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Title: Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 96, August 30, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 96, August 30, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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[Transcriber's note: Original spelling varieties have not been
standardized. Underscores have been used to indicate _italic_ fonts. A
list of volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries" has been added at the
end.]



NOTES and QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION

FOR

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

VOL. IV.--No. 96. SATURDAY, AUGUST 30. 1851.

Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4_d._



CONTENTS.

                                                                Page


      The Caxton Memorial and Chaucer's Monument                 145

      NOTES:--

      Collar of SS., by Edward Foss                              147

      Printing                                                   148

      Folk Lore:--Bible Divination in Suffolk--Mode of
      discovering Bodies of the Drowned--Somersetshire Rhyme     148

      Dictionary of Hackneyed Quotations                         149

      Minor Notes:--Cocker's Arithmetic--The Duke of
      Normandy--Anachronisms and Errors of Painters--The Ring
      Finger--The Od Force--New Costume for Ladies               149

      QUERIES:--

      Judges styled Reverend, &c.                                151

      Minor Queries:--Frederick Egmont; Peter (Egmont?)--Unlucky
      for Pregnant Women to take on Oath--Cockroach--Felton--Date
      of a Charter--Thomas Tusser the "Husbandman"--Godfrey
      Higgins' Works--Noctes Templariæ--Commissioners on Officers
      of Justice in England--Marcus Ælius Antoninus--Derivation
      of Pic-nic--Sir Thomas More's Knighthood--Portrait of
      Mandeville--Early History of Dingle--Language of Ancient
      Egypt--Dr. Matthew Sutcliffe--Names first given to
      Parishes--German Testament--The Man of Law--The
      Termination "Ship"--Nullus and Nemo--The noblest Object
      of the Work of Art--Poulster                               151

      MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--Rev. Cæsar de Missy--F. Beaumont
      and Jeremy Taylor--"Carve out Dials"--Log Book--Lord
      Clydesdale--"Time is the Stuff of which Life is
      made"--"Yet forty Days"--The Empress Helena                153

      REPLIES:--

      Royal Library                                              154

      The "Eisell" Controversy                                   155

      Lord Mayor not a Privy Councillor                          157

      "House of Yvery"                                           158

      On "Rack" in the Tempest                                   158

      Richard Rolle of Hampole                                   159

      Replies to Minor Queries:--Lady Flora Hastings'
      Bequest--"The Right divine of Kings to govern
      wrong"--Fairlight Church--Dogmatism and Puppyism--Was
      Stella Swift's Sister?--Charles Lamb's Epitaph--Meaning of
      Carnaby--Scandinavian Mythology, &c.                       160

      MISCELLANEOUS:--

      Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                     165

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                               166

      Notices to Correspondents                                  166

      Advertisements                                             167



THE CAXTON MEMORIAL AND CHAUCER'S MONUMENT.

  The result of the appeals which have recently been made to the
  sympathies of the present age for the purpose of erecting a
  Memorial to our first Printer, and of restoring the crumbling tomb
  of one of our earliest and greatest Poets, has gone near to prove
  that the admirers of Caxton and Chaucer are disposed to yield to
  the objects of their hero-worship little more than lip service. In
  short, the plan for the Caxton Memorial, and that for the
  restoration of Chaucer's Monument, have well nigh failed.

  The projectors of the former had, indeed, in the necessity of
  settling what the Caxton Memorial should be, to encounter, at the
  very outset of their undertaking, one difficulty from which the
  Chaucer Committee was free; and the uncertainty whether it should
  assume the form of the symbolical "lamp and fountain" so
  poetically suggested by the Dean of St. Paul's, or the ideal
  cast-iron statue of the Coalbrook Dale Company, may have had a
  sinister effect upon the Subscription List.

  Between the suggestive symbol and the fancy portrait there would
  seem to be little room for hesitation, since the former would
  merely veil a truth, while the latter would perpetuate a
  falsehood. But our readers have had before them a third, and, as
  it seems to us, a far more reasonable proposal, in that made by
  MR. BOLTON CORNEY for a collective impression of Caxton's original
  compositions: and we cannot but think that if that gentleman will
  take the trouble to enter into the necessary details as to the
  extent of such compositions, and the expense of transcribing and
  printing them, his scheme may yet be realised, and that too to the
  satisfaction of all the subscribers to the Caxton Memorial. The
  following communication indicates the favour with which MR.
  CORNEY'S proposal will probably be received by the followers of
  Caxton's art in this country.

I have just read with great pleasure the article on "A Caxton Memorial
suggested" in your Number for the 19th of July. I was particularly
pleased with the "_proposed conditions_;" and as an humble follower of
the art of which Caxton stands at the head, and as an enthusiastic
admirer of that great and talented, and learned printer, I should feel
great pleasure in becoming a subscriber, should anything of the kind be
undertaken; and have no doubt but that many,--aye, as many as might be
required to complete the subscription list, might be found among the
printers of this country, who would feel proud to subscribe to such a
"Memorial." If anything of the kind should be undertaken, the projectors
might depend upon me becoming a subscriber.

    HENRY RYLETT, Printer.

  Horncastle, Aug. 18. 1851.

  The following letter, on the other hand, from a correspondent
  whose smallest suggestion deserves, as it will be sure to receive,
  the respectful attention of all who have the pleasure of knowing
  his high personal character and great acquirements, although
  pointing at what might be a fitting Memorial of one of the
  greatest of the Worthies of Westminster, clearly indicates that if
  MR. CORNEY'S scheme can be carried out it will have the benefit of
  the writer's encouragement and support:

MR. BOLTON CORNEY'S letter is entitled to much attention. It is
satisfactory to learn that the original design has been abandoned. The
fountain and the illumination might be a very pretty idea, but it would
have sorely puzzled some of our countrymen to connect that memorial in
their minds with the name and services of the first English printer.

Might not the funds that were raised be advantageously employed in
founding a Caxton scholarship at Westminster School; or in the building
or enlarging some school bearing Caxton's name, connected with
Westminster? The spiritual wants of that city are great.

If the statue be raised, which should not present a _bonâ fide_
resemblance to our celebrated printer, it would be worse than
valueless--something like an imposture and it would have as little
connexion with Caxton as the statue in St. Peter's bears to the great
Apostle, though called by his name.

MR. CORNEY'S proposal, of giving an impression of Caxton's original
compositions, would unquestionably be his most enduring and glorious
monument. These reprints would be dear, not only to the bibliographer,
but to the philologist and men of letters generally. But the work would
be an expensive one, and the editors should be far more liberally
recompensed than by merely receiving a limited number of copies. As the
subscription would probably be very limited, the work should be
undertaken by the nation, and not by individuals; still, the funds
already raised, if not otherwise expended for educational purposes, as
before suggested, would serve as the foundation for accomplishing MR.
CORNEY'S excellent suggestion.

    J. H. M.

  Our present purpose, however, is to call attention to a hint
  thrown out not only in the following Note addressed to ourselves
  (which, be it observed, has been in type for several weeks), but
  also in the pages of our learned and able contemporary the
  GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE, in an article from which we extract the most
  important passage, namely, that in the event of the failure of the
  projected Caxton Memorial, the funds subscribed might with
  propriety and good effect be applied (the consent of the
  subscribers being of course first obtained) to an object with
  which Caxton himself would so surely have sympathised, namely, the
  restoration of the tomb of Geoffrey Chaucer:

_Chaucer and Caxton._--"Not half" of the required 100_l._ "has yet been
subscribed" for the restoration of Chaucer's monument. Chaucer was an
especial favourite of Caxton; and as the first English printer seems for
awhile destined to remain without "light and fountain," as once upon a
time suggested by Dr. Milman, treasurer of the Caxton fund, possibly the
subscribers to that fund would not object to the transmission of the sum
required by the old monument of the poet, from the no monument of the
printer? Will the Dean of St. Paul's ask for suffrages on the matter?

    Q.

  After alluding to the various proposals for the Caxton Memorial,
  and the correspondence between MR. BOLTON CORNEY and MR. BERIAH
  BOTFIELD in "NOTES AND QUERIES," Sylvanus Urban proceeds:

"But the discussion will do good. If neither proposal can be carried
out, we shall probably have a better suggestion than either. The money
in hand is said to be _far short_ of the sum necessary to erect a statue
or to print the works; if so, why not repair Chaucer's tomb with it?
Nothing would be more agreeable to Caxton himself. He not only printed
Chaucer's works, and re-imprinted them merely to get rid of errors; but,
feeling that the great poet 'ought eternally to be remembered' in the
place where he lies buried, he hung up an epitaph to his memory over
that tomb which is now mouldering to decay.

      "'Post obitum Caxton voluit te vivere, cura
        Willelmi, Chaucer clare poeta, tui,
      Nam tua, non solum, compressit opuscula formis,
        Has quoque sed laudes jussit hic esse tuas.'

"The epitaph, touching evidence of Caxton's affection for the poet, has
disappeared. In a few years the tomb itself will have submitted to
inevitable fate. What better mode of keeping alive the memory of both
Chaucer and Caxton, or of doing honour to the pious printer, than by
showing that even after the lapse of centuries his wishes for the
preservation of Chaucer's memory in that place are not forgotten? If the
fund is more than sufficient for the purpose, the surplus might be
invested on trust to perform the wish of Caxton, by keeping Chaucer's
monument in repair for ever."--_Gentleman's Magazine_, August, p. 167.

  Here we leave the matter for the present not, however, without the
  hope that the present age will do honour to the memories of two
  of our Illustrious Dead, and that few months will witness both a
  Caxton Memorial in the shape of a collective edition of his
  original writings, and the Restoration of the Monument of the
  Father of English Poetry.



Notes.


COLLAR OF SS.

(Vol. ii., pp. 89. 475.)

No less than nine long months have elapsed since you adopted my
suggestion of limiting your columns, on the disputed question relative
to the collar of SS., to a record of the names of those persons who,
either on the monumental effigies or brasses, or in their portraits or
otherwise, are represented as wearing that ornament; together with a
short statement of the position held by each of these individuals in the
court of the then reigning monarch, seeming to warrant the assumption.
How is it that the invitation has not produced more than a single
response? Is it that the combatants are more fond of discussing the
probabilities of a disputed point, than of seeking for facts to aid in
its illustration? I hope that this is not so, in an age that prides
itself in its antiquarian and historical investigations; and I trust
that, now the dismissal of the parliament has relieved many from onerous
duties, your pages may benefit, not only on this but on other important
subjects, by the vacational leisure of your learned contributors.

That I may not myself be chargeable with a continuance of the silence of
which I complain, I now offer to you no less than eleven of the earliest
names, principally taken from Boutell's _Monumental Brasses_, but some
suggested in your own pages, on whose monuments or otherwise the collar
occurs. To most of these I have added a few particulars seeming to
warrant the assumption; and I doubt not that some of your correspondents
will supply you with similar hints as to those of whom I have as yet
been unable to trace anything applicable to the subject of enquiry.

1. The first of these is in 1382, seventeen years before the accession
of Henry IV. It appears on the brass of Sir Thomas Burton, in Little
Castreton Church, in Rutlandshire. This knight, we find, received
letters of protection on accompanying the Duke of Lancaster to France in
1369, when Edward III. revived his claim to that kingdom.[1] Being thus
one of the retainers of the duke, the assumption of his collar of livery
may be at once accounted for.

  [Footnote 1: N. Fœdera, iii. 870.]

2. The next that we have is on the monument of John Gower in the church
of St. Saviour, Southwark. The poet died in 1402, 4 Henry IV. It is more
than doubtful whether he was a knight, and the only ground that I can
suggest for his being represented with the collar of SS. is, that he was
in some manner, perhaps as the court poet, attached to the household of
the king. Of his transferred devotion to Henry IV. we have sufficient
evidence in the revision of his _Confessio Amantis_, from which he
excluded all that he had previously said in praise of his patron Richard
II.

3. Sir Thomas Massingberd died in 1406, and on his monument in Gunby
Church in Lincolnshire, both he and his lady are represented with
collars of SS. Why, I have still to seek.

4. In 1407 there is a similar instance of a knight and his lady being so
ornamented. These are Sir William and Lady Bagot, whose monument is in
Baginton Chruch, Warwickshire. Boutell says that he was the first who
received this decoration from the king. Be this as it may, the Patent
Rolls contain sufficient to account for his and his wife's assuming King
Henry's livery from gratitude for the restoration of his land, which he
had forfeited as an adherent to Richard II.[2]

  [Footnote 2: Cal. Rot. Pat. 236. 243.]

5. Then follows Sir John Drayton, whose monument, dated in 1411, is in
Dorchester Church, Oxfordshire. It may be presumed that he was in the
king's household; as in the beginning of the reign of Richard II. he was
keeper of the royal swans; and early in that of Henry IV., was serjeant
of the king's pavilions and tents. Thomas Drayton, who was made Assayer
of the Mint in the year of Sir John's death[3], was probably his son.

  [Footnote 3: Cal. Rot. Pat. 196. 259.; Devon's Issue Roll, 286.]

6. In the following year, 1412, we have the collar of SS. represented on
the brass of Sir Thomas Swynborne in Little Horkeley Church, Essex. Two
or three years before, and perhaps at the time of his death, the knight
held the offices of Mayor of Bordeaux, and of the king's lieutenant in
those parts.

The last five of these are in the reign of Henry IV. In the reign of
Henry V., I am not aware of any examples; but in that of Henry VI., we
find five other instances.

7. In Trotton Church, Sussex, is the monument of Thomas Lord Camoys, who
died in 1424, and of his wife; both of whom are distinguished by the
collar. He was a Knight of the Garter, and commanded the left wing of
the English army at the battle of Agincourt.

8. A monument, supposed to be that of Sir John Segrave, dated in 1425,
occurs in Dorchester Church, Oxfordshire: of whom I can state nothing.

9. On the brass of John Leventhorpe, Esq., in the church of
Sawbridgeworth, in Hertfordshire, the collar is also to be found. He
died in 1433, and was one of the executors named in the will of King
Henry IV.[4]

  [Footnote 4: Devon's Issue Roll, 334.]

