invention, while tile draining was first extensively used
in the county. East Lothian is famous for the richness of its grain and
green crops, the size of its holdings (average 200 acres) and the good
housing of its labourers. The soils vary. Much of the Lammermuirs is
necessarily unproductive, though the lower slopes are cultivated, a
considerable tract of the land being very good. In the centre of the
shire occurs a belt of tenacious yellow clay on a tilly subsoil which is
not adapted for agriculture. Along the coast the soil is sandy, but
farther inland it is composed of rich loam and is very fertile. The land
about Dunbar is the most productive, yielding a potato--the "Dunbar
red"--which is highly esteemed in the markets. Of the grain crops oats
and barley are the principal, and their acreage is almost a constant,
but wheat, after a prolonged decline, has experienced a revival. Turnips
and potatoes are cultivated extensively, and with marked success, and
constitute nearly all the green crops raised. Although pasture-land is
below the average, live-stock are reared profitably. About one-sixteenth
of the total area is under wood.

_Other Industries._--Fisheries are conducted from Dunbar, North Berwick,
Port Seton and Prestonpans, the catch consisting chiefly of cod,
haddock, whiting and shellfish. Fireclay as well as limestone is worked,
and there are some stone quarries, but the manufactures are mainly
agricultural implements, pottery, woollens, artificial manures,
feeding-stuffs and salt, besides brewing. Coal of a very fair quality is
extensively worked at Tranent, Ormiston, Macmerry and near Prestonpans,
the coal-field having an area of about 30 sq. m. Limestone is found
throughout the greater part of the shire. A vein of hematite of a
peculiarly fine character was discovered in 1866 at Garleton Hill, and
wrought for some years. Ironstone has been mined at Macmerry.

The North British Company possess the sole running powers in the county,
through which is laid their main line to Berwick and the south. Branches
are sent off at Drem to North Berwick, at Longniddry to Haddington and
also to Gullane, at Smeaton (in Mid-Lothian) to Macmerry, and at
Ormiston to Gifford.

_Population and Government._--The population was 37,377 in 1891, and
38,665 in 1901, when 459 persons spoke Gaelic and English, and 7 spoke
Gaelic only. The chief towns are Dunbar (pop. in 1901, 3581), Haddington
(3993), North Berwick (2899), Prestonpans (2614) and Tranent (2584). The
county, which returns one member to Parliament, forms part of the
sheriffdom of the Lothians and Peebles, and there is a resident
sheriff-substitute at Haddington, who sits also at Dunbar, Tranent and
North Berwick. The shire is under school-board jurisdiction, and besides
high schools at Haddington and North Berwick, some of the elementary
schools earn grants for higher education. The county council spends a
proportion of the "residue" grant in supporting short courses of
instruction in technical subjects (chiefly agriculture), in experiments
in the feeding of cattle and the growing of crops, and in defraying the
travelling expenses of technical students.

_History._--Of the Celts, who were probably the earliest inhabitants,
traces are found in a few place names and circular camps (in the
parishes of Garvald and Whittinghame) and hill forts (in the parish of
Bolton). After the Roman occupation, of which few traces remain, the
district formed part of the Saxon kingdom of Northumbria until 1018,
when it was joined to Scotland by Malcolm II. It was comparatively
prosperous till the wars of Bruce and Baliol, but from that period down
to the union of the kingdoms it suffered from its nearness to the Border
and from civil strife. The last battles fought in the county were those
of Dunbar (1650) and Prestonpans (1745).

  See J. Miller, _History of Haddington_ (1844); D. Croal, _Sketches of
  East Lothian_ (Haddington, 1873); John Martine, _Reminiscences of the
  County of Haddington_ (Haddington, 1890, 1894); Dr Wallace James,
  _Writs and Charters of Haddington_ (Haddington, 1898).



HADDOCK (_Gadus aeglefinus_), a fish which differs from the cod in
having the mental barbel very short, the first anal fin with 22 to 25
rays, instead of 17 to 20, and the lateral line dark instead of whitish;
it has a large blackish spot above each pectoral fin--associated in
legend with the marks of St Peter's finger and thumb, the haddock being
supposed to be the fish from whose mouth he took the tribute-money. It
attains to a weight of 15 [lb] and is one of the most valuable food
fishes of Europe, both fresh and smoked, the "finnan haddie" of Scotland
being famous. It is common round the British and Irish coasts, and
generally distributed along the shores of the North Sea, extending
across the Atlantic to the coast of North America.



HADDON HALL, one of the most famous ancient mansions in England. It lies
on the left bank of the river Wye, 2 m. S.E. of Bakewell in Derbyshire.
It is not now used as a residence, but the fabric is maintained in
order. The building is of stone and oblong in form, and encloses two
quadrangles separated by the great banqueting-hall and adjoining
chambers. The greater part is of two storeys, and surmounted by
battlements. To the south and south-east lie terraced gardens, and the
south front of the eastern quadrangle is occupied by the splendid
ball-room or long gallery. At the south-west corner of the mansion is
the chapel; at the north-east the Peveril tower. The periods of building
represented are as follows. Norman work appears in the chapel (which
also served as a church for the neighbouring villagers), also in certain
fundamental parts of the fabric, notably the Peveril tower. There are
Early English and later additions to the chapel; the banqueting-hall,
with the great kitchen adjacent to it, and part of the Peveril tower are
of the 14th century. The eastern range of rooms, including the
state-room, are of the 15th century; the western and north-western parts
were built shortly after 1500. The ball-room is of early 17th-century
construction, and the terraces and gardens were laid out at this time. A
large number of interesting contemporary fittings are preserved,
especially in the banqueting-hall and kitchen; and many of the rooms are
adorned with tapestries of the 16th and 17th centuries, some of which
came from the famous works at Mortlake in Surrey.

A Roman altar was found and is preserved here, but no trace of Roman
inhabitants has been discovered. Haddon was a manor which before the
Conquest and at the time of the Domesday Survey belonged to the king,
but was granted by William the Conqueror to William Peverel, whose son,
another William Peverel, forfeited it for treason on the accession of
Henry II. Before that time, however, the manor of Haddon had been
granted to the family of Avenell, who continued to hold it until one
William Avenell died without male issue and his property was divided
between his two daughters and heirs, one of whom married Richard Vernon,
whose successors acquired the other half of the manor in the reign of
Edward III. Sir George Vernon, who died in 1561, was known as the "King
of the Peak" on account of his hospitality. His daughter Dorothy married
John Manners, second son of the earl of Rutland, who is said to have
lived for some time in the woods round Haddon Hall, disguised as a
gamekeeper, until he persuaded Dorothy to elope with him. On Sir
George's death without male issue Haddon passed to John Manners and
Dorothy, who lived in the Hall. Their grandson John Manners succeeded to
the title of earl of Rutland in 1641, and the duke of Rutland is still
lord of the manor.

  See _Victoria County History, Derbyshire_; S. Rayner, _History and
  Antiquities of Haddon Hall_ (1836-1837); Haddon Hall, _History and
  Antiquities of Haddon Hall_ (1867); G. le Blanc Smith, _Haddon, the
  Manor, the Hall, its Lords and Traditions_ (London, 1906).



HADEN, SIR FRANCIS SEYMOUR (1818-1910), English surgeon and etcher, was
born in London on the 16th of September 1818, his father, Charles Thomas
Haden, being a well-known doctor and amateur of music. He was educated
at University College school and University College, London, and also
studied at the Sorbonne, Paris, where he took his degree in 1840. He was
admitted as a member of the College of Surgeons in London in 1842.
Besides his many-sided activities in the scientific world, during a busy
and distinguished career as a surgeon, he followed the art of original
etching with such vigour that he became not only the foremost British
exponent of that art but was the principal cause of its revival in
England. By his strenuous efforts and perseverance, aided by the
secretarial ability of Sir W. R. Drake, he founded the Royal Society of
Painter-Etchers and Engravers. As president he ruled the destinies of
that society with a strong hand from its first beginnings in 1880. In
1843-1844, with his friends Duval, Le Cannes and Col. Guibout, he had
travelled in Italy and made his first sketches from nature. Haden
attended no art school and had no art teachers, but in 1845, 1846, 1847
and 1848 he studied portfolios of prints belonging to an old second-hand
dealer named Love, who had a shop in Bunhill Row, the old Quaker quarter
of London. These portfolios he would carry home, and arranging the
prints in chronological order, he studied the works of the great
original engravers, Dürer, Lucas van Leyden and Rembrandt. These
studies, besides influencing his original work, led to his important
monograph on the etched work of Rembrandt. By lecture and book, and with
the aid of the memorable exhibition at the Burlington Fine Arts Club in
1877, he endeavoured to give a just idea of Rembrandt's work, separating
the true from the false, and giving altogether a nobler idea of the
master's mind by taking away from the list of his works many dull and
unseemly plates that had long been included in the lists. His reasons
are founded upon the results of a study of the master's works in
chronological order, and are clearly expressed in his monograph, _The
Etched Work of Rembrandt critically reconsidered_, privately printed in
1877, and in _The Etched Work of Rembrandt True and False_ (1895).
Notwithstanding all this study of the old masters of his art, Haden's
own plates are perhaps more individual than any artist's, and are
particularly noticeable for a fine original treatment of landscape
subjects, free and open in line, clear and well divided in mass, and
full of a noble and dignified style of his own. Even when working from a
picture his personality dominates the plate, as for example in the large
plate he etched after J. M. W. Turner's "Calais Pier," which is a
classical example of what interpretative work can do in black and white.
Of his original plates, more than 250 in number, one of the most notable
was the large "Breaking up of the Agamemnon." An early plate, rare and
most beautiful, is "Thames Fisherman." "Mytton Hall" is broad in
treatment, and a fine rendering of a shady avenue of yew trees leading
to an old manor-house in sunlight. "Sub Tegmine" was etched in Greenwich
Park in 1859; and "Early Morning--Richmond," full of the poetry and
freshness of the hour, was done, the artist has said, actually at
sunrise. One of the rarest and most beautiful of his plates is "A
By-Road in Tipperary"; "Combe Bottom" is another; and "Shere Mill Pond"
(both the small study and the larger plate), "Sunset in Ireland,"
"Penton Hook," "Grim Spain" and "Evening Fishing, Longparish," are also
notable examples of his genius. A catalogue of his works was begun by
Sir William Drake and completed by Mr N. Harrington (1880). During later
years Haden began to practise the sister art of mezzotint engraving,
with a measure of the same success that he had already achieved in pure
etching and in dry-point. Some of his mezzotints are: "An Early Riser,"
a stag seen through the morning mists, "Grayling Fishing" and "A Salmon
Pool on the Spey." He also produced some remarkable drawings of trees
and park-like country in charcoal.

Other books by Haden not already mentioned are--_Études à l'eau forte_
(Paris, 1865); _About Etching_ (London, 1878-1879); _The Art of the
Painter-Etcher_ (London, 1890); _The Relative Claims of Etching and
Engraving to rank as Fine Arts and to be represented in the Royal
Academy_ (London, 1883); _Address to Students of Winchester School of
Art_ (Winchester, 1888); _Cremation: a Pamphlet_ (London, 1875); and
_The Disposal of the Dead, a Plea for Legislation_ (London, 1888). As
the last two indicate, he was an ardent champion of a system of "earth
to earth" burial.

Among numerous distinctions he received the Grand Prix, Paris, in 1889
and 1900, and was made a member of the Institut de France, Académie des
Beaux-Arts and Société des Artistes Français. He was knighted in 1894,
and died on the 1st of June 1910. He married in 1847 a sister of the
artist J. A. M. Whistler; and his elder son, Francis Seymour Haden (b.
1850), had a distinguished career as a member of the government in Natal
from 1881 to 1893, being made a C.M.G. in 1890.     (C. H.*)



HADENDOA (from Beja _Hada_, chief, and _endowa_, people), a nomad tribe
of Africans of "Hamitic" origin. They inhabit that part of the eastern
Sudan extending from the Abyssinian frontier northward nearly to Suakin.
They belong to the Beja people, of which, with the Bisharin and the
Ababda, they are the modern representatives. They are a pastoral people,
ruled by a hereditary chief who is directly responsible to the
(Anglo-Egyptian) Sudan government. Although the official capital of the
Hadendoa country is Miktinab, the town of Fillik on an affluent of the
Atbara is really their headquarters. A third of the total population is
settled in the Suakin country. Osman Digna, one of the best-known chiefs
during the Madhia, was a Hadendoa, and the tribe contributed some of the
fiercest of the dervish warriors in the wars of 1883-98. So determined
were they in their opposition to the Anglo-Egyptian forces that the name
Hadendoa grew to be nearly synonymous with "rebel." But this was the
result of Egyptian misgovernment rather than religious enthusiasm; for
the Hadendoa are true Beja, and Mahommedans only in name. Their
elaborate hairdressing gained them the name of "Fuzzy-wuzzies" among the
British troops. They earned an unenviable reputation during the wars by
their hideous mutilations of the dead on the battlefields. After the
reconquest of the Egyptian Sudan (1896-98) the Hadendoa accepted the new
order without demur.

  See _Anglo-Egyptian Sudan_, edited by Count Gleichen (London, 1905);
  Sir F. R. Wingate, _Mahdism and the Egyptian Sudan_ (London, 1891); G.
  Sergi, _Africa: Anthropology of the Hamitic Race_ (1897); A. H. Keane,
  _Ethnology of the Egyptian Sudan_ (1884).



HADERSLEBEN (Dan. _Haderslev_), a town of Germany, in the Prussian
province of Schleswig-Holstein, 31 m. N. from Flensburg. Pop. (1905)
9289. It lies in a pleasant valley on the Hadersleben fjord, which is
about 9 m. in length, and communicates with the Little Belt, and at the
junction of the main line of railway from Woyens with three vicinal
lines. The principal buildings are the beautiful church of St Mary,
dating from the 13th century, the theological seminary established in
1870, the gymnasium and the hospital. The industries include
iron-founding, tanning, and the manufacture of machines, tobacco and
gloves. The harbour is only accessible to small vessels.

Hadersleben is first mentioned in 1228, and received municipal rights
from Duke Waldemar II. in 1292. It suffered considerably during the wars
between Schleswig and Holstein in the 15th century. In November 1864 it
passed with Schleswig to Prussia. Two Danish kings, Frederick II. and
Frederick III., were born at Hadersleben.

  See A. Sach, _Der Ursprung der Stadt Hadersleben_ (Hadersleben, 1892).



HADING, JANE (1859-   ), French actress, whose real name was Jeanne
Alfrédine Tréfouret, was born on the 25th of November 1859 at
Marseilles, where her father was an actor at the Gymnase. She was
trained at the local Conservatoire and was engaged in 1873 for the
theatre at Algiers, and afterwards for the Khedivial theatre at Cairo,
where she played, in turn, coquette, soubrette and _ingénue_ parts.
Expectations had been raised by her voice, and when she returned to
Marseilles she sang in operetta, besides acting in _Ruy Blas_. Her Paris
début was in _La Chaste Suzanne_ at the Palais Royal, and she was again
heard in operetta at the Renaissance. In 1883 she had a great success at
the Gymnase in _Le Maître de forges_. In 1884 she married Victor Koning
(1842-1894), the manager of that theatre, but divorced him in 1887. In
1888 she toured America with Coquelin, and on her return helped to give
success to Lavedan's _Prince d'Aurec_, at the Vaudeville. Her reputation
as one of the leading actresses of the day was now established not only
in France but in America and England. Her later répertoire included _Le
Demi-monde_, Capus's _La Châtelaine_, Maurice Donnay's _Retour de
Jérusalem_, _La Princesse Georges_ by Dumas fils, and Émile Bergerat's
_Plus que reine_.



HADLEIGH, a market town in the Sudbury parliamentary division of
Suffolk, England; 70 m. N.E. from London, the terminus of a branch of
the Great Eastern railway. Pop. of Urban district (1901), 3245. It lies
pleasantly in a well-wooded country on the small river Brett, a
tributary of the Stour. The church of St Mary is of good Perpendicular
work, with Early English tower and Decorated spire. The Rectory Tower, a
turreted gate-house of brick, dates from c. 1495. The gild-hall is a
Tudor building, and there are other examples of this period. There are a
town-hall and corn exchange, and an industry in the manufacture of
matting and in malting. Hadleigh was one of the towns in which the
woollen industry was started by Flemings, and survived until the 18th
century. Among the rectors of Hadleigh several notable names appear,
such as Rowland Taylor, the martyr, who was burned at the stake outside
the town in 1555, and Hugh James Rose, during whose tenancy of the
rectory an initiatory meeting of the leaders of the Oxford Movement took
place here in 1833.

Hadleigh, called by the Saxons Heapde-leag, appears in Domesday Book as
Hetlega. About 885 Æthelflæd, lady of the Mercians, with the consent of
Æthelred her husband, gave Hadleigh to Christ Church, Canterbury. The
dean and chapter of Canterbury have held possession of it ever since the
Dissolution. In the 17th century Hadleigh was famous for the manufacture
of cloth, and in 1618 was sufficiently important to receive
incorporation. It was constituted a free borough under the title of the
mayor, aldermen and burgesses of Hadleigh. In 1635, in a list of the
corporate towns of Suffolk to be assessed for ship money, Hadleigh is
named as third in importance. In 1636, owing to a serious visitation of
the plague, 200 families were thrown out of work, and in 1687 so much
had its importance declined that it was deprived of its charter. An
unsuccessful attempt to recover it was made in 1701. There is evidence
of the existence of a market here as early as the 13th century. James
I., in his charter of incorporation, granted fairs on Monday and Tuesday
in Whitsun week, and confirmed an ancient fair at Michaelmas and a
market on Monday.



HADLEY, ARTHUR TWINING (1856-   ), American political economist and
educationist, president of Yale University, was born in New Haven,
Connecticut, on the 23rd of April 1856. He was the son of James Hadley,
the philologist, from whom, as from his mother--whose brother, Alexander
Catlin Twining (1801-1884), was an astronomer and authority on
constitutional law--he inherited unusual mathematical ability. He
graduated at Yale in 1876 as valedictorian, having taken prizes in
English, classics and astronomy; studied political science at Yale
(1876-1877) and at Berlin (1878-1879); was a tutor at Yale in 1879-1883,
instructor in political science in 1883-1886, professor of political
science in 1886-1891, professor of political economy in 1891-1899, and
dean of the Graduate School in 1892-1895; and in 1899 became president
of Yale University--the first layman to hold that office. He was
commissioner of the Connecticut bureau of labour statistics in
1885-1887. As an economist he first became widely known through his
investigation of the railway question and his study of railway rates,
which antedated the popular excitement as to rebates. His _Railroad
Transportation, its History and Laws_ (1885) became a standard work, and
appeared in Russian (1886) and French (1887); he testified as an expert
on transportation before the Senate committee which drew up the
Interstate Commerce Law; and wrote on railways and transportation for
the Ninth and Tenth Editions (of which he was one of the editors) of the
_Encyclopaedia Britannica_, for Lalor's _Cyclopaedia of Political
Science, Political Economy, and Political History of the United Stales_
(3 vols., 1881-1884), for _The American Railway_ (1888), and for _The
Railroad Gazette_ in 1884-1891, and for other periodicals. His idea of
the broad scope of economic science, especially of the place of ethics
in relation to political economy and business, is expressed in his
writings and public addresses. In 1907-1908 he was Theodore Roosevelt
professor of American History and Institutions in the university of
Berlin.

  Among his other publications are: _Economics: an Account of the
  Relations between Private Property and Public Welfare_ (1896); _The
  Education of the American Citizen_ (1901); _The Relations between
  Freedom and Responsibility in the Evolution of Democratic Government_
  (1903, in Yale Lectures on the Responsibilities of Citizenship);
  _Baccalaureate Addresses_ (1907); and _Standards of Public Morality_
  (1907), being the Kennedy Lectures for 1906.



HADLEY, JAMES (1821-1872), American scholar, was born on the 30th of
March 1821 in Fairfield, Herkimer county, New York, where his father was
professor of chemistry in Fairfield Medical College. At the age of nine
an accident lamed him for life. He graduated from Yale in 1842, having
entered the Junior class in 1840; studied in the Theological Department
of Yale, and in 1844-1845 was a tutor in Middlebury College. He was
tutor at Yale in 1845-1848, assistant professor of Greek in 1848-1851,
and professor of Greek, succeeding President Woolsey, from 1851 until
his death in Hew Haven on the 14th of November 1872. As an undergraduate
he showed himself an able mathematician, but the influence of Edward
Elbridge Salisbury, under whom Hadley and W. D. Whitney studied Sanskrit
together, turned his attention toward the study of language. He knew
Greek, Latin, Sanskrit, Hebrew, Arabic, Armenian, several Celtic
languages and the languages of modern Europe; but he published little,
and his scholarship found scant outlet in the college class-room. His
most original written work was an essay on Greek accent, published in a
German version in Curtius's _Studien zur griechischen und lateinischen
Grammatik_. Hadley's _Greek Grammar_ (1860; revised by Frederic de
Forest Allen, 1884) was based on Curtius's _Schulgrammatik_ (1852, 1855,
1857, 1859), and long held its place in American schools. Hadley was a
member of the American Committee for the revision of the New Testament,
was president of the American Oriental Society (1871-1872), and
contributed to Webster's dictionary an essay on the _History of the
English Language_. In 1873 were published his _Introduction to Roman
Law_ (edited by T. D. Woolsey) and his _Essays, Philological and
Critical_ (edited by W. D. Whitney).

  See the memorial by Noah Porter in _The New Englander_, vol. xxxii.
  (Jan. 1873), pp. 35-55; and the sketch by his son, A. T. Hadley, in
  _Biographical Memoirs_ of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. v.
  (1905), pp. 247-254.



HADLEY, a township of Hampshire county, Massachusetts, U.S.A., on the
Connecticut river, about 20 m. N. of Springfield, served by the Boston &
Maine railway. Pop. (1900), 1789; (1905, state census), 1895; (1910)
1999. Area, about 20 sq. m. The principal villages are Hadley (or Hadley
Center) and North Hadley. The level country along the river is well
adapted to tobacco culture, and the villages are engaged in the
manufacture of tobacco and brooms. Hadley was settled in 1659 by members
of the churches in Hartford and Wethersfield, Connecticut, who were
styled "Strict Congregationalists" and withdrew from these Connecticut
congregations because of ecclesiastical and doctrinal laxity there. At
first the town was called Norwottuck, but within a year or two it was
named after Hadleigh in England, and was incorporated under this name in
1661. Hopkins Academy (1815) developed from Hopkins school, founded here
in 1664. The English regicides Edward Whalley and his son-in-law William
Goffe found a refuge at Hadley from 1664 apparently until their deaths,
and there is a tradition that Goffe or Whalley in 1675 led the people in
repelling an Indian attack. From 1675 to 1713 Hadley, being in almost
constant danger of attack from the Indians, was protected by a palisade
enclosure and by stockades around the meeting-house. From Hadley,
Hatfield was set apart in 1670, South Hadley in 1753, and Amherst in
1759.

  See Alice M. Walker, _Historic Hadley_ (New York, 1906); and Sylvester
  Judd, _History of Hadley_ (Northampton, 1863; new ed., 1905).



HADRAMUT, a district on the south coast of Arabia, bounded W. by Yemen,
E. by Oman and N. by the Dahna desert. The modern Arabs restrict the
name to the coast between Balhaf and Sihut, and the valley of the Wadi
Hadramut in the interior; in its wider and commonly accepted
signification it includes also the Mahra and Gara coasts extending
eastwards to Mirbat; thus defined, its limits are between 14° and 18° N.
and 47° 30´ to 55° E., with a total length of 550 m. and a breadth of
150 m.

  The coastal plain is narrow, rarely exceeding 10 m. in width, and in
  places the hills extend to the seashore. The principal ports are
  Mukalla and Shihr, both considerable towns, and Kusair and Raida,
  small fishing villages; inland there are a few villages near the foot
  of the hills, with a limited area of cultivation irrigated by springs
  or wells in the hill torrent beds. Behind the littoral plain a range
  of mountains, or rather a high plateau, falling steeply to the south
  and more gently to the north, extends continuously from the Yemen
  highlands on the west to the mouth of the Hadramut valley, from which
  a similar range extends with hardly a break to the border of Oman. Its
  crest-line is generally some 30 m. from the coast, and its average
  height between 4000 and 5000 ft. A number of wadis or ravines cutting
  deeply into the plateau run northward to the main Wadi Hadramut, a
  broad valley lying nearly east and west, with a total length from its
  extreme western heads on the Yemen highlands to its mouth near Sihut
  of over 500 m. Beyond the valley and steadily encroaching on it lies
  the great desert extending for 300 m. to the borders of Nejd. The most
  westerly village in the main valley is Shabwa, in ancient days the
  capital, but now almost buried by the advancing desert. Lower down the
  first large villages are Henan and Ajlania, near which the wadis 'Amd,
  Duwan and el 'Ain unite, forming the W. Kasr. In the W. Duwan and its
  branches are the villages of Haura, el Hajren, Kaidun and al Khureba.
  Below Haura for some 60 m. there is a succession of villages with
  fields, gardens and date groves; several tributaries join on either
  side, among which the W. bin Ali and W. Adim from the south contain
  numerous villages. The principal towns are Shibam, al Ghurfa, Saiyun,
  Tariba, el Ghuraf, Tarim, formerly the chief place, 'Ainat and el
  Kasm. Below the last-named place there is little cultivation Or
  settled population. The shrines of Kabr Salih and Kabr Hud are looked
  on as specially sacred, and are visited by numbers of pilgrims. The
  former, which is in the Wadi Ser about 20 m. N.W. of Shibam, was
  explored by Theodore Bent in 1894; the tomb itself is of no interest,
  but in the neighbourhood there are extensive ruins with Himyaritic
  inscriptions on the stones. Kabr Hud is in the main valley some
  distance east of Kasm; not far from it is Bir Borhut, a natural
  grotto, where fumes of burning sulphur issue from a number of volcanic
  vents; al-Masudi mentions it in the 10th century as an active volcano.
  Except after heavy rain, there is no running water in the Hadramut
  valley, the cultivation therefore depends on artificial irrigation
  from wells. The principal crops are wheat, millet, indigo, dates and
  tobacco; this latter, known as Hamumi tobacco, is of excellent
  quality.

Hadramut has preserved its name from the earliest times; it occurs in
Genesis as Hazarmaveth and Hadoram, sons of Joktan; and the old Greek
geographers mention Adramytta and Chadramotites in their accounts of the
frankincense country. The numerous ruins discovered in the W. Duwan and
Adim, as well as in the main valley, are evidences of its former
prosperity and civilization.

The people, known as Hadrami (plural Hadarim), belong generally to the
south Arabian stock, claiming descent from Ya'rab bin Kahtan. There is,
however, a large number of Seyyids or descendants of the Prophet, and
of townsmen of northern origin, besides a considerable class of African
or mixed descent. Van den Berg estimates the total population of
Hadramut (excluding the Mahra and Gara) at 150,000, of which he locates
50,000 in the valley between Shibam and Tarim, 25,000 in the W. Duwan
and its tributaries, and 25,000 in Mukalla, Shihr and the coast
villages, leaving 50,000 for the non-agricultural population scattered
over the rest of the country, probably an excessive estimate.

The Seyyids, descendants of [H.]osain, grandson of Mahomet, form a
numerous and highly respected aristocracy. They are divided into
families, the chiefs of which are known as Munsibs, who are looked on as
the religious leaders of the people, and are even in some cases
venerated as saints. Among the leading families are the Sheikh Abu Bakr
of Ainat, the el-Aidrus of Shihr and the Sakkaf of Saiyun. They do not
bear arms, nor occupy themselves in trade or manual labour or even
agriculture; though owning a large proportion of the land, they employ
slaves or hired labourers to cultivate it. As compared with the other
classes, they are well educated, and are strict in their observance of
religious duties, and owing to the respect due to their descent, they
exercise a strong influence both in temporal and spiritual affairs.

The tribesmen, as in Arabia generally, are the predominant class in the
population; all the adults carry arms; some of the tribes have settled
towns and villages, others lead a nomadic life, keeping, however, within
the territory which is recognized as belonging to the tribe. They are
divided into sections or families, each headed by a chief or abu (lit.
father), while the head of the tribe is called the mukaddam or sultan;
the authority of the chief depends largely on his personality: he is the
leader in peace and in war, but the tribesmen are not his subjects; he
can only rule with their support. The most powerful tribe at present in
Hadramut is the Kaiti, a branch of the Yafa tribe whose settlements lie
farther west. Originally invited by the Seyyids to protect the settled
districts from the attacks of marauding tribes, they have established
themselves as practically the rulers of the country, and now possess the
coast district with the towns of Shihr and Mukalla, as well as Haura,
Hajren and Shibam in the interior. The head of the family has
accumulated great wealth, and risen to the highest position in the
service of the nizam of Hyderabad in India, as Jamadar, or commander of
an Arab levy composed of his tribesmen, numbers of whom go abroad to
seek their fortune. The Kathiri tribe was formerly the most powerful;
they occupy the towns of Saiyun, Tarim and el-Ghuraf in the richest part
of the main Hadramut valley. The chiefs of both the Kaiti and Kathiri
are in political relations with the British government, through the
resident at Aden (q.v.). The 'Amudi in the W. Duwan, and the Nahdi,
Awamir and Tamimi in the main valley, are the principal tribes
possessing permanent villages; the Saiban, Hamumi and Manahil occupy the
mountains between the main valley and coast.

The townsmen are the free inhabitants of the towns and villages as
distinguished from the Seyyids and the tribesmen: they do not carry
arms, but are the working members of the community, merchants,
artificers, cultivators and servants, and are entirely dependent on the
tribes and chiefs under whose protection they live. The servile class
contains a large African element, brought over formerly when the slave
trade flourished on this coast; as in all Mahommedan countries they are
well treated, and often rise to positions of trust.

As already mentioned, a large number of Arabs from Hadramut go abroad;
the Kaiti tribesmen take service in India in the irregular troops of
Hyderabad; emigration on a large scale has also gone on, to the Dutch
colonies in Java and Sumatra, since the beginning of the 19th century.
According to the census of 1885, quoted by Van den Berg in his _Report_
published by the government of the Dutch East Indies in 1886, the number
of Arabs in those colonies actually born in Arabia was 2500, while those
born in the colonies exceeded 20,000; nearly all of the former are from
the towns in the Hadramut valley between Shibam and Tarim. Mukalla and
Shihr have a considerable trade with the Red Sea and Persian Gulf
ports, as well as with the ports of Aden, Dhafar and Muscat; a large
share of this is in the hands of Parsee and other British Indian traders
who have established themselves in the Hadramut ports. The principal
imports are wheat, rice, sugar, piece goods and hardware. The exports
are small; the chief items are honey, tobacco and sharks' fins. In the
towns in the interior the principal industries are weaving and dyeing.

  The Mahra country adjoins the Hadramut proper, and extends along the
  coast from Sihut eastwards to the east of Kamar Bay, where the Gara
  coast begins and stretches to Mirbat. The sultan of the Mahra, to whom
  Sokotra also belongs, lives at Kishin, a poor village consisting of a
  few scattered houses about 30 m. west of Ras Fartak. Sihut is a
  similar village 20 m. farther west. The mountains rise to a height of
  4000 ft. within a short distance of the coast, covered in places with
  trees, among which are the myrrh- and frankincense-bearing shrubs.
  These gums, for which the coast was celebrated in ancient days, are
  still produced; the best quality is obtained in the Gara country, on
  the northern slope of the mountains. Dhafar and the mountains behind
  it were visited and surveyed by Mr Bent's party in 1894. There are
  several thriving villages on the coast, of which el-Hafa is the
  principal port of export for frankincense; 9000 cwt. is exported
  annually to Bombay.

  Ruins of Sabaean buildings were found by J. T. Bent in the
  neighbourhood of Dhafar, and a remarkable cove or small harbour was
  discovered at Khor Rori, which he identified with the ancient port of
  Moscha.

  AUTHORITIES.--L. Van den Berg, _Le Hadramut et les colonies arabes_
  (Batavia, 1885); L. Hirsch, _Reise in Südarabien_ (Leiden, 1897); J.
  T. Bent, _Southern Arabia_ (London, 1895); A. von Wrede, _Reise in
  Hadhramut_ (Brunswick, 1870); H. J. Carter, _Trans. Bombay As. Soc._
  (1845), 47-51; _Journal R.G.S._ (1837).     (R. A. W.)



HADRIA [mod. _Atri_ (q.v.)], perhaps the original terminal point of the
Via Caecilia, Italy. It belonged to the Praetutii. It became a colony of
Rome in 290 B.C. and remained faithful to Rome. The coins which it
issued (probably during the Punic Wars), are remarkable. The crypt of
the cathedral of the modern town was originally a large Roman cistern;
another forms the foundation of the ducal palace; and in the eastern
portion of the town there is a complicated system of underground
passages for collecting and storing water.

  See _Notizie degli scavi_ (1902), 3.     (T. As.)



HADRIAN (PUBLIUS AELIUS HADRIANUS), Roman emperor A.D. 117-138, was born
on the 24th of January A.D. 76, at Italica in Hispania Baetica
(according to others, at Rome), where his ancestors, originally from
Hadria in Picenum, had been settled since the time of the Scipios. On
his father's death in 85 or 86 he was placed under the guardianship of
two fellow-countrymen, his kinsman Ulpius Trajanus (afterwards the
emperor Trajan), and Caelius Attianus (afterwards prefect of the
praetorian guard). He spent the next five years at Rome, but at the age
of fifteen he returned to his native place and entered upon a military
career. He was soon, however, recalled to Rome by Trajan, and appointed
to the offices of _decemvir stlitibus judicandis_, _praefectus feriarum
Latinarum_, and _sevir turmae equitum Romanorum_. About 95 he was
military tribune in lower Moesia. In 97 he was sent to upper Germany to
convey the congratulations of the army to Trajan on his adoption by
Nerva; and, in January of the following year, he hastened to announce
the death of Nerva to Trajan at Cologne. Trajan, who had been set
against Hadrian by reports of his extravagance, soon took him into
favour again, chiefly owing to the goodwill of the empress Plotina, who
brought about the marriage of Hadrian with (Vibia) Sabina, Trajan's
great-niece. In 101 Hadrian was quaestor, in 105 tribune of the people,
in 106 praetor. He served with distinction in both Dacian campaigns: in
the second Trajan presented him with a valuable ring which he himself
had received from Nerva, a token of regard which seemed to designate
Hadrian as his successor. In 107 Hadrian was _legatus praetorius_ of
lower Pannonia, in 108 _consul suffectus_, in 112 _archon_ at Athens,
_legatus_ in the Parthian campaign (113-117), in 117 _consul designatus_
for the following year, in 119 consul for the third and last time only
for four months. When Trajan, owing to a severe illness, decided to
return home from the East, he left Hadrian in command of the army and
governor of Syria. On the 9th of August 117, Hadrian, at Antioch, was
informed of his adoption by Trajan, and, on the 11th, of the death of
the latter at Selinus in Cilicia. According to Dio Cassius (lxix. 1) the
adoption was entirely fictitious, the work of Plotina and Attianus, by
whom Trajan's death was concealed for a few days in order to facilitate
the elevation of Hadrian. Whichever may have been the truth, his
succession was confirmed by the army and the senate. He hastened to
propitiate the former by a donative of twice the usual amount, and
excused his hasty acceptance of the throne to the senate by alleging the
impatient zeal of the soldiers and the necessity of an imperator for the
welfare of the state.

Hadrian's first important act was to abandon as untenable the conquests
of Trajan beyond the Euphrates (Assyria, Mesopotamia and Armenia), a
recurrence to the traditional policy of Augustus. The provinces were
unsettled, the barbarians on the borders restless and menacing, and
Hadrian wisely judged that the old limits of Augustus afforded the most
defensible frontier. Mesopotamia and Assyria were given back to the
Parthians, and the Armenians were allowed a king of their own. From
Antioch Hadrian set out for Dacia to punish the Roxolani, who, incensed
by a reduction of the tribute hitherto paid them, had invaded the
Danubian provinces. An arrangement was patched up, and while Hadrian was
still in Dacia he received news of a conspiracy against his life. Four
citizens of consular rank were accused of being concerned in it, and
were put to death by order of the senate before he could interfere.
Hurrying back to Rome, Hadrian endeavoured to remove the unfavourable
impression produced by the whole affair and to gain the goodwill of
senate and people. He threw the responsibility for the executions upon
the prefect of the praetorian guard, and swore that he would never
punish a senator without the assent of the entire body, to which he
expressed the utmost deference and consideration. Large sums of money
and games and shows were provided for the people, and, in addition, all
the arrears of taxation for the last fifteen years (about £10,000,000)
were cancelled and the bonds burnt in the Forum of Trajan. Trajan's
scheme for the "alimentation" of poor children was carried out upon a
larger scale under the superintendence of a special official called
_praefectus alimentorum_.

The record of Hadrian's journeys[1] through all parts of the empire
forms the chief authority for the events of his life down to his final
settlement in the capital during his last years. They can only be
briefly touched upon here. His first great journey probably lasted from
121 to 126. After traversing Gaul he visited the Germanic provinces on
the Rhine, and crossed over to Britain (spring, 122), where he built the
great rampart from the Tyne to the Solway, which bears his name (see
BRITAIN: _Roman_). He returned through Gaul into Spain, and then
proceeded to Mauretania, where he suppressed an insurrection. A war with
the Parthians was averted by a personal interview with their king (123).
From the Parthian frontier he travelled through Asia Minor and the
islands of the Aegean to Athens (autumn, 125), where he introduced
various political and commercial changes, was initiated at the
Eleusinia, and presided at the celebration of the greater Dionysia.
After visiting Central Greece and Peloponnesus, he returned by way of
Sicily to Rome (end of 126). The next year was spent at Rome, and, after
a visit to Africa, he set out on his second great journey (September
128). He travelled by way of Athens, where he completed and dedicated
the buildings (see ATHENS) begun during his first visit, chief of which
was the Olympieum or temple of Olympian Zeus, on which occasion Hadrian
himself assumed the name of Olympius. In the spring of 129 he visited
Asia Minor and Syria, where he invited the kings and princes of the East
to a meeting (probably at Samosata). Having passed the winter at
Antioch, he set out for the south (spring, 130). He ordered Jerusalem to
be rebuilt (see JERUSALEM) under the name of Aelia Capitolina, and made
his way through Arabia to Egypt, where he restored the tomb of Pompey
at Pelusium with great magnificence. After a short stay at Alexandria he
took an excursion up the Nile, during which he lost his favourite
Antinous. On the 21st of November 130, Hadrian (or at any rate his wife
Sabina) heard the music which issued at sunrise from the statue of
Memnon at Thebes (see MEMNON). From Egypt Hadrian returned through Syria
to Europe (his movements are obscure), but was obliged to hurry back to
Palestine (spring, 133) to give his personal attention (this is denied
by some historians) to the revolt of the Jews, which had broken out
(autumn, 131, or spring, 132) after he had left Syria. The founding of a
Roman colony on the site of Jerusalem (Dio Cass. lxix. 12) and the
prohibition of circumcision (Spartianus, _Hadrianus_, 14) are said to
have been the causes of the war, but authorities differ considerably as
to this and as to the measures which followed the revolt (see art. JEWS;
also E. Schürer, _Hist. of the Jewish People_, Eng. tr., div. 1, vol.
ii. p. 288; and S. Krauss in _Jewish Encyc. s.v._ "Hadrian"), which
lasted till 135. Leaving the conduct of affairs in the hands of his most
capable general, Julius Severus, in the spring of 134 Hadrian returned
to Rome. The remaining years of his life were spent partly in the
capital, partly in his villa at Tibur. His health now began to fail, and
it became necessary for him to choose a successor, as he had no children
of his own. Against the advice of his relatives and friends he adopted
L. Ceionius Commodus under the name of L. Aelius Caesar, who was in a
feeble state of health and died on the 1st of January 138, before he had
an opportunity of proving his capabilities. Hadrian then adopted Arrius
Antoninus (see ANTONINUS PIUS) on condition that he should adopt M.
Annius Verus (afterwards the emperor Marcus Aurelius) and the son of L.
Aelius Caesar, L. Ceionius Commodus (afterwards the emperor Commodus).
Hadrian died at Baiae on the 10th of July 138.

He was without doubt one of the most capable emperors who ever occupied
the throne, and devoted his great and varied talents to the interests of
the state. One of his chief objects was the abolition of distinctions
between the provinces and the mother country, finally carried out by
Caracalla, while at the same time he did not neglect reforms that were
urgently called for in Italy. Provincial governors were kept under
strict supervision; extortion was practically unheard of; the _jus
Latii_ was bestowed upon several communities; special officials were
instituted for the control of the finances; and the emperor's interest
in provincial affairs was shown by bis personal assumption of various
municipal offices. New towns were founded and old ones restored; new
streets were laid out, and aqueducts, temples and magnificent buildings
constructed. In Italy itself the administration of justice and the
finances required special attention. Four _legati juridici_ (or simply
_juridici_) of consular rank were appointed for Italy, who took over
certain important judicial functions formerly exercised by local
magistrates (cases of _fideicommissa_, the nomination of guardians). The
judicial council (_consiliarii Augusti_, later called _consistorium_),
composed of persons of the highest rank (especially jurists), became a
permanent body of advisers, although merely consultative. Roman law owes
much to Hadrian, who instructed Salvius Julianus to draw up an _edictum
perpetuum_, to a great extent the basis of Justinian's _Corpus juris_
(see M. Schanz, _Geschichte der römischen Literatur_, iii. p. 167). In
the administration of finance, in addition to the remission of arrears
already mentioned, a revision of claims was ordered to be made every
fifteen years, thereby anticipating the "indictions" (see CALENDAR;
CHRONOLOGY). Direct collection of taxes by imperial procurators was
substituted for the system of farming, and a special official
(_advocatus fisci_) was instituted to look after the interests of the
imperial treasury. The gift of "coronary gold" (_aurum coronarium_),
presented to the emperor on certain occasions, was entirely remitted in
the case of Italy, and partly in the case of the provinces. The
administration of the postal service throughout the empire was taken
over by the state, and municipal officials were relieved from the burden
of maintaining the imperial posts. Humane regulations as to the
treatment of slaves were strictly enforced; the master was forbidden to
put his slave to death, but was obliged to bring him before a court of
justice; if he ill-treated him it was a penal offence. The sale of
slaves (male and female) for immoral and gladiatorial purposes was
forbidden; the custom of putting all the household to death when their
master was murdered was modified. The public baths were kept under
strict supervision; the toga was ordered to be worn in public by
senators and equites on solemn occasions; extravagant banquets were
prohibited; rules were made to prevent the congestion of traffic in the
streets. In military matters Hadrian was a strict disciplinarian, but
his generosity and readiness to share their hardships endeared him to
the soldiers. He effected a material and moral improvement in the
conditions of service and mode of life, but in other respects he does
not appear to have introduced any important military reforms. During his
reign an advance was made in the direction of creating an organized body
of servants at the disposal of the emperor by the appointment of equites
to important administrative posts, without their having performed the
_militiae equestres_ (see EQUITES). Among these posts were various
procuratorships (chief of which was that of the imperial fisc), and the
offices _ab epistulis_, _a rationibus_ and _a libellis_ (secretary,
accountant, receiver of petitions). The prefect of the praetorian guard
was now the most important person in the state next to the emperor, and
subsequently became a supreme judge of appeal. Among the magnificent
buildings erected by Hadrian mention may be made of the following: In
the capital, the temple of Venus and Roma; his splendid mausoleum, which
formed the groundwork of the castle of St Angelo; the pantheon of
Agrippa; the Basilica Neptuni; at Tibur the great villa 8 m. in extent,
a kind of epitome of the world, with miniatures of the most celebrated
places in the provinces. Athens, however, was the favourite site of his
architectural labours; here he built the temple of Olympian Zeus, the
Panhellenion, the Pantheon, the library, a gymnasium and a temple of
Hera.

Hadrian was fond of the society of learned men--poets, scholars,
rhetoricians and philosophers--whom he alternately humoured and
ridiculed. In painting, sculpture and music he considered himself the
equal of specialists. The architect Apollodorus of Damascus owed his
banishment and death to his outspoken criticism of the emperor's plans.
The sophist Favorinus was more politic; when reproached for yielding too
readily to the emperor in some grammatical discussion, he replied that
it was unwise to contradict the master of thirty legions. The Athenaeum
(q.v.) owed its foundation to Hadrian. He was a man of considerable
intellectual attainments, of prodigious memory, master of both Latin and
Greek, and wrote prose and verse with equal facility. His taste,
however, was curious; he preferred Cato the elder, Ennius and Caelius
Antipater to Cicero, Virgil and Sallust, the obscure poet Antimachus to
Homer and Plato. As a writer he displayed great versatility. He composed
an autobiography, published under the name of his freedman Phlegon;
wrote speeches, fragments of two of which are preserved in inscriptions
(a panegyric on his mother-in-law Matidia, and an address to the
soldiers at Lambaesis in Africa). In imitation of Antimachus he wrote a
work called _Catachannae_, probably a kind of miscellanea. The Latin and
Greek anthologies contain about a dozen epigrams under his name. The
letter of Hadrian to the consul Servianus (in Vopiscus, _Vita
Saturnini_, 8) is no longer considered genuine. Hadrian's celebrated
dying address to his soul may here be quoted:--

  "Animula vagula, blandula,
   Hospes comesque corporis,
   Quae nunc abibis in loca
   Pallidula, rigida, nudula;
   Nec, ut soles, dabis iocos?"

The character of Hadrian exhibits a mass of contradictions, well summed
up by Spartianus (14, 11). He was grave and gay, affable and dignified,
cruel and gentle, mean and generous, eager for fame yet not vain,
impulsive and cautious, secretive and open. He hated eminent qualities
in others, but gathered round him the most distinguished men of the
state; at one time affectionate towards his friends, at another he
mistrusted and put them to death. In fact, he was only consistent in his
inconsistency (_semper in omnibus varius_). Although he endeavoured to
win the popular favour, he was more feared than loved. A man of
unnatural passions and grossly superstitious, he was an ardent lover of
nature. But, with all his faults, he devoted himself so indefatigably to
the service of the state, that the period of his reign could be
characterized as a "golden age."

  The chief ancient authorities for the reign of Hadrian are: the life
  by Aelius Spartianus in the _Scriptores historiae Augustae_ (see
  AUGUSTAN HISTORY and bibliography); the epitome of Dio Cassius (lxix.)
  by Xiphilinus; Aurelius Victor, Epit. 14, probably based on Marius
  Maximus; Eutropius viii. 6; Zonaras xi. 23; Suidas, _s.v._ [Greek:
  Adrianos]: and numerous inscriptions and coins. The autobiography was
  used by both Dio Cassius and Marius Maximus. Modern authorities: C.
  Merivale, _Hist. of the Romans under the Empire_, ch. lxvi.; H.
  Schiller, _Geschichte der römischen Kaiserzeit_, i. 2, p. 602 (1883);
  J. B. Bury, _The Student's Roman Empire_ (1893), where a concise table
  of the journeys is given; P. von Rohden, _s.v._ "Aelius" (No. 64) in
  Pauly-Wissowa's _Realencyclopädie_, i. 1 (1894); J. Dürr, _Die Reisen
  des Kaisers Hadrian_ (1881); F. Gregorovius, _The Emperor Hadrian_
  (Eng. tr. by Mary E. Robinson, 1898); A. Hausrath, _Neutestamentliche
  Zeitgeschichte_, iii. (1874); W. Schurz, _De mutationibus in imperio
  ordinando ab imp. Hadr. factis_, i. (Bonn, 1883); J. Plew,
  _Quellenuntersuchungen zur Geschichte des Kaisers Hadrian_
  (Strassburg, 1890); O. T. Schulz, "Leben des Kaisers Hadrian,"
  _Quellenanalysen_ [of Spartianus' _Vita_] (1904); E. Kornemann,
  _Kaiser Hadrian und der letzte grosse Historiker von Rom_ (1905); W.
  Weber, _Untersuchungen zur Geschichte des Kaisers Hadrianus_ (1908);
  H. F. Hitzig, _Die Stellung Kaiser Hadrians in der römischen
  Rechtsgeschichte_ (1892); C. Schultess, _Bauten des Kaisers Hadrian_
  (1898); G. Doublet, _Notes sur les oeuvres littéraires de l'empéreur
  Hadrien_ (Toulouse, 1893); J. B. Lightfoot, _Apostolic Fathers_, ii.
  1, 476 seq.; Sir W. M. Ramsay, _Church in the Roman Empire_, pp. 320
  seq.; V. Schultze, in Herzog-Hauck's _Realencyklopädie_, vii. 315;
  histories of Roman literature by Teuffel-Schwabe and Schanz. On Aelius
  Caesar, see _Class. Quart._, 1908, i.     (T. K.; J. H. F.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The chronology of Hadrian's journeys--indeed, of the whole
    reign--is confused and obscure. In the above the article by von
    Rohden in Pauly-Wissowa's _Realencyclopädie_ has been followed.
    Weber's (see Bibliog.) is the most important discussion.



HADRIAN'S WALL, the name usually given to the remains of the Roman
fortifications which defended the northern frontier of the Roman
province of Britain, between the Tyne and the Solway. The works
consisted of (1) a continuous defensive rampart with a ditch in front
and a road behind; (2) various forts, blockhouses and towers along the
rampart; and (3) an earthwork to the south of it, generally called the
Vallum, of uncertain use. The defensive wall was probably first erected
by Hadrian about A.D. 122 as a turf wall, and rebuilt in stone by
Septimius Severus about A.D. 208. See further BRITAIN: _Roman_.



HADRUMETUM, a town of ancient Africa on the southern extremity of the
_sinus Neapolitanus_ (mod. Gulf of Hammamet) on the east coast of
Tunisia. The site is partly occupied by the modern town of Susa (q.v.).
The form of the name Hadrumetum varied much in antiquity; the Greeks
called it [Greek: Adrymês, Adrymêtos, Adramytês, Adramêtos]: the Romans
_Adrumetum_, _Adrimetum_, _Hadrumetum_, _Hadrymetum_, &c.; inscriptions
and coins gave _Hadrumetum_. The town was originally a Phoenician colony
founded by Tyrians long before Carthage (Sallust, _Jug._ 19). It became
subject to Carthage, but lost none of its prosperity. Often mentioned
during the Punic Wars, it was captured by Agathocles in 310, and was the
refuge of Hannibal and the remnants of his army after the battle of Zama
in 202. During the last Punic War it gave assistance to the Romans;
after the fall of Carthage in 146 it received an accession of territory
and the title of _civitas libera_ (Appian, _Punica_, xciv.; _C.I.L._ i.
p. 84). Caesar landed there in 46 B.C. on his way to the victory of
Thapsus (_De bello Afric._ iii.; Suetonius, _Div. Jul._ lix.).

In the organization of the African provinces Hadrumetum became a capital
of the province of Byzacena. Its harbour was extremely busy and the
surrounding country unusually fertile. Trajan made it a Latin colony
under the title of _Colonia Concordia Ulpia Trajana Augusta Frugifera
Hadrumetina_; a dedication to the emperor Gordian the Good, found by M.
Cagnat at Susa in 1883 gives these titles to the town, and at the same
time identifies it with Susa. Quarrels arose between Hadrumetum and its
neighbour Thysdrus in connexion with the temple of Minerva situated on
the borders of their respective territories (Frontinus, _Gromatici_, ed.
Lachmannus, p. 57); Vespasian when pro-consul of Africa had to repress
a sedition among its inhabitants (Suetonius, _Vesp._ iv.; Tissot,
_Fastes de la prov. d'Afrique_, p. 66); it was the birthplace of the
emperor Albinus. At this period the metropolis of Byzacena was after
Carthage the most important town in Roman Africa. It was the seat of a
bishopric, and its bishops are mentioned at the councils of 258, 348,
393 and even later. Destroyed by the Vandals in 434 it was rebuilt by
Justinian and renamed Justinianopolis (Procop. _De aedif._ vi. 6). The
Arabic invasion at the end of the 7th century destroyed the Byzantine
towns, and the place became the haunt of pirates, protected by the
Kasbah (citadel); it was built on the substructions of the Punic, Roman
and Byzantine acropolis, and is used by the French for military
purposes. The Arabic geographer Bakri gave a description of the chief
Roman buildings which were standing in his time (Bakri, _Descr. de
l'Afrique_, tr. by de Slane, p. 83 et seq.). The modern town of Susa,
despite its commercial prosperity, occupies only a third of the old
site.

In 1863 the French engineer, A. Daux, discovered the jetties and the
moles of the commercial harbour, and the line of the military harbour
(Cothon); both harbours, which were mainly artificial, are entirely
silted up. There remains a fragment of the fortifications of the Punic
town, which had a total length of 6410 metres, and remains of the
substructions of the Byzantine acropolis, of the circus, the theatre,
the water cisterns, and of other buildings, notably the interesting
Byzantine basilica which is now used as an Arab café (Kahwat-el-Kubba).
In the ruins there have been found numerous columns of Punic
inscriptions, Roman inscriptions and mosaic, among which is one
representing Virgil seated, holding the _Aeneid_ in his hand; another
represents the Cretan labyrinth with Theseus and the Minotaur (Héron de
Villefosse, _Revue de l'Afrique française_, v., December 1887, pp. 384
and 394; _Comptes rendus de l'Acad. des Inscr. et Belles-Lettres_, 1892,
p. 318; other mosaics, _ibid._, 1896, p. 578; _Revue archéol._, 1897).
In 1904 Dr Carton and the abbé Leynaud discovered huge Christian
catacombs with several miles of subterranean galleries to which access
is obtained by a small vaulted chamber. In these catacombs we find
numerous sarcophagi and inscriptions painted or engraved of the Roman
and Byzantine periods (_Comptes rendus de l'Acad. des Inscr. et
Belles-Lettres_, 1904-1907; Carton and Leynaud, _Les Catacombes
d'Hadrumète_, Susa, 1905). We can recognize also the Punic and
Pagan-Roman cemeteries (_C. R. de l'Acad. des Inscr. et Belles-Lettres_,
1887; _Bull. archéol. du Comité_, 1885, p. 149; 1903, p. 157). The town
had no Punic coins, but under the Roman domination there were coins from
the time of the Republic. These are of bronze and bear the name of the
city in abbreviations, HADR or HADRVM accompanying the head of Neptune
or the Sun. We find also the names of local duumvirs. Under Augustus the
coins have on the obverse the imperial effigy, and on the reverse the
names and often the effigies of the pro-consuls who governed the
province, P. Quintilius Varus, L. Volusius Saturninus and Q. Fabius
Maximus Africanus. After Augustus the mint was finally closed.

  AUTHORITIES.--A. Daux, _Recherches sur l'origine et l'emplacement des
  emporia phéniciens dans le Zeugis et le Byzacium_ (Paris, 1869); Ch.
  Tissot, _Géographie comparée de la province romaine d'Afrique_, ii. p.
  149; Cagnat, _Explorations archéol. en Tunisie_ (2nd and 3rd fasc.,
  1885); Lud. Müller, _Numismatique de l'Afrique ancienne_, ii p. 51; M.
  Palat, in the _Bulletin arch. du Comité des travaux historiques_
  (1885), pp. 121 and 150; _Revue archéologique_ (1884 and 1897);
  _Bulletin des antiquités africaines_ (1884 and 1885); _Bulletin de la
  Société archéologique de Sousse_ (first published in 1903); _Atlas
  archéol. de Tunisie_ (4th fascicule, with the plan of Hadrumetum).
       (E. B.*)



HAECKEL, ERNST HEINRICH (1834-   ), German biologist, was born at
Potsdam on the 16th of February 1834. He studied medicine and science at
Würzburg, Berlin and Vienna, having for his masters such men as Johannes
Müller, R. Virchow and R. A. Kölliker, and in 1857 graduated at Berlin
as M.D. and M.Ch. At the wish of his father he began to practise as a
doctor in that city, but his patients were few in number, one reason
being that he did not wish them to be many, and after a short time he
turned to more congenial pursuits. In 1861, at the instance of Carl
Gegenbaur, he became _Privatdozent_ at Jena; in the succeeding year he
was chosen extraordinary professor of comparative anatomy and director
of the Zoological Institute in the same university; in 1865 he was
appointed to a chair of zoology which was specially established for his
benefit. This last position he retained for 43 years, in spite of
repeated invitations to migrate to more important centres, such as
Strassburg or Vienna, and at Jena he spent his life, with the exception
of the time he devoted to travelling in various parts of the world,
whence in every case he brought back a rich zoological harvest.

As a field naturalist Haeckel displayed extraordinary power and
industry. Among his monographs may be mentioned those on _Radiolaria_
(1862), _Siphonophora_ (1869), _Monera_ (1870) and _Calcareous Sponges_
(1872), as well as several _Challenger_ reports, viz. _Deep-Sea Medusae_
(1881), _Siphonophora_ (1888), _Deep-Sea Keratosa_ (1889) and
_Radiolaria_ (1887), the last being accompanied by 140 plates and
enumerating over four thousand new species. This output of systematic
and descriptive work would alone have constituted a good life's work,
but Haeckel in addition wrote copiously on biological theory. It
happened that just when he was beginning his scientific career Darwin's
_Origin of Species_ was published (1859), and such was the influence it
exercised over him that he became the apostle of Darwinism in Germany.
He was, indeed, the first German biologist to give a whole-hearted
adherence to the doctrine of organic evolution and to treat it as the
cardinal conception of modern biology. It was he who first brought it
prominently before the notice of German men of science in his first
memoir on the _Radiolaria_, which was completely pervaded with its
spirit, and later at the congress of naturalists at Stettin in 1863.
Darwin himself has placed on record the conviction that Haeckel's
enthusiastic propagandism of the doctrine was the chief factor of its
success in Germany. His book on _General Morphology_ (1866), published
when he was only thirty-two years old, was called by Huxley a suggestive
attempt to work out the practical application of evolution to its final
results; and if it does not take rank as a classic, it will at least
stand out as a landmark in the history of biological doctrine in the
19th century. Although it contains a statement of most of the views with
which Haeckel's name is associated, it did not attract much attention on
its first appearance, and accordingly its author rewrote much of its
substance in a more popular style and published it a year or two later
as the _Natural History of Creation (Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte)_,
which was far more successful. In it he divided morphology into two
sections--tectology, the science of organic individuality; and
promorphology, which aims at establishing a crystallography of organic
forms. Among other matters, he laid particular stress on the
"fundamental biogenetic law" that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny, that
the individual organism in its development is to a great extent an
epitome of the form-modifications undergone by the successive ancestors
of the species in the course of their historic evolution. His well-known
"gastraea" theory is an outcome of this generalization. He divided the
whole animal creation into two categories--the Protozoa or unicellular
animals, and the Metazoa or multicellular animals, and he pointed out
that while the former remain single-celled throughout their existence,
the latter are only so at the beginning, and are subsequently built up
of innumerable cells, the single primitive egg-cell (_ovum_) being
transformed by cleavage into a globular mass of cells (_morula_), which
first becomes a hollow vesicle and then changes into the _gastrula_. The
simplest multicellular animal he conceived to resemble this gastrula
with its two primary layers, ectoderm and endoderm, and the earliest
hypothetical form of this kind, from which the higher animals might be
supposed to be actually descended, he called the "gastraea." This theory
was first put forward in the memoir on the calcareous sponges, which in
its sub-title was described as an attempt at an analytical solution of
the problem of the origin of species, and was subsequently elaborated in
various _Studies on the Gastraea Theory_ (1873-1884). Haeckel, again,
was the first to attempt to draw up a genealogical tree (_Stammbaum_)
exhibiting the relationship between the various orders of animals with
regard both to one another and their common origin. His earliest attempt
in the _General Morphology_ was succeeded by many others, and his
efforts in this direction may perhaps be held to culminate in the paper
he read before the fourth International Zoological Congress, held at
Cambridge in 1898, when he traced the descent of the human race in
twenty-six stages from organisms like the still-existing _Monera_,
simple structureless masses of protoplasm, and the unicellular
_Protista_, through the chimpanzees and the _Pithecanthropus erectus_,
of which a few fossil bones were discovered in Java in 1894, and which
he held to be undoubtedly an intermediate form connecting primitive man
with the anthropoid apes.

