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Title: Alden's Handy Atlas of the World
Author: Alden, John B.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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       *       *       *       *       *


ALDEN'S

HANDY ATLAS

OF THE

WORLD.

INCLUDING
ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTY-EIGHT
COLORED MAPS, DIAGRAMS,
TABLES, ETC.

       *       *       *       *       *

NEW YORK:
JOHN B. ALDEN, PUBLISHER.
1888.

       *       *       *       *       *


BRILLIANT BOOKS.

The following are A FEW TITLES and prices from my catalogue of standard
books:

Alden's Cyclopedia of Universal Literature, publishing in 15 volumes, of
about 500 pages each; per volume, paper, 30c.; cloth, 50c.; half Morocco,
60c.

American Patriotism: Famous Orations and Patriotic Papers; cloth 50c., half
Morocco 70c.

Ancient Classics for English Readers; 27 volumes; each, paper, 10c.; cloth,
20c. Also bound in 9 vols., half Russia, each 50c.

Argyll's Reign of Law, cloth, 60c.; Unity of Nature, 60c.; Primeval Man,
35c.; the three in one volume, cloth, $1.00.

Bacon's Essays, complete; paper 12c., cloth 25c.

Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress; paper 8c., cloth 20c. and 30c.

Chambers's Cyclopedia of English Literature; 8 volumes in cloth, $2.00.

Chinese Classics: The Works of Confucius and Mencius, translated; cloth
75c.

Classic Comedies, by Goldsmith, Sheridan, and Jonson; cloth 40c., half
Morocco 60c.

Classic Prose Wonder-Book; 900 large octavo pages, richly bound. $1.50.

Confessions of St. Augustine; translated, cloth, 50c.

Creasy's Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World; cloth, 40c.

De Quincey's Confessions of an English Opium Eater; cloth, 20c.

Doré's Bible Gallery of Illustrations and Stories; reduced from $5.00 to
$1.25.

Doré's Milton's Paradise Lost; text complete, with 52 cartoons, $1.25.

Durfee's Poetical Concordance to the principal Poets of the World; cloth,
gilt edges, $1.00.

Emerson's Essays, 2 volumes; each, cl., 40c.; half Morocco, 60c.

Emerson's Nature, Etc.; cloth 35c., half Morocco 50c.

Famous Warriors: Lives of Hannibal, Cæsar, and Cromwell, by famous authors;
each, paper, 8c.; all in one vol., cloth, 40c.

Farrar's Seekers after God; cloth, 35c.

---- Lectures, Addresses and Essays; cloth 35c., half Morocco 50c.

Geikie's Hours with the Bible; 6 vols., illustrated; reduced in price from
$1.50 per vol. to 45c. in cl., or 60c. in half Morocco.

---- Life and Words of Christ; reduced in price from $8.00 to 45c. for
cloth, or 60c. for half Morocco.

JOHN B. ALDEN, PUBLISHER, 393 PEARL ST., NEW YORK.

       *       *       *       *       *

Copyright, 1885 and 1886, by RAND, MCNALLY & CO.

       *       *       *       *       *


{3}

INDEX

TO

MAPS AND DESCRIPTIVE MATTER.

       *       *       *       *       *

                         PAGE |                        PAGE
  Abyssinia                51 | Maryland                101
  Afghanistan              45 | Massachusetts            87
  Africa                   47 | Mexico                   77
  Alabama                 115 | Michigan                137
  Alaska                   75 | Minnesota               143
  Algeria                  49 | Mississippi             117
  Anam                 39, 40 | Missouri                125
  Andorra              23, 24 | Montana                 163
  Arabia               37, 41 | Montenegro           27, 30
  Argentine Republic 189, 191 | Mozambique               53
  Arizona                 157 | Natal                    55
  Arkansas                123 | Nebraska                147
  Asia                     37 | Netherlands          17, 19
  Australasia              63 | Netherlands Indies       61
  Australia                63 | Nevada                  167
  Austro-Hungary           31 | New Brunswick            71
  Belgium              17, 19 | New Hampshire            83
  Beluchistan              45 | New Jersey               95
  Bolivia                 187 | New Mexico              155
  Brazil                  187 | New South Wales          63
  British Columbia         73 | New York                 93
  British Isles            13 | New Zealand              63
  Bulgaria             25, 27 | Nicaragua          175, 176
  Burmah               39, 40 | North America            65
  California              168 | North Carolina          107
  Cape Colony              55 | Northwest Territories    73
  Central America         175 | Norway                   33
  Ceylon                   43 | Nova Scotia              71
  Chili                   191 | Nubia                    51
  China                    39 | Oceania              59, 60
  Chinese Empire           38 | Ohio                    131
  Colombia, U.S. of  183, 184 | Ontario                  67
  Colorado                153 | Orange River Free State  55
  Congo Free State         57 | Oregon                  171
  Connecticut              91 | Paraguay                191
  Corea                39, 41 | Pennsylvania             97
  Costa Rica         175, 176 | Persia                   45
  Cuba               179, 180 | Peru               187, 188
  Dakota                  145 | Porto Rico         175, 179
  Delaware                 99 | Portugal                 21
  Denmark              33, 34 | Prince Edward Island     71
  Ecuador            187, 188 | Quebec                   69
  Egypt                    51 | Queensland               63
  England                  14 | Rhode Island             89
  Europe                    9 | Rumania              25, 27
  Europe, Northern         10 | Russia                   35
  Europe, Southern         11 | San Domingo        175, 178
  Florida                 113 | Sandwich Islands         61
  France                   23 | San Salvador       175, 176
  Georgia                 111 | Scotland                 16
  Germany                  19 | Servia               25, 27
  Great Britain            12 | Siam                 39, 40
  Greece                   27 | South America      181, 182
  Guatemala          175, 177 | South Australia          63
  Guiana, British         185 | South Carolina          109
  Guiana, Dutch           185 | Spain                    21
  Guiana, French          185 | Sweden                   33
  Hawaii                   61 | Switzerland          23, 24
  Hayti              175, 178 | Tasmania                 63
  Honduras           175, 177 | Tennessee               127
  Honduras, British  175, 177 | Texas                   121
  Hong Kong            39, 41 | Transvaal                56
  Idaho                   165 | Tripoli                  47
  Illinois                135 | Tunis                    49
  India                    43 | Turkey                   27
  Indiana                 133 | United States            79
  Indian Territory        151 | Uruguay            189, 191
  Iowa                    141 | Utah                    159
  Ireland                  15 | Venezuela          183, 184
  Italy                    29 | Vermont                  85
  Jamaica            175, 178 | Victoria                 63
  Japan                    39 | Virginia                103
  Kansas                  149 | Wales                    14
  Kentucky                129 | Washington              173
  Liberia              56, 58 | Western Australia        62
  Louisiana               119 | West Indies             175
  Madagascar               53 | West Virginia           105
  Maine                    81 | Wisconsin               139
  Malay                39, 40 | World                     7
  Manitoba                 73 | Wyoming                 161
  Marocco                  49 | Zanzibar                 53

       *       *       *       *       *


{5}

INDEX

TO

DIAGRAMS AND TABLES.

       *       *       *       *       *

  Agriculture, Persons Engaged in                                    114
  Agricultural Products of Mexico                                     76
  Angora Hair Exported by Cape Colony, Value of                       46
  Area and Population of African Countries                            46
  Area and Population of Asiatic Countries                            36
  Area and Population of Central America                             174
  Area and Population of European Countries                            8
  Area and Population of German States                                18
  Area and Population of Mexico                                       76
  Area and Population of Oceania                                      59
  Area and Population of South American Countries                    181
  Area and Population of West Indies                                 174
  Barley, Average Annual Product of                                   82
  Boots and Shoes Manufactured, Value of                              86
  Butter Product, 1880, Value of                                     172
  Cattle in Territories, Value of                                    160
  Cheese Product, 1880, Value of                                      92
  Cheese Product in Territories, 1880, Value of                      158
  Cloth Manufactured in the Southern States                          116
  Cocoa Exported by Venezuela, Value of                              181
  Coffee Exported by Brazil, Value of                                181
  Coffee Exported by Venezuela, Value of                             181
  Coffee Imported by Europe                                            8
  Copper Ingots, Amount of, Produced in Southern States              106
  Copper Ingots, Annual Product of                                   156
  Corn Crop, 1870 to 1880, Increase in                               104
  Corn, Increase in Acreage of                                       146
  Cotton Exported by Brazil, Value of                                181
  Cotton Manufactures per 1,000 Population, Capital Invested in       88
  Crop Productions of Australasia                                     59
  Diamonds Exported by Brazil, Value of                              181
  Diamonds Exported by Cape Colony, Value of                          46
  Exports of Africa                                                   46
  Exports of Belize                                                  174
  Exports of Cuba                                                    174
  Exports of Hawaiian Islands                                         59
  Exports of Hayti                                                   174
  Exports of Jamaica                                                 174
  Exports of Mexico                                                   76
  Exports of Philippine Islands                                       59
  Exports of Porto Rico                                              174
  {6}
  Exports of Society Islands                                          59
  Exports of South America                                           181
  Farm Animals in Australasia, Number of                              62
  Farm Crops, Comparative Value of                                   122
  Farm Crops, 1870 to 1880, Increase in                              164
  Farms of Five Hundred Acres or Over Occupied by Owners             110
  Farm Products, Comparative Yearly                                  112
  Farm products, 1882, Comparison of                                 166
  Fishery Products, 1880, Value of                                   170
  Flouring and Grist Mills, Capital Invested in                      142
  Glassware, 1880, Capital Invested in Manufacture of                 96
  Gold and Silver Deposited at Mints and Assay Offices, 1793 to 1883 168
  Gold Produced from Placer Fields in 1880                           162
  Granite Quarries, Capital Invested in                               80
  Hardware, Capital Invested in Manufacture of                        90
  Hides Exported by Brazil, Value of                                 181
  Hogs on Farms, Number of                                           140
  Hops Produced in West in 1880, Pounds of                           138
  Imports of Belize                                                  174
  Imports of Society Islands                                          59
  Indigo Exported by Colombia, Value of                              181
  Lace, Production of, Europe                                          8
  Lakes of South America, Area of                                    181
  Land, Total Cultivated, Uncultivated and Timber                    120
  Lead Ore Mined, Annual Value of                                    124
  Limestone and Marble Quarries, 1880, Capital Invested in            84
  Linen Production of Europe                                           8
  Lumber Products, 1880, Value of                                    136
  Mineral Productions of Europe                                        8
  Molasses Produced in 1880, Gallons of                              118
  Mules, Value of                                                    126
  Orchard Products per 1,000 Population, Value of                     98
  Ostrich Feathers Exported by Cape Colony, Value of                  46
  Oyster Fisheries, 1880, Value of                                   100
  Peanuts, Annual Amount of Crop                                     102
  Plate Glass Manufacture, 1880                                      132
  Population, 1870 to 1880, Increase of                              148
  Rice Produced in 1880, Pounds of                                   108
  Rivers of Africa, Length of                                         46
  Rivers of Asia, Length of                                           36
  Rivers of Europe, Length of                                          8
  Rivers of South America, Length of                                 181
  Rubber Exported by Brazil, Value of                                181
  Seal Fisheries, Annual Products of                                  74
  Seas and Lakes of Asia, Areas of                                    36
  Seas and Lakes of Europe, Areas of                                   8
  Sheep in Territories, Comparative Number of                        154
  Silk Goods Manufactured, Value of                                   94
  Silk Production of France                                            8
  Silk Production of Italy                                             8
  Silver Product of 1882                                             152
  Slaughtering and Meat Packing Products, 1880                       134
  Sugar Exported by Brazil, Value of                                 181
  Tea Imported by Great Britain                                        8
  Tobacco Crop, 1882, Value of                                       128
  Tobacco Exported by Brazil, Value of                               181
  Wheat and Corn, Amount Raised Yearly by Different Nations          150
  Wheat Production 1870 to 1880, Increase in                         144
  Wool Product, in Pounds, 1880                                      130

       *       *       *       *       *


{7}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{8}

EUROPE.

Northwestern portion of Old World and smallest of its grand divisions.
Extreme length northeast and southwest, 3500 miles extreme breadth, over
2,400 miles; coast line not less than 20,000 miles.

  -----------------+-----------+-------------+---------------+------------
      Divisions.   |   Area,   | Population. |    Capitals.  | Population.
                   | Sq. Miles.|             |               |
  -----------------+-----------+-------------+---------------+------------
  Andorra          |       175 |       5,800 | Andorra       |      1,000
  Austro-Hungary   |   240,942 |  37,883,226 | Vienna        |  1,103,857
  Belgium          |    11,373 |   5,655,197 | Brussels      |    389,782
  Bulgaria         |    24,360 |   2,007,919 | Sophia        |     20,501
  Denmark          |    13,784 |   1,969,039 | Copenhagen    |    273,323
  England and Wales|    58,186 |  25,974,439 | London        |  4,766,661
  France           |   204,177 |  37,672,048 | Paris         |  2,269,023
  Germany          |   212,028 |  45,234,061 | Berlin        |  1,122,360
  Greece           |    25,111 |   1,979,453 | Athens        |     84,903
  Ireland          |    32,531 |   5,174,836 | Dublin        |    418,910
  Italy            |   114,410 |  28,459,628 | Rome          |    273,268
  Montenegro       |     3,550 |     250,000 | Cetigne       |      2,000
  Netherlands      |    12,648 |   4,225,065 | The Hague     |    127,931
  Norway           |   122,869 |   1,806,900 | Christiania   |    124,155
  Portugal         |    36,510 |   4,306,554 | Lisbon        |    246,343
  Rumania          |    48,307 |   5,376,060 | Bukharest     |    221,805
  Russia           | 2,041,402 |  86,486,959 | St. Petersburg|    929,100
  San Marino       |        32 |       7,816 | San Marino    |      6,000
  Scotland         |    29,820 |   3,735,573 | Edinburgh     |    236,002
  Servia           |    18,800 |   1,865,683 | Belgrade      |     37,500
  Spain            |   191,100 |  16,064,859 | Madrid        |    397,816
  Sweden           |   170,979 |   4,603,595 | Stockholm     |    194,469
  Switzerland      |    15,992 |   2,846,102 | Bern          |     44,087
  Turkey           |    63,850 |   4,490,000 | Constantinople|    600,000
  -----------------+-----------+-------------+---------------+------------

LENGTHS OF RIVERS.

                              Miles. |                              Miles.
  Danube                       1,725 | Loire                           600
  Don                          1,300 | Oder                            550
  Dneiper                      1,230 | Petchora                        900
  Dwina                          700 | Rhine                           600
  Elbe                           737 | Vistula                         690
  Kama                         1,400 | Volga                         2,400

AREAS SEAS AND LAKES.

                       Square Miles.                         Square Miles.
  Azov                        14,000 | Geneva                          336
  Baltic                     154,570 | Ladoga                        5,190
  Black                      185,000 | Ogena                         3,400
  Constance                      200 | Wener                         3,120
  Enara                          685 | White                         4,500

PRODUCTION OF RAW SILK.

  Italy                6,600,000 lbs. | France             19,149,000 lbs.

LINEN.

                                 Produced.                     Consumed.
  Russia                        250,000 tons                   90,000 tons
  Great Britain                  26,000  "                    130,000  "
  France                         50,000  "                     70,000  "
  Germany                        15,000  "                     35,000  "
  Netherlands                    80,000  "                     65,000  "

LACE.

  Nottingham.     Persons employed,  10,500.   Value products, $29,782,980
  The Continent.  Persons employed, 535,000.   Value products,  28,128,370

ANNUAL MINERAL PRODUCTIONS.

  Lead, Cornwall      70,000 tons     |    Tin, Great Britain  15,000 tons
  Lead, Cordova       30,000  "       |    Quicksilver, Spain   1,000  "
  Coffee imported, Europe                                     270,000 tons
  Tea       "      Great Britain                          140,000,000 lbs.

{9}

[Illustration]

{10}

[Illustration]

{11}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{12}

GREAT BRITAIN.

The largest island of Europe, and forming, with Ireland and the adjacent
islands, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The union of
England and Ireland was effected January 1, 1800.

Area of the kingdom, 120,832 square miles. Pop., 35,241,482. The divisions
are: England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland. Capital, London; pop.,
4,766,661. Thirty-five cities have over 75,000 population. Climate is
variable but healthful. Average temperature, 50°. Rainfall, London, 25
inches; Glasgow, 21; and Dublin, 29.

Middle-class education is entirely unorganized; no complete, trustworthy
statistics are to be had. There were, in 1884, 69 universities and
colleges, with 23,823 students. In 1881, there were 1,855 schools of
science, with 66,000 students. Number of public libraries, 202. The library
of the British Museum has 32 miles of shelves, filled with books. Number of
daily papers, 169.

Productive area in England is 80 per cent.; in Ireland, 74 per cent.;
Scotland, 28.8 per cent.; Wales, 60 per cent. Leading crops in Great
Britain, wheat, barley and oats. Acreage, 1884: wheat, 2,676,477; barley,
2,159,485; oats, 2,892,576. In Ireland, oats and potatoes are most
important; acreage of former, 1,347,395; of latter, 798,942. Number of
acres of flax, 89,197. Orchards of Great Britain cover 180,000 acres, and
produce 85,000 tons of apples.

The most important minerals are coal and iron. In 1883, coal product was
163,737,327 tons; value, $230,270,715. Iron ore, 17,383,046 tons; value,
$25,611,905. In 1883, 1,724,251 tons of pig iron were used in the
manufacture of Bessemer steel, 1,097,174 tons of it being made into steel
rails. Over 800 tons of steel are annually consumed in the manufacture of
pens, Birmingham alone using 500 tons; the average yearly production is
800,000,000.

The annual value of the fisheries is $50,000,000. Herring fishery alone
$10,000,000; salmon, $4,000,000; oysters and shell-fish, $10,000,000. Value
of the Scotch fisheries alone in 1884 was $16,431,210, the herring fishery
alone being $10,267,755. Total value of imports, 1884, $1,948,872,745;
exports of home produce, $1,164,537,875; foreign and colonial produce,
$312,218,575. Value of corn and flour imported 1882, $338,111,835. Value of
cotton manufactures exported was $382,228,785.

There are 2,674 cotton factories, employing 482,903 persons. Total number
of all factories, 7,105; number of persons employed, 975,546, of whom
110,585 are children under 13 years of age. Men employed, 38 per cent.;
women, 62 per cent. Amount of cotton imported, 1883, 1,734,333,552 lbs.;
wool, 495,946,779 lbs.

Standing army in time of peace unlawful without the consent of Parliament;
annual appropriation of Commons for support of troops, based on "estimates"
made by the Cabinet. For 1884 and 1885, home and colonial effectives and
reserves, 644,753.

Previous to 1815 there was but little emigration from the United Kingdom;
in that year the number was 2,081; in 1830-34, 381,956; 1875, 173,809;
1882, 413,288; and in 1884, 304,074, of whom 203,539 came to the United
States.

First railway opened in 1825. In 1883, there were 18,681 miles of railway;
13,215 belonging to England and Wales, 2,964 to Scotland, and 2,502 to
Ireland. Number of postoffices, 1884, 15,951; and, in addition, 15,749 road
and pillar boxes. There are 27,604 miles of telegraph lines, and 140,498
miles of wire.

The colonies and dependencies of Great Britain have an estimated area of
8,000,000 square miles. Of this vast extent of territory, over 3,500,000
square miles are in America, over 250,000 in Africa, over 1,000,000 in
Asia, and 3,000,000 in Australasia.

{13}

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

{15}

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{17}

BELGIUM. Bel´je-[)u]m.

A kingdom of West Central Europe. Formerly united with Holland to form the
Netherlands. Independence achieved in 1830. Executive power is vested in a
King; legislative, in King, Senate and House of Representatives.

The most densely populated of the European countries, Belgium ranks
eighteenth in area, but ninth in population. Area, 11,373 square miles.
One-sixtieth of the territory artificially gained by means of dykes. Length
of canal and river system, 995 miles. Capital, Brussels. Population,
389,782.

Agriculture chief industry. Only about one-eighth of territory
uncultivated. In 1882, population, 5,655,197; average density, 497 per
square mile; 1,160,149 freeholders held 88 per cent. of land.

This country is very rich in minerals. Over 17,500,000 tons of coal are
produced annually. Belgium is noted for its flax. The chief products are
wheat, rye, oats, barley, flax, hemp, tobacco. In 1880 there were 46,210
horses, 411,551 oxen, and 90,100 sheep.

Imports, 1882, $570,320,000; exports, $512,780,000. Manufactures are
important. About 190,000 persons employed in flax, hemp, woolen and cotton
manufactories. The lace of Brussels and the fire-arms of Liege are among
the finest in the world. The value of pig and wrought iron alone, in 1882,
was $34,473,260. Product of iron foundries about $3,000,000 per annum; of
quarries, $8,459,400.

Roman Catholicism professed by nearly the entire population. Education is
zealously promoted by the government; total sum spent, 1881, $6,503,670.
Four universities in the kingdom.

Total peace strength of the army, 1885, 47,872 men, with 9,000 horses and
204 guns; war footing, 227,900 men, 13,800 horses, and 240 guns.

Of the 2,682 miles of railroad operated in 1883, 1,902 miles were owned and
managed by the government. Number miles telegraph in 1884, 3,713;
postoffices, 869.

NETHERLANDS (HOLLAND).

A kingdom of Europe, established by Congress of Vienna, in 1815. Area,
12,648 square miles. Population, 4,225,065. Country protected by dykes from
the overflow of rivers and the inundations of the sea.

Constitution dated 1848. Law-making power resides in the States-General, a
parliament of two houses. Commercial centre, Amsterdam; pop., 350,201.
Capital, The Hague; pop., 127,931.

The soil is highly productive; fruit is grown extensively. In 1882 there
were 5,046,210 acres of cultivated garden and pasture land. Number of acres
in cereals, 1,267,399; yield of grain, 130,470,000 bu. Horses, 270,900;
cattle, 1,427,000; and sheep, 745,100.

Total exports, 1882, $313,330,000; imports, $414,330,000. Value of butter
exported to Great Britain alone, was $21,020,605. Holland's merchant
marine, 1884, consisted of 701 sailing vessels, of 251,500 tons, and 96
steamers, of 123,400 tons.

In 1884, miles of railway, 1,320. Miles of state telegraph, 2,660; miles of
wire, 9,760. Number of postoffices, 1,281.

In 1884, regular army stationed in Holland numbered 65,007 officers and
men; navy composed of 157 vessels, with 9,462 officers and men.

Constitution secures religious freedom. Number of Protestants, 2,469,814;
Roman Catholics, 1,439,137; Jews, 81,693.

Returns for 1882 gave 2,822 elementary public schools; 11,250 teachers;
1,143 private schools; total number of pupils, 557,932. There are 4
universities, 1 polytechnic school, 5 Roman Catholic, and 3 Protestant
seminaries. Total expense of schools, $5,921,515. {18}

GERMANY.

The third country in size in Europe. A confederate empire, composed of 25
States, and the Reichsland of Alsace-Lorraine. Capital, Berlin.

Climate uniform. Mean temperature of whole country, 48°; of the valley of
the Rhine, 52°. Rainfall at Berlin, 24 inches.

About 63 per cent. of population is Protestant, and 36 per cent. Roman
Catholic. Number of churches, 37,720. Education is general and compulsory.
Number of elementary schools, 57,000; normal, 332; high, 1,100; technical
high schools, 9; industrial and trade, 994. Universities, 21, with 25,964
students, of whom 89 per cent. are German, and 1 per cent. American. Number
of public libraries, 594; number of daily papers, 560. The book fair at
Leipzig annually disposes of 8,000 tons of books, valued at $8,000,000.

Every German is liable to service in the army, and no substitution is
allowed. All Germans capable of bearing arms have to be in the standing
army seven years,--three years in active service, and four in army of
reserve; after which they form part of the Landwehr another five years.
Army on peace footing numbers 427,274 soldiers, and 18,118 officers. Total
war strength of trained soldiers would be 2,650,000; available force of all
classes, 5,670,000.

Of the area, 94 per cent. is classed as productive. Leading products, 1882:
corn, 16,435,620 tons; potatoes, 17,769,300 tons; beets, 874,654 tons; hay,
17,486,000 tons; 11,500 tons of hops, and over 35,000,000 gallons of wine.
Value of farm animals, $1,486,000,000. The mineral products of 1883 were
valued at over $116,000,000. Value of imports, 1883, $822,724,000; exports,
$833,750. There are 23,940 breweries, producing annually 880,000,000
gallons of beer. The annual butter product is 160,000 tons.

Number of miles of railway, 1884, 22,617, of which 19,230 miles belong to
the government. Length of telegraph lines, 47,637 miles; wires, 170,960
miles. Number of telegraph stations, 11,216. Number of postoffices, 13,637.

  -----------------------------+-------+----------+--------------+---------
                               |       |          |              |
          STATES.              | Area, |  Pop.    |   Capitals.  |   Pop.
                               |Sq. Ml.|          |              |
  -----------------------------+-------+----------+--------------+---------
                               |       |          |              |
  Prussia                      |137,066|27,279,111| Berlin       |1,122,360
  Bavaria                      | 29,292| 5,284,778| Munich       |  230,023
  Wurtemberg                   |  7,675| 1,971,118| Stuttgart    |  117,303
  Saxony                       |  6,777| 2,972,805| Dresden      |  808,512
  Baden                        |  5,851| 1,570,254| Carlsruhe    |   49,998
  Mecklenburg-Schwerin         |  4,834|   577,055| Schwerin     |   30,146
  Hesse                        |  2,866|   936,340| Darmstadt    |   48,153
  Oldenburg                    |  2,417|   337,478| Oldenburg    |   20,575
  Brunswick                    |  1,526|   349,367| Brunswick    |   75,038
  Saxe-Weimar                  |  1,421|   309,577| Weimar       |   19,994
  Mecklenburg-Strelitz         |    997|   100,269| New Strelitz |    9,407
  Saxe-Meiningen               |    933|   207,075| Meiningen    |   11,227
  Anhalt                       |    869|   232,592| Dessau       |   23,266
  Saxe-Coburg-Gotha            |    816|   194,716| {Coburg      |   15,791
                               |       |          | {Gotha       |   26,525
  Saxe-Altenburg               |    509|   155,036| Altenburg    |   26,241
  Waldeck                      |    466|    56,522| Arolsen      |    2,477
  Lippe                        |    445|   120,246| Detmold      |    8,053
  Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt       |    340|    80,296| Rudolstadt   |    8,747
  Schwarzburg-Sondershausen    |    318|    71,107| Sondershansen|    6,110
  Reuss-Schleiz                |    297|   101,330| Gera         |   27,118
  Schaumburg-Lippe             |    212|    35,374| Buckeburg    |    5,088
  Reuss-Greiz                  |    148|    50,782| Greiz        |   15,061
  Hamburg (State and Free City)|    148|   453,869|  --          |      ---
  Lubeck (State and Free City) |    127|    63,571|  --          |      ---
  Bremen (State and Free City) |     98|   156,723|  --          |      ---
  Alsace-Lorraine              |  5,580| 1,566,670| Strasburg    |  104,471
  -----------------------------+-------+----------+--------------+---------

{19}

[Illustration]

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{20}

SPAIN.

A kingdom of Southwestern Europe, forming, with Portugal, the Iberian
peninsula. Capital, Madrid; pop., 397,816. Thirty-one towns have over
50,000 pop.

Continental Spain has an area of 191,100 square miles. Population,
16,061,859. Number of Provinces, 49. Length of coast line, 1,370 miles.
Object of greatest interest, ruins of the Alhambra, at Granada. This is the
only state in Europe permitting slavery in its colonies.

Climate varies greatly. Average temperature at Madrid, 58°. Rainfall in the
Sierras averages from 25 to 35 inches; on the table lands of Castile, 10
inches.

About 80 per cent. of the soil is classed as productive, though only 34 per
cent. is under cultivation. The vine is the most important culture, and
large quantities of oranges, raisins, nuts and olives, are grown and
exported. Leading cereals: wheat, rye, barley and corn. The wine product
averages yearly 320,000,000 gallons; value, $95,000,000. Average number of
oranges exported, 960,000,000.

The mineral productions are of vast importance. The Cordova lead mines are
the richest in the world, and the mercury mines of Almaden are second only
to those of California. Average yearly lead product, 92,300 tons; value,
$8,000,000. Mercury, 1,090 tons; value, $1,199,000. Copper, 21,300 tons.
Tin, iron and salt are abundant.

The national religion is the Roman Catholic. The school system is
inefficient, though measures tending toward improvement are being
introduced. At the last census (1877) 60 per cent. of the adult population
could not read. Number public schools, 1880, 29,828; number of pupils,
1,769,456. Number of universities, 10; students, 15,732.

Number miles railway, 1884, 5,157, with 1,747 miles under construction.
Length of telegraph lines, 10,733 miles; number miles of wire, 26,160.
Number of postoffices, 2,699.

The colonial possessions of Spain have an area of 163,876 square miles, and
a population of 7,991,894. The most important are Cuba and the Philippine
Islands. Area of Cuba, 43,220 square miles; pop., 1,521,684. Capital,
Havana; pop., 25,000. Sugar, tobacco and cigars are principal products;
average yearly sugar production, 520,000 tons.

Available home and colonial troops, 400,000.

PORTUGAL.

Name derived from Portus Cale, the ancient name of Oporto. A kingdom of
Europe, occupying the western part of the Iberian peninsula.

Area, 36,510 square miles. Population, 4,306,554. Number of Provinces, 6.
Length of coast line, 500 miles. Capital, Lisbon; pop., 246,343. Oporto,
centre of port wine trade; pop., 105,838.

Climate healthful. Mean temperature at Lisbon, 61°. Rainfall averages 27
inches at Lisbon, and 118 at Coimbra.

About 51 per cent. of soil is productive, and less than 23 per cent. under
tillage. Not sufficient grain raised for home consumption. Wine product for
1882, 125,000,000 gallons; value, $28,500,000.

State religion, Roman Catholic. The average amount spent on public
education from 1875 to 1879 was $10,000; in 1884 the amount had risen to
$966,000. There is one university, established at Coimbra in 1290.

Number of miles of railway, 1884, 950; with 300 miles under construction.
Number of miles of telegraph lines, 2,920; number of miles of wire, 7,084;
number of telegraph offices, 226. Number of postoffices, 931. {21}

[Illustration]

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{22}

FRANCE.

A country of Europe, the fourth in size. Named from a Germanic tribe, the
Franks, which invaded Gaul, A.D. 486. Area, including Corsica and adjacent
islands, 204,177 square miles. Climate one of the finest in Europe. Average
temperature ranges from 50° at Dunkirk to 62° at Toulon: that of Paris is
51°. Rainfall: at Paris, 22 inches; at Bordeaux, 30 inches.

France has a coast line of 320 miles; the continental boundary line is 962
miles. Largest river, the Loire. The Alps on the east, and the Pyrenees on
the south, connect France with the most magnificent mountain systems of
Europe. The French portion of the Alps has a length of 280 miles.

The republic is divided into 87 Departments, Salary of President, $120,000;
length of term, 7 years. Paris, the capital and second city in Europe;
pop., 2,239,928. Lyons, the second city in size, and centre of silk
industry; pop., 376,613. Twenty-nine towns have a population of over
50,000; and 91, over 20,000.

Agricultural pop., census 1881, 18,249,209. Number of acres cultivated,
67,000,000. In 1883, 37,039,040 acres were in cereals, of which
five-sevenths were wheat and oats; total production, 742,176,807 bu. Number
of acres in orchards, 560,000; yearly production of cider, 220,000,000
gallons. Vineyards, 5,240,340 acres; annual average of wine product,
720,000,000 gals.; value, $225,000,000. Champagne vintage averages
20,000,000 bottles, 17,000,000 of which are exported; 1,204,145 acres under
beet-root cultivation in 1883, yielding 32,230,312,000 lbs. of sugar.

Commercially the country ranks with Great Britain. Entrances to and
clearances from her ports include annually over 60,000 vessels; total
capacity, 12,000,000 tons. Value of yearly imports, exclusive of coin and
bullion, $870,000,000; exports, $960,000,000; food imported, $308,000,000
annually. Value of exports, 1883, $912,340,000; imports, $1,277,340,000.
Value of silk exports was $93,402,000. There were 151,404 persons engaged
in silk culture. Number of pounds of raw silk produced, 19,149,587. France
makes yearly 26,000,000 pairs of gloves, of which 18,000,000 are exported.
There are 890 umbrella makers, who annually produce $5,900,000 worth. Value
of fishery products, $21,445,450. Average production of sardines,
980,000,000; oysters, 380,000,000. There are 83,572 men engaged in the
fisheries, with 22,345 vessels; total tonnage, 155,670.

About 79 per cent. of population Roman Catholic; less than 2 per cent.
Protestant. Number of elementary schools, 1884, 85,388; pupils, 6,111,236.
Number of normal schools, 163. Public libraries, 505. The Imperial Library
at Paris has 18 miles of shelving filled with books. Daily papers
published, 128.

The reorganization of the French army has been going on since 1872, and is
nearly completed. Every Frenchman not declared unfit for military service
may be called upon from the age of twenty to that of forty years to enter
the active army or the reserves. Substitution or enlistment for money
prohibited. In 1884 the army consisted of 524,797 officers and men, and
130,771 horses.

Railway system dates from 1840; number of miles, 1884, 17,000. Number of
miles telegraph lines, 46,932; offices, 7,523. Number of postoffices, 1884,
6,486.

The colonial possessions of France cover an area of 429,260 square miles,
with a total population of 9,300,000. Of the colonies, Algeria is the
largest and most important, having an area of 161,476 square miles, and a
population of 3,310,412. Algiers is the capital; population, 70,747. The
colonies next in importance commercially are Tunis and Cochin China. {23}

[Illustration]

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{24}

SWITZERLAND.

The most mountainous country of Europe. Formerly a league of
semi-independent States, but since 1848 a federal republic. Number of
Cantons, 22. President elected for a term of 1 year, and not eligible for
two consecutive terms; salary, $3,000.

Area, 15,992 square miles. Pop., 2,846,102. The Alps extend nearly through
the length of the country; from many peaks 300 snow-capped summits are
visible. Rigi presents the finest view; Monte Rosa, the Matterhorn
(steepest in the world), Finsteraarhorn and Jungfrau range from 13,700 to
15,200 ft. high. The Mer de Glace is the largest glacier in the world.

The general climate is milder than that of other mountain countries in the
same latitude. Average temperature at Geneva, 52°. Average rainfall at
Geneva, 32 inches; at Zurich, 34 inches.

Bern is the capital; pop., 44,087. Geneva, seat of watch and jewelry
industry; pop., 68,320. Basel, centre of silk industry; pop., 61,399.

About 59 per cent. of the population is Protestant, and 41 per cent. Roman
Catholic. Education is compulsory. Number of public schools, 1882, 5,314;
pupils, 516,425; school pop., 573,713. There are four universities,--the
one at Basel, founded in 1460; and those of Bern, Zurich and Geneva, since
1832. The government maintains a polytechnic school at Zurich, and a
military academy at Thun. Number of public libraries, 1,654.

The laws of the republic forbid the maintenance of a standing army within
its limits; but every Swiss is liable to serve in the defense of his
country.

Of the total area 17 per cent. is forest, 30 per cent. mountains, lakes,
glaciers and rivers; 51 per cent. under crops and grass. Of the cultivable
area only 16.5 per cent. is devoted to agriculture. Less than 1 per cent.
is in vineyards. Rye, oats and potatoes are most important crops. The dairy
products are of most commercial importance.

Number engaged in agriculture and dairy farming, census 1880, 1,138,678.
The average yearly production of cheese is 40,000 tons.

The manufacturing industry is one of importance. Latest reports give yearly
value of watch manufactures $16,000,000; St. Gallen embroideries,
$15,000,000; silk ribbon produced at Basel, $7,200,000; and the silk
industry at Zurich, $15,200,000. There are 399 cotton factories, employing
38,500 people; 224 silk factories, with 23,500 people; 838 embroidery
factories, with 17,200 people; 45 woolen factories, with 2,500 workers.

Number of miles of railway, January, 1883, 1,810. Telegraph system very
complete; with the exception of wires for railway service, it is wholly
under the control of the government. January, 1884, there were 4,270 miles
of lines, and 10,346 of wire; number of offices, 1,271. Number of
postoffices, 807; boxes, 2,081.

ANDORRA.

One of the smallest republics in the world, lying between France and Spain.
Its independence dates from Charlemagne, in 790. France and the Spanish
Bishop of Urgel have jointly a nominal interest in its government. A
permanent delegate has charge of the interests of France in the republic.

Area, 175 square miles. Population, 5,800. Climate healthful, but too cold
to produce grain. It possesses rich iron mines, and one of lead.
Inhabitants principally shepherds. {25}

BULGARIA. B[)o][)o]l-g[=a]´re-a.

A principality under the suzerainty of Turkey. Governed by a Prince elected
by the National Assembly, with popular legislature and constitution. Area,
24,360 square miles. Population, 1881, 2,007,919. Capital of principality,
Sophia; pop., 20,501. Three towns of over 20,000 inhabitants; 20 of over
2,000.

Most of the territory belongs to the basin of the Danube; traversed by many
streams. Soil in general very productive; agriculture is the chief pursuit
of the inhabitants. Principal exports: grain, wool, skins and timber. About
1,500,000 tons of corn are exported per year. Total imports in 1882 valued
at $8,312,700; exports, $6,844,395.

One line of railway, 140 miles in length, extends from Rustchuk to Varna.
In 1883 there were in Bulgaria 1,325 miles of state telegraph lines.
Military service is obligatory. Peace strength of the army, 17,670 men; war
strength, 52,000.

SERVIA. Ser´ve-a.

The independence of this country from Turkey was established in 1878. By
the constitution adopted 1869, the executive power is vested in the King
and a Council of 8 ministers; the legislative, in the King and a National
Assembly. Area, 18,800 square miles. Population, 1,865,683. Capital,
Belgrade; population, 37,500.

The surface of the country is generally mountainous. Vegetation is vigorous
in all districts. The climate is mild in the lower and level portions, but
extremely rigorous in the mountainous districts. Of the total area,
one-third is under cultivation, corn and wheat being the chief products.
There are 1,750,000 persons engaged in agriculture. Latest reports of
livestock give: swine, 1,067,940; horses, 122,500; cattle, 826,550; sheep,
3,620,750; goats, 725,700.

The imports are estimated at about $10,000,000, and the exports a little
below that amount. In 1884 there were 200 miles of railway. Number miles of
telegraph, 1,410. The state religion is the Orthodox Greek. There is a
university of 158 students. Other schools number about 650, with about
45,000 pupils.

RUMANIA. Roo-m[=a]´ne-a.

A kingdom of Europe, formerly a part of Turkey. Though under the protection
of Russia since 1830, it was nominally subject to Turkey until 1878. In
1881 it was raised to a kingdom. Constitution adopted 1866, modified 1879
and 1884. Government vested in the King, an Executive Council, Senate and
Chamber of Deputies. Area, 48,307 square miles. Estimated population,
5,376,000. Capital, Bukharest; population, 221,805.

The soil is fertile, and of the total population, 70 per cent. is devoted
to agriculture. Number of freehold proprietors, 654,000. Of the area, 68
per cent. is productive; 29 per cent. under cultivation. Grain, oil-seed
and wine are the leading products. Average production of cereals, 150,000
tons. Cattle and sheep are extensively reared. Total value of exports,
1883, $44,130,055; imports, $71,981,435. Value of leading exports: cereals,
$34,511,400; animals, $2,328,490. Imports: textiles, $23,530,315; metals,
$14,632,880; skins and leather, $8,748,370.

Education is free and compulsory. Number of primary schools, 2,743; high
schools, 54; normal, 8; universities, 2. The majority of the people belong
to the Orthodox Greek Church. In 1884 Rumania had 850 miles of state
railway; non-state lines numbered about 150 miles. There were about 3,000
miles of telegraph. {26}

TURKEY (OTTOMAN EMPIRE).

The Ottoman Empire comprehends all countries over which Turkey has
supremacy. The area and population are known only through estimates, the
latest of which give the area as 2,406,492 square miles, and the population
as 42,209,359. The most important part, that in Europe, was in 1878 greatly
reduced in area and population. The latest estimates give the immediate
possessions in Europe an area of 63,850 square miles, and a population of
4,490,000. The laws of the empire are based on the precepts of the Koran;
the government is in the hands of the Sultan, whose will is absolute,
unless opposed to the teachings of the Mohammedan religion. Capital,
Constantinople; population, 600,000.

While military service is compulsory on all Mohammedans over eighteen years
of age, there are some exemptions, and substitution is allowed.
Non-Mohammedans are not liable, but must pay an exemption tax. Number of
men under arms, 150,000; actual military strength, about 430,000.

The total value of exports, 1882, was $50,828,895; imports, $87,687,400.
Principal exports: fruit, fresh and dried, $7,886,375; wool and mohair,
$4,330,020. In 1883, the mercantile navy consisted of 10 steamers, of 8,866
tons; and 391 sailing vessels, of 63,896 tons.

As the Koran encourages public education, public schools have long been in
existence in most Turkish towns. The Mohammedans are estimated to number
16,000,000.

The first railroad was constructed in 1865, 45 miles being opened for
traffic that year. In 1882 the railroads numbered 1,076 miles, of which 904
were in Europe and 172 in Asia. In 1884 there were 14,617 miles of
telegraph and 26,060 miles of wire.

GREECE. Gr[=e]s.

A kingdom of Southeastern Europe. Area, including Thessaly, but excluding
the Albanian territory detached from Thessaly and Epirus, which was added
to Greece in 1881, 25,111 square miles. Total population, 1,979,453. Almost
wholly mountainous,--an important element in the political history of
Greece.