10. The monument in Yatton Church, Somersetshire, representing a judge
in his robes, is traditionally ascribed to Sir Richard Newton, who died
Chief Justice of the Common Pleas in 1449. This is, I believe, the first
example of a judge being represented with the collar of SS.

11. The silver collars of the king's livery bequeathed by the will of
John Baret of Bury, may be presumed, although he did not die till after
the accession of Edward IV., to be of the livery of Henry VI.; as he is
not only represented on his tomb, which he had erected during Henry's
reign, with the collar of SS.; but the chantry, also built by him, is
profusely ornamented with the same collar, enclosing his monogram J. B.
He probably received the privilege of wearing it during Henry's visit to
St. Edmondsbury in 1433.[5]

  [Footnote 5: Bury Wills, Camden Soc. 15-14. 233.]

I shall be glad to see a continuation of this list carried on through
subsequent reigns, since it is only by the multiplication of examples
that we shall be enabled to form a more correct conclusion on the
various questions connected with this interesting subject.

Will one of your correspondents kindly inform me where it appears that
Richard II. ever wore the collar of SS.?

    EDWARD FOSS.


PRINTING.

This art cannot be assigned to any single year, but must rather be
referred to a _decennium_; and the one in which we now are (1851--1860),
is certainly the first decennium of the fifth century of the existence
of the art. If anything were proposed in the way of celebration of this
_anni_versary, probably the year 1855 would be chosen, not only as the
year which touches the middle of the decennium, but as being very
probably the year in which the printing of the Bible was completed. We
have then a year or two to consider in what manner the spirit which
anniversaries usually call up shall be turned to account. The following
will probably be suggested.

_A feed._ If we could call down Fust and Gutenberg to witness that
within twelve hours after dessert and commonplaces are finished, an
account of the dinner, as long as three epistles of St. Paul, would be
about the world in something like a hundred thousand copies, such a
celebration would have a strong point of interest about it.

_A monument in sculpture._ That is to say, a lame subscription, a
committee, five-and-twenty abusive paragraphs before the thing is done,
one more when, ten years after, it is completed, and a short notice in
the handbooks of London in all time to come.

If these two modes are abandoned, many others would be proposed. Mine
would be, a subscription to defray the expense of publishing, on a large
scale, a book of fac-similes of early typography, to be sold at a cheap
rate, with such prefatory matter as would form an accurate popular
history of printing from 1450 to 1550. The great interest with which I
saw plain working men looking at the treasures now exhibited in glass
cases at the British Museum, made me think of this.

Reference is frequently made upon the origin of printing, to the
_fasciculus temporum_, or _Cologne Chronicle_. In one place I find a
citation in support of the Gutenberg Bible having been commenced in
1450; in another citation it is only affirmed that printing was first
done in that year. The only edition I have the means of consulting at
this moment is that of Ratdolt, 1484. And here I find nothing about
printing except that, of the year 1457 and thereabouts, it is said that

  "Artifices mira celeritate subtiliores solito fiunt. Et
  impressores librorum multiplicant in terra."

In the preface Ratdolt says that he had printed the _fasciculus_ three
times already, of which Hain mentions two. He says, moreover, that this
fourth (Venice) edition was _cura et opera diligentiori_. Did Ratdolt,
after inquiry, abandon the more specific account above cited, and
content himself with the above sentence, as expressing all that could be
verified; or, as I have sometimes supposed, do _different books_
circulate under the title of _fasciculus temporum_? Be this as it may,
Ratdolt expressly refers to the great impulse which the mechanical arts
in general received just about the time when printing became common. Now
we may hope the same thing of the decennium on which we are entering,
the beginning of which is made conspicuous by the great forcing-house of
art, which has not yet got the name it is to keep.

    M.


FOLK LORE.

_Bible divination in Suffolk._--In Suffolk it is a practice on New
Year's Eve to open a Bible at midnight, and the passage upon which they
stick a pin will be the luck (good or bad) that attends them the
following year.

    R. J. S.

_Mode of Discovering the Bodies of the Drowned._--What must we think of
the following, transcribed from the _Gentleman's Mag._, vol. xxxvii. p.
189.? Can such things be?

  "WEDNESDAY, APRIL 8, 1767.

  "An inquisition was taken at _Newbery_, _Berks_, on the body of a
  child near two years old, who fell into the river _Kennet_, and
  was drowned. The jury brought in their verdict _accidental death_.
  The body was discovered by a very singular experiment, which was
  as follows:--After diligent search had been made in the river for
  the child, to no purpose, a two-penny loaf, with a quantity of
  quicksilver put into it, was set floating from the place where the
  child it was supposed had fallen in, which steered its course down
  the river upwards of half a mile, before a great number of
  spectators, when the body happening to lay on the contrary side of
  the river, the loaf suddenly tacked about, and swam across the
  river, and gradually sunk near the child, when both the child and
  loaf were immediately brought up, with grabbers ready for that
  purpose."

Is this experiment ever tried at the present time, and do there exist
any authentic accounts of such trials and their results?

    * & ?

  Manpadt House.

_Somersetshire Rhyme._--In Vol. iii., p. 206., there is mention of a
traditional rhyme on Lynn and Rising. At Taunton, in Somersetshire,
there is a similar tradition current:

      "Nertown was a market town
      When Taunton was a furzy down."

This Nertown is a village adjoining Taunton, and lying on the north side
of it. Its name is variously regarded as a corruption of Northtown
Near-town, and Nethertown, of which the last is doubtless the right
derivation.

    R. D. H.


DICTIONARY OF HACKNEYED QUOTATIONS.

Allow me to suggest the publication of a small work, which might be
entitled "The Book of Hackneyed Quotations." Manifold would be its
usefulness. Here information would be imparted to enquirers anxious to
discover the source of such passages and the labours of other oracles,
as well as of the editor of "NOTES AND QUERIES," would be thus in this
department diminished. Reporters would by this means be enabled to
correct mistakes; for, owing either to blunders in the delivery, or
errors in the short-hand notes, rarely are quotations faithfully
printed. The gentleman "totally unaccustomed to public speaking," and
the orator of "unadorned eloquence," might from hence cull some flowers
wherewith to embellish their speeches while to the practised author and
the accomplished speaker such a collection might serve as an index
expurgatorius, teaching them what to avoid as common-place, and so the
recurrence of old friends, "familiar in our mouths as household words,"
would be more "like angels' visits, few and far between."

An index referring to the rhyming or important words should be appended,
and it would be advisable to subjoin translation of the few Latin and
French citations.

Surely it is "devoutly to be wished" that the proposed little work may
find "a local habitation and a name," and that the idea may not vanish
into thin air "like the baseless fabric of a vision." No doubt several
of your correspondents who do not think that "ignorance is bliss," and
that it is "folly to be wise," would gladly lend their aid, and the
constant "cry" would be "they come." As to the title, "a rose by any
other name would smell as sweet:" but "somewhat too much of this."

    TT.


Minor Notes.

_Cocker's Arithmetic._--I have a copy of Cocker's _Arithmetic_, the 37th
edition, 1720, with an engraved portrait of the author; respecting which
there is the following manuscript note on the flyleaf:--

  "Mr. Douce, of Bath, the literary antiquary and book-collector,
  showed me a copy of Cocker's _Arithmetic_, with the _frontispiece
  cut of the author_, which he said was very scarce.

  "J. P., April, 1823."

Mr. Douce's copy (the first edition, 1678) is now in the possession of
Mr. Rainy, an upholsterer in Bath, and is for sale. He asks 8_l._ 10_s._
for it.

    CRANMORE.

_The Duke of Normandy._--The question relative to the late Duke of
Normandy being the individual who was Dauphin of France, the son of
Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette, and who was said to have died in the
Temple, has never been as publicly and satisfactorily settled as it
deserves. The high station and unquestionable integrity of the
individuals of the Perceval family who instituted the inquiry, and in
the most open manner laid the results of that inquiry before the public,
constitute an unexceptionable guarantee for its genuineness and
authenticity. The acute perception and accurate memory of Madame Tussaud
carry great weight with them. She was asked by the writer of this
paragraph, if she thought the person calling himself the Duke of
Normandy was the same individual she had modelled when a child. Madame
Tussaud replied with great emphasis, "I would take my oath of it for he
had a peculiar formation on the neck which still remains. Besides
something transpired between us, which he referred to, which was never
likely to be mentioned to any one." The late Mr. Jeremy, the active and
highly intelligent magistrate who presided in the court of Greenwich,
and whose long experience adds value to his judgment, was of opinion
that there were no traces of the impostor discovered by him during
several scrutinising examinations which were held in his office, and
that the members of the old French nobility who were present treated him
with profound respect. He was supported through unknown channels, was
twice shot at, and refused permission by the French government, though
it was applied for by legal advocates of the highest standing, to bring
the question before the legal tribunals. At first the Emperor of Russia
and the King of Prussia, who knew that the Dauphin was alive, opposed
the Duke of Wellington's proposal to reinstate Louis XVIII. The Empress
Josephine is also said to have been aware, that the Dauphine did not die
in the Temple, and is reported to have said "Ah! legitimacy is nearer
than you suppose." It is an unsettled historical question worthy the
attention of the historian who has time to bestow on it.

    ÆGROTUS.

_Anachronisms and Errors of Painters._--Perhaps the commonest of all
anachronisms of painters is that of representing St. John Baptist in a
Holy Family, himself a child, adoring the infant Saviour, and carrying a
slight cross or flag, with the motto "Ecce Agnus Dei." That John knew
our Lord as an eminently holy man is clear frown his expostulation, "I
have need to be baptized of Thee," &c.; but he himself most distinctly
assures us that it was not till he saw the Spirit descending on Jesus
like a dove that he knew him as the promised Messiah and Lamb of God.

I have seen an engraving from an old Master (perhaps some of your
correspondents may remember the painting itself) in which the mother of
Zebedee's children comes forward to beg the boon on their behalf, James
and John being represented as boys of seven or eight, one on each side
of her. These errors of painters are perhaps excusable when they
occurred at a time when the Bible was not in everybody's hands: but what
excuse can we make for artist's blunders now? The _Illustrated News_ has
lately given us prints from paintings by living artists, in one of
which, "Noah's Sacrifice," a couple of fat ducks figure as _clean_ fowl
at the foot of the altar; and in the other, the Five Wise and Five
Foolish Virgins have increased into two sevens; neither error being
apparently noticed by the editor. It is said that no sea piece, however
fine, is admitted to our exhibitions if the rigging is incorrect. Would
it not be quite as advisable to exclude Scripture pieces with palpable
blunders?

    P. P.

_The Ring Finger._--The English Book of Common Prayer orders that the
ring should be put "upon the _fourth_ finger of the woman's left hand;"
and the spousal manuals of York and Salisbury assign this practical
reason for the selection of the said finger:

  "Quia in illo digito est quædam vena procedens usque ad
  cor."--Maskell, _Ancient Liturgy of the Church of England_, 2nd
  edition, Preface, page clv. note: Lond. 1846.

Aulus Gellius tells us--

  "Veteres Græcos annulum habuisse in digito accepimus sinistræ
  manus, qui minimo est proximus. Romanos quoque homines aiunt, sic
  plerumque annulis usitatos. Causam esse hujus rei Appianus in
  libris Ægyptiacis hanc dicit: quod insectis apertisque humanis
  corporibus, ut mos in Ægypto fuit, quas Graeci ἀνατομὰς
  appellant, repertum est, _nervum quendam tenuissimum ab eo uno
  digito, de quo diximus, ad cor hominis pergere ac pervenire_.
  Propterea non inscitum visum esse, eum potissimum digitum tali
  honore decorandum, qui continens et quasi connexus esse cum
  principatu cordis videretur."--_Noctes Atticæ_, lib. x. cap. 10.

Other reasons are assigned by Macrobius; and the author of the _Vulgar
Errors_ (book iv. ch. 4.) has entirely overthrown the anatomical fiction
mentioned above. Can any one give me any further information than that
contained in L'Estrange or Wheatly, or in the authors to which they
refer? The fourth finger of the left hand is certainly "the least active
finger of the hand least used, upon which, therefore, the ring may be
always in view, and least subject to be worn out:" but this is a very
unromantic and utilitarian idea.

    RT.

  Warmington, Aug. 9. 1851.

_The Od Force._--As considerable interest appertains to the earlier
manifestations of what is now termed Mesmerism, the following Note may
not be altogether unworthy of a place.

The experiment, upon which a subjective proof of the agency of the power
of Od is founded, as described by Dr. Herbert Mayo in the supplementary
chapter to the last edition of _Letters on the Truths contained in
Popular Superstitions_, and alluded to by R. D. H. (Vol. iii., p. 517.),
is another instance of there being "nothing new under the sun." In the
_Bigarrures du Seigneur des Accords_, first published at Paris in 1582,
in the chapter "Des faux Sorciers et de leur Impostures" occurs the
following passage, which I copy _verbatim et literatim_:--

  "Autres ont une ruse, qu'ils semblent d'attacher un anneau d'or ou
  d'argent à un petit filet, qu'on suspend dans un verre à demy
  plain d'eaue, et puis l'ayant trempé pair trois fois, disent
  bellement ce verset du Psalme, autant de fois, 'Ecce enim
  veritatem dilexisti, incerta et occulta sapientiæ tuæ manifestasti
  mihi.' L'anneau bat contre le verre, et sonne autant d'heures
  qu'il en peut estre."

    W. PINKERTON.

  Ham.

_New Costume for Ladies._--The following paragraph, extracted from a
London paper (November, 1794) would lead to the conclusion that the
agitation regarding costume now going on in America, is not entirely
novel; the Turkish fashion having been introduced unsuccessfully into
this metropolis in the last century:--

  "The young ladies of _haut ton_, who have invented _Turkish_
  fashions, will not be surprised if their _husbands_ should follow
  their example, and adopt the _Turkish taste for variety_.--No man
  of sense can be _long_ attached to such _absurdity_!"

    G. R.

  Thanet Place, Temple Bar, Aug. 20.



Queries.


JUDGES STYLED REVEREND, ETC.