Not content with the study of the doctrine of evolution in its
zoological aspects, Haeckel also applied it to some of the oldest
problems of philosophy and religion. What he termed the integration of
his views on these subjects he published under the title of _Die
Welträtsel_ (1899), which in 1901 appeared in English as _The Riddle of
the Universe_. In this book, adopting an uncompromising monistic
attitude, he asserted the essential unity of organic and inorganic
nature. According to his "carbon-theory," which has been far from
achieving general acceptance, the chemico-physical properties of carbon
in its complex albuminoid compounds are the sole and the mechanical
cause of the specific phenomena of movement which distinguish organic
from inorganic substances, and the first development of living
protoplasm, as seen in the _Monera_, arises from such nitrogenous
carbon-compounds by a process of spontaneous generation. Psychology he
regarded as merely a branch of physiology, and psychical activity as a
group of vital phenomena which depend solely on physiological actions
and material changes taking place in the protoplasm of the organism in
which it is manifested. Every living cell has psychic properties, and
the psychic life of multicellular organisms is the sum-total of the
psychic functions of the cells of which they are composed. Moreover,
just as the highest animals have been evolved from the simplest forms of
life, so the highest faculties of the human mind have been evolved from
the soul of the brute-beasts, and more remotely from the simple
cell-soul of the unicellular Protozoa. As a consequence of these views
Haeckel was led to deny the immortality of the soul, the freedom of the
will, and the existence of a personal God.

Haeckel's literary output was enormous, and at the time of the
celebration of his sixtieth birthday at Jena in 1894 he had produced 42
works with 13,000 pages, besides numerous scientific memoirs. In
addition to the works already mentioned, he wrote _Freie Wissenschaft
und freie Lehre_ (1877) in reply to a speech in which Virchow objected
to the teaching of the doctrine of evolution in schools, on the ground
that it was an unproved hypothesis; _Die systematische Phylogenie_
(1894), which has been pronounced his best book; _Anthropogenie_ (1874,
5th and enlarged edition 1903), dealing with the evolution of man; _Über
unsere gegenwärtige Kenntnis vom Ursprung des Menschen_ (1898,
translated into English as _The Last Link_, 1898); _Der Kampf um den
Entwickelungsgedanken_ (1905, English version, _Last Words on
Evolution_, 1906); _Die Lebenswunder_ (1904), a supplement to the
_Riddle of the Universe_; books of travel, such as _Indische
Reisebriefe_ (1882) and _Aus Insulinde_ (1901), the fruits of journeys
to Ceylon and to Java; _Kunstformen der Natur_ (1904), with plates
representing beautiful marine animal forms; and _Wanderbilder_ (1905),
reproductions of his oil-paintings and water-colour landscapes.

  There are biographies by W. Bölsche (Dresden, 1900, translated into
  English by Joseph McCabe, with additions, London, 1906) and by
  Breitenbach (Odenkirchen, 1904). See also Walther May, _Ernst
  Haeckel_; _Versuch einer Chronik seines Lebens und Werkens_ (Leipzig,
  1909).



HAEMATITE, or HEMATITE, a mineral consisting of ferric oxide (Fe2O3),
named from the Greek word [Greek: haima] "blood," in allusion to its
typical colour, whence it is called also red iron ore. When
crystallized, however, haematite often presents a dark colour, even
iron-black; but on scratching the surface, the powder of the streak
shows the colour of dried blood. Haematite crystallizes in the
rhombohedral system, and is isomorphous with corundum (Al2O3). The
habit of the crystals may be rhombohedral, pyramidal or tabular, rarely
prismatic. In fig. 1 the crystal, from Elba, shows a combination of the
fundamental rhombohedron (R), an obtuse rhombohedron (s), and the
hexagonal bi-pyramid (n). Fig. 2 is a tabular crystal in which the basal
pinacoid (o) predominates. Haematite has no distinct cleavage, but may
show, in consequence of a lamellar structure, a tendency to parting
along certain planes.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

Crystallized haematite, such as that from the iron-mines of Elba,
presents a steel-grey or iron-black colour, with a brilliant metallic
lustre, sometimes beautifully iridescent. The splendent surface has
suggested for this mineral such names as specular iron ore,
looking-glass ore, and iron glance (_fer oligiste_ of French writers).
The hardness of the crystallized haematite is about 6, and the specific
gravity 5.2. The so-called "iron roses" (_Eisenrosen_) of Switzerland
are rosette-like aggregates of hexagonal tabular crystals, from fissures
in the gneissose rocks of the Alps. Specular iron ore occurs in the form
of brilliant metallic scales on many lavas, as at Vesuvius and Etna, in
the Auvergne and the Eifel, and notably in the Island of Ascension,
where the mineral forms beautiful tabular crystals. It seems to be a
sublimation-product formed in volcanoes by the interaction of the vapour
of ferric chloride and steam.

Specular haematite forms a constituent of certain schistose rocks, such
as the Brazilian itabirite. In the Marquette district of Michigan (Lake
Superior) schistose specular ore occurs in important deposits,
associated with a jasper rock, in which the ore alternates with bands of
red quartzite. Micaceous iron ore consists of delicate steel-grey scales
of specular haematite, unctuous to the touch, used as a lubricant and
also as a pigment. It is worked in Devonshire under the name of shining
ore. Very thin laminae of haematite, blood-red by transmitted light,
occur as microscopic enclosures in certain minerals, such as carnallite
and sun-stone, to which they impart colour and lustre.

Much haematite occurs in a compact or massive form, often mammillary,
and presenting on fracture a fibrous structure. The reniform masses are
known as kidney ore. Such red ore is generally neither so dense nor so
hard as the crystals. It often passes into an earthy form, termed soft
red ore, and when mixed with more or less clay constitutes red ochre,
ruddle or reddle (Ger. _Rötel_).

The hard haematite is occasionally cut and polished as an ornamental
stone, and certain kinds have been made into beads simulating black
pearls. It was worked by the Assyrians for their engraved
cylinder-seals, and was used by the gnostics for amulets. Some of the
native tribes in the Congo basin employ it as a material for axes. The
hard fibrous ore of Cumberland is known as pencil ore, and is employed
for the burnishers used by bookbinders and others. Santiago de
Compostela in Spain furnishes a considerable supply of haematite
burnishers.

Haematite is an important ore of iron (q.v.), and is extensively worked
in Elba, Spain (Bilbao), Scandinavia, the Lake Superior region and
elsewhere. In England valuable deposits occur in the Carboniferous
Limestone of west Cumberland (Whitehaven district) and north Lancashire
(Ulverston district). The hard ore is siliceous, and fine crystallized
specimens occur in association with smoky quartz. The ore is remarkably
free from phosphorus, and is consequently valued for the production of
pig-iron to be converted into Bessemer steel.     (F. W. R.*)



HAEMATOCELE (Gr. [Greek: haima], blood, and [Greek: kêlê], tumour), the
medical term for a localized collection of blood in the tunica vaginalis
or cord. It is usually the result of a sudden blow or severe strain, but
may arise from disease. At first it forms a smooth, fluctuating, opaque
swelling, but later becomes hard and firm. In chronic cases the walls of
the tunica vaginalis undergo changes. The treatment of a case seen soon
after the injury is directed towards keeping the patient at rest,
elevating the parts, and applying an evaporating lotion or ice-bag. In
chronic cases it may be necessary to lay open the cavity and remove the
coagulum.



HAEMOPHILIA, the medical term for a condition of the vascular system,
often running in families, the members of which are known as "bleeders,"
characterized by a disposition towards bleeding, whether with or without
the provocation of an injury to the tissue. When this bleeding is
spontaneous it comes from the mucous membranes, especially from the
nose, but also from the mouth, bowel and bronchial tubes. Slight bruises
are apt to be followed by extravasations of blood into the tissues; the
swollen joints (knee especially) of a bleeder are probably due, in the
first instance, to the escape of blood into the joint cavity or synovial
membrane. It is always from the smallest vessels that the blood escapes,
and may do so in such quantities as to cause death in a few hours.



HAEMORRHAGE (Gr. [Greek: haima], blood, and [Greek: rhêgnynai], to
burst), a general term for any escape of blood from a blood-vessel (see
Blood). It commonly results from injury, as the tearing or cutting of a
blood-vessel, but certain forms result from disease, as in scurvy and
purpura. The chief varieties of haemorrhage are _arterial_, _venous_ and
_capillary_. Bleeding from an artery is of a bright red colour, and
escapes from the end of the vessel nearest the heart in jets synchronous
with the heart's beat. Bleeding from a vein is of a darker colour; the
flow is steady, and the bleeding is from the distal end of the vessel.
Capillary bleeding is a general oozing from a raw surface. By
_extravasation of blood_ is meant the pouring out of blood into the
areolar tissues, which become boggy. This is termed a _bruise_ or
_ecchymosis_. _Epistaxis_ is a term given to bleeding from the nose.
_Haematemesis_ is vomiting of blood, the colour of which may be altered
by digestion, as is also the case in _melaena_, or passage of blood with
the faeces, in which the blood becomes dark and tarry-looking from the
action of the intestinal fluids. _Haemoptysis_ denotes an escape of
blood from the air-passages, which is usually bright red and frothy from
admixture with air. _Haematuria_ means passage of blood with the urine.

Cessation of bleeding may take place from natural or from artificial
means. Natural arrest of haemorrhage arises from (1) the coagulation of
the blood itself, (2) the diminution of the heart's action as in
fainting, (3) changes taking place in the cut vessel causing its
retraction and contraction. In the surgical treatment of haemorrhage
minor means of arresting bleeding are: cold, which is most valuable in
general oozing and local extravasations; very hot water, 130° to 160°
F., a powerful haemostatic; position, such as elevation of the limb,
valuable in bleeding from the extremities; styptics or astringents,
applied locally, as perchloride of iron, tannic acid and others, the
most valuable being suprarenal extract. In arresting haemorrhage
temporarily the chief thing is to press directly on the bleeding part.
The pressure to be effectual need not be severe, but must be accurately
applied. If the bleeding point cannot be reached, the pressure should be
applied to the main artery between the bleeding point and the heart. In
small blood-vessels pressure will be sufficient to arrest haemorrhage
permanently. In large vessels it is usual to pass a ligature round the
vessel and tie it with a reef-knot. Apply the ligature, if possible, at
the bleeding point, tying both ends of the cut vessel. If this cannot be
done, the main artery of the limb must be exposed by dissection at the
most accessible point between the wound and the heart, and there
ligatured.

Haemorrhage has been classified as--(1) primary, occurring at the time
of the injury; (2) reactionary, or within twenty-four hours of the
accident, during the stage of reaction; (3) secondary, occurring at a
later period and caused by faulty application of a ligature or septic
condition of the wound. In severe haemorrhage, as from the division of a
large artery, the patient may collapse and death ensue from syncope. In
this case stimulants and strychnine may be given, but they should be
avoided until it is certain the bleeding has been properly controlled,
as they tend to increase it. Transfusion of blood directly from the
vein of a healthy person to the blood-vessels of the patient, and
infusion of saline solution into a vein, may be practised (see Shock).
In a congenital condition known as _haemophylia_ (q.v.) it is difficult
to stop the flow of blood.

The surgical procedure for the treatment of an open wound is--(1) arrest
of haemorrhage; (2) cleansing of the wound and removal of any foreign
bodies; (3) careful apposition of its edges and surfaces--the edges
being best brought in contact by sutures of aseptic silk or catgut, the
surfaces by carefully applied pressure; (4) free drainage, if necessary,
to prevent accumulation either of blood or serous effusion; (5)
avoidance of sepsis; (6) perfect rest of the part. These methods of
treatment require to be modified for wounds in special situations and
for those in which there is much contusion and laceration. When a
special poison has entered the wound at the time of its infliction or at
some subsequent date, it is necessary to provide against septic
conditions of the wound itself and blood-poisoning of the general
circulation.



HAEMORRHOIDS, or Hemorrhoids (from Gr. [Greek: haima], blood, and [Greek:
rhein], to flow), commonly called _piles_, swellings formed by the
dilatation of veins of the lowest part of the bowel, or of those just
outside the margin of its aperture. The former, _internal piles_, are
covered by mucous membrane; the latter, _external piles_, are just
beneath the skin. As the veins of the lining of the bowel become dilated
they form definite bulgings within the bowel, and, at last increasing in
size, escape through the anus when a motion is being passed. Growing
still larger, they may come down spontaneously when the individual is
standing or walking, and they are apt to be a grave source of pain or
annoyance. Eventually they may remain constantly protruded--nevertheless,
they are still _internal_ piles because they arise from the interior of
the bowel. Though a pile is sometimes solitary, there are usually several
of them. They are apt to become inflamed, and the inflammation is
associated with heat, pain, discharge and general uneasiness; ulceration
and bleeding are also common symptoms, hence the term "bleeding piles."
The _external pile_ is covered by the thin dark-coloured skin of the anal
margin. Severe pressure upon the large abdominal veins may retard the
upward flow of blood to the heart and so give rise to piles; this is apt
to happen in the case of disease of the liver, malignant and other
tumours, and pregnancy. General weakness of the constitution or of the
blood-vessels and habitual constipation may be predisposing causes of
piles. The exciting cause may be vigorous straining at stool or exposure
to damp, as from sitting on the wet ground. Piles are often only a
symptom, and in their treatment this fact should be kept in view; if the
cause is removed the piles may disappear. But in some cases it may be
impossible to remove the cause, as when a widely-spreading cancerous
growth of the rectum, or of the interior of the pelvis or abdomen, is
blocking the upward flow of blood in the veins. Sometimes when a pile has
been protruded, as during defaecation, it is tightly grasped by spasmodic
contraction of the circular muscular fibres which guard the outlet of the
bowel, and it then becomes swollen, engorged and extremely painful; the
strangulation may be so severe that the blood in the vessels coagulates
and the pile mortifies. This, indeed, is nature's attempt at curing a
pile, but it is distressing, and, as a rule, it is not entirely
successful.

The palliative treatment of piles consists in obtaining a daily and easy
action of the bowels, in rest, cold bathing, astringent injections,
lotions and ointments. The radical treatment consists in their removal
by operation, but this should not be contemplated until palliative
treatment has failed. The operation consists in drawing the pile well
down, and strangling the vessels entering and leaving its base, either
by a strong ligature tightly applied, by crushing, or by cautery. Before
dealing with the pile the anus is vigorously dilated in order that the
pile may be dealt with with greater precision, and also that the
temporary paralysis of the sphincter muscle, which follows the
stretching, may prevent the occurrence of painful and spasmodic
contractions subsequently. The ligatures by which the base of the piles
are strangulated slough off with the pile in about ten days, and in
about ten days more the individual is, as a rule, well enough to return
to his work. If, for one reason or another, no operation is to be
undertaken, and the piles are troublesome, relief may be afforded by
warm sponging and by sitz-baths, the pile being gently dried afterwards
by a piece of soft linen, smeared with vaseline, and carefully returned
into the bowel. Under surgical advice, cocaine or morphia may be brought
in contact with the tender parts, either in the form of lotion,
suppository or ointment. In operating upon internal piles it is
undesirable to remove all the external piles around the anus, lest the
contraction of the circumferential scar should cause permanent narrowing
of the orifice. If, as often happens, blood clots in the vein of an
external pile, the small, hard, tender swelling may be treated with
anodyne fomentations, or it may be rendered insensitive by the ether
spray and opened by a small incision, the clot being turned out.
     (E. O.*)



HAEMOSPORIDIA, in zoology, an order of Ectospora, which although
comparatively few in number and very inconspicuous in size and
appearance, have of late years probably attracted greater attention and
been more generally studied than any other Sporozoa; the reason being
that they include the organisms well known as malarial parasites. In
spite, however, of much and careful recent research--to a certain
extent, rather, as a result of it--it remains the case that the
Haemosporidia are, in some respects, the group of the Ectospora about
which our knowledge is, for the time being, in the most unsatisfactory
condition. Such important questions, indeed, as the scope and boundaries
of the group, its exact origin and affinities, the rank and
interclassification of the forms admittedly included in it, are answered
quite differently by different workers. For example, one well-known
Sporozoan authority (M. Lühe) has recently united the two groups,
Haemosporidia and Haemoflagellates, bodily into one, while others (e.g.
Novy and McNeal) deny that there is any connexion whatever between
"Cytozoa" and Trypanosomes. Again, the inclusion or exclusion of forms
like _Piroplasma_ and _Halteridium_ is also the subject of much
discussion. The present writer accepts here the view that the
Haemosporidia are derived from Haemoflagellates which have developed a
gregariniform (Sporozoan) phase at the expense, largely or entirely, of
the flagelliform one. The not inconsiderable differences met with among
different types are capable of explanation on the ground that certain
forms have advanced farther than others along this particular line of
evolution. In other words, it is most probable that the Haemosporidia
are to be regarded as comprising various parasites which represent
different stages intermediate between, on the one side, a Flagellate,
and on the other, a typical chlamydospore-forming Ectosporan parasite.
While, however, it is easy enough sharply to separate off all
Haemosporidia from other Ectospora, it is a very difficult matter to
define their limits on the former side. Two principal criteria which a
doubtful haemal parasite might very well be required to satisfy in order
to be considered as a Haemosporidian rather than a Haemoflagellate are
(a) the occurrence of schizogony during the "corpuscular" phase in the
Vertebrate host, and (b) the formation of many germs ("sporozoites")
from the zygote; so long as these conditions were complied with, the
present writer, at all events, would not feel he was countenancing any
protozoological heresy in allowing for the possibility of a Flagellate
(perhaps trypaniform) phase or features being present at some period or
other in the life-cycle.[1] To render this article complete, however,
one or two well-known parasites, hitherto referred to this order, must
also be mentioned, which, judged by the above (arbitrary) standard, are,
it may be, on the Haemoflagellate side of the dividing line (e.g.
_Halteridium_, according to Schaudinn).

The chief characters which distinguish the Haemosporidia from other
Ectospora are the following. They are invariably blood parasites, and
for part or all of the trophic period come into intimate relation with
the cellular elements in the blood. There is always an alternation of
hosts and of generations, an Invertebrate being the definitive host, in
which sexual conjugation is undergone and which is to be regarded as the
primary one, a Vertebrate being the intermediate or secondary one. The
zygote or sporont is at first capable of movement and known as an
ookinete. No resistant spores (chlamydospores) are formed, the ultimate
germs or sporozoites always being free in the oocyst and not enclosed by
sporocysts.

To Sir E. Ray Lankester is due the honour of discovering the first
Haemosporidian, a discovery which did not take place until after most of
the other kinds of Sporozoa were known. In 1871 this author described
the parasite of the frog, which he later termed _Drepanidium ranarum_.
The next discovery was the great and far-reaching one of Laveran, who in
1883 described all the characteristic phases of the malarial parasite
which are met with in human blood. While regarding the organism as the
cause of the disease, Laveran did not at once recognize its animal and
Sporozoan nature, but considered it rather as a vegetable, and termed it
_Oscillaria malariae_. As in the case of the Trypanosomes, we owe to
Danilewsky (1885-1889) the first serious attempts to study the
comparative anatomy and life-history of these parasites, from a
zoological point of view. Danilewsky first named them Haemosporidia, and
distinguished between _Haemocytozoa_ and _Leucocytozoa_. To the
brilliant researches of R. Ross and Grassi in the closing years of the
19th century is due the realization of the essential part played by the
gnat or mosquito in the life-cycle and transmission of the parasites;
and to MacCallum belongs the credit of first observing the true sexual
conjugation, in the case of a _Halteridium_. Since then, thanks to the
labours of Argutinsky and Schaudinn, our knowledge of the malarial
parasites has steadily increased. Until quite recently, however, very
little was known about the Haemosporidia of cold-blooded Vertebrates;
but in 1903 Siegel and Schaudinn demonstrated that the same rôle is
performed in their case by a leech or a tick, and since then many new
forms have been described.


  Occurrence: habitat; effects on host.

The Haemosporidia are widely distributed and of very general occurrence
among the chief classes of Vertebrates. Among Invertebrates they are
apparently limited to bloodsucking insects, ticks and leeches.[2] As
already stated, the universal habitat of the parasites in the Vertebrate
is the blood; as a result, of course, they are to be met with in the
capillaries of practically all the important organs of the body; and it
is to be noted that while certain phases (e.g. growing trophozoites,
mature gametocytes) are found in the peripheral circulation, others
(e.g. schizogonous "rosettes," young gametocytes) occur in the internal
organs, liver, kidneys, &c., where the circulation is sluggish. The
relation of the parasites to the blood-cells varies greatly. Most
attack, probably exclusively, the red blood corpuscles (haematids); a
few, however, select the leucocytes, and are therefore known as
Leucocytozoa. In the case of Mammalian and Avian forms (malarial
parasites) Schaudinn and Argutinsky have shown that the trophic and
schizogonic phases are not really endoglobular but closely attached to
the corpuscle, hollowing out a depression or space into which they
nestle; the gametocytes, on the other hand, are actually intercellular.
Forms parasitic in cold-blooded Vertebrates, on the contrary, are
always, so far as is known, endoglobular when in relation with the
corpuscles; and the same is apparently the case with the Mammalian
parasite, _Piroplasma_. Although in no instance so far described is the
parasite actually intranuclear (as certain Coccidia are), in one or two
cases (e.g. _Karyolysus_ of lizards and certain species of
_Haemogregarina_) it reacts markedly upon the nucleus and soon causes
its disintegration. While many Haemosporidia (e.g. malarial parasites,
with the exception of _Halteridium_) remain in connexion with the same
corpuscle throughout the whole period of growth and schizogony, the new
generation of merozoites first being set free from the broken-down cell,
others (the Haemogregarines, broadly speaking, and also _Halteridium_)
leave one corpuscle after a short time, wander about free in the plasma,
and then seek out another; and this may be repeated until the parasite
is ready for schizogony, which generally occurs in the corpuscle.

As in the case of Trypanosomes (q.v.), normally--that is to say, when in
an accustomed, tolerant host, and under natural conditions--Haemosporidia
are non-pathogenic and do not give rise to any ill-effects in the animals
harbouring them. When, however, the parasites gain an entry into the
blood of man or other unadapted animals,[3] they produce, as is well
known, harmful and often very serious effects. There are three recognized
types of malarial fever, each caused by a distinct form and characterized
by the mode of manifestation. Two, the so-called benign fevers, are
intermittent; namely, tertian and quartan fever, in which the fever
recurs every second and third day respectively. This is due to the fact
that schizogony takes different lengths of time in the two cases, 48
hours in the one, 72 in the other; the height of the fever-period
coincides with the break-down of the corpuscle at the completion of the
process, and the liberation of great numbers of merozoites in the blood.
The third type is the dangerous aestivo-autumnal or pernicious malaria,
in which the fever is irregular or continuous during long periods.

A very general symptom is anaemia, which is sometimes present to a
marked extent, when it may lead to a fatal termination. This is the
result of the very considerable destruction of the blood-corpuscles
which takes place, the haemoglobin of which is absorbed by the parasites
as nutriment. A universal feature connected with this mode of nutrition
is the production, in the cytoplasm of the parasite, of a brown pigment,
termed melanin; this does not represent reserve material, but is an
excreted by-product derived from the haemoglobin. These pigment-grains
are at length liberated into the blood-stream and become deposited in
the various organs, spleen, liver, kidneys, brain, causing pronounced
pigmentation.

Another type of fever, more acute and more generally fatal, is that
produced by forms belonging to the genus _Piroplasma_, in cattle, dogs,
horses and other domestic animals in different regions of the globe; and
recently Wilson and Chowning have stated that the "spotted fever of the
Rockies" is a human piroplasmosis caused by _P. hominis_. The disease of
cattle is known variously as Texas-fever, Tristeza, Red-water, Southern
cattle-fever, &c. In this type of illness the endogenous multiplication
of the parasites is very great and rapid, and brings about an enormous
diminution in the number of healthy red blood corpuscles. Their sudden
destruction results in the liberation of large quantities of haemoglobin
in the plasma, which turns deep-red in colour; and hence
haemoglobinuria, which occurs only rarely in malaria, is a constant
symptom in piroplasmosis.


  Example of the life-history.

The parasite of pernicious malaria, here termed _Laverania malariae_,
will serve very well as a type of the general life-cycle (fig. 1).
Slight differences shown by the other malarial parasites (_Plasmodium_)
will be mentioned in passing, but the main divergences which other
Haemosporidian types exhibit are best considered separately. With the
bite of an infected mosquito, the minute sickle-like sporozoites are
injected into the blood. They rapidly penetrate into the blood
corpuscles, in which they appear as small irregular, more or less
amoeboid trophozoites. A vacuole next arises in the cytoplasm, which
increases greatly in size, and gives rise to the well-known, much
discussed ring-form of the parasite, in which it resembles a
signet-ring, the nucleus forming a little thickening to one side. Some
authorities (e.g. Argutinsky) have regarded this structure as being
really a greatly distended vesicular nucleus, and, to a large extent,
indeed, an artifact, resulting from imperfect fixation; but Schaudinn
considers it is a true vacuole, and explains it on the ground of the
rapid nutrition and growth. Later on this vacuole disappears, and the
grains of pigment make their appearance. The trophozoite is now large
and full-grown, and has become rounded and ready for schizogony. The
nucleus of the schizont divides several times (more or less directly, by
simple or multiple fission) to form a number of daughter-nuclei, which
take up a regular position near the periphery. Around these the
cytoplasm becomes segmented, giving rise to the well-known _corps en
rosace_. Eventually the merozoites, in the form of little round
uninuclear bodies, are liberated from the now broken-down corpuscle,
leaving behind a certain amount of residual cytoplasm containing the
pigment grains. Besides the difference in the time taken by the complete
process of schizogony in the various species (see above), there are
distinctions in the composition of the rosettes. Thus, in _Laverania_,
the number of merozoites formed is very variable; in _Plasmodium vivax_
(the tertian parasite) there are only few (9 to 12) merozoites, but in
_P. malariae_ (the quartan form) they are more numerous, from 12 to 24.
The liberated merozoites proceed to infect fresh blood corpuscles and a
new endogenous cycle is started.

After asexual multiplication has gone on for some time, sexual forms
become developed. According to Schaudinn, the stimulus which determines
the production of gametocytes instead of schizonts is the reaction of
the host (at the height of a fever period) upon the parasites. A young
trophozoite which is becoming a gametocyte is distinguished from one
which gives rise to a schizont by its much slower rate of growth, and
the absence of any vacuoles in its cytoplasm. The gametocytes themselves
are characterized by their peculiar shape, like that of a sausage,
whence they are very generally known as "crescents." Male and female
gametocytes are distinguished (roughly) by the arrangement of the
pigment-grains; in the former, they are fairly evenly scattered
throughout the cytoplasm, but in the megagametocytes the pigment tends
to be aggregated centrally, around the nucleus. As they become
full-grown and mature, however, the gametocytes lose their crescentic
form and assume that of an oval, and finally of a sphere. At the same
time, they are set free from the remains of the blood corpuscle. The
spherical stage is practically the limit of development in the
Vertebrate host, although, sometimes, the nucleus of the microgametocyte
may proceed to division. The "crescents" of the pernicious parasite
afford a very important diagnostic difference from the gametocytes of
both species of _Plasmodium_, which have the ordinary, rounded shape of
the schizonts. In the case of the latter, points such as their slower
growth, their less amoeboid character, and their size furnish the means
of distinction.

When a gnat or mosquito sucks blood, all phases of the parasite in the
peripheral circulation at that point may succeed in passing into the
insect. If this occurs all trophic and schizogonic phases are forthwith
digested, and the survival of the sexual phases depends entirely upon
whether the insect is a gnat or mosquito. Only in the latter case can
further development of the gametocytes go on; in other words, only the
genus _Anopheles_, and not the genus _Culex_, furnishes specific hosts
for the malarial parasites. This is a biological fact of considerable
importance in connexion with the prophylactic measures against malaria.
In the stomach of an _Anopheles_, the gametocytes quickly proceed to
gamete-formation. The nucleus of the microgametocyte divides up, and the
daughter-nuclei pass to the periphery. The surface of the body grows out
into long, whip-like processes, of which there are usually 6 to 8
(probably the typical number is 8); each is very motile, in this respect
strongly resembling a flagellum. This phase may also develop in drawn
blood, which has, of course, become suddenly cooled by the exposure; and
it seems evident that it is the change in temperature, from the warm to
the cold-blooded host, which brings about the development of the actual
sexual elements. Earlier observers regarded the phase just described as
representing another parasite altogether, of a Flagellate nature--whence
the well-known term, _Polymitus_-form; and even more recent workers,
such as Labbé who connected it with the malarial parasite, failed to
appreciate its true significance, and considered it rather as a
degeneration-appearance. The micro-gametes soon liberate themselves from
the residual cytoplasm of the parent and swim away in search of a
megagamete; each is a very slender, wavy filament, composed largely of
chromatic substance. The finer details of structure of the microgamete
of a malarial parasite cannot be said, however, to be thoroughly known,
and it is by no means impossible that its structure is really
trypaniform, as, according to Schaudinn's great work, is the case with
the merozoites and sporozoites.

[Illustration: From Lankester's _Treatise on Zoology_.

FIG. 1.--Diagram of the complete life-cycle of the parasite of
pernicious malaria, _Laverania malariae_, Gr. et Fel. The stages on the
upper side of the dotted line are those found in human blood; below the
dotted line are seen the phases through which the parasite passes in the
intermediate host, the mosquito. Plan and arrangement chiefly after
Neveu-Lemaire; details of the figures founded on those of Grassi,
Schaudinn (Leuckart's _Zoologische Wandtafeln_), Ross and others.

  I.-V. and 6-10 show the schizogony.
  VI.-XII., The sexual generation.
  XIII., The motile zygote.
  XIV.-XIX., Sporogony.
  I.-III., Young amoebulae in blood-corpuscles.
  IV., Older, actively amoeboid trophozoite.
  V., Still older, less amoeboid trophozoite.
  6, Mature schizont.
  7, Schizont, with nucleus dividing up.
  8, Young rosette stage.
  9, Fully formed rosette stage.
  10, Merozoites free in the blood by breaking down of the corpuscle.
  VI., Young indifferent gametocyte.
  VII., a, Male crescent.
  VII., b, Female crescent.
  VIII., a and b, The gametocytes becoming oval.
  IX., a and b, Spherical gametocytes; in the male (IX. a) the nucleus
    has divided up.
  X., a and b, Formation of gametes; in the male (X. a) the so-called
    flagella or male gametes (fl) are thrown out, one of them is seen
    detached; in the female (X. b) a portion of the nucleus has been
    expelled.
  XI., A male gamete penetrating a female gamete at a cone of reception
    formed near the nucleus.
  XII., Zygote with two pronuclei in proximity.
  XIII., Zygote in the motile stage (vermicule or oökinete).
  XIV., Encysted zygote (oöcyst).
  XV., Commencing multiplication of the nuclei in the oöcyst.
  XVI., Oöcyst with numerous sporoblasts.
  XVII., Commencing formation of sporozoites.
  XVIII., Full-grown oocyst crammed with ripe sporozoites; on one side
    the cyst has burst and the sporozoites are escaping.
  XIX., Free sporozoites, showing their changes of form.
  n, Nucleus of the parasite.
  p, Melanin pigment.
  fl, "Flagella."
  sp. bl., Sporoblasts.
  r. n., Residual nuclei.
  r. p., Residual protoplasm.]

[Illustration: From Lankester's _Treatise on Zoology_.

FIG. 2.--Stomach of a mosquito, with cysts of Haemosporidia. (After
Ross.)

  oes, Oesophagus.
  st, Stomach.
  cy, Cysts.
  Mt, Malpighian tubules.
  int, Intestine.]

The megagametocyte becomes a megagamete directly after a process of
maturation, which consists in the expulsion of a certain amount of
nuclear substance. The actual conjugation is quite similar to the
process in Coccidia, and the resulting zygote perfectly homologous. In
the present case, however, the zygote does not at once secrete an
oöcyst, with a thick resistant wall; on the contrary, it changes its
shape, and becomes markedly gregariniform and active, and is known for
this reason as an ookinete. The ookinete passes through the epithelial
layer of the stomach, the thinner and more pointed end leading the way,
and comes to rest in the connective tissue forming the outer layer of
the stomach-wall (fig. 2). Here it becomes rounded and cyst-like, and
grows considerably; for only a thin, delicate cyst-membrane is secreted,
which does not impede the absorption of nutriment. Meanwhile, the
nucleus has divided into several, around each of which the cytoplasm
becomes segmented. Each of these segments ("blastophores,"
"zoidophores") is entirely comparable to a sporoblast in the Coccidian
oocyst, the chief difference being that it never forms a spore; moreover
the segments or sporoblasts in the oocyst of a malarial parasite are
irregular in shape and do not become completely separated from one
another, but remain connected by thin cytoplasmic strands. Repeated
multiplication of the sporoblast-nuclei next takes place, with the
result that a great number of little nuclei are found all round the
periphery. A corresponding number of fine cytoplasmic processes grow out
from the surface, each carrying a nucleus with it, and in this manner a
huge number of slender, slightly sickle-shaped germs or sporozoites
("blasts," "zoids," &c.) are formed. Each oocyst may contain from
hundreds to thousands of sporozoites.

When the sporogony (which lasts about 10 days) is completed, the oocyst
ruptures and the sporozoites are set free into the body-cavity, leaving
behind a large quantity of residual cytoplasm, including pigment grains,
&c. The sporozoites are carried about by the blood-stream; ultimately,
however, apparently by virtue of some chemotactic attraction, they
practically all collect in the salivary glands, filling the secretory
cells and also invading the ducts. When the mosquito next bites a man,
numbers of them are injected, together with the minute drop of saliva,
into his blood, where they begin a fresh endogenous cycle.

There is only one other point with regard to the life-history that need
be mentioned. With the lapse of time all trophic and schizogonic
(asexual) phases of the parasite in the blood die off. But it has long
been known that malarial patients, apparently quite cured, may suddenly
exhibit all the symptoms again, without having incurred a fresh
infection. Schaudinn has investigated the cause of this recurrence, and
finds that it is due to the power of the megagametocytes, which are very
resistant and long-lived, to undergo a kind of parthenogenesis under
favourable conditions and give rise to the ordinary asexual schizonts,
which in turn can repopulate the host with all the other phases.
Microgametocytes, on the other hand, die off in time if they cannot pass
into a mosquito.

  [Illustration: From Lankester's _Treatise on Zoology_.

  FIG. 3.--_Haemogregarina bigemina_, Laveran, from the blood of
  blennies. (After Laveran, magnified about 1800 diameters.)

    a, The form of the parasite found free in the blood-plasma.
    b, Parasite within a blood-corpuscle, preparing for division; the
      nucleus has already divided.
    c, The parasite has divided into two rounded corpuscles, which
      assume the form of the free parasite, as seen in d, e and f.
    N, Nucleus of the blood-corpuscle.
    n, Nucleus of the parasite. The outline of the blood-corpuscle is
      indicated by a thick black line.]


    Comparative Morphology; variations in the life-cycle where known.

  Various types of form are to be met with among the Haemosporidia. In
  one, characteristic of most (though not of absolutely all) parasites
  of warm-blooded Vertebrates, the trophozoites are of irregular
  amoeboid shape; hence this section is generally known as the
  _Haemamoebidae_. In another type, characteristic of the parasites of
  cold-blooded Vertebrates, the body possesses a definite, vermiform,
  i.e. gregariniform shape, which is retained during the
  intracorpuscular as well as during the free condition; this section
  comprises the _Haemogregarinidae_. Allied to this latter type of form
  are the trophozoites of _Piroplasma_, which are normally pear-shaped;
  they differ, however, in being very minute, and, moreover, exhibit
  considerable polymorphism, rod-like (so-called bacillary) and
  ring-forms being of common occurrence. It is important to note that in
  a certain species of _Haemogregarina_ (fig. 3) the young trophozoites
  markedly resemble _Piroplasma_ in their pyriform appearance; and a
  further point of agreement between the two forms is mentioned below.
  Lastly there is the Avian genus _Halteridium_, the trophozoites of
  which are characteristically bean-shaped or reniform. True
  Haemogregarines also differ in other slight points from "Haemamoebae."
  Thus the young endoglobular trophozoite does not exhibit a ring
  (vacuolar) phase; and the cytoplasm never contains, at any period, the
  characteristic melanin pigment above noted. In some species of
  _Haemogregarina_ the parasite, while intracorpuscular, becomes
  surrounded by a delicate membrane, the cytocyst; on entering upon an
  active, "free" period, the cytocyst is ruptured and left behind with
  the remains of the corpuscle. A very interesting cytological feature
  is the occurrence, in one or two Haemosporidia, of nuclear dimorphism,
  i.e. of a larger and smaller chromatic body, probably comparable to
  the trophic and kinetic nuclei of a Trypanosome, or of the
  "Leishman-Donovan" bodies. Schaudinn was the first to notice this
  character, in _Piroplasma canis_, and his observation has since been
  confirmed by Lühe.[4] Moreover, Brumpt has also noticed nuclear
  dimorphism in the ookinete of a species of _Haemogregarina_ in a leech
  (as the Invertebrate host)--a highly important observation.

  As regards the life-history, the endogenous (schizogonous) cycle is
  known in many cases. Sometimes schizogony takes the primitive form of
  simple binary (probably) longitudinal fission; this is the case in
  _Piroplasma_ (fig. 4) and also in _Haemogregarina bigemina_ just
  referred to. From this result the pairs of individuals ("twins") so
  often found in the corpuscles. In addition, however, at any rate in
  _Piroplasma_, it is probable that multiple division (more allied to
  ordinary schizogony) also takes place; such is the case, according to
  Laveran, in _P. equi_, and the occurrence at times of four parasites
  in a corpuscle, arranged in a cruciform manner, is most likely to be
  thus explained. Labbé has described schizogony in _Halteridium
  danilewskyi_ as taking place in a rather peculiar manner; the parasite
  becomes much drawn-out and halter-like, and the actual division is
  restricted to its two ends, two clumps of merozoites being formed, at
  first connected by a narrow strand of unused cytoplasm, which
  subsequently disappears. Some doubt, however, attaches to this
  account, as no one else appears to have seen the process. For the
  rest, schizogony takes place more or less in the customary way,
  allowing for variations in the mode of arrangement of the merozoites.
  It remains to be noted that in _Karyolysus lacertarum_, according to
  Labbé, two kinds of schizont are developed, which give rise,
  respectively, to micromerozoites and megamerozoites, in either case
  enclosed in a delicate cytocyst. This probably corresponds to an early
  sexual differentiation (such as is found among certain Coccidia
  (q.v.), the micromerozoites producing eventually micro-gametocytes,
  the others megagametocytes.

  [Illustration: From Lankester's _Treatise on Zoology_.

  FIG. 4.--Development and schizogony of _Piroplasma bigeminum_ in the
  blood-corpuscles of the ox. (After Laveran and Nicolle.)

    a, Youngest form.
    b, Slightly older.
    c and d. Division of the nucleus.
    e and f, Division of the body of the parasite.
    g, h, i, j, Various forms of the twin parasite.
    k and l, Doubly infected corpuscles.]

  It has now been recognized for some time that the sexual (exogenous)
  part of the life-cycle of all the _Haemamoebidae_ takes place in an
  Invertebrate (Insectan) host, and is fundamentally similar to that
  above described in those cases where it has been followed. In
  contradistinction to the malarial parasites, this host, in the Avian
  forms (_Haemoproteus_ and _Halteridium_)[5] is a species of _Culex_
  and not of _Anopheles_; in other words, gamete-formation, conjugation
  and subsequent sporozoite-formation in these cases will only go on in
  the former. On the other hand, in the case of the Haemogregarines, it
  was thought until quite lately that the entire life-history, including
  conjugation and sporogony, went on in the Vertebrate host; and only in
  1902 Hintze described what purported to be the complete life-history
  of _Lankesterella (Drepanidium) ranarum_ undergone in the frog. This
  view was rendered obsolete by the work of Siegel and Schaudinn, who
  demonstrated the occurrence of an alternation of hosts and of
  generations in the case of _Haemogregarina stepanovi_, parasitic in a
  tortoise, and in _Karyolysus lacertarum_; the Invertebrate hosts, in
  which, in both cases, the sexual process is undergone, being
  respectively a leech (_Placobdella_) and a tick (_Ixodes_). With this
  discovery the main distinction (as supposed) between the Haemosporidia
  of warm and of cold-blooded Vertebrates vanished. It was further
  acknowledged by Schaudinn (under whom Hintze had worked) that the
  latter had been misled by Coccidian cysts and spores, which he took
  for those of _Lankesterella_. The gametogony and sporogony of
  _Haemogregarina stepanovi_ in the leech agree in essential particulars
  with the process above described. The microgametes are extremely
  minute, and the sporozoites, which are developed in the salivary
  glands, where the motile ookinetes finally come to rest, are extremely
  "spirochaetiform"--the full significance of this latter fact being,
  perhaps, not appreciated.

  Christophers recently described some remarkable phases which he
  regarded as belonging to the cycle of _Haemogregarina gerbilli_ (one
  of the few Mammalian Haemogregarines known) in a louse
  (_Haematopinus_). In a private communication, however, the author
  states that he has probably mistaken phases in the development of an
  ordinary gregarine parasite in the louse for part of the life-cycle of
  this Haemogregarine.

  The Mammalian parasite _Piroplasma_ is the one about whose
  life-history our knowledge is most vague. Besides the typical and
  generally occurring forms, others have also been observed in the
  blood, but it is doubtful how far these are to be looked upon as
  normal; for instance, Bowhill and Le Doux have described, in various
  species, a phase in which a long, slender pseudopodial-like outgrowth
  is present, with a swelling at the distal end. It is, moreover, quite
  uncertain which are the sexual forms, comparable to gametocytes.
  Doflein regards large pear-shaped forms as such (megagametocytes?),
  which become spherical when maturing; and Nocard and Motas have
  figured amoeboid, irregular forms, with the nucleus fragmented and
  possessing flagella-like processes (possibly microgametes?). The
  Invertebrate host is well known to be, in the case of all species, a
  tick; thus bovine piroplasmosis (_P. bigeminum_) in America is
  conveyed by _Rhipicephalus annulatus_ (_Boophilus bovis_), canine
  piroplasmosis (_P. canis_) in South Africa by _Haemaphysalis leachi_
  (and perhaps _Dermacentor reticulatus_), and so on. The manner in
  which the infection is transmitted by the tick varies greatly. In some
  cases (e.g. _P. bigeminum_ and _P. canis_) only the generation
  subsequent to that which receives the infection (by feeding on an
  infected ox) can transmit it back again to another ox; in other words,
  true hereditary infection of the ova in the mother-tick is found to
  occur. The actual period in the life of the daughter-tick at which it
  can convey the infection apparently varies. On the other hand, in the
  case of East African coast-fever, Theiler found that hereditary
  infection does not occur, the same generation transmitting the
  parasite (_P. parvum_) at different periods of life. Little is
  certainly known regarding the phases of the parasite which are passed
  through in the tick. Lignières has observed a kind of multiple fission
  in the stomach, several very minute bodies, consisting mostly of
  chromatin, being formed, which may serve for endogenous reproduction.
  Koch has published an account of certain curious forms of _P.
  bigeminum_, in which the body is produced into many stiff, ray-like
  processes, giving the appearance of a star; according to him fusion of
  such forms takes place, and the resulting zygote becomes rounded,
  perhaps transitional to the pear-shaped forms.


    Classification.

  The classification and nomenclature of the Haemosporidia are in a very
  unsettled condition. For an account of the various systems and
  modifications hitherto adopted, the article of Minchin (see under
  SPOROZOA: _Bibliography_) should be consulted. With the realization
  that the life-history in the case of the "Haemamoebae" and the
  Haemogregarines is fundamentally similar in type, the chief reason for
  grouping them as distinct suborders has disappeared. It is most
  convenient to regard them as separate, but closely allied families,
  the _Plasmodidae_ ("_Haemamoebidae_") and the _Haemogregarinidae_. The
  _Piroplasmata_, on the other hand, constitute another family, which is
  better placed in a distinct section or sub-order. In addition there
  are, as already noted, two or three genera whose systematic position
  must be considered as quite uncertain. One is the well-known
  _Halteridium_ of Labbé, parasitic in various birds; the type-species
  is _H. danilewskyi_ (Gt. and Fel.). Another is the much-debated
  parasite of white blood-corpuscles (leucocytes), originally described
  in birds by Danilewsky under the name of _Leucocytozoon_, a form of
  which has been recently observed in Mammals.

  In conclusion, the chief members of the above-mentioned families may
  be enumerated.

  Fam. _Plasmodidae_ ("_Haemamoebidae_").

  Genus _Laverania_, Gr. and Fel. (syn. _Haemamoenas_, Ross), for L.
  _malariae_, Gr. and Fel. (synn. L. s. _Plasmodium_, s. "_Haemamoeba_,"
  &c., _praecox_ s. _immaculatum_, &c.), the parasite of pernicious
  malaria. Genus _Plasmodium_, March. and Celli (syn. "_Haemamoeba_")
  for _P. vivax_ and _P. malariae_, the tertian and quartan parasite,
  respectively. There is also a form known in apes, _P. kochi_. Genus
  _Haemoproteus_, Kruse (syn. _Proteosoma_), for _H. danilewskyi_ (syn.
  _Proteosoma grassi_, _Plasmodium praecox_, &c.), parasitic in numerous
  birds. Recently, another form has been described, from reptiles, which
  Castellani and Willey have termed _Haemocystidium simondi_.

  _Remarks._--The distinguishing characters of the malarial parasites
  have been mentioned above. Some authorities would include _Laverania_
  in the genus _Plasmodium_, as differing only specifically from the
  other two forms. It has, moreover, been suggested by Sergent that all
  three are merely different phases of the same parasite, predominating
  at different seasons; this idea cannot be regarded, however, as in any
  way proved so far. From what is known of the morphology and mode of
  manifestation of these forms, the differences between _Laverania_ and
  the two species of _Plasmodium_ are considerably more pronounced than
  those between _P. vivax_ and _P. malariae_; if the latter are to be
  considered as distinct species, the first-named is probably
  generically distinct. Lühe, it may be noted, in his recent
  comprehensive account of the Haematozoa, also takes this view. Lastly,
  whatever be the correct solution of the above problem, there is
  certainly not sufficient justification for including the Avian genus
  _Haemoproteus_, as also only a species of _Plasmodium_, which is done
  by some. Its different Vertebrate habitat, and also the fact that its
  Insectan definitive host is Culex and not _Anopheles_, differentiate
  it sharply from _Laverania_ and _Plasmodium_.

  [Illustration: From Lankester's _Treatise on Zoology_.

  FIG. 5.--_Haemoproteus danilewskyi_, Kruse (parasite of various
  birds). × about 1200. a, b, c and d from the chaffinch; d and e from
  the lark. (After Labbé.)

    a, Young trophozoite in a blood-corpuscle,
    b and c, Older trophozoite.
    d and e, Sporulation.
    d, Precocious sporulation with few merozoites.
    e, Sporulation of a full-grown schizont, with numerous merozoites.
    f, Gametocyte.
    N, Nucleus of blood-corpuscle.
    n, Nucleus of parasite.
    p, Pigment.
    mz, Merozoites.
    r.p, Residual protoplasm.]

  [Illustration: From Lankester's _Treatise on Zoology_.

  FIG. 6.--_Haemogregarina stepanovi_, Danilewsky (par. _Emys_ and
  _Cistudo_), phases of the schizogony. (a-e and j after Laveran; f-i
  after Börner.) × 1000 to 1200 diameters.

    a, Blood-corpuscle with young trophozoite.
    b, Older trophozoite.
    c, Full-grown trophozoite, ready to leave the corpuscle.
    d and e, Trophozoites free in the blood-plasma, showing changes of
      form.
    f-i, Trophozoites, still within the blood-corpuscle (not drawn),
      showing the structure of the nucleus, the coarse chromatoid
      granules in the protoplasm and the manner in which the parasite
      grows into the U-shaped Haemogregarine without increase of
      body-mass.
    j, Commencement of sporulation; the nucleus has divided into eight
      nuclei, and the body of the parasite is beginning to divide up
      into as many merozoites within a blood-corpuscle.
    N, Nucleus of the blood-corpuscle.
    n, Nucleus of the parasite.]

  Fam. _Haemogregarinidae._--The different genera are characterized
  chiefly by their size relative to the blood-corpuscles, and their
  disposition in the latter. Here, again, it has been suggested to unite
  the various types all in one genus, _Haemogregarina_, but this seems
  at least premature when it is remembered how little is known in most
  cases of the life-cycle, which may prove to exhibit important
  divergences.

  Genus _Haemogregarina_, Danilewsky (syn. _Danilewskya_, Labbé). The
  body of the parasite exceeds the blood-corpuscle in length, when
  adult, and is bent upon itself, like a U. A very great number of
  species are known, mostly from reptiles and fishes; among them may be
  mentioned _H. stepanovi_ (fig. 6), from _Emys_ and _Cistudo_, whose
  sexual-cycle in a leech has been worked out by Siegel (see above), _H.
  delagei_, from _Raja_, _H. bigemina_, from blennies, and _H. simondi_,
  from soles. Recently one or two Mammalian forms have been observed,
  _H. gerbilli_, from an Indian rat (_Gerbillus_), and _H. jaculi_, from
  the jerboa.

  Genus _Lankesterella_, Labbé (syn. _Drepanidium_, Lankester). The
  parasite is not more than three-quarters the length of the corpuscle.
  _L. ranarum_ from _Rana_ is the type-species; another, recently
  described by Fantham, is _L. tritonis_, from the newt.

  [Illustration: From Lankester's _Treatise on Zoology_.

  FIG. 7.--_Karyolysus lacertarum_ (Danil.), in the blood-corpuscles of
  Lacerta muralis, showing the effects of the parasite upon the nucleus
  of the corpuscle. In c and d the nucleus is broken up. N, Nucleus of
  the corpuscle; n, nucleus of the parasite, seen as a number of masses
  of chromatin, not enclosed by a distinct membrane. (After Marceau.)]

  Genus _Karyolysus_, Labbé. The parasite does not exceed the corpuscle
  in length; the forms included in this genus, moreover, although not
  actually intranuclear, have a marked karyolytic and disintegrating
  action upon the nucleus of the corpuscle. The type-species is the
  well-known _K. lacertarum_, of lizards; another is _K.
  (Haemogregarina) viperini_, from _Tropidonotus_.

  In the section of the _Piroplasmata_ there is only the genus
  _Piroplasma_, Patton (synn. _Babesia_, Starcovici, _Pyrosoma_, Smith
  and Kilborne), the principal species of which are as follows: _P.
  bigeminum_, the cause of Texas cattle-fever, tick-fever
  (Rinder-malaria) of South Africa, and _P. bovis_, causing
  haemoglobinuria of cattle in Southern Europe; there is some
  uncertainty as to whether these two are really distinct; _P. canis_,
  _P. ovis_ and _P. equi_ associated, respectively, with those animals.
  Lately, a very small form, _P. parvum_, has been described by Theiler
  in Rhodesia, which causes East-African coast-fever; and another, _P.
  muris_, has been observed in white rats by Fantham.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--(The older literature is enumerated in most treatises
  on Sporozoa--see bibliography under SPOROZOA). P. Argutinsky,
  "Malariastudien," _Arch. mikr. Anat._ 59, p. 315, pls. 18-21 (1901),
  and _op. cit._ 61, p. 331, pl. 18 (1902); A. Balfour, "Haemogregarine
  of Mammals," _J. Trop. Med._ 8, p. 241, 8 figs. (1905); C. A. Bentley,
  "Leucocytozoan of the Dog," _B.M.J._ (1905), 1, pp. 988 and 1078; N.
  Berestneff, "Über einen neuen Blutparasiten der indischen Frösche,"
  _Arch. Protistenk._ 2, p. 343, pl. 8 (1903); "Über das
  _'Leucocytozoan' danilewskyi_," _op. cit._ 3, p. 376, pl. 15 (1904);
  A. Billet, "Contribution à l'étude du paludisme et de son hématozoaire
  en Algérie," _Ann. Inst. Pasteur_, 16, p. 186 (1902); (Notes on
  various Haemogregarines). _C. R. Soc. Biol._ 56, pp. 482, 484, 607 and
  741 (1904); C. Börner, "Untersuchungen über Hämosporidien," _Zeitschr.
  wiss. Zool._ 69, p. 398, 1 pl. (1901); T. Bowhill, "Equine
  piroplasmosis," &c., _J. Hyg._ 5, p. 7, pls. 1-3 (1905); Bowhill and
  C. le Doux, "Contribution to the Study of '_Piroplasmosis canis_,'"
  _op. cit._ 4, p. 217, pl. 11 (1904); E. Brumpt and C. Lebailly,
  "Description de quelques nouvelles espèces de trypanosomes et
  d'hémogrégarines," &c., C. R. Ac. Sci. 139, p. 613 (1904); A.
  Castellani and A. Willey, "Observations on the Haematozoa of
  Vertebrates in Ceylon," _Spolia Zeylan_. 2, p. 78, 1 pl. (1904), and
  _Q. J. Micr. Sci._ 49, p. 383, pl. 24 (1905); S. R. Christophers,
  "_Haemogregarina gerbilli_," _Sci. Mem. India_, 18, 15 pp., 1 pl.
  (1905); H. B. Fantham, "_Lankesterella tritonis_, n. sp.," &c., _Zool.
  Anz._ 29, p. 257, 17 figs. (1905); "_Piroplasma muris_," &c., _Q. J.
  Micr. Sci._ 50, p. 493, pl. 28 (1906); C. Graham-Smith, "A new Form of
  Parasite found in the Red Blood-Corpuscles of Moles," _J. Hyg._ 5, p.
  453, pls. 13 and 14 (1905); R. Hintze, "Lebensweise und Entwickelung
  von _Lankesterella minima_," _Zool. Jahrb. Anat._ 15, p. 693, pl. 36
  (1902); S. James, "On a Parasite found in the White Blood-Corpuscles
  of Dogs," _Sci. Mem. India_, 14, 12 pp. 1 pl. (1905); R. Koch,
  "Vorläufige Mitteilungen über die Ergebnisse einer Forschungsreise
  nach Ostafrika," _Deutsch. med. Wochenschr._, 1905, p. 1865, 24 figs.;
  A. Labbé, "Recherches sur les parasites endoglobulaires du sang des
  vertébrés," _Arch. zool. exp._ (3) ii. p. 55, 10 pls. (1894); A.
  Laveran, "Sur quelques hémogrégarines des ophidiens," _C. R. Ac. Sci._
  135, p. 1036, 13 figs. (1902); "Sur une _Haemamoeba_ d'une mésange
  (_Parus major_)," _C. R. Soc. Biol._ 54, p. 1121, 10 figs. (1902);
  "Sur la piroplasmose bovine bacilliforme," _C. R. Ac. Sci._ 138, p.
  648, 18 figs. (1903); "Contribution à l'étude de _Haemamoeba
  ziemanni_," _C. R. Soc. Biol._ 55, p. 620, 7 figs. (1903); "Sur une
  hémogrégarine des gerboises," _C. R. Ac. Sci._ 141, p. 295, 9 figs.
  (1905); (On different Haemogregarines) _C. R. Soc. Biol._ 59, pp. 175,
  176, with figs. (1905); "Haemocytozoa. Essai de classification,"
  _Bull. Inst. Pasteur_, 3, p. 809 (1905); Laveran and F. Mesnil, "Sur
  les hématozoaires des poissons marins," _C. R. Ac. Sci._ 135, p. 567
  (1902); "Sur quelques protozoaires parasites d'une tortue d'Asie,"
  _t.c._ p. 609, 14 figs. (1902); Laveran and Nègre, "Sur un protozoaire
  parasite de _Hyalomma aegyptium_," _C. R. Soc. Biol._ 58, p. 964, 6
  figs. (1905); (for various earlier papers by these authors, reference
  should be made to the C. R. Ac. Sci. and C R. Soc. Biol. for previous
  years); C. Lebailly (On Piscine Haemogregarines) _C. R. Ac. Sci._ 139,
  p. 576 (1904), and _C. R. Soc. Biol._ 59, p. 304 (1905); J. Lignières,
  "Sur la 'Tristeza,'" _Ann. Inst. Pasteur_, 15, p. 121, pl. 6 (1901);
  "La Piroplasmose bovine; nouvelles recherches," &c., _Arch. parasit._
  7, p. 398, pl. 4 (1903); M. Lühe, "Die im Blute schmarotzenden
  Protozoen," in Mense's _Handbuch der Tropenkrankheiten_ (Leipzig,
  1906), 3, 1; F. Marceau, "Note sur le _Karyolysus lacertarum_," _Arch.
  parasitol._ 4, p. 135, 46 figs. (1901); W. MacCallum, "On the
  Haematozoan Infection of Birds," _J. Exp. Med._ 3, p. 117, pl. 12
  (1898); G. Mauser, "Die Malaria perniciosa," _Centrbl. Bakter._ (1)
  32, Orig. p. 695, 3 pls. (1902); C. Nicolle (On various Reptilian
  Haemogregarines), _C. R. Soc. Biol._ 56, pp. 330, 608 and 912, with
  figs. (1904); Nicolle and C. Comte, "Sur le rôle ... de _Hyalomma_ ...
  dans l'infection hémogrégarinienne," op. cit. 58, p. 1045 (1905);
  Norcard and Motas, "Contribution à l'étude de la piroplasmose canine,"
  _Ann. Inst. Pasteur_, 16, p. 256, pls. 5 and 6 (1902); G. Nuttall and
  G. Graham-Smith, "Canine piroplasmosis," _J. Hygiene_, p. 237, pl. 9
  (1905); F. Schaudinn, "Der Generationswechsel der Coccidien und
  Hämosporidien," _Zool. Centrbl._ 6, p. 675 (1899); "Studien über
  krankheitserregende Protozoen--II. _Plasmodium vivax_," _Arb. Kais.
  Gesundheitsamte_, 19, p. 169, pls. 4-6 (1902); E. and E. Sergent (On
  different Haemogregarines), _C. R. Soc. Biol._ 56, pp. 130, 132
  (1904), _op. cit._ 58, pp. 56, 57, 670 (1905); J. Siegel, "Die
  geschlechtliche Entwickelung von _Haemogregarina_," &c., _Arch.
  Protistenk._ 2, p. 339, 7 figs. (1903); P. L. Simond, "Contribution à
  l'étude des hématozoaires endoglobulaires des reptiles," _Ann. Inst.
  Pasteur_, 15, p. 319, 1 pl. (1901); T. Smith and F. Kilborne,
  "Investigations into the Nature, Causation and Prevention of Texas
  Cattle Fever," _Rep. Bureau Animal Industry_, U.S.A., 9 and 10, p.
  177, pls. (1893); A. Theiler, "The _Piroplasma bigeminum_ of the
  Immune Ox," _J. Army Med. Corps_, 3, pp. 469, 599, 1 pl. (1904); J.
  Vassal, "Sur une hématozoaire endoglobulaire nouveau d'un mammifère,"
  _Ann. Inst. Pasteur_, 19, p. 224, pl. 10 (1905); L. B. Wilson and W.
  Chowning, "Studies in _Piroplasmosis hominis_," _J. Infect. Diseases_,
  1, p. 31, 2 pls. (1904).     (H. M. Wo.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Compare, for example, the flagellated granules of certain
    Coccidia, which point unmistakably to a Flagellate ancestry.