Executive power vested in the King, and the responsible heads of 7
departments; legislative, in the Chamber of Representatives.

Athens, capital and largest city; pop., 84,903. Over 82 per cent. of
inhabitants belong to the Greek Orthodox church. Greece has one university
and 2,698 other schools, with 140,776 pupils.

Main pursuit of inhabitants is agriculture. Manufactures few. Of total
area, 41 per cent. is productive, and 6 per cent. is under cultivation.
Land largely owned by a few proprietors. New Provinces of Thessaly
unusually fertile; annual yield of wheat, 21,700,000 bushels; oats,
11,528,000. Old Provinces produce 34,000,000 bushels of wheat and
21,700,000 bushels of corn per year. Currant crop covers vast districts.
Latest reports give 97,176 horses, 279,445 horned cattle, 45,440 mules, and
97,395 asses. Number of sheep in all the Provinces, 4,421,977; goats,
2,836,663; oxen, 200,000. For 1883, total imports, $27,267,400; exports,
mostly raisins, currants, and olive oil, $18,571,400. Chief resource,
maritime commerce.

Number of miles of railway now open for traffic, 107; projected railways,
435 miles. Land and submarine telegraphs, 3,720 miles. Postoffices, 213.
Army: peace footing, 30,292 men; war footing, 250,500. Commercial marine,
at the end of 1884, numbered 74 steamers, of 33,318 tons; and 3,164 sailing
vessels, of 239,361 tons. {27}

[Illustration]

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{28}

ITALY. It´a-le.

A kingdom in the South of Europe. Consists of a peninsula, the islands of
Sicily, Sardinia, Elba, and about 66 smaller ones. Area, 114,410 square
miles. Population, 28,459,628. Mean annual temperature: at Milan, 55°; at
Rome, 59°; at Naples, 61°. Climate most unhealthy in Europe; due to miasma
generated in lagoons and marshes. Has many famous and picturesque lakes.

Government is a constitutional monarchy. Executive power vested in King and
responsible ministers: legislative rests conjointly with the King and a
Parliament, composed of a Senate, appointed for life; and a Chamber of 508
Deputies, elected by the people for five years. Suffrage universal; freedom
of the press unrestricted. Famous rivers are the Po, Arno and Tiber.

Italy abounds in historic and populous cities. Rome, the capital, has pop.
of 273,268; Naples, the largest, 463,172; Milan, 295,543; Palermo, 205,712;
Genoa, 138,081; Florence, 134,992; Venice, 129,445; 31 cities of over
30,000 inhabitants.

Agriculture chief industry, though in a primitive condition; 87 per cent.
of total area productive; 12 per cent. under forest, 36 per cent.
cultivated; 28,000,000 acres in crops. Acreage of wheat, 12,000,000; annual
yield, 140,000,000 bushels. Vineyards occupy about 5,000,000 acres; olive
groves, 2,200,000. About 1,225,000 acres are devoted to chestnut culture.
Italy ranks next to France in wine production; average yield per annum,
605,000,000 gallons; average annual value of all agricultural products for
last 5 years, $640,000,000.

Number of cattle in 1881, 4,783,232; sheep, 8,596,108; goats, 2,016,307. In
1883, exported 127,003 cattle; sheep, 273,939; swine, 38,668. Wool product
insufficient for home consumption; import, in 1883, 20,987,500 lbs.

Mining is an important interest in Italy. Value of iron and steel mined
annually, $4,250,000. Sulphur is the chief mineral product; value, in 1882,
$9,328,505. Quarries employ 20,000 men. In 1883, total weight of cocoon
harvest, 92,886,200 lbs.; value, $26,491,665.

Leading imports, 1883: raw cotton, $18,173,400; coal, $13,166,200; tobacco,
$2,321,800; sugar, $10,633,200. Exports for same year: raw silk,
$49,712,400; olive oil, $20,156,600; wine in casks, $15,668,200; fruit,
$8,685,800. Total imports, 1883, $257,241,023; exports, $236,321,513. In
same year, 111,296 vessels, of 18,465,381 tons, entered Italian ports;
cleared the same, 110,554 vessels, of 18,367,948 tons.

Length of railway, in 1883, 5,651 miles; about 1,410 miles the property of
the state. In 1879, Italian Parliament passed bills for construction of
3,739 miles, to complete the railway system; cost, $200,000,000. Number of
postoffices in 1883, 3,497. Miles of telegraph, 17,258; about two-thirds
owned by the government; telegraph offices, not including railway and
private, 1,747; number of telegrams, 6,454,942.

There is a universal liability to military service. Total war force,
2,119,250: permanent army, 750,765 strong; mobile militia, 341,250;
territorial militia, 1,021,954; reserve, 5,281. Navy, 1884, consisted of 89
steamers, manned with 15,055 officers and men.

Roman Catholicism is the prevailing creed; not more than 124,000
Protestants and Jews in the kingdom. The present Roman Pontiff, or Pope Leo
XIII., is regarded as about the 263d Pope from St. Peter.

Recent improvements in education have been made. There are 17 state
universities, 4 free universities, 11 superior colleges, and 219 special
schools. Number of primary public schools, 41,423; sum allowed for
expenses, $6,485,505. {29}

[Illustration]

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{30}

AUSTRO-HUNGARY. Aws´tr[)o] H[)u]ng´ga-re.

A monarchy of Europe. Ranks next to Russia in size. Much of the territory
is mountainous, the Carpathians extending over about 800 miles. Four-fifths
of the area of Austria is 600 feet above sea-level.

Mean annual temperature ranges from about 48° in the north to 59° in the
south. Average temperature at Vienna, 50°; highest, 94°; lowest, 2°.
Rainfall: on Hungarian plains, 22 inches; in Alpine regions, 60 inches.

Austria, a German monarchy, and Hungary, a Magyar kingdom, together form a
bipartite state. Each has its own Parliament, ministers and government;
they are connected by a common ruler, Congress, army and navy. The
legislative power of Congress is limited to war and foreign affairs.

Area of Austro-Hungary, 240,942 square miles; area of Turkish Provinces
controlled by the monarchy, 24,247 square miles. Population, including
military, 37,883,226; in Austria, 10,819,737 males and 11,324,507 females;
in Hungary, 7,702,810 males and 7,939,192 females. In Austria, 6,000,000
people engaged in agriculture, 2,117,098 in manufacturing, and 177,870 in
mining. Farm population of Hungary, 2,848,868; miners, 25,905;
manufacturers, 766,416; traders, 177295

Vienna, the capital, has a population of 1,103,857. Budapest, 360,551.
Ninety-four per cent. of whole area is productive. Number of acres under
crops, fallow and grass, 67,608,070. Total production of cereals,
586,029,352 bushels; potatoes, 365,574,706 bushels; wines, 178,425,280
gallons. Total number of horses, 3,282,790; cattle, 13,181,620; sheep,
13,093,463.

Value of exports, 1883, $374,960,255. Chief exports: grain and flour,
$60,389,350; textiles, $55,516,850; animals, $48,519,015; fuel,
$38,979,570; sugar, $35,086,975.

Railway mileage, 1884, 12,820. In 1883 there were 32,684 miles of telegraph
line in operation. Commercial marine, 1884, consisted of 9,174 vessels,
with a combined capacity of 321,402 tons.

Army, in war, 1,072,300 strong; during peace, 291,078. Military service
compulsory on all males over 20 years of age.

The Roman Catholic is the state religion; 67.6 per cent. of inhabitants are
Catholics; other creeds are tolerated.

MONTENEGRO. Mon`t[=a]-n[=a]´gro.

A small state of Europe; independence recently admitted by Turkey. Area,
3,550 square miles. Population, 1879, 250,000. The land surface is composed
of a series of elevated ridges, with high mountain peaks. Agriculture chief
occupation. Main products, maize, potatoes, sumac, sardines, smoked mutton,
hides, skins and furs. Total yearly imports amount to $100,000; exports,
$1,000,000.

Constitution dates from 1852; government is a limited monarchy; executive
power rests with the reigning Prince; legislative, with a State Council.
Suffrage is extended to male citizens who are bearing or who have borne
arms. There is no standing army; but all male inhabitants are trained for
the service. The state could raise an armed force of 21,850 men.

Public schools are supported by the government; education is compulsory.
Capital, Cetigne; pop., 2,000. Podgoritza has 4,000 inhabitants; and
Dulcigno, 3,000.

Miles of telegraph, 280; number of offices, 15. {31}

[Illustration]

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{32}

SWEDEN. Swe´den.

This kingdom, united with Norway, forms the Scandinavian peninsula. The
government is vested in a King, a Council of State and a Parliament. Area,
170,979 square miles. Population, 4,603,595. Capital, Stockholm;
population, 194,469. The armed forces number 172,260 officers and men. The
Royal navy consists of 66 vessels, with 4,068 men.

The country has numerous lakes and rivers. In the north it is cold and
sterile; but the climate, on the whole, is milder than that of other
countries in the same latitude, and south of latitude 59° the country is
generally fertile. About 7 per cent. of the land area is cultivated, and 5
per cent. is natural meadows. Agricultural population, 2,309,790. Emigrants
in 1883 numbered 29,490, of whom four-fifths came to the United States.

Value of imports, 1882, $63,840,000; exports, $70,524,000. Chief exports:
timber, $32,482,290; metals, $11,861,580. Mining is one of the chief
industries. In 1883 there were exported 34,319 tons of iron ore, 52,126
tons of bar iron, 3,602 pounds of silver, 945 tons of copper and 54,423
tons of zinc ore. Mining population numbered 410371

The state religion is Lutheran Protestant. The census of 1880 returned
4,544,434 persons of that faith, with 2,408 churches. There are 2
universities, with 2,540 students. Education is free and compulsory. The
total number of schools is about 9,800; pupils, 660,000; expenditures,
$2,718,390.

The commercial navy numbers 3,356 sailing vessels, of 439,932 tons, and 785
steamers, of 87,524 tons. Number of miles of railway, 1883, 4,000, of which
1,437 miles belong to the state; telegraph, 5,347 miles.

NORWAY. Nor´w[=a].

In 1814 united with Sweden into a joint kingdom. Area, 122,869 square
miles. Population, 1,806,900. Government an hereditary constitutional
monarchy; executive power in the hands of the King and Council of State;
legislative rests with Storthing, or Great Court. Capital, Christiania;
pop., 1884, 124,155.

Norway is an agricultural and pastoral country; but, owing to the light
character of the soil, the products are insufficient for home consumption,
and one-fourth of the total imports is grain.

Principal imports are metals, minerals, textile manufactures and corn;
total value in 1883, $44,810,000. Chief exports are timber and fish; value
of all exports, 1883, $32,261,000. Fisheries employ 120,000 people and
25,000 boats, three-fourths employed in the cod fisheries; total product,
1883, $6,757,500. Merchant marine, 7,913 vessels; tonnage, 1,530,004;
largest in the world, considering population.

Army raised by conscription and enlistment; war footing, 68,800 officers
and men. Armed force to exceed 18,000 unlawful without the consent of
Storthing. Navy, 31 sailing vessels and 40 steamers, with 152 guns, manned
by a force of 915.

Miles of railway, 1884, 971; 929 miles controlled by the state. Miles of
telegraph, 5,629; length of wire, 10,075. Number of postoffices, 1032

Protestants are in the majority; unlimited religious liberty, Jesuitism
excepted; none but Lutherans eligible to high offices.

Compulsory education prevails; primary schools, 6,617; 17 public high
schools, 1 university; total number of students, 284,035. {33}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{34}

DENMARK. Den´mark.

A constitutional kingdom in Europe. Area, 13,784 square miles. Population,
1,969,039. Almost entirely insular. Temperature at Copenhagen, 47°. Country
low and level.

Constitution, dating back to 1849, and modified in 1855, '63, '66, vests
executive authority in the King and his responsible ministers; legislative,
in the Senate and House of Commons. King must belong to Evangelical
Lutheran church. The franchise is extended to all males over 30, who are
not recipients of charity.

Pop. of Copenhagen, the capital, 1880, 273,323; Aarhuus, 24,831; Adense,
20,804. In 1882, 11,614 emigrants left Denmark; vast majority of them for
the United States. Relatively, Denmark ranks among the first states of
Europe in point of agriculture. In 1880, 75 per cent. of area productive;
area under cereals, 1882, 2,681,691 acres; product, 86,706,937 bushels.
Cattle rearing increasing in importance. In 1881, value of cattle,
$7,350,395; number of horses, 347,561; sheep, 1,548,613; swine, 527,417.

There were exported 84,586 cattle, 72,487 sheep, 2,230,000 lbs. of wool,
and 253,294 hogs. Total value of exports in 1882, $52,225,300. Total
imports, $70,297,280. Army is recruited by conscription; it embraces 36,469
men, with a reserve of 14,000. In 1884, navy consisted of 40 steamers.
Miles of railway, 1,106; 932 miles operated by the state. Miles of
government telegraph, 2,283.

Education compulsory; number of schools supported by the state, 2,940.

RUSSIA. R[)u]sh´e-a.

The Russian Empire comprises one-seventh of the total land area of the
globe. The area and population are known only through estimates, the latest
of which give the total area as 8,520,637 square miles, and the population
as 102,682,124. Area of European Russia, 2,041,402 square miles;
population, 86,486,959. Asiatic Russia: area, 6,479,235 square miles;
population, 16,195,165. The government of Russia is an absolute hereditary
monarchy; the whole legislative, executive and judicial power being vested
in the Emperor. Capital, St. Petersburg; population, 929,100.

The established religion of the empire is the Greco-Russian, which numbers
63,835,000 members, 636 cathedrals and 41,807 churches. The mass of the
population is uneducated. European Russia has about 375 high schools, 61
normal and 22,770 primary schools; pupils number more than 1,220,000. The
empire has 8 universities, with 10,700 students.

Of European Russia, 63 per cent. of the area is productive; 21 per cent. is
cultivated. Chief products, cereals; the crop of 1883, exclusive of
Finland, was 1,671,012 tons; potatoes, 447,875 tons; tobacco, 119,200,000
lbs. Large areas are covered with forests; value of timber exported 1881,
$49,200,000. Value of total exports of Russian Empire, $308,898,000;
imports, $283,396,000. Minerals are abundant; the mining population numbers
392,304.

The total strength of the Russian army on a peace footing is 729,770 men
and 27,468 officers; war footing, 1,876,358 men and 41,551 officers. The
navy numbers 358 vessels, of 349,730 tons.

In 1883, European Russia had 15,274 miles of railway, of which 13,670 miles
belonged to the state. Number of miles of telegraph, 65,726. Postoffices,
4,586. The commercial navy, in 1883, consisted of 187 steamers, of 138,291
tons, and 2,155 sailing vessels, of 477,072 tons. {35}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{36}

ASIA.

Largest continental division of the globe, and oldest known in history.
Area, 17,241,538 square miles. Extends from Arctic Ocean to equator, and
through 165 degrees longitude; coast line nearly 40,000 miles.

  ---------------+-----------+-------------+--------------------+-------
    Divisions.   |   Area,   | Population. |       Capitals.    |  Pop.
                 | Sq. Miles |             |                    |
  ---------------+-----------+-------------+--------------------+-------
  Afghanistan    |   278,000 |   2,500,000 | Kabul              | 60,000
  Arabia         | 1,000,000 |   6,000,000 | Mecca              | 40,000
  Beloochistan   |   140,000 |   1,000,000 | Kelat              | 10,000
  British India  |   874,220 | 198,755,993 | Calcutta           |871,504
  Ceylon         |    25,364 |   2,822,009 | Colombo            |111,942
  China          | 1,537,590 | 350,000,000 | Pekin              |500,000
  Chinese Empire | 4,419,150 | 371,180,000 |   "                |500,000
  Corea          |    82,000 |  16,227,885 | Seoul              |199,127
  India, Native  |   509,284 |  55,150,456 | Governed by Chiefs |
  Japan          |   148,456 |  36,700,118 | Tokio              |823,557
  Manchooria     |   362,310 |  12,000,000 | Saghalinoola       |
  Mongolia       |   288,000 |   2,000,000 | Governed by Chiefs |
  Nepaul         |    53,000 |   3,000,000 | Khatmandu          | 50,000
  Persia         |   610,000 |   7,653,600 | Teheran            |100,000
  Russia         | 6,479,235 |  16,195,165 | St. Petersburg     |927,467
  Siam           |   280,564 |   5,750,000 | Bangkok            |600,000
  Syria          |   146,070 |   2,750,000 | Damascus           |150,000
  Thibet         |   651,500 |   6,000,000 | Lassa and          |
                 |           |             |   Tishoo-Loomboo   |
  Turkey         |   729,350 |  16,172,981 | Constantinople     |600,000
  ---------------+-----------+-------------+--------------------+-------

LENGTHS OF RIVERS.

                  Miles.                  Miles.
  Amoo-Daria        900 | Hong-kiang        800
  Amoor           2,600 | Irtysh          1,700
  Brahmapootra    2,300 | Lena            2,700
  Cambodia        2,000 | Saghalien         514
  Euphrates       1,750 | Tigris            800
  Ganges          1,600 | Ural            1,000
  Hoang-ho        2,800 | Yang-tse-kiang  3,320
  Indus           1,850 | Yenisei         3,400
  Irrawaddy       1,200 |

AREAS SEAS AND LAKES.

                Square  |               Square
                 Miles. |                Miles.
  Alakton-kul     1,300 | Palter          1,600
  Aral           24,500 | Po-yang         2,800
  Baikal         12,500 | Tingri-noor     2,800
  Balkash         8,600 | Tong-Lung       3,000
  Caspian       180,000 | Van             2,000
  Dead Sea          400 | Zaisang         1,300
  Gennesaret         90 | Zurrah          4,000
  Koko-nor        2,040 |

{37}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{38}

JAPAN. Zipangu.
"SUNRISE KINGDOM."

An empire composed of islands lying east of Asia. Supposed to have been
founded 660 B.C. Area, 148,456 square miles. Pop., 36,700,118. The
population is divided into classes, as follows: Imperial family, 39;
kwazokii, or nobles, 3,204; shizoku, or knights, 1,931,824; common people,
34,765,051. Tokio, formerly known as Jeddo, or Yedo, is the capital; pop.,
823,557.

The government is an absolute monarchy. The title of the sovereign is
Supreme Lord, or Emperor (Mikado).

Agriculture is followed to a great extent. The chief annual agricultural
products are: rice, 155,629,409 bu.; wheat, 62,049,940 bu.; beans,
10,795,717 bu. The annual value of silk production is $20,500,000. The
principal manufactures are silk and cotton goods, japanned ware, porcelain
and bronze. The value of the exports, 1883, was $35,609,000; of imports,
$28,548,000.

A law went into effect in 1874, by which the government gives nine bushels
of rice annually to each person over seventy or under fifteen years of age
unable to work, and to foundlings until they reach the age of thirteen.
Latest reports place the number of paupers at 10,050, and expenditures at
$88,975.

School attendance is compulsory. There are 30,275 schools in the empire, of
which 71 are normal, 98 are technical, and 2 are universities; also, a
military college and military school, with 1,200 students. Latest reports
give 82,213 teachers and 2,703,343 pupils. School age is from 6 to 14.
Total number of school age, 5,750,946. Public libraries, 21. Shintoism is
the ancient religious faith; but Buddhism is the religion of nearly all the
common people.

The first railroad in the empire was opened June, 1875; it extended from
Hiogo to Osaka, twenty-five miles. At the end of June, 1884, there were 236
miles of railway in the empire. There are 4,880 miles of telegraph, with
13,144 miles of wire. Postoffices were first established in 1871, and now
number about 5,200.

CHINESE EMPIRE.

An immense empire of Eastern Asia; in territorial extent, the second in the
world; in population, the largest. Area, 4,419,150 square miles. Pop.,
371,180,000.

Longest rivers: Yang-tse-kiang, 3,320 miles; with basin, 950,000 sq. miles.
Hoang-ho, 2,800 miles; with basin, 715,000 sq. miles.

Capital Pekin; pop., 500,000. Twenty-three cities have more than 100,000
population; and 66, more than 50,000.

The state religion has no outward ceremonial, except a few symbolical rites
observed at New Year. It consists in the study of the teachings of
Confucius and Lao-tse. The majority of the people are Buddhists. Education
is almost universal, there being few adults unable to read and write. The
Chinese have had newspapers at least ten centuries.

Value of imports, 1883, $103,071,415; exports, $98,349,895. The chief
imports were: opium, valued at $35,510,260; and cotton goods, valued at
$30,888,465. Chief exports: tea,--value, $45,077,135; and silk, chiefly
raw, $33,537,990. The coal fields of China are among the first in the
world; about 3,000,000 tons are mined each year. The mines at Kai-p'ing, in
1883, produced 600 tons per day.

In June, 1876, a railway of twenty miles, between Shanghai and Woosung, was
opened for traffic; but the following year it was purchased by the Chinese
authorities, and closed. There are 20,000 Imperial roads in the empire. In
1884 there were 3,089 miles of telegraph line, with 5,482 miles of wire.
{39}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{40}

ANAM. An`nam´.

An empire of Indo-China under the protectorate of France. Area, 198,043
square miles. Population, 12,000,000. Drained by many rivers. In January,
temperature 41° throughout the north; in southern part of Cochin China,
mean annual temperature is 83°. The elephant, panther and tiger found in
the forests of Anam.

Inhabitants essentially agricultural. Country rich in metals. Government is
an absolute monarchy. Social equality exists among citizens. Buddhism and
doctrines of Confucius are dominant. Hue is the capital; pop., 100,000.

BURMA. Bur´mah.

As a result of the late war with Great Britain, Burma was on Jan. 1, 1886,
declared a part of the British Empire. The government is now administered
by the Governor General of India, though the country is not yet
incorporated with the Indian Empire. The late government was a despotism,
dependent on the will of the King. The area is 190,500 square miles.
Population estimated to be about 3,000,000. Capital, Mandalay; population,
70,000. Bhamo, on the Chinese frontier, is an important town. Education is
in the hands of the priests, but is very general. Buddhism is the
prevailing religion.

The country is not so fertile as British Burma; but wheat, corn, rice,
pulse, indigo, cotton, tobacco, and a large variety of fruits are grown.
The forests produce valuable timber trees in great variety. Minerals
abound, but are not generally worked. Petroleum, however, is quite largely
produced. Burma possessing no seacoast, the foreign trade is
inconsiderable.

SIAM. S[=i]-am´.

A kingdom of Southeastern Asia, divided into 41 Provinces. The government
is an absolute monarchy. Area and population are but imperfectly known;
foreign estimates place the former at 280,564 square miles, and the
population at about 5,750,000. Prevailing religion, Buddhism. Siam has no
public debt. Capital, Bangkok; population, 600,000. There is a small
standing army, and a general armament of the people in form of a militia.

Though much of the land is fertile, it is badly cultivated. Chief products,
rice, gums, teak, sandalwood, rosewood, spices and fruits. Foreign commerce
centres at Bangkok. Total value of exports from there in 1883, $8,525,655;
imports, $4,783,570. Commercial marine numbers 44 sailing vessels and 1
steam vessel. In 1883, 884 vessels, of 185,612 tons, cleared the port of
Bangkok.

MALAY. Ma-l[=a]´.

A peninsula of Asia; the southernmost point of the continent.

Area about 70,000 square miles. Estimated population, 650,000. Less known
of the interior than of any other point in Asia. Surface very uneven.
Climate is moist and hot: temperature on the Makran coast and in Persian
Gulf, 110°; and at times, 125°. Out of 365 days, 190 are rainy; rainfall
from 100 to 130 inches.

Politically, Malay consists of the Straits Settlements of Great Britain, 6
Provinces of Siam, and a number of small Malay States, either tributary to
or in treaty with the above powers. The Straits Settlements comprise the
Islands of Singapore and Penang and the territories of Malacca and Province
of Wellesley. Area, 1,445 square miles; pop., 423,384. {41}

COREA. Ko-ree´a.

A kingdom of Eastern Asia. Area estimated at 82,000 square miles.
Population, 16,227,885. Climate variable, on account of the unevenness of
the country; the thermometer at times registers 15° below zero.

The history of Corea dates back to 1120, when the Chinese gained possession
of it. Seems first to have been subjugated by the Tartars. Japanese ruled
it between 1692 and 1698, when it reverted to China. The country pays an
annual tribute of 800 ounces of silver to the Chinese Emperor. The King of
Corea is an absolute despot. Capital, Seoul; pop., 199,127.

Minerals are said to abound in the peninsula; but the low state of
civilization in the country will not admit of their development. The
country is mountainous, and the cultivable portion small; principal crops
are rice, millet, beans and jute.

Value of imports, 1881, $1,944,735; exports, $1,882,650. Principal exports,
ginseng, hides, rice and silk. Wheeled vehicles are unknown, and there are
no bridges over the many streams. Doctrine of Confucius the established
creed.

HONG KONG.

A colony of Great Britain, formerly a part of China. It consists of the
Island of Hong Kong, ceded to Great Britain in 1841, and the opposite
peninsula of Kow-loon, ceded to Great Britain, 1861. The government is
administered by a Governor, aided by an Executive Council. There is also a
Legislative Council. The chief city is Victoria. In 1883 the government
sustained 87 schools, with 5,597 pupils. The total population of Hong Kong
is 160,420, of whom but 7,990 are white persons.

Hong Kong forms the centre of trade for many different kinds of goods. Its
commerce is virtually a part of that of China, and is chiefly carried on
with Great Britain, the United States and Germany. Of the exports and
imports only mercantile estimates are known; these place the former at
about $10,000,000, and the latter at $20,000,000. The tea and silk trade of
China is largely in the hands of Hong Kong firms. In 1882, 28,668 vessels,
of 4,976,233 tons, entered the ports of Hong Kong.

ARABIA. A-ra´be-a.

A peninsula of Asia. Area, 1,000,000 square miles; length, 1,200 miles;
breadth, 900 miles. Sandy desert comprises most of the country; fertile
regions are shores of the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. Seacoast, 1,200 miles
in length. Heat intense: rainfall light.

Population variously estimated from 8,500,000 to 15,000,000. Claims descent
from Ishmael; nomadic habits; Mohammedans in belief.

The pearl fisheries, which are of great commercial importance, begin at the
Bahrein Islands, and extend southeast along the Persian Gulf, a distance of
nearly 200 miles. The yearly produce is estimated to be worth, over
$1,250,000.

Coffee, probably indigenous, chief article of export. Wheat, barley, beans,
millet, dates and lentils form food of the natives. Rivers unimportant.

Arabia was never subject to one sovereign. Inhabitants broken up into petty
tribes, each ruled by its own chief. {42}

INDIA. In´de-a.

An empire of Asia, divided into British territory and feudatory states,
acknowledging sovereignty of Great Britain. Richest and most populous
dependency of the English Crown. Area, 1,383,504 square miles. Population,
253,906,449.

Government is entrusted to Secretary of State for India; he is aided by a
Council of 15 members. Executive authority vested in Governor General,
appointed by the British Crown, and a Council of 7 members. Salary of
Governor General, $125,000 per year.

Population dense. The density varies from 441 per square mile to 43; the
average for all India being 184. Agriculture backward. Means of
transportation poor but improving. Eight famines have visited India, and
decimated the population of various Provinces. Soil is productive; rice,
corn, millet, barley and wheat are grown; cotton, indigo, opium and sugar
cane are largely exported.

Large quantities of bullion are imported for the manufacture of ornaments.
In 1884, imports of gold, $27,347,280; silver, $37,042,530. Leading
imports, 1883-84: cotton manufactures, $125,584,245; metals, $25,909,250;
machinery, $8,955,740. Chief exports: raw cotton, $71,806,605; opium,
$56,472,300; seeds, $50,450,990; wheat, $44,399,155; rice, $41,816,400.
Total imports, 1884, $318,007,480; exports, $445,006,975.

Capital, Calcutta; population, 871,504; 60 towns of over 50,000
inhabitants. Over 19 dialects and languages spoken in the empire.

Number vessels entered Indian ports, 1884, 5,812; cleared, 5,850; number
steamships entered by Suez Canal, 1,091; number vessels engaged in
interportal trade, 103,503. Miles of railway, 1854, 21; in 1885 there were
10,832; unfinished, 1,823. Miles of telegraph, 21,740; messages, 1,799,179.

Education progressing. Schools, 109,212; scholars, 2,790,783; universities,
3; governmental schools, 15,845; commission of investigation appointed in
1883.

European and native army, 190,476 men. Native states have an army of
349,835 men; 4,237 guns.

CEYLON. See-lon´.

An island situated in the Indian Ocean, southeast of India. Area, 25,364
square miles; length, 260 miles; average breadth, 100 miles. Climate much
pleasanter than that of Southern India. Ceylon was first settled in 1505;
formed into a separate colony in 1798; fell under British rule in 1815.

By the constitution of 1831 and 1833, government is administered by a
Governor, with an Executive Council and a Legislative Council. Minerals
abound; precious stones are often found; pearl fisheries of western coast
are famous. Bread-fruit, cinnamon, pepper, rice, cotton and tobacco are
among the chief products of the soil.

Principal exports in 1883: coffee (the least since 1853), valued at
$6,338,155; tea, $430,000; cinchona bark, $2,105,000; cocoanut oil,
$2,030,000. Total exports in 1883, $16,654,500; imports, $22,643,335.

There were 164 miles of railway open for traffic in 1884; 16 miles in
course of construction. Miles of telegraph were 989.

Estimated population, 1884, 2,822,009; 1,698,070 Buddhists, 493,630
Hindoos, 197,775 Mohammedans, and 147,977 Christians. The Europeans
numbered about 5,000, of whom 4,000 were English. There were 1,703 schools,
with nominal attendance of 102,109 pupils.

Colombo is the capital; pop., 111,942. {43}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{44}

PERSIA. Per´she-a.

A kingdom of Western Asia. Area, 610,000 square miles. Population,
7,653,600. Temperature ranges from 10° to 110°; winters severe in central
territory; summers hot and dry.

The government is an unlimited despotism. The Koran is law, the Shah being
looked upon as the vicegerent of the prophet. Persia has no national debt.
Persian army numbers 105,500 men on war basis; peace footing, 30,000.

Soil, in some of the extensive valleys, very fertile. Wheat and other
cereals, cotton, sugar, rice, tobacco and opium yield well; silk is an
important product of the country. Fruit trees and vegetables flourish.
Mineral resources undeveloped. Diamonds have been taken from mines in
Khorasan for centuries. Pearl fisheries of the Persian Gulf the most
extensive in the world.

Commerce centres at Tabriz. Bushire and Lingah principal ports. Imports, by
Lingah and Bushire, in 1883, $5,724,665. Exports, by same ports,
$3,071,705; opium, $1,403,415; grain and pulse, $342,250. System of
telegraph in the hands of Europeans; miles of line, 3,647; of wire, 5,947;
offices, 78. Mail service from Julfa to Tabriz and Teheran, thence to
Resht, established in 1877.

Capital, Teheran; pop., 100,000. Of total population, 1,963,800 live in
cities, 1,909,800 are nomadic tribes, 3,780,000 inhabit country districts
and villages. Education among the upper classes advanced; many colleges are
sustained by government.

AFGHANISTAN. Af-gan`is-tan´.

Name given to plateau on northwest frontier of India. Estimated area,
278,000 square miles. Temperature at Ghazni, 10° to 15° below zero; at
Kandahar, heat in summer reaches 120°. No other country of equal area has
such diversities of climate. Distinguished for the mountain passes, through
which India has been frequently invaded.

Government is a despotism. Capital, Kabul. Population, 2,500,000,
consisting of numerous warlike clans. The Amir is a military dictator, with
a yearly revenue of $2,000,000, and a subsidy of $600,000 from India.
Two-thirds of inhabitants Mohammedans.

Agricultural and pastoral pursuits the chief industries of the people;
wheat the most important crop; rice, barley and millet grown. On terraces,
6,000 and 7,000 feet high, all the vegetables and fruits of Europe grow; in
the south, sugar cane and date palm.

BELUCHISTAN. Bel-oo`chis-tan´.

A country of Asia lying east of Persia. Area, 140,000 square miles.
Population, 1,000,000. Climate diverse; in higher parts, extremely cold; in
valleys, heat is oppressive. Deficiency of water throughout the whole
country. Surface rugged and barren.

The soil is unproductive, but has been cultivated until it supplies the
natives with necessaries. Fruits and vegetables flourish near the towns.

The only exports are horses, grain and dates. Imports: Indian silk, cotton
goods, rice, sugar, spices, and dye stuffs in small quantities.

The government is a despotism. Khan has unlimited power over life, person
and property; resides at Kelat, the capital, a city with a population of
10,000. Inhabitants divided into many tribes, ruled by chiefs. {45}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{46}

AFRICA.

A large insular continent lying south of Europe, from which it is separated
by the Mediterranean. Area, 11,512,480 square miles; extreme length, 4,330
miles; extreme breadth, 4,000 miles; coast line, only about 16,000 miles,
there being few indentations, and a lack of good harbors.

PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES.

  ------------------+----------+------------+-----------------+---------
         Name.      |   Area,  | Population.|   Capitals.     | Pop.
                    | Sq. Mls. |            |                 |
  ------------------+----------+------------+-----------------+---------
  Abyssinia         |  200,000 |  3,000,000 | Gondar          |    7,000
  Algeria           |  161,476 |  3,310,412 | Algiers         |   70,747
  Cape Colony       |  229,815 |  1,027,168 | Cape Town       |   33,239
  Congo Free State  |1,056,200 | 27,000,000 |                 |
  Egypt             |  394,240 |  6,806,381 | Cairo           |  368,108
  Liberia           |   14,300 |  1,068,000 | Monrovia        |    3,000
  Madagascar        |  228,500 |  3,500,000 | Tananarivo      |  100,000
  Morocco           |  219,000 |  5,000,000 | Marocco         |   50,000
  Mozambique        |   38,000 |  ? 300,000 | Mozambique      | ? 35,000
  Natal             |   21,150 |    416,219 | Pietermaritzburg|   14,231
  Nubia             | ? 35,000 |  ? 400,000 | Dongola         |
  Orange River Free |   70,000 |    133,518 | Bloemfontein    |    2,567
               State|          |            |                 |
  Transvaal         |  114,360 |    750,000 | Pretoria        |    4,440
  Tunis             |   42,000 |  2,100,000 | Tunis           |  120,000
  Zanzibar          |      625 |    300,000 | Zanzibar        |   90,000
  ------------------+----------+------------+-----------------+---------

LENGTHS OF RIVERS.

                           Miles.                            Miles.
  Congo                     2,400 | Orange                    1,600
  Niger                     2,900 | Senegal                   1,000
  Nile                      5,100 | Zambesi                   1,800

LATEST REPORTED EXPORTS.

  Cape Colony:                    | Madeira:
    Ostrich Feathers   $4,656,900 |   Wine                 $525,740
    Angora Hair         1,359,020 |   Sugar                 165,800
    Diamonds           13,712,350 |   Bananas                 9,680
    Copper              2,270,565 |   Pineapples              2,110
                                  |
  Marocco:                        | Sierra Leone:
    Almonds              $394,000 |   Cola Nuts       819,175  lbs.
    Cattle                393,880 |   Gum Copal       452,196   "
    Dates                  27,480 |   Palm Oil        250,730 gals.
    Eggs                  156,210 |   Palm Kernels 21,624,681  lbs.
    Gums                  244,885 |   Ginger        1,277,635   "
    Shoes                 527,420 |   Rubber        1,084,219   "
                                  |
  Liberia:                        | Egypt:
    Ivory              1,116 lbs. |   Cotton            $37,328,905
    Coffee           250,136  "   |   Rice                  606,785
    Rubber           133,119  "   |   Sugar               1,971,590
    Palm Oil      1,100,222 gals. |   Cottonseed          8,482,670

{47}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{48}

MAROCCO. Ma-rok´ko.

An empire of Africa, formerly the largest of the Barbary States. Area,
219,000 square miles. Population, 5,000,000. Atlas Mountains cross the
country; rivers few and small. Atlantic coast line, 750 miles long;
Mediterranean, 250 miles.

The Sultan's authority is supreme in spiritual and temporal matters.
Estimated yearly revenue of Sultan, $2,500,000. Marocco has three capitals:
Fez (pop., 80,000) is the chief; Marocco, the old metropolis (pop.,
50,000); and Mequinez (pop., 56,000).

Both climate and soil are well suited to the production of wheat, barley,
corn and other grains; agriculture is neglected for pastoral pursuits.
Marocco supposed to be rich in minerals.

Foreigners control the maritime trade; Tangier is the main port; seven
others open to foreign commerce. Import of cotton, 1882, valued at
$3,401,130; sugar, $1,390,240; rice, flour, etc., $1,462,090. Exports,
1882: wool, $1,116,850; shoes, $527,420; almonds, $394,000; cattle,
$393,880. In 1882, 1,050 vessels, of 314,794 tons, entered, and 1,047, of
315,559 tons, cleared, the ports of Marocco.

ALGERIA. Al-jee´re-a.

Situated in North Africa; the most important French colonial possession.
Area, about 161,476 square miles. Coast line, 550 miles. Climate variable;
mean annual temperature at Algiers, 66.5°.

Government of settled districts administered by a Governor General; others
under military rule. Civil government divided into three departments, each
of which sends 2 Deputies and 1 Senator to the French Chambers. Algiers the
capital; pop., 1881, 70,747. Total population of Algeria, 1881, 3,310,412;
French, 233,937.

Agriculture the principal industry; in 1881, 2,328,636 thus engaged. In
1882, 40,000,000 acres in farms; 5,460,000 under cereals; wheat product,
559,500 tons; barley, 790,000; number of acres devoted to vine culture,
99,000. Olive oil manufactured in 1880, 574,000 gals. Yield of tobacco,
from 20,000 acres, 9,490,000 lbs. In 1882 there were 1,027,913 cattle,
5,142,321 sheep, 3,056,660 goats.

Imports, 1883, $47,639,790; exports, $33,788,880. In 1883, 4,803 vessels,
of 1,954,423 tons, entered Algerian ports. Number miles railway, 993. Miles
of line of telegraph in 1882, 3,645. In 1881 there were 619 students in the
higher schools; number of secondary schools, 16; pupils, 3,561; 916 infant
and primary schools, with 79,201 pupils.

TUNIS. Tu´niss.

A kingdom or regency of Africa, formerly one of the Barbary States; since
1881 under the protectorate of France. The government is practically
administered by a Minister Resident and two Secretaries. The area of the
country is about 42,000 square miles, and the population is estimated to
number 2,100,000. Capital, Tunis; population variously estimated from
100,000 to 120,000.

There are twelve ports open to foreign trade. The imports average
$5,500,000 per annum, and the exports $6,500,000. The principal articles of
export are wheat, barley, esparto grass (used in making paper), olive oil,
dates, wool and skins. Principal imports, manufactured goods, liquors,
sugar and flour.

In 1883, 3,768 vessels, of 1,524,429 tons, entered Tunisian ports; of these
1,222, of 1,018,538 tons, were French. Tunis has about 200 miles of
railway, and 2,500 miles of telegraph. {49}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{50}

EGYPT. E´jipt.

A dependency of Turkey, situated in North Africa. Estimated area, 394,240
square miles. Population, 6,806,381. Territory covered by sandy deserts,
except where the annual inundations of the Nile render it fertile. Rain
falls once in three or four years. The agricultural population forms 61 per
cent. of the total.

Egypt is a Province of the Ottoman Empire; yet it is independent at the
same time, and its sovereignty is dependent on the will of stronger powers,
England being dominant. Absolute executive power is in the hands of the
Khedive, under the supervision of England. Provincial Councils and a
Legislative Council advise with the Khedive on matters purely local. Cairo,
capital; pop., 368,106.

Under the Pharaohs, Egypt was an agricultural country. It is distinguished
for the prominent part it played in ancient history, its ruins, and
situation with reference to the Suez Canal.

Commerce extensive, consists largely of goods in transit; carries on a
large trade with Central Africa. In 1883, imports, $42,984,880; exports,
$61,549,425. Principal export, cotton; value, 1883, $37,328,905.

The railway system, 1884, consisted of a single line, 1,276 miles long.
Miles of government telegraph, 1884, 2,767. Eastern telegraph company have
a line to Cairo, 455 miles in length.

Population of chief towns, 1882: Alexandria, 208,755; Damietta, 34,046;
Tantah, 33,735; Mansourah, 26,784; Zagazig, 19,046; Rosetta, 16,671; Port
Said, 16,560; Suez, 10,913.

The Nile is the only river in Egypt. The Suez Canal connects the
Mediterranean with the Red Sea; opened for navigation, November, 1869;
length, 100 miles; number of vessels passed through in 1883, 3,307, of
8,106,001 tons; gross receipts, $13,227,530; net profits, $7,172,700. In
1883, postoffice carried 9,587,000 letters.

NUBIA. Nu´be-a.

A country of Eastern Africa. From 1821 to 1884 Nubia was under the dominion
of Egypt. Since the southern boundary of Egypt can not yet be regarded as
fixed, it is impossible to give trustworthy statistics of the area and
population of Nubia. The fertile part of the country lies chiefly in the
valley of the Nile. The climate is hot and dry, but generally healthful.
Chief products are barley, cotton, indigo, durrah, dates, tobacco, senna
and coffee. An extensive transit trade is carried on with Egypt and
interior Africa, in gold dust, ostrich feathers and senna. The entire
valley contains the remains of ancient buildings, the most numerous lying
below Dongola.

ABYSSINIA, (Ab-is-sin´e-a.)
or HABESH.