I read a Query not long ago as to the time when the title "Very
Reverend" was first given to Deans. I would also offer a Query, When did
the Judges lose the title of "Reverend" and "Very Reverend," and obtain
that of "Honorable?" In the second volume of _The Year Books_ the
approbation of the twelve judges to the publication of the reports is
headed, "By the approbation of the _Reverend Judges_;" and the following
is copied from the title-page: "_Le Premier Part de les Reports del
Cases en Ley, que furent argués en le Temps de le très Haut et Puissant
Prince, Roy Edward le Tierce. Ore nouvelment Imprimés, Corrigés et
Amendés, avec les Notations and References de l' très Reverend et trés
Sage Juges de cest Royaulme, Brook et Fitzherbert. Printed, 1679._"

In the title-page of the sixth volume we find "_Avec les Notations de le
très Reverend Juges, Brook et Fitzherbert_."

Was this title, "Reverend," derived from the address given to judges
when ecclesiastics filled judicial offices, or is it simply a title of
respect applied to all persons to whom, on account of their position in
society, respectful address is due; of which we have an example in
Othello's address to the Venetian senators:

    "Most potent, grave, and reverend seniors."

When did the address, "The Honorable," now given to the judges, come
into use?

How comes it that in Court the Puisne Judges are addressed by the title
of "Lord," whereas the Master of the Rolls, who ranks before them,
receives the title of "Your Honor?"

The use of the title "Honorable" to the House of Commons, and to members
within its walls, is familiar to us all.

The worthiness and antiquity of the title is proved by its being given
to one of the Persons of the Eternal Trinity in the Te Deum.

    F. W. J.


Minor Queries.

93. _Frederick Egmont; Peter (Egmont?)._--They appear as booksellers
merely and only, so far as I can make out, because the _promptorius
puerorum_, or _medulla grammaticæ_, printed by Pynson, in 1499, is said,
in the colophon, to be at their expense. Neither Ames nor Dibdin gives
any further evidence. The following is therefore worth a Note. It is
from the _ad lectorem_ (or rather, the _adolescentibus studiosis_) of
the _Multorum Vocabulorum equivocorum interpretatio Magistri Johannes de
garlandia_: Paris, 1502, 4to.

  "Sed nihil tam arduum tamque difficile fuit quod labor improbus
  non vicerit. Ut videlicet mei amicissimo Fredericho Egmont morem
  gererem optatissimus: qui cum in vestra excellentissima anglie
  patria. Et librorum sit fidelissimus mercator et amicorum suorum
  amantissimus, nullum unque librum ex officina sua nisi perquam
  castigatus emittet."

Query, was F. Egmont a printer as well as a bookseller? Granting that
_officina_ means a shop, how can a mere bookseller sell none but
correctly printed works? The writer of the above was himself a
bookseller (Joh. Ant. Venetus).

Of Peter above-mentioned, or rather of his name, the following is the
history:--The colophon of the _promptorius_, of which there is a copy in
the Grenville Library, runs as follows "... in expensis virtuosorum
virorum Frederici Egmont et Petri post pascha, anno domini MCCCC
nonagessimo nono, decima v'a die mensis Maii." Hence Hain and others
have entered Peter post Pascha as an English bookseller, presuming that
the words _post pascha_ cannot belong to the date, because the more
definite day, "May 15," follows. But surely, among the varieties of the
time when every man did what seemed good in his own eyes as to titles,
colophons, &c., it may easily have happened that a double description of
a part of the date may have occurred, one description containing more
than the other. Query, Can any other instance be produced of this
hypertautology?[6] At any rate, such a thing is more likely than that a
bookseller should have been called _Peter After-Easter_. At the same
time such whimsical things were done in the Latinization of names, both
by their owners and by others for them, that no certain conclusion can
be drawn. For example, more atrocious changes have been made than would
be that of Easterby into _post pascha_.

    M.

  [Footnote 6: [We are glad to supply our correspondent with another
  instance of hypertautology, and from a work in great demand during
  this part of the year. On the cover of Bradshaw's _Railway Guide_
  we read, "Eighth Month (August) 1st, 1851."]]

94. _Unlucky for pregnant Women to take an Oath._--In a police case,
reported in _The Times_ of the 28th of May, a woman was called as a
witness who, however, upon the book being tendered to her, positively
refused to be sworn, with the remark, that it must be evident to the
magistrate that she could not take an oath. The usher of the court said
that the woman was pregnant, and that low women who were in that
situation, entertained an absurd belief that it was unlucky to take an
oath. What is the origin of this superstition? Is it common amongst the
uneducated classes of society?

    COWGILL.

95. _Cockroach_ (Vol. i., p. 194.).--Having seen in "NOTES AND QUERIES"
some interesting particulars on the subject of beetle mythology, I am
induced to put a Query as to the derivation of the word "cockroach." The
common appellation for this insect in the French islands is _ravet_,
but the more correct one is _kakerlaque_. Does the affinity in sound
between this latter term and "cockroach," slight though it be, warrant
the supposition that the one may be derived from the other?

    HENRY H. BREEN.

  St. Lucia, May, 1851.

96. _Felton._--What has become of the letter said to have been found in
Felton's hat when he stabbed the Duke of Buckingham? Upcott once had it,
but it did not appear in the sale catalogue of his collection.

    ??

97. _Date of a Charter._--Having been in the habit of making frequent
consultations to the MSS. in the British Museum respecting the county of
Wilts, I found a charter temp. Henry III., the date of which is given as
"_Thursday next after the day whereon the King sent his daughter into
Sicily_!"

It is now three years since I last saw the original, and having mislaid
my transcript, I quote from memory; but I believe I am correct in my
rendering from the Latin.

Can you, through the medium of your valuable publication, fix with
accuracy this date, as I have not been able to do so.

    J. T. HAND.

  29. Threadneedle Street, Aug. 13. 1851.

98. _Thomas Tusser the "Husbandman."_--Has any new evidence been
discovered to prove the correct dates of the birth and decease of this
"old English worthy?" On his own authority we learn that Rivenhall, near
Witham in Essex, was the place of his nativity, and his remains were
interred (about 1580?) in St. Mildred's church in the Poultry. Are any
particulars known of Sir Richard Southwell, one of Tusser's patrons?

    EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

99. _Godfrey Higgins' Works._--Have the works of Godfrey Higgins (the
_Celtic Druids_ and the _Anacalypsis_) ever been reviewed, and where? if
not, can any of your readers inform me what is the opinion generally
entertained of these productions?

    OUTIS.

100. _Noctes Templariæ._--In turning over yesterday a MS. volume in the
University Library, I met with a tract of 8 pp., with the title, _Noctes
Templariæ: a Briefe Chronicle of the darke Raigne of the bright Prince
of burning Love_. Stradilan is the name of the principal character in
this most mad composition. As to the author, I shall be glad to receive
information from those better acquainted with the fugitive literature of
the seventeenth century than

    W. R. C.

  Cambridge.

101. _Commissioners on Officers of Justice in England._--On July 27th,
1733, commissioners were appointed to survey the officers of justice in
England and Wales, and to inquire into their fees. Will any of your
learned readers inform me whether these commissioners made any report of
the returns of fees which they received in pursuance of their
commission, and where is such report or returns deposited? This inquiry
may lead to some important results.

    INQUIRER.

102. _Marcus Ælius Antoninus._--Can you or any of your correspondents
inform me what writer is concealed under the pseudonyme of Marcus Ælius
Antoninus, in the following title?

  "De scripto quodam cleri secundarii et leguleorum cololiensium
  planè detestabili, adversus Evangelii doctrinam et ordines Imperii
  nuper edito Querela Marci Ælii Antonini Imperatoris, qui
  Philosophus à bonis literis magna laude cognominatus est. 1543."

    TYRO.

  Dublin.

103. _Derivation of Pic-nic._--Can any of your subscribers inform me of
the derivation of the word "Pic-nic?"

    A. F. S.

  Nottingham, Aug. 12.

104. _Sir Thomas More's Knighthood._--I should, be glad of the date when
the honour of knighthood was conferred on this eminent man and also the
date of his admission into the privy council. If I am rightly informed,
the records of the privy council are preserved only since 1540.

    EDWARD F. RIMBAULT

105. _Portrait of Mandeville, author of the Fable of "The Bees."_--Could
any of your numerous readers inform me whether there is in existence any
authenticated portrait of Dr. Bernard de Mandeville, author of the fable
of "The Bees?" I have made a fruitless search for several years past.

    B. G.

106. _Dingle, early History of._--Any references to works, MS. or
printed, containing notices of the early history of Dingle and its
neighbourhood, in the county of Kerry, Ireland, will much oblige.

    R. H.

107. _Ancient Egypt, Language of._--What are the best standard works on
the study of the language of ancient Egypt, as preserved in its
monuments? What are the best works on its chronology? What translations
exist of its "Ritual of the Dead?" I am acquainted with Lepsius
Todtenbuch. What MSS. of it, _if any_, are preserved in British museums
or libraries? have they been collated? I am acquainted with that in the
library of Trinity College, Dublin, formerly in possession of the late
Lord Kingsborough, which, I believe, has never been even lithographed;
though among the members of that university are a Hincks, a Wall, and a
Butcher.

    S. P. H. T.

108. _Dr. Matthew Sutcliffe._--None of the biographers of the famous Dr.
Matthew Sutcliffe, Dean of Exeter, the controversial writer, and founder
of Chelsea College, state where he was born, or where interred.
Faulkner, in his _History of Chelsea_, observes that he was probably a
native of Devonshire; but there appears to be some ground for
considering that he was of a family settled at Mayroyd, in the parish of
Halifax in Yorkshire. In a conveyance of the estate, dated 29th January,
1581, the grantor is Matthew Sutcliffe, "Doctor of Civil Law, dwelling
in London." He was of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Doctor of Civil
Law: he died in 1629. In his will he desires to be buried in Exeter
Cathedral. Probably the inscription on his tombstone, if still existing,
might settle this uncertainty. I shall feel obliged to any of your
correspondents who can throw any light on the subject.

    JAMES CROSSLEY.

109. _Names first given to Parishes._--Is there any means of
ascertaining the time at which names were first given to parishes? and
can any reason be given for the recurrence of one termination in a
particular locality? Thus between Caistor and Brigg in Lincolnshire, a
distance of about nine miles, there are, I understand, the several
parishes or hamlets of _Clixby_, _Fonaby_, _Grassby_, _Ownby_, _Searby_,
_Bigby_, _Barnetby_, _Wrawby_, and there are many others in the
neighbourhood. Of course, I know the meaning of _by_, as a termination;
but I wish to know why it occurs so often in one locality, when perhaps
a few miles off you have as many _hams_ or _thorpes_.

Can you suggest any probable derivation of _Swinhop_?

    F. B.

  Leamington.

110. _German Testament._--What is the most literal German translation of
the New Testament? Is the translation published by the British and
Foreign Bible Society in 1844 to be depended on?

    A. G.

111. _The Man of Law._--Who was the author of the following lines quoted
by Mr. Serjeant Byles a short time since?--

      "The man of law, who never saw,
        The way to buy or sell,
      Shall never rise, by merchandise,
        Or ever speed him well."

They may not be quite correct, as I write from memory.

    W. W. KING.

112. _The Termination "Ship."_--What is the origin of the termination
_ship_, in such words as consul_ship_, prætor_ship_, lord_ship_, and
others?

    A. W. H.

113. _Nullus and Nemo._--I have two old quarto tracts, of eight pages
each, printed, as seems both by the type and by an allusion contained in
one of them, between 1520 and 1530, or thereabouts. They are part of a
satirical controversy, the subject of which is very obscure, between
_Nemo_ of Wittemberg, and _Nullus_ of Leipsic. Though printed, we must
suppose, at the two places, the opponents have evidently clubbed for a
woodcut to be common to the two title-pages.

In this cut an unfortunate householder stands in an attitude of despair,
surrounded by what are as much in our day as in his the doings of
_nobody_, as broken crockery, hardware, &c. In the distance his kitchen
is visible, in which two nobodies are busy with his meat and wine. A
young woman is carrying an infant to the priest to be baptized; and from
the way in which the worthy man holds up his finger, we may fear she has
just confessed that it is nobody's child. Can any of your readers give
any information?

    M.

114. _The noblest Object of the Work of Art._--Can any of your readers
discover the answer to the adjoining riddles which I have met with,
though I neither know its author nor answer?--

      "The noblest object of the work of art,
      The brightest gem that nature can impart,
      The point essential in the tenant's lease,
      The well-known signal in the time of peace,
      The farmer's comfort when he holds the plough,
      The soldier's duty and the lover's vow,
      The planet seen between the earth and sun,
      The prize that merit never yet hath won,
      The miser's idol and the badge of Jews,
      The wife's ambition and the parson's dues.
      If now your noble spirit can divine,
      A corresponding word for every line,
      By the first letters plainly will be shown,
      An ancient city of no small renown."

    A. W. H.

115. _Poulster._--Can any one inform me if I am right in supposing that
this word, used in the reign of George I. as an addition expressing
trade, is the same as our _upholsterer_?

    D. X.


Minor Queries Answered.

_Reverend Cæsar de Missy._--Can you furnish me with any particulars
respecting the Rev. Cæsar de Missy? Bishop Middleton, in his work on the
Greek article, quotes once or twice some MS. notes of his, now in the
British Museum; and a rare edition of the Septuagint (Basil, 1545), now
in my possession, contains his autograph under date Londini, 1745. I
have not met with his name in any biographical work, and should
therefore be obliged by any information respecting his life and works.

    QUIDAM.

  [Cæsar de Missy, a learned Prussian divine, was born at Berlin,
  1703. Having settled in England, he was appointed in 1762 to be
  one of the French chaplains to George III., and died 1773. His
  valuable library, which was sold by Baker and Leigh in 1778,
  consisted of many books enriched with his MS. notes, some of which
  were purchased for his Majesty's library, some for the British
  Museum, and some by Dr. Hunter, who also bought several of his
  manuscripts. A biographical account of De Missy will be found in
  Chalmers's _Biographical Dictionary_, under _De Missy_ and a list
  of his works in Watt's _Bibliotheca Britannica_, art. _Missy_.]