  [2] A possible exception is a doubtful species of _Haemogregarina_,
    which has been described from the walls of the blood-vessels of an
    Annelid.

  [3] For an interesting account of the biological relations between
    parasites and their hosts, and the penalty Man pays for his roving
    propensities, the reader should see Lankester's article in the
    _Quarterly Review_, July 1904.

  [4] This does away with one of the principal reasons on account of
    which some authorities consider _Piroplasma (Leishmania) donovani_ as
    quite distinct from other _Piroplasmata_ (see TRYPANOSOMES).

  [5] It must not be forgotten that one species of _Halteridium (H.
    [Trypanomorpha] noctuae)_ is said to have well-marked trypaniform
    phases in its life-cycle; these are preferably considered under
    _Trypanosomes_ (q.v.), and therefore, to avoid repetition, are only
    thus alluded to here. Whether _H. danilewskyi_ also becomes
    trypaniform in certain phases, and how far it really agrees with the
    criteria of a Haemosporidian above postulated, are matters which are
    not yet definitely known.



HAETZER, or HETZER, LUDWIG (d. 1529), Swiss divine, was born in
Switzerland, at Bischofszell, in Thurgau. He studied at
Freiburg-im-Breisgau, and began his career in a chaplaincy at Wadenswil,
on the Lake of Zürich. At this time his attachment to the old faith was
tempered by a mystical turn, and by a devotion to the prophetical
writings of the Old Testament, which he studied in the original. By 1523
we find him in Zürich, where he published, at first anonymously and in
Latin (_Judicium Dei_), later with his name and in German (Sept. 24,
1523), a small tract against the religious use of images, and bearing
the motto attached to all his subsequent works, "O Got erlösz die (or
dein) Gefangnen" ("O God, set the prisoners free"). An attempt to give
effect to the teaching of this (frequently reprinted) tract was followed
by a public religious disputation, of which Haetzer drew up the official
account. In 1524 he brought out a tract on the conversion of the Jews,
and published a German version of Johann Bugenhagen's brief exposition
of the epistles of St Paul (Ephesians to Hebrews); in the dedication
(dated Zürich, June 29, 1524) he undertakes to translate Bugenhagen's
comment on the Psalter. He then went to Augsburg, bearing Zwingli's
introduction to Johann Frosch. Here he came for a time under the
influence of Urbanus Regius, and was for a short time the guest of Georg
Regel. Returning to Zürich, he was in intercourse with leading
Anabaptists (though his own position was simply the disuse of infant
baptism) till their expulsion in January 1525. Again resorting to
Augsburg, and resuming work as corrector of the press for his printer
Silvan Ottmar, he pushed his views to the extreme of rejecting all
sacraments, reaching something like the mystical standpoint of the early
Quakers. He was expelled from Augsburg in the autumn of 1525, and made
his way through Constance to Basel, where Oecolampadius received him
kindly. He translated into German the first treatise of Oecolampadius on
the Lord's Supper (in which the words of institution are taken
figuratively), and proceeding to Zürich in November, published his
version there in February 1526, with a preface disclaiming connexion
with the Anabaptists. His relations with Zwingli were difficult;
returning to Basel he published (July 18, 1526) his translation of
Malachi, with Oecolampadius's exposition, and with a preface reflecting
on Zwingli. This he followed by a version of Isaiah xxxvi.-xxxvii. He
next went to Strassburg, and was received by Wolfgang Capito. At
Strassburg in the late autumn of 1526 he fell in with Hans Dengk or
Denck, who collaborated with him in the production of his _opus magnum_,
the translation of the Hebrew Prophets, _Alle Propheten nach hebraischer
Sprach vertuetscht_. The preface is dated Worms, 3 April 1527; and there
are editions, Worms, 13 April 1527, folio; Augsburg, 22 June 1527,
folio; Worms, 7 Sept. 1527, 16º; and Augsburg, 1528, folio. It was the
first Protestant version of the prophets in German, preceding Luther's
by five years, and highly spoken of by him. Haetzer and Denck now
entered on a propagandist mission from place to place, with some
success, but of short duration. Denck died at Basel in November 1527.
Haetzer was arrested at Constance in the summer of 1528. After long
imprisonment and many examinations he was condemned on the 3rd of
February 1529 to die by the sword, and the sentence was executed on the
following day. His demeanour on the scaffold impressed impartial
witnesses, Hans Zwick and Thomas Blaurer, who speak warmly of his
fervour and courage. The Dutch Baptist Martyrology describes him as "a
servant of Jesus Christ." The Moravian Chronicle says "he was condemned
for the sake of divine truth." His papers included an unpublished
treatise against the essential deity of Christ, which was suppressed by
Zwingli; the only extant evidence of his anti-trinitarian views being
contained in eight quaint lines of German verse preserved in Sebastian
Frank's _Chronica_. The discovery of his heterodox Christology (which
has led modern Unitarians to regard him as their proto-martyr) was
followed by charges of loose living, never heard of in his lifetime, and
destitute of evidence or probability.

  See Breitinger, "Anecdota quaedam de L. H." in _Museum Helveticum_
  (1746), parts 21 and 23; Wallace, _Antitrinitarian Biography_ (1850);
  _Dutch Martyrology_ (Hanserd Knollys Society) (1856); Th. Keim, in
  Hauck's _Realencyklopädie_ (1899).     (A. Go.*)



HAFIZ. Shams-ud-din Mahommed, better known by his _takhallus_ or _nom de
plume_ of Hafiz, was one of the most celebrated writers of Persian
lyrical poetry. He was born at Shiraz, the capital of Fars, in the early
part of the 8th century of the Mahommedan era, that is to say, in the
14th of our own. The exact date of his birth is uncertain, but he
attained a ripe old age and died in 791 A.H. (A.D. 1388). This is the
date given in the chronogram which is engraved on his tomb, although
several Persian biographers give a different year. Very little is
actually known about his life, which appears to have been passed in
retirement in Shiraz, of which he always speaks in terms of affectionate
admiration. He was a subject of the Muzaffar princes, who ruled in
Shiraz, Yazd, Kirman and Ispahan, until the dynasty was overthrown by
Timur (Tamerlane). Of these princes his especial patrons were Shah
Shuja' and Shah Mansur. He early devoted himself to the study of poetry
and theology, and also became learned in mystic philosophy, which he
studied under Shaik Mahmud 'Attar, chief of an order of dervishes. Hafiz
afterwards enrolled himself in the same order and became a professor of
Koranic exegesis in a college which his friend and patron Haji
Kiwam-ud-din, the vizier, specially founded for him. This was probably
the reason of his adopting the sobriquet of Hafiz ("one who remembers"),
which is technically applied to any person who has learned the Koran by
heart. The restraints of an ascetic life seem to have been very little
to Hafiz's taste, and his loose conduct and wine-bibbing propensities
drew upon him the severe censure of his monastic colleagues. In revenge
he satirizes them unmercifully in his verses, and seldom loses an
opportunity of alluding to their hypocrisy. Hafiz's fame as a poet was
soon rapidly spread throughout the Mahommedan world, and several
powerful monarchs sent him presents and pressing invitations to visit
them. Amongst others he was invited by Mahmud Shah Bahmani, who reigned
in the south of India. After crossing the Indus and passing through
Lahore he reached Hurmuz, and embarked on board a vessel sent for him by
the Indian prince. He seems, however, to have been a bad sailor, and,
having invented an excuse for being put ashore, made the best of his way
back to Shiraz. Some biographies narrate a story of an interview between
Hafiz and the invader Timur. The latter sent for him and asked angrily,
"Art thou he who was so bold as to offer my two great cities Samarkand
and Bokhara for the black mole on thy mistress's cheek?" alluding to a
well-known verse in one of his odes. "Yes, sire," replied Hafiz, "and it
is by such acts of generosity that I have brought myself to such a state
of destitution that I have now to solicit your bounty." Timur was so
pleased at his ready wit that he dismissed the poet with a handsome
present. Unfortunately for the truth of this story Timur did not capture
Shiraz till A.D. 1393, while the latest date that can be assigned to
Hafiz's death is 1391. Of his private life little or nothing is known.
One of his poems is said to record the death of his wife, another that
of a favourite unmarried son, and several others speak of his love for a
girl called _Shakh i Nabat_, "Sugar-cane branch," and this is almost all
of his personal history that can be gathered from his writings. He was,
like most Persians, a Shi'ite by religion, believing in the transmission
of the office of Imam (head of the Moslem Church) in the family of Ali,
cousin of the prophet, and rejecting the _Hadith_ (traditional sayings)
of Mahomet, which form the Sunna or supplementary code of Mahommedan
ceremonial law. One of his odes which contains a verse in praise of Ali
is engraved on the poet's tomb, but is omitted by Sudi, the Turkish
editor and commentator, who was himself a rigid Sunnite. Hafiz's
heretical opinions and dissipated life caused difficulties to be raised
by the ecclesiastical authorities on his death as to his interment in
consecrated ground. The question was at length settled by Hafiz's own
works, which had then already begun to be used, as they are now
throughout the East, for the purposes of divination, in the same manner
as Virgil was employed in the middle ages for the divination called
_Sortes Virgilianae_. Opening the book at random after pronouncing the
customary formula asking for inspiration, the objectors hit upon the
following verse--"Turn not away thy foot from the bier of Hafiz, for
though immersed in sin, he will be admitted into Paradise." He was
accordingly buried in the centre of a small cemetery at Shiraz, now
included in an enclosure called the Hafiziyeh.

His principal work is the _Diwan_, that is, a collection of short odes
or sonnets called _ghazals_, and consisting of from five to sixteen
_baits_ or couplets each, all the couplets in each ode having the same
rhyme in the last hemistich, and the last couplet always introducing the
poet's own _nom de plume_. The whole of these are arranged in
alphabetical order, an arrangement which certainly facilitates reference
but makes it absolutely impossible to ascertain their chronological
order, and therefore detracts from their value as a means of throwing
light upon the growth and development of his genius or the incidents of
his career. They are often held together by a very slender thread of
continuous thought, and few editions agree exactly in the order of the
couplets. Still, a careful study of them, especially from the point of
view indicated by the Sufiistic system of philosophy, will always show
that a single idea does run throughout the whole. The nature of these
poems has been the subject of much discussion in the West, some scholars
seeing in their anacreontic utterances nothing but sensuality and
materialism, while others, following the Oriental school, maintain that
they are wholly and entirely mystic and philosophic. Something between
the two would probably be nearer the truth. It must be remembered that
Hafiz was a professed dervish and Sufi, and that his _ghazals_ were in
all probability published from a _takia_, and arranged with at least a
view to Sufiistic interpretation. At the same time it is ridiculous to
suppose that the glowing imagery, the gorgeous and often tender
descriptions of natural beauties, the fervent love passages, and the
roystering drinking songs were composed in cool blood or with deliberate
ascetic purpose. The beauty of Hafiz's poetry is that it is natural. It
is the outcome of a fervent soul and a lofty genius delighting in
nature and enjoying life; and it is the poet's misfortune that he lived
in an age and amongst a people where rigid conventionality demanded that
his free and spontaneous thoughts should be recast in an artificial
mould.

  Besides the _Diwan_, Hafiz wrote a number of other poems; the Leipzig
  edition of his works contains 573 _ghazals_ (forming the _Diwan_), 42
  _kit'as_ or fragments, 69 _ruba'iyat_ or tetrastics, 6 _masnaviyat_ or
  poems in rhyming couplets, 2 _kasaïd_, idylls or panegyrics, and 1
  _mukhammes_ or poem in five-line strophes. Other editions contain
  several _tarji'-band_ or poems with a refrain. The whole _Diwan_ was
  translated into English prose by H. Wilberforce Clarke in 1891, with
  introduction and exhaustive commentary and bibliography; a few rhyming
  versions of single poems by Sir William Jones, J. Nott, J. Hindley,
  Falconer, &c., are to be found scattered through the pages of the
  _Oriental Miscellany_ and other periodicals, and a fine edition
  containing a verse rendering of the principal poems by H. Bicknell
  appeared in 1875. Other selections by S. Robinson (1875), A. Rogers
  (1889), J. H. M'Carthy (1893), and Gertrude L. Bell (1897). The
  principal German versions are by von Hammer Purgstall (1812), which
  gave the first impulse to Goethe's _Westöstlicher Diwan_; a rhyming
  and rhythmical translation of a large portion of Hafiz's works by
  Vincenz von Rosenzweig of Vienna (Vienna, 1858), which contains also
  the Persian text and notes; _Der Diwan des Schemseddin Muhammed
  Hafis_, by G. H. F. Nesselmann (Berlin, 1865), in which the rhyming
  system of the original is imitated. Besides these, the reader may
  consult d'Herbelot, _Bibliothèque orientale_, article "Hafiz"; Sir
  William Ouseley's _Oriental Collections_ (1797-1798); _A Specimen of
  Persian Poetry, or Odes of Hafiz_, by John Richardson (London, 1802);
  _Biographical Notices of Persian Poets_, by Sir Gore Ouseley (Oriental
  Translation Fund, 1846); and an excellent article by Professor E. B.
  Cowell in _Macmillan's Magazine_ (No. 177, July 1874); J. A. Vullers,
  _Vitae poëtarum Persicorum_ (1839, translated from Daulatshah); S.
  Robinson, _Persian Poetry for English Readers_ (1883). The best
  edition of the text is perhaps that edited by Hermann Brockhaus of
  Leipzig (1854-1856). which is based on the recension of the Turkish
  editor Sudi, and contains his commentary in Turkish on the first
  eighty _ghazals_. See also H. Ethé in _Grundriss der iranischen
  Philologie_, ii. (Strassburg, 1896); P. Horn, _Geschichte der
  persischen Literatur_ (Leipzig, 1901).     (E. H. P.)



HAG. (1) (Probably a shortened form of the O. Eng. _hægtesse_, _hegtes_,
cognate with Ger. _Hexe_, witch, Dutch _hecse_), a word common during
the 16th and 17th centuries for a female demon or evil spirit, and so
particularly applied to such supernatural beings as the harpies and
fairies of classical mythology, and also to witches. In modern usage the
word is generally used of a hideous old woman whose repulsive exterior
is accompanied by malice or wickedness. The name is also used of an
eel-like parasitic fish, _Myxine glutinosa_, allied to the lamprey.

(2) A word common in Scottish and northern English dialects for an
enclosed piece of wood, a copse. This is the same word as "hedge" (see
HEDGES) and "haw." "Hag" also means "to cut," and is used in Scotland of
an extent of woodland marked out for felling, and of a quantity of
felled wood. This word is also used of a cutting in the peat of a "moss"
or "bog," and hence applied to the small plots of firm ground or heather
in a bog; it is common in the form "moss-hags."



HAGEDORN, FRIEDRICH VON (1708-1754), German poet, was born on the 23rd
of April 1708 at Hamburg, where his father, a man of scientific and
literary taste, was Danish minister. He was educated at the gymnasium of
Hamburg, and later (1726) became a student of law at Jena. Returning to
Hamburg in 1729, he obtained the appointment of unpaid private secretary
to the Danish ambassador in London, where he lived till 1731. Hagedorn's
return to Hamburg was followed by a period of great poverty and
hardship, but in 1733 he was appointed secretary to the so-called
"English Court" (_Englischer Hof_) in Hamburg, a trading company founded
in the 13th century. He shortly afterwards married, and from this time
had sufficient leisure to pursue his literary occupations till his death
on the 28th of October 1754. Hagedorn is the first German poet who bears
unmistakable testimony to the nation's recovery from the devastation
wrought by the Thirty Years' War. He is eminently a social poet. His
light and graceful love-songs and anacreontics, with their undisguised
_joie de vivre_, introduced a new note into the German lyric; his fables
and tales in verse are hardly inferior in form and in delicate
persiflage to those of his master La Fontaine, and his moralizing poetry
re-echoes the philosophy of Horace. He exerted a dominant influence on
the German lyric until late in the 18th century.

  The first collection of Hagedorn's poems was published at Hamburg
  shortly after his return from Jena in 1729, under the title _Versuch
  einiger Gedichte_ (reprinted by A. Sauer, Heilbronn, 1883). In 1738
  appeared _Versuch in poetischen Fabeln und Erzählungen_; in 1742 a
  collection of his lyric poems, under the title _Sammlung neuer Oden
  und Lieder_; and his _Moralische Gedichte_ in 1750. A collection of
  his entire works was published at Hamburg after his death in 1757. The
  best is J. J. Eschenburg's edition (5 vols., Hamburg, 1800).
  Selections of his poetry with an excellent introduction in F.
  Muncker's _Anakreontiker und preussisch-patriotische Lyriker_
  (Stuttgart, 1894). See also H. Schuster, _F. von Hagedorn und seine
  Bedeutung für die deutsche Literatur_ (Leipzig, 1882); W. Eigenbrodt,
  _Hagedorn und die Erzählung in Reimversen_ (Berlin, 1884).



HAGEN, FRIEDRICH HEINRICH VON DER (1780-1856), German philologist,
chiefly distinguished for his researches in Old German literature, was
born at Schmiedeberg In Brandenburg on the 19th of February 1780. After
studying law at the university of Halle, he obtained a legal appointment
in the state service at Berlin, but in 1806 resigned this office in
order to devote himself exclusively to letters. In 1810 he was appointed
_professor extraordinarius_ of German literature in the university of
Berlin; in the following year he was transferred in a similar capacity
to Breslau, and in 1821 returned to Berlin as _professor ordinarius_. He
died at Berlin on the 11th of June 1856. Although von der Hagen's
critical work is now entirely out of date, the chief merit of awakening
an interest in old German poetry belongs to him.

  His principal publications are the _Nibelungenlied_, of which he
  issued four editions, the first in 1810 and the last in 1842; the
  _Minnesinger_ (Leipzig, 1838-1856, 4 vols, in 5 parts); _Lieder der
  ältern Edda_ (Berlin, 1812); _Gottfried von Strassburg_ (Berlin,
  1823); a collection of Old German tales under the title
  _Gesamtabenteuer_ (Stuttgart, 1850, 3 vols.) and _Das Heldenbuch_
  (Leipzig, 1855). He also published _Über die ältesten Darstellungen
  der Faustsage_ (Berlin, 1844); and from 1835 he edited _Das neue
  Jahrbuch der Berlinischen Gesellschaft für deutsche Sprache und
  Altertumskunde_. His correspondence with C. G. Heyne and G. F. Benecke
  was published by K. Dziatzko (Leipzig, 1893).



HAGEN, a town of Germany, In the Prussian province of Westphalia. Pop.
(1905), 77,498. It lies amid well-wooded hills at the confluence of the
Ennepe with the Volme, 15 m. N.E. of Elberfeld, on the main line to
Brunswick and Berlin, and at the junction of important lines of railway,
connecting it with the principal towns of the Westphalian iron district.
It has five Evangelical churches, a Roman Catholic church, an Old
Catholic church, a synagogue, a gymnasium, realgyrnnasium, and a
technical school with special classes for machine-building. There are
also a museum, a theatre, and a prettily arranged municipal park. Hagen
is one of the most flourishing commercial towns in Westphalia, and
possesses extensive iron and steel works, large cotton print works,
woollen and cotton factories, manufactures of leather, paper, tobacco,
and iron and steel wares, breweries and distilleries. There are large
limestone quarries in the vicinity and also an alabaster quarry.



HAGENAU, a town of Germany, in the imperial province of Alsace-Lorraine,
situated in the middle of the Hagenau Forest, on the Moder, and on the
railway from Strassburg to Weissenburg, 10 m. N.N.E. of the former city.
Pop. (1905), 18,500. It has two Evangelical and two ancient Catholic
churches (one dating from the 12th, the other from the 13th century), a
gymnasium, a public library, a hospital, and a theatre. The principal
industries are wool and cotton spinning, and the manufacture of
porcelain, earthenware, boots, soap, oil, sparkling wines and beer.
There is also considerable trade in hops and vegetables. Hagenau is an
important military centre and has a large garrison, including three
artillery battalions.

Hagenau dates from the beginning of the 12th century, and owes its
origin to the erection of a hunting lodge by the dukes of Swabia. The
emperor Frederick I. surrounded it with walls and gave it town rights in
1154. On the site of the hunting lodge he founded an imperial palace, in
which were preserved the jewelled imperial crown, sceptre, imperial
globe, and sword of Charlemagne. Subsequently it became the seat of the
_Landvogt_ of Hagenau, the imperial _advocatus_ in Lower Alsace.
Richard of Cornwall, king of the Romans, made it an imperial city in
1257. In 1648 it came into the possession of France, and in 1673 Louis
XIV. caused the fortifications to be razed. In 1675 it was captured by
imperial troops, but in 1677 it was retaken by the French and nearly all
destroyed by fire. In 1871 it fell, with the rest of Alsace-Lorraine,
into the possession of Germany.



HAGENBACH, KARL RUDOLF (1801-1874). German church historian, was born on
the 4th of March 1801 at Basel, where his father was a practising
physician. His preliminary education was received at a Pestalozzian
school, and afterwards at the gymnasium, whence in due course he passed
to the newly reorganized local university. He early devoted himself to
theological studies and the service of the church, while at the same
time cherishing and developing broad "humanistic" tendencies which found
expression in many ways and especially in an enthusiastic admiration for
the writings of Herder. The years 1820-1823 were spent first at Bonn,
where G. C. F. Lücke (1791-1855) exerted a powerful influence on his
thought, and afterwards at Berlin, where Schleiermacher and Neander
became his masters. Returning in 1823 to Basel, where W. M. L. de Wette
had recently been appointed to a theological chair, he distinguished
himself greatly by his trial-dissertation, _Observationes
historico-hermeneuticae circa Origenis methodum interpretendae sacrae
Scripturae_; in 1824 he became professor extraordinarius, and in 1829
professor ordinarius of theology. Apart from his academic labours in
connexion with the history of dogma and of the church, he lived a life
of great and varied usefulness as a theologian, a preacher and a
citizen; and at his "jubilee" in 1873, not only the university and town
of Basel but also the various churches of Switzerland united to do him
honour. He died at Basel on the 7th of June 1874.

Hagenbach was a voluminous author in many departments, but he is
specially distinguished as a writer on church history. Though neither so
learned and condensed as the contributions of Gieseler, nor so original
and profound as those of Neander, his lectures are clear, attractive and
free from narrow sectarian prejudice. In dogmatics, while avowedly a
champion of the "mediation theology" (_Vermittelungstheologie_), based
upon the fundamental conceptions of Herder and Schleiermacher, he was
much less revolutionary than were many others of his school. He sought
to maintain the old confessional documents, and to make the objective
prevail over the purely subjective manner of viewing theological
questions. But he himself was aware that in the endeavour to do so he
was not always successful, and that his delineations of Christian dogma
often betrayed a vacillating and uncertain hand.

  His works include _Tabellarische Übersicht der Dogmengeschichte_
  (1828); _Encyclopädie u. Methodologie der theol. Wissenschaften_
  (1833); _Vorlesungen über Wesen u. Geschichte der Reformation u. des
  Protestantismus_ (1834-1843); _Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichte_
  (1840-1841, 5th ed., 1867; English transl., 1850); _Vorlesungen über
  die Geschichte der alien Kirche_ (1853-1855); _Vorlesungen über die
  Kirchengeschichte des Mittelalters_ (1860-1861); _Grundlinien der
  Homiletik u. Liturgik_ (1863); biographies of Johannes Oecolampadius
  (1482-1564) and Oswald Myconius (1488-1552) and a _Geschichte der
  theol. Schule Basels_ (1860); his _Predigten_ (1858-1875), two volumes
  of poems entitled _Luther u. seine Zeit_ (1838), and _Gedichte_
  (1846). The lectures on church history under the general title
  _Vorlesungen über die Kirchengeschichte von der ältesten Zeit bis zum
  19ten Jahrhundert_ were reissued in seven volumes (1868-1872).

  See especially the article in Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopädie_.



HAGENBECK, CARL (1844-   ), wild-animal collector and dealer, was born
at Hamburg in 1844. In 1848 his father purchased some seals and a Polar
bear brought to Hamburg by a whaler, and subsequently acquired many
other wild animals. At the age of twenty-one Carl Hagenbeck was given
the whole collection, and before long had greatly extended the business,
so that in 1873 he had to erect large buildings in Hamburg to house his
animals. In 1875 he began to exhibit a collection of the representative
animals of many countries, accompanied by troupes of the natives of the
respective countries, throughout all the large cities of Europe. The
educational value of these exhibitions was officially recognized by the
French government, which in 1891 awarded Hagenbeck the diploma of the
Academy. Most of the wild animals exhibited in music-halls and other
popular places of entertainment throughout the world have come from
Hagenbeck's collection at Stellingen, near Hamburg.



HAGERSTOWN, a city and the county-seat of Washington county, Maryland,
U.S.A., near Antietam Creek, about 86 m. by rail W.N.W. from Baltimore.
Pop. (1890), 10,118; (1900), 13,591, of whom 1277 were negroes; (1910,
census), 16,507. Hagerstown is served by the Baltimore & Ohio, the
Western Maryland, the Norfolk & Western, and the Cumberland Valley
railways, and by an interurban electric line. It lies in a fertile
valley overlooked by South Mountain to the E. and North Mountain, more
distant, to the W. The city is the seat of Kee Mar College (1852;
non-sectarian) for women. Hagerstown is a business centre for the
surrounding agricultural district, has good water power, and as a
manufacturing centre ranked third in the state in 1905, its factory
products being valued in that year at $3,026,901, an increase of 66.3%
over their value in 1900. Among the manufactures are flour, shirts,
hosiery, gloves, bicycles, automobiles, agricultural implements, print
paper, fertilizers, sash, doors and blinds, furniture, carriages, spokes
and wheels. The municipality owns and operates its electric lighting
plant. Hagerstown was laid out as a town in 1762 by Captain Jonathan
Hager (who had received a patent to 200 acres here from Lord Baltimore
in 1739), and was incorporated in 1791. It was an important station on
the old National (or Cumberland) Road. General R. E. Lee concentrated
his forces at Hagerstown before the battle of Gettysburg.



HAG-FISH, GLUTINOUS HAG, Or BORER (_Myxine_), a marine fish which forms
with the lampreys one of the lowest orders of vertebrates
(_Cyclostomata_). Similar in form to a lamprey, it is usually found
within the body of dead cod or haddock, on the flesh of which it feeds
after having buried itself in the abdomen. When caught, it secretes a
thick glutinous slime in such quantity that it is commonly believed to
have the power of converting water into glue. It is found in the North
Atlantic and other temperate seas of the globe, being taken in some
localities in large numbers, e.g. off the east coast of Scotland and the
west coast of California (see CYCLOSTOMATA).



HAGGADA, or 'AGADA (literally "narrative"), includes the more homiletic
elements of rabbinic teaching. It is not logically distinguishable from
the halakha (q.v.), for the latter or forensic element makes up with the
haggada the Midrash (q.v.), but, being more popular than the halakha, is
often itself styled the Midrash. It may be described as the poetical and
ethical element as contrasted with the legal element in the Talmud
(q.v.), but the two elements are always closely connected. From one
point of view the haggada, amplifying and developing the contents of
Hebrew scripture in response to a popular religious need, may be termed
a rabbinical commentary on the Old Testament, containing traditional
stories and legends, sometimes amusing, sometimes trivial, and often
beautiful. The haggada abounds in parables. The haggadic passages of the
Talmud were collected in the _Eye of Jacob_, a very popular compilation
completed by Jakob ibn Habib in the 16th century.



HAGGAI, in the Bible, the tenth in order of the "minor prophets," whose
writings are preserved in the Old Testament. The name Haggai ([Hebrew:
Haggai], Gr. [Greek: 'Aggaios], whence Aggeus in the English version of
the Apocrypha) perhaps means "born on the feast day," "festive." But
Wellhausen[1] is probably right in taking the word as a contraction for
Hagariah ("Yahweh hath girded"), just as Zaccai (Zacchaeus) is known to
be a contraction of Zechariah.

The book of Haggai contains four short prophecies delivered between the
first day of the sixth month and the twenty-fourth day of the ninth
month--that is, between September and December--of the second year of
Darius the king. The king in question must be Darius Hystaspis (521-485
B.C.). The language of the prophet in ii. 3 suggests the probability
that he was himself one of those whose memories reached across the
seventy years of the captivity, and that his prophetic work began in
extreme old age. This supposition agrees well with the shortness of the
period covered by his book, and with the fact that Zechariah, who began
to prophesy in the same autumn and was associated with Haggai's labours
(Ezra v. 1), afterwards appears as the leading prophet in Jerusalem
(Zech. vii. 1-4). We know nothing further of the personal history of
Haggai from the Bible. Later traditions may be read in Carpzov's
_Introductio_, pars 3, cap. xvi. Epiphanius (_Vitae prophetarum_) says
that he came up from Babylon while still young, prophesied the return,
witnessed the building of the temple and received an honoured burial
near the priests. Haggai's name is mentioned in the titles of several
psalms in the Septuagint (Psalms cxxxvii., cxlv.-cxlviii.) and other
versions, but these titles are without value, and moreover vary in MSS.
Eusebius did not find them in the Hexaplar Septuagint.[2]

In his first prophecy (i. 1-11) Haggai addresses Zerubbabel and Joshua,
rebuking the people for leaving the temple unbuilt while they are busy
in providing panelled houses for themselves. The prevalent famine and
distress are due to Yahweh's indignation at such remissness. Let them
build the house, and Yahweh will take pleasure in it and acknowledge the
honour paid to Him. The rebuke took effect, and the people began to work
at the temple, strengthened by the prophet's assurance that the Lord was
with them (i. 12-15). In a second prophecy (ii. 1-9) delivered in the
following month, Haggai forbids the people to be disheartened by the
apparent meanness of the new temple. The silver and gold are the Lord's.
He will soon shake all nations and their choicest gifts will be brought
to adorn His house. Its glory shall be greater than that of the former
temple, and in this place He will give peace. A third prophecy (ii.
10-19) contains a promise, enforced by a figure drawn from the priestly
ritual, that God will remove famine and bless the land from the day of
the foundation of the temple onwards. Finally, in ii. 20-23, Zerubbabel
is assured of God's special love and protection in the impending
catastrophe of kingdoms and nations to which the prophet had formerly
pointed as preceding the glorification of God's house on Zion. In thus
looking forward to a shaking of all nations Haggai agrees with earlier
prophecies, especially Isa. xxiv.-xxvii., while his picture of the glory
and peace of the new Zion and its temple is drawn from the great
anonymous prophet who penned Isa. lx and lxvi. The characteristic
features of the book are the importance assigned to the personality of
Zerubbabel, who, though a living contemporary, is marked out as the
Messiah; and the almost sacramental significance attached to the temple.
The hopes fixed on Zerubbabel, the chosen of the Lord, dear to Him as
His signet ring (cf. Jer. xxii. 24), are a last echo in Old Testament
prophecy of the theocratic importance of the house of David. In the book
of Zechariah Zerubbabel has already fallen into the background and the
high priest is the leading figure of the Judean community.[3] The stem
of David is superseded by the house of Zadok, the kingship has yielded
to the priesthood, and the extinction of national hopes gives new
importance to that strict organization of the hierarchy for which
Ezekiel had prepared the way by his sentence of disfranchisement against
the non-Zadokite priests.

The indifference of the Jews to the desolate conditions of their
sanctuary opens up a problem of some difficulty. It is strange that
neither Haggai nor his contemporary Zechariah mentions or implies any
return of exiles from Babylon, and the suggestion has accordingly been
made that the return under Cyrus described in Ezra i.-iv. is
unhistorical, and that the community addressed by Haggai consisted of
the remnant that had been left in Jerusalem and its neighbourhood after
the majority had gone into exile or fled to Egypt (Jer. xliii.). Such a
remnant, amongst whom might be members of the priestly and royal
families, would gather strength and boldness as the troubles of Babylon
increased and her vigilance was relaxed, and might receive from Babylon
and other lands both refugees and some account at least of the writings
of Ezekiel and the Second Isaiah. Stimulated by such causes and
obtaining formal permission from the Persian government, they would
arise as a new Israel and enter on a new phase of national life and
divine revelation.

In spite, however, of the plausibility of this theory, it seems
preferable to adhere to the story of Ezra i.-iv. Apart from the weighty
objections that the Edomites would have frustrated such a recrudescence
of the remnant Jews as has been described, it must be remembered that
the main stream of Jewish life and thought had been diverted to Babylon.
Thence, when the opportunity came under Cyrus, some 50,000 Jews, the
spiritual heirs of the best elements of the old Israel, returned to
found the new community. With them were all the resources, and the only
people they found at Jerusalem were hostile gentiles and Samaritans.
Full of enthusiasm, they set about rebuilding the temple and realizing
the glowing promises about the prosperity and dominance of Zion that had
fallen from the lips of the Second Isaiah (xlix. 14-26, xlv. 14). Bitter
disappointment, however, soon overcame them, the Samaritans were strong
enough to thwart and hinder their temple-building, and it seemed as
though the divine favour was withdrawn. Apathy took the place of
enthusiasm, and sordid worries succeeded to high hopes. "The like
collapse has often been experienced in history when bands of religious
men, going forth, as they thought, to freedom and the immediate erection
of a holy commonwealth, have found their unity wrecked and their
enthusiasm dissipated by a few inclement seasons on a barren and hostile
shore."[4]

From this torpor they were roused by tidings which might well be
interpreted as the restoration of divine favour. Away in the East Cyrus
had been succeeded in 529 B.C. by Cambyses, who had annexed Egypt and on
whose death in 522 a Magian impostor, Gaumata, had seized the throne.
The fraud was short-lived, and Darius I. became king and the founder of
a new dynasty. These events shook the whole Persian empire; Babylon and
other subject states rose in revolt, and to the Jews it seemed that
Persia was tottering and that the Messianic era was nigh. It was
therefore natural that Haggai and Zechariah should urge the speedy
building of the temple, in order that the great king might be fittingly
received.

It is sometimes levied as a reproach against Haggai that he makes no
direct reference to moral duties. But it is hardly fair to contrast his
practical counsel with the more ethical and spiritual teaching of the
earlier Hebrew prophets. One thing was needful--the temple. "Without a
sanctuary Yahweh would have seemed a foreigner to Israel. The Jews would
have thought that He had returned to Sinai, the holy mountain; and that
they were deprived of the temporal blessings which were the gifts of a
God who literally dwelt in the midst of his people." Haggai argued that
material prosperity was conditioned by zeal in worship; the prevailing
distress was an indication of divine anger due to the people's religious
apathy. Haggai's reproofs touched the conscience of the Jews, and the
book of Zechariah enables us in some measure to follow the course of a
religious revival which, starting with the restoration of the temple,
did not confine itself to matters of ceremony and ritual worship. On the
other hand, Haggai's treatment of his theme, practical and effective as
it was for the purpose in hand, moves on a far lower level than the
aspirations of the prophet who wrote the closing chapters of Isaiah. To
the latter the material temple is no more than a detail in the picture
of a work of restoration eminently ideal and spiritual, and he expressly
warns his hearers against attaching intrinsic importance to it (Isa.
lxvi. 1). To Haggai the temple appears so essential that he teaches that
while it lay waste, the people and all their works and offerings were
unclean (Hag. ii. 14). In this he betrays his affinity with Ezekiel, who
taught that it is by the possession of the sanctuary that Israel is
sanctified (Ezek. xxxvii. 28). In truth the new movement of religious
thought and feeling which started from the fall of the Hebrew state took
two distinct lines, of which Ezekiel and the anonymous authors of Isa.
xl.-lxvi. are the respective representatives. While the latter developed
their great picture of Israel the mediatorial nation, the systematic and
priestly mind of Ezekiel had shaped a more material conception of the
religious vocation of Israel in that picture of the new theocracy where
the temple and its ritual occupy the largest place, with a sanctity
which is set in express contrast to the older conception of the holiness
of the city of Jerusalem (cf. Ezek. xliii. 7 seq. with Jer. xxxi. 40,
Isa. iv. 5), and with a supreme significance for the religious life of
the people which is expressed in the figure of the living waters issuing
from under the threshold of the house (Ezek. xlvii.). It was the
conception of Ezekiel which permanently influenced the citizens of the
new Jerusalem, and took final shape in the institutions of Ezra. To this
consummation, with its necessary accompaniment in the extinction of
prophecy, the book of Haggai already points.

  AUTHORITIES.--The elaborate and valuable German commentary of A.
  Köhler (Erlangen, 1860) forms the first part of his work on the
  _Nachexilische Propheten_. Reinke's _Commentary_ (Münster, 1868) is
  the work of a scholarly Roman Catholic. Haggai has generally been
  treated in works on all the prophets, as by Ewald (2nd ed., 1868; Eng.
  trans., vol. iii., 1878); or along with the other minor prophets, as
  by Hitzig (3rd ed., by H. Steiner, Leipzig, 1881), Keil (1866, 3rd
  ed., 1888, Eng. trans., Edinburgh, 1868), and Pusey (1875), S. R.
  Driver (1906), W. Nowack (2nd ed., 1905), K. Marti (1904), J.
  Wellhausen (3rd ed., 1898); or with the other post-exile prophets, as
  by Köhler, Pressel (Gotha, 1870), Dods (1879) and others. The older
  literature will be found in books of introduction or in Rosenmüller's
  _Scholia_. The learned commentary of Marckius may be specially
  mentioned. On the place of Haggai in the history of Old Testament
  prophecy, see Duhm, _Theologie der Propheten_ (Bonn, 1875); A. B.
  Davidson, _The Theology of the Old Testament_ (1904); A. F.
  Kirkpatrick, _The Doctrine of the Prophets_; G. A. Smith, _The Book of
  the Twelve Prophets_, vol. 2 (1903); Tony Andrée, _Le Prophète Aggée_;
  Ed. Meyer, _Entstehung des Judentums_ (1896).     (W. R. S.; A. J. G.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] In Bleek's _Einleitung_, 4th ed., p. 434.

  [2] See the note on Ps. cxlv. 1 in Field's _Hexapla_; Köhler,
    _Weissagungen Haggai's_, 32; Wright, _Zechariah and his Prophecies_,
    xix.

  [3] After the foundation of the temple Zerubbabel disappears from
    history and lives only in legend, which continued to busy itself with
    his story, as we see from the apocryphal book of Esdras (cf.
    Derenbourg, _Hist. de la Palestine_, chap. i).

  [4] G. A. Smith, _Minor Prophets_, ii. 235.



HAGGARD, HENRY RIDER (1856-   ), English novelist, was born at Bradenham
Hall, Norfolk, on the 22nd of June 1856. When he was nineteen he went to
South Africa as secretary to Sir Henry Bulwer, governor of Natal. At the
time of the first annexation of the Transvaal (1877), he was on the
staff of the special commissioner, Sir Theophilus Shepstone; and he
subsequently became a master of the high court of the Transvaal. He
married in 1879 a Norfolk heiress, Miss Margitson, but returned to the
Transvaal in time to witness its surrender to the Boers and the
overthrow of the policy of his former chief. He returned to England and
read for the bar, but soon took to literary work; he published _Cetywayo
and his White Neighbours_ (1882), written in defence of Sir T.
Shepstone's policy. This was followed by the novels _Dawn_ (1884), _The
Witch's Head_ (1885), which contains an account of the British defeat at
Isandhlwana; and in 1886 _King Solomon's Mines_, suggested by the
Zimbabwe ruins, which first made him popular. _She_ (1887), another
fantastic African story, was also very successful, a sequel, _Ayesha, or
the Return of She_, being published in 1905. The scene of _Jess_ (1887)
and of _Allan Quatermain_ (1888) was also laid in Africa. In 1895 he
unsuccessfully contested the East Norfolk parliamentary division in the
Unionist interest; he showed great interest in rural and agricultural
questions, being a practical gardener and farmer on his estate in
Norfolk. In his _Rural England_ (2 vols., 1902) he exposed the evils of
depopulation in country districts. In 1905 he was commissioned by the
colonial office to inquire into the Salvation Army settlements at Fort
Romie, S. California, and Fort Amity, Colorado, with a view to the
establishment of similar colonies in South Africa. His report on the
subject was first published as a blue book, and afterwards, in an
enlarged form, as _The Poor and the Land_ (1905), with suggestions for a
scheme of national land settlement in Great Britain itself.

  His other books include _Maiwa's Revenge_ (1888), _Mr Meeson's Will_
  (1888), _Colonel Quaritch_, V.C. (1888), _Cleopatra_ (1889), _Eric
  Brighteyes_ (1891), _The World's Desire_ (1890), a romance of Helen of
  Troy, written with Mr Andrew Lang; _Nada the Lily_ (1892),
  _Montezuma's Daughter_ (1894), _The People of the Mist_ (1894), _Joan
  Haste_ (1895), _Heart of the World_ (1896), _Dr Therne_ (1898), _A
  Farmer's Year_ (1899), _The New South Africa_ (1900), _Lysbeth, A Tale
  of the Dutch_ (1901). _Stella Fregelius_ (1903), _A Gardener's Year_
  (1905), _A Farmer's Year_ (1899, revised ed., 1906), _The Way of the
  Spirit_ (1906).



HAGGIS, a dish consisting of a calf's, sheep's or other animal's heart,
liver and lungs, and also sometimes of the smaller intestines, boiled in
the stomach of the animal with seasoning of pepper, salt, onions, &c.,
chopped fine with suet and oatmeal. It is considered peculiarly a
Scottish dish, but was common in England till the 18th century. The
derivation of the word is obscure. The Fr. _hachis_, English "hash," is
of later appearance than "haggis." It may be connected with a verb "to
hag," meaning to cut in small pieces, and would then be cognate
ultimately with "hash."



HAGIOLOGY (from Gr. [Greek: hagios], saint, [Greek: logos], discourse),
that branch of the historical sciences which is concerned with the lives
of the saints. If hagiology be considered merely in the sense in which
the term has come to be understood in the later stages of its
development, i.e. the critical study of hagiographic remains, there
would be no such science before the 17th century. But the bases of
hagiology may fairly be said to have been laid at the time when
hagiographic documents, hitherto dispersed, were first brought together
into collections. The oldest collection of this kind, the [Greek:
sunagôgê tôn archaiôn marturiôn] of Eusebius, to which the author refers
in several passages in his writings (_Hist. Eccl._, v. proem 2; v. 20,
5), and which has left more than one trace in Christian literature, is
unfortunately lost in its entirety. The _Martyrs of Palestine_, as also
the writings of Theodoret, Palladius and others, on the origins of the
monastic life, and, similarly, the _Dialogues_ of St Gregory (Pope
Gregory I.), belong to the category of sources rather than to that of
hagiologic collections. The _In gloria martyrum_ and _In gloria
confessorum_ of Gregory of Tours are valuable for the sources used in
their compilation. The most important collections are those which
comprise the Acts of the Martyrs and the lives of saints, arranged in
the order of the calendar. In the Greek Church these are called
menologies (from Gr. [Greek: mên], month, [Greek: logos], discourse),
and their existence can be traced back with certainty to the 9th century
(Theodore of Studium, _Epist._ i. 2). One of them, the menology of
Metaphrastes, compiled in the second half of the 10th century, enjoyed a
universal vogue (see SYMEON METAPHRASTES). The corresponding works in
the Western Church are the _passionaries_ or _legendaries_, varieties of
which are dispersed in libraries and have not been studied collectively.
They generally draw from a common source, the Roman legendary, and the
lives of the local saints, i.e. those specially honoured in a church, a
province or a country. One of the best known is the Austrian legendary
(_De magno legendario Austriaco_ in the _Analecta Bollandiana_, xvii.
24-264). From the menologies and legendaries various compilations were
made: in the Greek Church, the Synaxaria (see SYNAXARIUM); in the
Western Church, abridgments and extracts such as the _Speculum
hisloriale_ of Vincent de Beauvais; the _Legenda aurea_ of Jacobus de
Voragine; the _Sanctorale_ of Bernard Guy [d. 1331] (see L. Delisle,
_Notice sur les manuscrits de Bernard Guy_, Paris, 1879); the
_Sanctilogium_ of John of Tynemouth (c. 1366), utilized by John
Capgrave, and published in 1516 under the name of _Nova legenda Angliae_
(new edition by C. Horstman, Oxford, 1901); and the _Catalogus
sanctorum_ of Petrus de Natalibus (c. 1375), published at Vicenza in
1493, and many times reprinted. The _Sanctuarium_ of B. Mombritius,
published at Milan about 1480, is particularly valuable because it gives
a faithful reproduction of the ancient texts according to the
manuscripts. One of the most zealous collectors of lives of saints was
John Gielemans of Brabant (d. 1487), whose work is of great value
(Bollandists, _De codicibus hagiographicis Iohannis Gielemans_,
Brussels, 1895), and with him must be associated Anton Geens, or
Gentius, of Groenendael, who died in 1543 (_Analecta Bollandiana_, vi.
31-34).

Hagiology entered on a new development with the publication of the
_Sanctorum priscorum patrum vitae_ (Venice and Rome, 1551-1560) of
Aloysius Lipomanus (Lippomano), bishop of Verona. As a result of the
co-operation of humanist scholars a great number of Greek hagiographic
texts became for the first time accessible to the West in a Latin
translation. The Carthusian, Laurentius Surius, carried on the work of
Lippomano, completed it, and arranged the materials strictly in the
order of the calendar (_De probatis sanctorum historiis_, Cologne,
1570-1575). What prevents the work of Surius from being regarded as an
improvement upon Lippomano's is that Surius thought it necessary to
retouch the style of those documents which appeared to him badly
written, without troubling himself about the consequent loss of their
documentary value.

The actual founder of hagiologic criticism was the Flemish Jesuit,
Heribert Rosweyde (d. 1629), who, besides his important works on the
martyrologies (see MARTYROLOGY), published the celebrated collection of
the _Vitae patrum_ (Antwerp, 1615), a veritable masterpiece for the time
at which it appeared. It was he, too, who conceived the plan of a great
collection of lives of saints, compiled from the manuscripts and
augmented with notes, from which resulted the collection of the _Acta
sanctorum_ (see BOLLANDISTS). This last enterprise gave rise to others
of a similar character but less extensive in scope.

  Dom T. Ruinart collected the best _Acta_ of the martyrs in his _Acta
  martyrum sincera_ (Paris, 1689). The various religious orders
  collected the Acta of their saints, often increasing the lists beyond
  measure. The best publication of this kind, the _Acta sanctorum
  ordinis S. Benedicti_ (Paris, 1668-1701) of d'Achery and Mabillon,
  does not entirely escape this reproach. Countries, provinces and
  dioceses also had their special hagiographic collections, conceived
  according to various plans and executed with more or less historical
  sense. Of these, the most important collections are those of O.
  Caietanus, _Vitae sanctorum Siculorum_ (Palermo, 1657); G. A.
  Lobineau, _Vie des saints de Bretagne_ (Rennes, 1725); and J. H.
  Ghesquière, _Acta sanctorum Belgii_ (Brussels and Tongerloo,
  1783-1794). The principal lives of the German saints are published in
  the _Monumenta Germaniae_, and a special section of the _Scriptores
  rerum Merovingicarum_ is devoted to the lives of the saints. For
  Scotland and Ireland mention must be made of T. Messingham's
  _Florilegium insulae sanctorum_ (Paris, 1624); I. Colgan's _Acta
  sanctorum veteris et maioris Scotiae seu Hiberniae_ (Louvain,
  1645-1647); John Pinkerton's _Vitae antiquae sanctorum ..._ (London,
  1789, of which a revised and enlarged edition was published by W. M.
  Metcalfe at Paisley in 1889, under the title of _Lives of the Scottish
  Saints_); W. J. Rees's _Lives of the Cambro-British Saints_
  (Llandovery, 1853); _Acta sanctorum Hiberniae_ (Edinburgh, 1888);
  Whitley Stokes's _Lives of Saints from the Book of Lismore_ (Oxford,
  1890); and J. O'Hanlon's _Lives of the Irish Saints_ (Dublin,
  1875-1904). Towards the 13th century vernacular collections of lives
  of saints began to increase. This literature is more interesting from
  the linguistic than from the hagiologic point of view, and comes
  rather within the domain of the philologist.

  The hagiography of the Eastern and the Greek church also has been the
  subject of important publications. The Greek texts are very much
  scattered. Of them, however, may be mentioned J. B. Malou's "Symeonis
  Metaphrastae opera omnia" (_Patrologia Graeca_, 114, 115, 116) and
  Theophilos Ioannu, [Greek: Mnêmeia agiologika] (Venice, 1884). For
  Syriac, there are S. E. Assemani's _Acta sanctorum martyrum
  orientalium_ (Rome, 1748) and P. Bedjan's _Acta martyrum et sanctorum_
  (Paris, 1890-1897); for Armenian, the acts of martyrs and lives of
  saints, published in two volumes by the Mechitharist community of
  Venice in 1874; for Coptic, Hyvernat's _Les Actes des martyrs de
  l'Égypte_ (Paris, 1886); for Ethiopian, K. Conti Rossini's _Scriptores
  Aethiopici, vitae sanctorum_ (Paris, 1904 seq.); and for Georgian,
  Sabinin's _Paradise of the Georgian Church_ (St Petersburg, 1882).

  In addition to the principal collections must be mentioned the
  innumerable works in which the hagiographic texts have been subjected
  to detailed critical study.

  To realize the present state of hagiology, the _Bibliotheca
  hagiographica_, both Latin and Greek, published by the Bollandists,
  and the _Bulletin hagiographique_, which appears in each number of the
  _Analecta Bollandiana_ (see BOLLANDISTS), must be consulted. Thanks to
  the combined efforts of a great number of scholars, the classification
  of the hagiographic texts has in recent years made notable progress.
  The criticism of the sources, the study of literary styles, and the
  knowledge of local history now render it easier to discriminate in
  this literature between what is really historical and what is merely
  the invention of the genius of the people or of the imagination of
  pious writers (see H. Delehaye, _Les Légendes hagiographiques_, 2nd
  ed., pp. 121-141, Brussels, 1906). "Though the lives of saints," says
  a recent historian, "are filled with miracles and incredible stories,
  they form a rich mine of information concerning the life and customs
  of the people. Some of them are 'memorials of the best men of the time
  written by the best scholars of the time,'" (C. Gross, _The Sources
  and Literature of English History_, p. 34, London, 1900).     (H. De.)



HAGIOSCOPE (from Gr. [Greek: hagios], holy, and [Greek: skopein], to
see), in architecture, an opening through the wall of a church in an
oblique direction, to enable the worshippers in the transepts or other
parts of the church, from which the altar was not visible, to see the
elevation of the Host. As a rule these hagioscopes, or "squints" as they
are sometimes called, are found on one or both sides of the chancel
arch. In some cases a series of openings has been cut in the walls in an
oblique line to enable a person standing in the porch (as in Bridgewater
church, Somerset) to see the altar; in this case and in other instances
such openings were sometimes provided for an attendant, who had to ring
the Sanctus bell when the Host was elevated. Though rarely met with on
the continent of Europe, there are occasions where they are found, so as
to enable a monk in one of the vestries to follow the service and
communicate with the bell-ringers.



HAGONOY, a town of the province of Bulacan, Luzon, Philippine Islands,
on Manila Bay and on the W. branch and the delta of the Pampanga Grande
river, about 25 m. N.W. of Manila. Pop. (1903), 21,304. Hagonoy is
situated in a rich agricultural region, producing rice, Indian corn,
sugar and a little coffee. Alcohol is made in considerable quantities
from the fermented juice of the nipa palm, which grows in the
neighbouring swamps, and from the leaves of which the nipa thatch is
manufactured. There is good fishing. The women of the town are very
skilful in weaving the native fabrics. The language is Tagalog. Hagonoy
was founded in 1581.



HAGUE, THE (in Dutch, _'s Gravenhage_, or, abbreviated, _den Haag_; in
Fr. _La Haye_; and in Late Lat. _Haga Comitis_), the chief town of the
province of South Holland, about 2½ m. from the sea, with a junction
station 9½ m. by rail S.W. by S. of Leiden. Steam tramways connect it
with the seaside villages of Scheveningen, Kykduin and 's Gravenzande,
as well as with Delft, Wassenaar and Leiden, and it is situated on a
branch of the main canal from Rotterdam to Amsterdam. Pop. (1900),
212,211. The Hague is the chief town of the province, the usual
residence of the court and diplomatic bodies, and the seat of the
government, the states-general, the high council of the Netherlands, the
council of state, the chamber of accounts and various other
administrative bodies. The characteristics of the town are quite in
keeping with its political position; it is as handsome as it is
fashionable, and was rightly described by de Amicis in his _Olanda_ as
half Dutch, half French. The Hague has grown very largely in modern
times, especially on its western side, which is situated on the higher
and more sandy soil, the south-eastern half of the town comprising the
poorer and the business quarters. The main features in a plan of the
town are its fine streets and houses and extensive avenues and
well-planted squares; while, as a city, the neighbourhood of an
attractive seaside resort, combined with the advantages and importance
of a large town, and the possession of beautiful and wooded
surroundings, give it a distinction all its own.

The medieval-looking group of government buildings situated in the
Binnenhof (or "inner court"), their backs reflected in the pretty sheet
of water called the Vyver, represent both historically and
topographically the centre of the Hague. On the opposite side of the
Vyver lies the parallelogram formed by the fine houses and magnificent
avenue of trees of the Lange Voorhout, the Kneuterdyk and the Vyverburg,
representing the fashionable kernel of the city. Close by lies the
entrance to the Haagsche Bosch, or the wood, on one side of which is
situated the deer-park, and a little beyond on the other the zoological
gardens (1862). Away from the Lange Voorhout the fine Park Straat
stretches to the "1813 Plein" or square, in the centre of which rises the
large monument (1869) by Jaquet commemorating the jubilee of the
restoration of Dutch independence in 1813. Beyond this is the Alexander
Veld, used as a military drill ground, and close by is the entrance to
the beautiful road called the Scheveningensche Weg, which leads through
the "little woods" to Scheveningen. Parallel to the Park Straat is the
busy Noordeinde, in which is situated the royal palace. The palace was
purchased by the States in 1595, rebuilt by the stadtholder William III.,
and extended by King William I. in the beginning of the 19th century. In
front of the building is an equestrian statue of William I. of Orange by
Count Nieuerkerke (1845), and behind are the gardens and extensive
stables. The Binnenhof, which has been already mentioned, was once
surrounded by a moat, and is still entered through ancient gateways. The
oldest portion was founded in 1249 by William II., count of Holland,
whose son, Florens V., enlarged it and made it his residence. Several
centuries later the stadtholders also lived here. The fine old hall of
the knights, built by Florens, and now containing the archives of the
home office, is the historic chamber in which the states of the
Netherlands abjured their allegiance to Philip II. of Spain, and in front
of which the grey-headed statesman Johan van Oldenbarneveldt was executed
in 1619. Close by on the one side are the courts of justice, and on the
other the first and second chambers of the states-general, containing
some richly painted ceilings and the portraits of various stadtholders.
Government offices occupy the remainder of the buildings, and in the
middle of the court is a fountain surmounted by a statuette of William
II., count of Holland (1227-1256). In the adjoining Buitenhof, or "outer
court," is a statue of King William II. (d. 1849), and the old Gevangen
Poort, or prison gate (restored 1875), consisting of a tower and gateway.
It was here that the brothers Cornelis and Jan de Witt were killed by the
mob in 1672. On the opposite side of the Binnenhof is the busy square
called the Plein, where all the tram-lines meet. Round about it are the
buildings of the ministry of justice and other government buildings,
including one to contain the state archives, the large club-house of the
Witte Societeit, and the Mauritshuis. The Mauritshuis was built in
1633-1644 by Count John Maurice of Nassau, governor of Brazil, and
contains the famous picture gallery of the Hague. The nucleus of this
collection was formed by the princes of Orange, notably by the
stadtholder William V. (1748-1806). King William I. did much to restore
the losses caused by the removal of many of the pictures during the
French occupation. Other artistic collections in the Hague are the
municipal museum (_Gernsente_ Museum), containing paintings by both
ancient and modern Dutch artists, and some antiquities; the fine
collection of pictures in the Steengracht gallery, belonging to Jonkheer
Steengracht; the museum Meermanno-Westreenianum, named after Count
Meermann and Baron Westreenen (d. 1850), containing some interesting MSS.
and specimens of early typography and other curiosities; and the Mesdag
Museum, containing the collection of the painter H. W. Mesdag (b. 1831)
presented by him to the state. The royal library (1798) contains upwards
of 500,000 volumes, including some early illuminated MSS., a valuable
collection of coins and medals and some fine antique gems. In addition to
the royal palace already mentioned, there are the palaces of the
queen-dowager, of the prince of Orange (founded about 1720 by Count Unico
of Wassenaar Twiekels) and of the prince von Wied, dating from 1825, and
containing some good early Dutch and Flemish masters. There are numerous
churches of various denominations in the Hague as well as an English
church, a Russian chapel and two synagogues, one of which is Portuguese.
The Groote Kerk of St James (15th and 16th centuries) has a fine vaulted
interior, and contains some old stained glass, a carved wooden pulpit
(1550), a large organ and interesting sepulchral monuments, and some
escutcheons of the knights of the Golden Fleece, placed here after the
chapter of 1456. The Nieuwe Kerk, or new church (first half 17th
century), contains the tombs of the brothers De Witt and of the
philosopher Spinoza. Spinoza is further commemorated by a monument in
front of the house in which he died in 1677. The picturesque town hall
(built in 1565 and restored and enlarged in 1882) contains a historical
picture gallery. The principal other buildings are the provincial
government offices, the royal school of music, the college of art, the
large building (1874) of the society for arts and sciences, the
ethnographical institute of the Netherlands Indies with fine library, the
theatres, civil and military hospitals, orphanage, lunatic asylum and
other charitable institutions; the fine modern railway station (1892),
the cavalry and artillery and the infantry barracks, and the cannon
foundry. The chief industries of the town are iron casting, copper and
lead smelting, cannon founding, the manufacture of furniture and
carriages, liqueur distilling, lithographing and printing.