An isolated country of Eastern Africa, consisting of three divisions,
Amhara, Tigre and Shoa. Tigre and Amhara constitute one kingdom, and Shoa
another; they are all divided into a great number of smaller provinces.
Gondar, in Amhara, is the capital of all Ethiopia. Capital of Shoa,
Ankobar; of Tigre, Adowa. Area about 200,000 square miles. Population about
3,000,000. Drained by numerous rivers emptying into the Nile.

Lowland soil grows wheat, cotton, maize, rice, sugar cane and flax. No
foreign trade except exportation of small quantities of ivory, musk, coffee
and gold dust; manufactures limited. Inhabitants a mixture of many races,
warlike and uncivilized. {51}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{52}

MADAGASCAR. Mad`a-gas´kar.

The largest African island; the third largest in the world. Area, 228,500
square miles. Population, 3,500,000. Near the centre of island, within an
arc of 90 miles, there are 100 extinct volcanoes. Mean yearly temperature
about 77°.

Government is an absolute monarchy, limited by powerful customs. The island
has been swayed by the dynasty of the Hovas since 1810. Since the treaty of
Tamatave, March 17, 1886, the country has been under the protectorate of
France. Commercial and diplomatic relations established between the island
and United States, Great Britain and France, in this century, previous to
1868. Capital, Tananarivo; population estimated at 100,000.

Soil generally fertile; forests of valuable timber abound. Chief products
are rice, sugar, silk, cotton, bananas, potatoes, India rubber. Stock
raising and agriculture are the main industries. Chief exports are cattle,
hides, coffee, lard, sugar, vanilla, wax, gum, rice and seeds; principal
imports are metal goods, rum and cotton goods. Silver five-franc piece the
only legal coin; franc is cut into pieces for smaller coins. Tamatave
principal port; pop., 6,000; number of ships entering her harbor during
last six months of 1882, 116. In the same time the value of imports at
Tamatave from the United States was $207,410; value of exports to United
States, $257,485.

Standing army, 20,000. Three-fourths of people Pagans. Christianity the
state religion. Education is compulsory; 1,167 schools, with 150,906
pupils, in Imerina, the chief Province.

MOZAMBIQUE. Mo-zam-beek´.

A colonial possession of Portugal on the east coast of Africa. Area, 38,000
square miles. A few settlements and military posts exercise feeble
authority over the inhabitants. The climate is genial, and the soil capable
of producing wheat, maize, tobacco, cotton and sugar cane. The chief towns
are: St. Sebastian (pop., 1,510), Ibo (pop. about 2,000), Sofala (pop.
2,000), and St. Thiajo Major. The forests abound in valuable timber trees;
pearl fisheries are important, and the mineral deposits are of exceptional
value. The gold mines of Mauica are supposed to be the richest in East
Africa. Ivory is obtained in large quantities for the Indian market; annual
value about $350,000. Other exports are India rubber, gums, oil, beeswax
and corn. Shipping trade is carried on by about 400 vessels. The capital is
Mozambique.

ZANZIBAR. Zan`ze-bar´.

An empire of Eastern Africa, consisting of the Island of Zanzibar, and
settlements along the coast from Cape Delgado as far as 3° north latitude.
The limits of the Sultan's dominions inland are not known; but, beyond a
few travel routes, his authority extends but a little way from the coast.
The island has an area of 625 square miles, and a population variously
estimated from 150,000 to 300,000. Population of the town of Zanzibar,
90,000; of Bagamoyo, on the opposite mainland, 10,000.

The religion of the country is Mohammedanism. Christian missions are
established on the island and far into the mainland. Value of imports,
1882, $4,000,000; exports, $5,000,000. The exports are ivory, cloves, India
rubber and gum. In 1882, 85 vessels, of 89,773 tons, entered the ports. The
imports are chiefly cotton cloths, rice, cereals, kerosene oil and guns.
{53}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{54}

CAPE COLONY.

A colony in South Africa, originally founded by the Dutch, in 1652. Since
1806 controlled by Great Britain. Climate generally dry and salubrious. At
Cape of Good Hope, mean annual temperature is placed at about 62°. Average
rainfall per year, 24 inches. Total area of Cape Colony, 229,815 square
miles. Estimated population, 1,027,168. Capital, Cape Town; pop., 33,239.

The government is administered by a Governor, an Executive and a
Legislative Council and House of Assembly. Colonists are employed in
agricultural and pastoral pursuits. Ostrich breeding is successfully
carried on. Sheep farms often comprise from 8,000 to 15,000 acres and
upward. Total cultivated area in 1875, 580,000 acres. Vines occupied 18,000
acres, yielding 4,484,665 gallons of wine. The colony had, in 1875,
1,111,713 head of cattle, 10,976,663 sheep, and 3,065,202 goats. The
principal exports from the colony in 1883 were: wool, valued at $8,015,700;
ostrich feathers, $4,656,900; grease wool, $1,948,025; hides and skins,
$2,180,250; copper ore, $2,270,565; Angora hair, $1,359,020; diamonds,
$13,712,350. Total exports in 1883 valued at $22,044,490; total imports,
$32,351,955.

Vast majority of the population members of Dutch Reformed church, the
Episcopalian ranking next in number. Cape Colony has 1 university and 5
colleges; education not compulsory; 71 per cent. of children who have
attained school age are in school.

Army in 1883 consisted of 1,614 officers and men. By a law of 1878, every
able-bodied colonist between 18 and 50 years is liable to military service
beyond, as well as within, colonial limits. In 1884 the total length of
government railway was 1,213 miles; telegraph, 4,031 miles.

ORANGE RIVER FREE STATE.

An independent republic of South Africa. Founded by Boers from Cape Colony,
in 1836; constitution proclaimed 1854. Area, 70,000 square miles.
Population, 133,518: colored or native, 72,496; whites, 61,022. Annual
amount devoted to education, $1,000,000. Capital, Bloemfontein; pop.,
2,567.

Law-making power vested in a popular Assembly of 55 members; executive, in
President, elected for 5 years. Climate salubrious. Agricultural and
pastoral pursuits the chief industries. In 1881 there were 6,000 farms;
total number of acres, 23,592,400; cultivated, 114,916; number of horses,
131,594; 5,056,301 merino sheep, 673,924 goats; ostriches, 2,253. There are
many rich coal mines. Diamonds and other precious stones are found. Miles
of telegraph in operation, 559

NATAL. Na-tal´.

Previous to 1856, Natal formed part of Cape Colony; in that year it was
erected into a separate colony under Great Britain. The government is
administered by a Governor, an Executive Council, and a Legislative
Council. Estimated area, 21,150 square miles. Pop., 1881, 416,210; white,
28,463; native, 329,253; coolies, 20,196. Principal town, Durban; pop.,
16,630. Capital, Pietermaritzburg; pop., 14,231.

Value of imports, 1883, $8,755,535; exports, $4,158,735. Principal exports:
hides, $255,040; ostrich feathers, $72,530; unrefined sugar, $610,420;
wool, $2,595,805. Principal imports are manufactured goods and flour. In
1883, 328 vessels, of 232,097 tons, entered, and 326, of 231,892 tons,
cleared, the ports. There are 105 miles of railway built, and 120 under
construction. {55}

[Illustration]

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{56}

TRANSVAAL. Trans-val´.

A South African republic founded by Boers who left Cape Colony in 1835 for
Natal, quitted the latter country on its annexation to Great Britain, and
settled in the territory north of the Vaal river. Recognized as an
independent state in 1852. Executive authority is in the hands of a
President, assisted by a Council of 4 members; legislative vested in a
Volksraad of 44 members. Area of republic, 114,360 square miles. Population
estimated, 1884, at 50,000 whites, of whom 40,000 are Dutch, and about
700,000 natives. Chief city, Pretoria; population, 4,440.

The country is favorable for agriculture and stock raising. Chief crop,
wheat; sugar, coffee and cotton are grown. Cattle, sheep and ostriches are
reared. There is a great deal of mineral wealth, which has been but little
developed. The yearly exports are valued at $3,000,000, and are principally
grain, cattle, hides, wool, ostrich feathers, butter, ivory, gold and other
minerals.

LIBERIA. Li-bee´re-a.

A republic of South Africa, founded in 1820 as a colony by the American
Colonization Society in behalf of liberated slaves from the United States.
Liberia was declared an independent state in 1847. The government is
modeled after that of the United States. The republic has 600 miles of
coast line, and extends inland about 100 miles; area, 14,300 square miles.
The population is wholly African, and numbers 18,000 Americo-Liberians and
1,050,000 aborigines. Capital, Monrovia; population, 3,000. The Liberians
have established churches and schools, and possess a number of printing
presses. The climate, which is still fatal to Europeans, has been much
improved by systematic drainage.

The country is well watered, and the natural resources are very great.
Cotton and coffee are both indigenous, the former yielding two crops per
year. The oil palm is abundant, palm oil, ivory, India rubber and nuts
being the chief exports.

CONGO FREE STATE.

The Act defining and constituting the Congo Free State was signed by the
International Congo Conference at Berlin, February 26, 1885. The area of
the State is estimated at 1,056,200 square miles, with a population of
27,000,000. While the Congo state is under the sovereignty of the King of
Belgium, the latter country or government has no power or responsibility in
relation to it. The state is divided into four Provinces,--the Lower Congo,
the Upper Congo, Livingstone Falls and the Pool, and the district between
the Pool and Equator. The government is in the hands of an Administrator
General, under whom are a number of white subordinates, chiefs of Provinces
and other officials.

Free commerce, in its widest sense, has been established in the basin of
the Congo, and for a distance of 360 miles along the Atlantic. In this
territory, no import duties can be levied for twenty years, and the Powers
reserve the right to decide if freedom of entry shall be maintained beyond
that period. The principal articles for export are said to be palm oil,
ivory, rubber, gum copal, ground nuts, orchilla weed and cam-wood;
principal imports are textiles, spirits, tobacco, guns and powder. {57}

[Illustration]

{58}

[Illustration]

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{59}

OCEANIA.

A fifth division of the globe, comprising island groups and the large
islands of the Pacific. The divisions are Australasia, Malaysia and
Polynesia.

Australasia extends from equator to 47° south latitude, and from 112° to
about 170° east longitude. It includes Australia, Papua, New Zealand and
Tasmania.

Malaysia comprises the islands and groups lying just off the coast of
Southeastern Asia, and contains the large islands of Luzon, Mindanao,
Celebes, Java, Sumatra and Borneo.

Polynesia includes Islands and island groups between Philippines and 100°
west longitude. Among the most important groups are Caroline, Feejee,
Friendly, Gilbert, Hawaiian, Marshall and Society Islands.

  --------------------+----------+-----------+-------------+--------
                      | Area Sq. |   Pop.    |  Capital.   |  Pop.
                      |  Miles.  |           |             |
  --------------------+----------+-----------+-------------+--------
  New South Wales     |  316,320 |   840,614 | Sydney      | 220,427
  New Zealand         |  105,342 |   532,000 | Wellington  |  20,563
  Queensland          |  668,224 |    36,695 | Brisbane    |  36,109
  South Australia     |  903,690 |   293,509 | Adelaide    |  38,479
  Tasmania            |   26,375 |   122,479 | Hobart      |  21,118
  Victoria            |   87,884 |   915,948 | Melbourne   | 291,464
  West Australia      |  975,920 |    29,708 | Perth       |   5,044
                      |----------|-----------|             |
    Total Australasia |3,083,755 | 2,770,953 |             |
                      |----------|-----------|             |
  Hawaiian Islands    |    6,667 |    57,985 | Honolulu    |   7,000
  Borneo              |   12,745 | 2,183,974 |{Brunai      |  20,000
                      |          |           |{Banjarmasin |  30,000
  Celebes             |   71,791 | 2,000,000 | Macassar    |  20,000
  Java                |   50,848 |20,259,450 | Batavia     |  99,109
  Mindanao            |   36,000 |   732,802 | Selangan    |  10,000
  Luzon               |   37,505 | 4,450,191 | Manila      | 160,000
  Sumatra             |  177,000 | 3,000,000 |{Acheen      |  45,000
                      |          |           |{Padang      |  10,000
  ------------------------------------------------------------------

AUSTRALASIA.--Crop Production, 1882.

  Wheat           81,763,098 bu. | Other cereals     889,789   bu.
  Oats            16,430,205  "  | Potatoes          346,834 tons.
  Barley           1,928,595  "  | Hay               862,602   "
  Maize            5,611,903  "  | Wine            1,496,175 gals.
  Gold produced 1881                                  $ 30,510,709
  Coin and bullion exported 1882                        38,480,960
  Aggregate imports, 1882                              310,698,578
  Aggregate exports, 1882                              246,407,125

PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.--Exports, 1881.

  Coffee              $  959,346 | Liquid Indigo       $     8,256
  Cordage                137,031 | Rice                      7,791
  Hemp                 8,889,872 | Sugar                12,403,993
  Indigo                 138,958 | Sapan-wood               58,230

SOCIETY ISLANDS, 1882.

         IMPORTS.                |      EXPORTS.
  General Merchandise   $702,475 | Gen. Mdse.
  Cotton, copra,                 |   (re-exp'rt'd)        $358,604
   mother-of-pearl               | Cotton, copra,
   shell and other               |   mother-of-pearl
   produce               367,975 |   shell, etc.           516,583
                                 | Fire Wood & cocoanuts.    1,041
                      ---------- |                        --------
      Total           $1,070,450 |     Total              $876,228

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, 1883--Domestic Exports.

  Sugar          114,107,155 lbs. | Rice           11,619,000 lbs.
  Molasses          193,997 gals. | Coffee             16,057 lbs.
  Paddy            1,368,705 lbs. | Bananas        44,902 bunches.

{60}

[Illustration]

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{61}

NETHERLANDS INDIES.

The Netherlands Indies are by far the most important colonial possessions
of the Netherlands. They cover all the Dutch possessions in the East
Indies, and include Java, Madura, Banca, Sumatra, Bingtang, Billiton,
Celebes, the Moluccas, Lombok Bali, and many smaller islands and parts of
New Guinea, Borneo and Timor. Area of the colonies estimated at 636,329
square miles; population, 27,784,959. The superior administration is in the
hands of a Governor General, assisted by a Council of 5 members.

The most important colony is Java, which politically includes the
neighboring island of Madura. Total area, 50,848 square miles; population,
20,259,450. Java is governed under what is termed the culture system, which
was established in 1832.

The strength of the total army in 1883 was 30,421 men, of whom 15,032 were
Europeans, and 15,389 natives. There is a military academy near Batavia,
and attached to every battalion is a school for soldiers. The navy, royal
and colonial, consisted of 79 vessels and 5,029 men.

By far the larger part of the commerce of Dutch India is with the
Netherlands. The average value of the total imports for three years was
$62,500,000: exports, $75,000,000. About two-thirds of the imports were
from the Netherlands, and three-fourths of the exports were sent to that
country. The principal exports are sugar, coffee, rice, indigo and tobacco.
Latest reports give value of coffee exported, $13,086,790; sugar,
$19,625,470; indigo, $1,245,170; spices, $1,021,720; tobacco, $6,457,680.

The Netherlands Indies had, in 1882, 3,682 miles of telegraph, with 84
offices. Number of postoffices, 221. Java has now about 750 miles of
railway.

HAWAII (SANDWICH ISLANDS). Ha-wi´ee.

A kingdom of Oceania, consisting of a group of 15 islands, of which 8 are
inhabited. The government is a limited monarchy. Hawaii is the largest
island; but Honolulu, the capital, is situated on the island of Oahu.
Population of Honolulu, 7,000. Area of the islands, 6,667 square miles. At
the last census, the population numbered 57,985: male, 34,103; female,
23,882; native, 44,088; Chinese, 5,916; white, 4,561, of whom 1,276 were
Americans, 883 English, 436 Portuguese, 272 Germans, 81 French; half-caste,
3,420.

To a great extent the islands are mountainous, and there are numerous
volcanoes, several of which are active. The volcano of Mauna Loa, on the
Island of Hawaii, is one of the highest active volcanoes in the world. The
soil is exceedingly fertile and productive. Chief products, sugar and rice;
but coffee, hides, bone, whale oil and wool are exported in considerable
quantities. Value of exports, 1883, $8,121,200; imports, $5,624,240.

In 1883, 267 vessels, of 183,316 tons, entered, and 263 vessels, of 189,494
tons, cleared the ports. Of the former, 195 vessels were American. The
islands own 64 vessels, of 15,588 tons. The islands of Hawaii and Maui are
provided with telegraphs, and have about 32 miles of railway. Almost every
house in Honolulu has its telephone.

There are numerous schools in the islands; the annual sum devoted to public
instruction is $95,850. The King is a member of the Church of England; but
all forms of religion are permitted and protected. {62}

AUSTRALASIA. Aws-tral-[=a]´she-a.

Under this bead are grouped all the Australian colonies belonging to Great
Britain. They are seven in number, and geographically are comprised in the
continent of Australia and the islands of Tasmania and New Zealand and part
of New Guinea. Total area, 3,075,135 square miles. Population, 1883,
3,091,897.

Each colony has a Governor, appointed by the Crown, in whom is vested the
executive power. The legislative power of each is vested in a Parliament of
two houses.

Minerals abound in all the colonies. The most extensive coal mines are
those of New South Wales, the product of which in 1884 was 2,521,457 tons;
value, $6,009,705. Gold product of the colony, 1883, 122,256 ounces; value,
$1,705,620. Coal product of New Zealand, 1883, 421,764 tons. Gold
discovered 1857. Value of total exports to March, 1884, $203,535,370. In
Queensland, tin, copper, lead and coal are mined. Value of tin raised,
1883, $2,940,060. Gold discovered 1858. Product, 1882, 230,090 oz.; value,
$4,148,275. The chief mineral of South Australia is copper, but valuable
iron ores also exist. Value of copper and copper ore, 1883, $1,876,625.
Tasmania is rich in iron, tin and coal. Value of tin exported, 1883,
$1,882,230. Amount of gold produced, 46,577 oz.; value, $882,210. In 1851
gold was discovered in Victoria. Total product to 1883, 52,214,150 oz.;
value, $1,044,283,000. Principal minerals of Western Australia are copper,
lead and coal.

Principal agricultural products of the colonies: Wheat product of New South
Wales, 1884, 4,345,437 bushels; corn, 4,538,604 bushels; sugar, 35,220,640
lbs.; wine, 589,604 gallons. New Zealand--Wheat, 9,827,136 bushels; oats,
9,231,339 bushels. Leading grain crop of Queensland, corn. Yield of sugar,
1883, 73,534,000 lbs.; cotton, 70,020 lbs. South Australia--Wheat,
14,649,230 bushels; wine, 430,520 gallons. Principal products of Tasmania,
grain, hops and fruit; value of green and preserved fruits exported 1883,
$881,120. Wheat product of Victoria, 1884, 15,570,245 bushels; oats,
4,717,624 bushels; barley, 1,069,803 bushels; potatoes, 161,088 tons; hay,
433,143 tons.

The following table shows the number of farm animals in the colonies in
1884:

  ------------------+------------+-----------+----------+---------------
  Colonies.         |   Sheep.   |  Cattle.  |  Horses. |   Pigs.
  ------------------+------------+-----------+----------+---------------
  New South Wales   | 34,000,000 | 1,646,753 |  326,964 |  189,050
  New Zealand       | 14,056,266 |   698,637 |  161,736 |  200,083
  Queensland        |  9,308,911 | 4,266,172 |  253,116 |   51,796
  South Australia   |  6,677,067 |   319,620 |  184,360 |
  Tasmania          |  1,831,069 |   130,525 |   26,840 |   55,774
  Victoria          | 10,739,021 | 1,297,546 |  286,779 |  233,525
  Western Australia |  1,547,061 |    71,102 |   37,111 |
  ------------------+------------+-----------+----------+---------------

Value of total exports and imports of the colonies, 1883: New South
Wales--Exports, $99,430,090; imports, $104,800,785. New Zealand--Exports,
$35,479,995; imports, $39,870,190. Queensland--Exports, $26,383,040;
imports, $31,166,755. South Australia--Exports, $24,417,305; imports,
$31,550,275. Tasmania--Exports, $8,657,995; imports, $9,163,185.
Victoria--Exports, $81,994,315; imports, $88,719,230. Western
Australia--Exports, $2,235,050; imports, $2,584,230.

In 1883, New South Wales had 1,320 miles of railway, and 597 under
construction; New Zealand, 1,486 miles; Queensland, 1,038 miles, and 454
under construction; South Australia, 990.75 miles, and 225 under
construction; Tasmania, 167 miles, and 207 under construction; Victoria,
1,562 miles, and 130 under construction; Western Australia, 55 miles, and
68 under construction. {63}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{64}

NORTH AMERICA.

Northern and largest division of Western Continent, separated from South
America by Gulf of Mexico, and connected with it by Isthmus of Panama.

Area, 8,918,346 square miles; extends from Arctic Ocean to about 8° north
latitude; extreme width, over 3,000 miles. Eastern coast line to southern
extremity of Mexico, about 13,000 miles; western, about 11,000 miles. Has
remarkable lake and river systems: the latter includes the Mississippi and
its tributaries, whose combined navigable length is about 40,000 miles, and
it is estimated that the great lakes contain a third of all fresh waters on
the globe. The political divisions are Greenland, Iceland, Dominion of
Canada, Newfoundland, United States, Central America and Mexico.

Extent in latitude results in great variety of climate, while the Gulf of
Mexico and surrounding oceans furnish to most localities abundant moisture.

Ottawa, capital of Dominion of Canada, and great lumber depot; pop.,
27,412; St. Johns, capital of Newfoundland, and easternmost seaport of
North America; pop., 22,583. Number lighthouses in United States, Canada
and Spanish America, 1,127.

Record of great fires: New York, 1835; loss $29,199,000. San Francisco,
1851; loss, 2,500 blocks. Chicago, 1871; loss, $160,594,500. Boston, 1872;
loss, $72,997,500.

Rich soil and excellent tillage combine to produce abundant food supply for
home consumption and foreign export. Tobacco, cotton, woods, dye-stuffs,
grain, flour, meat, eggs and butter are among the supplies exported. Value
of grain crops, United States and Canada, $1,114,428,500. Annual import of
fruit in United States since 1871, 6 lbs. per inhabitant.

Canada has 900,000,000 acres forest; income, $58,398,000. United States,
560,000,000 acres; income, $374,720,500. Mexico and Central America are
rich in mahogany and dye-stuffs. Number acres forest felled daily by United
States wood-cutters, 10,000; annual consumption of firewood, United States
and Canada, 1,550,000,000 cubic feet; number saw-mills, 1882, 15,740.

Nearly every variety of minerals abundant; iron widely diffused. Copper
especially plentiful in region of great lakes; gold and silver in mountain
regions of both sides of continent; lead abundant in central United States;
quicksilver, in California and Mexico, coal fields numerous, and supply
almost inexhaustible; salt also widely distributed. Annual consumption of
coal in United States and Canada, 72,000,000 tons; gold production,
1830-1880, United States and Spanish America, 4,262 tons.

Lakes and rivers well stocked with fish; coast fisheries productive and
profitable, especially on banks of Newfoundland, and along coasts of
Washington and Oregon. Newfoundland has a world-wide reputation for cod
fisheries, and seal fisheries rank next in importance. Average annual catch
of cod, about 1,500,000 quintals; number seals taken yearly, about 600,000;
of herring, about 175,000 bbls. Value fisheries of United States and
Canada, $16,546,100,000.

Population, over 60,000,000, Mexico numbering 10,046,872, and Canada,
4,324,810.

Greenland and Iceland are Danish colonies. Canada and Newfoundland belong
to Great Britain. Executive power of Canada vested in the Governor General,
a representative of the Queen; legislative power exercised by a Senate and
House of Commons, each Province having its own Lieutenant Governor and
legislature. Public affairs of Newfoundland managed by governor, executive
council, and legislative assembly. {65}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{66}

ONTARIO. On-t[=a]´re-o.

The most populous Province of the Dominion of Canada; established in 1867.
Previous to 1791 formed part of the Province of Quebec; from 1791 to 1840
known as Upper Canada; in 1840 reunited with Quebec, under the name of
Canada.

Area, census of 1881, 101,733 square miles. Total land occupied, 19,259,909
acres; improved, 11,294,109 acres, of which 8,370,266 acres were under
crops; 2,619,038 acres in pasture, and 304,805 acres in gardens and
orchards.

Temperature at Toronto: winter, 4.8° to 62.5°; summer, 38.7° to 92.7°; mean
temperature, 44.16°. Rainfall at Toronto, 28.43 inches.

The surface of the country is diversified by numerous lakes and rivers. The
agricultural resources are very great, and the mineral wealth varied and
rich.

Public affairs are administered by a Lieutenant Governor, assisted by an
Executive Council of 6, and a House of Assembly of 89 members. Capital,
Toronto; pop. 86,415. Ottawa, the capital of the Dominion; pop., 27,412.
Ontario sends 24 members to the Dominion Senate.

Agricultural products, 1881: wheat, 27,406,091 bushels; barley, 14,279,841
bushels; oats, 40,209,929 bushels; rye, 1,598,871 bushels; peas and beans,
9,434,872 bushels; buckwheat, 841,649 bushels; corn, 8,096,782 bushels;
potatoes, 18,994,559 bushels; turnips, 33,856,721 bushels; other root
crops, 6,479,222 bushels; hay, 2,038,659 tons; grass and clover seed,
173,219 bushels; flaxseed, 38,208 bushels; tobacco, 160,251 pounds; hops,
615,967 pounds.

Latest reported orchard products: apples, 11,400,517 bushels; grapes,
3,697,555 pounds; other fruits, 644,707 bushels.

Amount of butter produced on farms, 54,862,365 pounds; cheese, 1,701,721
pounds; wool, 6,013,216 pounds; cloth, flannel and linen, 1,440,199 yards.
Maple sugar produced 1881, 4,169,706 pounds; honey, 1,197,628 pounds; flax
and hemp, 1,073,197 pounds. Value of fur product, $129,578.

Number of farm animals in the Province, 1881: horses, 590,298; oxen,
23,263; milch cows and other cattle, 1,678,904; sheep, 1,359,178; swine,
700,922.

Latest reported timber product: white pine, 12,262,570 cu. ft.; red pine,
1,848,927 cu. ft.; oak, 5,448,263 cu. ft.; tamarack 1,515,360 cu. ft.;
walnut, 741,431 cu. ft.; birch and maple, 612,760 cu. ft.; elm, 2,925,382
cu. ft.; all other timber, 26,577,869 cu. ft.; number of pine logs,
14,945,670; other logs, 7,621,610.

The Province has 259 steam vessels, with a tonnage of 44,550; and 289
sailing vessels, with a tonnage of 55,058. There are 5 vessels with 14 men,
and 1,129 boats with 2,101 men and 928,008 fathoms of nets engaged in the
681 fisheries. Product for 1881: herring, 15,605 barrels; whitefish, 38,301
barrels; trout, 55,497 barrels; other fish, 18,817 barrels; fish oil, 1,629
gallons.

Population of the Province, 1881, 1,923,228; male, 976,461; female, 946767

Number of churches, 5,075: of which 2,375 are Methodist, 852 Presbyterian,
680 Church of England, 389 Baptist, and 367 Roman Catholic. There are 21
hospitals, and 22 orphanages. Number of colleges and universities, 17;
boarding schools, 44.

There is an excellent system of free schools under the control of a
Minister of Education and a Chief Superintendent. School pop., 405,857.
Number of high schools, public and private, 410; public elementary schools,
5,313. Number miles of railway in the Province, 5223 {67}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{68}

QUEBEC. Kwe-bek´.

One of the most important of the Canadian Provinces. Earliest settlement
made by Europeans, in 1541; first permanent settlement made by the French
on the present site of the city of Quebec, 1608. Country occupied by the
French until 1759, when, through the victory of Gen. Wolfe, it fell into
the hands of the English.

Area, census of 1881, 188,688 square miles. Total amount of land occupied,
12,625,877 acres; improved, 6,410,264 acres, of which 4,147,984 were under
crop, 2,207,422 in pasture, and 54,858 in gardens and orchards. Population,
1,359,027: male, 678,175; female, 680,852.

While the climate is similar to that of Ontario, it is colder in winter,
and warmer in summer. At Montreal the winters are very severe, the
temperature often ranging from zero to 10° and even 30° below it, and in
summer it is frequently 90° in the shade.

Public affairs are administered by a Lieutenant Governor, assisted by an
Executive Council, a Legislative Council of 24 members, and a Legislative
Assembly of 65 members. The Province sends 24 members to the Dominion
Senate. Quebec is the capital; population, 62,446. Montreal the commercial
metropolis of the Province, and also of the Dominion; population, 140,747.

The surface of the country is varied, consisting of extensive forests,
large rivers, lakes and prairies, and bold, rocky heights. The Province
abounds in numerous minerals.

Agricultural products for 1881: wheat, 2,019,004 bushels; barley, 1,751,539
bushels; oats, 19,990,205 bushels; rye, 430,242 bushels; peas and beans,
4,170,456 bushels; buckwheat, 2,041,670 bushels; corn, 888,169 bushels;
potatoes, 14,873,287 bushels; turnips, 1,572,476 bushels; hay, 1,612,104
tons; grass and clover seed, 119,306 bushels; tobacco, 2,356,581 pounds;
hops, 218,542 pounds.

This Province produces three times as much maple sugar as all the others
combined; total amount produced 1881, 15,687,835 pounds; amount of honey
produced, 559,024 pounds; apples, 777,557 bushels; grapes, 158,031 pounds.
Value of fur product, $163,310. Butter produced on farms, 1881, 30,630,397
pounds; cheese, 559,278 pounds; wool, 2,730,544 pounds; cloth and flannel,
2,958,180 yards; flax and hemp, 865,310 pounds; linen, 1,120,301 yards.

Farm animals in the Province, 1881: horses, 273,852; oxen, 49,237; milch
cows and other cattle, 900,096; sheep, 889,833; swine, 329,199.

Public instruction is under a Superintendent of Education. School pop.,
209,623. Number of elementary public schools, 4,404; pupils, 170,858;
colleges, 44; academies, 246; special schools, 18; normal, 3; model, 333.

The forests are extensive, and the lumbering and shipbuilding interests are
large. Timber product, 1881: pine, 5,495,183 cu. ft.; oak, 59,587 cu. ft.;
tamarack, 2,707,745 cu. ft.; birch and maple, 2,784,395 cu. ft.; all other
timber, 14,612,669 cu. ft. Number of logs produced, 13,582,407; masts and
spars, 104,248.

There are in the Province 293 steam vessels; tonnage, 132,097: 757 sailing
vessels; tonnage, 110,356. The fisheries furnish employment to 14,744 men;
there are 146 vessels and 6,761 boats engaged in this industry. Products of
the fisheries, 1881: cod, 462,388 quintals; herring, 130,354 barrels;
mackerel, 10,725 barrels; sardines, 4,360 barrels; canned lobsters, 517,734
pounds; all other fish, 101,861 barrels; fish oil, 263,374 barrels.

The prevailing religion is Roman Catholic. The number adhering to that
faith is 1,170,718, or about seven-eighths of the entire population. Number
of churches in the Province, 1,280, of which 712 are Roman Catholic. Number
of hospitals, 29; orphanages, 11. There are 1,911 miles of railway. {69}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{70}

NOVA SCOTIA. No´va Sko´she-a.

A Province of the Dominion of Canada, created in 1784; became part of the
Dominion, 1867. Area, 20,907 square miles. Population, 1881, 440,572.
Executive authority vested in Lieutenant Governor and Executive Council;
legislative, in Legislative Council and House of Assembly.

Capital, Halifax; pop., 36,100. Capital of Cape Breton Island, Sydney. Soil
generally fertile. Principal products are wheat, rye, oats, barley,
potatoes and Indian corn. Grain product, 1880, 5,570,444 bushels; potatoes,
6,961,016 bushels; hay, 414,046 tons. Timber product, 1881, 3,144,323 cubic
feet. Fisheries employ 755 vessels, 13,214 boats and 26,900 men; latest
reports give 715,781 quintals of cod, haddock and hake; other fish, 301,756
barrels; lobsters, 3,841,467 lbs.; fish oil, 275,352 gallons.

There is a good system of common schools, organized In 1864. Annual
expenditure for educational purposes, about $700,000. Miles of railway,
500; many short canals.

NEW BRUNSWICK.

Settled by French, 1639, and formed with Nova Scotia part of Arcadia. First
British settlers came from Scotland, 1764. Province created 1784; became
part of the Dominion, 1867.

Government vested in a Lieutenant Governor, an Executive, a Legislative
Council and a House of Assembly. Area, 27,174 square miles. Population,
321,233. Capital, Fredericton; pop., 6,218.

Climate subject to extremes; temperature in winter, 30°; in summer, 95°.
Soil exceedingly fertile. In 1881, acres in crops, 849,678; in pasture,
392,169. Products: grain, 5,490,896 bushels; potatoes, 6,961,016; hay,
414,046 tons. In 1881, wool product, 760,531 pounds. The number of horses
in 1881 was 52,975; oxen, 8,812; horned cattle, 203,748; sheep, 221,163;
swine, 53,087.

There is a good system of non-sectarian free schools in the Province.
Telegraphic and railway communication throughout the Province. Number miles
of railway, 1,148.

PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND.

A Province of the Dominion of Canada, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. First
settled by the French, who ceded it to Great Britain in 1758. Province
created 1768; admitted into the Dominion, 1873. Area, 27,174 square miles.
Total land occupied, 1,126,653 acres; improved, 596,731 acres; under crops,
467,211 acres.

Climate milder than that of the adjoining continent. All ordinary cereals
may be cultivated. Grain product, 1881: 4,301,110 bu.; potatoes, 6,042,191
bu.; turnips, 1,198,407 bu.; butter, 1,688,690 pounds; cheese, 196,273
pounds. Farm animals, 328,734.

Population, 108,891: male, 54,729; female, 54,162. Capital, Charlottetown;
population, 11,485.

The government is vested in a Lieutenant Governor, an Executive and a
Legislative Council and a House of Assembly.

The fisheries are very valuable. Products, 1881: cod, 18,736 quintals;
herring, 21,501 bbls; mackerel, 91,792 bbls; canned lobsters, 3,275,316
lbs; oysters, 175,408 bbls; fish oil, 8,139 gals.

The Province owns 11 steam vessels, and 224 sailing vessels, with a tonnage
of 45,237. Timber product, 1881, 910,200 cu. ft.

Number of churches, 231. Free school system introduced 1853. School
population, 22,711. Number of district schools, 355; grammar, 15; high, 46;
colleges, 3. Number of miles of railway, 200. {71}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{72}

MANITOBA. Man-i-to´ba.

A Province of the Dominion of Canada, formerly known as the Red River
Settlement, and also Assiniboia; admitted into the Confederation in 1870.
Area, 123,200 square miles. Population, 65,954. The climate is healthful
and cold; average summer temperature, 65°; winter, 3° below zero.

Government is in the hands of a Lieutenant Governor, appointed by the
Governor General of the Dominion, with an Executive Council of 6 members
and a Legislative Assembly. Manitoba sends 3 Senators to the Dominion
Senate. Capital, Winnipeg; pop., 7,985.

Surface level. Land occupied, 2,384,337 acres; improved, 250,416 acres;
under crops, 230,264 acres. Principal crop, wheat; latest reported product,
1,033,673 bu.; oats, 1,270,268 bu.; barley, 253,604 bu. Farm animals, 1881:
horses, 16,739; oxen, 12,269; milch cows and other cattle, 48,012. Butter
made on farms, 957,152 lbs.; cheese, 19,613 lbs. Timber produced, 895,445
cu. ft.

The Canadian Pacific Railway has 670 miles in the Province. There are 4
colleges and 5 boarding schools. No. of churches, 88.

NORTHWEST TERRITORIES.

This large possession was purchased by the Dominion from the Hudson's Bay
Company in 1870. In 1882 a portion of it was subdivided into four
districts: Assiniboia, 95,000 square miles; Saskatchewan, 114,000 square
miles; Alberta, 100,000 square miles; Athabasca, 122,000 square miles.

Area of the Territories, 2,665,252 square miles. Total land occupied,
314,107 acres, of which 28,833 acres are improved. Furs from this country
are found in every market of the world; value of the product for 1881,
$428,177. Timber product, 109,873 cu. ft.

The country is well watered by numerous large lakes and rivers. There are
at least 600,000 square miles fitted for agriculture. One of the most
fertile belts is the Saskatchewan, through a portion of which the Canadian
Pacific Railway passes.

Public affairs in the hands of a Lieutenant Governor and Council. Capital,
Regina. Number of churches, 44. School population, 578.

Population, census of 1881, 56,446: male, 28,113; female, 28,333.

BRITISH COLUMBIA. Ko-l[)u]m´be-a´.

Colony established 1858; admitted into the Dominion, 1871. Area, including
Vancouver's Island, 341,305 square miles. Population, 49,459. Climate
milder than that of same latitude on the Atlantic coast. Country traversed
by Rocky and Cascade Mountains. Loftiest peak, Mount Browne, 16,000 feet
high. Government consists of a Lieutenant Governor, an Executive Council,
and a Legislative Assembly, elected by the people. Capital, Victoria; pop.,
5,925.

Amount of land occupied, 441,255 acres; improved, 184,885 acres. Grain
product, 1881, 559,220 bu.; potatoes, 556,193 bu.; hops, 24,899 lbs. Farm
animals, 151,202. Butter made on farms, 343,387 lbs.; cheese, 33,252. Value
of fur product, $153,442. Timber product, 2,427,882 cu. ft. There are 406
fisheries. Salmon product, 50,105 bbls.; other fish, 12,767 bbls. Fish oil
237,492 gals.

The mineral wealth of the Province is very great, the chief source being
coal. On the mainland and Vancouver's Island large deposits of bituminous
coal are found, and on Queen Charlotte's Island a fine grade of anthracite.
Gold is found in various localities. In ten years the yield in the Province
exceeded $22,000,000. {73}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{74}

ALASKA. A-las´-ka.

At the time of its discovery by the Russians, it was called by the natives
Alayeska, which has changed through Alaksa and Alashka to its present form.
Largest possession of United States; discovered by Vitus Behring, 1741;
purchased from Russia, 1867.

Area, 531,409 square miles: Arctic division, 125,245; Yukon, 176,515;
Kuskokvim, 114,975; Aleutian, 14,610; Kadiak, 70,884; Southeastern, 28,980.
Extreme length, north and south, 1,100 miles; extreme breadth, 800 miles.
Yukon, the great highway through the country, navigable in summer about 700
miles; coast line, exclusive of smaller indentations, over 4,000 miles.

Climate of Pacific coast much modified by the Pacific gulf stream and the
long days of summer: mean annual temperature of Yukon country, about 25°;
at Sitka, about 44°; winter temperature at latter place about that of
Washington, D.C. Rainfall copious, and foggy weather common on coasts and
islands; Sitka one of rainiest places in the world outside the tropics, the
annual precipitation being 65 to 90 inches, and number rainy days 200 to
285.

Sitka is seat of Bishop of Greek church, and headquarters of the Governor,
who assumed official control, December, 1884. Pop., 995: white, 163;
creole, 219; Thlinket, 613. Other settlements next in importance are Fort
St. Nicholas, Cook's Inlet and Fort St. Michael, Norton's Sound. Harbors at
Port Clarence, Michaelooski and Captain's Harbor.

  Salaries Territor'l Officers.

  Governor                          $3,000
  District Judge                     3,000
  Clerk of Dist. Court
    & ex-officio Sec. & Treas.       2,500
  Dist. Attorney                     2,500
  Marshal and Surveyor General       2,600
  Col. of Customs             2,500 & fees
  3 Deputy Colls.                    1,500
  1 Deputy Col.                      1,200
  2 Inspectors, per day                  3

[Illustration]

Number persons employed in fisheries, 6,130; capital invested, $447,000;
value of products, $2,661,640; value of seal fisheries, $2,096,500; value
general fisheries, $564,640.

Total pop., 33,426; white, 430; creole, 1,756; Innuit, 17,617; Aleut,
2,145; Tinneh, 3,927; Thlinket, 6,763; Hyda, 788.

Aleutian and Sitka districts are the agricultural regions. Most fertile
land near Cook's Inlet; good oats, barley and root crops are raised here
without much difficulty. Rich grass land in the valley of Yukon, but
extreme dampness and want of summer heat prevent the ripening of grain.
Timber abundant on mainland; yellow cedar the best, being of great value
for boat-building. Edible berries are plentiful.

A fine quality of white marble is found on Lynn Channel; coal, amber and
lignite on Aleutian Islands, the best coal being on Cook's Inlet. Gold,
silver, copper, cinnabar and iron are found; sulphur is abundant in
volcanic districts.

Noted for its fur-bearing animals, the chief of which are beaver, ermine,
fox, marten, otter, squirrel and wolf. The main source of revenue is the
fur seal, the taking of which is regulated by law. The United States
receives a revenue from the company to which the monopoly of the trade is
granted. The walrus is of value in furnishing ivory and oil. Whales, cod,
herring and halibut abound, and various species of salmon are found. {75}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{76}

MEXICO.

A large republic, forming southwestern boundary of the United States. Area,
743,948 square miles; northern frontier, 1,400 miles; southern frontier,
345 miles; seacoast, 6,086 miles. Number of States, 27; Federal District,
1; Territories, 2.

POLITICAL DIVISIONS.