_F. Beaumont and Jeremy Taylor_ (Vol. ii., p. 263.).--"An acre sown with
royal seed," &c. Would M. W. kindly say _where_ the passage in Beaumont
is to be found?

    C. P. E.

  [The passage occurs in the poem entitled "On the Tombs in
  Westminster Abbey." See Beaumont and Fletcher's _Works_, vol. ii.
  p. 709. edit. 1840.]

"_Carve out Dials._"--

      "----Carve out dials, quaintly, point by point,
      Thereby to set the minutes, how they run,
      How many make the Hour full, complete;
      How many hours bring about the Day."

Where is the above quotation from? It heads an advertisement of the _Sam
Slick Clocks_.

    G. CREED.

  [It will be found in Shakspeare's _King Henry VI._, Part III. Act
  II. Sc. 5.]

_Log Book._--What is the origin of _Log Book_?

    G. CREED.

  [The Log _board_ no doubt gave rise to the Log _book_, as being
  more convenient for preserving a record of the ship's course,
  winds, and weather. Consult Falconer's _Dictionary of the
  Marine_.]

_Lord Clydesdale._--Would you kindly inform me who was the "Lord Mar.
Clydesdale," or "Clidsdale," whose name appears as a commoner of St.
Mary's College, Winchester, in 1735; and in other Rolls about that date?

    MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A.

P.S. May I in your columns beg all Wykehamists to send to me, under care
of my publisher, any information concerning their old school?

  [James, Marquis of Clydesdale, was afterwards fifth Duke of
  Hamilton, and second Duke of Brandon. See Douglas' _Peerage of
  Scotland_, vol. i. pp. 473. 722.]

"_Time is the Stuff of which Life is made._"--There is a phrase, "Time
is the stuff that life is made of," which has been taken for a line of
Shakspeare. A reference to Mrs. Clark's _Concordance_ shows that that
supposition is erroneous. Can any of your readers inform me where the
phrase may be found?

    H.

  [It occurs in Dr. Franklin's _Works_, vol. iii. p. 454., edit.
  1806, in the article "The Way to Wealth, as clearly shown in the
  Preface of an old Pennsylvania Almanack, intitled, Poor Richard
  Improved." He says, "But dost thou love life, then do not squander
  time, for that is the stuff life is made of, as Poor Richard
  says." Franklin may have quoted it from some previous author.]

"_Yet forty Days_" (Jonah iii. 4.)--"Yet forty days and Nineveh shall be
overthrown."--Septuagint (Baxter's edition) "Ἔτι τρεῖς
ἥμεραι," &c.: "Yet _three_ days."--How is this?

    NEDLAM.

  [Τρεῖς is the common reading of the LXX. as ארבעים
  of the Hebrew. We know of no variants. J. H. Michaelis'
  account of the matter is, "Perperam vero LXX. hunc
  _quadragenarium_ dierum numerum in _triduanum_ commutarunt."]

_The Empress Helena._--Most readers of general history are aware that
the parentage of the renowned mother of the still more renowned
Constantine has been claimed for two widely different sources,--a
British king on the one hand, and an innkeeper of Bithynia on the other.
In favour of the former, we have Geoffrey of Monmouth, Carte the English
historian, and modern Welsh authors; for the latter, Gibbon and his
authorities. The object of the present Query is threefold: 1. Will some
one having access to Geoffrey be kind enough to favour me (in the
original or a translation) with the exact statement of the chronicler to
which Gibbon refers? 2. Are writers of intelligence and credit quite
agreed that the tradition which assigns to the wife of Constantius a
royal British parentage was "invented in the darkness of monasteries?"
3. Where is the question--one of interest in many ways--fully and
satisfactorily discussed?

    H.

  [The statement will be found in Geoffrey's _British History_, book
  v. ch. 6.:--"After the decease of Coel, a petty prince of
  Caercolvin [Colchester], Constantius himself was crowned, and
  married the daughter of Coel[7], whose name was Helena. She
  surpassed all the ladies of the country in beauty, as she did all
  others of the time in her skill in music and the liberal arts. Her
  father had no other issue to succeed him on the throne; for which
  reason he was very careful about her education, that she might be
  better qualified to govern the kingdom. Constantius, therefore,
  having made her partner of his bed, had a son by her called
  Constantine." Thus far Geoffrey; and with him agree Baronius,
  Ussher, Stillingfleet, and Camden. The learned Lipsius' opinion of
  this tradition, in his letter to Mr. Camden, will be found in his
  _Epistles_, page 64. The traditions, however, is not mentioned by
  Gildas, Nennius, or Bede. Our correspondent will find a long
  discussion on this disputed point in Alban Butler's _Lives of the
  Saints_, August 18, Art. "S. Helen." See also Tillemont, _Hist.
  des Empereurs_, t. iv.]

  [Footnote 7: This petty king is probably the hero of the old
  popular ditty:

      "Old King Coel,
      Was a merry old soul," &c.]



Replies.


ROYAL LIBRARY.

(Vol. iii., P. 427.; Vol. iv., p. 69.)

I have delayed contradicting the stories told about the Royal Library in
the _Quarterly Review_ of last December, and repeated in the
_Illustrated Boswell_, and, I am sorry to say, still more gravely and
circumstantially reproduced by the Editor of "NOTES AND QUERIES." I have
delayed, I say, until I was enabled to satisfy myself more completely as
to one of the allegations of _your_ Note. I can now venture to assure
you that the whole story of the projected sale to Russia is absolutely
unfounded; and that the Princess Lieven, whose supposed agency is the
gist of the story, never heard a syllable about it, till my inquiry
brought it to her notice, and that she has given it the most absolute
contradiction. As there never was any such proposition, I need not say
that the interference against it attributed to Mr. Heber and Lord
Sidmouth is equally unfounded. The real history of the affair is
this:--Mr. Nash, the architect, had rendered himself very agreeable to
George IV. by his alterations and additions to the Pavilion at Brighton,
and he managed to obtain (somewhat irregularly, I believe) the job of
altering old Buckingham House, which was originally intended, or at
least proposed, to be only an extensive repair and more commodious
arrangement of the existing edifice. Under that notion, Mr. Nash had
little difficulty in persuading the king that the space occupied by so
large a library could not be spared for that purpose, if the house was
to be arranged as a _palace_ both for private residence and for purposes
of state; and as there was a very great jealousy in Parliament of the
expense of Buckingham House, he was afraid to propose the erection of an
additional building to receive the books. It was then that the scheme
was hit on, I know not exactly by whom (but I believe by Mr. Nash), of
giving the books to the British Museum. The principal part of the
library occupied three large rooms, two oblong and one an octagon. The
former were to have been absorbed into the living apartments, and the
octagon was to be preserved as a _chapel_, which it was proposed to
adorn with the seven _cartoons_ of Raphael from Hampton Court. All
these, and several other schemes, vanished before Mr. Nash's larger
views and increased favour, which led by degrees to the total
destruction of the old house, and the erection of an entirely new
palace, which however retains strong evidence of the occasional and
piecemeal principle on which it was begun. But in the meanwhile the
library was gone. _I know_ that some members of the government were very
averse to this disposal of the library: they thought, and _strongly
represented_, that a royal residence should, not be without a library;
and that this particular collection, made especially _ad hoc_, should
not have been, on any pretence, and above all on one so occasional and
trivial, diverted from its original destination. It is very possible
that Mr. Heber may have expressed this opinion; and I think I may say
that Lord Sidmouth certainly did so: but, on the other hand, some of the
king's advisers were not sorry to see the collection added to the Museum
_pro bono publico_; and so the affair concluded,--very unsatisfactorily,
as I thought and think, as regards the crown, to whom this library ought
to have been an heirloom; and indeed I doubt whether it was not so in
point of law. It is likely enough that the gift of the library may have
been _partly_ prompted by a hope of putting the public in better humour
as to the expenses of Buckingham House; but the idea of a _sale to
Russia_ never, I am sure, entered the head of any of the parties.

    C.


THE "EISELL" CONTROVERSY.

(Vol. iv., pp. 64. 135.)

I can easily suppose, after the space you have given to J. S. W. (Vol.
iv., p. 64.) to sum up on the long-protracted controversy of the
_Eisell_ interpretation, that you will scarcely permit it to be renewed.
J. S. W.'s judgment, though given with much amenity and fulness, I
cannot think satisfactory, as towards its close he evidently sinks into
the advocate.

Theobald, a most admirable annotator, has narrowed the controversy very
properly, to the consideration whether Hamlet was here proposing
possibilities or impossibilities. J. S. W. dwells on the whole of the
dialogue between Hamlet and Laertes as a rant; and sinks all the lines
and passages that would bring it down to sanity. But this seems to line
singularly unjust. Imprimis, Hamlet is not enraged like Laertes, "who
hath a dear sister lost," and is a very choleric, impetuous, and
arrogant young gentleman. It is this quality which irritates Hamlet, who
is otherwise in the whole of this scene in a particularly moralising and
philosophic mood, and is by no means "splenetic and rash." Hamlet, a
prince, is openly cursed by Laertes: he is even seized by him, and he
still only remonstrates. There is anything but rant in what he (Hamlet)
says; he uses the most homely phrases; so homely that there is something
very like scorn in them:

      ---- "What wilt thou _do_ for her?"

is the quietude of contempt for Laertes' insulting rant; and so, if my
memory deceive me not, the elder Kean gave it; "_Do_ for her" being put
in contrast with Laertes' braggadocio _say_. Then come the
possibilities:

      "Woul't weep, fight, fast, tear thyself,"

(All, be it noted, common lover's tricks),

      "Would drink up eisell, eat a crocodile,
      I'll do't."

Now the eating a crocodile is the real difficulty, for that looks like
an impossibility but then, no doubt, the crocodile, like all other
monstrous things, was in the pharmacopœia of the time, and was
considered the most revolting of eatables. Eat a crocodile, does not
mean a whole raw one, but such as the alligator mentioned in the shop of
Romeo's apothecary, probably preserved in spirits.

Here we have possibilities put against the rant of Laertes; _the doing_
against _the saying_; the quietude of the philosophic prince, against
the ranting of the robustious Laertes; things that _could be done_,--for
Hamlet ends with "I'll do it." That is, he will weep, fight, fast, tear
himself, drink bitterness, and eat monstrosities: and this is his
challenge of Laertes to the true testimony of his love, in contrast to
his wordy lamentation. But his quick imagination has caught an impetus
from its own motion, and he goes on, "Nay, I will even outprate you;"
and then follows his superior rant, not uttered with sincere vehemence,
but with quiet and philosophic scorn; and he ends with the reproof of
Laertes' mouthing; a thing particularly distasteful to him. And now, in
accordance with this dignified contempt is his final remonstrance and
his exit speech of--

      "I lov'd you ever; but it is no matter;
      Let Hercules himself," &c.

We thus see that there is no real rant in Hamlet; he is not outbragging
Laertes; but institutes the possible, in contradiction to swagger and
mouthing. The interpretation of _eisell_ thus becomes a matter of
character, and to a great degree would determine an actor's mode of
rendering the whole scene. This result I do not see that any of your
correspondents have taken notice of; and yet it really is the main thing
worth discussing.

This interpretation too has the advantage of coinciding with
Shakspeare's perpetual love of contrast; the hot, hasty, wordy Laertes
being in strong contrast to the philosophic, meditating, and melancholy
young prince; always true to his character, and ever the first in every
scene by his own calm dignity. He never rants at all, but rides over his
antagonist by his cool reasoning and his own magnificent imagination.
The adoption of Theobald and Hickson's interpretation of the word
_eisell_ becomes therefore of great importance as indicating the
character of Hamlet.

    F. G. T.

Many of your readers no doubt feel much indebted to your correspondent
for his able summary of the _eisell_ controversy; an example which it is
to be hoped will be followed in other cases. It has induced me to
collect a few passages for the purpose of showing that Shakspeare was
accustomed to make use of what may be termed _localisms_, which were
frequently as occult as in the instance of the _eisell_; and that he was
especially fond of establishing himself with the children of his brain
in the particular country by means of allusion to the neighbouring seas
and rivers. What appropriate signs are the Centaur and the Phœnix  for
the city of Ephesus, the scene of the _Comedy of Errors_! The Italian,
Iachimo, speaks of--

      "---- lips as common as the stairs
      That mount the capitol."

And Petruchio alludes to the bursting of "a chestnut in a farmer's
fire," an incident probably of common occurrence in the sunny south. In
_Hamlet_, with which we are chiefly concerned, the king "gulps his
draughts of _Rhenish_ down;" and the grave-digger talks of a flagon of
_Rhenish_ having been poured by the jester upon his head, the wine with
which Denmark would naturally be supplied. His majesty inquires:

      "Where are the _Switzers_? let them guard the door."

And the student Horatio is judiciously placed at the university of
Wittenburg. Constant mention is made in _The Merchant of Venice_ of the
Rialto; and Portia, not unmindful of the remarkable position of the
city, thus directs Balthazar:

      "Bring them, I pray thee, with imagin'd speed
      Unto the tranect, to the common ferry
      Which trades to Venice."

What a fine Hebraism (Hazlitt remarks) is that of Shylock, where he
declares, that he would not have given his ring "for a whole wilderness
of monkeys!" And so, if the subjoined passage in _Othello_ relates to
the ceremony of the Doge's union with the sea, may we not exclaim "What
an admirable Venetianism!"

      "I would not my unhoused free condition
      Put into circumscription and confine
      For the sea's worth."

The Moor has not travelled far to find the following simile:

                "Like to the Pontick sea,
      Whose icy current and compulsive course
      Ne'er feels retiring ebb, but keeps due on
      To the Propontick and the Hellespont."

Petruchio asserts in respect to Catherine:

              "---- Were she as rough
      As are the swelling Adriatic waves,
      I come to wive it wealthily in Padua."

In the Roman plays the Tiber is repeatedly noticed. The Thames occurs in
_Merry Wives of Windsor_, and others. And in the Egyptian scenes of
_Antony and Cleopatra_, the Nile is several times introduced.