The Hague wood has been described as the city's finest ornament. It is
composed chiefly of oaks and alders and magnificent avenues of gigantic
beech-trees. Together with the Haarlem wood it is thought to be a
remnant of the immense forest which once extended along the coast. At
the end of one of the avenues which penetrates into it from the town is
the large summer club-house of the Witte Societeit, under whose auspices
concerts are given here in summer. Farther into the wood are some pretty
little lakes, and the famous royal villa called the Huis ten Bosch, or
"house in the wood." This villa was built by Pieter Post for the
Princess Amelia of Solms, in memory of her husband the stadtholder,
Frederick Henry of Orange (d. 1647), and wings were added to it by
Prince William IV. in 1748. The chief room is the Orange Saloon, an
octagonal hall 50 ft. high, covered with paintings by Dutch and Flemish
artists, chiefly of incidents in the life of Prince Frederick. In this
room the International Peace Conference had its sittings in the summer
of 1899. The collections in the Chinese and Japanese rooms, and the
grisailles in the dining-room painted by Jacobus de Wit (1695-1754), are
also noteworthy.

The history of the Hague is in some respects singular. In the 13th
century it was no more than a hunting-lodge of the counts of Holland,
and though Count Floris V. (b. 1254-1296) made it his residence and it
thus became the seat of the supreme court of justice of Holland and the
centre of the administration, and from the time of William of Orange
onward the meeting-place of the states-general, it only received the
status of a town, from King Louis Bonaparte, early in the 19th century.

In the latter part of the 17th and the first half of the 18th century
the Hague was the centre of European diplomacy. Among the many treaties
and conventions signed here may be mentioned the treaty of the Triple
Alliance (January 23, 1688) between England, Sweden and the Netherlands;
the concert of the Hague (March 31, 1710) between the Emperor, England
and Holland, for the maintenance of the neutrality of the Swedish
provinces in Germany during the war of the northern powers against
Sweden; the Triple Alliance (January 4, 1717) between France, England
and Holland for the guarantee of the treaty of Utrecht; the treaty of
peace (Feb. 17, 1717) between Spain, Savoy and Austria, by which the
first-named acceded to the principles of the Triple Alliance; the treaty
of peace between Holland and France (May 16, 1795); the first "Hague
Convention," the outcome of the "peace conference" assembled on the
initiative of the emperor Nicholas II. of Russia (July 27, 1899), and
the series of conventions, the results of the second peace conference
(June 15-October 18, 1907). The International court of arbitration or
Hague Tribunal was established in 1899 (see EUROPE: _History_;
ARBITRATION, INTERNATIONAL). The Palace of Peace designed to be
completed in 1913 as the seat of the tribunal, on the Scheveningen
avenue, is by a French architect, L. M. Cordonnier, and A. Carnegie
contributed £300,000 towards its cost.



HAHN, AUGUST (1792-1863), German Protestant theologian, was born on the
27th of March 1792 at Grossosterhausen near Eisleben, and studied
theology at the university of Leipzig. In 1819 he was nominated
_professor extraordinarius_ of theology and pastor of Altstadt in
Königsberg, and in 1820 received a superintendency in that city. In 1822
he became _professor ordinarius_. In 1826 he removed as professor of
theology to Leipzig, where, hitherto distinguished only as editor of
Bardesanes, Marcion (_Marcion's Evangelium in seiner ursprünglichen
Gestalt_, 1823), and Ephraem Syrus, and the joint editor of a _Syrische
Chrestomathie_ (1824), he came into great prominence as the author of a
treatise, _De rationalismi qui dicitur vera indole et qua cum
naturalismo contineatur ratione_ (1827), and also of an _Offene
Erklärung an die Evangelische Kirche zunächst in Sachsen u. Preussen_
(1827), in which, as a member of the school of E. W. Hengstenberg, he
endeavoured to convince the rationalists that it was their duty
voluntarily and at once to withdraw from the national church. In 1833
Hahn's pamphlet against K. G. Bretschneider (_Über die Lage des
Christenthums in unserer Zeit_, 1832) having attracted the notice of
Friedrich Wilhelm III., he was called to Breslau as theological
professor and consistorial councillor, and in 1843 became "general
superintendent" of the province of Silesia. He died at Breslau on the
13th of May 1863. Though uncompromising in his "supra-naturalism," he
did not altogether satisfy the men of his own school by his own
doctrinal system. The first edition of his _Lehrbuch des christlichen
Glaubens_ (1828) was freely characterized as lacking in consistency and
as detracting from the strength of the old positions in many important
points. Many of these defects, however, he is considered to have
remedied in his second edition (1857). Among his other works are his
edition of the Hebrew Bible (1833), his _Bibliothek der Symbole und
Glaubensregeln der apostolisch-katholischen Kirche_ (1842; 2nd ed. 1877)
and _Predigten_ (1852).

His eldest son, HEINRICH AUGUST HAHN (1821-1861), after studying
theology at Breslau and Berlin, became successively _Privatdozent_ at
Breslau (1845), professor _ad interim_ (1846) at Königsberg on the death
of Heinrich Hävernick, professor extraordinarius (1851) and professor
ordinarius (1860) at Greifswald. Amongst his published works were a
commentary on the Book of Job (1850), a translation of the Song of Songs
(1852), an exposition of Isaiah xl.-lxvi. (1857) and a commentary on the
Book of Ecclesiastes (1860).

  See the articles in Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopädie_, and the
  _Allgemeine deutsche Biographie_.



HAHNEMANN, SAMUEL CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH (1755-1843), German physician and
founder of "homoeopathy," was born at Meissen in Saxony on the 10th of
April 1755. He was educated at the "elector's school" of Meissen, and
studied medicine at Leipzig and Vienna, taking the degree of M.D. at
Erlangen in 1779. After practising in various places, he settled in
Dresden in 1784, and thence removed to Leipzig in 1789. In the following
year, while translating W. Cullen's _Materia medica_ into German, he was
struck by the fact that the symptoms produced by quinine on the healthy
body were similar to those of the disordered states it was used to cure.
He had previously felt dissatisfied with the state of the science of
medicine, and this observation led him to assert the truth of the "law of
similars," _similia similibus curantur_ or _curentur_--i.e. diseases are
cured (or should be treated) by those drugs which produce symptoms
similar to them in the healthy. He promulgated his new principle in a
paper published in 1796 in C. W. Hufeland's _Journal_, and four years
later, convinced that drugs in much smaller doses than were generally
employed effectually exerted their curative powers, he advanced his
doctrine of their potentization or dynamization. In 1810 he published his
chief work, _Organon der rationellen Heilkunde_, containing an exposition
of his system, which he called homoeopathy (q.v.), and in the following
years appeared the six volumes of his _Reine Arzneimittellehre_, which
detailed the symptoms produced by "proving" a large number of drugs, i.e.
by systematically administering them to healthy subjects. In 1821 the
hostility of established interests, and especially of the apothecaries,
whose services were not required under his system, forced him to leave
Leipzig, and at the invitation of the grand-duke of Anhalt-Cöthen he went
to live at Cöthen. Fourteen years later he removed to Paris, where he
practised with great success until his death on the 2nd of July 1843.
Statues were erected to his memory at Leipzig in 1851 and at Cöthen in
1855. He also wrote, in addition to the works already mentioned,
_Fragmenta de viribus medicamentorum positivis_ (1805) and _Die
chronischen Krankheiten_ (1828-1830).

  See the article HOMOEOPATHY; also Albrecht, _Hahnemann's Leben und
  Werken_ (Leipzig, 1875); Bradford, _Hahnemann's Life and Letters_
  (Philadelphia, 1895).



HAHN-HAHN, IDA, COUNTESS VON (1805-1880), German author, was born at
Tressow, in Mecklenburg-Schwerin, on the 22nd of June 1805, daughter of
Graf (Count) Karl Friedrich von Hahn (1782-1857), well known for his
enthusiasm for the stage, upon which he squandered a large portion of
his fortune. She married in 1826 her wealthy cousin Count Adolf von
Hahn-Hahn. With him she had an extremely unhappy life, and in 1829 her
husband's irregularities led to a divorce. The countess travelled,
produced some volumes of poetry indicating true lyrical feeling, and in
1838 appeared as a novelist with _Aus der Gesellschaft_, a title which,
proving equally applicable to her subsequent novels, was retained as
that of a series, the book originally so entitled being renamed _Ida
Schönholm_. For several years the countess continued to produce novels
bearing a certain subjective resemblance to those of George Sand, but
less hostile to social institutions, and dealing almost exclusively with
aristocratic society. The author's patrician affectations at length drew
upon her the merciless ridicule of Fanny Lewald in a parody of her style
entitled _Diogena_ (1847), and this and the revolution of 1848 together
seem to have co-operated in inducing her to embrace the Roman Catholic
religion in 1850. She justified her step in a polemical work entitled
_Von Babylon nach Jerusalem_ (1851), which elicited a vigorous reply
from H. Abeken. In 1852 she retired into a convent at Angers, which she,
however, soon left, taking up her residence at Mainz where she founded a
nunnery, in which she lived without joining the order, and continued her
literary labours. For many years her novels were the most popular works
of fiction in aristocratic circles; many of her later publications,
however, passed unnoticed as mere party manifestoes. Her earlier works
do not deserve the neglect into which they have fallen. If their
sentimentalism is sometimes wearisome, it is grounded on genuine feeling
and expressed with passionate eloquence. _Ulrich_ and _Gräfin Faustine_,
both published in 1841, mark the culmination of her power; but
_Sigismund Forster_ (1843), _Cecil_ (1844), _Sibylle_ (1846) and _Maria
Regina_ (1860) also obtained considerable popularity. She died at Mainz
on the 12th of January 1880.

  Her collected works, _Gesammelte Werke_, with an introduction by O.
  von Schaching, were published in two series, 45 volumes in all
  (Regensburg, 1903-1904). See H. Keiter, _Gräfin Hahn-Hahn_ (Würzburg,
  undated); P. Haffner, _Gräfin Ida Hahn-Hahn_, _eine psychologische
  Studie_ (Frankfort, 1880); A. Jacoby, _Ida Gräfin Hahn-Hahn_ (Mainz,
  1894).



HAI (939-1038), Jewish Talmudical scholar, was born in 939. He was
educated by his father Sherira, gaon of Pombeditha (Pumbedita), whom he
afterwards assisted in his work. They were cast into prison for a short
time by the caliph Qadir, and subsequently on Sherira's death Hai was
appointed gaon in his place (998). This office he held till his death on
the 28th of March 1038. He is famous chiefly for his answers to problems
of ritual and civil law. He composed important treatises on Talmudic law
and the _Mishnah_; many poems are also attributed to him on doubtful
authority. In his _responsa_ he laid stress on custom and tradition
provided no infringement of the law were involved, and was essentially
conservative in theology. He had considerable knowledge not only of
religious movements within the Jewish body, but also of Mahommedan
theology and controversial method, and frequently consulted theologians
of other beliefs.

  See Steinschneider, _Hebr. Übersetz_. p. 910, and article in _Jewish
  Encyclopedia_, vi. 153.



HAIBAK, a town and khanate of Afghan Turkestan. The valley of Haibak,
which is 3100 ft. above sea level, is fertile and richly cultivated. The
town, which is famed in Persian legend, consists now of only a couple of
streets, containing many Hindu shops and a small garrison. The
inhabitants call themselves Jagatais, a Turki race, though now generally
mixed with Tajiks and speaking Persian. In the neighbourhood of Haibak
are some very typical Buddhist ruins. Haibak derives its importance from
its position on the main line of communication between Kabul and Afghan
Turkestan.



HAIDA, a tribe of North American Indians of Skittagetan stock. They
still occupy their original home, the Queen Charlotte islands, British
Columbia. They are skilful seamen, making long fishing expeditions in
cedarwood canoes. They are noted for their carving and basket-work. They
formerly made raids on the coast tribes. Slavery was hereditary, the
slaves being prisoners of war. The population, some 7000 in the middle
of the 19th century, is now reduced to a few hundreds.

  See _Handbook of American Indians_ (Washington, 1907). For "Haida
  Texts and Myths," see _Bull. 29 Smithsonian Institution Bureau Amer.
  Ethnol._ (1905).



HAIDINGER, WILHELM KARL, RITTER VON (1795-1871), Austrian mineralogist,
geologist and physicist, was born at Vienna on the 5th of February 1795.
His father, Karl Haidinger, contributed largely to the development of
mineralogical science in the latter half of the 18th century. Having
studied at the normal school of St Anne, and attended classes at the
university, Wilhelm, at the age of seventeen, joined Professor F. Mohs
at Gratz, and five years later accompanied the professor to Freiberg on
the transfer of his labours to the mining academy of that town.

In 1822 Haidinger visited France and England with Count Breunner, and,
journeying northward, took up his abode in Edinburgh. He translated into
English, with additions of his own, Mohs's _Grundriss der Mineralogie_,
published at Edinburgh in three volumes under the title _Treatise on
Mineralogy_ (1825). After a tour in northern Europe, including the
Scandinavian mining districts, he undertook the scientific direction of
the porcelain works at Elbogen, belonging to his brothers. In 1840 he
was appointed counsellor of mines (Bergrat) at Vienna in the place of
Professor Mohs, a post which included the charge of the imperial cabinet
of minerals. He devoted himself to the rearrangement and enrichment of
the collections, and the museum became the first in Europe. Shortly
after (1843) Haidinger commenced a series of lectures on mineralogy,
which was given to the world under the title _Handbuch der bestimmenden
Mineralogie_ (Vienna, 1845; tables, 1846). On the establishment of the
imperial geological institute, he was chosen director (1849); and this
important position he occupied for seventeen years. He was elected a
member of the imperial board of agriculture and mines, and a member of
the imperial academy of sciences of Vienna. He organized the society of
the Freunde der Naturwissenschaften. As a physicist Haidinger ranked
high, and he was one of the most active promoters of scientific progress
in Austria. He was the discoverer of the interesting optical appearances
which have been called after him "Haidinger's brushes." Knighted in
1865, the following year he retired to his estate at Dornbach near
Vienna, where he died on the 19th of March 1871.

  In addition to the works already named, Haidinger published
  _Anfangsgründe der Mineralogie_ (Leipzig, 1829); _Geognostische
  Übersichtskarte der österreich. Monarchie_ (Vienna, 1847);
  _Bemerkungen über die Anordnung der kleinsten Theilchen in
  Christallen_ (Vienna, 1853); _Interferenzlinien am Glimmer_ (Vienna,
  1855); _Vergleichungen von Augit und Amphibol_ (Vienna, 1855). He also
  edited the _Naturwissenschaftliche Abhandlungen_ (Vienna, 1847); the
  _Berichte über die Mittheilungen von Freunden der Naturwissenschaften
  in Wien_ (Vienna, 1847-1851); and the _Jahrbuch_ of the Vienna K. K.
  Geologische Reichsanstalt (1850), &c. Some of his papers will be found
  in the _Transactions_ of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (vol. x.) and
  of the Wernerian Society (1822-1823), _Edinburgh Phil. Journal,
  Brewster's Journal of Science_, and _Poggendorff's Annalen_.
       (H. B. Wo.)



HAIDUK (also written _Hayduk, Heiduc, Heyduke_ and _Heyduque_), a term
which appears originally to have meant "robber" or "brigand," a sense it
retains in Servia and some other parts of the Balkan Peninsula. It is
probably derived from the Turkish _haidud_, "marauder," but its origin
is not absolutely certain. Most of the European races with which the
Turks came into close contact during the 15th and 16th centuries seem to
have adopted it as a loan-word, and it appears in Magyar as _hajdú_
(plural _hajduk_), in Serbo-Croatian, Rumanian, Polish and [)C]ech as
_hajduk_, in Bulgarian as _hajdutin_ and in Greek as [Greek:
chaintoutês]. By the beginning of the 17th century its use had spread
north and west as far as Sweden and Great Britain. In Hungary it was
applied to a class of mercenary foot-soldiers of Magyar stock. In 1605
these haiduks were rewarded for their fidelity to the Protestant party
(see HUNGARY: _History_) with titles of nobility and territorial rights
over a district situated on the left bank of the river Theiss, known
thenceforward as the Haiduk region. This was enlarged in 1876 and
converted into the county of Hajdú (Ger. _Hajduken_). _Hajdú_ is also a
common prefix in Hungarian place-names, e.g. Hajdú-Szoboszló,
Hajdú-Námás. In Austria-Hungary, Germany, Poland, Sweden and some other
countries, _haiduk_ came to mean an attendant in a court of law, or a
male servant, dressed in Hungarian semi-military costume. It is also
occasionally used as a synonym for "footman" or "lackey."



HAIFA, a town of Palestine at the foot of Mt. Carmel, on the south of
the Bay of Acre. It represents the classical Sycaminum, but the present
town is entirely modern. It has developed since about 1890 into an
important port, and is connected by railway with Damascus. The
population is estimated at 12,000 (Moslems 6000, Christians 4000, Jews
1500, Germans 500; the last belong for the greater part to the Unitarian
sect of the "Templars," who have colonies also at Jaffa and Jerusalem).
The exports (grain and oil) were valued at £178,738 in 1900. Much of the
trade that formerly went to Acre has been attracted to Haifa. This port
is the best natural harbour on the Palestine coast.



HAIK (an Arabic word, from _hak_, to weave), a piece of cloth, usually
of coarse hand-woven wool, worn by Arabs, Moors and other Mahommedan
peoples. It is generally 6 to 6½ yds. long, and about 2 broad. It is
either striped or plain, and is worn equally by both sexes, usually as
an outer covering; but it is often the only garment of the poorer
classes. By women the "haik" is arranged to cover the head and, in the
presence of men, is held so as to conceal the face. A thin "haik" of
silk, like a veil, is used by brides at their marriage.



HAIL (O. Eng. _hægl_ and _hagol_,[1] cf. the cognate Teutonic _hagel_,
as in German, Dutch, Swedish, &c.; the Gr. [Greek: kachlêx], pebble, is
probably allied), the name for rounded masses or single pellets of ice
falling from the clouds in a shower. True hail has a concentric
structure caused by the frozen particles of moisture first descending
into a warm cloud, whence they are carried upwards on an ascending
current of heated air into a cold stratum where the fresh coating of
water vapour deposited in the cloud is frozen. The hailstone descends
again, receives a fresh coating, is carried up once more, refrozen, and
again descends. Thus the hailstone grows until the current is no longer
strong enough to support it when it falls to the ground. At times masses
of hail are frozen together, and a very sudden cooling will sometimes
result in the formation of ragged masses of ice that fall with
disastrous results. Hail must be distinguished from the frozen snow,
"soft-hail" or "graupel," that often falls at the rear of a spring
cyclone, since true hail is almost entirely a summer phenomenon, and
falls most frequently in thunderstorms which are produced under the
conditions that are favourable to the formation of hail, i.e. great
heat, a still atmosphere, the production of strong local convection
currents in consequence, and the passage of a cold upper drift.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] "Hail," a call of greeting or salutation, a shout to attract
    attention, must, of course, be distinguished. This word represents
    the Old Norwegian _heill_, prosperity, cognate with O. Eng. _hal_,
    whence "hale," "whole," and _hæl_, whence "health," "heal."



HAILES, DAVID DALRYMPLE, LORD (1726-1792), Scottish lawyer and
historian, was born at Edinburgh on the 28th of October 1726. His
father, Sir James Dalrymple, Bart., of Hailes, in the county of
Haddington, auditor-general of the exchequer of Scotland, was a grandson
of James, first Viscount Stair; and his mother, Lady Christian Hamilton,
was a daughter of Thomas, 6th earl of Haddington. David was the eldest
of sixteen children. He was educated at Eton, and studied law at
Utrecht, being intended for the Scottish bar, to which he was admitted
shortly after his return to Scotland in 1748. As a pleader he attained
neither high distinction nor very extensive practice, but he rapidly
established a well-deserved reputation for sound knowledge, unwearied
application and strict probity; and in 1766 he was elevated to the
bench, when he assumed the title of Lord Hailes. Ten years later he was
appointed a lord of justiciary. He died on the 29th of November 1792. He
was twice married, and had a daughter by each wife. The baronetcy to
which he had succeeded passed to the son of his brother John, provost of
Edinburgh. Another brother was Alexander Dalrymple (1737-1808), the
first admiralty hydrographer, who distinguished himself in the East
India Company's service and as a geographer. Lord Hailes's younger
daughter married Sir James Fergusson; and their grandson, Sir Charles
Dalrymple, 1st Bart. (cr. 1887), M.P. for Bute from 1868 to 1885,
afterwards came into Lord Hailes's estate and took his family name.

Lord Hailes's most important contribution to literature was the _Annals
of Scotland_, of which the first volume, "From the accession of Malcolm
III., surnamed Canmore, to the accession of Robert I.," appeared in
1776, and the second, "From the accession of Robert I., surnamed Bruce,
to the accession of the house of Stewart," in 1779. It is, as Dr Johnson
justly described this work at the time of its appearance, a "Dictionary"
of carefully sifted facts, which tells all that is wanted and all that
is known, but without any laboured splendour of language or affected
subtlety of conjecture. The other works of Lord Hailes include
_Historical Memoirs concerning the Provincial Councils of the Scottish
Clergy_ (1769); _An Examination of some of the Arguments for the High
Antiquity of Regiam Majestatem_ (1769); three volumes entitled _Remains
of Christian Antiquity_ ("Account of the Martyrs of Smyrna and Lyons in
the Second Century," 1776; "The Trials of Justin Martyr, Cyprian, &c.,"
1778; "The History of the Martyrs of Palestine, translated from
Eusebius," 1780); _Disquisitions concerning the Antiquities of the
Christian Church_ (1783); and editions or translations of portions of
Lactantius, Tertullian and Minucius Felix. In 1786 he published _An
Inquiry into the Secondary Causes which Mr Gibbon has assigned for the
Rapid Growth of Christianity_ (Dutch translation, Utrecht, 1793), one of
the most respectable of the very many replies which were made to the
famous 15th and 16th chapters of the _Decline and Fall of the Roman
Empire_.

A "Memoir" of Lord Hailes is prefixed to the 1808 reprint of his
_Inquiry into the Secondary Causes_.



HAILSHAM, a market-town in the Eastbourne parliamentary division of
Sussex, England, 54 m. S.S.E. from London by the London, Brighton &
South Coast railway. Pop. (1901), 4197. The church of St Mary is
Perpendicular. The picturesque Augustinian priory of Michelham lies 2 m.
W. by the Cuckmere river; it is altered into a dwelling house, but
retains a gate-house, crypt and other portions of Early English date.
There was also a Premonstratensian house at Otham, 3 m. S., but the
remains are scanty. Hailsham has a considerable agricultural trade, and
manufactures of rope and matting are carried on.



HAINAN, or, as it is usually called in Chinese, _K'iung-chow-fu_, a
large island belonging to the Chinese province of Kwang-tung, and
situated between the Chinese Sea and the Gulf of Tong-king from 20° 8´
to 17° 52´ N., and from 108° 32´ to 111° 15´ E. It measures 160 m. from
N.E. to S.W., and the average breadth is about 90 m. The area is
estimated at from 1200 to 1400 sq. m., or two-thirds the size of Sicily.
From the peninsula of Lei-chow on the north it is separated by the
straits of Hainan, which have a breadth of 15 or 20 m.

With the exception of a considerable area in the north, and broad tracts
on the north-east and north-west sides, the whole island is occupied by
jungle-covered mountains, with rich valleys between. The central range
bears the name of Li-mou shan or Wu-tchi shan (the Five-Finger
Mountain), and attains a height of 6000 or 7000 ft. Its praises are
celebrated in a glowing ode by Ch'iu, a native poet. The island appears
to be well watered, and some of its rivers are not without importance as
possible highways of commerce; but the details of its hydrography are
very partially ascertained. A navigable channel extends in an irregular
curve from the bay of Hoi-how (Hai-K'ow) in the north to Tan-chow on the
west coast. Being exposed to the winter monsoon, the northern parts of
the island enjoy much the same sort of temperate climate as the
neighbouring provinces of the mainland, but in the southern parts,
protected from the monsoon by the mountain ranges, the climate is almost
or entirely tropical. Snow falls so rarely that its appearance in 1684
is reported in the native chronicles as a remarkable event. Earthquakes
are a much more familiar phenomenon, having occurred, according to the
same authority, in 1523, 1526, 1605, 1652, 1677, 1681, 1684, 1702, 1704,
1725, 1742, 1816, 1817 and 1822. Excellent timber of various
kinds--eagle-wood, rose-wood, liquidambar, &c.--is one of the principal
products of the island, and has even been specially transported to
Peking for imperial purposes. The coco palm flourishes freely even in
the north, and is to be found growing in clumps with the _Pinus
sinensis_. Rice, cotton, sugar, indigo, cinnamon, betel-nuts, sweet
potatoes, ground-nuts and tobacco are all cultivated in varying
quantities. The aboriginal inhabitants collect a kind of tea called
t'ien ch'a, or celestial tea, which looks like the leaves of a wild
camellia, and has an earthy taste when infused. Lead, silver, copper and
iron occur in the Shi-lu shan or "stone-green-hill"; the silver at least
was worked till 1850. Gold and lapis lazuli are found in other parts of
the island.

The ordinary cattle of Hainan are apparently a cross between the little
yellow cow of south China and the zebu of India. Buffaloes are common,
and in the neighbourhood of Nanlu at least they are frequently albinos.
Horses are numerous but small. Hogs and deer are both common wild
animals, and of the latter there are three species, _Cervus Eldi, Cervus
hippelaphus_ and _Cervus vaginalis_. Among the birds, of which 172
species are described by Mr Swinhoe in his paper in _The Ibis_ (1870),
there are eagles, notably a new species _Spilornis Rutherfordi_,
buzzards, harriers, kites, owls, goatsuckers and woodpeckers. The _Upupa
ceylonensis_ is familiar to the natives as the "bird of the Li matrons,"
and the _Palaeornis javanica_ as the "sugar-cane bird."

Hainan forms a fu or department of the province of Kwang-tung, though
strictly it is only a portion of the island that is under Chinese
administration, the remainder being still occupied by unsubjugated
aborigines. The department contains three _chow_ and ten _hien_
districts. K'iung-chow-hien, in which the capital is situated;
Ting-an-hien, the only inland district; Wen-ch'ang-hien, in the
north-east of the island; Hui-t'ung-hien, Lo-hui-hien, Ling-shu-hien,
Wan-chow, Yai-chow (the southmost of all), Kan-en-hien, Ch'ang-hwa-hien,
Tan-chow, Lin-kao-hien and Ch'eng-mai-hien. The capital K'iung-chow-fu
is situated in the north about 10 li (or 3 m.) from the coast on the
river. It is a well-built compact city, and its temples and examination
halls are in good preservation. Carved articles in coco-nuts and scented
woods are its principal industrial product. In 1630 it was made the seat
of a Roman Catholic mission by Benoit de Mathos, a Portuguese Jesuit,
and the old cemetery still contains about 113 Christian graves. The port
of K'iung-chow-fu at the mouth of the river, which is nearly dry at low
water, is called simply Hoi-how, or in the court dialect Hai-K'ow, i.e.
seaport. The two towns are united by a good road, along which a large
traffic is maintained partly by coolie porters but more frequently by
means of wheel-barrows, which serve the purpose of cabs and carts. The
value of the trade of the port has risen from £670,600 in 1899 to
£719,333 in 1904. In the same year 424 vessels, representing a tonnage
of 312,554, visited the port. This trade is almost entirely with the
British colony of Hong-Kong, with which the port is connected by small
coasting steamers, but since 1893 it has had regular steamboat
communication with Haiphong in Tongking. The population of K'iung-chow,
including its shipping port of Hoi-how, is estimated at 52,000. The
number of foreign residents in 1900 was about 30, most of them officials
or missionaries.

The inhabitants of Hainan may be divided into three classes, the Chinese
immigrants, the civilized aborigines or Shu-li and the wild aborigines
or Sheng-li. The Chinese were for the most part originally from Kwang-si
and the neighbouring provinces, and they speak a peculiar dialect, of
which a detailed account by Mr Swinhoe was given in _The Phoenix, a
Monthly Magazine for China, &c._ (1870). The Shu-li as described by Mr
Taintor are almost of the same stature as the Chinese, but have a more
decided copper colour, higher cheek-bones and more angular features,
while their eyes are not oblique. Their hair is long, straight and
black, and their beards, if they have any, are very scanty. They till
the soil and bring rice, fuel, timber, grass-cloth, &c., to the Chinese
markets. The Sheng-li or Li proper, called also La, Le or Lauy, are
probably connected with the Laos of Siam and the Lolos of China. Though
not gratuitously aggressive, they are highly intractable, and have given
great trouble to the Chinese authorities. Among themselves they carry on
deadly feuds, and revenge is a duty and an inheritance. Though they are
mainly dependent on the chase for food, their weapons are still the
spear and the bow, the latter being made of wood and strung with bamboo.
In marriage no avoidance of similarity of name is required. The bride's
face is tattooed according to a pattern furnished by the bridegroom.
Their funeral mourning consists of abstaining from drink and eating raw
beef, and they use a wooden log for a coffin. When sick they sacrifice
oxen. In the spring-time there is a festival in which the men and women
from neighbouring settlements move about in gay clothing hand in hand
and singing songs. The whole population of the island is estimated at
about 2½ millions. At its first conquest 23,000 families were introduced
from the mainland. In 1300 the Chinese authorities assign 166,257
inhabitants; in 1370, 291,000; in 1617, 250,524; and in 1835, 1,350,000.

It was in 111 B.C. that Lu-Po-Teh, general of the emperor Wu-ti, first
made the island of Hainan subject to the Chinese, who divided it into
the two prefectures, Tan-urh or Drooping Ear in the south, so-called
from the long ears of the native "king," and Chu-yai or Pearl Shore in
the north. During the decadence of the elder branch of the Han dynasty
the Chinese supremacy was weakened, but in A.D. 43 the natives were led
by the success of Ma-yuan in Tong-king to make a new tender of their
allegiance. About this time the whole island took the name of Chu-yai.
In A.D. 627 the name of K'iung-chow came into use. On its conquest by
the generals of Kublai Khan in 1278 the island was incorporated with the
western part of the province of Kwang-tung in a new satrapy, Hai-peh
Hai-nan Tao, i.e. the circuit north of the sea and south of the sea. It
was thus that Hai-nan-Tao, or district south of the sea or strait, came
into use as the name of the island, which, however, has borne the
official title of K'iung-chow-fu, probably derived from the Kiung shan
or Jade Mountains, ever since 1370, the date of its erection into a
department of Kwang-tung. For a long time Hainan was the refuge of the
turbulent classes of China and the place of deportation for delinquent
officials. It was there, for example, that Su-She or Su-Tung-po was
banished in 1097. From the 15th to the 19th century pirates made the
intercourse with the mainland dangerous, and in the 17th they were
considered so formidable that merchants were allowed to convey their
goods only across the narrow Hainan Strait. Since 1863 the presence of
English men-of-war has put an end to this evil. According to the treaty
of Tientsin, the capital K'iung-chow and the harbour Hoi-how (Hai-Kow)
were opened to European commerce; but it was not till 1876 that
advantage was taken of the permission.



HAINAU (officially HAYNAU), a town of Germany, in the Prussian province
of Silesia, on the Schnelle Deichsa and the railway from Breslau to
Dresden, 12 m. N.W. of Liegnitz. Pop. 10,500. It has an Evangelical and
a Roman Catholic church, manufactories of gloves, patent leather, paper,
metal ware and artificial manures, and a considerable trade in cereals.
Near Hainau the Prussian cavalry under Blücher inflicted a defeat on the
French rearguard on the 26th of May 1813.



HAINAUT (Flem. _Henegouwen_, Ger. _Hennegau_), a province of Belgium
formed out of the ancient county of Hainaut. Modern Hainaut is famous as
containing the chief coal and iron mines of Belgium. There are about
150,000 men and women employed in the mines, and about as many more in
the iron and steel works of the province. About 1880 these numbers were
not more than half their present totals. The principal towns of Hainaut
are Mons, the capital, Charleroi, Tournai, Jumet and La Louvière. The
province is watered by both the Scheldt and the Sambre, and is connected
with Flanders by the Charleroi-Ghent canal. The area of the province is
computed at 930,405 acres or 1453 sq. m. In 1904 the population was
1,192,967, showing an average of 821 per square mile.

Under the successors of Clovis Hainaut formed part, first of the kingdom
of Metz, and then of that of Lotharingia. It afterwards became part of
the duchy of Lorraine. The first to bear the title of count of Hainaut
was Reginar "Long-Neck" (c. 875), who, later on, made himself master of
the duchy of Lorraine and died in 916. His eldest son inherited Lower
Lorraine, the younger, Reginar II., the countship of Hainaut, which
remained in the male line of his descendants, all named Reginar, until
the death of Reginar V. in 1036. His heiress, Richildis, married _en
secondes noces_ Baldwin VI. of Flanders, and, by him, became the
ancestress of the Baldwin (VI. of Hainaut) who in 1204 was raised by the
Crusaders to the empire of Constantinople. The emperor Baldwin's elder
daughter Jeanne brought the countship of Hainaut to her husbands
Ferdinand of Portugal (d. 1233) and Thomas of Savoy (d. 1259). On her
death in 1244, however, it passed to her sister Margaret, on whose death
in 1279 it was inherited by her grandson, John of Avesnes, count of
Holland (d. 1304). The countship of Hainaut remained united with that of
Holland during the 14th and 15th centuries. It was under the counts
William I. "the Good" (1304-1337), whose daughter Philippa married
Edward III. of England, and William II. (1337-1345) that the communes of
Hainaut attained great political importance. Margaret, who succeeded her
brother William II. in 1345, by her marriage with the emperor Louis IV.
brought Hainaut with the rest of her dominions to the house of
Wittelsbach. Finally, early in the 15th century, the countess Jacqueline
was dispossessed by Philip the Good of Burgundy, and Hainaut
henceforward shared the fate of the rest of the Netherlands.

  AUTHORITIES.--The _Chronicon Hanoniense_ or _Chronica Honnoniae_ of
  Giselbert of Mons (d. 1223-1225), chancellor of Count Baldwin V.,
  covering the period between 1040 and 1195, is published in Pertz,
  _Monum. Germ._ (Hanover, 1840, &c.). The _Chronicon Hanoniense_,
  ascribed to Baldwin, count of Avesnes (d. 1289), and written between
  1278 and 1281, was published under the title _Hist. genealogica
  comitum Hannoniae_, &c., at Antwerp (1691 and 1693) and Brussels
  (1722). The Annals of Jacques de Guise (b. 1334; d. 1399) were
  published by de Fortia d'Urban under the title, _Histoire de Hainault
  par Jacques de Guyse_, in 19 vols. (Paris, 1826-1838); C. Delacourt,
  "Bibliographie de l'hist. du Hainaut," in the _Annales du cercle
  archéologique de Mons_, vol. v. (Mons, 1864); T. Bernier, _Dict.
  géograph. historique, &c., de Hainault_ (Mons, 1891). See also Ulysse
  Chevalier, _Répertoire des sources_ s.v.



HAINBURG, or HAIMBURG, a town of Austria, in Lower Austria, 38 m. E.S.E
of Vienna by rail. Pop. (1900), 5134. It is situated on the Danube, only
2½ m. from the Hungarian frontier, and since the fire of 1827 Hainburg
has been much improved, being now a handsomely built town. It has one of
the largest tobacco manufactories in Austria, employing about 2000
hands, and a large needle factory. It occupies part of the site of the
old Celtic town Carnuntum (q.v.). It is still surrounded by ancient
walls, and has a gate guarded by two old towers. There are numerous
Roman remains, among which may be mentioned the altar and tower at the
town-house, on the latter of which is a statue, said to be of Attila. A
Roman aqueduct is still used to bring water to the town. On the
neighbouring Hainberg is an old castle, built of Roman remains, which
appears in German tradition under the name of Heimburc; it was wrested
from the Hungarians in 1042 by the emperor Henry III. At the foot of the
same hill is a castle of the 12th century, where Ottakar of Bohemia was
married to Margaret of Austria in 1252; earlier it was the residence of
the dukes of Babenberg. Outside the town, on an island in the Danube, is
the ruined castle of Röthelstein or Rothenstein, held by the Knights
Templars. Hainburg was besieged by the Hungarians in 1477, was captured
by Matthias Corvinus in 1482, and was sacked and its inhabitants
massacred by the Turks in 1683.



HAINICHEN, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Saxony, on the Kleine
Striegis, 15 m. N.E. of Chemnitz, on the railway to Rosswein. Pop.
(1905), 7752. It has two Evangelical churches, a park, and commercial
and technical schools. Hainichen is a place of considerable industry.
Its chief manufacture is that of flannels, baize, and similar fabrics;
indeed it may be called the centre of this industry in Germany. The
special whiteness and excellence of the flannel made in Hainichen are
due to the peculiar nature of the water used in the manufacture. There
are also large dye-works and bleaching establishments. Hainichen is the
birthplace of Gellert, to whose memory a bronze statue was erected in
the market-place in 1865. The Gellert institution for the poor was
erected in 1815.



HAI-PHONG, a seaport of Tongking, French Indo-China, on the Cua-Cam, a
branch of the Song-koi (Red river) delta. The population numbers between
21,000 and 22,000, of whom 12,500 are Annamese, 7500 Chinese (attracted
by the rice trade of the port) and 1200 Europeans. It is situated about
20 m. from the Gulf of Tongking and 58 m. E. by S. of Hanoi, with which
it communicates by river and canal and by railway. It is the second
commercial port of French Indo-China, is a naval station, and has
government and private ship-building yards. The harbour is accessible at
all times to vessels drawing 19 to 20 ft., but is obstructed by a bar.
Hai-phong is the seat of a resident who performs the functions of mayor,
and the residency is the chief building of the town. A civil tribunal, a
tribunal of commerce and a branch of the Bank of Indo-China are also
among its institutions. It is the headquarters of the river steamboat
service (_Messageries fluviales_) of Tongking, which plies as far as
Lao-kay on the Song-koi, to the other chief towns of Tongking and
northern Annam, and also to Hong-kong. Cotton-spinning and the
manufacture of cement are carried on.



HAIR (a word common to Teutonic languages), the general term for the
characteristic outgrowth of the epidermis forming the coat of mammals.
The word is also applied by analogy to the filamentous outgrowths from
the body of insects, &c., plants, and metaphorically to anything of like
appearance.

For anatomy, &c. of animal hair see SKIN AND EXOSKELETON; FIBRES and
allied articles; FUR, and LEATHER.

_Anthropology._--The human hair has an important place among the
physical criteria of race. While its general structure and quantity vary
comparatively little, its length in individuals and relatively in the
two sexes, its form, its colour, its general consistency and the
appearance under the microscope of its transverse section show
persistent differences in the various races. It is the persistence of
these differences and specially in regard to its colour and texture,
which has given to hair its ethnological importance. So obvious a racial
differentiation had naturally long ago attracted the attention of
anthropologists. But it was not until the 19th century that microscopic
examination showed the profound difference in structure between the hair
characteristic of the great divisions of mankind. It was in 1863 that Dr
Pruner-Bey read a paper before the Paris Anthropological Society
entitled "On the Human Hair as a Race Character, examined by aid of the
Microscope." This address established the importance of hair as a racial
criterion. He demonstrated that the structure of the hair is
threefold:--

(1) Short and crisp, generally termed "woolly," elliptical or
kidney-shaped in section, with no distinguishable medulla or pith. Its
colour is almost always jet black, and it is characteristic of all the
black races except the Australians and aborigines of India. This type of
hair has two varieties. When the hairs are relatively long and the
spiral of the curls large, the head has the appearance of being
completely covered, as with some of the Melanesian races and most of the
negroes. Haeckel has called this "_eriocomous_" or "woolly" proper. In
some negroid peoples, however, such as the Hottentots and Bushmen, the
hair grows in very short curls with narrow spirals and forms little
tufts separated by spaces which appear bare. The head looks as if it
were dotted over with pepper-seed, and thus this hair has gained the
name of "peppercorn-growth." Haeckel has called it "_lophocomous_" or
"crested." Most negroes have this type of hair in childhood and, even
when fully grown, signs of it around the temples. The space between each
tuft is not bald, as was at one time generally assumed. The hair grows
uniformly over the head, as in all races.

2. Straight, lank, long and coarse, round or nearly so in section, with
the medulla or pith easily distinguishable, and almost without exception
black. This is the hair of the yellow races, the Chinese, Mongols and
Indians of the Americas.

3. Wavy and curly, or smooth and silky, oval in section, with medullary
tube but no pith. This is the hair of Europeans, and is mainly fair,
though black, brown, red or towy varieties are found.

There is a fourth type of hair describable as "frizzy." It is easily
distinguishable from the Asiatic and European types, but not from the
negroid wool. It is always thick and black, and is characteristic of the
Australians, Nubians, and certain of the Mulattos. Generally hair curls
in proportion to its flatness. The rounder it is the stiffer and lanker.
These extremes are respectively represented by the Papuans and the
Japanese. Of all hair the woolly type is found to be the most
persistent, as in the case of the Brazilian Cafusos, negro and native
hybrids. Quatrefages quotes the case of a triple hybrid, "half negro,
quarter Cherokee, quarter English," who had short crisp furry-looking
hair.

Wavy types of hair vary most in colour: almost the deepest hue of black
being found side by side with the most flaxen and towy. Colour varies
less in the lank type, and scarcely at all in the woolly. The only
important exception to the uniform blackness of the negroid wool is to
be found among the Wochuas, a tribe of African pigmies whose hair is
described by Wilhelm Junker (_Travels in Africa_, iii. p. 82) as "of a
dark, rusty brown hue." Fair hair in all its shades is frequent among
the populations of northern Europe, but much rarer in the south.
According to Dr John Beddoe there are sixteen blonds out of every
hundred Scotch, thirteen out of every hundred English, and two only out
of a hundred Italians. The percentage of brown hair is 75% among
Spaniards, 39 among French and 16 only in Scandinavia. Among the
straight-haired races fair hair is far rarer; it is, however, found
among the western Finns. Among those races with frizzy hair, red is
almost as common as among those with wavy hair. Red hair, however, is an
individual anomaly associated ordinarily with freckles. There are no
red-haired races.

A certain correlation appears to exist between the nature of hair and
its absolute or relative length in the two sexes. Thus straight hair is
the longest (Chinese, Red Indians), while woolly is shortest. Wavy hair
holds an intermediate position. In the two extremes the difference of
length in man and woman is scarcely noticeable. In some lank-haired
races, men's tresses are as long as women's, e.g. the Chinese pigtail,
and the hair of Redskins which grows to the length sometimes of upwards
of 9 ft. In the frizzy-haired peoples, men and women have equally short
growths. Bushwomen, the female Hottentot and negresses have hair no
longer than men's. It is only in the wavy, and now and again in the
frizzy types, that the difference in the sexes is marked. Among European
men the length rarely exceeds 12 to 16 in., while with women the mean
length is between 25 and 30 in. and in some cases has been known to
reach 6 ft. or more.

The growth of hair on the body corresponds in general with that on the
head. The hairiest races are the Australians and Tasmanians, whose heads
are veritable mops in the thickness and unkempt luxuriance of the locks.
Next to them are the Todas, and other hill-tribesmen of India, and the
Hairy Ainu of Japan. Traces, too, of the markedly hairy race, now
extinct, supposed to be the ancestor of Toda and Ainu alike, are to be
found here and there in Europe, especially among the Russian peasantry.
The least hairy peoples are the yellow races, the men often scarcely
having rudimentary beards, e.g. Indians of America and the Mongols.
Negroid peoples may be said to be intermediate, but usually incline to
hairlessness. The wavy-haired populations hold also an intermediate
position, but somewhat incline to hairiness. Among negroes especially no
rule can be formulated. Bare types such as the Bushmen and western
negroes are found contiguous to hairy types such as the inhabitants of
Ashantee. Neither is there any rule as to baldness. From statistics
taken in America it would seem that it is ten times less frequent among
negroes than among whites between the ages of thirty-three and
forty-five years, and thirty times less between twenty-one and
thirty-two years. Among Mulattos it is more frequent than among negroes
but less than among whites. It is rarer among Redskins than among
negroes. The _lanugo_ or downy hairs, with which the human foetus is
covered for some time before birth and which is mostly shed in the womb,
and the minute hairs which cover nearly every part of the adult human
body, may be regarded as rudimentary remains of a complete hairy
covering in the ancestors of mankind. The Pliocene, or at all events
Miocene precursor of man, was a furred creature. The discovery of
Egyptian mummies six thousand years old or more has proved that this
physical criterion remains unchanged, and that it is to-day what it was
so many scores of centuries back. Perhaps, then, the primary divisions
of mankind were distinguished by hair the same in texture and colour as
that which characterizes to-day the great ethnical groups. The wavy type
bridges the gulf between the lank and woolly types, all in turn derived
from a common hair-covered being. In this connexion it is worth mention,
as pointed out by P. Topinard, that though the regions occupied by the
negroid races are the habitat of the anthropoid apes, the hair of the
latter is real hair, not wool. Further in the eastern section of the
dark domain, while the Papuan is still black and dolichocephalic, his
presumed progenitor, the orang-utan, is brachycephalic with decidedly
red hair. Thus the white races are seen to come nearest the higher apes
in this respect, yellow next, and black farthest removed.

No test has proved, on repeated examination, to be a safer one of racial
purity than the quality of hair, and Pruner-Bey goes so far as to
suggest that "a single hair presenting the average form characteristic
of the race might serve to define it." At any rate a hair of an
individual bears the stamp of his origin.

  See Dr Pruner-Bey in _Mémoires de la société d'anthropologie_, ii. P.
  A. Brown, _Classification of Mankind by the Hair_; P. Topinard,
  _L'Homme dans la nature_ (1891), chap. vi.

  _Commerce._--Hair enters into a considerable variety of manufactures.
  Bristles are the stout elastic hairs obtained from the backs of
  certain breeds of pigs. The finest qualities, and the greatest
  quantities as well, are obtained from Russia, where a variety of pig
  is reared principally on account of its bristles. The best and most
  costly bristles are used by shoemakers, secondary qualities being
  employed for toilet and clothes-brushes, while inferior qualities are
  worked up into the commoner kinds of brushes used by painters and for
  many mechanical purposes. For artists' use and for decorative
  painting, brushes or pencils of hair from the sable, camel, badger,
  polecat, &c., are prepared. The hair of various animals which is too
  short for spinning into yarn is utilized for the manufacture of felt.
  For this use the hair of rabbits, hares, beavers and of several other
  rodents is largely employed, especially in France, in making the finer
  qualities of felt hats. Cow hair, obtained from tanneries, is used in
  the preparation of roofing felts, and felt for covering boilers or
  steam-pipes, and for other similar purposes. It is also largely used
  by plasterers for binding the mortar of the walls and roofs of houses;
  and it is to some extent being woven up into coarse friezes,
  horse-cloths, railway rugs and inferior blankets. The tail hair of
  oxen is also of value for stuffing cushions and other upholstery work,
  for which purpose, as well as for making the official wigs of law
  officers, barristers, &c., the tail and body hair of the yak or Tibet
  ox is also sometimes imported into Europe. The tail and mane hair of
  horses is in great demand for various purposes. The long tail hair is
  especially valuable for weaving into hair-cloth, mane hair and the
  short tail hair being, on the other hand, principally prepared and
  curled for stuffing the chairs, sofas and couches which are covered
  with the cloth manufactured from the long hair. The horse hair used in
  Great Britain is principally obtained from South America, Germany and
  Russia, and its sorting, cleaning and working up into the various
  manufactures dependent on the material are industries of some
  importance. In addition to the purposes already alluded to, horse hair
  is woven into crinoline for ladies' bonnets, plaited into fishing
  lines, woven into bags for oil and cider pressers, and into straining
  cloths for brewers, &c., and for numerous other minor uses. The
  manufactures which arise in connexion with human hair are more
  peculiar than important, although occasionally fashions arise which
  cause a large demand for human hair. The fluctuations of such fashions
  determine the value of hair; but at all times long tresses are of
  considerable value. Grey, light, pale and auburn hair are
  distinguished as extra colours, and command much higher prices than
  the common shades. The light-coloured hair is chiefly obtained in
  Germany and Austria, and the south of France is the principal source
  of the darker shades. In the south of France the cultivation and sale
  of heads of hair by peasant girls is a common practice; and hawkers
  attend fairs for the special purpose of engaging in this traffic. Hair
  5 and even 6 ft. long is sometimes obtained. Scarcely any of the "raw
  material" is obtained in the United Kingdom except in the form of
  ladies' "combings." Bleaching of hair by means of peroxide of hydrogen
  is extensively practised, with the view of obtaining a supply of
  golden locks, or of preparing white hair for mixing to match grey
  shades; but in neither case is the result very successful. Human hair
  is worked up into a great variety of wigs, scalps, artificial fronts,
  frizzets and curls, all for supplementing the scanty or failing
  resources of nature. The plaiting of human hair into articles of
  jewellery, watch-guards, &c., forms a distinct branch of trade.



HAIR-TAIL (_Trichiurus_), a marine fish belonging to the
_Acanthopterygii scombriformes_, with a long band-like body terminating
in a thread-like tail, and with strong prominent teeth in both jaws.
Several species are known, of which one, common in the tropical
Atlantic, not rarely reaches the British Islands.



HAITI [HAÏTI, HAYTI, SAN DOMINGO, or _Hispaniola_], an island in the
West Indies. It lies almost in the centre of the chain and, with the
exception of Cuba, is the largest of the group. Its greatest length
between Cape Engano on the east and Cape des Irois on the west is 407
m., and its greatest breadth between Cape Beata on the south and Cape
Isabella on the north 160 m. The area is 28,000 sq. m., being rather
less than that of Ireland. From Cuba, 70 m. W.N.W., and from Jamaica,
130 m. W.S.W., it is separated by the Windward Passage; and from Porto
Rico, 60 m. E., by the Mona Passage. It lies between 17° 37´ and 20° 0´
N. and 68° 20´ and 74° 28´ W. From the west coast project two
peninsulas. The south-western, of which Cape Tiburon forms the
extremity, is the larger. It is 150 m. long and its width varies from 20
to 40 m. Columbus landed at Mole St Nicholas at the point of the
north-western peninsula, which is 50 m. long, with an average breadth of
40 m. Between these lies the Gulf of Gonaïve, a triangular bay, at the
apex of which stands the city of Port-au-Prince. The island of Gonaïve,
opposite the city at a distance of 27 m., divides the entrance to
Port-au-Prince into two fine channels, and forms an excellent harbour,
200 sq. m. In extent, the coral reefs along the coast being its only
defect. On the north-east coast is the magnificent Bay of Samana, formed
by the peninsula of that name, a mountain range projecting into the sea;
its mouth is protected by a coral reef stretching 8½m. from the south
coast. There is however, a good passage for ships, and within lies a
safe and beautiful expanse of water 300 sq. m. in extent. Beyond Samana,
with the exception of the poor harbour of Santo Domingo, there are no
inlets on the east and south coasts until the Bays of Ocoa and Neyba are
reached. The south coast of the Tiburon peninsula has good harbours at
Jacmel, Bainet, Aquin and Les Cayes or Aux Cayes. The only inlets of any
importance between Aux Cayes and Port-au-Prince are Jeremie and the Bay
of Baraderes. The coast line is estimated at 1250 m.

[Illustration: Map of Haiti.]

  Haiti is essentially a mountainous island. Steep escarpments, leading
  to the rugged uplands of the interior, reach almost everywhere down to
  the shores, leaving only here and there a few strips of beach. There
  are three fairly distinct mountain ranges, the northern, central and
  southern, with parallel axes from E. to W.; while extensive and
  fertile plains lie between them. The northern range usually called the
  Sierra de Monti Cristi, extends from Cape Samana on the east to Cape
  Fragata on the west. It has a mean elevation of 3000 ft., culminating
  in the Loma Diego Campo (3855 ft.), near the centre of the range. The
  central range runs from Cape Engano to Cape St Nicholas, some 400 m.
  in an oblique direction from E. to W. Towards the centre of the island
  it broadens and forms two distinct chains; the northern, the Sierra
  del Cibao, constituting the backbone of Haiti; the southern curving
  first S.W., then N.W., and reaching the sea near St Marc. In addition
  to these there are a number of secondary crests, difficult to trace to
  the backbone of the system, since the loftiest peaks are usually on
  some lateral ridge. Such for instance is Loma Tina (10,300 ft.) the
  highest elevation on the island, which rises as a spur N.W. of the
  city of Santo Domingo. In the Sierra del Cibao, the highest summit is
  the Pico del Yaqui (9700 ft.). The southern range runs from the Bay of
  Neyba due W. to Cape Tiburon. Its highest points are La Selle (8900
  ft.) and La Hotte (7400 ft.). The plain of Seybo or Los Llanos is the
  largest of the Haitian plains. It stretches eastwards from the river
  Ozama for 95 m. and has an average width of 16 m. It is perfectly
  level, abundantly watered, and admirably adapted for the rearing of
  cattle. But perhaps the grandest is the Vega Real, or Royal Plain, as
  it was called by Columbus, which lies between the Cibao and Monti
  Cristi ranges. It stretches from Samana Bay to Manzanillo Bay, a
  distance of 140 m., but is interrupted in the centre by a range of
  hills in which rise the rivers which drain it. The northern part of
  this plain, however, is usually known as the Valley of Santiago. Most
  of the large valleys are in a state of nature, in part savanna, in
  part wooded, and all very fertile.

  There are four large rivers. The Yaqui, rising in the Pico del Yaqui,
  falls, after a tortuous north-westerly course through the valley of
  Santiago, into Manzanillo Bay; its mouth is obstructed by shallows,
  and it is navigable only for canoes. The Neyba, or South Yaqui, also
  rises in the Pico del Yaqui and flows S. into the Bay of Neyba. In the
  mountains within a few miles from the sources of these rivers, rise
  the Yuna and the Artibonite. The Yuna drains the Vega Real, flows into
  Samana Bay, and is navigable by light-draught vessels for some
  distance from its mouth. The Artibonite flows through the valley of
  its name into the Gulf of Gonaïve. Of the smaller rivers the Ozama, on
  which the city of Santo Domingo stands, is the most important. The
  greatest lake is that of Enriquillo or Xaragua, at a height of 300 ft.
  above sea-level. It is 27 m. long by 8 m. broad and very deep. Though
  25 m. from the sea its waters are salt, and the Haitian negroes call
  it Etang Salé. After heavy rains it occasionally forms a continuous
  sheet of water with another lake called Azuey, or Etang Saumatre,
  which is 16 m. long by 4 m. broad; on these occasions the united lake
  has a total length of 60 m. and is larger than the Lake of Geneva.
  Farther S. is the Icoten de Limon, 5 m. long by 2 m. broad, a
  fresh-water lake with no visible outlet. Smaller lakes are Rincon and
  Miragoane. There are no active volcanoes, but earthquakes are not
  infrequent.

  _Geology._--The geology of Haiti is still very imperfectly known, and
  large tracts of the island have never been examined by a geologist. It
  is possible that the schists that have been observed in some parts of
  the island may be of Pre-cretaceous age, but the oldest rocks in which
  fossils have yet been found belong to the Cretaceous System, and the
  geological sequence is very similar to that of Jamaica. Excluding the
  schists of doubtful age, the series begins with sandstones and
  conglomerates, containing pebbles of syenite, granite, diorite, &c.;
  and these are overlaid by marls, clays and limestones containing
  _Hippurites_. Then follows a series of sandstones, clays and
  limestones with occasional seams of lignite, evidently of
  shallow-water origin. These are referred by R. T. Hill to the Eocene,
  and they are succeeded by chalky beds which were laid down in a deeper
  sea and which probably correspond with the Montpelier beds of Jamaica
  (Oligocene). Finally, there are limestones and marls composed largely
  of corals and molluscs, which are probably of very late Tertiary or
  Post-tertiary age. Until, however, the island has been more thoroughly
  examined, the correlation of the various Tertiary and Post-tertiary
  deposits must remain doubtful. Some of the beds which Hill has placed
  in the Eocene have been referred by earlier writers to the Miocene.
  Tippenhauer describes extensive eruptions of basalt of Post-pliocene
  age.