  ----------------+--------+-------------+-------------------+----------
     Name.        | Area,  | Population. |    Capitals.      |  Pop.
                  |Sq. Mls.|             |                   |
  ----------------+--------+-------------+-------------------+----------
  Aguascalientes  |  2,895 |   139,800   | Aguascalientes    | 39,000
  Campeche        | 25,832 |    90,413   | Campeche          | 12,600
  Chiapas         | 16,048 |   200,000   | San Cristobal     | 15,000
  Chihuahua       | 83,746 |   245,657   | Chihuahua         | 20,000
  Coahuila        | 50,890 |   144,594   | Saltillo          | 24,000
  Colima          |  3,743 |    65,827   | Colima            | 31,744
  Durango         | 42,510 |   200,000   | Durango           | 28,000
  Guanajuato      | 11,411 |   898,072   | Guanajuato        | 73,500
  Guerrero        | 24,550 |   325,000   | Chilpancingo      |  3,300
  Hidalgo         |  8,163 |   500,000   | Pachuca           | 25,000
  Jalisco         | 39,168 |   934,850   | Guadalajara       | 93,875
  Mexico          |  7,838 |   710,579   | Toluca            | 13,500
  Michoacan       | 25,689 |   784,108   | Morelia           | 25,000
  Morelos         |  1,776 |   160,300   | Cuernavaca        | 16,000
  Nuevo Leon      | 23,635 |   210,000   | Monterey          | 50,000
  Oaxaca          | 33,591 |   754,468   | Oaxaca            | 26,708
  Puebla          | 12,021 |   784,466   | Puebla            | 78,000
  Querétaro       |  3,207 |   203,290   | Querétaro         | 36,000
  San Luis Potosi | 27,500 |   650,000   | San Luis Potosi   | 56,800
  Sinaloa         | 36,198 |   201,918   | Culiacan          |  9,000
  Sonora          | 79,021 |   141,000   | Ures              |  5,000
  Tabasco         | 11,851 |   104,759   | San Juan Bautista | 12,000
  Tamaulipas      | 30,225 |   141,000   | Victoria          |  8,000
  Tlaxcala        |  1,620 |   138,988   | Tlaxcala          | 18,000
  Vera Cruz       | 26,232 |   595,780   | Jalapa            | 12,000
  Yucatan         | 29,567 |   450,000   | Merida            | 61,000
  Zacatecas       | 22,998 |   470,000   | Zacatecas         | 16,500
  ----------------+--------+-------------+-------------------+----------

TERRITORIES.

  ----------------+--------+-------------+-------------------+----------
  Federal District|    461 |   439,769   | Mexico            |350,000
  Lower California| 61,562 |    30,000   | La Paz            |  4,000
  Tepic           |        |             | Tepic             |  9,000
  ----------------+--------+-------------+-------------------+----------

LATEST REPORTED EXPORTS.

  Coffee                 $  1,193 | Brazil Wood             $ 54,450
  Eagle Dollars           176,123 | Silver Coin and Bullion   69,541
  Gold Bullion             79,640 | Silver Ore                55,446
  Fruit                    60,681 | Cattle Hides             127,847

       *       *       *       *       *

Number cattle ranches, 20,574; value, $501,249,500. Number cattle in
Northern Mexico,--area, 300,000 square miles,--1,500,000; goats, 2,500,000;
horses, 1,000,000; sheep, 1,000,000.

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS.

  Cotton                $6,429,454 | Wheat              $ 16,970,789
  Pulque                 8,769,700 | Corn                109,169,429
  Sugar                  8,527,290 |                    ------------
                                   |  Total Ag. Prod.   $172,721,803

{77}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{78}

UNITED STATES.

A republic occupying the central portion of North America, together with
Alaska, in extreme northwest.

Area land surface, 3,547,000 square miles; greatest length, east and west,
about 2,800 miles; average breadth, about 1,200 miles; British American
boundary, 3,540 miles; Mexican, 1,550 miles; coast line, exclusive of land
indentations, 5,715 miles; lake shore line, 3,450 miles. Number States, 38;
Territories, 10.

New York ranks first in population; Pennsylvania, second; Ohio, third;
Illinois, fourth. New York City, metropolis of republic; Philadelphia ranks
second; Brooklyn, third; Chicago, fourth. Washington, capital; population,
147,293.

Railway mileage, 1830, 23, having increased to 126,718, January, 1886.
Increase, 1885, 3,214

         Salt Industry.                    Breweries.
  Capital                 $8,225,740 | Number                        2,741
  Bushels                 29,800,298 | Quantity Brewed   513,192,120 gals.
  Value                   $4,817,636 | Consumption per head      10¼ gals.

    Imported Merchandise.                    Immigrants.
  Gums                   $ 4,400,166 | Professional occupations      2,284
  Tea                     13,636,053 | Skilled                      55,061
  Breadstuffs              6,704,543 | Miscellaneous               184,195
  Laces, etc.             10,012,894 | Occupations not stated       31,665
  Manuf. of Silk          36,673,646 | Without occupation          245,387
  Wines                    5,660,833 |                             -------
                                     |   Total                     518,592

STATISTICS FOR YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1884.

  Whale Fisheries         $1,517,353 | Breadstuffs exported   $162,544,715
  Other Fisheries          4,731,043 | Cotton and manuf. of,
                          ---------- |   exported              208,900,415
  Total                   $6,248,396 | Coal, exported            5,031,959

  Total value of dutiable merchandise imported                $457,813,509
  Total value merchandise imported free from duty              209,884,184

                                       IMPORTS.                 EXPORTS.
  Merchandise                        $667,697,693             $740,513,609
  Coin and Bullion                     37,426,262               67,133,383

                                    DOMESTIC EXPORTS.     FOREIGN EXPORTS.
  Merchandise                        $724,964,852              $15,548,757
  Coin and Bullion                     50,225,635               16,907,748

COMMERCE OF PACIFIC COAST.

                                         IMPORTS.                EXPORTS.
  Europe                               $5,156,311              $31,225,433
  Asia, Australasia and Oceanica       18,766,855                4,166,516
  Hawaiian Islands                      7,925,925                3,109,697
  Mexico, Central and South America     2,738,444                3,321,938
  British Columbia                      1,283,931                2,502,954
  All other                             1,308,064                2,059,746
                                      -----------              -----------
    Totals                            $37,179,530              $46,386,284

  Total value of products of industry                      $10,000,000,000
  Average annual coal production                          77,908,874 tons.
  Average annual value exports domestic merchandise           $794,060,103
  Average annual value imports domestic merchandise            635,227,511
  Average annual value exports of cotton                        12,322,428
  Average annual value imports cotton manufactures              32,285,660

{79}

[Illustration]

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{80}

MAINE. M[=a]n.
"PINE TREE STATE."

Settled by the English at Bristol, 1624; admitted 1820.

Area, 33,040 square miles; extreme length, 300 miles; extreme breadth, 210
miles; shore line over 2,400 miles, including islands; the Penobscot,
Androscoggin, Saco, St. Croix, Aroostook and St. John are the most
important streams. Number counties, 16.

Temperature of Portland: winter, 23° to 38°; summer, 63° to 69°. Rainfall
at Brunswick, 45 inches.

Portland, the metropolis and principal seaport; pop., 31,413. Augusta, the
capital; pop., 8,665. Bangor, a port of entry and lumber centre; pop.,
16,856. Biddeford, an important manufacturing town; pop, 12,651. Lewiston,
principal seat cotton manufactures; pop., 19,083.

Number farms, 64,309; average value per acre, cleared land, $12.87;
woodland, $12.66. Hay the most valuable crop, yielding l,214,033 tons in
1883; corn crop, 1884, 1,062,000 bu.: wheat, 629,400 bu.; oats, 2,428,000
bu.; latest reported dairy products, 3,720,783 gallons milk, 14,109,966
lbs. butter and 1,945,095 lbs. cheese.

Lumbering one of chief industries, forests covering over 10,000,000 acres;
number saw-mills, 848; total products, $7,933,868.

Fisheries give employment to 11,071 persons, and produce an income of
$3,614,178, including oyster fisheries, valued at $37,500.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $2,000
  Sec'y of State                     1,200
  Treasurer                          1,600
  Attorney Gen.                      1,000
  Adjutant Gen.                        900
  Sup. Com. Schls                    1,000
  Sec. Bd. of Agr.                     600
  State Librarian                      600
  Chief Justice                      3,000
  7 Asso. Justices                   3,000
  Senators,       }                   $150;
  Representatives }      mileage, 20 cents.
  District Judge                     3,500
  Col. Int. Rev.                     2,500
  Col. Customs                       6,000
  Surveyor Cus.                      4,500
  Pension Agt.                       4,000

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Auburn                            $2,200
  Augusta                            3,100
  Bangor                             2,700
  Bath                               2,200
  Belfast                            1,800
  Biddeford                          2,200
  Brunswick                          1,700
  Calais                             1,600
  Eastport                           1,500
  Ellsworth                          1,500
  Gardiner                           1,800
  Hallowell                          1,600
  Lewiston                           2,500
  Portland                           3,300
  Rockland                           2,100
  Saco                               1,700
  Skowhegan                          1,700
  Waterville                         2,000
  19 P.O.                   1,500 to 1,000

Valuable slate quarries from the Kennebec to the Penobscot; granite is
obtained in blocks of immense size; latest reported product, 2,203,670
cubic feet; value, $1,175,286. Ranks fifth in buckwheat and copper; eighth
in hops and potatoes.

The State has 379 shipbuilding establishments; number new vessels built,
88; boats, 970; total value, $2,909,846.

Pop., 648,936: male, 324,058; female, 324,878; native, 590,053; foreign,
58,883; white, 646,852; colored, 1,451; Chinese, 8; Indians, 625.

State elections, second Monday in September; congressional and
presidential, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 31;
Representatives, 151; sessions biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting
first Wednesday in January; limit of session, none; terms of Senators and
Representatives, 2 years each.

Number electoral votes, 6; number voters, 187,323; paupers and Indians not
taxed excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 3; system of common, high and normal schools excellent; of
519,669 persons 10 years old and upward, 3.5 per cent. are unable to read;
school age, 4-21.

Legal interest rate, 6; by contract, any rate. {81}

[Illustration]

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{82}

NEW HAMPSHIRE. N[=u] Hamp´shir.
"GRANITE STATE."

One of the thirteen original States; settled by English Puritans at Dover
and Portsmouth, 1623.

Area, 9,335 square miles; length, 180 miles; average breadth, 45 miles;
seacoast, 18 miles; best harbor at Portsmouth. Number counties, 10.

Average temperature at Concord, 46°; Hanover,43°; Manchester, 49°;
Portsmouth, 46°. Rainfall at Hanover, 40 inches.

Manchester, chief city and manufacturing town, pop., 32,630. Pop. Nashua,
13,397; Concord, 13,843; Dover, 11,687; Portsmouth, 9690

Number farms, 32,181; average value per acre, cleared land, $15; woodland,
$32. Hay the most valuable crop, yielding nearly 600,000 tons by last
report; corn crop, 1884, 1,286,000 bu., 33 bu. to the acre; wheat, 170,700
bu., 14.6 bu. to the acre; oats, 993,000 bu., 32.4 bu. to the acre.

     Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $1,000
  Sec. State                   $800 & fees
  Treasurer                          1,800
  Attorney Gen.                      2,200
  Supt. Pub. Ins.                    2,000
  3 R. R. Commission'rs     2,000 to 2,500
  Adjutant Gen.                      1,000
  Sec. Bd. Agr.                      1,000
  Librarian                            800
  Chief Justice                      2,900
  6 Asso. Justices                   2,700
  Senators,       }               $3 a day
  Representatives }            and mileage.
  District Judge                     3,500
  Pension Agent                      4,000
  Col. Int. Rev.                     1,125

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Claremont                         $1,800
  Concord                            2,700
  Dover                              2,300
  Exeter                             1,600
  Franklin Falls                     1,400
  Great Falls                        1,700
  Hanover                            1,500
  Keene                              2,300
  Laconia                            1,700
  Lancaster                          1,500
  Lebanon                            1,700
  Littleton                          1,600
  Manchester                         2,300
  Milford                            1,400
  Nashua                             2,500
  Plymouth                           1,500
  Portsmouth                         2,400
  Rochester                          1,600
  14 P.O.                  $1,300 to 1,000

Ranks third in manufacture of cotton goods, value, $18,228,573; value
woolen goods, $8,113,839; worsted goods, $2,694,232; sawed lumber,
$3,842,012; leather, $4,477,350; paper, $1,731,170; boots and shoes,
$7,230,804; flouring and grist mill products, $2,542,784; hosiery and knit
goods, $2,362,779.

Mica is quarried at Grafton, and is very valuable; soapstone is found at
Haverhill, Keene and Francestown; granite of fine quality is quarried at
Plymouth, Troy, Roxbury, Concord and elsewhere.

Population, 346,991: male, 170,526; female, 176,465; native, 300,697;
foreign, 46,294; white, 346,229; colored, 685; Chinese, 14; Indians, 63.

State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday
in November; number Senators, 24; Representatives, 321; sessions of
legislature biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting first Wednesday in
June; limit of session, none; terms of Senators and Representatives, 2
years each.

Number electoral votes, 4; number voters, 105,138. Paupers are excluded
from voting.

Dartmouth College, at Hanover, founded 1769; compulsory education law;
common schools excellent; school age, 5-15.

Mount Washington, highest point east of the Mississippi excepting two or
three peaks in North Carolina; a three-mile railroad extends to the summit.

No asylum for deaf, dumb or blind.

Legal interest, 6; usury forfeits thrice the excess. {83}

[Illustration]

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{84}

VERMONT. Ver-mont´.
"GREEN MOUNTAIN STATE."

First settled by Massachusetts emigrants near Brattleboro, 1724; admitted
1791,--the first State to join the original thirteen.

Area, 9,565 square miles, a little larger than New Hampshire; length, 150
miles; breadth, 35 to 50 miles. Lake Champlain frontage, over 100 miles;
Burlington the chief harbor. Number counties, 14.

Temperature at Burlington: winter, 18° to 33°; summer, 66° to 71°;
rainfall, 34 inches. Death rate, only 1.07 per cent. per annum.

Burlington, seat of Vermont lumber trade; pop., 11,365. Montpelier,
capital. Rutland, famous for its marble works; pop., 12,149. Pop. of
Bennington, 6,333; of Saint Albans, 7,193.

First railroad, 1849, from Bellows Falls to Burlington by way of Rutland;
present mileage, 937.

Number farms, 35,522. Average value per acre, cleared land, $15.28;
woodland, $17.73. Corn crop, 1884, 1,998,700 bushels; wheat, 364,500
bushels; oats, 3,625,000 bushels. Latest report for hay, 1,148,100 tons;
potatoes, 4,708,550 bushels; cheese, 6,121,130 lbs.; butter, 25,245,826
lbs.

      Salaries State Officers.

  Governor                          $1,000
  Lieut. Gov.                     $6 a day.
  Sec'y of State                     1,700
  Treasurer                          1,700
  Auditor                            2,000
  Insp. Finances                       500
  R. R. Com'r                          500
  Adjutant Gen.                        750
  Supt. Pub. Inst'n                  1,400
  Chief Justice                      2,500
  6 Asso. Justices                   2,500
  Senators, Representatives       $3 a day.
  Dist. Judge                        3,500
  Col. Int. Rev.                     2,650
  Col. of Customs             1,000 & fees

[Illustration]

       Presidential P. O.

  Barre                             $1,400
  Bellows Falls                      1,800
  Bennington                         1,700
  Bradford                           1,600
  Brandon                            1,500
  Brattleboro                        2,400
  Burlington                         2,600
  Fair Haven                         1,400
  Middlebury                         1,700
  Montpelier                         2,300
  Poultney                           1,400
  Rutland                            2,500
  St. Albans                         2,100
  St. Johnsbury                      2,200
  Springfield                        1,500
  Vergennes                          1,600
  West Randolph                      1,500
  Woodstock                          1,500
  11 P. O.                 $1,400 to 1,000

Mineral wealth of great value; manganese, copper pyrites, iron ore, and
gold deposits have been found. Black, white, red and variegated marbles are
abundant; annual value marble, over $3,000,000, and of slate, about
$1,000,000.

Number different industries, 2,874, giving employment to 17,540 persons.
Number butter and cheese establishments, 85; flour and grist, 227;
furniture, 56; leather tanning, 53; lumber sawing, 688; marble and stone
work, 69; wares of tin, sheet-iron and copper, 95.

Ranks fourth in copper, and seventh in hops and buckwheat.

Population: 332,286; male, 166,887; female, 165,399; native, 291,327;
foreign, 40,959; white, 331,218; colored, 1,057: Indians, 11.

State elections biennial, first Tuesday in September; congressional and
presidential, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 30;
Representatives, 240; sessions of legislature biennial, in even-numbered
years, meeting first Wednesday in October; limit of session, none; terms or
Senators and Representatives, 2 years each.

Number electoral votes, 4; number voters, 95,621. Bribers excluded from
voting.

Number colleges, 2; school population, 99,463: school age, 5-20.

Legal interest rate, 6; usury forfeits excess of interest. {85}

[Illustration]

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{86}

MASSACHUSETTS. M[)a]s-sa-ch[=u]´sets.
"OLD BAY STATE."

One of the thirteen original States; first permanent settlement made by
English Puritans, at Plymouth, 1620.

Area, 8,315 square miles; length, northeast and southwest, 160 miles;
breadth, 47 to 100 miles. Number counties, 14.

Temperature at Boston: winter, 27° to 38°; summer, 66° to 71°; rainfall, 45
inches.

Boston, capital and metropolis; pop., 390,406. Lowell, Lawrence and Fall
River famous for cotton manufactures; pops., 64,051, 38,845 and 56,863.
Worcester, great railroad and manufacturing centre; pop., 68,383.
Cambridge, seat of Harvard College, the oldest in America, pop., 59,660.
Lynn, famous for manufacture of boots and shoes; pop., 45,861. New Bedford,
greatest whaling port in the world; pop., 33,393. Springfield contains
greatest arsenal in the United States; pop., 37,577.

Number of farms, 38,406; average value per acre, cleared land, $85;
woodland, $43.25. Hay, the most valuable crop; wheat, 1884, 19,000 bushels;
oats, 717,000; corn, 1,941,300 bu. Ranks first in cotton, woolen and
worsted goods, and in cod and mackerel fisheries, owning over half of the
fishing vessels of the United States; second in wealth and commerce; third
in manufactures and in printing and publishing; fourth in silk goods; fifth
in soap; sixth in iron and steel; ninth in agricultural implements.

     Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $5,000
  Lt. Governor                       2,000
  Sec'y of State                     3,000
  Treasurer                          4,000
  Auditor                            2,500
  Attorney Gen.                      4,000
  Chief Justice                      6,500
  6 Asso. Justices                   6,000
  District Judge                     4,000
  Senators,       }
  Representatives }          $650 per year.
  Pension Ag't                       4,000
  3 Collectors Int. Rev.    3,000 to 4,500
  Coll. of Customs, Boston           8,000
  Naval Officer                      5,000

[Illustration]

       Presidential P. O.

  Boston                            $6,000
  Brockton                           2,500
  Fall River                         2,800
  Fitchburg                          2,600
  Gloucester                         2,500
  Haverhill                          2,600
  Holyoke                            2,700
  Lawrence                           2,700
  Lowell                             3,200
  Lynn                               3,100
  New Bedford                        3,000
  Northampton                        2,500
  Pittsfield                         2,700
  Salem                              2,700
  Springfield                        3,200
  Taunton                            2,600
  Worcester                          3,300
  101 Offices               2,400 to 1,000

Population 1,941,465; male, 932,429; female, 1,009,036; native, 1,459,982;
foreign, 481,483; white, 1,920,498; colored, 20,361; Chinese, 229;
Japanese, 8; Indians, 369.

State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday
in November. Number Senators, 40; Representatives, 240; sessions annual,
meeting first Wednesday in January; limit of session, none; terms of
Senators and Representatives, one year each. Number electoral votes, 14;
number voters, 544,192; native white, 353,347; foreign white, 184,439;
colored, 6,406; Paupers, persons under guardians, non-taxpayers, and men
unable to read and write excluded from voting.

Number quarries, 113; ports of entry, 9; customs districts, 11. First
American newspaper, Boston, 1690; first freight railroad in United States,
Quincy; first American library at Harvard College.

Number colleges, 7; education compulsory; schools excellent; school age,
5-15.

Legal interest rate, 6; by contract, any rate. {87}

[Illustration]

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{88}

RHODE ISLAND. R[=o]d I´land.
"LITTLE RHODY."

One of the thirteen original States and smallest in the Union; supposed
temporary settlement by Icelanders as early as 1000; settled by Roger
Williams at Providence, 1636; last of the thirteen colonies to ratify the
Constitution, which it did in 1790.

Area, 1,250 square miles; extreme length, north and south, 47 miles;
extreme width, 40 miles. Good harbors at Providence, Bristol, Warren and
Newport, the latter one of the finest in the world. Number counties, 5.

Temperature at Newport: Winter, 29° to 43°; summer, 64° to 71°: rainfall,
43 inches.

United States customs districts at Newport, Providence, Bristol and Warren;
two capitals, Providence and Newport; populations, 117,628 and 19,552.
Population of Lincoln, 17,269; of Pawtucket, 22,894; of Warwick, 13,284; of
Woonsocket, 16,145.

Number farms, 6,216. Hay the most valuable crop; yield of 1883, 81,708
tons; potato crop, 845,185 bushels; corn crop, 1884, 890,000 bushels; oats,
161,000 bushels. Latest reported dairy products: milk, 3,831,706 gallons;
butter, 1,007,103 lbs.; cheese, 67,171 lbs.

      Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $1,000
  Lieut. Gov                           500
  Sec'y of State                     2,500
  Gen. Treasurer                     2,500
  State Auditor }
  Ins. Com'r    }                    2,500
  Railroad Com'r                       500
  Attorney Gen                       2,500
  Adjutant Gen                         600
  Com. Pub. Schls                    2,500
  Chief Justice                      4,500
  4 Asso. Justices                   4,000
  Senators,       }             $1 per day
  Representatives }        mileage 8 cents.
  District Judge                    $3,500
  Apr. of Cust'ms                    3,000
  Clerk                              1,200
  3 Collectors                        Fees.
  4 Dep. Colls.            $1,000 to 2,000
  Col. Int. Rev                      2,750
  5 Dep. Colls.             1,200 to 1,400
  Supt. Life Saving Ser.             1,800
  Asst. Supt.                        1,000
  36 Keepers                           700

[Illustration]

     Presidential P. O.

  Bristol                           $1,700
  Central Falls                      1,700
  E. Greenwich                       1,600
  Lonsdale                           1,300
  Newport                            2,700
  Olneyville                         1,700
  Pawtucket                          2,600
  Providence                         3,500
  Warren                             1,300
  Westerly                           2,100
  Woonsocket                         2,300

Outranks, in proportion to its size, all other States in value of
manufactures. Number looms, 30,274; spindles, 1,649,295, using 161,694
bales of cotton, and giving employment to 22,228 persons. Ranks second in
cotton, flax and linen goods.

Value of cotton goods manufactured, $24,609,461; woolen goods, $15,410,450;
worsted goods, $6,177,754; boots and shoes, rubber, $1,455,420; dyeing and
finishing textiles, $6,874,254; foundry and machine-shop products,
$6,281,707; jewelry, $5,650,133.

Population. 303,816; male, 146,135; female, 157,681; native, 222,697;
foreign, 81,119; white, 296,585; colored, 7,127; Chinese, 27; Indians, 77.

State elections, first Wednesday in April; congressional, and presidential,
Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 36;
Representatives, 72; sessions annual; meeting last Tuesday in May, at
Newport, and an adjourned session annually at Providence; limit of session,
none; terms of Senators and Representatives, 1 year each.

Number electoral votes, 4; number voters, 84,460; persons without property
to the value of $134 excluded from voting.

Number colleges. 1; Brown's University, at Providence, founded 1764; common
school system excellent; school age, 5-15.

Legal interest rate, 6; by contract, any rate. {89}

[Illustration]

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{90}

CONNECTICUT Kon-net´e-kut.
"NUTMEG STATE."

Name of Indian origin, signifying Long River.

One of the thirteen original States; first permanent settlement made by
English at Hartford, 1635.

Area, 4,990 square miles; average length, 86 miles; average breadth, 55
miles; seacoast, over 100 miles. Principal river valleys: Thames,
Connecticut and Housatonic. Most important harbors: Bridgeport, New Haven,
New London, Saybrook and Stonington. Number counties, 8.

Temperature at New Haven: winter, 27° to 40°; summer, 68° to 74°: rainfall,
44 inches.

Hartford the capital, and noted for banking and insurance business;
population, 42,015. New Haven, "City of Elms," the metropolis, and noted
for educational institutions; population, 62,882. Bridgeport, noted for
manufacture of fire-arms and sewing machines; population, 27,343.
Waterbury, an important manufacturing city; population, 17,806. Fairfield,
Middletown, New Haven, New London and Stonington are ports of entry.

Number farms, 30,598. Average value per acre, cleared land, $29; woodland,
$24.50. Corn crop of 1884, 1,767,790 bu.; wheat, 86,200 bu.; oats,
1,112,000 bu. Latest reported dairy products: milk, 12,289,893 gals.;
butter, 8,292,360 lbs.; cheese, 1,028,015 lbs.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $4,000
  Lieut. Gov.                          500
  Sec'y of State                     1,500
  Treasurer                          1,500
  Comptroller                        1,500
  Sec. State Bd. Ed.                 3,000
  Adjutant Gen.                      1,200
  Ins. Com'r.                        3,500
  3 R. R. Com'rs.                    3,000
  Chief Justice                      4,500
  4 Asso. Justices                   4,000
  Senators,       }               $300 and
  Representatives }                mileage
  District Judge                     3,500
  2 Colls. In. Rev.                  3,000
  13 Deputy Collectors        800 to 1,775
  Stmpd. En. Agt.                    2,500

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Ansonia                           $2,100
  Birmingham                         2,200
  Bridgeport                         3,100
  Bristol                            1,900
  Danbury                            2,400
  Hartford                           3,400
  Meriden                            2,700
  Middletown                         2,600
  New Britain                        2,500
  New Haven                          3,400
  New London                         2,600
  Norwalk                            2,000
  Norwich                            2,700
  South Norwich                      2,000
  Stamford                           2,400
  Waterbury                          2,700
  Willimantic                        2,100
  38 Offices                1,800 to 1,000

Number different industries, 4,488. Capital invested in manufacture: rubber
goods, $1,681,600; carpets, other than rag, $3,085,000; clocks, $1,816,400;
cotton goods, $21,104,200; woolen goods, $7,907,452; sewing machines and
attachments, $6,490,650.

Ranks first in clocks, third in silk goods, fourth in cotton goods, eighth
in tobacco.

Population, 622,700: male, 305,782; female, 316,918; native, 492,708;
foreign, 129,992; white, 610,769; colored, 11,547; Chinese, 123; Japanese,
6; Indians, 255.

State elections, annual, at same date as congressional and presidential;
number Senators, 21; Representatives, 249; meeting of legislature,
Wednesday after first Monday in January; limit, none; term of Senators, 2
years; of Representatives, 1 year.

Number electoral votes, 6; number voters, 177,291. Convicts and those
unable to read are excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 3, having about 160,000 volumes in libraries; Yale
College, at New Haven, founded, 1701. School age, 4-16.

Legal interest rate, 6; no penalty for usury, but more than 6 per cent. can
not be collected by law. {91}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{92}

NEW YORK. "EMPIRE OR EXCELSIOR STATE."

One of the thirteen original States; named in honor of the Duke of York to
whom the patent was granted; first settled by Dutch, on Manhattan Island,
1614.

Area, 49,170 square miles; extreme length, east and west, 412 miles;
extreme breadth, 311 miles; two-thirds of boundaries formed by navigable
rivers; total water frontage, 880 miles. Number counties, 60. Temperature
at Albany: winter, 22° to 36°; summer, 67° to 73°. Rainfall at Buffalo, 34
inches, and at Penn Yan, 28 inches.

New York City, chief commercial point of United States, ranking 1st in
exports and imports; pop., 1,206,299,--greater by nearly three-fifths than
that of the Territories. Brooklyn is 2d in size; pop. 566,663. Buffalo,
"Queen City of the Lakes," is, next to Chicago, most important shipping
point for grain on the lakes; pop., 155,134. Rochester, noted for
manufactures and extensive nurseries; pop., 89,366. Syracuse has extensive
salt works; pop., 51,792. Albany, the capital; pop., 90,758; customs
districts, 10.

First railroad, from Albany to Schenectady, 1831; present railroad mileage,
7,349; artificial waterways, 907 miles.

Number farms, 241,058; average value per acre, cleared land, $58.48;
woodland, $40.88

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Gov'r                  $10,000 and house
  Lieut. Gov.                        5,000
  Sec'y of State                     5,000
  Treasurer                          5,000
  Comptroller                        6,000
  Attorney Gen.                      5,000
  Chief Justice                      7,500
  Senators &      }                  1,500
  Representatives }          m'l'ge 10 cts.
  3 Dist. Judges                     4,000
  Pension Agt.                       4,000
  Pos. Stamp Agt.                    2,500
  D. Supt. R'y Ser.                  2,500
  12 Colls. Int. Revenue    2,750 to 4,500
  Col. Customs New York             12,000
  Supt. Assay O.                     4,500

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Albany                            $3,500
  Auburn                             2,900
  Binghamton                         3,000
  Brooklyn                           3,800
  Buffalo                            3,800
  Elmira                             3,000
  Lockport                           2,700
  Newburgh                           2,700
  New York                           8,000
  Oswego                             2,700
  Poughkeepsie                       2,900
  Rochester                          3,600
  Saratoga Spr.                      2,700
  Syracuse                           3,400
  Troy                               3,300
  Utica                              3,200
  Watertown                          2,700
  204 Post Offices          2,600 to 1,000

Corn crop, 1884, 22,674,300 bu.; wheat, 12,729,000 bu. Latest reported
dairy products: milk, 231,965,533 gallons; butter, 116,119,847 lbs.;
cheese, 117,085,442 lbs. Ranks first in value of manufactures, soap,
printing and publishing, hops, hay, potatoes, buckwheat and milch cows;
second in salt, silk goods, malt and distilled liquors, miles railway and
barley; third in agricultural implements, iron ore, iron and steel, oats
and rye.

Population, 5,082,871: male, 2,505,322; female, 2,577,549; native,
3,871,492; foreign, 1,211,379; white, 5,016,022; colored, 65,104; Chinese,
909; Indians, 819. Governor and State officers elected quadrennially, and
legislature every two years; State, congressional and presidential
elections, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 32;
Representatives, 128; sessions of legislature annual, meeting first Tuesday
in January; limit of session, none; term of Senators, 2 years; of
Representatives, 1 year.

Number electoral votes, 36; number voters, 1,408,751; native white,
852,094; foreign white, 536,598. Election betters or bribers, and convicts,
excluded from voting.

Number of colleges, 28; school pop., 1,681,101; school age, 5-21.

Legal interest rate, 6; usury forfeits principal and interest. {93}

[Illustration]

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{94}

NEW JERSEY. Jer´zee.
"JERSEY BLUE."

Named in honor of a grantee, Sir George Carteret, at one time Governor of
the Island of Jersey. One of the thirteen original States, settled by
Dutch, at Bergen, 1620. Area, 7,815 square miles; extreme length, 157 mls.;
breadth, 37 to 70 mls.; frontage on Atlantic and Delaware Bay, about 120
miles each. Number counties, 21.

Temperature at Atlantic City: winter, 32° to 42°; summer, 66° to 73°.
Rainfall at Newark, 45 inches.

Newark, Perth Amboy, Great Egg Harbor, Tuckerton, Bridgeton and Lumberton
are ports of entry. Newark, metropolis; population, 152,988. Jersey City, a
suburb of New York; population, 153,513. Trenton, capital; pop. 34,386.
Paterson, manufacturing city; pop., 63,273. Extensive zinc works at Newark
and Jersey City. Pop. Elizabeth, 32,119; Hoboken, 37,721; Camden, 52,884.

Number farms, 34,307. Average value per acre, cleared land, $82.52;
woodland, $56.82. Number engaged in agriculture, 59,214.

Hay the most valuable crop; potato yield, 1883, 4,275,857 bu.; wheat, 1884,
2,022,000 bu.; corn 10,992,032 bu.; cranberry growing a specialty,
Burlington, Ocean and Atlantic counties being especially adapted to this
industry. Central region a vast market garden.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $5,000
  Sec'y of State                     6,000
  Treasurer                          4,000
  Comptroller                        4,000
  Attorney Gen.                      7,000
  Supt. Pub. Inst.                   3,000
  Adjutant Gen.                      1,200
  Librarian                          1,500
  Chief Justice                      7,500
  8 Asso. Justic's                   7,000
  Chancellor                        10,000
  Senators, Representatives     500 a year
  District Judge                     3,500
  Supt. Life Saving Service          1,800
  39 Keepers                           700
  3 Collectors Int. Rev.   $2,375 to 4,500

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Asbury Park                       $2,300
  Atlantic City                      2,400
  Bridgeton                          2,100
  Camden                             2,800
  Elizabeth                          2,700
  Hoboken                            2,400
  Jersey City                        3,200
  Morristown                         2,400
  Newark                             3,400
  New Brunswick                      2,500
  Orange                             2,300
  Paterson                           2,800
  Plainfield                         2,500
  Rahway                             2,200
  Trenton                            3,100
  Washington                         3,100
  46 P.O.,                  2,000 to 1,100

Latest reports give, for cotton used, 20,569 bales; 108 factories for silk
and silk goods, and number hands employed, 12,549; 2,234 hands employed in
jewelry factories; number of flour and grist mills, 481; brick and tile
factories, 107.

Latest figures received for iron ore, 757,372; value sea fisheries,
$1,115,154; oysters sold, $2,080,625; marl dug in 1882, 1,080,000 tons.

Ranks first in fertilizing marl, zinc and silk goods; fourth in iron ore;
fifth in iron and steel; sixth in buckwheat and soap; seventh in rye.

Population, 1,131,116: male, 559,922; female, 571,194; native, 909,416;
foreign, 221,700: white, 1,092,017; colored, 38,853; Chinese, 172; Indians,
74.

State elections annual; same date as congressional and presidential; number
of Senators 21, of Representatives, 60; meeting of legislature, 2d Tuesday
in January; limit of session, none; term of Senators, 3 years; of
Representatives, 1 year. Number electoral votes, 9; number voters, 300,635.
Paupers, idiots, insane and convicts excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 4; number enrolled in public schools, 209,526; school age,
5-18.

Legal interest rate, 6; usury forfeits entire interest. {95}

[Illustration]

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{96}

PENNSYLVANIA. Pen-sil-va´ne-ah.
"KEYSTONE STATE."

Named in honor of William Penn, the grantee. One of the thirteen original
States. First permanent settlement made by Swedes at Chester, 1638.

Area, 45,215 square miles; extreme length, 303 miles; greatest breadth, 176
miles. Largest rivers, Delaware, Susquehanna, Alleghany Monongahela, Ohio.
Number counties, 67. Temp. at Philadelphia: winter, 31° to 42°; summer, 70°
to 75°: rainfall, 44 in.

Philadelphia founded 1682; chief city of State, and second in U. S.;
contains U. S. mint and navy yard; pop., 846,984. Pittsburg, extensive
manufacturing city; pop., 156,389. Harrisburg is capital; pop., 30,762.
Philadelphia, Pittsburg and Erie are ports of entry.

Number farms, 156,357, averaging about 100 acres each. Average value per
acre, cleared land, $45.75; woodland, $29.75. Corn crop, 1884, 43,466,000
bushels; wheat, 20,820,000 bushels; annual value butter, milk and cheese,
over $35,000,000.

Manufacture of pig iron the great industry; total production in U. S.,
1880, 4,295,414 tons, of which Penn. produced 2,083,121 tons. Number
manufacturing establishments, 10,381; flour and grist, 2,873; iron and
steel, 321; sawed lumber, 2,826; paper, 78; woolen goods, 324.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                         $10,000
  Lieut. Gov.                        3,000
  Sec'y of State                     4,000
  Treasurer                          5,000
  Auditor Gen.                       3,000
  Attorney Gen.                      3,500
  Chief Justice                      8,500
  6 Asso. Justices                   8,000
  Senators,        }   $1,000 for 100 days.
  Representatives. }             $10 per d.
                           Mileage 5 cents.
  2 Dist. Judges                     4,000
  2 Pension Agts.                    4,000
  10 Colls. Int. Revenue    4,500 to 2,375
  Col. Customs, Philadelp'ia         8,000

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Alleghany                         $2,900
  Allentown                          2,600
  Altoona                            2,500
  Bradford                           2,700
  Easton                             2,600
  Erie                               3,000
  Harrisburg                         3,100
  Lancaster                          2,900
  Meadville                          2,500
  Philadelphia                       6,000
  Pittsburg                          3,800
  Reading                            3,000
  Scranton                           2,900
  Titusville                         2,500
  Wilkesbarre                        2,700
  Williamsport                       2,800
  York                               2,700
  149 Offices.              2,400 to 1,000

Anthracite coal field central division; bituminous in west and southwest.
Produces all the anthracite and more than half the bituminous coal of the
United States.

Ranks first in rye, iron and steel, petroleum and coal; second in
buckwheat, potatoes and printing and publishing; third in milch cows, hay,
soap and miles railway; fourth in oats and tobacco; fifth in silk goods,
malt and distilled liquors; sixth in salt, copper, and agricultural
implements; eighth in horses and sheep.

Population, 4,282,891: male, 2,136,655; female, 2,146,236; native,
3,695,062; foreign, 587,829; white, 4,197,016; colored, 85,535; Chinese,
148; Japanese, 8; Indians, 184.

State elections annual, same date as congressional and presidential; number
Senators, 50; of Representatives, 201; sessions biennial, meeting first
Tuesday in January; limit of session, 150 days; term of Senators, 4 years;
of Representatives, 2 years. Number electoral votes, 30; number voters,
1,094,284. Non-taxpayers and political bribers excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 26; enrolled in public schools, 945,345; school age, 6-21.

Legal interest rate, 6; usury forfeits excess of interest. {97}

[Illustration]

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{98}

DELAWARE. Del´a-war.
"THE DIAMOND STATE."

One of the thirteen original States; named in honor of Lord Delaware,
Governor of Virginia, who entered the bay, 1610. First permanent settlement
made by Swedes, near present city of Wilmington, 1638. First to ratify
Federal constitution, 1787.

Area, 2,050 square miles; extreme length, 96 miles; breadth, about 36 miles
on south, and 10 miles on north. Number counties, 8. Temperature at
Delaware breakwater: winter, 30° to 38°; summer, 69° to 74°: rainfall,
about 50 inches.

Wilmington, metropolis, and has important coasting trade; population,
42,478. Dover is capital. Breakwater protecting Delaware Bay at Cape
Henlopen greatest work of its kind in America, cost the United States
$2,127,400, and was over 40 years in course of construction.

Number farms, 6,658, of which 5,041 are occupied by owners. Average value
per acre, cleared land, $19; woodland, $15.

Corn crop of 1884, 3,975,000 bushels; wheat, 1,007,000 bushels; peaches,
berries and garden products find ready market. Value peach crop, over
$1,500,000 annually. The growing of sweet potatoes a valuable industry.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $2,000
  Secy' of State                     1,000
  Treasurer                          1,450
  Auditor                              700
  Adjutant Gen.                        200
  Attorney Gen.                      2,000
  Supt. Pub. Ins.                    1,500
  State Librarian                      450
  Chief Justice                      2,500
  Chancellor                         2,500
  3 Asso. Justices                   2,200
  Senators,       }             $3 pr. day
  Representatives }            and mileage.
  District Judge                     3,500
  Dist. Att.                   $200 & fees
  Col. Inter. Rev.                   2,875
  6 Deputy Collectors        $900 to 1,600
  Clerk                              1,000
  Collector of Customs          500 & fees
  2 Deputy Collectors          500 to 1600
  5 Boatmen                            300

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Dover                             $1,700
  Middletown                         1,300
  Milford                            1,400
  Newark                             1,200
  Newcastle                          1,100
  Smyrna                             1,400
  Wilmington                         3,100

Number different industries, 746; flour and grist mills, 81; canning and
preserving, 33; shipbuilding, 18; lumber sawing, 86.

Canning and preserving fruits and vegetables an important industry; capital
invested, $396,379; value of products, $634,940.

Capital invested in fisheries, $268,231; persons employed, 1,979. Value
products general fisheries, $309,029: menhaden, $941; oysters, $687,725:
total, $997,695.

Value manufactured cotton goods, $1,057,257; iron and steel, $2,347,177;
iron pipe, wrought, $2,000,000; leather, dressed skins, $1,886,597;
shipbuilding, $2,162,503. Products of all manufacturing and mechanical
industries, $20,514,438.

Pop., 146,608: male, 74,108; female, 72,500; native, 137,140; foreign,
9,468; white, 120,166; colored, 26,442; slaves, 1860, 1,798.

State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday
in November; number Senators, 9; Representatives, 21; sessions of
legislature biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting first Tuesday in
January; limit of session, 21 days; term of Senators, 4 years; of
Representatives, 2 years. Number electoral votes, 3; number voters, 38,298.
Idiots, insane, paupers and criminals excluded from voting.

Colleges at Newark and Wilmington; school age: 6-21.

Legal interest rate, 6; usury forfeits the principal. {99}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{100}

MARYLAND. M[=a]´re-land.

One of the thirteen original States; named in honor of Maria, wife of
Charles II., King of England; first permanent settlement made by English
Roman Catholics at St. Mary's, 1634.

Area, 12,210 square miles; greatest length, east and west, 196 miles;
seacoast, 83 miles, or, including the tidewater region of Chesapeake Bay,
411 miles, and, with shores of islands, 509 miles. Number counties, 23.
Temperature at Baltimore: winter, 33° to 41°; summer, 73° to 79°; rainfall,
41 inches.