  "Master Brook [says Falstaff], I will be thrown into Etna, as I
  have been into Thames, ere I will leave her thus."

Antony exclaims:

      "Let Rome in Tiber melt!"

while Cleopatra gives utterance to the same sentiment:

      "Melt Egypt into Nile! And kindly creatures
      Turn all to serpents!"

In the last two passages it may be observed, that the hyperbolical
treatment of the two rivers bears some analogy to that of the _eisell_;
and it may also be pointed out, that although one of your correspondents
has rashly maintained that the word cannot mean a river because the
definite article is omitted before it, Thames, Tiber, and Nile here
occur without. Upon the whole it must appear that there is some reason
for adopting the motto:

      "Flow on, thou shining river."

    T.

_Eisell_ will, I think, if examples from our old writers decide, be at
least acknowledged to mean in Shakspeare what we now (improperly?) call
vinegar, and not any river. In _The Goolden Letanye of the Lyf and
Passion of our Lorde Jesu Criste_, edited from a MS. (No. 546.) in the
library at Lambeth, by Mr. Maskell, _Monumenta Ritualia_, ii. 252.,
comes this entreaty:--

  "For thi thirste and tastyng of gall and _eysyl_, graunte us to
  tast the swetnes of thi spirite; and have mercy on us."

All through the sixteenth century, and ages before, _eisell_ was not
only a housewife's word, but in every one's mouth--in the poet's as he
sang, the preacher's as he preached, and the people's while they prayed.
Surely, for this very reason, if Shakspeare meant Hamlet to rant about a
river, the bard would never have made the king choose, before all
others, that very one which bore the same name with the then commonest
word in our tongue: a tiny stream, moreover, which, if hardly ever
spoken of in these days of geographical knowledge, must have been much
less known then to Englishmen.

    DA. ROCK.

  Buckland, Faringdon.

Your correspondent J. S. W. well deserves the thanks of all those of
your readers who have taken an interest in the discussion on the meaning
of _eisell_ in _Hamlet_, for the able manner in which he has summed up
the evidence put forward by the counsel on both sides. Perhaps he is
correct in his conclusion, that, of twelve good men and true, nine would
give their verdict for _eisell_ being "a river;" while but three would
favour the "bitter potion." Nevertheless, I must say, I think the
balance yet hangs pretty even, and I rather incline myself to the latter
opinion, for these reasons:

1. There is no objection whatever, even in the judgment of its enemies,
against _eisell_ meaning "a bitter potion," except that they _prefer_
the river as more to their taste; for the objection of MR. CAUSTON I
conceive to have no weight at all, that "to drink up" can only be
applied "to a definite quantity;" surely it may also mean, and very
naturally, to drink "without stint." And _eisell_ need not be taken as
meaning nothing more than "vinegar;" it may be a potion or medicament of
extreme bitterness, as in the 111th sonnet, and in Lydgate's _Troy Boke_
quoted by MR. SINGER, such, that while it would be possible to sip or
drink it in small quantities, or diluted, yet to swallow a quantity at a
draught would be almost beyond endurance; and hence, I submit, the
appropriateness of "drink up."

2. There is this objection against _eisell_ meaning a river,--Would the
poet who took a world-wide illustration from _Ossa_, refer in the same
passage to an obscure local river for another illustration? Moreover it
does not appear to be sufficient to find any mere river, whose name
resembles the word in question, without showing also that there is a
propriety in Hamlet's alluding, to that particular river, either on
account of its volume of water, its rapid flow, &c., or from its being
in sight at the time he spoke, or near at hand.

Can any of your readers, who have Shakspeare more at their fingers' ends
than myself, instance any _exact parallel_ of this allusion of his to
_local_ scenery, which, being necessarily obscure, must more or less mar
the universality, if I may so speak, of his dramas. Could such instances
be pointed out (which I do not deny) or at least any one exactly
parallel instance, it would go far towards reconciling myself at least
to the notion that _eisell_ is the river Essel.

    H. C. K.

  ---- Rectory, Hereford, July 28.


LORD MAYOR NOT A PRIVY COUNCILLOR.

(Vol. iv., pp. 9. 137.)

I will not attempt to follow all the statements of L. M., because some
of them are totally beside the question, and others contradict each
other. I shall only observe that he totally mistakes _my_ argument when
he says, as if in reply to me, that _it is not necessary to have the
courtesy title of lord to be a privy councillor_. No one ever said any
such thing. What I said was this, that the Mayor of London, like those
of Dublin and York, had the courtesy title of _lord_, and that this
title of _lord_ brought with it the other courtesy designation of _right
honorable_, which latter being _also_ (but not _likewise_) the
designation of privy councillors, had, as I suppose, occasioned the
error now predicated of the Mayor of London being a privy councillor,
which, I repeat, he is no more than any Lord John or Lady Jane, who have
also the title of Right Honorable.

L. M., however, states as a matter of fact, that "the Lord Mayor is
always _summoned to council_ on the accession of a new sovereign." Now I
assert, and I think have proved in my former note, that the Lord Mayor
never was so _summoned to council_. I now add that he never has on any
occasion entered the _council chamber_, that he has never taken the oath
nor performed any act of a privy councillor, and that in short there is
not the smallest doubt with any one who knows anything about the Privy
Council, that the _Lord Mayor of London_ no more belongs to it than the
_Lord Mayors of York or Dublin_, or the _Lord Provost of Edinburgh_, all
of whom are equally styled Right Honorable, which title, I repeat, is
the sole and silly pretence of this new-fangled hypothesis.

    C.


"HOUSE OF YVERY."

(Vol. iv., pp. 101. 136.)

Observing the imperfect knowledge which Lowndes and your correspondents
apparently have of the work called Anderson's _House of Yvery_, I send
you a few Notes to clear up some points.

It may be said there were two editions of this work; one containing the
censorious comments of (I presume) Lord Egmont on the degraded state of
the peerage; the second, that in which those comments were cancelled. To
the first, no printer's name appeared in the title-page; to the second
is the name of "H. Woodfall, jun."

Lowndes has entirely mistaken the origin of the different paging in vol.
i. The fact is, the original edition of the Introduction contained 41
pages of text, but the cancels reduced that number to 37; which p. 37.,
as Lowndes correctly remarks, is in the second edition misprinted 29. I
possess both copies, with and without the cancels. By Lowndes we are led
to believe that only p. xxxvii. was destroyed; but in truth they are p.
xvi., and parts of pp. xv. and xvii., and nearly the whole of pp.
xxxv.-vi., containing the anecdotes of the tailor's son and the
apothecary's brother-in-law being sent, or intended to be sent, to
foreign courts, as ambassadors from England. Another cancel occurs in
vol. ii., of nearly the whole of pp. 444-5-6, which occasions Lowndes to
say that pp. 446-7 are missing. The duplicate pages 453 to 460 are
peculiar to the second edition only. One of my copies contains two
additional plates, one of Wardour Castle, the other of Acton Burnell,
evidently engraved for the work. The map of the baronies of Duhallow,
&c., is only in one copy, viz. the original edition. Unfortunately, this
original edition wants all the portraits of Faber, but it has the tomb
of Richard Percival of 1190, beginning "Orate," as in Lowndes. It
contains also a duplicate portrait of Sir Philip Percival, engraved by
Toms in 1738 (who also engraved the Wardour and Acton Burnell Castles);
and this duplicate is also in the other copy.

Were I to form any judgment when this work was commenced, I should say
about 1738, and that all the engravings for it were done by Toms; and
the first edition was printed in 1742, without any printer's name, and
that some copies were so bound up. The other copies remained in sheets
until the next year, when Faber was employed to engrave the portraits,
and till 1744 or 1747; 1747 being the latest date of Faber's plates.
There is some curious information in these volumes, and I would
recommend your readers to observe how much the conduct of the Catholics
of Ireland, recorded in vol. ii. p. 271., resembles that of the
Catholics of the present day.

    P.


ON "RACK" IN THE TEMPEST.

(Vol. iv., pp. 37. 121.)

I think A. E. B. has not understood MR. HICKSON'S argument in reference
to this word. Perhaps the latter may not have expressed himself very
clearly; and not having by me his original paper on the subject, I
cannot cite his exact words; but his argument I take to be to this
effect:--In construction of the passage there is a double comparison,
which, though perfectly clear to the intelligent reader, causes some
confusion when a doubt is first raised as to the meaning of the word,
and which can be cleared up only by a thorough analysis. "The
cloud-capp'd towers," &c., are first compared with "the baseless fabric
of this vision," _like which_ they "shall dissolve," and afterwards with
"this insubstantial pageant," _like which_ (_having "faded"_) they shall
"leave not a rack behind." A given object can be said to "leave behind"
only that which was originally of its elements, and for this reason only
a general term such as _wreck_ or _vestige_ will accord with the
construction of the passage.

I am sorry to find that any one should misquote Shakspeare for the
purpose of obtaining a temporary triumph: probably, however, in the
instance I am about to cite, A. E. B. has really fallen into the common
error of regarding two similes as one. He says, giving the substance of
Shakspeare's passage, "the globe itself shall dissolve, and, like this
vision, leave not a wreck behind." What Shakspeare in substance _does_
say is, "The globe itself, _like this vision_, shall dissolve, and,
_like this faded pageant, shall_ leave not a rack behind." A. E. B.'s
question, therefore, "in what was the resemblance to the vision to
consist, if not in melting, like it, into thin air?" is thus answered:
The resemblance _does_ consist in _dissolving_, or "melting" away.

My object in making these remarks is not to express an opinion on one
side or the other, but to draw the attention of your readers to the real
question at issue. I therefore say nothing as to whether Shakspeare may
or may not have had a prevision of the nebular theory; though I cannot
see that this would be in the least affected by our decision as to the
meaning of this word, since the _wrack_ or _wreck_ of the world might
well be represented by the "vapour" for which A. E. B. contends. As,
however, this gentleman says such is its meaning "beyond all doubt," (a
rather dogmatic way of settling the question, by the way, seeing that a
doubt had been thrown upon it in the very paper he has engaged himself
to answer,) I should like to be informed if there is any authority for
the use of the word in Shakspeare, or his cotemporaries, as _mere_
"haze" or "vapour." I have generally understood it to mean a
_particular_ description of cloud, or, as some say, more properly, the
course of the clouds in motion.

In fine, as Prospero did undoubtedly point to the dissolution of the
globe and all that it contained, it is quite clear that it could in such
case leave neither "cloud" nor "vapour," nor anything else behind it.
The simple question then remains: Is the word _rack_, as elsewhere used
by Shakspeare and his contemporaries, logically applicable there?

    A LOOKER-ON.

  Dawlish, Aug. 16. 1851.

_Wolken Zug, English Term corresponding to._--Coleridge (_Death of
Wallenstein_, Act V. Sc. 1.) gives the lines--

      "Fast fly the clouds, the sickle of the moon
      Struggling, darts snatches of uncertain light."

as a translation of

                  "---- schnell geht
      Der Wolken Zug: die Mondessichel wankt
      Und durch die Nacht zuckt ungewisse Helle."

In a note on this passage he says:

  "The words _wanken_ and _schweben_ are not easily translated. The
  English words by which we attempt to render them are either vulgar
  or pedantic, or not of sufficiently general application. So 'der
  Wolken Zug,' the draft, the procession of clouds, the masses of
  the clouds sweep onward in swift _stream_."

On reading this, it struck me that the English word _rack_ exactly
expresses the meaning of "der Wolken Zug."

Malone, in his note on the _Tempest_, Act IV. Sc. 1., says:

  "_Rack_ is generally used for a _body of clouds_, or rather for
  _the course of clouds in motion_."

I add a few instances of the use of this word, many of which are
collected in the note I have referred to.

In _Antony and Cleopatra_--

      "That which is now a horse, even with a thought
      The _rack_ dislimns."

In Fletcher's _Faithful Shepherdess_--

            "shall I stray
      In the middle air, and stay
      The sailing _rack_."

In Dryden's tenth _Æneid_--

        "the doubtful _rack_ of heaven
      Stands without motion."

The term _scud_, used by sailors, seems to express the same idea.

    X. Z.


RICHARD ROLLE OF HAMPOLE.

(Vol. iv., pp. 49. 116.)

The productions of the writer known by the name of the Hermit of Hampole
have been hitherto much neglected: they afford copious illustrations of
ancient manners, and are very valuable in a philological point of view.
I would especially name the _Speculum Vitæ, or Mirrour of Life_, of
which I possess two MSS. in entirely distinct dialects.

Your Cambridge correspondent has shown that the Metrical Sermons contain
interesting passages also illustrative of manners and as the extracts he
has made have given occasion to some glossarial Queries from an Oxford
correspondent, J. E., should they not be more satisfactorily answered by
C. H., to whom they are addressed, perhaps the following attempt to
resolve them may not be unacceptable.

1. By the _devenisch_ most probably the _Danish_ is meant, which we find
elsewhere written _Deniske_, _Daniske_, and _Danske_.

2. _Guystroun_ should be _quystroun_, which is used by Chaucer in the
_Romaunt of the Rose_, and signifies a _scullion_, as is evident from
this passage. It is from the O. Fr. _quistron_ or _cuistron_. Thus in K.
Alisaunder (Weber's _Metr. Rom._), v. 2511.:

      "Ther n'as knave no _quistron_
      That he no hadde gôd waryson."

3. By _Chaunsemlees_ we may probably understand _schoon-semeles_,
signifying, no doubt, _sandals_.

4. "Hir chere was ay _semand_ sori," which your correspondent says is
"an expression very strange to English verse," is nothing more than the
old form of _seeming_: her cheer was ever sorrowful or _sad-seeming_.
The termination _and_ or _ande_, as well as _inde_, was formerly used
where we now have _ing_. Examples are numerous of this form; as _semand_
and _semynd_, _spekand_, _strikinde_, &c. &c.

In Gawin Douglas, _Eneados_, we have _glaidsembland_ for an appearance
of joy or gladness, a _cheerful countenance_; and in b. ii. v. 159.:

      "As that drery unarmyt wicht was sted
      And with _eine_[8] blent about _semyn ful red_."