  _Fauna and Flora._--The fauna is not extensive. The agouti is the
  largest wild mammal. Birds are few, excepting water-fowl and pigeons.
  Snakes abound, though few are venomous. Lizards are numerous, and
  insects swarm in the low parts, with tarantulas, scorpions and
  centipedes. Caymans are found in the lakes and rivers, and the waters
  teem with fish and other sea food. Wild cattle, hogs and dogs,
  descendants of those brought from Europe, roam at large on the plains
  and in the forests. The wild hogs furnish much sport to the natives,
  who hunt them with dogs trained for the purpose.

  In richness and variety of vegetable products Haiti is not excelled by
  any other country in the world. All tropical plants and trees grow in
  perfection, and nearly all the vegetables and fruits of temperate
  climates may be successfully cultivated in the highlands. Among
  indigenous products are cotton, rice, maize, tobacco, cocoa, ginger,
  native indigo (_indigo marron_ or _sauvage_), arrowroot, manioc or
  cassava, pimento, banana, plantain, pine-apple, artichoke, yam and
  sweet potato. Among the important plants and fruits are sugarcane,
  coffee, indigo (called _indigo franc_, to distinguish it from the
  native), melons, cabbage, lucerne, guinea grass and the bread-fruit,
  mango, caimite, orange, almond, apple, grape, mulberry and fig. Most
  of the imported fruits have degenerated from want of care, but the
  mango, now spread over nearly the whole island, has become almost a
  necessary article of food; the bread-fruit has likewise become common,
  but is not so much esteemed. Haiti is also rich in woods, especially
  in cabinet and dye woods; among the former are mahogany, manchineel,
  satinwood, rosewood, cinnamon wood (_Canella alba_), yellow acoma
  (_Sideroxylon mastichodendron_) and gri-gri; and among the latter are
  Brazil wood, logwood, fustic and sassafras. On the mountains are
  extensive forests of pine and a species of oak; and in various parts
  occur the locust, ironwood, cypress or Bermuda cedar, palmetto and
  many kinds of palms.

  _Climate._--Owing to the great diversity of its relief Haiti presents
  a wider range of climate than any other part of the Antilles. The
  yearly rainfall is abundant, averaging about 120 in., but the wet and
  dry seasons are clearly divided. At Port-au-Prince the rainy season
  lasts from April to October, but varies in other parts of the island,
  so that there is never a season when rain is general. The mountain
  districts are constantly bathed in dense mists and heavy dews, while
  other districts are almost rainless. Owing to its sheltered position
  the heat at Port-au-Prince is greater than elsewhere. In summer the
  temperature there ranges between 80° and 95° F. and in winter between
  70° and 80° F. Even in the highlands the mercury never falls below 45°
  F. Hurricanes are not so frequent as in the Windward Isles, but
  violent gales often occur. The prevailing winds are from the east.

_The Republic of Haiti._--Haiti is divided into two parts, the negro
republic of Haiti owning the western third of the island, while the
remainder belongs to Santo Domingo (q.v.) or the Dominican Republic.
Between these two governments there exists the strongest political
antipathy.

Although but a small state, with an area of only 10,204 sq. m., the
republic of Haiti is, in many respects, one of the most interesting
communities in the world, as it is the earliest and most successful
example of a state peopled, and governed on a constitutional model, by
negroes. At its head is a president assisted by two chambers, the
members of which are elected and hold office under a constitution of
1889. This constitution, thoroughly republican in form, is French in
origin, as are also the laws, language, traditions and customs of Haiti.
In practice, however, the government resolves itself into a military
despotism, the power being concentrated in the hands of the president.
The Haitians seem to possess everything that a progressive and civilized
nation can desire, but corruption is spread through every portion and
branch of the government. Justice is venal, and the police are brutal
and inefficient. Since 1869 the Roman Catholic has been the state
religion, but all classes of society seem to be permeated with a thinly
disguised adherence to the horrid rites of _Voodoo_ (q.v.), although
this has been strenuously denied. The country is divided into 5
_départements_, 23 _arrondissements_ and 67 _communes_. Each
_département_ and _arrondissement_ is governed by a general in the army.
The army numbers about 7000 men, and the navy consists of a few small
vessels. Elementary education is free, and there are some 400 primary
schools; secondary education is mainly in the hands of the church. The
Sisters of Charity and the Christian Brothers have schools at
Port-au-Prince, where there is also a lyceum, a medical and a law
school. The children of the wealthier classes are usually sent to France
for their education. The unit of money is the _gourde_, the nominal
value of which is the same as the American dollar, but it is subject to
great fluctuations. The revenue is almost entirely derived from customs,
paid both on imports and exports. There being a lack of capital and
enterprise, the excessive customs dues produce a very depressed
condition of trade. Imports are consequently confined to bare
necessaries, the cheapest sorts of dry and fancy goods, matches, flour,
salt beef and pork, codfish, lard, butter and similar provisions. The
exports are coffee, cocoa, logwood, cotton, gum, honey, tobacco and
sugar. The island is one of the most fertile in the world, and if it had
an enlightened and stable government, an energetic people, and a little
capital, its agricultural possibilities would seem to be endless.
Communications are bad; the roads constructed during the French
occupation have degenerated into mere bridle tracks. There is a coast
service of steamers, maintained since 1863, and 26 ports are regularly
visited every ten days. Foreign communication is excellent, more foreign
steamships visiting this island than any other in the West Indies. A
railway from Port-au-Prince runs through the Plain of Cul de Sac for 28
m. to Manneville on the Etang Saumatre, another runs from Cap Haitien to
La Grande Rivière, 15 m. distant.

The people are almost entirely pure-blooded negroes, the mulattoes, who
form about 10% of the population, being a rapidly diminishing and
much-hated class. The negroes are a kindly, hospitable people, but
ignorant and lazy. They have a passion for dancing weird African dances
to the accompaniment of the tom-tom. Marriage is neither frequent nor
legally prescribed, since children of looser unions are regarded by the
state as legitimate. In the interior polygamy is frequent. The people
generally speak a curious but not unattractive _patois_ of French
origin, known as Creole. French is the official language, and by a few
of the educated natives it is written and spoken in its purity. On the
whole it must be owned that, after a century of independence and
self-government, the Haitian people have made no progress, if they have
not actually shown signs of retrogression. The chief towns ate
Port-au-Prince (pop. 75,000), Cap Haitien (29,000), Les Cayes (25,000),
Gonaïve (18,000), and Port de Paix (10,000). Jeremie was the birthplace
of the elder Dumas. The ruins of the wonderful palace of Sans-Souci and
of the fortress of La Ferrière, built by King Henri Christophe
(1807-1825), can be seen near Millot, a town 9 m. inland from Cap
Haitien. Plaisance (25,000), Gros Morne (22,000) and La Croix des
Bouquets (20,000) are the largest towns in the interior. The entire
population of the republic is about 1,500,000.

_History._--The history of Haiti begins with its discovery by Columbus,
who landed from Cuba at Mole St Nicholas on the 6th of December 1492.
The natives called the country Haiti (mountainous country), and
Quisquica (vast country). Columbus named it Espagnola (Little Spain),
which was latinized into Hispaniola. At the time of its discovery, the
island was inhabited by about 2,000,000 Indians, who are described by
the Spaniards as feeble in intellect and physically defective. They
were, however, soon exterminated, and their place was supplied (as early
as 1512) by slaves imported from Africa, the descendants of whom now
possess the land. Six years after its discovery Columbus had explored
the interior of the island, founded the present capital, and had
established flourishing settlements at Isabella, Santiago, La Vega,
Porto Plata and Bonao. Mines had been opened up, and advances made in
agriculture. Sugar was introduced in 1506, and in a few years became the
staple product. About 1630, a mixed company of French and English,
driven by the Spaniards from St Kitts, settled on the island of Tortuga,
where they became formidable under the name of Buccaneers. They soon
obtained a footing on the mainland of Haiti, and by the treaty of
Ryswick, 1697, the part they occupied was ceded to France. This new
colony, named Saint Dominique, subsequently attained a high degree of
prosperity, and was in a flourishing state when the French Revolution
broke out in 1789. The population was then composed of whites, free
coloured people (mostly mulattoes) and negro slaves. The mulattoes
demanded civil rights, up to that time enjoyed only by the whites; and
in 1791 the National Convention conferred on them all the privileges of
French citizens. The whites at once adopted the most violent measures,
and petitioned the home government to reverse the decree, which was
accordingly revoked. In August 1791, the plantation slaves broke out
into insurrection, and the mulattoes threw in their lot with them. A
period of turmoil followed, lasting for several years, during which both
parties were responsible for acts of the most revolting cruelty.
Commissioners were sent out from France with full powers to settle the
dispute, but although in 1793 they proclaimed the abolition of slavery,
they could effect nothing. To add further to the troubles of the colony,
it was invaded by a British force, which, in spite of the climate and
the opposition of the colonists, succeeded in maintaining itself until
driven out in 1798 by Toussaint l'Ouverture. By treaty with Spain, in
1795, France had acquired the title to the entire island.

By 1801, Toussaint l'Ouverture, an accomplished negro of remarkable
military genius, had succeeded in restoring order. He then published,
subject to the approval of France, a form of constitutional government,
under which he was to be governor for life. This step, however, roused
the suspicions of Bonaparte, then first consul, who determined to reduce
the colony and restore slavery. He sent out his brother-in-law, General
Leclerc, with 25,000 troops; but the colonists offered a determined, and
often ferocious, resistance. At length, wearied of the struggle, Leclerc
proposed terms, and Toussaint, induced by the most solemn guarantees on
the part of the French, laid down his arms. He was seized and sent to
France, where he died in prison in 1803. The blacks, infuriated by this
act of treachery, renewed the struggle, under Jean Jacques Dessalines
(1758-1806), with a barbarity unequalled in previous contests. The
French, further embarrassed by the appearance of a British fleet, were
only too glad to evacuate the island in November 1803.

The opening of the following year saw the declaration of independence,
and the restoration of the aboriginal name of Haiti. Dessalines, made
governor for life, inaugurated his rule with a bloodthirsty massacre of
all the whites. In October 1804, he proclaimed himself emperor and was
crowned with great pomp; but in 1806 his subjects, growing tired of his
tyranny, assassinated him. His position was now contended for by several
chiefs, one of whom, Henri Christophe (1767-1820), established himself
in the north, while Alexandre Sabes Pétion (1770-1818) took possession
of the southern part. The Spaniards re-established themselves in the
eastern part of the island, retaining the French name, modified to Santo
Domingo. Civil war now raged between the adherents of Christophe and
Pétion, but in 1810 hostilities were suspended. Christophe declared
himself king of Haiti under the title of Henry I.; but his cruelty
caused an insurrection, and in 1820 he committed suicide. Pétion was
succeeded in 1818 by General Jean Pierre Boyer (1776-1850), who, after
Christophe's death, made himself master of all the French part of the
island. In 1821 the eastern end of the island proclaimed its
independence of Spain, and Boyer, taking advantage of dissensions there,
invaded it, and in 1822 the dominion of the whole island fell into his
hands. Boyer held the presidency of the new government, which was called
the republic of Haiti, until 1843, when he was driven from the island by
a revolution. In 1844 the people at the eastern end of the island again
asserted their independence. The republic of Santo Domingo was
established, and from that time the two political divisions have been
maintained. Meanwhile in Haiti revolution followed revolution, and
president succeeded president, in rapid succession. Order, however, was
established in 1849, when Soulouque, who had previously obtained the
presidency, proclaimed himself emperor, under the title of Faustin I.
After a reign of nine years he was deposed and exiled, the republic
being restored under the mulatto president Fabre Geffrard. His firm and
enlightened rule rendered him so unpopular that in 1867 he was forced to
flee to Jamaica. He was succeeded by Sylvestre Salnave, who, after a
presidency of two years, was shot. Nissage-Saget (1870), Dominique
(1874), and Boisrond-Canal (1876) followed, each to be driven into exile
by revolution. The next president, Salomon, maintained himself in office
for ten years, but he too was driven from the country and died in exile.
Civil war raged in 1888-1889 between Generals Légitime and Hippolyte,
and the latter succeeded in obtaining the vacant presidency. He ruled
with the most absolute authority till his death in 1896. General
Tiresias Simon Sam followed and ruled till his flight to Paris in 1902.
The usual civil war ensued, and after nine months of turmoil, order was
restored by the election of Nord Alexis in December 1902.

Alexis' administration was unsuccessful, and was marked by many
disturbances, culminating in his expulsion. In 1904 there was an attack
by native soldiery on the French and German representatives, and
punishment was exacted by these powers. In December 1904 ex-president
Sam, his wife and members of his ministry were sentenced to long terms
of imprisonment for fraudulently issuing bonds. In December 1907 a
conspiracy against the government was reported and the ringleaders were
sentenced to death. But in January 1908 the revolution spread, and
Gonaïve and St Marc and other places were reported to be in the hands of
the insurgents. Prompt measures were taken, the rising was checked, and
Alexis announced the pardon of the revolutionaries. In March, however,
this pacific policy was reversed by a new ministry; some suspects were
summarily executed, and the attitude of the government was only modified
when the powers sent war-ships to Port-au-Prince. In September the
criminal court at the capital sentenced to death, by default, a large
number of persons implicated in the risings earlier in the year, and in
November revolution broke out again. General Antoine Simon raised his
standard at Aux Cayes. Disaffection was rife among the government
troops, who deserted to him in great numbers. On the 2nd of December
Port-au-Prince was occupied without bloodshed by the revolutionaries,
and Alexis took to flight, escaping violence with some difficulty, and
finding refuge on a French ship. General Simon then assumed the
presidency. At the end of April 1910 Alexis died in Jamaica, in
circumstances of some obscurity; it had just been discovered that a plot
was on foot to depose Simon, and further trouble was threatened.

  AUTHORITIES.--B. Edwards, _Hist. Survey of the Island of S. Domingo_
  (London, 1801); Jordan, _Geschichte der Insel Haiti_ (Leipzig, 1846);
  Linstant Pradin, _Recueil général des lois et actes du gouvernement
  d'Haiti_ (Paris, 1851-1865); Monte y Tejada, Historia de Santo Domingo
  (Havana, 1853); Saint Amand, _Hist. des révolutions d'Haiti_ (Paris,
  1859); Sam. Hazard, _Santo Domingo, Past and Present_ (London, 1873),
  with bibliography; Sir Spencer St John, _Haiti, or the Black Republic_
  (London, 1889); L. Gentil Tippenhauer, _Die Insel Haiti_ (Leipzig,
  1893); Marcelin, _Haiti, études économiques, sociales, et politiques_;
  and _Haiti, ses guerres civiles, leurs causes_ (Paris, 1893); Hesketh
  Pritchard, _Where Black Rules White_ (London, 1900). For geology, see
  W. M. Gabb, "On the Topography and Geology of Santo Domingo," _Trans.
  Amer. Phil. Soc._, Philadelphia, new series, vol. xv. (1881). pp.
  49-259, with map; L. G. Tippenhauer, _Die Insel Haiti_ (Leipzig,
  1893); see also several articles by L. G. Tippenhauer in _Peterm.
  Mitt._ 1899 and 1901. A comparison with the Jamaican succession will
  be found in R. T. Hill, "The Geology and Physical Geography of
  Jamaica," _Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool._, Harvard, vol. xxxiv. (1899).



HAJIPUR, a town of British India, in the Muzaffarpur district of Bengal,
on the Gandak, just above its confluence with the Ganges opposite Patna.
Pop. (1901), 21,398. Hajipur figures conspicuously in the history of the
struggles between Akbar and his rebellious Afghan governors of Bengal,
being twice besieged and captured by the imperial troops, in 1572 and
1574. Within the limits of the old fort is a small stone mosque, very
plain, but of peculiar architecture, and attributed to Haji Ilyas, its
traditional founder (c. 1350). Its command of water traffic in three
directions makes the town a place of considerable commercial importance.
Hajipur has a station on the main line of the Bengal and North-western
railway.



HAJJ or HADJ, the Arabic word, meaning literally a "setting out," for
the greater pilgrimage of Mahommedans to Mecca, which takes place from
the 8th to the 10th of the twelfth month of the Mahommedan year; the
lesser pilgrimage, called _umrah_ or _omra_, may be made to the mosque
at Mecca at any time other than that of the hajj proper, and is also a
meritorious act. The term _hajji_ or _hadji_ is given to those who have
performed the greater pilgrimage. The word _hajj_ is sometimes loosely
used of any Mahommedan pilgrimage to a sacred place or shrine, and is
also applied to the pilgrimages of Christians of the East to the Holy
Sepulchre at Jerusalem (see MECCA; MAHOMMEDAN RELIGION).



HAJJI KHALIFA [in full Mustafa ibn 'Abdallah Katib Chelebi Hajji
Khalifa] (ca. 1599-1658), Arabic and Turkish author, was born at
Constantinople. He became secretary to the commissariat department of
the Turkish army in Anatolia, was with the army in Bagdad in 1625, was
present at the siege of Erzerum, and returned to Constantinople in 1628.
In the following year he was again in Bagdad and Hamadan, and in 1633 at
Aleppo, whence he made the pilgrimage to Mecca (hence his title Hajji).
The following year he was in Erivan and then returned to Constantinople.
Here he obtained a post in the head office of the commissariat
department, which afforded him time for study. He seems to have attended
the lectures of great teachers up to the time of his death, and made a
practice of visiting bookshops and noting the titles and contents of all
books he found there. His largest work is the _Bibliographical
Encyclopaedia_ written in Arabic. In this work, after five chapters
dealing with the sciences generally, the titles of Arabian, Persian and
Turkish books written up to his own time are arranged in alphabetical
order. With the titles are given, where possible, short notes on the
author, his date, and sometimes the introductory words of his work. It
was edited by G. Flügel with Latin translation and a useful appendix (7
vols. Leipzig, 1835-1858). The text alone of this edition has been
reproduced at Constantinople (1893).

  Hajji Khalifa also wrote in Turkish: a chronological conspectus of
  general history (translated into Italian by G. R. Carli, Venice,
  1697); a history of the Turkish empire from 1594 to 1655
  (Constantinople, 1870); a history of the naval wars of the Turks
  (Constantinople, 1729; chapters 1-4 translated by J. Mitchell, London,
  1831); a general geography published at Constantinople, 1732 (Latin
  trans. by M. Norberg, London and Gotha, 1818; German trans. of part by
  J. von Hammer, Vienna, 1812; French trans. of part by V. de St Martin
  in his _Geography of Asia Minor_, vol. 1).

  For his life see the preface to Flügel's edition; list of his works in
  C. Brockelmann's _Gesch. d. arabischen Literatur_ (Berlin, 1902), vol.
  ii., pp. 428-429.     (G. W. T.)



HAKE, EDWARD (fl. 1579), English satirist, was educated under John
Hopkins, the part-author of the metrical version of the Psalms. He
resided in Gray's Inn and Barnard's Inn, London. In the address "To the
Gentle Reader" prefixed to his _Newes out of Powles Churchyard ...
Otherwise entitled Syr Nummus_ (2nd ed., 1579) he mentions the "first
three yeeres which I spent in the Innes of Channcery, being now about a
dosen of yeeres passed." In 1585 and 1586 he was mayor of New Windsor,
and in 1588 he represented the borough in parliament. His last work was
published in 1604. He was protected by the earl of Leicester, whose
policy it was to support the Puritan party, and who no doubt found a
valuable ally in so vigorous a satirist of error in clerical places as
was Hake. _Newes out of Paules Churchyarde, A Trappe for Syr Monye_,
first appeared in 1567, but no copy of this impression is known, and it
was re-issued in 1579 with the title quoted above. The book takes the
form of a dialogue between Bertulph and Paul, who meet in the aisles of
the cathedral, and is divided into eight "satyrs," dealing with the
corruption of the higher clergy and of judges, the greed of attorneys,
the tricks of physicians and apothecaries, the sumptuary laws,
extravagant living, Sunday sports, the abuse of St Paul's cathedral as a
meeting-place for business and conversation, usury, &c. It is written in
rhymed fourteen-syllable metre, which is often more comic than the
author intended. It contains, amid much prefatory matter, a note to the
"carping and scornefull Sicophant," in which he attacks his enemies with
small courtesy and much alliteration. One is described as a "carping
careless cankerd churle."

  He also wrote a translation from Thomas à Kempis, _The Imitation, or
  Following of Christ_ (1567, 1568); _A Touchstone for this Time
  Present_ (1574), a scurrilous attack on the Roman Catholic Church,
  followed by a treatise on education; _A Commemoration of the ...
  Raigne of ... Elizabeth_ (1575), enlarged in 1578 to _A Joyfull
  Continuance of the Commemoration, &c._; and of _Gold's Kingdom, and
  this Unhelping Age_ (1604), a collection of pieces in prose and verse,
  in which the author inveighs against the power of gold. A bibliography
  of these and of Hake's other works was compiled by Mr Charles Edmonds
  for his edition in 1872 of the _Newes_ (Isham Reprints, No. 2, 1872).



HAKE, THOMAS GORDON (1800-1895), English poet, was born at Leeds, of an
old Devonshire family, on the 10th of March 1809. His mother was a
Gordon of the Huntly branch. He studied medicine at St George's hospital
and at Edinburgh and Glasgow, but had given up practice for many years
before his death, and had devoted himself to a literary life. In 1839 he
published a prose epic _Vates_, republished in Ainsworth's magazine as
_Valdarno_, which attracted the attention of D. G. Rossetti. In after
years he became an intimate member of the circle of friends and
followers gathered round Rossetti, who so far departed from his usual
custom as to review Hake's poems in the _Academy_ and in the
_Fortnightly Review_. In 1871 he published _Madeline_; 1872, _Parables
and Tales_; 1883, _The Serpent Play_; 1890, _New Day Sonnets_; and in
1892 his _Memoirs of Eighty Years_. Dr Hake's works had much subtlety
and felicity of expression, and were warmly appreciated in a somewhat
restricted literary circle. In his last published verse, the sonnets, he
shows an advance in facility on the occasional harshness of his earlier
work. He was given a Civil List literary pension in 1893, and died on
the 11th of January 1895.



HAKE (_Merluccius vulgaris_), a fish which differs from the cod in
having only two dorsal fins, and one anal. It is very common on the
coasts of Europe and eastern North America, but its flesh is much less
esteemed than that of the true _Gadi_. Specimens 4 ft. in length are not
scarce. There are local variations in the use of "hake" as a name; in
America the "silver hake" (_Merluccius bilinearis_), sometimes called
"whiting," and "Pacific hake" (_Merluccius productus_) are also
food-fishes of inferior quality.



HAKKAS ("Guests," or "Strangers"), a people of S.W. China, chiefly found
in Kwang-Tung, Fu-Kien and Formosa. Their origin is doubtful, but there
is some ground for believing that they may be a cross between the
aboriginal Mongolic element of northern China and the Chinese proper.
According to their tradition, they were in Shantung and northern China
as early as the 3rd century B.C. In disposition, appearance and customs
they differ from the true Chinese. They speak a distinct dialect. Their
women, who are prettier than the pure Chinese, do not compress their
feet, and move freely about in public. The Hakkas are a most industrious
people and furnish at Canton nearly all the coolie labour employed by
Europeans. Their intelligence is great, and many noted scholars have
been of Hakka birth. Hung Sin-tsuan, the leader in the Taiping
rebellion, was a Hakka. In Formosa they serve as intermediaries between
the Chinese and European traders and the natives. From time immemorial
they seem to have been persecuted by the Chinese, whom they regard as
"foreigners," and with whom their means of communication is usually
"pidgin English." The earliest persecution occurred under the "first
universal emperor" of China, Shi-Hwang-ti (246-210 B.C.). From this time
the Hakkas appear to have become wanderers. Sometimes for generations
they were permitted to live unmolested, as under the Han dynasty, when
some of them held high official posts. During the Tang dynasty (7th,
8th, and 9th centuries) they settled in the mountains of Fu-kien and on
the frontiers of Kwang-Tung. On the invasion of Kublai Khan, the Hakkas
distinguished themselves by their bravery on the Chinese side. In the
14th century further persecutions drove them into Kwang-Tung.

  See "An Outline History of the Hakkas," _China Review_ (London,
  1873-1874), vol. ii.; Pitou, "On the Origin and History of the
  Hakkas," ib.; Dyer Ball, _Easy Lessons in the Hakka Dialect_ (1884),
  _Things Chinese_ (London, 1893); Schaub, "Proverbs in Daily Use among
  the Hakkas," in _China Review_ (London, 1894-1895), vol. xxi.; Rev. J.
  Edkins, _China's Place in Philology_; Girard de Rialle, _Rev. d.
  anthrop._ (Jan. and April, 1885); G. Taylor, "The Aborigines of
  Formosa," _China Review_, xiv. p. 198 seq., also xvi. No. 3, "A Ramble
  through Southern Formosa."



HAKLUYT, RICHARD (c. 1553-1616), British geographer, was born of good
family in or near London about 1553. The Hakluyts were of Welsh
extraction, not Dutch as has been supposed. They appear to have settled
in Herefordshire as early as the 13th century. The family seat was
Eaton, 2 m. S.E. of Leominster. Hugo Hakelute was returned M.P. for that
borough in 1304/5. Richard went to school at Westminster, where he was a
queen's scholar; while there his future bent was determined by a visit
to his cousin and namesake, Richard Hakluyt of the Middle Temple. His
cousin's discourse, illustrated by "certain bookes of cosmographie, an
universall mappe, and the Bible," made young Hakluyt resolve to
"prosecute that knowledge and kind of literature." Entering Christ
Church, Oxford, in 1570, "his exercises of duty first performed," he
fell to his intended course of reading, and by degrees perused all the
printed or written voyages and discoveries that he could find. He took
his B.A. In 1573/4. It is probable that, shortly after taking his M.A.
(1577), he began at Oxford the first public lectures in geography that
"shewed both the old imperfectly composed and the new lately reformed
mappes, globes, spheares, and other instruments of this art." That this
was not in London is certain, as we know that the first lecture of the
kind was delivered in the metropolis on the 4th of November 1588 by
Thomas Hood.

Hakluyt's first published work was his _Divers Voyages touching the
Discoverie of America_ (London, 1582, 4to.). This brought him to the
notice of Lord Howard of Effingham, and so to that of Sir Edward
Stafford, Lord Howard's brother-in-law; accordingly at the age of
thirty, being acquainted with "the chiefest captaines at sea, the
greatest merchants, and the best mariners of our nation," he was
selected as chaplain to accompany Stafford, now English ambassador at
the French court, to Paris (1583). In accordance with the instructions
of Secretary Walsingham, he occupied himself chiefly in collecting
information of the Spanish and French movements, and "making diligent
inquirie of such things as might yield any light unto our westerne
discoverie in America." The first fruits of Hakluyt's labours in Paris
are embodied in his important work entitled _A particuler discourse
concerning Westerne discoveries written in the yere 1584, by Richarde
Hackluyt of Oxforde, at the requeste and direction of the righte
worshipfull Mr Walter Raghly before the comynge home of his twoo
barkes_. This long-lost MS. was at last printed in 1877. Its object was
to recommend the enterprise of planting the English race in the
unsettled parts of North America. Hakluyt's other works consist mainly
of translations and compilations, relieved by his dedications and
prefaces, which last, with a few letters, are the only material we
possess out of which a biography of him can be framed. Hakluyt revisited
England in 1584, laid before Queen Elizabeth a copy of the _Discourse_
"along with one in Latin upon Aristotle's _Politicks_," and obtained,
two days before his return to Paris, the grant of the next vacant
prebend at Bristol, to which he was admitted in 1586 and held with his
other preferments till his death.

While in Paris Hakluyt interested himself in the publication of the MS.
journal of Laudonnière, the _Histoire notable de la Florida_, edited by
Bassanier (Paris, 1586, 8vo.). This was translated by Hakluyt and
published in London under the title of _A notable historie containing
foure voyages made by certayne French captaynes into Florida_ (London,
1587, 4to.). The same year _De orbe novo Petri Martyris Anglerii decades
octo illustratae labore et industria Richardi Hackluyti_ saw the light
at Paris. This work contains the exceedingly rare copperplate map
dedicated to Hakluyt and signed F. G. (supposed to be Francis Gualle);
it is the first on which the name of "Virginia" appears.

In 1588 Hakluyt finally returned to England with Lady Stafford, after a
residence in France of nearly five years. In 1589 he published the first
edition of his chief work, _The Principall Navigations, Voiages and
Discoveries of the English Nation_ (fol., London, 1 vol.). In the
preface to this we have the announcement of the intended publication of
the first terrestrial globe made in England by Molyneux. In 1598-1600
appeared the final, reconstructed and greatly enlarged edition of _The
Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques and Discoveries of the
English Nation_ (fol., 3 vols.). Some few copies contain an exceedingly
rare map, the first on the Mercator projection made in England according
to the true principles laid down by Edward Wright. Hakluyt's great
collection, though but little read, has been truly called the "prose
epic of the modern English nation." It is an invaluable treasure of
material for the history of geographical discovery and colonization,
which has secured for its editor a lasting reputation. In 1601 Hakluyt
edited a translation from the Portuguese of Antonio Galvano, _The
Discoveries of the World_ (4to., London). In the same year his name
occurs as an adviser to the East India Company, supplying them with
maps, and informing them as to markets. Meantime in 1590 (April 20th) he
had been instituted to the rectory of Withering-sett-cum-Brockford,
Suffolk. In 1602, on the 4th of May, he was installed prebendary of
Westminster, and in the following year he was elected archdeacon of
Westminster. In the licence of his second marriage (30th of March 1604)
he is also described as one of the chaplains of the Savoy, and his will
contains a reference to chambers occupied by him there up to the time of
his death; in another official document he is styled D.D. In 1605 he
secured the prospective living of James Town, the intended capital of
the intended colony of Virginia. This benefice he supplied, when the
colony was at last established in 1607, by a curate, one Robert Hunt. In
1606 he appears as one of the chief promoters of the petition to the
king for patents to colonize Virginia. He was also a leading adventurer
in the London or South Virginia Company. His last publication was a
translation of Fernando de Soto's discoveries in Florida, entitled
_Virginia richly valued by the description of Florida her next
neighbour_ (London, 1609, 4to). This work was intended to encourage the
young colony of Virginia; to Hakluyt, it has been said, "England is more
indebted for its American possession than to any man of that age." We
may notice that it was at Hakluyt's suggestion that Robert Parke
translated Mendoza's _History of China_ (London, 1588-1589) and John
Pory made his version of _Leo Africanus_ (_A Geographical History of
Africa_, London, 1600). Hakluyt died in 1616 (November 23rd) and was
buried in Westminster Abbey (November 26th); by an error in the abbey
register his burial is recorded under the year 1626. Out of his various
emoluments and preferments (of which the last was Gedney rectory,
Lincolnshire, in 1612) he amassed a small fortune, which was squandered
by a son. A number of his MSS., sufficient to form a fourth volume of
his collections of 1598-1600, fell into the hands of Samuel Purchas, who
inserted them in an abridged form in his _Pilgrimes_ (1625-1626, fol.).
Others are preserved at Oxford (Bib. Bod. MS. Seld. B. 8). which consist
chiefly of notes gathered from contemporary authors.

  Besides the MSS. or editions noticed in the text (_Divers Voyages_
  (1582); _Particuler Discourse_ (1584); Laudonnière's _Florida_ (1587);
  Peter Martyr, _Decades_ (1587); _Principal Navigations_ (1589 and
  1598-1600); Galvano's _Discoveries_ (1601); De Soto's Florida record,
  the _Virginia richly valued_ (1609, &c.), we may notice the Hakluyt
  Society's London edition of the _Divers Voyages_ in 1850, the edition
  of the _Particuler Discourse_, by Charles Deane in the _Collections of
  the Maine Historical Society_ (Cambridge, Mass., 1870, with an
  introduction by Leonard Woods); also, among modern issues of the
  _Principal Navigations_, those of 1809 (5 vols., with much additional
  matter), and of 1903-1905 (Glasgow, 12 vols.). The new title-page
  issued for the first volume of the final edition of the _Principal
  Navigations_, in 1599, merely cancelled the former 1598 title with its
  reference to the Cadiz expedition of 1596; but from this has arisen
  the mistaken supposition that a new _edition_ was then (1599)
  published. Hakluyt's Galvano was edited for the Hakluyt Society by
  Admiral C. R. D. Bethune in 1862. This Society, which was founded in
  1846 for printing rare and unpublished voyages and travels, includes
  the Glasgow edition of the _Principal Navigations_ in its _extra
  series_, as well as C. R. Beazley's edition of _Carpini_, _Rubruquis_,
  and other medieval texts from Hakluyt (Cambridge, 1903, 1 vol.).
  Reckoning in these and an issue of Purchas's _Pilgrimes_ by the
  Glasgow publisher of the Hakluyt of 1903-1905, the society has now
  published or "fathered" 150 vols. See also _Voyages of the Elizabethan
  Seamen to America, being Select Narratives from the Principal
  Navigations_, by E. J. Payne (Oxford, 1880; 1893; new edition by C. R.
  Beazley, 1907).

  For Hakluyt's life the dedications of the 1589 and 1598 editions of
  the _Principal Navigations_ should be especially consulted; also
  Winter Jones's introduction to the Kakluyt Society edition of the
  _Divers Voyages_; Fuller's _Worthies of England_, "Herefordshire";
  _Oxford Univ. Reg._ (Oxford Hist. Soc), ii., iii. 39; _Historical MSS.
  Commission, 4th report, appendix_, p. 614, the last giving us the
  Towneley MSS. referring to payments (prizes?) awarded to Hakluyt when
  at Oxford, May 12th and June 4th, 1575.     (C. H. C; C. R. B.)



HAKODATE, a town on the south of the island of Yezo, Japan, for many
years regarded as the capital of the island until Sapporo was officially
raised to that rank. Pop. (1903) 84,746. Its position, as has been
frequently remarked, is not unlike that of Gibraltar, as the town is
built along the north-western base of a rocky promontory (1157 ft. in
height) which forms the eastern boundary of a spacious bay, and is
united to the mainland by a narrow sandy isthmus. The summit of the
rock, called the Peak, is crowned by a fort. Hakodate is one of the
ports originally opened to foreign trade. The Bay of Hakodate, an inlet
of Tsugaru Strait, is completely land-locked, easy of access and
spacious, with deep water almost up to the shore, and good
holding-ground. The Russians formerly used Hakodate as a winter port.
The staple exports are beans, pulse and peas, marine products, sulphur,
furs and timber; the staple imports, comestibles (especially salted
fish), kerosene and oil-cake. The town is not situated so as to profit
largely by the development of the resources of Yezo, and as a port of
foreign trade its outlook is indifferent. Frequent steamers connect
Hakodate and Yokohama and other ports, and there is daily communication
with Aomori, 56 m. distant, whence there is rail-connexion with Tokyo.
Hakodate was opened to American commerce in 1854. In the civil war of
1868 the town was taken by the rebel fleet, but it was recovered by the
mikado in 1869.



HAL, a town of Brabant, Belgium, about 9 m. S.W. of Brussels, situated
on the river Senne and the Charleroi canal. Pop. (1904) 13,541. The
place is interesting chiefly on account of its fine church of Notre
Dame, formerly dedicated to St Martin. This church, a good example of
pure Gothic, was begun in 1341 and finished in 1409. Its principal
ornament is the alabaster altar, by J. Mone, completed in 1533. The
bronze font dates from 1446. Among the monuments is one in black marble
to the dauphin Joachim, son of Louis XI., who died in 1460. In the
treasury of the church are many costly objects presented by illustrious
personages, among others by the emperor Charles V., King Henry VIII. of
England, Charles the Bold of Burgundy, and several popes. The church is
chiefly celebrated, however, for its miraculous image of the Virgin.
Legend says that during a siege the bullets fired into the town were
caught by her in the folds of her dress. Some of these are still shown
in a chest that stands in a side chapel. In consequence of this belief a
great pilgrimage, attended by many thousands from all parts of Belgium,
is paid annually to this church. The hôtel de ville dates from 1616 and
has been restored with more than ordinary good taste.



HALA, or HALLA (formerly known as Murtazabad), a town of British India
in Hyderabad district, Sind. Pop. (1901) 4985. It has long been famous
for its glazed pottery and tiles, made from a fine clay obtained from
the Indus, mixed with powdered flints. The town has also a manufacture
of susis or striped trouser-cloths.



HALAESA, an ancient town on the north coast of Sicily, about 14 m. E. of
Cephaloedium [Cefalu], to the east of the modern Castel di Tusa, founded
in 403 B.C. by Archonides, tyrant of Herbita, whose name it sometimes
bore: we find, e.g. _Halaisa Archonida_ on a coin of the time of
Augustus (_Corp. inscrip. Lat._ x., Berlin, 1883, p. 768). It was the
first town to surrender to the Romans in the First Punic War, and was
granted freedom and immunity from tithe. It became a place of some
importance in Roman days, especially as a port, and entirely outstripped
its mother city. Halaesa is the only place in Sicily where an
inscription dedicated to a Roman governor of the republican period
(perhaps in 93 B.C.) has come to light. (T. As.)



HALAKHA, or HALACHA (literally "rule of conduct"), the rabbinical
development of the Mosaic law; with the haggada it makes up the Talmud
and Midrash (q.v.). As the haggada is the poetic, so the halakha is the
legal element of the Talmud (q.v.), and arose out of the faction between
the Sadducees, who disputed the traditions, and the Pharisees, who
strove to prove their derivation from scripture. Among the chief
attempts to codify the halakha were the _Great Rules (Halakhoth
Gedoloth)_ of Simon Kayyara (9th century), based on the letters written
by the Gaonim, the heads of the Babylonian schools, to Jewish inquirers
in many lands, the work of Jacob Alfassi (1013-1103), the _Strong Hand
of_ Maimonides (1180), and the _Table Prepared_ (_Shulhan Aruch_) of
Joseph Qaro (1565), which from its practical scope and its clarity as a
work of general reference became the universal handbook of Jewish life
in many of its phases.     (I. A.)



HALBERSTADT, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Saxony, 56
m. by rail N.W. of Halle, and 29 S.W. of Magdeburg. It lies in a fertile
country to the north of the Harz Mountains, on the Holzemme, at the
junction of railways to Halle, Goslar and Thale. Pop. (1905) 45,534. The
town has a medieval appearance, many old houses decorated with beautiful
wood-carving still surviving. The Gothic cathedral (now Protestant),
dating from the 13th and 14th centuries, is remarkable for the majestic
impression made by the great height of the interior, with its slender
columns and lofty, narrow aisles. The treasure, preserved in the former
chapter-house, is rich in reliquaries, vestments and other objects of
medieval church art. The beautiful spires, which had become unsafe, were
rebuilt in 1890-1895. Among the other churches the only one of special
interest is the Liebfrauenkirche (Church of Our Lady), a basilica, with
four towers, in the later Romanesque style, dating from the 12th and
13th centuries and restored in 1848, containing old mural frescoes and
carved figures. Remarkable among the other old buildings are the
town-hall, of the 14th century and restored in the 17th century, with a
crypt, and the Petershof, formerly the episcopal palace, but now
utilized as law courts and a prison. The principal educational
establishment is the gymnasium, with a library of 40,000 volumes. Close
to the cathedral lies the house of the poet Gleim (q.v.), since 1899 the
property of the municipality and converted into a museum. It contains a
collection of the portraits of the friends of the poet-scholar and some
valuable manuscripts. The principal manufactures of the town are sugar,
cigars, paper, gloves, chemical products, beer and machinery. About a
mile and a half distant are the Spiegelsberge, from which a fine view of
the surrounding country is obtained, and the Klusberge, with prehistoric
cave-dwellings cut out in the sandstone rocks.

  The history of Halberstadt begins with the transfer to it, by Bishop
  Hildegrim I., in 820 of the see founded by Charlemagne at
  Seligenstadt. At the end of the 10th century the bishops were granted
  by the emperors the right to exercise temporal jurisdiction over their
  see, which became one of the most considerable of the ecclesiastical
  principalities of the Empire. As such it survived the introduction of
  the Reformation in 1542; but in 1566, on the death of Sigismund of
  Brandenburg (also archbishop of Madgeburg from 1552 to 1566), the last
  Catholic bishop, the chapter from motives of economy elected the
  infant Henry Julius of Brunswick-Lüneburg. In 1589 he became duke of
  Brunswick, and two years later he abolished the Catholic rites in
  Halberstadt. The see was governed by lay bishops until 1648, when it
  was formally converted by the treaty of Westphalia into a secular
  principality for the elector of Brandenburg. By the treaty of Tilsit
  in 1807 it was annexed to the kingdom of Westphalia, but came again to
  Prussia on the downfall of Napoleon.

  The town received a charter from Bishop Arnulf in 998. In 1113 it was
  burnt by the emperor Henry V., and in 1179 by Henry the Lion. During
  the Thirty Years' War it was occupied alternately by the Imperialists
  and the Swedes, the latter of whom handed it over to Brandenburg.

  See Lucanus, _Der Dom zu Halberstadt_ (1837), _Wegweiser durch
  Halberstadt_ (2nd ed., 1866) and _Die Liebfrauenkirche zu Halberstadt_
  (1872); Scheffer, _Inschriften und Legenden halberstädtischer Bauten_
  (1864); Schmidt, _Urkundenbuch der Stadt Halberstadt_ (Halle, 1878);
  and Zschiesche, _Halberstadt, sonst und jetzi_ (1882).



HALBERT, HALBERD or HALBARD, a weapon consisting of an axe-blade
balanced by a pick and having an elongated pike-head at the end of the
staff, which was usually about 5 or 6 ft. in length. The utility of such
a weapon in the wars of the later middle ages lay in this, that it gave
the foot soldier the means of dealing with an armoured man on horseback.
The pike could do no more than keep the horseman at a distance. This
ensured security for the foot soldier but did not enable him to strike a
mortal blow, for which firstly a long-handled and secondly a powerful
weapon, capable of striking a heavy cleaving blow, was required. Several
different forms of weapon responding to these requirements are described
and illustrated below; it will be noticed that the thrusting pike is
almost always combined with the cutting-bill hook or axe-head, so that
the individual billman or halberdier should not be at a disadvantage if
caught alone by a mounted opponent, or if his first descending blow
missed its object. It will be noticed further that, concurrently with
the disuse of complete armour and the development of firearms, the pike
or thrusting element gradually displaces the axe or cleaving element in
these weapons, till at last we arrive at the court halberts and
partizans of the late 16th and early 17th centuries and the so-called
"halbert" of the infantry officer and sergeant in the 18th, which can
scarcely be classed even as partizans.

Figs. 1-6 represent types of these long cutting, cut and thrust weapons
of the middle ages, details being omitted for the sake of clearness. The
most primitive is the _voulge_ (fig. 1), which is simply a heavy cleaver
on a pole, with a point added. The next form, the _gisarme_ or
_guisarme_ (fig. 2), appears in infinite variety but is always
distinguished from voulges, &c. by the hook, which was used to pull down
mounted men, and generally resembles the agricultural bill-hook of
to-day. The _glaive_ (fig. 3 is late German) is a broad, heavy, slightly
curved sword-blade on a stave; it is often combined with the hooked
gisarme as a _glaive-gisarme_ (fig. 4, Burgundian, about 1480). A
_gisarme-voulge_ is shown in fig. 5 (Swiss, 14th century).

[Illustration: FIGS. 1-6.]

The weapon best known to Englishmen is the _bill_, which was originally
a sort of scythe-blade, sharp on the concave side (whereas the glaive
has the cutting edge on the convex side), but in its best-known form it
should be called a bill-gisarme (fig. 6). The _partizans_, _ranseurs_
and _halberts_ proper developed naturally from the earlier types. The
feature common to all, as has been said, is the combination of spear and
axe. In the halberts the axe predominates, as the examples (fig. 10,
Swiss, early 15th century; fig. 11, Swiss, middle 16th century; and fig.
12, German court halbert of the same period as fig. 11) show. In the
_partizan_ the pike is the more important, the axe-heads being reduced
to little more than an ornamental feature. A south German specimen (fig.
9, 1615) shows how this was compensated by the broadening of the
spear-head, the edges of which in such weapons were sharpened. Fig. 8, a
service weapon of simple form, merely has projections on either side,
and from this developed the _ranseur_ (fig. 7), a partizan with a very
long and narrow point, like the blade of a rapier, and with fork-like
projections intended to act as "sword-breakers," instead of the
atrophied axe-heads of the partizan proper.

[Illustration: FIGS. 7-12.]

The halbert played almost as conspicuous a part in the military history
of Middle Europe during the 15th and early 16th centuries as the pike.
But, even in a form distinguishable from the voulge and the glaive, it
dates from the early part of the 13th century, and for many generations
thereafter it was the special weapon of the Swiss. Fauchet, in his
_Origines des dignitez_, printed in 1600, states that Louis XI. of
France ordered certain new weapons of war called _hallebardes_ to be
made at Angers and other places in 1475. The Swiss had a mixed armament
of pikes and halberts at the battle of Morat in 1476. In the 15th and
16th centuries the halberts became larger, and the blades were formed in
many varieties of shape, often engraved, inlaid, or pierced in open
work, and exquisitely finished as works of art. This weapon was in use
in England from the reign of Henry VII. to the reign of George III.,
when it was still carried (though in shape it had certainly lost its
original characteristics, and had become half partizan and half pike) by
sergeants in the guards and other infantry regiments. It is still
retained as the symbol of authority borne before the magistrates on
public occasions in some of the burghs of Scotland. The Lochaber axe may
be called a species of halbert furnished with a hook on the end of the
staff at the back of the blade. The godendag (Fr. _godendart_) is the
Flemish name of the halbert in its original form.

The derivation of the word is as follows. The O. Fr. _hallebarde_, of
which the English "halberd," "halbert," is an adaptation, was itself
adapted from the M.H.G. _helmbarde_, mod. _Hellebarde_; the second part
is the O.H.G. _barta_ or _parta_, broad-axe, probably the same word as
_Bart_, beard, and so called from its shape; the first part is either
_helm_, handle, cf. "helm," tiller of a ship, the word meaning "hafted
axe," or else _helm_, helmet, an axe for smiting the helmet. A common
derivation was to take the word as representing a Ger. _halb-barde_,
half-axe; the early German form shows this to be an erroneous guess.



HALDANE, JAMES ALEXANDER (1768-1851), Scottish divine, the younger son
of Captain James Haldane of Airthrey House, Stirlingshire, was born at
Dundee on the 14th of July 1768. Educated first at Dundee and afterwards
at the high school and university of Edinburgh, at the age of seventeen
he joined the "Duke of Montrose" East Indiaman as a midshipman. After
four voyages to India he was nominated to the command of the "Melville
Castle" in the summer of 1793; but having during a long and unexpected
detention of his ship begun a careful study of the Bible, and also come
under the evangelical influence of David Bogue of Gosport, one of the
founders of the London Missionary Society, he abruptly resolved to quit
the naval profession for a religious life, and returned to Scotland
before his ship had sailed. About the year 1796 he became acquainted
with the celebrated evangelical divine, Charles Simeon of Cambridge, in
whose society he made several tours through Scotland, endeavouring by
tract-distribution and other means to awaken others to some of that
interest in religious subjects which he himself so strongly felt. In May
1797 he preached his first sermon, at Gilmerton near Edinburgh, with
encouraging success. In the same year he established a non-sectarian
organization for tract distribution and lay preaching called the
"Society for the Propagation of the Gospel at Home." During the next few
years he made repeated missionary journeys, preaching wherever he could
obtain hearers, and generally in the open air. Not originally disloyal
to the Church of Scotland, he was gradually driven by the hostility of
the Assembly and the exigencies of his position into separation. In 1799
he was ordained as pastor of a large Independent congregation in
Edinburgh. This was the first congregational church known by that name
in Scotland. In 1801 a permanent building replaced the circus in which
the congregation had at first met. To this church he continued to
minister gratuitously for more than fifty years. In 1808 he made public
avowal of his conversion to Baptist views. As advancing years compelled
him to withdraw from the more exhausting labours of itineracy and
open-air preaching, he sought more and more to influence the discussion
of current religious and theological questions by means of the press. He
died on the 8th of February 1851.

His son, DANIEL RUTHERFORD HALDANE (1824-1887), by his second wife, a
daughter of Professor Daniel Rutherford, was a prominent Scottish
physician, who became president of the Edinburgh College of Physicians.

  Among J. A. Haldane's numerous contributions to current theological
  discussions were: _The Duty of Christian Forbearance in Regard to
  Points of Church Order_ (1811); _Strictures on a Publication upon
  Primitive Christianity by Mr John Walker_ (1819); _Refutation of
  Edward Irving's Heretical Doctrines respecting the Person and
  Atonement of Jesus Christ_. His _Observations on Universal Pardon_,
  &c., was a contribution to the controversy regarding the views of
  Thomas Erskine of Linlathen and Campbell of Row; _Man's
  Responsibility_ (1842) is a reply to Howard Hinton on the nature and
  extent of the Atonement. He also published: _Journal of a Tour in the
  North_; _Early Instruction Commended_ (1801); _Views of the Social
  Worship of the First Churches_ (1805); _The Doctrine and Duty of
  Self-Examination_ (1806); _The Doctrine of the Atonement_ (1845);
  _Exposition of the Epistle to the Galatians_ (1848).



HALDANE, RICHARD BURDON (1856-   ), British statesman and philosopher,
was the third son of Robert Haldane of Cloanden, Perthshire, a writer to
the signet, and nephew of J. S. Burdon-Sanderson. He was a grand-nephew
of the Scottish divines J. A. and Robert Haldane. He was educated at
Edinburgh Academy and the universities of Edinburgh and Göttingen, where
he studied philosophy under Lotze. He took first-class honours in
philosophy at Edinburgh, and was Gray scholar and Ferguson scholar in
philosophy of the four Scottish Universities (1876). He was called to
the bar in 1879, and so early as 1890 became a queen's counsel. In 1885
he entered parliament as liberal member for Haddingtonshire, for which
he was re-elected continuously up to and including 1910. He was included
in 1905 in Sir H. Campbell-Bannerman's cabinet as secretary for war, and
was the author of the important scheme for the reorganization of the
British army, by which the militia and the volunteer forces were
replaced by a single territorial force. Though always known as one of
the ablest men of the Liberal party and conspicuous during the Boer War
of 1899-1902 as a Liberal Imperialist, the choice of Mr Haldane for the
task of thinking out a new army organization on business lines had
struck many people as curious. Besides being a chancery lawyer, he was
more particularly a philosopher, conspicuous for his knowledge of
Hegelian metaphysics. But with German philosophy he had also the German
sense of thoroughness and system, and his scheme, while it was much
criticized, was recognized as the best that could be done with a
voluntary army. Mr Haldane's chief literary publications were: _Life of
Adam Smith_ (1887); _Education and Empire_ (1902); _The Pathway to
Reality_ (1903). He also translated, jointly with J. Kemp,
Schopenhauer's _Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung_ (_The World as Will
and Idea_, 3 vols., 1883-1886).



HALDANE, ROBERT (1764-1842), Scottish divine, elder brother of J. A.
Haldane (q.v.), was born in London on the 28th of February 1764. After
attending classes in the Dundee grammar school and in the high school
and university of Edinburgh in 1780, he joined H.M.S. "Monarch," of
which his uncle Lord Duncan was at that time in command, and in the
following year was transferred to the "Foudroyant," on board of which,
during the night engagement with the "Pegase," he greatly distinguished
himself. Haldane was afterwards present at the relief of Gibraltar, but
at the peace of 1783 he finally left the navy, and soon afterwards
settled on his estate of Airthrey, near Stirling. He put himself under
the tuition of David Bogue of Gosport and carried away deep impressions
from his academy. The earlier phases of the French Revolution excited
his deepest sympathy, a sympathy which induced him to avow his strong
disapproval of the war with France. As his over-sanguine visions of a
new order of things to be ushered in by political change disappeared, he
began to direct his thoughts to religious subjects. Resolving to devote
himself and his means wholly to the advancement of Christianity, his
first proposal for that end, made in 1796, was to organize a vast
mission to Bengal, of which he was to provide the entire expense; with
this view the greater part of his estate was sold, but the East India
Company refused to sanction the scheme, which therefore had to be
abandoned. In December 1797 he joined his brother and some others in the
formation of the "Society for the Propagation of the Gospel at Home," in
building chapels or "tabernacles" for congregations, in supporting
missionaries, and in maintaining institutions for the education of young
men to carry on the work of evangelization. He is said to have spent
more than £70,000 in the course of the following twelve years
(1798-1810). He also initiated a plan for evangelizing Africa by
bringing over native children to be trained as Christian teachers to
their own countrymen. In 1816 he visited the continent, and first at
Geneva and afterwards in Montauban (1817) he lectured and interviewed
large numbers of theological students with remarkable effect; among them
were Malan, Monod and Merle d'Aubigné. Returning to Scotland in 1819, he
lived partly on his estate of Auchengray and partly in Edinburgh, and
like his brother took an active part, chiefly through the press, in many
of the religious controversies of the time. He died on the 12th of
December 1842.

  In 1816 he published a work on the _Evidences and Authority of Divine
  Revelation_, and in 1819 the substance of his theological prelections
  in a _Commentaire sur l'Épître aux Romains_. Among his later writings,
  besides numerous pamphlets on what was known as "the Apocrypha
  controversy," are a treatise _On the Inspiration of Scripture_ (1828),
  which has passed through many editions, and a later _Exposition of the
  Epistle to the Romans_ (1835), which has been frequently reprinted,
  and has been translated into French and German.

  See _Memoirs of R. and J. A. Haldane_, by Alexander Haldane (1852).



HALDEMAN, SAMUEL STEHMAN (1812-1880), American naturalist and
philologist, was born on the 12th of August 1812 at Locust Grove, Pa. He
was educated at Dickinson College, and in 1851 was appointed professor
of the natural sciences in the university of Pennsylvania. In 1855 he
went to Delaware College, where he filled the same position, but in 1869
he returned to the university of Pennsylvania as professor of
comparative philology and remained there till his death, which occurred
at Chickies, Pa., on the 10th of September 1880. His writings include
_Freshwater Univalve Mollusca of the United States_ (1840); _Zoological
Contributions_ (1842-1843); _Analytic Orthography_ (1860); _Tours of a
Chess Knight_ (1864); _Pennsylvania Dutch, a Dialect of South German
with an Infusion of English_ (1872); _Outlines of Etymology_ (1877); and
_Word-Building_ (1881).



HALDIMAND, SIR FREDERICK (1718-1791), British general and administrator,
was born at Yverdun, Neuchâtel, Switzerland, on the 11th of August 1718,
of Huguenot descent. After serving in the armies of Sardinia, Russia and
Holland, he entered British service in 1754, and subsequently
naturalized as an English citizen. During the Seven Years' War he served
in America, was wounded at Ticonderoga (1758) and was present at the
taking of Montreal (1760). After filling with credit several
administrative positions in Canada, Florida and New York, in 1778 he
succeeded Sir Guy Carleton (afterwards Lord Dorchester) as
governor-general of Canada. His measures against French sympathizers
with the Americans have incurred extravagant strictures from
French-Canadian historians, but he really showed moderation as well as
energy. In 1785 he returned to London. He died at his birthplace on the
5th of June 1791.

  His life has been well written by Jean McIlwraith in the "Makers of
  Canada" series (Toronto, 1904). His Correspondence and Diary fill 262
  volumes in the Canadian Archives, and are catalogued in the Annual
  Reports (1884-1889).



HALE, EDWARD EVERETT (1822-1909), American author, was born in Boston on
the 3rd of April 1822, son of Nathan Hale (1784-1863), proprietor and
editor of the Boston _Daily Advertiser_, nephew of Edward Everett, the
orator and statesman, and grand-nephew of Nathan Hale, the martyr spy.
He graduated from Harvard in 1839; was pastor of the church of the
Unity, Worcester, Massachusetts, in 1846-1856, and of the South
Congregational (Unitarian) church, Boston, in 1856-1899; and in 1903
became chaplain of the United States Senate. He died at Roxbury
(Boston), Massachusetts, on the 10th of June 1909. His forceful
personality, organizing genius, and liberal practical theology, together
with his deep interest in the anti-slavery movement (especially in
Kansas), popular education (especially Chautauqua work), and the
working-man's home, were active in raising the tone of American life for
half a century. He was a constant and voluminous contributor to the
newspapers and magazines. He was an assistant editor of the Boston
_Daily Advertiser_, and edited the _Christian Examiner, Old and New_
(which he assisted in founding in 1869; in 1875 it was merged in
_Scribner's Magazine_), _Lend a Hand_ (founded by him in 1886 and merged
in the _Charities Review_ in 1897), and the _Lend a Hand Record_; and he
was the author or editor of more than sixty books--fiction, travel,
sermons, biography and history.

He first came into notice as a writer in 1859, when he contributed the
short story "My Double and How He Undid Me" to the _Atlantic Monthly_.
He soon published in the same periodical other stories, the best known
of which was "The Man Without a Country" (1863), which did much to
strengthen the Union cause in the North, and in which, as in some of his
other non-romantic tales, he employed a minute realism which has led his
readers to suppose the narrative a record of fact. The two stories
mentioned, and such others as "The Rag-Man and the Rag-Woman" and "The
Skeleton in the Closet," gave him a prominent position among the
short-story writers of America. The story _Ten Times One is Ten_ (1870),
with its hero Harry Wadsworth, and its motto, first enunciated in 1869
in his Lowell Institute lectures, "Look up and not down, look forward
and not back, look out and not in, and lend a hand," led to the
formation among young people of "Lend-a-Hand Clubs," "Look-up Legions"
and "Harry Wadsworth Clubs." Out of the romantic Waldensian story _In
His Name_ (1873) there similarly grew several other organizations for
religious work, such as "King's Daughters," and "King's Sons."

  Among his other books are _Kansas and Nebraska_ (1854); _The Ingham
  Papers_ (1869); _His Level Best, and Other Stories_ (1870); _Sybaris
  and Other Homes_ (1871); _Philip Nolan's Friends_ (1876), his
  best-known novel, and a sequel to _The Man Without a Country; The
  Kingdom of God_ (1880); _Christmas at Narragansett_ (1885); _East and
  West_, a novel (1892); _For Fifty Years_ (poems, 1893); _Ralph Waldo
  Emerson_ (1899); _We, the People_ (1903); _Prayers Offered in the
  Senate of the United States_ (1904), and _Tarry-at-Home Travels_
  (1906). He edited Lingard's _History of England_ (1853), and
  contributed to Winsor's _Memorial History of Boston_ (1880-1881), and
  to his _Narrative and Critical History of America_ (1886-1889). With
  his son, Edward Everett Hale, Jr., he published _Franklin in France_
  (2 vols., 1887-1888), based largely on original research. The most
  charming books of his later years were _A New England Boyhood_ (1893),
  _James Russell Lowell and His Friends_ (1899), and _Memories of a
  Hundred Years_ (1902).