Baltimore, the metropolis; laid out 1730; port of entry and commercial
centre; has regular lines European steamers; pop., 332,313. Annapolis,
capital; contains United States Naval Academy; pop. 5,744. Cumberland,
depot of western mining region; pop., 10,693.

Number farms, 1860, 25,494; 1880, 40,517. Average value per acre cleared
land, $24.65; woodland, $35.50.

Value principal orchard products,--peaches, pears, plums and
apples,--nearly $2,000,000; canned and preserved fruits and vegetables,
over $2,000,000; oyster fisheries, nearly $5,000,000.

Wheat crop, 1884, 8,260,000 bu.; corn, 15,237,000 bu.; oats, 1,980,000 bu.;
buckwheat, 1883, 117,800 bu.; tobacco, 31,570,793 lbs.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $4,500
  Sec'y of State                     2,000
  Treasurer                          2,500
  Comptroller                        2,500
  Attorney Gen.                      3,000
  Chief Justice                      3,500
  7 Asso. Justices                   3,500
  District Judge                     4,000
  Senators,       }             $5 pr. day
  Repres'ntatives }            and mileage.
  2 Colls. Int. Revenue     2,625 to 4,500
  Col. of Customs                    7,000
  2 Colls.              250 and 1,200 fees.
  Auditor                            2,500
  Naval Officer                      5,000
  Surveyor                           4,500

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Annapolis                         $2,400
  Baltimore                          5,000
  Bel Air                            1,200
  Cambridge                          1,400
  Centreville                        1,300
  Chestertown                        1,300
  Cumberland                         2,300
  Easton                             1,700
  Elkton                             1,500
  Ellicott City                      1,300
  Emmittsburgh                       1,300
  Frederick                          2,200
  Frostburgh                         1,300
  Hagerstown                         2,300
  Havre de Grace                     1,300
  Port Deposit                       1,100
  Salisbury                          1,400
  Towson                             1,100
  Westminster                        1,500

Number manufacturing establishments, 6,787; capital invested $58,742,384;
hands employed, 74,945; bales cotton used, 46,947; pig iron produced,
61,437 tons; flour and grist mills, 546; tons coal mined, 2,227,844.

Ranks fourth in coal, seventh in tobacco, eighth in copper, ninth in iron
ore. Copper is found in Frederick and Carroll counties; iron ore, in
Alleghany, Anne Arundel, Carroll, Baltimore, Frederick and Prince George's
counties.

Population, 934,943: male, 462,187; female, 472,756; native, 852,137;
foreign, 82,806 white, 724,693; colored, 210,230; Chinese, 5; Indians, 15.
Slaves, 1860, 87,189.

State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday
in November; number Senators, 26; Representatives, 91; sessions biennial,
in even-numbered years; meeting of legislature, first Wednesday in January;
limit of session, 90 days; term of Senators, 4 years; of Representatives, 2
years.

Number electoral votes, 8; number voters, 232,106; native white, 144,586;
foreign white, 38,936; colored, 48,584. Insane, convicts and bribers
excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 11; school population, 319,201; school age, 5-20.

Legal interest rate, 6; usury forfeits excess of interest. {101}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{102}

VIRGINIA. Ver-jin´e-ah.
"OLD DOMINION."

Named in honor of Elizabeth, the Virgin Queen. One of the thirteen original
States. Settled by English at Jamestown, 1607. Slavery introduced 1619.
Seceded May, 1861; re-admitted Jan., 1870.

Area, 42,450 square miles; greatest length, east and west, 440 miles;
greatest breadth, 190 miles. Coast line, about 120 miles, or tidal
frontage, 1,500 miles. Number counties, 100. Temperature at Norfolk:
winter, 40° to 48°; summer, 75° to 80°. Rainfall at White Sulphur Spring,
38 inches.

Richmond, capital and metropolis; pop., 63,600. Pop. of Norfolk 21,966; of
Petersburg, 21,656. Hampton Roads is one of the best harbors on Atlantic
coast. Seven ports of entry.

Number farms, 118,517; 51 per cent. of laborers are engaged in agriculture.
Average value per acre, cleared lands, $9.42; woodland, $7.48.

Marble quarried on Potomac. Number sandstone quarries, 10; shipbuilding
establishments, 65; saw-mills, 907; sawed lumber, $3,434,163; flour and
grist mills, 1,385; value products, $12,210,272; foundry and machine-shop,
$1,361,231; iron and steel, $2,585,999; cotton goods, $1,040,962; leather
tanned, $1,011,830; slaughtering and meat packing, $1,054,500. Total number
industries, 5,710; capital invested, $26,968,990; value products,
$51,780,992.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $5,000
  Lieut. Gov.                          900
  Sec'y of State                     2,000
  Treasurer                          2,000
  Auditor                            3,000
  Sec. Auditor                       2,000
  Attorney Gen.                      2,500
  Supt. Pub. Ins.                    2,500
  Adjutant. Gen.                       600
  Com'r of Agr.                      1,500
  Supt. of Land O.                   1,300
  Pres. Sup. Ct.                     3,250
  4 J'dg's Sup. Ct.                  3,000
  2 Dist. Judges                     3,500
  Senators, Representatives  $540 per year.
  5 Colls. Int. Revenue     3,000 to 4,500

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Abingdon                          $1,500
  Alexandria                         2,400
  Charlottesville                    1,900
  Danville                           2,400
  Freder'cksb'gh                     1,800
  Hampton                            1,600
  Harrisonbu'gh                      1,600
  Lexington                          1,600
  Liberty                            1,600
  Lynchburgh                         2,800
  Norfolk                            3,100
  Petersburgh                        2,600
  Portsmouth                         1,900
  Richmond                           3,400
  Roanoke                            2,100
  Staunton                           2,400
  Winchester                         1,900
  5 Post Offices                     1,500
  10 P.O.                  $1,400 to 1,000

Gold produced, 1882, $15,000; latest reported iron ore product, 182,326
tons; zinc, 10,448 tons; lead, 11,200 tons.

Ranks first in peanuts, second in tobacco, eighth in salt and iron ore.

Population, 1,512,565; male, 745,589; female, 766,976; native, 1,497,869;
foreign, 14,696; white, 880,858; colored, 631,616; Chinese, 6; Indians, 85;
slaves, 1860, 490,865.

State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday
in November; number Senators, 40; Representatives, 100; sessions of
legislature biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting first Wednesday in
December; limit of session, 90 days; term of Senators, 4 years; of
Representatives, 2 years.

Number electoral votes, 12; number voters, 334,505; colored, 128,257;
native white, 198,277; foreign white, 7,971. Lunatics, idiots, convicts,
duelists, United States army, and non-taxpayers of capitation tax excluded
from voting.

Number colleges, 7; school population, 555,807; school age, 5-21.

Legal interest, 6; by contract, 8: usury forfeits excess over 6 per cent.
{103}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{104}

WEST VIRGINIA. Ver-jin´e-ah.
"PAN-HANDLE STATE."

Composed of northern and western counties of the original State of
Virginia; denounced passage of secession ordinance. April 22d, 1861; became
a State, 1863.

Area, 24,780 square miles; greatest length north and south, about 240
miles; greatest breadth, 160 miles. Big Sandy, Great and Little Kanawha,
Guyandotte and Monongahela are navigable rivers. Number counties, 54.
Temperature at Morgantown: winter, 34° to 42°; summer, 70° to 75°. Rainfall
at Romney, 45 inches.

Charleston, capital; pop. 4,192. Wheeling metropolis, principal seat of
manufactures, and port of delivery; pop. 30,737. Parkersburg, port of
delivery; pop. 6,582. Pop. of Martinsburg, 6,335.

Number farms, 1870, 39,778; 1880, 62,674. Average value per acre cleared
land, $21.05; woodland, $9.39. A rich agricultural tract, 61 per cent. of
laborers engaged in agriculture; staples are tobacco, wheat and corn, the
last being the most valuable crop; number bu. grown 1884, being 11,900,000;
wheat, 3,318,000; oats, 2,212,000; tobacco, 1883, 1,952,872 lbs.

On farms, Jan., 1884: Sheep, 671,226; swine, 424,626: annual wool clip,
2,000,000 lbs. The yield of butter, 1880, was 9,315,895 lbs; of fruit, over
$1,000,000. Wine made 1880, 71,026 gallons; total value lumber products,
$2,431,857.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $2,700
  Secretary of State        1,000 and fees.
  Treasurer                          1,400
  Auditor                   2,000 and fees.
  Supt. of Free Schools              1,500
  Attorney Gen.                      1,000
  Presiding Jdg. Supm. Court         2,250
  Asso. Judges                       2,250
  Senators,       }               $4 per d.
  Representatives }       mileage 10 cents.
  District Judge                     3,500
  2 Colls. Int. R.                   2,875
  30 Deputy Colls.           $700 to 1,600

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Charleston                        $2,100
  Charlestown                        1,500
  Clarksburg                         1,600
  Fairmont                           1,200
  Grafton                            1,400
  Huntington                         1,700
  Lewisburgh                         1,000
  Martinsburgh                       1,800
  Morgantown                         1,000
  Moundsville                        1,200
  Parkersburg                        2,300
  Piedmont                           1,300
  Pt. Pleasant                       1,000
  Wellsburgh                         1,300
  Weston                             1,200
  Wheeling                           3,000

Iron ore yields 50 to 80 per cent. pure metal, latest amount reported,
61,216 tons; coal, 1,792,570 tons; salt, 2,679,438 bu.; petroleum is
extensively produced in Ritchie, Pleasants, Wood and Wirt counties. Ranks
fifth in salt and coal; eighth in buckwheat, iron and steel.

Population, 618,457; male, 314,495; female, 303,962; native, 600,192;
foreign, 18,265; white, 592,537; colored, 25,886; Indians, 29; 40 per cent.
increase in pop. 1870 to 1880; number slaves, 1860, 18,371. Governor and
State officers elected quadrennially, and legislature every two years;
State elections, second Tuesday in October; congressional and presidential,
Tuesday after the first Monday in November; number Senators, 26;
Representatives, 65; sessions biennial, in odd-numbered years; limit of
session, 45 days; term of Senators, 4 years; of Representatives, 2 years.
Number electoral votes, 6; number voters, 139,161; native white, 123,569;
foreign white, 9,208; colored, 6,384. Insane, paupers and convicts excluded
from voting.

Flourishing free school system; school population, 216,605; school age,
6-21.

Legal interest, 6; by contract, 6; usury forfeits excess of interest. {105}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{106}

NORTH CAROLINA. "OLD NORTH STATE," "TAR STATE."

One of the thirteen original States; discovered by Lord Raleigh, 1584;
settled by English at Albemarle, 1650; seceded May, 1861, re-admitted June,
1868.

Area, 52,250 square miles; length, 450 miles; breadth, 185 miles; coast
line, over 400 miles; area dismal swamp, 150,000 acres; number counties,
96.

Temperature at Wilmington: winter, 46° to 51°; summer, 76° to 80°. Frost
seldom occurs before November. Rainfall at Gaston, 43 inches. Deaths by
consumption, 1.5 per 1,000 of population.

Wilmington, principal seaport and chief city; pop., 13,446; Raleigh,
capital, and contains the State institutions; pop., 7,790 Charlotte
contains assay office; pop., 4,473; pop. New Bern, 5,849.

Farms in 1860, 75,203, increased to 157,609 in 1880; average value per
acre, cleared land, $9.77; woodland, $5.53.

Agriculture the leading industry; corn the most valuable crop; tobacco the
leading product; value orchard products over $900,000. Latest reports give
4,576,148 bu. sweet potatoes; 5,609,191 lbs. rice; value tar and turpentine
products, $1,758,488; tobacco crop, 1883, 29,048,213 lbs.; wheat crop,
1884, 4,650,000 bu.; oats, 4,632,000 bu.; corn, 31,499,000 bu.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $3,000
  Sec'y of State                     2,000
  Treasurer                          3,000
  Auditor                            1,500
  Attorney Gen.                      2,000
  Supt. Pub. Inst.                   1,500
  Adjutant Gen.                        600
  Com'r of Agr.                      1,200
  State Librarian                      750
  Chief Justice                      2,500
  2 Asso. Justices                   2,500
  Senators,       }               $4 a day,
  Representatives }           mileage 10 c.
  4 Collectors Int. Rev.    2,500 to 3,750
  64 Deputy Collectors        300 to 1,700
  2 Dist. Judges                     3,500

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Asheville                         $1,900
  Charlotte                          2,400
  Durham                             1,600
  Elizabeth City                     1,200
  Fayetteville                       1,600
  Goldsborough                       1,800
  Greensborough                      1,800
  New Berne                          1,900
  Oxford                             1,200
  Raleigh                            2,600
  Reidsville                         1,200
  Salisbury                          1,500
  Statesville                        1,400
  Tarborough                         1,500
  Wilmington                         2,600
  Wilson                             1,400
  Winston                            1,800
  10 P.O.                   1,200 to 1,000

Ranks first in tar and turpentine, second in copper, third in peanuts and
tobacco, fourth in rice, ninth in cotton.

Number of different industries, 3,802; flour and grist mills, 1,313; saw
mills, 776; latest reported value oyster fisheries, $60,000; number boats
engaged in general fisheries, about 3,000; copper mined, 1,640,000 lbs.

State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday
in November; number Senators, 50; Representatives, 120; sessions biennial,
in odd-numbered years, meeting Wednesday after first Monday in January;
limit of session, 60 days; terms of Senator and Representatives, two years
each. Number electoral votes, 11; number voters, 294,750; native white,
187,637; foreign white, 2,095; colored, 105,018. Convicts are excluded from
voting.

Population, 1,399,750: male, 687,908; female, 711,842; natives, 1,396,008;
foreign, 3,742; white, 867,242: colored, 531,278; Indians, 1,230. Slaves,
1860, 331,059.

Public school system adopted 1840; at present over 2,000 public schools in
operation; school age, 6-21.

Legal interest rate, 6; by contract, 8; usury forfeits interest. {107}

[Illustration]

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{108}

SOUTH CAROLINA. South Kar-o-l[=i]´na.
"PALMETTO STATE."

Named in honor of Charles II. of England, by whom the province was created
in 1663. One of the thirteen original States. First permanent settlement
made by English at Port Royal, 1670. Famous nullification troubles occurred
1832-33; led by J. C. Calhoun, and opposed vigorously by Pres. Jackson,
during which his famous expression "by the Eternal" was first used. Seceded
November, 1860; re-admitted June, 1868.

Area, 30,170 square miles; extreme length, 275 miles; greatest breadth, 210
miles; coast line, 200 miles. Largest rivers, Savannah, Great Pee Dee,
Santee and Edisto. Number counties, 84.

Temperature at Charleston: summer, 79° to 83°; winter, 50° to 54°;
rainfall, 43 inches; frosts seldom occur. Aiken, noted winter resort for
consumptives. Deaths, consumption, 1.5 per 1,000 population.

Charleston, largest city; laid out 1680; population, 49,984; port of entry;
seat of a Catholic bishop. United States customs districts at Beaufort,
Charleston and Georgetown.

First railroad to use American locomotives, the South Carolina, built
1830-33; number miles railroad January 1, 1886, 1,693.

Number farms, 1860, 33,171; 1870, 51,889; 1880, 93,864. Average value per
acre, cleared land, $6.24; woodland, $8.64.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $3,500
  Lieut. Gov.                        1,000
  Sec'y of State.                    2,100
  Treasurer                          2,100
  Compt'ller Gen.                    2,100
  Attorney Gen.                      2,100
  Supt. Pub. Inst.                   2,100
  Com'r Agricult.                    2,100
  Adj & Insp. Gen.                   1,500
  Chief Justice                      4,000
  Asso. Justices                     3,500
  Clerk of Supreme Court             1,000
  Senators,       }             $5 pr. day
  Representatives }       mileage 10 cents.
  District Judge                     3,500
  Col. Int. Rev.                     3,250

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Aiken                             $1,600
  Anderson C.H.                      1,400
  Beaufort                           1,400
  Camden                             1,300
  Charleston                         3,200
  Chester C.H.                       1,400
  Columbia                           2,500
  Florence                           1,200
  Georgetown                         1,100
  Greenville C.H.                    2,000
  Marion                             1,100
  Newberry C.H.                      1,500
  Orangeb'h C.H.                     1,300
  Rock Hill                          1,000
  Spart'nb'h C.H.                    1,800
  Sumter C.H.                        1,600
  Union                              1,000
  Winnsborough                       1,200
  Yorkville                          1,000

Number of flour and grist mills, 720; value of lumber products, $2,031,507;
tar and turpentine, $1,893,206; oyster fishery, $20,000; sea, river and
lake fisheries, $192,482. Ranks first in phosphates; production, 332,077
tons; value, $1,992,462.

Gold mines in Abbeville, Edgefield and Union counties; first mint deposits,
$3,500 in 1827; aggregate to June 30, 1883, $1,468,854. White and
variegated marbles found in Spartanburgh and Laurens counties.

Population 995,577: male, 490,408; female, 505,169; native, 987,891;
foreign, 7,686; white, 391,105; colored, 604,332; Chinese, 9; Indians, 131.
Number persons per square mile, 33. Slaves, 1860, 402,406.

State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday
in November; State Senators, 35; Representatives, 124; sessions annual,
meeting fourth Tuesday in November; limit of session, none; term of
Senators, 4 years; of Representatives, 2 years.

Number electoral votes, 9; number voters, 205,789; colored, 118,889; native
white, 82,910; foreign white, 3,990. Insane, inmates of asylums,
alms-houses and prisons, U. S. army and duelists excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 9; school population, 262,279; school age, 6-16.

Legal interest rate, 7; by contract, any rate. {109}

[Illustration]

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{110}

GEORGIA. Jor´je-a.
"EMPIRE STATE OF THE SOUTH."

Farthest south and latest settled of the thirteen original States; named in
honor of George II., King of England; settled by English at Savannah, 1753;
seceded Jan., 1861; re-admitted Dec. 1870.

Area 59,475 square miles; extreme length, 320 miles; extreme breadth, 254
miles; coast line, 480 miles; number harbors, 3. Savannah, Ogeechee,
Altamaha, Satilla, St. Mary's, Flint, Chattahoochee and Upper Coosa are
navigable rivers. Number counties, 137.

Temperature at Augusta: winter, 46° to 52°; summer, 79° to 83°. Rainfall at
Savannah, 48 inches.

Savannah, Brunswick and St. Mary's are ports of entry. Savannah, chief
seaport; pop., 27,891. Columbus contains largest cotton mill in the South;
pop., 10,123. Atlanta is capital; pop., 37,409. Andersonville, seat of
largest rebel prison during the Rebellion.

Number farms, 1860, 62,003; 1880, 138,626. Average value per acre, cleared
land, $6.93; woodland, $5.45. 72 per cent. of laborers engaged in
agriculture; rural income, $155 per individual.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $3,000
  Sec'y of State                     2,000
  Treasurer                          2,000
  Compt'ller Gen.                    2,000
  Attorney Gen.                      2,000
  Com'r Agricult.                    2,500
  Chief Justice                      2,500
  Asso. Justices                     2,500
  Senators,       }             $4 pr. day
  Representatives }            and mileage.
  3 Dist. Judges                     3,500
  D. Supt. R'y Ser.                  2,500
  Collectors Inter. Rev.    2,500 to 3,125
  24 Deputy Collectors        300 to 1,700
  Customs Surveyor            1,000 & fees.

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Albany                            $1,600
  Americus                           1,600
  Athens                             1,900
  Atlanta                            3,300
  Augusta                            2,800
  Brunswick                          1,700
  Columbus                           2,500
  Cuthbert                           1,500
  Dalton                             1,400
  Gainesville                        1,500
  Griffin                            1,600
  Macon                              2,700
  Madison                            1,500
  Marietta                           1,500
  Rome                               2,300
  Savannah                           3,200
  Thomasville                        1,600
  13 Offices                1,400 to 1,000

Sheep on farms, Jan., 1884, 543,415. Corn crop, 1884, 30,925,000 bu.;
wheat, 3,130,000; oats, 6,270.000 bu.; cotton, 760,000 bales. Latest
reported rice crop, 25,369,687 lbs.; sweet potatoes, 4,397,778 bu.;
tobacco, 228,590 lbs; wool, 1,289,560 pounds. Ranks second in rice and
sweet potatoes, third in cotton and molasses, fourth in sugar, seventh in
mules, tenth in hogs.

Gold production, 1793-1883, $8,043,250. Latest mining reports give 100,000
tons coal and 91,416 tons iron ore.

Population, 1,542,180: male, 762,981; female, 779,199; native, 1,531,616;
foreign, 10,564; white, 816,906; colored, 725,133; Chinese, 17; Indians,
124. State elections, first Wednesday in October; congressional and
presidential, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 44;
Representatives, 175; sessions biennial, in even-numbered years, meeting
first Wednesday in November; limit of session, 40 days, unless extended by
special vote; terms of Senators and Representatives, 2 years each.

Number electoral votes, 12; number voters, 321,438; colored, 143,471;
native white, 172,044; foreign white, 5,923. Idiots, insane, criminals and
non-taxpayers excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 7; State University at Athens, organized 1801; public
schools excellent; school age, 6-18.

No State license law governing commercial travelers; but Atlanta, Athens,
Augusta and Savannah exact a tax.

Legal interest, 7; by contract, 8; usury forfeits excess of interest. {111}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{112}

FLORIDA. Flor´e-dah
"PENINSULA STATE."

Discoverer landed on Easter Sunday, or "Flowery Easter;" hence the name.

Settled by Spaniards at St. Augustine, 1565; organized as a Territory,
1822; admitted as a State, 1845; seceded 1861; re-admitted 1868

Area, 58,680 square miles; coastline, 1,146 miles, 472 being on the
Atlantic; length, north and south, 350 miles; length, east and west, 340
miles; mean width of peninsula, 100 miles; greatest elevation, 250 feet.
Number counties, 39.

Temperature at Jacksonville: winter, 55° to 61°; summer, 80° to 83°.
Rainfall at Fort Myers, 57 inches.

Key West, the metropolis, and has good harbor and naval station pop.,
9,890. Jacksonville, an important commercial point; pop., 7,650. St.
Augustine, oldest town in United States. Tallahassee, the capital. Pop.
Pensacola, 6,845.

Number farms, 23,438; owned by State, 15,000,000 acres; value per acre,
cleared land, $9.48; woodland, $3.03; swamp, $1; school lands, $1.25.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $3,500
  Lieut. Gov.                          500
  Sec'y of State                     2,000
  Treasurer                          2,000
  Comptroller                        2,000
  Attorney Gen.                      2,000
  Supt. Pub. Ins.                    2,000
  Adjutant Gen.                      2,000
  Land Com'r.                        1,200
  Chief Justice                      3,500
  2 Asso. Justices                   3,000
  Senators,       }               $6 a day
  Representatives }         and 10c a mile.
  2 Dist. Judges                     3,500
  Col. Int. Rev.                     3,000
  Surveyor Gen.                      1,800
  Chief Clerk                        1,600
  Draftsman                          1,200
  38 Lighthouse Keepers         370 to 820

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Cedar Keys                        $1,300
  De Land                            1,300
  Eustis                             1,000
  Fernandina                         1,600
  Gainesville                        1,600
  Jacksonville                       2,800
  Key West                           1,600
  Ocala                              1,500
  Orlando                            1,500
  Palatka                            1,800
  Pensacola                          2,200
  St. Augustine                      1,700
  Sanford                            1,600
  Tallahassee                        1,700
  Tampa                              1,400

Corn most valuable crop, returns of 1884, 3,837,200 bushels; oats, 494,000
bu.; cotton, 60,000 bales; latest reported tobacco, 24,239 pounds; rice,
1,294,677 pounds; peaches, 89,028 bushels; sugar, 1,273 hogsheads; honey,
210,357 pounds; molasses, 1,029,868 gallons. Over 3,000,000 orange trees
planted since 1870, and millions of oranges exported yearly.

Latest reported fisheries, $78,408; lumber products, $3,060,291; oysters,
20,000 bushels.

Ranks third in sugar and molasses, sixth in rice, tenth in cotton.

Population, 269,493: male, 136,444; female, 133,049; native, 259,584;
foreign, 9,909; white, 142,605; colored, 126,690; Indians, 180; slaves,
1860, 61,745.

State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday
in November; number Senators, 32; Representatives, 76; sessions of
legislature biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting Tuesday after first
Monday in January; limit of session, 60 days; term of Senators, 4 years; of
Representatives, 2 years.

Number electoral votes, 4; number voters, 61,699; colored, 27,489; native
white, 30,351; foreign white, 3,859. Idiots, insane, criminals, betters on
elections and duelists excluded from voting.

School population, 88,677; enrolled in public schools, 39,315 school age,
4-21.--Legal interest rate, 8; by contract, any rate. {113}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{114}

ALABAMA. Al-a-bah´mah.

Name derived from an Indian word signifying, "Here we rest."

Settled near Mobile Bay by French, 1702; admitted as a State, 1819; seceded
1861; re-admitted 1868.

Area, 52,250 square miles, same as North Carolina; length, 330 miles;
average breadth, 154 miles; seacoast, about 60 miles. Inland steam
navigation about 1,500 miles; Mobile the only seaport. Number counties, 66.

Temperature at Augusta: winter, 46° to 52°; summer, 79° to 83°. Rainfall at
Huntsville, 55 inches. July the hottest month. Fruit trees blossom February
1st to March 1st.

Montgomery, capital; pop., 16,713. Huntsville, the northern trade centre;
pop., 4,977. Selma, an important railroad centre; pop., 7,529. Mobile,
metropolis; pop., 29,132.

Number farms, 135,864. Average value per acre, cleared land, $6.53;
woodland, $4.08. Sugar product, 94 hogsheads; molasses, 795,199 gallons;
tobacco crop, 1882, 475,456 lbs.; hay, 10,882 acres, or 12,513 tons; oats,
1884, 405,830 acres, or 5,015,000 bu.; corn, 30,197,000 bu.; cotton,
661,000 bales.

Number industries, 2,070; flour and grist mills, 807; saw mills, 354. Total
capital invested, $9,668,008; value products, $13,565,504.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $3,000
  Sec'y of State                     1,800
  Treasurer                          2,150
  Auditor                            1,800
  Attorney Gen.                      1,500
  Supt. Pub. Inst.                   2,250
  Librarian                          1,500
  3 R. R. Commissioners     2,000 to 3,500
  Chief Justice                      3,000
  2 Asso. Justices                   3,000
  Senators,       }             $4 pr. day
  Representatives }        and 20c mileage.
  3 Dist. Judges                     3,500
  2 Colls. Int. Rev.                 2,500
  16 Colls. Int. Revenue    1,000 to 1,400

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Anniston                          $1,400
  Birmingham                         2,500
  Eufaula                            1,800
  Florence                           1,200
  Gadsden                            1,300
  Greenville                         1,400
  Huntsville                         1,800
  Marion                             1,500
  Mobile                             3,100
  Montgomery                         2,700
  Opelika                            1,500
  Selma                              2,500
  Talladega                          1,500
  Troy                               1,300
  Tuscaloosa                         1,700
  Union Springs                      1,400
  Uniontown                          1,100
  6 Postoffices                      1,000

Mineral region in northeast corner, extending southwest, about 160 miles,
with average width of about 80 miles; contains three distinct coal fields,
area over 5,000 square miles, and beds, 1 to 8 feet thick; limestone,
sandstone, and iron ore near the coal.

Ranks fourth in cotton, fifth in mules and molasses, sixth in sugar,
seventh in rice and iron ore.

Population, 1,262,505: male, 622,629; female, 639,876; native, 1,252,771;
foreign, 9,734; white, 662,185; colored, 600,107; Indians, 218; slaves,
1860, 435,080.

State elections biennial, first Monday in August; congressional and
presidential, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 33;
Representatives, 100; sessions of legislature biennial, in even-numbered
years, meeting Tuesday after second Monday in November; limit of session,
50 days; term of Senators, 4 years; of Representatives, 2 years.

Number of electoral votes, 10; number of voters, 262,737; colored, 118,423;
native white, 136,058; foreign white, 8,256. Indians, idiots and persons
convicted of crime excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 4; school population, 401,002; school age, 7-21.

Legal interest rate, 8; usury forfeits entire interest. {115}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{116}

MISSISSIPPI. Mis´sis-sip´pi.
"THE BAYOU STATE."

Name of Indian origin, signifying "Father of Waters."

First permanent settlement at Natchez, 1716; admitted 1817; seceded 1861;
re-admitted 1870.

Area, 46,810 square miles; extreme length, 332 miles; extreme breadth, 189
miles; mean breadth, 142 miles; gulf frontage, including irregularities and
islands, 287 miles; harbors at Pascagonia, Biloxi, Mississippi City and
Shieldsborough. Number counties, 74.

Temperature at Vicksburg: winter, 47° to 56°; summer, 80° to 83°. Rainfall,
Natchez, 54 inches.

Jackson, the capital; pop., 5,204. Natchez, an important shipping point;
pop., 7,058. Vicksburg, an extensive cotton market; pop., 11,814.

Railroad mileage, 1844, 26; Jan. 1, 1886, 1,947.

Number farms, 101,772. Average value per acre: cleared land, $7.88;
woodland, $3.78.

Latest reports give 3,501 acres in rice; sugar cane, 4,555 acres; tobacco,
1,595 acres; corn, 1,889,600 acres; cotton, 847,000 bales; sweet potatoes,
3,610,660 bu.; wine, 209,845 gals.; molasses, 536,625 gals.; bales cotton
used, 6,411; looms, 704; spindles, 26,172.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $4,000
  Lieut. Gov.                          800
  Sec'y of State                     2,500
  Treasurer                          2,500
  Auditor                            2,500
  Atty. General                      2,500
  Supt. Pub. Edu.                    2,000
  Com'r Agricult.                    1,000
  Land Com'r.                        1,000
  Adjutant Gen.                        500
  Librarian                            800
  Chief Justice                      3,500
  2 Asso. Justices                   3,500
  Senators, Representatives    $400 a year
  3 Dist. Judges                     3,500
  Col. Int. Rev.                     2,750

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Aberdeen                          $1,500
  Brookhaven                         1,300
  Canton                             1,500
  Columbus                           1,800
  Corinth                            1,500
  Greenville                         1,600
  Grenada                            1,400
  Holly Springs                      1,500
  Jackson                            2,300
  Kosciusko                          1,200
  Meridian                           2,100
  Natchez                            2,100
  Okolona                            1,300
  Oxford                             1,600
  Vicksburgh                         2,500
  West Point                         1,300
  Winona                             1,200
  Yazoo City                         1,400
  5 P.O.                  $1,100 and 1,000

Forest area very large; pine, oak, chestnut, walnut and magnolia trees grow
on uplands and bluffs, and long-leafed pine on islands and in sandy regions
of the south; cotton lands mostly in Yazoo and Mississippi bottoms.

Ranks second in cotton, fifth in rice, sixth in mules and molasses, seventh
in sugar.

Population, 1,131,597: male, 567,177; female, 564,420; native, 1,122,388;
foreign, 9,209; white, 479,398; colored, 650,291; Chinese, 51; Indians,
1,857; slaves, 1860, 436,631.

Governor and State officers elected quadrennially, and legislature every
two years; State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after
first Monday in Nov.; sessions of legislature biennial, in even-numbered
years, meeting Tuesday after first Monday in January; limit of session,
none; number Senators, 37; Representatives, 120; term of Senators, 4 years;
of Representatives, 2 years.

Number electoral votes, 9; number voters, 238,532; colored, 130,278; native
white, 102,580; foreign white, 5,674. Idiots, insane and criminals excluded
from voting.

Number colleges, 8; school population, 444,131; school age, 5-21.

Legal interest, 6; by contract, 10; usury forfeits excess of int. {117}

[Illustration]

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{118}

LOUISIANA. Loo-ee-ze-ah´na.
"CREOLE STATE."

Named in honor of Louis XIV., King of France, when Louisiana was first
colonized; first permanent settlement made by French at New Orleans, 1718:
admitted 1812; seceded January, 1861; re-admitted June, 1868.

Area, 48,720 square miles; greatest length, east and west, 300 miles;
breadth, 240 miles; coast line, 1,256 miles; internal water communication,
2,500 miles; number counties, 58.

Temperature at New Orleans: winter, 53° to 61°; summer, 81° to 83°;
rainfall, 51 inches.

New Orleans, metropolis, port of entry and largest cotton market in the
world; pop., 216,090; capital until 1847, and again from 1868 to 1881.
Baton Rouge, capital; pop., 7,197. Pop. Shreveport, 8,009. Morgan City,
port of entry. State institution for insane at Jackson; for deaf mutes and
blind, Baton Rouge.

Number farms, 1860, 17,328; 1870, 28,481; 1880, 48,292. Average value per
acre, cleared land, $14.36; woodland, $3.53; 57 per cent. of laborers are
engaged in agriculture; rural income, per capita, $209. Latest statistics
give 312,000 bu. salt; 1,318,110 bu. sweet potatoes; 175,000 acres sugar
cane; 122,982 hhds. sugar; 11,696,248 gals. molasses; 23,188,311 lbs. rice;
corn crop, 1884, 11,007,000 bu.; acreage of oats, 35,119, producing 404,000
bu.; cotton, 995,000 bales.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $4,000
  Lieut. Gov.                    $8 pr day
  Treasurer                          2,000
  Sec'y of State                     1,800
  Auditor                            2,500
  Attorney Gen.                      3,000
  Adjutant Gen.                      2,000
  Supt. Pub. Inst.                   2,000
  Com'r of Agr. and Immig.           2,000
  Chief Justice                      5,000
  4 Asso. Justices                   5,000
  Senators,       }              $4 pr day
  Representatives }            and mileage
  2 District Judges         3,500 to 4,500
  Col. of Customs, N. O.             7,000
  Col. Inter. Rev.                   3,875
  Surveyor Gen.                      1,800
  Chf. Draftsman                     1,500
  Supt. of Mint                      3,500
  Chief Clerk                        2,000
  Cashier                            2,000

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Alexandria                        $1,300
  Baton Rouge                        1,700
  Donaldsonville                     1,400
  Franklin                           1,100
  Lake Charles                       1,300
  Monroe                             1,400
  New Iberia                         1,500
  New Orleans                        3,700
  Opelousas                          1,100
  Plaquemine                         1,200
  Shreveport                         2,200
  Thibodeaux                         1,300

Ranks first in sugar and molasses, third in rice, seventh in cotton, ninth
in salt. Total number industries, 1,553; capital invested, $11,462,468;
value products, $24,205,183.

Population, 939,946: male, 468,754; female, 471,192; native, 885,800;
foreign, 54,146; white, 454,954; colored, 483,655; Chinese, 489; Indians,
848; slaves, 1860, 331,726. Legislature and State officers elected
quadrennially; members Congress, biennially. State elections, Tuesday after
third Monday in April; number Senators, 36; Representatives, 98; sessions
biennial, in even-numbered years, meeting second Monday in May; limit of
session, 60 days; terms of Senators and Representatives, 4 years each.

Number electoral votes, 8; number voters, 216,787; colored, 107,977; native
white, 81,777; foreign white, 27,033. Idiots, insane and criminals excluded
from voting.

Sugar cane first cultivated in the United States, near New Orleans, 1751,
and first sugar mill used 1758.

Exports, 1882, $90,238,503; imports, $10,611,353; duties collected,
$2,046,804; railroad mileage, Jan. 1, 1886, 1,397.

Legal interest, 5; by contract, 8; usury forfeits entire interest. {119}

[Illustration]

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{120}

TEXAS. Tex´as.
"LONE STAR STATE."

Origin of name not definitely known; supposed by some have been name of
Indian tribe.

First settlement by French on the Lavaca, 1685; admitted 1845; seceded
February, 1861; re-admitted 1868.

Area, 265,780 square miles; extreme length, 825 miles; extreme breadth, 740
miles; coastline, 400 miles; number counties 230. Temperature at Galveston:
winter, 53° to 63°; summer, 82° to 84°. Rainfall at Fort Brown, 33 inches.

Brownsville, El Paso, Indianola and Galveston are ports of entry. Houston,
important railroad centre; pop., 16,513. Galveston, metropolis, has best
harbor, and is chief shipping point; pop., 22,248. Austin, the capital;
pop., 11,013. San Antonio, oldest town; pop., 20,550. Pop. Dallas, 10,358.

Number farms, 174,184; average value per acre, cleared land, $8.98;
woodland, $4.

Cotton most valuable crop; acreage, 1883, 3,034,922; crop, 1,118,000 bales.
Latest reported products, 4,951 hhds. sugar, 13,000 bbls. molasses,
1,460,079 bu. sweet potatoes, 5,560,600 bu. wheat, 60,290,000 bu. corn,
35,528 gals. wine, 13,899,320 lbs. butter, 50,600 bu. salt, 3,600 tons iron
ore; coal area, 6,000 square miles.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $4,000
  Lieut. Gov.                     $5 a day
  Sec'y of State                     2,000
  Treasurer                          2,500
  Attorney Gen.                      2,000
  Adjutant Gen.                      2,000
  Land Com.                          2,500
  Railroad Com.                      3,000
  Chief Justice                      3,500
  2 Asso. Justices                   3,500
  Senators,       }               $5 a day
  Representatives }            and mileage.
  3 Dist. Judges                     3,500
  Colls. Inter. Revenue     2,500 to 2,750
  17 Deputy Collectors        300 to 1,850

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Austin                            $3,000
  Brenham                            1,900
  Corsicana                          1,900
  Dallas                             3,000
  Denison City                       2,200
  El Paso                            2,100
  Fort Worth                         2,700
  Gainesville                        1,900
  Galveston                          3,200
  Houston                            3,000
  Laredo                             2,000
  Marshall                           2,000
  Palestine                          2,400
  San Antonio                        2,800
  Sherman                            2,300
  Waco                               2,500
  54 Offices                1,900 to 1,100
  7 Offices                          1,000

Cotton picking, July to December; corn planting, middle of February; grain
harvest, May; corn harvest, July.

Ranks first in cattle and cotton; second in sugar, sheep, mules and horses;
sixth in miles railway; seventh in milch cows; eighth in rice and hogs.

Value flouring and grist mill products, $7,617,177; sawed lumber,
$3,673,449; total number industries, 2,996; capital invested, $9,245,561;
value products, $20,719,928.

Pop., 1,591,749: male, 837,840; female, 753,909; native, 1,477,133;
foreign, 114,616; white, 1,197,237; colored, 393,384; Chinese, 136;
Indians, 992.

State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday
in November; number Senators, 31; Representatives, 106; sessions of
legislature biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting second Tuesday in
January; limit of session, 60 days; term of Senators, 4 years; of
Representatives, 2 years.

Number electoral votes, 13; number voters, 380,376. U. S. army, lunatics,
idiots, paupers and convicts excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 10; school pop., 295,344; school age, 8-14.

Legal interest, 8; by contract, 12; usury forfeits entire interest. {121}

[Illustration]

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{122}

ARKANSAS. Ar´kan-saw.
"BEAR STATE."

Name of Indian origin, signifying "Smoky Water," with prefix from French
meaning "Bow."

Settled at Arkansas Post by French, 1685; became a Territory, 1819;
admitted as a State, 1836; seceded March 4, 1861; re-admitted 1868

Area, 53,850 square miles; length, north and south, 240 miles; breadth,
from 170 to 250 miles; Mississippi river frontage, about 400 miles. Number
counties, 75.

Temperature at Little Bock: winter, 42° to 51°; summer, 79° to 82°.
Rainfall, at Fort Smith, 40 in.; and at Washington, 55 in.

Hot Springs, in Garland county, famous for valuable medicinal springs;
temperature of water, over 140°. Little Rock, the capital and metropolis;
population, 13,138.

Number farms, 94,433. Average value per acre, cleared land, $11.78;
woodland, $3.48.

Corn crop, 1884, 32,465,000 bushels; wheat, 1,885,000 bushels; cotton,
513,000 bales. Latest reported tobacco crop, 1,952,872 pounds; oats,
3,542,000 bushels; sweet potatoes, 881,260 bushels. Ranks sixth in cotton,
and ninth in mules.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $3,500
  Sec'y of State                     1,800
  Treasurer                          2,250
  Auditor                            2,250
  Attorney Gen.                      1,500
  Supt. Pub. Inst'n                  1,600
  Land Com'r.                        1,800
  Chief Justice                      3,000
  2 Asso. Justices                   3,000
  Senators, Representatives       $6 a day.
  2 Dist. Judges                     3,500
  Dist. Atty.                  $200 & fees
  2 Asst. Dist. Attys.       $1,200, 1,000
  Col. Int. Rev.                     2,750
  10 Deputy Collectors      1,200 to 1,500

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Arkadelphia                       $1,200
  Batesville                         2,200
  Camden                             1,200
  Dardanelle                         1,000
  Eureka Springs                     1,700
  Fayetteville                       1,500
  Forest City                        1,000
  Fort Smith                         2,000
  Helena                             1,800
  Hope                               1,400
  Hot Springs                        2,400
  Jonesborough                       1,100
  Little Rock                        2,800
  Newport                            1,400
  Pine Bluff                         1,800
  Prescott                           1,100
  Texarkana                          2,000
  Van Buren                          1,300

Number different industries, 2,070; for tar and turpentine, 26; sawing
lumber, 354; flour and grist, 807.

Coal along Arkansas river; iron ores in Ozark Mountains; salt springs near
Ouachita; oilstone near Hot Springs; kaolin in Pulaski county.

Population, 802,525; male, 416,279; female, 386,246; native, 792,175;
foreign, 10,350; white, 591,531; colored, 210,666; Chinese, 133; Indians,
195; slaves, 1860, 111,115.

State elections biennial, in even-numbered years, meeting first Monday in
September; congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first
Monday in November; number Senators, 31; Representatives, 94; sessions of
legislature biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting second Monday in
January; limit of session, 60 days; term of Senators, 4 years; of
Representatives, 2 years.