  [Footnote 8: Your correspondent's extract has _ane_; but _eyes_
  are evidently meant.]

There are other words which appear in an uncommon form in these
extracts, for instance, _telid_ and _telith_, _hirched_ and _hirching_;
and the following plural form I do not recollect to have observed
elsewhere:

      "For ser deyntes and many _mes_
      Make men falle in many _sicknes_."

In the last line of the first page, _Salhanas_ should be _Sathanas_:

      "And so slew Jesu Sathanas,"

reminding us of the tradition mentioned by DR. RIMBAULT, "the Devil died
when Christ _suffered_," not when he was _born_.

      S. W. Singer.

      Mickleham, Aug. 18. 1851.


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Lady Flora Hastings' Bequest_ (Vol. iii., pp. 443. 522.; Vol. iv., pp.
44. 92. 108.).--ERZA regrets extremely the mistake she has made with
regard to the above poem. The person from whom, and the circumstances
under which she received it, all tended to confirm her in her error till
the last moment--with which, if the authoress of this beautiful poem
were acquainted, ERZA is sure she would be forgiven.

  [To these regrets on the part of ERZA we have to add the
  expression of our own that our columns should have been made the
  medium of a statement which it is obvious originated in error. We
  regret also that, after the contradictions given to the first
  statement, ERZA should, without a positive knowledge of the real
  facts of the case, have reiterated in such strong terms the claims
  of Lady Flora Hastings to the authorship of a poem which it is now
  quite clear is really the production of Miss Barber.]

"_The Right Divine of Kings to govern wrong_" (Vol. iv., p. 125).--I
cannot concur in MR. CROSSLEY'S conjecture that the _marks of quotation_
affixed to this line in the eighteenth book of the _Dunciad_ may have
been a mere _error of the press_; because, in the first place, I do not
find that the _Dunciad_ is more negligently printed than other works of
the day. I should say rather less so; but (which is more important) any
one who will look at the successive editions will, I think, be satisfied
that the _remarkable typography_ of the line, carefully reproduced in
_all_, could not be accidental. This matter is less trifling than it at
first sight may seem, because there are several lines in Pope's works
similarly marked as quotations, on which questions have arisen; and my
belief is that everything so marked will turn out to have really been a
_quotation_, though in this case, and in that other,

      "No Lord's anointed but a Russian bear,"

we have, as yet, failed to find the original.

    C.

_Fairlight Church_ (Vol. iv., p. 57.).--The old church was Early
English; the original windows were lancet-shaped. It was built, like all
the adjoining churches, of stone; but it had been repaired with brick,
and the roof of the tower had been covered with tiles instead of
shingles. The earliest brick building in Sussex, after the Roman period,
is Herstmonceux Castle, built by Sir Roger de Fynes, treasurer of the
household to Henry VI.

    W. D. COOPER

_Dogmatism and Puppyism_ (Vol. iv, p. 102).--The quotation your
correspondent writes about to be found in MR. DOUGLAS JERROLD'S _A Man
Made of Money_, p. 252.:

  "'Robert, my dear,' said Jenny, with the deferential air of a
  scholar, 'Robert, what did Mr. Carraways mean when he said he
  hated dog--dogmatism?' Topps was puzzled. 'Robert, my dear,' Jenny
  urged, 'what--what in the world is dogmatism?' Now it was the
  weakness of Topps, never to confess ignorance of anything soever
  to his wife. 'A man should never do it,' Topps had been known in
  convivial seasons to declare; 'it makes 'em conceited.' Whereupon
  Topps prepared himself, as was his wont, to make solemn,
  satisfying, answer. Taking off his hat, and smoothing the wrinkles
  of his brow, Topps said, 'Humph! what is dogmatism? Why, it is
  this, of course: dogmatism is puppyism come to its full growth.'"

    ED. STEANE JACKSON.

  Saffron Walden, Aug. 10.

_Was Stella Swift's Sister?_ (Vol. iii., p. 450.; Vol. iv., p.
110.).--That Swift was the son of Sir William Temple seems to have been
completely disproved by Mason. Swift was born in Dublin, 30th November,
1667, in the house of his uncle Godwin Swift, who, after the death of
his younger brother, Jonathan, in the preceding April, took charge of
his widow. Sir William Temple appears from his letters to have been
abroad in a public capacity from 1665 to 1670. If therefore, there
existed such consanguinity between Swift and Stella as to be a bar to
their marriage, it must have arisen in some other way. Swift says that
Stella "was born at Richmond in Surrey, on 13th March, 1681; her father
being the younger brother of a good family in Nottinghamshire [Qy. Sir
Wm. Temple? Sheen, where he resided, was close by], her mother of a
lower degree." There can be little doubt that she was illegitimate. The
question arises, who was her mother? On this point the Richmond registry
might perhaps throw some light. _Has it ever been searched?_ In order
that the supposed consanguinity should have existed, her mother must
have been either Swift's mother, Abigail Swift (_née_ Erick) of
Leicestershire, or (what seems more probable) an illegitimate
half-sister of Swift. It has been surmised, however, that an impediment
to Swift's marriage of an entirely different nature from consanguinity
may have existed; or that, feeling himself to be labouring under an
hereditary disease, he may have been unwilling to propagate it. I am
much inclined to think that the objection to the marriage of Swift and
Stella, which certainly must have existed, was of this last description;
and that it would have been equally strong the case of any other
female. However this may be, I believe that full credit may be given to
what Swift has stated respecting the perfect purity of his intercourse
with Stella.

  "I knew her from six years old, and had some share in her
  education, by directing what books she should read, and
  perpetually instructing her in the principles of honour and
  virtue, from which she never swerved in any one action or moment
  of her life."--Swift's _Works_, vol ix. p. 489. (_citante_ Mason).

    E. H. D. D.

_Charles Lamb's Epitaph_ (Vol. iii., pp. 322. 459.).--It has been
suggested to me by a lady who was an intimate friend of Lamb's, that Mr.
Justice Talfourd was the author of this epitaph. The observation,
however, was made without, I believe, any _certain_ knowledge on the
subject.

    COWGILL.

_Meaning of Carnaby_ (Vol. iii., p. 495.).--ARUN inquires as to the
meaning of Carnaby as the name of a street. Carnaby is a surname
probably deriving from the parish of Carnaby in Yorkshire. It has become
a Christian name in the family of ---- Haggerston, Bart., since the
marriage of an heiress of Carnaby's into that family.

Streets are often called after proper names.

    †

_Scandinavian Mythology_ (Vol. ii, p. 141.).--Your correspondent T. J.
has called attention to the tradition-falsifying assertion of Mr. G.
Pigott, that the custom with which the Scandinavians were long
reproached, of drinking out of the skulls of their enemies, has no other
foundation than a blunder of Olaus Wormius in translating a passage in
the death-song of Regner Lodbrog.

The following extracts from the curious and learned work of Bartholinus,
_De Causis Contemptæ a Danis Adhuc Gentilibus Mortis_, will, I think,
show that the subject deserves further inquiry before we consent to
place this ancient historical tradition in the category of vulgar
errors. Speaking of the banquets of the beatified heroes in Valhalla,
Bartholinus says:

  "Neque tamen ex communi animalium cornu elaborata pocula in
  Valhalla viserentur; sacratiora desiderabantur ex cæsorum craniis
  inimicorum confecta, quæ apud Danos vel ex Daniâ oriundos, alias
  quoque gentes, in summo erant pretio."--Lib. ii. cap. xii. p. 555.

In proof of this assertion he quotes the following authors; Herodotus
(lib. iv. cap. 65.) and Plato (Euthydemus), who attribute this custom to
the Scythians. Aristotle is supposed to allude to it, _De Repub._ lib.
vii. cap. 2. In the _Historia Miscellanea_, lib. vi., it is mentioned as
a custom of the Scordisci; and similar customs are recorded of the
Panebi by Nicolaus Damascenus, of the Essedones by Solinus and Mela, of
the Boii by Livy (lib iii. cap. 24.), of the Celts by Silius Italicus
(lib. ii.), of the Langobards by Paulus Diaconus (lib. i. cap. 27.). The
last-mentioned author informs us that these skull cups were alled
"scalæ;" upon which Bartholinus remarks--

  "Unde genus, undeque morem ejusmodi conficiendarum paterarum unde
  etiam nomen _scalæ_ iis inditum, ex septentrione nempe traxerunt
  Langobardi manifestum facient Vaulundar qvidu.

      "Enn pœr skalar
            &c. &c.
            h. e.
      Crania autem illa
      Quæ pericraniis suberant
      Argento obduxit et
      Nidado tradidit."

    W. B. R.

_Scandal against Queen Elizabeth_ (Vol. iii., pp. 225. 285. 393.).--I do
not recollect that either of your correspondents on this subject has
brought forward the aspersion upon Queen Elizabeth's fair fame in
precisely the same form in which the Jesuit Sanders places it in the
following passage:--

  "Hâc Ecclesiæ contra ipsam sententiâ, et Catholicorum novis
  incrementis quotidianis, non mediocriter offensa Elizabetha,
  convocatis ordinibus, leges valde iracundas et cruentas contra
  veteris fidei cultores promulgat: quibus primum cavetur, _ne quis
  Elizabetham hæreticam, schismaticam, infidelem, usurpatricemve,
  sub pœnâ capitis vocet_. Item. _Ne quis aliam quamcunque certam
  personam nominet, cui regnum vel in vitâ, vel post mortem ipsius,
  deberi dicatur, exceptâ Elizabethæ naturali prole._ Ea enim sunt
  ipsa decreti verba. In eam enim homines vel adulationem vel
  necessitatem ita perduxit hæresis, ut quod illud nobilissimum
  regnum illegitimæ illius regis sui proli ægre unquam concessit,
  nunc _naturali_, id est, _spuriæ_, soboli reginæ in cujus sexu
  fornicationis peccatum est fœdius, non denegarint: pariter et
  reipublicæ, ex proximi successoris ignoratione, extremum
  periculum, et Elizabethæ incontinentiam prodentes."--Nicolai
  Sanderi _Hist. Schism. Angl._ lib. iii. § Novæ leges latæ in
  Catholicos, ann. 1571, ed. 8vo. Col. Agr. 1628, p. 299.

To some of your readers this passage may seem to indicate that the use
of the equivocal word _naturali_ may have given colour, not to say
occasion, to the whole scandal against Queen Elizabeth. By many, I
apprehend, it will be acknowledged that _spuriæ_ is not the only, if an
allowable, interpretation.

    J. SANSOM.

  Oxford, July 22. 1851.

_Meaning of "Deal"_ (Vol. iv., p. 88.).--I think the following may help
to throw a little light upon the use of the word _deal_ as meaning
_divide_. I was in Wensleydale about a month ago; and on inquiring where
the boundary between the North and West Ridings of Yorkshire ran, was
told, "On the top of Penhill, where God's water deals" (_i. e._ the rain
divides). I may further add, on my own knowledge, that in the north-west
corner of Suffolk, where the country is almost entirely open, the
boundaries of the different parishes are marked by earthen mounds, from
three to six feet high, which are known in the neighbourhood as _dools_
the word being probably derived from the same root. I have been told,
however, that it should be spelled _duals_, and that the derivation of
it was from the Latin _duo_ as marking two parishes; but I am sure that
it is always pronounced by the country-people at a monosyllable, and
therefore the chances are in favour of the former derivation being the
right one.

_A propos_ to Suffolk, another of your correspondents (Vol. iv., p. 55)
lately mentioned the fashion the people there have of leaving out the
_ve_ in the middle of the names of places. In this I can bear him
witness also; but I do not think it is confined to those letters only:
_e. g._ Eriswell, pronounced _Asel_; Wymondham (in Norfolk) _Wyndham_,
&c. Among those names of places in which the _ve_ is left out, your
correspondent has omitted Elved_e_n (commonly, though erroneously,
Elved_o_n), which is always called and often spelled _Elden_.

    A. N.

_"The Worm in the Bud," &c._ (Vol. iv., p. 86.).--This quotation is from
Cowper's lines appended to the Bill of Mortality for the parish of All
Saints, Northampton, for 1787:

      "Read, ye that run, the awful truth
        With which I charge my page;
      A worm is in the bud of youth,
        And at the root of age."

I know not with whom the idea originated. The imagery is frequently used
by Shakspeare, but with him never indicates disease or death.

I can call to mind no similar expression in the classics.

    H. E. H.

_Moore's Almanack_ (Vol. iv., p. 74.).--Your correspondent FRANCIS is in
error as to the MSS. and correspondence of Henry Andrews being in the
possession of his son, Mr. Wm. Henry Andrews. Mr. W. H. Andrews some
time ago sold to me the whole of his father's MSS. correspondence,
astronomical and astrological calculations, with a mass of very curious
letters from persons desirous of having their "nativities cast." I have
also some copies of Andrews' portrait, one of which shall be much at
your service.

Moore's _Almanack_ was known by that name long before Andrews had any
connection with it, but he was for upwards of forty years its compiler
for the Company of Stationers, whose liberal (?) treatment of Andrews
may be collected from the following postscript to a letter addressed to
me by his son:--

  "My father's calculations, &c., for Moore's _Almanack_, continued
  during a period of forty-three years; and although through his
  great talent and management he increased the sale of that work
  from 100,000 to 500,000, yet, strange to say, all he received for
  his services was 25_l._ per ann.!! Yet I never heard him murmur
  even once about it; such was his delight in pursuing his favourite
  studies, that his anxiety about remuneration was out of the
  question. Sir Richard Phillips, who at times visited him at
  Royston, once met him in London, and endeavoured to persuade him
  to go with him to Stationers' Hall, and he would get him 100_l._;
  but he declined going, saying that he was satisfied."

Andrews was also computer to the Board of Longitude, and Maskelyne's
_Letters_ evidence the value and correctness of his calculations.

The only materials left by Andrews for a memoir of his life I believe I
possess, and some day I may find leisure to put them into order for
publication.

    ROBT. COLE.