  A uniform and revised edition of his principal writings, in ten
  volumes, appeared in 1899-1901.



HALE, HORATIO (1817-1896), American ethnologist, was born in Newport,
New Hampshire, on the 3rd of May 1817. He was the son of David Hale, a
lawyer, and of Sarah Josepha Hale (1790-1879), a popular poet, who,
besides editing _Godey's Lady's Magazine_ for many years and publishing
some ephemeral books, is supposed to have written the verses "Mary had a
little lamb," and to have been the first to suggest the national
observance of Thanksgiving Day. The son graduated in 1837 at Harvard,
and during 1838-1842 was philologist to the United States Exploring
Expedition, which under Captain Charles Wilkes sailed around the world.
Of the reports of that expedition Hale prepared the sixth volume,
_Ethnography and Philology_ (1846), which is said to have "laid the
foundations of the ethnography of Polynesia." He was admitted to the
Chicago bar in 1855, and in the following year removed to Clinton,
Ontario, Canada, where he practised his profession, and where on the
28th of December 1896 he died. He made many valuable contributions to
the science of ethnology, attracting attention particularly by his
theory of the origin of the diversities of human languages and
dialects--a theory suggested by his study of "child-languages," or the
languages invented by little children. He also emphasized the importance
of languages as tests of mental capacity and as "criteria for the
classification of human groups." He was, moreover, the first to discover
that the Tutelos of Virginia belonged to the Siouan family, and to
identify the Cherokee as a member of the Iroquoian family of speech.
Besides writing numerous magazine articles, he read a number of valuable
papers before learned societies. These include: _Indian Migrations as
Evidenced by Language_ (1882); _The Origin of Languages and the
Antiquity of Speaking Man_ (1886); _The Development of Language_ (1888);
and _Language as a Test of Mental Capacity: Being an Attempt to
Demonstrate the True Basis of Anthropology_ (1891). He also edited for
Brinton's "Library of Aboriginal Literature," the _Iroquois Book of
Rites_ (1883).



HALE, JOHN PARKER (1806-1873), American statesman, was born at
Rochester, New Hampshire, on the 31st of March 1806. He graduated at
Bowdoin College in 1827, was admitted to the New Hampshire bar in 1830,
was a member of the state House of Representatives in 1832, and from
1834 to 1841 was United States district attorney for New Hampshire. In
1843-1845 he was a Democratic member of the national House of
Representatives, and, though his earnest co-operation with John Quincy
Adams in securing the repeal of the "gag rule" directed against the
presentation to Congress of anti-slavery petitions estranged him from
the leaders of his party, he was renominated without opposition. In
January 1845, however, he refused in a public statement to obey a
resolution (28th of December 1844) of the state legislature directing
him and his New Hampshire associates in Congress to support the cause of
the annexation of Texas, a Democratic measure which Hale regarded as
being distinctively in the interest of slavery. The Democratic State
convention was at once reassembled, Hale was denounced, and his
nomination withdrawn. In the election which followed Hale ran
independently, and, although the Democratic candidates were elected in
the other three congressional districts of the state, his vote was large
enough to prevent any choice (for which a majority was necessary) in his
own. Hale then set out in the face of apparently hopeless odds to win
over his state to the anti-slavery cause. The remarkable canvass which
he conducted is known in the history of New Hampshire as the "Hale
Storm of 1845." The election resulted in the choice of a legislature
controlled by the Whigs and the independent Democrats, he himself being
chosen as a member of the state House of Representatives, of which in
1846 he was speaker. He is remembered, however, chiefly for his long
service in the United States Senate, of which he was a member from 1847
to 1853 and again from 1855 to 1865. At first he was the only
out-and-out anti-slavery senator,--he alone prevented the vote of thanks
to General Taylor and General Scott for their Mexican war victories from
being made unanimous in the Senate (February 1848)--but in 1849 Salmon
P. Chase and William H. Seward, and in 1851 Charles Sumner joined him,
and the anti-slavery cause became for the first time a force to be
reckoned with in that body. In October 1847 he had been nominated for
president by the Liberty party, but he withdrew in favour of Martin Van
Buren, the Free Soil candidate, in 1848. In 1851 he was senior counsel
for the rescuers of the slave Shadrach in Boston. In 1852 he was the
Free Soil candidate for the presidency, but received only 156,149 votes.
In 1850 he secured the abolition of flogging in the U.S. navy, and
through his efforts in 1862 the spirit ration in the navy was abolished.
He was one of the organizers of the Republican party, and during the
Civil War was an eloquent supporter of the Union and chairman of the
Senate naval committee. From 1865 to 1869 he was United States minister
to Spain. He died at Dover, New Hampshire, on the 19th of December 1873.
A statue of Hale, presented by his son-in-law William Eaton Chandler (b.
1835), U.S. senator from New Hampshire in 1887-1901, was erected in
front of the Capitol in Concord, New Hampshire, in 1892.



HALE, SIR MATTHEW (1609-1676), lord chief justice of England, was born
on the 1st of November 1609 at Alderley in Gloucestershire, where his
father, a retired barrister, had a small estate. His paternal
grandfather was a rich clothier of Wotton-under-Edge; on his mother's
side he was connected with the noble family of the Poyntzes of Acton.
Left an orphan when five years old, he was placed by his guardian under
the care of the Puritan vicar of Wotton-under-Edge, with whom he
remained till he attained his sixteenth year, when he entered Magdalen
Hall, Oxford. At Oxford, Hale studied for several terms with a view to
holy orders, but suddenly there came a change. The diligent student, at
first attracted by a company of strolling players, threw aside his
studies, and plunged carelessly into gay society. He soon decided to
change his profession; and resolved to trail a pike as a soldier under
the prince of Orange in the Low Countries. Before going abroad, however,
Hale found himself obliged to proceed to London in order to give
instructions for his defence in a legal action which threatened to
deprive him of his patrimony. His leading counsel was the celebrated
Serjeant Glanville (1586-1661), who, perceiving in the acuteness and
sagacity of his youthful client a peculiar fitness for the legal
profession, succeeded, with much difficulty, in inducing him to renounce
his military for a legal career, and on the 8th of November 1629 Hale
became a member of the honourable society of Lincoln's Inn.

He immediately resumed his habits of intense application. The rules
which he laid down for himself, and which are still extant in his
handwriting, prescribe sixteen hours a day of close application, and
prove, not only the great mental power, but also the extraordinary
physical strength he must have possessed, and for which indeed, during
his residence at the university, he had been remarkable. During the
period allotted to his preliminary studies, he read over and over again
all the yearbooks, reports, and law treatises in print, and at the Tower
of London and other antiquarian repositories examined and carefully
studied the records from the foundation of the English monarchy down to
his own time. But Hale did not confine himself to law. He dedicated no
small portion of his time to the study of pure mathematics, to
investigations in physics and chemistry, and even to anatomy and
architecture; and there can be no doubt that this varied learning
enhanced considerably the value of many of his judicial decisions.

Hale was called to the bar in 1637, and almost at once found himself in
full practice. Though neither a fluent speaker nor bold pleader, in a
very few years he was at the head of his profession. He entered public
life at perhaps the most critical period of English history. Two parties
were contending in the state, and their obstinacy could not fail to
produce a most direful collision. But amidst the confusion Hale steered
a middle course, rising in reputation, and an object of solicitation
from both parties. Taking Pomponius Atticus as his political model, he
was persuaded that a man, a lawyer and a judge could best serve his
country and benefit his countrymen by holding aloof from partisanship
and its violent prejudices, which are so apt to distort and confuse the
judgment. But he is best vindicated from the charges of selfishness and
cowardice by the thoughts and meditations contained in his private
diaries and papers, where the purity and honour of his motives are
clearly seen. It has been said, but without certainty, that Hale was
engaged as counsel for the earl of Strafford; he certainly acted for
Archbishop Laud, Lord Maguire, Christopher Love, the duke of Hamilton
and others. It is also said that he was ready to plead on the side of
Charles I. had that monarch submitted to the court. The parliament
having gained the ascendancy, Hale signed the Solemn League and
Covenant, and was a member of the famous assembly of divines at
Westminster in 1644; but although he would undoubtedly have preferred a
Presbyterian form of church government, he had no serious objection to
the system of modified Episcopacy, proposed by Usher. Consistently with
his desire to remain neutral, Hale took the engagement to the
Commonwealth as he had done to the king, and in 1653, already serjeant,
he became a judge in the court of common pleas. Two years afterwards he
sat in Cromwell's parliament as one of the members for Gloucestershire.
After the death of the protector, however, he declined to act as a judge
under Richard Cromwell, although he represented Oxford in Richard's
parliament. At the Restoration in 1660 Hale was very graciously received
by Charles II., and in the same year was appointed chief baron of the
exchequer, and accepted, with extreme reluctance, the honour of
knighthood. After holding the office of chief baron for eleven years he
was raised to the higher dignity of lord chief justice, which he held
till February 1676, when his failing health compelled him to resign. He
retired to his native Alderley, where he died on the 25th of December of
the same year. He was twice married and survived all his ten children
save two.

As a judge Sir Matthew Hale discharged his duties with resolute
independence and careful diligence. His sincere piety made him the
intimate friend of Isaac Barrow, Archbishop Tillotson, Bishop Wilkins
and Bishop Stillingfleet, as well as of the Nonconformist leader,
Richard Baxter. He is chargeable, however, with the condemnation and
execution of two poor women tried before him for witchcraft in 1664, a
kind of judicial murder then falling under disuse. He is also reproached
with having hastened the execution of a soldier for whom he had reason
to believe a pardon was preparing.

  Of Hale's legal works the only two of importance are his _Historia
  placitorum coronae, or History of the Pleas of the Crown_ (1736); and
  the _History of the Common Law of England, with an Analysis of the
  Law_, &c. (1713). Among his numerous religious writings the
  _Contemplations, Moral and Divine_, occupy the first place. Others are
  _The Primitive Origination of Man_ (1677); _Of the Nature of True
  Religion_, &c. (1684); _A Brief Abstract of the Christian Religion_
  (1688). One of his most popular works is the collection of _Letters of
  Advice to his Children and Grandchildren_. He also wrote an _Essay
  touching the Gravitation or Nongravitation of Fluid Bodies_ (1673);
  _Difficiles Nugae, or Observations touching the Torricellian
  Experiment_, &c. (1675); and a translation of the _Life of Pomponius
  Atticus_, by Cornelius Nepos (1677). His efforts in poetry were
  inauspicious. He left his valuable collection of MSS. and records to
  the library of Lincoln's Inn. His life has been written by G. Burnet
  (1682); by J. B. Williams (1835); by H. Roscoe, in his _Lives of
  Eminent Lawyers_, in 1838; by Lord Campbell, in his _Lives of the
  Chief Justices_, in 1849; and by E. Foss in his _Lives of the Judges_
  (1848-1870).



HALE, NATHAN (1756-1776). American hero of the War of Independence, was
born at Coventry, Conn., and educated at Yale, then becoming a school
teacher. He joined a Connecticut regiment after the breaking out of the
war, and served in the siege of Boston, being commissioned a captain at
the opening of 1776. When Heath's brigade departed for New York he went
with them, and the tradition is that he was one of a small and daring
band who captured an English provision sloop from under the very guns of
a man-of-war. But on the 21st of September, having volunteered to enter
the British lines to obtain information concerning the enemy, he was
captured in his disguise of a Dutch school-teacher and on the 22nd was
hanged. The penalty was in accordance with military law, but young
Hale's act was a brave one, and he has always been glorified as a
martyr. Tradition attributes to him the saying that he only regretted
that he had but one life to lose for his country; and it is said that
his request for a Bible and the services of a minister was refused by
his captors. There is a fine statue of Hale by Macmonnies in New York.

  See H. P. Johnston, _Nathan Hale_ (1901).



HALE, WILLIAM GARDNER (1849-   ), American classical scholar, was born
on the 9th of February 1849 in Savannah, Georgia. He graduated at
Harvard University in 1870, and took a post-graduate course in
philosophy there in 1874-1876; studied classical philology at Leipzig
and Göttingen in 1876-1877; was tutor in Latin at Harvard from 1877 to
1880, and professor of Latin in Cornell University from 1880 to 1892,
when he became professor of Latin and head of the Latin department of
the University of Chicago. From 1894 to 1899 he was chairman and in
1895-1896 first director of the American School of Classical Studies at
Rome. He is best known as an original teacher on questions of syntax. In
The _Cum-Constructions: Their History and Functions_, which appeared in
_Cornell University Studies in Classical Philology_ (1888-1889; and in
German version by Neizert in 1891), he attacked Hoffmann's distinction
between absolute and relative temporal clauses as published in
_Lateinische Zeitpartikeln_ (1874); Hoffmann replied in 1891, and the
best summary of the controversy is in Wetzel's _Der Streit zwischen
Hoffmann und Hale_ (1892). Hale wrote also _The Sequence of Tenses in
Latin_ (1887-1888), _The Anticipatory Subjunctive in Greek and Latin_
(1894), and a _Latin Grammar_ (1903), to which the parts on sounds,
inflection and word-formation were contributed by Carl Darling Buck.



HALEBID, a village in Mysore state, southern India; pop. (1901), 1524.
The name means "old capital," being the site of Dorasamudra, the capital
of the Hoysala dynasty founded early in the 11th century. In 1310 and
again in 1326 it was taken and plundered by the first Mahommedan invader
of southern India. Two temples, still standing, though never completed
and greatly ruined, are regarded as the finest examples of the
elaborately carved Chalukyan style of architecture.



HALES, or HAYLES, JOHN (d. 1571), English writer and politician, was a
son of Thomas Hales of Hales Place, Halden, Kent. He wrote his _Highway
to Nobility_ about 1543, and was the founder of a free school at
Coventry for which he wrote _Introductiones ad grammaticam_. In
political life Hales, who was member of parliament for Preston, was
specially concerned with opposing the enclosure of land, being the most
active of the commissioners appointed in 1548 to redress this evil; but
he failed to carry several remedial measures through parliament. When
the protector, the duke of Somerset, was deprived of his authority in
1550, Hales left England and lived for some time at Strassburg and
Frankfort, returning to his own country on the accession of Elizabeth.
However he soon lost the royal favour by writing a pamphlet, _A
Declaration of the Succession of the Crowne Imperiall of Inglande_,
which declared that the recent marriage between Lady Catherine Grey and
Edward Seymour, earl of Hertford, was legitimate, and asserted that,
failing direct heirs to Elizabeth, the English crown should come to Lady
Catherine as the descendant of Mary, daughter of Henry VII. The author
was imprisoned, but was quickly released, and died on the 28th of
December 1571. The _Discourse of the Common Weal_, described as "one of
the most informing documents of the age," and written about 1549, has
been attributed to Hales. This has been edited by E. Lamond (Cambridge,
1893).

Hales is often confused with another John Hales, who was clerk of the
hanaper under Henry VIII. and his three immediate successors.



HALES, JOHN (1584-1656), English scholar, frequently referred to as "the
ever memorable," was born at Bath on the 19th of April 1584, and was
educated at Corpus Christi College, Oxford. He was elected a fellow of
Merton in 1605, and in 1612 he was appointed public lecturer on Greek.
In 1613 he was made a fellow of Eton. Five years later he went to
Holland, as chaplain to the English ambassador, Sir Dudley Carleton, who
despatched him to Dort to report upon the proceedings of the synod then
sitting. In 1619 he returned to Eton and spent his time among his books
and in the company of literary men, among whom he was highly reputed for
his common sense, his erudition and his genial charity. Andrew Marvell
called him "one of the clearest heads and best-prepared breasts in
Christendom." His eirenical tract entitled _Schism and Schismaticks_
(1636) fell into the hands of Archbishop Laud, and Hales, hearing that
he had disapproved of it, is said to have written to the prelate a
vindication of his position. This led to a meeting, and in 1639 Hales
was made one of Laud's chaplains and also a canon of Windsor. In 1642 he
was deprived of his canonry by the parliamentary committee, and two
years later was obliged to hide in Eton with the college documents and
keys. In 1649 he refused to take the "Engagement" and was ejected from
his fellowship. He then retired to Buckinghamshire, where he found a
home with Mrs Salter, the sister of the bishop of Salisbury (Brian
Duppa), and acted as tutor to her son. The issue of the order against
harbouring malignants led him to return to Eton. Here, having sold his
valuable library at great sacrifice, he lived in poverty until his death
on the 19th of May 1656.

  His collected works (3 vols.) were edited by Lord Hailes, and
  published in 1765.



HALES, STEPHEN (1677-1761), English physiologist, chemist and inventor,
was born at Bekesbourne in Kent on the 7th or 17th of September 1677,
the fifth (or sixth) son of Thomas Hales, whose father, Sir Robert
Hales, was created a baronet by Charles II. in 1670. In June 1696 he was
entered as a pensioner of Benet (now Corpus Christi) College, Cambridge,
with the view of taking holy orders, and in February 1703 was admitted
to a fellowship. He received the degree of master of arts in 1703 and of
bachelor of divinity in 1711. One of his most intimate friends was
William Stukeley (1687-1765) with whom he studied anatomy, chemistry,
&c. In 1708-1709 Hales was presented to the perpetual curacy of
Teddington in Middlesex, where he remained all his life, notwithstanding
that he was subsequently appointed rector of Porlock in Somerset, and
later of Faringdon in Hampshire. In 1717 he was elected fellow of the
Royal Society, which awarded him the Copley medal in 1739. In 1732 he
was named one of a committee for establishing a colony in Georgia, and
the next year he received the degree of doctor of divinity from Oxford.
He was appointed almoner to the princess-dowager of Wales in 1750. On
the death of Sir Hans Sloane in 1753, Hales was chosen foreign associate
of the French Academy of Sciences. He died at Teddington on the 4th of
January 1761.

Hales is best known for his _Statical Essays_. The first volume,
_Vegetable Staticks_ (1727), contains an account of numerous experiments
in plant-physiology--the loss of water in plants by evaporation, the
rate of growth of shoots and leaves, variations in root-force at
different times of the day, &c. Considering it very probable that plants
draw "through their leaves some part of their nourishment from the air,"
he undertook experiments to show in "how great a proportion air is
wrought into the composition of animal, vegetable and mineral
substances"; though this "analysis of the air" did not lead him to any
very clear ideas about the composition of the atmosphere, in the course
of his inquiries he collected gases over water in vessels separate from
those in which they were generated, and thus used what was to all
intents and purposes a "pneumatic trough." The second volume (1733) on
_Haemostaticks_, containing experiments on the "force of the blood" in
various animals, its rate of flow, the capacity of the different
vessels, &c., entitles him to be regarded as one of the originators of
experimental physiology. But he did not confine his attention to
abstract inquiries. The quest of a solvent for calculus in the bladder
and kidneys was pursued by him as by others at the period, and he
devised a form of forceps which, on the testimony of John Ranby
(1703-1773), sergeant-surgeon to George II., extracted stones with
"great ease and readiness." His observations of the evil effect of
vitiated air caused him to devise a "ventilator" (a modified
organ-bellows) by which fresh air could be conveyed into gaols,
hospitals, ships'-holds, &c.; this apparatus was successful in reducing
the mortality in the Savoy prison, and it was introduced into France by
the aid of H. L. Duhamel du Monceau. Among other things Hales invented a
"sea-gauge" for sounding, and processes for distilling fresh from sea
water, for preserving corn from weevils by fumigation with brimstone,
and for salting animals whole by passing brine into their arteries. His
_Admonition to the Drinkers of Gin, Brandy, &c._, published anonymously
in 1734, has been several times reprinted.



HALESOWEN, a market town in the Oldbury parliamentary division of
Worcestershire, England, on a branch line of the Great Western and
Midland railways, 6½ m. W.S.W. of Birmingham. Pop. (1901), 4057. It lies
in a pleasant country among the eastern foothills of the Lickey Hills.
There are extensive iron and steel manufactures. The church of SS Mary
and John the Baptist has rude Norman portions; and the poet William
Shenstone, buried in 1763 in the churchyard, has a memorial in the
church. His delight in landscape gardening is exemplified in the
neighbouring estate of the Leasowes, which was his property. There is a
grammar school founded in 1652, and in the neighbourhood is the
Methodist foundation of Bourne College (1883). Close to the town, on the
river Stour, which rises in the vicinity, are slight ruins of a
Premonstratensian abbey of Early English date. Within the parish and 2
m. N.W. of Halesowen is Cradley, with iron and steel works, fire-clay
works and a large nail and chain industry.



HALEVI, JUDAH BEN SAMUEL (c. 1085-c. 1140), the greatest Hebrew poet of
the middle ages, was born in Toledo c. 1085, and died in Palestine after
1140. In his youth he wrote Hebrew love poems of exquisite fancy, and
several of his Wedding Odes are included in the liturgy of the
Synagogue. The mystical connexion between marital affection and the love
of God had, in the view of older exegesis, already expressed itself in
the scriptural _Song of Songs_ and Judah Halevi used this book as his
model. In this aspect of his work he found inspiration also in Arabic
predecessors. The second period of his literary career was devoted to
more serious pursuits. He wrote a philosophical dialogue in five books,
called the _Cuzari_, which has been translated into English by
Hirschfeld. This book bases itself on the historical fact that the
Crimean Kingdom of the Khazars adopted Judaism, and the Hebrew
poet-philosopher describes what he conceives to be the steps by which
the Khazar king satisfied himself as to the claims of Judaism. Like many
other medieval Jewish authors, Judah Halevi was a physician. His real
fame depends on his liturgical hymns, which are the finest written in
Hebrew since the Psalter, and are extensively used in the Septardic
rite. A striking feature of his thought was his devotion to Jerusalem.
To the love of the Holy City he devoted his noblest genius, and he wrote
some memorable Odes to Zion, which have been commemorated by Heine, and
doubly appreciated recently under the impulse of Zionism (q.v.). He
started for Jerusalem, was in Damascus in 1140, and soon afterwards
died. Legend has it that he was slain by an Arab horseman just as he
arrived within sight of what Heine called his "Woebegone poor darling,
Desolation's very image,--Jerusalem."

  Excellent English renderings of some of Judah Halevi's poems may be
  read in Mrs H. Lucas's _The Jewish Year_, and Mrs R. N. Solomon's
  _Songs of Exile_.     (I. A.)



HALÉVY, JACQUES FRANÇOIS FROMENTAL ÉLIE (1799-1862), French composer,
was born on the 27th of May 1799, at Paris, of a Jewish family. He
studied at the Paris Conservatoire under Berton and Cherubini, and in
1819 gained the grand prix de Rome with his cantata _Herminie_. In
accordance with the conditions of his scholarship he started for Rome,
where he devoted himself to the study of Italian music, and wrote an
opera and various minor works. In 1827 his opera _L'Artisan_ was
performed at the Théâtre Feydeau in Paris, apparently without much
success. Other works of minor importance, and now forgotten, followed,
amongst which _Manon Lescaut_, a ballet, produced in 1830, deserves
mention. In 1834 the Opéra-Comique produced _Ludovic_, the score of
which had been begun by Hérold and had been completed by Halévy. In 1835
Halévy composed the tragic opera _La Juive_ and the comic opera
_L'Éclair_, and on these works his fame is mainly founded. The famous
air of Eléazar and the anathema of the cardinal in _La Juive_ soon
became popular all over France. _L'Éclair_ is a curiosity of musical
literature. It is written for two tenors and two soprani, without a
chorus, and displays the composer's mastery over the most refined
effects of instrumentation and vocalization in a favourable light. After
these two works he wrote numerous operas of various genres, amongst
which only _La Reine de Chypre_, a spectacular piece analyzed by Wagner
in one of his Paris letters (1841), and _La Tempesta_, in three acts,
written for Her Majesty's theatre, London (1850), need be mentioned. In
addition to his productive work Halévy also rendered valuable services
as a teacher. He was professor at the Conservatoire from 1827 till his
death--some of the most successful amongst the younger composers in
France, such as Gounod, Victor Massé and Georges Bizet, the author of
_Carmen_, being amongst his pupils. He was _maestro al cembalo_ at the
Théâtre Italien from 1827 to 1829; then director of singing at the Opera
House in Paris until 1845, and in 1836 he succeeded Reicha at the
Institut de France. Halévy also tried his hand at literature. In 1857 he
became permanent secretary to the Académie des Beaux Arts, and there
exists an agreeable volume of _Souvenirs et portraits_ from his pen. He
died at Nice, on the 17th of March 1862.



HALÉVY, LUDOVIC (1834-1908), French author, was born in Paris on the 1st
of January 1834. His father, Léon Halévy (1802-1883), was a clever and
versatile writer, who tried almost every branch of literature--prose and
verse, vaudeville, drama, history--without, however, achieving decisive
success in any. His uncle, J. F. Fromental E. Halévy (q.v.), was for
many years associated with the opéra; hence the double and early
connexion of Ludovic Halévy with the Parisian stage. At the age of six
he might have been seen playing in that _Foyer de la danse_ with which
he was to make his readers so familiar, and, when a boy of twelve, he
would often, of a Sunday night, on his way back to the College Louis le
Grand, look in at the Odéon, where he had free admittance, and see the
first act of the new play. At eighteen he joined the ranks of the French
administration and occupied various posts, the last being that of
secrétaire-rédacteur to the Corps Législatif. In that capacity he
enjoyed the special favour and friendship of the famous duke of Morny,
then president of that assembly. In 1865 Ludovic Halévy's increasing
popularity as an author enabled him to retire from the public service.
Ten years earlier he had become acquainted with the musician Offenbach,
who was about to start a small theatre of his own in the Champs Élysées,
and he wrote a sort of prologue, _Entrez, messieurs, mesdames_, for the
opening night. Other little productions followed, _Ba-ta-clan_ being the
most noticeable among them. They were produced under the pseudonym of
Jules Servières. The name of Ludovic Halévy appeared for the first time
on the bills on the 1st of January 1856. Soon afterwards the
unprecedented run of _Orphée aux enfers_, a musical parody, written in
collaboration with Hector Crémieux, made his name famous. In the spring
of 1860 he was commissioned to write a play for the manager of the
Variétés in conjunction with another vaudevillist, Lambert Thiboust. The
latter having abruptly retired from the collaboration, Halévy was at a
loss how to carry out the contract, when on the steps of the theatre he
met Henri Meilhac (1831-1897), then comparatively a stranger to him. He
proposed to Meilhac the task rejected by Lambert Thiboust, and the
proposal was immediately accepted. Thus began a connexion which was to
last over twenty years, and which proved most fruitful both for the
reputation of the two authors and the prosperity of the minor Paris
theatres. Their joint works may be divided into three classes: the
_opérettes_, the farces, the comedies. The _opérettes_ afforded
excellent opportunities to a gifted musician for the display of his
peculiar humour. They were broad and lively libels against the society
of the time, but savoured strongly of the vices and follies they were
supposed to satirize. Amongst the most celebrated works of the joint
authors were _La Belle Hélène_ (1864), _Barbe Bleue_ (1866), _La Grande
Duchesse de Gerolstein_ (1867), and _La Périchole_ (1868). After 1870
the vogue of Parody rapidly declined. The decadence became still more
apparent when Offenbach was no longer at hand to assist the two authors
with his quaint musical irony, and when they had to deal with
interpreters almost destitute of singing powers. They wrote farces of
the old type, consisting of complicated intrigues, with which they
cleverly interwove the representation of contemporary whims and social
oddities. They generally failed when they attempted comedies of a more
serious character and tried to introduce a higher sort of emotion. A
solitary exception must be made in the case of _Frou-frou_ (1869),
which, owing perhaps to the admirable talent of Aimée Desclée, remains
their unique _succès de larmes_.

Meilhac and Halévy will be found at their best in light sketches of
Parisian life, _Les Sonnettes_, _Le Roi Candaule_, _Madame attend
Monsieur_, _Toto chez Tata_. In that intimate association between the
two men who had met so opportunely on the _perron des variétés_, it was
often asked who was the leading partner. The question was not answered
until the connexion was finally severed and they stood before the
public, each to answer for his own work. It was then apparent that they
had many gifts in common. Both had wit, humour, observation of
character. Meilhac had a ready imagination, a rich and whimsical fancy;
Halévy had taste, refinement and pathos of a certain kind. Not less
clever than his brilliant comrade, he was more human. Of this he gave
evidence in two delightful books, _Monsieur et Madame Cardinal_ (1873)
and _Les Petites Cardinal_, in which the lowest orders of the Parisian
middle class are faithfully described. The pompous, pedantic, venomous
Monsieur Cardinal will long survive as the true image of sententious and
self-glorifying immorality. M. Halévy's peculiar qualities are even more
visible in the simple and striking scenes of the _Invasion_, published
soon after the conclusion of the Franco-German War, in _Criquette_
(1883) and _L'Abbé Constantin_ (1882), two novels, the latter of which
went through innumerable editions. Zola had presented to the public an
almost exclusive combination of bad men and women; in _L'Abbé
Constantin_ all are kind and good, and the change was eagerly welcomed
by the public. Some enthusiasts still maintain that the _Abbé_ will rank
permanently in literature by the side of the equally chimerical _Vicar
of Wakefield_. At any rate, it opened for M. Ludovic Halévy the doors of
the French Academy, to which he was elected in 1884.

Halévy remained an assiduous frequenter of the Academy, the
Conservatoire, the Comédie Française, and the Society of Dramatic
Authors, but, when he died in Paris on the 8th of May 1908, he had
produced practically nothing new for many years. His last romance, _Kari
Kari_, appeared in 1892.

  The _Théâtre_ of MM. Meilhac and Halévy was published in 8 vols.
  (1900-1902).



HALFPENNY, WILLIAM, English 18th-century architectural designer--he
described himself as "architect and carpenter." He was also known as
Michael Hoare; but whether his real name was William Halfpenny or
Michael Hoare is uncertain. His books, of which he published a score,
deal almost entirely with domestic architecture, and especially with
country houses in those Gothic and Chinese fashions which were so
greatly in vogue in the middle of the 18th century. His most important
publications, from the point of view of their effect upon taste, were
_New Designs for Chinese Temples_, in four parts (1750-1752); _Rural
Architecture in the Gothic Taste_ (1752); _Chinese and Gothic
Architecture Properly Ornamented_ (1752); and _Rural Architecture in the
Chinese Taste_ (1750-1752). These four books were produced in
collaboration with John Halfpenny, who is said to have been his son.
_New Designs for Chinese Temples_ is a volume of some significance in
the history of furniture, since, having been published some years before
the books of Thomas Chippendale and Sir Thomas Chambers, it disproves
the statement so often made that those designers introduced the Chinese
taste into this country. Halfpenny states distinctly that "the Chinese
manner" had been "already introduced here with success." The work of the
Halfpennys was by no means all contemptible. It is sometimes distinctly
graceful, but is marked by little originality.



HALF-TIMBER WORK, an architectural term given to those buildings in
which the framework is of timber with vertical studs and cross pieces
filled in between with brickwork, rubble masonry or plaster work on oak
laths; in the first two, brick nogging or nogging are the terms
occasionally employed (see CARPENTRY). Sometimes the timber structure is
raised on a stone or brick foundation, as at Ledbury town hall in
Herefordshire, where the lower storey is open on all sides; but more
often it is raised on a ground storey, either in brick or stone, and in
order to give additional size to the upper rooms projects forward, being
carried on the floor joists. Sometimes the masonry or brickwork rises
through two or three storeys and the half-brick work is confined to the
gables. There seems to be some difference of opinion as to whether the
term applies to the mixture of solid walling with the timber structure
or to the alternation of wood posts and the filling in, but the latter
definition is that which is generally understood. The half-timber
throughout England is of the most picturesque description, and the
earliest examples date from towards the close of the 15th century. In
the earliest example, Newgate House, York (c. 1450), the timber framing
is raised over the ground floor. The finest specimen is perhaps that of
Moreton Old Hall, Cheshire (1570), where there is only a stone
foundation about 12 in. high, and the same applies to Bramall Hall, near
Manchester, portions of which are very early. Among other examples are
Speke Hall, Lancashire; Park Hall, Shropshire (1553-1558); Hall i' th'
Wood, Lancashire (1591); St Peter's Hospital, Bristol (1607); the Ludlow
Feather's Inn (1610); many of the streets at Chester and Shrewsbury; the
Sparrowe's Home, Ipswich; and Staple Inn, Holborn, from which in recent
years the plaster coat which was put on many years ago has been removed,
displaying the ancient woodwork. A similar fate has overtaken a very
large number of half-timber buildings to keep out the driving winds;
thus in Lewes nearly all the half-timbered houses have had slates hung
on the timbers, others tiles, the greater number having been covered
with plaster or stucco. Although there are probably many more
half-timber houses in England than on the continent of Europe, in the
north of France and in Germany are examples in many of the principal
towns, and in some cases in better preservation than in England. They
are also enriched with carving of a purer and better type, especially in
France; thus at Chartres, Angers, Rouen, Caen, Lisieux, Bayeux, St Lô
and Beauvais, are many extremely fine examples of late Flamboyant and
early Transitional examples. Again on the borders of the Rhine in all
the small towns most of the houses are in half-timber work, the best
examples being at Bacharach, Rhense and Boppart. Far more elaborate
examples, however, are found in the vicinity of the Harz Mountains; the
supply of timber from the forests there being very abundant; thus at
Goslar, Wernigerode and Quedlingburg there is an endless variety, as
also farther on at Gelnhausen and Hameln, the finest series of all being
at Hildesheim. In Bavaria at Nuremberg, Rothenburg and Dinkelsbühl,
half-timber houses dating from the 16th century are still well
preserved; and throughout Switzerland the houses constructed in timber
and plaster are the most characteristic features of the country.



HALFWAY COVENANT, an expedient adopted in the Congregational churches of
New England between 1657 and 1662. Under its terms baptized persons of
moral life and orthodox belief might receive the privilege of baptism
for their children and other church benefits, without the full enrolment
in membership which admitted them to the communion of the Lord's Supper.

  See CONGREGATIONALISM: _American_.



HALHED, NATHANIEL BRASSEY (1751-1830), English Orientalist and
philologist, was born at Westminster on the 25th of May 1751. He was
educated at Harrow, where he began his intimacy with Richard Brinsley
Sheridan (see SHERIDAN FAMILY) continued after he entered Christ Church,
Oxford, where, also, he made the acquaintance of Sir William Jones, the
famous Orientalist, who induced him to study Arabic. Accepting a
writership in the service of the East India Company, Halhed went out to
India, and here, at the suggestion of Warren Hastings, by whose orders
it had been compiled, translated the Gentoo code from a Persian version
of the original Sanskrit. This translation was published in 1776 under
the title _A Code of Gentoo Laws_. In 1778 he published a Bengali
grammar, to print which he set up, at Hugli, the first press in India.
It is claimed for him that he was the first writer to call attention to
the philological connexion of Sanskrit with Persian, Arabic, Greek and
Latin. In 1785 he returned to England, and from 1790-1795 was M.P. for
Lymington, Hants. For some time he was a disciple of Richard Brothers
(q.v.), and his unwise speech in parliament in defence of Brothers made
it impossible for him to remain in the House, from which he resigned in
1795. He subsequently obtained a home appointment under the East India
Company. He died in London on the 18th of February 1830.

  His collection of Oriental manuscripts was purchased by the British
  Museum, and there is an unfinished translation by him of the
  _Mahabharata_ in the library of the Asiatic Society of Bengal.



HALIBURTON, THOMAS CHANDLER (1796-1865), British writer, long a judge of
Nova Scotia, was born at Windsor, Nova Scotia, in 1796, and received his
education there, at King's College. He was called to the bar in 1820,
and became a member of the House of Assembly. He distinguished himself
as a barrister, and in 1828 was promoted to the bench as a chief-justice
of the common pleas. In 1829 he published _An Historical and Statistical
Account of Nova Scotia_. But it is as a brilliant humourist and satirist
that he is remembered, in connexion with his fictitious character "Sam
Slick." In 1835 he contributed anonymously to a local paper a series of
letters professedly depicting the peculiarities of the genuine Yankee.
These sketches, which abounded in clever picturings of national and
individual character, drawn with great satirical humour, were collected
in 1837, and published under the title of _The Clockmaker, or Sayings
and Doings of Samuel Slick of Slickville_. A second series followed in
1838, and a third in 1840. _The Attaché, or Sam Slick in England_
(1843-1844), was the result of a visit there in 1841. His other works
include: _The Old Judge, or Life in a Colony_ (1843); _The Letter Bag of
the Great Western_ (1839); _Rule and Misrule of the English in America_
(1851); _Traits of American Humour_ (1852); and _Nature and Human
Nature_ (1855).

Meanwhile he continued to secure popular esteem in his judicial
capacity. In 1840 he was promoted to be a judge of the supreme court;
but within two years he resigned his seat on the bench, removed to
England, and in 1859 entered parliament as the representative of
Launceston, in the Conservative interest. But the tenure of his seat for
Launceston was brought to an end by the dissolution of the parliament in
1865, and he did not again offer himself to the constituency. He died on
the 27th of August of the same year, at Gordon House, Isleworth,
Middlesex.

  A memoir of Haliburton, by F. Blake Crofton, appeared in 1889.



HALIBUT, or HOLIBUT (_Hippoglossus vulgaris_), the largest of all
flat-fishes, growing to a length of 10 ft. or more, specimens of 5 ft.
in length and of 100 [lb] in weight being frequently exposed for sale in
the markets. Indeed, specimens under 2 ft. in length are very rarely
caught, and singularly enough, no instance is known of a very young
specimen having been obtained. Small ones are commonly called "chicken
halibut." The halibut is much more frequent in the higher latitudes of
the temperate zone than in its southern portion; it is a circumpolar
species, being found on the northern coasts of America, Europe and Asia,
extending in the Pacific southwards to California. On the British coasts
it keeps at some distance from the shore, and is generally caught in
from 50 to 150 fathoms. Its flesh is generally considered coarse, but it
is white and firm, and when properly served is excellent for the table.
The name is derived from "holy" (M.E. _haly_), and recalls its use for
food on holy days.



HALICARNASSUS (mod. _Budrum_), an ancient Greek city on the S.W. coast
of Caria, Asia Minor, on a picturesque and advantageous site on the
Ceramic Gulf or Gulf of Cos. It originally occupied only the small
island of Zephyria close to the shore, now occupied by the great castle
of St Peter, built by the Knights of Rhodes in 1404; but in course of
time this island was united to the mainland and the city extended so as
to incorporate Salmacis, an older town of the Leleges and Carians.

About the foundation of Halicarnassus various traditions were current;
but they agree in the main point as to its being a Dorian colony, and
the figures on its coins, such as the head of Medusa, Athena and
Poseidon, or the trident, support the statement that the mother cities
were Troezen and Argos. The inhabitants appear to have accepted as their
legendary founder Anthes, mentioned by Strabo, and were proud of the
title of Antheadae. At an early period Halicarnassus was a member of the
Doric Hexapolis, which included Cos, Cnidus, Lindus, Camirus and
Ialysus; but one of the citizens, Agasicles, having taken home the prize
tripod which he had won in the Triopian games instead of dedicating it
according to custom to the Triopian Apollo, the city was cut off from
the league. In the early 5th century Halicarnassus was under the sway of
Artemisia, who made herself famous at the battle of Salamis. Of
Pisindalis, her son and successor, little is known; but Lygdamis, who
next attained to power, is notorious for having put to death the poet
Panyasis and caused Herodotus, the greatest of Halicarnassians, to leave
his native city (c. 457 B.C.). In the 5th century B.C. Halicarnassus and
other Dorian cities of Asia were to some extent absorbed by the Delian
League, but the peace of Antalcidas in 387 made them subservient to
Persia; and it was under Mausolus, a Persian satrap who assumed
independent authority, that Halicarnassus attained its highest
prosperity. Struck by the natural strength and beauty of its position,
Mausolus removed to Halicarnassus from Mylasa, increasing the population
of the city by the inhabitants of six towns of the Leleges. He was
succeeded by Artemisia, whose military ability was shown in the
stratagem by which she captured the Rhodian vessels attacking her city,
and whose magnificence and taste have been perpetuated by the
"Mausoleum," the monument she erected to her husband's memory (see
MAUSOLUS). One of her successors, Pixodarus, tried to ally himself with
the rising power of Macedon, and is said to have gained the momentary
consent of the young Alexander to wed his daughter. The marriage,
however, was forbidden by Philip. Alexander, as soon as he had reduced
Ionia, summoned Halicarnassus, where Memnon, the paramount satrap of
Asia Minor, had taken refuge with the Persian fleet, to surrender; and
on its refusal took the city after hard fighting and devastated it, but
not being able to reduce the citadel, was forced to leave it blockaded.
He handed the government of the city back to the family of Mausolus, as
represented by Ada, sister of the latter. Not long afterwards we find
the citizens receiving the present of a gymnasium from Ptolemy, and
building in his honour a stoa or portico; but the city never recovered
altogether from the disasters of the siege, and Cicero describes it as
almost deserted. The site is now occupied in part by the town of Budrum;
but the ancient walls can still be traced round nearly all their
circuit, and the position of several of the temples, the theatre, and
other public buildings can be fixed with certainty.

From the ruins of the Mausoleum sufficient has been recovered by the
excavations carried out in 1857 by C. T. Newton to enable a fairly
complete restoration of its design to be made. The building consisted of
five parts--a basement or podium, a pteron or enclosure of columns, a
pyramid, a pedestal and a chariot group. The basement, covering an area
of 114 ft. by 92, was built of blocks of greenstone and cased with
marble. Round the base of it were probably disposed groups of statuary.
The pteron consisted (according to Pliny) of thirty-six columns of the
Ionic order, enclosing a square _cella_. Between the columns probably
stood single statues. From the portions that have been recovered, it
appears that the principal frieze of the pteron represented combats of
Greeks and Amazons. In addition to these, there are also many life-size
fragments of animals, horsemen, &c., belonging probably to pedimental
sculptures, but formerly supposed to be parts of minor friezes. Above
the pteron rose the pyramid, mounting by 24 steps to an apex or
pedestal. On this apex stood the chariot with the figure of Mausolus
himself and an attendant. The height of the statue of Mausolus in the
British Museum is 9 ft. 9½ in. without the plinth. The hair rising from
the forehead falls in thick waves on each side of the face and descends
nearly to the shoulder; the beard is short and close, the face square
and massive, the eyes deep set under overhanging brows, the mouth well
formed with settled calm about the lips. The drapery is grandly
composed. All sorts of restorations of this famous monument have been
proposed. The original one, made by Newton and Pullan, is obviously in
error in many respects; and that of Oldfield, though to be preferred for
its lightness (the Mausoleum was said anciently to be "suspended in
mid-air"), does not satisfy the conditions postulated by the remains.
The best on the whole is that of the veteran German architect, F. Adler,
published in 1900; but fresh studies have since been made (see below).

  See C T. Newton and R. P. Pullan, _History of Discoveries at
  Halicarnassus_ (1862-1863); J. Fergusson, _The Mausoleum at
  Halicarnassus_ restored (1862); E. Oldfield, "The Mausoleum," in
  _Archaeologia_ (1895); F. Adler, _Mausoleum zu Halikarnass_ (1900); J.
  P. Six in _Journ. Hell. Studies_ (1905); W. B. Dinsmoor, in _Amer.
  Journ. of Arch._ (1908); J. J. Stevenson, _A Restoration of the
  Mausoleum of Halicarnassus_ (1909); J. B. K. Preedy, "The Chariot
  Group of the Mausoleum," in _Journ. Hell. Stud._, 1910.     (D. G. H.)



HALICZ, a town of Austria, in Galicia, 70 m. by rail S.S.E. of Lemberg.
Pop. (1900), 4809. It is situated at the confluence of the Luckow with
the Dniester and its principal resources are the recovery of salt from
the neighbouring brine wells, soap-making and the trade in timber. In
the neighbourhood are the ruins of the old castle, the seat of the ruler
of the former kingdom from which Galicia derived its Polish name.
Halicz, which is mentioned in annals as early as 1113, was from 1141 to
1255 the residence of the princes of that name, one of the
principalities into which western Russia was then divided. The town was
then much larger, as is shown by excavations in the neighbourhood made
during the 19th century, and probably met its doom during the Mongol
invasion of 1240. In 1349 it was incorporated in the kingdom of Poland.



HALIFAX, CHARLES MONTAGUE, EARL OF (1661-1715), English statesman and
poet, fourth son of the Hon. George Montague, fifth son of the first
earl of Manchester, was born at Horton, Northamptonshire, on the 16th of
April 1661. In his fourteenth year he was sent to Westminster school,
where he was chosen king's scholar in 1677, and distinguished himself in
the composition of extempore epigrams made according to custom upon
theses appointed for king's scholars at the time of election. In 1679 he
entered Trinity College, Cambridge, where he acquired a solid knowledge
of the classics and surpassed all his contemporaries at the university
in logic and ethics. Latterly, however, he preferred to the abstractions
of Descartes the practical philosophy of Sir Isaac Newton; and he was
one of the small band of students who assisted Newton in forming the
Philosophical Society of Cambridge. But it was his facility in
verse-writing, and neither his scholarship nor his practical ability,
that first opened up to him the way to fortune. His clever but absurdly
panegyrical poem on the death of Charles II. secured for him the notice
of the earl of Dorset, who invited him to town and introduced him to the
principal wits of the time; and in 1687 his joint authorship with Prior
of the _Hind and Panther transversed to the Story of the Country Mouse
and the City Mouse_, a parody of Dryden's political poem, not only
increased his literary reputation but directly helped him to political
influence.

In 1689, through the patronage of the earl of Dorset, he entered
parliament as member for Maldon, and sat in the convention which
resolved that William and Mary should be declared king and queen of
England. About this time he married the countess-dowager of Manchester,
and it would appear, according to Johnson, that it was still his
intention to take orders; but after the coronation he purchased a
clerkship to the council. On being introduced by Earl Dorset to King
William, after the publication of his poetical _Epistle occasioned by
his Majesty's Victory in Ireland_, he was ordered to receive an
immediate pension of £500 per annum, until an opportunity should present
itself of "making a man of him." In 1691 he was chosen chairman of the
committee of the House of Commons appointed to confer with a committee
of the Lords in regard to the bill for regulating trials in cases of
high treason; and he displayed in these conferences such tact and
debating power that he was made one of the commissioners of the treasury
and called to the privy council. But his success as a politician was
less due to his oratorical gifts than to his skill in finance, and in
this respect he soon began to manifest such brilliant talents as
completely eclipsed the painstaking abilities of Godolphin. Indeed it
may be affirmed that no other statesman has initiated schemes which have
left a more permanent mark on the financial history of England. Although
perhaps it was inevitable that England should sooner or later adopt the
continental custom of lightening the annual taxation in times of war by
contracting a national debt, the actual introduction of the expedient
was due to Montague, who on the 15th of December 1692 proposed to raise
a million of money by way of loan. Previous to this the Scotsman William
Paterson (q.v.) had submitted to the government his plan of a national
bank, and when in the spring of 1694 the prolonged contest with France
had rendered another large loan absolutely necessary, Montague
introduced a bill for the incorporation of the Bank of England. The bill
after some opposition passed the House of Lords in May, and immediately
after the prorogation of parliament Montague was rewarded by the
chancellorship of the exchequer. In 1695 he was triumphantly returned
for the borough of Westminster to the new parliament, and succeeded in
passing his celebrated measure to remedy the depreciation which had
taken place in the currency on account of dishonest manipulations. To
provide for the expense of recoinage, Montague, instead of reviving the
old tax of hearth money, introduced the window tax, and the difficulties
caused by the temporary absence of a metallic currency were avoided by
the issue for the first time of exchequer bills. His other expedients
for meeting the emergencies of the financial crisis were equally
successful, and the rapid restoration of public credit secured him a
commanding influence both in the House of Commons and at the board of
the treasury; but although Godolphin resigned office in October 1696,
the king hesitated for some time between Montague and Sir Stephen Fox as
his successor, and it was not till 1697 that the former was appointed
first lord. In 1697 he was accused by Charles Duncombe, and in 1698 by a
Col. Granville, of fraud, but both charges broke down, and Duncombe was
shown to have been guilty of extreme dishonesty himself. In 1698 and
1699 he acted as one of the council of regency during the king's absence
from England. With the accumulation of his political successes his
vanity and arrogance became, however, so offensive that latterly they
utterly lost him the influence he had acquired by his administrative
ability and his masterly eloquence; and when his power began to be on
the wane he set the seal to his political overthrow by conferring the
lucrative sinecure office of auditor of the exchequer on his brother in
trust for himself should he be compelled to retire from power. This
action earned him the offensive nickname of "Filcher," and for some time
afterwards, in attempting to lead the House of Commons, he had to submit
to constant mortifications, often verging on personal insults. After the
return of the king in 1699 he resigned his offices in the government and
succeeded his brother in the auditorship.

On the accession of the Tories to power he was removed in 1701 to the
House of Lords by the title of Lord Halifax. In the same year he was
impeached for malpractices along with Lord Somers and the earls of
Portland and Oxford, but all the charges were dismissed by the Lords;
and in 1703 a second attempt to impeach him was still more unsuccessful.
He continued out of office during the reign of Queen Anne, but in 1706
he was named one of the commissioners to negotiate the union with
Scotland; and after the passing of the Act of Settlement in favour of
the house of Hanover, he was appointed ambassador to the elector's court
to convey the insignia of order of the garter to George I. On the death
of Anne (1714) he was appointed one of the council of regency until the
arrival of the king from Hanover; and after the coronation he received
the office of first lord of the treasury in the new ministry, being at
the same time created earl of Halifax and Viscount Sunbury. He died on
the 19th of May 1715 and left no issue. He was buried in the vault of
the Albemarle family in Westminster Abbey. His nephew George (d. 1739)
succeeded to the barony, and was created Viscount Sunbury and earl of
Halifax in 1715.

Montague's association with Prior in the travesty of Dryden's _Hind and
Panther_ has no doubt largely aided in preserving his literary
reputation; but he is perhaps indebted for it chiefly to his subsequent
influential position and to the fulsome flattery of the men of letters
who enjoyed his friendship, and who, in return for his liberal donations
and the splendid banqueting which they occasionally enjoyed at his villa
on the Thames, "fed him," as Pope says, "all day long with dedications."
Swift says he gave them nothing but "good words, and good dinners."
That, however, his beneficence to needy talent, if sometimes
attributable to an itching ear for adulation, was at others prompted by
a sincere appreciation of intellectual merit, is sufficiently attested
by the manner in which he procured from Godolphin a commissionership for
Addison, and also by his life-long intimacy with Newton, for whom he
obtained the mastership of the mint. The small fragments of poetry which
he left behind him, and which were almost solely the composition of his
early years, display a certain facility and vigour of diction, but their
thought and fancy are never more than commonplace, and not unfrequently
in striving to be eloquent and impressive he is only grotesquely and
extravagantly absurd. In administrative talent he was the superior of
all his contemporaries, and his only rival in parliamentary eloquence
was Somers; but the skill with which he managed measures was superior to
his tact in dealing with men, and the effect of his brilliant financial
successes on his reputation was gradually almost nullified by the
affected arrogance of his manner and by the eccentricities of his
sensitive vanity. So eager latterly was his thirst for fame and power
that perhaps Marlborough did not exaggerate when he said that "he had no
other principle but his ambition, so that he would put all in
distraction rather than not gain his point."

  Among the numerous notices of Halifax by contemporaries may be
  mentioned the eulogistic reference which concludes Addison's account
  of the "greatest of English poets"; the dedications by Steel to the
  second volume of the _Spectator_ and to the fourth of the _Tatler_;
  Pope's laudatory mention of him in the epilogue to his _Satires_ and
  in the preface to the _Iliad_, and his portrait of him as "Full-blown
  Bufo" in the _Epistle to Arbuthnot_. Various allusions to him are to
  be found in Swift's works and in Marlborough's _Letters_. See also
  Burnet's _History of his Own Times; The Parliamentary History_;
  Howell's _State Trials_; Johnson's _Lives of the Poets_; and
  Macaulay's _History of England_. His _Miscellaneous Works_ were
  published at London in 1704; his _Life and Miscellaneous Works_ in
  1715; and his _Poetical Works_, to which also his "Life" is attached,
  in 1716. His poems were reprinted in the 9th volume of Johnson's
  _English Poets_.



HALIFAX, GEORGE MONTAGU DUNK, 2ND EARL OF (1716-1771), son of George
Montagu, 1st earl of Halifax (of the second creation), was born on the
5th or 6th of October 1716, becoming earl of Halifax on his father's
death in 1739. Educated at Eton and at Trinity College, Cambridge, he
was married in 1741 to Anne Richards (d. 1753), a lady who had inherited
a great fortune from Sir Thomas Dunk, whose name was taken by Halifax.
After having been an official in the household of Frederick, prince of
Wales, the earl was made master of the buckhounds, and in 1748 he became
president of the Board of Trade. While filling this position he helped
to found Halifax, the capital of Nova Scotia, which was named after him,
and in several ways he rendered good service to trade, especially with
North America. About this time he sought to become a secretary of state,
but in vain, although he was allowed to enter the cabinet in 1757. In
March 1761 Halifax was appointed lord-lieutenant of Ireland, and during
part of the time which he held this office he was also first lord of the
admiralty. He became secretary of state for the northern department
under the earl of Bute in October 1762, retaining this post under George
Grenville and being one of the three ministers to whom George III.
entrusted the direction of affairs. He signed the general warrant under
which Wilkes was arrested in 1763, for which action he was mulcted in
damages by the courts of law in 1769, and he was mainly responsible for
the exclusion of the name of the king's mother, Augusta, princess of
Wales, from the Regency Bill of 1765. With his colleagues the earl left
office in July 1765, returning to the cabinet as lord privy seal under
his nephew, Lord North, in January 1770. He had just been transferred to
his former position of secretary of state when he died on the 8th of
June 1771. Halifax, who was lord-lieutenant of Northamptonshire and a
lieutenant-general in the army, showed some disinterestedness in money
matters, but was very extravagant. He left no children, and his titles
became extinct on his death. Horace Walpole speaks slightingly of the
earl, and says he and his mistress, Mary Anne Faulkner, "had sold every
employment in his gift."

  See the _Memoirs_ of his secretary, Richard Cumberland (1807).



HALIFAX, GEORGE SAVILE, 1ST MARQUESS OF (1633-1695), English statesman
and writer, great-grandson of Sir George Savile of Lupset and Thornhill
in Yorkshire (created baronet in 1611), was the eldest son of Sir
William Savile, 3rd baronet, who distinguished himself in the civil war
in the royalist cause and who died in 1644, and of Anne, eldest daughter
of Lord Keeper Coventry. He was thus nephew of Sir William Coventry, who
is said to have influenced his political opinions, and of Lord
Shaftesbury, afterwards his most bitter opponent, and great-nephew of
the earl of Strafford; by his marriage with the Lady Dorothy Spencer, he
was brother-in-law to Lord Sunderland. He entered public life with all
the advantages of lineage, political connexions, great wealth and
estates, and uncommon abilities. He was elected member of the Convention
parliament for Pontefract in 1660, and this was his only appearance in
the Lower House. A peerage was sought for him by the duke of York in
1665, but was successfully opposed by Clarendon, on the ground of his
"ill-reputation amongst men of piety and religion," the real motives of
the chancellor's hostile attitude being probably Savile's connexion with
Buckingham and Coventry. The honours were, however, only deferred for a
short time and were obtained after the fall of Clarendon on the 31st of
December 1667,[1] when Savile was created Baron Savile of Eland and
Viscount Halifax.

He supported zealously the anti-French policy formulated in the Triple
Alliance of January 1668. He was at this time in favour at court, was
created a privy councillor in 1672, and, while ignorant of the
disgraceful secret clauses in the treaty of Dover, was chosen envoy to
negotiate terms of peace with Louis XIV. and the Dutch at Utrecht. His
mission was still further deprived of importance by Arlington and
Buckingham, who were in the king's counsels, and who anticipated his
arrival and took the negotiations out of his hands; and though he signed
the compact, he had no share in the harsh terms imposed upon the Dutch,
and henceforth became a bitter opponent of the policy of subservience to
French interests and of the Roman Catholic claims.

He took an active part in passing through parliament the great Test Act
of 1673[2] and forfeited in consequence his friendship with James. In
1674 he brought forward a motion for disarming "popish recusants," and
supported one by Lord Carlisle for restricting the marriages in the
royal family to Protestants; but he opposed the bill introduced by Lord
Danby (see LEEDS, 1ST DUKE OF) in 1675, which imposed a test oath on
officials and members of parliament, speaking "with that quickness,
learning and elegance that are inseparable from all his discourses," and
ridiculing the multiplication of oaths, since "no man would ever sleep
with open doors ... should all the town be sworn not to rob." He was now
on bad terms with Danby, and a witty sally at that minister's expense
caused his dismissal from the council in January 1676. In 1678 he took
an active part in the investigation of the "Popish Plot," to which he
appears to have given excessive credence, but opposed the bill which was
passed on the 30th of October 1678, to exclude Roman Catholics from the
House of Lords.

In 1679, as a consequence of the fall of Danby, he became a member of
the newly constituted privy council. With Charles, who had at first
"kicked at his appointment," he quickly became a favourite, his lively
and "libertine" (i.e. free or sceptical) conversation being named by
Bishop Burnet as his chief attraction for the king. His dislike of the
duke of York and of the Romanist tendencies of the court did not induce
him to support the rash attempt of Lord Shaftesbury to substitute the
illegitimate duke of Monmouth for James in the succession. He feared
Shaftesbury's ascendancy in the national councils and foresaw nothing
but civil war and confusion as a result of his scheme. He declared
against the exclusion of James, was made an earl in 1679, and was one of
the "Triumvirate" which now directed public affairs. He assisted in
passing into law the Habeas Corpus Bill. According to Sir W. Temple he
showed great severity in putting into force the laws against the Roman
Catholics, but this statement is considered a misrepresentation.[3] In
1680 he voted against the execution of Lord Stafford.