Number electoral votes, 7; number voters, 182,977; native white, 129,675;
foreign white, 6,475; colored, 46,827. Idiots, Indians, and persons
convicted of crime excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 5; school population, 289,617; school age, 6-21.

Legal interest rate, 6; by contract, 10; usury forfeits principal and
interest. {123}

[Illustration]

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{124}

MISSOURI. Mis-soo´ree.
"THE PENNSYLVANIA OF THE WEST."

Name signifies "Mud River," and was taken from that of the river of same
name. First settled at Ste. Genevieve by the French in 1755; organized as a
Territory, 1812; admitted 1821.

Area, 69,415 square miles, nearly that of combined ares of New England
States; length, north and south, 275 miles; average breadth, 245 miles;
Mississippi river frontage, nearly 500 miles; number counties, 115.

Temperature at St. Louis: winter, 30° to 43°; summer, 75° to 80°; rainfall,
42 inches.

St. Louis, largest city west of the Mississippi, port of entry and great
commercial and manufacturing point; pop., 350,518. Capital, Jefferson City;
pop., 5,271. Pop. St. Joseph, 32,431; of Kansas City,--Chicago of the
West,--55,787.

Number farms, 215,575; average value per acre, cleared land, $14.52;
woodland, $8.25.

Corn crop, 1884, 197,850,000 bu.; wheat, 27,500,000 bu.; oats, 30,774,000
bu.; potatoes, 1883, 6,535,570 bu.; tobacco, 10,540,000 lbs.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $5,000
  Sec'y of State                     3,000
  Treasurer                          3,000
  Auditor                            3,000
  Attorney Gen.                      3,000
  Adjutant Gen.                      2,000
  Supt. Pub. Sch'ls                  3,000
  Register Lands                     3,000
  3 Railr'd Com'rs                   3,000
  Supt. Ins. Dep't.                  4,000
  Chief Justice                      4,500
  Senators,        }            $5 a day &
  Representatives. }       mileage and $30
  2 Dist. Judges                     3,500
  5 Collectors Int. Rev.    2,250 to 4,500
  Surveyor of Cust. St. L.           5,000

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Carthage                          $2,300
  Chillicothe                        1,800
  Clinton                            1,800
  Columbia                           1,900
  Hannibal                           2,500
  Jefferson City                     2,100
  Joplin                             1,800
  Kansas City                        3,600
  Louisiana                          1,800
  Maryville                          1,800
  Mexico                             1,900
  Moberly                            1,900
  Nevada                             1,300
  Saint Joseph                       3,200
  Saint Louis                        6,000
  Sedalia                            2,600
  Springfield                        2,400
  Warrensburgh                       1,800
  60 P.O.                   1,700 to 1,000

Latest reports give 548,990 tons coal; iron ore, 388,197 tons, value at
$1,674,875; marble and limestone, 4,419,300 cubic feet. Lead is found in
southwest, centre and southeast, having area of over 5,000 square miles.

Latest reported stock on farms; horses, 701,702; milch cow, 674,565; cattle
other than cows and oxen, 1,410,507; sheep, 1,439,880; swine, 4,087,566.
Hogs packed winter 1881-82, 804,239.

Ranks first in mules; third in oxen, hogs, corn and copper; sixth in iron
ore, milch cows and horses; seventh in oats; eighth in wheat and tobacco;
ninth in railroad mileage, sheep and potatoes.

Population, 2,168,380; male, 1,127,187; females 1,041,193; native,
1,966,802; foreign, 211,578; white, 2,022,826; colored, 145,350; Chinese,
91; Indians, 113.

Governor and State officers elected quadrennially, and legislature every
two years. State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after
1st Monday in November; number Senators, 34; Representatives, 141; sessions
of legislature biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting Wednesday after
January 1st; limit of session 70 days; term of Senators, 4 years;
Representatives, 2 years. Number electoral votes, 16; number voters,
541,207. U. S. army and inmates of asylums, poorhouses and prisons,
excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 17; school population, 741,632; school age, 6-20.

Legal interest rate, 6; by contract, 10; usury forfeits entire interest.
{125}

[Illustration]

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{126}

TENNESSEE. T[)e]n-nê-see´.
"BIG BEND STATE."

Name derived from "Tannassee," Indian name for Little Tennessee river.
First permanent settlement, 1756, on Tennessee river about 30 miles from
present site of Knoxville; first Anglo-American settlement west of the
Alleghanies and south of Pennsylvania; admitted 1845; seceded February,
1861; re-admitted 1868.

Area, 42,050 square miles, nearly that of Virginia; greatest length east
and west, 432 miles; greatest breadth, 109 miles. Number of counties, 96.

Temperature at Nashville: winter, 37° to 48°; summer, 75° to 81°. Rainfall
at Memphis, 45 inches.

Nashville, capital and metropolis, also most wealthy and prosperous city;
population, 43,350. Memphis, principal grain and cotton market between St.
Louis and New Orleans; pop., 33,592. Population Chattanooga, 12,898; of
Jackson, 8,377; of Knoxville. 9,693.

First railroad; a portion of the Nashville & Chattanooga, between Nashville
and Bridgeport, 1853; mileage, Jan. 1, 1886, 2,178.

Number farms, 165,650. Value per acre, cleared land, $13; woodland, $7.28.
Corn crop of 1884, 65,723,000 bu.; wheat, 9,320,000 bu.; cotton, 314,000
bales; potatoes, 1883, 2,404,647 bu.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $4,000
  Secretary of State          1,800 & fees
  Treasurer                          2,750
  Comptroller                        2,750
  Attorney Gen.                      3,000
  Supt. Pub. Inst'n.                 1,800
  Adjutant Gen.                      1,200
  Com'r Agr.                         3,000
  3 RR. Comm'rs                      2,000
  Librarian                          1,000
  Chief Justice                      4,000
  Senators,       }               $4 a day
  Representatives }          & 16c. a mile.
  3 Dist. Judges                     3,500
  Pension Agent                      4,000
  3 Colls. Int. Rev.        4,375 to 2,250

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Bristol                           $1,700
  Brownsville                        1,300
  Chattanooga                        2,800
  Clarksville                        2,000
  Columbia                           1,800
  Dyersburgh                         1,000
  Gallatin                           1,400
  Jackson                            1,900
  Jonesborough                       1,000
  Knoxville                          2,900
  Lebanon                            1,500
  Memphis                            3,300
  Murfr'sborough                     1,600
  Nashville                          3,300
  Pulaski                            1,500
  Shelbyville                        1,400
  Union City                         1,500
  6 Post Offices                     1,200
  4 Post Offices                     1,100

Most valuable minerals are iron, copper and coal; area coal fields, over
5,000 square miles; product of pig iron, 70,873 tons; copper region in
southwest, producing, from 1870 to 1880, nearly 13,000,000 lbs. ingot
copper; excellent marbles and limestones, $131,700 being invested in
quarries.

Ranks second in peanuts, average yield being 40 bu. per acre; third in
mules; sixth in tobacco, yield being 707 lbs. per acre; seventh in copper;
seventh in hogs; ninth in corn and cotton. Hemp, broom corn and flax are
also valuable products.

Population, 1,542,359: male, 769,277; female, 773,082; native, 1,525,657;
foreign, 16,702; white, 1,138,831; colored, 403,151; Chinese, 25; Indians,
352. Slaves, 1860, 275,719.

State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday
in November; number Senators, 33; Representatives, 99; sessions biennial,
in odd-numbered years, meeting first Monday in January; limit of session,
75 days; terms of Senators and Representatives, 2 years each. Number
electoral votes, 12; number voters, 571,244; native white, 240,939; foreign
white, 250,055; colored, 80,250. Non-payers of poll-tax excluded from
voting.

Legal interest rate, 6; by contract, any rate; usury forfeits excess of
interest and $100 fine. {127}

[Illustration]

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{128}

KENTUCKY. "CORN CRACKER STATE."

Name signifies "Dark and Bloody Ground," the country being the ancient
hunting grounds of the Indians.

Earliest explorations made by John Finley and others, 1767; Daniel Boone
established himself there, 1769, admitted as a State, 1792. Area, 40,400
square miles; greatest length, 350 miles; greatest breadth, 178 miles;
river frontage, 812 miles; navigable waters, about 4,000 miles. Number
counties, 118.

Temperature at Louisville: winter, 34° to 44°; summer, 75° to 80°. Rainfall
at Springdale, 49 inches.

Louisville, the commercial emporium of the State, has large tobacco
warehouses and pork-packing establishments; population, 123,758. Frankfort,
the capital: population, 6,958. Population of Covington, 29,720. Lexington,
former capital, founded 1776; population, 16,666. Newport connected with
Covington by suspension bridge; population, 20,433. Louisville and Paducah,
ports of entry.

Number farms, 166,453. Average value per acre, cleared land, $18.86;
woodland, $12.82.

Ranks high as an agricultural State. Corn crop, 1884, 71,880,800 bu.;
wheat, 13,425,000 bu.; oats, 7,865,000 bu.; tobacco, 1882, 198,905,994 lbs.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $5,000
  Sec'y of State                     1,600
  Treasurer                          2,400
  Auditor                            2,600
  Atty. Gen.                   $500 & fees
  Reg. Ld. Office                    2,400
  Com'r of Agr.                      2,000
  Ins. Com'r.                        4,000
  3 R. R. Com'rs                     2,000
  Chief Justice                      5,000
  3 Asso. Justices                   5,000
  Senators,       }             $5 pr. day
  Representatives }       mileage 15 cents.
  District Judge                     3,500
  Pension Agent                      4,000
  6 Cols. Int. Rev.                  4,600
  60 Deputy Collectors        300 to 2,000

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Bowling Green                     $1,800
  Covington                          2,600
  Danville                           1,800
  Frankfort                          2,300
  Georgetown                         1,600
  Henderson                          1,800
  Hopkinsville                       1,800
  Lexington                          2,700
  Louisville                         3,700
  Maysville                          2,000
  Mt. Sterling                       1,700
  Newport                            2,100
  Owensborough                       2,000
  Paducah                            2,300
  Paris                              1,800
  Richmond                           1,600
  Shelbyville                        1,600
  22 Offices                1,500 to 1,000

Has a world-wide reputation for thoroughbred horses and cattle. Latest
reports give for stock on farms, horses, 370,028; milch cows, 304,720;
cattle other than cows and oxen, 505,746; sheep, 980,166; swine, 1,954,919.
Ranks first in tobacco; fourth in malt and distilled liquors; sixth in
hogs; seventh in corn; eighth in rye, coal and mules.

Population, 1,648,690; male, 832,590; female, 816,100; native, 1,589,173;
foreign, 59,517; white, 1,377,179; colored, 271,451; Chinese, 10; Indians,
50; slaves, 1860, 225,483.

State elections biennial, first Monday in August, in odd-numbered years;
congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday in
November; number Senators, 38; Representatives, 100; sessions of
legislature biennial, in even-numbered years, meeting last day of December;
limit of session, 60 days, unless extended by vote; term of Senators, 4
years; of Representatives, 2 years.

Number electoral votes, 13; number voters, 376,221. Bribers, robbers and
forgers excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 15; public school system framed, 1838; school age, 6-20.

Legal int., 6; by contract, 10; usury forfeits excess over 10 per cent.
{129}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{130}

OHIO. O-hi´o.
"BUCKEYE STATE."

Name of Indian origin, signifying "Beautiful River."

First permanent settlement at Marietta, 1788; admitted as a State, 1802.

Area, 41,060 square miles; greatest length east and west, 225 miles:
extreme breadth, 200 miles; Ohio river frontage, 430 miles; lake frontage,
230 miles; number counties, 88.

Temperature at Cleveland: winter, 27° to 38°; summer, 68° to 72° At
Cincinnati: winter, 34° to 45°; summer, 74° to 79°. Rainfall at Cleveland,
38 inches.

Cincinnati, "Queen City of the West," founded 1789, the metropolis; pop.,
255,139. Cleveland has one of the best harbors on the lake; pop., 160,146.
Columbus, capital and great railroad center; pop., 51,647. Chillicothe,
capital, 1800 to 1810; Zanesville, 1810 to 1812; Chillicothe, 1812 to 1816;
Columbus, 1816. Toledo, Sandusky, Cleveland and Cincinnati ports of entry.

Number farms, 247,189, of which 199,562 are occupied by owners; average
value per acre, cleared land, $47.53; woodland, $41.37 wheat crop, 1884,
41,186,000 bu.; corn, 85,393,000 bu.; Oats, 23,419,000 bu.; potatoes, 1883,
16,452,315 bu.; tobacco, 29,947,536 lbs. Average value corn, 1881, 41
cents; wheat, 75 cents; oats, 29 cents.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $4,000
  Sec'y of State                     3,000
  Treasurer                          3,000
  Auditor                            3,000
  Attorney Gen.                      2,000
  School Comm'r.                     2,000
  Supt. Ins. Dep't                   1,800
  Railroad Com'r                     2,000
  Sec'y Board Ag.                    1,800
  Com. Lab. Stati.                   2,000
  Chief Justice                      3,500
  Senators,       }             $600 a y'r
  Representatives }       and 12c. mileage.
  2 District Judges           3,500, 4,000
  Pension Agt.                       4,000
  8 Collectors Int. Rev.    2,500 to 4,500

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Akron                             $2,800
  Canton                             2,700
  Chillicothe                        2,400
  Cincinnati                         6,000
  Cleveland                          3,700
  Columbus                           3,400
  Dayton                             3,200
  Delaware                           2,400
  Hamilton                           2,400
  Lima                               2,400
  Mansfield                          2,700
  Newark                             2,400
  Portsmouth                         2,400
  Sandusky                           2,500
  Springfield                        3,100
  Steubenville                       2,400
  Toledo                             3,400
  Youngstown                         2,600
  Zanesville                         2,700
  118 P.O.                  2,300 to 1,000

Latest reported dairy products give: milk, 46,801,537 gallons; butter,
67,869,604 lbs.; cheese, 19,978,436 lbs. Pork packing extensively carried
on; hogs packed winter 1881-82, 618,348.

Ranks first in agricultural implements and wool; second in petroleum, iron
and steel; third in wheat, sheep, coal, malt and distilled liquors; fourth
in printing and publishing, salt, miles railway and soap; fifth in milch
cows, hogs, horses, hay, tobacco and iron ore.

Population, 3,198,062; male, 1,613,931; female, 1,584,126; natives
2,803,119; foreign, 394,943; white, 3,117,920; colored, 79,900; Chinese,
109; Indians, 130.

State and congressional elections, Tuesday after first Monday in November;
number Senators, 33; Representatives, 105; sessions biennial, but
"adjourned sessions" practically amount to annual meetings; time, first
Monday in January; limit of session, none; terms of Senators and
Representatives, 2 years each.

Number electoral votes, 23; number voters, 826,577; insane and idiots
excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 35; school population, 1,081,321; school age, 6-21.

Legal interest rate, 6; by contract, 8; usury forfeits excess above 6 per
cent. {131}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{132}

INDIANA. In-de-ah´nah.
"HOOSIER STATE."

First settled by Canadian voyagers at Vincennes, 1702; organized as a
Territory, 1800; admitted 1816.

Area, 36,350 square miles; extreme length, 276 miles; average breadth, 140
miles; shore line on Lake Michigan, 40 miles. Michigan City the lake port.
Number counties, 92.

Temperature at Indianapolis: winter, 29° to 41°; summer, 73° to 78°.
Rainfall at Richmond, 43 inches.

Indianapolis is the capital and most flourishing city, and contains deaf
and dumb, blind, and insane asylums; pop., 75,056. Terre Haute, extensive
iron, whisky and pork market; pop., 26,042 Evansville, commercial centre of
the southwest; pop., 29,280. Fort Wayne, emporium of the northeast; pop.,
26,880.

Number farms, 194,013; average value, per acre, cleared land, $30.46;
woodland, $26.90. Corn the most valuable crop; yield of 1884, 104,757,000
bu.; wheat, 31,270,000 bu.; oats, 78,650,000 bu. Dairy interest large and
increasing; also the business of pork packing. Latest reports give
37,659,029 lbs. butter, and 1,521,275 lbs. cheese. Number hogs packed,
winter 1881-82, 349,261.

Coal fields, about 6,500 square miles, extending from Warren county south
to the Ohio; varieties are coking coal, Indiana block and cannel.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $5,000
  Lieut. Gov.                     $8 a day
  Sec'y of State                     2,000
  Treasurer                          3,000
  Auditor                            1,500
  Attorney Gen.                      2,500
  Supt. Pub. Inst.                   2,500
  Sec. Bd. of Agr.                   1,200
  Librarian                          1,200
  5 Judges.                          4,000
  Senators,       }               $6 a day
  Representatives }      and 20c. per mile.
  District Judge                     3,500
  Pension Agent                      4,000
  6 Colls. Int. Rev.        2,375 to 4,500
  Surveyor Customs           $1,000 & fees

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Crawfordsville                    $2,100
  Elkhart                            2,400
  Evansville                         2,900
  Fort Wayne                         2,900
  Goshen                             2,200
  Indianapolis                       3,500
  La Fayette                         2,700
  La Porte                           2,200
  Logansport                         2,400
  Madison                            2,000
  New Albany                         2,300
  Peru                               2,000
  Richmond                           2,700
  South Bend                         2,600
  Terre Haute                        2,800
  Valparaiso                         2,200
  Vincennes                          2,200
  36 Offices                1,900 to 1,500
  40 Offices                1,400 to 1,000

Ranks second in wheat; fourth in corn, hogs and agricultural implements;
sixth in coal; seventh in horses, oxen and other cattle, malt and distilled
liquors, and miles of railway; ninth in hay and milch cows.

Pop., 1,978,301: male, 1,010,361; female, 967,940; native, 1,834,123;
foreign, 144,178; white, 1,938,798; colored, 39,228; Chinese, 29; Indians,
246.

State, congressional and presidential elections. Tuesday after first Monday
in November; number Senators, 50; Representatives, 100; sessions of
legislature biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting Thursday after first
Monday in January; limit of session, 60 days; term of Senators, 4 years; of
Representatives, 2 years.

Number electoral votes, 15; number voters, 498,437. Fraudulent voters and
bribers excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 15; State University at Bloomington; medical school at
Indianapolis; university at Notre Dame; flourishing common-school system;
school population, 708,596; school age, 6-21.

Legal interest rate, 6; by contract, 8; usury forfeits excess of interest.
{133}

[Illustration]

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{134}

ILLINOIS Il-lin-oí
"PRAIRIE OR SUCKER STATE."

From a tribe of Indians, signifying "a superior class of men."

First permanent settlement by French at Kaskaskia, 1682; organized as a
Territory, 1809; admitted as a State, 1818.

Area, 56,650 square miles; greatest length, 385 miles; greatest breadth,
218 miles; highest land, 1,150 feet. Number of counties, 102. Has 4,000
miles navigable streams. Temperature at Chicago: winter, 25° to 37°;
Summer, 68° to 73°. At Cairo: winter, 35° to 54°; summer, 76° to 80°.
Rainfall at Peoria, 35 inches.

Kaskaskia, first capital, which was removed to Vandalia, 1818; and to
Springfield, 1836. Chicago, "Garden City of the West;" pop., 503,185.
Peoria ranks second; pop., 29,259. Quincy, third; pop., 27,268.
Springfield, capital; pop., 19,743.

Number of farms, 255,741, of which 175,497 are occupied by owners. Value
per acre, cleared land, $33.03; woodland, $23.68; 8,151,463 acres in corn,
1884, producing 244,544,000 bu.; wheat, 2,790,900 acres, producing
32,374,000 bu.; oats, 2,990,983 acres, producing 98,153,000 bu.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $6,000
  Sec'y of State                     3,500
  Treasurer                          3,500
  Auditor                            3,500
  Attorney Gen.                      3,500
  Chief Justice                      5,000
  Senators,       }             $5 pr. day,
  Representatives }     mileage 10c. & $50
  2 Dist. Judges              4,000, 3,500
  Pension Agent                      4,000
  8 Colls. Int. Rev.        2,125 to 4,500
  Col. of Customs                    7,000
  Auditor                            2,200
  Appraiser                          3,000
  Examiner                           2,000

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Aurora                            $2,500
  Bloomington                        2,900
  Cairo                              2,400
  Chicago                            6,000
  Decatur                            2,700
  Elgin                              3,200
  Freeport                           2,600
  Galesburgh                         2,600
  Jacksonville                       2,500
  Joliet                             2,600
  Moline                             2,500
  Ottawa                             2,400
  Peoria                             3,200
  Quincy                             3,000
  Rockford                           3,000
  Rock Island                        2,500
  Springfield                        2,800
  173 Offices               2,400 to 1,000

First recorded coal mine in America located near Ottawa, 1669. Coal area,
over three-fourths of entire State; estimated to contain one-seventh of all
known coal in North America; product, 1882, 9,000,000 tons.

Superior quality limestone on Fox and Desplaines rivers; lead most
important mineral; Galena in centre of richest diggings of the Northwest.
Rich salt wells in Saline and Gallatin counties, 75 gallons brine making 50
pounds salt.

Ranks first in corn, wheat, oats, meat packing, lumber traffic, malt and
distilled liquors and miles railway; second in rye, coal, agricultural
implements, soap and hogs; fourth in hay, potatoes, iron and steel, mules,
milch cows and other cattle.

Population, 3,077,871: male, 1,586,523; female, 1,491,348; native,
2,494,295; foreign, 583,576; white, 3,031,151; colored, 46,368; Chinese,
209; Japanese, 3; Indians, 140.

State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday
in November; number Senators, 51; Representatives, 153; sessions biennial,
in odd-numbered years, meeting first Monday in January; limit of session,
none; term of Senators, 4 years; Representatives, 2 years. Number electoral
votes, 22; number voters, 796,847; convicts are excluded from voting.

School system excellent; number colleges, 28: school age, 6-21.

Legal interest, 6; by contract, 8; usury forfeits entire interest. {135}

[Illustration]

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{136}

MICHIGAN. Mish´e-gan
"WOLVERINE OR LAKE STATE."

Name of Indian origin, signifying Lake country.

First white settlement within limits of State, Sault Ste. Marie, 1668;
organized as Territory, 1805; admitted 1837.

Area, 58,915 square miles; length of lower peninsula, from north to south,
277 miles; greatest breadth, 259 miles. Length of upper peninsula, east to
west, 318 miles; width, 30 to 164 miles. Length lake shoreline, 1,620
miles. Number counties, 82.

Temperature at Detroit, winter, 24° to 36°; summer, 67° to 72°: rainfall,
30 inches.

Detroit the metropolis; pop., 133,269. Grand Rapids, manufacturing city;
pop., 41,934. Lansing, the capital; pop., 9,776. Pop. Bay City, 29,413;
East Saginaw, 29,100; Jackson, 19,136; Muskegon, 17,845; Saginaw, 13,767.
Detroit, Marquette, Port Huron and Grand Haven are ports of entry.

Number farms, 154,008. Value per acre, cleared land, $34.39; woodland,
$20.27. Corn crop, 1884, 26,022,000 bu.; wheat, 29,772,000 bu.; oats,
19,990,000 bu. Fruit raising an important industry.

Copper mines in Houghton, Ontonagon, and Keweenaw counties; valuable iron
ores in Marquette and Delta counties; coal in Shiawassee, Eaton, Ingham and
Jackson counties. Salt manufactured in year ending November 30, 1884,
3,252,175 barrels.

  Salaries State Officers.

  Governor                          $1,000
  Lieut. Gov.                     $3 a day
  Sec'y of State                       800
  Treasurer                          1,000
  Auditor Gen.                       2,000
  Supt. Pub. Inst'n                  1,000
  Adjutant Gen.                      1,000
  Secy Bd. Agr.                      1,500
  Insur. Com'r.                      2,000
  R. R. Com'r.                       2,500
  Immig. Com'r.                      2,000
  Chief Justice                      4,000
  Senators        }               $3 a day
  Representatives }       and 10c per mile
  2 Dist. Judges                     3,500
  Pension Agt.                       4,000
  4 Colls. Int. Revenue     3,875 to 2,625

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Adrian                            $2,400
  Ann Arbor                          2,600
  Battle Creek                       2,600
  Bay City                           2,700
  Big Rapids                         2,300
  Detroit                            3,700
  East Saginaw                       2,700
  Flint                              2,400
  Grand Rapids                       3,200
  Jackson                            2,700
  Kalamazoo                          2,700
  Lansing                            2,700
  Marshall                           2,300
  Muskegon                           2,500
  Port Huron                         2,400
  Saginaw                            2,300
  52 P.O.                  $2,200 to 1,500
  38 P.O.                   1,400 to 1,100
   9 P.O.                            1,000

Ranks first in copper, lumber and salt; second in iron ore; third in
buckwheat; fifth in sheep, hops and potatoes; sixth in wheat and barley;
seventh in agricultural implements; eighth in miles railway; ninth in oats.

Grand Haven, Au Sable and Detroit are centres of valuable fishing
interests; principal catch is trout and whitefish.

Population, 1,843,369: male, 958,551; female, 884,818; native, 1,419,395;
foreign, 423,974; white, 1,817,562; colored, 17,548; Indians, 8,259.

State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday
in November; number Senators, 32; Representatives, 100; sessions of
legislature biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting first Wednesday in
January; limit of session, none; terms of Senators and Representatives, 2
years each.

Number electoral votes, 13; number voters, 467,687. Duelists are excluded
from voting.

Number colleges, 9; efficient public schools; school age, 5-20.

Legal interest, 7; by contract, 10; usury forfeits excess of interest.
{137}

[Illustration]

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{138}

WISCONSIN. W[)i]s-k[)o]n´s[)i]n.
"BADGER STATE."

From river of same name; an Indian word signifying "Wild-rushing River."
First settled by French, at Green Bay, 1669; organized as a Territory,
1836; first Territorial legislature at Belmont, Sept. 1, 1836; admitted as
a State, 1847.

Area, 56,040 square miles; greatest length, 300 miles; greatest breadth,
260 miles; Mississippi river navigable throughout southwest boundary;
excellent harbors in Lake Superior on north, and Lake Michigan on east.
Port Washington, one of the finest natural harbors in tie world. Number
counties, 67. Temperature at Milwaukee; winter, 19°to 31°; summer, 63° to
70°; rainfall, 30 inches.

Milwaukee, port of entry, great pork packing and beer brewing centre; also
grain and wheat market: pop., 158,509. Madison, capital; pop., 12,064.
Population Eau Claire, 21,668; Fond du Lac, 12,726.

Number farms, 102,904; average value per acre, cleared land, $26.27;
woodland, $19.55. Wheat most valuable crop; cultivation of flax increasing;
many acres devoted to culture of cranberries; buckwheat crop, 1883, 177,792
bu.; hay, 2,354,835 tons; corn, 1884, 26,200,000 bu.; oats, 45,940,000 bu.;
wheat, 20,083,000 bu. Latest reported dairy products: milk, 25,156,977
gals.; butter, 33,739,055 lbs.; cheese, 19,088,405 lbs.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $5,000
  Sec'y of State                     5,000
  Treasurer                          5,000
  Attorney Gen.                      3,000
  Railr'd Com'r.                     3,000
  Chief Justice                      5,000
  4 Asso. Justices                   5,000
  2 Dist. Judges                     3,500
  Senators,       }           $500 per y'r,
  Representatives }            mileage 10c.
  Pension Agent                      4,000
  Indian Agent                       1,500
  4 Colls. Int. Revenue     4,500 to 2,750
  23 Deputy Collect'rs        1,800 to 300
  Collect'r of Customs        1,000 & fees.

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Appleton                          $2,400
  Beloit                             2,300
  Chippewa Falls                     2,100
  Eau Claire                         2,600
  Fond du Lac                        2,500
  Green Bay                          2,200
  Janesville                         2,500
  La Crosse                          2,600
  Madison                            2,700
  Milwaukee                          3,600
  Oshkosh                            2,600
  Racine                             2,700
  Sheboygan                          2,100
  Watertown                          2,000
  Waukesha                           2,000
  Wausau                             2,000
  Whitewater                         1,900
  66 Offices                1,800 to 1,000

Extensive lead mines in Grant, Lafayette and Iowa counties; native copper
in the north, in Crawford and Iowa counties. Milwaukee clay famous for
making cream-colored brick. Iron ores in Dodge, Sauk, Jackson and Ashland
counties.

Ranks second in hops, third in barley and potatoes, fourth in rye and
buckwheat, fifth in oats and agricultural implements, seventh, in iron and
steel, eighth in hay and milch cows, and ninth in copper.

Population, 1,563,423: male, 811,051; female, 752,372: native, 1,069,433;
foreign, 493,990: white, 1,555,152; colored, 5,576; Indians, 2695

State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday
in November; number Senators, 33; Representatives, 100; sessions biennial,
in odd-numbered years, meeting second Wednesday in January; limit of
session, none; term of Senators, 4 years; of Representatives, 2 years.
Number electoral votes, 11; number voters, 340,482; insane, idiots,
convicts, bribers, betters and dualists excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 7; number public schools, 6,588; school population,
495,233; school age, 4-20.

Legal interest, 7; by contract, 10; usury forfeits entire interest. {139}

[Illustration]

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{140}

IOWA [=I]´o-wah.
"HAWKEYE STATE."

Name is of Indian origin, and means "The Beautiful land."

Part of the Louisiana purchase; merged into Missouri Territory, 1812; into
Michigan, 1834; into Wisconsin, 1836. First white settlement at Dubuque,
1788. Admitted as a State, 1846.

Area, 56,025 square miles, about that of Illinois; extent north and south,
208 miles; east and west, about 300 miles. Principal rivers within State:
Des Moines, Iowa and Little Sioux. Number counties, 99. Temperature at
Davenport: winter, 21° to 37°; summer, 70° to 76°. Rainfall at Mascutine,
43 inches.

Des Moines, metropolis and capital: pop., 32,469. Pop. of Dubuque, 26,330;
of Davenport, 23,830; of Burlington, 23,459; of Council Bluffs, 21,557.
Keokuk, Burlington and Dubuque are United States ports of delivery.

Number farms, 185,351; average value per acre, cleared land, $27.36;
woodland, $39.36. Corn crop, 1884, 252,600,000 bu.; wheat, 31,270,000 bu.;
oats, 78,650,000 bu.; potatoes, 1883, 13,216,868 bu.; barley, 4,638,348
bu.; sorgham syrup, 2,640,000 gals.

Dairy interest growing in importance, creamery and factory products
bringing high prices. There were 60,940,553 lbs. of butter and 3,378,924
lbs. cheese made in 1880.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $3,000
  Lieut. Gov.                        1,100
  Sec'y of State                     2,200
  Treasurer                          2,200
  Auditor                            2,200
  Attorney Gen.        $1,500 and $5 a day
  Supt. Pub. Inst.                   2,200
  3 R. R. Comm'rs                    3,000
  Librarian                          1,500
  Chief Justice                      4,000
  4 Asso. Justices                   4,000
  Senators, Representatives  $550 per year
  2 Dist. Judges                     3,500
  Pension Agent                      4,000
  4 Colls. Int. Rev.        2,500 to 4,500

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Burlington                        $3,000
  Cedar Rapids                       2,900
  Clinton                            2,400
  Council Bluffs                     2,800
  Creston                            2,300
  Davenport                          2,900
  Des Moines                         3,300
  Dubuque                            3,000
  Iowa City                          2,400
  Keokuk                             2,600
  Le Mars                            2,100
  Marshalltown                       2,500
  Muscatine                          2,400
  Oakalsosa                          2,400
  Ottumwa                            2,500
  Sioux City                         2,700
  Waterloo                           2,400
  63 Offices,               2,000 to 1,500
  52 Offices,               1,400 to 1,000

Manufacturing establishments are numerous, including canning factories,
stove and other foundries, engine-building, paper and woolen mills, lumber
and saw mills, etc.

Ranks first in hogs; second in milch cows, oxen and other cattle, corn, hay
and oats; third in horses; fifth in barley and miles of railway: sixth in
potatoes and rye; seventh in wheat and coal.

Pop., 1,753,980: male, 911,759; female, 842,221: native, 1,443,576;
foreign, 310,404: white, 1,753,980; colored, 9,310; Chinese, 33; Indians,
466

State elections annual, Tuesday after second Monday In October, excepting
years of presidential elections, when State congressional and presidential
elections occur together; number Senators, 50; Representatives, 100;
sessions of legislature biennial, in even-numbered years, meeting second
Monday in January; limit of session, none; term of Senators, 4 yrs.; of
Representatives, 2 yrs.

Number electoral votes, 13; number voters, 416,658. Idiots, insane and
criminals excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 19: school pop., 604,739; school age, 5-21.

Legal interest rate, 6; by contract, 10; usury forfeits 10 per cent. per
year on amount. State has adopted prohibition. {141}

[Illustration]

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{142}

MINNESOTA. Min´ne-s[=o]ta.
"GOPHER STATE."

Named from the river; term of Indian origin, signifying "whitish or
sky-colored water."

Explored by Hennepin and La Salle, 1680; Fort Snelling built 1819;
organized as a Territory, 1849; admitted 1858.

Area, 83,365 square miles, extreme length, 380 miles; breadth near north
line, 337 miles; near middle, 183 miles; and on the south line, 262 miles.
Number counties, 80.

Temperature at St. Paul: winter, 11° to 30°; summer, 67° to 74°. Rainfall
at Fort Snelling, 25 inches.

Pembina, port of entry on Red river. St. Paul, port of delivery and
capital; population, 148,074. Minneapolis, metropolis and great commercial
centre for lumber, wheat and flour; population, 147,810. Land offices at
Taylor's Falls, Fergus Falls, Worthington, Redwood Falls, Benson and
Duluth.

Number farms, 140,000; value per acre, cleared land, $20; woodland, $15.
Total acreage of the State, 53,353,600; in farms, 16,000,000; in forests,
1,800,000.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $3,800
  Lieut. Gov.                          600
  Sec'y of State                     1,800
  Treasurer                          3,500
  Auditor                            3,000
  Attorney Gen.                      2,500
  Supt. Pub. Ins.                    2,500
  Adjutant Gen.                      1,500
  Pub. Examiner                      3,000
  Ins. Comm'r                        2,000
  Com. Statistics                    2,000
  R. R. Commis'nr                    3,000
  State Librarian                    2,000
  Chief Justice                      4,500
  Senators,       }               $5 a day
  Representatives }       and 15c. mileage.
  Dist. Judge                        3,500

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Brainerd                          $2,000
  Crookston                          1,800
  Duluth                             2,500
  Faribault                          2,100
  Fergus Falls                       2,000
  Mankato                            2,200
  Minneapolis                        3,500
  Morehead                           1,800
  Northfield                         1,800
  Red Wing                           2,300
  Rochester                          2,200
  Saint Cloud                        1,900
  Saint Paul                         3,500
  Stillwater                         2,400
  Winona                             2,500
  9 P.O.                    1,700 to 1,500
  14 "                      1,400 to 1,200
  10 "                               1,100
  4  "                               1,000

Wheat the staple, and milling the great industry, giving employment to
nearly 4,000 people. Capital invested in flour and grist mills,
$21,000,000; value of products, $45,000,000. Corn crop, 1884, 28,630,000
bu., valued at $7,797,900; wheat, 50,117,481 bu., valued at $25,000,000;
oats, 36,100,000 bu., valued at $7,220,000. Average value of corn, 1884, 33
cents; of wheat, 50 cents; of oats, 20 cents.

Ranks fourth in wheat and barley, sixth in hay, eighth in oats.

Dairy interest increasing in value; production of butter and cheese
becoming one of great industries; latest reports give 19,223,835 lbs.
butter; cheese, 975,329 lbs.

Population, 1,118,486: male, 605,551; female, 512,935: native, 733,320;
foreign, 381,340: white, 1,115,358; colored, 1,814; Chinese, 99: Indians,
1,215.

State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday
in November; number Senators, 47; Representatives, 103; sessions of
legislature biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting Tuesday after first
Monday in January; limit of session, 60 days; term of Senators, 4 years; of
Representatives, 2 years.

Number electoral votes, 7; number voters, 306,435; idiots, insane and
convicts excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 5; school population, 400,000; school age, 5-21.

Legal interest rate, 7; by contract, 10; usury forfeits excess over 10 per
cent. {143}

[Illustration]

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{144}

DAKOTA. Da-k[=o]´ta.

So called from a tribe of Indians of the same name.

First permanent white settlements made by Lord Selkirk at Pembina, 1812;
organized as a Territory, 1861; first legislature at Yankton, March, 1862.

Area, 149,100 square miles; average length, 450 miles; breadth, 350 miles;
ranks in size next to Texas and California. General elevation, 1,000 to
2,500 feet; Red river frontage, about 250 miles; the Missouri navigable
throughout the Territory. Number counties, 136.

Temperature at Bismarck: winter, 4° to 27°; summer, 63° to 71°. Climate
dry, and cold not so penetrating as in moister regions further east.
Rainfall at Fort Randall, 17 inches; 73 per cent. of year's rain falls in
spring and summer.

Fargo, the metropolis of Northern Dakota, an enterprising city, does a
large business; has gas, electric lights, and street railway. Bismarck,
capital, rapidly developing into an important business centre. Yankton,
chief town of the south. Land offices at Fargo, Bismarck, Huron, Deadwood,
Yankton, Mitchell, Aberdeen, Watertown and Grand Forks. Railway mileage,
1870, 65; 1884, 2,494. The Northern Pacific has a mileage of 375, crossing
the northern central portion from Fargo through Bismarck in an almost
direct westerly line through the Territory.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $2,600
  Secr'y of Terri'y                  1,800
  Treasurer                          2,000
  Auditor                            1,000
  Supt. Pub. Inst.                   1,500
  Chief Justice                      3,000
  5 Asso. Justices                   3,000
  Senators,       }               $4 a day;
  Representatives }           mileage, 20c.
  10 Indian Agents          1,000 to 2,200
  Surveyor Gen.                      2,500
  Chief Clerk.                       1,800
  Chf. Draftsman                     1,500
  Assistant "                        1,200
  Col. Int. Rev.                     2,750
  4 Dep. Colls.                      1,600

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Aberdeen                          $1,900
  Bismarck                           2,200
  Deadwood                           1,800
  Fargo                              2,700
  Grafton                            1,600
  Grand Forks                        2,300
  Huron                              2,300
  Jamestown                          2,000
  Mitchell                           1,700
  Pierre                             1,800
  Sioux Falls                        2,200
  Wahpeton                           1,600
  Watertown                          1,700
  Yankton                            1,900
  5 Post Offices                     1,500
  5   "     "                        1,400
  3   "     "                        1,300
  16  "     "               1,200 to 1,000

Finest wheat-growing country on the continent; corn crop, 1884, 13,950,000
bu.; oats, 11,812,000; wheat, 22,330,000 bu.; 2,800,000 bu. reported as
freighted over Northern Pacific in four months of 1883, 76 per cent. being
of best grade. Oats yield 50 to 75 bu. per acre; potatoes yield well and
are of great size. Nutritious grasses at all seasons and abundant water
offer remarkable advantages for stock raising; wool growing an important
industry; climate especially favorable for sheep. Ranks fourth in gold, and
ninth in silver; latest reported gold product, $4,123,081; mineral wealth
centred in Black Hills; coal found in workable quantities west of the
Missouri.

Population, 135,177 in 1880, with sufficient increase since then to entitle
her to admission as a State: male, 82,296; female, 52,881; native, 83,382;
foreign, 51,795; white, 133,147; colored, 401; Chinese, 238; Indians,
1,391.

Territorial, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first
Monday in November; number Senators, 12; Representatives, 24; sessions
biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting 2d Tuesday in January; limit
session, 60 days; terms of Senators and Representatives, 2 years each.
Number voters, census 1880, 51,003.

Legal interest rate, 7; by contract, 12; usury forfeits excess. {145}

[Illustration]

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{146}

NEBRASKA. Ne-bras´ka.

Name first applied to the river, and is of Indian origin, signifying
Shallow Water. Organized as a Territory, 1854; admitted 1867.

Area, 76,855 square miles; width, north and south, about 210 miles;
greatest length in centre, about 420 miles. Platte, the principal river,
extending through the State east and west. Number counties, 80.

Temperature at Omaha: winter, 20° to 34°; summer, 72° to 78°. Rainfall,
Fort Kearney, 25 inches.

Omaha, U. S. port of delivery, principal city and commercial centre;
population, 61,835. Lincoln, a thriving city, containing State University;
population, 1870, 2,441, and 1885, 20,004. Population Plattsmouth, 5,796;
of Nebraska City, 5,597.

Number farms, 63,387. Average value per acre, cleared land, $8.93;
woodland, $25.85.

Corn crop, 1884, 122,100,000 bushels; wheat, 28,325,000 bushels; oats,
21,630,000 bushels. Rye, buckwheat, barley, flax and hemp yield abundant
crops. Apples, pears, plums, grapes and berries are plentiful. Ranks eighth
in corn and barley, and ninth in rye.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $2,500
  Lieut. Gov.                     $6 a day
  Sec'y of State                     2,000
  Aud'r Pub. Ac'ts                   2,500
  Attorney Gen.                      2,000
  Supt. Pub. Ins.                    2,000
  Sec'y Bd. Agr.                     1,000
  Com'r Pub. L'ds                    2,000
  Chief Justice                      2,500
  Senators,       }               $3 a day;
  Representatives }      mileage, 10 cents.
  District Judge                     3,500
  Col. Int. Rev.                     4,500
  Surveyor Gen.                      2,000
  3 Indian Agents           1,200 to 1,600

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Beatrice                          $2,100
  Columbus                           1,700
  Crete                              1,700
  Falls City                         1,600
  Fremont                            2,200
  Grand Island                       1,900
  Hastings                           2,100
  Kearney                            2,000
  Lincoln                            2,900
  Nebraska City                      2,100
  Norfolk                            1,300
  Omaha                              3,300
  Plattsmouth                        1,800
  Seward                             1,700
  Tecumseh                           1,600
  Wahoo                              1,600
  York                               1,700
  10 P.O.                   $1,500 & 1,400
  24 P.O.                   1,200 to 1,000

Herd law excellent, and grazing land good. Cattle raising the great
industry of the State, next to agriculture.