_Scurvy Ale._--The Query (Vol. iv., p. 68.) "What was scurvy ale?" may
perhaps be answered by an extract from a little work, _The Polar Sea and
Regions_, published by Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh. In the account of
Baffin's voyage, in which he discovered the bay called after him
Baffin's Bay, we are told that--

  "Finding the health of his crew rather declining, he sailed across
  to Greenland, where an abundance of _scurvy grass boiled in beer_
  quickly restored them; and the Lord then sent them a speedy and
  good passage homeward."

Johnson explains scurvy-grass as spoonwort.

    W. FRASER.

_Siege of Londonderry_ (Vol. iv., p. 87.).--Will you have the goodness
to inform your correspondent that I have a pamphlet, printed soon after
the famous siege was over, giving a particular account of it, though it
altogether omits mentioning the name of an ancestor of mine who
distinguished himself in the relief of that place. I shall be happy to
afford E. A. any information or assistance he may require.

    B. G.

_Salting the Bodies of the Dead_ (Vol. iv., p. 6.), about which MR.
MCCABE asks, is a very old custom in England. Matt. Paris, in his
description of Abbot William's funeral at St. Albans, A.D. 1235, tells
us how--

  "Corpus apertum est. &c. Et quicquid in corpore repertum est, in
  quadam cuna repositum est, sale conspersum. Et in cœmiterio, est
  humatum. Corpus autem interius, aceto lotum et imbutum et multo
  sale respersum et resutum. Et hoc sic factum est circumspecte et
  prudenter, ne corpus per triduum et amplius reservandum, tetrum
  aliquem odorem olfacientibus generaret et corpus tumulandum,
  contrectantibus aliquod offendiculum praesentaret."--_Vitæ S.
  Albani Abbatum_, p. 87. ed. Wats, Paris, 1644.

    DA. ROCK.

  Buckland, July 24. 1851.

In the 86th and two following sections of the Second Book of Herodotus
is the description of the ancient Egyptian methods of preserving the
bodies of the dead. These were more or less embalmed with aromatic
spices, according to the condition of the person, and then corned with
saltpetre (λιτρον, _nitre_) for seventy days; strictly,
_salted_. Is it possible that the early Christians, in adopting this
practice, may have been influenced by that very obscure passage, Mark
ix. 49.: "Every one shall be _salted_ with fire?"

    ALFRED GATTY.

The custom of placing a plate of salt on the body of the dead is very
general in Wales. I remember, when a child, inquiring the reason of the
practice, and being told by an old woman that it was to prevent the body
from swelling. My remark, that _any_ weight might answer the same
purpose, was met by the reply; "there's no weight so heavy as salt gets
when it is on the dead." This proves that some feeling of superstition
mingles with the custom. Has not the use of salt in baptism, amongst the
Italians &c., come allusion to the banishment of the evil spirit?

    SELEUCUS.

_The Word "Repudiate"_ (Vol. iv., p. 54.).--That the use of the word
_repudiate_, in the sense of refuse, repel, reject, abandon, disown,
cast off, is by no means modern; and that such phrases as "I repudiate
the idea," "I repudiate the sentiment," "I repudiate the proposal," are
strictly correct, is evident from the use of the word by "standard
classical authors" in the original language from which it has come down
to us. Sallust, for instance, in his _History of Catiline's Conspiracy_,
says that Lentulus advised him to seek assistance everywhere, even
amongst the dregs of the populace; asking him at the same time, "Why,
since the senate had already adjudged him to be an enemy to the
republic, he should _repudiate the slaves_?" i. e., refuse to enrol them
in his levies.

  "Cum ab senatu hostis judicatus sit, quo consilio _servitia
  repudiet_?"--_Sall. Cat._ 44.

Cicero, in his Offices, in opposition to the opinion of the peripatetic
school, that anger is implanted in us by nature for useful ends, lays it
down as a principle, that "on all occasions _anger ought to be
repudiated_;" that is, "cast out of the mind," and says that "it is to
be wished that persons who are at the head of the state should be like
the laws, which inflict punishment not in anger but in justice."

  "_Illa_ (iracundia) vero omnibus in rebus _repudianda
  est_."--_Cic. de Off._ I. xxv. 13.

Cicero knew nothing of the Christian grace of "being angry and sinning,
not;" he knew nothing of the severity of love. In another place he tells
us that on one occasion Themistocles declared in the Athenian assembly,
that he had a plan to propose which would be of great advantage to the
state, but ought not to be made public. He was willing, however, to
communicate it to any one person whom they might select. Aristides,
rightly named the Just, being the person selected, Themistocles
disclosed his plan to him: which was, secretly to set fire to the
Lacedæmonian fleet in the dockyard of Gytheum, by which means they would
effectually crush the power of the Lacedæmonians. Aristides returned to
the assembly, and at once declared that Themistocles' plan was certainly
very advantageous, but by no means honourable; whereupon the Athenians,
rightly considering that what was not attended with honour, could not be
attended even with advantage in reality, without hearing another word,
"_repudiated the whole affair_;" that is, utterly rejected the proposal.

  "Itaque Athenienses, quod honestum non esset, id ne utile quidem
  putaverunt; _totamque eam rem_, quam ne audierant quidem, auctore
  Aristide, _repudiaverunt_."--_Cic. de Off._ III. xi. 12.

In a third place, he relates that some persons forged a will of one
Minucius Basilus, who had died in Greece; and, in order that they might
the more easily obtain their end, put down Marcus Crassus and Quintus
Hortensius, two of the most influential men in Rome at that time, as
co-legatees with themselves, who although they suspected the will to be
forged, yet did not _repudiate the little legacy_ coming to them through
other persons' fraud, because forsooth they were not privy to the actual
commission of the forgery.

  "Qui cum illud falsum esse suspicarentur, sibi autem nullius
  essent conscii culpæ, alieni facinoris _munusculum non
  repudiaverunt_."--_Cic. de Off._ III. xviii. 4.

A little further research might easily multiply instances, but I think
these are quite sufficient to prove that we moderns are but following
the ancients in using the word _repudiate_ without reference to any
_obligation_ expressed or implied.

    F. F. F.

_Repudiate, Ringlet, Outburst_ (Vol. iv., p. 54.).--Your correspondent
H. C. K. has dealt, I fear, somewhat too harshly with "repudiate."
Surely "repudiare" is "to reject what one is ashamed of, scorns, or
disdains." Two instances immediately suggest themselves in _Cicer. pro
Plancio_, 18 (44). 20 (50). In the former--

  "Respuerent aures, nemo agnosceret, repudiarent,"

perhaps the word is a gloss upon "respuerunt." The latter, however, is
unexceptionable:

  "Nunquam enim fere nobilitas, integra præsertim atque innocens, a
  Populo Romano supplex repudiata fuit."

Why then should "repudiate" necessarily imply the notion of
"obligation?" and why should I, if I "repudiate" the criticism of H. C.
K., be held to "talk nonsense?"

May I be allowed room for a couple of Queries? 1. Is our modern usage of
"ringlet" found before the time of Milton? 2. What is the earliest
authority for "outburst?"

    CHARLES THIRIOLD.

  Cambridge, July 29. 1851.

_On the Letter "v"_ (Vol. iv., p. 55.).--I have read with pleasure the
paragraphs in your "NOTES AND QUERIES" on "the letter _v_," and beg
space for a further notice, with an especial reference to the patronymic
of _Ray_ or _Wray_. One family uses the motto, "Juste et _V_rai," whose
name is _Wray_; and another the same motto, whose name is _Ray_. And it
will be remembered that John Ray, the naturalist, changed the
orthography of his name from _Wray_ to _Ray_, as he concluded it had
been formerly written; and in one of the letters published by the Ray
Society[9], allusion is made to the adjective or substantive _vrai_, as
if that distinguished philosopher and divine had either derived his name
thence, or it had the same signification as that French word. Are we
then to take this as an instance of the silent _v_ or _double u_ or _v_;
and as any proof that families writing their names _Wray_ and _Ray_ were
originally of one patronymic and one common root, and that presumptively
Norman?

  [Footnote 9: Vide the _Correspondence of John Ray_. Edited by
  Edwin Lankester, M.D. London, 1848, pp. 65, 66.]

Under a separate heading, perhaps you will also indulge me with a Query
as to the coat of arms, under the portrait by Bathon, 1760, after W.
Hibbart, of Joannes Rajus, A.M., prefixed to Dr. Derham's _Life of John
Ray_, published by George Scott, M.A. and F.R.S.: London, 1760. The
shield is, gules, on a fesse, between three crescents, three cross
crosslets. Is it inferable that that coat was ever borne by patent or
admissible prescriptive right, by any of his ancestors? Several families
in the north of England, whence his father came, also have registered in
respectable armories crescents against their names. The poor origin of
John Ray is obviated, in some degree, by what is said in a Life of him,
published in _The Portrait Gallery of British Worthies_, by Charles
Knight. I suppose he himself used the armorials in question, and was
related to the family of nearly the same name, bearing crescents, viz.
Reay.

The glasses of some of your correspondents may assist one more
shortsighted than themselves.

    H. W. G. R., Presbyter,

  and Member of the Ray Society.

  1. Mead Place, Derby, Aug. 2. 1851.

I beg leave to correct a remark of W. S. W***. as to _Tiverton_, Devon,
which was never pronounced _Terton_; it is Twiverton, near Bath, which
is pronounced _Twerton_.

    S. S.

_"Whig" and "Tory"_ (Vol. iv., p. 57.).--The name "Whig" is derived from
the Celtic _ugham_, a sort of large saddle, with bags attached to it, in
use among the freebooters of the borders of Scotland: hence those
robbers were known to the Highlanders by the name of _Whiggam-more_, or
"big-saddle thieves;" and when the Civil War broke out, the Highlanders
and Irish, who supported the king, called themselves _a taobh Righ_, _i.
e._ "the king's party," and gave the name of _Whiggamore thieves_ to
their opponents. _Whiggammore_ and _taobh Righ_ soon became shortened to
_Whig_ and _Tory_, and in aftertimes served to distinguish the
supporters of the rival houses of Hanover and Stuart. The modern
signification of the terms is different, _Whig_ being taken to mean
"liberal," and _Tory_ "exclusive."

    FRAS. CROSSLEY.

_Planets of the Months_ (Vol. iv., p. 23.).--I do not understand this
Query. What is meant by "planets for the months?" There are twelve
months, and in common parlance only seven planets. Nor do I see what is
meant by "precious stones symbolizing _those_ planets." In heraldry, the
arms of sovereigns and royal personages are blazoned by the names of the
sun, moon, and planets, for colours, as those of noblemen are by
precious stones. If this is what is asked after, the following table
will explain it:--

      _Colours._    _Pr. Stones._    _Planets._
      Or            Topaz            Sol
      Argent        Pearl            Luna
      Sable         Diamond          Saturn
      Gules         Ruby             Mars
      Azure         Sapphire         Jupiter
      Vert          Emerald          Venus
      Purpure       Amethyst         Mercury

    C.

_Baronets of Ireland_ (Vol. iv., p. 44.).--The two following extracts
may throw some light upon the origin of the title of baronet. James I.
probably adopted this title, which he found to have been so long
existing in Ireland, for the new order of nobility he was about to
establish. And it should be remembered that the order of baronet was
instituted for the purpose of promoting the plantation of Ulster.

The names mentioned in the second extract are probably those of the
baronets whom Spenser mentions as being, in existence in his time. There
was, thirty years ago, a "Baron of Galtrim;" perhaps there is still.

  EUDOX: "You say well, for by the increase of Freeholders, their
  numbers hereby will be greatly augmented; but how should it passe
  through the higher house, which still must consiste all of Irish?"

  IREN: "Marry, that also may bee redressed by ensample of that
  which I heard was done in the like case by King Edward III. (as I
  remember), who being greatly bearded and crossed by the Lords of
  the cleargie, they being there [_i. e._ in the Parliament of
  _Ireland_] by reason of the Lords Abbots, and others, too many and
  too strong for him, so as hee could not for their frowardnesse
  order and reforme things as hee desired, was advised to direct out
  his writts to certaine Gentlemen of the best ability and trust,
  entitling them therein Barons, to serve and sitt as Barons in the
  next Parlament. By which meanes hee had so many Barons in his
  Parlament, as were able to weigh down the Cleargie and their
  friends: the which Barons, they say, were not afterwards Lords,
  but onely Baronets, as sundry of them doe yet retayne the
  name."--Spenser's "View of the State of Ireland," in the _Ancient
  Irish Histories_, Dublin Edition, 1809, pp. 223, 224.

      "BARONETS.

      "Seint Leger, Baronet of Slemarge, meere Irish.
      Den, Baronet of Por man ston, waxing Irish.
      Fitz Gerald, Baronet of Burnchurch.
      Welleslye, Baronet of Narraghe.
          [Ancestor of the Duke of Wellington.]
      Husee, Baronet of Galtrim.
      S. Michell, Baronet of Reban.
      Marwarde, Baronet of Scryne.
      Nangle, Baronet of Navan."

   Campion's "Historie of Ireland," written in the yeare 1571, p.
   12. (In the _Ancient Irish Histories_, Dublin edition, 1809.)

    T. J.

_Hopkins the Witchfinder_ (Vol. ii., pp. 392. 413.).--Your
correspondents will find some "curious memoirs" of this person in the
_Anthologia Hibernica_ for June, 1793, p. 424. The memoirs are
embellished with a plate "correctly copied from an extreme rare print in
the collection of J. Bindley, Esq."

    R. H.

_Plowden_ (Vol. iv., p. 58.).--From Burke's _Landed Gentry_, 1846, under
"Plowden of Plowden" (A.D. 1194), it would appear that Edmund was of
Wansted, Hampshire, and ancestor of the Plowdens of Lassam, Hants, and
that he "was styled in his will, July 29, 1655, Sir Edmund, lord earl
palatine, governor, and captain general, of the province of New Albion."
I would suggest to your Transatlantic readers the interest that would be
derived from a compilation of surnames in the United States; and in
cases where it can be ascertained, the date of introduction, position of
first immigrant, ancestry, and descendants. The names and subsequent
history of those families who remained loyal during the American
Revolution, are worthy of record; most of whom have, I believe,
prospered in the world since the confiscation of their property.