Meanwhile (1679) his whole policy had been successfully directed towards
uniting all parties with the object of frustrating Shaftesbury's plans.
Communications were opened with the prince of Orange, and the illness of
the king was made the occasion for summoning James from Brussels.
Monmouth was compelled to retire to Holland, and Shaftesbury was
dismissed. On the other hand, while Halifax was so far successful, James
was given an opportunity of establishing a new influence at the court.
It was with great difficulty that his retirement to Scotland was at last
effected; the ministers lost the confidence and support of the "country
party," and Halifax, fatigued and ill, at the close of this year,
retired to Rufford Abbey, the country home of the Saviles since the
destruction of Thornhill Hall in 1648, and for some time took little
part in affairs. He returned in September 1680 on the occasion of the
introduction of the Exclusion Bill in the Lords. The debate which
followed, one of the most famous in the whole annals of parliament,
became a duel of oratory between Halifax and his uncle Shaftesbury, the
finest two speakers of the day, watched by the Lords, the Commons at the
bar, and the king, who was present. It lasted seven hours. Halifax spoke
sixteen times, and at last, regardless of the menaces of the more
violent supporters of the bill, who closed round him, vanquished his
opponent. The rejection of the bill by a majority of 33 was attributed
by all parties entirely to the eloquence of Halifax. His conduct
transformed the allegiance to him of the Whigs into bitter hostility,
the Commons immediately petitioning the king to remove him from his
councils for ever, while any favour which he might have regained with
James was forfeited by his subsequent approval of the regency scheme.

He retired to Rufford again in January 1681, but was present at the
Oxford parliament, and in May returned suddenly to public life and held
for a year the chief control of affairs. The arrest of Shaftesbury on
the 2nd of July was attributed to his influence, but in general, during
the period of Tory reaction, he seems to have urged a policy of
conciliation and moderation upon the king. He opposed James's return
from Scotland and, about this time (Sept.), made a characteristic but
futile attempt to persuade the duke to attend the services of the
Church of England and thus to end all difficulties. He renewed relations
with the prince of Orange, who in July paid a visit to England to seek
support against the French designs upon Luxemburg. The influence of
Halifax procured for the Dutch a formal assurance from Charles of his
support; but the king informed the French ambassador that he had no
intention of fulfilling his engagements, and made another secret treaty
with Louis. Halifax opposed in 1682 James's vindictive prosecution of
the earl of Argyll, arousing further hostility in the duke, while the
same year he was challenged to a duel by Monmouth, who attributed to him
his disgrace.

His short tenure of power ended with the return of James in May.
Outwardly he still retained the king's favour and was advanced to a
marquisate (Aug. 17) and to the office of lord privy seal (Oct. 25).
Being still a member of the administration he must share responsibility
for the attack now made upon the municipal franchises, a violation of
the whole system of representative government, especially as the new
charters passed his office. In January 1684 he was one of the
commissioners "who supervise all things concerning the city and have
turned out those persons who are whiggishly inclined" (N. Luttrell's
_Diary_, i. 295). He made honourable but vain endeavours to save
Algernon Sidney and Lord Russell. "My Lord Halifax," declared Tillotson
in his evidence before the later inquiry, "showed a very compassionate
concern for my Lord Russell and all the readiness to serve them that
could be wished."[4] The Rye-House Plot, in which it was sought to
implicate them, was a disastrous blow to his policy, and in order to
counteract its consequences he entered into somewhat perilous
negotiations with Monmouth, and endeavoured to effect his reconciliation
with the king. On the 12th of February 1684, he procured the release of
his old antagonist, Lord Danby. Shortly afterwards his influence at the
court revived. Charles was no longer in receipt of his French pension
and was beginning to tire of James and Rochester. The latter, instead of
becoming lord treasurer, was, according to the epigram of Halifax which
has become proverbial, "kicked upstairs," to the office of lord
president of the council. Halifax now worked to establish intimate
relations between Charles and the prince of Orange and opposed the
abrogation of the recusancy laws. In a debate in the cabinet of November
1684, on the question of the grant of a fresh constitution to the New
England colonies, he urged with great warmth "that there could be no
doubt whatever but that the same laws which are in force in England
should also be established in a country inhabited by Englishmen and that
an absolute government is neither so happy nor so safe as that which is
tempered by laws and which sets bounds to the authority of the prince,"
and declared that he could not "live under a king who should have it in
his power to take, whenever he thought proper, the money he has in his
pocket." The opinions thus expressed were opposed by all the other
ministers and highly censured by Louis XIV., James and Judge Jeffreys.

At the accession of James he was immediately deprived of all power and
relegated to the presidency of the council. He showed no compliance,
like other Lords, with James's Roman Catholic preferences. He was
opposed to the parliamentary grant to the king of a revenue for life; he
promoted the treaty of alliance with the Dutch in August 1685; he
expostulated with the king on the subject of the illegal commissions in
the army given to Roman Catholics; and finally, on his firm refusal to
support the repeal of the Test and Habeas Corpus Acts, he was dismissed,
and his name was struck out of the list of the privy council (Oct.
1685). He corresponded with the prince of Orange, conferred with
Dykveldt, the latter's envoy, but held aloof from plans which aimed at
the prince's personal interference in English affairs. In 1687 he
published the famous _Letter to a Dissenter_, in which he warns the
Nonconformists against being beguiled by the "Indulgence" into joining
the court party, sets in a clear light the fatal results of such a step,
and reminds them that under their next sovereign their grievances would
in all probability be satisfied by the law. The tract, which has
received general and unqualified admiration, must be classed amongst the
few known writings which have actually and immediately altered the
course of history. Copies to the number of 20,000 were circulated
through the kingdom, and a great party was convinced of the wisdom of
remaining faithful to the national traditions and liberties. He took the
popular side on the occasion of the trial of the bishops in June 1688,
visited them in the Tower, and led the cheers with which the verdict of
"not guilty" was received in court; but the same month he refrained from
signing the invitation to William, and publicly repudiated any share in
the prince's plans. On the contrary he attended the court and refused
any credence to the report that the prince born to James was
supposititious. After the landing of William he was present at the
council called by James on the 27th of November. He urged the king to
grant large concessions, but his speech, in contrast to the harsh and
overbearing attitude of the Hydes, was "the most tender and obliging ...
that ever was heard." He accepted the mission with Nottingham and
Godolphin to treat with William at Hungerford, and succeeded in
obtaining moderate terms from the prince. The negotiations, however,
were abortive, for James had from the first resolved on flight. In the
crisis which ensued, when the country was left without a government,
Halifax took the lead. He presided over the council of Lords which
assembled and took immediate measures to maintain public order. On the
return of James to London on the 16th of November, after his capture at
Faversham, Halifax repaired to William's camp and henceforth attached
himself unremittingly to his cause. On the 17th he carried with Lords
Delamere and Shrewsbury a message from William to the king advising his
departure from London, and, after the king's second flight, directed the
proceedings of the executive. On the meeting of the convention on the
22nd of January 1689, he was formally elected speaker of the House of
Lords. He voted against the motion for a regency (Jan. 20), which was
only defeated by two votes. The moderate and comprehensive character of
the settlement at the revolution plainly shows his guiding hand, and it
was finally through his persuasion that the Lords yielded to the Commons
and agreed to the compromise whereby William and Mary were declared
joint sovereigns. On the 13th of February in the Banqueting House at
Whitehall, he tendered the crown to them in the name of the nation, and
conducted the proclamation of their accession in the city.

At the opening of the new reign he had considerable influence, was made
lord privy seal, while Danby his rival was obliged to content himself
with the presidency of the council, and controlled the appointments to
the new cabinet which were made on a "trimming" or comprehensive basis.
His views on religious toleration were as wide as those of the new king.
He championed the claims of the Nonconformists as against the high or
rigid Church party, and he was bitterly disappointed at the miscarriage
of the Comprehension Bill. He thoroughly approved also at first of
William's foreign policy; but, having excited the hostility of both the
Whig and Tory parties, he now became exposed to a series of attacks in
parliament which finally drove him from power. He was severely censured,
as it seems quite unjustly, for the disorder in Ireland, and an attempt
was made to impeach him for his conduct with regard to the sentences on
the Whig leaders. The inquiry resulted in his favour; but
notwithstanding, and in spite of the king's continued support, he
determined to retire. He had already resigned the speakership of the
House of Lords, and he now (Feb. 8, 1690) quitted his place in the
cabinet. He still nominally retained his seat in the privy council, but
in parliament he became a bitter critic of the administration; and the
rivalry of Halifax (the Black Marquess) with Danby, now marquess of
Carmarthen (the White Marquess) threw the former at this time into
determined opposition. He disapproved of William's total absorption in
European politics, and his open partiality for his countrymen. In
January 1691 Halifax had an interview with Henry Bulkeley, the Jacobite
agent, and is said to have promised "to do everything that lay in his
power to serve the king." This was probably merely a measure of
precaution, for he had no serious Jacobite leanings. He entered bail for
Lord Marlborough, accused wrongfully of complicity in a Jacobite plot in
May 1692, and in June, during the absence of the king from England, his
name was struck off the privy council.

He spoke in favour of the Triennial Bill (Jan. 12, 1693) which passed
the legislature but was vetoed by William, suggested a proviso in the
Licensing Act, which restricted its operation to anonymous works,
approved the Place Bill (1694), but opposed, probably on account of the
large sums he had engaged in the traffic of annuities, the establishment
of the bank of England in 1694. Early in 1695 he delivered a strong
attack on the administration in the House of Lords, and, after a short
illness arising from a neglected complaint, he died on the 5th of April
at the age of sixty-one. He was buried in Henry VII.'s chapel in
Westminster Abbey.

The influence of Halifax, both as orator and as writer, on the public
opinion of his day was probably unrivalled. His intellectual powers, his
high character, his urbanity, vivacity and satirical humour made a great
impression on his contemporaries, and many of his witty sayings have
been recorded. But the superiority of his statesmanship could not be
appreciated till later times. Maintaining throughout his career a
complete detachment from party, he never acted permanently or
continuously with either of the two great factions, and exasperated both
in turn by deserting their cause at the moment when their hopes seemed
on the point of realization. To them he appeared weak, inconstant,
untrustworthy. They could not see what to us now is plain and clear,
that Halifax was as consistent in his principles as the most rabid Whig
or Tory. But the principle which chiefly influenced his political
action, that of compromise, differed essentially from those of both
parties, and his attitude with regard to the Whigs or Tories was thus by
necessity continually changing. Measures, too, which in certain
circumstances appeared to him advisable, when the political scene had
changed became unwise or dangerous. Thus the regency scheme, which
Halifax had supported while Charles still reigned, was opposed by him
with perfect consistency at the revolution. He readily accepted for
himself the character of a "trimmer," desiring, he said, to keep the
boat steady, while others attempted to weigh it down perilously on one
side or the other; and he concluded his tract with these assertions:
"that our climate is a Trimmer between that part of the world where men
are roasted and the other where they are frozen; that our Church is a
Trimmer between the frenzy of fanatic visions and the lethargic
ignorance of Popish dreams; that our laws are Trimmers between the
excesses of unbounded power and the extravagance of liberty not enough
restrained; that true virtue hath ever been thought a Trimmer, and to
have its dwelling in the middle between two extremes; that even God
Almighty Himself is divided between His two great attributes, His Mercy
and His Justice. In such company, our Trimmer is not ashamed of his
name...."[5]

His powerful mind enabled him to regard the various political problems
of his time from a height and from a point of view similar to that from
which distance from the events enables us to consider them at the
present day; and the superiority of his vision appears sufficiently from
the fact that his opinions and judgments on the political questions of
his time are those which for the most part have ultimately triumphed and
found general acceptance. His attitude of mind was curiously modern.[6]
Reading, writing and arithmetic, he thinks, should be taught to all and
at the expense of the state. His opinions again on the constitutional
relations of the colonies to the mother country, already cited, were
completely opposed to those of his own period. For that view of his
character which while allowing him the merit of a brilliant political
theorist denies him the qualities of a man of action and of a practical
politician, there is no solid basis. The truth is that while his
political ideas are founded upon great moral or philosophical
generalizations, often vividly recalling and sometimes anticipating the
broad conceptions of Burke, they are at the same time imbued with
precisely those practical qualities which have ever been characteristic
of English statesmenship, and were always capable of application to
actual conditions. He was no star-gazing philosopher, with thoughts
superior to the contemplation of mundane affairs. He had no taste for
abstract political dogma. He seems to venture no further than to think
that "men should live in some competent state of freedom," and that the
limited monarchical and aristocratic government was the best adapted for
his country. "Circumstances," he writes in the _Rough Draft of a New
Model at Sea_, "must come in and are to be made a part of the matter of
which we are to judge; positive decisions are always dangerous, more
especially in politics." Nor was he the mere literary student buried in
books and in contemplative ease. He had none of the "indecisiveness
which commonly renders literary men of no use in the world" (Sir John
Dalrymple). The incidents of his career show that there was no
backwardness or hesitation in acting when occasion required. The
constant tendency of his mind towards antithesis and the balancing of
opinions did not lead to paralysis in time of action. He did not shrink
from responsibility, nor show on any occasion lack of courage. At
various times of crisis he proved himself a great leader. He returned to
public life to defeat the Exclusion Bill. At the revolution it was
Halifax who seized the reins of government, flung away by James, and
maintained public security. His subsequent failure in collaborating with
William is, it is true, disappointing. But the cause was one that has
not perhaps received sufficient attention. Party government had come to
the birth during the struggles over the Exclusion Bill, and there had
been unconsciously introduced into politics a novel element of which the
nature and importance were not understood or suspected. Halifax had
consistently ignored and neglected party; and it now had its revenge.
Detested by the Whigs and by the Tories alike, and defended by neither,
the favour alone of the king and his own transcendent abilities proved
insufficient to withstand the constant and violent attacks made upon him
in parliament, and he yielded to the superior force. He seems indeed
himself to have been at last convinced of the necessity in English
political life of party government, for though in his Cautions to
electors he warns them against men "tied to a party," yet in his last
words he declares "If there are two parties a man ought to adhere to
that which he disliked least though in the whole he doth not approve it;
for whilst he doth not list himself in one or the other party, he is
looked upon as such a straggler that he is fallen upon by both.... Happy
those that are convinced so as to be of the general opinions"
(_Political Thoughts and Reflections of Parties_).

The private character of Lord Halifax was in harmony with the greatness
of his public career. He was by no means the "voluptuary" described by
Macaulay. He was on the contrary free from self-indulgence; his manner
of life was decent and frugal, and his dress proverbially simple. He was
an affectionate father and husband. "His heart," says Burnet (i.
492-493, ed. 1833), "was much set on raising his family"--his last
concern even while on his deathbed was the remarriage of his son Lord
Eland to perpetuate his name; and this is probably the cause of his
acceptance of so many titles for which he himself affected a
philosophical indifference. He was estimable in his social relations and
habits. He showed throughout his career an honourable independence, and
was never seen to worship the rising sun. In a period when even great
men stooped to accept bribes, Halifax was known to be incorruptible; at
a time when animosities were especially bitter, he was too great a man
to harbour resentments. "Not only from policy," says Reresby (_Mem._ p.
231), "(which teaches that we ought to let no man be our enemy when we
can help it), but from his disposition I never saw any man more ready to
forgive than himself." Few were insensible to his personal charm and
gaiety. He excelled especially in quick repartee, in "exquisite
nonsense," and in spontaneous humour. When quite a young man, just
entering upon political life he is described by Evelyn as "a witty
gentleman, if not a little too prompt and daring." The latter
characteristic was not moderated by time but remained through life. He
was incapable of controlling his spirit of raillery, from jests on
Siamese missionaries to sarcasms at the expense of the heir to the
throne and ridicule of hereditary monarchy, and his brilliant paradoxes,
his pungent and often profane epigrams were received by graver persons
as his real opinions and as evidences of atheism. This latter charge he
repudiated, assuring Burnet that he was "a Christian in submission," but
that he could not digest iron like an ostrich nor swallow all that the
divines sought to impose upon the world.

The speeches of Halifax have not been preserved, and his political
writings on this account have all the greater value. _The Character of a
Trimmer_ (1684 or 1685), the authorship of which, long doubtful, is now
established,[7] was his most ambitious production, written seemingly as
advice to the king and as a manifesto of his own opinions. In it he
discusses the political problems of the time and their solution on broad
principles. He supports the Test Act and, while opposing the Indulgence,
is not hostile to the repeal of the penal laws against the Roman
Catholics by parliament. Turning to foreign affairs he contemplates with
consternation the growing power of France and the humiliation of
England, exclaiming indignantly at the sight of the "Roses blasted and
discoloured while lilies triumph and grow insolent upon the comparison."
The whole is a masterly and comprehensive summary of the actual
political situation and its exigencies; while, when he treats such
themes as liberty, or discusses the balance to be maintained between
freedom and government in the constitution, he rises to the political
idealism of Bolingbroke and Burke. _The Character of King Charles II._
(printed 1750), to be compared with his earlier sketch of the king in
the _Character of a Trimmer_, is perhaps from the literary point of view
the most admirable of his writings. The famous _Letter to a Dissenter_
(1687) was thought by Sir James Mackintosh to be unrivalled as a
political pamphlet. _The Lady's New Year's Gift: or Advice to a
Daughter_, refers to his daughter Elizabeth, afterwards wife of the 3rd
and mother of the celebrated 4th earl of Chesterfield (1688). In _The
Anatomy of an Equivalent_ (1688) he treats with keen wit and power of
analysis the proposal to grant a "perpetual edict" in favour of the
Established Church in return for the repeal of the test and penal laws.
_Maxims of State_ appeared about 1692. _The Rough Draft of a New Model
at Sea_ (c. 1694), though apparently only a fragment, is one of the most
interesting and characteristic of his writings. It opens with the
question: "'What shall we do to be saved in this world?' There is no
other answer but this, 'Look to your moat.' The first article of an
Englishman's political creed must be that he believeth in the sea." He
discusses the naval establishment, not from the naval point of view
alone, but from the general aspect of the constitution of which it is a
detail, and is thus led on to consider the nature of the constitution
itself, and to show that it is not an artificial structure but a growth
and product of the natural character. We may also mention _Some
Cautions_ to the electors of the parliament (1694), and _Political,
Moral and Miscellaneous Thoughts and Reflections_ (n.d.), a collection
of aphorisms in the style of the maxims of La Rochefoucauld, inferior in
style--but greatly excelling the French author in breadth of view and in
moderation. (For other writings attributed to Halifax, see Foxcroft,
_Life of Sir G. Savile_, ii. 529 sqq.).

Halifax was twice married, first in 1656 to the Lady Dorothy
Spencer--daughter of the 1st earl of Sunderland and of Dorothy Sidney,
"Sacharissa"--who died in 1670, leaving a family; and secondly, in 1672,
to Gertrude, daughter of William Pierrepont of Thoresby, who survived
him, and by whom he had one daughter, Elizabeth, Lady Chesterfield, who
seems to have inherited a considerable portion of her father's
intellectual abilities. On the death of his son William, 2nd marquess of
Halifax, in August 1700 without male issue, the peerage became extinct,
and the baronetcy passed to the Saviles of Lupset, the whole male line
of the Savile family ending in the person of Sir George Savile, 8th
baronet, in 1784. Henry Savile, British envoy at Versailles, who died
unmarried in 1687, was a younger brother of the first marquess. Halifax
has been generally supposed to have been the father of the illegitimate
Henry Carey, the poet, but this is doubtful.

  See _Life and Letters of Sir George Savile, 1st Marquis of Halifax_ (2
  vols., 1898), by Miss H. C. Foxcroft, who has collected and made
  excellent use of all the material available at that date, including
  hitherto unexplored Savile MSS., at Devonshire House, in the Spencer
  Archives, in the Longleat and other collections, and who has edited
  the works of Halifax and printed a memorandum of conversations with
  King William of 1688-1690, left in MS. by Halifax. Macaulay, in his
  _History of England_, misjudged Halifax on some points, but
  nevertheless understood and did justice to the greatness of his
  statesmanship, and pronounced on him a well-merited and eloquent
  eulogy (iv. 545). Contemporary characters of Halifax which must be
  accepted with caution are Burnet's in the _History of His Own Times_
  (ed. 1833, vol. i. pp. 491-493, and iv. 268), that by the author of
  "Savilianal," identified as William Mompesson, and "Sacellum
  Apollinare," a panegyric in verse by Elkanah Settle (1695).
       (P. C. Y.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] _Cal. State Papers, Dom._ (Nov. 1667-Sep. 1668). p. 106.

  [2] _Lords' Journals_, 12, p. 567; _Savile Correspondence_, ed. by W.
    D. Cooper, p. 136; "Character of a Trimmer," in _Life of Sir G.
    Savile_, by H. C. Foxcroft, ii. 316.

  [3] Foxcroft i. 160, where Hallam is quoted to this effect.

  [4] _Hist. MSS. Comm. House of Lords MSS._ 1689-1690, p. 287.

  [5] _Character of a Trimmer_, conclusion.

  [6] Saviliana quoted by Foxcroft i. 115.

  [7] Foxcroft, ii. 273 et seq., and _Hist. MSS. Comm. MSS._ of F. W.
    Leyborne-Popham, p. 264.



HALIFAX, a city and port of entry, capital of the province of Nova
Scotia, Canada. It is situated in 44° 59´ N. and 63° 35´ W., on the
south-east coast of the province, on a fortified hill, 225 ft. in
height, which slopes down to the waters of Chebucto Bay, now known as
Halifax Harbour. The harbour, which is open all the year, is about 6 m.
long by 1 m. in width, and has excellent anchorage in all parts; to the
north a narrow passage connects it with Bedford Basin, 6 m. in length by
4 m., and deep enough for the largest men-of-war. At the harbour mouth
lies McNab's Island, thus forming two entrances; the eastern passage is
only employed by small vessels, though in 1862 the Confederate cruiser,
"Tallahassee," slipped through by night, and escaped the northern
vessels which were watching off the western entrance. The population in
1901 was 40,832.

The town was originally built of wood, plastered or stuccoed, but though
the wooden houses largely remain, the public buildings are of stone.
Inferior in natural strength to Quebec alone, the city and its
approaches have been fortified till it has become the strongest position
in Canada, and one of the strongest in the British Empire. Till 1906 it
was garrisoned by British troops, but in that year, with Esquimalt, on
the Pacific coast, it was taken over by the Canadian government, an
operation necessitating a large increase in the Canadian permanent
military force. At the same time, the royal dockyard, containing a
dry-dock 610 ft. in length, and the residences in connexion, were also
taken over for the use of the department of marine and fisheries. Till
1905 Halifax was the summer station of the British North American
squadron. In that year, in consequence of a redistribution of the fleet,
the permanent North American squadron was withdrawn; but Halifax is
still visited periodically by powerful squadrons of cruisers.

Though, owing to the growth of Sydney and other outports, it no longer
monopolizes the foreign trade of the province, Halifax is still a
thriving town, and has the largest export trade of the Dominion in fish
and fish products, the export of fish alone, in 1904, amounting to over
three-fifths that of the entire Dominion. Lumber (chiefly spruce deals)
and agricultural products (especially apples) are also exported in large
quantities. The chief imports are manufactures from Great Britain and
the United States, and sugar, molasses, rum and fruit from the West
Indies. Its industrial establishments include foundries, sugar
refineries, manufactures of furniture and other articles of wood, a
skate factory and rope and cordage works, the produce of which are all
exported. It is the Atlantic terminus of the Intercolonial, Canadian
Pacific and several provincial railways, and the chief winter port of
Canada, numerous steamship lines connecting it with Great Britain,
Europe, the West Indies and the United States. The public gardens,
covering 14 acres, and Point Pleasant Park, left to a great extent in
its natural state, are extremely beautiful. Behind the city is an arm of
the sea (known as the North-West Arm), 5 m. in length and 1 m. in
breadth, with high, well-wooded shores, and covered in summer with
canoes and sailing craft. The educational institutions include a
ladies' college, several convents, a Presbyterian theological college
and Dalhousie University, with faculties of arts, law, medicine and
science. Established by charter in 1818 by the earl of Dalhousie, then
lieutenant governor, and reorganized in 1863, it has since become much
the most important seat of learning in the maritime provinces. Other
prominent buildings are Government House, the provincial parliament and
library, and the Roman Catholic cathedral. St Paul's church (Anglican)
dates from 1750, and though not striking architecturally, is interesting
from the memorial tablets and the graves of celebrated Nova Scotians
which it contains. The city is the seat of the Anglican bishop of Nova
Scotia and Prince Edward Island, and of the Roman Catholic bishop of
Halifax.

Founded in 1749 by the Hon. Edward Cornwallis as a rival to the French
town of Louisburg in Cape Breton, it was named after the 2nd earl of
Halifax, president of the board of trade and plantations. In the
following year it superseded Annapolis as capital of the province. Its
privateers played a prominent part in the war of 1812-15 with the United
States, and during the American Civil War it was a favourite base of
operations for Confederate blockade-runners. The federation of the North
American provinces in 1867 lessened its relative importance, but its
merchants have gradually adapted themselves to the altered conditions.



HALIFAX, a municipal, county and parliamentary borough in the West
Riding of Yorkshire, England, 194 m. N.N.W. from London and 7 m. S.W.
from Bradford, on the Great Northern and the Lancashire & Yorkshire
railways. Pop. (1891), 97,714; (1901) 104,936. It lies in a bare hilly
district on and above the small river Hebble near its junction with the
Calder. Its appearance is in the main modern, though a few picturesque
old houses remain. The North Bridge, a fine iron structure, spans the
valley, giving connexion between the opposite higher parts of the town.
The principal public building is the town hall, completed in 1863 after
the designs of Sir Charles Barry; it is a handsome Palladian building
with a tower. Of churches the most noteworthy is that of St John the
Baptist, the parish church, a Perpendicular building with lofty western
tower. Two earlier churches are traceable on this side, the first
perhaps pre-Norman, the second of the Early English period. The old
woodwork is fine, part being Perpendicular, but the greater portion
dates from 1621. All Souls' church was built in 1859 from the designs of
Sir Gilbert Scott, of whose work it is a good example, at the expense of
Mr Edward Akroyd. The style is early Decorated, and a rich ornamentation
is carried out in Italian marble, serpentine and alabaster. A graceful
tower and spire 236 ft. high rise at the north-west angle. The Square
chapel, erected by the Congregationalists in 1857, is a striking
cruciform building with a tower and elaborate crocketed spire. Both the
central library and museum and the Akroyd museum and art gallery occupy
buildings which were formerly residences, the one of Sir Francis
Crossley (1817-1872) and the other of Mr Edward Akroyd. Among charitable
institutions the principal is the handsome royal infirmary, a
Renaissance building. The Heath grammar school was founded in 1585 under
royal charter for instruction in classical languages. It possesses close
scholarships at Oxford and Cambridge universities. The Waterhouse
charity school occupies a handsome set of buildings forming three sides
of a quadrangle, erected in 1855. The Crossley almshouses were erected
and endowed by Sir Francis and Mr Joseph Crossley, who also endowed the
Crossley orphan home and school. Technical schools are maintained by the
corporation. Among other public buildings may be noted the Piece-Hall,
erected in 1799 for the lodgment and sale of piece goods, now used as a
market, a great quadrangular structure occupying more than two acres;
the bonding warehouse, court-house, and mechanics' institute. There are
six parks, of which the People's Park of 12½ acres, presented by Sir
Francis Crossley in 1858, is laid out in ornate style from designs by
Sir Joseph Paxton.

Halifax ranks with Leeds, Bradford and Huddersfield as a seat of the
woollen and worsted manufacture. The manufacture of carpets is a large
industry, one establishment employing some 5000 hands. The worsted,
woollen and cotton industries, and the iron, steel and machinery
manufactures are very extensive. There are collieries and freestone
quarries in the neighbourhood.

The parliamentary borough returns two members. The county borough was
created in 1888. The municipal borough is under a mayor, 15 aldermen and
45 councillors. Area, 13,967 acres.

At the time of the Conquest Halifax formed part of the extensive manor
of Wakefield, which belonged to the king, but in the 13th century was in
the hands of John, earl Warrenne (c. 1245-1305). The prosperity of the
town began with the introduction of the cloth trade in the 15th century,
when there are said to have been only thirteen houses, which before the
end of the 16th century had increased to 520. Camden, about the end of
the 17th century, wrote that "the people are very industrious, so that
though the soil about it be barren and improfitable, not fit to live on,
they have so flourished ... by the clothing trade that they are very
rich and have gained a reputation for it above their neighbours." The
trade is said to have been increased by the arrival of certain merchants
driven from the Netherlands by the persecution of the duke of Alva.
Among the curious customs of Halifax was the Gibbet Law, which was
probably established by a prescriptive right to protect the wool trade,
and gave the inhabitants the power of executing any one taken within
their liberty, who, when tried by a jury of sixteen of the
frith-burgesses, was found guilty of the theft of any goods of the value
of more than 13d. The executions took place on market days on a hill
outside the town, the gibbet somewhat resembling a guillotine. The first
execution recorded under this law took place in 1541, and the right was
exercised in Halifax longer than in any other town, the last execution
taking place in 1650. In 1635 the king granted the inhabitants of
Halifax licence to found a workhouse in a large house given to them for
that purpose by Nathaniel Waterhouse, and incorporated them under the
name of the master and governors. Nathaniel Waterhouse was appointed the
first master, his successors being elected every year by the twelve
governors from among themselves. Halifax was a borough by prescription,
its privileges growing up with the increased prosperity brought by the
cloth trade, but it was not incorporated until 1848. Since the Reform
Act of 1832 the burgesses have returned two members to parliament. In
1607 David Waterhouse, lord of the manor of Halifax, obtained a grant of
two markets there every week on Friday and Saturday and two fairs every
year, each lasting three days, one beginning on the 24th of June, the
other on the 11th of November. Later these fairs and markets were
confirmed with the addition of an extra market on Thursday to Sir
William Ayloffe, baronet, who had succeeded David Waterhouse as lord of
the manor. The market rights were sold to the Markets Company in 1810
and purchased from them by the corporation in 1853.

During the Civil War Halifax was garrisoned by parliament, and a field
near it is still called the Bloody Field on account of an engagement
which took place there between the forces of parliament and the
Royalists.

  See _Victoria County History_, "Yorkshire"; T. Wright, _The
  Antiquities of the Town of Halifax_ (Leeds, 1738); John Watson, _The
  History and Antiquities of the Parish of Halifax_ (London, 1775); John
  Crabtree, _A Concise History of the Parish and Vicarage of Halifax_
  (Halifax and London, 1836).



HALISAH (Hebrew, [Hebrew: halitza] "untying"), the ceremony by which a
Jewish widow releases her brother-in-law from the obligation to marry
her in accordance with Deuteronomy xxv. 5-10, and obtains her own
freedom to remarry. By the law of Moses it became obligatory upon the
brother of a man dying childless to take his widow as wife. If he
refused, "then shall his brother's wife come unto him in the presence of
the elders and loose his shoe from off his foot, and spit in his face,
and shall answer and say, So shall it be done unto that man that will
not build up his brother's house." By Rabbinical law the ceremony was
later made more complex. The parties appear before a court of three
elders with two assessors. The place is usually the synagogue house, or
that of the Rabbi, sometimes that of the widow. After inquiry as to the
relationship of the parties and their status (for if either be a minor
or deformed, halisah cannot take place), the shoe is produced. It is
usually the property of the community and made entirely of leather from
the skin of a "clean" animal. It is of two pieces, the upper part and
the sole, sewn together with leathern threads. It has three small straps
in front, and two white straps to bind it on the leg. After it is
strapped on, the man must walk four cubits in the presence of the court.
The widow then loosens and removes the shoe, throwing it some distance,
and spits on the ground, repeating thrice the Biblical formula "So shall
it be done," &c. Halisah, which is still common among orthodox Jews,
must not take place on the Sabbath, a holiday, or the eve of either, or
in the evening. To prevent brothers-in-law from extorting money from a
widow as a price for releasing her from perpetual widowhood, Jewish law
obliges all brothers at the time of a marriage to sign a document
pledging themselves to submit to halisah without payment. (Compare
LEVIRATE).



HALKETT, HUGH, FREIHERR VON (1783-1863), British soldier and general of
infantry in the Hanoverian service, was the second son of Major-General
F. G. Halkett, who had served many years in the army, and whose
ancestors had for several generations distinguished themselves in
foreign services. With the "Scotch Brigade" which his father had been
largely instrumental in raising, Hugh Halkett served in India from 1798
to 1801. In 1803 his elder brother Colin was appointed to command a
battalion of the newly formed King's German Legion, and in this he
became senior captain and then major. Under his brother's command he
served with Cathcart's expeditions to Hanover, Rügen and Copenhagen,
where his bold initiative on outpost duty won commendation. He was in
the Peninsula in 1808-1809, and at Walcheren. At Albuera, Salamanca,
&c., he commanded the 2nd Light Infantry Battalion, K.G.L., in
succession to his brother, and at Venta del Pozo in the Burgos retreat
he greatly distinguished himself. In 1813 he left the Peninsula and was
subsequently employed in the organization of the new Hanoverian army. He
led a brigade of these troops in Count Wallmoden's army, and bore a
marked part in the battle of Göhrde and the action of Schestedt, where
he took with his own hand a Danish standard. In the Waterloo campaign he
commanded two brigades of Hanoverian militia which were sent to the
front with the regulars, and during the fight with the Old Guard
captured General Cambronne. After the fall of Napoleon he elected to
stay in the Hanoverian service, though he retained his half-pay
lieutenant-colonelcy in the English army. He rose to be general and
inspector-general of infantry. In his old age he led the Xth Federal
Army Corps in the Danish War of 1848, and defeated the Danes at Oversee.
He had the G.C.H., the C.B. and many foreign orders, including the
Prussian order of the Black Eagle and _pour le Mérite_ and the Russian
St Anne.

  See Knesebeck, _Leben des Freiherrn Hugh von Halkett_ (Stuttgart,
  1865).

His brother, SIR COLIN HALKETT (1774-1856), British soldier, began his
military career in the Dutch Guards and served in various "companies"
for three years, leaving as a captain in 1795. From 1800 to the peace of
Amiens he served with the Dutch troops in English pay in Guernsey. In
August 1803 Halkett was one of the first officers assigned to the
service of raising the King's German Legion, and he became major, and
later lieutenant-colonel, commanding the 2nd Light Infantry Battalion.
His battalion was employed in the various expeditions mentioned above,
from Hanover to Walcheren, and in 1811 Colin Halkett succeeded Charles
Alten in the command of the Light Brigade, K.G.L., which he held
throughout the Peninsula War from Albuera to Toulouse. In 1815
Major-General Sir Colin Halkett commanded the 5th British Brigade of
Alten's division, and at Waterloo he received four wounds. Unlike his
brother, he remained in the British service, in which he rose to
general. At the time of his death he was governor of Chelsea hospital.
He had honorary general's rank in the Hanoverian service, the G.C.B. and
G.C.H., as well as numerous foreign orders.

  For information about both the Halketts, see Beamish, _History of the
  King's German Legion_ (1832).



HALL, BASIL (1788-1844), British naval officer, traveller and
miscellaneous writer, was born at Edinburgh on the 31st of December
1788. His father was Sir James Hall of Dunglass, the geologist. Basil
Hall was educated at the High School, Edinburgh, and in 1802 entered the
navy, where he rose to the rank of post-captain in 1817, after seeing
active service in several fields. By observing the ethnological as well
as the physical peculiarities of the countries he visited, he collected
the materials for a very large number of scientific papers. In 1816 he
commanded the sloop "Lyra," which accompanied Lord Amherst's embassy to
China; and he described his cruise in _An Account of a Voyage of
Discovery to the West Coast of Corea and the Great Loo-choo Island in
the Japan Sea_ (London, 1818). In 1820 he held a command on the Pacific
coast of America, and in 1824 published two volumes of _Extracts from a
Journal written on the Coasts of Chili, Peru and Mexico in the Years
1820-21-22_. Retiring on half-pay in 1824, Hall in 1825 married
Margaret, daughter of Sir John Hunter, and in her company travelled
(1827-1828) through the United States. In 1829 he published his _Travels
in North America in the Years 1827 and 1828_, which was assailed by the
American press for its views of American society. _Schloss Hainfeld, or
a Winter in Lower Styria_ (1836), is partly a romance, partly a
description of a visit paid by the author to the castle of the countess
Purgstall. _Spain and the Seat of War in Spain_ appeared in 1837. _The
Fragments of Voyages and Travels_ (9 vols.) were issued in three
detachments between 1831 and 1840. Captain Hall was a fellow of the
Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh, and of the Royal Astronomical,
Royal Geographical and Geological Societies. His last work, a collection
of sketches and tales under the name of _Patchwork_ (1841), had not been
long published before its author became insane, and he died in Haslar
hospital, Portsmouth, on the 11th of September 1844.



HALL, CARL CHRISTIAN (1812-1888), Danish statesman, son of the highly
respected artisan and train-band colonel Mads Hall, was born at
Christianshavn on the 25th of February 1812. After a distinguished
career at school and college, he adopted the law as his profession, and
in 1837 married the highly gifted but eccentric Augusta Marie, daughter
of the philologist Peter Oluf Bröndsted. A natural conservatism
indisposed Hall at first to take any part in the popular movement of
1848, to which almost all his friends had already adhered; but the
moment he was convinced of the inevitability of popular government, he
resolutely and sympathetically followed in the new paths. Sent to the
_Rigsforsamling_ of 1848 as member for the first district of Copenhagen,
a constituency he continued to represent in the _Folketing_ till 1881,
he immediately took his place in the front rank of Danish politicians.
From the first he displayed rare ability as a debater, his inspiring and
yet amiable personality attracted hosts of admirers, while his
extraordinary tact and temper disarmed opposition and enabled him to
mediate between extremes without ever sacrificing principles.

Hall was not altogether satisfied with the fundamental law of June; but
he considered it expedient to make the best use possible of the existing
constitution and to unite the best conservative elements of the nation
in its defence. The aloofness and sulkiness of the aristocrats and
landed proprietors he deeply deplored. Failing to rally them to the good
cause he determined anyhow to organize the great cultivated middle class
into a political party. Hence the "June Union," whose programme was
progress and reform in the spirit of the constitution, and at the same
time opposition to the one-sided democratism and party-tyranny of the
_Bondevenner_ or peasant party. The "Union" exercised an essential
influence on the elections of 1852, and was, in fact, the beginning of
the national Liberal party, which found its natural leader in Hall.
During the years 1852-1854 the burning question of the day was the
connexion between the various parts of the monarchy. Hall was
"eiderdansk" by conviction. He saw in the closest possible union
between the kingdom and a Schleswig freed from all risk of German
interference the essential condition for Denmark's independence; but he
did not think that Denmark was strong enough to carry such a policy
through unsupported, and he was therefore inclined to promote it by
diplomatic means and international combinations, and strongly opposed to
the Conventions of 1851-1852 (See DENMARK: _History_), though he was
among the first, subsequently, to accept them as an established fact and
the future basis for Denmark's policy.

Hall first took office in the Bang administration (12th of December
1854) as minister of public worship. In May 1857 he became president of
the council after Andrae, Bang's successor, had retired, and in July
1858 he exchanged the ministry of public worship for the ministry of
foreign affairs, while still retaining the premiership.

Hall's programme, "den Konstitutionelle Helstat," i.e. a single state
with a common constitution, was difficult enough in a monarchy which
included two nationalities, one of which, to a great extent, belonged to
a foreign and hostile jurisdiction. But as this political monstrosity
had already been guaranteed by the Conventions of 1851-1852, Hall could
not rid himself of it, and the attempt to establish this "Helstat" was
made accordingly by the Constitution of the 13th of November 1863. The
failure of the attempt and its disastrous consequences for Denmark are
described elsewhere. Here it need only be said that Hall himself soon
became aware of the impossibility of the "Helstat," and his whole policy
aimed at making its absurdity patent to Europe, and substituting for it
a constitutional Denmark to the Eider which would be in a position to
come to terms with an independent Holstein. That this was the best thing
possible for Denmark is absolutely indisputable, and "the diplomatic
Seven Years' War" which Hall in the meantime conducted with all the
powers interested in the question is the most striking proof of his
superior statesmanship. Hall knew that in the last resort the question
must be decided not by the pen but by the sword. But he relied,
ultimately, on the protection of the powers which had guaranteed the
integrity of Denmark by the treaty of London, and if words have any
meaning at all he had the right to expect at the very least the armed
support of Great Britain.[1] But the great German powers and the force
of circumstances proved too strong for him. On the accession of the new
king, Christian IX., Hall resigned rather than repeal the November
Constitution, which gave Denmark something to negotiate upon in case of
need. But he made matters as easy as he could for his successors in the
Monrad administration, and the ultimate catastrophe need not have been
as serious as it was had his advice, frankly given, been intelligently
followed.

After 1864 Hall bore more than his fair share of the odium and
condemnation which weighed so heavily upon the national Liberal party,
making no attempt to repudiate responsibility and refraining altogether
from attacking patently unscrupulous opponents. But his personal
popularity suffered not the slightest diminution, while his clear,
almost intuitive, outlook and his unconquerable faith in the future of
his country made him, during those difficult years, a factor of
incalculable importance in the public life of Denmark. In 1870 he joined
the Holstein-Holsteinborg ministry as minister of public worship, and in
that capacity passed many useful educational reforms, but on the fall of
the administration, in 1873, he retired altogether from public life. In
the summer of 1879 Hall was struck down by apoplexy, and for the
remaining nine years of his life he was practically bedridden. He died
on the 14th of August 1888. In politics Hall was a practical, sagacious
"opportunist," in the best sense of that much abused word, with an eye
rather for things than for persons. Moreover, he had no very pronounced
political ambition, and was an utter stranger to that longing for power,
which drives so many men of talent to adopt extreme expedients. His
urbanity and perfect equilibrium at the very outset incited sympathy,
while his wit and humour made him the centre of every circle within
which he moved.

  See Vilhelm Christian Sigurd Topsöe, _Polit. Portraetstudier_
  (Copenhagen, 1878); Schöller Parelius Vilhelm Birkedal, _Personlige
  Oplevelser_ (Copenhagen, 1890-1891).     (R. N. B.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] On this head see the 3rd marquess of Salisbury's _Political
    Essays_, reprinted from the _Quarterly Review_.



HALL, CHARLES FRANCIS (1821-1871), American Arctic explorer, was born at
Rochester, New Hampshire. After following the trade of blacksmith he
became a journalist in Cincinnati; but his enthusiasm for Arctic
exploration led him in 1859 to volunteer to the American Geographical
Society to "go in search for the bones of Franklin." With the proceeds
of a public subscription he was equipped for his expedition and sailed
in May 1860 on board a whaling vessel. The whaler being ice-bound, Hall
took up his abode in the regions to the north of Hudson Bay, where he
found relics of Frobisher's 16th-century voyages, and living with the
Eskimo for two years he acquired a considerable knowledge of their
habits and language. He published an account of these experiences under
the title of _Arctic Researches, and Life among the Esquimaux_ (1864).
Determined, however, to learn more about the fate of the Franklin
expedition he returned to the same regions in 1864, and passing five
years among the Eskimo was successful in obtaining a number of Franklin
relics, as well as information pointing to the exact fate of 76 of the
crew, whilst also performing some geographical work of interest. In 1871
he was given command of the North Polar expedition fitted out by the
United States Government in the "Polaris." Making a remarkably rapid
passage up Smith Sound at the head of Baffin Bay, which was found to be
ice-free, the "Polaris" reached on the 30th of August the lat. of 82°
11´, at that time, and until the English expedition of 1876 the highest
northern latitude attained by vessel. The expedition went into winter
quarters in a sheltered cove on the Greenland coast. On the 24th of
October, Hall on his return from a successful sledge expedition to the
north was suddenly seized by an illness of which he died on the 8th of
November. Capt. S. O. Buddington (1823-1888) assumed command, and
although the "Polaris" was subsequently lost after breaking out of the
ice, with only part of the crew aboard, the whole were ultimately
rescued, and the scientific results of the expedition proved to be of
considerable importance.



HALL, CHRISTOPHER NEWMAN (1816-1902), English Nonconformist divine, was
born at Maidstone on the 22nd of May 1816. His father was John Vine
Hall, proprietor and printer of the _Maidstone Journal_, and the author
of a popular evangelical work called _The Sinner's Friend_. Christopher
was educated at University College, London, and took the London B.A.
degree. His theological training was gained at Highbury College, whence
he was called in 1842 to his first pastorate at the Albion
Congregational Church, Hull. During the twelve years of his ministry
there the membership was greatly increased, and a branch chapel and
school were opened. At Hull Newman Hall first began his active work in
temperance reform, and in defence of his position wrote _The Scriptural
Claims of Teetotalism_. In 1854 he accepted a call to Surrey chapel,
London, founded in 1783 by the Rev. Rowland Hill. A considerable sum had
been bequeathed by Hill for the perpetuation of his work on the
expiration of the lease; but, owing to some legal flaw in the will, the
money was not available, and Newman Hall undertook to raise the
necessary funds for a new church. By weekly offertories and donations
the money for the beautiful building called Christ Church at the
junction of the Kennington and Westminster Bridge Roads was collected,
and within four years of opening (1876) the total cost (£63,000) was
cleared. In 1892 Newman Hall resigned his charge and devoted himself to
general evangelical work. Most of his writings are small booklets or
tracts of a distinctly evangelical character. The best known of these is
_Come to Jesus_, of which over four million copies have been circulated
in forty different languages. Newman Hall visited the United States
during the Civil War, and did much to promote a friendly understanding
between England and America. A Liberal in politics, and a keen admirer
of John Bright, few preachers of any denomination have exercised so
far-reaching an influence as the "Dissenters' Bishop," as he came to be
termed. He died on the 18th of February 1902.

  See his _Autobiography_ (1898); obituary notice in _The Congregational
  Year Book_ for 1903.



HALL, EDWARD (c. 1498-1547), English chronicler and lawyer, was born
about the end of the 15th century, being a son of John Hall of Northall,
Shropshire. Educated at Eton and King's College, Cambridge, he became a
barrister and afterwards filled the offices of common sergeant of the
city of London and judge of the sheriff's court. He was also member of
parliament for Bridgnorth. Hall's great work, _The Union of the Noble
and Illustre Famelies of Lancastre and York_, commonly called _Hall's
Chronicle_, was first published in 1542. Another edition was issued by
Richard Grafton in 1548, the year after Hall's death, and another in
1550; these include a continuation from 1532 compiled by Grafton from
the author's notes. In 1809 an edition was published under the
supervision of Sir Henry Ellis, and in 1904 the part dealing with the
reign of Henry VIII. was edited by C. Whibley. The _Chronicle_ begins
with the accession of Henry IV. to the English throne in 1399; it
follows the strife between the houses of Lancaster and York, and with
Grafton's continuation carries the story down to the death of Henry
VIII. in 1547. Hall presents the policy of this king in a very
favourable light and shows his own sympathy with the Protestants. For
all kinds of ceremonial he has all a lawyer's respect, and his pages are
often adorned and encumbered with the pageantry and material garniture
of the story. The value of the _Chronicle_ in its early stages is not
great, but this increases when dealing with the reign of Henry VII. and
is very considerable for the reign of Henry VIII. Moreover, the work is
not only valuable, it is attractive. To the historian it furnishes what
is evidently the testimony of an eye-witness on several matters of
importance which are neglected by other narrators; and to the student of
literature it has the exceptional interest of being one of the prime
sources of Shakespeare's historical plays.

  See J. Gairdner, _Early Chroniclers of Europe; England_ (1879).



HALL, FITZEDWARD (1825-1901), American Orientalist, was born in Troy,
New York, on the 21st of March 1825. He graduated with the degree of
civil engineer from the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute at Troy in
1842, and entered Harvard in the class of 1846; just before his class
graduated he left college and went to India in search of a runaway
brother. In January 1850 he was appointed tutor, and in 1853 professor
of Sanskrit and English, in the government college at Benares; and in
1855 was made inspector of public instruction in Ajmere-Merwara and in
1856 in the Central Provinces. He settled in England in 1862 and
received the appointment to the chair of Sanskrit, Hindustani and Indian
jurisprudence in King's College, London, and to the librarianship of the
India Office. He died at Marlesford, Suffolk, on the 1st of February
1901. Hall was the first American to edit a Sanskrit text, the
_Vishnupurana_; his library of a thousand Oriental MSS. he gave to
Harvard University.

  His works include: in Sanskrit, _Atmabodha_ (1852),
  _Sankhyapravachana_ (1856), _Saryasiddhanta_ (1859), _Vasavadattu_
  (1859), _Sankhyasara_ (1862) and _Dasarupa_ (1865); in Hindi,
  Ballantynes' _Hindi Grammar_ (1868) and a _Reader_ (1870); on English
  philology, _Recent Exemplifications of False Philology_ (1872),
  attacking Richard Grant White, _Modern English_ (1873), "On English
  Adjectives in -able, with Special Reference to Reliable" (_Am. Jour.
  Philology_, 1877), _Doctor Indoctus_ (1880).



HALL, ISAAC HOLLISTER (1837-1896), American Orientalist, was born in
Norwalk, Connecticut, on the 12th of December 1837. He graduated at
Hamilton College in 1859, was a tutor there in 1859-1863, graduated at
the Columbia Law School in 1865, practised law in New York City until
1875, and in 1875-1877 taught in the Syrian Protestant College at
Beirut, where he discovered a valuable Syriac manuscript of the
Philoxenian version of a large part of the New Testament, which he
published in part in facsimile in 1884. He worked with General di
Cesnola in classifying the famous Cypriote collection in the
Metropolitan Museum of New York City, and was a curator of that museum
from 1885 until his death in Mount Vernon, New York, on the 2nd of July
1896. He was an eminent authority on Oriental inscriptions. Following
the scanty clues given by George Smith and Samuel Birch, and working on
the data furnished by the di Cesnola collection, he succeeded about 1874
in deciphering an entire Cypriote inscription, and in establishing the
Hellenic character of the dialect and the syllabic nature of the script.

  His work in Cypriote epigraphy is described in his articles in
  _Scribner's Magazine_, vol. 20 (June, 1880), pp. 205-211 and in the
  _Journal of the American Oriental Society_, vol. 10, No. 2 (1880), pp.
  201-218. He published in facsimile the Antilegomena epistles (1886),
  which he deciphered from the W. F. Williams manuscript, and edited _A
  Critical Bibliography of the Greek New Testament as Published in
  America_ (1884).



HALL, SIR JAMES (1761-1832), Scottish geologist and physicist, eldest
son of Sir John Hall, Bart., was born at Dunglass on the 17th of January
1761; and became distinguished as the first to establish experimental
research as an aid to geological investigation. He was intimately
acquainted with James Hutton and John Playfair, and having studied rocks
in various parts of Europe he was eventually led to accept and to
demonstrate the truth of Hutton's views with regard to intrusive rocks.
He commenced a series of experiments to illustrate the fusion of rocks,
their vitreous and crystalline characters, and the influence of molten
rocks in altering adjacent strata. He thus assisted in proving that
granitic veins had been injected into overlying deposits after their
consolidation. He studied the volcanic rocks in Italy and recognized
that the old lava flows and the numerous dikes in Scotland must have had
a similar origin. He made further experiments to illustrate the
contortions of rocks. The results were brought before the Royal Society
of Edinburgh. He died at Edinburgh on the 23rd of June 1832. He
represented in parliament (1807-1812) the old borough of Michael in
Cornwall; he also wrote an Essay on the _Origin, History and Principles
of Gothic Architecture_ (1813).

His eldest son, John Hall (1787-1860), who succeeded him, was a Fellow
of the Royal Society; the second son, Captain Basil Hall (q.v.), was the
distinguished traveller; the third son, James Hall (1800-1854), was a
painter, art-patron, and a friend of Sir David Wilkie.



HALL, JAMES (1793-1868), American judge and man of letters, was born at
Philadelphia on the 19th of August 1793. After for some time prosecuting
the study of law, he in 1812 joined the army, and in the war with Great
Britain distinguished himself in engagements at Lundy's Lane, Niagara
and Fort Erie. On the conclusion of the war he accompanied an expedition
against Algiers, but in 1818 he resigned his commission, and continued
the study of law at Pittsburg. In 1820 he removed to Shawneetown,
Illinois, where he commenced practice at the bar and also edited the
_Illinois Gazette_. Soon after he was appointed public prosecutor of the
circuit, and in 1824 state circuit judge. In 1827 he became state
treasurer, and held that office till 1831, but he continued at the same
time his legal practice and also edited the _Illinois Intelligencer_.
Subsequently he became editor of the _Western Souvenir_, an annual
publication, and of the _Illinois Monthly Magazine_, afterwards the
_Western Monthly Magazine_. He died near Cincinnati on the 5th of July
1868.

  The following are his principal works:--_Letters from the West_,
  originally contributed to the _Portfolio_, and collected and published
  in London in 1828; _Legends of the West_ (1832); _The Soldier's Bride
  and other Tales_ (1832); _The Harpe's Head, a Legend of Kentucky_
  (1833); _Sketches of the West_ (2 vols., 1835); _Tales of the Border_
  (1835); _Notes on the Western States_ (1838); _History of the Indian
  Tribes_, in conjunction with T. L. M'Keeney (3 vols., 1838-1844); _The
  Wilderness and the War-Path_ (1845); _Romance of Western History_
  (1857).



HALL, JAMES (1811-1898). American geologist and palaeontologist, was
born at Hingham, Massachusetts, on the 12th of September 1811. In early
life he became attached to the study of natural history, and he
completed his education at the polytechnic institute at Troy in New
York, where he graduated in 1832, and afterwards became professor of
chemistry and natural science, and subsequently of geology. In 1836 he
was appointed one of the geologists on the Geological Survey of the
state of New York, and he was before long charged with the
palaeontological work. Eventually he became state geologist and director
of the museum of natural history at Albany. His published papers date
from 1836, and include numerous reports on the geology and palaeontology
of various portions of the United States and Canada. He dealt likewise
with physical geology, and in 1859 discussed the connexion between the
accumulation of sedimentary deposits and the elevation of
mountain-chains. His chief work was the description of the invertebrate
fossils of New York--in which he dealt with the graptolites,
brachiopods, mollusca, trilobites, echini and crinoids of the Palaeozoic
formations. The results were published in a series of quarto volumes
entitled _Palaeontology of New York_ (1847-1894), in which he was
assisted in course of time by R. P. Whitfield and J. M. Clarke. He
published also reports on the geology of Oregon and California (1845),
Utah (1852), Iowa (1859) and Wisconsin (1862). He received the Wollaston
medal from the Geological Society of London in 1858. He was a man of
great energy and untiring industry, and in 1897, when in his
eighty-sixth year, he journeyed to St Petersburg to take part in the
International Geological Congress, and then joined the excursion to the
Ural mountains. He died at Albany on the 7th of August 1898.

  See _Life and Work of James Hall_, by H. C. Hovey, _Amer. Geol._
  xxiii., 1899, p. 137 (portraits).



HALL, JOSEPH (1574-1656), English bishop and satirist, was born at
Bristow park, near Ashby de la Zouch, Leicestershire, on the 1st of July
1574. His father, John Hall, was agent in the town for Henry, earl of
Huntingdon, and his mother, Winifred Bambridge, was a pious lady, whom
her son compared to St Monica. Joseph Hall received his early education
at the local school, and was sent (1589) to Emmanuel College, Cambridge.
Hall was chosen for two years in succession to read the public lecture
on rhetoric in the schools, and in 1595 became fellow of his college.
During his residence at Cambridge he wrote his _Virgidemiarum_ (1597),
satires written after Latin models. The claim he put forward in the
prologue to be the earliest English satirist:--

  "I first adventure, follow me who list
   And be the second English satirist"--

gave bitter offence to John Marston, who attacks him in the satires
published in 1598. The archbishop of Canterbury gave an order (1599)
that Hall's satires should be burnt with works of John Marston, Marlowe,
Sir John Davies and others on the ground of licentiousness, but shortly
afterwards Hall's book, certainly unjustly condemned, was ordered to be
"staied at the press," which may be interpreted as reprieved (see _Notes
and Queries_, 3rd series, xii. 436). Having taken holy orders, Hall was
offered the mastership of Blundell's school, Tiverton, but he refused it
in favour of the living of Halsted, Essex, to which he was presented
(1601) by Sir Robert Drury. In his parish he had an opponent in a Mr
Lilly, whom he describes as "a witty and bold atheist." In 1603 he
married; and in 1605 he accompanied Sir Edmund Bacon to Spa, with the
special aim, he says, of acquainting himself with the state and practice
of the Romish Church. At Brussels he disputed at the Jesuit College on
the authentic character of modern miracles, and his inquiring and
argumentative disposition more than once threatened to produce serious
results, so that his patron at length requested him to abstain from
further discussion. His devotional writings had attracted the notice of
Henry, prince of Wales, who made him one of his chaplains (1608). In
1612 Lord Denny, afterwards earl of Norwich, gave him the curacy of
Waltham-Holy-Cross, Essex, and in the same year he received the degree
of D.D. Later he received the prebend of Willenhall in the collegiate
church of Wolverhampton, and in 1616 he accompanied James Hay, Lord
Doncaster, afterwards earl of Carlisle, to France, where he was sent to
congratulate Louis XIII. on his marriage, but Hall was compelled by
illness to return. In his absence the king nominated him dean of
Worcester, and in 1617 he accompanied James to Scotland, where he
defended the five points of ceremonial which the king desired to impose
upon the Scots. In the next year he was one of the English deputies at
the synod of Dort. In 1624 he refused the see of Gloucester, but in 1627
became bishop of Exeter.

He took an active part in the Arminian and Calvinist controversy in the
English church. He did his best in his _Via media, The Way of Peace_, to
persuade the two parties to accept a compromise. In spite of his
Calvinistic opinions he maintained that to acknowledge the errors which
had arisen in the Catholic Church did not necessarily imply disbelief in
her catholicity, and that the Church of England having repudiated these
errors should not deny the claims of the Roman Catholic Church on that
account. This view commended itself to Charles I. and his episcopal
advisers, but at the same time Archbishop Laud sent spies into Hall's
diocese to report on the Calvinistic tendencies of the bishop and his
lenience to the Puritan and low-church clergy. Hall says he was thrice
down on his knees to the King to answer Laud's accusations and at length
threatened to "cast up his rochet" rather than submit to them. He was,
however, amenable to criticism, and his defence of the English Church,
entitled _Episcopacy by Divine Right_ (1640), was twice revised at
Laud's dictation. This was followed by _An Humble Remonstrance to the
High Court of Parliament_ (1640 and 1641), an eloquent and forceful
defence of his order, which produced a retort from the syndicate of
Puritan divines, who wrote under the name of "Smectymnuus," and was
followed by a long controversy to which Milton contributed five
pamphlets, virulently attacking Hall and his early satires.