Manufacturing establishments show a wonderful increase of from 670 in 1870
to 1,403 in 1880. Capital invested, $4,881,150; number hands employed,
4,773.

Homesteads obtained under timber claims or by pre-emptions; cash expense of
first, $18 to $36; of second, $14. U.S. land offices at Dakota City,
Norfolk, Grand Island, Lincoln, Beatrice, Bloomington and North Platte.

Population, 452,402: male, 249,241; female, 203,161; native, 354,988;
foreign, 97,414; white, 449,764; colored, 2,385; Chinese, 18; Indians, 235.

State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday
in November; number Senators, 33; Representatives, 100; sessions biennial,
in odd-numbered years, meeting first Tuesday in January; limit of session,
40 days; terms of Senators and Representatives, 2 years each. Number
electoral votes, 5; number voters, 129,042. U.S. army, idiots and convicts
excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 9; school population, 135,511; school age, 5-21.

Legal interest, 7; by contract, 10; usury forfeits interest and cost.

Railroad mileage, 1865, 122; 1885, 2,891. {147}

[Illustration]

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{148}

KANSAS. K[)a]n´zas.
"GARDEN OF THE WEST."

From Kansas river. Indian name, signifying "Smoky Water". Visited by
Spaniards, 1541, and by French, 1719. Part of Louisiana purchase, and
afterward of Indian Territory. Organized as a Territory, 1854. Admitted as
a State, January, 1861.

Area, 82,080 square miles. Length, 400 miles; breadth, 200 miles.
Geographical centre of United States, exclusive of Alaska. Missouri river
frontage, 150 miles; largest rivers, Solomon, Neosho, Saline, Arkansas,
Republican and Kansas. Number counties, 100.

Temperature at Leavenworth: summer, 74° to 79°; winter, 25° to 35°:
rainfall, 81 inches.

Metropolis, Leavenworth; population, 29,268. Capital, Topeka; population,
23,499. State University at Lawrence; State asylums for insane and
feeble-minded at Topeka and Osawatomie; institution for education of the
blind, Wyandotte; for deaf-mutes, Olathe.

First railroad built, 1865; length, 40 miles. Railroad mileage, 1875,
2,150; Jan. 1, 1886, 4,888.

Number farms, 1860, 10,400; 1880, 138,561. Average value per acre,
cultivated land, $11.82; woodland, $19.12. Peculiarly adapted for stock
raising. Gain, per cent., in horses, for ten years, 138; cows, 149; mules,
1,040; other cattle, 203; sheep, 210; hogs, 132.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $3,000
  Secretary of State                 2,000
  Treasurer                          2,500
  Auditor                            2,000
  Attorney Gen.                      1,500
  Supt. Pub. Inst.                   2,000
  Sec. Bd. of Agr.                   2,000
  Insurance Com.                     2,500
  3 R. R. Coms.                      3,000
  State Librarian                    1,500
  Chief Justice                      3,000
  2 Asso. Justices                   3,000
  Senator,        }             $3 pr. day
  Representatives }       mileage 15 cents.
  District Judge                     3,500
  Pension Agent                      4,000
  Col. Int. Rev.                     2,750
  9 Deputy Collectors        $1,650 to 400
  Indian Agent                       1,000

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Atchison                          $2,700
  Emporia                            2,500
  Fort Scott                         2,400
  Lawrence                           2,600
  Leavenworth                        2,800
  Newton                             2,000
  Ottawa                             2,100
  Parsons                            2,100
  Salina                             2,000
  Topeka                             3,100
  Wellington                         2,000
  Wichita                            2,400
  Winfield                           2,100
  Wyandotte                          2,400
  78 Offices                1,900 to 1,000

Latest reported crop: castor beans, 765,143 bu.; cotton, 33,589 lbs.; flax,
622,256 bu.; hemp, 557,879 bu.; corn, 1884, 168,500,000 bu.; wheat,
34,990,000 bu.; oats, 27,419,000 bu.

Number hands employed in manufactories, 1860, 1,735; in 1870, 6,844; in
1880, 12,064. Net value of manufactured products increased 67 per cent. in
first period, 95 per cent. in second.

Ranks fifth in cattle, corn and rye; seventh in hay, and ninth in hogs,
horses, wheat and coal. Coal area, 17,500 square miles.

Population, 996,096: male, 536,667; female, 459,429; native, 886,010;
foreign, 110,086; white, 952,155; colored, 43,107; Chinese, 19; Indians,
815. State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first
Monday in Nov.; Senators, 40; Representatives, 125; sessions biennial,
meeting second Tuesday in January in odd-numbered years; limit of session,
50 days; term of Senators, 4 years; of Representatives, 2 years.

Number electoral votes, 9; number voters, 265,714. Idiots, insane, convicts
and rebels excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 8; number schoolhouses, over 5,000; school attendance, 69
per cent. of school population; school age, 5-21.

Legal interest, 7; by contract, 12; usury forfeits excess of interest.
{149}

[Illustration]

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{150}

INDIAN TERRITORY.

Portion of great Louisiana purchase set apart for home of peaceable Indian
tribes; organized 1834.

Cut down to form States and Territories, leaving but 64,690 square miles,
or 41,401,600 acres; nearly 26,000,000 acres being Indian reservations.

Length east and west on the north, 470 miles; breadth west of 100th
meridian, 35 miles, and east of that line, about 210 miles. Reservations of
Cherokees, 5,000,000 acres in north and northeast; Seminoles, 200,000 in
east central; Creeks, 3,215,495 in east; Chickasaws, 4,377,600 in south;
the Oklahoma country near centre. Principal rivers, Arkansas and Red.
Number nations, agencies and reservations, 22.

Temperature at Fort Gibson: winter, 35° to 48°: summer, 77° to 82°.
Rainfall in extreme northwest, 20 inches, and at Fort Gibson, 36 inches.

Most important town, and capital of Cherokees, Tahlequah. Railroad mileage,
372. Capital of Chickasaws, Tishomingo; of Choctaws, Tushkahoma; of Creeks,
Muscogee; of Osages, Pawhuska; of Seminoles, Seminole Agency; of Pawnees,
Pawnee Agency; of Kiowas and Comanches, Kiowa and Comanche Agency.

  Indian Agencies.

  ARAPAHOE.
  Agent                               $900

  CHEYENNE.
  Agent                             $2,200
  Physician                          1,200

  KAW.
  Superintend't                     $1,600
  Physician                          1,200

  KIOWA AND COMANCHE.
  Agent                             $1,000
  Physician                          1,000

  OAKLAND.
  Superintend't.                    $1,000
  8 Teachers                           600

  OSAGE.
  Agent                             $1,600
  Physician                          1,200

  OTOE.
  Agent                             $1,500
  Physician                          1,000

  PAWNEE.
  Clerk                             $1,200
  Physician                          1,000

  PONCA.
  Superinden't                      $1,200
  Clerk                                720

  QUAPAW.
  Agent                             $1,500
  Physician                          1,200

  SAC AND FOX.
  Agent                             $1,200
  2 Physicians                       1,000

[Illustration]

Corn, wheat, tobacco, cotton and potatoes yield luxuriantly. Number horses,
January, 1883, 125 per cent. of previous year; mules, 110 per cent.; hogs,
80 per cent.; milch cows, 85 per cent.; number sheep, 55,000, at average
value of $2; oxen and other cattle, January, 1884, 520,000, valued at
$8,840,000.

Stringent laws to protect from encroachments by whites. They can hold land
only by marrying into one of the tribes. Recent official reports give
Indian population about 80,000: Cherokees, 20,000; Choctaws, 16,500;
Creeks, 14,500; Chickasaws, 7,000; Seminoles, 2,500; Osages, 2,390;
Cheyennes, 3,298; Arapahoes, 2,676; Kiowas, 1,120; Pawnees, 1,438;
Comanches, 1,475.

No Territorial government has as yet been organized, owing to differences
in the views of Congress and the tribes. For each agency, a deputy is
appointed by the President to represent the United States, but each tribe
manages its own internal affairs. Most of the tribes governed by chiefs.

Of first five tribes, 33,650 can read, and have 16,200 houses, 195 schools,
and 6,250 pupils. Expended from tribal funds for educational purposes,
$156,856; from government appropriations for freedmen, $3,500. {151}

[Illustration]

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{152}

COLORADO. Kol-o-rah´do.
"CENTENNIAL STATE."

Part of Louisiana purchase of 1803. First explored by Vasquez Coronado
under the Spanish, 1540. First expedition sent out by United States
Government, under Major Pike, 1806; a second under command of Col. S.H.
Long, 1820, and in 1842-44, Gen. John C. Fremont made his celebrated trip
across the Rocky Mountains. First settlements made by miners, 1858-9;
formed from parts of Kansas, Nebraska, Utah and New Mexico; organized as a
Territory, February, 1851; admitted August 1, 1876.

Area, 103,925 square miles; length, 380 miles; breadth, 280 miles;
principal rivers, North and South Platte, Arkansas, Snake, White and Green.
Number counties, 40. Temperature at Denver: winter, 25° to 37°; summer, 72°
to 74°. Rainfall of the State from 15 to 20 inches, falling mostly between
May and July.

Five United States land districts, with offices at Denver, Pueblo,
Fairplay, Lake City and Central City. Denver, capital and metropolis, and
contains assay office; pop., 54,308; Leadville, 10,925; Silver Cliffs, 900;
Colorado Springs, 4,563. State University at Boulder; Agricultural College
at Fort Collins; School of Mines at Golden City.

Richest State in the Union in mineral productions, ranking first in silver,
and fourth in gold.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $5,000
  Lieut. Gov.                        1,000
  Sec'y of State                     3,000
  Treasurer                          3,000
  Auditor                            2,500
  Attorney Gen.                      2,000
  Chief Justice                      5,000
  2 Asso. Justices                   5,000
  Senators,       }             $4 pr. day,
  Representatives }       mileage 15 cents.
  District Judge                     3,500
  Col. Int. Rev.                     2,875
  Surveyor Gen.                      2,500
  Ute Indian Agt.                    1,400

  DENVER MINT.

  Assay'r in Chg.                   $2,500

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Boulder                           $1,900
  Canon City                         1,600
  Central City                       1,700
  Colorado Spgs.                     2,400
  Denver                             3,400
  Durango                            1,700
  Fort Collins                       1,700
  Georgetown                         1,700
  Golden                             1,600
  Greeley                            1,800
  Gunnison                           1,900
  Leadville                          2,800
  Pueblo                             2,400
  Salida                             1,600
  Silverton                          1,800
  South Pueblo                       2,200
  Trinidad                           1,800
  17 Offices                1,600 to 1,000

Corn crop, 1884, 710,000 bushels; wheat, 2,348,000 bushels; oats, 1,516,000
bushels; 1,209,000 bushels produced 1883, the yield being 29.3 bushels per
acre; hay, 114,505 tons, valued at $1,545,818. Cattle raising a safe and
profitable business; sheep husbandry still more profitable; latest reported
estimate gives 815,674 cattle, 1,248,360 sheep and 12,342 swine.

Population, 243,910: male, 144,781; female, 99,129: native, 192,568;
foreign, 51,342: white, 239,585; colored, 3,262; Chinese, 861; Indians,
202.

State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday
in November; number Senators, 26: Representatives, 49; sessions biennial,
in odd-numbered years, meeting first Monday in January; limit of session,
40 days; term of Senators, 4 years; of Representatives, 2 years.

Number electoral votes, 3; number voters, 93,608; native white, 65,215;
foreign white, 26,873; colored, 1,520. Persons in prison excluded from
voting.

Not a mile of railroad in use in 1870; mileage, January 1, 1886, 2,857.
Number colleges, 3; school population, 40,208; school age, 6-21.

Legal Interest rate, 10; by contract, any rate. {153}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{154}

NEW MEXICO.

Named in honor of one of the gods of the Aztecs, the ancient inhabitants of
Mexico.

Colonized by Spaniards, 1582; Santa Fé being oldest town in United States,
next to St. Augustine; organized 1850.

Area, 122,580 square miles; length eastern boundary, 345 miles; western,
390 miles; average breadth north of 32°, 335 miles; altitude, 3,000 to
4,000 feet. Number counties, 13.

Temperature at Santa Fé, winter, 27° to 37°; summer, 66° to 70°. Rainfall,
Fort Marcy, 17 inches.

Santa Fé is capital and principal city; pop., 6,635. Las Vegas, Silver City
and Albuquerque are growing in importance.

But 8 miles railroad in operation in 1878, having increased to 1,140,
January 1, 1884.

Crops abundant wherever water can be obtained, and corn will ripen almost
anywhere; 6,060 square miles irrigable land; number farms, 5,053; corn
crop, 1884, 950,000 bu.; wheat, 930,000 bu.; oats, 252,000 bu. Total
acreage of the Territory, 78,451,200; in farms, 631,131; in forests,
219,224; unoccupied, 77,820,069; proportion woodland area in the farm
lands, 35 per cent. Average value corn, 1884, 68 cents; wheat, 90 cents;
oats, 40 cents.

  Salaries Territor'l Officers.

  Governor                          $2,600
  Secretary                          1,800
  Treasurer                          1,000
  Auditor                            1,000
  Com'r Immig'n                        900
  Librarian                            600
  Chief Justice                      3,000
  2 Asso. Justices                   3,000
  Senators,       }               $4 a day
  Representatives }         & 20c. mileage.
  Col. Int. Rev.                     2,500
  2 Dep Colls. Int. Rev.    1,200 to 1,700
  Surveyor Gen.                      2,500
  Translator and Chief Clerk         2,000
  2 Spec'l  Draftsmen                1,500
  Clerk                              1,500
  Messenger                            500

[Illustration]

  Indian Agents

  Jicarilla                         $1,200
  Mescalero                          1,500
  Navajo                             1,500
  Pueblo                             2,000

  Presidential P. O.

  Albuquerque                       $2,300
  Deming                             1,500
  Las Vegas                          2,100
  Raton                              1,200
  Santa Fe                           2,000
  Silver City                        1,800
  Socorro                            1,600

Grazing interest extensive and valuable. Recent reports give mules, 10,183;
sheep, 4,435,200, valued at $7,539,840; hogs, 23,353, valued at $187,758.

Mineral wealth is rapidly developing. Gold is found in Grant, Lincoln,
Colfax and Bernalillo counties; rich copper mines on the San Pedro Grant,
in Bernalillo county, and in the Pinos Altos region. Zinc, quicksilver,
lead, manganese, and large deposits of coal have been found. Gold
production, 1882, was $150,000; silver, $1,800,000.

Population, 119,565: male, 64,496; female, 55,069; native, 111,514;
foreign, 8,051; white, 108,721; colored, 1,015; Chinese, 57; Indians, 9772

Territorial and congressional elections, Tuesday after first Monday in
November; number Senators, 12; Representatives, 24; sessions of legislature
biennial, in even-numbered years, meeting first Monday in January; limit of
session, 60 days; terms of Senators and Representatives, 2 years each.
Voting population, 34,076; native white, 26,423; foreign white, 4,558;
colored, 3,095.

School population, 20,255; school age, 7-18.

Legal interest rate, 6; by contract, 12. {155}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{156}

ARIZONA. Ar-[)i]-z[=o]´na.

First visited by Spanish explorers as early as 1526; set off from New
Mexico and became a Territory, 1863.

Area, 113,020 square miles; greatest length, 375 miles; greatest breadth,
340 miles. Country drained by Colorado and Gila, with their tributaries;
number counties, 11.

Temperature at Prescott: winter, 34° to 42°; summer, 71° to 73°. Rainfall
at Fort Defiance, 14 inches.

Tucson, the largest town: population, 7,007. Prescott, the capital.
Railroad mileage, 865; Southern Pacific crosses from east to west near
southern boundary, and Atlantic & Pacific north of the central portion,
making ready communication with East and West.

Crop reports, 1883: wheat, 222,200 bu.; barley, 330,775 bu.; potatoes,
52,936 bu.: hay, 10,710 tons; corn acreage, 1884, 2,850, producing 60,300
bu. Soil fertile in river bottoms and among valleys of Middle and Eastern
Arizona, corn planting following wheat or barley harvest, giving two crops
yearly; oranges and other fruits and potatoes produce well wherever there
is water; principal portion of irrigable land lies in valley of Gila and
its northern branches; rich and abundant grasses, together with mild
climate, make much of the Territory well adapted to stock raising; valuable
timber on the mountains and along the streams.

  Salaries Territorial Officers.

  Governor                          $2,600
  Secretary                          1,800
  Treasurer                          1,000
  Auditor                            1,000
  Supt. Pub. Inst.                   2,000
  Librarian                            600
  Chief Justice                      3,000
  2 Asso. Justices                   3,000
  Senators,       }               $4 a day
  Representatives }       and 20c. mileage.
  3 Dist. Judges.                    3,000
  Col. Int. Rev.                     2,250
  2 Deputy Collectors       1,600 to 1,700
  Clerk                              1,100
  Surveyor Gen.                      2,500
  Chief Clerk                        2,400
  Land Clerk                         1,600
  Land Copyist                       1,200
  Spanish Trans'r                    2,500

[Illustration]

  Indian Agents.

  Colorado River                    $1,500
  Pima & Maricopa                    1,800
  San Carlos                         2,000

  Presidential P. O.

  Clifton                           $1,000
  Globe                              1,100
  Phoenix                            1,500
  Prescott                           1,800
  Tombstone                          1,900
  Tucson                             2,300

Abundant mineral wealth, which can now be developed with profit, owing to
completion of railways; nearly all mountain ranges contain gold, silver,
copper and lead; gold production, 1882, $1,065,000; silver, $7,500,000.

Ranks second in silver, and ninth in gold.

Superior quality of lime found near Prescott and Tucson; beds of gypsum in
San Pedro valley; remarkable deposits of pure, transparent salt near
Callville.

Population, 40,440: male, 28,202; female, 12,238; native, 24,391; foreign,
16,049; white, 35,160; colored, 155; Chinese, 1,630; Indians, 3493

Territorial and congressional elections, Tuesday after first Monday in
November; number Senators, 12; Representatives, 24; sessions of legislature
biennial, in even-numbered years, meeting first Monday in January; limit of
session, 60 days; terms of Senators and Representatives, 2 years each.
Voting population, 20,398; native white, 9,790; foreign white, 8,256;
colored, 2,352.

School population, 10,283; school age, 6-21.

Legal interest rate, 10; by contract, any rate; no penalty for usury. {157}

[Illustration]

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{158}

UTAH. Yoo´tah.

Settled by Mormons under the leadership of Brigham Young, Salt Lake, 1847.
Territorial government formed 1850.

Area, 84,900 square miles, very nearly same as Idaho; average length, 350
miles; breadth, 260 miles. Largest rivers, Grand and Green, together with
the Colorado, which they unite to form. Number counties, 24.

Temperature at Salt Lake City: winter, 29° to 40°; summer, 69° to 77°:
rainfall, 24 inches.

Salt Lake City, capital and metropolis; pop., 20,768. Ogden, at junction of
Union and Central Pacific, pop., 6,069. Railroad mileage, 1,134; Union and
Central Pacific through the north.

Number farms, 9,452; land under cultivation, over 400,000 acres; value farm
products, $10,000,000. Valleys of the Cache, Salt Lake, Jordan, Sevier and
Rio Virgin, are irrigable, and produce fine crops of cereals and
vegetables. Wheat crop of 1884, 1,675,000 bushels.

Annual income from stock raising, about $2,000,000, though grazing interest
perhaps not so important as in neighboring States and Territories.

  Salaries of Territorial Officers.

  Governor                          $2,600
  Secretary                          1,800
  Treasurer                            600
  Auditor                            1,500
  Supt. Pub. Ins.                    1,500
  Librarian                            250
  Chief Justice                      3,000
  2 Asso. Justices                   3,000
  Senators,       }               $4 a day,
  Representatives }       mileage 20 cents.
  Dist. Attorney                250 & fees.
  11. U.S. Commissioners              Fees.
  Col. Int. Rev.                     2,500
  2 Dep'y Collectors        1,600 to 1,800
  Surveyor Gen.                      2,500
  Chief Clerk                        1,800
  Chief Draftsman                    1,500

[Illustration]

  Indian Agents

  Ouray                             $1,500
  Clerk                              1,000
  Uintah Valley                      1,500
  Clerk                              1,000

  Presidential P. O.

  Logan                             $1,200
  Ogden City                         2,400
  Park City                          1,500
  Provo City                         1,100
  Salt Lake City                     2,900

Gold, copper and silver found in Wahsatch Mountains, the metal found being
mostly silver. Gold production, 1882, $190,000; silver, $6,800,000.

Production coal, 1882, 250,000 tons; principal source of supply in valley
of Weber river.

Ranks third in silver, and seventh in salt, an inexhaustible supply of the
latter being furnished by the lake.

Population, 143,963: male, 74,509; female, 69,454; native, 99,969; foreign,
43,994; white, 142,423; colored, 232; Chinese, 501; Indians, 807

Territorial elections annual, first Monday in August; congressional
elections, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 12;
Representatives, 24; sessions of legislature, biennial, in odd-numbered
years, meeting second Monday in January; limit of session, 60 days; terms
of Senators and Representatives, 2 years each.

Voting population, 32,773: native white, 13,795; foreign white, 18,283;
colored, 695.

School population, 43,303; school age, 6-18; number colleges, 1.

Legal Interest rate, 10; by contract, any rate. {159}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{160}

WYOMING. W[=i]-[=o]´ming.

First settlements, trading posts of Forts Laramie and Bridger; organized
1869.

Area, 97,890 square miles; very nearly a rectangle, and about the same area
as Oregon; length, 350 miles; breadth, 275 miles. Largest rivers, Green,
Snake, Big Horn, Powder, Big Cheyenne and North Platte. Number counties, 9.
Temperature at Cheyenne: winter, 23° to 33°; summer, 63° to 69°. Rainfall
at Fort Laramie, 15 inches.

Cheyenne is the capital and principal distributing point. Railroad mileage,
625; Union Pacific runs through extreme south from east to west, and
connects Cheyenne with Denver.

Wheat, rye, oats and barley flourish, but frosts too frequent for corn. Big
Horn country, in northwest, has area 15,000 square miles; fine agricultural
country; water plentiful; game and fur-bearing animals numerous, rendering
it one of most desirable hunting grounds of America. Grazing interest
important, and increasing rapidly, more than half the area being rich
grazing land. Mountains covered with forests of coniferæ, which will prove
very useful for lumber.

  Salaries of Territorial Officers.

  Governor                          $2,600
  Secretary                          1,800
  Treas.,                     $800 and com.
  Auditor                            1,000
  Supt. Pub. Inst.                     400
  Librarian                            400
  Chief Justice                      3,000
  2 Asso. Justices                   3,000
  Senators,       }               $4 a day
  Representatives }       and 20c. mileage.
  Col. Int. Rev.                     2,000
  2 Dept. Colls. Inter. Rev.         1,400 to 1,500
  Surveyor Gen.                      2,500
  Chief Clerk                        2,000
  Chief Draftsman                    1,800
  8 Asst. Draftsmen                  1,400
  6 Asst. Draftsmen                  1,200
  2 Transcribing Clerks              1,400
  6 Transcribing Clerks              1,200
  Messenger                            600
  Supt. Yellowstone Nat. Pk.         2,000
  10 Assistants                        900

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Cheyenne City                     $2,400
  Evanston                           1,500
  Laramie City                       1,800
  Rawlins                            1,400

Mineral resources extensive; iron ore abundant; copper, lead, plumbago and
petroleum found; gold, in the Sweetwater country and near Laramie City;
valuable deposits of soda in valley of the Sweetwater. Coal abundant and of
good quality at Evanston, Carbon, Rock Springs and other points; these
deposits extensively worked, and furnish nearly all the coal used by the
railroads and by settlements hundreds of miles east and west.

But little attention has as yet been given to mechanical and manufacturing
industries. Capital, as last reported, $364,673, of which $212,603 is
invested in manufacture of iron and steel. Value of products of the latter
is $491,345; total value of products, $898,494. Number hands employed, 391.

Population, 20,789: male, 14,152; female, 6,637; native, 14,939; foreign,
5,850; white, 19,437; colored, 298; Chinese, 914; Indians, 140.

Territorial and congressional elections, Tuesday after first Monday in
November; number Senators, 12; Representatives, 24; sessions of legislature
biennial, in even-numbered years, meeting second Tuesday in January; limit
of session, 60 days; terms of Senators and Representatives, 2 years each.
Voting population, 10,180; native white, 6,042; foreign white, 3,199;
colored, 939.

Good school system started; school pop., 4,112; school age, 7-21.

Legal interest rate, 12; by contract, any rate. {161}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{162}

MONTANA. M[)o]n-ta´nah.

Formerly a part of Idaho; became a Territory, 1864; received about 2,000
square miles from Dakota, 1873.

Area, 146,080 square miles; length, east and west, 460 to 540 miles;
average breadth, 275 miles. Drained by the Missouri and its tributaries and
the tributaries of the Colorado. Number of counties, 14

Temperature at Virginia City, winter, 17° to 30°; summer, 55° to 65°:
rainfall seldom exceeds 12 inches per annum.

Three U.S. districts; court held twice a year at Helena, twice at Virginia
City, and three times at Deer Lodge. Helena, the capital and most important
town. Railroad mileage, 1,032; Northern Pacific extends through the
Territory from east to west.

Immense areas cultivable land; cereal productions, 1882, were 1,857,540
bu., of which 1,100,000 were oats; potatoes yielded 300,000 bu., and hay
93,000 tons. Wheat crop in 1884, 1,372,000 bu.; oats, 1,740,000 bu. Some
varieties of corn grown in portions of Territory, but generally too cold.

Grazing interest of value; estimated area valuable grazing land, 100,000
square miles; great extent of plains and mountain valleys yet untouched by
herdsmen. Latest returns give 686,839 cattle, 465,750 sheep, and 17,544
swine.

  Salaries Territorial Officers.

  Governor                          $2,600
  Secretary                          1,800
  Treasurer                          1,500
  Auditor                            1,500
  Supt. Public Instruction           1,200
  Chief Justice                      3,000
  2 Asso. Justices                   3,000
  Senators,       }             $4 pr. day
  Repres'ntatives }      and 20 c. mileage.
  Surveyor Gen.                      2,500
  Chief Clerk                        1,800
  Chf. Draftsman                     1,600
  Col. Int. Rev                      2,500
  5 Deputy Colls. Internal Rev.      1,600
  Assayer                            2,500
  Melter                             2,250

[Illustration]

  Indian Agents.

  Blackfeet                         $1,800
  Crow                               2,000
  Flathead                           1,500

  Presidential P. O.

  Billings                          $1,500
  Bozeman                            1,800
  Butte City                         2,500
  Deer Lodge City                    1,500
  Dillon                             1,400
  Fort Benton                        1,600
  Glendive                           1,100
  Helena                             2,500
  Livingston                         1,600
  Miles City                         1,600
  Missoula                           1,700
  Virginia City                      1,000

One of richest mining countries in the world; mineral wealth almost
inexhaustible. Product for 1879 was $3,629,000, of which 2/3 was gold and
1/3 silver; product, 1880, was $3,822,379, of which 2/3 was silver and 1/3
gold; production, 1882, $6,920,000, of which 2/3 was silver and 1/3 gold.

Manufacturing interests mainly smelting works, and flour and lumber mills.
Ranks fifth in silver and in gold.

Population, 39,139; male, 28,177; female, 10,982; native, 27,638; foreign,
11,521; white, 35,385; colored, 346; Chinese, 1,765; Indians, 1663

Territorial and congressional elections, Tuesday after first Monday in
November; number Senators, 12; Representatives, 24; sessions of
legislature, biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting second Monday in
January; limit of session, 60 days; terms of Senators and Representatives,
2 years each. Voting population, 21,544; native white, 12,162; foreign
white, 7,474; colored, 1,908.

School population, 10,482; school age, 4-21; graded schools in Deer Lodge
City, Virginia City and Helena.

Legal interest rate, 10; by contract, any rate. {163}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{164}

IDAHO. [=I]´dah-ho

White population previous to 1850, mainly trappers, prospectors and
missionaries; permanent settlement began with discovery of gold, 1860;
organized as Territory, 1863.

Area, 84,800 square miles; length in west, 485 miles, and on Wyoming
boundary, 140 miles; width, 45 miles in north, and nearly 300 miles in
south. Drainage mainly by Salmon and Snake rivers and their tributaries.
Number counties, 15.

Temperature at Boisé City: winter, 30° to 40°; summer, 68° to 75°.

Boisé City, the capital, and contains national bank and penitentiary.
Florence and Silver City are flourishing mining towns. Railroad mileage,
777; Northern Pacific crosses northern part.

Extreme north well timbered and much fertile land; extreme southeast
populated almost entirely by Mormons, chiefly farmers; 4,480,000 acres
suitable for agriculture, and 5,000,000 for grazing, most of the ranges
being as yet unoccupied. Latest reports give, cattle, 220,612; sheep,
187,500; swine, 24,780.

Cash value per acre of corn in 1883, $18; wheat, $13.77; rye, $11.79; oats,
$21.31; barley, $21.30; potatoes, $73.44; hay, $10.40.

  Salaries Territorial Officers.

  Governor                          $2,600
  Secretary                          1,800
  Treasurer                          1,000
  Auditor                            1,800
  Librarian                            250
  Chief Justice                      3,000
  2 Asso. Justices                   3,000
  Senators,       }               $4 a day
  Representatives }       and 20c. mileage.
  2 Dist. Attorneys             250 & fees
  Col. Int. Rev.                     2,250
  3 Dep. Collectors         1,400 to 1,600
  Assayer                            2,000
  Asst. Assayer                      1,440
  Clerk                              1,000
  Asst. Melter                       1,200
  Surveyor Gen'l                     2,500
  Chief Clerk                        1,800
  Draftsman                          1,500
  Messenger                            600

[Illustration]

  Indian Agents.

  Fort Hall                         $1,500
  Lemhi                              1,100
  Nez Perces                         1,600

  Presidential P. O.

  Bellevue                          $1,200
  Boise City                         1,800
  Hailey                             1,200
  Ketchum                            1,000
  Lewiston                           1,200

Most of the gold is found in Idaho, Boisé and Alturas counties; silver, in
Owyhee county; some of the mines being very rich. Gold production, 1883,
$1,500,000; silver, $2,000,000. Wood River District on southern slope of
Salmon River Mountains, at headwaters of Wood or Malade river, gives
promise of valuable mining operations. Coal in vicinity of Boisé City.
Ranks sixth in gold and silver.

Manufactures, chiefly production of flour and lumber, and smelting of ores.

Population, 32,610: males, 21,818; female, 10,792; native, 22,636; foreign,
9,974; white, 29,013; colored, 53; Chinese, 3,379; Indians, 165

Territorial and congressional elections, Tuesday after first Monday in
November; number Senators, 12; Representatives, 24; sessions of legislature
biennial, in even-numbered years, meeting second Monday in December; limit
of session, 60 days; terms of Senators and Representatives, 2 years each.

Voting population, 14,795; native white, 7,331; foreign white, 4,385;
colored, 3,126.

School population, 9,650; school age, 521.

Legal interest rate, 10; by contract, 18; usury forfeits three times excess
of interest. {165}

[Illustration]

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{166}

NEVADA. Ne-vah´dah.
"SAGE HEN STATE."

Name of Spanish derivation, signifying "Snow-covered."

First white settlements in Washoe and Carson valleys, 1848; organized as a
Territory from Utah, 1861; admitted, 1864.

Area, 110,700 square miles; extreme length, 485 miles; length western
boundary, 210 miles; extreme breadth, 310 miles. Humboldt the longest
river; its valley, extending east and west, determined course of Central
Pacific. Number counties, 15.

Temperature at Winnemucca: winter, 30° to 38°; summer, 66° to 73°.

Virginia City, metropolis and chief commercial centre; population, 10,917.
Carson City, capital, and contains a branch mint; population, 4,229.
Railroad mileage, 948; Central Pacific extends through the State, east and
west. Waters of rivers usually fresh, and abound in fish.

Number farms, 1,404; many valleys easily cultivated, and crop yield good.
Corn, 1884, 830 acres; wheat, 5,515 acres; oats, 7,858 acres. Area grazing
land, 7,508,060 acres. Reported January 1, 1884, 40,732 horses and mules;
385,350 sheep, valued at $793,821; 13,200 hogs, valued at $110,880.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $5,000
  Lieut. Gov.                        3,000
  Sec'y of State                     3,000
  Treasurer                          3,000
  Comptroller                        3,000
  Attorney Gen.                      3,000
  Supt. Pub. Inst.                   2,400
  Chief Justice                      6,000
  2 Asso. Justices                   6,000
  Senators,       }               $8 a day
  Representatives }        and 40c. a mile
  District Judge                     3,500
  Surveyor Gen.                      3,000
  Chief Clerk                        2,000
  Draftsman                          1,500
  Col. Int. Rev.                     2,375
  4 Deputy Collectors       1,850 to 1,950
  Supt. of Mint                      3,000
  Melt. & Refiner                    2,500
  Coiner                             2,500
  Assayer                            2,500
  Cashier                            2,000
  Weigh. Clerk                       2,000
  Reg. Deposits                      1,800
  2 Indian Agts.                     1,800

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Austin                            $1,400
  Carson City                        1,800
  Elko                               1,200
  Eureka                             1,700
  Gold Hill                          1,000
  Reno                               1,800
  Tuscarora                          1,200
  Virginia City                      2,000
  Winnemucca                         1,200

Mineral resources of enormous value; Comstock lode supposed to be richest
silver mine in the world; Eureka one of the most productive. Amount of gold
produced, 1882, $2,000,000; silver, $6,750,000. Rich lead and copper ores;
also zinc, platinum, tin and nickel have been found. Extensive deposits of
borax in Churchill and Esmeralda counties.

Ranks second in gold, and fourth in silver.

Population, 62,266; male, 42,019; female, 20,247; native, 36,613; foreign,
25,653; white, 53,556; colored, 488; Chinese, 5,416; Indians, 2803

Governor and State officers elected quadrennially, and legislature every 2
years; State, presidential and congressional elections Tuesday after first
Monday in November; number Senators, 20; Representatives, 40; sessions of
legislature biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting first Monday in
January; limit of session, 60 days; term of Senators, 4 years; of
Representatives, 2 years. Voting population, 31,255; native white, 11,442;
foreign white, 14,191; colored, 5,622. Idiots, insane and convicts excluded
from voting.

Number colleges, 1; school population, 10,483; school age, 6-18.

Legal Interest rate, 10; by contract, any rate. {167}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{168}

CALIFORNIA. Kal-e-for´ne-ah.
"THE GOLDEN STATE."

Name of Spanish origin, signifying "Hot Furnace."

First settlement by Spaniards at San Diego, 1768; admitted 1850.

Area, 158,360 square miles, the second largest State; extreme length, 770
miles; extreme breadth, 330 miles; least breadth, 150 miles; coastline,
over 700 miles; San Francisco Bay, best harbor on western coast. Number
counties, 52.

Temperature at San Francisco: winter, 50° to 55°; summer, 58° to 69°.
Rainfall, Sacramento, 20 inches.

San Francisco, metropolis and only port of entry. Regular line of steamers
to Australia, Panama, Mexico, China and Japan; pop., 233,959. Sacramento,
capital; pop., 21,420. Population Oakland, 34,555; San José, 12,567;
Stockton, 10,282; Los Angeles, 11,183; U.S. navy yard at San Pablo Bay.

Number farms, 35,934. Average value per acre, cleared land, $27.16;
woodland, $8.55.

One of the richest agricultural tracts in the Union; rich soil and
favorable climate, often insuring two crops per year on same field; wheat
the most valuable crop; crop of 1884, 44,320,000 bu.; corn, 8,800,000 bu.;
oats, 2,149,000 bu.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $6,000
  Sec'y of State                     3,000
  Treasurer                          3,000
  Comptroller                        3,000
  Supt. Pub. Inst.                   3,000
  Attorney Gen.                      3,000
  Surveyor Gen.                      3,000
  State Librarian                    3,000
  District Judge                     5,000
  Senators,       }               $8 a day,
  Representatives }     mileage 10c. & $25
  2 Colls. Int. Revenue     3,125 to 4,500
  Col. Customs San Fransisco         7,000
  Pension Agent                      4,000
  Supt. Mint                         4,500
  Assayer                            3,000
  M'lt'r & Refinr.                   3,000

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Chico                             $1,800
  Fresno City                        1,900
  Los Angeles                        3,000
  Marysville                         1,900
  Napa City                          2,000
  Oakland                            3,100
  Petaluma                           1,900
  Red Bluff                          1,800
  Sacramento                         3,000
  San Bernardino                     1,800
  San Diego                          1,800
  San Francisco                      5,000
  San Jose                           2,700
  Santa Barbara                      1,900
  Santa Cruz                         1,900
  Santa Rosa                         1,900
  Stockton                           2,500
  40 P. O.                   1,700 to 1000

Ranks very high as a fruit-growing state; fruits of temperate climates,
about 4,000,000 trees; sub-tropical fruits and nuts, 250,000 trees; grape
region north to 41°, with an average breadth of 100 miles, and contains
over 21,000,000 vines.

Fine sheep-raising country. Cashmere goats have been introduced and are
doing well.

Ranks first in barley, grape culture, sheep, gold and quicksilver; third in
hops; fifth in wheat and salt; seventh in silk goods; eighth in soap and
silver.

Population, 864,694: male, 518,176; female, 346,518; native, 571,820;
foreign, 292,874; white, 767,181; colored, 6,018; Chinese, 75,132;
Japanese, 86; Indians, 16,277.

Governor and State officers elected quadrennially, and legislature every
two years; number Senators, 40; Representatives, 80; sessions of
legislature biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting first Monday after
January 1st; limit of session, 60 days; term of Senators, 4 years; of
Representatives, 2 years.

Number electoral votes, 8; number white voters, 262,583. Idiots, Indians,
convicts and Chinese excluded from voting.

School population, 216,330; school age, 5-17.

Legal interest rate, 7; by contract, any rate. {169}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{170}

OREGON. Or´e-gon.

Name derived from Spanish word signifying "Wild Thyme," so called on
account of the abundance of the herb found by early explorers. Credit of
discovery generally given to Captain Gray, of Boston, 1792; Fur Company's
trading post at Astoria, 1811; organized as a Territory, 1848; admitted
1859.

Area, 96,030 square miles; average length, 360 miles; breadth, 260 miles;
coast line, 300 miles; Columbia river frontage, 300 miles. Number counties,
27. Temperature at Portland: winter, 38° to 46° summer, 62° to 68°:
rainfall at Dalles, 22 inches, and at Fort Hoskins, 67 inches.

Portland, Astoria and Coos Bay are ports of entry; Oregon City, Roseburgh
and La Grande are land offices. Portland, the metropolis; population,
33,400. Salem is capital.

Number farms, 16,217; about 25,000,000 acres arable land, and same of
grazing land; forest, 10,000,000 acres. Average value per acre, cleared
land, $21.71; woodland, $4.50.

Wheat the staple; noted for superiority of its flour and for weight, often
reaching 65 pounds per bu. Wheat crop, 1884, 15,462,000 bu.; oats,
5,470,000 bu.

  Salaries of State Officers.

  Governor                          $1,500
  Sec. of State, }                   1,500
  Aud. & Comp.   }
  Treasurer                            800
  Supt. of Pub. In.                  1,500
  State Librarian                      500
  Chief Justice                      2,000
  2 Asso. Justices                   2,000
  Senators,       }               $3 a day
  Representatives }      and 15c. per mile.
  District Judge                     3,500
  District Attorney             200 & fees.
  Col. Int. Rev.                     2,500
  Col. Customs, Astoria              3,000
  Appraiser                          3,000
  Surveyor Gen.                      2,500
  Chief Clerk                        1,800
  Draftsman                          1,500
  5 Indian Agents           1,000 to 1,800

[Illustration]

  Presidential P. O.

  Albany                            $1,500
  Ashland                            1,000
  Astoria                            1,900
  Baker City                         1,400
  Corvallis                          1,300
  East Portland                      1,500
  Eugene City                        1,400
  Jacksonville                       1,200
  Oregon City                        1,200
  Pendleton                          1,600
  Portland                           3,200
  Roseburgh                          1,100
  Salem                              2,100
  The Dalles                         1,700

Cattle raising ranks 2d only to agriculture; wool is of fine quality.

Extremely rich in minerals; gold found in Jackson, Josephine, Baker and
Grant counties; copper, in Josephine, Douglas and Jackson counties; iron
ore, throughout the State; coal, along Coast Range.

Principal exports are wheat, flour, lumber and canned salmon. Over
10,000,000 feet lumber out annually, and over 600,000 cases salmon packed.

Population, 174,768: male, 103,381; female, 71,387; native, 144,265;
foreign, 30,503; white, 163,075; colored, 487; Chinese, 9,510; Indians,
1694

Governor and State officers elected quadrennially, and legislature every
two years; number of Senators, 30; Representatives, 60; sessions of
legislature biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting first Monday in
January; limit of session, 40 days; term of Senators, 4 years; of
Representatives, 2 years.