The names of the followers of William the Conqueror are often alluded
to; but the "comers over" at the conquest of Wales, Scotland, and
Ireland are but seldom thought of, though they lend to their
descendants' pedigree a degree of historical interest.

    A. C.

_As lazy as Ludlam's Dog_ (Vol. i., pp. 382. 475.).--This proverb is to
be found in Ray's first edition (1670), and is quoted in a little book
entitled _Scarronides, et cet._, a burlesque on the second book of
Virgil's _Æneid_. Æneas, reposing on the "toro alto," is likened to
"Ludlam's curr, on truckle lolling;" whilst a marginal note says "'Tis a
proverb, Ludlam's dog lean'd his head against a wall when he went to
bark." Both here and in Ray the name is spelt _Ludl_a_m_.

    CRANMORE.

_Pope and Flatman_ (Vol. iv., p. 132.).--The piece quoted by MR. BARTON
had long since been pointed out by Warton (_Essay on Pope_), who has
also collected many others which Pope _may_ have known and made use of,
some which he _must_.

    V.

_Spenser's Faerie Queene_ (Vol. iv., p. 133.).--The explanation of the
stanza in question would occupy more space than I think you would spare
me. It will suffice to note that a very sufficient one will be found in
Todd's edition of _Spenser_ (1803) in vol. iii., at the close of canto
ix. book ii.; and that the letter of Sir K. Digby is given at full
length, before the editor's own commentary and explanation, in that
place.

    V.

  Belgravia.

_Bells in Churches_ (Vol. ii., p. 326.).--In reply to the inquiry
whether there is still a law against the use of bells as a summons to
divine services, except in churches, which has not been answered, permit
me to quote the following sentences from a judgment of Lord Chief
Justice Campbell, as reported in the _Times_ of August 14.

  "First, with regard to the right of using bells at all. By the
  common law, churches of every denomination had a full right to use
  bells, and it was a vulgar error to suppose that there was any
  distinction at the present time in this respect. At the same time,
  those bells might undoubtedly be made use of in such a manner as
  to create a nuisance; and in that case a Protestant church and a
  Roman Catholic one were equally liable."

The case (Soltan _v._ De Weld) from the judgment in which the above
remarks are extracted was tried at the Croydon Assizes, and related to
the use of bells by a Romanist community in such a manner as was alleged
to be a nuisance.

    ARUN.

_Proverb of James I._ (Vol. iv., p. 85.).--The meaning of this proverb
will be found in Jamieson's _Scottish Dictionary_, 4to. ed:--To "_cone_"
or "_cunne_" thanks, is "to give thanks; to express a sense of
obligation; to leave a sense of obligation."

    S. WMSON.



Miscellaneous.


NOTES ON BOOKS, SALES, CATALOGUES, ETC.

Many of our readers who take an interest in our Anglo-Saxon Language and
Literature are aware that an accomplished German scholar, Dr. Pauli, has
during a residence of considerable length in this country been devoting
his attention to those subjects; and we have just received some of the
fruits of his labours in a volume entitled _König Ælfred und seine
Stelle in der Geschichte Englands_. It is an interesting contribution to
a very important period in the history of this country; and it is the
more valuable from the use made in it of the labours of our own
distinguished Saxonists, Kemble and Thorpe.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_Letters on the Evidences, Doctrines, and Duties of the
Christian Religion_, by Olinthus Gregory. The words _Ninth Edition_, on
the title-page of this new volume, sufficiently attest the value of this
addition to Bohn's _Standard Library_.

_The Stranger in London, or Visitor's Companion to the Metropolis and
its Environs, with an historical and descriptive Sketch of the Great
Exhibition_, by Cyrus Redding. This Guide claims the merit of being "not
merely descriptive but pictorial;" and it does well, for its woodcuts
form the most valuable portion of the book.

_Address at the Anniversary Meeting of the Royal Geographical Society_,
by Captain W. H. Smyth, R.N., President, &c. This Address give a concise
yet most clear view of the progress of Geographical Discovery during the
preceding year; and is alike creditable to the learned and gallant
Captain and the Society over which he presides.

We desire to direct the attention of our readers, more especially those
who are old enough to remember the first appearance the _The Literary
Gazette_, to the Testimonial which the friends of the Editor, Mr.
Jerdan, propose to present to that gentleman. The names of the
Committee, and a statement of the Subscriptions in aid of the object,
will be found in our advertising columns.

The Memorial which we mentioned some time since as having been addressed
to the master of the Rolls, requesting "that persons who are merely
engaged in historical inquiry, antiquarian research, and other literary
pursuits connected therewith, should have permission granted them to
have access to the Public Records, with the Indices and Calendars,
without payment of Fees," has been very favourable responded to by Sir
John Romilly; and a meeting of the gentlemen by whom it was signed has
been held at the apartments of the Society of Antiquaries, when certain
resolutions were agreed to, acknowledging the obligations of antiquarian
literature to Sir John Romilly for the arrangements which he has at
present determined upon, and for the further increased facilities for
consulting the documents in question, which he has promised on the
completion of the new Record Office. The thanks of the Meeting were also
voted to Mr. Bruce, with whom the movement originated.

Mr. C. Roach Smith has issued proposals for publishing by subscription
an Illustrated Catalogue of his Museum of Antiquities, composed
principally of remains of the Roman, Anglo-Saxon, and Mediæval periods,
discovered in the bed of the Thames, and during excavations in London.

CATALOGUES RECEIVED.--William Nield's (46. Burlington Arcade) Catalogue
No. 6. of Very Cheap Books; W. Brown's (130. and 131. Old Street) List
of Theological Books selected from the Library of the late Rev. E.
Bickersteth.


BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES

WANTED TO PURCHASE.

NATURAL HISTORY OF THE BRITISH ENTOMOSTRACÆ, by W. Baird, M.D. (Ray
Society's Publications.)

Barrington's Edition of THE ANGLO-SAXON VERSION OF OROSIUS, by Alfred
the Great. 8vo. London, 1773. (An Imperfect Copy, containing only the
Anglo-Saxon, from p. 1. to 242., would be sufficient.)

BRITISH ESSAYISTS, by Chalmers. 45 Vols. Johnson and Co. Vols. VI. VII.
VIII. IX. and XXIII.

KNIGHT'S PICTORIAL SHAKSPEARE. Part XXV.

BUDDEN'S LIFE OF ARCHBISHOP MORTON, 1607.

THOMAS LYTE'S ANCIENT BALLADS AND SONGS. 12mo. 1827.

DODWELL (HENRY, M.A.), DISCOURSE PROVING FROM SCRIPTURES THAT THE SOUL
IS A PRINCIPLE NATURALLY MORTAL, &c.

REFLECTIONS ON MR. BURCHET'S MEMOIRS; or, Remarks on his Account of
Captain Wilmot's Expedition to the West Indies, by Colonel Luke
Lillingston, 1704.

GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE. Vol. I. 1731.

NEW ENGLAND JUDGED, NOT BY MAN'S BUT BY THE SPIRIT OF THE LORD, &c. By
George Bishope. 1661. 4to. Wanted from p. 150. to the end.

REASON AND JUDGMENT, OR SPECIAL REMARQUES OF THE LIFE OF THE RENOWNED
DR. SANDERSON, LATE LORD BISHOP OF LINCOLN. 1663. Sm. 4to. Wanted from
p. 90. to the end.

TRISTRAM SHANDY. 12mo. Tenth Edition. Wanted Vol. VII.

MALLAY, ESSAI SUR LES EGLISES ROMAINES ET BYZANTINES DU PUY DE DOME. 1
Vol. folio. 51 Plates.

AN ACCOUNT OF THE REMAINS OF THE WORSHIP OF PRIAPUS, to which is added a
Discourse thereon, as connected with the Mystic Theology of the
Ancients. London, 1786. 4to. By R. Payne Knight.

CH. THILLON'S (professor of Halle) NOUVELLE COLLECTION DES APROCRYPHES,
AUGMENTÉ, &c., Leipsic, 1832.

SOCIAL STATICS, by Herbert Spencer. 8vo.

THE JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE. The back numbers.

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA. The part of the 7th edition edited by Prof.
Napier, containing the Art. MORTALITY.

OBSERVATIONS ON THE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE ON HEALTH AND MORTALITY, by
Arthur S. Thomson, M.D. (A Prize Thesis.)

REPORT ON THE BENGAL MILITARY FUND, by F. G. P. Neison. Published in
1849.

THREE REPORTS, by Mr. Griffith Davies, Actuary to the _Guardian_, viz.:

Report on the Bombay Civil Fund, published 1836. ------------ Bengal
Medical Retiring Fund, published 1839. ------------ Bengal Military
Fund, published 1844.

OBSERVATIONS ON THE MORTALITY AND PHYSICAL MANAGEMENT OF CHILDREN, by
Mr. Roberton, Surgeon, London, 1827.

  [Star symbol] Letters, stating particulars and lowest price,
  _carriage free_, to be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND
  QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.


Notices to Correspondents.

_To account for the non-appearance of several letters which have been
received, and to prevent others of a like nature from being sent, the
Editor begs to state that as it is obviously impossible that well-known
controverted points in religion, politics, science &c., can be
adequately discussed in a work like "NOTES AND QUERIES," we cannot
insert letters which go directly to provoke the discussion of such
points. Correspondents from whom they are received, we can only refer to
the notorious sources of information; inquirers to whom these are
unknown, are probably not in a state to profit by any dispute which they
might engender._

J. B. _or_ J. O. (Birmingham). _The Editor believes that the portraits
respecting which our correspondent inquires are mere impostures unworthy
of notice._

S. P. H. T. _is thanked for his kind reminder. The subject has not been
lost sight of; but postponed partly from the pressure of correspondence,
and the consequent want of room--partly from want of time. We hope
however to take some steps in it before the present volume is
completed._

T. LAWRENCE. _The puzzling epitaph forwarded by our correspondent has
already been recorded and explained in_ "NOTES AND QUERIES." _See_ Vol.
II., pp. 311. 346.

E. H. Y. _The Query was inserted_ Vol. iii., p. 351.; _and the only
satisfactory reply received is one not calculated for publication,
but shall be forwarded to our correspondent, if he will kindly say how
a letter may be addressed to him._

F. R. R._'s Query respecting the "Hanap Cup" has been anticipated in
our_ 1st Vol. p. 477., _and replied to at_ p. 492.

REPLIES RECEIVED.--_Lord Mayor not a Privy Councillor--Thread the
Needle--Pope and Flatman--Spenser's Faerie Queene--Men may live
Fools--Separation of Sexes in Church--Bensleys of Norwich--Cowper or
Cooper--House of Yvery--Spon--A Saxon Bell-house--The late William
Hone--Thistle of Scotland--Yankee, &c. (from R.H.)--John Bodley--Double
Names--Aulus Gehius' Description of a Dimple--Meaning of Rack--Dogmatism
and Puppyism--Borough-English--Royal Library--Was Milton an Anglo-Saxon
Scholar?--Heronsewe--Decking Churches at Christmas--Threadneedle
Street--Murderers buried in Cross Roads--Pendulum Demonstration of the
Earth's Rotation--The Tradescants--Ten Commandments--George
Steevens--Marriage of Bishops--Leman Baronetcy--Three Estates of the
Realm--Nelson's Coat--Theory of the Earth's Form--Agla--Curious Fact in
Natural History, &c., (from St. Lucia)._

_Copies of our Prospectus, according to the suggestion of_ T. E. H.,
_will be forwarded to any correspondent willing to assist us by
circulating them._

VOLS. I., II., _and_ III., _with very copious Indices, may still be had,
price_ 9_s._ 6_d. each, neatly bound in cloth._



NOTES AND QUERIES _is published at noon on Friday, so that our country
Subscribers may receive it on Saturday. The subscription for the Stamped
Edition is_ 10_s._ 2_d. for Six Months, which may be paid by Post-office
Order drawn in favour of our Publisher_, MR. GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet
Street; _to whose care all communications for the Editor should be
addressed._



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THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE FOR SEPTEMBER, 1851, contains the following
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NEW NUMBER OF MR. ARNOLD'S THEOLOGICAL CRITIC.

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  This Journal embraces Theology in its widest acceptation, and
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  Contents: 1. Scipio de Ricci; 2. The Ecclesiastical and Religious
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  received; Contents of Theological Journals.

  RIVINGTONS, St. Paul's Church Yard, and Waterloo Place;

  Of whom may be had, THE FIRST AND SECOND NUMBERS price 4_s._ each.



Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL of No. 186 Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, a No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, August 30. 1851.



      [List of volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries", Vol. I-IV]

      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. I.                                   |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. II.                                  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1- 15 | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17- 32 | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33- 48 | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49- 64 | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65- 79 | PG # 22126  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81- 96 | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. III.                                 |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |   1- 15 | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  |  17- 31 | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  |  33- 47 | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  |  49- 78 | PG # 15641  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 |  81- 95 | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 |  97-111 | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-440 | PG # 36835  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 84 | June  7, 1851     | 441-472 | PG # 37379  |
      | Vol. III No. 85 | June 14, 1851     | 473-488 | PG # 37403  |
      | Vol. III No. 86 | June 21, 1851     | 489-511 | PG # 37496  |
      | Vol. III No. 87 | June 28, 1851     | 513-528 | PG # 37516  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. IV.                                  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 88  | July  5, 1851     |   1- 15 | PG # 37548  |
      | Vol. IV No. 89  | July 12, 1851     |  17- 31 | PG # 37568  |
      | Vol. IV No. 90  | July 19, 1851     |  33- 47 | PG # 37593  |
      | Vol. IV No. 91  | July 26, 1851     |  49- 79 | PG # 37778  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 92  | August  2, 1851   |  81- 94 | PG # 38324  |
      | Vol. IV No. 93  | August  9, 1851   |  97-112 | PG # 38337  |
      | Vol. IV No. 94  | August 16, 1851   | 113-127 | PG # 38350  |
      | Vol. IV No. 95  | August 23, 1851   | 129-144 | PG # 38386  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]            | PG # 13536  |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850    | PG # 13571  |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851    | PG # 26770  |
      +-----------------------------------------------+-------------+





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