In 1641 Hall was translated to the see of Norwich, and in the same year
sat on the Lords' Committee on religion. On the 30th of December he was,
with other bishops, brought before the bar of the House of Lords to
answer a charge of high treason of which the Commons had voted them
guilty. They were finally convicted of an offence against the Statute of
Praemunire, and condemned to forfeit their estates, receiving a small
maintenance from the parliament. They were immured in the Tower from New
Year to Whitsuntide, when they were released on finding bail for £5000
each. On his release Hall proceeded to his new diocese at Norwich, the
revenues of which he seems for a time to have received, but in 1643,
when the property of the "malignants" was sequestrated, Hall was
mentioned by name. Mrs Hall had difficulty in securing a fifth of the
maintenance (£400) assigned to the bishop by the parliament; they were
eventually ejected from the palace, and the cathedral was dismantled.
Hall retired to the village of Higham, near Norwich, where he spent the
time preaching and writing until "he was first forbidden by man, and at
last disabled by God." He bore his many troubles and the additional
burden of much bodily suffering with sweetness and patience, dying on
the 8th of September 1656. Thomas Fuller says: "He was commonly called
our English Seneca, for the purenesse, plainnesse, and fulnesse of his
style. Not unhappy at _Controversies_, more happy at _Comments_, very
good in his _Characters_, better in his _Sermons_, best of all in his
_Meditations_."

  Bishop Hall's polemical writings, although vigorous and effective,
  were chiefly of ephemeral interest, but many of his devotional
  writings have been often reprinted. It is by his early work as the
  censor of morals and the unsparing critic of contemporary literary
  extravagance and affectations that he is best known. _Virgidemiarum._
  _Sixe Bookes. First three Bookes. Of Toothlesse Satyrs._ (1)
  _Poeticall_, (2) _Academicall_, (3) _Morall_ (1597) was followed by an
  amended edition in 1598, and in the same year by _Virgidemiarum_. _The
  three last bookes. Of byting Satyres_ (reprinted 1599). His claim to
  be reckoned the earliest English satirist, even in the formal sense,
  cannot be justified. Thomas Lodge, in his _Fig for Momus_ (1593), had
  written four satires in the manner of Horace, and John Marston and
  John Donne both wrote satires about the same time, although the
  publication was in both cases later than that of _Virgidemiae_. But if
  he was not the earliest, Hall was certainly one of the best. He writes
  in the heroic couplet, which he manoeuvres with great ease and
  smoothness. In the first book of his satires (_Poeticall_) he attacks
  the writers whose verses were devoted to licentious subjects, the
  bombast of _Tamburlaine_ and tragedies built on similar lines, the
  laments of the ghosts of the _Mirror for Magistrates_, the metrical
  eccentricities of Gabriel Harvey and Richard Stanyhurst, the
  extravagances of the sonneteers, and the sacred poets (Southwell is
  aimed at in "Now good St Peter weeps pure Helicon, And both the Mary's
  make a music moan"). In Book II. Satire 6 occurs the well-known
  description of the trencher-chaplain, who is tutor and hanger-on in a
  country manor. Among his other satirical portraits is that of the
  famished gallant, the guest of "Duke Humfray."[1] Book VI. consists of
  one long satire on the various vices and follies dealt with in the
  earlier books. If his prose is sometimes antithetical and obscure, his
  verse is remarkably free from the quips and conceits which mar so much
  contemporary poetry.

  He also wrote _The King's Prophecie; or Weeping Joy_ (1603), a
  gratulatory poem on the accession of James I.; _Epistles_, both the
  first and second volumes of which appeared in 1608 and a third in
  1611; _Characters of Virtues and Vices_ (1608), versified by Nahum
  Tate (1691); _Solomons Divine Arts ..._ (1609); and, probably _Mundus
  alter et idem sive Terra Australis antehac semper incognita ...
  lustrata_ (1605? and 1607), by "Mercurius Britannicus," translated
  into English by John Healy (1608) as _The Discovery of a New World or
  A Description of the South Indies ... by an English Mercury_. _Mundus
  alter_ is an excuse for a satirical description of London, with some
  criticism of the Romish church, its manners and customs, and is said
  to have furnished Swift with hints for _Gulliver's Travels_. It was
  not ascribed to him by name until 1674, when Thomas Hyde, the
  librarian of the Bodleian, identified "Mercurius Britannicus" with
  Joseph Hall. For the question of the authorship of this pamphlet, and
  the arguments that may be advanced in favour of the suggestion that it
  was written by Alberico Gentili, see E. A. Petherick, _Mundus alter et
  idem_, reprinted from the _Gentleman's Magazine_ (July 1896). His
  controversial writings, not already mentioned, include:--_A Common
  Apology ... against the Brownists_ (1610), in answer to John
  Robinson's _Censorious Epistle_; _The Olde Religion: A treatise,
  wherein is laid downe the true state of the difference betwixt the
  Reformed and the Romane Church; and the blame of this schisme is cast
  upon the true Authors ..._ (1628); _Columba Noae olivam adferens ..._,
  a sermon preached at St Paul's in 1623; _Episcopacie by Divine Right_
  (1640); _A Short Answer to the Vindication of Smectymnuus_ (1641); _A
  Modest Confutation of ... (Milton's) Animadversions_ (1642).

  His devotional works include:--_Holy Observations Lib. I. Some few of
  David's Psalmes Metaphrased_ (1607 and 1609); three centuries of
  _Meditations and Vowes, Divine and Morall_ (1606, 1607, 1609), edited
  by Charles Sayle (1901); _The Arte of Divine Meditation_ (1607);
  _Heaven upon Earth, or of True Peace and Tranquillitie of Mind_
  (1606), reprinted with some of his letters in John Wesley's _Christian
  Library_, vol. iv. (1819); _Occasional Meditations ..._ (1630), edited
  by his son Robert Hall; _Henochisme; or a Treatise showing how to walk
  with God_ (1639), translated from Bishop Hall's Latin by Moses Wall;
  _The Devout Soul; or Rules of Heavenly Devotion_ (1644), often since
  reprinted; _The Balm of Gilead ..._ (1646, 1752); _Christ Mysticall;
  or the blessed union of Christ and his Members_ (1647), of which
  General Gordon was a student (reprinted from Gordon's copy, 1893);
  _Susurrium cum Deo_ (1659); _The Great Mysterie of Godliness_ (1650);
  _Resolutions and Decisions of Divers Practicall cases of Conscience_
  (1649, 1650, 1654).

  AUTHORITIES.--The chief authority for Hall's biography is to be found
  in his autobiographical tracts: _Observations of some Specialities of
  Divine Providence in the Life of Joseph Hall, Bishop of Norwich,
  Written with his own hand_; and his _Hard Measure_, a reprint of which
  may be consulted in Dr Christopher Wordsworth's _Ecclesiastical
  Biography_. The best criticism of his satires is to be found in Thomas
  Warton's _History of English Poetry_, vol. iv. pp. 363-409 (ed.
  Hazlitt, 1871), where a comparison is instituted between Marston and
  Hall. In 1615 Hall published _A Recollection of such treatises as have
  been ... published ..._ (1615, 1617, 1621); in 1625 appeared his Works
  (reprinted 1627, 1628, 1634, 1662). The first complete _Works_
  appeared in 1808, edited by the Rev. Josiah Pratt. Other editions are
  by Peter Hall (1837) and by Philip Wynter (1863). See also _Bishop
  Hall, his Life and Times_ (1826), by Rev. John Jones; _Life of Joseph
  Hall_, by Rev. George Lewis (1886); A. B. Grosart, _The Complete Poems
  of Joseph Hall ... with introductions, &c._ (1879); _Satires, &c._
  (_Early English Poets_, ed. S. W. Singer, 1824). Many of Hall's works
  were translated into French, and some into Dutch, and there have been
  numerous selections from his devotional works.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The tomb of Sir John Beauchamp (d. 1358) in old St Paul's was
    commonly known, in error, as that of Duke Humphrey of Gloucester. "To
    dine with Duke Humphrey" was to go hungry among the debtors and
    beggars who frequented "Duke Humphrey's Walk" in the cathedral.



HALL, MARSHALL (1790-1857). English physiologist, was born on the 18th
of February 1790, at Basford, near Nottingham, where his father, Robert
Hall, was a cotton manufacturer. Having attended the Rev. J. Blanchard's
academy at Nottingham, he entered a chemist's shop at Newark, and in
1809 began to study medicine at Edinburgh University. In 1811 he was
elected senior president of the Royal Medical Society; the following
year he took the M.D. degree, and was immediately appointed resident
house physician to the Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh. This appointment he
resigned after two years, when he visited Paris and its medical schools,
and, on a walking tour, those also of Berlin and Göttingen. In 1817,
when he settled at Nottingham, he published his _Diagnosis_, and in 1818
he wrote the _Mimoses_, a work on the affections denominated bilious,
nervous, &c. The next year he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society
of Edinburgh, and in 1825 he became physician to the Nottingham general
hospital. In 1826 he removed to London, and in the following year he
published his _Commentaries_ on the more important diseases of females.
In 1830 he issued his _Observations on Blood-letting, founded on
researches on the morbid and curative effects of loss of blood_, which
were acknowledged by the medical profession to be of vast practical
value, and in 1831 his _Experimental Essay on the Circulation of the
Blood in the Capillary Vessels_, in which he showed that the
blood-channels intermediate between arteries and veins serve the office
of bringing the fluid blood into contact with the material tissues of
the system. In the following year he read before the Royal Society a
paper "On the inverse ratio which subsists between Respiration and
Irritability in the Animal Kingdom." His most important work in
physiology was concerned with the theory of reflex action, embodied in a
paper "On the reflex Function of the Medulla Oblongata and the Medulla
Spinalis" (1832), which was supplemented in 1837 by another "On the True
Spinal Marrow, and the Excito-motor System of Nerves." The "reflex
function" excited great attention on the continent of Europe, though in
England some of his papers were refused publication by the Royal
Society. Hall thus became the authority on the multiform deranged states
of health referable to an abnormal condition of the nervous system, and
he gained a large practice. His "ready method" for resuscitation in
drowning and other forms of suspended respiration has been the means of
saving innumerable lives. He died at Brighton of a throat affection,
aggravated by lecturing, on the 11th of August 1857.

  A list of his works and details of his "ready method," &c., are given
  in his _Memoirs_ by his widow (London, 1861).



HALL, ROBERT (1764-1831), English Baptist divine, was born on the 2nd of
May 1764, at Arnesby near Leicester, where his father, Robert Hall
(1728-1791), a man whose cast of mind in some respects resembled closely
that of the son, was pastor of a Baptist congregation. Robert was the
youngest of a family of fourteen. While still at the dame's school his
passion for books absorbed the greater part of his time, and in the
summer it was his custom after school hours to retire to the churchyard
with a volume, which he continued to peruse there till nightfall, making
out the meaning of the more difficult words with the help of a pocket
dictionary. From his sixth to his eleventh year he attended the school
of Mr Simmons at Wigston, a village four miles from Arnesby. There his
precocity assumed the exceptional form of an intense interest in
metaphysics, partly perhaps on account of the restricted character of
his father's library; and before he was nine years of age he had read
and re-read Jonathan Edwards's _Treatise on the Will_ and Butler's
_Analogy_. This incessant study at such an early period of life seems,
however, to have had an injurious influence on his health. After he left
Mr Simmons's school his appearance was so sickly as to awaken fears of
the presence of phthisis. In order, therefore, to obtain the benefit of
a change of air, he stayed for some time in the house of a gentleman
near Kettering, who with an impropriety which Hall himself afterwards
referred to as "egregious," prevailed upon the boy of eleven to give
occasional addresses at prayer meetings. As his health seemed rapidly to
recover, he was sent to a school at Northampton conducted by the Rev.
John Ryland, where he remained a year and a half, and "made great
progress in Latin and Greek." On leaving school he for some time studied
divinity under the direction of his father, and in October 1778 he
entered the Bristol academy for the preparation of students for the
Baptist ministry. Here the self-possession which had enabled him in his
twelfth year to address unfalteringly various audiences of grown-up
people seems to have strangely forsaken him; for when, in accordance
with the arrangements of the academy, his turn came to deliver an
address in the vestry of Broadmead chapel, he broke down on two
separate occasions and was unable to finish his discourse. On the 13th
of August 1780 he was set apart to the ministry, but he still continued
his studies at the academy; and in 1781, in accordance with the
provisions of an exhibition which he held, he entered King's College,
Aberdeen, where he took the degree of master of arts in March 1785. At
the university he was without a rival of his own standing in any of the
classes, distinguishing himself alike in classics, philosophy and
mathematics. He there formed the acquaintance of Mackintosh (afterwards
Sir James), who, though a year his junior in age, was a year his senior
as a student. While they remained at Aberdeen the two were inseparable,
reading together the best Greek authors, especially Plato, and
discussing, either during their walks by the sea-shore and the banks of
the Don or in their rooms until early morning, the most perplexed
questions in philosophy and religion.

During the vacation between his last two sessions at Aberdeen, Hall
acted as assistant pastor to Dr Evans at Broadmead chapel, Bristol, and
three months after leaving the university he was appointed classical
tutor in the Bristol academy, an office which he held for more than five
years. Even at this period his extraordinary eloquence had excited an
interest beyond the bounds of the denomination to which he belonged, and
when he preached the chapel was generally crowded to excess, the
audience including many persons of intellectual tastes. Suspicions in
regard to his orthodoxy having in 1789 led to a misunderstanding with
his colleague and a part of the congregation, he in July 1790 accepted
an invitation to make trial of a congregation at Cambridge, of which he
became pastor in July of the following year. From a statement of his
opinions contained in a letter to the congregation which he left, it
would appear that, while a firm believer in the proper divinity of
Christ, he had at this time disowned the cardinal principles of
Calvinism--the federal headship of Adam, and the doctrine of absolute
election and reprobation; and that he was so far a materialist as to
"hold that man's thinking powers and faculties are the result of a
certain organization of matter, and that after death he ceases to be
conscious till the resurrection." It was during his Cambridge ministry,
which extended over a period of fifteen years, that his oratory was most
brilliant and most immediately powerful. At Cambridge the intellectual
character of a large part of the audience supplied a stimulus which was
wanting at Leicester and Bristol.

His first published compositions had a political origin. In 1791
appeared _Christianity consistent with the Love of Freedom_, in which he
defended the political conduct of dissenters against the attacks of the
Rev. John Clayton, minister of Weighhouse, and gave eloquent expression
to his hopes of great political and social ameliorations as destined to
result nearly or remotely from the subversion of old ideas and
institutions in the maelstrom of the French Revolution. In 1793 he
expounded his political sentiments in a powerful and more extended
pamphlet entitled an _Apology for the Freedom of the Press_. On account,
however, of certain asperities into which the warmth of his feelings had
betrayed him, and his conviction that he had treated his subject in too
superficial a manner, he refused to permit the publication of the
pamphlet beyond the third edition, until the references of political
opponents and the circulation of copies without his sanction induced him
in 1821 to prepare a new edition, from which he omitted the attack on
Bishop Horsley, and to which he prefixed an advertisement stating that
his political opinions had undergone no substantial change. His other
publications while at Cambridge were three sermons--_On Modern
Infidelity_ (1801), _Reflections on War_ (1802), and _Sentiments proper
to the present Crisis_ (1803). He began, however, to suffer from mental
derangement in November 1804. He recovered so speedily that he was able
to resume his duties in April 1805, but a recurrence of the malady
rendered it advisable for him on his second recovery to resign his
pastoral office in March 1806.

On leaving Cambridge he paid a visit to his relatives in Leicestershire,
and then for some time resided at Enderby, preaching occasionally in
some of the neighbouring villages. Latterly he ministered to a small
congregation in Harvey Lane, Leicester, from whom at the close of 1806
he accepted a call to be their stated pastor. In the autumn of 1807 he
changed his residence from Enderby to Leicester, and in 1808 he married
the servant of a brother minister. His proposal of marriage had been
made after an almost momentary acquaintance, and, according to the
traditionary account, in very abrupt and peculiar terms; but, judging
from his subsequent domestic life, his choice did sufficient credit to
his penetration and sagacity. His writings at Leicester embraced various
tracts printed for private circulation; a number of contributions to the
_Eclectic Review_, among which may be mentioned his articles on
"Foster's Essays" and on "Zeal without Innovation"; several sermons,
including those _On the Advantages of Knowledge to the Lower Classes_
(1810), _On the Death of the Princess Charlotte_ (1817), and _On the
Death of Dr Ryland_ (1825); and his pamphlet on _Terms of Communion_, in
which he advocated intercommunion with all those who acknowledged the
"essentials" of Christianity. In 1819 he published an edition in one
volume of his sermons formerly printed. On the death of Dr Ryland, Hall
was invited to return to the pastorate of Broadmead chapel, Bristol, and
as the peace of the congregation at Leicester had been to some degree
disturbed by a controversy regarding several cases of discipline, he
resolved to accept the invitation, and removed there in April 1826. The
malady of renal calculus had for many years rendered his life an almost
continual martyrdom, and henceforth increasing infirmities and
sufferings afflicted him. Gradually the inability to take proper
exercise, by inducing a plethoric habit of body and impeding the
circulation, led to a diseased condition of the heart, which resulted in
his death on the 21st of February 1831. He is remembered as a great
pulpit orator, of a somewhat laboured, rhetorical style in his written
works, but of undeniable vigour in his spoken sermons.

  See _Works of Robert Hall, A.M., with a Brief Memoir of his Life, by
  Olinthus Gregory, LL.D., and Observations on his Character as Preacher
  by John Foster_, originally published in 6 vols. (London, 1832);
  _Reminiscences of the Rev. Robert Hall, A.M._, by John Greene,
  (London, 1832); _Biographical Recollections of the Rev. Robert Hall_,
  by J. W. Morris (1848); _Fifty Sermons of Robert Hall from Notes taken
  at the time of their Delivery_, by the Rev. Thomas Grinfield, M.A.
  (1843); _Reminiscences of College Life in Bristol during the Ministry
  of the Rev. Robert Hall, A.M._, by Frederick Trestrail (1879).



HALL, SAMUEL CARTER (1800-1889), English journalist, was born at
Waterford on the 9th of May 1800, the son of an army officer. In 1821 he
went to London, and in 1823 became a parliamentary reporter. From 1826
to 1837 he was editor of a great number and variety of public prints,
and in 1839 he founded and edited _The Art Journal_. His exposure of the
trade in bogus "Old Masters" earned for this publication a considerable
reputation. Hall resigned the editorship in 1880, and was granted a
Civil List pension "for his long and valuable services to literature and
art." He died in London on the 16th of March 1889. His wife, Anna Maria
Fielding (1800-1881), became well known as Mrs S. C. Hall, for her
numerous novels, sketches of Irish life, and plays. Two of the last,
_The Groves of Blarney_ and _The French Refugee_, were produced in
London with success. She also wrote a number of children's books, and
was practically interested in various London charities, several of which
she helped to found.



HALL, WILLIAM EDWARD (1835-1894), English writer on international law,
was the only child of William Hall, M.D., a descendant of a junior
branch of the Halls of Dunglass, and of Charlotte, daughter of William
Cotton, F.S.A. He was born on the 22nd of August 1835, at Leatherhead,
Surrey, but passed his childhood abroad, Dr Hall having acted as
physician to the king of Hanover, and subsequently to the British
legation at Naples. Hence, perhaps, the son's taste in after life for
art and modern languages. He was educated privately till, at the early
age of seventeen, he matriculated at Oxford, where in 1856 he took his
degree with a first class in the then recently instituted school of law
and history, gaining, three years afterwards, the chancellor's prize for
an essay upon "the effect upon Spain of the discovery of the precious
metals in America." In 1861 he was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn,
but devoted his time less to any serious attempt to obtain practice than
to the study of Italian art, and to travelling over a great part of
Europe, always bringing home admirable water-colour drawings of
buildings and scenery. He was an early and enthusiastic member of the
Alpine Club, making several first ascents, notably that of the Lyskamm.
He was always much interested in military matters, and was under fire,
on the Danish side, in the war of 1864. In 1867 he published a pamphlet
entitled "A Plan for the Reorganization of the Army," and, many years
afterwards, he saw as much as he was permitted to see of the expedition
sent for the rescue of Gordon. He would undoubtedly have made his mark
in the army, but in later life his ideal, which he realized, with much
success, first at Llanfihangel in Monmouthshire, and then at Coker Court
in Somersetshire, was, as has been said, "the English country gentleman,
with cosmopolitan experiences, encyclopaedic knowledge, and artistic
feeling." His travels took him to Lapland, Egypt, South America and
India. He had done good work for several government offices, in 1871 as
inspector of returns under the Elementary Education Act, in 1877 by
reports to the Board of Trade upon Oyster Fisheries, in France as well
as in England; and all the time was amassing materials for ambitious
undertakings upon the history of civilization, and of the colonies. His
title to lasting remembrance rests, however, upon his labours in the
realm of international law, recognized by his election as _associé_ in
1875, and as _membre_ in 1882, of the _Institut de Droit International_.
In 1874 he published a thin 8vo upon the _Rights and Duties of
Neutrals_, and followed it up in 1880 by his _magnum opus_, the
_Treatise on International Law_, unquestionably the best book upon the
subject in the English language. It is well planned, free from the
rhetorical vagueness which has been the besetting vice of older books of
a similar character, full of information, and everywhere bearing traces
of the sound judgment and statesmanlike views of its author. In 1894
Hall published a useful monograph upon a little-explored topic, "the
Foreign Jurisdictions of the British Crown," but on the 30th of November
of the same year, while apparently in the fullest enjoyment of bodily as
well as mental vigour, he suddenly died. He married, in 1866, Imogen,
daughter of Mr (afterwards Mr Justice) Grove, who died in 1886; and in
1891, Alice, daughter of Colonel Hill of Court Hill, Shropshire, but
left no issue.

  See T. E. Holland in _Law Quarterly Review_, vol. xi. p. 113; and in
  _Studies in International Law_, p. 302.     (T. E. H.)



HALL, or BAD-HALL, a market-place and spa of Austria, in Upper Austria,
25 m. S. of Linz by rail. Pop. (1900) 984. It is renowned for its saline
springs, strongly impregnated with iodine and bromine, which are
considered very efficacious in scrofulous affections and venereal skin
diseases. Although the springs are known since the 8th century, Hall
attained its actual importance only since 1855, when the springs became
the property of the government. The number of visitors in 1901 was 4300.



HALL (generally known as SCHWÄBISCH-HALL, to distinguish it from the
small town of Hall in Tirol and Bad-Hall, a health resort in Upper
Austria), a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Württemberg, situated in
a deep valley on both sides of the Kocher, and on the railway from
Heilbronn to Krailsheim, 35 m. N.E. of Stuttgart. Pop. (1905) 9400. It
possesses four Evangelical churches (of which the Michaeliskirche dates
from the 15th century and has fine medieval carving), a Roman Catholic
church, a handsome town hall and classical and modern schools. A short
distance south from the town is the royal castle of Komburg, formerly a
Benedictine abbey and now used as a garrison for invalid soldiers, with
a church dating from the 12th century. The town is chiefly known for its
production of salt, which is converted into brine and piped from
Wilhelmsglück mine, 5 m. distant. Connected with the salt-works there is
a salt-bath and whey-diet establishment. The industries of the town also
include cotton-spinning, iron founding, tanning, and the manufacture of
soap, starch, brushes, machines, carriages and metal ware.

Hall was early of importance on account of its salt-mines, which were
held as a fief of the Empire by the so-called Salzgrafen (Salt-graves),
of whom the earliest known, the counts of Westheim, had their seat in
the castle of Hall. Later the town belonged to the Knights Templars. It
was made a free imperial city in 1276 by Rudolph of Habsburg. In 1802 it
came into the possession of Württemberg.



HALL (O. E. _heall_, a common Teutonic word, cf. Ger. _Halle_), a term
which has two significations in England and is applied sometimes to the
manor house, the residence of the lord of the manor, which implied a
territorial possession, but more often to the entrance hall of a
mansion. In the latter case it was the one large room in the feudal
castle up to the middle of the 15th century, when it served as audience
chamber, dining-room, and dormitory. The hall was generally a
parallelogram on plan, with a raised daïs at the farther end, a large
bow window on one side, and in one or two cases on both sides. At the
entrance end was a passage, which was separated from the hall by a
partition screen often elaborately decorated, and over which was
provided a minstrels' gallery; on the opposite side of the passage were
the hatches communicating with the serveries. This arrangement is still
found in some of the colleges at Oxford and Cambridge, such as those of
New College, Christchurch, Wadham and Magdalen, Oxford, and in Trinity
College, Cambridge. In private mansions, however, the kitchen and
offices have been removed to a greater distance, and the great hall is
only used for banquets. Among the more remarkable examples are the halls
of Audley End; Hatfield; Brougham Castle; Hardwick; Knole Stanway in
Gloucestershire; Wollaton, where it is situated in the centre of the
mansion and lighted by clerestory windows; Burton Agnes in Yorkshire;
Canons Ashley, Northamptonshire; Westwood Park, Worcestershire;
Fountains, Yorkshire; Sydenham House, Devonshire; Cobham, Kent;
Montacute, Somersetshire; Bolsover Castle, Derbyshire (vaulted and with
two columns in the centre of the hall to carry the vault); Longford
Castle, Wiltshire; Barlborough, Derbyshire; Rushton Hall,
Northamptonshire, with a bow window at each end of the daïs and a third
bow window at the other end; Knole, Kent; and at Mayfield, Sussex (with
stone arches across to carry the roof), now converted into a Roman
Catholic chapel. Many of these halls have hammer-beam roofs, the most
remarkable of which is found in the Middle Temple Hall, London, where
both the tie and collar beams have hammer-beams. Of other halls,
Westminster is the largest, being 238 ft. long; followed by the
Banqueting Hall, Whitehall, 110 ft.; Wolsey's Hall, Hampton Court, 106
ft.; the Egyptian Hall at the Mansion House; the hall at Lambeth, now
the library; Crosby Hall; Gray's Inn Hall; the Guildhall; Charterhouse;
and the following halls of the London City Companies--Clothworkers,
Brewers, Goldsmiths, Fishmongers. The term hall is also given to the
following English mansions:--Haddon, Hardwick, Apethorpe, Aston,
Blickling, Brereton, Burton Agnes, Cobham, Dingley, Rushton, Kirby,
Litford and Wollaton; and it was the name of some of the earlier
colleges at Oxford and Cambridge, most of which have now been absorbed
in other colleges, so that there remain only St Edmund's Hall, Oxford,
and Trinity Hall, Cambridge.



HALLAM, HENRY (1777-1859), English historian, was the only son of John
Hallam, canon of Windsor and dean of Bristol, and was born on the 9th of
July 1777. He was educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford, where he
graduated in 1799. Called to the bar, he practised for some years on the
Oxford circuit; but his tastes were literary, and when, on the death of
his father in 1812, he inherited a small estate in Lincolnshire, he gave
himself up wholly to the studies of his life. He had early become
connected with the brilliant band of authors and politicians who then
led the Whig party, a connexion to which he owed his appointment to the
well-paid and easy post of commissioner of stamps; but in practical
politics, for which he was by nature unsuited, he took no active share.
But he was an active supporter of many popular movements--particularly
of that which ended in the abolition of the slave trade; and he was
throughout his entire life sincerely and profoundly attached to the
political principles of the Whigs, both in their popular and in their
aristocratic aspect.

Hallam's earliest literary work was undertaken in connexion with the
great organ of the Whig party, the _Edinburgh Review_, where his review
of Scott's _Dryden_ attracted much notice. His first great work, _The
View of the State of Europe during the Middle Ages_, was produced in
1818, and was followed nine years later by the _Constitutional History
of England_. In 1838-1839 appeared the _Introduction to the Literature
of Europe in the 15th, 16th and 17th Centuries_. These are the three
works on which the fame of Hallam rests. They at once took a place in
English literature which has never been seriously challenged. A volume
of supplemental notes to his _Middle Ages_ was published in 1848. These
facts and dates represent nearly all the events of Hallam's career. The
strongest personal interest in his life was the affliction which befell
him in the loss of his children, one after another. His eldest son,
Arthur Henry Hallam,--the "A.H.H." of Tennyson's _In Memoriam_, and by
the testimony of his contemporaries a man of the most brilliant
promise,--died in 1833 at the age of twenty-two. Seventeen years later,
his second son, Henry Fitzmaurice Hallam, was cut off like his brother
at the very threshold of what might have been a great career. The
premature death and high talents of these young men, and the association
of one of them with the most popular poem of the age, have made Hallam's
family afflictions better known than any other incidents of his life. He
survived wife, daughter and sons by many years. In 1834 Hallam published
_The Remains in Prose and Verse of Arthur Henry Hallam, with a Sketch of
his Life_. In 1852 a selection of _Literary Essays and Characters_ from
the _Literature of Europe_ was published. Hallam was a fellow of the
Royal Society, and a trustee of the British Museum, and enjoyed many
other appropriate distinctions. In 1830 he received the gold medal for
history, founded by George IV. He died on the 21st of January 1859.

The _Middle Ages_ is described by Hallam himself as a series of
historical dissertations, a comprehensive survey of the chief
circumstances that can interest a philosophical inquirer during the
period from the 5th to the 15th century. The work consists of nine long
chapters, each of which is a complete treatise in itself. The history of
France, of Italy, of Spain, of Germany, and of the Greek and Saracenic
empires, sketched in rapid and general terms, is the subject of five
separate chapters. Others deal with the great institutional features of
medieval society--the development of the feudal system, of the
ecclesiastical system, and of the free political system of England. The
last chapter sketches the general state of society, the growth of
commerce, manners, and literature in the middle ages. The book may be
regarded as a general view of early modern history, preparatory to the
more detailed treatment of special lines of inquiry carried out in his
subsequent works, although Hallam's original intention was to continue
the work on the scale on which it had been begun.

The _Constitutional History of England_ takes up the subject at the
point at which it had been dropped in the _View of the Middle Ages_,
viz. the accession of Henry VII.,[1] and carries it down to the
accession of George III. Hallam stopped here for a characteristic
reason, which it is impossible not to respect and to regret. He was
unwilling to excite the prejudices of modern politics which seemed to
him to run back through the whole period of the reign of George III. As
a matter of fact they ran back much farther, as Hallam soon found. The
sensitive impartiality which withheld him from touching perhaps the most
interesting period in the history of the constitution did not save him
from the charge of partisanship. The _Quarterly Review_ for 1828
contains an article on the _Constitutional History_, written by Southey,
full of railing and reproach. The work, he says, is the "production of a
decided partisan," who "rakes in the ashes of long-forgotten and a
thousand times buried slanders, for the means of heaping obloquy on all
who supported the established institutions of the country." No
accusation made by a critic ever fell so wide of the mark. Absolute
justice is the standard which Hallam set himself and maintained. His
view of constitutional history was that it should contain only so much
of the political and general history of the time as bears directly on
specific changes in the organization of the state, including therein
judicial as well as ecclesiastical institutions. But while abstaining
from irrelevant historical discussions, Hallam dealt with statesmen and
policies with the calm and fearless impartiality of a judge. It was his
cool treatment of such sanctified names as Charles, Cranmer and Laud
that provoked the indignation of Southey and the _Quarterly_, who forgot
that the same impartial measure was extended to statesmen on the other
side. If Hallam can ever be said to have deviated from perfect fairness,
it was in the tacit assumption that the 19th-century theory of the
constitution was the right theory in previous centuries, and that those
who departed from it on one side or the other were in the wrong. He did
unconsciously antedate the constitution, and it is clear from incidental
allusions in his last work that he did not regard with favour the
democratic changes which he thought to be impending. Hallam, like
Macaulay, ultimately referred all political questions to the standard of
Whig constitutionalism. But though his work is thus, like that of many
historians, coloured by his opinions, this was not the outcome of a
conscious purpose, and he was scrupulously conscientious in collecting
and weighing his materials. In this he was helped by his legal training,
and it was doubtless this fact which made the _Constitutional History_
one of the text-books of English politics, to which men of all parties
appealed, and which, in spite of all the work of later writers, still
leaves it a standard authority.

Like the _Constitutional History_, the _Introduction to the Literature of
Europe_ continues one of the branches of inquiry which had been opened in
the _View of the Middle Ages_. In the first chapter of the _Literature_,
which is to a great extent supplementary to the last chapter of the
_Middle Ages_, Hallam sketches the state of literature in Europe down to
the end of the 14th century: the extinction of ancient learning which
followed the fall of the Roman empire and the rise of Christianity; the
preservation of the Latin language in the services of the church; and the
slow revival of letters, which began to show itself soon after the 7th
century--"the _nadir_ of the human mind"--had been passed. For the first
century and a half of his special period he is mainly occupied with a
review of classical learning, and he adopts the plan of taking short
decennial periods and noticing the most remarkable works which they
produced. The rapid growth of literature in the 16th century compels him
to resort to a classification of subjects. Thus in the period 1520-1550 we
have separate chapters on ancient literature, theology, speculative
philosophy and jurisprudence, the literature of taste, and scientific and
miscellaneous literature; and the subdivisions of subjects is carried
further of course in the later periods. Thus poetry, the drama and polite
literature form the subjects of separate chapters. One inconvenient result
of this arrangement is that the same author is scattered over many
chapters, according as his works fall within this category or that period
of time. Names like Shakespeare, Grotius, Bacon, Hobbes appear in half a
dozen different places. The individuality of great authors is thus
dissipated except when it has been preserved by an occasional sacrifice of
the arrangement--and this defect, if it is to be esteemed a defect, is
increased by the very sparing references to personal history and character
with which Hallam was obliged to content himself. His plan excluded
biographical history, nor is the work, he tells us, to be regarded as one
of reference. It is rigidly an account of the books which would make a
complete library of the period,[2] arranged according to the date of their
publication and the nature of their subjects. The history of institutions
like universities and academies, and that of great popular movements like
the Reformation, are of course noticed in their immediate connexion with
literary results; but Hallam had little taste for the spacious
generalization which such subjects suggest. The great qualities displayed
in this work have been universally acknowledged--conscientiousness,
accuracy, judgment and enormous reading. Not the least striking testimony
to Hallam's powers is his mastery over so many diverse forms of
intellectual activity. In science and theology, mathematics and poetry,
metaphysics and law, he is a competent and always a fair if not a profound
critic. The bent of his own mind is manifest in his treatment of pure
literature and of political speculation--which seems to be inspired with
stronger personal interest and a higher sense of power than other parts of
his work display. Not less worthy of notice in a literary history is the
good sense by which both his learning and his tastes have been held in
control. Probably no writer ever possessed a juster view of the relative
importance of men and things. The labour devoted to an investigation is
with Hallam no excuse for dwelling on the result, unless that is in itself
important. He turns away contemptuously from the mere curiosities of
literature, and is never tempted to make a display of trivial erudition.
Nor do we find that his interest in special studies leads him to assign
them a disproportionate place in his general view of the literature of a
period.

Hallam is generally described as a "philosophical historian." The
description is justified not so much by any philosophical quality in his
method as by the nature of his subject and his own temper. Hallam is a
philosopher to this extent that both in political and in literary
history he fixed his attention on results rather than on persons. His
conception of history embraced the whole movement of society. Beside
that conception the issue of battles and the fate of kings fall into
comparative insignificance. "We can trace the pedigree of princes," he
reflects, "fill up the catalogue of towns besieged and provinces
desolated, describe even the whole pageantry of coronations and
festivals, but we cannot recover the genuine history of mankind." But,
on the other hand, there is no trace in Hallam of anything like a
philosophy of history or society. Wise and generally melancholy
reflections on human nature and political society are not infrequent in
his writings, and they arise naturally and incidentally out of the
subject he is discussing. His object is the attainment of truth in
matters of fact. Sweeping theories of the movement of society, and broad
characterizations of particular periods of history seem to have no
attraction for him. The view of mankind on which such generalizations
are usually based, taking little account of individual character, was
highly distasteful to him. Thus he objects to the use of statistics
because they favour that tendency to regard all men as mentally and
morally equal which is so unhappily strong in modern times. At the same
time Hallam by no means assumes the tone of the mere scholar. He is even
solicitous to show that his point of view is that of the cultivated
gentleman and not of the specialist of any order. Thus he tells us that
Montaigne is the first French author whom an English gentleman is
ashamed not to have read. In fact, allusions to the necessary studies of
a gentleman meet us constantly, reminding us of the unlikely erudition
of the schoolboy in Macaulay. Hallam's prejudices, so far as he had any,
belong to the same character. His criticism is apt to assume a tone of
moral censure when he has to deal with certain extremes of human
thought--scepticism in philosophy, atheism in religion and democracy in
politics.

Hallam's style is singularly uniform throughout all his writings. It is
sincere and straightforward, and obviously innocent of any motive beyond
that of clearly expressing the writer's meaning. In the _Literature of
Europe_ there are many passages of great imaginative beauty.     (E. R.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Lord Brougham, overlooking the constitutional chapter in the
    _Middle Ages_, censured Hallam for making an arbitrary beginning at
    this point, and proposed to write a more complete history himself.

  [2] Technical subjects like painting or English law have been
    excluded by Hallam, and history and theology only partially treated.



HALLAM, ROBERT (d. 1417), bishop of Salisbury and English representative
at the council of Constance, was educated at Oxford, and was chancellor
of the university from 1403 to 1405. In the latter year the pope
nominated him to be archbishop of York, but the king objected. However,
in 1407 he was consecrated by Gregory XII. at Siena as bishop of
Salisbury. At the council of Pisa in 1409 he was one of the English
representatives. On the 6th of June 1411 Pope John XXIII. made Hallam a
cardinal, but there was some irregularity, and his title was not
recognized. At the council of Constance (q.v.), which met in November
1414, Hallam was the chief English envoy. There he at once took a
prominent position, as an advocate of the cause of Church reform, and of
the superiority of the council to the pope. In the discussions which led
up to the deposition of John XXIII. on the 29th of May 1415 he had a
leading share. With the trials of John Hus and Jerome of Prague he had
less concern. The emperor Sigismund, through whose influence the council
had been assembled, was absent during the whole of 1416 on a diplomatic
mission in France and England; but when he returned to Constance in
January 1417, as the open ally of the English king, Hallam as Henry's
trusted representative obtained increased importance. Hallam contrived
skilfully to emphasize English prestige by delivering the address of
welcome to Sigismund on his formal reception. Afterwards, under his
master's direction, he gave the emperor vigorous support in the
endeavour to secure a reform of the Church, before the council proceeded
to the election of a new pope. This matter was still undecided when
Hallam died suddenly, on the 4th of September 1417. After his death the
direction of the English nation fell into less skilful hands, with the
result that the cardinals were able to secure the immediate election of
a new pope (Martin V., elected on the 11th of November). It has been
supposed that the abandonment of the reformers by the English was due
entirely to Hallam's death; but it is more likely that Henry V.,
foreseeing the possible need for a change of front, had given Hallam
discretionary powers which the bishop's successors used with too little
judgment. Hallam himself, who had the confidence of Sigismund and was
generally respected for his straightforward independence, might have
achieved a better result. Hallam was buried in the cathedral at
Constance, where his tomb near the high altar is marked by a brass of
English workmanship.

  For the acts of the council of Constance see H. von der Hardt's
  _Concilium Constantiense_, and H. Finke's _Acta concilii
  Constanciensis_. For a modern account see Mandell Creighton's _History
  of the Papacy_ (6 vols., London, 1897).     (C. L. K.)



HALLÉ, SIR CHARLES (originally KARL HALLE) (1819-1895), English pianist
and conductor, German by nationality, was born at Hagen, in Westphalia,
on the 11th of April 1819. He studied under Rink at Darmstadt in 1835,
and as early as 1836 went to Paris, where for twelve years he lived in
constant intercourse with Cherubini, Chopin, Liszt and other musicians,
and enjoyed the friendship of such great literary figures as Alfred de
Musset and George Sand. He had started a set of chamber concerts with
Alard and Franchomme with great success, and had completed one series of
them when the revolution of 1848 drove him from Paris, and he settled,
with his wife and two children, in London. His pianoforte recitals,
given at first from 1850 in his own house, and from 1861 in St James's
Hall, were an important feature of London musical life, and it was due
in great measure to them that a knowledge of Beethoven's pianoforte
sonatas became general in English society. At the Musical Union founded
by John Ella, and at the Popular Concerts from their beginning, Hallé
was a frequent performer, and from 1853 was director of the Gentlemen's
Concerts in Manchester, where, in 1857, he started a series of concerts
of his own, raising the orchestra to a pitch of perfection quite unknown
at that time in England. In 1888 he married Madame Norman Neruda (b.
1839), the violinist, widow of Ludwig Norman, and daughter of Josef
Neruda, members of whose family had long been famous for musical talent.
In the same year he was knighted; and in 1890 and 1891 he toured with
his wife in Australia and elsewhere. He died at Manchester on the 25th
of October 1895. Hallé exercised an important influence in the musical
education of England; if his pianoforte-playing, by which he was mainly
known to the public in London, seemed remarkable rather for precision
than for depth, for crystal clearness rather than for warmth, and for
perfect realization of the written text rather than for strong
individuality, it was at least of immense value as giving the
composer's idea with the utmost fidelity. Those who were privileged to
hear him play in private, like those who could appreciate the power,
beauty and imaginative warmth of his conducting, would have given a very
different verdict; and they were not wrong in judging Hallé to be a man
of the widest and keenest artistic sympathies, with an extraordinary
gift of insight into music of every school, as well as a strong sense of
humour. He fought a long and arduous battle for the best music, and
never forgot the dignity of his art. In spite of the fact that his
technique was that of his youth, of the period before Liszt, the ease
and certainty he attained in the most modern music was not the less
wonderful because he concealed the mechanical means so completely.

Lady Hallé, who from 1864 onwards had been one of the leading solo
violinists of the time, was constantly associated with her husband on
the concert stage till his death; and in 1896 a public subscription was
organized in her behalf, under royal patronage. She continued to appear
occasionally in public, notably as late as 1907, when she played at the
Joachim memorial concert. In 1901 she was given by Queen Alexandra the
title of "violinist to the queen." A fine classical player and artist,
frequently associated with Joachim, Lady Hallé was the first of the
women violinists who could stand comparison with men.



HALLE (known as HALLE-AN-DER-SAALE, to distinguish it from the small
town of Halle in Westphalia), a town of Germany, in the Prussian
province of Saxony, situated in a sandy plain on the right bank of the
Saale, which here divides into several arms, 21 m. N.W. from Leipzig by
the railway to Magdeburg. Pop. (1875), 60,503; (1885) 81,982; (1895)
116,304; (1905) 160,031. Owing to its situation at the junction of six
important lines of railway, bringing it into direct communication with
Berlin, Breslau, Leipzig, Frankfort-on-Main, the Harz country and
Hanover, it has greatly developed in size and in commercial and
industrial importance. It consists of the old, or inner, town surrounded
by promenades, which occupy the site of the former fortifications, and
beyond these of two small towns, Glaucha in the south and Neumarkt in
the north, and five rapidly increasing suburbs. The inner town is
irregularly built and presents a somewhat unattractive appearance, but
it has been much improved and modernized by the laying out of new
streets.

The centre of the town proper is occupied by the imposing market square,
on which stand the fine medieval town hall (restored in 1883) and the
handsome Gothic Marienkirche, dating mainly from the 16th century, with
two towers connected by a bridge. In the middle of the square are a
clock-tower (_Der rote Turm_) 276 ft. in height, and a bronze statue of
Handel, the composer, a native of Halle. West of the market-square lies
the Halle, or the Tal, where the brine springs (see below) issue. Among
the eleven churches, nine Protestant and two Roman Catholic, may also be
mentioned the St Moritzkirche, dating from the 12th century, with fine
wood carvings and sculptures, and the cathedral (belonging since 1689 to
the Reformed or Calvinistic church), built in the 16th century and
containing an altar-piece representing Duke Augustus of Saxony and his
family. Of secular buildings the most noticeable are the ruins of the
castle of Moritzburg, formerly a citadel and the residence of the
archbishops of Magdeburg, destroyed by fire in the Thirty Years' War,
with the exception of the left wing now used for military purposes, the
university buildings, the theatre and the new railway station. The
famous university was founded by the elector Frederick III. of
Brandenburg (afterwards king of Prussia), in 1694, on behalf of the
jurist, Christian Thomasius (1655-1728), whom many students followed to
Halle, when he was expelled from Leipzig through the enmity of his
fellow professors. It was closed by Napoleon in 1806 and again in 1813,
but in 1815 was re-established and augmented by the removal to it of the
university of Wittenberg, with which it thus became united. It has
faculties of theology, law, medicine and philosophy. From the first it
has been recognized as one of the principal seats of Protestant
theology, originally of the pietistic and latterly of the rationalistic
and critical school. In connexion with the university there are a
botanical garden, a theological seminary, anatomical, pathological and
physical institutes, hospitals, an agricultural institute--one of the
foremost institutions of the kind in Germany--a meteorological
institute, an observatory and a library of 180,000 printed volumes and
800 manuscripts. Among other educational establishments must be
mentioned the Francke'sche Stiftungen, founded in 1691 by August Hermann
Francke (1663-1727), a bronze statue of whom by Rauch was erected in
1829 in the inner court of the building. They embrace an orphanage, a
laboratory where medicines are prepared and distributed, a Bible press
from which Bibles are issued at a cheap rate, and eight schools of
various grades, attended in all by over 3000 pupils. The other principal
institutions are the city gymnasium, the provincial lunatic asylum, the
prison, the town hospital and infirmary, and the deaf and dumb
institute. The salt-springs of Halle have been known from a very early
period. Some rise within the town and others on an island in the Saale;
and together their annual yield of salt is about 8500 tons.

The workmen employed at the salt-works are of a peculiar race and are
known as the _Halloren_. They have been usually regarded as descendants
of the original Wendish inhabitants, or as Celtic immigrants, with an
admixture of Frankish elements. They wear a distinct dress, the ordinary
costume of about 1700, observe several ancient customs, and enjoy
certain exemptions and privileges derived from those of the ancient
_Pfannerschaft_ (community of the salt-panners).

Among the other industries of Halle are sugar refining, machine
building, the manufacture of spirits, malt, chocolate, cocoa,
confectionery, cement, paper, chicory, lubricating and illuminating oil,
wagon grease, carriages and playing cards, printing, dyeing and coal
mining (soft brown coal). The trade, which is supervised by a chamber of
commerce, is very considerable, the principal exports being machinery,
raw sugar and petroleum. Halle is also noted as the seat of several
important publishing firms. The Bibelanstalt (Bible institution) of von
Castein is the central authority for the revision of Luther's Bible, of
which it sells annually from 60,000 to 70,000 copies.

  Halle is first mentioned as a fortress erected on the Saale in 806 by
  Charles, son of Charlemagne, during his expedition against the Sorbs.
  The place was, however, known long before, and owes its origin as well
  as its name to the salt springs (_Halis_). In 968 Halle, with the
  valuable salt works, was given by the emperor Otto I. to the newly
  founded archdiocese of Magdeburg, and in 981 Otto II. gave it a
  charter as a town. The interests of the archbishop were watched over
  by a _Vogt (advocatus)_ and a burgrave, and from the first there were
  separate jurisdictions for the Halloren and the German settlers in the
  town, the former being under that of the _Salzgraf_ (comes salis), the
  latter of a _Schultheiss_ or bailiff, both subordinate to the
  burgrave. The conflict of interests and jurisdictions led to the usual
  internecine strife during the middle ages. The panners (_Pfänner_) of
  the Tal, feudatories or officials, became a close hereditary
  aristocracy in perpetual rivalry with the gilds in the town; and both
  resisted the pretensions of the archbishops. At the beginning of the
  12th century Halle had attained considerable importance, and in the
  13th and 14th centuries as a member of the Hanseatic League it carried
  on successful wars with the archbishops of Magdeburg; and in 1435 it
  resisted an army of 30,000 men under the elector of Saxony. Its
  liberty perished, however, as a result of the internal feud between
  the democratic gilds and the patrician panners. On the 20th of
  September 1478 a demagogue and cobbler named Jakob Weissak, a member
  of the town council, with his confederates opened the gates to the
  soldiers of the archbishop. The townsmen were subdued, and to hold
  them in check the archbishop, Ernest of Saxony, built the castle of
  Moritzburg. Notwithstanding the efforts of the archbishops of Mainz
  and Magdeburg, the Reformation found an entrance into the city in
  1522; and in 1541 a Lutheran superintendent was appointed. After the
  peace of Westphalia in 1648 the city came into the possession of the
  house of Brandenburg. In 1806 it was stormed and taken by the French,
  after which, at the peace of Tilsit, it was united to the new kingdom
  of Westphalia. After the battle between the Prussians and French, in
  May 1813, it was taken by the Prussians. The rise of Leipzig was for a
  long time hurtful to the prosperity of Halle, and its present rapid
  increase in population and trade is principally due to its position as
  the centre of a network of railways.

  See Dreyhaupt, _Ausführliche Beschreibung des Saalkreises_ (Halle, 2
  vols., 1755; 3rd edition, 1842-1844); Hoffbauer, _Geschichte der
  Universität zu Halle_ (1806); _Halle in Vorzeit und Gegenwart_ (1851);
  Knauth, _Kurze Geschichte und Beschreibung der Stadt Halle_ (3rd ed.,
  1861); vom Hagen, _Die Stadt Halle_ (1866-1867); Hertzberg,
  _Geschichte der Vereinigung der Universitäten von Wittenberg und
  Halle_ (1867); Voss, _Zur Geschichte der Autonomie der Stadt Halle_
  (1874); Schrader, _Geschichte der Friedrichs-Universität zu Halle_
  (Berlin, 1894); Karl Hegel, _Städte und Gilden der germanischen
  Völker_ (Leipzig, 1891), ii. 444-449.



HALLECK, FITZ-GREENE (1790-1867), American poet, was born at Guilford,
Connecticut, on the 8th of July 1790. By his mother he was descended
from John Eliot, the "Apostle to the Indians." At an early age he became
clerk in a store at Guilford, and in 1811 he entered a banking-house in
New York. Having made the acquaintance of Joseph Rodman Drake, in 1819
he assisted him under the signature of "Croaker junior" in contributing
to the New York _Evening Post_ the humorous series of "Croaker Papers."
In 1821 he published his longest poem, _Fanny_, a satire on local
politics and fashions in the measure of Byron's _Don Juan_. He visited
Europe in 1822-1823, and after his return published anonymously in 1827
_Alnwick Castle, with other Poems_. From 1832 to 1841 he was
confidential agent of John Jacob Astor, who named him one of the
trustees of the Astor library. In 1864 he published in the _New York
Ledger_ a poem of 300 lines entitled "Young America." He died at
Guilford, on the 19th of November 1867. The poems of Halleck are written
with great care and finish, and manifest the possession of a fine sense
of harmony and of genial and elevated sentiments.

  His _Life and Letters_, by James Grant Wilson, appeared in 1869. His
  _Poetical Writings_, together with extracts from those of Joseph
  Rodman Drake, were edited by Wilson in the same year.



HALLECK, HENRY WAGER (1815-1872), American general and jurist, was born
at Westernville, Oneida county, N.Y., in 1815, entered the West Point
military academy at the age of twenty, and on graduating in 1839 was
appointed to the engineers, becoming at the same time assistant
professor of engineering at the academy. In the following year he was
made an assistant to the Board of Engineers at Washington, from 1841 to
1846 he was employed on the defence works at New York, and in 1845 he
was sent by the government to visit the principal military
establishments of Europe. After his return, Halleck delivered a course
of lectures on the science of war, published in 1846 under the title
_Elements of Military Art and Science_. A later edition of this work was
widely used as a text-book by volunteer officers during the Civil War.
On the outbreak of the Mexican War in 1846, he served with the
expedition to California and the Pacific coast, in which he
distinguished himself not only as an engineer, but by his skill in civil
administration and by his good conduct before the enemy. He served for
several years in California as a staff officer, and as secretary of
state under the military government, and in 1849 he helped to frame the
state constitution of California, on its being admitted into the Union.
In 1852 he was appointed inspector and engineer of lighthouses, and in
1853 was employed in the fortification of the Pacific coast. In 1854
Captain Halleck resigned his commission and took up the practice of law
with great success. He was also director of a quicksilver mine, and in
1855 he became president of the Pacific & Atlantic railway. On the
outbreak of the Civil War he returned to the army as a major-general,
and in November 1861 he was charged with the supreme command in the
western theatre of war. There can be no question that his administrative
skill was mainly instrumental in bringing order out of chaos in the
hurried formation of large volunteer armies in 1861, but the strategical
and tactical successes of the following spring were due rather to the
skill and activity of his subordinate generals Grant, Buell and Pope,
than to the plans of the supreme commander, and when he assumed command
of the united forces of these three generals before Corinth, the
methodical slowness of his advance aroused much criticism. In July,
however, he was called to Washington as general-in-chief of the armies.
At headquarters his administrative powers were conspicuous, but he
proved to be utterly wanting in any large grasp of the military problem;
the successive reverses of Generals McClellan, Pope, Burnside and Hooker
in Virginia were not infrequently traceable to the defects of the
general-in-chief. No co-ordination of the military efforts of the Union
was seriously undertaken by Halleck, and eventually in March 1864 Grant
was appointed to replace him, Major-General Halleck becoming chief of
staff at Washington. This post he occupied with credit until the end of
the war. In April 1865 he held the command of the military division of
the James and in August of the same year of the military division of the
Pacific, which he retained till June 1869, when he was transferred to
that of the South, a position he held till his death at Louisville, Ky.,
on the 9th of January 1872. Halleck's position as a soldier is easily
defined by bis uniform success as an administrative official, his
equally uniform want of success as an officer at the head of large
armies in the field, and the popularity of his theoretical writings on
war. His influence, for good or evil, on the course of the greatest war
of modern times was greater than that of any soldier on either side save
Grant and Lee, and whilst his interference with the dispositions of the
commanders in the field was often disastrous, his services in organizing
and instructing the Union forces were always of the highest value, and
in this respect he was indispensable.

  Besides _Military Art and Science_, Halleck wrote _Bitumen, its
  Varieties, Properties and Uses_ (1841); _The Mining Laws of Spain and
  Mexico_ (1859); _International Law_ (1861; new edition, 1908); and
  _Treatise on International Law and the Laws of War, prepared for the
  use of Schools and Colleges_, abridged from the larger work. He
  translated Jomini's _Vie politique et militaire de Napoléon_ (1864)
  and de Fooz _On the Law of Mines_ (1860). The works on international
  law mentioned above entitle General Halleck to be considered as one of
  the great jurists of the 19th century.



HÄLLEFLINTA (a Swedish word meaning rock-flint), a white, grey, yellow,
greenish or pink, fine-grained rock consisting of an intimate mixture of
quartz and felspar. Many examples are banded or striated; others contain
porphyritic crystals of quartz which resemble those of the felsites and
porphyries. Mica, iron oxides, apatite, zircon, epidote and hornblende
may also be present in small amount. The more micaceous varieties form
transitions to granulite and gneiss. Hälleflinta under the microscope is
very finely crystalline, or even cryptocrystalline, resembling the
felsitic matrix of many acid rocks. It is essentially metamorphic and
occurs with gneisses, schists and granulites, especially in the
Scandinavian peninsula, where it is regarded as being very
characteristic of certain horizons. Of its original nature there is some
doubt, but its chemical composition and the occasional presence of
porphyritic crystals indicate that it has affinities to the fine-grained
acid intrusive rocks. In this group there may also have been placed
metamorphosed acid tuffs and a certain number of adinoles (shales,
contact altered by intrusions of diabase). The assemblage is not a
perfectly homogeneous one but includes both igneous and sedimentary
rocks, but the former preponderate. Rocks very similar to the typical
Swedish hälleflintas occur in Tirol, in Galicia and eastern Bohemia.



HALLEL (Heb. [Hebrew: hallel] a Mishnic derivative from [Hebrew: hillel]
hillel, "to praise"), a term in synagogal liturgy for (a) Psalms
cxiii.-cxviii., often called "the Egyptian Hallel" because of its
recitation during the paschal meal on the night of the Passover, (b)
Psalm cxxxvi. "the Great Hallel." C. A. Briggs[1] points out that the
term "Hallelujah" (Praise ye Yah) is found at the close of Pss. civ.,
cv., cxv., cxvi., cxvii., at the beginning of Pss. cxi., cxii. and at
both ends of Pss. cvi., cxiii., cxxxv., cxlvi. to cl. The Septuagint
also gives it at the beginning of Pss. cv., cvii., cxiv., cxvi. to
cxix., cxxxvi. There are thus four groups of Hallel psalms:--civ.-cvii.
(a tetralogy on creation, the patriarchal age, the Exodus, and the
Restoration); cxi.-cxvii. which includes most of the "Egyptian Hallel";
cxxxv.-cxxxvi.; cxlvi.-cl. All of these Hallels (except cxlvii. and
cxlix. which are Maccabean) belong to the Greek period, forming a
collection of sixteen psalms composed for public use by the choirs,
especially at the great feasts. Their distribution into four groups was
the work of the final editor of the psalter. Later liturgical use
regarded Pss. cxviii. and even cxix. as Hallels, as well as Pss. cxx. to
cxxxiv.

It will be observed that the extent of the official Hallel varied from
time to time. It would appear that in the time of Gamaliel (_Pesahim_
x. 5) the custom of its recitation at the paschal meal was still of
recent innovation. While the school of Shammai advised only Ps. cxiii.,
the school of Hillel favoured Pss. cxiii. and cxiv.[2] The further
extension so as to include Pss. cxv. to cxviii. probably dates from the
first half of the 2nd century A.D., and these four psalms were recited
after the pouring out of the fourth cup, the two earlier ones being
taken at the beginning of the meal. From the 3rd century the use of the
Hallel was extended to other occasions, and was gradually incorporated
into the liturgy of eighteen festal days.

The "Great Hallel" (Ps. cxxxvi. and its later extension to cxx.-cxxxvi.)
always served the wider purpose of a more general thanksgiving.
According to Rabbi Johanan it derived its name from the allusion in v.
25 to the Holy One who sits in heaven and thence distributes food to all
bis creatures.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] _International Critical Commentary_, "Psalms," Intro. lxxviii.

  [2] The reference to a hymn at the institution of the Eucharist
    (Matt. xxvi. 30, Mark xiv. 26) must be interpreted in the light of
    this inceptive stage of the Hallel.





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