Number of electoral votes, 3; voting population, 59,629. U.S. army, idiots,
insane, convicts, and Chinese excluded from voting.

Number of colleges, 7; school population, 65,216; school age, 4-20.

Legal interest rate, 8; by contract, 10; usury forfeits principal and
interest. {171}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{172}

WASHINGTON. W[)o]sh-ing-ton.

First settlement of white Americans at Tumwater, 1845, though trading posts
had before been established by fur traders; organized 1853

Area, 69,180 square miles, nearly same as Missouri; greatest length, 340
miles; greatest breadth, 240 miles; Pacific coast line, about 180 miles.
Number counties, 33.

Temperature at Olympia: winter, 37° to 44°; summer, 59° to 62°. Rainfall,
Ft. Colville, 10 inches; at Ft. Vancouver, 39 inches, and at Neah Bay, 123
inches.

Olympia is the capital, and Walla Walla and Seattle the largest towns.
Harbors of Puget Sound numerous and excellent. Railroad mileage, 716;
Northern Pacific from Wallula Junction to Idaho line, and from Kalama to
New Tacoma, which is connected by railway with Seattle.

About 25 per cent. of area well fitted for agriculture; cereals all thrive,
but generally too cold for corn; wheat crop, 1884, 4,118,000 bushels; oats,
2,623,000. Fruits of temperate zone, excepting peaches, attain perfection.
Considerable attention paid to hop culture, latest reports giving 703,277
pounds; also 1,003,530 bushels potatoes.

  Salaries Territorial Officers.

  Governor                          $2,600
  Secretary                          1,800
  Treasurer                          1,200
  Auditor                            1,200
  Supt. Pub. Ins'n.                  1,000
  Librarian                            400
  Chief Justice                      3,000
  3 Assoc. Justices                  3,000
  Senators,        }              $4 a day
  Representatives, }       and 20c mileage
  Surveyor Gen.                      2,500
  Chief Clerk                        1,800
  Chief Drftsm'n                     1,700
  Col. of Customs            $1,000 & fees
  Col. Int. Rev.                     2,250
  3 Dep. Colls. Int. Rev.   1,200 to 1,600

[Illustration]

  Indian Agents.

  Colville                          $1,500
  Neah Bay                           1,000
  Nisqually                          1,200
  Quiniaielt                         1,000
  Skokomish                          1,200
  Tulalip                            1,000
  Yakama                             2,000

  Presidential P. O.

  Cheney                            $1,100
  Colfax                             1,500
  Dayton                             1,500
  Olympia                            1,600
  Port Townsend                      1,200
  Seattle                            2,500
  Spokane Falls                      1,700
  Sprague                            1,200
  Tacoma                             1,600
  Vancouver                          1,200
  Walla Walla                        2,300

Grazing interest valuable and rapidly increasing; grazing region east of
Cascade Range, the bunch grass furnishing an inexhaustible food supply.

Coal mined at Bellingham Bay and Seattle; area coal-bearing strata, 20,000
square miles. Gold-bearing quartz and silver lodes exist in Cascade and
Coast ranges; copper, cinnabar, lead and other minerals are found.

Lumber resources almost inexhaustible; amount lumber cut annually,
250,000,000 to 300,000,000 feet, 150,000,000 being exported.

Population, 75,116: male, 45,973; female, 29,143; native, 59,313; foreign,
15,803; white, 67,199; colored, 325; Chinese, 3,186; Indians, 4,405.

Territorial and congressional elections, Tuesday after first Monday day in
November; number Senators, 12; Representatives, 24; sessions of legislature
biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting first Monday in October; terms of
Senators and Representatives, 2 years each; limit of session, 60 days.
Voting population, 27,670; native white, 15,858; foreign white, 8,393;
colored, 3,419.

Number colleges, 2; school population, 23,890; school age, 4-21.

Legal interest rate, 10; by contract, any rate. {173}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{174}

CENTRAL AMERICA AND WEST INDIES.

Central America is an irregular mass of land in southern part of North
America, and lies about midway between the two great continental masses of
the New World. It includes the republics of Guatemala, Honduras, San
Salvador, Nicaragua and Costa Rica, together with British Honduras.

The West Indies, an extensive system of islands lying southeast of North
America, contain the large islands of Cuba, Hayti, Jamaica and Porto Rico,
and are arranged mostly in three groups; viz., Greater Antilles, Lesser
Antilles and the Bahamas.

  --------------------+-----------+-----------+---------------+----------
                      |  Area,    |  Pop.     | Capital.      |  Pop.
                      |Sq. Miles  |           |               |
  --------------------+-----------+-----------+---------------+----------
  British Honduras    |   7,562   |    27,452 | Belize        |   5,767
  Costa Rica          |  26,040   |   190,000 | San Jose      |  20,000
  Guatemala           |  41,830   | 1,278,311 | New Guatemala |  55,728
  Honduras            |  39,600   |   458,000 | Tegucigalpa   |  12,000
  Nicaragua           |  49,500   |   400,000 | Managua       |  12,000
  San Salvador        |   7,225   |   554,785 | San Salvador  |  18,500
  Cuba                |  43,220   | 1,521,684 | Havana        |  25,000
  Hayti { Hayti       |  10,204   |   572,000 | Port-au-Prince|  35,000
        { San Domingo |  18,045   |   400,000 | San Domingo   |  10,000
  Jamaica             |   4,362   |   585,536 | Kingston      |  38,566
  Porto Rico          |   3,550   |   754,313 | San Juan      |  27,000
  --------------------+-----------+-----------+---------------+----------

  Statement of Exports and Imports at Belize for the year ending Dec. 31,
      1882.

              EXPORTS.                           IMPORTS.
  Bananas                    $10,980 | Boots and Shoes            $13,918
  Cocoanuts                   25,132 | Butter                      14,783
  Sarsaparilla                14,278 | Cotton Goods               190,436
  Logwood                    306,072 | Beef and Pork               59,405
  Mahogany                   215,807 | Hardware and Cutlery        38,234
  Rubber                      18,064 | Flour                       71,200
  Raw Sugar                  218,913 | Fancy Goods                 24,844

                         Exports of Cuba, 1882-83.
                              BARACOA--1883.

  Cocoanuts, hundreds                                           9,083,305
  Bananas, bunches, hundred                                       628,916
      Value                                                      $671,925
  Cocoanut Oil                                                     98,930

          SANTA CRUZ--1882.                SAGUA AND CARDENAS--1882.

  Mah'any and cedar logs    $166,577 | Sugar                  $17,484,884
  Palm Leaf                    8,453 | Molasses                 3,941,522
  Mahogany Crutches            1,490 | Melada                     262,233

                      Exports of Porto Rico, 1882-83
            MAYAGUEZ--1883.               AQUADILLA AND ARECIBO--1882.

  Sugar                   $1,141,784 | Sugar                   $1,409,972
  Coffee                   1,566,327 | Coffee                     567,073
  Molasses                   326,690 | Tobacco                    104,173

                          Exports of Hayti, 1883.

  Coffee                 $57,341,162 | Orange Peels              $459,917
  Logwood                264,135,490 | Crude Sugar                561,479
  Cocoa                    2,735,555 | Mahogany                   245,999
  Cotton                   1,619,891 | Lignum-vitæ              1,062,000

                        Exports of Jamaica, 1881-82.

  Sugar                 38,392 hhds. | Oranges                   $163,928
  Rum               22,742 puncheons | Coffee                     649,848
  Bananas                   $481,838 | Dye-woods                  501,415

{175}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{176}

COSTA RICA. Kos´ta Ree´ka.

The most southern republic of Central America. Area, 26,040 square miles.
Population, 190,000. There are many volcanic peaks: Turrialba, 12,500 feet
high; Chiriqui, 11,265 feet high; Los Votos, 9,840 feet high.

The chief executive, the President, elected for a term of 4 years, is
assisted by 5 ministers. Legislative power is vested in a Congress of
Deputies, chosen for 4 years. Capital, San José; pop., 20,000.

The principal products of the soil are coffee, sugar, maize, cocoa,
sarsaparilla and fruits. The principal export is coffee. Value of exports,
1883, $2,431,625; of which coffee amounted to $2,000,590. Imports chiefly
manufactures from England, $2,081,805. Revenue for fiscal year of 1885,
$2,867,170, mainly derived from customs duties and the monopoly on spirits;
expenditure, $2,961,110. In 1884, $841,440 were expended for public works.
There are about 104 miles of railway: telegraph, 451 miles.

The state religion is the Roman Catholic; constitution guarantees religious
liberty. There are 341 national schools and 584 private schools; total
number of pupils, 13,924.

NICARAGUA. Nik-ar-a´gwa.

Largest of the Central American states. Area, 49,500 square miles.
Population, 400,000. Fifty-five per cent, of inhabitants are Indians.
Climate is healthy; mean annual temperature about 80°; rainfall about 100
inches. Constitution adopted 1858. Presidential term, 4 years. Legislative
power rests with a Senate and a House of Representatives. Capital, Managua;
population, 12,000.

Through want of peace and industry the great natural resources are
undeveloped. Lead, iron, zinc, antimony, tin, quicksilver and gold are
found. The vegetable products are cotton, coffee, indigo, rice, tobacco and
corn. There are about 400,000 cattle in the country. Leading exports in
1882: coffee, $659,550; India rubber, $638,010; gold, $150,000. Imports for
the same year, $1,477,340; exports, $1,895,760.

Army, 703 regulars and 9,600 militiamen. Number of schools, 178; pupils,
8,330. Vessels entered, 1882, 213; tonnage, 256,000. Telegraph, 1882, 800
miles; railway, 83 miles.

SAN SALVADOR. S[)a]l-v[)a]-d[=o]r´.

In area the smallest, in population the second, of the Central American
republics. It extends along the Pacific coast 170 miles. Average breadth,
43 miles; area, 7,225 square miles. Population, 554785

Constitution adopted 1864; amended 1883. Government administered by a
President, elected for 4 years, and a ministry of 4 members. The
legislative power is vested in a Senate and House of Representatives.
Capital, San Salvador; population, 18,500.

The temperature varies greatly; but the climate is generally considered
healthful. This is the most advanced and best cultivated of the republics.
Principal agricultural products, indigo, coffee, sugar and balsam. Minerals
are not abundant, though there are some rich veins of silver. Value of
silver ores, 1882, $700,000.

Latest reports give value of imports as $2,327,765; exports, $5,638,080.
Value of coffee exported, $3,416,100; indigo, $1,812,590; sugar, $93,230.
In the same year 265 vessels entered the ports.

The army consists of 1,200 men and 2,500 militia. {177}

GUATEMALA. Gaw-te-mah´la.

The most populous of the five Central American republics. Area, 41,830
square miles. Population, 1884, 1,278,311. Climate healthful; snow never
falls; frequent violent earthquakes occur. Watered by numerous rivers.

Constitution adopted 1859; amended 1879. President is chief executive;
legislative power in the hands of National Assembly; President and members
of Assembly elected for 6 years; suffrage universal. Capital, New
Guatemala; pop., 55,728.

The soil is fertile; cotton, sugar cane, coffee and tobacco are grown.
Roads are poor. Coffee crop, 1884, over 42,000,000 lbs. Sugar, wool and
fruit trade recently developed. In 1882, number of land-owners 5,334.

Imports, 1884, valued at $2,630,100; exports, $3,716,340. Miles of railway,
105. Miles of telegraph, 2,880; 1,100 miles controlled by the state.

Army consists of 2,180 men, rank and file; 33,000 militiamen. There is no
navy.

In 1882, sum spent on education, $434,753; state contributed $323,860; in
1883 there were 844 primary government schools; number night schools, 48;
pupils attending all schools, 42,021.

HONDURAS. Hon-doo´ras.

Republic established November 5, 1838. Area, 39,600 square miles.
Population, 458,000. Capital, Tegucigalpa; pop., 12,000. Numerous
mountains; between them fertile valleys. Coast line on the Pacific, 40
miles: Atlantic, 400 miles. Many excellent harbors; many rivers, some of
them navigable.

Government consists of President, 6 ministers, and an Assembly of 37
Representatives. Finances badly disordered; foreign debt, $26,125,106;
interest unpaid, $24,308,846. Standing army, 830 men; militia, 31,500.
Navy, 2 steam corvettes, with 8 guns.

The products are mahogany, fruit, cotton, cattle, coffee, tobacco, indigo,
India rubber and rosewood. Exports from Truxillo, 1883, $804,550; 26,000
head of cattle; mahogany valued at $88,000; hides and deer skins, $40,000.
Total exports, 1883, $2,193,149; imports, $1,749,146.

Railway, 29 miles. Telegraph, 1,800 miles; offices, 23; messages, 107,730.
Universities, 2; several colleges; 573 schools, with attendance of 20,518.

BRITISH HONDURAS. Hon-doo´ras.

A British Colony in Central America. Area, 7,562 square miles. Population,
27,452. Coast low and swampy; land gradually rises; on the inland boundary
are hills of from 800 to 1,000 feet high; mountains 4,000 feet high.
Sixteen rivers descend from elevated lands. Climate hot and damp;
temperature, 1878-79, 75°; rainfall 105.49 inches, unusually heavy.

Government in the hands of Lieutenant Governor, an executive and a
Legislative Council. Capital, Belize; pop., 5,767. Soil fertile. Sugar cane
is grown; fruits flourish; the staple products, however, are the natural
woods of the colony. Annual export of mahogany, 3,000,000 feet; logwood,
15,000 tons; estimated value of fruit exports, $100,000. Total imports,
1883, $1,344,865; exports, $1,514,345. Large trade with neighboring
republics. {178}

JAMAICA. Ja-m[=a]´ka.

An island of the West Indies; formally ceded to Great Britain, in 1670, by
the treaty of Madrid; most valuable possession of the British Crown in the
West Indies. Area, including the Turks and Caicos Islands, annexed in 1873,
4,362 square miles. Population, 585,536. Surface mountainous. There is a
great variety of climate. Temperature in lowlands, 95° at night, 85° in the
day; in highlands, 40° to 50°. Produces most of the tropical staples; the
rosewood, mahogany and ebony of the island are well known.

Latest reports give 121,457 acres under crops; 120,264 in guinea grass, and
318,549 in pasture. Principal exports: coffee, 9,572,714 lbs.; ginger,
908,603 lbs.; pimento, 6,195,109 lbs.; 29,000 hhds. of sugar; 18,115
puncheons of rum, and 35,157 tons of logwood. Value of fruit exported in
same year, $197,255. Total value of imports, 1889, $6,609,810; exports,
$7,745,290.

Governor is assisted by a Privy Council and Legislative Council. Kingston,
the chief city and port, is the capital; pop., 38,566.

Miles of railway, 25; 60 miles in process of construction. Telegraph
stations and post offices in every town and village.

SAN DOMINGO. San Do-meeng´go.

A republic occupying the eastern and larger portion of the island of Hayti.
Area, 18,045 square miles. Country first settled by Spaniards under
Columbus in 1492. Republic founded 1844. President elected for a term of 4
years; legislative power in the hands of a National Congress. Capital, San
Domingo, founded 1494; population, 10000

The country is very fertile. Principal products, sugar, molasses, tobacco,
cotton, coffee, cacao, fruits, mahogany and live stock. The production of
sugar and molasses is largely on the increase. Latest reports give
$5,000,000 capital invested in sugar factories; amount of product, 10,000
tons.

Value of imports, 1883, $3,142,100; exports, $2,129,265. At the two most
important ports, San Domingo and Puerto Plata, there entered, in 1883, 297
vessels, of 192,042 tons.

HAYTI. H[=a]´tee.

A republic, occupying the west part of the Island of Hayti. Area, 10,204
square miles. Population, 572,000. Capital, Port au Prince; pop., 35,000.
Nine-tenths of total population are negroes. Essentially mountainous. In
plains, temperature rises to 96° and 100°; on high lands, ranges between
60° and 76°. Constitution was adopted 1867. President is elected for 4
years; National Assembly consists of Senate and House of Commons. Mountains
cultivable almost to their summits; covered with valuable timber.
Agriculture is backward, though the soil is probably the most fertile in
the West Indies. Business of the country transacted by foreigners.

Finances badly deranged; foreign debt, $6,409,970; no interest paid on debt
for years. Revenue, $4,500,000; expenditures, $7,000,000. Three-fourths of
revenue derived from duties on imports and exports. Imports, 1881,
$7,283,620; exports, $6,240,460. In same year, 792 vessels entered, and 768
vessels cleared, the ports of Hayti.

By a law of 1878, army consists of 6,828 men; the Guard of the Government,
650 men.

Language of the country, French; religion, Roman Catholic. {179}

CUBA. K[=u]´ba.

A Spanish colony in the West Indies. Area, 43,220 square miles. Population,
1,521,684; 50 per cent. of the inhabitants are blacks and enfranchised
slaves. The greatest length of the island is 760 miles; width varies from
20 to 135 miles; coast line about 2,000 miles. Surface is broken by a
mountain chain running through its centre from east to west; average
altitude of summit is between 5,000 and 6,000 feet. Pico de Turquino, 7,670
feet, is the highest peak. There are over 260 rivers, all valueless for
navigation purposes, except the Canto. Mineral springs abound.

But little attention has been paid to the development of the mineral
wealth. Gold was obtained by the early colonists, but for two centuries
comparatively none has been found. There are extensive copper mines, and
coal is abundant. Copperas and alum have also been obtained.

Rainfall at Havana: in the wet season, 27.8 inches; dry season, 12.7
inches. Average temperature: at Havana, 77°; at Santiago de Cuba, 80°.
Yellow fever and earthquakes are frequent.

Thirteen million acres of Cuban territory are uncleared forests; 7,000,000
wild and uncultivated. Principal woods grown and exported are mahogany,
rosewood, Cuban ebony, and cedar.

Tobacco and sugar raising principal occupation of the people. Many sugar
plantations comprise 10,000 acres each.

Two crops of Indian corn grown per year; rice, cotton, cacao and indigo
also produced; most tropical fruits are abundant. Sugar product averages
520,000 tons per year; molasses, 79,365 hogsheads. Total value of
agricultural products over $90,000,000. United States receives 80 per cent.
of Cuban sugar. No manufactures deserving mention.

Latest reports give exports of cigars 225,000,000 per annum; leaf tobacco,
13,500,000 pounds. There are about 900 miles of railway. Marine cable
connects Cuba with Florida.

Roman Catholicism is the only religion tolerated. Education compulsory;
school attendance, 34,813.

Havana is the capital; Pop., 25,000. Government administered by a Captain
General, appointed by the Spanish Crown. The island is now represented in
the Spanish Cortes, Madrid.

PORTO RICO. P[=o]r´to Ree´ko.

The smallest of the Greater Antilles. Area, including dependencies, 3,550
square miles. Population, 754,313. Rectangular in shape; length, 100 miles;
breadth, 40 miles. A range of mountains extends across the island from east
to west; highest peak, 3,678 feet.

The island is very fertile; its principal products are sugar cane, coffee,
tobacco, cotton, rice and Indian corn. In proportion to its area, it
produces more sugar than any other West India island.

Government is administered under a constitution granted by the Spanish
Cortes, 1869. Slavery was abolished in 1873. Capital, San Juan; pop. about
27,000. Climate warm; more healthful than that of the other Antilles.
Destructive hurricanes are frequent. The natural productions are very
numerous; medicinal plants and many valuable woods, as mahogany, ebony,
logwood, and cedar, abound in the forests. Business in the hands of
foreigners. Imports, 1871, $17,500,000; exports $15,500,000. Export of
sugar, 111,084 tons; molasses, 7,590,915 gallons.

Telegraphic cable connects Porto Rico with other West Indies; telegraph
lines connect the principal towns; there are no railroads. {180}

[Illustration]

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{181}

SOUTH AMERICA.

A vast, compact, triangular peninsula, forming southern portion of Western
Continent. Area, 6,827,230 square miles; extreme length, 4,550 miles;
extreme breadth, about 3,300 miles. Number political divisions, 11.

  -------------------+-----------+-----------+---------------+-----------
  Divisions.         |   Area,   |Population.| Capitals.     |   Pop.
                     | Sq. Miles.|           |               |
  -------------------+-----------+-----------+---------------+-----------
  Argentine Republic | 1,125,086 | 3,026,000 | Buenos Ayres  |  295,000
  Bolivia            |   842,729 | 2,300,000 | La Paz        |   76,372
  Brazil             | 3,288,963 | 9,883,622 | Rio de Janeiro|  274,972
  Chili              |   256,399 | 2,271,949 | Santiago      |  200,000
  Colombia           |   504,773 | 4,000,000 | Bogota        |  100,000
  Ecuador            |   248,370 |   946,033 | Quito         |   80,000
  Guiana, British    |    76,000 |   248,110 | Georgetown    |   36,562
  Guiana, French     |    48,000 |    36,760 | Cayenne       |   10,000
  Guiana, Dutch      |    46,060 |    68,255 | Paramaribo    |   27,416
  Paraguay           |    91,970 |   346,048 | Asuncion      |   16,000
  Peru               |   503,718 | 2,699,945 | Lima          |  101,488
  Uruguay            |    73,538 |   438,245 | Montevideo    |  115,500
  Venezuela          |   632,695 | 2,121,988 | Caracas       |   55,638
  -------------------+-----------+-----------+---------------+-----------

PRINCIPAL LAKES.

  Maracaybo, area   4,900 sq. miles. | Titicaca, area    4,000 sq. miles.

LENGTHS OF RIVERS.

                              Miles. |                             Miles.
  Amazon                       3,750 | Parana                       2,000
  Caroni                         400 | Pilcomayo                    1,000
  Canca                          600 | Purus                        2,000
  Guaviare                       450 | San Francisco                1,550
  Madeira                      2,000 | Tocantins                    1,000
  Magdalena                      900 | Uruguay                        800
  Meta                           500 | Xingu                        1,300

LATEST REPORTED VALUE EXPORTS.

  Cotton:                            | Diamonds:
    Brazil                $4,063,650 |   Brazil                $  370,316
    Colombia                  32,560 |
    Venezuela                 36,449 | Tobacco:
                                     |   Brazil                 5,344,500
                                     |   Paraguay                 658,650
  Sugar:                             |   Venezuela                 58,778
    Brazil                16,250,000 |
    Peru                   2,354,095 | Rubber:
                                     |   Brazil                 5,965,000
                                     |   Ecuador                  428,800
  Coffee:                            |
    Brazil                52,720,000 | Hides:
    Columbia               2,396,337 |   Brazil                 4,040,750
    Venezuela              9,930,430 |   Colombia               1,000,608
    British Guiana             3,019 |   Venezuela                395,915
                                     |   British Guiana            11,703
                                     |
  Cocoa:                             | Indigo:
    Colombia                  15,575 |   Columbia                   8,360
    Venezuela              1,602,443 |   Venezuela                 23,290
    Ecuador                2,768,670 |

{182}

[Illustration]

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{183}

UNITED STATES OF COLOMBIA.

A federal republic in the northwestern part of South America, composed of 9
States. Area, 504,773 square miles. The country is traversed by three
ranges of the Andes Mountains. There are numerous large, navigable rivers,
tributaries of the Orinoco and Amazon.

The constitution was adopted in 1863. Government in the hands of a
President, elected for 2 years, a ministry of 7 members, and a Congress
composed of a Senate and House of Representatives. Capital, Bogota;
population, 100,000. Strength of the Federal Army determined by Congress.
Peace footing for 1882-83, 4,000 men.

The climate varies according to the elevation: the coast lands are usually
hot and sickly: but the high table lands, as a rule, possess a genial
climate; that of Bogota is unusually fine.

The mineral wealth of Colombia is very great; one-sixth of the exports
consist of precious metals. Agriculture and stock raising are the leading
pursuits. Value of imports, 1883, $11,504,028; exports, $14,857,170.
Two-thirds of the exports consist of cinchona and coffee. The transit trade
through the ports of Panama and Aspinwall is of far greater importance than
the direct commerce; its value is estimated as not less than $85,000,000
per annum.

There are many native products, among which are fine woods, cacao, India
rubber, ipecac, calisaya bark, cochineal, sarsaparilla and logwood. These,
and tobacco, cinchona, coffee, sugar, indigo, rice, cotton, hides, ores and
Panama hats, form the chief exports.

In 1883, 1,513 vessels, of 709,175 tons, entered the ports of Colombia.
Number of miles of railway in the republic, 140. It is expected that the
ship canal across the Isthmus of Panama will be opened in 1888. The company
have a subscribed capital of $125,000,000.

VENEZUELA. V[)e]n´ez-wee´la.

A republic of South America, formed in 1830. The republic was, in 1881,
subdivided into 8 States, 1 Federal District, 8 Territories and 2 national
settlements. Area, according to an official statement of 1884, 632,695
square miles; population, 2,121,988. The Andes Mountains cross the northern
part from west to east; the Orinoco and other important rivers pass through
the southern part.

Executive power is in the hands of a President, who exercises his authority
through a ministry of 6 and a Federal Council of 16 members; legislative,
in a Congress of two Houses, the Senate and House of Representatives.
Vice-President chosen by the Council. Capital, Carácas; population, 55,638.
Chief towns, Valencia (population, 36,145) and Barquisimeto (population,
28,918). Army: peace footing, 2,545 officers and men; war footing, 350,000.

Mineral resources very great. Venezuela gold fields among the richest in
the world; iron and copper abundant. Value of mineral products, 1884,
§4,452,050; gold, $3,243,380. Latest reports give value of imports as
$17,253,130; exports, $19,720,225.

Agriculture the most important industry. Number engaged in it, 1884,
375,820; number of acres cultivated, 852,500. Coffee the most important
product; total value of product, 1884, $11,255,000; value, of sugar
product, $7,686,000; corn, $6,000,000; cocoa, $2,998,000. Latest reports
give number of cattle as 2,926,733; goats and sheep, 3,490,563; horses,
291,603; mules, 906,467; swine, 976,600.

State religion, Roman Catholic; all others tolerated. In 1883 the
government spent $500,000 in public instruction. Number universities, 2;
colleges, 33; normal schools, 5; other schools, 1,794. Number of miles of
railway, 1884, 102; telegraphs, 1,145 miles. {184}

[Illustration]

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{185}

BRITISH GUIANA. Ghe-a´na.

A territory in northeast part of South America. First settled by the Dutch,
1580. Acquired by the British in 1803; formally ceded in 1814. Estimated
area, 76,000 square miles. Population, 248,110. Crossed by two great
mountain systems. Contains many rivers; largest, Essequibo, 600 miles long,
noted for magnificent cataracts. Thermometer rises to 90° in warm weather;
falls to 75° in winter season; mean annual average at Georgetown, 81°.
Rainfall per year, about 72 inches.

Vegetation is luxuriant. Large sections are covered with valuable forests,
which furnish exhaustless supplies of timber, largely used for
shipbuilding. Number sugar plantations, 120; coffee estates, 12. Sugar
forms 92 per cent. of exports; latest reports give 111,156 hhds. Rum
exported, 32,531 puncheons; rum issued for home consumption, 330,392 gals.
Export of molasses, 17,084 casks; timber export, 464,436 cubic feet. Total
imports, 1882, $10,498,160; exports, $16,043,155.

Government administered by a Governor appointed by British Crown, and a
Court of Policy.

Georgetown the capital; pop., 36,562. Number of schools sanctioned by Board
of Education, 177; Church of England, 81.

DUTCH GUIANA. Ghe-a´na.

Lies east of British Guiana, often called Surinam from the river of that
name. Coast line, 220 miles. Dutch first visited the country about 1580;
but the first settlement in Surinam was made by an Englishman, in 1630.
Area, 46,060 square miles. Population, 68,255; 54,602 negroes.

Local government consists of a Governor and Colonial Assembly. Capital,
Paramaribo; population, 27,416.

Mean annual temperature, 80.4°; coldest month mercury falls to 78°;
warmest, mercury rises to 99°. Rainfall, 99 inches; at Paramaribo the
average of eight years was 101 inches.

Large tracts of territory covered with primeval forests. Great staple of
Guiana is sugar; average yearly export, about 10,645 tons. First cocoa sent
to Amsterdam, 1733; the average yearly production is now more than 13,000
tons. Cotton and coffee rank next. Gold-mining is a growing industry.
Latest reported value of exports, $1,151,070; imports, $1,316,355.

FRENCH GUIANA. Ghe-a´na.

East of Dutch Guiana. Area, 48,000 square miles. Population, 36,760. Coast
line low and swampy. Large portion of the territory is covered with dense
forests. Rainy season from November to June. Rainfall at Cayenne, 10 feet
per year; heavier in the interior. Temperature: in summer, 86°; winter,
mean, 79°, and seldom sinks so low as 70°. In this century there have been
three earthquakes.

Administration in the hands of Governor and Military Commandant.

Capital, Cayenne; pop., 10,000.

Coffee, introduced in 1716, is extensively grown. Guiana cocoa,
bread-fruit, arrow-root, bananas, yams, oil, and date palm are among the
products; but the principal source of food is manioc. Contains valuable
gold deposits. French criminal penitentiaries located in this country.
{186}

BRAZIL. Bra-zil´.

This is the largest of the South American countries, and the only empire in
the New World. Contains many rivers. Amazon, the longest, drains 800,000
square miles of Brazilian territory. Temperature in the valley of the
Amazon ranges from 68° to 85°, while at Rio Janeiro the average is 75°.
Area, 3,288,963. Population, 9,883,622. Capital, Rio de Janeiro; pop.,
274,972.

Executive power is vested in the Emperor, ministers and Secretaries of
State; legislative authority rests with the Senate and and Chamber of
Deputies. The empire is divided into 20 Provinces.

Country rich in minerals and precious stones. Total value of diamond
washings for the first 100 years was about $20,000,000. Diamond mines are
now owned by private individuals. Manufactures in late years improved by
the introduction of American machinery.

During the last 16 years the increase in exports has been 20 per cent.; in
imports, 22 per cent. The value of coffee exported in 1882-83 was
$52,720,000; sugar, $16,250,000; raw cotton, $4,063,650; tobacco,
$5,344,500; India rubber, $5,965,000. Total imports, 1882-83, $111,434,300;
exports, $134,945,100. In 1883, 2,989 vessels, of 2,367,296 tons, entered,
and 2,522, of 2,095,237 tons, cleared, Brazilian ports.

Number miles railway, January, 1884, 3,500; 1,500 in process of
construction. Telegraph system under the control of the government; miles
of wire in 1883, 4,900. Army, on peace footing, 13,500 strong; in time of
war, 32,000. Naval force consists of 35 steam vessels, with 123 guns and
5,704 seamen.

Established religion, Roman Catholic. Clergy are supported by the state.
Compulsory education exists in several Provinces; 84 per cent. of
population is illiterate. Total number of schools, 5,685.

BOLIVIA. Bo-liv´e-a.

A republic of South America, named in honor of Simon Bolivar; formed, in
1825, from provinces of Upper Peru; ceded all coast territory to Chili in
1880. Area, 842,729 square miles. Population, 2,300,000. Surface broken by
two mountain ranges. Highest peak, Sahama, 22,350 feet; many volcanoes.
Lake Titicaca is the largest inland body of water in South America; area,
4,000 square miles; Madeira river, with tributaries, navigable for 3,000
miles in Bolivia; La Paz chief city; pop., 76,372. Capital, Sucre or
Chuquisaca.

President elected for 4 years. Legislative power rests with a Congress of 2
chambers,--Senate and House of Representatives. Universal suffrage
prevails; Vice-President is appointed by President.

The climate embraces all degrees of heat and cold. The products of two
zones are found in Bolivia. Ebony, rosewood, mahogany, cinchona, and other
valuable trees abound. Manufactures limited to coarse cotton cloth, hats,
cordage, leather and alpaca. Tin, copper, gold, and vast quantities of
India rubber of the finest quality abound. Silver mines almost
inexhaustible; annual yield of the Cerro de Potosi mines, $2,250,000.
Two-thirds of exports are silver. Imports average $6,150,000; exports,
$9,000,000.

Standing army, 2,421 men; generals and other officers, 1,021; two-thirds of
revenue goes to support the army.

Roman Catholic the prevailing religion; other creeds tolerated; 4
universities. In 1884 but 12,000 pupils and students at schools and
colleges. Three railroads open for traffic. {187}

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


{188}

ECUADOR. Ek-wa-d[=o]r´.

A republic of South America, constituted 1830; situated on the equator,
from which it takes its name. Extremely mountainous; traversed from north
to south by three ranges of the Andes. Most lofty peaks: Cotopaxi, 18,880
feet; Chimborazo, 21,424; Cayambe, 19,831. Climate, on the coast, hot; on
the high table lands, cold and bleak; valleys are free from extremes of
temperature. Area, 248,370 square miles. Population, 946,033. Quito, the
capital, has 80,000 inhabitants; Guayaquil, the principal seaport, 26,000.
Quito is the highest inhabited city, being 9,500 feet above sea-level.

Ecuador was formed from the American Free State, founded by Simon Bolivar.
Executive power rests with a President, elected for 4 years; legislative,
with a Congress of two houses. President and Vice-President are nominated
by 900 chosen electors. Vice-president is President of the Council of
State. Hereditary rights or privileges prohibited by law. Belief in the
Roman Catholic church, qualification for suffrage.

The soil of Ecuador will grow the products of every zone. There is a
copious growth of the cinchona tree, sarsaparilla, vanilla, copaiba, balsam
of Tolu, etc. Many fibrous plants, suitable for the manufacture of paper
and cordage, are found in profusion. The immense mineral wealth is
untouched; agriculture is neglected; manufactures are insignificant. The
roads afford no facilities for commerce, being mostly mule tracks. Miles of
railway number but 75.

Export of cocoa, 1883 valued at $3,372,200; India rubber, $428,800. Total
value of exports, $4,923,300; imports, about $6,000,000. In 1883, 151
vessels, of 155,283 tons, entered, and 160 vessels, of 158,970 tons,
cleared the port of Guayaquil.

Only 7.5 per cent. of population can read or write. In 1884, standing army
fixed at 1,600 men.

PERU. Pe-roo´.

A republic of South America. Area, previous to the war with Chili, 503,718
square miles. Population, 2,699,945. Since the war about 70,000 square
miles of Peruvian territory are occupied by Chili. Traversed by two systems
of the Andes Mountains; highest point is the volcano of Misti, 20,300 feet
above sea-level. Temperature at Callao about 60°; Lima about 70°.

Independence declared in 1821. The government is administered by the
President, Senate and House of Representatives. The Peruvian constitution
is planned after that of the United States. Lima, the capital, has a
population of about 100,000.

The chief occupations are sheep raising, agriculture and mining;
manufactures unimportant. Mountain valleys are very fertile; mountains are
rich in minerals. Between 1853 and 1872, 8,000,000 tons of guano were taken
from the Chincha Islands. Latest reliable reports give: imports,
$24,000,000; exports (exclusive of guano and nitre), $31,000,000. Principal
exports are guano, nitrate of soda, wool, sugar, silver and cinchona.

State finances deranged by the late war with Chili; foreign debt
$164,765,000; arrears in interest, $65,954,970. Railway system projected in
1852; miles of line, 1878, 2,030. Telegraph lines, 1878, 1,382 miles. The
merchant marine, 1877, consisted of 147 vessels, with a combined capacity
of 49,860 tons. Army and navy almost annihilated in the war with Chili;
army now consists of 13,200 men; navy, of 18 steam vessels, with 66 guns.
{189}

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. Ar´jen-tine.

A republic of South America. Total area, 1,125,086 square miles. Total
population, 1882, 3,026,000. Foreigners: Italians, 123,641; French, 55,432;
Spaniards, 59,022; Germans, 8,616; English, 17,950. Population of Buenos
Ayres, the capital, was, in 1882, 295,000; Rosario has a population of
32,204; Cordova, 39,651; ten towns have over 10,000 inhabitants. Population
rapidly increasing from immigration. In 1877 immigrants numbered 28,708;
1880. 41,615: 1882, 59,843; during first nine months of 1883, 73,210. The
country is divided into 14 Provinces. Executive power is vested in a
President, elected for a term of 6 years; legislative power is vested in a
Congress, composed of a Senate and House of Deputies. President and
Vice-President must be Roman Catholics. Constitution almost identical with
that of the United States.

Public revenue derived from heavy customs duties. Income for 1884,
$32,400,000; Import does, $21,115,000; export dues, $3,010,000; total
expenditure, $32,460,000. Annual exports: wool, $28,250,000; hides,
$14,000,000; sheep skins, $4,250,000; tallow, $6,000,000; live animals,
$1,750,000; maize, $2,100,000.

The area devoted to agriculture is yearly increasing. In 1882 the
confederation possessed 14,206,499 horned cattle, 72,683,045 sheep,
4,856,808 horses. Total value of live stock, $210,000,000. In 1882 the
wheat product of the province of Santa Fé was 2,250,000 bushels.

Miles of railway, 2,500, and 651 miles are being constructed. In 1884 there
were 9,800 miles of telegraph line, 8,060 miles owned by the state.

Many navigable rivers afford excellent facilities for transportation. The
Uruguay river is navigable for 200 miles; the Rio Negro, for 500; and the
Colorado, for 150.

There are universities at Buenos Ayres and Cordova; professors, 66;
students, 923: there are also 28 middle class and normal schools, and 1,985
primary.

The army in 1884 consisted of 7,812 officers and men; militia and National
Guard, 350,000. Service in National Guard compulsory; regular army supplied
by recruitment.

URUGUAY. Oo-roo-gw[=i]´.

This South American republic formed a Brazilian Province until 1825.
Independence recognized by treaty of Montevideo, 1828; constitution
proclaimed 1831. Area estimated at 73,538 square miles. Population,
438,245. Government in the hands of a President, elected for four years,
assisted by 5 ministers, and a Parliament composed of two houses. Capital,
Montevideo; population, 115,500.

The country forms a vast rolling plain, abounding in natural pastures. The
chief industry is the rearing of cattle and sheep. It is estimated that
35,000,000 acres are used for pastoral purposes, on which are 6,711,778
cattle and 20,000,000 sheep. Chief agricultural products, wheat and Indian
corn. Climate is generally humid, but temperate and healthful.

Revenue derived from customs duties. Commerce active. Value of imports,
1833, $21,634,475; exports, $26,831,555. Principal articles of export,
cattle, hides, tallow, and dried and preserved meats.

Permanent army numbers 3,494 men, besides an armed police force of 3,200,
and a national guard of 20,000 men. State religion, Roman Catholic. Number
of children in all schools, 40,000. Miles of railway, 1884, 271; of
telegraph, 1,405. {190}

CHILI. Chil´lee.

A republic of South America. Area, 256,399 square miles. Population,
2,271,949. This country is long and narrow, embracing extremes of
temperature. Mean annual temperature at Santiago, 55°; at Valparaiso, 58°.
Spring begins in September; winter, in June. Lakes and rivers are few; both
are fed by the snow melting in the Andes; they are worthless for
navigation, but valuable for irrigation purposes. Surface is mountainous;
mean elevation of Andes, 11,830 feet; Aconcagua, the highest peak, 22,420
feet.

Chili is divided into 18 Provinces and 4 Territories. The constitution of
1833 vests the legislative power in a Senate and a Chamber of Deputies.
Executive power rests with a President, a Council of State, and a Cabinet
of 5 ministers. Capital, Santiago; pop., 200,000. The potato is indigenous.
Olive trees, mulberries and vines flourish. Cedar is the most important
tree in Chili. Fruit is plentiful. This republic is rich in gold and
silver, and especially in copper. Wheat the most important cereal product;
value of wheat exported in 1882, $6,649,345. Value of chief exports in
1883: iodine, $2,987,490; bar copper, $14,339,460; silver, $4,624,110.
Revenue for 1884, $49,900,000, one-half of which was derived from customs
duties and monopolies; expenditure, $46,536,550. Total exports in 1883 were
valued at $79,732,550; imports, $54,447,060.

The Chilian commercial marine consisted, 1883, of 131 vessels, of 53,071
tons. In 1882, 1,482, of 1,367,849 tons, entered, and 1,428, of 1,431,028
tons, cleared, the various ports of Chili.

One of the first states in South America to construct railways; length of
line in 1883, 1,378 miles, of which 600 miles belonged to the state; cost
of state lines, $42,141,686. In 1883 there were 6,840 miles of telegraph
line, property of the state. By a law of 1884 the strength of the army can
not exceed 12,410; at the same date the National Guard numbered 51,826, of
whom 17,408 were on duty. Navy consists of over 20 war vessels.

State religion is the Roman Catholic; all creeds are protected; clergy is
subsidized by the state; civil marriage is acknowledged by law. Besides the
National Institute at Santiago, there are many colleges of different kinds;
many agricultural and other special schools. There were, in 1883, 5,042
students attending universities and colleges. The attendance at the 724
public primary schools was 60541

PARAGUAY. Pa-ra-gw[=a]´.

A republic of South America, entirely inland. Area 91,970 square miles.
Population, 346,048. Became independent in 1811; was ruled by Dr. Francis
for 25 years. The government is entrusted to a President and Congress.
Capital, Asuncion; pop., 16,000.

Soil and forests are very great sources of wealth. Manufactures are few and
crude. The country is well watered by numerous streams and lakes. Three
crops of tobacco per year are grown; home consumption, 15,000,000 lbs.;
export, about 7,500,000 lbs. Sugar cane yields well; in 1882 there were
37,500,000 pounds of sugar produced. Maize returns one hundred and forty
fold; rice, two hundred and fifty fold. Maté, or Paraguayan tea, the most
important product. Imports, 1881, $1,278,000; exports, $1,928,500. The
state owes Brazil and allies $236,000,000; Foreign debt, $17,315,000.

Army numbers 607 men, lately reduced in order to diminish expenses.
Railway, 45 miles; telegraph, 45 miles. {191}

[Illustration]





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